A Grammar of Modern Telugu

  • 19 681 7
  • Like this paper and download? You can publish your own PDF file online for free in a few minutes! Sign Up

A Grammar of Modern Telugu

By BH. KRISHNAMURTI and J. P. L. GWYNN DELHI OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS BOMBAY CALCUTTA MADRAS 1985 Pi 11'1'/3 , k~

4,248 1,976 18MB

Pages 228 Page size 792 x 612 pts (letter) Year 2010

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD FILE

Recommend Papers

File loading please wait...
Citation preview

A GRAMMAR OF MODERN TELUGU

By BH. KRISHNAMURTI and

J. P. L.

GWYNN

DELHI

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS BOMBAY CALCUTTA MADRAS 1985

Pi 11'1'/3 , k~'-} I} 11' (,II

I

Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Ox]ordOX2 6DP NEW YORK TORONTO DELHI BOMBAY CALCUTTA MADRAS KARACHI PETALINGJAYA SiNGAPORE HONG KONG TOKYO NAIROBI DAR ES SALAAM CAPE TOWN MELBOURNE AUCKLAND

and associates in BEIRUT BERLIN IBADAN NICOSIA

© Ol~ 0"eJ"

il:J!llr

[caduwu] 'study, reading' [caalaa] 'many' (cukka] 'dot, drop, star'

&-:0 [cuupu] 'look, glance' [cokkaa] 'shirt' tS"e.x. [cooTu] 'place'

.s"1l"/r

(For exceptions, see 4.3).

re [jj also has two pronunciations [j] and [dzJ, the conditions of their occurrence being the same as for [c]. (a) [j] is pronounced like the English} in}udge when front vowels follow; e.g. ele:>

Pronunciation of Consonants

[gaali] 'wind, air' [mogga] 'bud'

roe>

7

~&

[jilaj 'itch' [jiiDi] 'cashew'

reoCO" eJD;S

[jeNDaa] 'flag' [jEEna] 'a span' (see 4.3)

(b) When back vowels follow, [j] is pronounced somewhat like the English sequence d and z when pronounced together as a single'sound; e.g. z;&/):,

eJD/):,

al'~

[jarugu] 'to slide' al"'.:S'o [juudam] 'gambling' [jaaguj 'delay' ~;Sd, [jonna] 'a kind of millet' [juTTu] 'hair on head' §"e:> [joola] 'lullaby'

(c) Many people pronounce [j] like z between vowels when the following vowel is u or uu; e.g. cf32l' /rooju/[roozu] 'day'

A Grammar of Modern Telugll N"ar~ '0"2.;'

jnaajuukuj [naazuuku] 'delicate jraajuj [raazu] 'king'

Note. The symbol ~. is sometimes written above is and Chart 2, to indicate the pronunciation of ts and dz.

~

, as in

t:J [d] is pronounced like the French d in dur 'hard' or like the Hindi d in deer 'delay'. It is somewhat similar to the English d in width; e.g. 3~~ ~Q

e

1.12.(3) e, [Tl, ~ [DJ, ro [N J. e, [T] is like the Hindi T in Toopi 'cap, hat'. This is somewhat

similar to the English t in heart as pronounced by many Americans. 2 In making this sound the tip of the tongue is curled up (retroflexed) and raised to touch the roof of the mouth behind the alveolar ridge; e.g. 'a tonne' e,($:,.l [Tannu] 'bank of a river or reservoir' K~ [gaTTu] '" 'pimple' ci.hles.lS:> [moTima] [D] is like the Hindi D in Dabbaa 'tin'. This is also a retroflex sound; the pronunciation is somewhat similar to the English d in hard as pronounced by many Americans;3 e.g. (j,

~.).),)

£l~ Ol"~

[Dabbu] [biDDa] [waaDu]

@ot:Jo

KEl

~~

N";5J.. N"Sox,o

1.12.(5);;s [pJ,

1..)

Kroo

Ol"~

"

~e,

-e~

1..)

~~

[taata] 'grandfather' latta] 'paternal aunt' oJo

x-.,(5~o !&(5~ e:>

[raaju] [kaaru] [gurrarp] [karra]

'king' 'car, automobile' 'horse' 'stick'

[1] is pronounced like the English 1 in lamp; e.g. vox-., !&e:>

~a

'"

[laagu]' 'to pull' [kala] 'dream' [palle]' 'hamlet'

~

6'l~x-.,

~/1

M ~~.;,

[wisugu] . 'disgust' [wiilu] 'opportunity' [weeDi] 'heat, hot' [wEELa] 'time' (see 4,3) [nawwu] 'laugh'

!&~~o ~~~ !&~o

"t~~

[wala] [deewuDu]

'net' 'God'

't [8] can be produced by attempting to pronounce the English

sh in shell with the tongue spread out instead of being grooved; e. g. '3"~ [saastri] (a title in certain Brahman names)

[kaSaayarp] 'decoction' [maniSi] 'man' [kaSTarp] 'difficulty'

'" rs [s] is very much like the English s in sea; e.g. ~(5J. 1.)~.J

S";;S

~ [h]

[sunna] [bassu] [kosa]

'zero' 'bus' 'end, e'dge'

is pronounced somewhat like the English h in hall; e.g. :;JOe>:> ;;S:;JO~o ;;S~:;JO

-hall' 'help' 'advice'

[haalu] [sahaayarp] [ salahaa]

'/ [L] is pronounced with the tongue curled up as in the case of N, sounding somewhat like the English I in girl, and it does not o£cur at the beginning of a word; e.g. [kaLa] [goLLerp] [paLLerp]

'art' 'bolt, latch' 'plate'

1.13. ° [rp] (called anuswaara or sunna in Telugu) is a cover symbol for n, Nand m in different positions with the following phonetic values: (a) Before k and g it is pronounced like the English ng in sing, or the n in sink; e.g.

(b) Before back vowels (a, aa, u, uu, 0, 00) it sounds rather like the English w in woman, but is pronounced without protrusion of the lips; e.g. ;;;~

'view' 'desire'

[drusyarp] [aasa]

[S] is pronounced like the English sh in shine, shoe, etc.; e.g.

.i5[w] has two varieties of articulation: (a) It is pronounced rather like the English v in very, with little or no friction, when followed by a front vowel (i, ii, e, ee, EE), and when doubled; e.g. .be>:>

11

[jirpkajjinka] [sarpgatijsanga til

'deer' 'news, matter'

(b) Before c, j with a following front vowel (see 1.12.(2» pronounced like the English n in punch, ginger, etc.; e.g. ~oil Ko~

[marpcijmaiici] [garpjijgaiiji]

it is

'good' 'gruel'

but, before c and j with a following back vowel (see 1.12.(2» it is like the English n as in pants; e.g.

12

A Grammar of Modern Telugu ~o~ K::>02:'

[maqlcu/mantsu] [guqlju/gundzu]

'dew' 'to pull'

CHAPTER 2

(c) Before T and D it is pronounced like N (see 1.12.(3); e.g. .j

;;osJ U"reso

[akka] [tiTTu] [pustakalll ] [swaatallltryalll] [accu] [tappu] [raajyalll]

'sister' 'scolding' 'boole' , independence' 'print' 'mistake' 'empire'

One easy way of practising the pronunciation of double consonants (for those whose native languages, like English, lack the distinction between single and double consonants) is to make syllable division between the identical consonants and pronounce the syllables separately with a long pause to begin with, reducing the pause by degrees until the syllables can be pronounced together with no pause in between; i.e. ak-ka, ak-ka, ak-ka, akka .

~

~

.3 .~

0

I!!llllr

~

23

'>+-

~

~ ~ ~ h 'h k h h k1

h

-a ~ ~ it:;

~

.....

Jo

-§ §

i3 ~iX:: K: c.. I "ra h

...

ria] OS

Secondary Symbols of Vowels

A Grammar of Modern Telugu

22

I.;,

[wa]

'"

~~.;, ~1S.;,0

[nawwu] [puurwarp]

3.5. Exceptions (a) Anuswaara 0 [rp] occurs as the secondary form of all the nasal letters listed in 1.2, viz. ('3 [Nl, ($ [n] and;,)) [m], and also of ~ lh] and I!l' [il] before homorganic consonants.3 Anuswaara 0 is written as the first letter in a consonant cluster, followed by the homorganic consonant in its primary form. The following examples will make this clear. "'O~

KoK ;,))OW Ko~

Koro Z)O& 2)0~ h~o5

;;)o;;)oli 2:)"02J:)

[jiilka/jitylka) [gailgajgatylga] lmailcijmarpci] [gailj ij galflj i] [gaNTajgarpTa] [ba NDi/batylDi] [bantijbatylti] [gondij gorpdi] [sampal1.gijsarpparpgi] [baambujbaarpbu]

23

(b) Another e~ception to the rule of adding the secondary form of a vowel occurnng at the end of a consonant group to th . ~. f h fi' e pnmary mm 0 t erst consonant m the sequence (see 3.3.) is the double ,consonant [pp] occurring with u and uu; e.g . ..:.os;), [uppu] 'salt' -a-O:>J"'S"~o[uppu.ukaaram) 'salt and red pepper'. Here one would e~pect, accordmg to the general rule, the sequences to be written .' with the secondary forms of..:. and ~ added t o the pnmary conso4 nant, but they are written 0:,D', ~". OJ""" 3.6. In the fol.lowing chart, the primary consonants are written along t?e vertical column, and the secondary consonants along the honzontal top' row. Note that 2) [ill alld q' [~] . n are e1"Immate d from the hst as separate symbols and are subsumed under ::s rna]. Only those. sequences of consonants that normally occur in Telu u are shown 111 the chart. g

'deer' 'Ganges' 'good' 'gruel' 'time' 'carf 'row' 'lane' 'name of a flower' 'bomb'

In sequences of the above type, the consonant written immediately after anuswaara assumes the primary form, and any vowel that follows the entire consonant sequence is attached to it. For example, in~oL& [taNDrijta1l1Dri] 'father', the place of 'N' is taken by '0'; hence the immediately following 'D' becomes a primary consonant and the vowel 'i' closing the sequence is attached to '(0' as if it were the initial letter of the cluster . .\ El [11] is homorganic with k, g: ~[i'Il is homorganic with c, j: ('3 [N] is homorganic with T, D: .

H

-

~

'C!l [/)

r:/J

,.d

....l

CHAPTER 4

Aspirated Consonants and Spelling Problems

4.1. A limited number of words, mostly borrowings from Sanskrit and modern Indo-Aryan languages, occur with aspirated consonants in Telugu. An aspirated consonant is one pronounced with an extra puff of breath, which can be identified with the sound h; e.g., k unaspirated is pronounced as in English skin; kh aspirated is pronounced like k in English kin. In English the difference between aspirated and u!1aspirated consonants is not a significant one, but in standard spoken Telugu this difference is significant in the sense that two words differing only in this feature have different meanings, e.g. ~eJO [palam] 'a measure (1-1/5 ounce)': l,}elO [phalaql] 'fruit'. There are ten aspirated consonants in Telugu, which may be -divided into five sets of two each; each is listed in the traditional alphabet after the corresponding unaspirated consonant. The and secondary symbols of the aspirated consonants are below in such sets: Secondary symbols + Ij)

+

'"

+.;\

Examples

f1)51S:> ~lPO qS:,~~

t5o~o

;;roe

"

;;l";;l"

+

0:;::,

-r",

~rel()~~ 0.J~

Pronounced

koTTEEDu waccEEDu

'he beat' 'he came'.

;.) in its secondary form is used, e.g. §"~~, ~;5.J~ EE occurring in the first syllable of a wo~d is reprethe symbol;.) [eel or its secondary form; e.g. Pronounced mEEDa 'mansion'

need to represent [EE] as a separate sound, we shall ',;).

31

Aspirated Consonants and Spelling Problems A Grammar of Modern Telugu

30

all:>

Note: If ee occurs in any word in the first syllable followed by a or aa in the second syllable, it is to be pronounced EE instead of ee. The sound f, which occurs mostly in English loanwords, is pronounced like the English f in fan, etc. It is represented in writing by ph; e.g. Pronounced Written kaafii 'coffee' 13"~ kaaphii aafiisu 'office' ~~($:J aaphiisu Some consonantal symbols which carry their regular phonetic values when occurring singly are pronounced differently in certain consonantal combinations; e.g. are pronounced as

sequences written as ~S

6S ~;J

I;5s 15 [majjha] rdha, ®/So [ardharp] , til TSi, OSIB [paTSi]

'"

'year' 'middle' 'meaning' 'bird'

",W"tio os,W"tio W'o>($o alOSd O 12"1:> SO

Telugu [aacaaratp] 'traditional practicel [pracaaratp] 'publiciti 'moving' [caianatp] 'birth' fjanmatp] fjaaDyatp ] 'sickness'

A few assimilated loanwords should also be included under this head; e,g.

[jaDa] 'pig-tail' (from Sanskritja(a-] [caadastatp] 'foolishness, ignorance' (from Sanskrit chaandasataa) [jalaga]

'leech'

(from Sanskritjaluuka-)

This phenomenon also occurs in two native words, 12"($ [jaana] 'span' and W"b:> [caaru] 'tamarind soup'. In these and similar cases the vowels following c and j are more like E and EE than a and aa, and in the speech of some standard speakers E and EE may occur. So a form written os,W"tio [pracaaraf\1] is frequently pronounced [pracEEram] . 4.4. Other spelling problems involve the inconsistent use of archaic linguistic forms in a written styJe that is predominantly modern; but such forms are read as they are written even though they occur differently in standard spoken sty Ie; e. g.

'literature' 'poetry'

In words borrowed from Sanskrit, c and j followed by a and aa are pronounced [c] and [j] instead of [ts] and [dz]. As far as the writing system goes this constitutes an exception to the rule setting forth the conditions of pronouncing [c] as Is before back vowels and as c before front vowels (see 1.12.(2) ); e.g. Sanskrit aacaarapracaaracalanajanmajaaDya-

W"6~0

W",;s I W"~o»

Written [wraas/wraay] [praata] [krotta]

O"'S/::J"O» ~ii

S"~

Spoken [raas/raay] [paata] [kotta]

'to write' 'old' 'new'

The Structure of Telugu Orthography

33

the vowel a written over it, and the consonant is read as CHAPTER 5

C+ a. (6) Each primary C has distinctive positions on three sides:

The Structure of Telugu Orthography: Problems of Reform 5.1. At first sight, it would appear that Telugu orthography is very illogical because a vowel following a consonant cluster is added to the first consonant instead of the last one, e.g. in -& [strii] 'woman' the secondary form of the vowel [ii] is added here to is [s] and not to final consonant t5 [1'], although in pronunciation it comes after [1']. We are too much influenced by linear writing systems which proceed from right to left or from left to right, reflecting the articulatory continuum. Since Telugu has secondary forms of both vowels and consonants, it has devised a technique of utilizing vertical as well as horizontal space in the ordering of the graphs. A characteristic of the Telugu writing system is the rounded shape of its letters, each fitting into a circle without rough edges. The following principles underlying Telugu orthography explicate how this is done successfully by Telugu (and incidentally, also Kannada), producing a very artistic and elegant writing system but one which may be technologically less efficient than a purely linear script. (1) A sentence consists of one or more graphic words separated by spaces. (2) A graphic word consists of one or more graphic syllables ending in a vowel (short or long), optionally followed by 111, i.e. V(111) , eV(lp), CCV(lp) (C = Consonant; V = Vowel, long or short; 111 = anuswaara). (3) C and V have two forms each: Primary C, V; Secondary c, v. (4) A primary consonant, i.e. e, begins a graphic syllable; a secondary consonant, i.e. c, occurs elsewhere (post-consonanta11y); a primary vowel, i.e. V, begins a graphic word; a secondary vowel occurs elsewhere. A primary V does not occur in the middle of a graphic word or in its final position, i.e., after a C or c. (5) In reading the alphabet each e carries a secondary form of

top, bottom and right, labelled x, y, z here: Cz. These positions are occupied by secondary vowels or co~sonants as follows: (a) Secondary consonants always occur in positions y and z (bottom and right); secondary vowels occur in positions x and z (top and right). In other words, x is meant exclusively for secondary vowels, y is meant exclusively for secondary consonants, but z (right) can accommodate certain secondary consonants or vowels. (b) If the graphic form is ez, the sequence is read C + y + z, y a never as C + z + y; e.g. ~s [Ry] = rtya; if the graphic form in Cyz, the sequence is r~ad linearly, e.g. ~:Jd. [T'~n] = tsna. (Capitals are used for primary letters and lowercase for secondary letters in the Romanized illustration. ) (c) Secondary consonants are never attached to the body of the primary consonant; secondary vowels are always (except as noted below) attached to the body 0f the primary consonant and are fused with it in cursive writing, e.g. ~SU"2lS0 [Sw"". R"a J Y111] swaaraajya 111 'sovereignty' . (d) The symbol distinguishing aspirated from unaspirated stops is [I]' attached below the consonant so as to appear an integral part of it. This distinguishes aspiration from secondary consonants, which are never joined to the body of a primary consonant; e.g. is

[c)

i$

($

[d) .

?$

OS

[p]

[ch] [dh] qs [ph]

list of secondary forms of vowels and consonants see 1-4. Exceptions to (c): secondary form of 3) [ai/ay] is uniformly 'Z with all conof this digraph, 1" is attached to the top of the primary and a± occurs below it without being attached to it, kay J. This way of writing reflects the treatment of a vowel + consonant.

34

35

The Structure of Telugu Orthography

A Grammar of Modern Telugu

(ii) In the case of ~ [p], is [s], and ~ [S], the body of the consonant is extended upward to enable the secondary forms of aa, 0, 00, au to join it; but the secondary forms of the remaining vowels do not join the primary form of the consonant; e.g. ~, g, , ~ , ~,:w, ~ ,i:, ,

Telugu

iSS"

1.'5

Replicated Roman R Roman (linear)

a

Cn

ra 0#= cuu

~

O"s

0"

~

0"

Sir

R;

R"

\V"

Du 0#=

SULI

ryaa

raa WLlo#=

'1"

~

Si' ~aa

~;~,~,i:l',~.

5.2. Note that Principle 6 is very crucial for the structure of Telugu orthography and pronunciation. Sanskrit vocalic r, ! [=,'1>] have always been treated as consonants by Telugu speakers, hence their secondary forms ;) , '1> occupy Y z positions and are not attached to the body of the primary consonants. It is the position (x y z) as well as the degree of contiguity (fused vs. nonfused) that distinguishes consonants and vowels and also imposes a strict order in reading. The script is a 'syllabary' where the principles of CjV distinction and linearity are combined. Notice that 0 (anuswaara) is part of the preceding syllable, although it is a cover symbol for nasal consonants. Consequently, it is listed in the traditional alphabet with the vowels. The consonant following anuswaara a becomes the first member of the following syllable, e.g. il005) [C rp Oa]. The orthography also reflects the way the letters are proa ~ounced in slow speech, e.g. iJosf3oi$)So 'independence' [S'::.' T rp Ty 111] = swaa.tarp.tryarp.. r

5.3. The following three lines from Telugu illustrate the principles \-6. In replicated transliteration primary vowels and consonants are represented by capitals and the secondary ones by lowercase. A subscript dot is used to distinguish retroflexes from dentals. Long vowels carry a macron above the letter. Graphic syllables are separated by spaces and graphic words by,*,. Telugu Replicated Roman Roman (linear)

Telugu

ci').)

!!

il Q

Replicated Roman S~ sTee Roman (linear)

;;m

~

6

e;,

r

A

Me

N

MO

Oa

aa

me

ni o#=mo

da

~~

~aN

i

~

N'

San 0#= nii

~

;;So

La

parp

LLa

parp

.1

a

~

e.»

R': L" Ta 0#= rai lu

~\

6

P" D" pu da

~

G'g ggi

5.4. Script Reform. Several suggestions to reform the Telugu script have been made by individuals as well as by committees appointed by the State Government. None of these has gained any popularity. Retaining the basic structure and appearance of the script while reducing the number of symbols is the goal of most reformers. Some extreme suggestions seeking to recast the alphabet linearly like Roman have failed. According to these proposals, either a primary or a secondary form of a letter is taken as the invariant symbol and all other allographs are dropped. Consequently, what is now written iJo..)i$oo'£~So [swaa.tarp.tryarp.] as three graphic syllables would be written:

(a) by using primary forms throughout -as

s

W :1

t

:1 111 I

r y a rp

or (b) by using primary and secondary form:-. llncarly: s\\;llaI111r)aql .Js~.:;.,C'"lS./o

Neither of these produces an elegant script, because both destroy the principle of the graphic syllable underlying all Indian scripts. Moreover, the proposal ignores the fact that the present shapes of primary and secondary forms have evolved to produce a compact graphic syllable. Pulling these apart and spreading them linearly would be like taking the organs of a living being and arranging in a left to right order. The only solution seems to lie in reducing the allographs to a retaining the primary and secondary distinctions of and consonants and their positional contrasts. Some solutions in reforming the Telugu script are the following: Long vowels are distinguished from corresponding short by two a\lographs: ~ and ~ .

The Structure of Telugu Orthography

A Grammar of Modern Telugu

36

Short vowels

f!!)

[a], 11 til,

ft

Long vowels~ faa], ~ [ii],

[u], oJ tel, -6&

'Iu

[0]

[uu], :J [eel,

!..

[00]

That duration is preceived as an isolable feature is clear from the comparis9ll ~f short and long u, e, o. AlsQ, aa and ii can be made to look like their shorter counterparts with ~ attached: f!!)

[a]

11 [i]

liS ~

til ~

X!l

rl"0"!.l0

iJo~

M~

1!;l!l

@15

~;$!l

@~

(6~~CSo

""'X

cooW"

"9""'0

15M

1'I"~o

,,~X

",;;$050 B

;0J"B

~f:iJ:Ji'\:J

2j'~B"OSlJ

K:>w

K:>/f;J~

eeoK:>~ M

OSlKo 1\

s~lr;$

oJLi5K:>~

B"K:> 1\

oJLi5 ;$

;$~lre'l~

w>a>o

;$;GoIcJS:,

0Slvs"1r~

w>lSo

re!!:1r;G

~~Ir~~

fum,)

w>Q)Joc!=

;;)W'.jZ3"~.l

lSE:IlO

w>!:l",jcm

&!lIre3~

~OS.l

w>11~e3

i:\~S"OSlc!

'"

"

'"

'"

£"OSlc!

1\

'"

'"

;;)6):)f.)e.:> eo

eo

B"c:f:JOSla Gl

M

S"e.u ;;Peoo

tl'6):)

S'IS

g"eo~5

f)"@S

i5W'.jf.)0~

~;$:J

C;{[;

S'i5iJ"i'O

K:>Ll:So

:0e5e.u eoM

K:>~~~/r

:':r'~

0""&

~;;s.

?i"i5~0

iSelO M

~lS~

OSlGli:\6):) .,

o£w

~6):)

~K:>c:f:J

S"i5~eJ.)

~oSo

,;)"~

,Tac:f:J

&~;Go

s"e5

Ce.:>

~Qfue.u

~!&

R"~

S".,

3"c:f:J

f.)o!l' «loKS

;-;)08"0:.,0 i301.);) OSlo.:» !l"0i30 ;;)0W' i\lo~

;{[;W'.j

~oi\l

iJ"cJS:,O"S"elO i\lo!fJllS'o ~O4l";) i\lo~l$'~

OSoro:t"elO i50c:f:J K:>0c:f:J :;50&>;$0

and read out the following:

(a) Transliterate the following in Roman and read out. ~~1r

Q

(b) Transliterate the following in Roman and identify the value of anuswaara [olin each case.

!l'0f.)!i Exercise 3.1

oJ Li5K13olfu

f)"e.:>o

'"

L;;)eg1§.:s' "S"I:SSL!l'OSlo

b"'~1.~O OJ"~i\lo

maarkaTTu siSyuDu sinimaa aarDaru yoogyata

wyaasarpgarp waalteeru

~KsoLtI'o

wisraa~ti

3l~tSo

gUlTlTuuru nelluuru orpgoolu karnuulu cittuuru nooTiisu dastuuri kaaleeji

wyaakaraNalTl prahlaaduDu raamaayaNalTl kaaryakramalTl kalekTaru aggi peTTe

so

05:>Lf.)~dE1lS0

8l~~

~I(so

L~6iroKo

.,;o~.l8l

~os's8l.l

~cl.:>

C:»'8"i.;le:,o

el

~

A Grammar of Modern Telugu

46

PART II

!.:J"gso

;:)O~s

1/!)'t.::,iJ"~

"

(b) Transliterate the following in Roman and indicate the phonetic value of the long vowel in each case. ~6l

;&'"

~w

!i"~~

:.'l~

fu"

~~

i3~.)~

~~o

;&1&

"'ol~~O

;BV"~~

;&~

~os'o

i5lSo

~~~

~~

;&~

'1~iJ~

rro~~

'"

(c) Transliterate the following in Telugu and read out the words. ulfaa mEELarp. pEEQa jhaansii SaSThi sarp.stha bhaawarp. garb harp.

farmaanaa warp.DEEnu taaTEEku charp.dassu swasthaanarp. deewata tannEEnu aafiisu

teccEEnu tiisEEnu dhuurtuDu phalitarp. kuSTha wyaadhi sambhaawana kaafiihooTalu mahaabhaaratarp.

CHAPTER 6

Nouns: Classes, Number and Gender 6.1. Telugu nouns can be divided into three classes: (1) Proper and common nouns; (2) Pronouns; (3) Special types .of nouns (numerals, adverbial nouns, verbal nouns, pronominalized adjectives and nouns, etc.). 6.2. All nouns except some special types have number and gender (see 6.8 and 10.2). 6.3. Study the following model sentences,'

1.

~e fP~.

2.

I!!)e

Mj~.

1!!)8)

!!~~~.

~e

M.

~8) fP~~.

3.

\!l8) KO:l~.

4.

lI!le \!le».

5.

\!le