A Reference Grammar of Modern Hebrew (Reference Grammars)

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A Reference Grammar of Modern Hebrew (Reference Grammars)

A Reference Grammar of Modern Hebrew EDNA AMIR COFFIN Professor Emerita of Hebrew Language and Literature Department O'

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A Reference Grammar of Modern Hebrew

EDNA AMIR COFFIN Professor Emerita of Hebrew Language and Literature Department O'"l1:m O"ll'=>

164

~l'1!l:J

Cn'!llO 1N

Dl'P "1\J'J.J.l l11'!ll0:> D'11J.n 0"1l':> on, m~m71 oYJ~

168

Contents

6.5 6.6 6.7 Chapter 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4

Demonstrative pronouns Interrogative and relative pronouns Impersonal pronouns

IX

UJ1 ''1l':::l

iiP' t

~~1)~::>1 n'N'll nu>:>

o~~,l~:>

164

t'l',.l)~~

177

i11'!)0

177 182 183

O"r.ll10

Numerals Free counting Cardinal numbers Noun phrases with cardinal numbers Ordinal numbers

170 173

{0"110') Ol))):) 0'1.!:!0):) 0)1 CJll)r.l\!J

0~!)11~~

0~))):)

0'1.!:!0):)

Ol1i10

CJ~1!l0r.l

IR7

(Oll11i~O)

7.5 7.6 7.7

Fractions Multiplication values Numeric value of letters

7.8

Phrases: days of the week. dates, telling time, age

0~1::J.\!J

'\!}

D'~!l:J '1!l0r.lil 11lli1

188 189 190

l11ll11N 'Y.ll : Ol!l11 >:::!

191

, 0':::l>iNl1 ,ll1::J.\!Ji1

'~~ ,ml'\!J

Chapter 8 8.1

8.2 8.3 8.4

Adjectives Introduction: fanning adjectives Comparative and superlative adjectives Forming adjectives by adding suffix -i Nouns and adjectives of affiliation

~~

,_ ]1!)01]1 o~l"~r.ln o~1Nm

197

~,.,

mr.l\!J

198

l11:l"\!J n~mpr.ltl1'l1~llp

8.5 8.6

Participles that function as adjectives Special patterns

Chapter 9

Adverbs and adverbial expressions

9.1

Introduction Adverbs grouped according to t{)rm

9.2

nnp!lnr.ln 'l1)'J m11~

202

0~1Nl1:> nnnw~ m~l:Jl1

204

'.01..,,!11, ~.»,.Oft ,,NlS'I

209

·n~e~n

N1JY.l l!l ~)) Ol11N>l1l11~0 0]111!::1

209 209

Content.~

9.3 9.4

Adverbs grouped according to function Adverbs and 'degree' words

9.5

Sentential adverbs

Chapter 10

Particles

10.1 10.2

Introduction The particle 'et' before definite direct objects

10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7

Prepositions: prefixes, independent prepositions Prepositions or adverbs'? Coordinating and correlative conjunctions Subordinators Exclamation particles and expressions

Chapter 11

Noun phrases

11.1

Introduction to noun phrases

11.2

Noun phrase: noun+ adjective Comparative and superlative adjectives Apposition noun phrases Construct phrases Phrases ofpossession Phrases with demonstrative pronouns Prepositional phrases Numerical and quantifier phrases Noun phrases with determiners Gerunds and infinitives in noun phrases

t 1.3

11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 1l.9 11.10 11.11

'!:1 ':7~ o,,,Nm l11'0

213

on'l'P!:In m~:nr.n 0'11N'n

214

n1'0 tl!:l\!.10 ,,,N'n

218

J'll'~'D

I'•O:JO 'l!:IJ "nN" n'~"on Ql}I11'1J O"ln'C Ql!))1'!! 1'\!.l'n N\!.l"::m ;.., ,m,~nnn : on' m'J'r.> ml11!:1 on' m':7'm ?':7lll!:l '1N1n 1N on' m':7'o

225 225 225

228

11\!.I'P m'J'O

244 246

l):J~'ll

)'11J'.O

248

''1tl':J1 nN'1P m';no

250

nN'1P C"3D~ C'!:ll,,~

O'!ln'!!J N'l:JO Oll)n\!)

+ 0!1~ O'tl : lJIJ\!.1 I'J'l1'!!

252 252 253

1Nm 0\!.1 m7!ln '1N1m )'1n' '1Nm

257

'!l'l"'''~

260 261 275

n11on m:::.,.oo

'!In'~

l"lP '!l'l1'!1 n:n "'ll':J Oll O'!l'l1'!1

277

on' '!111'::1 nm:::.1 1!10.0 '!1'1'~

281 281

m':7'.0 0~ O''liJ'tl O'!l)1l.:::l mv;:m

2R3

~Yl!:l

mr.>\!.11 n';:!l~!l mo~t~ 0"JO'tl 0'!:11"'1':::1:::1

287

Contents

Chapter 12 12. t 12.2 12.3 12.4

12.5 12.6 12.7

Verb phrases Introduction to verb phrases Verb phrases: verbs and objects Compound verb phrases Grouping verbs by semantic considerations Modal verbs Habitual aspect phrases Subjunctive and possibility phrases

Chapter 13

Modal \-'erbs and expressions

13.1 13.2 13.3

Introduction to modality Modal verb phrases impersonal modal expressions Temporal aspects in modality Modality expressed by phrases with nm

13.4 13.5

Chapter 14

Clauses and sentences

14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4

Introduction Verbal sentences Nominal sentences Equational sentences Existential sentences Sentences of possession Elliptical sentences Classification of sentences by function Sentence classification by structure Simple sentences Coordinate/compound sentences

14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 14.9 14.10 14.11

XI

t:t"!1)11~ a•~,,,~

288

O"~)J)!l 0'!lll'!t~ N1Jr.:l

288

0'~).1!) : 0"7)11!) 0'011'~

2&8

0'N'01r.l1 0':J=>l1Y.l 0"~lll!l O'!l'll'~ O'!ln':::~ ~\? 'tllOU ln>u

291 297

Ol'>~).ll!l

O"~N11Y.l O'>~)J!l ('~llil?) \JjJ!lUN '!l11'~ i1~N\!IO , l)'}ln '!lll'~

298 298 299

nn'tl!lN1 t:I"~N'TU3 t:l""''21 t:l'7)1.!:1

300

In''JN1l0; Nl:JO

O''Dnu 0'''JN11r.l 0'"1\J':J

300 301 305

J"nl~Ni10J )Y.lli1 \JjJ!>UN

306

0)1 0''1\JlJJ In''JNiu:l

311

0"'JN11r.l O"'J)I)!l 0'!l1l'!t

'i1'il' t:I'".!:I'0~1 ,,,,~.!:!

NlJO on;)ll!l O'\J!l\!10 onm\!1 0'\J!l\!IO l)il)l l\J!I\!Ir.:l Ol'P '\J!l\!IY.l l"ljJ )\:)!)\!JJJ 0'1tm 0'\J!l\!IY.l )!)

,)I 0'\J!l\!10 l wu

314 314 316 318 318 323 324 330 332

01'f.'!ln O)J)J '!l ;)I 0'\J!l'OO lll'U

334

O'\JW!l 0'\J!l\!lr.:l

335 337

O'n'NO 0'\J!l\!lr.:l C0'1:nnr.:l)

Contents

XII

14.12 14.13 14.14 14.15 14.16 14.17 14.18

Complex sentences Complement clauses Attributive clauses Relative clauses Adverbial clauses Conditional sentences Integrated sentences

Chapter 15 15.1

Language in context Introduction Sentence or utterance? Topic and comment Focus and topic Deixis - reference to person, time and place Reported speech- direct and indirect Language registers Genres oftext Cohesion and coherence of text Language in context: sample texts

15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5

15.6 15.7 15.8 15.9 15.10

Appendices Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4 Appendix 5

Verb tables Noun tables Particle tables Punctuation rules Plene writing

Index of grammatical topics

C':J:nm

0'\J!l~t~P

nlt.l'~\!.1~ TIPplO!l 'Nll~ m'jJlO!l

np'l nl'PlO!l nl'~N'::l1ll"TN m'jJlO!l

338 340 344 345 349

l\J!)\!)~

357

Ol:J~llt'~ Ql\J!l\!.1~

337

,vpn:a ,,v~

364 364

ll'()l1

Nllt.l ! }I:JO lN \J!llt'O ~mm

N\!m

ilP'm N~t~ll , ")U~ Tlltm,nm nP~1

365 366 369

369

Olpo7l )OlJ "l'P).Il

1'~t~'

:1om 1l:J'i

373

1llt'J ':J'It'O

377

\JOP\J 'J\!J m:rm l1'1':J7l nl'il\!JljJ

381 382

mmn : 1~t~pn:::t 11~t~'J

384

b'nOV3

390 390 416

O'~Y!l nl'm mm~ nm~t~ m'm mm~

nl'J'P mm~

425

plO'!ln 'JJJ

428

N~Y.l

O"Pl"TPl

O'N~t~lJ

:JlTIJ

436

Up1l'N

438

Preface The main purpose of this book is to serve as a reference grammar tor Modern Hebrew. It is designed to teach about the language and to give readers a reference tool for looking up specific details of the language. The intended audience is a varied one; it includes non-native speakers who arc students of Hebrew, native speakers of Hebrew who seek a comprehensive coverage of Hebrew grammar, instructors and teachers of Hebrew, students and scholars of Biblical Hebrew who would like to have a better understanding of contemporary Hebrew, students of linguistics, and the general public interested in Hebrew language and culture. Particular care was taken to make the presentation as simple as possible, and to avoid use of excessive linguistic terminology or complex linguistic analyses, in order to make this volume as accessible as possible to everyone, and to give pedagogical considerations equal weight to those of Linguistic explanations and analysis. The book is based on the study of formal Hebrew and of Hebrew as a spoken language, and it includes some historical notes on pre-modern Hebrew (Biblical and Post-Biblical). We consider the Hebrew language both as a system and as a communicative tool. Whenever possible, equivalent Hebrew terminology is given in order to facilitate use of Hebrew grammar and language textbooks.

A Reference Grammar of Modern Hebrew combines modern and traditional approaches in the description of language structures and uses. The term 'normative' is used to convey the adherence to the formal rules of grammar, while 'common use' alludes to the rules applied by educated speakers in their daily use. While most speakers perceive 'correct' Hebrew to be the language usage as prescribed by the fonnal rules of Hebrew, in fact their own actual language usage, particularly in informal contexts, often departs somewhat from the normative rules. The language is thus described both in its written and more forma] contexts, and in the spoken conversational mode, where there is a relaxation of some ofthe normative rules, as is common to all languages in use. The formal presentation of rules and tables associated with language structures uses Hebrew texts with vowels, 10n ::Pn:l ktiv haser, while

xiv

Preface

the examples, on the whole, use N~Y.l.l'l1::l ktiv mate, without vowels, as in daily use in contemporary Hebrew adult texts. A R~jerence Grammar of Modern Hebrew is organized according to universal structural categories. The book describes the basic structures of Modern Hebrew, and provides a generous number of examples, based on the authors' experience of teaching Hebrew to Englishspeaking students, and research work in the field of Hebrew linguistics. We wish to acknowledge our colleague Robert Hoberman, Professor of Linguistics at the State University of New York Stony Brook, whose feedback comments were very insightful and helpful from both linguistic nnd pedagogical aspects. We also wish to acknowledge Liz Brater, who as a student of Hebrew gave us much needed insight into learners' needs, and as a professional editor, helped us with organizing the text. We are particularly thankful to her, since she found time during her busy schedule as a Michigan State Senator, to do careful reading of large parts of the text. [n addition, we thank Neta Bolozky and Tris Coffin for their steady support during the writing of the book. We also wish to express our gratitude to Cambridge University Press for the opportunity to write and publish this work.

June 2004

Chapter 1 Preliminary discussion 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 I .7

Parts of speech Grammatical functions Words and patterns Gender and number Open and closed word classes Phrase constituents Rules of agreement

1.1 Parts of speech One of the major issues in the presentation of grammar is the definition of language categories. Language categories can be described as parts of speech, i.e. language units in isolation, or in terms of their function in context. For instance. a noun can be described as belonging to the parts-of-speech category 'noun', and also as functioning either as a subject or an object within the clause or sentence structure, as the modifier of another noun, etc. While we recognize that all language items belong to a whole network of interrelationships, we shall limit the present discussion to context-free (i.e., parts-of-speech), and contextdependent (i.e., functional) relationships. The following are the main traditional categories of parts of speech: Verbs Nouns Pronouns Adjectives Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions

C'~)J.!:l

Tnr.l'll ~n

''))''

1Nm mo'l.l ~)J)!lil '1NUl on,m':mJ 1t:Pn m~:mJ

ln many cases, the distinction between the part-of-speech characterization of some item and its function in context is obvious. Thus, for instance, in the noun phrase 0'1!!0 mm 'bookstore', we have two nouns (part of speech), and although the second one is a modifier

2

Chapter I: Preliminary di.scuj·j·ion

of the first, and thus functions as if it were an adjective, it is still a noun from the part-of-speech point of view. On the other hand, there are words that even in isolation cannot be assigned unambiguously to a single category. Every word functions as at Least one part of speech, but there are words that can serve as two or more parts of speech, depending on the context. For instance, some present participle forms can function as verbs in the present tense, as nouns or as adjectives:

Adjective

The new worker did not arrive at work today. The computer does not work properly. The executive (working) committee decided to raise membership fees.

ow1 ~n.:m N~ Ynnn ~).ll!lil .ilil:J).I~

.'lN,_, ~l'l!l N~ :JYJn~n m~).ln~ '.J'~nn ~l'l!ln iYm

.I:Jnn

,~,

nN

The same word can also function as both an adjective and an adverb: .nYJp Y.I'N Nlil ~nmn Adjective The director is a ditlicult man. Adverb He makes everyone work hard. .O~l-' nN nYJp i>:J)J~ Nlil Below are some illustrations of parts of speech and grammatical functions. A more detailed discussion wil1 follow in the main chapters of the book. Verbs o•'l.u9 Verbs in tense

Dan hurried home. They will oppose the plan tor ideological reasons.

.nn>:::~n

1n>o rr

m:J>ot:J n>l:~m;. lilln' on .m>ll~1N'1'N

Non-finite verbs Dan wants to run in the Boston

Marathon.

Nouns and pronouns

D 11 IJ 1 JI n1nw

Nouns I have coffee and cake for you. Verbal nouns

Dan is a cooking expert. She proved a profound understanding ofthe subject.

.~1Y.I'J~ nno1o

11

.NYJU:l nj:mJY mJ.n iln'::>1n N'il

Chapter I: Preliminary discussion

3

Personal pronouns

He likes to cook and she likes to eat.

m.nn·-c N'ill 'J'I!'::J.'J ::J.illN N.m .'J1:>N'J

Demonstrative pronouns

This food is Muroccan food.

Adjectives Adjectives in noun phrases He is an excellent cook. Adjectives as predicates

.l'1~r.:! l'J\U::l

N.1il

.l\U:>UJ mn i'O'JTln

This student is talented.

Adverbs He cooks a lot but eats little.

.,lll!>il .,Hin .\JYO ?:nN. 'J::J.N il::J.1il ?\U::J.JJ N.1il

Particles

m•'l•n/m..,•n

Prepositions

Dan goes with friends to shows.

.ml~il~ 0'1::m oy

1'Jm )i

Conjunctions

Do you want to walk or to go by car? Subordinators They went to the restaurant that I

!Y1t7)'J 1N

'Jn:J Tl:J'J'J

m~m

om.c

.m~?on il''JY~ myuo? 1::.'::m on

recommended. Interrogatives

Who is this?

!ill '.O

Interjections ~::J.N.1:J

Ouch! It hurts!

m P1N

1.2 Grammatical functions Another way to classify the components of an utterance is by their grammatical function. Here are some of the terms that arc used to describe the roles the parts of speech play in sentences: Subject Predicate Attribute Object Adjunct

N\U1) NWl 'N11'J

N\UUl n!lt7l

4

Chapter 1: Preliminary discussion

M~ll

Subject Noun phrases

The new cook is from France. Subordinate clauses

That he studied cooking in France is of no interest to me.

1"l}.lr.l N~ n~i~:a ~lt~':a lr.l' Nm'll .;.::.J:a 'mN

Predicate Verb predicates

Dan started studying in the summer. Nominal predicates

He is a student in law school. Attribute Expansion of phrases with additional information

Dan met friends from work at a pub on the beach.

J>' :JN!l:l i1i':J)InY.l D'l:Jn 'lll!l 11 .om Tl!l'll

Object complement Direct object

Dan met his friends. Indirect object

Dan got together with his friends. Adjunct

nDOl

Temporal

Dan was not at home this morning. Spatial

Dan traveled in England for three months.

1.3 Words and patterns

o•.,iJ\!IDI

Dl

1 11

l:l

,D•.,n

All verbs, many nouns, and a good number of adjectives and adverbs are based on a combination of roots and patterns. The root 'llii'll shoresh is a consonantal skeleton. It is a hypothetical sequence of consonants shared by related words. Roots do not constitute actual words. Each one is applied to a pattern, from which actual words are formed. In the verb system the pattern is called 1"ll hinyan, and elsewhere it is called ~PIVY.l mishkal.

Chapter 1: Preliminary discussion

Verbs Gloss wrote dictated

5

Word :Jl)~

::l'.l'l:m ':.

Nouns and adjectives

Gloss magician (noun) charming (adjective)

Word 09ip

l!.nl\!1

o-u-p

0'1li?~

There are seven verb pattern groups (binyanim) in Hebrew. The third person singular in the past tense is traditionally used to represent each of these groups. To label each of these groups generically, a prototypical root is used. The generic verb ~)l!:l is used in combination with the pattern of each binyan, giving it its name.

pa'al nifal pi'el pu'a/ hitpa'el hifil hf.!fal

Root

Bin"t,an's name

Citation Form

~~~

P1l

p-1-l

7~~~

1~~~

1-:J-\!1

Cnn!:l)'JV.~

(1!:1'0} 1~1?

1-!)-t;l

P~9.

p-'J-u

':J)!~J;ln

\!I~'JJ;liJ

\!)-)-1

'J'l.'~n (Jll!:lln) 'J).I!;)!.I

"'~i?n

\)·J-p

(7).11!:1) '~~

Cp71t!)

cn:mnJn~m

n-s-l

The root consonant is labeled ~))l!:ln '!:l (marked in English as C1). The second root consonant is labeled 'JYl!ln ')) (C 2) and the third root consonant is 'J)Jl!:lil ·~ (C3 ). Verb form

Root

'7l.ll~il ''7

'7~1~il

PlJ"'

Binr..an Jll!:l

up~

~ll!:ll

Q-J-~

0

)

:>

(07'\!1) 0~~

~ll'!:l

T.)-J-\!1

T.)

l'i'$.!

~)J)!)

1-\)-!)

,

::lt1~l;1iJ

'Jll!:l11il J'lol!:lil

:1-n-J

:J

"n'

\!)

:::1-!1-:l

:J

n

J

J))!))il

\)-J-p

"

~

p

(1\)~!;l)

::l'J;l?iJ '"~pm> ";..i?t!

p-n-\!1

p

n

'v

'11JI9il '9 \!)

!)

J

6

Chapter I: Preliminary discussion

A comparative note The verb pattern groups m Hebrew are somewhat similar to special groups of verbs in English, where the base undergoes predictable internal changes, and the modifications within the stem arc regular. Some examples of such groups: (a) drive-drove-driven, write-wrote-written, ride-rode-ridden (b) speak-spoke-spoken, freeze-froze-frozen, steal-stole-stolen Although the root does not exist on its own, many words sharing a common root tend to have a common meaning or related meaning. Verbs Citation form Gloss 1-'tl-p tie be tied get in touch; get connected Nouns and adjectives Gloss tied, connected (adj.) tie, connection (noun) context (noun)

11'tli?

1l'o 'how much? how many?'.

12

Chapter I: Preliminary discussion

Questions about the subject or object:

Who called you? What did he te11 you on the phone?

?1''JN )!I'J\J .,~ !11!l'J\J:ll'J 1~N Nln i1~

Questions about time or location:

When is Dan coming? Where is he going? Where will he be this evening?

!N1:l'J J'llm )i ,n~ q'Jm Nm .ll:Q ?l1.Yi1 i1'i1"> Nln i1!l'N

Questions about cause or reason:

Why doesn't Dan want to come? Why was he so late?

?Nll'J mm N'J

11 nr.l'J

!p 'J::> 1nN Nln Y1ir.l

Questions with prepositions:

The question words 'r.l and ilr.l can be preceded by prepositions, as in 'Jy ?nr.l •about what?', or !'r.l Dl' •with whom?'. About whom did you talk? With whom did you go to the movies?

Interjections i'IM•1il m'l•n Interjections are words or phrases used to exdaim or protest or command. They sometimes stand by themselves, but they are often contained within larger structures. Most interjections are usually used in speech. Nice! You finished everything on time. Wow! I won the lottery! We won- Hallelujah! How awful! Everything is lost.

! 1u1'Jn

m-< ,,.m111n ! or.lnr.3 ! i1'''~m - 1ln~'l

. i1:l'N'J 1~'i1 'J::>n !'1:lN1 '1N

1.6 Phrase constituents Observe the following sentence: Small children go to kindergarten. The sentence can be clearly divided into two main constituents: verb phrase noun phrase

Chapter 1: Preliminary disc:uss ion

13

Each of these constituents is a phrase and the two of them together form the sentence. The first one is a noun phrase, while the second one is a verb phrase. The central item of the noun phrase is O'l~' 'children', while the modifying item is O'JVP 'small'. In the verb phrase, the central item is the verb O':>~m 'go', and the destination is indicated by the prepositional phrase that completes the verb phrase ·p~ 'to kindergarten'. A phrase, as we saw above, consists of an obligatory item, which we call the head or nucleus, and it is always essential to the phrase. It sets the syntactic category of that phrase. Other elements may be optional. Only words that belong to open classes can be heads of phrases. They combine with other words to t'brm larg~r unils, and within the phrase they constitute the central item around which the other words are organized. Head nouns determine the gender and number of the other components in the phrase, as well as in the sentence. Types of phrase: noun phrase

Head word- noun: n!liv 'language' In context: [The Hebrew language) changes. Types of phrase: verb phrase

Head word- verb: llp 'bought' In context: The children [bought ice cream].

1.7 Rules of agreement The head of a syntactic unit, such as a phrase, a clause or a sentence determines many of the features of the other nouns, adjectives or verb forms in these units. Beyond the phrase there is agreement between the head noun of a subject and its predicate (verb, noun or adjective), or between any noun and its co-referent pronoun anywhere in the sentence or beyond. Let's see how the head noun in the following sentence determines the features of some other components in the sentence: .p~ O'~~m O'l\.?p O'i~' • Head noun: C'i~'. Gender: masculine. Number: plural. • Adjective reflects the teatures of the head noun: O'l\.?P.

14

Chapter I: Preliminary discussion



The verb reflects the plural masculine features of the head noun: o>~~nn.

1. 7.1 Gender agreement 1. Noun phrase: head noun + adjective The~

·1"lYtJ )JtJ\!.Il \!.1-rnn \:nun

movie sounds interesting.

The new exhibit is attracting a lot of visitors. They say that i! is very interesting.

n~\!.lm

n'1!J1nn n:ni)Jnn

N>il\!.1 O>i}J)N . D':li D'if.':ltJ .11NY.l m»lYtJ

2. Noun phrase: head noun+ demonstrative pronoun Since demonstrative pronouns can modi(y nouns in a noun phrase, they agree in gender and number with the head nouns. This pool is an Olympic pool. .n'!lr.J'''N m'i:l Nm m-tm il:l'i.Ji1 That game was riveting. 3. Noun phrase+ verb predicate Nira was accepted to work in the otlice of an architectural tirm. They hired her as soon as she finished her studies. Noam works in a bank. Many friends of his work there.

~\!.1 1"1\!.IY.l.J ni,:lY~ n~:1pnn ili'l

1''Y.l nmN l~:l'P .o>\Jj7t1'~1N

..D.'iu:J'~ om oy 1~\!.1 0':::11 D'"1.Jn .jJl.J:l 1:1W OlJU

. 0\!.1 D'l:lllJ

4. Noun phrase+ adjective predicate

Your choice (is) very good.

.11NY.l il:::ll\:1 1~\!.1 i1"1'n:lil

The voting rate (is) low.

.11m

illl:l~nn

ill'' \!.I

1.7.2 Number agreement 1. Noun phrase: head noun + adjective

The new~ are interesting. We strolled in the small streets of the town.

. D'l"l:l.IY.l o>\!.linn mmr.m .-,>yn 7\!.1 0'lt1pn m:Jlni.J 11~mo

2. Sentence: noun phrase+ predicate: verb

Moshe and Danny arrived late. Aliza and Dina live in the dorms.

.inlNY.lW'lil '111 il\!.IY.l .nm:l.lr.J:l m1:~

ill', m'7ll

15

Chapter I: Preliminary discussion

3. Sentence: noun phrase+ predicate: adjective

These flowers are very pretty. The girls in my class are not particularly friendly.

1.7.3 Agreement in person 1will finish the paper tomorrow. You didn't hear the bell?

. 1lN~ D'!l' n?Nn D'nl!lil

:mmn::m NJ nn'J.J mnn .1nllY.lJ.

.1rm

n-rn~n

1~n:~'l~n

nN 1mlN 'JN

nN omn:ri!J N? onN

Personal pronouns (subject, object, possessive, etc.) reflect the person that they represent. The girl said that she was hungry.

Her parents also said that they were hungry.

1.7.4 Definite/Indefinite status When the head noun is indefinite, so is the adjective that modifies it. However, when the noun modifier is a prepositional phrase, the head noun does not influence it. Indefinite head noun

There arc small and nice restaurants there. We bought an old house. Did you visit any art museums?

.)~.n

!l'J U'JP

1!l1))::lNJ D'JlN'n~:J D!llj7'J

When the head noun is detinite, the adjectives that modify it are also definite. A definite concept consists of a noun introduced by a definite article, or one with a possessive suffix, or a proper name. However, when the noun modifier is a prepositional phrase, the head noun does not int1uence it. Definite head noun

The blossoming trees are apple trees. His second wife was born in Canada. Our Ilana is a gifted musician.

.D'nl!>n

'~Y

on D'n1l!li1

D'~~n

. i11)j7J. i11~Jl) i1ll)~i1 ln'iJN

.nmnY.'l !l'NP'UlY.'l N'il UJ~ m'l'N

Chapter 2 Writing and pronunciation 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2. 7 2.8

Introduction Consonants and their corresponding sounds The Hebrew vowel system Texts with vowels and without vowels Diacritic marks other than vowels Syllables Stress patterns Dialectal variation in consonant articulation

2.1 Introduction In Hebrew, as in other Semitic languages, consonants are regarded as the primary units that compose a word. There are twenty-two letters in the Hebrew alphabet, with eight additional variations. Each consonant is assigned a letter of the alphabet. Four consonants may also represent vowels, but generally, vowel signs are marked by dots and short lines inserted below, above, and inside the consonants. In contemporary Hebrew texts, sequences of consonants represent words. Vowel signs are not used in most texts, with the exception of poetry, children's literature, textbooks for early grades, and liturgical literature. In writing without vowels, each sequence of consonants can have more than one vowel pattern assigned to it, and thus has several possible pronunciations and consequently several possible meanings, e.g., in a sequence like l!lO: Gloss

book; literary work ( l) te II, narrate; talk about (2) to cut hair be recounted, be narrated count, enumerate count! barber border, edge, fringe

With vowels

Without vowels

s~fer

l!fQ

l!lO

siper

1~1?

l!)'tl

supar

l~P.

l!l,O

.w~far

l!;.!V

l!ltl

s.for sapar

,.!lV

1)!)0

l!;l~

l!ltl

.~far

,~~

l!ltl

17

Chapter 2: Writing and pronunciation

The consonantal skeleton of a word carries its basic sense, and the vowel string usually identities the word grouping to which a particular word belongs. Pattern recognition is aided by affixes (attachments), which facilitate the reconstruction of the associated vowel configuration. The following example demonstrates the combination of a consonantal skeleton with two different word patterns. Gloss number narrator

Patterns mispar mesaper

Prefix ,~~Y,l

-Y,l

1~Qt;:l

2.2 Consonants and sounds Tn the table below, you will find the Hebrew consonantal alphabet, traditionally arranged. Five consonants have a special torm when they come at the end of the word ('"1'!:1; '"

)

I

i

,,::::'

~y

))

,

The vowel i as in speed, or in seal The diphthong ey as in ww: Alternative tor a single'' consonant.

:J

:;il

k

k~f

C'J~

;:,

;I

kh

kh4

C'j:;l

1

p

'

y

~

I

I

Y.l

"

m

0

p

)

J

l

I

n

k as in fan: at the beginning of a word l:;? ken, or after a closed syllable: n~?r.> maiko, or after an open syllable in some patterns: 'li'l? siken. kh is pronounced as in Loch Ness, after a vowel or at the end of words. An orthographic variation at the end of words: TJ rakh. I as in the tirst sound of lean. m as in the first sound of mother. An orthographic variation at the end of words. n as in the first sound of t1,ever.

nun

'\~)

An orthographic variation of at the end

nun

'\U

of words.

St~/il

khaf

C'J~

s~fit

n~iu

kimed mem

0):;)

mem

Ol;;l

sofll

n->~)U

u

0

s

s as in the first sound of ~un.

samekh

)I

~

(1

In standard speech it only carries the

'4vin

sound ofthe following vowel, just as 'N does. For alternative pronunciation see explanation on page 3.1.

lt;;J?

n'>~)U

wv ~~~

20

.!!1

Chapter 2: Writing and pronunciation

a

p

pas in the first sound ofQearl: at the

pe

N!,ll

syllable in some patterns: 1~~ siper. f as in the first sound of.fun: after a

fe

N~

vowel: "V~~ safwl or initially in borrowed words: 'J~''V'i?~festival. Orthographic variation offat the end of

.fe s~flt

N~

beginning of the word or after a closed syllable: ,0!~ parpar, or after an open !l

')

;)

l

1

words: ~

'I ·~

''I p

,

'1

, ~1

ts

ch

~t

')~9

ll'~)O

kesef.

ts pronounced as one segment, as in the

tsadi

,,.~

first segment of P'ry-~ !§.adik. Orthographic variation of Is at the end of

tsadi

''1~

so.fit

l1'~'0

k