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Biology, 9th Edition

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Biology NINTH EDITION

ELDRA P. SOLOMON former affiliations: University of South Florida, Tampa Hillsborough Community College

LINDA R. BERG former affiliations: University of Maryland, College Park St. Petersburg College

DIANA W. MARTIN Rutgers University

Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States

Biology, Ninth Edition Eldra P. Solomon, Linda R. Berg, and Diana W. Martin Publisher, Life Sciences: Yolanda Cossio

© 2011, 2008 Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning

Developmental Editor: Christopher Delgado Assistant Editor: Alexis Glubka Editorial Assistant: Joshua W. Taylor Media Editor: Lauren Oliveira Marketing Manager: Tom Ziolkowski Marketing Assistant: Elizabeth Wong Marketing Communications Manager: Linda Yip

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web distribution, information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

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For permission to use material from this text or product, submit all requests online at www.cengage.com/permissions Further permissions questions can be e-mailed to [email protected]

Photo Researcher: Tim Herzog, Bill Smith Group Text Researcher: Sue C. Howard

Library of Congress Control Number: 2010931615

Copy Editor: Susan M. Gall Compositor: Thompson Type Illustrator: Amanda Bickel, Precision Graphics

Student Edition: ISBN-13: 978-0-538-74125-5 ISBN-10: 0-538-74125-2

Cover Designer: John Walker Cover Image: Leafy sea dragon (Phycodurus eques) in Southern Ocean; Michael Aw/Getty Images The leafy sea dragon inhabits kelp-covered rocky reefs and seaweed beds in the waters off the southern and western coast of Australia. This fish lives in depths from about 3 m to 50 m. It feeds on plankton, mainly tiny crustaceans, and typically grows to a length of about 35 centimeters (14 inches). The leafy sea dragon, with its long leaflike extensions, blends with surrounding seaweed, a striking example of camouflage. When the male leafy sea dragon is ready to mate, his tail becomes bright yellow. Females then deposit up to 250 bright pink eggs in a spongy brood patch on the underside of the male’s tail. The eggs are fertilized during the transfer from the female to the male. The male incubates the eggs for four to six weeks. Then, miniature leafy sea dragons are released into the water. Leafy sea dragon populations have decreased due to habitat loss, pollution, and collectors who sell them for aquariums. They are currently listed as “near threatened” in the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s status list.

Printed in Canada 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11 10

Loose-leaf Edition: ISBN-13: 978-0-538-49419-9 ISBN-10: 0-538-49419-0 Brooks/Cole 20 Davis Drive Belmont, CA 94002-3098 USA Cengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning solutions with office locations around the globe, including Singapore, the United Kingdom, Australia, Mexico, Brazil and Japan. Locate your local office at www.cengage.com/global Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson Education, Ltd. To learn more about Brooks/Cole, visit www.cengage.com/ brookscole Purchase any of our products at your local college store or at our preferred online store www.cengagebrain.com.

DEDICATION To our families, friends, and colleagues who gave freely of their love, support, knowledge, and time as we prepared this ninth edition of Biology. Especially to Freda, Kathleen, Mical, Amy, and Belicia Alan and Jennifer Chuck and Margaret

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

ELDRA P. SOLOMON has written several leading college-level textbooks in biology and in human anatomy and physiology. Her books have been translated into more than 10 languages. Dr. Solomon earned an M.S. from the University of Florida and an M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of South Florida. Dr. Solomon taught biology and nursing students for more than 20 years. In addition to being a biologist and science author, Dr. Solomon is a biopsychologist with a special interest in the neuro-physiology of traumatic experience. Her research has focused on the neurological, endocrine, and psychological effects of trauma, including Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and development of maladaptive coping strategies. Dr. Solomon has presented her research at many national and international conferences, and her work has been published in leading professional journals. Dr. Solomon has been profiled more than 30 times in leading publications, including Who’s Who in America, Who’s Who in Science and Engineering, Who’s Who in Medicine and Healthcare, Who’s Who in American Education, Who’s Who of American Women, and Who’s Who in the World.

LINDA R. BERG is an award-winning teacher and textbook author. She received a B.S. in science education, an M.S. in botany, and a Ph.D. in plant physiology from the University of Maryland. Her research focused on the evolutionary implications of steroid biosynthetic pathways in various organisms. Dr. Berg taught at the University of Maryland at College Park for 17 years and at St. Petersburg College in Florida for 8 years. During her career, she taught introductory courses in biology, botany, and environmental science to thousands of students. At the University of Maryland, she received numerous teaching and service awards. Dr. Berg is also the recipient of many national and regional awards, including the National Science Teachers Association Award for Innovations in College Science Teaching, the Nation’s Capital Area Disabled Student Services Award, and the Washington Academy of Sciences Award in University Science Teaching. During her career as a professional science writer, Dr. Berg has authored or co-authored several leading college science textbooks. Her writing reflects her teaching style and love of science.

DIANA W. MARTIN is the Director of General Biology, Division of Life Sciences, at Rutgers University, New Brunswick Campus. She received an M.S. at Florida State University, where she studied the chromosomes of related plant species to understand their evolutionary relationships. She earned a Ph.D. at the University of Texas at Austin, where she studied the genetics of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and then conducted postdoctoral research at Princeton University. She has taught General Biology and other courses at Rutgers for more than 25 years and has been involved in writing textbooks since 1988. She is immensely grateful that her decision to study biology in college has led to a career that allows her many ways to share her excitement about all aspects of biology.

Brief Contents

Preface

xxv

To the Student

xxxi

Part 1 THE ORGANIZATION OF LIFE 1

A View of Life

2

Atoms and Molecules: The Chemical Basis of Life

1

1

307

15

DNA Technology and Genomics

16

Human Genetics and the Human Genome

17

Developmental Genetics

323 347

369

26

The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds

4

Organization of the Cell

5

Biological Membranes

6

Cell Communication

46

18

Introduction to Darwinian Evolution

391

74

19

Evolutionary Change in Populations

411

106

20

Speciation and Macroevolution

21

The Origin and Evolutionary History of Life

22

The Evolution of Primates

134

Part 2 ENERGY TRANSFER THROUGH LIVING SYSTEMS 154 7

Energy and Metabolism

8

How Cells Make ATP: Energy-Releasing Pathways

172 193

Part 3 THE CONTINUITY OF LIFE: GENETICS 213 10

Chromosomes, Mitosis, and Meiosis

11

The Basic Principles of Heredity

12

DNA: The Carrier of Genetic Information

13

Gene Expression

426

465

Part 5 THE DIVERSITY OF LIFE

154

Photosynthesis: Capturing Light Energy

282

Gene Regulation

Part 4 THE CONTINUITY OF LIFE: EVOLUTION 391

3

9

14

213

237

481

23

Understanding Diversity: Systematics

24

Viruses and Subviral Agents

25

Bacteria and Archaea

26

Protists

27

Seedless Plants

28

Seed Plants

29

The Fungi

30

An Introduction to Animal Diversity

31

Sponges, Cnidarians, Ctenophores, and Protostomes 640

32

The Deuterostomes

263

481

501

517

537 561

582 601

675

626

446

Part 6 STRUCTURE AND LIFE PROCESSES IN PLANTS 708 33

Plant Structure, Growth, and Development

34

Leaf Structure and Function

35

Stem Structure and Transport

36

Roots and Mineral Nutrition

37

Reproduction in Flowering Plants

38

Plant Developmental Responses to External and Internal Signals 803

49

Endocrine Regulation

50

Reproduction

51

Animal Development

52

Animal Behavior

1052

1077 1106

708 1127

728 744

Part 8 THE INTERACTIONS OF LIFE: ECOLOGY 1153

761 781

Part 7 STRUCTURE AND LIFE PROCESSES IN ANIMALS 821 39

Animal Structure and Function: An Introduction

40

Protection, Support, and Movement

41

Neural Signaling

42

Neural Regulation

43

Sensory Systems

44

Internal Transport

45

The Immune System: Internal Defense

46

Gas Exchange

47

Processing Food and Nutrition

48

Osmoregulation and Disposal of Metabolic Wastes 1034

53

Introduction to Ecology: Population Ecology

54

Community Ecology

55

Ecosystems and the Biosphere

56

Ecology and the Geography of Life

57

Biological Diversity and Conservation Biology

1173 1196 1218

821 Appendix A

Periodic Table of the Elements

A-1

Appendix B

Classification of Organisms

Appendix C

Understanding Biological Terms

Appendix D

Abbreviations

Appendix E

Answers to Test Your Understanding Questions A-11

842 A-2

860 A-6

882 A-9

911 937

993

963

Glossary Index

1012

I-1

G-1

1153

1242

Table of Contents

Part 1 THE ORGANIZATION OF LIFE 1

A View of Life

1

Three Basic Themes

2

Characteristics of Life 2 Organisms are composed of cells 2 Organisms grow and develop 3 Organisms regulate their metabolic processes 3 Organisms respond to stimuli 4 Organisms reproduce 4 Populations evolve and become adapted to the environment 5 Levels of Biological Organization 5 Organisms have several levels of organization 6 Several levels of ecological organization can be identified 6 Information Transfer 6 DNA transmits information from one generation to the next 6 Information is transmitted by chemical and electrical signals 8 The Energy of Life

A theory is supported by tested hypotheses 19 Many hypotheses cannot be tested by direct experiment 19 Paradigm shifts allow new discoveries 21 Systems biology integrates different levels of information 21 Science has ethical dimensions 22

1

8

Evolution: The Basic Unifying Concept of Biology 10 Biologists use a binomial system for naming organisms 11 Taxonomic classification is hierarchical 11 The tree of life includes three domains and several kingdoms 11 Species adapt in response to changes in their environment 14 Natural selection is an important mechanism by which evolution proceeds 14 Populations evolve as a result of selective pressures from changes in their environment 15 The Process of Science 15 Science requires systematic thought processes 16 Scientists make careful observations and ask critical questions 16 Chance often plays a role in scientific discovery 17 A hypothesis is a testable statement 17 Many predictions can be tested by experiment 18 Researchers must avoid bias 19 Scientists interpret the results of experiments and make conclusions 19

2

Atoms and Molecules: The Chemical Basis of Life

26

Elements and Atoms 27 An atom is uniquely identified by its number of protons 27 Protons plus neutrons determine atomic mass 28 Isotopes of an element differ in number of neutrons 29 Electrons move in orbitals corresponding to energy levels 30 Chemical Reactions 31 Atoms form compounds and molecules 31 Simplest, molecular, and structural chemical formulas give different information 31 One mole of any substance contains the same number of units 31 Chemical equations describe chemical reactions 32 Chemical Bonds 32 In covalent bonds electrons are shared 32 Ionic bonds form between cations and anions 34 Hydrogen bonds are weak attractions 36 van der Waals interactions are weak forces 36 Redox Reactions

36

Water 37 Hydrogen bonds form between water molecules 37 Water molecules interact with hydrophilic substances by hydrogen bonding 38 Water helps maintain a stable temperature 38 Acids, Bases, and Salts 40 pH is a convenient measure of acidity 41 Buffers minimize pH change 42 An acid and a base react to form a salt 42

3

The Cell Nucleus

The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds 46

Organelles in the Cytoplasm 89 Ribosomes manufacture proteins 89 The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of internal membranes 89 The Golgi complex processes, sorts, and modifies proteins 91 Lysosomes are compartments for digestion 93 Vacuoles are large, fluid-filled sacs with a variety of functions 93 Peroxisomes metabolize small organic compounds 93 Mitochondria and chloroplasts are energy-converting organelles 94 Mitochondria make ATP through cellular respiration 94 Chloroplasts convert light energy to chemical energy through photosynthesis 96

Carbon Atoms and Organic Molecules 47 Isomers have the same molecular formula but different structures 48 Functional groups change the properties of organic molecules 48 Many biological molecules are polymers 51 Carbohydrates 51 Monosaccharides are simple sugars 52 Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide units 53 Polysaccharides can store energy or provide structure 53 Some modified and complex carbohydrates have special roles 55 Lipids 56 Triacylglycerol is formed from glycerol and three fatty acids 57 Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids differ in physical properties 57 Phospholipids are components of cell membranes 58 Carotenoids and many other pigments are derived from isoprene units 59 Steroids contain four rings of carbon atoms 59 Some chemical mediators are lipids 59 Proteins 60 Amino acids are the subunits of proteins 60 Peptide bonds join amino acids 61 Proteins have four levels of organization 61 The amino acid sequence of a protein determines its conformation 66

4

86

The Cytoskeleton 97 Microtubules are hollow cylinders 97 Centrosomes and centrioles function in cell division 98 Cilia and flagella are composed of microtubules 98 Microfilaments consist of intertwined strings of actin 99 Intermediate filaments help stabilize cell shape 101 Cell Coverings

5

101

Biological Membranes

106

Nucleic Acids 68 Some nucleotides are important in energy transfers and other cell functions 68

The Structure of Biological Membranes 107 Phospholipids form bilayers in water 107 The fluid mosaic model explains membrane structure 108 Biological membranes are two-dimensional fluids 109 Biological membranes fuse and form closed vesicles 111 Membrane proteins include integral and peripheral proteins 111 Proteins are oriented asymmetrically across the bilayer 113

Identifying Biological Molecules

Overview of Membrane Protein Functions

Organization of the Cell

69

74

114

Cell Membrane Structure and Permeability 115 Biological membranes present a barrier to polar molecules 115 Transport proteins transfer molecules across membranes 115

The Cell: Basic Unit of Life 75 The cell theory is a unifying concept in biology 75 The organization of all cells is basically similar 75 Cell size is limited 75 Cell size and shape are adapted to function 76

Passive Transport 116 Diffusion occurs down a concentration gradient 116 Osmosis is diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane 117 Facilitated diffusion occurs down a concentration gradient 119

Methods for Studying Cells 77 Light microscopes are used to study stained or living cells 77 Electron microscopes provide a high-resolution image that can be greatly magnified 79 Biologists use biochemical techniques to study cell components 79

Active Transport 121 Active transport systems “pump” substances against their concentration gradients 121 Carrier proteins can transport one or two solutes 123 Cotransport systems indirectly provide energy for active transport 123

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells 81 Organelles of prokaryotic cells are not surrounded by membranes 81 Membranes divide the eukaryotic cell into compartments 82

Exocytosis and Endocytosis 123 In exocytosis, vesicles export large molecules 123 In endocytosis, the cell imports materials 125

Cell Junctions 127 Anchoring junctions connect cells of an epithelial sheet 127 Tight junctions seal off intercellular spaces between some animal cells 128 Gap junctions allow the transfer of small molecules and ions 129 Plasmodesmata allow certain molecules and ions to move between plant cells 129

6

Cell Communication

134

Cell Communication: An Overview Sending Signals

Energy and Metabolism 156 Enthalpy is the total potential energy of a system 157 Free energy is available to do cell work 157 Chemical reactions involve changes in free energy 157 Free energy decreases during an exergonic reaction 157 Free energy increases during an endergonic reaction 157 Diffusion is an exergonic process 158 Free-energy changes depend on the concentrations of reactants and products 158 Cells drive endergonic reactions by coupling them to exergonic reactions 158

135

ATP, the Energy Currency of the Cell 159 ATP donates energy through the transfer of a phosphate group 160 ATP links exergonic and endergonic reactions 160 The cell maintains a very high ratio of ATP to ADP 160

136

Reception 137 Cells regulate reception 138 Three types of receptors occur on the cell surface 139 Some receptors are located inside the cell 141

Energy Transfer in Redox Reactions 161 Most electron carriers transfer hydrogen atoms 161

Signal Transduction 141 Signaling molecules can act as molecular switches 141 Ion channel–linked receptors open or close channels 141 G protein–linked receptors initiate signal transduction 142 Second messengers are intracellular signaling agents 143 Many enzyme-linked receptors activate protein kinase signaling pathways 146 Many activated intracellular receptors are transcription factors 147 Scaffold proteins increase efficiency 147 Signals can be transmitted in more than one direction 147 Responses to Signals 147 Ras pathways involve tyrosine kinase receptors and G proteins 148 The response to a signal is amplified 148 Signals must be terminated 149 Evolution of Cell Communication

150

Enzymes 162 All reactions have a required energy of activation 162 An enzyme lowers a reaction’s activation energy 163 An enzyme works by forming an enzyme–substrate complex 163 Enzymes are specific 164 Many enzymes require cofactors 164 Enzymes are most effective at optimal conditions 165 Enzymes are organized into teams in metabolic pathways 166 The cell regulates enzymatic activity 166 Enzymes are inhibited by certain chemical agents 168 Some drugs are enzyme inhibitors 168

8

How Cells Make ATP: Energy-Releasing Pathways 172 Redox Reactions

Part 2 ENERGY TRANSFER THROUGH LIVING SYSTEMS 154 7

Energy and Metabolism

154

Biological Work 155 Organisms carry out conversions between potential energy and kinetic energy 155 The Laws of Thermodynamics 155 The total energy in the universe does not change 155 The entropy of the universe is increasing 156

173

The Four Stages of Aerobic Respiration 173 In glycolysis, glucose yields two pyruvates 175 Pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA 177 The citric acid cycle oxidizes acetyl CoA 177 The electron transport chain is coupled to ATP synthesis 177 Inquiring About Electron Transport and Heat Aerobic respiration of one glucose yields a maximum of 36 to 38 ATPs 184 Cells regulate aerobic respiration 186 Energy Yield of Nutrients Other Than Glucose Anaerobic Respiration and Fermentation Alcohol fermentation and lactate fermentation are inefficient 188

187

183

186

9

Photosynthesis: Capturing Light Energy Light and Photosynthesis

Regulation of the Cell Cycle

193

194

Chloroplasts 195 Chlorophyll is found in the thylakoid membrane 195 Chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment 196 Overview of Photosynthesis 198 ATP and NADPH are the products of the light-dependent reactions: An overview 198 Carbohydrates are produced during the carbon fixation reactions: An overview 199

Sexual Life Cycles

The Light-Dependent Reactions 199 Photosystems I and II each consist of a reaction center and multiple antenna complexes 200 Noncyclic electron transport produces ATP and NADPH 200 Cyclic electron transport produces ATP but no NADPH 202 ATP synthesis occurs by chemiosmosis 202

11

208

Photosynthesis in Plants and in the Environment 209

Chromosomes, Mitosis, and Meiosis

The Basic Principles of Heredity

237

Using Probability to Predict Mendelian Inheritance 247

Part 3 THE CONTINUITY OF LIFE: GENETICS 213 10

233

Mendel’s Principles of Inheritance 238 Alleles separate before gametes are formed: the principle of segregation 241 Alleles occupy corresponding loci on homologous chromosomes 242 A monohybrid cross involves individuals with different alleles of a given locus 242 A dihybrid cross involves individuals that have different alleles at two loci 245 Alleles on nonhomologous chromosomes are randomly distributed into gametes: the principle of independent assortment 245 Recognition of Mendel’s work came during the early 20th century 246

The Carbon Fixation Reactions 204 Most plants use the Calvin cycle to fix carbon 204 Photorespiration reduces photosynthetic efficiency 206 The initial carbon fixation step differs in C4 plants and in CAM plants 206 CAM plants fix CO2 at night 207 Metabolic Diversity

223

Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis 225 Meiosis produces haploid cells with unique gene combinations 227 Prophase I includes synapsis and crossing-over 230 During meiosis I, homologous chromosomes separate 231 Chromatids separate in meiosis II 231 Mitosis and meiosis lead to contrasting outcomes 231

Inquiring About Solving Genetic Problems The rules of probability can be applied to a variety of calculations 248

Inheritance and Chromosomes 249 Linked genes do not assort independently 249 Calculating the frequency of crossing-over reveals the linear order of linked genes on a chromosome 250 Sex is generally determined by sex chromosomes 251

213

Eukaryotic Chromosomes 214 DNA is organized into informational units called genes 214 DNA is packaged in a highly organized way in chromosomes 214 Chromosome number and informational content differ among species 215 The Cell Cycle and Mitosis 217 Chromosomes duplicate during interphase 217 During prophase, duplicated chromosomes become visible with the microscope 218 Prometaphase begins when the nuclear envelope breaks down 220 Duplicated chromosomes line up on the midplane during metaphase 220 During anaphase, chromosomes move toward the poles 221 During telophase, two separate nuclei form 221 Cytokinesis forms two separate daughter cells 222 Mitosis produces two cells genetically identical to the parent cell 222 Lacking nuclei, prokaryotes divide by binary fission 222

248

Extensions of Mendelian Genetics 255 Dominance is not always complete 255 Multiple alleles for a locus may exist in a population 256 A single gene may affect multiple aspects of the phenotype 257 Alleles of different loci may interact to produce a phenotype 257 In polygenic inheritance, the offspring exhibit a continuous variation in phenotypes 257 Genes interact with the environment to shape phenotype 258

12

DNA: The Carrier of Genetic Information

263

Evidence of DNA as the Hereditary Material DNA is the transforming principle in bacteria 264 DNA is the genetic material in certain viruses 265

264

The Structure of DNA 265 Nucleotides can be covalently linked in any order to form long polymers 267 DNA is made of two polynucleotide chains intertwined to form a double helix 268 In double-stranded DNA, hydrogen bonds form between A and T and between G and C 269 DNA Replication 271 Meselson and Stahl verified the mechanism of semiconservative replication 271 Semiconservative replication explains the perpetuation of mutations 273 DNA replication requires protein “machinery” 273 Enzymes proofread and repair errors in DNA 276 Telomeres cap eukaryotic chromosome ends 277

13

Gene Expression

Mutations 300 Base-pair substitution mutations result from the replacement of one base pair by another 301 Frameshift mutations result from the insertion or deletion of base pairs 301 Some mutations involve mobile genetic elements 303 Mutations have various causes 303

14

307

Gene Regulation in Bacteria and Eukaryotes: An Overview 308 Gene Regulation in Bacteria 309 Operons in bacteria facilitate the coordinated control of functionally related genes 309 Some posttranscriptional regulation occurs in bacteria 313 Gene Regulation in Eukaryotic Cells 314 Eukaryotic transcription is controlled at many sites and by many regulatory molecules 315 The mRNAs of eukaryotes have many types of posttranscriptional control 319 Posttranslational chemical modifications may alter the activity of eukaryotic proteins 320

282

Discovery of the Gene–Protein Relationship Beadle and Tatum proposed the one-gene, one-enzyme hypothesis 283

Gene Regulation

283

Information Flow from DNA to Protein: An Overview 285 DNA is transcribed to form RNA 285 RNA is translated to form a polypeptide 285 Biologists cracked the genetic code in the 1960s 287 The genetic code is virtually universal 288 The genetic code is redundant 288 Transcription 288 The synthesis of mRNA includes initiation, elongation, and termination 289 Messenger RNA contains base sequences that do not directly code for protein 290 Eukaryotic mRNA is modified after transcription and before translation 291 Translation 293 An amino acid is attached to tRNA before incorporation into a polypeptide 293 The components of the translational machinery come together at the ribosomes 294 Translation begins with the formation of an initiation complex 294 During elongation, amino acids are added to the growing polypeptide chain 295 One of three stop codons signals the termination of translation 296 Variations in Gene Expression 297 Transcription and translation are coupled in bacteria 297 Biologists debate the evolution of eukaryotic gene structure 298 Several kinds of eukaryotic RNA have a role in gene expression 298 The definition of a gene has evolved as biologists have learned more about genes 300 The usual direction of information flow has exceptions 300

15

DNA Technology and Genomics

323

DNA Cloning 324 Restriction enzymes are “molecular scissors” 324 Recombinant DNA forms when DNA is spliced into a vector 324 DNA can be cloned inside cells 326 A cDNA library is complementary to mRNA and does not contain introns 329 The polymerase chain reaction amplifies DNA in vitro 329 DNA Analysis 331 Gel electrophoresis is used for separating macromolecules 331 DNA, RNA, and protein blots detect specific fragments 331 Restriction fragment length polymorphisms are a measure of genetic relationships 331 Methods to rapidly sequence DNA have been developed 333 Genomics 335 Identifying protein-coding genes is useful for research and for medical applications 336 One way to study gene function is to silence genes one at a time 336 DNA microarrays are a powerful tool for studying gene expression 336 The Human Genome Project stimulated studies of genome sequencing for other species 338 Several scientific fields—bioinformatics, pharmacogenetics, and proteomics—have emerged 338

A totipotent nucleus contains all the instructions for development 372 The first cloned mammal was a sheep 373 Stem cells divide and give rise to differentiated cells 373

Applications of DNA Technologies 339 DNA technology has revolutionized medicine 339 DNA fingerprinting has numerous applications 340 Transgenic organisms have foreign DNA incorporated into their cells 340 DNA Technology Has Raised Safety Concerns

16

The Genetic Control of Development 375 A variety of model organisms provide insights into basic biological processes 376 Many genes that control development have been identified in the fruit fly 376 Caenorhabditis elegans has a relatively rigid developmental pattern 381 The mouse is a model for mammalian development 384 Arabidopsis is a model for studying plant development, including transcription factors 386

343

Human Genetics and the Human Genome 347 Studying Human Genetics 348 Human chromosomes are studied by karyotyping 348 Family pedigrees help identify certain inherited conditions 349 The Human Genome Project sequenced the DNA on all human chromosomes 349 Comparative genomics has revealed DNA identical in both mouse and human genomes 351 Researchers use mouse models to study human genetic diseases 351 Abnormalities in Chromosome Number and Structure 351 Down syndrome is usually caused by trisomy 21 352 Most sex chromosome aneuploidies are less severe than autosomal aneuploidies 354 Abnormalities in chromosome structure cause certain disorders 355 Genomic imprinting is determined by whether inheritance is from the male or female parent 356

Cancer and Cell Development

Part 4 THE CONTINUITY OF LIFE: EVOLUTION 391 18

17

Developmental Genetics

369

Cell Differentiation and Nuclear Equivalence 370 Most cell differences are due to differential gene expression 370

391

392

Pre-Darwinian Ideas about Evolution

392

Darwin and Evolution 393 Darwin proposed that evolution occurs by natural selection 395 The modern synthesis combines Darwin’s theory with genetics 395 Biologists study the effect of chance on evolution 396 Evidence for Evolution 397 The fossil record provides strong evidence for evolution 397 The distribution of plants and animals supports evolution 400 Comparative anatomy of related species demonstrates similarities in their structures 402 Molecular comparisons among organisms provide evidence for evolution 404 Developmental biology helps unravel evolutionary patterns 406 Evolutionary hypotheses are tested experimentally 407

Gene Therapy 361 Gene therapy programs are carefully scrutinized 361

Human Genetics, Society, and Ethics 365 Genetic discrimination provokes heated debate 365 Many ethical issues related to human genetics must be addressed 366

Introduction to Darwinian Evolution What Is Evolution?

Genetic Diseases Caused by Single-Gene Mutations 358 Many genetic diseases are inherited as autosomal recessive traits 358 Some genetic diseases are inherited as autosomal dominant traits 360 Some genetic diseases are inherited as X-linked recessive traits 361

Genetic Testing and Counseling 362 Prenatal diagnosis detects chromosome abnormalities and gene defects 362 Genetic screening searches for genotypes or karyotypes 364 Genetic counselors educate people about genetic diseases 364

387

19

Evolutionary Change in Populations

411

Genotype, Phenotype, and Allele Frequencies

412

The Hardy–Weinberg Principle 412 Genetic equilibrium occurs if certain conditions are met 414 Human MN blood groups are a valuable illustration of the Hardy–Weinberg principle 414 Microevolution 415 Nonrandom mating changes genotype frequencies 415 Mutation increases variation within a population 416 In genetic drift, random events change allele frequencies 416 Gene flow generally increases variation within a population 417 Natural selection changes allele frequencies in a way that increases adaptation 417

Genetic Variation in Populations 420 Genetic polymorphism can be studied in several ways 420 Balanced polymorphism exists for long periods 420 Neutral variation may give no selective advantage or disadvantage 422 Populations in different geographic areas often exhibit genetic adaptations to local environments 422

20

Speciation and Macroevolution

426

What Is a Species? 427 The biological species concept is based on reproductive isolation 427 The phylogenetic species concept defines species based on such evidence as molecular sequencing 427

The History of Life 455 Rocks from the Ediacaran period contain fossils of cells and simple animals 455 A diversity of organisms evolved during the Paleozoic era 455 Dinosaurs and other reptiles dominated the Mesozoic era 458 Inquiring About The Origin of Flight in Birds The Cenozoic era is the age of mammals 461

22

Primate Adaptations

21

Inquiring About The Smallest Humans 476 Scientists have reached a near consensus on the origin of modern Homo sapiens 476

438

The Origin and Evolutionary History of Life 446 Chemical Evolution on Early Earth 447 Organic molecules formed on primitive Earth 448 The First Cells 449 The origin of a simple metabolism within a membrane boundary may have occurred early in the evolution of cells 449 Molecular reproduction was a crucial step in the origin of cells 450 Biological evolution began with the first cells 451 The first cells were probably heterotrophic 452 Aerobes appeared after oxygen increased in the atmosphere 453 Eukaryotic cells descended from prokaryotic cells 453

466

Hominin Evolution 471 The earliest hominins may have lived 6 mya to 7 mya 472 Ardipithecus, Australopithecus, and Paranthropus are australopithecines, or “southern man apes” 472 Homo habilis is the oldest member of genus Homo 474 Homo ergaster may have arisen from H. habilis 474 Homo erectus probably evolved from H. ergaster 474 Archaic humans date from about 1.2 mya to 200,000 years ago 475 Neandertals appeared approximately 250,000 years ago 475

Speciation 430 Long physical isolation and different selective pressures result in allopatric speciation 432 Two populations diverge in the same physical location by sympatric speciation 434 The study of hybrid zones has made important contributions to what is known about speciation 437

Macroevolution 439 Evolutionary novelties originate through modifications of pre-existing structures 440 Adaptive radiation is the diversification of an ancestral species into many species 440 Extinction is an important aspect of evolution 441 Is microevolution related to speciation and macroevolution? 442

465

Primate Classification 467 Suborder Anthropoidea includes monkeys, apes, and humans 467 Apes are our closest living relatives 469

Reproductive Isolation 428 Prezygotic barriers interfere with fertilization 428 Postzygotic barriers prevent gene flow when fertilization occurs 430 Biologists are discovering genes responsible for reproductive isolating mechanisms 430

The Rate of Evolutionary Change

The Evolution of Primates

461

Cultural Change 478 Development of agriculture resulted in a more dependable food supply 478 Human culture has had a profound impact on the biosphere 478

Part 5 THE DIVERSITY OF LIFE 23

481

Understanding Diversity: Systematics

481

Classifying Organisms 482 Organisms are named using a binomial system 482 Each taxonomic level is more general than the one below it 483 Determining the Major Branches in the Tree of Life 483 Systematics is an evolving science 483 The three domains form the three main branches of the tree of life 485 Some biologists are moving away from Linnaean categories 486 Phylogenetic trees show hypothesized evolutionary relationships 486 Systematists continue to consider other hypotheses 487

Reconstructing Evolutionary History 488 Homologous structures are important in determining evolutionary relationships 489 Shared derived characters provide clues about phylogeny 489 Biologists carefully choose taxonomic criteria 489 Molecular homologies help clarify phylogeny 490 Taxa are grouped based on their evolutionary relationships 491

Prokaryote Reproduction and Evolution 521 Rapid reproduction contributes to prokaryote success 522 Prokaryotes transfer genetic information 522 Evolution proceeds rapidly in bacterial populations 523 Nutritional and Metabolic Adaptations 524 Most prokaryotes require oxygen 524 Some prokaryotes fix and metabolize nitrogen 525

Constructing Phylogenetic Trees 493 Outgroup analysis is used in constructing and interpreting cladograms 493 A cladogram is constructed by considering shared derived characters 494 In a cladogram each branch point represents a major evolutionary step 494 Systematists use the principles of parsimony and maximum likelihood to make decisions 496

24

Viruses and Subviral Agents

The Phylogeny of the Two Prokaryote Domains 525 Key characters distinguish the three domains 525 Taxonomy of archaea and bacteria continuously changes 526 Many archaea inhabit harsh environments 526 Bacteria are the most familiar prokaryotes 527 Impact on Ecology, Technology, and Commerce Prokaryotes form intimate relationships with other organisms 530 Prokaryotes play key ecological roles 530 Prokaryotes are important in many commercial processes and in technology 531

501

The Status and Structure of Viruses 502 Viruses are very small 502 A virus consists of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat 502 The capsid is a protective protein coat 502 Some viruses are surrounded by an envelope 503 Classification of Viruses

Viral Diseases 506 Viruses cause serious plant diseases 506 Viruses cause serious diseases in animals 507 Inquiring About Influenza and Other Emerging Diseases 509 512

Subviral Agents 513 Satellites depend on helper viruses 513 Viroids are the smallest known pathogens 513 Prions are protein particles 513

25

Bacteria and Disease 532 Many scientists have contributed to our understanding of infectious disease 532 Many adaptations contribute to pathogen success 532 Antibiotic resistance is a major public health problem 534

504

Viral Replication 504 Bacteriophages infect bacteria 505 Viruses replicate inside host cells 505

Evolution of Viruses

530

Bacteria and Archaea

517

The Structure of Bacteria and Archaea 518 Prokaryotes have several common shapes 518 Prokaryotic cells do not have membrane-enclosed organelles 518 A cell wall protects most prokaryotes 519 Some bacteria produce capsules or slime layers 519 Some prokaryotes have fimbriae or pili 519 Some bacteria survive unfavorable conditions by forming endospores 520 Many types of prokaryotes are motile 520

26

Protists

537

Diversity in the Protists

538

How Did Eukaryotes Evolve? 539 Mitochondria and chloroplasts probably originated from endosymbionts 539 A consensus in eukaryote classification is beginning to emerge 539 Excavates 540 Diplomonads are small, mostly parasitic flagellates 542 Parabasilids are anaerobic endosymbionts that live in animals 542 Euglenoids and trypanosomes have both free-living species and parasites 543 Chromalveolates 544 Most dinoflagellates are a part of marine plankton 545 Apicomplexans are spore-forming parasites of animals 545 Ciliates use cilia for locomotion 547 Water molds produce biflagellate reproductive cells 548 Diatoms have shells composed of two parts 549 Brown algae are multicellular stramenopiles 549 Most golden algae are unicellular biflagellates 550 Rhizarians 551 Forams extend cytoplasmic projections that form a threadlike, interconnected net 551 Actinopods project slender axopods 552

Archaeplastids 552 Red algae do not produce motile cells 552 Green algae share many similarities with land plants 553 Unikonts 554 Amoebozoa are unikonts with lobose pseudopodia 555

27

Seedless Plants

The Evolution of Seed Plants 595 Our understanding of the evolution of flowering plants has made great progress in recent years 595

29

561

Fungal Reproduction 603 Many fungi reproduce asexually 603 Most fungi reproduce sexually 604

Bryophytes 565 Moss gametophytes are differentiated into “leaves” and “stems” 565 Liverwort gametophytes are either thalloid or leafy 567 Hornwort gametophytes are inconspicuous thalloid plants 570 Bryophytes are used for experimental studies 570 Recap: details of bryophyte evolution are based on fossils and on structural and molecular evidence 570

Fungal Diversity 605 Fungi are assigned to the opisthokont clade 605 Diverse groups of fungi have evolved 605 Chytrids have flagellate spores 606 Zygomycetes reproduce sexually by forming zygospores 607 Microsporidia have been a taxonomic mystery 609 Glomeromycetes are symbionts with plant roots 609 Ascomycetes reproduce sexually by forming ascospores 611 Basidiomycetes reproduce sexually by forming basidiospores 612

Seedless Vascular Plants 571 Club mosses are small plants with rhizomes and short, erect branches 572 Ferns are a diverse group of spore-forming vascular plants 572

Ecological Importance of Fungi 615 Fungi form symbiotic relationships with some animals 615 Mycorrhizae are symbiotic associations between fungi and plant roots 617 A lichen consists of two components: a fungus and a photoautotroph 617

Inquiring About Ancient Plants and Coal Formation 574 Some ferns and club mosses are heterosporous 576 Seedless vascular plants are used for experimental studies 578 Seedless vascular plants arose more than 420 mya 578

Seed Plants

Economic, Biological, and Medical Impact of Fungi 619 Fungi provide beverages and food 619 Fungi are important to modern biology and medicine 620 Fungi are used in bioremediation and to biologically control pests 621 Some fungi cause diseases in humans and other animals 621 Fungi cause many important plant diseases 622

582

An Introduction to Seed Plants

583

Gymnosperms 584 Conifers are woody plants that produce seeds in cones 584 Cycads have seed cones and compound leaves 587 Ginkgo biloba is the only living species in its phylum 587 Gnetophytes include three unusual genera 588 Flowering Plants 589 Monocots and eudicots are the two largest classes of flowering plants 590 Sexual reproduction takes place in flowers 590 The life cycle of flowering plants includes double fertilization 592 Seeds and fruits develop after fertilization 594 Flowering plants have many adaptations that account for their success 594 Floral structure provides insights into the evolutionary process 594

601

Characteristics of Fungi 602 Fungi absorb food from the environment 602 Fungi have cell walls that contain chitin 602 Most fungi consist of a network of filaments 602

Adaptations of Plants to Life on Land 562 The plant life cycle alternates between haploid and diploid generations 562 Four major groups of plants exist today 564

28

The Fungi

30

An Introduction to Animal Diversity Animal Characters

627

Adaptations to Ocean, Freshwater, and Terrestrial Habitats 627 Marine habitats offer many advantages 627 Some animals are adapted to freshwater habitats 628 Terrestrial living requires major adaptations 628 Animal Evolution 629 Molecular systematics helps biologists interpret the fossil record 629 Biologists develop hypotheses about the evolution of development 630

626

Reconstructing Animal Phylogeny 630 Animals exhibit two main types of body symmetry 630 Animal body plans are linked to the level of tissue development 631 Most bilateral animals have a body cavity lined with mesoderm 632 Bilateral animals form two main clades based on differences in development 633 Biologists have identified major animal clades based on structure, development, and molecular data 633

31

Jawless Fishes

Amniotes 693 Our understanding of amniote phylogeny is changing 693 Reptiles have many terrestrial adaptations 694 We can assign extant reptiles to five groups 695 Turtles have protective shells 696 Lizards and snakes are the most common modern reptiles 697 Tuataras superficially resemble lizards 697 Crocodilians have an elongated skull 697 How do we know that birds are really dinosaurs? 697 Modern birds are adapted for flight 699 Mammals have hair and mammary glands 700 New fossil discoveries are changing our understanding of the early evolution of mammals 700 Modern mammals are assigned to three subclasses 701

Sponges, Cnidarians, Ctenophores, and Protostomes 640 Sponges, Cnidarians, and Ctenophores: Animals with Asymmetry, Radial, or Biradial Symmetry 641 Sponges have collar cells and other specialized cells 641 Cnidarians have unique stinging cells 643 Comb jellies have adhesive glue cells that trap prey 647 The Lophotrochozoa 648 Flatworms are bilateral acoelomates 648 Nemerteans are characterized by their proboscis 651 Mollusks have a muscular foot, visceral mass, and mantle 652 Annelids are segmented worms 656 The lophophorates are distinguished by a ciliated ring of tentacles 658 Rotifers have a crown of cilia 660 The Ecdysozoa 661 Roundworms are of great ecological importance 661 Arthropods are characterized by jointed appendages and an exoskeleton of chitin 661

32

The Deuterostomes What Are Deuterostomes?

Part 6 STRUCTURE AND LIFE PROCESSES IN PLANTS 708 33

676

Echinoderms 676 Feather stars and sea lilies are suspension feeders 678 Many sea stars capture prey 678 Basket stars and brittle stars make up the largest group of echinoderms 679 Sea urchins and sand dollars have movable spines 679 Sea cucumbers are elongated, sluggish animals 679

Plant Meristems 718 Primary growth takes place at apical meristems 719 Secondary growth takes place at lateral meristems 719 Development of Form 720 The plane and symmetry of cell division affect plant form 721 The orientation of cellulose microfibrils affects the direction of cell expansion 721 Cell differentiation depends in part on a cell’s location 722 Morphogenesis occurs through pattern formation 724

680

Invertebrate Chordates 681 Tunicates are common marine animals 681 Lancelets clearly exhibit chordate characteristics 682 Systematists debate chordate phylogeny 682 Introducing the Vertebrates 683 The vertebral column is a derived vertebrate character 683 Vertebrate taxonomy is a work in progress 685

Plant Structure, Growth, and Development 708 The Plant Body 709 The plant body consists of cells and tissues 709 The ground tissue system is composed of three simple tissues 709 The vascular tissue system consists of two complex tissues 714 The dermal tissue system consists of two complex tissues 717

675

The Chordates: Defining Characteristics

685

Evolution of Jaws and Limbs: Jawed Fishes and Amphibians 687 Most cartilaginous fishes inhabit marine environments 687 The ray-finned fishes gave rise to modern bony fishes 689 Descendants of the lungfishes moved onto the land 690 Amphibians were the first successful land vertebrates 692

34

Leaf Structure and Function

728

Leaf Form and Structure 729 Leaf structure is adapted for maximum light absorption 730

Stomatal Opening and Closing 734 Blue light triggers stomatal opening 735 Additional factors affect stomatal opening and closing 736

37

Pollination 784 Many plants have mechanisms that prevent self-pollination 784 Flowering plants and their animal pollinators have coevolved 784 Some flowering plants depend on wind to disperse pollen 789

Leaf Abscission 738 In many leaves, abscission occurs at an abscission zone near the base of the petiole 738 Modified Leaves 738 Modified leaves of carnivorous plants capture insects 739

Stem Structure and Transport

Fertilization and Seed/Fruit Development 789 A unique double fertilization process occurs in flowering plants 789 Embryonic development in seeds is orderly and predictable 790 The mature seed contains an embryonic plant and storage materials 790 Fruits are mature, ripened ovaries 793 Seed dispersal is highly varied 794

744

Stem Growth and Structure 745 Herbaceous eudicot and monocot stems differ in internal structure 745 Woody plants have stems with secondary growth 746

36

Water Transport 753 Water and minerals are transported in xylem 753 Water movement can be explained by a difference in water potential 754 According to the tension–cohesion model, water is pulled up a stem 754 Root pressure pushes water from the root up a stem 756

Germination and Early Growth 796 Some seeds do not germinate immediately 796 Eudicots and monocots exhibit characteristic patterns of early growth 797

Translocation of Sugar in Solution 756 The pressure–flow model explains translocation in phloem 756

A Comparison of Sexual and Asexual Reproduction 799 Sexual reproduction has some disadvantages 800

Roots and Mineral Nutrition

781

The Flowering Plant Life Cycle 782 Flowers develop at apical meristems 782 Each part of a flower has a specific function 782

Transpiration and Guttation 736 Some plants exude liquid water 737

35

Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Asexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants Apomixis is the production of seeds without the sexual process 799

797

761

Root Structure and Function 762 Roots have root caps and root hairs 762 The arrangement of vascular tissues distinguishes the roots of herbaceous eudicots and monocots 763 Woody plants have roots with secondary growth 767 Some roots are specialized for unusual functions 767 Root Associations and Interactions 768 Mycorrhizae facilitate the uptake of essential minerals by roots 770 Rhizobial bacteria fix nitrogen in the roots of leguminous plants 771 The Soil Environment 772 Soil is composed of inorganic minerals, organic matter, air, and water 773 Soil organisms form a complex ecosystem 774 Soil pH affects soil characteristics and plant growth 775 Soil provides most of the minerals found in plants 775 Soil can be damaged by human mismanagement 776

38

Plant Developmental Responses to External and Internal Signals 803 Tropisms

804

Plant Hormones and Development 805 Plant hormones act by signal transduction 805 Auxins promote cell elongation 807 Gibberellins promote stem elongation 809 Cytokinins promote cell division 810 Ethylene promotes abscission and fruit ripening 810 Abscisic acid promotes seed dormancy 811 Brassinosteroids are plant steroid hormones 812 Identification of a universal flower-promoting signal remains elusive 812 Light Signals and Plant Development 813 Phytochrome detects day length 814 Competition for sunlight among shade-avoiding plants involves phytochrome 815 Phytochrome is involved in other responses to light, including germination 816 Phytochrome acts by signal transduction 816 Light influences circadian rhythms 816

ATP powers muscle contraction 852 The type of muscle fibers determines strength and endurance 855 Several factors influence the strength of muscle contraction 855 Smooth muscle and cardiac muscle are involuntary 856

Responses to Herbivores and Pathogens 817 Jasmonic acid activates several plant defenses 817 Methyl salicylate may induce systemic acquired resistance 818

Part 7 STRUCTURE AND LIFE PROCESSES IN ANIMALS 821

41

Neural Signaling

860

Neural Signaling: An Overview

39

Animal Structure and Function: An Introduction 821

Neurons and Glial Cells 862 Neurons receive stimuli and transmit neural signals 862 Certain regions of the CNS produce new neurons 862 Axons aggregate to form nerves and tracts 863 Glial cells play critical roles in neural function 863

Tissues, Organs, and Organ Systems 822 Epithelial tissues cover the body and line its cavities 822 Connective tissues support other body structures 823 Muscle tissue is specialized to contract 828 Nervous tissue controls muscles and glands 829 Tissues and organs make up the organ systems of the body 830 Inquiring About Unwelcome Tissues: Cancers

Transmitting Information along the Neuron 865 Ion channels and pumps maintain the resting potential of the neuron 865 Graded local signals vary in magnitude 867 Axons transmit signals called action potentials 867 The action potential is an all-or-none response 869 An action potential is self-propagating 870

831

Regulating the Internal Environment 834 Negative feedback systems restore homeostasis 834 A few positive feedback systems operate in the body 835

Transmitting Information across Synapses 872 Signals across synapses can be electrical or chemical 872 Neurons use neurotransmitters to signal other cells 872

Thermoregulation 835 Ectotherms absorb heat from their surroundings 836 Endotherms derive heat from metabolic processes 836 Many animals adjust to challenging temperature changes 837

40

Protection, Support, and Movement

Inquiring About Alzheimer’s Disease 874 Neurotransmitters bind with receptors on postsynaptic cells 875 Activated receptors can send excitatory or inhibitory signals 875

842

Neural Integration 877 Postsynaptic potentials are summed over time and space 877 Where does neural integration take place? 878

Epithelial Coverings 843 Invertebrate epithelium may secrete a cuticle 843 Vertebrate skin functions in protection and temperature regulation 843 Skeletal Systems 844 In hydrostatic skeletons, body fluids transmit force 844 Mollusks and arthropods have nonliving exoskeletons 845 Internal skeletons are capable of growth 845 The vertebrate skeleton has two main divisions 846 A typical long bone amplifies the motion generated by muscles 846 Bones are remodeled throughout life 847 Joints are junctions between bones 847 Muscle Contraction 848 Invertebrate muscle varies among groups 848 Insect flight muscles are adapted for rapid contraction 848 Vertebrate skeletal muscles act antagonistically to one another 849 A vertebrate muscle may consist of thousands of muscle fibers 850 Contraction occurs when actin and myosin filaments slide past one another 852

861

Neural Circuits: Complex Information Signaling

42

Neural Regulation

878

882

Invertebrate Nervous Systems: Trends in Evolution 883 The Vertebrate Nervous System: Structure and Function 884 Evolution of the Vertebrate Brain 886 The hindbrain develops into the medulla, pons, and cerebellum 886 The midbrain is prominent in fishes and amphibians 888 The forebrain gives rise to the thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebrum 888 The Human Central Nervous System 888 The spinal cord transmits impulses to and from the brain 889 The most prominent part of the human brain is the cerebrum 891

The body follows a circadian cycle of sleep and wakefulness 894 The limbic system affects emotional aspects of behavior 897

44

937

Types of Circulatory Systems 938 Many invertebrates have an open circulatory system 939 Some invertebrates have a closed circulatory system 939 Vertebrates have a closed circulatory system 940

Inquiring About The Neurobiology of Traumatic Experience 898 Learning and memory involve long-term changes at synapses 899 Language involves comprehension and expression 901 The Peripheral Nervous System 902 The somatic division helps the body adjust to the external environment 902 The autonomic division regulates the internal environment 902

Vertebrate Blood 940 Plasma is the fluid component of blood 940 Red blood cells transport oxygen 941 White blood cells defend the body against disease organisms 942 Platelets function in blood clotting 943

Effects of Drugs on the Nervous System

Vertebrate Blood Vessels

904

Sensory Systems

The Human Heart 946 Each heartbeat is initiated by a pacemaker 948 The cardiac cycle consists of alternating periods of contraction and relaxation 949 The nervous system regulates heart rate 950 Stroke volume depends on venous return 951 Cardiac output varies with the body’s need 951

911

How Sensory Systems Work 912 Sensory receptors receive information 912 Sensory receptors transduce energy 912 Sensory input is integrated at many levels 912 We can classify sensory receptors based on location of stimuli or on the type of energy they transduce 914 Thermoreceptors

Nociceptors

Blood Pressure 951 Blood pressure varies in different blood vessels 953 Blood pressure is carefully regulated 954

915

Electroreceptors and Electromagnetic Receptors

The Pattern of Circulation 954 The pulmonary circulation oxygenates the blood 955 The systemic circulation delivers blood to the tissues 955

916

916

Mechanoreceptors 916 Tactile receptors are located in the skin 916 Proprioceptors help coordinate muscle movement 918 Many invertebrates have gravity receptors called statocysts 918 Hair cells are characterized by stereocilia 919 Lateral line organs supplement vision in fishes 919 The vestibular apparatus maintains equilibrium 919 Auditory receptors are located in the cochlea 920 Chemoreceptors 924 Taste receptors detect dissolved food molecules 925 The olfactory epithelium is responsible for the sense of smell 926 Many animals communicate with pheromones 926 Photoreceptors 927 Invertebrate photoreceptors include eyespots, simple eyes, and compound eyes 927 Vertebrate eyes form sharp images 928 The retina contains light-sensitive rods and cones 929 Light activates rhodopsin 930 Color vision depends on three types of cones 932 Integration of visual information begins in the retina 933

945

Evolution of the Vertebrate Cardiovascular System 946

Inquiring About Alcohol: The Most Abused Drug 905

43

Internal Transport

The Lymphatic System 956 The lymphatic system consists of lymphatic vessels and lymph tissue 956 The lymphatic system plays an important role in fluid homeostasis 957 Cardiovascular Disease

45

957

The Immune System: Internal Defense

963

Evolution of Immune Responses 964 Invertebrates launch nonspecific immune responses 964 Vertebrates launch nonspecific and specific immune responses 965 Nonspecific Immune Responses 966 Physical barriers prevent most pathogens from entering the body 966 Pattern recognition receptors activate nonspecific immune responses 966 Cells of the nonspecific immune system destroy pathogens and produce chemicals 966 Cytokines and complement mediate immune responses 967 Inflammation is a protective response 968

Specific Immune Responses 970 Many types of cells are involved in specific immune responses 971 The major histocompatibility complex is responsible for recognition of self 973 Cell-Mediated Immunity

47

973

The Vertebrate Digestive System 1016 Food processing begins in the mouth 1017 The pharynx and esophagus conduct food to the stomach 1017 Food is mechanically and enzymatically digested in the stomach 1018 Most enzymatic digestion takes place in the small intestine 1020 The liver secretes bile 1021 The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes 1021 Nutrients are digested as they move through the digestive tract 1021 Nerves and hormones regulate digestion 1022 Absorption takes place mainly through the villi of the small intestine 1023 The large intestine eliminates waste 1023

Response to Disease, Immune Failures, and Harmful Reactions 982 Cancer cells evade the immune system 982 Immunodeficiency disease can be inherited or acquired 983 HIV is the major cause of acquired immunodeficiency in adults 984 In an autoimmune disease, the body attacks its own tissues 986 Rh incompatibility can result in hypersensitivity 986 Allergic reactions are directed against ordinary environmental antigens 987 Graft rejection is an immune response against transplanted tissue 988

Gas Exchange

Required Nutrients 1024 Carbohydrates provide energy 1024 Lipids provide energy and are used to make biological molecules 1024 Proteins serve as enzymes and as structural components of cells 1026 Vitamins are organic compounds essential for normal metabolism 1026 Minerals are inorganic nutrients 1026 Antioxidants protect against oxidants 1027 Phytochemicals play important roles in maintaining health 1028

993

Adaptations for Gas Exchange in Air or Water

994

Types of Respiratory Surfaces 994 The body surface may be adapted for gas exchange 994 Tracheal tube systems deliver air directly to the cells 994 Gills are the respiratory surfaces in many aquatic animals 996 Terrestrial vertebrates exchange gases through lungs 996 The Mammalian Respiratory System 998 The airway conducts air into the lungs 998 Gas exchange occurs in the alveoli of the lungs 1001 Ventilation is accomplished by breathing 1001 The quantity of respired air can be measured 1002 Gas exchange takes place in the alveoli 1002 Gas exchange takes place in the tissues 1003 Respiratory pigments increase capacity for oxygen transport 1003 Carbon dioxide is transported mainly as bicarbonate ions 1004 Breathing is regulated by respiratory centers in the brain 1004 Hyperventilation reduces carbon dioxide concentration 1006 High flying or deep diving can disrupt homeostasis 1006 Some mammals are adapted for diving 1006 Breathing Polluted Air

1007

Inquiring About The Effects of Smoking

1012

Nutritional Styles and Adaptations 1013 Animals are adapted to their mode of nutrition 1013 Some invertebrates have a digestive cavity with a single opening 1015 Most animal digestive systems have two openings 1015

Antibody-Mediated Immunity 975 A typical antibody consists of four polypeptide chains 977 Antibodies are grouped in five classes 978 Antigen–antibody binding activates other defenses 978 The immune system responds to millions of different antigens 978 Monoclonal antibodies are highly specific 979 Immunological memory is responsible for long-term immunity 979

46

Processing Food and Nutrition

1008

Energy Metabolism 1029 Energy metabolism is regulated by complex signaling 1029 Obesity is a serious nutritional problem 1029 Undernutrition can cause serious health problems 1029

48

Osmoregulation and Disposal of Metabolic Wastes 1034 Maintaining Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Metabolic Waste Products

1035

1035

Osmoregulation and Excretion in Invertebrates 1036 Nephridial organs are specialized for osmoregulation and/or excretion 1037 Malpighian tubules conserve water 1038 Osmoregulation and Excretion in Vertebrates Freshwater vertebrates must rid themselves of excess water 1038 Marine vertebrates must replace lost fluid 1039 Terrestrial vertebrates must conserve water 1039

1038

The penis transfers sperm to the female 1083 Testosterone has multiple effects 1083 The hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and testes regulate male reproduction 1084

The Urinary System 1040 The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney 1042 Urine is produced by filtration, reabsorption, and secretion 1043 Urine becomes concentrated as it passes through the renal tubule 1045 Urine consists of water, nitrogenous wastes, and salts 1046 Hormones regulate kidney function 1046

49

Endocrine Regulation

Human Reproduction: The Female 1084 The ovaries produce gametes and sex hormones 1085 The oviducts transport the secondary oocyte 1086 The uterus incubates the embryo 1087 The vagina receives sperm 1087 The vulva are external genital structures 1088 The breasts function in lactation 1088 The hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and ovaries regulate female reproduction 1089

1052

An Overview of Endocrine Regulation 1053 The endocrine system and nervous system interact to regulate the body 1053 Negative feedback systems regulate endocrine activity 1053 Hormones are assigned to four chemical groups 1054

Inquiring About Breast Cancer 1090 Menstrual cycles stop at menopause 1093 Most mammals have estrous cycles 1093

Types of Endocrine Signaling 1055 Neurohormones are transported in the blood 1055 Some local regulators are considered hormones 1055

Fertilization, Pregnancy, and Birth 1093 Fertilization is the fusion of sperm and egg 1093 Inquiring About Novel Origins 1094 Hormones are necessary to maintain pregnancy 1095 The birth process depends on a positive feedback system 1096

Inquiring About Anabolic Steroids and Other Abused Hormones 1056 Mechanisms of Hormone Action 1057 Some hormones enter target cells and activate genes 1057 Many hormones bind to cell-surface receptors 1058 Neuroendocrine Regulation in Invertebrates

Human Sexual Response

Birth Control Methods and Abortion 1098 Many birth control methods are available 1098 Most hormone contraceptives prevent ovulation 1098 Intrauterine devices are widely used 1099 Barrier methods of contraception include the diaphragm and condom 1100 Emergency contraception is available 1100 Sterilization renders an individual incapable of producing offspring 1100 Future contraceptives may control regulatory peptides 1101 Abortions can be spontaneous or induced 1101

1060

Endocrine Regulation in Vertebrates 1060 Homeostasis depends on normal concentrations of hormones 1061 The hypothalamus regulates the pituitary gland 1061 The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland releases hormones produced by the hypothalamus 1061 The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland regulates growth and other endocrine glands 1062 Thyroid hormones increase metabolic rate 1066 The parathyroid glands regulate calcium concentration 1067 The islets of the pancreas regulate glucose concentration 1067 The adrenal glands help the body respond to stress 1071 Many other hormones are known 1073

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

51

Animal Development Development of Form

50

1097

1101

1106

1107

Asexual and Sexual Reproduction 1078 Asexual reproduction is an efficient strategy 1078 Most animals reproduce sexually 1078 Sexual reproduction increases genetic variability 1079

Fertilization 1107 The first step in fertilization involves contact and recognition 1107 Sperm entry is regulated 1108 Fertilization activates the egg 1109 Sperm and egg pronuclei fuse, restoring the diploid state 1109

Human Reproduction: The Male 1080 The testes produce gametes and hormones 1080 A series of ducts store and transport sperm 1081 The accessory glands produce the fluid portion of semen 1082

Cleavage 1109 The pattern of cleavage is affected by yolk 1109 Cleavage may distribute developmental determinants 1111 Cleavage provides building blocks for development 1112

Reproduction

1077

Gastrulation 1112 The amount of yolk affects the pattern of gastrulation 1113 Organogenesis

Culture in Vertebrate Societies 1148 Some vertebrates transmit culture 1148 Sociobiology explains human social behavior in terms of adaptation 1149

1115

Extraembryonic Membranes

1116

Human Development 1117 The placenta is an organ of exchange 1118 Organ development begins during the first trimester 1118 Development continues during the second and third trimesters 1120 More than one mechanism can lead to a multiple birth 1121 Environmental factors affect the embryo 1121 The neonate must adapt to its new environment 1121 Aging is not a uniform process 1123 Homeostatic response to stress decreases during aging 1123

52

Animal Behavior

Part 8 THE INTERACTIONS OF LIFE: ECOLOGY 1153 53

Features of Populations 1154 Density and dispersion are important features of populations 1154 Changes in Population Size 1156 Dispersal affects the growth rate in some populations 1156 Each population has a characteristic intrinsic rate of increase 1157 No population can increase exponentially indefinitely 1157

1127

Behavior and Adaptation 1128 Behaviors have benefits and costs 1128 Genes interact with environment 1128 Behavior depends on physiological readiness 1130 Many behavior patterns depend on motor programs 1130

Factors Influencing Population Size 1158 Density-dependent factors regulate population size 1158 Density-independent factors are generally abiotic 1160

Learning: Changing Behavior as a Result of Experience 1131 An animal habituates to irrelevant stimuli 1131 Imprinting occurs during an early critical period 1131 In classical conditioning, a reflex becomes associated with a new stimulus 1132 In operant conditioning, spontaneous behavior is reinforced 1132 Animal cognition is controversial 1133 Play may be practice behavior 1134 Behavioral Responses to Environmental Stimuli Biological rhythms regulate many behaviors 1134 Environmental signals trigger physiological responses that lead to migration 1135 Foraging Behavior

Introduction to Ecology: Population Ecology 1153

Life History Traits 1161 Life tables and survivorship curves indicate mortality and survival 1163 Metapopulations

Human Populations 1165 Not all countries have the same growth rate 1167 The age structure of a country helps predict future population growth 1168 Environmental degradation is related to population growth and resource consumption 1169

1134

1136

Costs and Benefits of Social Behavior 1137 Communication is necessary for social behavior 1138 Dominance hierarchies establish social status 1139 Many animals defend a territory 1140 Some insect societies are highly organized 1141 Sexual Selection 1142 Animals of the same sex compete for mates 1142 Animals select quality mates 1143 Sexual selection favors polygynous mating systems 1143 Some animals care for their young 1144 Helping Behavior 1146 Altruistic behavior can be explained by inclusive fitness 1146 Helping behavior may have alternative explanations 1147 Some animals help nonrelatives 1148

1164

54

Community Ecology

1173

Community Structure and Functioning 1174 Community interactions are complex and often not readily apparent 1175 The niche is a species’ ecological role in the community 1175 Competition is intraspecific or interspecific 1177 Natural selection shapes the bodies and behaviors of both predator and prey 1180 Symbiosis involves a close association between species 1182 Inquiring About Mimicry in Butterflies

1183

Strength and Direction of Community interactions 1185 Other species of a community depend on or are greatly affected by keystone species 1185 Dominant species influence a community as a result of their greater size or abundance 1186 Ecosystem regulation occurs from the bottom up and top down 1186

Aquatic Ecosystems 1228 Freshwater ecosystems are linked to land and marine ecosystems 1228 Estuaries occur where fresh water and salt water meet 1231 Marine ecosystems dominate Earth’s surface 1232

Community Biodiversity 1187 Ecologists seek to explain why some communities have more species than others 1188 Species richness may promote community stability 1190 Community Development 1190 Disturbance influences succession and species richness 1191 Ecologists continue to study community structure 1192

55

Ecosystems and the Biosphere

Cycles of Matter in Ecosystems 1203 Carbon dioxide is the pivotal molecule in the carbon cycle 1203 Bacteria are essential to the nitrogen cycle 1204 The phosphorus cycle lacks a gaseous component 1206 Water moves among the ocean, land, and atmosphere in the hydrologic cycle 1207 1208

Inquiring About Life without the Sun 1209 The atmosphere contains several gases essential to organisms 1210 The global ocean covers most of Earth’s surface 1211 Climate profoundly affects organisms 1212 Fires are a common disturbance in some ecosystems 1213 Studying Ecosystem Processes

56

1236

Biogeography 1237 Land areas are divided into six biogeographic realms 1238

1196

Energy Flow through Ecosystems 1197 Ecological pyramids illustrate how ecosystems work 1199 Ecosystems vary in productivity 1200 Food chains and poisons in the environment 1202

Abiotic Factors in Ecosystems The sun warms Earth 1208

Ecotones

1214

Ecology and the Geography of Life

1218

Biomes 1219 Tundra is the cold, boggy plains of the far north 1219 Inquiring About The Distribution of Vegetation on Mountains 1220 Boreal forest is the evergreen forest of the north 1221 Temperate rain forest has cool weather, dense fog, and high precipitation 1221 Temperate deciduous forest has a canopy of broad-leaf trees 1222 Temperate grasslands occur in areas of moderate precipitation 1222 Chaparral is a thicket of evergreen shrubs and small trees 1223 Deserts are arid ecosystems 1224 Savanna is a tropical grassland with scattered trees 1225 There are two basic types of tropical forests 1225

57

Biological Diversity and Conservation Biology 1242 The Biodiversity Crisis 1243 Endangered species have certain characteristics in common 1244 Inquiring About Declining Amphibian Populations 1245 Human activities contribute to declining biological diversity 1246 Conservation Biology 1249 In situ conservation is the best way to preserve biological diversity 1249 Ex situ conservation attempts to save species on the brink of extinction 1251 The Endangered Species Act provides some legal protection for species and habitats 1252 International agreements provide some protection of species and habitats 1253 Deforestation 1253 Why are tropical rain forests disappearing? 1254 Why are boreal forests disappearing? 1255 Climate Change 1255 Greenhouse gases cause climate change 1256 What are the probable effects of climate change? 1257 Declining Stratospheric Ozone 1259 Certain chemicals destroy stratospheric ozone 1259 Ozone depletion harms organisms 1260 International cooperation is helping repair the ozone layer 1260 Appendix A Periodic Table of the Elements Appendix B Classification of Organisms

A-2

Appendix C Understanding Biological Terms Appendix D Abbreviations

A-1

A-6

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Appendix E Answers to Test Your Understanding Questions A-11 Glossary Index

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Preface

This ninth edition of Solomon, Berg, Martin Biology conveys our vision of the dynamic science of biology and how it affects every aspect of our lives, from our health and behavior to the challenging environmental issues that confront us. New discoveries in the biological sciences continue to increase our understanding of both the unity and diversity of life’s processes and adaptations. With this understanding, we become ever more aware of our interdependence with the vast diversity of organisms with which we share planet Earth.

BIOLOGY: THE STUDENT-FRIENDLY BIOLOGY BOOK We want beginning students to experience learning biology as an exciting journey of discovery. In the ninth edition of Biology, we explore Earth’s diverse organisms, their remarkable adaptations to the environment, and their evolutionary and ecological relationships. We present the workings of science and the contributions of scientists whose discoveries not only expand our knowledge of biology but also help shape and protect the future of our planet. Biology provides insight into what science is, how scientists work, what scientists have contributed, and how scientific knowledge affects daily life. Since the first edition of Biology, we have worked to present the principles of biology in an integrated way that is accurate, interesting, and conceptually accessible to students. In this ninth edition of Biology, we continue this tradition. We also continue to present biology in an inquiry-based framework. Some professors interpret inquiry as a learning method that takes place in the laboratory as students perform experiments. Laboratory research is certainly an integral part of inquiry-based learning. But inquiry is also a way of learning in which the student actively pursues knowledge outside the laboratory. In Biology, we have always presented the history of scientific advances, including scientific debates, to help students understand that science is a process, that is, a field of investigative inquiry, as well as a body of knowledge (the product of inquiry). In the ninth edition of Biology, we make a concerted effort to further integrate inquiry-based learning into the textbook with the introduction of new features and the expansion of several others (discussed in the following sections). Throughout the text, we stimulate interest by relating concepts to experiences within the student’s frame of reference. By helping students make such connections, we facilitate their mastery of general concepts. We hope the combined effect of an engaging writing style and interesting features will motivate and excite students in their study of biology.

THE SOLOMON/BERG/MARTIN LEARNING SYSTEM In the ninth edition, we have continued to refine our highly successful Learning System. This system provides the student with the learning strategies needed to integrate biological concepts and to demonstrate mastery of these concepts. Learning biology is challenging because the subject of biology is filled with so many new terms and so many facts that must be integrated into the framework of general biological principles. To help students focus on important principles and concepts, we provide Learning Outcomes for the course and Learning Objectives for each major section of every chapter. At the end of each section, we provide Review Questions based on the Learning Objectives so students can assess their level of understanding of the material presented in the section. At the end of each chapter, we include a Summary: Focus on Learning Objectives that is organized around the Learning Objectives. The Summary is followed by Test Your Understanding questions (including multiple-choice exercises and diagram labeling) and Critical Thinking questions. Throughout the book, students are directed to CengageNOW, a powerful online diagnostic tool that helps students assess their study needs and master the chapter objectives. After taking a pretest on CengageNOW, students receive feedback based on their answers as well as a Personalized Study Plan with links to animations and other resources keyed to their specific learning needs. Selected illustrations in the text are also keyed to Animated figures in CengageNOW.

Pedagogical Features Our Learning System includes numerous learning strategies that help students increase their success: •

NEW An updated and expanded art program reinforces concepts discussed in the text, and presents complex processes in clear steps. This edition expands the number of Key Experiment figures, which encourage students to evaluate investigative approaches that scientists have taken. Key Experiment figures emphasize the scientific process in both classic and modern research; examples include Figures 8-9, 20-13, 22-9, 27-11, and 52-21. Also expanded in this edition are Key Point figures, in which important concepts are stated in process diagrams of complex topics; examples include Figures 1-11, 6-6, 8-2, 29-4, and 32-7. Many of the Key Point figures have numbered parts that show sequences of events in biological processes or life cycles. Numerous photographs, both alone

and combined with line art, help students grasp concepts by connecting the “real” to the “ideal.” The line art uses features such as orientation icons to help the student put the detailed figures into the broader context. We use symbols and colors consistently throughout the book to help students connect concepts. For example, the same four colors and shapes are used throughout the book to identify guanine, cytosine, adenine, and thymine. Similarly, the same colors are used consistently in illustrations and tables to indicate specific clades of organisms. •

NEW Research Method figures describe why biologists use a particular method and explain how the method is executed. Examples include Figures 12-6, 15-5, and 23-11.

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knowledge. Answers to the Test Your Understanding questions are provided in Appendix E. Thought-provoking Critical Thinking questions encourage the student to apply the concepts just learned to new situations or to make connections among important concepts. Each chapter has one or more Evolution Link questions in the Critical Thinking section. Many chapters contain one or more Analyzing Data questions that require students to actively interpret experimental data presented in the chapter. NEW Many Critical Thinking sections also include one or more Science, Technology, and Society questions. The Glossary at the end of the book, the most comprehensive glossary found in any biology text, provides precise definitions of terms. The Glossary is especially useful because it is extensively cross-referenced and includes pronunciations for many terms. The vertical blue bar along the margin facilitates rapid access to the Glossary. The companion website also includes glossary flash cards with audio pronunciations.



NEW Inquiring About boxes explore issues of special relevance to students, such as the effects of smoking, how traumatic experiences affect the body, and breast cancer. These boxes also provide a forum for discussing some interesting topics in more detail, such as the smallest ancient humans, ancient plants and coal formation, hydrothermal vent communities, and declining amphibian populations.

Course Learning Outcomes



A list of Key Concepts at the beginning of each chapter provides a chapter overview and helps the student focus on important principles discussed in the chapter.

At the end of a successful study of introductory biology, the student can demonstrate mastery of biological concepts by responding accurately to the following Course Learning Outcomes:



Learning Objectives at the beginning of each major section in the chapter indicate, in behavioral terms, what the student must do to demonstrate mastery of the material in that section.



Each major section of the chapter is followed by a series of Review questions that assess comprehension by asking the student to describe, explain, compare, contrast, or illustrate important concepts. The Review questions are based on the section Learning Objectives.











Concept Statement Subheads introduce sections, previewing and summarizing the key idea or ideas to be discussed in that section. Sequence Summaries within the text simplify and summarize information presented in paragraph form. For example, paragraphs describing blood circulation through the body or the steps by which cells take in certain materials are followed by a Sequence Summary listing the sequence of structures or steps. Numerous tables, many illustrated, help the student organize and summarize material presented in the text. Many tables are color-coded. A Summary: Focus on Learning Objectives at the end of each chapter is organized around the chapter Learning Objectives. This summary provides a review of the material, and because selected key terms are boldfaced in the summary, students learn vocabulary words within the context of related concepts. End-of-chapter questions provide students with the opportunity to evaluate their understanding of the material in the chapter. Test Your Understanding consists of multiple-choice questions, some of which are based on the recall of important terms, whereas others challenge students to integrate their

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Design an experiment to test a given hypothesis, using the procedure and terminology of the scientific method. Cite the cell theory, and relate the structure of organelles to their functions in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Describe the mechanisms of evolution, explain why evolution is the principal unifying concept in biology, and discuss natural selection as the primary agent of evolutionary change. Explain the role of genetic information in all species, and discuss applications of genetics that affect society. Describe several mechanisms by which cells and organisms transfer information, including the use of nucleic acids in genetic transmission of information, signal transduction, chemical signals (such as hormones and pheromones), electrical signals (for example, neural transmission), sounds, and visual displays. Argue for or against the classification of organisms in three domains and several kingdoms or supergroups, characterizing each of these clades; based on your knowledge of genetics and evolution, give specific examples of the unity and diversity of organisms in different domains and supergroups. Compare the structural adaptations, life processes, and life cycles of a prokaryote, protist, fungus, plant, and animal. Define homeostasis, and give examples of regulatory mechanisms, including feedback systems. Trace the flow of matter and energy through a photosynthetic cell and a nonphotosynthetic cell, and through the biosphere, comparing the roles of producers, consumers, and decomposers. Describe the study of ecology at the levels of an individual organism, a population, a community, and an ecosystem.

WHAT’S NEW: AN OVERVIEW OF BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Three themes are interwoven throughout Biology: the evolution of life, the transmission of biological information, and the flow of energy through living systems. As we introduce the concepts of modern biology, we explain how these themes are connected and how life depends on them. Educators present the major topics of an introductory biology course in a variety of orders. For this reason, we carefully designed the eight parts of this book so that they do not depend heavily on preceding chapters and parts. This flexible organization means that an instructor can present the 57 chapters in any number of sequences with pedagogical success. Chapter 1, which introduces the student to the major principles of biology, provides a comprehensive springboard for future discussions, whether the professor prefers a “top-down” or “bottom-up” approach. In this edition, as in previous editions, we examined every line of every chapter for accuracy and currency, and we made a careful attempt to update every topic and verify all new material. The following brief summary provides a general overview of the organization of Biology and some changes made to the ninth edition.

Part 1 The Organization of Life The six chapters that make up Part 1 provide basic principles of biology and the concepts of chemistry and cell biology that lay the foundation upon which the remaining parts of the book build. We begin Chapter 1 with a discussion of influenza pandemics and how scientists respond to new varieties of pathogens. We then introduce the main themes of the book—evolution, information transfer, and energy transfer. Chapter 1 examines several fundamental concepts in biology and the nature of the scientific process, including a discussion of systems biology. Chapters 2 and 3, which focus on the molecular level of organization, establish the foundations in chemistry necessary for understanding biological processes. Chapters 4, 5, and 6 focus on the cellular level of organization, including cell structure and function, cell membranes, and cell signaling. We have expanded coverage of signaling pathways and the evolution of cell communication. For example, we added a discussion of Ras pathways, as well as a Key Experiment on a Ras pathway that regulates reproduction in mammals.

Part 2 Energy Transfer through Living Systems Because all living cells need energy for life processes, the flow of energy through living systems—that is, capturing energy and converting it to usable forms—is a basic theme of Biology. Chapter 7 examines how cells capture, transfer, store, and use energy. Chapters 8 and 9 discuss the metabolic adaptations by which organisms obtain and use energy through cellular respiration and photosynthesis. This section has a new Key Experiment figure on the evidence for chemiosmosis. Also, the concept of resonance has been included in the explanation for energy transfer within a photosystem.

Part 3 The Continuity of Life: Genetics We have updated and expanded the eight chapters of Part 3 for the ninth edition. We begin this unit by discussing mitosis and meiosis in Chapter 10, which includes a new Key Experiment on using laser photobleaching to determine how chromosomes are transported toward the spindle poles during anaphase and a new figure on key checkpoints in the cell cycle. Chapter 11, which considers Mendelian genetics and related patterns of inheritance, has new paragraphs on nature versus nurture in human characters and on hydrangea flower color as an illustration of the influence of the environment on the phenotype. We then turn our attention to the structure and replication of DNA in Chapter 12. We include new photographs of Rosalind Franklin, Watson and Crick, phages, DNA replication in E. coli, and telomeres. Chapter 13 has a discussion of RNA and protein synthesis, including new information on the contributions of Roger Kornberg, transposons in the human genome, and the percentage of DNA coding for polypeptides versus the percentage of our genome that is expressed. Gene regulation is discussed in Chapter 14, which includes new material on eukaryotic promoters and enhancers and silencers, and on epigenetic inheritance. In Chapter 15, we focus on DNA technology and genomics, including an expanded discussion of engineered strains of E. coli, nucleic acid probes, Northern and Western blots, and molecular evolution. These chapters build the necessary foundation for exploring human genetics and the human genome in Chapter 16, which includes new sections on genomic imprinting and on genome-wide association (GWA) scans. In Chapter 17, we introduce the role of genes in development, emphasizing studies on specific model organisms that have led to spectacular advances in this field; changes include new material on induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells.

Part 4 The Continuity of Life: Evolution Although we explore evolution as the cornerstone of biology throughout the book, Part 4 discusses evolutionary concepts in depth. We provide the history behind the discovery of the scientific theory of evolution, the mechanisms by which it occurs, and the methods by which it is studied and tested. Chapter 18 introduces the Darwinian concept of evolution and presents several kinds of evidence that support the scientific theory of evolution. In Chapter 19, we examine evolution at the population level. Chapter 20 describes the evolution of new species and discusses aspects of macroevolution. Chapter 21 summarizes the evolutionary history of life on Earth. In Chapter 22, we recount the evolution of the primates, including humans. Many topics and examples have been added to the ninth edition, such as new material on genome sequencing, whale evolution, genetic polymorphism, cichlid evolution, hybrid zones, the metabolism-first hypothesis, and recent discoveries in human evolution, including new material on Ardipithecus, Homo ergaster, archaic humans (H. antecessor and H. heidelbergensis), and Neandertals.

Part 5 The Diversity of Life Emphasizing the cladistic approach, we use an evolutionary framework to discuss each group of organisms. We present current

hypotheses of how groups of organisms are related. Chapter 23 discusses why organisms are classified and provides insight into the scientific process of deciding how they are classified. New advances have enabled us to further clarify the connection between evolutionary history and systematics in the ninth edition. NEW Chapter 24 now focuses entirely on the viruses. We added a discussion of polydnaviruses, illustrated by a new Key Experiment. We also expanded the discussion of subviral agents. NEW Chapter 25 is now devoted to the prokaryotes. We added information on the archaea, including a brief discussion of their flagella. The discussion of antibiotic resistance was expanded, and an image of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was added. Chapter 26, which describes the protists, was completely reorganized and updated to reflect recent evolutionary data; a new colorcoded table summarizes the five “supergroups” of eukaryotes. Chapters 27 and 28 present the members of the plant kingdom; Chapter 28 includes new cladograms showing the evolution of land plants and the evolution of seedless vascular plants. Discussion of the origin and early evolution of angiosperms is included in Chapter 28. Chapter 29 describes the fungi. We have added a description of symbiotic relationships among fungi, grasses, and viruses and also a discussion of cell signaling in mycorrhizal fungi between fungi and root cells. In Chapters 30 through 32, we discuss the diversity of animals. We have reorganized some of the discussion and added several tables. We emphasize the cladistic approach, although we continue to include traditional phyla and classes.

Part 6 Structure and Life Processes in Plants Part 6 introduces students to the fascinating plant world. It stresses relationships between structure and function in plant cells, tissues, organs, and individual organisms. In Chapter 33, we introduce plant structure, growth, and differentiation. Chapter 33 contains a new section on plant form that includes plant aspects of cell division, cell expansion, cell differentiation, tissue culture, morphogenesis, pattern formation, positional information, and Arabidopsis mutants. Chapters 34 through 36 discuss the structural and physiological adaptations of leaves, stems, and roots; these chapters include new discussion of the molecular control of plant leaf form, cotransport in phloem loading, and transcription factors that affect root hair development. Chapter 37 describes reproduction in flowering plants, including asexual reproduction, flowers, fruits, and seeds. New to this edition is a spread of photos and a table showing floral characteristics associated with various animal pollinators. Chapter 38 focuses on growth responses and regulation of growth. In the ninth edition, we present the latest findings generated by the continuing explosion of knowledge in plant biology, particularly at the molecular level. New topics include advances in auxin signaling, GA signaling, cytokinin signaling, ethylene signaling, and ABA receptors.

Part 7 Structure and Life Processes in Animals In Part 7, we provide a strong emphasis on comparative animal physiology, showing the structural, functional, and behavioral adaptations that help animals meet environmental challenges. We use a comparative approach to examine how various animal groups have solved both similar and diverse problems. In Chapter 39, we

discuss the basic tissues and organ systems of the animal body, homeostasis, and the ways that animals regulate their body temperature. Chapter 40 focuses on different types of body coverings, skeletons, and muscles, and discusses how they function. In Chapters 41 through 43, we discuss neural signaling, neural regulation, and sensory reception. In Chapters 44 through 51, we compare how different animal groups carry on life processes, such as internal transport, internal defense, gas exchange, digestion, reproduction, and development. Each chapter in this part considers the human adaptations for the life processes being discussed. Part 7 ends with a discussion of behavioral adaptations in Chapter 52. Reflecting recent research findings, we have revised or added new material on many topics, including neurotransmitters, learning, memory, sleepwake cycles, coevolution of bats and moths, cardiovascular disease, Toll-like receptors, chronic inflammation, and certain hormones. The art program has been updated and improved, and many new photographs and photomicrographs have been added.

Part 8 The Interactions of Life: Ecology Part 8 focuses on the dynamics of populations, communities, and ecosystems and on the application of ecological principles to disciplines such as conservation biology. Chapters 53 through 56 give the student an understanding of the ecology of populations, communities, ecosystems, and the biosphere, whereas Chapter 57 focuses on global environmental issues. Among the many new topics in this unit are correlations between lemming populations and climate change; a 2006 study by Peter and Rosemary Grant on character displacement in ground finches; evolution in scarlet king snakes away from their model, the coral snake; Paine’s classic work with predatory Pisaster sea stars in rocky intertidal communities; ocean acidification; invasion of many of the world’s grasslands by woody trees and shrubs; and data on climate change from the Fourth IPCC Assessment.

A COMPREHENSIVE PACKAGE FOR LEARNING AND TEACHING A carefully designed supplement package is available to further facilitate learning. In addition to the usual print resources, we are pleased to present student multimedia tools that have been developed in conjunction with the text.

Resources for Students Aplia is an online interactive homework solution that stimulates active learning by increasing student effort and engagement. Aplia enables students to optimize the time they spend devoted to coursework. Aplia courses are customized to fit with each instructor’s syllabus, and provide automatically graded homework with detailed, immediate feedback on every question. Aplia’s interactive tools also serve to increase student engagement and understanding. The Aplia assignments allow students to apply what they learn in the text and in face-to-face instruction directly to their homework.

Aplia homework promotes active learning by: • • •

Leading students through the thought processes of doing science Helping students understand the scientific procedures that lead to scientific results covered in the textbook Connecting conceptual figures with scientific issues and problems

Aplia Gradebook Analytics show how each student is doing relative to peers in the class. This allows instructors to quickly and easily: • • •

Review progress student by student, and even drill down to the homework and question level Use graphs to monitor student, and class, performance Determine in what subject areas students are struggling and need more review

Straightforward language, a simple and intuitive user interface, and online material that reinforces the textbook all combine to make Aplia a solution that makes students think and helps students learn and retain knowledge. CengageNOW. This updated and expanded online homework and learning tool helps students assess personal study needs and focus their time. By taking a pretest, they are provided with a Personalized Study Plan that directs them to text sections and narrated animations—many new to this edition—that they need to review. If they need to brush up on basic skills, the How Do I Prepare? feature walks them through tutorials on basic math, chemistry, study skills, and word roots. Homework and tests can be assigned through CengageNOW, with automatic grading for all multiplechoice and true/false questions. Biology CourseMate. Cengage Learning’s Biology CourseMate brings course concepts to life with interactive learning, study, and exam preparation tools that support the printed textbook. Watch student comprehension soar as the class works with the printed textbook and the textbook-specific website. Biology CourseMate includes: • •



An interactive eBook Interactive teaching and learning tools including: • Quizzes • Videos • Animations • Flash cards • And more Engagement Tracker, a first-of-its-kind tool that monitors student engagement in the course

Go to www.cengagebrain.com to access these resources, and look , which denotes a resource available within for this icon CourseMate. Study Guide to accompany Biology, Ninth Edition, by Jennifer Aline Metzler of Ball State University and Robert Yost of Indiana University and Purdue University, Indianapolis. Updated for this edition, the study guide provides the student with many opportunities to review chapter concepts. Multiple-choice study questions, coloring-book exercises, vocabulary-building exercises, and

many other types of active-learning tools are provided to suit different cognitive learning styles. A Problem-based Guide to Basic Genetics by Donald Cronkite of Hope College. This brief guide provides students with a systematic approach to solving genetics problems, along with numerous solved problems and practice problems. Spanish Glossary. This Spanish glossary of biology terms is available to Spanish-speaking students. Audio Study Tools. This edition of Biology is accompanied by useful study tools, which contain valuable information such as reviews of important concepts, key terms, questions, and study tips. Students can download the audio study tools. Virtual Biology Laboratory 4.0. Now with an upgraded user interface, these 14 online laboratory experiments allow students to “do” science by acquiring data, performing simulated experiments, and using data to explain biological concepts. Assigned activities automatically flow to the instructor’s grade book. Self-designed activities ask students to plan their procedures around an experimental question and write up their results.

Additional Resources for Instructors The instructors’ examination copy for this edition lists a comprehensive package of print and multimedia supplements, including online resources, available to qualified adopters. Please ask your local sales representative for details.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The development and production of the ninth edition of Biology required extensive interaction and cooperation among the authors and many individuals in our family, social, and professional environments. We thank our editors, colleagues, students, family, and friends for their help and support. Preparing a book of this complexity is challenging and requires a cohesive, talented, and hardworking professional team. We appreciate the contributions of everyone on the editorial and production staff at Brooks/Cole– Cengage Learning who worked on this ninth edition of Biology. We thank our Publisher Yolanda Cossio for her commitment to Biology and for working closely with us throughout the entire process of development and production. We appreciate the help of our Developmental Editor, Christopher Delgado, who diligently kept us on track and coordinated many aspects of this complex project. We thank Tom Ziolkowski, our Marketing Manager, whose expertise ensured that you would know about our new edition. We appreciate the help of Senior Content Project Manager Hal Humphrey, who guided overall production of the project. We thank Editorial Assistants Brandusa Radoias and Joshua Taylor for quickly providing us with resources whenever we needed them. We thank Creative Director Rob Hugel, Art Director and Cover Designer John Walker, and Text Designer tani hasegawa. We also thank Jean Thompson for developing the instructor’s preface. We appreciate the work of Lauren Oliveira, Media Editor, who coordinated the many high-tech components of the computerized

aspects of our Learning System. We thank Alexis Glubka, Assistant Editor, for coordinating the print supplements. We are grateful to our Production Editor, Joan Keyes of Dovetail Publishing Services, for coordinating the many editors involved in the preparation of this edition and bringing together the thousands of complex pieces of the project to produce Biology, Ninth Edition. We value the careful work of our Copy Editor, Susan Gall, who patiently helped us maintain consistency and improve the manuscript. We thank Amanda Bickel of Precision Graphics for helping us greatly improve the art program for this book. We also appreciate the efforts of Photo Editor Tim Herzog of Bill Smith Group in helping us find excellent images. We appreciate the help, patience, and hard work of our production team. Our schedule for this project was very demanding. At times, it seemed like the team worked around the clock. When we sent an email at 11 p.m. or during the weekend, we often received an immediate response. These dedicated professionals and many others on the Brooks/ Cole team provided the skill, attention, patience, and good humor needed to produce Biology, Ninth Edition. We thank them for their help and support throughout this project. We thank Dr. Susan Pross, University of South Florida, College of Medicine, for her helpful suggestions for updating the immunology chapter. We appreciate the help of obstetrician/gynecologist Dr. Amy Solomon for her input regarding pregnancy, childbirth, contraception, and sexually transmitted diseases. We appreciate the expert assistance of Mary Kay Hartung, Research and Information Specialist at Florida Gulf Coast University, who we counted on for help whenever we had difficulty finding needed research studies and other information. We thank doctoral student Lois Ball of the University of South Florida, who calculated scale bars for many of the photomicrographs. We are grateful to Mical Solomon for his computer help. We thank our families and friends for their understanding, support, and encouragement as we struggled through many revisions and intense deadlines. We especially thank Dr. Kathleen M. Heide, Freda Brod, Alan Berg, Jennifer and Pat Roath, Dr. Charles Martin, and Margaret Martin for their support and input. Our colleagues and students who have used our book have provided valuable input by sharing their responses to past editions of Biology. We thank them and ask again for their comments and suggestions as they use this new edition. We can be reached through the Internet via our website at www.CengageBrain.com or through our editors at Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning. We express our thanks to the many biologists who have read the manuscript during various stages of its development and provided us with valuable suggestions for improving it. Ninth edition reviewers include the following: Karl Aufderheide, Texas A & M University Felicitas Avendano, Grand View College, Iowa Brian Bagatto, University of Akron Catherine Black, Idaho State University Susan Boothe, Alabama Southern Community College Mark Browning, Purdue University Jill Buettner, Richland College Doug Burks, Wilmington College, Ohio

David Byres, Florida Community College at Jacksonville Geoffrey Church, Fairfield University Reggie Cobb, Nash Community College Barbara Collins, California Lutheran University Karen Curto, University of Pittsburgh Phillippa Drennan, Loyola Marymount University James DuMond, Texas Southern University Wayne Elisens, University of Oklahoma Cheryld Emmons, Alfred University, New York Suzanne Gollery, Sierra Nevada College Jack Holt, Susquehanna University Ursula Howson, Monmouth University Ken Klemow, Wilkes University Paula Lemons, Duke University Diana Lipscomb, George Washington University Christopher Loretz, University of Buffalo Kathi Maleug, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs Paul Manos, Duke University Helen McDearman, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Virginia McDonough, Hope College Betsy Morgan, Lonestar College Dana Nayduch, Georgia Southern University Onesimus Otieno, Oakwood University Michael Pallidino, Monmouth College Craig Peebles, University of Pittsburgh Ed Perry, Faulkner State Community College Eric Ribbens, Western Illinois University Laurel Roberts, University of Pittsburgh Darrin Rubino, Hanover College, Indiana Timothy Schuh, St. Cloud State University Sharon Thoma, University of Wisconsin Joanne Tillotson, Purchase College, State University of New York Timothy Tripp, Sam Houston State University Paul Trombley, Florida State University Mary Tyler, University of Maine Fred Wasserman, Boston University Susan Whittemore, Keene State College Lawrence Williams, University of Houston Steven Wilt, Bellarmine College, Kentucky Robert Yost, Indiana University–Purdue University, Indianapolis Wendy Zomlefer, University of Georgia We would also like to thank the hundreds of previous edition reviewers, both professors and students, who are too numerous to mention. They asked thoughtful questions, provided new perspectives, offered alternative wordings to clarify difficult passages, and informed us of possible errors. We are truly indebted to their excellent feedback. Their suggestions have helped us improve each edition of Biology.

To the Student

Biology is a challenging subject. The thousands of students we have taught have differed in their life goals and learning styles. Some have had excellent backgrounds in science; others, poor ones. Regardless of their backgrounds, it is common for students taking their first college biology course to find that they must work harder than they expected. The Learning System we use in this book is described in the Preface. Using the strategies of the Learning System will help you master the language and concepts of biology. You will also want to use the many online tools available to Biology students. These tools, also described in the Preface, include Aplia, CengageNOW, and Biology CourseMate. In addition to these learning strategies, you can make the task of learning biology easier by using approaches that have been successful to a broad range of our students over the years.

Make a Study Schedule Many college professors suggest that students study 3 hours for every hour spent in class. This major investment in study time is one of the main differences between high school and college. To succeed academically, college students must learn to manage their time effectively. The actual number of hours you spend studying biology will vary depending on how quickly you learn the material, as well as on your course load and personal responsibilities, such as work schedules and family commitments. The most successful students are often those who are best organized. At the beginning of the semester, make a detailed daily calendar. Mark off the hours you are in each class, along with travel time to and from class if you are a commuter. After you get your course syllabi, add to your calendar the dates of all exams, quizzes, papers, and reports. As a reminder, it also helps to add an entry for each major exam or assignment 1 week before the test or due date. Now add your work schedule and other personal commitments to your calendar. Using a calendar helps you find convenient study times. Many of our successful biology students set aside 2 hours a day to study biology rather than depend on a weekly marathon session for 8 or 10 hours during the weekend (when that kind of session rarely happens). Put your study hours into your daily calendar, and stick to your schedule.

Determine Whether the Professor Emphasizes Text Material or Lecture Notes Some professors test almost exclusively on material covered in lecture. Others rely on their students’ learning most, or even all, of

the content in assigned chapters. Find out what your professor’s requirements are, because the way you study will vary accordingly. How to study when professors test lecture material If lectures are the main source of examination questions, make your lecture notes as complete and organized as possible. Before going to class, skim over the chapter, identifying key terms and examining the main figures, so that you can take effective lecture notes. Spend no more than 1 hour on this. Within 24 hours after class, rewrite (or type) your notes. Before rewriting, however, read the notes and make marginal notes about anything that is not clear. Then read the corresponding material in your text. Highlight or underline any sections that clarify questions you had in your notes. Read the entire chapter, including parts that are not covered in lecture. This extra information will give you breadth of understanding and will help you grasp key concepts. After reading the text, you are ready to rewrite your notes, incorporating relevant material from the text. It also helps to use the Glossary to find definitions for unfamiliar terms. Many students develop a set of flash cards of key terms and concepts as a way to study. Flash cards are a useful tool to help you learn scientific terminology. They are portable and can be used at times when other studying is not possible, for example, when riding a bus. Flash cards are not effective when the student tries to secondguess the professor. (“She won’t ask this, so I won’t make a flash card of it.”) Flash cards are also a hindrance when students rely on them exclusively. Studying flash cards instead of reading the text is a bit like reading the first page of each chapter in a mystery novel: it’s hard to fill in the missing parts, because you are learning the facts in a disconnected way. How to study when professors test material in the book If the assigned readings in the text are going to be tested, you must use your text intensively. After reading the chapter introduction, read the list of Learning Objectives for the first section. These objectives are written in behavioral terms; that is, they ask you to “do” something in order to demonstrate mastery. The objectives give you a concrete set of goals for each section of the chapter. At the end of each section, you will find Review questions keyed to the Learning Objectives. Test yourself, going back over the material to check your responses. Read each chapter section actively. Many students read and study passively. An active learner always has questions in mind and is constantly making connections. For example, there are many processes that must be understood in biology. Don’t try to blindly memorize these; instead, think about causes and effects so

that every process becomes a story. Eventually, you’ll see that many processes are connected by common elements. You will probably have to read each chapter two or three times before mastering the material. The second and third times through will be much easier than the first, because you’ll be reinforcing concepts that you have already partially learned. After reading the chapter, write a four- to six-page chapter outline by using the subheads as the body of the outline (first-level heads are boldface, in color, and all caps; second-level heads are in color and not all caps). Flesh out your outline by adding important concepts and boldface terms with definitions. Use this outline when preparing for the exam. Now it is time to test yourself. Answer the Test Your Understanding questions, and check your answers. Write answers to each of the Critical Thinking questions. Finally, review the Learning Objectives in the Chapter Summary, and try to answer them before reading the summary provided. If your professor has told you that some or all of the exam will be short-answer or essay format, write out the answer for each Learning Objective. Remember that this is a self-test. If you do not know an answer to a question, find it in the text. If you can’t find the answer, use the Index.

Learn the Vocabulary One stumbling block for many students is learning the many terms that make up the language of biology. In fact, it would be much more difficult to learn and communicate if we did not have this terminology, because words are really tools for thinking. Learning terminology generally becomes easier if you realize that most biological terms are modular. They consist of mostly Latin and Greek roots; once you learn many of these, you will have a good idea of the meaning of a new word even before it is defined. For this reason, we have included Appendix C, Understanding Biological Terms. To be sure you understand the precise definition of a term, use the Index and Glossary. The more you use biological terms in speech and writing, the more comfortable you will be.

Form a Study Group Active learning is facilitated if you do some of your studying in a small group. In a study group, the roles of teacher and learner can be interchanged: a good way to learn material is to teach. A study group lets you meet challenges in a nonthreatening environment and can provide some emotional support. Study groups are effective learning tools when combined with individual study of text and lecture notes. If, however, you and other members of your study group have not prepared for your meetings by studying individually in advance, the study session can be a waste of time.

Prepare for the Exam Your calendar tells you it is now 1 week before your first biology exam. If you have been following these suggestions, you are well prepared and will need only some last-minute reviewing. No allnighters will be required. During the week prior to the exam, spend 2 hours each day actively studying your lecture notes or chapter outlines. It helps many students to read these notes out loud (most people listen to what they say!). Begin with the first lecture/chapter covered on the exam, and continue in the order on the lecture syllabus. Stop when you have reached the end of your 2-hour study period. The following day, begin where you stopped the previous day. When you reach the end of your notes, start at the beginning and study them a second time. The material should be very familiar to you by the second or third time around. At this stage, use your textbook only to answer questions or clarify important points. The night before the exam, do a little light studying, eat a nutritious dinner, and get a full night’s sleep. That way, you’ll arrive in class on exam day with a well-rested body (and brain) and the self-confidence that goes with being well prepared. Eldra P. Solomon Linda R. Berg Diana W. Martin

A View of Life

NIBSC/Science Photo Library

1

KEY CONCEPTS

H1N1, the virus that causes H1N1 influenza (flu). H1N1 virus particles (blue) are visible on a cell (green). When this virus emerged, the human immune system was unfamiliar with its new combination of genes. As a result, the virus spread easily, causing a pandemic. The scanning electron micrograph (SEM) has been color-enhanced.

T

he H1N1 influenza (flu) outbreak became the focus of attention in April 2009. Within a few months, more than 200 countries around

1.1 Basic themes of biology include evolution, information transfer, and energy transfer.

the world had reported confirmed cases of this viral disease, and H1N1

1.2 Characteristics of life include cellular structure,

ease Control and Prevention (CDC), more than 200 known pathogens

growth and development, self-regulated metabolism, response to stimuli, and reproduction.

(disease-causing organisms) have the potential to strike globally. Histori-

1.3 Biological organization is hierarchical and includes chemical, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, and organism levels; ecological organization includes population, community, ecosystem, and biosphere levels.

had caused thousands of deaths. According to the U.S. Centers for Dis-

cally, new viral strains have claimed many human lives. For example, in 1918 an influenza pandemic killed more than 20 million people throughout the world. Epidemiologists warn that even today an influenza pandemic could kill millions of people. Pandemics such as H1N1 have negative

1.4 Information transfer includes DNA transfer of information from one generation to the next; chemical and electrical signals within and among the cells of every organism; and chemicals, visual displays, and sounds that allow organisms to communicate with one another and to interact with their environment.

global impact. They affect many aspects of life, including the global

1.5 Individual organisms and entire ecosystems depend on

lutionary relationships to known pathogens. For example, investigators

a continuous input of energy. Energy is transferred within cells and from one organism to another.

have determined that the 1918 flu pandemic was caused by an influenza A

1.6 Evolution is the process by which populations of organisms change over time, adapting to changes in their environment; the tree of life includes three major branches, or domains.

economy, travel, tourism, and education. Armed with new technology, biologists work closely with public health and other health-care professionals to prevent dangerous pandemics. When a new disease-causing agent emerges, biologists study its evo-

(H1N1) virus that may have mutated and newly emerged from a swine or avian host. The H1N1 strain that was identified in 2009 was related to the 1918 pathogen. Biologists determined that the 2009 H1N1 strain evolved from a com-

1.7 Biologists ask questions, develop hypotheses, make

bination of viruses that infected swine, birds, and humans. They found

predictions, and collect data by careful observation and experiment; based on their results, they come to conclusions.

that this strain of H1N1 contains unique combinations of gene segments for which humans do not have preexisting immunity. Knowledge about a

virus’s origins provides important clues to its structure and behavior, and suggests hypotheses for combating it. Scientists must then test their hypotheses in the laboratory. Researchers were able to determine the antigens (proteins) on the surface of H1N1. These antigens must combine with receptors on human cells in order to infect the cells. Based on careful studies of H1N1, a vaccine was quickly developed. Pathogens can strike quickly and spread rapidly, and the continuous evolution of drug-resistant pathogens presents a major challenge. New varieties of H1N1 continue to emerge, and investigators must quickly characterize them and assess their potential virulence. Scientists predict that new varieties may show increased drug resistance and may be more virulent. In addition, recently developed vaccines may no longer be effective. Emerging diseases will be discussed further in Chapter 24. This is an exciting time to study biology, the science of life. The remarkable new discoveries biologists are making almost daily affect every aspect of our lives, including our health, food, safety, relationships with humans and other organisms, and the environment of our planet. New knowledge provides new insights into the human species and the millions of other organisms with which we share this planet. Biology affects our personal, governmental, and societal decisions. For example, a combined effort at every level is necessary to provide the resources and knowledge to meet the

1. Evolution. Populations of organisms have evolved through time from earlier forms of life. Scientists have accumulated a wealth of evidence showing that the diverse life-forms on this planet are related and that populations have evolved, that is, have changed over time, from earlier forms of life. The process of evolution is the framework for the science of biology and is a major theme of this book. 2. Information transfer. Information must be transmitted within organisms and among organisms, and organisms must be able to receive information from their environment. The survival and function of every cell and every organism depend on the orderly transmission of information. Evolution depends on the transmission of genetic information from one generation to another. 3. Energy transfer. All life processes, including thousands of chemical transactions that maintain life’s organization, require a continuous input of energy. Most of the energy for life comes from sunlight. Energy from the sun is transferred through living systems from producers to consumers; decomposers obtain energy as they feed on the dead bodies and wastes of both producers and consumers. Energy is also continuously transferred from one chemical compound to another within every cell. Evolution, information transfer, and energy transfer are forces that give life its unique characteristics. We begin our study of biology by developing a more precise understanding of the fundamental characteristics of living systems.

challenges of global pandemics. Whatever your college major or career goals, knowledge of biological concepts is a vital tool for understanding our world and for

Review ■

meeting many of the personal, societal, and global challenges that confront us. Among these challenges are the expanding human



population, decreasing biological diversity, diminishing natural

Why are evolution, information transfer, and energy transfer considered basic to life? What does the term evolution mean as applied to populations of organisms?

resources, global climate change, and prevention and cure of diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and influenza. Meet-

1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE

ing these challenges will require the combined efforts of biologists

■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE

and other scientists, health professionals, educators, politicians,

2

and biologically informed citizens. This book is a starting point for your exploration of biology. It will provide you with the basic knowledge and the tools to become a part of this fascinating science, as well as a more informed member of society.

1.1 THREE BASIC THEMES

Distinguish between living and nonliving things by describing the features that characterize living organisms.

We easily recognize that a pine tree, a butterfly, and a horse are living things, whereas a rock is not. Despite their diversity, the organisms that inhabit our planet share a common set of characteristics that distinguish them from nonliving things. These features include a precise kind of organization, growth and development, self-regulated metabolism, the ability to respond to stimuli, reproduction, and adaptation to environmental change.

■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE

Organisms are composed of cells

1

Although they vary greatly in size and appearance, all organisms consist of basic units called cells. New cells are formed only by the division of previously existing cells. As will be discussed in Chapter 4, these concepts are expressed in the cell theory, a fundamental unifying concept of biology.

Describe three basic themes of biology.

In this first chapter we introduce three basic themes of biology. These themes are interconnected with one another and with almost every concept that we discuss in this book.

Mike Abbey/Visuals Unlimited, Inc.

Some of the simplest life-forms, such as protozoa, are unicellular organisms, meaning that each consists of a single cell (FIG. 1-1). In contrast, the body of a dog or a maple tree is made of billions of cells. In such complex multicellular organisms, life processes depend on the coordinated functions of component cells that may be organized to form tissues, organs, and organ systems. Every cell is enveloped by a protective plasma membrane that separates it from the surrounding external environment. The plasma membrane regulates passage of materials between the cell and its environment. Cells have specialized molecules that contain genetic instructions and transmit genetic information. In most cells, the genetic instructions are encoded in deoxyribonucleic acid, more simply known as DNA. Cells typically have internal structures called organelles that are specialized to perform specific functions. There are two fundamentally different types of cells: prokaryotic and eukaryotic. Prokaryotic cells are exclusive to bacteria and to microscopic organisms called archaea. All other organisms are characterized by their eukaryotic cells. These cells typically contain a variety of organelles enclosed by membranes, including a nucleus, which houses DNA. Prokaryotic cells are structurally simpler; they do not have a nucleus or other membrane-enclosed organelles.

250 μm

(a) Unicellular organisms consist of one intricate cell that performs all the functions essential to life. Ciliates, such as this Paramecium, move about by beating their hairlike cilia.

Biological growth involves an increase in the size of individual cells of an organism, in the number of cells, or in both. Growth may be uniform in the various parts of an organism, or it may be greater in some parts than in others, causing the body proportions to change as growth occurs. Some organisms—most trees, for example—continue to grow throughout their lives. Many animals have a defined growth period that terminates when a characteristic adult size is reached. An intriguing aspect of the growth process is that each part of the organism typically continues to function as it grows. Living organisms develop as well as grow. Development includes all the changes that take place during an organism’s life. Like many other organisms, every human begins life as a fertilized egg that then grows and develops. The structures and body form that develop are exquisitely adapted to the functions the organism must perform.

McMurray Photography

Organisms grow and develop

(b) Multicellular organisms, such as this African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and the plants on which it grazes, may consist of billions of cells specialized to perform specific functions.

FIGURE 1-1 Unicellular and multicellular life-forms

Organisms regulate their metabolic processes Within all organisms, chemical reactions and energy transformations occur that are essential to nutrition, the growth and repair of cells, and the conversion of energy into usable forms. The sum of all the chemical activities of the organism is its metabolism. Metabolic processes occur continuously in every organism, and they must be carefully regulated to maintain homeostasis, an appropriate, balanced internal environment. When enough of a cell product has been made, its manufacture must be decreased or turned off. When a particular substance is required, cell processes that produce it must be turned on. These homeostatic mechanisms are self-regulating control systems that are remarkably sensitive and efficient.

The regulation of glucose (a simple sugar) concentration in the blood of complex animals is a good example of a homeostatic mechanism. Your cells require a constant supply of glucose molecules, which they break down to obtain energy. The circulatory system delivers glucose and other nutrients to all the cells. When the concentration of glucose in the blood rises above normal limits, glucose is stored in the liver and in muscle cells. When you have not eaten for a few hours, the glucose concentration begins to fall. Your body converts stored nutrients to glucose, bringing the glucose concentration in the blood back to normal levels. When the glucose concentration decreases, you also feel hungry and restore nutrients by eating.

Organisms respond to stimuli

A. B. Dowsett/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.

Flagella

1 μm

FIGURE 1-2 Biological movement

(a) Hairs on the leaf surface of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) detect the touch of an insect, and the leaf responds by folding.

FIGURE 1-3 Plants respond to stimuli

David M. Dennis/Tom Stack & Associates

David M. Dennis/Tom Stack & Associates

These bacteria (Helicobacter pylori), equipped with flagella for locomotion, have been linked to stomach ulcers. The photograph was taken using a scanning electron microscope. The bacteria are not really red and blue. Their color has been artificially enhanced.

All forms of life respond to stimuli, physical or chemical changes in their internal or external environment. Stimuli that evoke a response in most organisms are changes in the color, intensity, or direction of light; changes in temperature, pressure, or sound; and changes in the chemical composition of the surrounding soil, air, or water. Responding to stimuli involves movement, though not always locomotion (moving from one place to another). In simple organisms, the entire individual may be sensitive to stimuli. Certain unicellular organisms, for example, respond to bright light by retreating. In some organisms, locomotion is achieved by the slow oozing of the cell, the process of amoeboid movement. Other organisms move by beating tiny, hairlike extensions of the cell called cilia or longer structures known as flagella (FIG. 1-2). Some bacteria move by rotating their flagella. Most animals move very obviously. They wiggle, crawl, swim, run, or fly by contracting muscles. Sponges, corals, and oysters have free-swimming larval stages, but most are sessile as adults, meaning that they do not move from place to place. In fact, they may remain firmly attached to a surface, such as the sea bottom or a rock. Many sessile organisms have cilia or flagella that beat rhythmically, bringing them food and oxygen in the surrounding water. Complex animals, such as grasshoppers, lizards, and humans, have highly specialized cells that respond to specific types of stimuli. For example, cells in the retina of the vertebrate eye respond to light. Although their responses may not be as obvious as those of animals, plants do respond to light, gravity, water, touch, and other stimuli. For example, plants orient their leaves to the sun and grow toward light. Many plant responses involve different growth rates of various parts of the plant body. A few plants, such as the Venus flytrap of the Carolina swamps, are very sensitive to touch and catch insects (FIG. 1-3). Their leaves are hinged along the midrib, and they have a scent that attracts insects. Trigger hairs on the leaf surface detect the arrival of an insect and stimulate the leaf to fold. When the edges come together, they interlock, preventing the insect’s escape. The leaf then secretes enzymes that kill and digest the insect. The Venus flytrap usually grows in nitrogendeficient soil. The plant obtains part of the nitrogen required for its growth from the insects it “eats.”

(b) The edges of the leaf come together and interlock, preventing the fly’s escape. The leaf then secretes enzymes that kill and digest the insect.

Organisms reproduce At one time, people thought worms arose spontaneously from horsehair in a water trough, maggots from decaying meat, and frogs from the mud

McMurray Photography

Cabisco/Visuals Unlimited, Inc.

100 μm

FIGURE 1-5 Adaptations These Burchell’s zebras (Equus burchelli), photographed in Tanzania, are behaviorally adapted to position themselves to watch for lions and other predators. Stripes are thought to be an adaptation for visual protection against predators. They serve as camouflage or to break up form when spotted from a distance. The zebra stomach is adapted for feeding on coarse grass passed over by other grazers, an adaptation that helps the animal survive when food is scarce.

(a) Asexual reproduction. One individual gives rise to two or more offspring that are similar to the parent. Difflugia, a unicellular amoeba, is shown dividing to form two amoebas.

L. E. Gilbert/Biological Photo Service

ther. This genetic variation is important in the vital processes of evolution and adaptation.

(b) Sexual reproduction. Typically, each of two parents contributes a gamete (sperm or egg). Gametes fuse to produce the offspring, which has a combination of the traits of both parents. A pair of tropical flies are shown mating.

FIGURE 1-4 Asexual and sexual reproduction

of the Nile. Thanks to the work of several scientists, including the Italian physician Francesco Redi in the 17th century and French chemist Louis Pasteur in the 19th century, we know that organisms arise only from previously existing organisms. Simple organisms, such as amoebas, perpetuate themselves by asexual reproduction (FIG. 1-4a). When an amoeba has grown to a certain size, it reproduces by splitting in half to form two new amoebas. Before an amoeba divides, its hereditary material (set of genes) is duplicated, and one complete set is distributed to each new cell. Except for size, each new amoeba is similar to the parent cell. The only way that variation occurs among asexually reproducing organisms is by genetic mutation, a permanent change in the genes. In most plants and animals, sexual reproduction is carried out by the fusion of an egg and a sperm cell to form a fertilized egg (FIG. 1-4b). The new organism develops from the fertilized egg. Offspring produced by sexual reproduction are the product of the interaction of various genes contributed by the mother and the fa-

Populations evolve and become adapted to the environment The ability of a population to evolve over many generations and adapt to its environment equips it to survive in a changing world. Adaptations are inherited characteristics that enhance an organism’s ability to survive in a particular environment. The long, flexible tongue of the frog is an adaptation for catching insects, the feathers and lightweight bones of birds are adaptations for flying, and the thick fur coat of the polar bear is an adaptation for surviving frigid temperatures. Adaptations may be structural, physiological, biochemical, behavioral, or a combination of all four (FIG. 1-5). Every biologically successful organism is a complex collection of coordinated adaptations produced through evolutionary processes.

Review ■





What characteristics distinguish a living organism from a nonliving object? What would be the consequences to an organism if its homeostatic mechanisms failed? Explain your answer. What do we mean by adaptations?

1.3 LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE 3

Construct a hierarchy of biological organization, including levels characteristic of individual organisms and levels characteristic of ecological systems.

Whether we study a single organism or the world of life as a whole, we can identify a hierarchy of biological organization (FIG. 1-6). At every level, structure and function are precisely coordinated. One way to study a particular level is by looking at its components. Biologists can gain insights about cells by studying atoms and molecules. Learning about a structure by studying its parts is called reductionism. However, the whole is more than the sum of its parts. Each level has emergent properties, characteristics not found at lower levels. Populations of organisms have emergent properties such as population density, age structure, and birth and death rates. The individuals that make up a population do not have these characteristics. Consider also the human brain. The brain is composed of millions of neurons (nerve cells). However, we could study all of these individual neurons and have no clue about the functional capacities of the brain. Only when the neurons are wired together in precise fashion are the emergent properties, such as the capacity for thought, judgment, and motor coordination, evident.

geographic area at the same time make up a population. The populations of various types of organisms that inhabit a particular area and interact with one another form a community. A community can consist of hundreds of different types of organisms. A community together with its nonliving environment is an ecosystem. An ecosystem can be as small as a pond (or even a puddle) or as vast as the Great Plains of North America or the Arctic tundra. All of Earth’s ecosystems together are known as the biosphere. The biosphere includes all of Earth that is inhabited by living organisms—the atmosphere, the hydrosphere (water in any form), and the lithosphere (Earth’s crust). The study of how organisms relate to one another and to their physical environment is called ecology (derived from the Greek oikos, meaning “house”).

Review ■ ■

What are the levels of organization within an organism? What are the levels of ecological organization?

Organisms have several levels of organization The chemical level, the most basic level of organization, includes atoms and molecules. An atom is the smallest unit of a chemical element that retains the characteristic properties of that element. For example, an atom of iron is the smallest possible amount of iron. Atoms combine chemically to form molecules. Two atoms of hydrogen combine with one atom of oxygen to form a single molecule of water. Although composed of two types of atoms that are gases, water can exist as a liquid or solid. The properties of water are very different from those of its hydrogen and oxygen components, an example of emergent properties. At the cellular level, many types of atoms and molecules associate with one another to form cells. However, a cell is much more than a heap of atoms and molecules. Its emergent properties make it the basic structural and functional unit of life, the simplest component of living matter that can carry on all the activities necessary for life. During the evolution of multicellular organisms, cells associated to form tissues. For example, most animals have muscle tissue and nervous tissue. Plants have epidermis, a tissue that serves as a protective covering, and vascular tissues that move materials throughout the plant body. In most complex organisms, tissues organize into functional structures called organs, such as the heart and stomach in animals and roots and leaves in plants. In animals, each major group of biological functions is performed by a coordinated group of tissues and organs called an organ system. The circulatory and digestive systems are examples of organ systems. Functioning together with great precision, organ systems make up a complex, multicellular organism. Again, emergent properties are evident. An organism is much more than its component organ systems.

Several levels of ecological organization can be identified Organisms interact to form still more complex levels of biological organization. All the members of one species living in the same

1.4 INFORMATION TRANSFER ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE 4 Summarize the importance of information transfer within and between living systems, giving specific examples.

An organism inherits the information it needs to grow, develop, carry on self-regulated metabolism, respond to stimuli, and reproduce. Each organism must also have precise instructions for making the molecules necessary for its cells to communicate. The information an organism requires to carry on these life processes is coded and transmitted in the form of chemical substances and electrical impulses. Organisms must also communicate information to one another.

DNA transmits information from one generation to the next Humans give birth only to human babies, not to giraffes or rosebushes. In organisms that reproduce sexually, each offspring is a combination of the traits of its parents. In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick worked out the structure of DNA, the large molecule that makes up the genes, the units of hereditary material (FIG. 1-7). A DNA molecule consists of two chains of atoms twisted into a helix. As will be described in Chapter 2, each chain is made up of a sequence of chemical subunits called nucleotides. There are four types of nucleotides in DNA; and each sequence of three nucleotides is part of the genetic code. Watson and Crick’s work led to the understanding of this genetic code. The information coded in sequences of nucleotides in DNA transmits genetic information from generation to generation. The code works somewhat like an alphabet. The nucleotides can “spell” an amazing variety of instructions for making organisms as diverse as bacteria, frogs, and redwood trees. The genetic code is universal, that is, virtually identical in all organisms—a dramatic example of the unity of life.

Organism Organ systems work together in a functional organism.

Population A population consists of organisms of the same species.

Organism

Population

Organ system (e.g., skeletal system) Tissues and organs make up organ systems.

Organ system

Organ (e.g., bone) Tissues form organs.

Organ

Tissue (e.g., bone tissue) Cells associate to form tissues.

Community The populations of different species that populate the same area make up a community.

Community Tissue

Bone cells

Nucleus

Cell Cellular level Atoms and molecules make up the cytoplasm and form organelles, such as the nucleus and mitochondria (the site of many energy Organelle transformations). Organelles perform various functions of the cell.

Chemical level Atoms join to form molecules. Macromolecules are large molecules such as proteins and DNA.

Ecosystem A community together with the nonliving environment forms an ecosystem. Ecosystem

Macromolecule Biosphere Oxygen atom Molecule

Hydrogen atoms

Water

FIGURE 1-6 Animated The hierarchy of biological organization

Biosphere Earth and all of its communities constitute the biosphere.

Computer image of B-DNA by Geis/Stodola. Not to be reproduced without permission.

Cells use proteins and many other types of molecules to communicate with one another. In a multicellular organism, cells produce chemical compounds, such as hormones, that signal other cells. Hormones and other chemical messengers can signal cells in distant organs to secrete a particular required substance or change some metabolic activity. In this way chemical signals help regulate growth, development, and metabolic processes. The mechanisms involved in cell signaling often involve complex biochemical processes. Cell signaling is currently an area of intense research. A major focus has been the transfer of information among cells of the immune system. A better understanding of how cells communicate promises new insights into how the body protects itself against disease organisms. Learning to manipulate cell signaling may lead to new methods of delivering drugs into cells and new treatments for cancer and other diseases. Some organisms use electrical signals to transmit information. Most animals have nervous systems that transmit information by way of both electrical impulses and chemical compounds known as neurotransmitters. Information transmitted from one part of the body to another is important in regulating life processes. In complex animals, the nervous system gives the animal information about its outside environment by transmitting signals from sensory receptors such as the eyes and ears to the brain. Information must also be transmitted from one organism to another. Mechanisms for this type of communication include the release of chemicals, visual displays, and sounds. Typically, organisms use a combination of several types of communication signals. A dog may signal aggression by growling, using a particular facial expression, and laying its ears back. Many animals perform complex courtship rituals in which they display parts of their bodies, often elaborately decorated, to attract a mate.

Review ■ ■

What is the function of DNA? What are two examples of cell signaling?

FIGURE 1-7 DNA DNA is the hereditary material that transmits information from one generation to the next. As shown in this model, DNA is a macromolecule that consists of two chains of atoms twisted into a helix. Each chain consists of subunits called nucleotides. The sequence of nucleotides makes up the genetic code.

1.5 THE ENERGY OF LIFE ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE 5

Information is transmitted by chemical and electrical signals Genes control the development and functioning of every organism. The DNA that makes up the genes contains the “recipes” for making all the proteins required by the organism. Proteins are large molecules important in determining the structure and function of cells and tissues. For example, brain cells differ from muscle cells in large part because they have different types of proteins. Some proteins are important in communication within and among cells. Certain proteins on the surface of a cell serve as markers so that other cells “recognize” them. Some cell-surface proteins serve as receptors that combine with chemical messengers.

Summarize the flow of energy through ecosystems and contrast the roles of producers, consumers, and decomposers.

Life depends on a continuous input of energy from the sun because every activity of a living cell or organism requires energy. Whenever energy is used to perform biological work, some is converted to heat and dispersed into the environment. Recall that all the energy transformations and chemical processes that occur within an organism are referred to as its metabolism. Energy is necessary to carry on the metabolic activities essential for growth, repair, and maintenance. Each cell of an organism requires nutrients that contain energy. During cellular respiration, cells capture energy released by nutrient molecules through a series of carefully regulated chemical reactions (FIG. 1-8). The cell can use this energy to do work, including the synthesis of

KEY POINT

Most of the energy for life is light energy from the sun, which is captured during photosynthesis; some of this energy is stored in the chemical bonds of glucose and other nutrients.

Light energy

Photosynthesis captures light energy

Oxygen

Energy stored in glucose and other nutrients

Carbon dioxide and water

Oxygen

Energy

Cellular respiration releases energy stored in glucose molecules

Synthesis of needed molecules and structures

Other Life Activities

r Homeostasis r Growth and development

r Reproduction r Movement of materials in and out of cells

r Movement of body FIGURE 1-8 Energy flow within and among organisms Algae and certain plant cells carry on photosynthesis, a process that uses light energy to produce glucose from carbon dioxide and water. Energy is stored in the chemical bonds of glucose and other nutrients produced from glucose. Through the process of cellular respiration, cells

required materials, such as new cell components. Virtually all cells carry on cellular respiration. Like individual organisms, ecosystems also depend on a continuous energy input. A self-sufficient ecosystem contains three types of organisms—producers, consumers, and decomposers— and includes a physical environment in which they can survive. These organisms depend on one another and on the environment

of all organisms, including algae and plant cells, then break down glucose and other nutrients. The energy released can be used to produce needed molecules and to fuel other life activities.

for nutrients, energy, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. There is a oneway flow of energy through ecosystems. Organisms can neither create energy nor use it with complete efficiency. During every energy transaction, some energy disperses into the environment as heat and is no longer available to the organism (FIG. 1-9). Plants, algae, and certain bacteria are producers, or autotrophs, that produce their own food from simple raw materials.

Light energy

Heat

Heat

Animals are consumers, or heterotrophs—that is, organisms that depend on producers for food, energy, and oxygen. Primary consumers eat producers, whereas secondary consumers eat primary consumers. Consumers obtain energy by breaking down sugars and other food molecules originally produced during photosynthesis. When chemical bonds are broken during this process of cellular respiration, their stored energy is made available for life processes: glucose + oxygen ¡ carbon dioxide + water + energy

Food

Primary consumer (caterpillar)

Heat

Heat Producer (plant)

Secondary consumer (robin)

Consumers contribute to the balance of the ecosystem. For example, consumers produce carbon dioxide required by producers. (Note that producers also carry on cellular respiration.) The metabolism of consumers and producers helps maintain the lifesustaining mixture of gases in the atmosphere. Most bacteria and fungi are decomposers, heterotrophs that obtain nutrients by breaking down nonliving organic material such as wastes, dead leaves and branches, and the bodies of dead organisms. In their process of obtaining energy, decomposers make the components of these materials available for reuse. If decomposers did not exist, nutrients would remain locked up in wastes and dead bodies, and the supply of elements required by living systems would soon be exhausted.

Review Plant litter, wastes

Soil

Dead bodies

Decomposers (bacteria, fungi)

FIGURE 1-9 Animated Energy flow through the biosphere Continuous energy input from the sun operates the biosphere. During photosynthesis, producers use the energy from sunlight to make complex molecules from carbon dioxide and water. Primary consumers, such as the caterpillar shown here, obtain energy, nutrients, and other required materials when they eat producers. Secondary consumers, such as the robin, obtain energy, nutrients, and other required materials when they eat primary consumers that have eaten producers. Decomposers obtain their energy and nutrients by breaking down wastes and dead organic material. During every energy transaction, some energy is lost to biological systems, dispersing into the environment as heat.

■ ■

1.6 EVOLUTION: THE BASIC UNIFYING CONCEPT OF BIOLOGY ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVES 6 Demonstrate the binomial system of nomenclature by using specific

7 8 9

Most of these organisms use sunlight as an energy source and carry on photosynthesis, the process during which producers synthesize complex molecules such as glucose (a sugar) from carbon dioxide and water. The light energy is transformed into chemical energy, which is stored within the chemical bonds of the food molecules produced. Oxygen, which is required by the cells of most organisms including plant cells, is produced as a byproduct of photosynthesis: carbon dioxide + water + light energy ¡ glucose + oxygen

What components do you think a forest ecosystem might include? In what ways do consumers depend on producers? on decomposers? Include energy considerations in your answer.

examples and classify an organism (such as a human) in its domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. Identify the three domains and the kingdoms of living organisms, and give examples of organisms assigned to each group. Give a brief overview of the scientific theory of evolution and explain why it is the principal unifying concept in biology. Apply the theory of natural selection to any given adaptation and suggest a logical explanation of how the adaptation may have evolved.

Evolution is the process by which populations of organisms change over time. Evolutionary theory has become the most important unifying concept of biology. As we will discuss, evolution involves passing genes for new traits from one generation to another, leading to differences in populations. The evolutionary perspective is important in every specialized field within biology. Biologists try to understand the structure, function, and behavior of organisms and their interactions with one another by considering them in light of the long, continuing process of evolution. Although we

discuss evolution in depth in Chapters 18 through 22, we present a brief overview here to give you the background necessary to understand other aspects of biology. First, we examine how biologists organize the millions of organisms that have evolved, and then we summarize some of the mechanisms that drive evolution.

Biologists use a binomial system for naming organisms Biologists have identified about 1.8 million species of extant (currently living) organisms and estimate that several million more remain to be discovered. To study life, we need a system for organizing, naming, and classifying its myriad forms. Systematics is the field of biology that studies the diversity of organisms and their evolutionary relationships. Taxonomy, a subspecialty of systematics, is the science of naming and classifying organisms. In the 18th century, Carolus Linnaeus, a Swedish botanist, developed a hierarchical system of naming and classifying organisms. Biologists still use this system today, with some modification. The species is a group of organisms with similar structure, function, and behavior. A species consists of one or more populations whose members are capable of breeding with one another; in nature, they do not breed with members of other species. Members of a population contribute to a common gene pool (all the genes present in the population) and share a common ancestry. Closely related species are grouped in the next broader category of classification, the genus (pl., genera). The Linnaean system of naming species is known as the binomial system of nomenclature because each species is assigned a two-part name. The first part of the name is the genus, and the second part, the specific epithet, designates a particular species belonging to that genus. The specific epithet is often a descriptive word expressing some quality of the organism. It is always used together with the full or abbreviated generic name preceding it. The generic name is always capitalized; the specific epithet is generally not capitalized. Both names are always italicized or underlined. For example, the domestic dog, Canis familiaris (abbreviated C. familiaris), and the timber wolf, Canis lupus (C. lupus), belong to the same genus. The domestic cat, Felis catus, belongs to a different genus. The scientific name of the American white oak is Quercus alba, whereas the name of the European white oak is Quercus robur. Another tree, the white willow, Salix alba, belongs to a different genus. The scientific name for our own species is Homo sapiens (“wise man”).

sists of 12 genera and about 34 living species. Family Canidae, along with family Ursidae (bears), family Felidae (catlike animals), and several other families that eat mainly meat, are all placed in order Carnivora. Order Carnivora, order Primates (to which chimpanzees and humans belong), and several other orders belong to class Mammalia (mammals). Class Mammalia is grouped with several other classes that include fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and birds in subphylum Vertebrata. The vertebrates belong to phylum Chordata, which is part of kingdom Animalia. Animals are assigned to domain Eukarya.

The tree of life includes three domains and several kingdoms Systematics has itself evolved as scientists have developed new techniques for inferring common ancestry among groups of organisms. As we will learn, biologists seek to classify organisms based on evolutionary relationships. These relationships are based on shared characteristics that distinguish a particular group. A group of organisms with a common ancestor is a clade. Systematists have developed a tree of life, a family tree showing proposed evolutionary relationships among organisms. These relationships are based on shared characteristics, including structural, developmental, behavioral, and molecular similarities, as well as on fossil evidence. FIGURE 1-11 is a cladogram, a branching diagram that depicts the tree of life as it is currently understood. As researchers report new findings, the classification of organisms changes and the branches of the tree of life must be redrawn. Although the tree of life is a work in progress, most biologists now assign organisms to three domains and to several kingdoms or clades. Bacteria have long been recognized as unicellular prokaryotic cells; they differ from all other organisms (except archaea) in that they are prokaryotes. Microbiologist Carl Woese (pronounced “woes”) has been a pioneer in developing molecular approaches to systematics. Woese and his colleagues selected a molecule known as small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) that functions in the process of manufacturing proteins in all organisms. Because its molecular structure differs somewhat in various organisms, Woese hypothesized that the molecular composition of rRNA in closely related organisms would be more similar than in distantly related organisms. TABLE 1-1

Classification of the Cat, Human, and White Oak Tree

Taxonomic classification is hierarchical

Category

Cat

Human

White Oak

Just as closely related species may be grouped in a common genus, related genera can be grouped in a more inclusive group, a family. Families are grouped into orders, orders into classes, and classes into phyla (sing., phylum). Phyla can be assigned to kingdoms, and kingdoms are grouped in domains. Each formal grouping at any given level is a taxon (pl., taxa). Note that each taxon is more inclusive than the taxon below it. Together they form a hierarchy ranging from species to domain (TABLE 1-1 and FIG. 1-10). Consider a specific example. The family Canidae, which includes all doglike carnivores (animals that eat mainly meat), con-

Domain Kingdom Phylum Subphylum Class Order Family Genus Species

Eukarya Animalia Chordata Vertebrata Mammalia Carnivora Felidae Felis Felis catus

Eukarya Animalia Chordata Vertebrata Mammalia Primates Hominidae Homo Homo sapiens

Eukarya Plantae Anthophyta None Eudicotyledones Fagales Fagaceae Quercus Quercus alba

KEY POINT

Biologists use a hierarchical classification scheme with a series of taxonomic categories from species to domain; each category is more general and more inclusive than the one below it.

DOMAIN Eukarya

KINGDOM Animalia

PHYLUM Chordata

CLASS Mammalia

ORDER Primates

FAMILY Pongidae

GENUS Pan

SPECIES Pan troglodytes

FIGURE 1-10 Classification of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)

This cladogram illustrates the evolutionary relationships among the three domains and among the major groups of organisms that belong to these domains.

5 μm

(a) The large, rodshaped bacterium Bacillus anthracis, a member of domain Bacteria, causes anthrax, a disease of cattle and sheep that can infect humans.

(b) These archaea (Methanosarcina mazei ), members of the domain Archaea, produce methane.

Archaea

Laurie Campbell/Getty Images

David M. Phillips/Visuals Unl.

CNRI/Science Photo Library/ Photo Researchers, Inc.

1 μm

Bacteria

Domain Eukarya

McMurray Photography

Domain Archaea R. Robinson/Visuals Unlimited, Inc.

Domain Bacteria

John Arnaldi

KEY POINT

10 μm

(c) These unicellular protozoa (Tetrahymena) are classified in one of the protist groups.

Protists

(d) Plants include many beautiful and diverse forms, such as the lady’s slipper (Phragmipedium caricinum).

(e) Among the fiercest animals, lions (Panthera leo) are also among the most sociable. The largest of the big cats, lions live in prides (groups).

Plants

Animals

(f) Mushrooms, such as these fly agaric mushrooms (Amanita muscaria), are fungi. The fly agaric is poisonous and causes delirium, raving, and profuse sweating when ingested. Fungi

Common ancestor of all organisms

FIGURE 1-11 Animated A survey of the three domains of life Biologists assign organisms to three domains and to several kingdoms and other groups. The protists do not form a clade and are no longer considered a kingdom. They are assigned to five “supergroups” (not shown).

Woese’s findings showed that there are two distinct groups of prokaryotes. He established the domain level of taxonomy and assigned the prokaryotes to two domains: Bacteria and Archaea (ar′-key-ah). The eukaryotes, organisms with eukaryotic cells, are classified in domain Eukarya. Woese’s work became widely accepted in the mid-1990s. In the classification system used in this book, each organism is assigned to a domain and to a kingdom or “supergroup.” Two

kingdoms correspond to the prokaryotic domains: kingdom Archaea corresponds to domain Archaea, and kingdom Bacteria corresponds to domain Bacteria. The remaining kingdoms and groups are assigned to domain Eukarya. Protists (for example, algae, slime molds, amoebas, and ciliates) are unicellular, colonial, or simple multicellular organisms that have a eukaryotic cell organization. The word protist, from the Greek for “the very first,” reflects the idea that protists were the first

eukaryotes to evolve. Protists are primarily aquatic organisms with diverse body forms, types of reproduction, modes of nutrition, and lifestyles. Some protists are adapted to carry out photosynthesis. Based mainly on molecular data that have clarified many evolutionary relationships among eukaryotes, the protists are no longer considered a kingdom. As we will learn in Chapter 26, several clades of protists have been identified, and many biologists now classify protists into five “supergroups.” Members of kingdom Plantae are complex multicellular organisms adapted to carry out photosynthesis. Among characteristic plant features are the cuticle (a waxy covering over aerial parts that reduces water loss) and stomata (tiny openings in stems and leaves for gas exchange); many plants have multicellular gametangia (organs that protect developing reproductive cells). Kingdom Plantae includes both nonvascular plants (mosses) and vascular plants (ferns, conifers, and flowering plants), those that have tissues specialized for transporting materials throughout the plant body. Most plants are adapted to terrestrial environments. Kingdom Fungi is composed of the yeasts, mildews, molds, and mushrooms. Fungi do not photosynthesize. They obtain their nutrients by secreting digestive enzymes into food and then absorbing the predigested food. Kingdom Animalia is made up of multicellular organisms that obtain their nutrition by eating other organisms. Most animals exhibit considerable cell and tissue specialization and body organization. These characters have evolved along with complex sense organs, nervous systems, and muscular systems. Most animals reproduce sexually; they have large, nonmotile (do not move from place to place) eggs and small sperm with flagella that propel them in their journey to find the egg. We have provided an introduction here to the groups of organisms that make up the tree of life. We will refer to them throughout this book, as we consider the many kinds of challenges organisms face and the various adaptations that have evolved in response to them. We discuss the diversity of life in more detail in Chapters 23 through 32, and we summarize classification in Appendix B.

ously existing forms. Darwin’s book raised a storm of controversy in both religion and science, some of which still lingers. Darwin’s theory of evolution has helped shape the biological sciences to the present day. His work generated a great wave of scientific observation and research that has provided much additional evidence that evolution is responsible for the great diversity of organisms on our planet. Even today, the details of evolutionary processes are a major focus of investigation and discussion. Darwin based his theory of natural selection on the following four observations: 1. Individual members of a species show some variation from one another. 2. Organisms produce many more offspring than will survive to reproduce (FIG. 1-12). 3. Because more individuals are produced than the environment can support, organisms must compete for necessary, but limited, resources such as food, sunlight, and space. Also, some organisms are killed by predators, disease organisms, or unfavorable natural conditions, such as weather changes. Which organisms are more likely to survive? 4. Individuals with characteristics that enable them to obtain and use resources, escape predators, resist disease organisms, and withstand changes in the environment are more likely to survive to reproductive maturity. The survivors that reproduce pass their adaptations for survival on to their offspring. Thus, the best-adapted individuals of a population leave, on average,

Species adapt in response to changes in their environment

J. Serrao/Photo Researchers, Inc.

Every organism is the product of numerous interactions between environmental conditions and the genes inherited from its ancestors. If all individuals of a species were exactly alike, any change in the environment might be disastrous to all, and the species would become extinct. Adaptations to changes in the environment occur as a result of evolutionary processes that take place over time and involve many generations.

Natural selection is an important mechanism by which evolution proceeds Although philosophers and naturalists discussed the concept of evolution for centuries, Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace first brought a theory of evolution to general attention and suggested a plausible mechanism, natural selection, to explain it. In his book On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection, published in 1859, Darwin synthesized many new findings in geology and biology. He presented a wealth of evidence supporting his hypothesis that present forms of life descended, with modifications, from previ-

FIGURE 1-12 Egg masses of the wood frog (Rana sylvatica) Many more eggs are produced than can possibly develop into adult frogs. Random events are largely responsible for determining which of these developing frogs will hatch, reach adulthood, and reproduce. However, certain traits of each organism also contribute to the probability for success in its environment. Not all organisms are as prolific as the frog, but the generalization that more organisms are produced than survive is true throughout the living world.

(b) ‘I’iwi (Vestiaria cocciniea) in ‘ohi’a blossoms. The bill is adapted for feeding on nectar in tubular flowers.

Jack Jeffrey, Inc.

Jack Jeffrey, Inc.

Jack Jeffrey, Inc.

(a) The bill of this ‘Akiapola’au male (Hemignathus munroi ) is adapted for extracting insect larvae from bark. The lower mandible (jaw) is used to peck at and pull off bark, whereas the maxilla (upper jaw) and tongue remove the prey.

(c) Palila (Loxiodes bailleui ) in mamane tree. This finch-billed honeycreeper feeds on immature seeds in pods of the mamane tree. It also eats insects, berries, and young leaves.

FIGURE 1-13 Adaptation and diversification in Hawaiian honeycreepers All three species shown here are endangered, mainly because their habitats have been destroyed by humans or species introduced by humans.

more offspring than do other individuals. Because of this differential reproduction, a greater proportion of the population becomes adapted to the prevailing environmental conditions and challenges. The environment selects the best-adapted organisms for survival. Note that adaptation involves changes in populations rather than in individual organisms. Darwin did not know about DNA or understand the mechanisms of inheritance. Scientists now understand that most variations among individuals are a result of different varieties of genes that code for each characteristic. The ultimate source of these variations is random mutations, chemical or physical changes in DNA that persist and can be inherited. Mutations modify genes and by this process provide the raw material for evolution.

bills evolved (FIG. 1-13; see also Chapter 20 and Fig. 20-18). Some honeycreepers now have long, curved bills, adapted for feeding on nectar from tubular flowers. Others have short, thick bills for foraging for insects, and still others have adapted for eating seeds.

Review ■ ■



What is the binomial system of nomenclature? Biologists describe the tree of life as a work in progress. Why does the tree need to be modified? How might you explain the sharp claws and teeth of tigers in terms of natural selection?

1.7 THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Populations evolve as a result of selective pressures from changes in their environment All the genes present in a population make up its gene pool. By virtue of its gene pool, a population is a reservoir of variation. Natural selection acts on individuals within a population. Selection favors individuals with genes specifying traits that allow them to respond effectively to pressures exerted by the environment. These organisms are most likely to survive and produce offspring. As successful organisms pass on their genetic recipe for survival, their traits become more widely distributed in the population. Over time, as populations continue to change (and as the environment itself changes, bringing different selective pressures), the members of the population become better adapted to their environment and less like their ancestors. As a population adapts to environmental pressures and exploits new opportunities for finding food, maintaining safety, and avoiding predators, the population diversifies and new species may evolve. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, a group of related birds, are a good example. When honeycreeper ancestors first reached Hawaii, few other birds were present, so there was little competition. Genetic variation among honeycreepers allowed some to move into different food zones, and over time, species with various types of

■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVES 10 Design a study to test a given hypothesis, using the procedure and terminology of the scientific method.

11 Compare the reductionist and systems approaches to biological research.

Biology is a science. The word science comes from a Latin word meaning “to know.” Science is a way of thinking and a method of investigating the natural world in a systematic manner. We test ideas, and based on our findings, we modify or reject these ideas. The process of science is investigative, dynamic, and often controversial. The observations made, the range of questions asked, and the design of experiments depend on the creativity of the individual scientist. Science, however, is influenced by cultural, social, historical, and technological contexts, so the process changes over time. The scientific method involves a series of ordered steps. Using the scientific method, scientists make careful observations, ask critical questions, and develop hypotheses, which are tentative explanations. Using their hypotheses, scientists make predictions that can be tested by making further observations or by performing experiments. They gather data, information that they can analyze, often using computers and sophisticated statistical methods.

They interpret the results of their experiments and draw conclusions from them. As we will discuss, scientists pose many hypotheses that cannot be tested by using all of the steps of the scientific method in a rigid way. Scientists use the scientific method as a generalized framework or guide. Biologists explore every imaginable aspect of life from the structure of viruses and bacteria to the interactions of the communities of our biosphere. Some biologists work mainly in laboratories, and others do their work in the field (FIG. 1-14). Perhaps you will decide to become a research biologist and help unravel the complexities of the human brain, discover new hormones that cause plants to flower, identify new species of animals or bacteria, or develop new stem cell strategies to treat cancer, AIDS, or heart disease. Applications of basic biological research have provided the technology to transplant kidneys, livers, and hearts; manipulate genes; treat many diseases; and increase world food production. Biology has been a powerful force in providing the quality of life that most of us enjoy. You may choose to enter an applied field of biology, such as environmental science, dentistry, medicine, pharmacology, or veterinary medicine. Many interesting careers in the biological sciences are discussed in the Careers section on our website.

Science requires systematic thought processes Science is systematic. Scientists organize and often quantify knowledge, making it readily accessible to all who wish to build on its foundation. In this way, science is both a personal and a social endeavor. Science is not mysterious. Anyone who understands

its rules and procedures can take on its challenges. What distinguishes science is its insistence on rigorous methods to examine a problem. Science seeks to give precise knowledge about the natural world; the supernatural is not accessible to scientific methods of inquiry. Science is not a replacement for philosophy, religion, or art. Being a scientist does not prevent one from participating in other fields of human endeavor, just as being an artist does not prevent one from practicing science. Deductive reasoning begins with general principles Scientists use two types of systematic thought processes: deduction and induction. With deductive reasoning, we begin with supplied information, called premises, and draw conclusions on the basis of that information. Deduction proceeds from general principles to specific conclusions. For example, if you accept the premise that all birds have wings and the second premise that sparrows are birds, you can conclude deductively that sparrows have wings. Deduction helps us discover relationships among known facts. A fact is information or knowledge based on evidence. Inductive reasoning begins with specific observations Inductive reasoning is the opposite of deduction. We begin with specific observations and draw a conclusion or discover a general principle. For example, you know that sparrows have wings, can fly, and are birds. You also know that robins, eagles, pigeons, and hawks have wings, can fly, and are birds. You might induce that all birds have wings and fly. In this way, you can use the inductive method to organize raw data into manageable categories by answering this question: What do all these facts have in common? A weakness of inductive reasoning is that conclusions generalize the facts to all possible examples. When we formulate the general principle, we go from many observed examples to all possible examples. This is known as an inductive leap. Without it, we could not arrive at generalizations. However, we must be sensitive to exceptions and to the possibility that the conclusion is not valid. For example, the kiwi bird of New Zealand does not have functional wings (FIG. 1-15). We can never conclusively prove a universal generalization. The generalizations in inductive conclusions come from the creative insight of the human mind, and creativity, however admirable, is not infallible.

Mark Moffett/Minden Pictures

Scientists make careful observations and ask critical questions

FIGURE 1-14 Biologist at work This biologist studying the rainforest canopy in Costa Rica is part of an international effort to study and preserve tropical rain forests. Researchers study the interactions of organisms and the effects of human activities on the rain forests.

In 1928, British bacteriologist Alexander Fleming observed that a blue mold had invaded one of his bacterial cultures. He almost discarded it, but then he noticed that the area contaminated by the mold was surrounded by a zone where bacterial colonies did not grow well. The bacteria were disease organisms of the genus Staphylococcus, which can cause boils and skin infections. Anything that could kill them was interesting! Fleming saved the mold, a variety of Penicillium (blue bread mold), and isolated the antibiotic penicillin from it. However, he had difficulty culturing it. Even though Fleming recognized the potential practical benefit of penicillin, he did not develop the chemical techniques needed to purify it, and more than ten years passed before the drug was

C. Dani/Peter Arnold

tive or negative. Test results should also be repeatable by independent observers. (3) It is falsifiable, which means it can be proven false, as we will discuss in the next section. After generating hypotheses, the scientist decides which, if any, could and should be subjected to experimental test. Why not test them all? Time and money are important considerations in conducting research. Scientists must establish priority among the hypotheses to decide which to test first.

FIGURE 1-15 Is this animal a bird? The kiwi bird of New Zealand is about the size of a chicken. Its tiny 2-inch wings cannot be used for flight. The survivor of an ancient order of birds, the kiwi has bristly, hairlike feathers and other characteristics that qualify it as a bird.

put to significant use. In 1939, Sir Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain developed chemical procedures to extract and produce the active agent penicillin from the mold. Florey took the process to laboratories in the United States, and penicillin was first produced to treat wounded soldiers in World War II. In recognition of their work, Fleming, Florey, and Chain shared the 1945 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

Chance often plays a role in scientific discovery Fleming did not set out to discover penicillin. He benefited from the chance growth of a mold in one of his culture dishes. However, we may wonder how many times the same type of mold grew on the cultures of other bacteriologists who failed to make the connection and simply threw away their contaminated cultures. Fleming benefited from chance, but his mind was prepared to make observations and formulate critical questions, and his pen was prepared to publish them. Significant discoveries are usually made by those who are in the habit of looking critically at nature and recognizing a phenomenon or problem. Of course, the technology necessary for investigating the problem must also be available.

A falsifiable hypothesis can be tested In science, a well-stated hypothesis can be tested. If no evidence is found to support it, the hypothesis is rejected. The hypothesis can be shown to be false. Even results that do not support the hypothesis may be valuable and may lead to new hypotheses. If the results do support a hypothesis, a scientist may use them to generate related hypotheses. Let us consider a hypothesis that we can test by careful observation: female mammals (animals that have hair and produce milk for their young) bear live young. The hypothesis is based on the observations that dogs, cats, cows, lions, and humans all are mammals and all bear live young. Consider further that a new species, species X, is identified as a mammal based on its having hair and producing milk for its young. Biologists predict that females of species X will bear live young. (Is this inductive or deductive reasoning?) If a female of the new species gives birth to live offspring, the hypothesis is supported. Before the Southern Hemisphere was explored, most people would probably have accepted the hypothesis without question because all known furry, milk-producing animals did, in fact, bear live young. But biologists discovered that two Australian animals (the duck-billed platypus and the spiny anteater) had fur and produced milk for their young—but laid eggs (FIG. 1-16). The hypothesis, as stated, was false no matter how many times it had previously been supported. As a result, biologists either had to consider the

Scientists make careful observations, ask critical questions, and develop hypotheses. A hypothesis is a tentative explanation for observations or phenomena. Hypotheses can be posed as “if . . . then . . .” statements. For example, if students taking introductory biology attend classes, then they will make a higher grade on the exam than students who do not attend classes. In the early stages of an investigation, a scientist typically thinks of many possible hypotheses. A good hypothesis exhibits the following characteristics: (1) It is reasonably consistent with well-established facts. (2) It is capable of being tested; that is, it should generate definite predictions, whether the results are posi-

Tom McHugh/Photo Researchers, Inc.

A hypothesis is a testable statement

FIGURE 1-16 Is this animal a mammal? The duck-billed platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) is classified as a mammal because it has fur and produces milk for its young. However, unlike most mammals, it lays eggs.

platypus and the spiny anteater as nonmammals or had to broaden their definition of mammals to include them. (They chose to do the latter.) A hypothesis is not true just because some of its predictions (the ones people happen to have thought of or have thus far been able to test) have been shown to be true. After all, they could be true by coincidence. In fact, a hypothesis can be supported by data, but it cannot really be proven true. An unfalsifiable hypothesis cannot be proven false; in fact, it cannot be scientifically investigated. Belief in an unfalsifiable hypothesis, such as the existence of invisible and undetectable elves, must be rationalized on grounds other than scientific ones.

that the nucleus is necessary for the metabolic processes that provide for growth and cell reproduction. But, the investigators asked, what if the operation itself, not the loss of the nucleus, caused the amoeba to die? They performed a controlled experiment, subjecting two groups of amoebas to the same operative trauma (FIG. 1-17). In the experimental group, the nucleus was removed; in the control group, it was not. Ideally, an experimental group differs from a control group only with respect to the variable being studied. In the control group, the researcher inserted a microloop into each amoeba and pushed it around inside the cell to simulate removal of the nucleus; then the instrument was withdrawn, leaving the nucleus inside. Amoebas treated with such a sham operation recovered and subsequently grew and divided. This experiment showed that the removal of the nucleus, not simply the operation, caused the death

Models are important in developing and testing hypotheses Hypotheses have many potential sources, including direct observations or even computer simulations. Increasingly in biology, hypotheses may KEY EXPERIMENT be derived from models that scientists have developed to provide a comprehenASK CRITICAL QUESTIONS: Why is the nucleus so large? What is its importance? sive explanation for a large number of DEVELOP HYPOTHESIS: Cells will be adversely affected if they lose their nuclei. observations. Examples of such testable models include the model of the strucPERFORM EXPERIMENTS: Using a microloop, researchers removed the nucleus from each ture of DNA and the model of the strucamoeba in the experimental group. Amoebas in the control group were subjected to the same surgical procedure, but their nuclei were not removed. ture of the plasma membrane (discussed in Chapter 5). The best design for an experiment can sometimes be established by performing computer simulations. Virtual testing and evaluation are undertaken before the experiment is performed in the laboratory or field. Modeling and computer simulation save time and money.

Many predictions can be tested by experiment A hypothesis is an abstract idea, but based on their hypotheses, scientists can make predictions that can be tested. For example, we might predict that biology students who study for ten hours will do better on an exam than students who do not study. As used here, a prediction is a deductive, logical consequence of a hypothesis. It does not have to be a future event. Some predictions can be tested by controlled experiments. Early biologists observed that the nucleus was the most prominent part of the cell, and they hypothesized that cells would be adversely affected if they lost their nuclei. Biologists predicted that if the nucleus were removed from the cell, then the cell would die. They then experimented by surgically removing the nucleus of a unicellular amoeba. The amoeba continued to live and move, but it did not grow, and after a few days it died. These results suggested

Amoeba dies

(a) Experimental group. When its nucleus is surgically removed with a microloop, the amoeba dies.

Amoeba lives

(b) Control group. A control amoeba subjected to similar surgical procedures (including insertion of a microloop), but without actual removal of the nucleus, does not die. RESULTS: Amoebas without nuclei died. Amoebas in the control group lived. CONCLUSION: Amoebas cannot live without their nuclei. The hypothesis is supported.

FIGURE 1-17 Testing a prediction regarding the importance of the nucleus Scientists observed that the nucleus was the most prominent part of the cell. They asked critical questions about their observation and developed the hypothesis that cells would be adversely affected if they lost their nuclei. Based on their hypothesis, they made a prediction that could be tested: if the nucleus is removed from an amoeba, the amoeba will die. The investigators then performed experiments to test this prediction. They studied their results and concluded that their hypothesis was supported.

of the amoebas. The conclusion is that amoebas cannot live without their nuclei. The results support the hypothesis that if cells lose their nuclei, they are adversely affected. We can conclude that the nucleus is essential for the survival of the cell.

Researchers must avoid bias In scientific studies, researchers must do their best to avoid bias or preconceived notions of what should happen. For example, to prevent bias, most medical experiments are carried out in a doubleblind fashion. When a drug is tested, one group of patients receives the new medication, and a control group of matched patients receives a placebo (a harmless starch pill similar in size, shape, color, and taste to the pill being tested). This is a double-blind study, named so because neither the patient nor the physician knows who is getting the experimental drug and who is getting the placebo. The pills or treatments are coded in some way, and the code is broken only after the experiment is over and the results are recorded. Not all experiments can be so neatly designed; for example, it is often difficult to establish appropriate controls.

Scientists interpret the results of experiments and make conclusions Scientists gather data in an experiment, interpret their results, and then draw conclusions from them. In the amoeba experiment described earlier, investigators concluded that the data supported the hypothesis that the nucleus is essential for the survival of the cell. When the results do support a hypothesis, scientists may use them to generate related hypotheses. Even results that do not support the hypothesis may be valuable and may lead to new hypotheses. Let us discuss another experiment. Research teams studying chimpanzee populations in Africa have reported that chimpanzees appear to learn specific ways to use tools from one another. Behavior that is learned from others in a population and passed to future generations is what we call “culture.” In the past, most biologists have thought that only humans had culture. It has been difficult to test this type of learning in the field, and the idea has been controversial. Biologists have asked critical questions about whether chimpanzees learned how to use tools by observing one another. Investigators at Yerkes National Primate Research Center in Atlanta developed a hypothesis that chimpanzees can learn particular ways to use tools by observing other chimps. They predicted that if they taught one chimp to use a stick to obtain food from a dispenser, other chimps would learn the technique from the educated one (FIG. 1-18). These researchers divided chimpanzees into two experimental groups with 16 in each group. Then they taught a highranking female in each group to use a stick to obtain food from an apparatus. The two chimps were taught different methods. One chimp was taught to poke the stick inside the device to free the food. The other was taught to use the stick to lift a hook that removed a blockage, allowing the food to roll forward out of the device. A third group served as a control group. The chimps in the control group were given access to the sticks and the apparatus with the food inside but none were taught how to use the sticks. All of the control-group chimps manipulated the apparatus with the stick, but none succeeded in releasing food.

When the chimps were returned to their groups, other chimps observed how the educated chimps used the stick, and a large majority began to use sticks in the same way. The chimps in each group learned the specific style of using the stick that their educated chimp had been taught. Most used the stick to obtain food at least 10 times. Two months later, the apparatus was reintroduced to the chimps. Again, most of the chimps used the learned technique for obtaining food. The results of the experiment supported the hypothesis. The researchers concluded that chimpanzees are capable of culturally transmitting learned technology. Sampling error can lead to inaccurate conclusions One reason for inaccurate conclusions is sampling error. Because not all cases of what is being studied can be observed or tested (scientists cannot study every amoeba or every chimpanzee population), scientists must be content with a sample. How can scientists know whether that sample is truly representative of whatever they are studying? If the sample is too small, it may not be representative because of random factors. A study with only two, or even nine, amoebas may not yield reliable data that can be generalized to other amoebas. If researchers test a large number of subjects, they are more likely to draw accurate scientific conclusions (FIG. 1-19). The scientist seeks to state with some level of confidence that any specific conclusion has a certain statistical probability of being correct. Experiments must be repeatable When researchers publish their findings in a scientific journal, they typically describe their methods and procedures in sufficient detail so that other scientists can repeat the experiments. When the findings are replicated, the conclusions are, of course, strengthened.

A theory is supported by tested hypotheses Nonscientists often use the word theory incorrectly to refer to a hypothesis or even to some untestable idea they wish to promote. A scientific theory is actually an integrated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that is based on a number of hypotheses, each supported by consistent results from many observations or experiments. A scientific theory relates data that previously appeared unrelated. A good theory grows, building on additional facts as they become known. It predicts new facts and suggests new relationships among phenomena. It may even suggest practical applications. A scientific theory, by showing the relationships among classes of facts, simplifies and clarifies our understanding of the natural world. As Einstein wrote, “In the whole history of science from Greek philosophy to modern physics, there have been constant attempts to reduce the apparent complexity of natural phenomena to simple, fundamental ideas and relations.” Developing scientific theories is indeed a major goal of science.

Many hypotheses cannot be tested by direct experiment Some well-accepted theories do not lend themselves to hypothesis testing by ordinary experiments. Often, these theories describe events that occurred in the distant past. We cannot directly observe

KEY EXPERIMENT ASK CRITICAL QUESTIONS: Do chimpanzees learn how to use tools by observing one another? DEVELOP HYPOTHESIS: Chimpanzees can learn particular ways to use tools by observing other chimps. PERFORM EXPERIMENTS: One female in each of two groups of 16 chimps was educated in a specific way to use a stick to obtain food. The two educated chimps were then returned to their respective groups. Chimpanzees in a control group were not taught how to use a stick.

Number of chimps

12

8

4

0

Control

Exp. 1

Exp. 2

(a) Number of chimpanzees successfully employing specific method of tool use.

RESULTS: Chimpanzees in each experimental group observed the use of the stick by the educated chimp, and a majority began to use the stick in the same way. When tested two months later, many of the chimps in each group continued to use the stick. The results presented here have been simplified and are based on the number of chimps observed to use the learned method at least 10 times. All but one chimp in each group learned the technology, but a few used it only a few times. Some chimps taught themselves the alternative method and used that alternative. However, most conformed to the group’s use of the method that the investigator taught to the educated chimp. CONCLUSION: Chimpanzees learn specific ways to use tools by observing other chimps. The hypothesis was supported.

the origin of the universe from a very hot, dense state about 13.7 billion years ago (the Big Bang theory). However, physicists and cosmologists have been able to formulate many hypotheses related to the Big Bang and to test many of the predictions derived from these hypotheses. Similarly, humans did not observe the evolution of major groups of organisms because that process took place over millions of years and occurred before humans had evolved. However, many hypotheses about evolution have been posed, and predictions

Number of chimps

David Bygott

12

8

4

0

Control

Exp. 1

Exp. 2

(b) Number of chimpanzees successfully employing learned method of tool use two months later.

FIGURE 1-18 Testing a prediction about learning in chimpanzee populations In the photo, wild chimpanzees are shown observing a member of their group using a tool.

based on them have been tested. For example, if complex organisms evolved from simple life-forms, we would find the fossils of the simplest organisms in the oldest strata (rock layers). As we explore more recent strata, we would expect to find increasingly complex organisms. Indeed, scientists have found this progression of simple to complex fossils. In addition to fossils, evidence for evolution comes from many sources, including physical and molecular similarities between organisms. Evidence also comes from recent and current studies

Curtain

forms—bacteria and protists—that were neither plant nor animal. Biologists had to make a paradigm shift, that is, they changed their view of reality, to accommodate this new knowledge. They assigned these newly discovered organisms to new kingdoms. In a more recent paradigm shift, biologists have revised their idea that we are born with all of the brain cells we will ever have. We now understand that certain areas of the brain continue to produce new neurons throughout life.

Single selection

Marbles

Systems biology integrates different levels of information

produces

Assumption

100% blue

Actual ratio 20% blue 80% white

(a) Taking a single selection can result in sampling error. If the only marble selected is blue, we might assume all the marbles are blue. Curtain

Marbles

Multiple selections produce

Assumption

Actual ratio 20% blue 80% white

30% blue 70% white

(b) The greater the number of selections we take of an unknown, the more likely we can make valid assumptions about it.

FIGURE 1-19 Animated Statistical probability

of evolution in action. Many aspects of ongoing evolution can, in fact, be studied in the laboratory or in the field. The evidence for evolution is so compelling that virtually all scientists today accept evolutionary theory as an integral part of biology.

Paradigm shifts allow new discoveries A paradigm is a set of assumptions or concepts that constitute a way of thinking about reality. For example, from the time of Aristotle to the mid-19th century, biologists thought that organisms were either plants (kingdom Plantae) or animals (kingdom Animalia). This concept was deeply entrenched. However, with the development of microscopes, investigators discovered tiny life-

In the reductionist approach to biology, researchers study the simplest components of biological processes. Their goal is to synthesize their knowledge of many small parts to understand the whole. Reductionism has been (and continues to be) important in biological research. However, as biologists and their tools have become increasingly sophisticated, huge amounts of data have been generated, bringing the science of biology to a different level. Systems biology is a field of biology that builds on information provided by the reductionist approach and develops large data sets, typically generated by computers. Systems biology is also referred to as integrative biology. Reductionism and systems biology are complementary approaches. Using reductionism, biologists have discovered basic information about components, such as molecules, genes, cells, and organs. Systems biologists, who focus on systems as a whole rather than on individual components, need this basic knowledge to study, for example, the interactions among various parts and levels of an organism. Systems biologists integrate data from various levels of complexity with the goal of understanding the big picture—how biological systems function. For example, systems biologists are developing models of different aspects of cell function. Normal cell function depends on the precise actions of hundreds of proteins that relay signals received from other cells. Proteins also relay signals from one part of the cell to another. Researchers are producing detailed maps of the molecular pathways that maintain cell function (FIG. 1-20). One group of researchers has developed a model consisting of nearly 8000 chemical signals involved in a molecular network that leads to programmed cell death. By understanding cell communication, the interactions of genes and proteins in metabolic pathways, and physiological processes, systems biologists hope to eventually develop a model of the whole organism. Systems biology is increasingly used to study disease processes. For example, the interactions between the pathogen and the host cell can be mapped. The development of systems biology was fueled by the huge amount of data generated by the Human Genome Project. Researchers working on this project identified the DNA sequences that make up the estimated 25,000 genes of the human genome, the complete set of genes that make up the human genetic material. Computer software developed for the Human Genome Project can analyze very large data sets. These programs are being used to integrate data about protein interactions and many other aspects of molecular biology. Systems biologists view biology in terms of information systems. Increasingly, they depend on mathematics, statistics, and engineering principles.

Hawoong Jeong, University of Notre Dame/Science Photo Library

FIGURE 1-20 Map showing protein interactions in a yeast cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Each dot represents one protein in this single-celled fungus. Lines connect proteins that interact with one another. Highly connected proteins are more critical to cell function. Many of these interactions have also been identified in human cells. Specific proteins were removed by removing the genes that coded for their production. The proteins have been color-coded according to the effect their removal has on the yeast cell: red, lethal; green, not lethal; orange, slower growth; yellow, unknown effects.

Science has ethical dimensions Scientific investigation depends on a commitment to practical ideals, such as truthfulness and the obligation to communicate results. Honesty is particularly important in science. Consider the great (though temporary) damage done whenever an unprincipled or even desperate researcher, whose career may depend on the publication of a research study, knowingly disseminates false data. Until the deception is uncovered, researchers may devote thousands of dollars and hours of precious professional labor to futile lines of research inspired by erroneous reports. Deception can also be dangerous, especially in medical research. Fortunately, science tends to correct itself through consistent use of the scientific process. Sooner or later, someone’s experimental results are sure to cast doubt on false data. Science and technology continuously interact. As scientists doing basic research report new findings, engineers and other in-

■ ■

ventors develop new products. Many of those products contribute to our quality of life. New technology also provides scientists with more powerful tools for their research and increases the potential for new discoveries. For example, a few years ago determining the genome of any eukaryote required several rooms filled with machines that could sequence the genes. This endeavor also cost millions of dollars. New technologies have revolutionized gene sequencing, allowing complex genomes to be determined quickly, with less equipment, and at far less expense. Plans are under way to determine the genomes of 10,000 vertebrates. Science and technology continue to change society, and these changes present new challenges. In addition to being ethical about their own work, scientists face many societal and political issues surrounding areas such as genetic research, stem cell research, cloning, and human and animal experimentation. For example, some stem cells that show great potential for treating human disease come from early embryos. The cells can be taken from fiveor six-day-old human embryos and then cultured in laboratory glassware. At this stage, the embryo is a group of cells about 0.15 mm long (0.006 in). Such cells could be engineered to treat failing hearts or brains harmed by stroke, injury, Parkinson’s disease, or Alzheimer’s disease. They could save the lives of burn victims and perhaps be engineered to treat specific cancers. Scientists, and the larger society, will need to determine whether the potential benefits of any type of research outweigh its ethical risks. The era of the genome brings with it many ethical concerns and responsibilities. How do people safeguard the privacy of genetic information? For example, suppose that you have a family history of breast cancer and learn from genetic testing that you have one of the BRCA mutations. These mutations increase risk for developing breast cancer and certain other cancers. How can you be certain that knowledge of your individual genetic code would not be used against you when you seek employment or health insurance? Scientists must be ethically responsible and must help educate people about their work, including its benefits relative to its risks. It is significant that at the very beginning of the Human Genome Project, part of its budget was allocated for research on the ethical, legal, and social implications of its findings.

Review ■ ■ ■

What are the characteristics of a good hypothesis? What is meant by a “controlled” experiment? What is systems biology?

S U M M A RY: F O C US O N L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S

1.1 (page 2) 1 Describe three basic themes of biology. ■

Three basic themes of biology are evolution, transfer of information, and energy transfer. The process of evolution results in populations changing over time and explains how the ancestry of organisms can be traced back to earlier forms of life. Information must be transmitted within cells, among cells, among organisms, and from one generation to the next. Life requires continuous input of energy from the sun.

1.2 (page 2) 2 Distinguish between living and nonliving things by describing the features that characterize living organisms. ■ Every living organism is composed of one or more cells. Living things grow by increasing the size and/or number of their cells. Metabolism includes all the chemical activities that take place ■ in the organism, including the chemical reactions essential to nutrition, growth and repair, and conversion of energy to usable forms. Homeostasis refers to the appropriate, balanced internal environment.







Organisms respond to stimuli, physical or chemical changes in their external or internal environment. Responses typically involve movement. In asexual reproduction, offspring are typically identical to the single parent, except for size; in sexual reproduction, offspring are the product of the fusion of gametes, and genes are typically contributed by two parents. As populations evolve, they become adapted to their environment. Adaptations are traits that increase an organism’s ability to survive in its environment.

1.3 (page 5) 3 Construct a hierarchy of biological organization, including levels characteristic of individual organisms and levels characteristic of ecological systems. ■ Biological organization is hierarchical. A complex organism is organized at the chemical, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, and organism levels. Cells associate to form tissues that carry out specific functions. In most multicellular organisms, tissues organize to form functional structures called organs. An organized group of tissues and organs form an organ system. Functioning together, organ systems make up a complex, multicellular organism.

1.5 (page 8) 5 Summarize the flow of energy through ecosystems and contrast the roles of producers, consumers, and decomposers. ■ Activities of living cells require energy. Life depends on continuous energy input from the sun. During photosynthesis, plants, algae, and certain bacteria use the energy of sunlight to synthesize complex molecules from carbon dioxide and water. ■ Virtually all cells carry on cellular respiration, a biochemical process in which they capture the energy stored in nutrients by producers. Some of that energy is then used to synthesize required materials or to carry out other cell activities. ■ A self-sufficient ecosystem includes producers, or autotrophs, which make their own food; primary consumers, which eat producers, and typically secondary consumers that eat primary consumers; and decomposers, which obtain energy by breaking down wastes and dead organisms. Consumers and decomposers are heterotrophs, organisms that depend on producers as an energy source and for food and oxygen. Learn more about energy flow by clicking on the figure in CengageNOW.

1.6 (page 10) 6 Demonstrate the binomial system of nomenclature by using specific

Organ

Bone cells Tissue

Nucleus

Cell

Organelle



The basic unit of ecological organization is the population. Various populations form communities; a community and its physical environment are an ecosystem; all of Earth’s ecosystems together make up the biosphere. Learn more about biological organization by clicking on the figure in CengageNOW.

1.4 (page 7) 4 Summarize the importance of information transfer within and between living systems, giving specific examples. Organisms transmit information chemically, electrically, and behaviorally. ■ DNA, which makes up the genes, is the hereditary material. Information encoded in DNA is transmitted from one generation to the next. DNA contains the instructions for the development of an organism and for carrying out life processes. DNA codes for proteins, which are important in determining the structure and function of cells and tissues. ■ Hormones, chemical messengers that transmit messages from one part of an organism to another, are important in cell signaling. ■ Many organisms use electrical signals to transmit information; most animals have nervous systems that transmit electrical impulses and release neurotransmitters. ■

examples and classify an organism (such as a human) in its domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. ■ Millions of species have evolved. A species is a group of organisms with similar structure, function, and behavior that, in nature, breed only with one another. Members of a species contribute to a common gene pool and share a common ancestry. ■ Biologists use a binomial system of nomenclature in which the name of each species includes a genus name and a specific epithet. Taxonomic classification is hierarchical; it includes species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, and domain. Each grouping is referred to as a taxon. A group of organisms with a common ancestor is a clade. 7 Identify the three domains and the kingdoms of living organisms, and give examples of organisms assigned to each group. ■ Bacteria and archaea have prokaryotic cells; all other organisms have eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotes make up two of the three domains. ■ Organisms are classified in three domains: Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya and several kingdoms: Archaea, Bacteria, Fungi (e.g., molds and yeasts), Plantae, and Animalia. Protists (e.g., algae, water molds, slime molds, and amoebas) are now assigned to five “supergroups.” Learn more about life’s diversity by clicking on the figure in CengageNOW.

8 Give a brief overview of the scientific theory of evolution and explain why it is the principal unifying concept in biology. Evolution is the process by which populations change over time in ■ response to changes in the environment. Evolutionary theory explains how millions of species came to be and helps us understand the structure, function, behavior, and relationships of organisms. ■ Natural selection, the major mechanism by which evolution proceeds, favors individuals with traits that enable them to cope with environmental changes. Charles Darwin based his theory of natural selection on his observations that individuals of a species vary; organisms produce more offspring than survive to reproduce; organisms must compete for limited resources; and individuals that are best adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce, and pass on their hereditary information. Their traits become more widely distributed in the population. ■ The source of variation in a population is random mutation.

9 Apply the theory of natural selection to any given adaptation and suggest a logical explanation of how the adaptation may have evolved. ■ When the ancestors of Hawaiian honeycreepers first reached Hawaii, few other birds were present, so there was little competition for food. Through many generations, honeycreepers with longer, more curved bills became adapted for feeding on nectar from tubular flowers. Perhaps those with the longest, most curved bills were best able to survive in this food zone and lived to transmit their genes to their offspring. Those with shorter, thicker bills were more successful foraging for insects and passed their genes to new generations of offspring. Eventually, different species evolved that were adapted to specific food zones.





1.7 (page 15)

Do your own random sampling by clicking on the figure in CengageNOW.

10 Design a study to test a given hypothesis, using the procedure and terminology of the scientific method. The process of science is a dynamic approach to investigation. The scientific method is a general framework that scientists use in their work; it includes observing, recognizing a problem or stating a critical question, developing a hypothesis, making a prediction that can be tested, making further observations, performing experiments, interpreting results, and drawing conclusions that support or falsify the hypothesis. ■ Deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning are two categories of systematic thought used in the scientific method. Deductive reasoning proceeds from general principles to specific conclusions ■

and helps us discover relationships among known facts. Inductive reasoning begins with specific observations and draws conclusions from them. Inductive reasoning helps us discover general principles. A hypothesis is a tentative explanation for observations or phenomena. A hypothesis can be tested. If no evidence is found to support it, the hypothesis is rejected. A well-designed scientific experiment typically includes both a control group and an experimental group and must be as free as possible from bias. The control group should be as closely matched to the experimental group as possible. Ideally, the experimental group differs from the control group only with respect to the variable being studied.

A scientific theory is an integrated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that is based on a number of hypotheses, each supported by consistent results from many observations or experiments. 11 Compare the reductionist and systems approaches to biological research. ■ Using reductionism, researchers study the simplest components of biological processes, for example, molecules or cells. Systems biology uses knowledge provided by reductionism. Systems biologists integrate data from various levels of complexity with the goal of understanding how biological systems function. ■

T E S T YO U R U N D E R S TA N D I N G 1. Homeostasis (a) is the appropriate, balanced internal environment (b) is the sum of all the chemical activities of an organism (c) is the long-term response of organisms to changes in their environment (d) occurs at the ecosystem level, not in cells or organisms (e) may be sexual or asexual

7. Cellular respiration (a) is a process whereby sunlight is used to synthesize cell components with the release of energy (b) occurs in heterotrophs only (c) is carried on by both autotrophs and heterotrophs (d) causes chemical changes in DNA (e) occurs in response to environmental changes

2. An amoeba splits into two smaller amoebas. This is an example of (a) homeostasis (b) neurotransmission (c) asexual reproduction (d) sexual reproduction (e) metabolism

8. Fungi are assigned to domain (a) Protista (b) Archaea (c) Bacteria (d) Eukarya (e) Plantae

3. Cells (a) are the building blocks of living organisms (b) always have nuclei (c) are not found among the bacteria (d) a, b, and c (e) a and b 4. Which of the following is a correct sequence of levels of biological organization? 1. organ system 2. chemical 3. tissue 4. organ 5. cell (a) 2, 3, 5, 4, 1 (b) 5, 3, 4, 1, 2 (c) 2, 5, 3, 1, 4 (d) 2, 5, 3, 4, 1 (e) 5, 2, 3, 4, 1 5. Which of the following is a correct sequence of levels of ecological organization? 1. community 2. organism 3. ecosystem 4. population 5. biosphere (a) 5, 3, 1, 4, 2 (b) 2, 4, 1, 3, 5 (c) 2, 1, 4, 3, 5 (d) 4, 2, 1, 3, 5 (e) 2, 4, 3, 1, 5 6. DNA (a) is produced during cellular respiration (b) functions mainly to transmit information from one species to another (c) cannot be changed (d) is a neurotransmitter (e) makes up the genes

9. The scientific name for corn is Zea mays. Zea is the (a) specific epithet (b) genus (c) class (d) kingdom (e) phylum 10. Darwin suggested that evolution takes place by (a) mutation (b) changes in the individuals of a species (c) natural selection (d) interaction of hormones during competition for resources (e) homeostatic responses to each change in the environment 11. Ideally, an experimental group differs from a control group (a) only with respect to the hypothesis being tested (b) because its subjects are more reliable (c) in that it is less subject to bias (d) in that it is less vulnerable to sampling error (e) only with respect to the variable being studied 12. A systems biologist would most likely work on (a) better understanding the components of cells (b) developing a better system of classification of organisms (c) devising a new series of steps for the scientific method (d) researching a series of reactions that communicate information in the cell (e) identifying the connections and interactions of neurons in order to learn about brain function

13. Identify the domain and kingdoms by writing the name for each on the blank lines. Bacteria

Archaea Protist groups

Common ancestor of all organisms

CRITICAL THINKING 1. What would happen if a homeostatic mechanism failed? Describe a homeostatic mechanism at work in your body (other than the regulation of glucose cited in the chapter). 2. Contrast the reductionist approach with systems biology. How are the two approaches complementary? Which approach is more likely to consider emergent properties? 3. What are some characteristics of a good hypothesis? Give an example. 4. Make a prediction and devise a suitably controlled experiment to test each of the following hypotheses: (a) A type of mold found in your garden produces an effective antibiotic. (b) The growth rate of a bean seedling is affected by temperature. (c) Estrogen alleviates symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease in elderly women. 5. EVOLUTION LINK. In what ways does evolution depend on transfer of information? In what ways does transfer of information depend on evolution? 6. EVOLUTION LINK. How might an understanding of evolutionary processes help a biologist doing research in (a) animal

behavior, for example, the hunting behavior of lions? (b) the development of a new antibiotic to replace one to which bacteria have become resistant? (c) conservation of a specific plant in a rain forest? 7. ANALYZING DATA. Compare the two graphs in Figure 1-18. What information does the second graph illustrate? What possible explanation can you give for the differences shown in the two graphs? 8. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND SOCIETY. New technology is allowing scientists to develop effective gene therapies to treat serious diseases. In the future gene therapy may be used to treat such conditions as addiction or bipolar disorder. What if gene therapy could be used to produce children with athletic ability, artistic ability, or high IQ? Do you have any ethical concerns about these possibilities? If so, where and how would you draw the line? Additional questions are available in CengageNOW at www.cengage.com/ login.

2

Atoms and Molecules: The Chemical Basis of Life

Frans Lanting/Minden Pictures

Water is a basic requirement for all life. A jaguar (Panthera onca), the largest cat in the Western Hemisphere, pauses to drink water from a rainforest stream.

KEY CONCEPTS

A

2.1 Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen are the most

forest, as well as abundant unseen insects and microorganisms, share

abundant elements in living things.

fundamental similarities in their chemical composition and basic meta-

2.2 The chemical properties of an atom are determined by

bolic processes. These chemical similarities provide strong evidence for

its highest-energy electrons, known as valence electrons.

the evolution of all organisms from a common ancestor and explain why

2.3 A molecule consists of atoms joined by covalent

much of what biologists learn from studying bacteria or rats in laborato-

bonds. Other important chemical bonds include ionic bonds. Hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions are weak attractions.

2.4 The energy of an electron is transferred in a redox reaction.

knowledge of chemistry is essential for understanding organisms and how they function. This jaguar and the plants of the tropical rain

ries can be applied to other organisms, including humans. Furthermore, the basic chemical and physical principles governing organisms are not unique to living things, for they apply to nonliving systems as well. The success of the Human Genome Project and related studies has

2.5 Water molecules are polar, having regions of partial

relied heavily on biochemistry and molecular biology, the chemistry and

positive and partial negative charge that permit them to form hydrogen bonds with one another and with other charged substances.

physics of the molecules that constitute living things. A biochemist may

2.6 Acids are hydrogen ion donors; bases are hydrogen ion acceptors. The pH scale is a convenient measure of the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.

investigate the precise interactions among a cell’s atoms and molecules that maintain the energy flow essential to life, and a molecular biologist may study how proteins interact with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in ways that control the expression of certain genes. However, an understanding of chemistry is essential to all biologists. An evolutionary biologist may

study evolutionary relationships by comparing the DNA of different types of organisms. An ecologist may study how energy is transferred among the organisms living in an estuary or monitor the biological effects of changes in the salinity of the water. A botanist may study unique compounds produced by plants and may even be a “chemical prospector,” seeking new sources of medicinal agents. In this chapter we lay a foundation for understanding how the structure of atoms determines the way they form chemical bonds to produce complex compounds. Most of our discussion focuses on small, simple substances known as inorganic compounds. Among the biologically important groups of inorganic compounds are water, many simple acids and bases, and simple salts. We pay particular attention to water, the most abundant substance in organisms and on Earth’s surface, and we examine how its unique properties affect living things as well as their nonliving environment. In Chapter 3 we extend our discussion to organic compounds, carbon-containing

particles. Physicists have discovered a number of subatomic particles, but for our purposes we need consider only three: electrons, protons, and neutrons. An electron is a particle that carries a unit of negative electric charge; a proton carries a unit of positive charge; and a neutron is an uncharged particle. In an electrically neutral atom, the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons. Clustered together, protons and neutrons compose the atomic nucleus. Electrons, however, have no fixed locations and move rapidly through the mostly empty space surrounding the atomic nucleus.

An atom is uniquely identified by its number of protons Every element has a fixed number of protons in the atomic nucleus, known as the atomic number. It is written as a subscript to the left of the chemical symbol. Thus, 1H indicates that the hydrogen

compounds that are generally large and complex. In all but the simplest organic compounds, two or more carbon atoms are bonded to

TABLE 2-1

Functions of Elements in Organisms

each other to form the backbone, or skeleton, of the molecule. Element* (chemical symbol)

2.1

ELEMENTS AND ATOMS

■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1 2

3

Name the principal chemical elements in living things and provide an important function of each. Compare the physical properties (mass and charge) and locations of electrons, protons, and neutrons. Distinguish between the atomic number and the mass number of an atom. Define the terms orbital and electron shell. Relate electron shells to principal energy levels.

Elements are substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical reactions. Each element has a chemical symbol: usually the first letter or first and second letters of the English or Latin name of the element. For example, O is the symbol for oxygen, C for carbon, H for hydrogen, N for nitrogen, and Na for sodium (from the Latin word natrium). Just four elements—oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen—are responsible for more than 96% of the mass of most organisms. Others, such as calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium, are also consistently present but in smaller quantities. Some elements, such as iodine and copper, are known as trace elements because they are required only in minute amounts. TABLE 2-1 lists the elements that make up organisms and briefly explains the importance of each in typical plants and animals. An atom is defined as the smallest portion of an element that retains its chemical properties. Atoms are much too small to be visible under a light microscope. However, by sophisticated techniques (such as scanning tunneling microscopy, with magnifications as great as 5 million times) researchers have been able to photograph the positions of some large atoms in molecules. The components of atoms are tiny particles of matter (anything that has mass and takes up space) known as subatomic

O

Oxygen

C

Carbon

H

Hydrogen

N

Nitrogen

Ca

Calcium

P

Phosphorus

K

Potassium

S Na

Sulfur Sodium

Mg

Magnesium

Cl

Chlorine

Fe

Iron

Functions Required for cellular respiration; present in most organic compounds; component of water Forms backbone of organic molecules; each carbon atom can form four bonds with other atoms Present in most organic compounds; component of water; hydrogen ion (H+) is involved in some energy transfers Component of proteins and nucleic acids; component of chlorophyll in plants Structural component of bones and teeth; calcium ion (Ca2+) is important in muscle contraction, conduction of nerve impulses, and blood clotting; associated with plant cell wall Component of nucleic acids and of phospholipids in membranes; important in energy transfer reactions; structural component of bone Potassium ion (K+) is a principal positive ion (cation) in interstitial (tissue) fluid of animals; important in nerve function; affects muscle contraction; controls opening of stomata in plants Component of most proteins Sodium ion (Na+) is a principal positive ion (cation) in interstitial (tissue) fluid of animals; important in fluid balance; essential for conduction of nerve impulses; important in photosynthesis in plants Needed in blood and other tissues of animals; activates many enzymes; component of chlorophyll in plants Chloride ion (Cl−) is principal negative ion (anion) in interstitial (tissue) fluid of animals; important in water balance; essential for photosynthesis Component of hemoglobin in animals; activates certain enzymes

*Other elements found in very small (trace) amounts in animals, plants, or both include iodine (I), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), fluorine (F), molybdenum (Mo), selenium (Se), boron (B), silicon (Si), and a few others.

nucleus contains 1 proton, and 8O means that the oxygen nucleus contains 8 protons. The atomic number determines an atom’s identity and defines the element. The periodic table is a chart of the elements arranged in order by atomic number (FIG. 2-1 and Appendix A). The periodic table is useful because it lets us simultaneously correlate many of the relationships among the various elements. Figure 2-1 includes representations of the electron configurations of several elements important in organisms. These Bohr models, which show the electrons arranged in a series of concentric circles around the nucleus, are convenient to use, but inaccurate. The space outside the nucleus is actually extremely large compared

KEY POINT

to the nucleus, and as you will see, electrons do not actually circle the nucleus in fixed concentric pathways.

Protons plus neutrons determine atomic mass The mass of a subatomic particle is exceedingly small, much too small to be conveniently expressed in grams or even micrograms.1 Such masses are expressed in terms of the atomic mass unit (amu), also called the dalton in honor of John Dalton, the English 1

Tables of commonly used units of scientific measurement are printed inside the back cover of this text.

The periodic table provides information about the elements: their compositions, structures, and chemical behavior.

Chemical symbol

O

Atomic number H

1

HYDROGEN

8

OXYGEN

Chemical name

N

7

NITROGEN

Number of e– in each energy level

Mg

12

C

MAGNESIUM

2•6

6

AT. MASS 16.00 amu

CARBON

1 AT. MASS 1.01 amu

2•5

H

Na

He

AT. MASS 14.01 amu

Ne

11

10

NEON

SODIUM

Li

Be

B

C

N

O

F

Ne

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

Ar

Se

Br

Kr

2•8•2

Na Mg K

2•4

AT. MASS 24.31 amu

AT. MASS 12.01 amu

Ca Sc

Ti

V

Cr

Mn Fe

Co Ni

Cu Zn

Ga Ge As

2•8 AT. MASS 20.18 amu

2•8•1 AT. MASS 22.99 amu

K

19

POTASSIUM

Rb Sr

Y

Zr

Nb Mo Tc

Cs

(L)

Hf

Ta

Fr

2•8•8•1 AT. MASS 39.10 amu

Ba

Ca

Ra (A)

(L) (A)

La

W

Ru Rh Pd

Re Os Ir

Pt

Ag

Sn

Cd In

P

15

PHOSPHORUS

Sb

Te

I

Xe

Bi

Po

At

Rn

Cl S

20

16

SULFUR

CALCIUM

C

Sm Eu

Gd

2•8•7

Tm Y

2•8•5

AT. MASS 35.45 amu

AT. MASS 30.97 amu

Ac

17

CHLORINE

T

2•8•8•2

Pu

Am Cm Bk

Cf

Es

Fm Md N

2•8•6 AT. MASS 32.07 amu

AT. MASS 40.08 amu

FIGURE 2-1 The periodic table Note the Bohr models depicting the electron configuration of atoms of some biologically important elements, plus neon, which is unreactive, because its valence shell is full (to be discussed later in the chapter).

Although the Bohr model does not depict electron configurations accurately, it is commonly used because of its simplicity and convenience. A complete periodic table is given in Appendix A.

Particle

Charge

Approximate Mass

Location

Proton Neutron Electron

Positive Neutral Negative

1 amu 1 amu Approx. 1/1800 amu

Nucleus Nucleus Outside nucleus

Isotopes of an element differ in number of neutrons Most elements consist of a mixture of atoms with different numbers of neutrons and thus different masses. Such atoms are called isotopes. Isotopes of the same element have the same number of protons and electrons; only the number of neutrons varies. The three isotopes of hydrogen, 11H (ordinary hydrogen), 21H (deuterium), and 31H (tritium), contain 0, 1, and 2 neutrons, respectively. FIGURE 2-2 shows Bohr models of two isotopes of carbon, 12 14 6 C and 6 C. The mass of an element is expressed as an average of the masses of its isotopes (weighted by their relative abundance in nature). For example, the atomic mass of hydrogen is not 1.0 amu, but 1.0079 amu, reflecting the natural occurrence of small amounts of deuterium and tritium in addition to the more abundant ordinary hydrogen. Because they have the same number of electrons, all isotopes of a given element have essentially the same chemical characteristics. However, some isotopes are unstable and tend to break down, or decay, to a more stable isotope (usually becoming a different element); such radioisotopes emit radiation when they decay. For example, the radioactive decay of 146 C occurs as a neutron decomposes to form a proton and a fast-moving electron, which is emitted from the atom as a form of radiation known as a beta (b) particle. The resulting stable atom is the common form of nitrogen, 147 N. Using sophisticated instruments, scientists can detect and measure b particles and other types of radiation. Radioactive decay can also be detected by a method known as autoradiography, in which radiation causes the appearance of dark silver grains in photographic film (FIG. 2-3). 2

Unlike weight, mass is independent of the force of gravity. For convenience, however, we consider mass and weight equivalent. Atomic weight has the same numerical value as atomic mass, but it has no units.





+ –



+

+

+ +





+ +





+

+ +





+

+





Carbon-14 ( 146C) (6p, 8n)

Carbon-12 ( 126C) (6p, 6n)

FIGURE 2-2 Isotopes Carbon-12 (126 C) is the most common isotope of carbon. Its nucleus contains 6 protons and 6 neutrons, so its atomic mass is 12. Carbon-14 (146 C) is a rare radioactive carbon isotope. It contains 8 neutrons, so its atomic mass is 14.

Because the different isotopes of a given element have the same chemical characteristics, they are essentially interchangeable in molecules. Molecules containing radioisotopes are usually metabolized and/or localized in the organism in a similar way to their nonradioactive counterparts, and they can be substituted. For this reason, radioisotopes such as 3H (tritium), 14C, and 32P are extremely valuable research tools used, for example, in dating fossils (see Fig. 18-10), tracing biochemical pathways, determining the sequence of genetic information in DNA (see Fig. 15-10), and understanding sugar transport in plants. In medicine, radioisotopes are used for both diagnosis and treatment. The location and/or metabolism of a substance such as a hormone or drug can be followed in the body by labeling the substance with a radioisotope such as carbon-14 or tritium. Radioisotopes are used to test thyroid gland function, to provide images of blood flow in the arteries supplying the cardiac muscle, and to

Peter J. Bryant/Biological Photo Service

chemist who formulated an atomic theory in the early 1800s. One amu is equal to the approximate mass of a single proton or a single neutron. Protons and neutrons make up almost all the mass of an atom. The mass of a single electron is only about 1/1800 the mass of a proton or neutron. The atomic mass of an atom is a number that indicates approximately how much matter it contains compared with another atom. This value is determined by adding the number of protons to the number of neutrons and expressing the result in atomic mass units or daltons.2 The mass of the electrons is ignored because it is so small. The atomic mass number is indicated by a superscript to the left of the chemical symbol. The common form of the oxygen atom, with 8 protons and 8 neutrons in its nucleus, has an atomic number of 8 and a mass of 16 amu. It is indicated by the symbol 168 O . The characteristics of protons, electrons, and neutrons are summarized in the following table:

Concentrated silver grains

50 μm

FIGURE 2-3 Autoradiography The chromosomes of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, shown in this light micrograph, have been covered with photographic film in which silver grains (dark spots) are produced when tritium (3H) that has been incorporated into DNA undergoes radioactive decay. The concentrations of silver grains (arrows) mark the locations of specific DNA molecules.

study many other aspects of body function and chemistry. Because radiation can interfere with cell division, radioisotopes have been used therapeutically in treating cancer, a disease often characterized by rapidly dividing cells.

Electrons move in orbitals corresponding to energy levels Electrons move through characteristic regions of 3-D space, or orbitals. Each orbital contains a maximum of 2 electrons. Because

KEY POINT

it is impossible to know an electron’s position at any given time, orbitals are most accurately depicted as “electron clouds,” shaded areas whose density is proportional to the probability that an electron is present there at any given instant. The energy of an electron depends on the orbital it occupies. Electrons in orbitals with similar energies, said to be at the same principal energy level, make up an electron shell (FIG. 2-4). In general, electrons in a shell with a greater average distance from the nucleus have greater energy than those in a shell close to the nucleus. The reason is that energy is required to move a nega-

Electrons occupy orbitals corresponding to energy levels.

z

Nucleus

y 1s

(a) The first principal energy level contains a maximum of 2 electrons, occupying a single spherical orbital (designated 1s). The electrons depicted in the diagram could be present anywhere in the blue area.

x

z

z

z

2px

2s

z

2py

2pz

y

y

y

y

x

x

x

x

(b) The second principal energy level includes four orbitals, each with a maximum of 2 electrons: one spherical (2s) and three dumbbell-shaped (2p) orbitals at right angles to one another. z

1s

2s y 2py 2px x

2pz

(c) Orbitals of the first and second principal energy levels of a neon atom are shown superimposed. Note that the single 2s orbital plus three 2p orbitals make up neon's full valence shell of 8 electrons. Compare this more realistic view of the atomic orbitals with the Bohr model of a neon atom at right.

(d) Neon atom (Bohr model)

FIGURE 2-4 Animated Atomic orbitals Each orbital is represented as an “electron cloud.” The arrows labeled x, y, and z establish the imaginary axes of the atom.

tively charged electron farther away from the positively charged nucleus. The most energetic electrons, known as valence electrons, are said to occupy the valence shell. The valence shell is represented as the outermost concentric ring in a Bohr model. As we will see in the next sections, it is these valence electrons that play a key role in chemical reactions. An electron can move to an orbital farther from the nucleus by receiving more energy, or it can give up energy and sink to a lower energy level in an orbital nearer the nucleus. Changes in electron energy levels are important in energy conversions in organisms. For example, during photosynthesis, light energy absorbed by chlorophyll molecules causes electrons to move to a higher energy level (see Fig. 9-3).

Review ■





Do all atoms of an element have the same atomic number? the same atomic mass? What is a radioisotope? What are some ways radioisotopes are used in biological research? How do electrons in different orbitals of the same electron shell compare with respect to their energy?

2.2 CHEMICAL REACTIONS ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVES 4 Explain how the number of valence electrons of an atom is related 5 6

to its chemical properties. Distinguish among simplest, molecular, and structural chemical formulas. Explain why the mole concept is so useful to chemists.

The chemical behavior of an atom is determined primarily by the number and arrangement of its valence electrons. The valence shell of hydrogen or helium is full (stable) when it contains 2 electrons. The valence shell of any other atom is full when it contains 8 electrons. When the valence shell is not full, the atom tends to lose, gain, or share electrons to achieve a full outer shell. The valence shells of all isotopes of an element are identical; for this reason, they have similar chemical properties and can substitute for one another in chemical reactions (for example, tritium can substitute for ordinary hydrogen). Elements in the same vertical column (belonging to the same group) of the periodic table have similar chemical properties because their valence shells have similar tendencies to lose, gain, or share electrons. For example, chlorine and bromine, included in a group commonly known as the halogens, are highly reactive. Because their valence shells have 7 electrons, they tend to gain an electron in chemical reactions. By contrast, hydrogen, sodium, and potassium each have a single valence electron, which they tend to give up or share with another atom. Helium (He) and neon (Ne) belong to a group referred to as the noble gases. They are quite unreactive because their valence shells are full. Notice in Figure 2-1 the incomplete valence shells of some of the elements important in organisms, including carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, and compare them with the full valence shell of neon in Figure 2-4d.

Atoms form compounds and molecules Two or more atoms may combine chemically. When atoms of different elements combine, the result is a chemical compound. A chemical compound consists of atoms of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio. For example, water is a chemical compound composed of hydrogen and oxygen in a ratio of 2:1. Common table salt, sodium chloride, is a chemical compound made up of sodium and chlorine in a 1:1 ratio. Two or more atoms may become joined very strongly to form a stable particle called a molecule. For example, when two atoms of oxygen combine chemically, a molecule of oxygen is formed. Water is a molecular compound, with each molecule consisting of two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen. However, as you will see, not all compounds are made up of molecules. Sodium chloride (common table salt) is an example of a compound that is not molecular.

Simplest, molecular, and structural chemical formulas give different information A chemical formula is a shorthand expression that describes the chemical composition of a substance. Chemical symbols indicate the types of atoms present, and subscript numbers indicate the ratios among the atoms. There are several types of chemical formulas, each providing specific kinds of information. In a simplest formula (also known as an empirical formula), the subscripts give the smallest whole-number ratios for the atoms present in a compound. For example, the simplest formula for hydrazine is NH2, indicating a 1:2 ratio of nitrogen to hydrogen. (Note that when a single atom of a type is present, the subscript number 1 is never written.) In a molecular formula, the subscripts indicate the actual numbers of each type of atom per molecule. The molecular formula for hydrazine is N2H4, which indicates that each molecule of hydrazine consists of two atoms of nitrogen and four atoms of hydrogen. The molecular formula for water, H2O, indicates that each molecule consists of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen. A structural formula shows not only the types and numbers of atoms in a molecule but also their arrangement. For example, the structural formula for water is HOOOH. As you will learn in Chapter 3, it is common for complex organic molecules with different structural formulas to share the same molecular formula.

One mole of any substance contains the same number of units The molecular mass of a compound is the sum of the atomic masses of the component atoms of a single molecule; thus, the molecular mass of water, H2O, is (hydrogen: 2 × 1 amu) + (oxygen: 1 × 16 amu), or 18 amu. (Because of the presence of isotopes, atomic mass values are not whole numbers, but for easy calculation each atomic mass value has been rounded off to a whole number.) Similarly, the molecular mass of glucose (C6H12O6), a simple sugar that is a key compound in cell metabolism, is (carbon: 6 × 12 amu) + (hydrogen: 12 × 1 amu) + (oxygen: 6 × 16 amu), or 180 amu.

The amount of an element or compound whose mass in grams is equivalent to its atomic or molecular mass is 1 mole (mol). Thus, 1 mol of water is 18 grams (g), and 1 mol of glucose has a mass of 180 g. The mole is an extremely useful concept because it lets us make meaningful comparisons between atoms and molecules of very different mass. The reason is that 1 mol of any substance always has exactly the same number of units, whether those units are small atoms or large molecules. The very large number of units in a mole, 6.02 × 1023, is known as Avogadro’s number, named for the Italian physicist Amadeo Avogadro, who first calculated it. Thus, 1 mol (180 g) of glucose contains 6.02 × 1023 molecules, as does 1 mol (2 g) of molecular hydrogen (H2). Although it is impossible to count atoms and molecules individually, a scientist can calculate them simply by weighing a sample. Molecular biologists usually deal with smaller values, either millimoles (mmol, one-thousandth of a mole) or micromoles (mmol, one-millionth of a mole). The mole concept also lets us make useful comparisons among solutions. A 1 molar solution, represented by 1 M, contains 1 mol of that substance dissolved in a total volume of 1 liter (L). For example, we can compare 1 L of a 1 M solution of glucose with 1 L of a 1 M solution of sucrose (table sugar, a larger molecule). They differ in the mass of the dissolved sugar (180 g and 340 g, respectively), but they each contain 6.02 × 1023 sugar molecules.

Review ■

■ ■

Why is a radioisotope able to substitute for an ordinary (nonradioactive) atom of the same element in a molecule? Which kind of chemical formula provides the most information? How many particles would be included in 1 g of hydrogen atoms? in 2 g of hydrogen molecules?

2.3 CHEMICAL BONDS ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE 7

Distinguish among covalent bonds, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and van der Waals interactions. Compare them in terms of the mechanisms by which they form and their relative strengths.

Atoms can be held together by forces of attraction called chemical bonds. Each bond represents a certain amount of chemical energy. Bond energy is the energy necessary to break a chemical bond. The valence electrons dictate how many bonds an atom can form. The two principal types of strong chemical bonds are covalent bonds and ionic bonds.

In covalent bonds electrons are shared Chemical equations describe chemical reactions During any moment in the life of an organism—a bacterial cell, a mushroom, or a butterfly—many complex chemical reactions are taking place. Chemical reactions, such as the reaction between glucose and oxygen, can be described by means of chemical equations: C6 H12 O6 + 6 O2 ¡ Glucose

Oxygen

6 CO2 Carbon dioxide

+ 6 H2O + energy Water

In a chemical equation, the reactants, the substances that participate in the reaction, are generally written on the left side, and the products, the substances formed by the reaction, are written on the right side. The arrow means “yields” and indicates the direction in which the reaction proceeds. Chemical compounds react with one another in quantitatively precise ways. The numbers preceding the chemical symbols or formulas (known as coefficients) indicate the relative number of atoms or molecules reacting. For example, 1 mol of glucose burned in a fire or metabolized in a cell reacts with 6 mol of oxygen to form 6 mol of carbon dioxide and 6 mol of water. Many reactions can proceed simultaneously in the reverse direction (to the left) and the forward direction (to the right). At dynamic equilibrium, the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal (see Chapter 7). Reversible reactions are indicated by double arrows: CO2 Carbon dioxide

+

H2O

H2CO3

Water

Carbonic acid

In this example, the arrows are drawn in different lengths to indicate that when the reaction reaches equilibrium, there will be more reactants (CO2 and H2O) than product (H2CO3).

Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms in a way that results in each atom having a filled valence shell. A molecule consists of atoms joined by covalent bonds. A simple example of a covalent bond is the joining of two hydrogen atoms in a molecule of hydrogen gas, H2. Each atom of hydrogen has 1 electron, but 2 electrons are required to complete its valence shell. The hydrogen atoms have equal capacities to attract electrons, so neither donates an electron to the other. Instead, the two hydrogen atoms share their single electrons so that the 2 electrons are attracted simultaneously to the 2 protons in the two hydrogen nuclei. The 2 electrons whirl around both atomic nuclei, thus forming the covalent bond that joins the two atoms. Similarly, unlike atoms can also be linked by covalent bonds to form molecules; the resulting compound is a covalent compound. A simple way of representing the electrons in the valence shell of an atom is to use dots placed around the chemical symbol of the element. Such a representation is called the Lewis structure of the atom, named for G. N. Lewis, an American chemist who developed this type of notation. In a water molecule, two hydrogen atoms are covalently bonded to an oxygen atom: H +H + O

H O H

Oxygen has 6 valence electrons; by sharing electrons with two hydrogen atoms, it completes its valence shell of 8. At the same time, each hydrogen atom obtains a complete valence shell of 2. (Note that in the structural formula HOOOH, each pair of shared electrons constitutes a covalent bond, represented by a solid line. Unshared electrons are usually omitted in a structural formula.) The carbon atom has 4 electrons in its valence shell, all of which are available for covalent bonding:

C

When one carbon and four hydrogen atoms share electrons, a molecule of the covalent compound methane, CH4, is formed: H H C H H

H or

H

C

H

H

Lewis structure

Structural formula

The nitrogen atom has 5 electrons in its valence shell. Recall that each orbital can hold a maximum of 2 electrons. Usually, 2 electrons occupy one orbital, leaving 3 electrons available for sharing with other atoms: N

When a nitrogen atom shares electrons with three hydrogen atoms, a molecule of the covalent compound ammonia, NH3, is formed: H N H H

or

H

N

H

H

Lewis structure

Structural formula

When one pair of electrons is shared between two atoms, the covalent bond is called a single covalent bond (FIG. 2-5a). Two hydrogen atoms share a single pair of electrons. Two oxygen atoms

KEY POINT

may achieve stability by forming covalent bonds with each other. Each oxygen atom has 6 electrons in its outer shell. To become stable, the two atoms share two pairs of electrons, forming molecular oxygen (FIG. 2-5b). When two pairs of electrons are shared in this way, the covalent bond is called a double covalent bond, which is represented by two parallel solid lines. Similarly, a triple covalent bond is formed when three pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms (represented by three parallel solid lines). The number of covalent bonds usually formed by the atoms in biologically important molecules is summarized as follows: Atom Hydrogen Oxygen Carbon Nitrogen Phosphorus Sulfur

Symbol

Covalent Bonds

H O C N P S

1 2 4 3 5 2

The function of a molecule is related to its shape In addition to being composed of atoms with certain properties, each kind of molecule has a characteristic size and a general overall shape. Although the shape of a molecule may change (within certain limits), the functions of molecules in living cells are dictated largely by their geometric shapes. A molecule that consists of two atoms is linear. Molecules composed of more than two atoms may

Covalent bonds form when atoms share electrons.

+

Hydrogen (H)

H H

Hydrogen (H)

Molecular hydrogen (H2)

or

H H

(a) Single covalent bond formation. Two hydrogen atoms achieve stability by sharing a pair of electrons, thereby forming a molecule of hydrogen. In the structural formula on the right, the straight line between the hydrogen atoms represents a single covalent bond.

+

Oxygen (O)

Oxygen (O)

Molecular oxygen (O2) (double bond is formed)

or

O

O

O

O

(b) Double covalent bond formation. In molecular oxygen, two oxygen atoms share two pairs of electrons, forming a double covalent bond. The parallel straight lines in the structural formula represent a double covalent bond.

FIGURE 2-5 Electron sharing in covalent compounds

H

H

C

H H

Methane (CH4)

FIGURE 2-6 Orbital hybridization in methane The four hydrogens are located at the corners of a tetrahedron because of hybridization of the valence shell orbitals of carbon.

have more complicated shapes. The geometric shape of a molecule provides the optimal distance between the atoms to counteract the repulsion of electron pairs. When an atom forms covalent bonds with other atoms, the orbitals in the valence shell may become rearranged in a process known as orbital hybridization, thereby affecting the shape of the resulting molecule. For example, when four hydrogen atoms combine with a carbon atom to form a molecule of methane (CH4), the hybridized valence shell orbitals of the carbon form a geometric structure known as a tetrahedron, with one hydrogen atom present at each of its four corners (FIG. 2-6; see also Fig. 3-2a). We will explore the importance of molecular shape in more detail in Chapter 3 and in our discussion of the properties of water in this chapter. Covalent bonds can be nonpolar or polar Atoms of different elements vary in their affinity for electrons. Electronegativity is a measure of an atom’s attraction for shared electrons in chemical bonds. Very electronegative atoms such as oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, and chlorine are sometimes called “electron greedy.” When covalently bonded atoms have similar electronegativities, the electrons are shared equally and the covalent bond is described as nonpolar. The covalent bond of the hydrogen molecule is nonpolar, as are the covalent bonds of molecular oxygen and methane.

In a covalent bond between two different elements, such as oxygen and hydrogen, the electronegativities of the atoms may be different. If so, electrons are pulled closer to the atomic nucleus of the element with the greater electron affinity (in this case, oxygen). A covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity is called a polar covalent bond. Such a bond has two dissimilar ends (or poles), one with a partial positive charge and the other with a partial negative charge. Each of the two covalent bonds in water is polar because there is a partial positive charge at the hydrogen end of the bond and a partial negative charge at the oxygen end, where the “shared” electrons are more likely to be. Covalent bonds differ in their degree of polarity, ranging from those in which the electrons are equally shared (as in the nonpolar hydrogen molecule) to those in which the electrons are much closer to one atom than to the other (as in water). Oxygen is quite electronegative and forms polar covalent bonds with carbon, hydrogen, and many other atoms. Nitrogen is also strongly electronegative, although less so than oxygen. A molecule with one or more polar covalent bonds can be polar even though it is electrically neutral as a whole. The reason is that a polar molecule has one end with a partial positive charge and another end with a partial negative charge. One example is water (FIG. 2-7). The polar bonds between the hydrogens and the oxygen are arranged in a V shape, rather than linearly. The oxygen end constitutes the negative pole of the molecule, and the end with the two hydrogens is the positive pole.

Ionic bonds form between cations and anions Some atoms or groups of atoms are not electrically neutral. A particle with 1 or more units of electric charge is called an ion. An atom becomes an ion if it gains or loses 1 or more electrons. An atom with 1, 2, or 3 electrons in its valence shell tends to lose electrons to other atoms. Such an atom then becomes positively charged because its nucleus contains more protons than the number of electrons orbiting around the nucleus. These positively charged ions are termed cations. Atoms with 5, 6, or 7 valence electrons tend to gain electrons from other atoms and become negatively charged anions. The properties of ions are quite different from those of the electrically neutral atoms from which they were derived. For example, although chlorine gas is a poison, chloride ions (Cl−) are Oxygen part Partial negative charge at oxygen end of molecule

Hydrogen (H)

Oxygen (O)

+

– Hydrogen parts



Hydrogen (H)

+ Water molecule (H2O)

FIGURE 2-7 Water, a polar molecule Note that the electrons tend to stay closer to the nucleus of the oxygen atom than to the hydrogen nuclei. This results in a partial negative charge on the oxygen portion of the molecule and a partial positive charge at the hydrogen end. Although the water molecule as a whole is electrically neutral, it is a polar covalent compound.

Partial positive charge at hydrogen end of molecule

17 protons

11 protons

Muscle fiber and

Bloom and Fawcett Textbook of Technology

Nerve

11 electrons Sodium (Na)

17 electrons Chlorine (Cl)

+



100 μm

FIGURE 2-8 Ions and biological processes Sodium, potassium, and chloride ions are essential for this nerve cell to stimulate these muscle fibers, initiating a muscle contraction. Calcium ions in the muscle cell are required for muscle contraction.

essential to life (see Table 2-1). Because their electric charges provide a basis for many interactions, cations and anions are involved in energy transformations within the cell, the transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contraction, and many other biological processes (FIG. 2-8). A group of covalently bonded atoms can also become an ion (polyatomic ion). Unlike a single atom, a group of atoms can lose or gain protons (derived from hydrogen atoms) as well as electrons. Therefore, a group of atoms can become a cation if it loses 1 or more electrons or gains 1 or more protons. A group of atoms becomes an anion if it gains 1 or more electrons or loses 1 or more protons. An ionic bond forms as a consequence of the attraction between the positive charge of a cation and the negative charge of an anion. An ionic compound is a substance consisting of anions and cations bonded by their opposite charges. A good example of how ionic bonds are formed is the attraction between sodium ions and chloride ions. A sodium atom has 1 electron in its valence shell. It cannot fill its valence shell by obtaining 7 electrons from other atoms because it would then have a large unbalanced negative charge. Instead, it gives up its single valence electron to a very electronegative atom, such as chlorine, which acts as an electron acceptor (FIG. 2-9). Chlorine cannot give up the 7 electrons in its valence shell because it would then have a large positive charge. Instead, it strips an electron from an electron donor (sodium, in this example) to complete its valence shell. When sodium reacts with chlorine, sodium’s valence electron is transferred completely to chlorine. Sodium becomes a cation, with 1 unit of positive charge (Na+). Chlorine becomes an anion, a chloride ion with 1 unit of negative charge (Cl−). These ions attract each other as a result of their opposite charges. This electrical attraction in ionic bonds holds them together to form NaCl, sodium chloride, or common table salt.

10 electrons Sodium ion (Na+)

18 electrons Chloride ion (Cl–)

Sodium chloride (NaCl)

Cl– Na+ Cl– Na+

Cl– Na+ Na+

Arrangement of atoms in a crystal of salt

FIGURE 2-9 Animated Ionic bonding Sodium becomes a positively charged ion when it donates its single valence electron to chlorine, which has 7 valence electrons. With this additional electron, chlorine completes its valence shell and becomes a negatively charged chloride ion. These sodium and chloride ions are attracted to one another by their unlike electric charges, forming the ionic compound sodium chloride.

The term molecule does not adequately explain the properties of ionic compounds such as NaCl. When NaCl is in its solid crystal state, each ion is actually surrounded by six ions of opposite charge. The simplest formula, NaCl, indicates that sodium ions and chloride ions are present in a 1:1 ratio, but the actual crystal has no discrete molecules composed of one Na+ and one Cl− ion. Compounds joined by ionic bonds, such as sodium chloride, have a tendency to dissociate (separate) into their individual ions when placed in water: NaCl Sodium chloride

in H2O

¡

Na+ Sodium ion

+

Cl– Chloride ion

In the solid form of an ionic compound (that is, in the absence of water), ionic bonds are very strong. Water, however, is an excellent solvent; as a liquid it is capable of dissolving many substances, particularly those that are polar or ionic, because of the polarity of water molecules. The localized partial positive charge (on the hydrogen atoms) and partial negative charge (on the oxygen atom) on each water molecule attract and surround the anions and cations, respectively, on the surface of an ionic solid. As a result, the solid dissolves. A dissolved substance is referred to as a solute. In solution, each cation and anion of the ionic compound is surrounded by oppositely charged ends of the water molecules. This process is known as hydration (FIG. 2-10). Hydrated ions still interact with one another to some extent, but the transient ionic bonds formed are much weaker than those in a solid crystal.

Hydrogen bonds are weak attractions Another type of bond important in organisms is the hydrogen bond. When hydrogen combines with oxygen (or with another relatively electronegative atom such as nitrogen), it acquires a partial positive charge because its electron spends more time closer to the electronegative atom. Hydrogen bonds tend to form between an atom with a partial negative charge and a hydrogen atom that is covalently bonded to oxygen or nitrogen (FIG. 2-11). The atoms involved may be in two parts of the same large molecule or in two different molecules. Water molecules interact with one another extensively through hydrogen bond formation.

Salt

Electronegative atoms O

H

+



H N

H

H Hydrogen bond

H

FIGURE 2-11 Animated Hydrogen bonding A hydrogen bond (dotted line) can form between two molecules with regions of unlike partial charge. Here, the nitrogen atom of an ammonia molecule is joined by a hydrogen bond to a hydrogen atom of a water molecule.

Hydrogen bonds are readily formed and broken. Although individually relatively weak, hydrogen bonds are collectively strong when present in large numbers. Furthermore, they have a specific length and orientation. As you will see in Chapter 3, these features are very important in determining the 3-D structure of large molecules such as DNA and proteins.

van der Waals interactions are weak forces Even electrically neutral, nonpolar molecules can develop transient regions of weak positive and negative charge. These slight charges develop as a consequence of the fact that electrons are in constant motion. A region with a temporary excess of electrons will have a weak negative charge, whereas one with an electron deficit will have a weak positive charge. Adjacent molecules may interact in regions of slight opposite charge. These attractive forces, called van der Waals interactions, operate over very short distances and are weaker and less specific than the other types of interactions we have considered. They are most important when they occur in large numbers and when the shapes of the molecules permit close contact between the atoms. Although a single interaction is very weak, the binding force of a large number of these interactions working together can be significant.

Review –





O H H Cl– –











Na+ –



– – + Cl– + Cl– – Na Na+ Cl Cl–





H – H+ O –



+



Cl–

+ –

+

H– + OH



Na+

Cl–





H H+ O Na+

■ ■

O

+H

Are all compounds composed of molecules? Explain. What are the ways an atom or molecule can become an anion or a cation? How do ionic and covalent bonds differ? Under what circumstances can weak forces such as hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions play significant roles in biological systems?



O H H





Cl–

– –





+ H–

– –









2.4 REDOX REACTIONS ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE 8

FIGURE 2-10 Animated Hydration of an ionic compound When the crystal of NaCl is added to water, the sodium and chloride ions are pulled apart. When the NaCl is dissolved, each Na+ and Cl− is surrounded by water molecules electrically attracted to it.

Distinguish between the terms oxidation and reduction, and relate these processes to the transfer of energy.

Many energy conversions that go on in a cell involve reactions in which an electron transfers from one substance to another. The reason is that the transfer of an electron also involves the transfer

of the energy of that electron. Such an electron transfer is known as an oxidation–reduction, or redox reaction. Oxidation and reduction always occur together. Oxidation is a chemical process in which an atom, ion, or molecule loses one or more electrons. Reduction is a chemical process in which an atom, ion, or molecule gains one or more electrons. (The term refers to the fact that the gain of an electron results in the reduction of any positive charge that might be present.) Rusting—the combining of iron (symbol Fe) with oxygen— is a simple illustration of oxidation and reduction: 4 Fe + 3 O2 ¡

A large part of the mass of most organisms is water. In human tissues the percentage of water ranges from 20% in bones to 85% in brain cells; about 70% of our total body weight is water. As much as 95% of a jellyfish and certain plants is water. Water is the source, through photosynthesis, of the oxygen in the air we breathe, and its hydrogen atoms become incorporated into many organic compounds. Water is also the solvent for most biological reactions and a reactant or product in many chemical reactions. Water is important not only as an internal constituent of organisms but also as one of the principal environmental factors affecting them (FIG. 2-12). Many organisms live in the ocean or in freshwater rivers, lakes, or puddles. Water’s unique combination of physical and chemical properties is considered to have been essential to the origin of life as well as to the continued survival and evolution of life on Earth.

2 Fe 2O3 Iron (III) oxide

In rusting, each iron atom becomes oxidized as it loses 3 electrons. 4 Fe ¡ 4 Fe3+ + 12e− −

Hydrogen bonds form between water molecules

The e represents an electron; the + superscript in Fe represents an electron deficit. (When an atom loses an electron, it acquires 1 unit of positive charge from the excess of 1 proton. In our example, each iron atom loses 3 electrons and acquires 3 units of positive charge.) Recall that the oxygen atom is very electronegative, able to remove electrons from other atoms. In this reaction, oxygen becomes reduced when it accepts electrons from the iron. 3+

As discussed, water molecules are polar; that is, one end of each molecule bears a partial positive charge and the other a partial negative charge (see Fig. 2-7). The water molecules in liquid water and in ice associate by hydrogen bonds. The hydrogen atom of one water molecule, with its partial positive charge, is attracted to the oxygen atom of a neighboring water molecule, with its partial negative charge, forming a hydrogen bond. An oxygen atom in a water molecule has two regions of partial negative charge, and each of the two hydrogen atoms has a partial positive charge. Each water molecule can therefore form hydrogen bonds with a maximum of four neighboring water molecules (FIG. 2-13).

Review ■ ■

Why must oxidation and reduction occur simultaneously? Why are redox reactions important in some energy transfers?

2.5 WATER ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE

(a) Commonly known as "water bears," tardigrades, such as these members of the genus Echiniscus, are small animals (less than 1.2 mm long) that normally live in moist habitats, such as thin films of water on mosses.

100 μm

(b) When subjected to desiccation (dried out), tardigrades assume a barrel-shaped form known as a tun, remaining in this state, motionless but alive, for as long as 100 years. When rehydrated, they assume their normal appearance and activities.

Robert O. Schuster, courtesy of Diane R. Nelson

Redox reactions occur simultaneously because one substance must accept the electrons that are removed from the other. In a redox reaction, one component, the oxidizing agent, accepts 1 or more electrons and becomes reduced. Oxidizing agents other than oxygen are known, but oxygen is such a common one that its name was given to the process. Another reaction component, the reducing agent, gives up 1 or more electrons and becomes oxidized. In our example, there was a complete transfer of electrons from iron (the reducing agent) to oxygen (the oxidizing agent). Similarly, Figure 2-9 shows that an electron was transferred from sodium (the reducing agent) to chlorine (the oxidizing agent). Electrons are not easily removed from covalent compounds unless an entire atom is removed. In cells, oxidation often involves the removal of a hydrogen atom (an electron plus a proton that “goes along for the ride”) from a covalent compound; reduction often involves the addition of the equivalent of a hydrogen atom (see Chapter 7).

Diane R. Nelson

3 O2 + 12e− ¡ 6 O2−

10 μm

9 Explain how hydrogen bonds between adjacent water molecules govern many of the properties of water.

FIGURE 2-12 The effects of water on an organism

H O

H

– + H

H

+–

O

H H O

– +

H

+ –

H O Dennis Drenner

O

H

H

FIGURE 2-13 Hydrogen bonding of water molecules Each water molecule can form hydrogen bonds (dotted lines) with as many as four neighboring water molecules.

Water molecules have a strong tendency to stick to one another, a property known as cohesion. This is due to the hydrogen bonds among the molecules. Because of the cohesive nature of water molecules, any force exerted on part of a column of water is transmitted to the column as a whole. The major mechanism of water movement in plants (see Chapter 35) depends on the cohesive nature of water. Water molecules also display adhesion, the ability to stick to many other kinds of substances, most notably those with charged groups of atoms or molecules on their surfaces. These adhesive forces explain how water makes things wet. A combination of adhesive and cohesive forces accounts for capillary action, which is the tendency of water to move in narrow tubes, even against the force of gravity (FIG. 2-14). For example, water moves through the microscopic spaces between soil particles to the roots of plants by capillary action.

(a)

(b)

FIGURE 2-14 Capillary action (a) In a narrow tube, there is adhesion between the water molecules and the glass wall of the tube. Other water molecules inside the tube are then “pulled along” because of cohesion, which is due to hydrogen bonds between the water molecules. (b) In the wider tube, a smaller percentage of the water molecules line the glass wall. As a result, the adhesion is not strong enough to overcome the cohesion of the water molecules beneath the surface level of the container, and water in the tube rises only slightly.

FIGURE 2-15 Surface tension of water Hydrogen bonding between water molecules is responsible for the surface tension of water, which causes a dimpled appearance of the surface as these water striders (Gerris) walk across it. Fine hairs at the ends of the legs of these insects create highly water-repellent “cushions” of air.

Water has a high degree of surface tension because of the cohesion of its molecules, which have a much greater attraction for one another than for molecules in the air. Thus, water molecules at the surface crowd together, producing a strong layer as they are pulled downward by the attraction of other water molecules beneath them (FIG. 2-15).

Water molecules interact with hydrophilic substances by hydrogen bonding Because its molecules are polar, water is an excellent solvent, a liquid capable of dissolving many kinds of substances, especially polar and ionic compounds. Earlier we discussed how polar water molecules pull the ions of ionic compounds apart so that they dissociate (see Fig. 2-10). Because of its solvent properties and the tendency of the atoms in certain compounds to form ions in solution, water plays an important role in facilitating chemical reactions. Substances that interact readily with water are hydrophilic (“water-loving”). Examples include table sugar (sucrose, a polar compound) and table salt (NaCl, an ionic compound), which dissolve readily in water. Not all substances in organisms are hydrophilic, however. Many hydrophobic (“water-fearing”) substances found in living things are especially important because of their ability to form associations or structures that are not disrupted. Hydrophobic interactions occur between groups of nonpolar molecules. Such molecules are insoluble in water and tend to cluster together. This is not due to formation of bonds between the nonpolar molecules but rather to the fact that the hydrogen-bonded water molecules exclude them and in a sense “drive them together.” Hydrophobic interactions explain why oil tends to form globules when added to water. Examples of hydrophobic substances include fatty acids and cholesterol, discussed in Chapter 3.

Water helps maintain a stable temperature Hydrogen bonding explains the way water responds to changes in temperature. Water exists in three forms, which differ in their degree of hydrogen bonding: gas (vapor), liquid, and ice, a crystalline

Woodbridge Wilson/National Park Service

212°F

100°C

(a) Steam becoming water vapor (gas)

Gary R. Bonner

50°C

Barbara O’Donnell/Biological Photo Service

(b) Water (liquid)

32°F

0°C

(c) Ice (solid)

FIGURE 2-16 Animated Three forms of water (a) When water boils, as in this hot spring at Yellowstone National Park, many hydrogen bonds are broken, causing steam, consisting of minuscule water droplets, to form. If most of the remaining hydrogen bonds break, the molecules move more freely as water vapor (a gas). (b) Water molecules in a liquid state continually form, break, and re-form hydrogen bonds with one another. (c) In ice, each water molecule participates in four hydrogen bonds with adjacent molecules, resulting in a regular, evenly distanced crystalline lattice structure.

solid (FIG. 2-16). Hydrogen bonds are formed or broken as water changes from one state to another. Raising the temperature of a substance involves adding heat energy to make its molecules move faster, that is, to increase the energy of motion—kinetic energy—of the molecules (see Chapter 7). The term heat refers to the total amount of kinetic energy in a sample of a substance; temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles. For the molecules to move more freely, some of the hydrogen bonds of water must be broken.

Much of the energy added to the system is used up in breaking the hydrogen bonds, and only a portion of the heat energy is available to speed the movement of the water molecules, thereby increasing the temperature of the water. Conversely, when liquid water changes to ice, additional hydrogen bonds must be formed, making the molecules less free to move and liberating a great deal of heat into the environment. Heat of vaporization, the amount of heat energy required to change 1 g of a substance from the liquid phase to the vapor phase,

is expressed in units called calories. A calorie (cal) is the amount of heat energy (equivalent to 4.184 joules [ J]) required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water 1 degree Celsius (C). Water has a high heat of vaporization—540 cal—because its molecules are held together by hydrogen bonds. The heat of vaporization of most other common liquid substances is much less. As a sample of water is heated, some molecules are moving much faster than others (they have more heat). These faster-moving molecules are more likely to escape the liquid phase and enter the vapor phase (see Fig. 2-16a). When they do, they take their heat with them, lowering the temperature of the sample, a process called evaporative cooling. For this reason, the human body can dissipate excess heat as sweat evaporates from the skin, and a leaf can keep cool in the bright sunlight as water evaporates from its surface. Hydrogen bonding is also responsible for water’s high specific heat; that is, the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of water is quite large. The specific heat of water is 1 cal/g of water per degree Celsius. Most other common substances, such as metals, glass, and ethyl alcohol, have much lower specific heat values. The specific heat of ethyl alcohol, for example, is 0.59 cal/ g/1°C (2.46 J/g/1°C). Because so much heat input is required to raise the temperature of water (and so much heat is lost when the temperature is lowered), the ocean and other large bodies of water have relatively constant temperatures. Thus, many organisms living in the ocean are provided with a relatively constant environmental temperature. The properties of water are crucial in stabilizing temperatures on Earth’s surface. Although surface water is only a thin film relative to Earth’s volume, the quantity is enormous compared to the exposed landmass. This relatively large mass of water resists both the warming effect of heat and the cooling effect of low temperatures. Hydrogen bonding causes ice to have unique properties with important environmental consequences. Liquid water expands as it freezes because the hydrogen bonds joining the water molecules in the crystalline lattice keep the molecules far enough apart to give ice a density about 10% less than the density of liquid water (see Fig. 2-16c). When ice has been heated enough to raise its temperature above 0°C (32°F), the hydrogen bonds are broken, freeing the molecules to slip closer together. The density of water is greatest at 4°C. Above that temperature water begins to expand again as the speed of its molecules increases. As a result, ice floats on the denser cold water. This unusual property of water has been important to the evolution of life. If ice had a greater density than water, the ice would sink; eventually, all ponds, lakes, and even the ocean would freeze solid from the bottom to the surface, making life impossible. When a deep body of water cools, it becomes covered with floating ice. The ice insulates the liquid water below it, retarding freezing and permitting organisms to survive below the icy surface. The high water content of organisms helps them maintain relatively constant internal temperatures. Such minimizing of temperature fluctuations is important because biological reactions can take place only within a relatively narrow temperature range.

Review ■

Why does water form hydrogen bonds?





What are some properties of water that result from hydrogen bonding? How do these properties contribute to the role of water as an essential component of organisms? How can weak forces, such as hydrogen bonds, have significant effects in organisms?

2.6 ACIDS, BASES, AND SALTS ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVES 10 Contrast acids and bases, and discuss their properties. 11 Convert the hydrogen ion concentration (moles per liter) of a solution to a pH value and describe how buffers help minimize changes in pH.

12 Describe the composition of a salt and explain why salts are important in organisms.

Water molecules have a slight tendency to ionize, that is, to dissociate into hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxide ions (OH−). The H+ immediately combines with a negatively charged region of a water molecule, forming a hydronium ion (H3O+). However, by convention, H+, rather than the more accurate H3O+, is used. In pure water, a small number of water molecules ionize. This slight tendency of water to dissociate is reversible as hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions reunite to form water. HOH

H+ + OH−

Because each water molecule splits into one hydrogen ion and one hydroxide ion, the concentrations of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in pure water are exactly equal (0.0000001 or 107 mol/L for each ion). Such a solution is said to be neutral, that is, neither acidic nor basic (alkaline). An acid is a substance that dissociates in solution to yield hydrogen ions (H+) and anions. Acid ¡ H+ + anion

An acid is a proton donor. (Recall that a hydrogen ion, or H+, is nothing more than a proton.) Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is a common inorganic acid. A base is defined as a proton acceptor. Most bases are substances that dissociate to yield a hydroxide ion (OH−) and a cation when dissolved in water. NaOH ¡ Na+ + OH− OH− + H+ ¡ H2O

A hydroxide ion can act as a base by accepting a proton (H+) to form water. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is a common inorganic base. Some bases do not dissociate to yield hydroxide ions directly. For example, ammonia (NH3) acts as a base by accepting a proton from water, producing an ammonium ion (NH4+) and releasing a hydroxide ion. NH3 + H2O ¡ NH4+ + OH−

pH is a convenient measure of acidity The degree of a solution’s acidity is generally expressed in terms of pH, defined as the negative logarithm (base 10) of the hydrogen ion concentration (expressed in moles per liter): pH = −log10[H+]

The brackets refer to concentration; therefore, the term [H+] means “the concentration of hydrogen ions,” which is expressed in moles per liter because we are interested in the number of hydrogen ions per liter. Because the range of possible pH values is broad, a logarithmic scale (with a 10-fold difference between successive units) is more convenient than a linear scale. Hydrogen ion concentrations are nearly always less than 1 mol/L. One gram of hydrogen ions dissolved in 1 L of water (a 1 M solution) may not sound impressive, but such a solution would be extremely acidic. The logarithm of a number less than 1 is a negative number; thus, the negative logarithm corresponds to a positive pH value. (Solutions with pH values less than zero can be produced but do not occur under biological conditions.) Whole-number pH values are easy to calculate. For instance, consider our example of pure water, which has a hydrogen ion concentration of 0.0000001 (10−7) mol/L. The logarithm is −7. The negative logarithm is 7; therefore, the pH is 7. TABLE 2-2 shows how to calculate pH values from hydrogen ion concentrations, and the reverse. For comparison, the table also includes the hydroxide ion concentrations, which can be calculated because the product of the hydrogen ion concentration and the hydroxide ion concentration is 1 × 10−14: [H+][OH−] = 1 × 10−14

Substance Gastric juice Pure water, neutral solution Household ammonia

Calculating pH Values and Hydroxide Ion Concentrations from Hydrogen Ion Concentrations [H+]* −2

pH

[OH−]†

Battery acid 0.0

1

Hydrochloric acid 0.8 Stomach acid 1.0

2

Stomach gastric juice 2.0

3

Vinegar 3.0

4 Beer 4.5 5

6

7

Black coffee 5.0

Rainwater 6.25 Cow milk 6.5 Distilled water 7.0 Blood 7.4

8

Seawater 8.0

9

Bleach 9.0

10

Increasing 11 alkalinity

Mono Lake, California 9.9

Household ammonia 11.5

13

Oven cleaner 13.0

14

Lye 14.0

−12

−2 −7

2 7

10 10−7

0.00000000001, 10−11

−11

11

10−3

[OH−] = hydroxide ion concentration (mol/L)

Increasing acidity

0

12

0.01, 10 0.0000001, 10−7

*[H+] = hydrogen ion concentration (mol/L) †

log [H+]

pH scale

Neutrality

Pure water is an example of a neutral solution; with a pH of 7, it has equal concentrations of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions (the concentration of each is 10−7 mol/L). An acidic solution has a hydrogen ion concentration that is higher than its hydroxide ion concentration and has a pH value of less than 7. For example, the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution with pH 1 is 10 times that of a solution with pH 2. A basic solution has a hydrogen ion concentration that is lower than its hydroxide ion concentration and has a pH greater than 7. TABLE 2-2

The pH values of some common substances are shown in FIGAlthough some very acidic compartments exist within cells (see Chapter 4), most of the interior of an animal or plant cell is neither strongly acidic nor strongly basic but an essentially neutral mixture of acidic and basic substances. Certain bacteria are adapted to life in extremely acidic environments (discussed in Chapter 25), but a substantial change in pH is incompatible with life for most cells. The pH of most types of plant and animal cells (and their environment) ordinarily ranges from around 7.2 to 7.4. URE 2-17.

FIGURE 2-17 Animated pH values of some common solutions A neutral solution (pH 7) has equal concentrations of H+ and OH−. Acidic solutions, which have a higher concentration of H+ than OH−, have pH values less than 7; pH values greater than 7 characterize basic solutions, which have an excess of OH−.

Buffers minimize pH change Many homeostatic mechanisms operate to maintain appropriate pH values. For example, the pH of human blood is about 7.4 and must be maintained within very narrow limits. If the blood becomes too acidic (for example, as a result of respiratory disease), coma and death may result. Excessive alkalinity can result in overexcitability of the nervous system and even convulsions. Organisms contain many natural buffers. A buffer is a substance or combination of substances that resists changes in pH when an acid or base is added. A buffering system includes a weak acid or a weak base. A weak acid or weak base does not ionize completely. At any given instant, only a fraction of the molecules are ionized; most are not dissociated. One of the most common buffering systems functions in the blood of vertebrates (see Chapter 46). Carbon dioxide, produced as a waste product of cell metabolism, enters the blood, the main constituent of which is water. The carbon dioxide reacts with the water to form carbonic acid, a weak acid that dissociates to yield a hydrogen ion and a bicarbonate ion. The following expression describes the buffering system: CO2 + H2 O Carbon dioxide

Water

H2CO3 Carbonic acid

H+ +

HCO 3 – Bicarbonate ion

As the double arrows indicate, all the reactions are reversible. Because carbonic acid is a weak acid, undissociated molecules are always present, as are all the other components of the system. The expression describes the system when it is at dynamic equilibrium, that is, when the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal and the relative concentrations of the components are not changing. A system at dynamic equilibrium tends to stay at equilibrium unless a stress is placed on it, which causes it to shift to reduce the stress until it attains a new dynamic equilibrium. A change in the concentration of any component is one such stress. Therefore, the system can be “shifted to the right” by adding reactants or removing products. Conversely, the system can be “shifted to the left” by adding products or removing reactants. Hydrogen ions are the important products to consider in this system. The addition of excess hydrogen ions temporarily shifts the system to the left, as they combine with the bicarbonate ions to form carbonic acid. Eventually, a new dynamic equilibrium is established. At this point the hydrogen ion concentration is similar to the original concentration, and the product of the hydrogen ion and hydroxide ion concentrations is restored to the equilibrium value of 1 × 10−14. If hydroxide ions are added, they combine with the hydrogen ions to form water, effectively removing a product and thus shifting

■ ■

the system to the right. As this occurs, more carbonic acid ionizes, effectively replacing the hydrogen ions that were removed. Organisms contain many weak acids and weak bases, which allows them to maintain an essential reserve of buffering capacity and helps them avoid pH extremes.

An acid and a base react to form a salt When an acid and a base are mixed in water, the H+ of the acid unites with the OH− of the base to form a molecule of water. The remainder of the acid (an anion) combines with the remainder of the base (a cation) to form a salt. For example, hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide to form water and sodium chloride: HCl + NaOH ¡ H2O + NaCl

A salt is a compound in which the hydrogen ion of an acid is replaced by some other cation. Sodium chloride, NaCl, is a salt in which the hydrogen ion of HCl has been replaced by the cation Na+. When a salt, an acid, or a base is dissolved in water, its dissociated ions can conduct an electric current; these substances are called electrolytes. Sugars, alcohols, and many other substances do not form ions when dissolved in water; they do not conduct an electric current and are referred to as nonelectrolytes. Cells and extracellular fluids (such as blood) of animals and plants contain a variety of dissolved salts that are the source of the many important mineral ions essential for fluid balance and acid– base balance. Nitrate and ammonium ions from the soil are the important nitrogen sources for plants. In animals, nerve and muscle function, blood clotting, bone formation, and many other aspects of body function depend on ions. Sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium are the chief cations present; chloride, bicarbonate, phosphate, and sulfate are important anions. The concentrations and relative amounts of the various cations and anions are kept remarkably constant. Any marked change results in impaired cell functions and may lead to death.

Review ■







A solution has a hydrogen ion concentration of 0.01 mol/L. What is its pH? What is its hydroxide ion concentration? Is it acidic, basic, or neutral? How does this solution differ from one with a pH of 1? What would be the consequences of adding or removing a reactant or a product from a reversible reaction that is at dynamic equilibrium? Why are buffers important in organisms? Why can’t strong acids or bases work as buffers? Why are acids, bases, and salts referred to as electrolytes?

S UM M A RY: F O C US O N L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S

2.1 (page 27) 1 Name the principal chemical elements in living things and provide an important function of each. An element is a substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by normal chemical reactions. About 96% of an organ-



ism’s mass consists of carbon, the backbone of organic molecules; hydrogen and oxygen, the components of water; and nitrogen, a component of proteins and nucleic acids. 2 Compare the physical properties (mass and charge) and locations of electrons, protons, and neutrons. Distinguish between the atomic number and the mass number of an atom.

Each atom is composed of a nucleus containing positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons. Negatively charged electrons encircle the nucleus. ■ An atom is identified as belonging to a particular element by its number of protons (atomic number). The atomic mass of an atom is equal to the sum of its protons and neutrons. A single proton or a single neutron each has a mass equivalent to ■ one atomic mass unit (amu). The mass of a single electron is only about 1/1800 amu. 3 Define the terms orbital and electron shell. Relate electron shells to principal energy levels. ■ In the space outside the nucleus, electrons move rapidly in electron orbitals. An electron shell consists of electrons in orbitals at the same principal energy level. Electrons in a shell distant from the nucleus have greater energy than those in a shell closer to the nucleus.

Electronegative atoms



Learn more about atomic orbitals by clicking on the figure in CengageNOW.

2.2 (page 31) 4 Explain how the number of valence electrons of an atom is related to its chemical properties. The chemical properties of an atom are determined chiefly by the number and arrangement of its most energetic electrons, known as valence electrons. The valence shell of most atoms is full when it contains 8 electrons; that of hydrogen or helium is full when it contains 2. An atom tends to lose, gain, or share electrons to fill its valence shell. 5 Distinguish among simplest, molecular, and structural chemical formulas. ■ Different atoms are joined by chemical bonds to form compounds. A chemical formula gives the types and relative numbers of atoms in a substance. ■ A simplest formula gives the smallest whole-number ratio of the component atoms. A molecular formula gives the actual numbers of each type of atom in a molecule. A structural formula shows the arrangement of the atoms in a molecule. 6 Explain why the mole concept is so useful to chemists. ■ One mole (the atomic or molecular mass in grams) of any substance contains 6.02 × 1023 atoms, molecules, or ions, enabling scientists to “count” particles by weighing a sample. This number is known as Avogadro’s number. ■

2.3 (page 32) 7 Distinguish among covalent bonds, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and van der Waals interactions. Compare them in terms of the mechanisms by which they form and their relative strengths. ■ Covalent bonds are strong, stable bonds formed when atoms share valence electrons, forming molecules. When covalent bonds are formed, the orbitals of the valence electrons may become rearranged in a process known as orbital hybridization. Covalent bonds are nonpolar if the electrons are shared equally between the two atoms. Covalent bonds are polar if one atom is more electronegative (has a greater affinity for electrons) than the other. ■ An ionic bond is formed between a positively charged cation and a negatively charged anion. Ionic bonds are strong in the absence of water but relatively weak in aqueous solution. Learn more about ionic bonding by clicking on the figure in CengageNOW. ■

Hydrogen bonds are relatively weak bonds formed when a hydrogen atom with a partial positive charge is attracted to an atom (usually oxygen or nitrogen) with a partial negative charge already bonded to another molecule or in another part of the same molecule.

O

H

+



H N

H

H Hydrogen bond

H

Learn more about hydrogen bonding by clicking on the figure in CengageNOW. ■

van der Waals interactions are weak forces based on fluctuating electric charges.

2.4 (page 36) 8 Distinguish between the terms oxidation and reduction, and relate these processes to the transfer of energy. ■ Oxidation and reduction reactions (redox reactions) are chemical processes in which electrons (and their energy) are transferred from a reducing agent to an oxidizing agent. In oxidation, an atom, ion, or molecule loses electrons (and their energy). In reduction, an atom, ion, or molecule gains electrons (and their energy).

2.5 (page 37) 9 Explain how hydrogen bonds between adjacent water molecules govern many of the properties of water. ■ Water is a polar molecule because one end has a partial positive charge and the other has a partial negative charge. Because its molecules are polar, water is an excellent solvent for ionic or polar solutes. ■ Water molecules exhibit the property of cohesion because they form hydrogen bonds with one another; they also exhibit adhesion through hydrogen bonding to substances with ionic or polar regions. ■ Water has a high heat of vaporization. Hydrogen bonds must be broken for molecules to enter the vapor phase. These molecules carry a great deal of heat, which accounts for evaporative cooling. ■ Because hydrogen bonds must be broken to raise its temperature, water has a high specific heat, which helps organisms maintain a relatively constant internal temperature; this property also helps keep the ocean and other large bodies of water at a constant temperature. ■ The hydrogen bonds between water molecules in ice cause it to be less dense than liquid water. The fact that ice floats makes the aquatic environment less extreme than it would be if ice sank to the bottom. Learn more about the three forms of water by clicking on the figure in CengageNOW.

2.6 (page 40) 10 Contrast acids and bases, and discuss their properties. Acids are proton (hydrogen ion, H+) donors; bases are proton acceptors. An acid dissociates in solution to yield H+ and an anion. Many bases dissociate in solution to yield hydroxide ions (OH−), which then accept protons to form water. 11 Convert the hydrogen ion concentration (moles per liter) of a solution to a pH value and describe how buffers help minimize changes in pH. ■ pH is the negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution (expressed in moles per liter). A neutral solution with equal concentrations of H+ and OH− (10−7 mol/L) has a pH of 7, an acidic solution has a pH less than 7, and a basic solution has a pH greater than 7. ■

Learn more about the pH of common solutions by clicking on the figure in CengageNOW.

A buffering system is based on a weak acid or a weak base. A buffer resists changes in the pH of a solution when acids or bases are added. 12 Describe the composition of a salt and explain why salts are important in organisms. ■



A salt is a compound in which the hydrogen atom of an acid is replaced by some other cation. Salts provide the many mineral ions essential for life functions.

T E S T YO U R U N D E R S TA N D I N G 1. Which of the following elements is mismatched with its properties or function? (a) carbon—forms the backbone of organic compounds (b) nitrogen—component of proteins (c) hydrogen—very electronegative (d) oxygen—can participate in hydrogen bonding (e) all of the above are correctly matched 2.

32 15P,

a radioactive form of phosphorus, has (a) an atomic number of 32 (b) an atomic mass of 15 (c) an atomic mass of 47 (d) 32 electrons (e) 17 neutrons

3. Which of the following facts allows you to determine that atom A and atom B are isotopes of the same element? (a) they each have 6 protons (b) they each have 4 neutrons (c) the sum of the electrons and neutrons in each is 14 (d) they each have 4 valence electrons (e) they each have an atomic mass of 14 4. 11H and 31H have (a) different chemical properties because they have different atomic numbers (b) the same chemical properties because they have the same number of valence electrons (c) different chemical properties because they differ in their number of protons and electrons (d) the same chemical properties because they have the same atomic mass (e) the same chemical properties because they have the same number of protons, electrons, and neutrons 5. The orbitals composing an atom’s valence electron shell (a) are arranged as concentric spheres (b) contain the atom’s least energetic electrons (c) may change shape when covalent bonds are formed (d) never contain more than 1 electron each (e) more than one of the preceding is correct 6. Which of the following bonds and properties are correctly matched? (a) ionic bonds—are strong only if the participating ions are hydrated (b) hydrogen bonds—are responsible for bonding oxygen and hydrogen to form a single water molecule (c) polar covalent bonds—can occur between two atoms of the

same element (d) covalent bonds—may be single, double, or triple (e) hydrogen bonds—are stronger than covalent bonds 7. In a redox reaction (a) energy is transferred from a reducing agent to an oxidizing agent (b) a reducing agent becomes oxidized as it accepts an electron (c) an oxidizing agent accepts a proton (d) a reducing agent donates a proton (e) the electrons in an atom move from its valence shell to a shell closer to its nucleus 8. Water has a high specific heat because (a) hydrogen bonds must be broken to raise its temperature (b) hydrogen bonds must be formed to raise its temperature (c) it is a poor insulator (d) it has low density considering the size of the molecule (e) it can ionize 9. A solution at pH 7 is considered neutral because (a) its hydrogen ion concentration is 0 mol/L (b) its hydroxide ion concentration is 0 mol/L (c) the product of its hydrogen ion concentration and its hydroxide ion concentration is 0 mol/L (d) its hydrogen ion concentration is equal to its hydroxide ion concentration (e) it is nonpolar 10. A solution with a pH of 2 has a hydrogen ion concentration that is _____ the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution with a pH 1 of 4. (a) –12 (b) — 100 (c) 2 times (d) 10 times (e) 100 times 11. Which of the following cannot function as a buffer? (a) phosphoric acid, a weak acid (b) sodium hydroxide, a strong base (c) sodium chloride, a salt that ionizes completely (d) a and c (e) b and c 12. Which of the following statements is true? (a) the number of individual particles (atoms, ions, or molecules) contained in one mole varies depending on the substance (b) Avogadro’s number is the number of particles contained in one mole of a substance (c) Avogadro’s number is 1023 particles (d) one mole of 12C has a mass of 12 g (e) b and d

CRITICAL THINKING 1. Element A has 2 electrons in its valence shell (which is complete when it contains 8 electrons). Would you expect element A to share, donate, or accept electrons? What would you expect of element B, which has 4 valence electrons, and element C, which has 7?

2. A hydrogen bond formed between two water molecules is only –1 as strong as a covalent bond between hydrogen and about 20 oxygen. In what ways would the physical properties of water be different if these hydrogen bonds were stronger (for example, –1 the strength of covalent bonds)? 10 3. Consider the following reaction (in water).

HCl ¡ H+ + Cl− Element A

Element B

Element C

Name the reactant(s) and product(s). Does the expression indicate that the reaction is reversible? Could HCl be used as a buffer?

4. ANALYZING DATA. Could you safely immerse your hand in a solution containing 0.000,000,000,001 g of H+ dissolved in 1 L of water? 5. EVOLUTION LINK. Initiatives designed to discover evidence for life (biosignatures or biomarkers) in the atmospheres of distant planets have been proposed by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA). If implemented, both the Terrestrial Planet Finder project (NASA) and the Darwin project (ESA) will use special space tele-

scopes to detect atmospheric water vapor, as well as oxygen and carbon dioxide. Which of these biosignatures would you consider the most fundamental indicator that life could have evolved on these planets? Why? Additional questions are available in CengageNOW at www.cengage.com/ login.

3

The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds

© Eastcott/Momatiuk/The Image Works

Humans obtain organic molecules from food. This young girl is using a leaf to feed her baby brother.

KEY CONCEPTS

B

oth inorganic and organic forms of carbon occur widely in nature. Many types of organic compounds will become incorporated into the

3.1 Carbon atoms join with one another or other atoms to

body of the baby in the photograph as he grows. Organic compounds

form large molecules with a wide variety of shapes. Hydrocarbons are nonpolar, hydrophobic molecules; their properties can be altered by adding functional groups: hydroxyl and carbonyl groups (polar), carboxyl and phosphate groups (acidic), and amino groups (basic).

are those in which carbon atoms are covalently bonded to one another

3.2 Carbohydrates are composed of sugar subunits (mono-

from the breakdown of organic molecules to obtain energy is an example

saccharides), which can be joined to form disaccharides, storage polysaccharides, and structural polysaccharides.

of an inorganic carbon compound. Organic compounds are so named

3.3 Lipids store energy (triacylglycerols) and are the main

living (organic) organisms. In 1828, the German chemist Friedrich Wühler

structural components of cell membranes (phospholipids).

3.4 Proteins have multiple levels of structure and are composed of amino acid subunits joined by peptide bonds.

3.5 Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) are informational mole-

to form the backbone of the molecule. Some very simple carbon compounds are considered inorganic if the carbon is not bonded to another carbon or to hydrogen. The carbon dioxide we exhale as a waste product

because at one time it was thought that they could be produced only by synthesized urea, a metabolic waste product. Since that time, scientists have learned to synthesize many organic molecules and have discovered organic compounds not found in any organism. Organic compounds are extraordinarily diverse; in fact, more than

cules composed of long chains of nucleotide subunits. ATP and some other nucleotides have a central role in energy metabolism.

5 million have been identified. There are many reasons for this diver-

3.6 Biological molecules have recognizable attributes that

dimensional (3-D) shapes. Furthermore, the carbon atom forms bonds

aid in their identification.

sity. Organic compounds can be produced in a wide variety of three-

with a greater number of different elements than does any other

3.1 CARBON ATOMS AND ORGANIC MOLECULES

type of atom. The addition of chemical groups containing atoms of other elements—especially oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur—can profoundly change the properties of an organic molecule. Diversity also results from the fact that many organic com-

■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVES

pounds found in organisms are extremely large macromolecules,

1

which cells construct from simpler modular subunits. For example,

2

protein molecules are built from smaller compounds called amino acids.

3

As you study this chapter, you will develop an understanding 4

of the major groups of organic compounds found in organisms, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids (DNA

Carbon has unique properties that allow the formation of the carbon backbones of the large, complex molecules essential to life (FIG. 3-1). Because a carbon atom has 4 valence electrons, it can complete its valence shell by forming a total of four covalent bonds (see Fig. 2-2). Each bond can link it to another carbon atom or to an atom of a different element. Carbon is particularly well suited to serve as the backbone of a large molecule because carbon-tocarbon bonds are strong and not easily broken. However, they are not so strong that it would be impossible for cells to break them. Carbon-to-carbon bonds are not limited to single bonds (based

and RNA). Why are these compounds of central importance to all living things? The answer to this question will become more obvious as you study subsequent chapters, in which we explore the evidence that all living things evolved from a common ancestor. Evolution provides a powerful explanation for the similarities of the molecules that constitute the structures of cells and tissues, participate in and regulate metabolic reactions, transmit information, and provide energy for life processes.

H

H

H

C

C

H

H

H H Ethane (a) Chains H H

C

H C

H

H

H

C

C

C

H

Describe the properties of carbon that make it the central component of organic compounds. Define the term isomer and distinguish among the three principal isomer types. Identify the major functional groups present in organic compounds and describe their properties. Explain the relationship between polymers and macromolecules.

H

H H Pr opane

H H H

H

H

C

C

H

H

H H

H

H

C

C

H C

H

H C H

1-Butene

2-Butene

H

H

H

C

C

C

C

H H

H H

C

H H Cyclopentane

C

H

C H

H

H

H Isobutane

H

H

H

H

H

C

C

C

C H

C

H H

H H

H H

H Isopentane

(c) Branched chains

FIGURE 3-1 Organic molecules Note that each carbon atom forms four covalent bonds, producing a wide variety of shapes.

C

C

N

N C

H

H

C

C

H

N H

C

C

H C C

H Benzene

(d) Rings

(b) Double bonds

H

H

C C

H

H

C C

H H

H

O C O H

H

H Histidine (an amino acid) (e) Joined rings and chains

H

H

on sharing one electron pair). Two carbon atoms can share two electron pairs with each other, forming double bonds: C

C

In some compounds, triple carbon-to-carbon bonds are formed: C

C

As shown in Figure 3-1, hydrocarbons, organic compounds consisting only of carbon and hydrogen, can exist as unbranched or branched chains, or as rings. Rings and chains are joined in some compounds. The molecules in the cell are analogous to the components of a machine. Each component has a shape that allows it to fill certain roles and to interact with other components (often with a complementary shape). Similarly, the shape of a molecule is important in determining its biological properties and function. Carbon atoms can link to one another and to other atoms to produce a wide variety of 3-D molecular shapes because the four covalent bonds of carbon do not form in a single plane. Instead, as discussed in Chapter 2, the valence electron orbitals become elongated and project from the carbon atom toward the corners of a tetrahedron (FIG. 3-2). The structure is highly symmetrical, with an angle of about 109.5 degrees between any two of these bonds. Keep in mind that for simplicity, many of the figures in this book are drawn as two-dimensional (2-D) graphic representations of 3-D molecules. Even the simplest hydrocarbon chains, such as those in Figure 3-1, are not actually straight but have a 3-D zigzag structure. Generally, there is freedom of rotation around each carbon-tocarbon single bond. This property permits organic molecules to be flexible and to assume a variety of shapes, depending on the extent to which each single bond is rotated. Double and triple bonds do not allow rotation, so regions of a molecule with such bonds tend to be inflexible.

H

H

C

H H

(b) Methane (CH4)

(a) Carbon (C)

O

C

O

(c) Carbon dioxide (CO2)

FIGURE 3-2 Carbon bonding (a) The 3-D arrangement of the bonds of a carbon atom is responsible for (b) the tetrahedral architecture of methane. (c) In carbon dioxide, oxygen atoms are joined linearly to a central carbon by polar double bonds.

Isomers have the same molecular formula but different structures One reason for the great number of possible carbon-containing compounds is the fact that the same components usually can link in more than one pattern, generating an even wider variety of molecular shapes. Compounds with the same molecular formulas but different structures and thus different properties are called isomers. Isomers do not have identical physical or chemical properties and may have different common names. Cells can distinguish between isomers. Usually, one isomer is biologically active and the other is not. Three types of isomers are structural isomers, geometric isomers, and enantiomers. Structural isomers are compounds that differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms. For example, FIGURE 3-3a illustrates two structural isomers with the molecular formula C2H6O. Large compounds have more possible structural isomers. There can be up to 366,319 isomers of C20H42. Geometric isomers are compounds that are identical in the arrangement of their covalent bonds but different in the spatial arrangement of atoms or groups of atoms. Geometric isomers are present in some compounds with carbon-to-carbon double bonds. Because double bonds are not flexible, as single bonds are, atoms joined to the carbons of a double bond cannot rotate freely about the axis of the bonds. These cis–trans isomers may be represented as shown in FIGURE 3-3b. The designation cis (Latin, “on this side”) indicates that the two larger components are on the same side of the double bond. If they are on opposite sides of the double bond, the compound is designated a trans (Latin, “across”) isomer. Enantiomers are isomers that are mirror images of each other (FIG. 3-3c). Recall that the four groups bonded to a single carbon atom are arranged at the vertices of a tetrahedron. If the four bonded groups are all different, the central carbon is described as asymmetrical. Figure 3-3c illustrates that the four groups can be arranged around the asymmetrical carbon in two different ways that are mirror images of each other. The two molecules are enantiomers if they cannot be superimposed on each other no matter how they are rotated in space. Although enantiomers have similar chemical properties and most of their physical properties are identical, cells recognize the difference in shape, and usually only one form is found in organisms.

Functional groups change the properties of organic molecules The existence of isomers is not the only source of variety among organic molecules. The addition of various combinations of atoms generates a vast array of molecules with different properties. Because covalent bonds between hydrogen and carbon are nonpolar, hydrocarbons lack distinct charged regions. For this reason, hydrocarbons are insoluble in water and tend to cluster together through hydrophobic interactions. “Water fearing,” the literal meaning of the term hydrophobic, is somewhat misleading. Hydrocarbons interact with water, but much more weakly than the water molecules cohere to one another through hydrogen bonding.

H

H

H

C

C

H

H OH

H

C

O

C

H

H H Ethanol (C2H6O)

H

H

Dimethyl ether (C2H6O)

(a) Structural isomers. Structural isomers differ in the covalent arrangement of their atoms.

H3C

H C

C

H

CH3

H 3C C

CH3

C H

H

trans-2-butene

cis-2-butene

Cengage

(b) Geometric isomers. Geometric, or cis–trans, isomers have identical covalent bonds but differ in the order in which groups are arranged in space.

2

1

C

4

2

3

3

C

1

4

(c) Enantiomers. Enantiomers are isomers that are mirror images of each other. The central carbon is asymmetrical because it is bonded to four different groups. Because of their 3-D structure, the two figures cannot be superimposed no matter how they are rotated.

FIGURE 3-3 Isomers Isomers have the same molecular formula, but their atoms are arranged differently.

or more functional groups, groups of atoms that determine the types of chemical reactions and associations in which the compound participates. Most functional groups readily form associations, such as ionic and hydrogen bonds, with other molecules. Polar and ionic functional groups are hydrophilic because they associate strongly with polar water molecules. The properties of the major classes of biologically important organic compounds—carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids—are largely a consequence of the types and arrangement of functional groups they contain. When we know what kinds of functional groups are present in an organic compound, we can predict its chemical behavior. Note that the symbol R is used to represent the remainder of the molecule of which each functional group is a part. For example, the methyl group, a common nonpolar hydrocarbon group, is abbreviated ROCH3. As you read the rest of this section, refer to TABLE 3-1 for the structural formulas of other important functional groups, as well as for additional information. The hydroxyl group (abbreviated ROOH) is polar because of the presence of a strongly electronegative oxygen atom. Do not confuse it with the hydroxide ion, OH−, discussed in Chapter 2. If a hydroxyl group replaces one hydrogen of a hydrocarbon, the resulting molecule can have significantly altered properties. For example, ethane (see Fig. 3-1a) is a hydrocarbon that is a gas at room temperature. If a hydroxyl group replaces a hydrogen atom, the resulting molecule is ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, which is found in alcoholic beverages (see Fig. 3-3a). Ethanol is somewhat cohesive because the polar hydroxyl groups of adjacent molecules interact; it is therefore liquid at room temperature. Unlike ethane, ethyl alcohol dissolves in water because the polar hydroxyl groups interact with the polar water molecules. The carbonyl group consists of a carbon atom that has a double covalent bond with an oxygen atom. This double bond is polar because of the electronegativity of the oxygen; thus, the carbonyl group is hydrophilic. The position of the carbonyl group in the molecule determines the class to which the molecule belongs. An aldehyde has a carbonyl group positioned at the end of the carbon skeleton (abbreviated ROCHO); a ketone has an internal carbonyl group (abbreviated ROCOOR). The carboxyl group (abbreviated ROCOOH) in its nonionized form consists of a carbon atom joined by a double covalent bond to an oxygen atom, and by a single covalent bond to another oxygen, which is in turn bonded to a hydrogen atom. Two electronegative oxygen atoms in such close proximity establish an extremely polarized condition, which can cause the hydrogen atom to be stripped of its electron and released as a hydrogen ion (H+). The resulting ionized carboxyl group has 1 unit of negative charge (ROCOO−): O

O

Hydrocarbons interact weakly with one another, but the main reason for hydrophobic interactions is that they are driven together in a sense, having been excluded by the hydrogen-bonded water molecules. However, the characteristics of an organic molecule can be changed dramatically by replacing one of the hydrogens with one

R

¡ R

C

+ H+

C –

O

O H

Carboxyl groups are weakly acidic; only a fraction of the molecules ionize in this way. This group therefore exists in one of

TABLE 3-1

Some Biologically Important Functional Groups

Functional Group and Description

Structural Formula

Class of Compound Characterized by Group

Hydroxyl Polar because electronegative oxygen attracts covalent electrons

R

Alcohols

OH

H

H

H

C

C

H

H

OH

Example, ethanol Carbonyl Aldehydes: Carbonyl group carbon is bonded to at least one H atom; polar because electronegative oxygen attracts covalent electrons Ketones: Carbonyl group carbon is bonded to two other carbons; polar because electronegative oxygen attracts covalent electrons

Aldehydes

O R

C

O

H

H

C

H

Example, formaldehyde Ketones

O R

C

R

H

H

O

H

C

C

C

H

H

H

Example, acetone Carboxyl Weakly acidic; can release an H+

O R

C

Carboxylic acids (organic acids)

O R

OH

Non-ionized

C

O– + H+

Ionized

O R

C

OH

Example, amino acid Amino Weakly basic; can accept an H+

R

N

H

R

H

Non-ionized

N+

Amines

H H H

NH2 O R

Ionized

C

C

OH

H Example, amino acid Phosphate Weakly acidic; one or two H+ can be released

O R

O

P

OH

R

O

P O–

OH Non-ionized

Organic Phosphates

O O–

O HO

P

O

R

OH

Ionized

Example, phosphate ester (as found in ATP) Sulfhydryl Helps stabilize internal structure of proteins

R

SH

Thiols

H

H

H

O

C

C

C

OH

SH NH2 Example, cysteine

two hydrophilic states: ionic or polar. Carboxyl groups are essential constituents of amino acids. An amino group (abbreviated RONH2) in its non-ionized form includes a nitrogen atom covalently bonded to two hydrogen atoms. Amino groups are weakly basic because they are able to ac-

cept a hydrogen ion (proton). The resulting ionized amino group has 1 unit of positive charge (RONH3+). Amino groups are components of amino acids and of nucleic acids. A phosphate group (abbreviated ROPO4H2) is weakly acidic. The attraction of electrons by the oxygen atoms can result in

Monomer

FIGURE 3-4 A simple polymer This small polymer of polyethylene is formed by linking two-carbon ethylene (C2H4) monomers. One such monomer is outlined in red. The structure is represented by a space-filling model, which accurately depicts the 3-D shape of the molecule.

lated by a specific enzyme (biological catalyst), a hydrogen from a water molecule attaches to one monomer, and a hydroxyl from water attaches to the adjacent monomer (FIG. 3-5). Monomers become covalently linked by condensation reactions. Because the equivalent of a molecule of water is removed during the reactions that combine monomers, the term dehydration synthesis is sometimes used to describe condensation (see Fig. 3-5). However, in biological systems the synthesis of a polymer is not simply the reverse of hydrolysis, even though the net effect is the opposite of hydrolysis. Synthetic processes such as condensation require energy and are regulated by different enzymes. In the following sections we examine carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Our discussion begins with the smaller, simpler forms of these compounds and extends to the linking of these monomers to form macromolecules.

Review ■

the release of one or two hydrogen ions, producing ionized forms with 1 or 2 units of negative charge. Phosphates are constituents of nucleic acids and certain lipids. The sulfhydryl group (abbreviated ROSH), consisting of an atom of sulfur covalently bonded to a hydrogen atom, is found in molecules called thiols. As you will see, amino acids that contain a sulfhydryl group can make important contributions to the structure of proteins.









Many biological molecules are polymers Many biological molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids are very large, consisting of thousands of atoms. Such giant molecules are known as macromolecules. Most macromolecules are polymers, produced by linking small organic compounds called monomers (FIG. 3-4). Just as all the words in this book have been written by arranging the 26 letters of the alphabet in various combinations, monomers can be grouped to form an almost infinite variety of larger molecules. The thousands of different complex organic compounds present in organisms are constructed from about 40 small, simple monomers. For example, the 20 monomers called amino acids can be linked end to end in countless ways to form the polymers known as proteins. Polymers can be degraded to their component monomers by hydrolysis reactions (“to break with water”). In a reaction regu-

What are some of the ways that the features of carbon-to-carbon bonds influence the stability and 3-D structure of organic molecules? Draw pairs of simple sketches comparing two (1) structural isomers, (2) geometric isomers, and (3) enantiomers. Why are these differences biologically important? Sketch the following functional groups: methyl, amino, carbonyl, hydroxyl, carboxyl, and phosphate. Include both non-ionized and ionized forms for acidic and basic groups. How is the fact that a group is nonpolar, polar, acidic, or basic related to its hydrophilic or hydrophobic properties? Why is the equivalent of a water molecule important to both condensation reactions and hydrolysis reactions?

3.2 CARBOHYDRATES ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE 5

Distinguish among monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides; compare storage polysaccharides with structural polysaccharides.

Sugars, starches, and cellulose are carbohydrates. Sugars and starches serve as energy sources for cells; cellulose is the main structural component of the walls that surround plant cells. Carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in a ratio of approximately one carbon to two hydrogens to one oxygen (CH2O)n. The term carbohydrate, meaning “hydrate (water) of

Condensation Enzyme A HO

OH Monomer

HO

OH Monomer

HO Hydrolysis Enzyme B

FIGURE 3-5 Animated Condensation and hydrolysis reactions Joining two monomers yields a dimer; incorporating additional monomers produces a polymer. Note that condensation and hydrolysis reactions are catalyzed by different enzymes.

O Dimer

OH +

H2O

The large number of polar hydroxyl groups, plus the carbonyl group, gives a monosaccharide hydrophilic properties. FIGURE 3-6 shows simplified, 2-D representations of some common monosaccharides. The simplest carbohydrates are the three-carbon sugars (trioses): glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone. Ribose and deoxyribose are common pentoses, sugars that contain five carbons; they are components of nucleic acids (DNA, RNA, and related compounds). Glucose, fructose, galactose, and other six-carbon sugars are called hexoses. (Note that the names of carbohydrates typically end in -ose.) Glucose (C6H12O6), the most abundant monosaccharide, is used as an energy source in most organisms. During cellular respiration (see Chapter 8), cells oxidize glucose molecules, converting the stored energy to a form that can be readily used for cell work. Glucose is also used in the synthesis of other types of compounds

carbon,” reflects the 2:1 ratio of hydrogen to oxygen, the same ratio found in water (H2O). Carbohydrates contain one sugar unit (monosaccharides), two sugar units (disaccharides), or many sugar units (polysaccharides).

Monosaccharides are simple sugars Monosaccharides typically contain from three to seven carbon atoms. In a monosaccharide, a hydroxyl group is bonded to each carbon except one; that carbon is double-bonded to an oxygen atom, forming a carbonyl group. If the carbonyl group is at the end of the chain, the monosaccharide is an aldehyde; if the carbonyl group is at any other position, the monosaccharide is a ketone. (By convention, the numbering of the carbon skeleton of a sugar begins with the carbon at or nearest the carbonyl end of the open chain.)

H H

H O

H

1

C 2

C

H

C

2

C

OH

3

C

H

1

H

3

C

H

OH

OH

H

O

H

OH

H

1

C

2

C

3

C

4

C

5

C

O

H

OH

H

OH

H

OH

H

OH

H

1

C

2

C

3

C

4

C

5

C

O H OH OH OH

H

H

H

H

Glyceraldehyde (C3H6O3) (an aldehyde)

Dihydroxyacetone (C3H6O3) (a ketone)

Ribose (C5H10O5) (the sugar component of RNA)

Deoxyribose (C5H10O4) (the sugar component of DNA)

(a) Triose sugars (3-carbon sugars)

(b) Pentose sugars (5-carbon sugars)

H H H HO H H H

1

C

2

C

3

C

4

C

5

C

6

C

O

H

C

2

OH H

1

C

HO

OH

H

OH

H

OH

H

3

C

4

C

5

C

6

C

OH

H

O

H

H

HO

OH

HO

OH

H

OH

H

1

C

2

C

3

C

4

C

5

C

6

C

O OH H H OH OH

H

H

H

Glucose (C6H12O6) (an aldehyde)

Fructose (C6H12O6) (a ketone)

Galactose (C6H12O6) (an aldehyde)

(c) Hexose sugars (6-carbon sugars)

FIGURE 3-6 Monosaccharides Shown are 2-D chain structures of (a) three-carbon trioses, (b) five-carbon pentoses, and (c) six-carbon hexoses. Although it is convenient to show monosaccharides in this form, the pentoses and hexoses are more accurately depicted as ring structures, as in Figure 3-7. The carbonyl group (gray screen) is terminal in aldehyde sugars and located in an internal position in ketones. Deoxyribose differs from ribose because deoxyribose has one less oxygen; a hydrogen (white screen) instead of a hydroxyl group (blue screen) is attached to carbon 2. Glucose and galactose differ in the arrangement of the hydroxyl group and hydrogen attached to carbon 4 (red box).

such as amino acids and fatty acids. GluOH OH OH cose is so important in metabolism that 6 6 6 mechanisms have evolved to maintain H C H H C H H C H 5 5 5 its concentration at relatively constant C C C O H OH O O OH H H H levels in the blood of humans and other 4 4 4 H H 1 1 1 OH H C H C H C H C C C complex animals (see Chapter 49). OH OH 3 2 3 2 3 2 Glucose and fructose are structural HO C HO C HO C C OH C C H isomers: they have identical molecular H OH H OH H OH formulas, but their atoms are arranged differently. In fructose (a ketone) the 𝛂-Glucose 𝛃-Glucose double-bonded oxygen is linked to a Formation of glucose ring (ring form) (ring form) carbon within the chain rather than to a (a) When dissolved in water, glucose undergoes a rearrangement of its atoms, forming one of two possible ring structures: α-glucose or β-glucose. Although terminal carbon as in glucose (an aldethe drawing does not show the complete 3-D structure, the thick, tapered bonds hyde). Because of these differences, the in the lower portion of each ring represent the part of the molecule that would two sugars have different properties. For project out of the page toward you. example, fructose, found in honey and some fruits, tastes sweeter than glucose. CH2OH CH2OH Glucose and galactose are both hexO O OH oses and aldehydes. However, they differ OH OH in the arrangement of the atoms attached OH HO HO to asymmetrical carbon atom 4. OH OH The linear formulas in Figure 3-6 give a clear but somewhat unrealistic 𝛂-Glucose 𝛃-Glucose picture of the structures of some com(b) The essential differences between α-glucose and β-glucose are more readily mon monosaccharides. As we have menapparent in these simplified structures. By convention, a carbon atom is assumed to be present at each angle in the ring unless another atom is shown. Most tioned, molecules are not 2-D; in fact, hydrogen atoms have been omitted. the properties of each compound depend largely on its 3-D structure. Thus, 3-D formulas are helpful in understandFIGURE 3-7 a and b forms of glucose ing the relationship between molecular structure and biological function. Molecules of glucose and other pencarbon 1 of one molecule and carbon 4 of the other molecule. toses and hexoses in solution are actually rings rather than extended The disaccharide maltose (malt sugar) consists of two covalently straight carbon chains. linked a-glucose units. Sucrose, common table sugar, consists of Glucose in solution (as in the cell) typically exists as a ring of a glucose unit combined with a fructose unit. Lactose (the sugar five carbons and one oxygen. It assumes this configuration when present in milk) consists of one molecule of glucose and one of its atoms undergo a rearrangement, permitting a covalent bond to galactose. connect carbon 1 to the oxygen attached to carbon 5 (FIG. 3-7). When glucose forms a ring, two isomeric forms are possible, difAs shown in Figure 3-8, a disaccharide can be hydrolyzed, that fering only in orientation of the hydroxyl (OOH) group attached is, split by the addition of water, into two monosaccharide units. to carbon 1. When this hydroxyl group is on the same side of the During digestion, maltose is hydrolyzed to form two molecules of plane of the ring as the OCH2OH side group, the glucose is desglucose: ignated beta glucose (b-glucose). When it is on the side (with remaltose + water ¡ glucose + glucose spect to the plane of the ring) opposite the OCH2OH side group, the compound is designated alpha glucose (a-glucose). Although Similarly, sucrose is hydrolyzed to form glucose and fructose: the differences between these isomers may seem small, they have important consequences when the rings join to form polymers. sucrose + water ¡ glucose + fructose

Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide units A disaccharide (two sugars) contains two monosaccharide rings joined by a glycosidic linkage, consisting of a central oxygen covalently bonded to two carbons, one in each ring (FIG. 3-8). The glycosidic linkage of a disaccharide generally forms between

Polysaccharides can store energy or provide structure A polysaccharide is a macromolecule consisting of repeating units of simple sugars, usually glucose. The polysaccharides are the most abundant carbohydrates and include starches, glycogen, and

6

H 4

HO

Glycosidic linkage 6 CH2OH

CH2OH 5

H OH 3

H

O H

H

H 1

4

2

O

5

O

OH

H

H

H OH

H

1

3

2

OH

H

CH2OH

CH2OH

+

H2O

O H OH

Enzyme

OH

OH H

Maltose C12H22O11

O H OH

+

H

HO

H

H

H

H

HO

OH

OH

H

OH

Glucose C6H12O6

Glucose C6H12O6

(a) Maltose may be broken down (as during digestion) to form two molecules of glucose.The glycosidic linkage is broken in a hydrolysis reaction, which requires the addition of water. CH2OH H

CH2OH O

H OH

H

HOCH2

H

HO

O H

HO

O H

OH

H

H +

H2O

OH

H OH

Enzyme

CH2OH H

Sucrose C12H22O11

O

H

+

H

HO

OH H

OH

Glucose C6 H12O6

1

HO CH2 2

HO

O H 3

OH

H HO

5

4

6

CH2OH

H

Fructose C6 H12O6

(b) Sucrose can be hydrolyzed to yield a molecule of glucose and a molecule of fructose.

FIGURE 3-8 Hydrolysis of disaccharides Note that an enzyme is needed to promote these reactions.

cellulose. Although the precise number of sugar units varies, thousands of units are typically present in a single molecule. A polysaccharide may be a single long chain or a branched chain. Because they are composed of different isomers and because the units may be arranged differently, polysaccharides vary in their properties. Those that can be easily broken down to their subunits are well suited for energy storage, whereas the macromolecular 3-D architecture of others makes them particularly well suited to form stable structures. Starch, the typical form of carbohydrate used for energy storage in plants, is a polymer consisting of a-glucose subunits. These monomers are joined by a 1O4 linkages, which means that carbon 1 of one glucose is linked to carbon 4 of the next glucose in the chain (FIG. 3-9). Starch occurs in two forms: amylose and amylopectin. Amylose, the simpler form, is unbranched. Amylopectin, the more common form, usually consists of about 1000 glucose units in a branched chain. Plant cells store starch mainly as granules within specialized organelles called amyloplasts (see Fig. 3-9a); some cells, such as those of potatoes, are very rich in amyloplasts. When energy is needed for cell work, the plant hydrolyzes the starch, releasing the glucose subunits. Virtually all organisms, including humans and other animals, have enzymes that can break a 1O4 linkages.

Glycogen (sometimes referred to as animal starch) is the form in which glucose subunits, joined by a 1O4 linkages, are stored as an energy source in animal tissues. Glycogen is similar in structure to plant starch but more extensively branched and more water soluble. In vertebrates, glycogen is stored mainly in liver and muscle cells. Carbohydrates are the most abundant group of organic compounds on Earth, and cellulose is the most abundant carbohydrate; it accounts for 50% or more of all the carbon in plants (FIG. 3-10). Cellulose is a structural carbohydrate. Wood is about half cellulose, and cotton is at least 90% cellulose. Plant cells are surrounded by strong supporting cell walls consisting mainly of cellulose. Cellulose is an insoluble polysaccharide composed of many joined glucose molecules. The bonds joining these sugar units are different from those in starch. Recall that starch is composed of aglucose subunits, joined by a 1O4 glycosidic linkages. Cellulose contains b-glucose monomers joined by b 1O4 linkages. These bonds cannot be split by the enzymes that hydrolyze the a linkages in starch. Because humans, like other animals, lack enzymes that digest cellulose, we cannot use it as a nutrient. The cellulose found in whole grains and vegetables remains fibrous and provides bulk that helps keep our digestive tract functioning properly. Some microorganisms digest cellulose to glucose. In fact, cellulose-digesting bacteria live in the digestive systems of cows

Ed Reschke

and sheep, enabling these grass-eating animals to obtain nourishment from cellulose. Similarly, the digestive systems of termites contain microorganisms that digest cellulose (see Fig. 26-4b). Cellulose molecules are well suited for a structural role. The bglucose subunits are joined in a way that allows extensive hydrogen bonding among different cellulose molecules, and they aggregate in long bundles of fibers (see Fig. 3-10a).

Some modified and complex carbohydrates have special roles

Many derivatives of monosaccharides are important biological molecules. Some form important structural components. The amino sugars galactosamine and glucosamine are compounds in which a hydroxyl group (OOH) is replaced by an amino group (ONH2). Galactosamine is present in cartilage, a constituent of the skeletal system of vertebrates. N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG) subunits, joined by glycosidic bonds, Amyloplasts compose chitin, a main component of the cell walls of fungi and of the external skeletons of insects, crayfish, and other arthropods (FIG. 3-11). Chitin forms very tough structures because, as in cellulose, its molecules interact through multiple hydrogen bonds. Some chitinous structures, such as the shell of a lobster, are further hardened by the addition of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), an inorganic form of carbon. Carbohydrates may also combine with proteins to form glycoproteins, compounds present on the outer surface of cells other than bacteria. Some of these carbohydrate chains allow cells to adhere to one another, whereas others provide protection. Most proteins secreted by cells are glycoproteins. These include the major components of mucus, a protective material secreted by the mucous membranes of the respiratory and digestive systems. Carbohydrates combine with lipids to form glycolipids, com100 μm pounds on the surfaces of animal cells that allow cells to (a) Starch (stained purple) is stored in specialized recognize and interact with one another. organelles, called amyloplasts, in these cells of a buttercup root.

6

CH2OH

O

H OH H

O H H 4

H

O

OH

CH2OH 5

O H

3

2

H OH H

H

HO O 6 CH 2

CH2OH H HO

H OH H

1

O H H

O H H H OH

O

CH2OH

OH

H

H

OH

O

CH2OH O H H

OH

H

H

OH

O

H OH H

O H H

O

OH

(b) Starch is composed of α-glucose molecules joined by glycosidic bonds. At the branch points are bonds between carbon 6 of the glucose in the straight chain and carbon 1 of the glucose in the branching chain. (c) Starch consists of highly branched chains; the arrows indicate the branch points. Each chain is actually a coil or helix, stabilized by hydrogen bonds between the hydroxyl groups of the glucose subunits.

FIGURE 3-9 Starch, a storage polysaccharide

Review ■



3.3 LIPIDS

What features related to hydrogen bonding give storage polysaccharides, such as starch and glycogen, different properties from structural polysaccharides, such as cellulose and chitin? Why can’t humans digest cellulose?

■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE 6 Distinguish among fats, phospholipids, and steroids, and describe the composition, characteristics, and biological functions of each.

Biophoto Associates/ Photo Researchers, Inc.

Unlike carbohydrates, which are defined by their structure, lipids are a heterogeneous group of compounds that are categorized by the fact that they are soluble in nonpolar solvents (such as ether and chloroform) and are relatively insoluble in water. Lipid molecules have these properties because they consist mainly of carbon and hydrogen, with few oxygencontaining functional groups. Hydrophilic functional groups typically contain oxygen atoms; therefore, lipids, which have little oxygen, tend to be hydrophobic. Among the biologically important groups of lipids are fats, phospholipids, carotenoids (orange and yellow plant pigments), steroids, and waxes. Some lipids are used for energy storage, others serve as structural components of cell membranes, and some are important hormones.

1 μm

(a) Cellulose fibers from a cell wall. The fibers shown in this electron micrograph consist of bundles of cellulose molecules that interact through hydrogen bonds.

CH2OH H HO

O H OH

O

H H

H

H

OH

OH H

H

H

OH

CH2OH H

H O

O CH2OH

O H OH

O

H H

H

H

OH

OH H

H

H

H

O

O

CH2OH

OH

(b) The cellulose molecule is an unbranched polysaccharide. It consists of about 10,000 ß-glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.

FIGURE 3-10 Cellulose, a structural polysaccharide

N-acetyl glucosamine

H

H H

H

NHCOCH3

OH H

H

O

O H OH

H

H

NHCOCH3

O

H

H

CH2OH

CH2OH

H H

O H

OH H

H

H

NHCOCH3

(a) Chitin is a polymer composed of N-acetyl glucosamine subunits.

FIGURE 3-11 Chitin, a structural polysaccharide

NHCOCH3

O

O H OH

H

O CH2OH

H O

Dwight R. Kuhn

CH2OH

(b) Chitin is an important component of the exoskeleton (outer covering) this dragonfly is shedding.

Triacylglycerol is formed from glycerol and three fatty acids

Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids differ in physical properties

The most abundant lipids in living organisms are triacylglycerols. These compounds, commonly known as fats, are an economical form of reserve fuel storage because, when metabolized, they yield more than twice as much energy per gram as do carbohydrates. Carbohydrates and proteins can be transformed by enzymes into fats and stored within the cells of adipose (fat) tissue of animals and in some seeds and fruits of plants. A triacylglycerol molecule (also known as a triglyceride) consists of glycerol joined to three fatty acids (FIG. 3-12). Glycerol is a three-carbon alcohol that contains three hydroxyl (OOH) groups, and a fatty acid is a long, unbranched hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group (OCOOH) at one end. A triacylglycerol molecule is formed by a series of three condensation reactions. In each reaction, the equivalent of a water molecule is removed as one of the glycerol’s hydroxyl groups reacts with the carboxyl group of a fatty acid, resulting in the formation of a covalent linkage known as an ester linkage (see Fig. 3-12b). The first reaction yields a monoacylglycerol (monoglyceride); the second, a diacylglycerol (diglyceride); and the third, a triacylglycerol. During digestion, triacylglycerols are hydrolyzed to produce fatty acids and glycerol (see Chapter 47). Diacylglycerol is an important molecule for sending signals within the cell (see Chapters 6 and 49).

About 30 different fatty acids are commonly found in lipids, and they typically have an even number of carbon atoms. For example, butyric acid, present in rancid butter, has four carbon atoms. Oleic acid, with 18 carbons, is the most widely distributed fatty acid in nature and is found in most animal and plant fats. Saturated fatty acids contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms. Palmitic acid, a 16-carbon fatty acid, is a common saturated fatty acid (see Fig. 3-12c). Fats high in saturated fatty acids, such as animal fat and solid vegetable shortening, tend to be solid at room temperature. The reason is that even electrically neutral, nonpolar molecules can develop transient regions of weak positive charge and weak negative charge. This occurs as the constant motion of their electrons causes some regions to have a temporary excess of electrons, whereas others have a temporary electron deficit. These slight opposite charges result in van der Waals interactions between adjacent molecules (see Chapter 2). Although van der Waals interactions are weak attractions, they are strong when many occur among long hydrocarbon chains. These van der Waals interactions tend to make a substance more solid by limiting the motion of its molecules. Unsaturated fatty acids include one or more adjacent pairs of carbon atoms joined by a double bond. Therefore, they are not fully saturated with hydrogen. Fatty acids with one double bond are monounsaturated fatty acids, whereas those with more than one double bond are polyunsaturated fatty acids. Oleic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid, and linoleic acid is a common polyunsaturated fatty acid (see Figs. 3-12d and e). Fats containing a high proportion of monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids tend to be liquid at room temperature. The reason is that each double bond produces a bend in the hydrocarbon chain that prevents it from aligning closely with an adjacent chain, thereby limiting van der Waals interactions and permitting freer molecular motion.

H H

C

OH

H

C

OH

H

C

OH

Carboxyl O HO

H Glycerol

(a) H H

H

H

C

C

C H

(b)

C

R

Fatty acid

O

O

O

Ester linkage O H H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

O

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

O

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

A triacylglycerol

FIGURE 3-12 Animated Triacylglycerol, the main storage lipid (a) Glycerol and fatty acids are the components of fats. (b) Glycerol is attached to fatty acids by ester linkages (in gray). The space-filling models show the actual shapes of the fatty acids. (c) Palmitic acid, a saturated fatty acid, is a straight chain. (d) Oleic acid (monounsaturated) and (e) linoleic acid (polyunsaturated) are bent or kinked wherever a carbon-to-carbon double bond appears.

CH3

(c) Palmitic acid CH3

(d) Oleic acid CH3

(e) Linoleic acid

does not produce a bend at the site of the double bond, trans fatty acids are more solid at room temperature; like saturated fatty acids, they increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. At least two unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid and arachidonic acid) are essential nutrients that must be obtained from food because the human body cannot synthesize them. However, the amounts required are small, and deficiencies are rarely seen. There is no dietary requirement for saturated fatty acids.

Food manufacturers commonly hydrogenate or partially hydrogenate cooking oils to make margarine and other foodstuffs, converting unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids and making the fat more solid at room temperature. This process makes the fat less healthful because saturated fatty acids in the diet are known to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (see Chapter 44). The hydrogenation process has yet another effect. Note that in the naturally occurring unsaturated fatty acids oleic acid and linoleic acid shown in Figure 3-12, the two hydrogens flanking each double bond are on the same side of the hydrocarbon chain (the cis configuration). When fatty acids are artificially hydrogenated, the double bonds can become rearranged, resulting in a trans configuration, analogous to the arrangement shown in Figure 3-3b. Trans fatty acids are technically unsaturated, but they mimic many of the properties of saturated fatty acids. Because the trans configuration

KEY POINT

N+

Phospholipids belong to a group of lipids called amphipathic lipids, in which one end of each molecule is hydrophilic and the other end is hydrophobic (FIG. 3-13). The two ends of a phospho-

A lipid bilayer forms when phospholipids interact with water.

O

CH3 CH3

Phospholipids are components of cell membranes

CH2

CH2

O

P

H O

C

H O

O–

CH3

H

H

C

C H

Choline

O

O

C

H C

H C

H C

H C

H C

H C

H

H C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

CH 3

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

O

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

Phosphate Glycerol group

CH3

Fatty acids

Water

Hydrophilic head

Hydrophobic tail

(a) Phospholipid (lecithin). A phospholipid consists of a hydrophobic tail, made up of two fatty acids, and a hydrophilic head, which includes a glycerol bonded to a phosphate group, which is in turn bonded to an organic group that can vary. Choline is the organic group in lecithin (or phosphatidylcholine), the molecule shown. The fatty acid at the top of the figure is monounsaturated; it contains one double bond that produces a characteristic bend in the chain.

FIGURE 3-13 Animated A phospholipid and a phospholipid bilayer

(b) Phospholipid bilayer. Phospholipids form lipid bilayers in which the hydrophilic heads interact with water and the hydrophobic tails are in the bilayer interior.

lipid differ both physically and chemically. A phospholipid consists of a glycerol molecule attached at one end to two fatty acids and at the other end to a phosphate group linked to an organic compound such as choline. The organic compound usually contains nitrogen. (Note that phosphorus and nitrogen are absent in triacylglycerols, as shown in Figure 3-12b.) The fatty acid portion of the molecule (containing the two hydrocarbon “tails”) is hydrophobic and not soluble in water. However, the portion composed of glycerol, phosphate, and the organic base (the “head” of the molecule) is ionized and readily water soluble. The amphipathic properties of phospholipids cause them to form lipid bilayers in aqueous (watery) solution. Thus, they are uniquely suited as the fundamental components of cell membranes (discussed in Chapter 5).

CH2

CH2 CH2 CH3 C

C C

CH3

CH2

CH2 CH3

C

C

C C

CH3

CH C

CH3

CH CH3

C

HC

CH

CH HC

HC

(a) Isoprene

C

C

CH3

The orange and yellow plant pigments called carotenoids are classified with the lipids because they are insoluble in water and have an oily consistency. These pigments, found in the cells of plants, play a role in photosynthesis. Carotenoid molecules, such as b-carotene, and many other important pigments, consist of five-carbon hydrocarbon monomers known as isoprene units (FIG. 3-14). Most animals convert carotenoids to vitamin A, which can then be converted to the visual pigment retinal. Three groups of animals—the mollusks, insects, and vertebrates—have eyes that use retinal in the process of light reception. Notice that carotenoids, vitamin A, and retinal all have a pattern of double bonds alternating with single bonds. The electrons that make up these bonds can move about relatively easily when light strikes the molecule. Such molecules are pigments; they tend to be highly colored because the mobile electrons cause them to strongly absorb light of certain wavelengths and reflect light of other wavelengths.

H

CH

Point of cleavage

HC

CH3 CH2

CH

CH2 C

CH3

C C

CH3

HC

CH3

HC

CH

CH3

CH2

CH3

HC

CH

C

CH3

OH

H

HC

C

C

(c) Vitamin A

HC C

CH3

HC

HC

Carotenoids and many other pigments are derived from isoprene units

CH3

HC

CH

CH2

CH3

HC

HC CH2

CH2

CH3

C

C

CH2

CH2

C CH3

CH3

HC CH

CH2

HC

(b) 𝛃-Carotene

C

CH3

HC C

Steroids contain four rings of carbon atoms A steroid consists of carbon atoms arranged in four attached rings; three of the rings contain six carbon atoms, and the fourth contains five (FIG. 3-15). The length and structure of the side chains that extend from these rings distinguish one steroid from another. Like carotenoids, steroids are synthesized from isoprene units. Among the steroids of biological importance are cholesterol, bile salts, reproductive hormones, and cortisol as well as other hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex. Cholesterol is an essential structural component of animal cell membranes, but when excess cholesterol in blood forms plaques on artery walls, the risk of cardiovascular disease increases (see Chapter 44). Plant cell membranes contain molecules similar to cholesterol. Interestingly, some of these plant steroids block the intestine’s absorption of cholesterol. Bile salts emulsify fats in the intestine so they can be enzymatically hydrolyzed. Steroid hormones regulate certain aspects of metabolism in a variety of animals and plants.

H

O

(d) Retinal

FIGURE 3-14 Isoprene-derived compounds (a) An isoprene subunit. (b) b-carotene, with dashed lines indicating the boundaries of the individual isoprene units within. The wavy line is the point at which most animals cleave the molecule to yield two molecules of (c) vitamin A. Vitamin A is converted to the visual pigment (d) retinal.

Some chemical mediators are lipids Animal cells secrete chemicals to communicate with one another or to regulate their own activities. Some chemical mediators are produced by the modification of fatty acids that have been removed from membrane phospholipids. These include prostaglandins, which have varied roles, including promoting inflammation and smooth muscle contraction. Certain hormones, such as

CH3

CH2

CH

CH2

CH2

CH3 CH

CH3

CH3

CH3

TABLE 3-2

Major Classes of Proteins and Their Functions

Protein Class

Functions and Examples

Enzymes

Catalyze specific chemical reactions

Structural proteins

Strengthen and protect cells and tissues (e.g., collagen strengthens animal tissues)

Storage proteins

Store nutrients; particularly abundant in eggs (e.g., ovalbumin in egg white) and seeds (e.g., zein in corn kernels)

Transport proteins

Transport specific substances between cells (e.g., hemoglobin transports oxygen in red blood cells); move specific substances (e.g., ions, glucose, amino acids) across cell membranes

Regulatory proteins

Some are protein hormones (e.g., insulin); some control the expression of specific genes

Motile proteins

Participate in cellular movements (e.g., actin and myosin are essential for muscle contraction)

Protective proteins

Defend against foreign invaders (e.g., antibodies play a role in the immune system)

HO Indicates double bond

(a) Cholesterol is an essential component of animal cell membranes. CH2OH

HO

CH3

C

O OH

CH3

O

(b) Cortisol is a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal glands.

■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Proteins, macromolecules composed of amino acids, are the most versatile cell components. As will be discussed in Chapter 16, scientists have succeeded in sequencing virtually all the genetic information in a human cell, and the genetic information of many other organisms is being studied. Some people might think that the sequencing of genes is the end of the story, but it is actually only the beginning. Much genetic information is used to specify the structure of proteins, and biologists may devote most of the 21st century to understanding these extraordinarily multifaceted macromolecules that are of central importance in the chemistry of life. In a real sense, proteins are involved in virtually all aspects of metabolism because most enzymes, molecules that accelerate the thousands of different chemical reactions that take place in an organism, are proteins. Proteins are assembled into a variety of shapes, allowing them to serve as major structural components of cells and tissues. For this reason, growth and repair, as well as maintenance of the organism, depend on proteins. As shown in TABLE 3-2, proteins perform many other functions. Each cell type contains characteristic forms, distributions, and amounts of protein that largely determine what the cell looks like and how it functions. A muscle cell contains large amounts of the proteins myosin and actin, which are responsible for its appearance as well as its ability to contract. The protein hemoglobin, found in red blood cells, is responsible for the specialized function of oxygen transport.

7 8

Amino acids are the subunits of proteins

FIGURE 3-15 Steroids Four attached rings—three six-carbon rings and one with five carbons— make up the fundamental structure of a steroid (shown in green). Note that some carbons are shared by two rings. In these simplified structures, a carbon atom is present at each angle of a ring; the hydrogen atoms attached directly to the carbon atoms have not been drawn. Steroids are mainly distinguished by their attached functional groups.

the juvenile hormone of insects, are also fatty acid derivatives (discussed in Chapter 49).

Review ■



Why do saturated, unsaturated, and trans fatty acids differ in their properties? Why do phospholipids form lipid bilayers in aqueous conditions?

3.4 PROTEINS

9

Give an overall description of the structure and functions of proteins. Describe the features that are shared by all amino acids and explain how amino acids are grouped into classes based on the characteristics of their side chains. Distinguish among the four levels of organization of protein molecules.

Amino acids, the constituents of proteins, have an amino group (ONH2) and a carboxyl group (OCOOH) bonded to the same

H H

N H

C CH3

O C

H OH

H

H

N+

C

H

CH3

O

and histidine. Arginine is added to the list for children because they do not synthesize enough to support growth.

C O–

Ionized form

FIGURE 3-16 An amino acid at pH 7 In living cells, amino acids exist mainly in their ionized form, as dipolar ions.

asymmetrical carbon atom, known as the alpha carbon. Amino acids in solution at neutral pH are mainly dipolar ions; that is, they possess a positive charge at one end and a negative charge at the opposite end. This is generally how amino acids exist at cell pH. Each carboxyl group (OCOOH) donates a proton and becomes ionized (OCOO−), whereas each amino group (ONH2) accepts a proton and becomes ONH3+ (FIG. 3-16). Because of the ability of their amino and carboxyl groups to accept and release protons, amino acids in solution resist changes in acidity and alkalinity and therefore are important biological buffers. Twenty amino acids are commonly found in proteins, each identified by the variable side chain (R group) bonded to the a carbon (FIG. 3-17). Glycine, the simplest amino acid, has a hydrogen atom as its R group; alanine has a methyl (OCH3) group. The amino acids are grouped in Figure 3-17 by the properties of their side chains. These broad groupings actually include amino acids with a fairly wide range of properties. Amino acids classified as having nonpolar side chains tend to have hydrophobic properties, whereas those classified as polar are more hydrophilic. An acidic amino acid has a side chain that contains a carboxyl group. At cell pH the carboxyl group is dissociated, giving the R group a negative charge. A basic amino acid becomes positively charged when the amino group in its side chain accepts a hydrogen ion. Acidic and basic side chains are ionic at cell pH and therefore hydrophilic. Some proteins have unusual amino acids in addition to the 20 common ones. These rare amino acids are produced by the modification of common amino acids after they have become part of a protein. For example, after they have been incorporated into collagen, lysine and proline may be converted to hydroxylysine and hydroxyproline. These amino acids can form cross links between the peptide chains that make up collagen. Such cross links produce the firmness and great strength of the collagen molecule, which is a major component of cartilage, bone, and other connective tissues. With some exceptions, prokaryotes and plants synthesize all their needed amino acids from simpler substances. If the proper raw materials are available, the cells of animals can manufacture some, but not all, of the biologically significant amino acids. Essential amino acids are those an animal cannot synthesize in amounts sufficient to meet its needs and must obtain from the diet. Animals differ in their biosynthetic capacities; what is an essential amino acid for one species may not be for another. The essential amino acids for humans are isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine,

Peptide bonds join amino acids Amino acids combine chemically with one another by a condensation reaction that bonds the carboxyl carbon of one molecule to the amino nitrogen of another (FIG. 3-18). The covalent carbon-tonitrogen bond linking two amino acids is a peptide bond. When two amino acids combine, a dipeptide is formed; a longer chain of amino acids is a polypeptide. A protein consists of one or more polypeptide chains. Each polypeptide has a free amino group at one end and a free carboxyl group (belonging to the last amino acid added to the chain) at the opposite end. The other amino and carboxyl groups of the amino acid monomers (except those in side chains) are part of the peptide bonds. The process by which polypeptides are synthesized is discussed in Chapter 13. A polypeptide may contain hundreds of amino acids joined in a specific linear order. The backbone of the polypeptide chain includes the repeating sequence N

C

C

N

C

C

N

C

C

plus all other atoms except those in the R groups. The R groups of the amino acids extend from this backbone. An almost infinite variety of protein molecules is possible, differing from one another in the number, types, and sequences of amino acids they contain. The 20 types of amino acids found in proteins may be thought of as letters of a protein alphabet; each protein is a very long sentence made up of amino acid letters.

Proteins have four levels of organization The polypeptide chains making up a protein are twisted or folded to form a macromolecule with a specific conformation, or 3-D shape. Some polypeptide chains form long fibers. Globular proteins are tightly folded into compact, roughly spherical shapes. There is a close relationship between a protein’s conformation and its function. For example, a typical enzyme is a globular protein with a unique shape that allows it to catalyze a specific chemical reaction. Similarly, the shape of a protein hormone enables it to combine with receptors on its target cell (the cell on which the hormone acts). Scientists recognize four main levels of protein organization: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary. Primary structure is the amino acid sequence The sequence of amino acids, joined by peptide bonds, is the primary structure of a polypeptide chain. As discussed in Chapter 13, this sequence is specified by the instructions in a gene. Using analytical methods, investigators can determine the exact sequence of amino acids in a protein molecule. The primary structures of thousands of proteins are known. For example, glucagon, a hormone secreted by the pancreas, is a small polypeptide, consisting of only 29 amino acid units (FIG. 3-19). Primary structure is always represented in a simple, linear, “beads-on-a-string” form. However, the overall conformation

(a) Nonpolar (hydrophobic) COO– H3N+

C

COO–

H

H2N+

CH2

H2C

CH3

Leucine (Leu, L)

Proline (Pro, P)

COO– H3N+

H

CH2 CH2

CH H3C

C

COO– H3N+

H

C

C

H

CH

CH3

CH3

Alanine (Ala, A)

CH3

Valine (Val, V)

(b) Polar, uncharged COO–

COO– H3N+

C

H

H

C

OH

H3N+

H

C CH2

CH3

OH Serine (Ser, S)

Threonine (Thr, T)

COO– COO– H3N+

C

H3N+

H

H

CH2

CH2

CH2

C O

C

C

NH2

O

Asparagine (Asn, N)

NH2

Glutamine (Gln, Q)

(c) Acidic COO– COO– H3N+

C

H3N+

H

COO–

Aspartic acid (Asp, D)

H

CH2

CH2



C

CH2



COO–

Glutamic acid (Glu, E)

COO– H3N+

C

COO–

H

H3N+

C

CH2

CH2

CH2 S

C CH

N H

CH3 Methionine (Met, M)

Tryptophan (Trp, W)

COO– H3N+

H

C

COO–

H

CH2

H3N+

C

H

H3C

C

H

CH2 CH3 Phenylalanine (Phe, F)

Isoleucine (Ile, I) COO–

COO– H3N+

C

H3N+

H

C

H

CH2

H

SH Glycine (Gly, G)

Cysteine (Cys, C) COO–

COO– H3N+

C

H3N+

H

H

CH2

CH2

HC H+N

OH

C

NH

C H

+

Tyrosine (Tyr, Y)

C

Histidine (His, H)

(d) Basic COO–

COO– H3N+

C

H3N+

H

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH2 CH2

CH2

NH

CH2 + Lysine (Lys, K)

H

C

NH3+

C +

FIGURE 3-17 The 20 common amino acids (a) Nonpolar amino acids have side chains that are relatively hydrophobic, whereas (b) polar amino acids have relatively hydrophilic side chains. Carboxyl groups and amino groups are electrically charged at cell pH; therefore, (c) acidic and (d) basic amino acids are hydrophilic. The standard three-letter and one-letter

H2

+N

NH2

Arginine (Arg, R)

R group H

H N H

Carboxyl group

C H

Amino group

CH3

H

O +

C

R group

OH

Glycine

N

C

H

Peptide bond O

H

C

H

N OH

Alanine

H

H

O

C

C

H

CH3 N H

C H

O C

+

H2O

OH

Glycylalanine (a dipeptide)

FIGURE 3-18 Animated Peptide bonds A dipeptide is formed by a condensation reaction, that is, by the removal of the equivalent of a water molecule from the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid. The resulting peptide bond is a covalent, carbon-to-nitrogen bond. Note that the carbon is also part of a carbonyl group and that the nitrogen is also covalently bonded to a hydrogen. Additional amino acids can be added to form a long polypeptide chain with a free amino group at one end and a free carboxyl group at the other.

of a protein is far more complex, involving interactions among the various amino acids that make up the primary structure of the molecule. Therefore, the higher orders of structure—secondary, tertiary, and quaternary—ultimately derive from the specific amino acid sequence (the primary structure). Secondary structure results from hydrogen bonding involving the backbone Some regions of a polypeptide exhibit secondary structure, which is highly regular. The two most common types of secondary structure are the a-helix and the b-pleated sheet; the designations a and b refer simply to the order in which these two types of secondary structure were discovered. An a-helix is a region where a polypeptide chain forms a uniform helical coil (FIG. 3-20a). The helical structure is determined and maintained by the formation of hydrogen bonds between the backbones of the amino acids in successive turns of the spiral coil. Each hydrogen bond forms between an oxygen with a partial negative charge and a hydrogen with a partial positive charge. The oxygen is part of the remnant of the carboxyl group of one amino acid; the hydrogen is part of the remnant of the amino group of the fourth amino acid down the chain. Thus, 3.6 amino acids are included in each complete turn of the helix. Every amino acid in an a-helix is hydrogen bonded in this way. The a-helix is the basic structural unit of some fibrous proteins that make up wool, hair, skin, and nails. The elasticity of these fibers is due to a combination of physical factors (the helical shape) and chemical factors (hydrogen bonding). Although hydrogen bonds maintain the helical structure, these bonds can be broken, allowing the fibers to stretch under tension (like a telephone cord). When

+

the tension is released, the fibers recoil and hydrogen bonds reform. This explains why you can stretch the hairs on your head to some extent and they will snap back to their original length. The hydrogen bonding in a b-pleated sheet takes place between different polypeptide chains, or different regions of a polypeptide chain that has turned back on itself (FIG. 3-20b). Each chain is fully extended; however, because each has a zigzag structure, the resulting “sheet” has an overall pleated conformation (much like a sheet of paper that has been folded to make a fan). Although the pleated sheet is strong and flexible, it is not elastic, because the distance between the pleats is fixed, determined by the strong covalent bonds of the polypeptide backbones. Fibroin, the protein of silk, is characterized by a b-pleated sheet structure, as are the cores of many globular proteins. It is not uncommon for a single polypeptide chain to include both a-helical regions and regions with b-pleated sheet conformations. The properties of some biological materials result from such combinations. A spider’s web is composed of a material that is extremely strong, flexible, and elastic. Once again we see function and structure working together, as these properties derive from the fact that spider silk is a composite of proteins with a-helical conformations (providing elasticity) and others with b-pleated sheet conformations (providing strength). Tertiary structure depends on interactions among side chains The tertiary structure of a protein molecule is the overall shape assumed by each individual polypeptide chain (FIG. 3-21). This 3-D structure is determined by four main factors that involve interactions among R groups (side chains) belonging to the same

H3N His Ser Gln Gly Thr Phe Thr Ser Asp Tyr Ser Lys Tyr Leu Asp Ser Arg Arg Ala Gln Asp Phe Val Gln Trp Leu Met Asn Thr COO– 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

FIGURE 3-19 Primary structure of a polypeptide Glucagon is a very small polypeptide made up of 29 amino acids. The linear sequence of amino acids is indicated by ovals containing their abbreviated names (see Fig. 3-17).

KEY POINT

Secondary structure is highly regular.

KEY: Carbon atom

C

Oxygen atom

C

Nitrogen atom

N C

Hydrogen atom

C N

H C

C

N O

Hydrogen bonds hold helix coils in shape C

R group

C

N

N

C

C

C

(a) In an Ĝ-helix the R groups project out from the sides. (The R groups have been omitted in the simplified diagram at left.)

Hydrogen bonds hold neighboring strands of sheet together

(b) A ĝ-pleated sheet forms when a polypeptide chain folds back on itself (arrows); half the R groups project above the sheet, and the other half project below it.

FIGURE 3-20 Animated Secondary structure of a protein

polypeptide chain. These include both weak interactions (hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, and hydrophobic interactions) and strong covalent bonds.

hydrogens are removed, and the two sulfur atoms that remain become covalently linked.

1. Hydrogen bonds form between R groups of certain amino acid subunits. 2. An ionic bond can occur between an R group with a unit of positive charge and one with a unit of negative charge. 3. Hydrophobic interactions result from the tendency of nonpolar R groups to be excluded by the surrounding water and therefore to associate in the interior of the globular structure. 4. Covalent bonds known as disulfide bonds or disulfide bridges (OSOSO) may link the sulfur atoms of two cysteine subunits belonging to the same chain. A disulfide bridge forms when the sulfhydryl groups of two cysteines react; the two

Quaternary structure results from interactions among polypeptides Many functional proteins are composed of two or more polypeptide chains, interacting in specific ways to form the biologically active molecule. Quaternary structure is the resulting 3-D structure. The same types of interactions that produce secondary and tertiary structure also contribute to quaternary structure; these include hydrogen bonding, ionic bonding, hydrophobic interactions, and disulfide bridges. A functional antibody molecule, for example, consists of four polypeptide chains joined by disulfide bridges (see Chapter 45).

KEY POINT

Tertiary structure depends on side chain interactions.

Ionic bond

Hydrogen bond

CH2 C O CH2

HO

NH+3 –O O

C CH2

CH2

H3C

O H

S

CH

O

S

H3C

C

CH3 HC CH3

CH2

CH2

Hydrophobic interaction Jane Richardson

Disulfide bond

(a) Hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, hydrophobic interactions, and disulfide bridges between R groups hold the parts of the molecule in the designated shape.

(b) In this drawing, α-helical regions are represented by purple coils, β-pleated sheets by broad green ribbons, and connecting regions by narrow tan ribbons. The interactions among R groups that stabilize the bends and foldbacks that give the molecule its overall conformation (tertiary structure) are represented in yellow. This protein is bovine ribonuclease a.

FIGURE 3-21 Animated Tertiary structure of a protein

Disulfide bridges are a common feature of antibodies and other proteins secreted from cells. These strong bonds stabilize the molecules in the extracellular environment. Hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells responsible for oxygen transport, is an example of a globular protein with a quaternary structure (FIG. 3-22a). Hemoglobin consists of 574 amino acids arranged in four polypeptide chains: two identical chains called alpha chains and two identical chains called beta chains. Collagen, mentioned previously, has a fibrous type of quaternary structure that allows it to function as the major strengthener of animal tissues. It consists of three polypeptide chains wound about one another and bound by cross links between their amino acids (FIG. 3-22b).

The amino acid sequence of a protein determines its conformation In 1972, U.S. researcher Christian B. Anfinsen was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his studies on protein folding, which

demonstrated that, at least under defined experimental conditions in vitro (outside a living cell), a polypeptide can spontaneously undergo folding processes that yield its normal, functional conformation. Since Anfinsen’s pioneering work, many researchers studying various proteins and using a variety of highly sophisticated approaches have amassed evidence supporting the widely held conclusion that amino acid sequence is the ultimate determinant of protein conformation. However, because conditions in vivo (in the cell) are quite different from defined laboratory conditions, proteins do not always fold spontaneously in the cell. On the contrary, scientists have learned that proteins known as molecular chaperones mediate the folding of other protein molecules. Molecular chaperones are thought to make the folding process more orderly and efficient and to prevent partially folded proteins from becoming inappropriately aggregated. However, there is no evidence that molecular chaperones actually dictate the folding pattern. For this reason, the existence of chaperones is not an argument against the idea that amino acid sequence determines conformation.

KEY POINT

Heme

ing a more random conformation. This unfolding, which is mainly due to the disruption of hydrogen bonds and ionic bonds, is typically accompanied by a loss of normal function. Such changes in shape and the accompanying loss of biological activity are termed denaturation of the protein. For example, a denatured enzyme would lose its ability to catalyze a chemical reaction. An everyday example of denaturation occurs when we fry an egg. The consistency of the egg white protein, known as albumin, changes to a solid. Denaturation generally cannot be reversed (you cannot “unfry” an egg). However, under certain conditions, some proteins have been denatured and have returned to their original shape and biological activity when normal environmental conditions were restored.

Proteins with two or more polypeptide chains have quaternary structure. Beta chain (β-globin)

Alpha chain (α-globin)

Alpha chain (α-globin)

Beta chain (β-globin)

(a) Hemoglobin, a globular protein, consists of four polypeptide chains, each joined to an iron-containing molecule, a heme.

(b) Collagen, a fibrous protein, is a triple helix consisting of three long polypeptide chains.

FIGURE 3-22 Quaternary structure of a protein

Protein conformation determines function The overall structure of a protein helps determine its biological activity. A single protein may have more than one distinct structural region, called a domain, each with its own function. Many proteins are modular, consisting of two or more globular domains, connected by less compact regions of the polypeptide chain. Each domain may have a different function. For example, a protein may have one domain that attaches to a membrane and another that acts as an enzyme. The biological activity of a protein can be disrupted by a change in amino acid sequence that results in a change in conformation. For example, the genetic disease known as sickle cell anemia is due to a mutation that causes the substitution of the amino acid valine for glutamic acid at position 6 (the sixth amino acid from the amino end) in the beta chain of hemoglobin. The substitution of valine (which has a nonpolar side chain) for glutamic acid (which has a charged side chain) makes the hemoglobin less soluble and more likely to form crystal-like structures. This alteration of the hemoglobin affects the red blood cells, changing them to the crescent or sickle shapes that characterize this disease (see Fig. 16-8). The biological activity of a protein may be affected by changes in its 3-D structure. When a protein is heated, subjected to significant pH changes, or treated with certain chemicals, its structure becomes disordered and the coiled peptide chains unfold, yield-

Protein conformation is studied through a variety of methods The architecture of a protein can be ascertained directly through various types of analysis, such as the X-ray diffraction studies discussed in Chapter 12. Because these studies are tedious and costly, researchers are developing alternative approaches, which rely heavily on the enormous databases generated by the Human Genome Project and related initiatives. Today a protein’s primary structure can be determined rapidly through the application of genetic engineering techniques (discussed in Chapter 15) or by the use of sophisticated technology such as mass spectrometry. Researchers use these amino acid sequence data to predict a protein’s higher levels of structure. As you have seen, side chains interact in relatively predictable ways, such as through ionic and hydrogen bonds. In addition, regions with certain types of side chains are more likely to form a-helices or b-pleated sheets. Computer programs make such predictions, but these are often imprecise because of the many possible combinations of folding patterns. Computers are an essential part of yet another strategy. Once the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide has been determined, researchers use computers to search databases to find polypeptides with similar sequences. If the conformations of any of those polypeptides or portions have already been determined directly by X-ray diffraction or other techniques, this information can be extrapolated to make similar correlations between amino acid sequence and 3-D structure for the protein under investigation. These predictions are increasingly reliable, as more information is added to the databases every day.

Misfolded proteins are implicated in human diseases Studies on the mechanisms of protein folding, and on the relationship between the activity of a protein and its conformation, are increasingly of medical importance. For example, as discussed in Chapter 24, mad cow disease and related diseases in humans and other animals are caused by misfolded proteins called prions. Other serious diseases in which misfolded proteins play an important role include Alzheimer’s disease (see Chapter 41) and Huntington’s disease (see Chapter 16).

Review ■



Draw the structural formula of a simple amino acid. What is the importance of the carboxyl group, amino group, and R group? How does the primary structure of a polypeptide influence its secondary and tertiary structures?

O

NH2 N O

CH

HN

CH N H Cytosine (C)

O

O CH3

C

CH N H Thymine (T)

O

HN

CH

CH N H Uracil (U)

(a) Pyrimidines. The three major pyrimidine bases found in nucleotides are cytosine, thymine (in DNA only), and uracil (in RNA only).

NH2

O N

N

N

HN CH

HC

3.5 NUCLEIC ACIDS ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE 10 Describe the components of a nucleotide. Name some nucleic acids and nucleotides, and discuss the importance of these compounds in living organisms.

N H Adenine (A) N

CH H2N

N

N H

Guanine (G)

(b) Purines. The two major purine bases found in nucleotides are adenine and guanine.

FIGURE 3-23 Animated Components of nucleotides

Nucleic acids transmit hereditary information and determine what proteins a cell manufactures. Two classes of nucleic acids are found in cells: deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) composes the genes, the hereditary material of the cell, and contains instructions for making all the proteins, as well as all the RNA the organism needs. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) participates in the process in which amino acids are linked to form polypeptides. Some types of RNA, known as ribozymes, can even act as specific biological catalysts. Like proteins, nucleic acids are large, complex molecules. The name nucleic acid reflects the fact that they are acidic and were first identified, by Swiss biochemist Friedrich Miescher in 1870, in the nuclei of pus cells. Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides, molecular units that consist of (1) a five-carbon sugar, either deoxyribose (in DNA) or ribose (in RNA); (2) one or more phosphate groups, which make the molecule acidic; and (3) a nitrogenous base, a ring compound that contains nitrogen. The nitrogenous base may be either a double-ring purine or a single-ring pyrimidine (FIG. 3-23). DNA commonly contains the purines adenine (A) and guanine (G), the pyrimidines cytosine (C) and thymine (T), the sugar deoxyribose, and phosphate. RNA contains the purines adenine and guanine, and the pyrimidines cytosine and uracil (U), together with the sugar ribose, and phosphate. The molecules of nucleic acids are made of linear chains of nucleotides, which are joined by phosphodiester linkages, each consisting of a phosphate group and the covalent bonds that attach it to the sugars of adjacent nucleotides (FIG. 3-24). Note that each nucleotide is defined by its particular base and that nucleotides can be joined in any sequence. A nucleic acid molecule is uniquely defined by its specific sequence of nucleotides, which constitutes a kind of code (see

The hydrogens indicated by the white boxes are removed when the base is attached to a sugar.

Chapter 13). Whereas RNA is usually composed of one nucleotide chain, DNA consists of two nucleotide chains held together by hydrogen bonds and entwined around each other in a double helix (see Fig. 1-7).

Some nucleotides are important in energy transfers and other cell functions In addition to their importance as subunits of DNA and RNA, nucleotides perform other vital functions in living cells. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), composed of adenine, ribose, and three phosphates (see Fig. 7-5), is of major importance as the primary energy currency of all cells (see Chapter 7). The two terminal phosphate groups are joined to the nucleotide by covalent bonds. These are traditionally indicated by wavy lines, which indicate that ATP can transfer a phosphate group to another molecule, making that molecule more reactive. In this way ATP is able to donate some of its chemical energy. Most of the readily available chemical energy of the cell is associated with the phosphate groups of ATP. Like ATP, guanosine triphosphate (GTP), a nucleotide that contains the base guanine, can transfer energy by transferring a phosphate group and also has a role in cell signaling (see Chapter 6). A nucleotide may be converted to an alternative form with specific cell functions. ATP, for example, is converted to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP, or cAMP) by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase (FIG. 3-25). Cyclic AMP regulates certain

NH2 C

O

5′ –O

O

P O

Nucleotide

CH2

N

O

O –O

O

Uracil

O

5′ CH2

H

OH O

P



O

NH2

O

N

CH2

N

O

O

H O

P

N

H 3′

H

OH

O

N

Cyclic AMP

N Adenine

Ribose

C

N

N

Ribose

CH

HC

O

N

C

N

FIGURE 3-25 Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) The single phosphate is part of a ring connecting two regions of the ribose.

Phosphodiester linkage

O –O

OH

NH2

O

P

N

O CH2 O

O Cytosine

N

Ribose O –O

ter 7, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide has a primary role in oxidation and reduction reactions in cells. It can exist in an oxidized form (NAD+) that is converted to a reduced form (NADH) when it accepts electrons (in association with hydrogen; see Fig. 7-7). These electrons, along with their energy, are transferred to other molecules.

O

OH O

N

O CH2 O

N

P

Ribose OH 3′

Review N

N Guanine



How does the structure of a nucleotide relate to its function?

NH2

OH

3.6 IDENTIFYING BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE 11 Compare the functions and chemical compositions of the major groups of organic compounds: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

FIGURE 3-24 RNA, a nucleic acid Nucleotides, each with a specific base, are joined by phosphodiester linkages.

cell functions, such as cell signaling, and is important in the mechanism by which some hormones act. A related molecule, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), also plays a role in certain cell signaling processes. Cells contain several dinucleotides, which are of great importance in metabolic processes. For example, as discussed in Chap-

Although the classes of biological molecules may seem overwhelming at first, you will learn to distinguish them readily by understanding their chief attributes. These are summarized in TABLE 3-3.

Review ■

How can you distinguish a pentose sugar from a hexose sugar? a disaccharide from a sterol? an amino acid from a monosaccharide? a phospholipid from a triacylglycerol? a protein from a polysaccharide? a nucleic acid from a protein?

TABLE 3-3 Class and Component Elements Carbohydrates C, H, O

Lipids C, H, O (sometimes N, P)

Classes of Biologically Important Organic Compounds

Description

How to Recognize

Principal Function in Living Systems

Contain approximately 1 C:2 H:1 O (but make allowance for loss of oxygen when sugar units as nucleic acids and glycoproteins are linked)

Count the carbons, hydrogens, and oxygens.

Cell fuel; energy storage; structural component of plant cell walls; component of other compounds such as nucleic acids and glycoproteins

1. Monosaccharides (simple sugars). Mainly fivecarbon (pentose) molecules such as ribose or six-carbon (hexose) molecules such as glucose and fructose

Look for the ring shapes:

Cell fuel; components of other compounds

2. Disaccharides. Two sugar units linked by a glycosidic bond, e.g., maltose, sucrose

Count sugar units.

Components of other compounds; form of sugar transported in plants

3. Polysaccharides. Many sugar units linked by glycosidic bonds, e.g., glycogen, cellulose

Count sugar units.

Energy storage; structural components of plant cell walls

Contain much less oxygen relative to carbon and hydrogen than do carbohydrates 1. Fats. Combination of glycerol with one to three fatty acids. Monoacylglycerol contains one fatty acid; diacylglycerol contains two fatty acids; triacylglycerol contains three fatty acids. If fatty acids contain double carbon-to-carbon linkages (CAC), they are unsaturated; otherwise, they are saturated.

Energy storage; cellular fuel, components of cells; thermal insulation Look for glycerol at one end of molecule: H H

C

O

H

C

O

H

C

O

Cell fuel; energy storage

H 2. Phospholipids. Composed of glycerol attached to one or two fatty acids and to an organic base containing phosphorus

Look for glycerol and side chain containing phosphorus and nitrogen.

Components of cell membranes

3. Steroids. Complex molecules containing carbon atoms arranged in four attached rings (Three rings contain six carbon atoms each, and the fourth ring contains five.)

Look for four attached rings:

Some are hormones; others include cholesterol, bile salts, vitamin D; components of cell membranes

4. Carotenoids. Orange and yellow pigments; consist of isoprene units

Look for isoprene units. H CH3

Converted to retinal (important in photoreception) and vitamin A

H2C

C

C

CH2

Proteins C, H, O, N (usually S)

One or more polypeptides (chains of amino acids) coiled or folded in characteristic shapes

Look for amino acid units joined by CON bonds.

Serve as enzymes; structural components; muscle proteins; hemoglobin

Nucleic Acids C, H, O, N, P

Backbone composed of alternating pentose and phosphate groups, from which nitrogenous bases project. DNA contains the sugar deoxyribose and the bases guanine, cytosine, adenine, and thymine. RNA contains the sugar ribose and the bases guanine, cytosine, adenine, and uracil. Each molecular subunit, called a nucleotide, consists of a pentose, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base.

Look for a pentose-phosphate backbone. DNA forms a double helix.

Storage, transmission, and expression of genetic information; some important in energy transfers, cell signaling, and other aspects of metabolism.

■ ■

S U M M A RY: F O C US O N L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S

3.1 (page 47)

glycogen. The cell walls of plants are composed mainly of the structural polysaccharide cellulose.

1 Describe the properties of carbon that make it the central component of organic compounds. Each carbon atom forms four covalent bonds with up to four other atoms; these bonds are single, double, or triple bonds. Carbon atoms form straight or branched chains or join into rings. Carbon forms covalent bonds with a greater number of different elements than does any other type of atom. 2 Define the term isomer and distinguish among the three principal isomer types. ■ Isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures. ■ Structural isomers differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms. Geometric isomers, or cis–trans isomers, differ in the spatial arrangements of their atoms. Enantiomers are isomers that are mirror images of each other. Cells can distinguish between these configurations. 3 Identify the major functional groups present in organic compounds and describe their properties. Hydrocarbons, organic compounds consisting of only carbon and ■ hydrogen, are nonpolar and hydrophobic. The methyl group is a hydrocarbon group. ■ Polar and ionic functional groups interact with one another and are hydrophilic. Partial charges on atoms at opposite ends of a bond are responsible for the polar property of a functional group. Hydroxyl and carbonyl groups are polar. ■ Carboxyl and phosphate groups are acidic, becoming negatively charged when they release hydrogen ions. The amino group is basic, becoming positively charged when it accepts a hydrogen ion. 4 Explain the relationship between polymers and macromolecules. ■ Long chains of monomers (similar organic compounds) linked through condensation reactions are called polymers. Large polymers such as polysaccharides, proteins, and DNA are referred to as macromolecules. They can be broken down by hydrolysis reactions.

Learn more about starch and cellulose by clicking on the figure in CengageNOW.



3.3 (page 56) 6 Distinguish among fats, phospholipids, and steroids, and describe the composition, characteristics, and biological functions of each. ■ Lipids are composed mainly of hydrocarbon-containing regions, with few oxygen-containing (polar or ionic) functional groups. Lipids have a greasy or oily consistency and are relatively insoluble in water. ■ Triacylglycerol, the main storage form of fat in organisms, consists of a molecule of glycerol combined with three fatty acids. Monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols contain one and two fatty acids, respectively. A fatty acid can be either saturated with hydrogen or unsaturated.





Learn more about triacylglycerol and other lipids by clicking on the figures in CengageNOW.

3.4 (page 60) 7 Give an overall description of the structure and functions of proteins. ■

Learn more about condensation and hydrolysis reactions by clicking on the figure in CengageNOW.

3.2 (page 51) 5 Distinguish among monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. Compare storage polysaccharides with structural polysaccharides. ■ Carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of approximately one carbon to two hydrogens to one oxygen. Monosaccharides are simple sugars such as glucose, fructose, and ribose. Two monosaccharides join by a glycosidic linkage to form a disaccharide such as maltose or sucrose. CH2OH H

O H OH

HOCH2

H

HO

O H

OH



Learn more about amino acids and peptide bonds by clicking on the figures in CengageNOW.

8 Describe the features that are shared by all amino acids and explain how amino acids are grouped into classes based on the characteristics of their side chains. COO– H3N+

HO CH2OH

OH

Proteins are complex macromolecules made of simpler subunits, called amino acids, joined by peptide bonds. Two amino acids combine to form a dipeptide. A longer chain of amino acids is a polypeptide. Proteins are the most versatile class of biological molecules, serving a variety of functions, such as enzymes, structural components, and cell regulators. Proteins are composed of various linear sequences of 20 different amino acids.

H

O H



H

Phospholipids are structural components of cell membranes. A phospholipid consists of a glycerol molecule attached at one end to two fatty acids and at the other end to a phosphate group linked to an organic compound such as choline. Steroid molecules contain carbon atoms arranged in four attached rings. Cholesterol, bile salts, and certain hormones are important steroids.

H

Most carbohydrates are polysaccharides, long chains of repeating units of a simple sugar. Carbohydrates are typically stored in plants as the polysaccharide starch and in animals as the polysaccharide

C

H

CH3 ■

All amino acids contain an amino group and a carboxyl group. Amino acids vary in their side chains, which dictate their chemical properties—nonpolar, polar, acidic, or basic. Amino acids generally exist as dipolar ions at cell pH and serve as important biological buffers.

9 Distinguish among the four levels of organization of protein molecules. ■







Primary structure is the linear sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain. Secondary structure is a regular conformation, such as an a-helix or a b-pleated sheet; it is due to hydrogen bonding between elements of the backbones of the amino acids. Tertiary structure is the overall shape of the polypeptide chains, as dictated by chemical properties and interactions of the side chains of specific amino acids. Hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, hydrophobic interactions, and disulfide bridges contribute to tertiary structure. Quaternary structure is determined by the association of two or more polypeptide chains. Learn more about the structure of a protein by clicking on the figure in CengageNOW.

3.5 (page 68)







The nucleic acids DNA and RNA, composed of long chains of nucleotide subunits, store and transfer information that specifies the sequence of amino acids in proteins and ultimately the structure and function of the organism. Nucleotides are composed of a two-ring purine or one-ring pyrimidine nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and one or more phosphate groups. ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is a nucleotide of special significance in energy metabolism. NAD+ is also involved in energy metabolism through its role as an electron (hydrogen) acceptor in biological oxidation and reduction reactions.

3.6 (page 69) 11 Compare the functions and chemical compositions of the major groups of organic compounds: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. ■ Review Table 3-3.

10 Describe the components of a nucleotide. Name some nucleic acids and nucleotides, and discuss the importance of these compounds in living organisms.

T E S T YO U R U N D E R S TA N D I N G 1. Carbon is particularly well suited to be the backbone of organic molecules because (a) it can form both covalent bonds and ionic bonds (b) its covalent bonds are very irregularly arranged in three-dimensional space (c) its covalent bonds are the strongest chemical bonds known (d) it can bond to atoms of a large number of other elements (e) all the bonds it forms are polar 2. The structures depicted are (a) enantiomers (b) different views of the same molecule (c) geometric (cis–trans) isomers (d) both geometric isomers and enantiomers (e) structural isomers CH3 CH3 H

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

CH3

C

C

H

CH3 H

3. Which of the following is a nonpolar molecule? (a) water, H2O (b) ammonia, NH3 (c) methane, CH4 (d) ethane, C2H6 (e) more than one of the preceding 4. The synthetic process by which monomers are covalently linked is (a) hydrolysis (b) isomerization (c) condensation (d) glycosidic linkage (e) ester linkage 5. A monosaccharide designated as an aldehyde sugar contains (a) a terminal carboxyl group (b) an internal carboxyl group (c) a terminal carbonyl group (d) an internal carbonyl group (e) a terminal carboxyl group and an internal carbonyl group 6. Structural polysaccharides typically (a) have extensive hydrogen bonding between adjacent molecules (b) are much more hydrophilic than storage polysaccharides (c) have much stronger covalent bonds than do storage polysaccharides (d) consist of alternating a-glucose and b-glucose subunits (e) form helical structures in the cell

7. Saturated fatty acids are so named because they are saturated with (a) hydrogen (b) water (c) hydroxyl groups (d) glycerol (e) double bonds 8. Fatty acids in phospholipids and triacylglycerols interact with one another by (a) disulfide bridges (b) van der Waals interactions (c) covalent bonds (d) hydrogen bonds (e) fatty acids do not interact with one another 9. Which pair of amino acid side groups would be most likely to associate with each other by an ionic bond? 1. OCH3 2. OCH2OCOO− 3. OCH2OCH2ONH3+ 4. OCH2OCH2OCOO− 5. OCH2OOH (a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 and 4 (c) 1 and 5 (d) 2 and 5 (e) 3 and 4 10. Which of the following levels of protein structure may be affected by hydrogen bonding? (a) primary and secondary (b) primary and tertiary (c) secondary, tertiary, and quaternary (d) primary, secondary, and tertiary (e) primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary 11. Which of the following associations between R groups are the strongest? (a) hydrophobic interactions (b) hydrogen bonds (c) ionic bonds (d) peptide bonds (e) disulfide bridges 12. Each phosphodiester linkage in DNA or RNA includes a phosphate joined by covalent bonds to (a) two bases (b) two sugars (c) two additional phosphates (d) a sugar, a base, and a phosphate (e) a sugar and a base

CRITICAL THINKING 1. Like oxygen, sulfur forms two covalent bonds. However, sulfur is far less electronegative. In fact, it is approximately as electronegative as carbon. How would the properties of the various classes of biological molecules be altered if you were to replace all the oxygen atoms with sulfur atoms? 2. Hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions are much weaker than covalent bonds, yet they are vital to organisms. Why? 3. EVOLUTION LINK. In what ways are all species alike biochemically? Why? Identify some ways in which species may differ from one another biochemically. Why? 4. EVOLUTION LINK. The total number of possible amino acid sequences in a polypeptide chain is staggering. Given that there are 20 amino acids, potentially there could be 20100 different

amino acid sequences (an impossibly large number), just for polypeptides only 100 amino acids in length. However, the actual number of different polypeptides occurring in organisms is only a tiny fraction of this. Why? 5. EVOLUTION LINK. Each amino acid could potentially exist as one of two possible enantiomers, known as the d-form and the l-form (based on the arrangement of the groups attached to the asymmetric a carbon). However, in all organisms, only l-amino acids are found in proteins. What does this suggest about the evolution of proteins? Additional questions are available in CengageNOW at www.cengage.com/ login.

Organization of the Cell

Jennifer C. Waters/Photo Researchers, Inc.

4

KEY CONCEPTS

The cytoskeleton. The cell shown here was stained with fluorescent antibodies (specific proteins) that bind to proteins associated with DNA (purple) and to a protein (tubulin) in microtubules (green). Microfilaments (red) are also visible. This type of microscopy, known as confocal fluorescence microscopy, shows the extensive distribution of microtubules in this cell.

T

he cell is the smallest unit that can carry out all activities we associate with life. When provided with essential nutrients and an appropriate

4.1 The cell is the basic unit of life; its organization and size are critical in maintaining homeostasis, and its size and shape are adapted for its function.

environment, some cells can be kept alive and growing in the laboratory

4.2 Biologists study cells using microscopes and biochem-

biology in Chapter 1. Even as we describe individual components of cells,

ical techniques such as cell fractionation.

4.3 Unlike prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that divide the cell into compartments, allowing cells to conduct specialized activities within separate, small areas.

for many years. By contrast, no isolated part of a cell is capable of sustained survival. As you read this chapter, recall the discussion of systems we discuss how these components work together, generating complex biological systems within the cell. The cell itself is a highly intricate biological system, and groups of cells make up tissues, organs, and organisms. Each of these is a biological system.

4.4 In eukaryotic cells, genetic information coded in DNA

Most prokaryotes and many protists and fungi consist of a single

is located in the nucleus, which is typically the most prominent organelle in the cell.

cell. In contrast, most plants and animals are composed of millions of

4.5 Among the many organelles in the cytoplasm are ribosomes, which synthesize proteins; endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes, which process proteins; and mitochondria and chloroplasts, which convert energy from one form to another.

cells. Cells are the building blocks of complex multicellular organisms. Although they are basically similar, cells are also extraordinarily diverse and versatile. They are modified in a variety of ways to carry out specialized functions. The cell is composed of a vast array of inorganic and organic ions

4.6 The cytoskeleton is a dynamic internal framework

and molecules, including water, salts, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins,

that functions in various types of cell movement.

and nucleic acids. These molecules are organized to form the structures

4.7 Most eukaryotic cells are surrounded by a cell coat;

within the cell and its biochemical pathways. Genetic information is

in addition, many animal cells are surrounded by an extracellular matrix; cells of most bacteria, archaea, fungi, and plants are surrounded by a cell wall.

stored in DNA molecules and is faithfully replicated. This information is

passed to each new generation of cells during cell division. Information in DNA codes for specific proteins that, in turn, determine cell structure and function. Cells exchange materials and energy with the environment. All living cells need one or more sources of energy, but a cell rarely obtains energy in a form that is immediately usable. Cells convert energy from one form to another, and that energy is used to carry out various activities, ranging from mechanical work to chemical synthesis. Cells convert energy to a convenient form, usually

out that the ancestry of all the cells alive today can be traced back to ancient times. Evidence that all living cells have a common origin is provided by the basic similarities in their structures and in the molecules of which they are made. When we examine a variety of diverse organisms, ranging from simple bacteria to the most complex plants and animals, we find striking similarities at the cellular level. Careful studies of shared cell characteristics help us trace the evolutionary history of various organisms and furnish powerful evidence that all organisms alive today had a common origin.

chemical energy stored in adenosine triphosphate, or ATP (see Chapter 3). Both the chemical reactions that convert energy from one form to another and the mechanisms of information transfer are essentially the same in all cells, from those in bacteria to those of large, multicellular plants and animals. Such similarities suggest evolutionary relationships. Thanks to advances in technology, cell biologists use increasingly sophisticated tools in their search to better understand the structure and function of cells. For example, investigation of the cytoskeleton (cell skeleton), currently an active and exciting area of research, has been greatly enhanced by advances in microscopy. In the photomicrograph, we see the extensive distribution of microtubules in cells. Microtubules are key components of the cytoskeleton. They help maintain cell shape, function in cell movement, and facilitate transport of materials within the cell.

4.1 THE CELL: BASIC UNIT OF LIFE ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1 2 3

Describe the cell theory and relate it to the evolution of life. Summarize the relationship between cell organization and homeostasis. Explain the relationship between cell size and homeostasis.

Cells, the building blocks of organisms, are dramatic examples of the underlying unity of all living things.

The cell theory is a unifying concept in biology Two German scientists, botanist Matthias Schleiden in 1838 and zoologist Theodor Schwann in 1839, used inductive reasoning to conclude that all plants and animals consist of cells. These investigators used their own observations and those of other scientists to reach their conclusions. Later, Rudolf Virchow, another German scientist, observed cells dividing and giving rise to daughter cells. In 1855, Virchow proposed that new cells form only by the division of previously existing cells. The work of Schleiden, Schwann, and Virchow contributed greatly to the development of the cell theory, the unifying concept that (1) cells are the basic living units of organization and function in all organisms and (2) that all cells come from other cells. About 1880, another German biologist, August Weismann, added an important corollary to Virchow’s concept by pointing

The organization of all cells is basically similar The organization of cells and their small size allow them to maintain homeostasis, an appropriate internal environment. Cells experience constant changes in their environments, such as deviations in salt concentration, pH, and temperature. They must work continuously to restore and maintain the internal conditions that enable their biochemical mechanisms to function. In order for the cell to maintain homeostasis, its contents must be separated from the external environment. The plasma membrane is a structurally distinctive surface membrane that surrounds all cells. By making the interior of the cell an enclosed compartment, the plasma membrane allows the chemical composition of the cell to be different from that outside the cell. The plasma membrane serves as a selective barrier between the cell contents and the outer environment. Cells exchange materials with the environment and can accumulate needed substances and energy stores. Most cells have internal structures, called organelles, that are specialized to carry out metabolic activities, such as converting energy to usable forms, synthesizing needed compounds, and manufacturing structures necessary for functioning and reproduction. Each cell has genetic instructions coded in its DNA, which is concentrated in a limited region of the cell.

Cell size is limited Although their sizes vary over a wide range (FIG. 4-1), most cells are microscopic and must be measured by very small units. The basic unit of linear measurement in the metric system (see inside back cover) is the meter (m), which is just a little longer than a yard. A millimeter (mm) is 1/1000 of a meter and is about as long as the bar enclosed in parentheses (-). The micrometer (μm) is the most convenient unit for measuring cells. A bar 1 μm long is 1/1,000,000 (one millionth) of a meter, or 1/1000 of a millimeter—far too short to be seen with the unaided eye. Most of us have difficulty thinking about units that are too small to see, but it is helpful to remember that a micrometer has the same relationship to a millimeter that a millimeter has to a meter (1/1000). As small as it is, the micrometer is actually too large to measure most cell components. For this purpose biologists use the nanometer (nm), which is 1/1,000,000,000 (one billionth) of a meter, or 1/1000 of a micrometer. To mentally move down to the world of the nanometer, recall that a millimeter is 1/1000 of a meter, a micrometer is 1/1000 of a millimeter, and a nanometer is 1/1000 of a micrometer.

Mitochondrion

Red blood cells Chloroplast

0.1 nm

Chicken egg

Virus

Protein

Atom

Human egg

Typical bacteria

Nucleus

Amino acids Ribosomes

1 nm

10 nm

Smallest bacteria

100 nm

Epithelial cell

1 μm

10 μm

100 μm

Frog egg Some nerve cells

1 mm

10 mm

100 mm

Adult human

1m

10 m

Electron microscope Light microscope Human eye Measurements 1 meter 1 millimeter 1 micrometer

= = =

1000 millimeters (mm) 1000 micrometers (μm) 1000 nanometers (nm)

FIGURE 4-1 Biological size and cell diversity We can compare relative size from the chemical level to the level of an entire organism by using a logarithmic scale (multiples of 10). The prokaryotic cells of most bacteria range in size from 1 to 10 µm long. Most eukaryotic cells are between 10 and 30 µm in diameter. Mitochondria are about the size of small bacteria, whereas chloroplasts are usually larger, about 5 µm long. Ova (egg cells) are among the largest cells. Although microscopic, some nerve cells are very long. The cells shown here are not drawn to scale.

A few specialized algae and animal cells are large enough to be seen with the naked eye. A human egg cell, for example, is about 130 μm in diameter, or approximately the size of the period at the end of this sentence. The largest cells are birds’ eggs, but they are not typical cells because they include large amounts of food reserves—the yolk and the egg white. The functioning part of the cell is a small mass on the surface of the yolk. Why are most cells so small? If you consider what a cell must do to maintain homeostasis and to grow, it may be easier to understand the reasons for its small size. A cell must take in food and other materials and must rid itself of waste products generated by metabolic reactions. Everything that enters or leaves a cell must pass through its plasma membrane. The plasma membrane contains specialized “pumps” and channels with “gates” that selectively regulate the passage of materials into and out of the cell. The plasma membrane must be large enough relative to the cell volume to keep up with the demands of regulating the passage of materials. Thus, a critical factor in determining cell size is the ratio of its surface area (the plasma membrane) to its volume (FIG. 4-2). As a cell becomes larger, its volume increases at a greater rate than its surface area (its plasma membrane), which effectively places an upper limit on cell size. Above some critical size, the number of molecules required by the cell could not be transported

into the cell fast enough to sustain its needs. In addition, the cell would not be able to regulate its concentration of various ions or efficiently export its wastes. Of course, not all cells are spherical or cuboid. Because of their shapes, some very large cells have relatively favorable ratios of surface area to volume. In fact, some variations in cell shape represent a strategy for increasing the ratio of surface area to volume. For example, many large plant cells are long and thin, which increases their surface area–to-volume ratio. Some cells, such as epithelial cells lining the small intestine, have fingerlike projections of the plasma membrane, called microvilli, that significantly increase the surface area for absorbing nutrients and other materials (see Fig. 47-10). Another reason for the small size of cells is that, once inside, molecules must be transported to the locations where they are converted into other forms. Because cells are small, the distances molecules travel within them are relatively short. Thus, molecules are rapidly available for cell activities.

Cell size and shape are adapted to function The sizes and shapes of cells are adapted to the particular functions they perform. Some cells, such as amoebas and white blood

1 mm 2 mm 2 mm Surface Area (mm2)

Surface area = height × width × number of sides × number of cubes

Volume (mm3)

Volume = height × width × length × number of cubes

Surface Area/ Volume Ratio

Surface area/ volume

1 mm

24

48

(2 × 2 × 6 × 1)

(1 × 1 × 6 × 8)

8

8

(2 × 2 × 2 × 1)

(1 × 1 × 1 × 8)

3 (24: 8)

6 (48 : 8)

FIGURE 4-2 Surface area–to-volume ratio The surface area of a cell must be large enough relative to its volume to allow adequate exchange of materials with the environment. Although their volumes are the same, eight small cells have a much greater surface area (plasma membrane) in relation to their total volume than one large cell does. In the example shown, the ratio of the total surface area to total volume of eight 1 mm cubes is double the surface area–to-volume ratio of the single large cube.

cells, change their shape as they move about. Sperm cells have long, whiplike tails, called flagella, for locomotion. Nerve cells have long, thin extensions that enable them to transmit messages over great distances. The extensions of some nerve cells in the human body may be as long as 1 meter! Certain epithelial cells are almost rectangular and are stacked much like building blocks to form sheetlike tissues. (Epithelial tissue covers the body and lines body cavities.)

Review ■

■ ■

How does the cell theory contribute to our understanding of the evolution of life? How does the plasma membrane help maintain homeostasis? Why is the relationship between surface area and volume of a cell important in detemining cell-size limits?

4.2 METHODS FOR STUDYING CELLS ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE 4 Describe methods that biologists use to study cells, including microscopy and cell fractionation.

One of the most important tools biologists use for studying cell structures is the microscope. Using a microscope he had made, Robert Hooke, an English scientist, first described cells in 1665 in his book Micrographia. Hooke examined a piece of cork and drew and described what he saw. Hooke chose the term cell because the tissue reminded him of the small rooms monks lived in. Interestingly, what

Hooke saw were not actually living cells but the walls of dead cork cells (FIG. 4-3a). Much later, scientists recognized that the interior enclosed by the walls is the important part of living cells. A few years after Hooke’s discovery and inspired by Hooke’s work, the Dutch naturalist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek viewed living cells with small lenses that he made. Leeuwenhoek was highly skilled at grinding lenses and was able to magnify images more than 200 times. Among his important discoveries were bacteria, protists, blood cells, and sperm cells. Leeuwenhoek was among the first scientists to report cells in animals. Leeuwenhoek was a merchant and not formally trained as a scientist. However, his skill, curiosity, and diligence in sharing his discoveries with scientists at the Royal Society of London brought an awareness of microscopic life to the scientific world. Unfortunately, Leeuwenhoek did not share his techniques, and it was more than 100 years later, in the late 19th century, before microscopes were sufficiently developed for biologists to seriously focus their attention on the study of cells.

Light microscopes are used to study stained or living cells The light microscope (LM), the type used by most students, consists of a tube with glass lenses at each end. Because it contains several lenses, the modern light microscope is referred to as a compound microscope. Visible light passes through the specimen being observed and through the lenses. Light is refracted (bent) by the lenses, magnifying the image. Images obtained with light microscopes are referred to as light micrographs, or LMs. Two features of a microscope determine how clearly a small object can be viewed: magnification and resolving power. Magnification is the ratio of the size of the image seen with the microscope to the actual size of the object. The best light microscopes usually magnify an object no more than 2000 times. Resolution, or resolving power, is the capacity to distinguish fine detail in an image; it is defined as the minimum distance between two points at which they can both be seen separately rather than as a single, blurred point. Resolving power depends on the quality of the lenses and the wavelength of the illuminating light. As the wavelength decreases, the resolution increases. The visible light used by light microscopes has wavelengths ranging from about 400 nm (violet) to 700 nm (red); this limits the resolution of the light microscope to details no smaller than the diameter of a small bacterial cell (about 0.2 μm). By the early 20th century, refined versions of the light microscope became available. The interior of many cells is transparent and it is difficult to discern specific cell structures. Organic chemists have contributed greatly to light microscopy by developing biological stains that enhance contrast in the microscopic image. Staining has enabled biologists to discover the many different internal cell structures,

RESEARCH METHOD

(e) Differential-interference-contrast (Nomarski).

100 μm

(c) Dark-field.

100 μm

Dennis Kunkel/Visuals Unlimited

100 μm

M. I. Walker/Photo Researchers

100 μm

Michael Abbey/Photo Researchers

How Is It Done?

100 μm

From Hooke’s Micrographia 1665

(b) Bright-field (stained).

(a) Robert Hooke's drawing of cork cells.

(d) Phase contrast.

Wim van Egmond/Visuals Unlimited

Cells are too small to be studied with the naked eye. Biologists use microscopes to view cells and structures inside cells. Many types of microscopes have been developed. Here we look at photomicrographs of Paramecia (a group of ciliated protists) made using several kinds of light microscopes.

Wim van Egmond/Visuals Unlimited

Why Is It Used?

(f) Confocal. Plasma membrane and contractile vacuoles are stained red. Proton pumps associated with the contractile vacuoles are stained yellow.

Using a crude microscope that he constructed, Robert Hooke looked at a thin slice of cork and drew what he saw. Biologists now view cells in more detail using the more sophisticated microscopes and techniques that have been developed. In the light microscope, a beam of light passes through the specimen being observed and through the lenses. The lenses refract the light, which magnifies the image. Bright-field microscopy can be enhanced by staining. The phase contrast and differential-interference-contrast microscopes enhance detail by increasing the differences in optical density in different regions of the cells.

FIGURE 4-3 Animated Using light microscopy

the organelles. Unfortunately, most methods used to prepare and stain cells for observation also kill them in the process. Light microscopes with special optical systems now permit biologists to study living cells. In bright-field microscopy, an image is formed by transmitting light through a cell (or other specimen) (FIG. 4-3b). Because there is little contrast, the details of cell structure are not visible. In dark-field microscopy, rays of light are directed

from the side, and only light scattered by the specimen enters the lenses. The cell is seen as a bright image against a dark background (FIG. 4-3c). The specimen does not need to be stained. Phase contrast microscopy and Nomarski differential-interferencecontrast microscopy take advantage of variations in density within the cell (FIG. 4-3d and e). These variations in density cause differences in the way various regions of the cytoplasm refract (bend)

light. Using these microscopes, scientists can observe living cells in action; they can view numerous internal structures that are constantly changing shape and location. Cell biologists use the fluorescence microscope to detect the locations of specific molecules in cells. In the fluorescence microscope, filters transmit light that is emitted by fluorescently stained molecules. Fluorescent stains (like paints that glow under black light) are molecules that absorb light energy of one wavelength and then release some of that energy as light of a longer wavelength. These stains bind specifically to DNA or to specific protein molecules. The molecules absorb ultraviolet light and emit light of a different color. Cells can be stained, and the location of the labeled molecules can be determined, by observing the source of the fluorescent light within the cell. Biologists commonly use a fluorescent molecule known as green fluorescent protein (GFP) that occurs naturally in jellyfish. GFP has been valuable in observing specific proteins in living cells. Some fluorescent stains chemically bond to antibodies, protein molecules important in internal defense. The antibody binds to a highly specific region of a molecule in the cell. A single type of antibody molecule binds to only one type of structure, such as a part of a specific protein or some of the sugars in a specific polysaccharide. Purified fluorescent antibodies known to bind to a specific protein are used to determine where that protein is located within the cell. Confocal microscopy produces a sharper image than standard fluorescence microscopy (FIG. 4-3f). Living cells that have been labeled with fluorescent dye are mounted on a microscope slide. The confocal laser scanning microscope is a computerized microscope. A beam of ultraviolet light from a laser is focused at a specific depth within the cell. The fluorescent label emits visible light, and the investigator can visualize objects in a single plane of focus. The microscope produces optical sections (see the photomicrograph in the chapter introduction). A computer reassembles the images so that a series of optical sections from different planes of the cell can be used to construct a three-dimensional image. Powerful computer-imaging methods greatly improve the resolution of structures labeled by fluorescent dyes.

Electron microscopes provide a high-resolution image that can be greatly magnified Even with improved microscopes and techniques for staining cells, ordinary light microscopes can distinguish only the gross details of many cell parts (FIG. 4-4a). In many cases, you can clearly see only the outline of an organelle. With the development of the electron microscope (EM), which came into wide use in the 1950s, researchers could begin to study the fine details, or ultrastructure, of cells. The resolving power for the average human adult eye is about 100 μm. The best light microscopes have a resolving power of about 0.2 μm (200 nm). In comparison, some electron microscopes have resolving powers of just less than 1 nm. This is possible because electrons have very short wavelengths, on the order of about 0.1 to 0.2 nm. Although such resolution is difficult to achieve with biological material, researchers can approach that resolution when examining isolated molecules such as proteins and DNA. This high degree of resolution permits magnifications of more than 1 million

times as compared to typical magnifications of no more than 1500 to 2000 times in light microscopy. The image formed by the electron microscope is not directly visible. The electron beam itself consists of energized electrons, which, because of their negative charge, can be focused by electromagnets just as images are focused by glass lenses in a light microscope (FIG. 4-4b). Two main types of electron microscopes are the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The acronyms TEM and SEM also identify that a micrograph was prepared using a transmission or scanning EM. Electron micrographs are black and white. They are often colorized to highlight various structures. In transmission electron microscopy, the specimen is embedded in plastic and then cut into extraordinarily thin sections (50 to 100 nm thick) with a glass or diamond knife. A section is then placed on a small metal grid. The electron beam passes through the specimen and then falls onto a photographic plate or a fluorescent screen. When you look at TEMs in this chapter (and elsewhere), keep in mind that each represents only a thin cross section of a cell. Researchers detect certain specific molecules in electron microscope images by using antibody molecules to which very tiny gold particles are bound. The dense gold particles block the electron beam and identify the location of the proteins recognized by the antibodies as precise black spots on the electron micrograph. In the scanning electron microscope, the electron beam does not pass through the specimen. Instead, the specimen is coated with a thin film of gold or some other metal. When the electron beam strikes various points on the surface of the specimen, secondary electrons are emitted whose intensity varies with the contour of the surface. The recorded emission patterns of the secondary electrons give a 3-D picture of the surface (FIG. 4-4c). The SEM provides information about the shape and external features of the specimen that cannot be obtained with the TEM. Note that the LM, TEM, and SEM are focused by similar principles. A beam of light or an electron beam is directed by the condenser lens onto the specimen and is magnified by the objective lens and the eyepiece in the light microscope or by the objective lens and the projector lens in the TEM. The TEM image is focused onto a fluorescent screen, and the SEM image is viewed on a type of television screen. Lenses in electron microscopes are actually electromagnets that bend the beam of electrons. Several other types of microscopes are now available, including two additional kinds of electron microscopes. Digital microscopes that use cameras to send a digital image to a monitor have also been developed.

Biologists use biochemical techniques to study cell components The EM is a powerful tool for studying cell structure, but it has limitations. The methods used to prepare cells for electron microscopy kill them and may alter their structure. Furthermore, electron microscopy provides few clues about the functions of organelles and other cell components. To determine what organelles actually do, researchers use a variety of biochemical techniques. Cell fractionation is a technique for separating (fractionating) different parts of cells so that they can be studied by physical and chemical methods. Generally, cells are broken apart in a

RESEARCH METHOD Why Is It Used?

Electron microscopes have much greater resolving power than light microscopes. Electron microscopes can also magnify images to a much greater extent than light microscopes. Transmission electron microscope

Light microscope

Scanning electron microscope Electron gun

Light beam

Electron beam

Ocular lens

First condenser lens (electromagnet) Specimen

Projector lens (electromagnetic)

Condenser lens

Scanning coil Final (objective) lens

Objective lens Specimen

Second condenser lens

Cathode ray tube synchronized with scanning coil

Secondary electrons

Light source

Specimen Electron detector

Courtesy of T. K. Maugel, University of Maryland

Film or screen

100 μm

(a) A phase contrast light microscope can be used to view stained or living cells, but at relatively low resolution.

How Is It Done?

100 μm

1 μm

(b) The transmission electron microscope (TEM) produces a high-resolution image that can be greatly magnified. A small part of a thin slice through the Paramecium is shown.

(c) The scanning electron microscope (SEM) provides a clear view of surface features.

In an electron microscope, a beam of electrons is focused on or through the specimen. Instead of glass lenses, electromagnetic lenses are used to form the image. Here we compare images of the protist Paramecium made using a phase contrast light microscope with images made using two types of electron microscopes. These three microscopes produce distinctive images of cells.

FIGURE 4-4 Animated Using electron microscopes

blender. The resulting mixture, called the cell homogenate, is subjected to centrifugal force by spinning in a centrifuge (FIG. 4-5a). The powerful ultracentrifuge can spin at speeds exceeding 100,000 revolutions per minute (rpm), generating a centrifugal force of 500,000 × G (a G is equal to the force of gravity). Centrifugal force separates the extract into two fractions: a pellet and a supernatant. The pellet that forms at the bottom of the tube contains heavier materials, such as nuclei, packed together. The supernatant, the liquid above the pellet, contains lighter particles, dissolved molecules, and ions. After the pellet is removed, the supernatant can be centrifuged again at a higher speed to obtain a pellet that contains the next-heaviest cell components, for example, mitochondria and chloroplasts. In

differential centrifugation, the supernatant is spun at successively higher speeds, permitting various cell components to be separated on the basis of their different sizes and densities (FIG. 4-5b). The pellets can be resuspended and their components can be further purified by density gradient centrifugation. In this procedure, the centrifuge tube is filled with a series of solutions of decreasing density. For example, sucrose solutions can be used. The concentration of sucrose is highest at the bottom of the tube and decreases gradually so that it is lowest at the top. The resuspended pellet is placed in a layer on top of the density gradient. Because the densities of organelles differ, each migrates during centrifugation. Each type of organelle forms a band at the position in the gradient where its own density equals that of the sucrose solution (FIG. 4-5c).

RESEARCH METHOD Why Is It Used?

Cell fractionation is used to separate (fractionate) cell components according to their size and density.

Centrifuge rotor Centrifugal force

Centrifugal force

Hinged bucket containing tube

(a) Centrifugation. Due to centrifugal force, large or very dense particles move toward the bottom of a tube and form a pellet.

Centrifuge supernatant 20,000 × G

Centrifuge supernatant 100,000 × G

10 minutes

30 minutes

90 minutes

Disrupt cells in buffered solution Nuclei in pellet

Mitochondria, chloroplasts in pellet

Microsomal pellet (contains ER, Golgi, plasma membrane)

(b) Differential centrifugation.

How Is It Done?

Low sucrose concentration Sucrose density gradient

Centrifuge 600 × G

Resuspended microsomal pellet on top of sucrose gradient

100,000 × G High sucrose concentration

Plasma membrane Golgi ER

(c) Density gradient centrifugation.

Cells are broken up in a blender. The cell homogenate (the resulting mixture) is then spun in a centrifuge. As a result of centrifugal force, the heaviest cell components, the nuclei, form a pellet at the bottom of the tube. The supernatant (the liquid above the pellet) can then be spun at a higher speed. The next heaviest component, the mitochondria and chloroplasts, form a pellet, and the supernatant can be spun at a higher speed. This process can be repeated several times. The pellet can be further purified by density gradient centrifugation (see text for further explanation).

FIGURE 4-5 Cell fractionation

Purified organelles can then be studied. For example, they can be examined to determine what kinds of proteins and other molecules they might contain, or what types of chemical reactions take place within them.

Recall from Chapter 1 that two basic types of cells are known: prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Bacteria and archaea are prokaryotic cells. All other known organisms consist of eukaryotic cells.

Review

Organelles of prokaryotic cells are not surrounded by membranes

■ ■

What is the main advantage of the electron microscope? Explain. What is cell fractionation? Describe the process.

4.3 PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVES 5 6

Compare and contrast the general characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and contrast plant and animal cells. Describe three functions of cell membranes.

Prokaryotic cells are typically smaller than eukaryotic cells. In fact, the average prokaryotic cell is only about 1/10 the diameter of the average eukaryotic cell. In prokaryotic cells, the DNA is typically located in a limited region of the cell called a nuclear area, or nucleoid. Unlike the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, the nuclear area is not enclosed by a membrane (FIG. 4-6). The term prokaryotic, meaning “before the nucleus,” refers to this major difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Other types of internal membrane–enclosed organelles are also absent in prokaryotic cells. Like eukaryotic cells, prokaryotic cells have a plasma membrane that surrounds the cell. The plasma membrane confines the

contents of the cell to an internal compartment. In some prokaryotic cells, the plasma membrane may be folded inward to form a complex of membranes along which many of the cell’s metabolic reactions take place. Most prokaryotic cells have cell walls, which are extracellular structures that enclose the entire cell, including the plasma membrane. Many prokaryotes have flagella (sing., flagellum), long fibers that project from the surface of the cell. Prokaryotic flagella, which operate like propellers, are important in locomotion. Their structure is different from that of flagella found in eukaryotic cells. Some prokaryotes also have hairlike projections called fimbriae, which are used to adhere to one another or to attach to cell surfaces of other organisms. The dense internal material of the bacterial cell contains ribosomes, small complexes of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein that synthesize polypeptides. The ribosomes of prokaryotic cells are smaller than those found in eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells also contain storage granules that hold glycogen, lipid, or phosphate compounds. This chapter focuses primarily on eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotes are discussed in more detail in Chapter 25.

Fimbriae

Storage granule

Flagellum Ribosome Cell wall Plasma membrane DNA

Nuclear area

Dr. Klaus Boller/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.

Capsule

0.5 μm

FIGURE 4-6 Animated Structure of a prokaryotic cell This colorized TEM shows a thin lengthwise slice through an Escherichia coli bacterium. Note the prominent nuclear area containing the genetic material (DNA). E. coli is a normal inhabitant of the human intestine, but under certain conditions some strains can cause infections.

Membranes divide the eukaryotic cell into compartments Eukaryotic cells are characterized by highly organized membraneenclosed organelles, including a prominent nucleus, which contains DNA, the hereditary material. The term eukaryotic means “true nucleus.” Early biologists thought cells consisted of a homogeneous jelly, which they called protoplasm. With the electron microscope and other modern research tools, perception of the environment within the cell has been greatly expanded. We now know that the cell is highly organized and complex (FIGS. 4-7 through 4-10). The eukaryotic cell has its own control center, internal transportation system, power plants, factories for making needed materials, packaging plants, and even a “self-destruct” system. Biologists refer to the part of the cell outside the nucleus as cytoplasm and the part of the cell within the nucleus as nucleoplasm. Various organelles are suspended within the fluid component of the cytoplasm, which is called the cytosol. The term cytoplasm includes both the cytosol and all the organelles other than the nucleus. The many specialized organelles of eukaryotic cells solve some of the problems associated with large size, so eukaryotic cells can be larger than prokaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells also differ from prokaryotic cells in having a supporting framework, or cytoskeleton, important in maintaining shape and transporting materials within the cell. Some organelles are present only in specific cells. For example, chloroplasts, structures that trap sunlight for energy conversion, are only in cells that carry on photosynthesis, such as certain plant or algal cells. Cells of fungi and plants are surrounded by a cell wall external to the plasma membrane. Plant cells also contain a large, membrane-enclosed vacuole. We discuss these and other differences among major types of cells throughout this chapter. Plant and animal cells are compared in Figures 4-7 and 4-8 and also in Figures 4-9 and 4-10. Cell membranes have unique properties that enable membranous organelles to carry out a wide variety of functions. For example, cell membranes never have free ends. As a result, a membranous organelle always contains at least one enclosed internal space or compartment. These membrane-enclosed compartments allow certain cell activities to be localized within specific regions of the cell. Reactants located in only a small part of the total cell volume are far more likely to come in contact, dramatically increasing the rate of the reaction. On the other hand, membrane-enclosed compartments keep certain reactive compounds away from other parts of the cell that they might adversely affect. Compartmentalizing also allows many different activities to go on simultaneously. Membranes serve as important work surfaces. For example, many chemical reactions in cells are carried out by enzymes that are bound to membranes. Because the enzymes that carry out successive steps of a series of reactions are organized close together on a membrane surface, certain series of chemical reactions occur more rapidly. Membranes allow cells to store energy. The membrane serves as a barrier that is somewhat analogous to a dam on a river. As we will discuss in Chapter 5, there is both an electric charge difference and a concentration difference on the two sides of the membrane.

the endomembrane system because they function somewhat independently of other membranous organelles.) Some organelles have direct connections between their membranes and other compartments. Others transport materials in vesicles, small, membrane-enclosed sacs formed by “budding” from

Courtesy of Dr. Kenneth Miller, Brown University

Dr. Susumu Ito, Harvard Medical School

These differences constitute an electrochemical gradient. Such gradients store energy and so have potential energy (discussed in Chapter 7). As particles of a substance move across the membrane from the side of higher concentration to the side of lower concentration, the cell can convert some of this potential energy to the chemical energy of ATP molecules. This process of energy conversion (discussed in Chapters 7, 8, and 9) is a basic mechanism that cells use to capture and convert the energy necessary to sustain life. In a eukaryotic cell, several types of membranes make up the internal membrane system, or endomembrane system. In Figures 4-7 and 4-8 (also see Figs. 4-9 and 4-10), notice how membranes divide the cell into many compartments: the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi complex, lysosomes, vesicles, and vacuoles. Although it is not internal, the plasma membrane is also included because it participates in the activities of the endomembrane system. (Mitochondria and chloroplasts are also separate compartments but are not generally considered part of

5 μm Chromatin

Plasma membrane

Nucleolus

5 μm Nucleus

Starch grain

Golgi complex

Rough endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes

Vacuole

Plasma membrane

Prolamellar body

Intercellular space

Nucleus

Golgi complex

Ribosomes

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

Zymogen granules

Mitochondria Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

FIGURE 4-8 TEM of a human pancreas cell and an interpretive drawing

Chloroplasts

Cell wall

FIGURE 4-7 TEM of a plant cell and an interpretive drawing Most of this cross section of a cell from the leaf of a young bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris) is dominated by a vacuole. Prolamellar bodies are membranous regions typically seen in developing chloroplasts. Can you label the TEM?

Most of the structures of a typical animal cell are present. However, like most cells, this one has certain structures associated with its specialized functions. Pancreas cells such as the one shown here secrete large amounts of digestive enzymes. The large, dark, circular bodies in the TEM and the corresponding structures in the drawing are zymogen granules, which contain inactive enzymes. When released from the cell, the enzymes catalyze chemical reactions such as the breakdown of peptide bonds of ingested proteins in the intestine. Most of the membranes visible in this section are part of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, an organelle specialized to manufacture protein. Can you label the TEM?

Bloom and Fawcett Textbook of Histology

Cristae

Bloom and Fawcett Textbook of Histology

Membranous sacs

Golgi complex

Mitochondrion

Cell wall Plasma membrane

Granum

Stroma

Chloroplast

Bloom and Fawcett Textbook of Histology

E. H. Newcomb and W. P. Wergin, Biological Photo Service

Smooth ER

Dr. Donald Fawcett/Visuals Unlimited, Inc.

Vacuole

Nuclear envelope Nucleolus Nuclear pores

Rough ER

Chromatin

Ribosomes Rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

FIGURE 4-9 Animated Composite diagram of a plant cell Plant cells typically have a cell wall, chloroplasts, and prominent vacuoles. The TEMs show specific structures or areas of the cell. Some plant cells do not have all the organelles shown here. For example, leaf and stem cells that carry on photosynthesis contain chloroplasts, whereas root cells do not. Many of the organelles, such as the nucleus, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), are characteristic of all eukaryotic cells.

Nucleus

Chromatin

Nucleolus

Bloom and Fawcett Textbook of Histology

Nuclear pores

Membranous sacs of Golgi

Bloom and Fawcett Textbook of Histology

Nuclear envelope

Golgi complex

Nucleus

Plasma membrane

Lysosome Nuclear envelope

Cristae

Dr. Donald Fawcett/Visuals Unlimited, Inc.

B. F. King, Biological Photo Service

Rough ER

Bloom and Fawcett Textbook of Histology

Ribosomes

Smooth ER Rough and smooth endoplastic reticulum (ER)

Centrioles

FIGURE 4-10 Animated Composite diagram of an animal cell This generalized animal cell is shown in a realistic context surrounded by adjacent cells, which cause it to be slightly compressed. The TEMs show the structure of various organelles. Depending on the cell type, certain organelles may be more or less prominent.

Mitochondrion

the membrane of another organelle. Vesicles carry cargo from one organelle to another. A vesicle can form as a “bud” from the membrane of one organelle and then move to another organelle to which it fuses, thus delivering its contents into another compartment.

■ ■ ■

EXPERIMENT 1 QUESTION: What controls the shape of the cap in Acetabularia? HYPOTHESIS: Something in the stalk or holdfast of Acetabularia controls the shape of the cap.

Review ■

KEY EXPERIMENTS

What are two important differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? What are three ways that a plant cell might differ from an animal cell? How do membrane-enclosed organelles facilitate cell metabolism? What organelles belong to the endomembrane system?

EXPERIMENT: Hämmerling removed the caps from A. mediterranea and A. crenulata. He then grafted together the two capless algae (FIG. a).

4.4 THE CELL NUCLEUS Nucleus

■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE 7

Cap Stalk Holdfast

Describe the structure and functions of the nucleus.

L. Sims/Visuals Unlimited

Typically, the nucleus is the most prominent organelle in the cell. It is usually spherical or oval in shape and averages 5 μm in diameter. Because of its size and the fact that it often occupies a relatively fixed position near the center of the cell, some early investigators guessed long before experimental evidence was available that the nucleus served as the control center of the cell. In the 19th century, biologists discovered that the marine alga Acetabularia consists of a single cell (FIG. 4-11). At up to 5 cm (2 in) in length, Acetabularia is small for a seaweed but gigantic for a cell. It consists of a rootlike holdfast; a long, cylindrical stalk; and a cuplike cap. The nucleus is in the holdfast, about as far away from the cap as it can be. Because it is a single giant cell, Acetabularia is easy for researchers to manipulate. If the cap of Acetabularia is removed experimentally, another one grows after a few weeks. Such regeneration is common among

FIGURE 4-11 LM of Acetabularia To the romantically inclined, the little seaweed Acetabularia resembles a mermaid’s wineglass, although the literal translation of its name, “vinegar cup,” is somewhat less elegant. Acetabularia, which consists of a single cell, has been a model organism for investigating the role of the nucleus.

A. mediterranea A. crenulata

(a)

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The algae regenerated a common cap with characteristics intermediate between those of the two species involved. This experiment demonstrated that something in the stalk or holdfast controls cap shape.

FIGURE 4-12 Acetabularia and the control of cell

activities Biologist J. Hämmerling used two species of the single-celled seaweed Acetabularia for most of his experiments: A. mediterranea, which has a smooth cap, and A. crenulata, which has a cap divided into a series of fingerlike projections. When the cap is removed, the kind of cap that is regenerated depends on the species of Acetabularia used in the experiment. As you might expect, A. crenulata regenerates a “cren” cap, and A. mediterranea regenerates a “med” cap.

simple organisms. This fact attracted the attention of investigators, especially Danish biologist J. Hämmerling, who became interested in whether a relationship exists between the nucleus and the physical characteristics of the alga. Hämmerling (during the 1930s to 1950s) performed brilliant experiments that in many ways laid the foundation for much of our modern knowledge of the nucleus. Some of his experiments are summarized in FIGURE 4-12. Cell biologists extended these early findings as they developed our modern view of information flow and control in the cell. We now know that the cell stores information in the form of DNA, and most of the cell’s DNA is located inside the nucleus. The nuclear envelope consists of two concentric membranes that separate the nuclear contents from the surrounding cytoplasm (FIG. 4-13). These membranes are separated by about 20 to 40 nm. At intervals the membranes come together to form nuclear pores. Each nuclear pore consists of a molecular complex made up of many copies of about 30 different proteins. Nuclear pores regulate the passage of materials between nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. A fibrous network of protein filaments, called the nuclear lamina, forms an inner lining for the nuclear envelope. The nuclear

EXPERIMENT 2 QUESTION: Does the stalk or the holdfast control the shape of the cap in Acetabularia? HYPOTHESIS: Something in the holdfast of Acetabularia controls the shape of the cap. EXPERIMENT: Hämmerling removed the caps from A. mediterranea and A. crenulata. Then he severed the stalks from the holdfasts. By telescoping the cell walls of the two species into each other, Hämmerling was able to attach a section of the stalk of one species to a holdfast of the other species (see FIG. b).

Caps removed

Stalks and holdfasts exchanged

(b)

Caps removed again

First regenerated caps

Second regenerated caps

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The results were surprising. The caps that regenerated were characteristic not of the species donating the holdfasts but of those donating the stalks! However, when the caps were removed once again, this time the caps that regenerated were characteristic of the species that donated the holdfasts. This continued to be the case no matter how many more times the regenerated caps were removed. From these results Hämmerling deduced that the ultimate control of the Acetabularia cell is associated with the holdfast. Because there is a time lag before the holdfast appears to take over, he hypothesized it produces some temporary cytoplasmic messenger substance whereby it exerts its control. Hämmerling further hypothesized that the grafted stalks initially contain enough of the substance from their former holdfasts to regenerate a cap of the former shape. But this still left the question of how the holdfast exerts its apparent control. An obvious suspect was the nucleus. EXPERIMENT 3 QUESTION: Does the nucleus in the holdfast control the shape of the cap in Acetabularia? HYPOTHESIS: The nucleus in the holdfast of Acetabularia controls the shape of the cap. EXPERIMENT: Hämmerling removed the nucleus and cut off the cap of Acetabularia (FIG. c). A new cap typical of the species regenerated. Acetabularia, however, can usually regenerate only once without a nucleus. The researcher inserted a nucleus of another species and cut the cap off once again (FIG. d).

Eventually

(c)

The characteristics of the cell are governed by the messenger substance and, therefore, ultimately by the nucleus.

Eventually

(d)

Messenger substance

(e)

The nucleus produces the messenger.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A new cap regenerated that was characteristic of the species of the nucleus. When two kinds of nuclei were inserted, the regenerated cap was intermediate in shape between those of the species that donated the nuclei. As a result of these and other experiments, biologists began to develop some basic ideas about the control of cell activities. The holdfast controls the cell because the nucleus is located there. Further, the nucleus is the apparent source of some “messenger substance” that temporarily exerts control but is limited in quantity and cannot be produced without the nucleus (FIG. e). This information helped provide a starting point for research on the role of nucleic acids in the control of all cells. Much later, the “messenger substance” was characterized and named messenger RNA (mRNA).

KEY POINT

The nucleus contains DNA and is the control center of the cell.

Chromatin Nucleolus

Nuclear pores

Nuclear pore

Nuclear envelope

R. Kessel and G. Shih/Visuals Unlimited

Rough ER

0.25 μm

(b)

ER continuous with outer membrane of nuclear envelope

Bloom and Fawcett Textbook of Histology

Nucleoplasm

Outer nuclear envelope

Nuclear pore

2 μm

(a)

(c)

Nuclear pore proteins

Inner nuclear envelope

FIGURE 4-13 Animated The cell nucleus (a) The TEM and interpretive drawing show that the nuclear envelope, composed of two concentric membranes, is perforated by nuclear pores (red arrows). The outer membrane of the nuclear envelope is continuous with the membrane of the ER (endoplasmic reticulum). The nucleolus

lamina supports the inner nuclear membrane and helps organize the nuclear contents. It also plays a role in DNA duplication and in regulating the cell cycle. Mutations in genes encoding proteins that make up the nuclear lamina are associated with several human genetic diseases, including muscular dystrophies and premature aging (progeria). When a cell divides, the information stored in DNA must be reproduced and passed intact to the two daughter cells. DNA has the unique ability to make an exact duplicate of itself through a process called replication. DNA molecules include sequences of nucleotides called genes, which contain the chemically coded instructions for producing the proteins needed by the cell. The

is not bounded by a membrane. (b) TEM of nuclear pores. A technique known as freeze-fracture was used to split the membrane. (c) The nuclear pores, which are made up of proteins, form channels between the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm.

nucleus controls protein synthesis by transcribing its information in messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules. Messenger RNA moves into the cytoplasm, where proteins are manufactured. DNA is associated with RNA and certain proteins, forming a complex known as chromatin. This complex appears as a network of granules and strands in cells that are not dividing. Although chromatin appears disorganized, it is not. Because DNA molecules are extremely long and thin, they must be packed inside the nucleus in a regular fashion as part of structures called chromosomes. In dividing cells, the chromosomes become visible as distinct threadlike structures. If the DNA in the 46 chromosomes of one human cell could be stretched end to end, it would extend for 2 meters!

Most nuclei have one or more compact structures called nucleoli (sing., nucleolus). A nucleolus, which is not enclosed by a membrane, usually stains differently than the surrounding chromatin. Each nucleolus contains a nucleolar organizer, made up of chromosomal regions containing instructions for making the type of RNA in ribosomes. This ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is synthesized in the nucleolus. The proteins needed to make ribosomes are synthesized in the cytoplasm and imported into the nucleolus. Ribosomal RNA and proteins are then assembled into ribosomal subunits that leave the nucleus through the nuclear pores.

Review ■ ■

How does the nucleus store information? What is the function of the nuclear envelope?

4.5 ORGANELLES IN THE CYTOPLASM ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVES 8 Distinguish between smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum in terms of both structure and function.

9 Trace the path of proteins synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum as they are processed, modified, and sorted by the Golgi complex and then transported to specific destinations. 10 Describe the functions of lysosomes, vacuoles, and peroxisomes. 11 Compare the functions of mitochondria and chloroplasts, and discuss ATP synthesis by each of these organelles.

(ER), forms a network that makes up a significant part of the total volume of the cytoplasm in many cells. A higher-magnification TEM of the ER is shown in FIGURE 4-14. Remember that a TEM represents only a thin cross section of the cell, so there is a tendency to interpret the ER as a series of tubes. In fact, many ER membranes consist of a series of tightly packed and flattened, saclike structures that form interconnected compartments within the cytoplasm. The internal space the membranes enclose is called the ER lumen. In most cells the ER lumen forms a single internal compartment that is continuous with the compartment formed between the outer and inner membranes of the nuclear envelope (see Fig. 4-13). The membranes of other organelles are not directly connected to the ER; they form distinct and separate compartments within the cytoplasm. The ER membranes and lumen contain enzymes that catalyze many types of chemical reactions. In some cases the membranes serve as a framework for enzymes that carry out sequential biochemical reactions. The two surfaces of the membrane contain different sets of enzymes and represent regions of the cell with different synthetic capabilities, just as different regions of a factory make different parts of a particular product. Still other enzymes are located within the ER lumen. Two distinct regions of the ER can be distinguished in TEMs: rough ER and smooth ER. Although these regions have different functions, their membranes are connected and their internal spaces are continuous.

The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of internal membranes

Smooth ER synthesizes lipids Smooth ER has a tubular appearance, and its outer membrane surfaces appear smooth. Enzymes in the membranes of the smooth ER catalyze the synthesis of many lipids and carbohydrates. The smooth ER is the primary site for the synthesis of phospholipids and cholesterol needed to make cell membranes. Smooth ER synthesizes steroid hormones, including reproductive hormones, from cholesterol. In liver cells, smooth ER is important in enzymatically breaking down stored glycogen. (The liver helps regulate the concentration of glucose in the blood.) Smooth ER also stores calcium ions. Whereas smooth ER may be a minor membrane component in some cells, extensive amounts of smooth ER are present in others. For example, extensive smooth ER is present in human liver cells, where it synthesizes and processes cholesterol and other lipids and serves as a major detoxification site. Enzymes located along the smooth ER of liver cells break down toxic chemicals such as carcinogens (cancer-causing agents) and many drugs, including alcohol, amphetamines, and barbiturates. The cell then converts these compounds to water-soluble products that it excretes. Interestingly, alcohol and many other drugs stimulate liver cells to produce additional smooth ER, increasing the rate that these cells can detoxify the drugs. Alcohol abuse causes liver inflammation that can lead to cirrhosis and eventual liver failure.

One of the most prominent features in the electron micrographs in Figures 4-9 and 4-10 is a maze of parallel internal membranes that encircle the nucleus and extend into many regions of the cytoplasm. This complex of membranes, the endoplasmic reticulum

Rough ER is important in protein synthesis The outer surface of the rough ER is studded with ribosomes that appear as dark granules. Notice in Figure 4-14 that the lumen side

Cell biologists have identified many types of organelles in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Among them are the ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, lysosomes, peroxisomes, vacuoles, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. TABLE 4-1 summarizes eukaryotic cell structures and functions.

Ribosomes manufacture proteins Ribosomes are tiny particles found free in the cytoplasm or attached to certain membranes. They consist of RNA and proteins and are synthesized by the nucleolus. Ribosomes contain the enzyme necessary to form peptide bonds, which join amino acids to produce polypeptides (see Chapter 3). Each ribosome has two main components: a large subunit and a small subunit. When the two ribosome subunits join, they function as manufacturing plants that assemble polypeptides. Cells that actively produce a lot of proteins may have millions of ribosomes, and the cell can change the number of ribosomes present to meet its metabolic needs. We will discuss much more about ribosomes in Chapter 13.

TABLE 4-1 Structure Cell Nucleus Nucleus Nucleolus Chromosomes

Eukaryotic Cell Structures and Their Functions Description

Function

Large structure surrounded by double membrane; contains nucleolus and chromosomes Granular body within nucleus; consists of RNA and protein Composed of chromatin, a complex of DNA and protein; condense during cell division, becoming visible as rodlike structures

Information in DNA is transcribed in RNA synthesis; specifies cell proteins Site of ribosomal RNA synthesis; ribosome subunit assembly Contain genes (units of hereditary information) that govern structure and activity of cell

Cytoplasmic Organelles Plasma Membrane boundary of cell membrane Ribosomes Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Smooth Rough Golgi complex

Granules composed of RNA and protein; some attached to ER, some free in cytosol Network of internal membranes extending through cytoplasm Lacks ribosomes on outer surface Ribosomes stud outer surface Stacks of flattened membrane sacs

Lysosomes

Membranous sacs (in animals)

Vacuoles Peroxisomes

Membranous sacs (mostly in plants, fungi, algae) Membranous sacs containing a variety of enzymes

Mitochondria

Sacs consisting of two membranes; inner membrane is folded to form cristae and encloses matrix Double-membrane structure enclosing internal thylakoid membrane; chloroplasts contain chlorophyll in thylakoid membrane

Plastids (e.g., chloroplasts)

Cytoskeleton Microtubules

Hollow tubes made of subunits of tubulin protein

Microfilaments

Solid, rodlike structures consisting of actin protein

Intermediate filaments Centrioles

Tough fibers made of protein

Cilia

Flagella

Pair of hollow cylinders located near nucleus; each centriole consists of nine microtubule triplets (9 × 3 structure) Relatively short projections extending from surface of cell; covered by plasma membrane; made of two central and nine pairs of peripheral microtubules (9 + 2 structure) Long projections made of two central and nine pairs of peripheral microtubules (9 +2 structure); extend from surface of cell; covered by plasma membrane

of the rough ER appears bare, whereas the outer surface (the cytosolic side) looks rough. The ribosomes attached to the rough ER are known as bound ribosomes; free ribosomes are suspended in the cytosol. The rough ER plays a central role in the synthesis and assembly of proteins. Many proteins that are exported from the cell (such as digestive enzymes), and proteins destined for other organelles, are synthesized on ribosomes bound to the ER membrane. The ri-

Encloses cell contents; regulates movement of materials in and out of cell; helps maintain cell shape; communicates with other cells (also present in prokaryotes) Synthesize polypeptides in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes Synthesizes lipids and modifies many proteins; origin of intracellular transport vesicles that carry proteins Lipid synthesis; drug detoxification; calcium ion storage Manufactures proteins Modifies proteins; packages secreted proteins; sorts other proteins to vacuoles and other organelles Contain enzymes that break down ingested materials; break down damaged or unneeded organelles and proteins Store materials, wastes, water; maintain hydrostatic pressure Site of many diverse metabolic reactions; e.g., break down fatty acids Site of most reactions of cellular respiration; transformation of energy originating from glucose or lipids into ATP energy Chloroplasts are site of photosynthesis; chlorophyll captures light energy; ATP and other energy-rich compounds are produced and then used to convert CO2 to carbohydrate

Provide structural support; have role in cell and organelle movement and cell division; components of cilia, flagella, centrioles, basal bodies Provide structural support; play role in cell and organelle movement and cell division Help strengthen cytoskeleton; stabilize cell shape Mitotic spindle forms between centrioles during animal cell division; may anchor and organize microtubule formation in animal cells; absent in most plant cells Movement of some unicellular organisms; used to move materials on surface of some tissues; important in cell signaling

Cell locomotion by sperm cells and some unicellular organisms

bosome forms a tight seal with the ER membrane. A tunnel within the ribosome connects to an ER pore. Polypeptides are transported through the tunnel and the pore in the ER membrane into the ER lumen. In the ER lumen, proteins are assembled and may be modified by enzymes that add carbohydrates or lipids to them. Other enzymes, called molecular chaperones, in the ER lumen catalyze the efficient folding of proteins into proper conformations. Pro-

ER lumen Mitochondrion cis face

Bloom and Fawcett Textbook of Histology

Ribosomes

trans face

Rough ER

Golgi complex 0.5 μm

Dr. Donald Fawcett/Visuals Unlimited, Inc.

FIGURE 4-15 TEM and an interpretive drawing of the Golgi complex

1 μm

Smooth ER

FIGURE 4-14 Animated Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) The TEM shows both rough and smooth ER in a liver cell.

teins that are not processed correctly, for example, proteins that are misfolded, are transported to the cytosol. There, they are degraded by proteasomes, protein complexes in the cytosol that direct the destruction of defective proteins. Properly processed proteins are transferred to other compartments within the cell by small transport vesicles, which bud off the ER membrane and then fuse with the membrane of some target organelle.

The Golgi complex processes, sorts, and modifies proteins The Golgi complex (also known as the Golgi body or Golgi apparatus) was first described in 1898 by the Italian microscopist Camillo Golgi, who found a way to specifically stain this organelle. However, many investigators thought the Golgi complex was an arti-

fact, and its legitimacy as a cell organelle was not confirmed until cells were studied with the electron microscope in the 1950s. In many cells, the Golgi complex consists of stacks of flattened membranous sacs called cisternae (sing., cisterna). Each cisterna has an internal space, or lumen (FIG. 4-15). In certain regions, cisternae may be distended because they are filled with cell products. The Golgi complex contains a number of separate compartments, as well as some that are interconnected. Each Golgi stack has three areas, referred to as the cis face, the trans face, and a medial region in between. Typically, the cis face (the entry surface) is located nearest the nucleus and receives materials from transport vesicles bringing molecules from the ER. The trans face (the exit surface) is closest to the plasma membrane. It packages molecules in vesicles and transports them out of the Golgi. In a cross-sectional view like that in the TEM in Figure 4-15, many ends of the sheetlike layers of Golgi membranes are distended, an arrangement characteristic of well-developed Golgi complexes in many cells. In some animal cells, the Golgi complex lies at one side of the nucleus; other animal cells and plant cells have many Golgi complexes dispersed throughout the cell. Cells that secrete large amounts of glycoproteins have many Golgi stacks. (Recall from Chapter 3 that a glycoprotein is a protein with a covalently attached carbohydrate.) Golgi complexes of plant cells produce extracellular polysaccharides that are used as components of the cell wall. In animal cells, the Golgi complex manufactures lysosomes. The Golgi complex processes, sorts, and modifies proteins. Researchers have studied the function of the ER, Golgi complex,

KEY POINT

After proteins are synthesized, they are transported through a series of compartments where they are successively modified.

1 Polypeptides synthesized

on ribosomes are inserted into ER lumen. 2 Sugars are added, forming

glycoproteins. 3 Transport vesicles deliver

glycoproteins to cis face of Golgi.

Ribosomes 1

Rough ER Glycoprotein

2 cis face

4 Glycoproteins modified

3

further in Golgi. 4

5 Glycoproteins move to trans

face where they are packaged in transport vesicles.

5

trans face 6

6 Glycoproteins transported to

plasma membrane (or other organelle).

Golgi complex

7 Contents of transport vesicle

released from cell.

Plasma membrane

7

FIGURE 4-16 Animated Protein transport within the cell Glycoproteins are transported from ribosomes into the ER. They are then transported to the Golgi complex, where they are modified. This diagram shows the passage of glycoproteins through compartments of

and other organelles by radioactively labeling newly manufactured molecules and observing their movement through the cell. The general pathway is from ribosomes to the lumen of the rough ER to the Golgi complex and then to some final destination (FIG. 4-16). Proteins that are accurately assembled are transported from the rough ER to the cis face of the Golgi complex in small transport vesicles formed from the ER membrane. Transport vesicles fuse with one another to form clusters that move along microtubules (part of the cytoskeleton) to the Golgi complex. What happens to glycoprotein molecules released into the Golgi complex? One hypothesis holds that the glycoproteins are enclosed in new vesicles that shuttle them from one compartment to another within the Golgi complex. A competing hypothesis postulates that the cisternae themselves may move from cis to trans positions. Both hypotheses may be correct: glycoproteins may be transported by both methods. Regardless of how proteins are moved through the Golgi complex, while there they are modified in different ways, resulting in the formation of complex biological molecules. For example, the carbohydrate part of a glycoprotein (first added to proteins in the

the endomembrane system of a mucus-secreting goblet cell from the lining of the intestine. Mucus consists of a complex mixture of covalently linked proteins and carbohydrates.

rough ER) may be modified. In some cases the carbohydrate component may be a “sorting signal,” a cellular zip code that tags the protein, routing it to a specific organelle. Glycoproteins are packaged in transport vesicles in the trans face. These vesicles pinch off from the Golgi membrane and transport their contents to a specific destination. Vesicles transporting products for export from the cell fuse with the plasma membrane. The vesicle membrane becomes part of the plasma membrane, and the glycoproteins are secreted from the cell. Other vesicles may store glycoproteins for secretion at a later time, and still others are routed to various organelles of the endomembrane system. In summary, here is a typical sequence followed by a glycoprotein destined for secretion from the cell: polypeptides synthesized on ribosomes ¡ protein assembled and carbohydrate component added in lumen of ER ¡ transport vesicles move glycoprotein to Golgi (cis face) ¡ glycoprotein further modified in Golgi ¡ in trans face, glycoproteins packaged in transport vesicles ¡ glycoproteins transported to plasma membrane ¡ contents released from cell

Lysosomes are small sacs of digestive enzymes dispersed in the cytoplasm of most animal cells (FIG. 4-17). Researchers have identified about 40 different digestive enzymes in lysosomes. Because lysosomal enzymes are active under rather acidic conditions, the lysosome maintains a pH of about 5 in its interior. The powerful enzymes and low pH that the lysosome maintains provide an excellent example of the importance of separating functions within the cell into different compartments. Under most normal conditions, the lysosome membrane confines its enzymes and their actions. However, some forms of tissue damage are related to “leaky” lysosomes. Primary lysosomes are formed by budding from the Golgi complex. Their hydrolytic enzymes are synthesized in the rough ER. As these enzymes pass through the lumen of the ER, sugars attach to each molecule, identifying it as bound for a lysosome. This signal permits the Golgi complex to sort the enzyme to the lysosomes rather than to export it from the cell. Bacteria (or debris) engulfed by scavenger cells are enclosed in a vesicle formed from part of the plasma membrane. One or more primary lysosomes fuse with the vesicle containing the ingested material, forming a larger vesicle called a secondary lysosome. Powerful enzymes in the secondary lysosome come in contact with the ingested molecules and degrade them into their components. Under some conditions, lysosomes break down organelles and allow their components to be recycled or used as an energy source. In certain genetic diseases of humans, known as lysosomal storage diseases, one of the digestive enzymes normally present in lysosomes is absent. Its substrate (a substance the enzyme would normally break down) accumulates in the cell, which eventually interferes with cell activities. An example is Tay-Sachs disease, an inherited disease in which a normal lipid cannot be broken down (discussed in Chapter 16). The accumulation of this lipid in brain cells causes mental retardation, blindness, and death before age 4.

Vacuoles are large, fluid-filled sacs with a variety of functions Although lysosomes have been identified in almost all kinds of animal cells, biologists have not identified them in plant and fungal cells. Many functions carried out in animal cells by lysosomes are performed in plant and fungal cells by a large, single, membraneenclosed sac called a vacuole. The membrane of the vacuole, part of the endomembrane system, is called the tonoplast. The term vacuole, which means “empty,” refers to the fact that these organelles have no internal structure. Although some biologists use the terms vacuole and vesicle interchangeably, vacuoles are usually larger structures, sometimes produced by the merging of many vesicles. Vacuoles play a significant role in plant growth and development. Immature plant cells are generally small and contain numerous small vacuoles. As water accumulates in these vacuoles, they tend to coalesce, forming a large central vacuole. A plant cell increases in size mainly by adding water to this central vacuole. As much as 80% of the volume of a plant cell may be occupied by a large central vacuole containing water, stored food, salts, pigments, and metabolic wastes (see Figs. 4-7 and 4-9). The vacuole

Don Fawcett/Photo Researchers, Inc.

Lysosomes are compartments for digestion

Primary lysosome

Secondary lysosome

5 μm

FIGURE 4-17 Lysosomes The dark vesicles in this TEM are lysosomes, compartments that separate powerful digestive enzymes from the rest of the cell. Primary lysosomes bud off from the Golgi complex. After a lysosome takes in material to be digested, it is known as a secondary lysosome. The large vesicles shown here are secondary lysosomes containing various materials being digested.

may serve as a storage compartment for inorganic compounds. In seeds, vacuoles store molecules such as proteins. Because the vacuole contains a high concentration of solutes (dissolved materials), it takes in water and pushes outward on the cell wall. This hydrostatic pressure, called turgor pressure, provides much of the mechanical strength of plant cells. The vacuole is important in maintaining homeostasis. For example, it helps maintain appropriate pH by taking in excess hydrogen ions. Plants lack organ systems for disposing of toxic metabolic waste products. Plant vacuoles are like lysosomes in that they contain hydrolytic enzymes and break down wastes, as well as unneeded organelles and other cell components. Wastes may be recycled in the vacuole, or they may aggregate and form small crystals inside the vacuole. Compounds that are noxious to herbivores (animals that eat plants) may be stored in some plant vacuoles as a means of defense. Vacuoles are also present in many types of animal cells and in unicellular protists such as protozoa. Most protozoa have food vacuoles, which fuse with lysosomes that digest the food (FIG. 4-18). Some protozoa also have contractile vacuoles, which remove excess water from the cell (discussed in Chapter 26).

Peroxisomes metabolize small organic compounds Peroxisomes are membrane-enclosed organelles containing enzymes that catalyze an assortment of metabolic reactions in

M. I. Walker/Photo Researchers, Inc.

Food vacuoles containing diatoms

15 μm

FIGURE 4-18 LM of food vacuoles This protist, Chilodonella, has ingested many small, photosynthetic protists called diatoms (dark areas) that have been enclosed in food vacuoles. From the number of diatoms scattered about its cell, one might conclude that Chilodonella has a rather voracious appetite.

Mitochondria and chloroplasts are energy-converting organelles

which hydrogen is transferred from various compounds to oxygen (FIG. 4-19). Peroxisomes get their name from the fact that during these oxidation reactions, they produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Hydrogen peroxide detoxifies certain compounds; but if this compound were to escape from the peroxisome, it would damage other membranes in the cell. Peroxisomes contain the enzyme Mitochondria

E. H. Newcomb and S. E. Frederick/Biological Photo Service

Chloroplasts

Peroxisomes 1 μm

catalase, which rapidly splits excess hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen, rendering it harmless. Peroxisomes are found in large numbers in cells that synthesize, store, or degrade lipids. One of their main functions is to break down fatty acid molecules. Peroxisomes synthesize certain phospholipids that are components of the insulating covering of nerve cells. In fact, certain neurological disorders occur when peroxisomes do not perform this function. Mutations that cause synthesis of abnormal membrane lipids by peroxisomes are linked to some forms of mental retardation. When yeast cells are grown in an alcohol-rich medium, they manufacture large peroxisomes containing an enzyme that degrades the alcohol. Peroxisomes in human liver and kidney cells detoxify certain toxic compounds, including ethanol, the alcohol in alcoholic beverages. In plant seeds, specialized peroxisomes, called glyoxysomes, contain enzymes that convert stored fats to sugars. The sugars are used by the young plant as an energy source and as a component for synthesizing other compounds. Animal cells lack glyoxysomes and cannot convert fatty acids into sugars.

The energy a cell obtains from its environment is usually in the form of chemical energy in food molecules (such as glucose) or in the form of light energy. These types of energy must be converted to forms that cells can use more conveniently. Some energy conversions occur in the cytosol, but other types take place in mitochondria and chloroplasts, organelles specialized to facilitate the conversion of energy from one form to another. Chemical energy is most commonly stored in ATP. Recall from (Chapter 3) that the chemical energy of ATP can be used to drive a variety of chemical reactions in the cell. FIGURE 4-20 summarizes the main activities that take place in mitochondria, found in almost all eukaryotic cells, and in chloroplasts, found only in algae and certain plant cells. Mitochondria and chloroplasts grow and reproduce themselves. They contain small amounts of DNA that code for a small number of the proteins found in these organelles. These proteins are synthesized by mitochondrial or chloroplast ribosomes. Interestingly, these ribosomes are similar to the ribosomes of prokaryotes. The existence of a separate set of ribosomes and DNA molecules in mitochondria and chloroplasts and their similarity in size to many bacteria provide support for serial endosymbiosis (discussed in Chapters 21 and 26; see Figs. 21-8 and 26-2). According to this hypothesis, mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved from prokaryotes that took up residence inside larger eukaryotic cells. Eventually, these symbiotic prokaryotes lost the ability to function as autonomous organisms.

FIGURE 4-19 Peroxisomes

Mitochondria make ATP through cellular respiration

In this TEM of a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaf cell, peroxisomes are in close association with chloroplasts and mitochondria. These organelles may cooperate in carrying out some metabolic processes.

Virtually all eukaryotic cells (plant, animal, fungal, and protist) contain complex organelles called mitochondria (sing., mito-

KEY POINT

Mitochondria and chloroplasts convert energy into forms that can be used by cells.

Aerobic respiration Mitochondria (most eukaryotic cells)

Photosynthesis Chloroplasts (some plant and algal cells) Light

Glucose + O2

ATP

+

CO2

CO2

H2O

H2O

+

ATP

O2 + Glucose

FIGURE 4-20 Cellular respiration and photosynthesis

chondrion). These organelles are the site of aerobic respiration, an oxygen-requiring process that includes most of the reactions that convert the chemical energy present in certain foods to ATP (discussed in Chapter 8). During aerobic respiration, carbon and oxygen atoms are removed from food molecules, such as glucose, and converted to carbon dioxide and water. Mitochondria are most numerous in cells that are very active and therefore have high energy requirements. More than 1000 mitochondria have been counted in a single liver cell! These organelles vary in size, ranging from 2 to 8 μm in length, and change size and shape rapidly. Mitochondria usually give rise to other mitochondria by growth and subsequent division. Each mitochondrion is enclosed by a double membrane, which forms two different compartments within the organelle: the intermembrane space and the matrix (FIG. 4-21; we will provide more detailed descriptions of mitochondrial structure in Chapter 8). The intermembrane space is the compartment formed between the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes. The matrix, the compartment enclosed by the inner mitochondrial membrane, contains enzymes that break down food molecules and convert their energy to other forms of chemical energy. The outer mitochondrial membrane is smooth and allows many small molecules to pass through it. By contrast, the inner mitochondrial membrane has numerous folds and strictly regulates the types of molecules that can move across it. The folds, called cristae (sing., crista), extend into the matrix. Cristae greatly increase the surface area of the inner mitochondrial membrane, providing a surface for the chemical reactions that transform the chemical energy in food molecules into the energy of ATP. The membrane contains the enzymes and other proteins needed for these reactions. Mitochondria play an important role in programmed cell death, or apoptosis. Unlike necrosis, which is uncontrolled cell

in some plant and algal cells, converts light energy to ATP and to other forms of chemical energy. This energy is used to synthesize glucose from carbon dioxide and water.

Outer mitochondrial membrane

Inner mitochondrial membrane

Bloom and Fawcett Textbook of Histology

Cellular respiration takes place in the mitochondria of virtually all eukaryotic cells. In this process, some of the chemical energy in glucose is transferred to ATP. Photosynthesis, which is carried out in chloroplasts

Matrix Cristae

0.25 μm

FIGURE 4-21 Animated Mitochondria Aerobic respiration takes place within mitochondria. Cristae are evident in the TEM as well as in the drawing. The drawing shows the relationship between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes.

death that causes inflammation and damages other cells, apoptosis is a normal part of development and maintenance. For example, during the metamorphosis of a tadpole to a frog, the cells of the tadpole tail must die. The hand of a human embryo is webbed until apoptosis destroys the tissue between the fingers. Cell death also occurs in the adult. For example, cells that are no longer functional because they have aged or become damaged are destroyed and replaced by new cells. Mitochondria initiate cell death in several different ways. For example, they can interfere with energy metabolism or activate enzymes that mediate cell destruction. When a mitochondrion is injured, large pores open in its membrane, and cytochrome c, a protein important in energy conversions, is released into the cytoplasm. Cytochrome c triggers apoptosis by activating enzymes known as caspases, which cut up vital compounds in the cell. Inappropriate inhibition of apoptosis may contribute to a variety of diseases, including cancer. On the other hand, too much apoptosis may deplete needed cells and lead to death of brain cells associated with Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and stroke. Mutations that promote apoptosis may be an important mechanism in mammalian aging. Pharmaceutical companies are developing drugs that block apoptosis. However, cell dynamics are extremely complex, and blocking apoptosis could lead to a worse fate, including necrosis. Each mitochondrion in a mammalian cell has 5 to 10 identical, circular molecules of DNA, accounting for up to 1% of the total DNA in the cell. Mitochondrial DNA mutates far more frequently than nuclear DNA. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA have been associated with certain genetic diseases, including a form of young adult blindness, and certain types of progressive muscle degeneration. Mitochondria also affect health and aging by leaking electrons. Inner membrane

Chloroplasts convert light energy to chemical energy through photosynthesis Certain plant and algal cells carry out photosynthesis, a set of reactions during which light energy is transformed into the chemical energy of glucose and other carbohydrates. Chloroplasts are organelles that contain chlorophyll, a green pigment that traps light energy for photosynthesis. Chloroplasts also contain a variety of light-absorbing yellow and orange pigments known as carotenoids (see Chapter 3). A unicellular alga may have only a single large chloroplast, whereas a leaf cell may have 20 to 100. Chloroplasts tend to be somewhat larger than mitochondria, with lengths usually ranging from about 5 to 10 μm or longer. Chloroplasts are typically disc-shaped structures and, like mitochondria, have a system of folded membranes (FIG. 4-22; we will provide a more detailed description of chloroplast structure in Chapter 9). Two membranes enclose the chloroplast and separate it from the cytosol. The inner membrane encloses a fluid-filled space called the stroma, which contains enzymes. These enzymes produce carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water, using energy trapped from sunlight. A system of internal membranes, which consists of an interconnected set of flat, disclike sacs called thylakoids, is suspended in the stroma. The thylakoids are arranged in stacks called grana (sing., granum). The thylakoid membrane encloses the innermost compartments within the chloroplast, the thylakoid lumen. Chlorophyll is present in the thylakoid membrane, which like the inner mitoStroma

E. H. Newcomb & W. P. Wergin, Biological Photo Service

Outer membrane

These electrons form free radicals, which are toxic, highly reactive compounds with unpaired electrons. The electrons bond with other compounds in the cell, interfering with normal function.

1 μm

Intermembrane space

Thylakoid membrane

Thylakoid lumen

Granum (stack of thylakoids)

FIGURE 4-22 Animated A chloroplast, the organelle of photosynthesis The TEM shows part of a chloroplast from a corn leaf cell. Chlorophyll and other photosynthetic pigments are in the thylakoid membranes. One granum is cut open to show the thylakoid lumen. The inner chloroplast membrane may or may not be continuous with the thylakoid membrane (as shown).

KEY POINT

The cytoskeleton consists of networks of several types of fibers that support the cell and are important in cell movement

Plasma membrane Microfilament Intermediate filament Microtubule

© Dr. Torsten Wittmann/Photo Researchers, Inc.

chondrial membranes, is involved in the formation of ATP. Energy absorbed from sunlight by the chlorophyll molecules excites electrons; the energy in these excited electrons is then used to produce ATP and other molecules that transfer chemical energy. Chloroplasts belong to a group of organelles, known as plastids, that produce and store food materials in cells of plants and algae. All plastids develop from proplastids, precursor organelles found in less specialized plant cells, particularly in growing, undeveloped tissues. Depending on the specific functions a cell will eventually have, its proplastids can develop into a variety of specialized mature plastids. These are extremely versatile organelles; in fact, under certain conditions even mature plastids can convert from one form to another. Chloroplasts are produced when proplastids are stimulated by exposure to light. Chromoplasts contain pigments that give certain flowers and fruits their characteristic colors; these colors attract animals that serve as pollinators or as seed dispersers. Leukoplasts are unpigmented plastids; they include amyloplasts (see Fig. 3-9), which store starch in the cells of many seeds, roots, and tubers (such as white potatoes).

Review ■

■ ■

■ ■

How do the structure and function of rough ER differ from those of smooth ER? What are the functions of the Golgi complex? What sequence of events must take place for a protein to be manufactured and then secreted from the cell? How are chloroplasts like mitochondria? How are they different? Draw and label a chloroplast and a mitochondrion.

4.6 THE CYTOSKELETON ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVES

FIGURE 4-23 Animated The cytoskeleton The cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells consists of networks of several types of fibers, including microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments. The cytoskeleton contributes to the shape of the cell, anchors organelles, and sometimes rapidly changes shape during cell locomotion. This fluorescent LM shows the cytoskeleton of two fibroblast cells (microtubules, yellow; microfilaments, blue; nuclei, green).

12 Describe the structure and functions of the cytoskeleton. 13 Compare cilia and flagella, and describe their functions.

Scientists watching cells growing in the laboratory see that they frequently change shape and that many types of cells move about. The cytoskeleton, a dense network of protein fibers, gives cells mechanical strength, shape, and their ability to move (FIG. 4-23). The cytoskeleton also functions in cell division and in the transport of materials within the cell. The cytoskeleton is highly dynamic and constantly changing. Its framework is made of three types of protein filaments: microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments. Both microfilaments and microtubules are formed from beadlike, globular protein subunits, which can be rapidly assembled and disassembled. Intermediate filaments are made from fibrous protein subunits and are more stable than microtubules and microfilaments.

Microtubules are hollow cylinders Microtubules, the thickest filaments of the cytoskeleton, are rigid, hollow rods about 25 nm in outside diameter and up to several micrometers in length. In addition to playing a structural role in the

cytoskeleton, these extremely adaptable structures are involved in the movement of chromosomes during cell division. They serve as tracks for several other kinds of intracellular movement and are the major structural components of cilia and flagella—specialized structures used in some cell movements. Microtubules consist of two forms of the protein tubulin: α-tubulin and β-tubulin. These proteins combine to form a dimer. (Recall from Chapter 3 that a dimer forms from the association of two simpler units, referred to as monomers.) A microtubule elongates by the addition of tubulin dimers (FIG. 4-24). Microtubules are disassembled by the removal of dimers, which are recycled to form new microtubules. Each microtubule has polarity, and its two ends are referred to as plus and minus. The plus end elongates more rapidly. Other proteins are important in microtubule function. Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are classified into two groups: structural MAPs and motor MAPs. Structural MAPs may help regulate microtubule assembly, and they cross-link microtubules to other cytoskeletal polymers. Motor MAPs use ATP energy to produce movement.

Dimer on

secretory vesicles, attach to microtubules. The microtubules serve as tracks along which organelles move to different cell locations. One motor protein, kinesin, moves organelles toward the plus end of a microtubule (FIG. 4-25). Dynein, another motor protein, transports organelles in the opposite direction, toward the minus end. This dynein movement is referred to as retrograde transport. A protein complex called dynactin is also required for retrograde transport. Dynactin is an adapter protein that links dynein to the microtubule and the organelle. At times, for example, during peroxisome transport, kinesins and dyneins may work together.

α-Tubulin Plus end β-Tubulin

Centrosomes and centrioles function in cell division Minus end

Dimers off

Nancy Kedersha

(a) Microtubules are manufactured in the cell by adding dimers of α-tubulin and β-tubulin to an end of the hollow cylinder. Notice that the cylinder has polarity. The end shown at the top of the figure is the fast-growing, or plus, end; the opposite end is the minus end. Each turn of the spiral requires 13 dimers.

50 μm

(b) Fluorescent LM showing microtubules in green. A microtubule-organizing center (pink dot) is visible beside or over most of the cell nuclei (blue).

FIGURE 4-24 Organization of microtubules

What are the mechanisms by which organelles and other materials move within the cell? Nerve cells typically have long extensions called axons that transmit signals to other nerve cells, muscle cells, or cells that produce hormones. Because of the axon’s length and accessibility and because other cells use similar transport mechanisms, researchers have used the axon as a model for studying the transport of organelles within the cell. They have found that many organelles, including mitochondria and transport and

For microtubules to act as a structural framework or participate in cell movement, they must be anchored to other parts of the cell. In nondividing cells, the minus ends of microtubules appear to be anchored in regions called microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs). In animal cells, the main MTOC is the cell center, or centrosome, a structure that is important in cell division. In many cells, including almost all animal cells, the centrosome contains two structures called centrioles (FIG. 4-26). These structures are oriented within the centrosome at right angles to each other. They are known as 9 × 3 structures because they consist of nine sets of three attached microtubules arranged to form a hollow cylinder. The centrioles are duplicated before cell division and may play a role in some types of microtubule assembly. Most plant cells and fungal cells have an MTOC but lack centrioles. This suggests that centrioles are not essential to most microtubule assembly processes and that alternative assembly mechanisms are present. The ability of microtubules to assemble and disassemble rapidly is seen during cell division, when much of the cytoskeleton disassembles (discussed in Chapter 10). At that time tubulin subunits organize into a structure called the mitotic spindle, which serves as a framework for the orderly distribution of chromosomes during cell division.

Cilia and flagella are composed of microtubules Thin, movable structures, important in cell movement, project from surfaces of many cells. If a cell has one, or only a few, of these appendages and if they are long (typically about 200 μm) relative to the size of the cell, they are called flagella. If the cell has many short (typically 2 to 10 μm long) appendages, they are called cilia (sing., cilium). Cilia and flagella help unicellular and small multicellular organisms move through a watery environment. In animals and certain plants, flagella serve as the tails of sperm cells. In animals, cilia occur on the surfaces of cells that line internal ducts of the body (such as respiratory passageways). Cells use cilia to move liquids and particles across the cell surface. Investigators have shown that cilia also serve as the cell’s antenna and play important roles in cell signaling. Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are structurally alike (but different from bacterial flagella). Each consists of a slender, cylindrical stalk covered by an extension of the plasma membrane. The core

Vesicle Kinesin receptor Kinesin ATP

ATP MTOC

Minus end

Plus end Centrioles

Microtubule does not move

FIGURE 4-25 Animated A model of a kinesin motor

of the stalk contains a group of microtubules arranged so there are nine attached pairs of microtubules around the circumference and two unpaired microtubules in the center (FIG. 4-27). This 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules is characteristic of virtually all eukaryotic cilia and flagella. The microtubules in cilia and flagella move by sliding in pairs past each other. The sliding force is generated by dynein proteins, powered by ATP. The dynein “feet” move the microtubule pairs by forming and breaking cross bridges on adjacent pairs of microtubules. Each microtubule pair “walks” along its neighbor. Flexible linking proteins between microtubule pairs prevent microtubules from sliding very far. As a result, the motor action causes the microtubules to bend, resulting in a beating motion (see Fig. 4-27e). Cilia typically move like the arms of a swimmer, alternating a power stroke in one direction with a recovery stroke in the opposite direction. They exert a force that is parallel to the cell surface. In contrast, a flagellum moves like a whip, exerting a force perpendicular to the cell surface. Each cilium or flagellum is anchored in the cell by a basal body, which has nine sets of three attached microtubules in a cylindrical array (9 × 3 structure). The basal body appears to be the organizing structure for the cilium or flagellum when it first begins to form. However, experiments have shown that as growth proceeds, the tubulin subunits are added much faster to the tips of the microtubules than to the base. Basal bodies and centrioles may be functionally related as well as structurally similar. In fact, centrioles are typically found in the cells of eukaryotic organisms that produce flagellated or ciliated cells; these include animals, certain protists, a few fungi, and a few plants. Both basal bodies and centrioles replicate themselves. Almost every vertebrate cell has a primary cilium, a single cilium on the cell surface that serves as a cellular antenna. The primary cilium has receptors on its surface that bind with specific molecules outside the cell or on surfaces of other cells. Recent research indicates that primary cilia play important roles in many signaling pathways that regulate growth and specialization of cells during embryonic development. Primary cilia also help maintain healthy tissues. Malfunction of primary cilia has been associated

B. F. King/Biological Photo Service

A kinesin molecule attaches to a specific receptor on the vesicle. Energy from ATP powers the kinesin molecule so that it changes its conformation and “walks” along the microtubule, carrying the vesicle along. (Size relationships are exaggerated for clarity.)

0.25 μm

(a) In the TEM, the centrioles are positioned at right angles to each other, near the nucleus of a nondividing animal cell.

(b) Note the 9 × 3 arrangement of microtubules. The centriole on the right has been cut transversely.

FIGURE 4-26 Centrioles

with several human disorders, including developmental defects, degeneration of the retina, and polycystic kidney disease.

Microfilaments consist of intertwined strings of actin Microfilaments, also called actin filaments, are flexible, solid fibers about 7 nm in diameter. Each microfilament consists of two intertwined polymer chains of beadlike actin molecules (FIG. 4-28). Microfilaments are linked with one another and with other proteins by linker proteins. They form bundles of fibers that provide mechanical support for various cell structures. In many cells, a network of microfilaments is visible just inside the plasma membrane, a region called the cell cortex. Microfilaments give the cell cortex a gel-like consistency compared to the

KEY POINT

A cilium consists of a 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules surrounded by the plasma membrane; dynein proteins move the microtubules by forming and breaking cross bridges on adjacent pairs of microtubules. Outer pair of microtubules Dynein Dennis Kunkel

Plasma membrane Central microtubules

0.5 μm

(d) This 3-D representation shows nine attached microtubule pairs (doublets) arranged in a cylinder, with two unattached microtubules in the center. The dynein “feet,” shown widely spaced for clarity, are actually much closer together along the longitudinal axis.

Dr. David M. Phillips/ Visuals Unlimited

Dennis Kunkel

(b) TEM of cross sections through cilia showing 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules.

0.5 μm

(a) TEM of a longitudinal section through cilia and basal bodies of the freshwater protist Paramecium. Some of the interior microtubules are visible.

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

ATP

0.5 μm Microtubular bend

(c) TEM of cross section through basal body showing 9 × 3 structure.

Linking proteins

(e) The dynein “feet” move the microtubules so that one microtubule pair slides along an adjacent pair. Flexible linking proteins between microtubule pairs prevent microtubules from sliding very far. Instead, the motor action causes the microtubules to bend, resulting in a beating motion.

Dynein Pair of microtubules

















FIGURE 4-27 Animated Structure and movement of cilia

more fluid state of the cytosol deeper inside the cell. The microfilaments in the cell cortex help determine the shape of the cell and are important in its movement. Microfilaments themselves cannot contract, but they can generate movement by rapidly assembling and disassembling. Muscle cells have two types of specialized filaments, one composed mainly of the protein myosin, and another composed mainly of the protein actin. ATP bound to myosin provides energy for muscle contraction. When ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP, myosin binds to actin and causes the microfilament to slide. When thousands of filaments slide in this way, the muscle cell shortens. Thus, ATP, actin, and myosin generate the forces that contract muscles (discussed in Chapter 40). In nonmuscle cells, actin also associates with myosin, forming contractile structures involved in various cell movements. For example, in animal cell division, contraction of a ring of actin asso-

ciated with myosin constricts the cell, forming two daughter cells (discussed in Chapter 10). Some cells change their shape quickly in response to changes in the outside environment. Amoebas, human white blood cells, and cancer cells are among the many cell types that can creep along a surface, a process that includes changes in shape. Such responses depend on external signals that affect microfilament, as well as microtubule, assembly. Actin filaments push the plasma membrane outward, forming cytoplasm-filled bulges called pseudopodia (“false feet”). The pseudopodia adhere to the surface. Contractions of microfilaments at the opposite end of the cell force the cytoplasm forward in the direction of locomotion. Microtubules, myosin, and other proteins also appear necessary for cell creeping. As mentioned earlier in the chapter, some types of cells have microvilli, projections of the plasma membrane that increase the surface area of the cell for transporting materials across the plasma

Protofilament 7 nm

Protein subunits

(a) A microfilament consists of two intertwined strings of beadlike actin molecules.

Intermediate filament

K. G. Murti/Visuals Unlimited

Nancy Kedersha

(a) Intermediate filaments are flexible rods about 10 nm in diameter. Each intermediate filament consists of components, called protofilaments, composed of coiled protein subunits.

100 μm

(b) Many bundles of microfilaments (green) are evident in this fluorescent LM of fibroblasts, cells found in connective tissue. 100 μm

FIGURE 4-28 Microfilaments

(b) Intermediate filaments are stained green in this human cell isolated from a tissue culture.

membrane. Composed of bundles of microfilaments, microvilli extend and retract as the microfilaments assemble and disassemble.

Intermediate filaments help stabilize cell shape Intermediate filaments are tough, flexible fibers about 10 nm in diameter (FIG. 4-29). They provide mechanical strength and help stabilize cell shape. These filaments are abundant in regions of a cell that may be subject to mechanical stress applied from outside the cell. Intermediate filaments prevent the cell from stretching excessively in response to outside forces. Certain proteins cross-link intermediate filaments with other types of filaments and mediate interactions between them. All eukaryotic cells have microtubules and microfilaments, but only some animal groups, including vertebrates, are known to have intermediate filaments. Even when present, intermediate filaments vary widely in protein composition and size among different cell types and different organisms. Examples of intermediate filaments are the keratins found in the epithelial cells of vertebrate skin and neurofilaments found in vertebrate nerve cells. Certain mutations in genes coding for intermediate filaments weaken the cell and are associated with several diseases. For example, in the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, or Lou Gehrig’s disease), abnormal neurofilaments have been identified in nerve cells that control muscles. This condition

FIGURE 4-29 Intermediate filaments

interferes with normal transport of materials in the nerve cells and leads to degeneration of the cells. The resulting loss of muscle function is typically fatal.

Review ■ ■



What are the main functions of the cytoskeleton? How are microfilaments and microtubules similar? How are they different? How are cilia and flagella similar? How are they different?

4.7 CELL COVERINGS ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE 14 Describe the glycocalyx, extracellular matrix, and cell wall.

Many cells are surrounded by a glycocalyx, or cell coat, formed by polysaccharide side chains of proteins and lipids that are part of the plasma membrane. The glycocalyx protects the cell and may help keep other cells at a distance. Certain molecules of the glycocalyx

Biophoto Associates

enable cells to recognize one another, to make contact, and in some cases to form adhesive or communicating associations (discussed in Chapter 5). Other molecules of the cell coat contribute to the mechanical strength of Collagen multicellular tissues. Many animal cells are also surrounded by an extraFibronectins cellular matrix (ECM), which they secrete. The ECM Extracellular consists of a gel of carbohydrates and fibrous proteins matrix (FIG. 4-30). The main structural protein in the ECM is Integrin collagen, a protein that forms very tough fibers (see Figure 3-22b). Certain glycoproteins of the ECM, called Intermediate filament fibronectins, organize the matrix and help cells attach Plasma to it. Fibronectins bind to protein receptors that extend membrane Microtubules from the plasma membrane. Integrins are receptor proteins in the plasma memCytosol brane. They maintain adhesion between the ECM and the intermediate filaments and microfilaments inside the cell. These proteins activate many cell signaling pathways FIGURE 4-30 The extracellular matrix (ECM) that communicate information from the ECM, and they Fibronectins, glycoproteins of the ECM, bind to integrins and other receptors in the control signals inside the cell that regulate the differentiaplasma membrane. tion and survival of the cell. When cells are not appropriately anchored, apoptosis is initiated. Integrins are also important in organizing the cytoskeleton so that cells assume a definite shape. The cells of most bacteria, archaea, fungi, and plant cells are surrounded by a cell wall. Plant cells have thick cell walls that conCell 1 tain tiny fibers composed of the polysaccharide cellulose (see Fig. 3-10). Other polysaccharides in the plant cell wall form cross links between the bundles of cellulose fibers. Cell walls provide Middle structural support, protect plant cells from disease-causing organlamella isms, and keep excess water out of cells so they do not burst. A growing plant cell secretes a thin, flexible primary cell wall. Primary cell wall As the cell grows, the primary cell wall increases in size (FIG. 4-31). After the cell stops growing, either new wall material is secreted that Multiple layers of thickens and solidifies the primary wall, or multiple layers of a secsecondary cell wall ondary cell wall with a different chemical composition are formed between the primary wall and the plasma membrane. Wood is Cell 2 made mainly of secondary cell walls. The middle lamella, a layer of gluelike polysaccharides called pectins, lies between the primary cell walls of adjacent cells. The middle lamella causes the cells to adhere tightly to one another. (For more information on plant cell walls, 2.5 μm see the discussion of the ground tissue system in Chapter 33.)

Review What are the functions of the glycocalyx? How do the functions of fibronectins and integrins differ? What is the main component of plant cell walls? How are plant cell walls formed?

■ ■ ■ ■

■ ■

FIGURE 4-31 Animated Plant cell walls The cell walls of two adjacent plant cells are labeled in this TEM. The cells are cemented together by the middle lamella, a layer of gluelike polysaccharides called pectins. A growing plant cell first secretes a thin primary wall that is flexible and can stretch as the cell grows. The thicker layers of the secondary wall are secreted inside the primary wall after the cell stops elongating.

S U M M A RY: F O C US O N L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S

4.1 (page 75) 1 Describe the cell theory and relate it to the evolution of life. ■

The cell theory holds that (1) cells are the basic living units of organization and function in all organisms and (2) all cells come from

other cells. It explains that the ancestry of all the cells alive today can be traced back to ancient times. Evidence that all living cells have evolved from a common ancestor is supported by the basic similarities in their structures and in their molecular composition.

Test yourself on the structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells by clicking on the interaction in CengageNOW.

2 Summarize the relationship between cell organization and homeostasis. ■ The organization of cells is important in maintaining homeostasis, an appropriate internal environment. ■ Every cell is surrounded by a plasma membrane that separates it from its external environment. The plasma membrane allows the cell to maintain internal conditions that may be very different from those of the outer environment. The plasma membrane also allows the cell to exchange materials with its outer environment. Cells have many organelles, internal structures that carry out specific functions that help maintain homeostasis. 3 Explain the relationship between cell size and homeostasis. ■ A critical factor in determining cell size is the ratio of the plasma membrane (surface area) to the cell’s volume. The plasma membrane must be large enough relative to the cell volume to regulate the passage of materials into and out of the cell. For this reason, most cells are microscopic. ■ Cell size and shape are related to function and are limited by the need to maintain homeostasis.

6 Describe three functions of cell membranes. ■

■ ■

Learn more about the endomembrane system by clicking on the figure in CengageNOW.

4.4 (page 86) 7 Describe the structure and functions of the nucleus. ■

4.2 (page 77) 4 Describe methods that biologists use to study cells, including microscopy and cell fractionation. Biologists use light microscopes, electron microscopes, and a variety of chemical methods to study cells and learn about cell structure. The electron microscope has superior resolving power, enabling investigators to see details of cell structures not observable with conventional microscopes. ■ Cell biologists use the technique of cell fractionation for purifying organelles to gain information about the function of cell structures.





4.3 (page 81) 5 Compare and contrast the general characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and contrast plant and animal cells. Prokaryotic cells are enclosed by a plasma membrane but have little or no internal membrane organization. They have a nuclear area rather than a membrane-enclosed nucleus. Prokaryotic cells typically have a cell wall and ribosomes and may have propellerlike flagella. ■ Eukaryotic cells have a membrane-enclosed nucleus, and their cytoplasm contains a variety of organelles; the fluid component of the cytoplasm is the cytosol. Plant cells differ from animal cells in that plant cells have rigid cell ■ walls, plastids, and large vacuoles, which are important in plant growth and development. Cells of most plants lack centrioles. ■

Membranes divide the eukaryotic cell into compartments, allowing it to conduct specialized activities within small areas of the cytoplasm, concentrate reactants, and organize metabolic reactions. Small membrane-enclosed sacs, called vesicles, transport materials between compartments. Membranes are important in energy storage and conversion. A system of interacting membranes forms the endomembrane system.



The nucleus, the control center of the eukaryotic cell, contains genetic information coded in DNA. The nucleus is bounded by a nuclear envelope, consisting of a double membrane perforated with nuclear pores that communicate with the cytoplasm. DNA in the nucleus associates with protein to form chromatin, which is organized into chromosomes. During cell division, the chromosomes condense and become visible as threadlike structures. The nucleolus is a region in the nucleus that is the site of ribosomal RNA synthesis and ribosome assembly.

4.5 (page 89) 8 Distinguish between smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum in terms of both structure and function. ■ The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a network of folded internal membranes in the cytosol. Smooth ER is the site of lipid synthesis, calcium ion storage, and detoxifying enzymes. ■ Rough ER is studded along its outer surface with ribosomes that manufacture polypeptides. Polypeptides synthesized on rough ER may be moved into the ER lumen, where they are assembled into proteins and modified by the addition of a carbohydrate or lipid. These proteins may then be transferred to other compartments within the cell by small transport vesicles that bud off from the ER membrane. 9 Trace the path of proteins synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum as they are processed, modified, and sorted by the Golgi complex and then transported to specific destinations. ■ The Golgi complex consists of stacks of flattened membranous sacs called cisternae that process, sort, and modify proteins synthesized on the ER. The Golgi complex also manufactures lysosomes. ■ Glycoproteins are transported from the ER to the cis face of the Golgi complex by transport vesicles, which are formed by membrane budding. The Golgi complex modifies carbohydrates and lipids that were added to proteins by the ER and packages them in vesicles. ■ Glycoproteins exit the Golgi at its trans face. The Golgi routes some proteins to the plasma membrane for export from the cell. Others are transported to lysosomes or other organelles within the cytoplasm. 10 Describe the functions of lysosomes, vacuoles, and peroxisomes. ■ Lysosomes contain enzymes that break down worn-out cell structures, bacteria, and debris taken into cells. Vacuoles store materials, water, and wastes. They maintain hydro■ static pressure in plant cells. ■ Peroxisomes are important in lipid metabolism and detoxify harmful compounds such as ethanol. They produce hydrogen peroxide but contain the enzyme catalase, which degrades this toxic compound.

11 Compare the functions of mitochondria and chloroplasts, and discuss

4.6 (page 97)

ATP synthesis by each of these organelles. ■ Mitochondria, organelles enclosed by a double membrane, are the sites of aerobic respiration. The inner membrane is folded, forming cristae that increase its surface area. ■ The cristae and the compartment enclosed by the inner membrane, the matrix, contain enzymes for the reactions of aerobic respiration. During aerobic respiration, nutrients are broken down in the presence of oxygen. Energy captured from nutrients is packaged in ATP, and carbon dioxide and water are produced as byproducts. Outer mitochondrial membrane

Inner mitochondrial membrane

12 Describe the structure and functions of the cytoskeleton. ■





Bloom and Fawcett Textbook of Histology



Matrix Cristae

0.25 μm

Learn more about the cytoskeleton by clicking on the figure in CengageNOW.

13 Compare cilia and flagella, and describe their functions. ■

■ ■





Plastids are organelles that produce and store food in the cells of plants and algae. Chloroplasts are plastids that carry out photosynthesis. The inner membrane of the chloroplast encloses a fluid-filled space, the stroma. Grana, stacks of interconnected disclike membranous sacs called thylakoids, are suspended in the stroma. During photosynthesis, chlorophyll, the green pigment found in the thylakoid membranes, traps light energy. This energy is converted to chemical energy in ATP and used to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water.

Cilia and flagella are thin, movable structures that project from the cell surface and function in movement. Each consists of a 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules, and each is anchored in the cell by a basal body that has a 9 × 3 organization of microtubules. Cilia are short, and flagella are long.

4.7 (page 101) 14 Describe the glycocalyx, extracellular matrix, and cell wall. ■



The cytoskeleton is a dynamic internal framework made of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments. The cytoskeleton provides structural support and functions in various types of cell movement, including transport of materials in the cell. Microtubules are hollow cylinders assembled from subunits of the protein tubulin. In cells that are not dividing, the minus ends of microtubules are anchored in microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs). The main MTOC of animal cells is the centrosome, which usually contains two centrioles. Each centriole has a 9 × 3 arrangement of microtubules. Microfilaments, or actin filaments, formed from subunits of the protein actin, are important in cell movement. Intermediate filaments strengthen the cytoskeleton and stabilize cell shape.





Most cells are surrounded by a glycocalyx, or cell coat, formed by polysaccharides extending from the plasma membrane. Many animal cells are also surrounded by an extracellular matrix (ECM) consisting of carbohydrates and protein. Fibronectins are glycoproteins of the ECM that bind to integrins, receptor proteins in the plasma membrane. Cells of most bacteria, archaea, fungi, and plant cells are surrounded by a cell wall made mainly of carbohydrates. Plant cells secrete cellulose and other polysaccharides that form rigid cell walls.

T E S T YO U R U N D E R S TA N D I N G 1. The ability of a microscope to reveal fine detail is known as (a) magnification (b) resolving power (c) cell fractionation (d) transmission microscopy (e) phase contrast

5. Which of the following is/are most closely associated with protein synthesis? (a) ribosomes (b) smooth ER (c) mitochondria (d) microfilaments (e) lysosomes

2. A plasma membrane is characteristic of (a) all cells (b) prokaryotic cells only (c) eukaryotic cells only (d) animal cells only (e) eukaryotic cells except plant cells

6. Which of the following is/are most closely associated with the breakdown of ingested material? (a) ribosomes (b) smooth ER (c) mitochondria (d) microfilaments (e) lysosomes

3. Detailed information about the shape and external features of a specimen can best be obtained by using a (a) differential centrifuge (b) fluorescence microscope (c) transmission electron microscope (d) scanning electron microscope (e) light microscope

7. Which of the following are most closely associated with photosynthesis? (a) basal bodies (b) smooth ER (c) cristae (d) thylakoids (e) MTOCs

4. Which of the following structures would not be found in prokaryotic cells? (a) cell wall (b) ribosomes (c) nuclear area (d) nucleus (e) propeller-like flagellum

8. Use the choices of numbered sequences to select the sequence that most accurately describes information flow in the eukaryotic cell. 1. DNA in nucleus 2. RNA 3. mitochondria 4. protein synthesis 5. ribosomes (a) 1, 2, 5, 4 (b) 3, 2, 5, 1 (c) 5, 2, 3, 1 (d) 4, 3, 2, 1 (e) 1, 2, 3, 4

9. Use the choices of numbered sequences to select the sequence that most accurately describes glycoprotein processing in the eukaryotic cell. 1. ER 2. ribosomes 3. cis face of Golgi 4. trans face of Golgi 5. transport vesicle 6. grana (a) 1, 6, 2, 3, 4 (b) 2, 1, 3, 4, 5 (c) 1, 2, 4, 3, 5 (d) 2, 1, 4, 3, 5 (e) 2, 1, 4, 5, 1 10. Which of the following organelles contain small amounts of DNA and convert energy? (a) microfilaments and microtubules

(b) lysosomes and peroxisomes (c) ER and ribosomes (d) nucleus and ribosomes (e) mitochondria and chloroplasts 11. Which of the following function(s) in cell movement? (a) microtubules (b) nucleolus (c) grana (d) smooth ER (e) rough ER 12. Label the diagrams of the animal and plant cells. How is the structure of each organelle related to its function? Use Figures 4-9 and 4-10 to check your answers.

CRITICAL THINKING 1. Why does a eukaryotic cell need both membranous organelles and fibrous cytoskeletal components? 2. Describe a specific example of the correlation between cell structure and function. (Hint: Think of mitochondrial structure.) 3. The Acetabularia experiments described in this chapter suggest that DNA is much more stable in the cell than is messenger RNA. Is this advantageous or disadvantageous to the cell? Why? Acetabularia continues to live for a few days after its nucleus is removed. How can you explain this? 4. EVOLUTION LINK. What are the implications of the cell theory for the evolution of organisms?

5. EVOLUTION LINK. Biologists use similarities in cells to trace the evolutionary history of various groups of organisms. Explain their rationale. What do such similarities in cell structure and function tell biologists about the common origin of organisms? Explain. Additional questions are available in CengageNOW at www.cengage.com/ login.

5

Biological Membranes

Nancy Kedersha

Cadherins. The human skin cells shown in this LM were grown in culture and stained with fluorescent antibodies. Cadherins, a group of membrane proteins, are seen as green belts around each cell in this sheet of cells. The nuclei appear as blue spheres; myosin in the cells appears red.

KEY CONCEPTS 5.1 Biological membranes are selectively permeable membranes that help maintain homeostasis in the cell; each cell membrane consists of a fluid bilayer composed of phospholipids in which a variety of proteins are embedded. 5.2 Membrane proteins, and thus membranes, have many

T

he evolution of biological membranes that separate the cell from its external environment was an essential step in the origin of life. Later,

these membranes made the evolution of complex cells possible. The extensive internal membranes of eukaryotic cells form multiple compartments with unique environments that allow highly specialized activities to take place. Because membrane proteins are critical molecules in cell membrane

functions, including transport of materials, enzymatic activity, transfer of information, and recognition of other cells.

activities, they are a major focus of cell membrane research. Some pro-

5.3 Transport proteins move ions and small polar mol-

teins associated with the plasma membrane transport materials, whereas

ecules through cell membranes.

others transmit information or serve as enzymes. Still others, known as

5.4 Many ions and small molecules move through biological membranes by diffusion, the net movement of particles from a region of higher to a region of lower concentrations.

cell adhesion molecules, are important in connecting cells to one another

5.5 Because a cell requires many substances in higher concentrations than their concentrations outside the cell, substances must be actively transported against a concentration gradient; active transport requires a direct expenditure of energy.

to form tissues. The principal cell adhesion molecules in vertebrates and in many invertebrates are cadherins. The genes that code cadherins are found in choanoflagellates, the closest single-celled relatives of animals. These molecules were probably important in the evolution of animals because they provided a means for cells to adhere to one another and to communicate. Cadherins are

5.6 Cells eject products by exocytosis and import materi-

responsible for adhesion between cells that form multicellular sheets.

als by endocytosis; both processes require cells to expend energy.

For example, these membrane proteins form cell junctions important in

5.7 Cells in close contact may form specialized junctions with one another.

maintaining the structure of the epithelium that makes up human skin (see photograph). Cadherins are also important in signaling among cells. An absence of these membrane proteins is associated with the invasiveness of some malignant tumors. In Chapter 4, we discussed a variety of cell organelles and how they interact to perform cell activities. In this chapter, we focus on the structure and functions of the plasma membrane that surrounds the cell, and on the biological membranes that surround many organelles. We first consider what is known about the composition and structure of biological membranes. Then we provide an overview of the many vital functions of cell membranes, including transport of materials and information transfer. We discuss how cells transport various materials, from ions to complex molecules and even bacteria, across membranes. Finally, we examine specialized structures that allow membranes of different cells to interact. Although much of our discussion centers on the structure and functions of plasma membranes, many of the concepts apply to other cell membranes.

5.1 THE STRUCTURE OF BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1 2 3 4

Evaluate the importance of membranes to the homeostasis of the cell, emphasizing their various functions. Describe the fluid mosaic model of cell membrane structure. Relate properties of the lipid bilayer to properties and functions of cell membranes. Describe the ways that membrane proteins associate with the lipid bilayer.

To carry out the many chemical reactions necessary to sustain life, the cell must maintain an appropriate internal environment. Every cell is surrounded by a plasma membrane that physically separates it from the outside world and defines it as a distinct entity. By regulating passage of materials into and out of the cell, the plasma membrane helps maintain a life-supporting internal environment. As we discussed in Chapter 4, eukaryotic cells are characterized by numerous organelles that are surrounded by membranes. Some of these organelles—including the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi complex, lysosomes, vesicles, and vacuoles—form the endomembrane system, which extends throughout the cell. Biological membranes are complex, dynamic structures made of lipid and protein molecules that are in constant motion. The properties of membranes allow them to perform many vital functions. They regulate the passage of materials, divide the cell into compartments, serve as surfaces for chemical reactions, adhere to and communicate with other cells, and transmit signals between the environment and the interior of the cell. Membranes are also an essential part of energy transfer and storage systems. How do the properties of cell membranes enable the cell to carry on such varied functions?

Long before the development of the electron microscope, scientists knew that membranes consist of both lipids and proteins. Work by researchers in the 1920s and 1930s had provided clues that the core of cell membranes consists of lipids, mostly phospholipids (see Chapter 3).

Phospholipids form bilayers in water Phospholipids are primarily responsible for the physical properties of biological membranes, because certain phospholipids have unique attributes, including features that allow them to form bilayered structures. A phospholipid contains two fatty acid chains linked to two of the three carbons of a glycerol molecule (see Fig. 3-13). The fatty acid chains make up the nonpolar, hydrophobic (“water-fearing”) portion of the phospholipid. Bonded to the third carbon of the glycerol is a negatively charged, hydrophilic (“water-loving”) phosphate group, which in turn is linked to a polar, hydrophilic organic group. Molecules of this type, which have distinct hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions, are called amphipathic molecules. All lipids that make up the core of biological membranes have amphipathic characteristics. Because one end of each phospholipid associates freely with water and the opposite end does not, the most stable orientation for them to assume in water results in the formation of a bilayer structure (FIG. 5-1a). This arrangement allows the hydrophilic heads of the phospholipids to be in contact with the aqueous medium while their oily tails, the hydrophobic fatty acid chains, are buried in the interior of the structure away from the water molecules. Amphipathic properties alone do not predict the ability of lipids to associate as a bilayer. Shape is also important. Phospholipids tend to have uniform widths; their roughly cylindrical shapes, together with their amphipathic properties, are responsible for bilayer formation. In summary, phospholipids form bilayers because the molecules have (1) two distinct regions, one strongly hydrophobic and the other strongly hydrophilic (making them strongly amphipathic) and (2) cylindrical shapes that allow them to associate with water most easily as a bilayer.

Hydrophilic heads

Hydrophobic tails

(a) Phospholipids in water. Phospholipids associate as bilayers in water because they are roughly cylindrical amphipathic molecules. The hydrophobic fatty acid chains are not exposed to water, whereas the hydrophilic phospholipid heads are in contact with water.

(b) Detergent in water. Detergent molecules are roughly cone-shaped amphipathic molecules that associate in water as spherical structures.

FIGURE 5-1 Animated Properties of lipids in water

KEY POINT

The Davson–Danielli model was the accepted view until about 1970 when advances in biology and chemistry led to new findings about biological membranes that were incompatible with this model. The fluid mosaic model is supported by a large body of data. Membrane proteins

Hydrophilic region of protein

Hydrophobic region of protein

Phospholipid bilayer

Phospholipid bilayer

Membrane proteins

(a) The Davson–Danielli model. According to this model, the membrane is a sandwich of phospholipids spread between two layers of protein. Although accepted for many years, this model was shown to be incorrect.

Integral (transmembrane) protein

Peripheral protein

(b) Fluid mosaic model. According to this model, a cell membrane is a fluid lipid bilayer with a constantly changing “mosaic pattern“ of associated proteins.

FIGURE 5-2 Two models of membrane structure

The fluid mosaic model explains membrane structure By examining the plasma membrane of mammalian red blood cells and comparing their surface area with the total number of lipid molecules per cell, early investigators calculated that the membrane is no more than two phospholipid molecules thick. In 1935, these findings, together with other data, led Hugh Davson and James Danielli, working at London’s University College, to propose a model in which they envisioned a membrane as a kind of “sandwich” consisting of a lipid bilayer (a double layer of lipid) between two protein layers (FIG. 5-2a). This useful model had a great influence on the direction of membrane research for more than 20 years. Models are important in the scientific process; good ones not only explain the available data but are testable. Scientists use models to help them develop hypotheses that can be tested experimentally (see Chapter 1). With the development of the electron microscope in the 1950s, cell biologists were able to see the plasma membrane for the first time. One of their most striking observations was how uniform and thin the membranes are. The plasma membrane is no more than 10 nm thick. The electron microscope revealed a three-

layered structure, something like a railroad track, with two dark layers separated by a lighter layer (FIG. 5-3). Their findings seemed to support the protein–lipid–protein sandwich model. During the 1960s, a paradox emerged regarding the arrangement of the proteins. Biologists assumed membrane proteins were uniform and had shapes that would allow them to lie like thin sheets on the membrane surface. But when purified by cell fractionation, the proteins were far from uniform; in fact, they varied widely in composition and size. Some proteins are quite large. How could they fit within a surface layer of a membrane less than 10 nm thick? Cell interior

Plasma membrane

Omikron/Photo Researchers, Inc.

Do you know why detergents remove grease from your hands or from dirty dishes? Many common detergents are amphipathic molecules, each containing a single hydrocarbon chain (like a fatty acid) at one end and a hydrophilic region at the other. These molecules are roughly cone-shaped, with the hydrophilic end forming the broad base and the hydrocarbon tail leading to the point. Because of their shapes, these molecules do not associate as bilayers but instead tend to form spherical structures in water (FIG. 5-1b). Detergents can “solubilize” oil because the oil molecules associate with the hydrophobic interiors of the spheres.

Outside cell

0.1 μm

FIGURE 5-3 TEM of the plasma membrane of a mammalian red blood cell The plasma membrane separates the cytosol (darker region) from the external environment (lighter region). The hydrophilic heads of the phospholipids are the parallel dark lines, and the hydrophobic tails are the light zone between them.

At first, some researchers tried to answer this question by modifyLateral ing the model with the hypothesis that the proteins on the memmovement only brane surfaces were a flattened, extended form, perhaps a β-pleated sheet (see Fig. 3-20b). Other cell biologists found that instead of having sheetlike structures, many membrane proteins are rounded, or globular. Studies of many membrane proteins showed that one region (or Time domain) of the molecule could always be found on one side of the bilayer, whereas another part of the protein might be located on the opposite side. Rather than form a thin surface layer, many membrane proteins extended completely through the lipid bilayer. FIGURE 5-4 Membrane fluidity Thus, the evidence suggested that membranes contain different The ordered arrangement of phospholipid molecules makes the cell membrane a liquid crystal. The hydrocarbon chains are in constant motion, types of proteins of different shapes and sizes that are associated allowing each molecule to move laterally on the same side of the bilayer. with the bilayer in a mosaic pattern. In 1972, S. Jonathan Singer and Garth Nicolson of the Unithem to move along the plane of the membrane (as long as they versity of California at San Diego proposed a model of membrane are not anchored in some way). David Frye and Michael Edidin structure that represented a synthesis of the known properties of elegantly demonstrated this in 1970. They conducted experiments biological membranes. According to their fluid mosaic model, in which they followed the movement of membrane proteins on a cell membrane consists of a fluid bilayer of phospholipid molthe surface of two cells that had been joined (FIG. 5-5). When the ecules in which the proteins are embedded or otherwise associplasma membranes of a mouse cell and a human cell are fused, ated, much like the tiles in a mosaic picture. This mosaic pattern within minutes at least some of the membrane proteins from each is not static, however, because the positions of many of the proteins are constantly changing as they move about like icebergs in a fluid sea of phospholipids. This model has KEY EXPERIMENT provided great impetus to research; QUESTION: Do proteins embedded in a biological membrane move about? it has been repeatedly tested and has been shown to accurately predict HYPOTHESIS: Proteins are able to move laterally in the plasma membrane. the properties of many kinds of cell EXPERIMENT: Larry Frye and Michael Edidin labeled membrane proteins of mouse and human cells membranes. FIGURE 5-2b depicts the using different-colored fluorescent dyes to distinguish between them. Then they fused mouse and huplasma membrane of a eukaryotic cell man cells to produce hybrid cells. according to the fluid mosaic model; Human cell Mouse cell prokaryotic plasma membranes are discussed in Chapter 25.

Biological membranes are two-dimensional fluids An important physical property of phospholipid bilayers is that they behave like liquid crystals. The bilayers are crystal-like in that the lipid molecules form an ordered array with the heads on the outside and fatty acid chains on the inside; they are liquid-like in that despite the orderly arrangement of the molecules, their hydrocarbon chains are in constant motion. Thus, molecules are free to rotate and can move laterally within their single layer (FIG. 5-4). Such movement gives the bilayer the property of a two-dimensional fluid. Under normal conditions a single phospholipid molecule can travel laterally across the surface of a eukaryotic cell in seconds. The fluid qualities of lipid bilayers also allow molecules embedded in

1

Labeled membrane proteins. Membrane proteins of mouse cells and human cells were labeled with fluorescent dye markers in two different colors.

2

Human-mouse hybrid cell forming. When plasma membranes of mouse cell and human cell were fused, mouse proteins migrated to the human side and human proteins to the mouse side.

3

Proteins randomly distributed. After a short time, mouse and human proteins became randomly distributed through the membrane.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After a brief period of incubation, mouse and human cells intermixed over the surface of the hybrid cells. After about 40 minutes, the proteins of each species had become randomly distributed through the entire hybrid plasma membrane. This experiment demonstrated that proteins in the plasma membrane do move.

FIGURE 5-5 Animated Frye and Edidin’s experiment Source: Frye, L. D., and M. Edidin. “The rapid intermixing of cell surface antigens after formation of mouse-human heterokaryons.” Journal of Cell Science, Vol. 7, 319–335, 1970.

cell migrate and become randomly distributed over the single, continuous plasma membrane that surrounds the joined cells. Frye and Edidin showed that the fluidity of the lipids in the membrane allows many of the proteins to move, producing an ever-changing configuration. Occasionally, with the help of enzymes in the cell membrane, phospholipid molecules flip-flop from one layer to the other. For a membrane to function properly, its lipids must be in a state of optimal fluidity. The membrane’s structure is weakened if its lipids are too fluid. However, many membrane functions, such as the transport of certain substances, are inhibited or cease if the lipid bilayer is too rigid. At normal temperatures, cell membranes are fluid, but at low temperatures the motion of the fatty acid chains is slowed. If the temperature decreases to a critical point, the membrane is converted to a more solid gel state.

KEY POINT

Certain properties of membrane lipids have significant effects on the fluidity of the bilayer. Recall from Chapter 3 that molecules are free to rotate around single carbon-to-carbon covalent bonds. Because most of the bonds in hydrocarbon chains are single bonds, the chains themselves twist more and more rapidly as the temperature rises. The fluid state of the membrane depends on its component lipids. You have probably noticed that when melted butter is left at room temperature it solidifies. Vegetable oils, however, remain liquid at room temperature. Recall from our discussion of lipids in Chapter 3 that animal fats such as butter are high in saturated fatty acids that lack double bonds. In contrast, a vegetable oil may be polyunsaturated, with most of its fatty acid chains having two or more double bonds. At each double bond there is a bend in the molecule that prevents the hydrocarbon chains from coming

According to the fluid mosaic model, a cell membrane is composed of a fluid bilayer of phospholipids in which proteins move about like icebergs in a sea.

Carbohydrate chains

Glycoprotein Carbohydrate chain

Extracellular fluid Hydrophobic

Hydrophilic

Glycolipid

Hydrophobic tails Cholesterol Hydrophilic

α-helix Peripheral protein

Integral proteins

Cytosol

FIGURE 5-6 Detailed structure of the plasma membrane Although the lipid bilayer consists mainly of phospholipids, other lipids, such as cholesterol and glycolipids, are present. Peripheral proteins are loosely associated with the bilayer, whereas integral proteins are tightly bound. The integral proteins shown here are transmembrane proteins that extend through the bilayer. They have hydrophilic regions on both

sides of the bilayer, connected by a membrane-spanning a-helix. Glycolipids (carbohydrates attached to lipids) and glycoproteins (carbohydrates attached to proteins) are exposed on the extracellular surface; they play roles in cell recognition and adhesion to other cells.

close together and interacting through van der Waals interactions. In this way, unsaturated fats lower the temperature at which oil or membrane lipids solidify. Many organisms have regulatory mechanisms for maintaining cell membranes in an optimally fluid state. Some organisms compensate for temperature changes by altering the fatty acid content of their membrane lipids. When the outside temperature is cold, the membrane lipids contain relatively high proportions of unsaturated fatty acids. Some membrane lipids stabilize membrane fluidity within certain limits. One such “fluidity buffer” is cholesterol, a steroid found in animal cell membranes. A cholesterol molecule is largely hydrophobic but is slightly amphipathic because of the presence of a single hydroxyl group (see Fig. 3-15a). This hydroxyl group associates with the hydrophilic heads of the phospholipids; the hydrophobic remainder of the cholesterol molecule fits between the fatty acid hydrocarbon chains (FIG. 5-6). At low temperatures cholesterol molecules act as “spacers” between the hydrocarbon chains, restricting van der Waals interactions that would promote solidifying. Cholesterol also helps prevent the membrane from becoming weakened or unstable at higher temperatures. The reason is that the cholesterol molecules interact strongly with the portions of the hydrocarbon chains closest to the phospholipid head. This interaction restricts motion in these regions. Plant cells have steroids other than cholesterol that carry out similar functions.

Biological membranes fuse and form closed vesicles Lipid bilayers, particularly those in the liquid-crystalline state, have additional important physical properties. Bilayers tend to resist forming free ends; as a result, they are self-sealing and under most conditions spontaneously round up to form closed vesicles.

Lipid bilayers are also flexible, allowing cell membranes to change shape without breaking. Under appropriate conditions lipid bilayers fuse with other bilayers. Membrane fusion is an important cell process. When a vesicle fuses with another membrane, both membrane bilayers and their compartments become continuous. Various transport vesicles form from, and also merge with, membranes of the ER and Golgi complex, facilitating the transfer of materials from one compartment to another. A vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane when a product is secreted from the cell.

Membrane proteins include integral and peripheral proteins The two major classes of membrane proteins, integral proteins and peripheral proteins, are defined by how tightly they are associated with the lipid bilayer (FIG. 5-7). Integral membrane proteins are firmly bound to the membrane. Cell biologists usually can release them only by disrupting the bilayer with detergents. These proteins are amphipathic. Their hydrophilic regions extend out of the cell or into the cytoplasm, whereas their hydrophobic regions interact with the fatty acid tails of the membrane phospholipids. Some integral proteins do not extend all the way through the membrane. Many others, called transmembrane proteins, extend completely through the membrane. Some span the membrane only once, whereas others wind back and forth as many as 24 times. The most common kind of transmembrane protein is an α-helix (see Chapter 3) with hydrophobic amino acid side chains projecting out from the helix into the hydrophobic region of the lipid bilayer. Some proteins span the membrane in the form of rolled-up β-pleated sheets. These protein formations are barrel-shaped and form pores through which water and other substances can pass. Peripheral membrane proteins are not embedded in the lipid bilayer. They are located on the inner or outer surface of the plasma

Outside cell

Lipid bilayer Cytosol

(a) A single α-helix

(b) A protein consisting of several α-helices

(c) A rolledup β-pleated sheet

(d) Peripheral protein bound to an integral protein

FIGURE 5-7 Animated Membrane proteins Three transmembrane proteins are shown in (a), (b), and (c). The rolled-up b-pleated sheet shown in (c) forms a pore through the membrane. Water molecules and ions pass through specific types of pores (d, e). Peripheral proteins are bound to integral proteins by noncovalent interactions.

(e) Peripheral protein bound to an integral protein

RESEARCH METHOD Why Is It Used?

The freeze-fracture method is used to split the lipid bilayer apart so that its components can be analyzed.

How Is It Done? Knife edge

Ice

Cell

1

Cells are frozen in liquid nitrogen and then fractured with the edge of a knife.

2

The fracture often splits the membrane along the hydrophobic interior of the lipid bilayer.

Extracellular fluid

Bloom and Fawcett Textbook of Histology

E-face

E-face P-face

P-face Cytosol 0.1 μm

3

Two complementary fracture faces result. The inner half-membrane presents the P-face (or protoplasmic face), and the outer half-membrane presents the E-face (or external face). Integral proteins, including transmembrane proteins, are inserted through the lipid bilayer.

FIGURE 5-8 Freeze-fracture method

4

An electron microscope is used to view the interior surfaces (faces) of the two layers. In this TEM the particles (which appear as bumps) represent large integral proteins.

membrane, usually bound to exposed regions of integral proteins by noncovalent interactions. Peripheral proteins can be easily removed from the membrane without disrupting the structure of the bilayer.

Proteins are oriented asymmetrically across the bilayer One of the most remarkable demonstrations that proteins are actually embedded in the lipid bilayer comes from freeze–fracture electron microscopy, a technique that splits the membrane into halves. The researcher can literally see the two halves of the membrane from “inside out.” When cell biologists examine membranes in this way, they observe numerous particles on the fracture faces (FIG. 5-8). The particles are clearly integral membrane proteins, because researchers never see them in freeze-fractured artificial lipid bilayers. These findings profoundly influenced Singer and Nicolson in developing the fluid mosaic model. Membrane protein molecules are asymmetrically oriented. The asymmetry is produced by the highly specific way in which each

KEY POINT

protein is inserted into the bilayer. Membrane proteins that will become part of the inner surface of the plasma membrane are manufactured by free ribosomes and move to the membrane through the cytoplasm. Membrane proteins that will be associated with the cell’s outer surface are manufactured like proteins destined to be exported from the cell. As discussed in Chapter 4, proteins destined for the cell’s outer surface are initially manufactured by ribosomes on the rough ER. They pass through the ER membrane into the ER lumen, where sugars are added, making them glycoproteins. However, only a part of each protein passes through the ER membrane, so each completed protein has some regions that are located in the ER lumen and other regions that remain in the cytosol. Enzymes that attach the sugars to certain amino acids on the protein are found only in the lumen of the ER. Thus, carbohydrates can be added only to the parts of proteins located in that compartment. In FIGURE 5-9, follow from top to bottom the vesicle budding and membrane fusion events that are part of the transport process. You can see that the same region of the protein that protruded into

The orientation of a protein in the plasma membrane is determined by the pathway of its synthesis and transport.

Nucleus

Rough ER

Transport vesicle

1

Sugars are added to protein in lumen of rough ER.

2

Glycoprotein is transported to Golgi where it is further modified.

Golgi complex Plasma membrane of cell

Membrane of Golgi complex

Transport vesicle 3

Transport vesicle delivers glycoprotein to plasma membrane. Plasma membrane

Carbohydrate chain

Transport vesicle fuses with plasma membrane. Carbohydrate chain extends outward. 4

FIGURE 5-9 Synthesis and orientation of a membrane protein The surface of the rough ER membrane that faces the lumen of the rough ER also faces the lumen of the Golgi complex and vesicles. However, when a vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane, the inner surface of the vesicle becomes the extracellular surface of the plasma membrane.

the ER lumen is also transported to the lumen of the Golgi complex. There additional enzymes further modify the carbohydrate chains. Within the Golgi complex, the glycoprotein is sorted and directed to the plasma membrane. The modified region of the protein remains inside the membrane compartment of a transport vesicle as it buds from the Golgi complex. Note that when the transport vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane, the inside layer of the transport vesicle becomes the outside layer of the plasma membrane. The carbohydrate chain extends to the exterior of the cell surface. In summary, this is the sequence: sugar added to protein in ER lumen ¡ glycoprotein transported to Golgi complex, where it is further modified ¡ glycoprotein transported to plasma membrane ¡ transport vesicle fuses with plasma membrane (inside layer of transport vesicle becomes outer layer of plasma membrane)

Review ■





What molecules are responsible for the physical properties of a cell membrane? How might a transmembrane protein be positioned in a lipid bilayer? How do the hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions of the protein affect its orientation? What is the pathway used by cells to place carbohydrates on plasma membrane proteins?

5.2 OVERVIEW OF MEMBRANE PROTEIN FUNCTIONS ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE 5

KEY POINT

Cell proteins perform many functions, including transporting materials, serving as enzymes for chemical reactions, and transmitting information.

(a) Anchoring. Some membrane proteins, such as integrins, anchor the cell to the extracellular Integrin matrix; they also connect to microfilaments within the cell.

Outside cell

Inside cell

Outside cell

Inside cell

(b) Passive transport. Certain proteins form channels for selective passage of ions or molecules.

Outside cell

Inside cell

(c) Active transport. Some transport proteins pump solutes across the membrane, which requires a direct input of energy.

K+

ATP Na+

ADP

P

Outside cell

Inside cell

(d) Enzymatic activity. Many membrane-bound enzymes catalyze reactions that take place within or along the membrane surface.

Outside cell

Inside cell

(e) Signal transduction. Some receptors bind with signal molecules such as hormones and transmit information into the cell.

Outside cell

Inside bacterial cell

Summarize the functions of membrane proteins.

Why does the plasma membrane require so many different proteins? This diversity reflects the multitude of activities that take place in or on the membrane. Proteins associated with the membrane are essential for most of these activities. Generally, plasma membrane proteins fall into several broad functional categories, as shown in FIGURE 5-10. Some membrane proteins anchor the cell to its substrate. For example, integrins, proteins bound to microfilaments inside the cell, attach the cell to the extracellular matrix (Fig. 5-10a). Integrins also serve as receptors, or docking sites, for proteins of the extracellular matrix (see Fig. 4-30). Many membrane proteins are involved in the transport of molecules across the membrane. Some form channels that selectively allow the passage of specific ions or molecules (Fig. 5-10b). Other proteins form pumps that use ATP, or other energy sources, to actively transport solutes across the membrane (Fig. 5-10c). Certain membrane proteins are enzymes that catalyze reactions near the cell surface (Fig. 5-10d). In mito-

Antibody

Inside cell 1

Antigen

Inside cell 2

(f) Cell recognition. Some glycoproteins function as identification tags. For example, bacterial cells have surface proteins, or antigens, that human cells recognize as foreign.

(g) Intercellular junction. Cell adhesion proteins attach membranes of adjacent cells.

FIGURE 5-10 Some functions of membrane proteins

chondrial or chloroplast membranes, enzymes are organized in sequences that allow the organelle to efficiently regulate series of reactions in cellular respiration or photosynthesis. Some membrane proteins are receptors that receive information from other cells in the form of chemical or electrical signals. Most vertebrate cells have receptors for hormones released by endocrine glands. Information may be transmitted from proteins in the plasma membrane to the cell interior by signal transduction (discussed in Chapter 6; Fig. 5-10e). Some membrane proteins serve as identification tags that other cells recognize. For example, certain cells recognize the surface proteins, or antigens, of bacterial cells as foreign. Antigens stimulate immune defenses that destroy the bacteria (Fig. 5-10f). When certain cells recognize one another, they connect to form tissues. Some membrane proteins form junctions between adjacent cells (Fig. 5-10g). These proteins may also serve as anchoring points for networks of cytoskeletal elements. In the remaining sections of this chapter, we will discuss the functions of cell membrane proteins in transporting material into and out of the cell, and we will discuss junctions between cells. We will discuss other functions of cell membranes in many of the chapters that follow.

Review ■ ■

How do proteins function in transporting materials into the cell? What role do membrane proteins play in cell recognition?

5.3 CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURE AND PERMEABILITY ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE 6 Describe the importance of selectively permeable membranes and compare the functions of carrier proteins and channel proteins.

A membrane is permeable to a given substance if it allows that substance to pass through and impermeable if it does not. The fluid mosaic structure of biological membranes allows them to function as selectively permeable membranes—they let some, but not all, substances pass through them. In response to varying environmental conditions or cell needs, a membrane may be a barrier to a particular substance at one time and actively promote its passage at another time. By regulating chemical traffic across its plasma membrane, a cell controls its volume and its internal ionic and molecular composition. This regulation allows the molecular composition of the cell to be quite different from that of its external environment.

Biological membranes present a barrier to polar molecules In general, biological membranes are most permeable to small nonpolar (hydrophobic) molecules. Such molecules can pass through the hydrophobic lipid bilayer. Gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide are small, nonpolar molecules that cross the lipid bilayer rapidly. Although they are polar, water molecules are small enough to pass through gaps that occur as a fatty acid chain momentarily

moves out of the way. As a result, water molecules slowly cross the lipid bilayer. The lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane is relatively impermeable to charged ions of any size, so ions and most large polar molecules pass through the bilayer slowly. Ions are important in cell signaling and many other physiological processes. For example, many cell processes, such as muscle contraction, depend on changes in the cytoplasmic concentration of calcium ions. Glucose, amino acids, and most other compounds required in metabolism are polar molecules that also pass through the lipid bilayer slowly. This is advantageous to cells because the impermeability of the plasma membrane prevents them from diffusing out. How then do cells obtain the ions and polar molecules they require?

Transport proteins transfer molecules across membranes Systems of transport proteins that move ions, amino acids, sugars, and other needed polar molecules through membranes apparently evolved very early in the origin of cells. These transmembrane proteins have been found in all biological membranes. Two main types of membrane transport proteins are carrier proteins and channel proteins. Each type of transport protein transports a specific type of ion or molecule or a group of related substances. Carrier proteins, also called transporters, bind the ion or molecule and undergo changes in shape, resulting in movement of the molecule across the membrane. Transfer of solutes by carrier proteins located within the membrane is called carrier-mediated transport. As we will discuss, the two forms of carrier-mediated transport—facilitated diffusion and carrier-mediated active transport—differ in their capabilities and energy sources. ABC transporters make up a large, important group of carrier proteins. The acronym ABC stands for ATP-binding cassette. Found in the cell membranes of all species, ABC transporters use energy donated by ATP to transport certain ions, sugars, and polypeptides across cell membranes. Scientists have identified about 48 ABC transporters in human cells. Mutations in the genes encoding these proteins cause or contribute to many human disorders, including cystic fibrosis and certain neurological diseases. ABC transporters transport hydrophobic drugs out of the cell. This response can be a problem clinically because certain transporters remove antibiotics, antifungal drugs, and anticancer drugs. Channel proteins form tunnels, called pores, through the membrane. Many of these channels are gated, which means that they can be opened and closed. Cells regulate the passage of materials through the channels by opening and closing the gates in response to electrical changes, chemical stimuli, or mechanical stimuli. Water and specific types of ions are transported through channels. There are numerous ion channels in every membrane of every cell. Porins are transmembrane channel proteins that allow various solutes or water to pass through membranes. These channel proteins are rolled-up, barrel-shaped b-pleated sheets that form pores. Researchers Peter Agre of Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland, and Roderick MacKinnon of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute at Rockefeller University in New York shared the 2003 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their work on transport proteins. Agre identified transmembrane proteins called aquaporins that function as gated water channels.

Aquaporins facilitate the rapid transport of water through the plasma membrane. About a billion water molecules per second can pass through an aquaporin! These channels are very selective and do not permit passage of ions and other small molecules. In some cells, such as those lining the kidney tubules of mammals, aquaporins respond to specific signals from hormones. Aquaporins help prevent dehydration by returning water from the kidney tubules into the blood.

Review ■ ■



What types of molecules pass easily through the plasma membrane? What are the two main types of transport proteins? What are their functions? What are aquaporins? What is their function?

5.4 PASSIVE TRANSPORT ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVES 7 8

Contrast simple diffusion with facilitated diffusion. Define osmosis and solve simple problems involving osmosis; for example, predict whether cells will swell or shrink under various osmotic conditions.

Passive transport does not require the cell to expend metabolic energy. Many ions and small molecules move through membranes by diffusion. Two types of diffusion are simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion.

Diffusion occurs down a concentration gradient Some substances pass into or out of cells and move about within cells by diffusion, a physical process based on random motion. All atoms and molecules possess kinetic energy, or energy of motion, at temperatures above absolute zero (0 K, −273°C, or −459.4°F). Matter may exist as a solid, liquid, or gas, depending on the freedom of movement of its constituent particles (atoms, ions, or molecules). The particles of a solid are closely packed, and the forces of attraction between them let them vibrate but not move around.

1

When lump of sugar is dropped into beaker of pure water, sugar molecules begin to dissolve and diffuse through water.

FIGURE 5-11 Diffusion

2

Sugar molecules continue to dissolve and diffuse through water.

In a liquid the particles are farther apart; the intermolecular attractions are weaker, and the particles move about with considerable freedom. In a gas the particles are so far apart that intermolecular forces are negligible; molecular movement is restricted only by the walls of the container that encloses the gas. Atoms and molecules in liquids and gases move in a kind of “random walk,” changing directions as they collide. Although the movement of individual particles is undirected and unpredictable, we can nevertheless make predictions about the behavior of groups of particles. If the particles are not evenly distributed, then at least two regions exist: one with a higher concentration of particles and the other with a lower concentration. Such a difference in the concentration of a substance from one place to another establishes a concentration gradient. In diffusion, the random motion of particles results in their net movement “down” their own concentration gradient, from the region of higher concentration to the one of lower concentration. This does not mean individual particles are prohibited from moving “against” the gradient. However, because there are initially more particles in the region of high concentration, it logically follows that more particles move randomly from there into the lowconcentration region than the reverse (FIG. 5-11). Thus, if a membrane is permeable to a substance, there is net movement from the side of the membrane where it is more highly concentrated to the side where it is less concentrated. Such a gradient across the membrane is a form of stored energy. Stored energy is potential energy, which is the capacity to do work as a result of position or state. The stored energy of the concentration gradient is released when ions or molecules move from a region of high concentration to one of low concentration. For this reason, movement down a concentration gradient is spontaneous. (Forms of energy and spontaneous processes are discussed in greater detail in Chapter 7.) Diffusion occurs rapidly over very short distances. The rate of diffusion is determined by the movement of the particles, which in turn is a function of their size and shape, their electric charges, and the temperature. As the temperature rises, particles move faster and the rate of diffusion increases. Particles of different substances in a mixture diffuse independently of one another. Diffusion moves solutes toward a state of equilibrium. If particles are not added to or removed from the system, a state of dynamic equilibrium is reached. In this condition, the particles are uniformly distributed and there is no net change in the system. Particles continue to move back and forth across the membrane, but they move at equal rates and in both directions. In organisms, equilibrium is rarely attained. For example, hu3 Eventually, sugar man cells continually produce carmolecules become distributed randomly bon dioxide as sugars and other throughout water. molecules are metabolized during aerobic respiration. Carbon dioxide readily diffuses across the plasma

membrane but then is rapidly removed by the blood. This limits the opportunity for the molecules to re-enter the cell, so a sharp concentration gradient of carbon dioxide molecules always exists across the plasma membrane. In simple diffusion through a biological membrane, small, nonpolar (uncharged) solute molecules move directly through the membrane down their concentration gradient. Oxygen and carbon dioxide can rapidly diffuse through the membrane. The rate of simple diffusion is directly related to the concentration of the solute; the more concentrated the solute, the more rapid the diffusion.

Osmosis is diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane

Pressure applied to piston to resist upward movement

Water plus solute

Pure water

Selectively permeable membrane

Osmosis is a special kind of diffusion that involves the net movement of water (the principal solvent in biological systems) through a selectively permeable membrane from a region of higher conMolecule of solute Water centration to a region of lower concentration. Water molecules molecule pass freely in both directions, but as in all types of diffusion, net movement is from the region where the water molecules are more concentrated to the region where they are less concentrated. Most solute molecules (such as sugar and salt) cannot diffuse freely through the selectively permeable membranes of the cell. FIGURE 5-12 Animated Osmosis The principles involved in osmosis can be illustrated using an The U-tube contains pure water on the right and water plus a solute on the left, separated by a selectively permeable membrane. Water molecules apparatus called a U-tube (FIG. 5-12). The U-tube is divided into cross the membrane in both directions (blue arrows). Solute molecules cantwo sections by a selectively permeable membrane that allows not cross (red arrows). The fluid level would normally rise on the left and fall solvent (water) molecules to pass freely but excludes solute moleon the right because net movement of water would be to the left. However, cules. A water/solute solution is placed on one side, and pure water the piston prevents the water from rising. The force that must be exerted by is placed on the other. The side containing the solute has a lower the piston to prevent the rise in fluid level is equal to the osmotic pressure of the solution. effective concentration of water than the pure water side does. The reason is that the solute particles, which are charged (ionic) or polar, interact with the partial electric charges on the polar water by the piston to prevent the rise of fluid on that side of the tube. A molecules. Many of the water molecules are thus “bound up” and solution with a high solute concentration has a low effective water no longer free to diffuse across the membrane. concentration and a high osmotic pressure; conversely, a solution Because of the difference in effective water concentration, with a low solute concentration has a high effective water concenthere is net movement of water molecules from the pure water side tration and a low osmotic pressure. (with a high effective concentration of water) to the water/ solute side (with a lower effective concentration of water). As a result, Two solutions may be isotonic the fluid level drops on the pure water side and rises on the water/ Salts, sugars, and other substances are dissolved in the fluid comsolute side. Because the solute molecules do not diffuse across the partment of every cell. These solutes give the cytosol a specific membrane, equilibrium is never attained. Net movement of waosmotic pressure. TABLE 5-1 summarizes the movement of water ter continues, and the fluid level rises on the side containing the into and out of a solution (or cell) depending on relative solute solute. The weight of the rising column of fluid eventually exerts concentrations. enough pressure to stop further changes in fluid levels, although When a cell is placed in a fluid with exactly the same osmotic water molecules continue to pass through the selectively permepressure, no net movement of water molecules occurs, either into able membrane in both directions. We define the osmotic pressure of a solution as the pressure that must be exerted on the side of a selectively permeable TABLE 5-1 Osmotic Terminology membrane containing the higher concenSolute Solute Direction of tration of solute to prevent the diffusion of Concentration Concentration Net Movement water (by osmosis) from the side containin Solution A in Solution B Tonicity of Water ing the lower solute concentration. In the U-tube example, you could measure the Greater Less A hypertonic to B; B hypotonic to A B to A osmotic pressure by inserting a piston on Less Greater B hypertonic to A; A hypotonic to B A to B the water/solute side of the tube and meaEqual Equal A and B are isotonic to each other No net movement suring how much pressure must be exerted

Outside cell

Inside cell

Outside cell

Inside cell

Outside cell

Inside cell

H2O molecules Solute molecules

Net water movement out of the cell

Net water movement into the cell

10 μm

Courtesy of Dr. R. F. Baker, Emeritus/ USC School of Medicine

No net water movement

(a) Isotonic solution. When a cell is placed in an isotonic solution, water molecules pass in and out of the cell, but the net movement of water molecules is zero.

(b) Hypertonic solution. When a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, there is a net movement of water molecules out of the cell (blue arrow ). The cell becomes dehydrated and shrunken.

(c) Hypotonic solution. When a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution, the net movement of water molecules into the cell (blue arrow) causes the cell to swell or even burst.

FIGURE 5-13 Animated The responses of animal cells to osmotic pressure differences

or out of the cell. The cell neither swells nor shrinks. Such a fluid is of equal solute concentration, or isotonic, to the fluid within the cell. Normally, your blood plasma (the fluid component of blood) and all your other body fluids are isotonic to your cells; they contain a concentration of water equal to that in the cells. A solution of 0.9% sodium chloride (sometimes called physiological saline) is isotonic to the cells of humans and other mammals. Human red blood cells placed in 0.9% sodium chloride neither shrink nor swell (FIG. 5-13a). One solution may be hypertonic and the other hypotonic If the surrounding fluid has a concentration of dissolved substances greater than the concentration within the cell, the fluid has a higher osmotic pressure than the cell and is said to be hypertonic to the cell. Because a hypertonic solution has a lower effective water concentration, a cell placed in such a solution shrinks as it loses water

by osmosis. Human red blood cells placed in a solution of 1.3% sodium chloride shrivel (FIG. 5-13b). If the surrounding fluid contains a lower concentration of dissolved materials than does the cell, the fluid has a lower osmotic pressure and is said to be hypotonic to the cell; water then enters the cell and causes it to swell. Red blood cells placed in a solution of 0.6% sodium chloride gain water, swell (FIG. 5-13c), and may eventually burst. Many cells that normally live in hypotonic environments have adaptations to prevent excessive water accumulation. For example, Paramecium and certain other ciliates (members of the supergroup Chromalveolates) have contractile vacuoles that expel excess water (see Fig. 26-8). Turgor pressure is the internal hydrostatic pressure usually present in walled cells The cells of most prokaryotes, algae, plants, and fungi have relatively rigid cell walls. These cells can withstand, without bursting,

Cengage

Plasma membrane

Nucleus Vacuole

Vacuole Vacuolar membrane (tonoplast) Cytoplasm

(a) In hypotonic surroundings, the vacuole of a plant cell fills with water, but the rigid cell walls prevent the cell from expanding. The cells of this healthy begonia plant are turgid.

Plasma membrane

(b) When the begonia plant is exposed to a hypertonic solution, its cells become plasmolyzed as they lose water.

(c) The plant wilts and eventually dies.

FIGURE 5-14 Animated Turgor pressure and plasmolysis

an external medium that is very dilute, containing only a very low concentration of solutes. Because of the substances dissolved in the cytoplasm, the cells are hypertonic to the outside medium (conversely, the outside medium is hypotonic to the cytoplasm). Water moves into the cells by osmosis, filling their central vacuoles and distending the cells. The cells swell, building up turgor pressure against the rigid cell walls (FIG. 5-14a). The cell walls stretch only slightly, and a steady state is reached when their resistance to stretching prevents any further increase in cell size and thereby halts the net movement of water molecules into the cells. (Of course, molecules continue to move back and forth across the plasma membrane.) Turgor pressure in the cells is an important factor in supporting the body of nonwoody plants. If a cell that has a cell wall is placed in a hypertonic medium, the cell loses water to its surroundings. Its contents shrink, and the plasma membrane separates from the cell wall, a process known as plasmolysis (FIGS. 5-14b and 14c). Plasmolysis occurs in plants

when the soil or water around them contains high concentrations of salts or fertilizers. It also explains why lettuce becomes limp in a salty salad dressing and why a picked flower wilts from lack of water.

Facilitated diffusion occurs down a concentration gradient In all processes in which substances move across membranes by diffusion, the net transfer of those molecules from one side to the other occurs as a result of a concentration gradient. We have seen that small, uncharged (nonpolar) solute molecules, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, move directly through the membrane down their concentration gradient by simple diffusion. In facilitated diffusion, a specific transport protein makes the membrane permeable to a particular solute, such as a specific ion or polar molecule. A specific solute can be transported from inside the cell

Outside cell

K+

K+

K+ K+

gradients (FIG. 5-15). (As we will discuss, because ions are charged particles, these gradients are electrochemical gradients.) These ion channels are referred to as gated channels because they can open and close. As many as 100 million ions per second can pass through an open ion channel! Channels can facilitate transport only down a concentration gradient. They cannot actively transport ions from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration.

K+

K+

K+

K+ Cytosol

FIGURE 5-15 Facilitated diffusion of potassium ions In response to an electrical stimulus, the gate of the potassium ion channel opens, allowing potassium to diffuse out of the cell.

to the outside or from the outside to the inside, but net movement is always from a region of higher solute concentration to a region of lower concentration. Channel proteins and carrier proteins facilitate diffusion by different mechanisms. Channel proteins form hydrophilic channels through membranes Some channel proteins are porins that form rather large tunnels through which water and solutes pass. However, most channel proteins form narrow channels that transport specific ions down their

KEY POINT

Carrier proteins undergo a change in shape Transport of solutes through carrier proteins is slower than through channel proteins. The carrier protein binds with one or more solute molecules on one side of the membrane. The protein then undergoes a conformational change (change in shape) that moves the solute to the other side of the membrane. As an example of facilitated diffusion by a carrier protein, let us consider glucose transport. A carrier protein known as glucose transporter 1, or GLUT 1, transports glucose into red blood cells (FIG. 5-16). The concentration of glucose is higher in the blood plasma than in red blood cells, so glucose diffuses down its concentration gradient into these blood cells. The GLUT 1 transporter facilitates glucose diffusion, allowing glucose to enter the cell about 50,000 times as rapidly as it could by simple diffusion. Red blood cells keep the internal concentration of glucose low by immediately adding a phosphate group to entering glucose molecules, converting them to highly charged glucose phosphates that cannot pass back through the membrane. Because glucose phosphate is a different molecule, it does not contribute to the glucose concentration gradient. Thus, a steep concentration gradient for glucose is continually maintained, and glucose rapidly diffuses into the

Facilitated diffusion requires the potential energy of a concentration gradient.

Outside cell Glucose High concentration of glucose

Low concentration of glucose

Glucose transporter (GLUT 1)

Cytosol 1

Glucose binds to GLUT 1.

2

GLUT 1 changes shape and glucose is released inside cell.

FIGURE 5-16 Animated Facilitated diffusion of glucose molecules

3

GLUT 1 returns to its original shape.

cell, only to be immediately changed to the phosphorylated form. Facilitated diffusion is powered by the concentration gradient. Researchers have studied facilitated diffusion of glucose using liposomes, artificial vesicles surrounded by phospholipid bilayers. The phospholipid membrane of a liposome does not allow the passage of glucose unless a glucose transporter is present in the liposome membrane. Glucose transporters and similar carrier proteins temporarily bind to the molecules they transport. This mechanism appears to be similar to the way an enzyme binds with its substrate, the molecule on which it acts (discussed in Chapter 7). In addition, as in enzyme action, binding apparently changes the shape of the carrier protein. This change allows the glucose molecule to be released on the inside of the cell. According to this model, when the glucose is released into the cytoplasm, the carrier protein reverts to its original shape and is available to bind another glucose molecule on the outside of the cell. Another similarity to enzyme action is that carrier proteins become saturated when there is a high concentration of the molecule being transported. This saturation may occur because a finite number of carrier proteins are available and they operate at a defined maximum rate. When the concentration of solute molecules to be transported reaches a certain level, all the carrier proteins are working at their maximum rate. It is a common misconception that diffusion, whether simple or facilitated, is somehow “free of cost” and that only active transport mechanisms require energy. Because diffusion always involves the net movement of a substance down its concentration gradient, we say that the concentration gradient “powers” the process. However, energy is required to do the work of establishing and maintaining the gradient. In our example of facilitated diffusion of glucose, the cell maintains a steep concentration gradient (high outside, low inside) by phosphorylating the glucose molecules once they enter the cell. One ATP molecule is spent for every glucose molecule phosphorylated, and there are additional costs, such as the energy required to make the enzymes that carry out the reaction.

Review ■





What would happen if a plant cell were placed in an isotonic solution? a hypertonic environment? a hypotonic environment? How would you modify your predictions for an animal cell? What is the immediate source of energy for simple diffusion? For facilitated diffusion? In what direction do particles move along their concentration gradient? Would your answers be different for facilitated diffusion compared with simple diffusion?

5.5 ACTIVE TRANSPORT ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE 9 Describe active transport, including cotransport.

Although adequate amounts of a few substances move across cell membranes by diffusion, cells must actively transport many solutes against a concentration gradient. The reason is that cells

require many substances in higher concentrations than their concentration outside the cell. Both diffusion and active transport require energy. The energy for diffusion is provided by a concentration gradient for the substance being transported. Active transport requires the cell to expend metabolic energy directly to power the process. An active transport system can pump materials from a region of low concentration to a region of high concentration. The energy stored in the concentration gradient not only is unavailable to the system but actually works against it. For this reason, the cell needs some other source of energy. In many cases, cells use ATP energy directly. However, active transport may be coupled to ATP indirectly. In indirect active transport, a concentration gradient provides energy for the cotransport of some other substance, such as an ion.

Active transport systems “pump” substances against their concentration gradients One of the most striking examples of an active transport mechanism is the sodium–potassium pump found in all animal cells (FIG. 5-17). The pump is an ABC transporter, a specific carrier protein in the plasma membrane. This transporter uses energy from ATP to pump sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions into the cell. The exchange is unequal: usually only two potassium ions are imported for every three sodium ions exported. Because these particular concentration gradients involve ions, an electrical potential (separation of electric charges) is generated across the membrane; that is, the membrane is polarized. Both sodium and potassium ions are positively charged, but because there are fewer potassium ions inside relative to the sodium ions outside, the inside of the cell is negatively charged relative to the outside. The unequal distribution of ions establishes an electrical gradient that drives ions across the plasma membrane. Sodium–potassium pumps help maintain a separation of charges across the plasma membrane. This separation is called a membrane potential. Because there is both an electric charge difference and a concentration difference on the two sides of the membrane, the gradient is called an electrochemical gradient. Such gradients store energy that is used to drive other transport systems. So important is the electrochemical gradient produced by these pumps that some cells (such as nerve cells) expend more than 25% of their total available energy just to power this one transport system. Sodium–potassium pumps (as well as all other ATP-driven pumps) are transmembrane proteins that extend entirely through the membrane. By undergoing a series of conformational changes, the pumps exchange sodium for potassium across the plasma membrane. Unlike what occurs in facilitated diffusion, at least one of the conformational changes in the pump cycle requires energy, which is provided by ATP. The shape of the pump protein changes as a phosphate group from ATP first binds to it and is subsequently removed later in the pump cycle. The use of electrochemical potentials for energy storage is not confined to the plasma membranes of animal cells. Cells of bacteria, fungi, and plants use carrier proteins, known as proton pumps, to actively transport hydrogen ions (which are protons) out of the cell. These ATP-driven membrane pumps transfer protons

KEY POINT

The sodium–potassium pump is a carrier protein that maintains an electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane.

Higher

Na+ Na+

Lower

Outside cell

Na+

Potassium concentration gradient

Sodium concentration gradient

Active transport channel

ADP + P

ATP

K+ +

K

Cytosol

Lower

Higher

(a) The sodium–potassium pump is a carrier protein that requires energy from ATP. In each complete pumping cycle, the energy of one molecule of ATP is used to export three sodium ions (Na+) and import two potassium ions (K+).

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

ATP

Na+

P Na+ +

K

P

ADP 2

+

K

Phosphate group is transferred from ATP to carrier protein.

3

Phosphorylation causes carrier protein to change shape, releasing 3 Na+ outside cell. P

Na+

1

Na+

Na+

Three Na+ bind to carrier protein.

4 K+ K+

+

K

K+

P

5 Phosphate is released. Phosphate release causes carrier protein to return to its original shape. Two K+ ions are released inside cell. (b) Follow the steps illustrating a model of active transport by the sodium–potassium pump. 6

FIGURE 5-17 Animated A model for the pumping cycle of the sodium–potassium pump

Two K+ bind to carrier protein.

from the cytosol to the outside (FIG. 5-18). Removal of positively charged protons from the cytoplasm of these cells results in a large difference in the concentration of protons between the outside and inside of the cell. The outside of the cells is positively charged relative to the inside of the plasma membrane. The energy stored in these electrochemical gradients can be used to do many kinds of cell work. Other proton pumps are used in “reverse” to synthesize ATP. Bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts use energy from food or sunlight to establish proton concentration gradients (discussed in Chapters 8 and 9). When the protons diffuse through the proton carriers from a region of high proton concentration to one of low concentration, ATP is synthesized. These electrochemical gradients form the basis for the major energy conversion systems in virtually all cells. Ion pumps have other important roles. For example, they are instrumental in the ability of an animal cell to equalize the osmotic pressures of its cytoplasm and its external environment. If an animal cell does not control its internal osmotic pressure, its contents become hypertonic relative to the exterior. Water enters by osmosis, causing the cell to swell and possibly burst (see Fig. 5-13c). By controlling the ion distribution across the membrane, the cell indirectly controls the movement of water, because when ions are pumped out of the cell, water leaves by osmosis.

Carrier proteins can transport one or two solutes You may have noticed that some carrier proteins, such as proton pumps, transport one type of substance in one direction. These carrier proteins are called uniporters. Other carrier proteins, symporters, move two types of substances in one direction. For example, a specific carrier protein transports both sodium and glucose into the cell. Still other carrier proteins, antiporters, move two substances in opposite directions. Sodium–potassium pumps transport sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions into the cell. Both symporters and antiporters cotransport solutes.

Cotransport systems indirectly provide energy for active transport A cotransport system moves solutes across a membrane by indirect active transport. Two solutes are transported at the same time. The movement of one solute down its concentration gradient provides energy for transport of some other solute up its concentration gradient. However, an energy source such as ATP is required to power the pump that produces the concentration gradient. Sodium–potassium pumps (and other pumps) generate electrochemical concentration gradients. Sodium is pumped out of the cell and then diffuses back in by moving down its concentration gradient. This process generates sufficient energy to power the active transport of other essential substances. In these systems, a carrier protein cotransports a solute against its concentration gradient, while sodium, potassium, or hydrogen ions move down their gradient. Energy from ATP produces the ion gradient. Then the energy of this gradient drives the active transport of a required substance, such as glucose, against its gradient.

H+

H+ Outside cell

+

– Cytosol

H+

H+

+

+



– ATP ADP

H+

+

+

– –

H+

FIGURE 5-18 A model of a proton pump Proton pumps use the energy of ATP to transport protons (hydrogen ions) across membranes. The energy of the electrochemical gradient established can then be used for other processes.

We have seen how glucose can be moved into the cell by facilitated diffusion. Glucose can also be cotransported into the cell. The sodium concentration inside the cell is kept low by the ATPrequiring sodium–potassium pumps that actively transport sodium ions out of the cell. In glucose cotransport, a carrier protein transports both sodium and glucose (FIG. 5-19). As sodium moves into the cell along its concentration gradient, the carrier protein captures the energy released and uses it to transport glucose into the cell. Thus, this indirect active transport system for glucose is “driven” by the cotransport of sodium.

Review ■ ■

What is the energy source for active transport? What is the energy source for cotransport?

5.6 EXOCYTOSIS AND ENDOCYTOSIS ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE 10 Compare exocytotic and endocytotic transport mechanisms.

Individual molecules and ions pass through the plasma membrane by simple and facilitated diffusion and by carrier-mediated active transport. Some larger materials, such as large molecules, particles of food, and even small cells, are also moved into or out of cells. They are transported by exocytosis and endocytosis. Like active transport, these processes require cells to expend energy directly.

In exocytosis, vesicles export large molecules In exocytosis, a cell ejects waste products, or specific products of secretion such as hormones, by the fusion of a vesicle with the

KEY POINT

A carrier protein transports sodium ions down their concentration gradient and uses that energy to cotransport glucose molecules against their concentration gradient.

Outside cell +

+

Carrier protein + +

+

+

+ +

+ +

+

+

+

+

+

+



Glucose

Na+

+

+

+

+ +

+

+

+

+ +

+ +

+

+

+

+









Lipid bilayer





Glucose concentration gradient



+ + +

+

+

Cytosol 1

Sodium ions and glucose bind to carrier protein.

2

Carrier protein changes shape and releases sodium ions and glucose inside cell.

FIGURE 5-19 A model for the cotransport of glucose and sodium ions Note that this carrier protein is a symporter.

2

3

1

Vesicle approaches plasma membrane,

2

fuses with it, and

Bloom and Fawcett Textbook of Histology

1

0.25 μm

FIGURE 5-20 Exocytosis 3

releases its contents outside cell.

The TEM shows exocytosis of the protein components of milk by a mammary gland cell.

Vacuole Lysosomes

Folds of plasma membrane surround particle to be ingested, forming small vacuole around it.

Bloom and Fawcett Textbook of Histology

Nucleus

2

Vacuole then pinches off inside cell.

Ingested bacteria

3

Lysosomes fuse with vacuole and pour potent hydrolytic enzymes onto ingested material.

2.5 μm

1

Lysosome

Lysosome

Glycogen (stored nutrients)

FIGURE 5-21 Animated Phagocytosis Bacteria Lysosomes

Large vacuole

plasma membrane (FIG. 5-20). As the contents of the vesicle are released from the cell, the membrane of the secretory vesicle is incorporated into the plasma membrane. This is the primary mechanism by which plasma membranes grow larger.

In endocytosis, the cell imports materials

In this type of endocytosis, a cell ingests relatively large solid particles. The white blood cell (a neutrophil) shown in the TEM is phagocytizing bacteria. The vacuoles contain bacteria that have already been ingested. Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes that break down the ingested material. Other bacteria are visible outside the cell.

contents of these vesicles are slowly transferred into the cytosol, the vesicles become progressively smaller. In a third type of endocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis, specific molecules combine with receptor proteins in the plasma membrane. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is the main mechanism by which eukaryotic cells take in macromolecules. As an example, let us look at how mammalian cells take up cholesterol from the blood. Cells use cholesterol as a component of cell membranes and as a precursor of steroid hormones. Cholesterol is transported in the blood as part of particles called low-density lipoproteins (LDLs; popularly known as “bad cholesterol”).

In endocytosis, materials are taken into the cell. Several types of endocytotic mechanisms operate in biological systems, including phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and receptor-mediated endocytosis. In phagocytosis (literally, “cell eating”), the cell ingests large solid particles Microvilli such as food or bacteria (FIG. 5-21). Certain protists ingest food by phagocytosis. Some types of vertebrate cells, including certain white blood cells, ingest bacteria and other particles by phagocytosis. During ingestion, folds of the plasma membrane enclose the cell or particle. When the membrane has encircled the particle, the membrane fuses at the point of contact, forming a vacuole. The vacuole may then fuse with lysosomes, Cytosol which degrade the ingested material. In pinocytosis (“cell drinking”), the 1 Tiny droplets of fluid 2 These pinch off into cell takes in dissolved materials (FIG. 5-22). are trapped by folds cytosol as small of plasma membrane. fluid-filled vesicles. Tiny droplets of fluid are trapped by folds in the plasma membrane, which pinch off into FIGURE 5-22 Pinocytosis, or “cell drinking” the cytosol as tiny vesicles. As the liquid

Pinocytotic vesicle

3

Contents of these vesicles are then slowly transferred to cytosol.

Much of the receptor-mediated endocytosis pathway was detailed through studies at the University of Texas Health Science Center by Michael Brown and Joseph Goldstein on the LDL receptor. These researchers were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1985 for their pioneering work. Their findings have important medical implications because cholesterol that remains in the blood instead of entering the cells can be deposited in the artery walls, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. When it needs cholesterol, the cell makes LDL receptors. The receptors are concentrated in coated pits, depressed regions

KEY POINT

In receptor-mediated endocytosis, specific macromolecules bind to receptor proteins, accumulate in coated pits, and enter the cell in clathrin-coated vesicles. Plasma membrane

1

2

Cytosol 2

LDL attaches to specific receptors in coated pits on plasma membrane. Endocytosis results in formation of a coated vesicle in cytosol. Seconds later coat is removed.

3

Uncoated vesicle fuses with endosome.

4

Receptors are returned to plasma membrane and recycled.

5

on the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane. Each pit is coated by a layer of a protein, called clathrin, found just below the plasma membrane. A molecule that binds specifically to a receptor is called a ligand. In this case, LDL is the ligand. After the LDL binds with a receptor, the coated pit forms a coated vesicle by endocytosis. FIGURE 5-23 shows the uptake of an LDL particle. Seconds after the vesicle moves into the cytoplasm, the coating dissociates from it, leaving an uncoated vesicle. The vesicles fuse with small compartments called endosomes. The LDL and LDL receptors sep-

Uncoated vesicle

Coated pit LDL particle

1

LDL receptor

Clathrin recycled

Endosome

Primary

3

lysosome

Clathrin

Vesicle containing LDL particles fuses with a lysosome, forming a secondary lysosome. Hydrolytic enzymes then digest cholesterol from LDL particles for use by cell.

Endosome

5

Secondary lysosome 4

Free cholesterol

(a) Uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, which transport cholesterol in the blood.

From M.M. Perry and A.B. Gilbert, Journal of Cell Science 39: 257–272, 1979. © 1979 The Company of Biologists Ltd.

(b) This series of TEMs shows the formation of a coated vesicle from a coated pit.

FIGURE 5-23 Animated Receptor-mediated endocytosis

0.25 μm

ligand molecules bind to receptors in coated pits of plasma membrane ¡ coated vesicle forms by endocytosis ¡ coating detaches from vesicle ¡ uncoated vesicle fuses with endosome ¡ ligands separate from receptors which are recycled; endosome fuses with primary lysosome, forming secondary lysosome ¡ contents of secondary lysosome are digested and released into the cytosol

The recycling of LDL receptors to the plasma membrane through vesicles causes a problem common to all cells that use endocytotic and exocytotic mechanisms: the plasma membrane changes size as the vesicles bud off from it or fuse with it. A type of phagocytic cell known as a macrophage, for example, ingests the equivalent of its entire plasma membrane in about 30 minutes, requiring an equivalent amount of recycling or new membrane synthesis for the cell to maintain its surface area. On the other hand, cells that are constantly involved in secretion must return an equivalent amount of membrane to the interior of the cell for each vesicle that fuses with the plasma membrane; if not, the cell surface would continue to expand even though the growth of the cell itself may be arrested.

choring junctions. These junctions do not prevent the passage of materials between adjacent cells. Two common types of anchoring junctions are desmosomes and adhering junctions. Desmosomes are points of attachment between cells (FIG. 5-24). They hold cells together at one point as a rivet or a spot weld does. Desmosomes allow cells to form strong sheets, and substances still pass freely through the spaces between the plasma membranes. Each desmosome is made up of regions of dense material associated with the cytosolic sides of the two plasma membranes, plus protein filaments that cross the narrow intercellular space between them. Desmosomes are anchored to systems of

Bloom and Fawcett Textbook of Histology

arate, and the receptors are transported to the plasma membrane, where they are recycled. LDL is transferred to a lysosome, where it is broken down. Cholesterol is released into the cytosol for use by the cell. A simplified summary of receptor-mediated endocytosis follows:

Plasma membranes

0.25 μm

Review ■ ■ ■

How are exocytosis and endocytosis similar? How are the processes of phagocytosis and pinocytosis different? What is the sequence of events in receptor-mediated endocytosis?

5.7 CELL JUNCTIONS ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE 11 Compare the structures and functions of anchoring junctions, tight junctions, gap junctions, and plasmodesmata.

Intercellular space Intermediate filaments Desmosome

Protein filaments Disc of dense protein material

Cells in close contact with one another typically develop specialized intercellular junctions. These structures may allow neighboring cells to form strong connections with one another, prevent the passage of materials, or establish rapid communication between adjacent cells. Several types of junctions connect animal cells, including anchoring junctions, tight junctions, and gap junctions. Plant cells are connected by plasmodesmata.

Anchoring junctions connect cells of an epithelial sheet Adjacent epithelial cells, such as those found in the outer layer of the mammalian skin, are so tightly bound to each other by anchoring junctions that strong mechanical forces are required to separate them. Cadherins, transmembrane proteins shown in the chapter opening photograph, are important components of an-

Cell 1

Cell 2

FIGURE 5-24 Desmosomes The dense structure in the TEM is a desmosome. Each desmosome consists of a pair of buttonlike discs associated with the plasma membranes of adjacent cells, plus the intercellular protein filaments that connect them. Intermediate filaments in the cells are attached to the discs and are connected to other desmosomes.

intermediate filaments inside the cells. Thus, the intermediate filament networks of adjacent cells are connected. As a result, mechanical stresses are distributed throughout the tissue. Adhering junctions cement cells together. Cadherins form a continuous adhesion belt around each cell, binding the cell to neighboring cells. These junctions connect to microfilaments of the cytoskeleton. The cadherins of adhering junctions are a potential path for signals from the outside environment to be transmitted to the cytoplasm.

Tight junctions seal off intercellular spaces between some animal cells Tight junctions are literally areas of tight connections between the membranes of adjacent cells. These connections are so tight

KEY POINT

that no space remains between the cells and substances cannot leak between them. TEMs of tight junctions show that in the region of the junction the plasma membranes of the two cells are held together by proteins in actual contact with each other. However, as shown in FIGURE 5-25, tight junctions are located intermittently. The plasma membranes of the two cells are not fused over their entire surface. Cells connected by tight junctions seal off body cavities. For example, tight junctions between cells lining the intestine prevent substances in the intestine from passing between the cells and directly entering the blood. The sheet of cells thus acts as a selective barrier. Food substances must be transported across the plasma membranes and through the intestinal cells before they enter the blood. This arrangement helps prevent toxins and other unwanted materials from entering the blood and also prevents nutrients

Tight junctions prevent the passage of materials through spaces between cells.

Microvillus

Lumen of the intestine

Tight junction Intercellular space

Cell 1

Cell 2

G. E. Palade

Rows of tight junction proteins

Plasma membranes

Intercellular space

0.1 Nm

(a) This TEM shows points of fusion between plasma membranes of adjacent cells lining the intestine. One tight junction is marked by the box.

FIGURE 5-25 Animated Tight junctions

(b) A tight junction is formed by linkages between rows of proteins of adjacent cells. These proteins seal off the intercellular space, preventing passage of materials through spaces between cells.

from leaking out of the intestine. Tight junctions are also present between the cells that line capillaries in the brain. They form the blood–brain barrier, which prevents many substances in the blood from passing into the brain.

Gap junctions allow the transfer of small molecules and ions A gap junction is like a desmosome in that it bridges the space between cells; however, the space it spans is somewhat narrower (FIG. 5-26). Gap junctions also differ in that they are communicating junctions. They not only connect the plasma membranes but also contain channels connecting the cytoplasm of adjacent cells. Gap junctions are composed of connexin, an integral membrane protein. Groups of six connexin molecules cluster to form a cylinder that spans the plasma membrane. The connexin cylinders on adjacent cells become tightly joined. The two cylinders form a channel, about 1.5 nm in diameter. Small inorganic molecules (such as ions) and some regulatory molecules (such as cyclic AMP, which is illustrated in Figure 3-25) pass through the channels, but larger molecules are excluded. When a marker substance is in-

Plasmodesmata allow certain molecules and ions to move between plant cells Because plant cells have walls, they do not need desmosomes for strength. Plant cells have connections that are functionally equivalent to the gap junctions of some animal cells. Plasmodesmata

Gap junctions allow the transfer of small molecules and ions between adjacent cells.

E. Anderson et al. Journal of Morphology 156: 339–366, 1978. Reprinted with permission of Wiley–Liss, Inc., a subsidiary of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

KEY POINT

jected into one of a group of cells connected by gap junctions, the marker passes rapidly into the adjacent cells but does not enter the space between the cells. Gap junctions provide for rapid chemical and electrical communication between cells. Cells control the passage of materials through gap junctions by opening and closing the channels (see Fig. 5-26d). Cells in the pancreas, for example, are linked by gap junctions in such a way that if one of a group of cells is stimulated to secrete insulin, the signal is passed through the junctions to the other cells in the cluster. This mechanism ensures a coordinated response to the initial signal. Gap junctions allow some nerve cells to be electrically coupled. Cardiac muscle cells are linked by gap junctions that permit the flow of ions necessary to synchronize contractions of the heart.

0.25 Nm

Bloom and Fawcett Textbook of Histology

(c) A freeze–fracture replica of the P-face of a gap junction between two ovarian cells of a mouse. Each particle corresponds to a connexin cylinder.

Closed

0.1 Nm

(a) A TEM of a gap junction.

(b) The two plasma membranes contain cylinders composed of six connexin molecules. Two cylinders from opposite membranes join to form a channel connecting the cytoplasmic compartments of the two cells.

(d) This model shows how a gap junction pore might open and close.

FIGURE 5-26 Animated Gap junctions The model of a gap junction shown in (b) is based on electron microscopic and X-ray diffraction data.

Open

(sing., plasmodesma) are channels 20 to 40 nm wide that pass through the cell walls of adjacent plant cells, connecting the cytoplasm of neighboring cells (FIG. 5-27). The plasma membranes of adjacent cells are continuous with one another through the plasmodesmata. Most plasmodesmata contain a narrow cylindrical structure, called the desmotubule, which runs through the channel and connects the smooth ER of the two adjacent cells. Plasmodesmata generally allow molecules and ions, but not organelles, to pass through the openings from cell to cell. The movement of ions through the plasmodesmata allows for a very slow type of electrical signaling in plants. Whereas the channels of gap junctions have a fixed diameter, plants cells can dilate the plasmodesmata channels. Certain proteins and RNA can pass through plasmodesmata. Some plant viruses spread infection by passing through these junctions.

KEY POINT

Cell walls

Desmotubule Plasma membrane

Smooth ER

How are desmosomes and tight junctions functionally similar? How do they differ? What is the justification for considering gap junctions and plasmodesmata to be functionally similar? How do they differ structurally?



Cell 1

Plasmodesmata

Review ■

Most plant cells have plasmodesmata that connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells.

Cell 2

FIGURE 5-27 Plasmodesmata Cytoplasmic channels through the cell walls of adjacent plant cells allow passage of water, ions, and small molecules. The channels are lined with the fused plasma membranes of the two adjacent cells.

■ ■

S U M M A RY: F O C US O N L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S

5.1 (page 107) 1 Evaluate the importance of membranes to the homeostasis of the cell, emphasizing their various functions. The plasma membrane physically separates the interior of the cell from the extracellular environment, receives information about changes in the environment, regulates the passage of materials into and out of the cell, and communicates with other cells. ■ Biological membranes form compartments within eukaryotic cells that allow a variety of separate functions. Membranes participate in and serve as surfaces for biochemical reactions. 2 Describe the fluid mosaic model of cell membrane structure. ■ According to the fluid mosaic model, membranes consist of a fluid phospholipid bilayer in which a variety of proteins are embedded. The phospholipid molecules are amphipathic: they have hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions. The hydrophilic heads of the phospholipids are at the two surfaces of the bilayer, and their hydrophobic fatty acid chains are in the interior. ■

3 Relate properties of the lipid bilayer to properties and functions of cell membranes. In almost all biological membranes, the lipids of the bilayer are in a fluid or liquid-crystalline state, which allows the lipid molecules to move rapidly in the plane of the membrane. Proteins also move within the membrane. ■ Lipid bilayers are flexible and self-sealing and can fuse with other membranes. These properties allow the cell to transport materials

from one region of the cell to another; materials are transported in vesicles that bud from one cell membrane and then fuse with some other membrane. 4 Describe the ways that membrane proteins associate with the lipid bilayer. ■ Integral membrane proteins are embedded in the bilayer with their hydrophilic surfaces exposed to the aqueous environment and their hydrophobic surfaces in contact with the hydrophobic interior of the bilayer. Transmembrane proteins are integral proteins that extend completely through the membrane. Peripheral membrane proteins are associated with the surface of ■ the bilayer, usually bound to exposed regions of integral proteins, and are easily removed without disrupting the structure of the membrane.

5.2 (page 114) 5 Summarize the functions of membrane proteins. ■

Membrane proteins anchor cells, transport materials, act as enzymes or receptors, recognize cells and communicate with them, and structurally link cells.



5.3 (page 115) 6 Describe the importance of selectively permeable membranes and compare the functions of carrier proteins and channel proteins. ■ Biological membranes are selectively permeable membranes: they allow the passage of some substances but not others. By regulating





Plant cells withstand high internal hydrostatic pressure because their cell walls prevent them from expanding and bursting. Water moves into plant cells by osmosis and fills the central vacuoles. The cells swell, building up turgor pressure against the supportive cell walls. Plasma membrane

Vacuole

Learn more about the plasma membrane and membrane proteins by clicking on the figures in CengageNOW.

Vacuolar membrane (tonoplast)

5.4 (page 116) 7 Contrast simple diffusion with facilitated diffusion.



Diffusion is the net movement of a substance down its concentration gradient from a region of greater concentration to one of lower concentration. Diffusion and osmosis are physical processes that do not require the cell to directly expend metabolic energy. In simple diffusion through a biological membrane, solute molecules or ions move directly through the membrane down their concentration gradient. Facilitated diffusion uses specific transport proteins to move solutes across a membrane. As in simple diffusion, net movement is always from a region of higher to a region of lower solute concentration. Facilitated diffusion cannot work against a concentration gradient. Outside cell

K+ K+

K+

K+

5.5 (page 121) 9 Describe active transport, including cotransport. ■

In active transport, the cell expends metabolic energy to move ions or molecules across a membrane against a concentration gradient. For example, the sodium–potassium pump uses ATP to pump sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions into the cell.

Higher

K+ K+

Cytoplasm

Na+

K+

Na+

K+ Cytosol

Lower

Outside cell Active transport channel

ADP + P

ATP

8 Define osmosis and solve simple problems involving osmosis; for example, predict whether cells will swell or shrink under various osmotic conditions. ■ Osmosis is a kind of diffusion in which molecules of water pass through a selectively permeable membrane from a region where water has a higher effective concentration to a region where its effective concentration is lower. ■ The concentration of dissolved substances (solutes) in a solution determines its osmotic pressure. Cells regulate their internal osmotic pressures to prevent shrinking or bursting. An isotonic solution has an equal solute concentration compared ■ to that of another fluid, for example, the fluid within the cell. ■ When placed in a hypertonic solution, one that has a greater solute concentration than that of the cell, a cell loses water to its surroundings; plant cells undergo plasmolysis, a process in which the plasma membrane separates from the cell wall. ■ When cells are placed in a hypotonic solution, one that has a lower solute concentration than the solute concentration of the cell, water enters the cells and causes them to swell.

Na+

Sodium concentration gradient



Potassium concentration gradient



passage of molecules that enter and leave the cell and its compartments, the cell controls its volume and the internal composition of ions and molecules. Membrane transport proteins facilitate the passage of certain ions and molecules through biological membranes. Carrier proteins are transport proteins that undergo a series of conformational changes as they bind and transport a specific solute. ABC transporters are carrier proteins that use energy from ATP to transport solutes. Channel proteins are transport proteins that form passageways through which water and certain ions travel through the membrane. Porins are channel proteins that form relatively large pores through the membrane for passage of water and certain solutes.

K+

Lower ■

Cytosol

K+

Higher

In cotransport, also called indirect active transport, two solutes are transported at the same time. An ATP-powered pump maintains a concentration gradient. Then a carrier protein cotransports two solutes. It transports one solute down its concentration gradient and uses the energy released to move another solute against its concentration gradient.

5.6 (page 123) 10 Compare exocytotic and endocytotic transport mechanisms. ■

The cell expends metabolic energy to carry on exocytosis and endocytosis. In exocytosis, the cell ejects waste products or secretes substances such as mucus by fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane. This process increases the surface area of the plasma membrane.









In endocytosis, materials such as food particles are moved into the cell. A portion of the plasma membrane envelops the material, enclosing it in a vesicle or vacuole that is then released inside the cell. This process decreases the surface area of the plasma membrane. Three types of endocytosis are phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and receptor-mediated endocytosis. In phagocytosis, the plasma membrane encloses a large particle such as a bacterium, forms a vacuole around it, and moves it into the cell. In pinocytosis, the cell takes in dissolved materials by forming tiny vesicles around droplets of fluid trapped by folds of the plasma membrane. In receptor-mediated endocytosis, specific receptors in coated pits along the plasma membrane bind ligand molecules. These pits, coated by the protein clathrin, form coated vesicles by endocytosis. The vesicles fuse with lysosomes, and their contents are digested and released into the cytosol. Learn more about membrane transport by clicking on the figures in CengageNOW.

5.7 (page 127) 11 Compare the structures and functions of anchoring junctions, tight junctions, gap junctions, and plasmodesmata. ■ Cells in close contact with one another may form intercellular junctions. Anchoring junctions include desmosomes and adhering junctions; they are found between cells that form a sheet of tissue. Desmosomes spot-weld adjacent animal cells together. Adhering junctions are formed by cadherins, transmembrane proteins that cement cells together. ■ Tight junctions seal membranes of adjacent animal cells together, preventing substances from moving through the spaces between the cells. ■ Gap junctions, composed of the protein connexin, form channels that allow communication between the cytoplasm of adjacent animal cells. ■ Plasmodesmata are channels connecting adjacent plant cells. Openings in the cell walls allow the plasma membranes and cytosol to be continuous; certain molecules and ions can pass from cell to cell.

T E S T YO U R U N D E R S TA N D I N G 1. According to the fluid mosaic model, membranes consist of (a) a lipid–protein sandwich (b) mainly phospholipids with scattered nucleic acids (c) a fluid phospholipid bilayer in which proteins are embedded (d) a fluid phospholipid bilayer in which carbohydrates are embedded (e) a protein bilayer that behaves as a liquid crystal 2. Transmembrane proteins (a) are peripheral proteins (b) are receptor proteins (c) extend completely through the membrane (d) extend along the surface of the membrane (e) are secreted from the cell 3. Which of the following is not a function of the plasma membrane? (a) transports materials (b) helps structurally link cells (c) has receptors that relay signals (d) anchors the cell to the extracellular matrix (e) manufactures proteins 4. ABC transporters (a) use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to transport certain ions and sugars (b) are important in facilitated diffusion of certain ions (c) are a small group of channel proteins (d) are found mainly in plant cell membranes (e) permit passive diffusion through their channels 5. When plant cells are in a hypotonic medium, they (a) undergo plasmolysis (b) build up turgor pressure (c) wilt (d) decrease pinocytosis (e) lose water to the environment 6. A laboratory technician accidentally places red blood cells in a hypertonic solution. What happens? (a) they undergo plasmolysis (b) they build up turgor pressure (c) they swell (d) they pump solutes out (e) they become dehydrated and shrunken

7. Which of the following processes requires the cell to expend metabolic energy directly (for example, from ATP)? (a) osmosis (b) facilitated diffusion (c) all forms of carrier-mediated transport (d) active transport (e) simple diffusion 8. Electrochemical gradients (a) power simple diffusion (b) are established by pinocytosis (c) are necessary for transport by aquaporins (d) are established by concentration gradients (e) are a result of both an electric charge difference and a concentration difference between the two sides of the membrane 9. In cotransport (indirect active transport) (a) a uniporter moves a solute across a membrane against its concentration gradient (b) the movement of one solute down its concentration gradient provides energy for transport of some other solute up its concentration gradient (c) a channel protein moves ions by facilitated diffusion (d) osmosis powers the movement of ions against their concentration gradient (e) sodium is directly transported in one direction, and potassium is indirectly transported in the same direction 10. A cell takes in dissolved materials by forming tiny vesicles around fluid droplets trapped by folds of the plasma membrane. This process is (a) indirect active transport (b) pinocytosis (c) receptormediated endocytosis (d) exocytosis (e) facilitated diffusion 11. Anchoring junctions that hold cells together at one point as a spot weld does are (a) tight junctions (b) adhering junctions (c) desmosomes (d) gap junctions (e) plasmodesmata

12. Junctions that permit the transfer of water, ions, and molecules between adjacent plant cells are (a) tight junctions (b) adhering junctions (c) desmosomes (d) gap junctions (e) plasmodesmata 13. Label the cell membrane. Consult Figure 5-6 to check your answers.

CRITICAL THINKING 1. Why can’t larger polar molecules and ions diffuse through the plasma membrane? Would it be advantageous to the cell if they could? Explain. 2. Describe one way that an ion gradient can be established and maintained. 3. Most adjacent plant cells are connected by plasmodesmata, whereas only certain adjacent animal cells are associated through gap junctions. What might account for this difference? 4. EVOLUTION LINK. Hypothesis: the evolution of biological membranes was an essential step in the origin of life. Give arguments supporting (or challenging) this hypothesis. 5. EVOLUTION LINK. Transport proteins have been found in all biological membranes. What hypothesis could you make regarding whether these molecules evolved early or later in the history of cells? Argue in support of your hypothesis.

6. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND SOCIETY. Biologists know quite a bit about the components that make up plant cell walls, but they do not have enough data to model the components of the cell wall as a system. Would you be in favor of investing government funds in the research and technology that would allow researchers to model the cell wall? Why or why not? Would your answer be different if you considered that a better understanding of the cell wall might allow biologists to manipulate plant growth, ripening of fruit, and the texture of certain foods? Additional questions are available in CengageNOW at www.cengage.com/ login.

Cell Communication

From I. Joint et al., Science 298:1207

6

Cell-to-cell communication across the prokaryote– eukaryote boundary. Spores of the green seaweed Enteromorpha (Domain Eukarya) attach to biofilmforming bacteria (Domain Bacteria) in response to chemical compounds released by the bacteria. The bacteria (blue) were stained and visualized with blue light. The spores appear red because of the fluorescence of chlorophyll within them.

KEY CONCEPTS

T

6.1 Cells communicate by signaling one another, a com-

nisms for transmitting information between cells, tissues, and organs

plex process that involves production of signaling molecules, reception of the signal, signal transduction, and a response.

have evolved, including electrical signaling and many types of chemical

6.2 Cells signal one another using chemical compounds such as neurotransmitters, hormones, and other signaling molecules.

o maintain homeostasis, the cells of a multicellular organism must continuously communicate with one another. Many different mecha-

signaling. Organisms also communicate with other members of their species by secreting chemical signals. For example, bacteria release chemical signals that diffuse among nearby bacteria. As the population of bacteria increases, the concentration of the chemical signal increases. Through a

6.3 A signaling molecule binds to a receptor molecule on

process known as quorum sensing, the bacteria sense when a certain criti-

the cell surface or inside the target cell.

cal concentration of a signal molecule is reached. The bacteria respond by

6.4 In signal transduction, a cell converts an extracellular

activating a specific biological process. For example, they may form a bio-

signal into an intracellular signal and relays the signal, leading to some change in the cell (the response).

film, a community of microorganisms attached to a solid surface. Forming

6.5 The cell responds to signals by opening or closing ion channels; altering enzyme activity, which leads to metabolic changes and other alterations in cell activity; and by activating or inhibiting specific genes.

6.6 Similarities in cell communication among diverse organisms suggest that the molecules and mechanisms used in information transfer evolved long ago.

a biofilm requires the coordinated activity of numerous bacteria. Over billions of years, elaborate systems of cell signaling have evolved. Organisms of different species, and even different kingdoms and domains, communicate with one another. For example, the chemical signals released by bacteria can be intercepted by other organisms. During its life cycle, the green seaweed Enteromorpha produces spores that move about and temporarily attach to a surface. The spores sense a chemical signal released by bacteria that form biofilms. In response to the chemical

signal, the spores move toward the biofilm and attach to individual bacteria that are part of the biofilm surface (see opening photograph). Thousands of chemical reactions are involved in responding to signal molecules and regulating the communication among molecules necessary to maintain homeostasis. Many researchers are working on the molecular level to understand how proteins receive messages and relay signals. They are learning how proteins act as molecular switches, activating and deactivating molecules in complex signaling pathways.

communication. Biologists, biochemists, physicists, and scientists from many other disciplines are working together to understand how elaborate signaling systems within the cell interact to maintain homeostasis. They are studying how information is transferred between cells at the tissue and organ levels, and throughout the organism. Faulty signaling in cells and between cells can cause a variety of diseases, including cancer and diabetes. In Chapter 1, we introduced three basic themes of biology. One of these, transmission of information, is the main focus of this chapter. In this chapter, we discuss how cells send and receive sig-

16.6 mm

understand the intricate, dynamic interactions involved in cell

G. Gerisch et al./Max-Planck Institute

Some cell biologists are using a systems biology approach to

FIGURE 6-1 Cell signaling in cellular slime molds When food is scarce, the amoeba-like cellular slime mold Dictyostelium secretes the chemical compound cyclic AMP (cAMP). The slime molds respond to this chemical signal by aggregating. Converging streams of hundreds of individuals come together and form a multicellular colony.

nals. We consider how information crosses the plasma membrane and is transmitted through signaling systems. We describe some of the responses that cells make. Finally, we discuss the evolution of cell communication. Increased understanding of the mechanisms of cell communication may suggest new strategies for preventing and treating diseases.

6.1 CELL COMMUNICATION: AN OVERVIEW ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE 1

Describe the four main processes essential for cells to communicate.

When food is scarce, the amoeba-like cellular slime mold Dictyostelium secretes the compound cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). This chemical compound diffuses through the cell’s environment and binds to receptors on the surfaces of nearby cells. The activated receptors send signals into the cells that result in movement toward the cAMP. Hundreds of slime molds come together and form a multicellular slug-shaped colony (FIG. 6-1; also see Fig. 26-20). (When conditions are favorable, the cells of the slug form a stalked fruiting body with spores at the top; when released, each spore gives rise to an amoeba-like cell.) Even though they do not move from one place to another, plants also communicate with each other. For example, diseased maple trees send airborne chemical signals that are received by uninfected trees nearby. Cells of the uninfected trees respond by increasing their chemical defenses so that they are more resistant to the disease-causing organisms. Plants also send signals to insects. When tobacco plants are attacked by herbivorous insects, the

plants release volatile chemicals. In response to these signals, the insects lay fewer eggs, thus reducing the number of insects feeding on the plants. Predator insects that eat the eggs of the herbivorous insects respond to the plant signals by eating more of the herbivorous insect eggs. Thus, natural selection has resulted in plant signals that herbivorous insects detect and avoid and that carnivorous insects detect and approach. This system of information transfer helps protect plants from herbivorous insects. To survive, organisms must receive signals from the outside environment and effectively respond to them. In order to grow, develop, and function, the cells of a multicellular organism must also communicate with one another. In plants and animals, hormones and other regulatory molecules serve as important chemical signals between various cells and organs. In animals, neurons (nerve cells) transmit information electrically and chemically. The term cell signaling refers to the mechanisms by which cells communicate with one another. If the cells are physically close to one another, a signaling molecule on one cell may combine with a receptor (a macromolecule that binds with signaling molecules) on another cell. Most commonly, cells communicate by sending chemical signals over some distance. As we will discuss, cell signaling must be precisely regulated. Cell signaling involves a sequence of four main processes (FIG. 6-2). We summarize them here and discuss them in more detail in the following sections of this chapter. 1. A cell must send a signal. In chemical signaling, a cell must synthesize and release signaling molecules. For example, specialized cells in the vertebrate pancreas secrete the hormone insulin. If the target cells, the cells that can respond to the signal, are not in close proximity, the signal must be transported to them. The circulatory system transports insulin to target cells

throughout the body. Next, target KEY POINT When a signaling molecule binds to a receptor molecule on a target cell, the cells must receive, relay, and respond receptor activates a signal transduction pathway, leading to some response to the information signaled. in the cell. 2. Reception. Reception is the process of receiving an incoming signal. Receptors are large proteins or glycoproteins that bind with signaling molecules. Many types of signaling 1 Cell sends signal molecules do not actually enter the target cell. They bind to specific reSignaling ceptors on the surface of the target molecules cell. Insulin, for example, binds to Receptor insulin receptors, which are transmembrane receptors. 3. Signal transduction is the process 2 Reception by which a cell converts an extracellular signal into an intracellular Signaling signal and relays the signal, leading molecule to a cellular response. Signal transA duction typically involves a chain Signaling of molecules that relay information. molecule When insulin binds to an insulin reB Target ceptor, the signal is relayed through cell several different signaling pathways. 3 Signal Signaling transduction 4. Response. The final molecule in the molecule signaling pathway converts the sigC nal into a response that alters some cell process. For example, as we will discuss in Chapter 49, insulin stimulates cells to take up glucose from the Protein Protein that Enzyme blood. This response lowers the conregulates a gene centration of glucose in the blood. Insulin also helps regulate fat and protein metabolism. Many signaling 4 Response Altered Change in some Specific gene molecules stimulate ion channels in membrane metabolic process activated or repressed permeability the plasma membrane to open or close. Still other signaling molecules activate or inhibit specific genes in FIGURE 6-2 Animated Overview of cell signaling the nucleus. These responses can result in changes in cell division and other aspects of cell development. Cells communicate in several ways, including directly through cell After a signaling molecule has done its job, its action must be junctions, by way of electrical signals, temporary cell-to-cell constopped, so during the signaling process, certain mechanisms tact, and chemical signals. Recall from Chapter 5 that gap junctions operate to terminate the signal. in animal cells allow rapid chemical and electrical communication between adjacent cells. For example, the gap junctions between Review cardiac muscle cells of the heart wall allow the rapid flow of ions ■ What is the sequence of events that takes place in cell signaling? necessary for synchronized contraction. Plasmodesmata between Describe each process. adjacent plant cells also allow signal molecules to pass quickly from one cell to another. Cells that are not directly connected also communicate with 6.2 SENDING SIGNALS one another. In animals, some neurons communicate with electrical signals. Most neurons, however, signal one another by releasing ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE chemical compounds called neurotransmitters (FIG. 6-3a). Neurotransmitter molecules diffuse across synapses, tiny gaps between 2 Compare three types of signaling molecules: neurotransmitters, hormones, and local regulators. neurons. More than 60 different neurotransmitters have been

hormones into the surrounding interstitial fluid. Typically, hormones Receptor diffuse into capillaries and are transSignaling ported by the blood to target cells molecules (FIG. 6-3c). Target Some cells produce local regulaneuron tors that signal cells in close proximSignaling ity. A local regulator is a signaling neuron molecule that diffuses through the interstitial fluid, the fluid surrounding the cells, and acts on nearby cells. (b) Some cells signal one another Receptor by making direct contact. This is called paracrine regulation (FIG. 6-3d). Some local regulators are considered hormones. Local regulaNucleus tors include local chemical mediators such as growth factors, histamine, nitric oxide, and prostaglandins. More Signaling Target than 50 growth factors, typically cell cell peptides, stimulate cell division and normal development in specific types Receptor Signaling (c) Many hormones are transported of cells. molecules by the blood to target cells. (hormone) Histamine is a local regulator that is stored in certain cells of the immune system and is released in response to allergic reactions, injury, or infection. Histamine causes blood Hormone transported vessels to dilate and capillaries to beEndocrine Target in blood come more permeable. Nitric oxide cell cell (NO), another local regulator, is a gas produced by many types of cells, (d) In paracrine regulation, a local Signaling Receptor molecules regulator diffuses to target cells. including plant and animal cells. (local Nitric oxide released by cells lining regulator) blood vessels relaxes smooth muscle in the blood vessel walls. As a result, the blood vessels dilate, decreasing blood pressure. Signaling Prostaglandins are local horTarget cell cell mones that are paracrine regulators. Prostaglandins modify cAMP levels and interact with other signaling molecules to regulate metabolic FIGURE 6-3 Some types of cell signaling activities. For example, some prostaglandins stimulate smooth Different types of cells may communicate in different ways. muscle to contract. (a) Neurons transmit signals across synapses.

identified, including acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, and several amino acids and peptides. Cells synthesize many different types of chemical signals and deliver them in various ways. In animals, certain cells in the immune system produce specific chemical compounds that are displayed on the cell surface. These cells recognize the chemical signals and communicate with one another by making direct contact (FIG. 6-3b). Specialized cells in plants and animals produce signaling molecules called hormones. Hormones may be synthesized by neighboring cells or by specialized organs or tissues some distance from the target cells. In animals, many hormones are produced by endocrine glands. These glands have no ducts; they secrete their

Review ■ ■ ■

What are neurotransmitters? How are hormones typically transported to target cells? What is paracrine regulation?

6.3 RECEPTION ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVES 3 Identify mechanisms that make reception a highly specific process. 4 Briefly compare ion channel–linked receptors, G protein–linked receptors, enzyme-linked receptors, and intracellular receptors.

Hundreds of different types of signaling molecules are present in the interstitial fluid, the tissue fluid that surrounds the Receptor cells of a multicellular organism. How do cells know which messages are for them? Signaling molecules The answer is that each type of cell is genetically programmed to receive and respond to specific types of signals. Which signals a cell responds to depends on the specific receptors it is programmed to synthesize. A signaling molecule, such as insulin, that binds to a specific receptor acts as a liNucleus gand. A ligand is a molecule, other than an enzyme, that binds specifically to a macromolecule (usually a protein), forming a macromolecule-ligand complex. The com(a) Hydrophilic signaling molecules bind to receptors in the plasma membrane. plex triggers a biological response. Most ligands are hydrophilic molecules that bind to protein receptors on the surface of tarSignaling get cells (FIG. 6-4a). molecules Some signaling molecules are small Receptor enough or sufficiently hydrophobic to move through the plasma membrane and enter the cell (FIG. 6-4b). These signaling molecules bind with intracellular receptors. Reception occurs when a signaling molecule binds to a specific receptor protein on the surface of, or inside, a target cell. The signaling molecule activates the receptor. A receptor on the cell surface generally has at least three domains. Recall from Chapter 3 that in biochemistry, the term domain refers to a structural and functional (b) Hydrophobic signaling molecules cross the plasma membrane and bind region of a protein. The external domain with receptors inside the cell. is a docking site for a signaling molecule. A second domain extends through the FIGURE 6-4 Cell-surface and intracellular receptors plasma membrane, and a third domain is a Hydrophilic (water-soluble) signaling molecules cannot pass through the plasma membrane. They bind to receptors on the cell surface. Hydrophobic (lipid-soluble) signaling molecules pass through the “tail” that extends into the cytoplasm. The plasma membrane and bind with receptors in the cytosol or nucleus. tail transmits the signal to a molecule inside the cell. Reception is highly selective. Each ment proteins that are activated by red light. Activation can lead type of receptor has a specific shape. The receptor binding site is to changes, such as flowering. Plants, some algae, and at least some somewhat like a lock, and signaling molecules are like different animals have cryptochromes, pigments that absorb blue light. keys. Only the signaling molecule that fits the specific receptor can Cryptochromes play a role in biological rhythms. influence the metabolic machinery of the cell. Receptors are important in determining the specificity of cell communication. Different types of cells can produce different types of recepCells regulate reception tors. Any one cell makes many different receptors. Furthermore, a An important mechanism that cells use to regulate reception is incell may synthesize different kinds of receptors at different stages creasing or decreasing the number of each type of receptor. Dependin its life cycle or in response to different conditions. Another coning on the needs of the cell, receptors are synthesized or degraded. sideration is that the same signal can have different meanings for For example, when the concentration of the hormone insulin is too various target cells. high for an extended period, cells decrease the number of their inSome receptors are specialized to respond to signals other sulin receptors. This process is called receptor down-regulation. than chemical signals. For example, in the vertebrate eye, a recepIn the case of insulin, receptor down-regulation suppresses the tor called rhodopsin is activated by light. Rhodopsin is part of a sensitivity of target cells to the hormone. Insulin stimulates cells to signal transduction pathway that leads to vision in dim light. Plants take in glucose by facilitated diffusion, so receptor down-regulation and some algae have phytochromes, a family of blue-green pig-

decreases the ability of cells to take in glucose. Receptor downregulation often involves transporting receptors to lysosomes, where they are destroyed. Receptor up-regulation occurs in response to low hormone concentrations. A greater number of receptors are synthesized, and their increased numbers on the plasma membrane make it more likely that the signal will be received by a receptor on the cell. Receptor up-regulation thus amplifies the signaling molecule’s effect on the cell. Receptor up-regulation and down-regulation are controlled in part by signals to genes that code for the receptors.

Three types of receptors occur on the cell surface Three main types of receptors on the cell surface are ion channel– linked receptors, G protein–linked receptors, and enzyme-linked receptors. Ion channel–linked receptors convert chemical signals into electrical signals Ion channel–linked receptors are found in the plasma membrane. These receptors, which have been extensively studied in neurons and muscle cells, convert chemical signals into electrical signals (FIG. 6-5a). The receptor itself serves as a channel. Ion channel–linked receptors are also called ligand-gated channels, which means that the ion channel opens or closes in response to the binding of the signaling molecule (ligand). Part of the receptor (protein) that makes up the channel forms the gate. The receptor responds to certain signals by changing its shape, opening or closing the gate. Typically, the gate of an ion channel remains closed until a ligand binds to the receptor. Neurotransmitters released by neurons in the nervous system are signaling molecules. For example, acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that binds to an acetylcholine receptor. This receptor is a ligand-gated sodium ion channel that is important in muscle contraction. When acetylcholine binds to the receptor, the channel opens, allowing sodium ions to enter the cell. The influx of sodium ions decreases the electric charge difference across the membrane (depolarization), which can lead to muscle contraction. After a brief time, the ligand dissociates from the receptor and the gate closes the channel. As we will discuss in Chapter 41, some ion channels, called voltage-activated channels, are regulated by electrical signals. G protein–linked receptors link signaling molecules to signal transduction pathways G protein–linked receptors (also called G protein–coupled receptors) are a large family of transmembrane proteins that loop back and forth through the plasma membrane seven times (FIG. 6-5b). The receptor consists of seven transmembrane alpha helices connected by loops that extend into the cytosol or outside the cell. G protein–linked receptors couple certain signaling molecules to various signal transduction pathways inside the cell. The outer part of the receptor has a binding site for a signaling molecule, and the part of the receptor that extends into the cytosol has a binding site for a specific G protein.

G proteins bind guanine nucleotides. When a signaling molecule binds with a G protein–linked receptor, the receptor changes shape. This change allows the G protein to associate with the receptor. G protein–linked receptors are found in all eukaryotes. These receptors bind with hundreds of different signaling molecules. Some of the many critical processes that depend on G protein–linked receptors are vision, sense of smell, regulation of mood and behavior, and regulation of the immune system. As you might imagine, understanding how G protein–linked receptors work is medically important. About 60% of prescription medications currently in use act on these receptors. More than 900 G protein–linked receptors have been identified in mammals, and more than 400 of these receptors are potential targets for pharmaceutical interventions. Enzyme-linked receptors function directly as enzymes or are linked to enzymes Enzyme-linked receptors are transmembrane proteins with a binding site for a signaling molecule outside the cell and an enzyme component inside the cell. Recall from Chapter 3 that enzymes catalyze specific chemical reactions; most enzymes are proteins. Some enzyme-linked receptors do not have an enzyme component but have a binding site for an enzyme. Several groups of enzyme-linked receptors have been identified. Proteins called tyrosine kinases make up a major group of enzyme-linked receptors. A kinase is an enzyme that transfers the terminal phosphate group from ATP to a substrate (the specific substance on which an enzyme acts). This process is called phosphorylation. A tyrosine kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from ATP to a specific tyrosine that is part of a protein. (Tyrosine is an amino acid.) The tyrosine kinase enzyme part of the receptor is the domain that extends into the cytosol. Tyrosine kinase receptors bind certain hormones, including insulin and growth factors, such as nerve growth factor. These receptors regulate many cellular processes and are important in development. Before the tyrosine kinase can phosphorylate a signaling protein in the cell, it must first be activated. When signal molecules bind to two tyrosine kinase receptors, the receptors move closer together in the plasma membrane and pair, forming a dimer. A conformational change (change in shape) takes place, which allows the tyrosine kinase part of each receptor to add a phosphate from an ATP molecule to certain tyrosines on the other member of the dimer (FIG. 6-5c). Once activated, tyrosine kinase enzymes can phosphorylate signaling proteins inside the cell (discussed in the next section). Many plant cell-surface receptors are enzyme-linked receptors. Brassinosteroids (BRs), a group of plant steroid hormones, regulate many plant processes, including cell division, cell elongation, and flower development (discussed in Chapter 38). Unlike animal steroid hormones, which typically bind with intracellular receptors, BRs bind with a protein kinase receptor in the plasma membrane. In plant protein kinase receptors, serine and threonine, rather than tyrosine, appear to be the amino acids that are phosphorylated. The gas ethylene is a plant hormone that regulates a variety of processes, including seed germination and ripening of fruit. Ethylene is also important in plant responses to stressors. The ethylene receptor has two components. Each component has a domain that

Signaling molecule

Extracellular fluid

Na+

Receptor

Cytosol

1

Ion channel is closed.

2

When signaling molecule binds to receptor, the channel opens. Sodium ions enter cell.

(a) Ion channel–linked receptor

Signaling molecule

Receptor G protein

Enzyme

Cytosol

GTP

GDP 1

In inactive state, the three subunits of G protein are joined.

2

When signaling molecule (ligand) binds to receptor, the ligand–receptor complex associates with G protein. This causes GDP to be replaced with GTP. One subunit of G protein then separates from the other two parts.

(b) G protein–linked receptor

Dimer

Signaling molecule Receptor

Enzyme domain of receptor

Tyr

Tyr

Tyr

Tyr

Tyr

Tyr

Tyr

Tyr

Cytosol 8 ATP

8 ADP

Protein kinase sites (inactive) 1

Receptors are in inactive state.

(c) Enzyme-linked receptors

FIGURE 6-5 Three types of cell-surface receptors

P

Tyr

Tyr

P

P

Tyr

Tyr

P

P

Tyr

Tyr

P

P

Tyr

Tyr

P

Protein kinase sites (active) 2

When signaling molecule (ligand) binds to receptors, receptors are enzymatically phosphorylated. Phosphate comes from ATP.

is an enzyme, a histidine kinase, that extends into the cell. Receptors with histidine kinase domains are also present in bacterial and yeast cells.

Some receptors are located inside the cell Certain receptors are found in the cytosol or in the nucleus. Most of these intracellular receptors are transcription factors, proteins that regulate the expression of specific genes. The signaling molecules that bind with intracellular receptors are small, hydrophobic molecules that can diffuse across the membranes of target cells (see Fig. 6-4b). In animal cells, most steroid hormones, such as the molting hormone ecdysone in insects and cortisol in vertebrates, enter target cells and combine with receptor molecules in the cytosol. Vitamins A and D and nitric oxide also bind with intracellular receptors. After binding, the ligand–receptor complex moves into the nucleus. Thyroid hormones (which are not steroids) bind to receptors already bound to DNA inside the nucleus.

Review ■ ■



How does a receptor “know” which signaling molecules to bind? Under what conditions might receptor up-regulation occur? receptor down-regulation? What are the three main types of cell-surface receptors? (Briefly describe each.)

6.4 SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVES 5 6

Compare the actions of the main types of receptors in signal transduction. Trace the sequence of events in signal transduction for each of the following second messengers: cyclic AMP, inositol trisphosphate, diacylglycerol, and calcium ions.

As we have discussed, many regulatory molecules transmit information to the cell’s interior without physically crossing the plasma membrane. Instead, they activate membrane proteins, which then transduce the signal. The first component in a signal transduction pathway is typically the receptor, which may be a transmembrane protein with a domain exposed on the extracellular surface. Each type of receptor activates a different signal transduction pathway. In a typical signaling pathway, a signaling molecule binds with a cell-surface receptor and activates it by changing the shape of the receptor tail that extends into the cytoplasm. The signal may then be relayed through a sequence of proteins that are intracellular signaling molecules. Typically, the proteins in this chain are protein kinases. The chain of signaling molecules in the cell that relays a signal is called a signaling pathway or signaling cascade. During signal transduction, the original signal is amplified. More than 3000 signaling proteins have been identified in the cells of mammals alone. Malfunctions in signal transduction pathways have been linked to major diseases, including cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases.

Signaling molecules can act as molecular switches Each component in a signaling pathway acts as a molecular “switch,” which can be in an active (“on”) state or an inactive (“off ”) state. When an intracellular signaling molecule receives a signal, it is activated (turned on). Another process then occurs that inactivates (turns off ) the signaling molecule. Every activated molecule in a signaling pathway must be inactivated in order to transmit a new signal. Molecular switches are typically regulated by the addition or removal of phosphate groups. Each time a signal molecule binds to a receptor, a signaling pathway is turned on. As the signal is transmitted to each protein kinase in the chain, the protein is phosphorylated. Recall that in phosphorylation, an enzyme transfers phosphate groups from one molecule to another. As phosphate is transferred, the signal passes from protein kinase 1 to protein kinase 2 to protein kinase 3, and on down the chain (FIG. 6-6). Phosphorylation typically activates a protein kinase, although in some cases phosphorylation inhibits protein kinase activity. A signaling pathway in which a series of protein kinase molecules are phosphorylated is referred to as a protein kinase cascade. The last protein kinase in the cascade activates the target protein by phosphorylation. The target protein alters some process in the cell. After the signal passes from protein kinase 1 to protein kinase 2, protein kinase 1 must be inactivated. Each molecule must be available to transmit a new signal. A phosphatase is an enzyme that catalyzes the removal of a phosphate group by hydrolysis; the process is called dephosphorylation. Protein phosphatases help regulate protein kinase cascades. Just as a cell contains hundreds of different protein kinases, it also contains many types of protein phosphatases. Rapid removal of phosphate groups by protein phosphatases is an important regulatory mechanism for protein kinase cascades. Such regulation ensures that these pathways operate only in response to the binding of a signal molecule to a receptor.

Ion channel–linked receptors open or close channels The gates of many ion channels remain closed until a ligand binds to the receptor. For example, when the neurotransmitter acetylcholine binds to an acetylcholine receptor (which is an ion channel–linked receptor), the channel opens, allowing sodium ions to enter the cell (see Fig. 6-5a). Depending on the type of cell, the influx of sodium ions can result in transmission of a neural impulse or in muscle contraction. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a neurotransmitter that binds to GABA receptors. One class of GABA receptors consists of ligand-gated chloride ion channels. When GABA binds to the receptor, the channel opens. Chloride ions, which are negatively charged, rush out of or into the neuron, depending on the conditions (electrochemical gradient) in the cell. Typically, chloride ions leave the cell, which inhibits transmission of neural impulses. Thus, GABA inhibits neural signaling. Barbiturates and benzodiazepine drugs such as Valium bind to GABA receptors. When this occurs, lower amounts of GABA are required to open the chloride channels and inhibit neural impulses. This action results in a tranquilizing effect. (Not all GABA receptors are themselves ion

KEY POINT

Many signaling pathways are protein kinase cascades in which each protein kinase in the pathway is activated by the addition of a phosphate group.

Signaling molecule

Receptor

P

Tyr

Tyr

P

P

Tyr

Tyr

P

P

Tyr

Tyr

P

P

Tyr

Tyr

P

1

Signaling molecules bind with receptors, activating them.

2

Active protein kinase 1

Inactive protein kinase 1

Receptor activates protein kinase 1 by phosphorylation.

P

Inactive protein kinase 2

ATP

3

Active protein kinase 2

ADP

Active protein kinase 1 then activates protein kinase 2 by phosphorylation.

P

Inactive protein kinase 3

ATP

4

Active protein kinase 3

ADP

Active protein kinase 2 activates protein kinase 3 by phosphorylation.

P 5

Inactive protein

ATP

ADP

Active protein

Active protein kinase 3 phosphorylates a specific protein that alters some cell process.

P

Alters some cell process

FIGURE 6-6 A phosphorylation cascade When the receptor is activated, each protein kinase in a signaling pathway activates the next protein kinase in the pathway by phosphorylation. The phosphate group comes from ATP. Addition of a phosphate group typically changes the shape of the molecule. Activation of the

channels; some are G-protein–linked receptors or enzyme-linked receptors that trigger a series of reactions resulting in activation of other proteins that serve as ion channels.)

G protein–linked receptors initiate signal transduction As discussed in the last section, G protein–linked receptors activate G proteins, a group of regulatory proteins important in many signal transduction pathways. These proteins are found in yeasts, protists, plants, and animals. They are involved in the action of

last protein in the chain changes some cell process or turns on (or turns off) specific genes. (P represents phosphate.) Note that the number of protein kinases varies from pathway to pathway.

some plant and many animal hormones. Some G proteins regulate channels in the plasma membrane, allowing ions to enter or exit the cell. Other G proteins are involved in the perception of sight and smell. In 1994, Alfred G. Gilman of the University of Texas and Martin Rodbell of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their groundbreaking research on G proteins. In its inactive state, the G protein consists of three subunits that are joined (see Fig. 6-5b). One subunit is linked to a molecule of guanosine diphosphate (GDP), a molecule similar to ADP but containing the base guanine instead of adenine. When a sig-

naling molecule binds with the receptor, the GDP is released and is replaced by guanosine triphosphate (GTP), a nucleotide that, like ATP, functions in energy transactions. The subunit of the G protein that is linked to the GTP separates from the other two subunits. The G protein subunit linked to the GTP is a GTPase, an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP. This action, a process that releases energy, deactivates the G protein. Now in its inactive state, the G protein subunit rejoins the other two subunits. When activated, a G protein initiates signal transduction by binding with a specific protein in the cell. In some cases, G proteins directly activate enzymes that catalyze changes in certain proteins. These changes lead to alterations in cell function. More commonly, the signaling molecule serves as the first messenger, and information is relayed by way of the G protein to a second messenger.

Second messengers are intracellular signaling agents Second messengers are ions or small molecules that relay signals inside the cell. More than 15 second messengers have been identified in mammals. When receptors are activated, second messengers are produced in large quantities. Second messengers rapidly diffuse through the cell (or membrane), relaying the signal. Thus, second messengers amplify the signal. Second messengers pass the signal along to other signaling proteins or target proteins. The signal typically passes through a

KEY POINT

chain of proteins and other molecules. The last molecule in the sequence activates the final response. Second messengers are not enzymes, but some regulate specific enzymes, such as protein kinases. Others bind to ion channels, opening or closing them. Cyclic AMP is a second messenger Most G proteins shuttle a signal between the receptor and a second messenger. In many signaling cascades in prokaryotic and animal cells, the second messenger is cyclic AMP (cAMP) (FIG. 6-7). Researcher Earl Sutherland identified cAMP as a second messenger in the 1960s and was awarded the 1971 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his pioneering work. When the G protein undergoes a conformational change (change in shape), it binds with and activates adenylyl cyclase, an enzyme on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane. The type of G protein that activates adenylyl cyclase is known as a stimulatory G protein, or Gs. (Some G proteins, denoted as Gi, inhibit enzymes.) Note that the G protein couples the ligand–receptor complex to adenylyl cyclase action (see Fig. 6-7). When activated, adenylyl cyclase catalyzes the production of cAMP from ATP (FIG. 6-8). By coupling the signaling molecule– receptor complex to an enzyme that generates a signal, G proteins amplify the effects of signaling molecules and many secondmessenger molecules are rapidly produced. The pathway is regulated, in part, by phosphodiesterase, an enzyme that converts cAMP to adenosine monophosphate (AMP). This action is an off switch that rapidly inactivates cAMP when the receptor becomes inactive.

Cyclic AMP (cAMP), a second messenger, relays a signal from the plasma membrane to proteins in the cytosol. Extracellular fluid

Signaling molecule (first messenger) Receptor G protein 1

Signaling molecule combines with G protein–linked receptor. G protein activates adenylyl cyclase, which then catalyzes formation of cAMP from ATP.

Plasma membrane Cytosol

GTP

ATP 2

3

Signal is relayed by second messengers.

Response: Some cell process is altered.

Adenylyl cyclase

cAMP Second messenger

cAMP

cAMP

cAMP

Protein

Protein

Protein

Affects gene activity

Opens or closes ion channels

Alters metabolism

FIGURE 6-7 Signal relay by a second messenger: An overview

NH2

O –

O

O

O

P –

O

˜

O

P O



˜

O

O

CH2

O

P –

C

N

C

O H

OH

OH

N

CH2 O

C

C

O

H

H

O

OH

Phosphodiesterase

O

O



Adenylyl cyclase

Plasma membrane Cytosol

C N

GDP 1

CH

Signaling molecule binds with G protein–linked receptor in plasma membrane.

N

N

C

Signaling molecule Receptor

Adenylyl cyclase

G protein separates

N

C

C N

H2O

O P

Extracellular fluid

Signaling molecule Receptor

NH2

O

O

CH N

cAMP





N

NH2

N

P

When a signaling molecule binds to a G protein– linked receptor, a G protein is activated; cyclic AMP is produced and activates a signaling pathway, leading to a change in some cell process.

G protein

H

P

O

KEY POINT

C

ATP

Adenylyl cyclase P

N

CH2

GTP

CH N

2

Signal molecule–receptor complex activates G protein. GDP is replaced by GTP.

AMP

O

H

H

OH

OH

Adenylyl cyclase activated

Receptor

FIGURE 6-8 Synthesis and inactivation of cyclic AMP Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a second messenger produced from ATP. The enzyme adenylyl cyclase catalyzes the reaction. Cyclic AMP is inactivated by the enzyme phosphodiesterase, which converts it to adenosine monophosphate (AMP). GTP

FIGURE 6-9 illustrates in more detail the sequence of events in a signaling pathway involving G protein and cyclic AMP. Cyclic AMP activates certain protein kinase enzymes, particularly a group referred to as protein kinase A. Recall that protein kinases add phosphate groups to target proteins. When a protein is phosphorylated, its function is altered and it triggers a chain of reactions leading to some response in the cell, such as a metabolic change. The substrates, the substances on which an enzyme acts, for protein kinases are different in various cell types. Consequently, the effect of the enzyme varies depending on the substrate. For example, in skeletal muscle cells, protein kinase A activates enzymes that break down glycogen to glucose, providing the muscle cells with energy. In certain neurons in the brain, the same enzyme acti-

cAMP ATP Protein kinase A

Protein

P Phosphorylated protein

Alters some cell process 3

G protein activates adenylyl cyclase, which then catalyzes synthesis of cAMP. cAMP activates protein kinase A, which then phosphorylates specific proteins, leading to some response in cell.

FIGURE 6-9 Signal transduction involving a G protein and cyclic AMP

vates the reward system by regulating action of the neurotransmitter dopamine. We can summarize the sequence of events beginning with the binding of the signaling molecule to the receptor and leading to a change in some cell function:

Some G proteins use phospholipids as second messengers Certain signaling molecule–receptor complexes activate a G protein that then activates the membrane-bound enzyme phospholipase C (FIG. 6-10). This enzyme splits a membrane phospholipid, PIP2 (phosphotidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate), into two products, inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). Both act as second messengers. DAG remains in the plasma membrane, where in combination with calcium ions, it activates protein kinase C enzymes. Depending on the type of cell and the specific protein kinase C, the response of the cell can include growth, a change in cell pH,

signaling molecule (first messenger) binds to G protein–linked receptor ¡ activates G protein ¡ activates adenylyl cyclase ¡ catalyzes the formation of cAMP (second messenger) ¡ activates protein kinase ¡ phosphorylates proteins ¡ response in cell

KEY POINT

When activated by a G protein, phospholipase C splits the phospholipid PIP2, producing the second messengers DAG and IP3. 1

Signaling molecule binds with G protein–linked receptor and activates a G protein.

2

Signal molecule–receptor complex activates phospholipase C. Extracellular fluid

Signaling Receptor Phospholipase C molecule G protein activated

PIP2

3

Phospholipase C splits PIP2, Activated producing DAG protein kinase C and IP3.

DAG P

P P

GTP

Protein P IP3 P P

P IP3 P P

ER

5 2+

Ca

4

DAG is second messenger that activates protein kinase C enzymes. These enzymes phosphorylate proteins that alter cell processes.

Phosphorylated protein

P

Alters cell activity

IP3 binds to calcium channels in ER. Calcium ions are released into cytosol and act as second messengers.

Alters cell activity

FIGURE 6-10 Phospholipid products as second messengers An activated G protein activates phospholipase C. This enzyme splits PIP2, producing two second messengers—IP3 and DAG. IP3 binds to calcium channels in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); calcium ions are released into

the cytosol and act as second messengers. DAG activates protein kinase C, a family of enzymes that activates signaling pathways by phosphorylating proteins; calcium ions are needed for the activation of protein kinase C.

rosine in proteins (see Fig. 6-6). When a signaling molecule, such as a growth factor, binds to an enzyme-linked receptor, sites on the receptor are phosphorylated. Addition of the phosphates activates the enzyme part of the receptor. Once activated, tyrosine kinase enzymes can phosphorylate signaling proteins in the cell. Specific target proteins recognize the phosphorylated tyrosines on the tyrosine kinase receptor molecules. These signaling proteins bind to the phosphorylated sites on the receptor molecules. The signaling proteins are then phosphorylated and can activate specific signaling pathways. Recall that in many signal transduction pathways, protein kinases form signaling cascades in which the protein kinases are phosphorylated one after another (see Fig. 6-6). Even when the amino acid phosphorylated in the receptor is tyrosine, the amino acids phosphorylated in the protein kinases in the signaling pathway can be serine or threonine, rather than tyrosine. Each reaction in a chain is dependent on the preceding one. Activation of the last protein in

or regulation of certain ion channels. Protein kinase C stimulates contraction of smooth muscle in the digestive system and in other organs of the body. IP3 is a member of a family of inositol phosphate messengers, some of which can donate phosphate groups to proteins. IP3 binds to calcium channels in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), causing them to open and release calcium ions into the cytosol. We can summarize this sequence of events as follows: signaling molecule binds to G protein–linked receptor ¡ activates G protein ¡ activates phospholipase ¡ splits PIP2 ¡ inositol trisphosphate (IP3) + diacylglycerol (DAG)

DAG ¡ activates protein kinase enzymes ¡ phosphorylates proteins ¡ some response in cell

IP3 ¡ binds to calcium channels in ER ¡ calcium ions released into the cytosol ¡ some response in the cell

Calcium ions are important messengers Calcium ions (Ca2+) have important functions in many cell processes, including microtubule disassembly, muscle contraction, blood clotting, secretion, and activation of certain cells in the immune system. Calcium ions are critical in neural signaling, including the pathways involved in learning. These ions are also essential in fertilization of an egg and in the initiation of development. Ion pumps in the plasma membrane normally maintain a low calcium ion concentration in the cytosol compared to its concentration in the extracellular fluid. Calcium ions are also stored in the endoplasmic reticulum. When Ca2+ gates open in the plasma membrane or endoplasmic reticulum, the Ca2+ concentration rises in the cytosol. Calcium ions can act alone, but typically they exert their effects by binding to certain proteins. Calmodulin, found in all eukaryotic cells, is an important Ca2+ binding protein. When four Ca2+ bind to a calmodulin molecule, the molecule changes shape and can then activate certain enzymes. Calmodulin combines with a number of different enzymes, including protein kinases and protein phosphatases, and alters their activity. Various types of cells have different calmodulin-binding proteins. How a target cell responds depends on which proteins are present. Calmodulin is important in the regulation of many key processes including metabolism, muscle contraction, memory, inflammation, and apoptosis.

KEY POINT

Many intracellular receptors are transcription factors; when activated, they activate or repress specific genes. Signaling molecules

1

Signaling molecules pass through plasma membrane.

2

3

Signaling molecules move through cytosol.

Signaling molecules pass through nuclear envelope and combine with receptor in nucleus.

Nucleus

Transcription factor (Activated receptor) DNA

4

5

Activated receptor is a transcription factor that activates (or represses) specific genes.

Proteins are synthesized.

Messenger RNA Ribosome Messenger RNA

Protein 6

Cell activity is altered.

Many enzyme-linked receptors activate protein kinase signaling pathways Recall that many enzyme-linked receptors are tyrosine kinases, enzymes that phosphorylate the amino acid ty-

Target cell

FIGURE 6-11 Intracellular receptors

the chain causes a specific cell response. Some cell process is altered. Signaling molecule

Many activated intracellular receptors are transcription factors

Receptor Plasma membrane

Some hydrophobic signaling molecules diffuse across the membranes of target Cytosol cells and bind with intracellular receptors in the cytosol or in the nucleus. For Scaffolding Kinase 1 example, cortisol receptors are located protein in the cytosol. (Cortisol is a steroid horKinase 2 mone produced in the adrenal glands; Kinase 3 its structure is shown in Figure 3-15b.) Thyroid hormones pass into the nucleus and bind with receptors that are bound to DNA in the nucleus. Many intracellular receptors are transcription factors Response that regulate the expression of specific genes. When a signaling molecule binds FIGURE 6-12 A scaffold protein to a receptor, the receptor is activated. Scaffold proteins organize groups of signaling molecules into a signaling complex, making signal transducThe ligand–receptor complex binds to a tion faster, more precise, and more efficient. specific region of DNA and activates or represses specific genes (FIG. 6-11). Cell biologists have demonstrated that when certain signalGene activation can take place quickly—within about 30 mining molecules bind to integrins in the plasma membrane, specific utes. Messenger RNA is produced and carries the code for synthesis signal transduction pathways are activated. Interestingly, growth of a particular protein into the cytoplasm. In combination with rifactors and certain molecules of the extracellular matrix may modbosomes, messenger RNA manufactures specific proteins that can ulate one another’s messages. Integrins also respond to informaalter cell activity. tion received from inside the cell. This inside-out signaling affects how selective integrins are with respect to the molecules to which Scaffold proteins increase efficiency they bind and how strongly they bind to them. Signal transduction is a rapid, precise process. Enzymes must be organized so that they are available as needed for signaling pathReview ways. Scaffold proteins organize groups of intracellular signaling ■ How is an extracellular signal converted to an intracellular signal in molecules into signaling complexes (FIG. 6-12). These proteins signal transduction? Give a specific example. position enzymes close to the proteins they regulate, increasing ■ What is the action of cyclic AMP? of DAG? the probability that they will react with one another. At the same ■ What are the functions of scaffold proteins? time, scaffold proteins decrease the chance that enzymes will be co-opted by other pathways. These organizing proteins guide interactions between molecules, reducing cross talk among different 6.5 RESPONSES TO SIGNALS signaling pathways. Thus, scaffold proteins ensure that signals are relayed accurately, rapidly, and efficiently. ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVES Scaffold proteins have been identified in many pathways, and similar scaffold proteins have been found in diverse organisms. 7 Describe three types of responses that cells make to signaling molecules. Both yeasts and mammals have scaffold proteins that bind kinases 8 Contrast signal amplification with signal termination. in MAP kinase pathways (discussed in the next section).

Signals can be transmitted in more than one direction Integrins, transmembrane proteins that connect the cell to the extracellular matrix, transduce signals in two directions. They transmit signals from outside the cell to the cell interior and also transmit information about the cell interior to the extracellular matrix.

As we have learned, signaling molecules activate signal transduction pathways that bring about specific responses in the cell. Most of these responses fall into three categories: ion channels open or close; enzyme activity is altered, leading to metabolic changes and other effects; and specific gene activity may be turned on or off. Various mechanisms and pathways interact to produce specific actions that are responsible for the structure and function of the cell.

They are responsible for metabolic activity, movement, growth, cell division, development, and further information transfer. In animals, neurons release neurotransmitters that excite or inhibit other neurons or muscle cells by affecting ion channels. For example, when acetylcholine binds with a receptor on a target neuron, an ion channel opens and allows passage of sodium and potassium ions. The resulting change in ion permeability can activate the neuron so that it transmits a neural impulse. Serotonin and some other neurotransmitters work indirectly through G proteins and cyclic AMP. In this chain of events, cAMP activates a kinase that phosphorylates a protein which then closes potassium ion channels. This action leads to transmission of a neural impulse. Some G proteins directly open or close ion channels. Some receptors directly affect enzyme activity, whereas others initiate signal transduction pathways in which enzymes are altered by components of the pathway. When bacteria infect the body, they release certain peptides. Neutrophils, a type of white blood cell, have cell-surface receptors that detect these peptides. When the bacterial peptides bind to a neutrophil’s receptors, enzymes are activated that lead to assembly of microfilaments (actin filaments) and microtubules. Contractions of microfilaments at the far end of the neutrophil force the cytoplasm forward. This action allows the neutrophil to move toward the invading bacteria and destroy them. Microtubules and a variety of proteins, including the contractile protein myosin, appear necessary for this movement. Some signaling molecules affect gene activity. For example, some signaling molecules activate genes that lead to the manufacture of proteins needed for growth and cell division. In both plants and animals, steroid hormones regulate development by causing changes in the expression of specific genes. In animal cells, some steroid hormones bind to nuclear receptors and directly regulate expression of specific target genes. In plant cells, steroid hormones bind to receptors on the cell surface. The signal is then transmitted through a chain of molecules, eventually leading to changes in gene expression. Plant hormones will be discussed in greater detail in Chapter 38, and animal hormones are the focus of Chapter 49.

Ras pathways involve tyrosine kinase receptors and G proteins Some tyrosine kinase receptors activate G proteins. For example, when growth factors bind to tyrosine kinase receptors, ras proteins are activated. Ras proteins are a group of small G proteins that, like other G proteins, are active when bound to GTP. Ras proteins are molecular switches that regulate signaling networks inside the cell. When activated, Ras triggers a cascade of reactions called the Ras pathway. In this pathway, a tyrosine in specific kinase proteins is phosphorylated, leading to critical cell responses. Ras pathways are important in gene expression, cell division, cell movement, cell differentiation, cell adhesion, embryonic development, and apoptosis. For example, to initiate DNA synthesis, fibroblasts (a type of connective tissue cell) require the presence of two growth factors, epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor. In one study, investigators injected fibroblasts with antibodies that inactivate Ras proteins by binding to them. The

fibroblasts no longer synthesized DNA in response to growth factors. Data from this and similar experiments led to the conclusion that Ras proteins are important in signal transduction involving growth factors. Ras genes code for Ras proteins. Certain mutations in Ras genes result in mutant Ras proteins that bind GTP but cannot hydrolyze it. The mutant Ras proteins are stuck in the “on” state, resulting in unregulated cell division. This condition is associated with several types of human cancer. In fact, mutations in Ras genes have been identified in about one-third of all human cancers. Drugs that inhibit specific tyrosine kinase receptors and Ras pathways are being developed to treat cancer. One Ras pathway that has been extensively studied is the MAP kinase pathway, also known as the ERK pathway; MAP is an acronym for “mitogen-activated protein” (mitogens induce mitosis, the nuclear division associated with eukaryotic cell division). ERK is an acronym for “extracellular signal-regulated kinases.” Several distinct groups of MAP kinases have been described. The pathway illustrated in FIGURE 6-13 shows three main MAP protein kinases: Raf, Mek, and ERK. Proteins in the MAP pathway phosphorylate a nuclear protein that combines with other proteins to form a transcription factor. When specific genes are activated, proteins needed for cell growth, cell division, and cell differentiation (specialization) are synthesized. The MAP kinase cascade is the main signaling pathway for cell division and differentiation. As illustrated in FIGURE 6-14, the signaling proteins ERK 1 and ERK 2 are important in fertility in mammals.

The response to a signal is amplified Signaling molecules are typically present in very low concentrations, yet their effects on the cell are often profound. This is possible because the signal is amplified, as it is relayed through a signaling pathway. For example, let us examine how the action of a signaling molecule such as the hormone epinephrine is magnified as a signal passes through a series of proteins inside the cell. Epinephrine is released by the adrenal glands in response to danger or other stress. Among its many actions, epinephrine increases heart rate, blood flow to skeletal muscle, and glucose concentration in the blood. Epinephrine binds to a G protein–linked receptor, causing the receptor to change shape and activate a G protein. A single molecule of a hormone such as epinephrine can activate many G proteins. Each G protein activates an adenylyl cyclase molecule and then returns to its inactive state. Before it becomes inactive, each adenylyl cyclase can catalyze the production of numerous cAMP molecules (FIG. 6-15). Then, each cAMP molecule can activate many molecules of a particular protein kinase. That protein kinase can phosphorylate many molecules of the next kinase in the pathway and so on down the cascade. As a result of signal amplification, a single signaling molecule can lead to changes in millions of molecules at the end of a signaling cascade. The response is much greater than would be possible if each signaling molecule acted alone. This process of magnifying the strength of a signaling molecule explains how just a few signaling molecules can lead to major responses in the cell.

KEY POINT

When growth factors bind to their receptors, they activate the G protein Ras; Ras activates a MAP-kinase signaling pathway, leading to activation (or repression) of specific genes, and ultimately to protein activity that affects some cell process. 1

Signaling molecule (EGF)

Receptor

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) binds with tyrosine kinase receptor. 2

Inactive Ras

Adapter proteins bind to tyrosine kinase receptor and stimulate removal of GDP from G protein Ras.

3

P

Tyr

Tyr

P

P

Tyr

Tyr

P

P

Tyr

Tyr

P

P

Tyr

Tyr

P

Ras then binds with GTP and becomes active.

Active Ras GDP GTP

GDP Adapter proteins

Raf

ATP

GTP

4

Active Raf

ADP

Active Ras phosphorylates a MAP kinase called Raf, activating it.

P

5

Raf then activates a MAP kinase called Mek.

Mek

ATP

P

ERK 6

Mek activates a MAP kinase called ERK.

7

ERK can activate many different proteins including other protein kinases and transcription factors.

8

Active Mek

ADP

Gene activity is altered, affecting some cell process.

ATP

ADP

Active ERK P

Gene activity altered

Change in some cell process

FIGURE 6-13 A highly simplified Ras/MAP kinase signaling pathway In the pathway illustrated here, epidermal growth factor (EGF) binds with a tyrosine kinase receptor, leading to activation of the small G protein Ras. Then, Ras activates a MAP-kinase signaling pathway. A

Signals must be terminated Once a signal has done its job, it must be terminated. Signal termination returns the receptor and each of the components of the signal transduction pathway to their inactive states. This action allows the magnitude of the response to reflect the strength of the signal. Molecules in the system must also be ready to respond to new signals.

series of MAP kinases in the pathway are activated by phosphorylation. The final MAP kinase can regulate several transcription factors, leading to changes in gene expression that affect cell processes.

We have seen that after a G protein is activated, a subunit of the G protein, a GTPase, catalyzes the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP. This action inactivates the G protein. In the cyclic AMP pathway, any increase in cAMP concentration is temporary. Cyclic AMP is rapidly inactivated by a phosphodiesterase, which converts it to adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Thus, the concentration of cAMP

KEY EXPERIMENT QUESTION: Do the signaling molecules ERK 1 and ERK 2 have key functions in signaling pathways leading to maturation of oocytes (eggs) and ovulation (release of a mature egg from the ovary) in mammals? HYPOTHESIS: The signaling molecules ERK 1 and ERK 2 are key target molecules of the signal sent by the reproductive hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and thus are important in oocyte maturation and ovulation in mammals. EXPERIMENT: The researchers produced a line of mice that were deficient in both ERK 1 and ERK 2. They performed biochemical analyses on the signaling pathway activated by LH. They also examined the ovaries of the mice.

LH binds to receptor

depends on the activity of both adenylyl cyclase, which produces it, and of phosphodiesterase, which breaks it down (see Fig. 6-8). Recall also that in many signaling pathways, each protein kinase activates the next protein kinase in the chain by phosphorylating it; a phosphatase then inactivates it by removing the phosphate group. Failure to terminate signals can lead to dire consequences. For example, the bacterium that causes cholera is ingested when people drink contaminated water. Cholera is prevalent in areas where water is contaminated with human feces. The cholera bacterium releases a toxin that activates G proteins in the epithelial cells lining the intestine. The toxin chemically changes the G protein so that it no longer switches off. As a result, the G protein continues to stimulate adenylyl cyclase to make cAMP. The cells lining the intestine malfunction, allowing a large flow of chloride ions into the intestine. Water and other ions follow, leading to the severe watery diarrhea that characterizes cholera. The disease is treated by replacing the lost fluid. If untreated, this G protein malfunction can cause death.

Review

EGF-like factors*



What are some cell responses to signals?



How do cells amplify signals? What is signal termination?



activate

6.6 EVOLUTION OF CELL COMMUNICATION

Ras activates

■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE

ERK 1/ERK 2 activate

9 Cite evidence supporting a long evolutionary history for cell signaling molecules.

Other proteins/factors

Nucleus Activate genes

Oocyte maturation/Ovulation

RESULTS AND CONCUSIONS: In mice deficient in both ERK 1 and ERK 2, the signaling pathway from LH was disrupted. As a result, genes regulating oocyte maturation and ovulation were not activated. Oocytes failed to mature and ovulate, and the mice also exhibited reproductive disorders associated with changes in levels of reproductive hormones. ERK 1 and ERK 2 are key molecules in a signaling pathway that regulates reproduction in mice. These results may lead to greater understanding of certain ovarian disorders that result in infertility in humans. *EGF = epidermal growth factor Source: Fan, H.-Y. et al., Science, Vol. 324, 938–941, 2009.

FIGURE 6-14 Identifying key molecules in a signaling pathway that regulates reproduction in mammals

In this chapter, we have examined how the cells of a multicellular organism signal one another and have described a few of the many signal transduction pathways within cells. We have described quorum sensing and other examples of communication between members of a species. We have also discussed communication among members of different species, such as signaling between plants and insects. In our discussion, we have noted many similarities in the types of signals used and in the molecules that cells use to relay signals from the cell surface to the molecules that carry out a specific response. Some signal transduction pathways found in organisms as diverse as yeasts and animals are quite similar. G proteins, protein kinases, and phosphatases have been highly conserved and are part of signaling pathways in most organisms. Certain disease-causing bacteria have signal transduction pathways similar to those found in eukaryotes. Bacteria may use some of these signal mechanisms to interfere with normal function in the eukaryotic cells they infect. Such similarities in many species suggest evolutionary relationships. Similarities in cell signaling suggest that the molecules and mechanisms used in cell communication are very old. The evidence suggests that cell communication first evolved in prokaryotes and continued to change over time as new types of organisms evolved. However, the fact that some cell signaling molecules have not

Receptor Signaling molecule

1

Adenylyl cyclase activated

One signaling molecule activates many G G protein protein molecules.

GTP 2

GTP

GTP

GTP

Each G protein activates an adenylyl cyclase molecule.

cAMP

ATP cAMP

cAMP cAMP

cAMP

4

Protein kinase Protein 5

Each protein kinase catalyzes phosphorylation of many proteins.

Each adenylyl cyclase catalyzes production of many cAMP molecules.

3

cAMP

Each cAMP molecule activates a protein kinase. P P

P

P

Phosphorylated proteins

P P

P P

6

Phosphorylated proteins affect cell processes.

FIGURE 6-15 Signal amplification The signal is amplified at each step in the pathway so that one activated receptor can give rise to thousands of final products (proteins at the end of the pathway). The response is far greater than what you might expect from a single receptor.

■ ■

changed very much over time suggests that the importance of these pathways to cell survival has restricted any evolutionary changes that might have made them less effective. Thus, these pathways have weathered the demands of natural selection through millions of years of evolution. Choanoflagellates, unicellular protists that are thought to be the most recent ancestors of animals, are used as models for studying the early evolution of animals. Choanoflagellates have many of the same proteins found in animals. These tiny organisms have protein kinases similar to those of animals, and a G protein–linked receptor has been identified. These findings indicate that important proteins necessary for cell communication in animals had evolved long before the evolution of animals. As we will discuss in later chapters, similarities and differences in basic molecules, such as G proteins, can be used to trace evolutionary pathways.

Review ■

Choanoflagellates and animals have similar protein kinases. What does that suggest about their cell signaling mechanisms?

S U M M A RY: F O C US O N L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S

6.1 (page 135)



1 Describe the four main processes essential for cells to communicate. ■

Cells communicate by cell signaling, which consists of four main processes: (1) synthesis, release, and transport of signaling molecules; (2) reception of information by target cells; (3) signal transduction, the process in which a receptor converts an extracellular signal into an intracellular signal and relays the signal, leading to a cellular response; and (4) response by the cell, for example, some metabolic process may be altered.

6.2 (page 136) 2 Compare three types of signaling molecules: neurotransmitters, hormones, and local regulators Most neurons (nerve cells) signal one another by releasing chemical ■ compounds called neurotransmitters.



Hormones are chemical messengers in plants and animals. In animals, they are secreted by endocrine glands, glands that have no ducts. Most hormones diffuse into capillaries and are transported by the blood to target cells. Local regulators diffuse through the interstitial fluid and act on nearby cells. This is called paracrine regulation. Histamine, growth factors, prostaglandins (a type of local hormone), and nitric oxide (a gaseous signaling molecule that passes into target cells) are examples of local regulators.

6.3 (page 137) 3 Identify mechanisms that make reception a highly specific process. ■

Each type of receptor has a specific shape, and only the signaling molecule that fits the specific receptor can affect the cell. A cell can have many different types of receptors and can make different

receptors at different stages in its life cycle or in response to different conditions. Different types of cells can have different types of receptors. 4 Briefly compare ion channel–linked receptors, G protein–linked receptors, enzyme-linked receptors, and intracellular receptors. ■ When a signaling molecule binds to an ion channel–linked receptor, the ion channel opens or, in some cases, closes. G protein–linked receptors are transmembrane proteins that ■ extend into the cytosol or outside the cell. These receptors couple specific signaling molecules to signal transduction pathways inside the cell. The tail of the receptor that extends into the cytosol has a binding site for a specific G protein, a regulatory protein that binds to GTP. ■ Enzyme-linked receptors are transmembrane proteins with a binding site for a signaling molecule outside the cell and a binding site for an enzyme inside the cell. Many enzyme-linked receptors are tyrosine kinases in which the enzyme is part of the receptor.

P

Tyr

Tyr

P

P P P

Tyr

Tyr

Tyr

Tyr

Tyr

Tyr

P P P

Some G proteins directly activate enzymes that catalyze changes in certain proteins, leading to changes in cell function. ■ Intracellular receptors are located in the cytosol or nucleus. These receptors are transcription factors that activate or repress the expression of specific genes. 6 Trace the sequence of events in signal transduction for each of the following second messengers: cyclic AMP, inositol trisphosphate, diacylglycerol, and calcium ions. ■ In many signaling systems, the signaling molecule serves as the first messenger. Information is relayed by the G protein to a second messenger, an intracellular signaling molecule. ■ When certain G proteins undergo a conformational change, they bind with and activate adenylyl cyclase, an enzyme on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane. Adenylyl cyclase catalyzes the formation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP. Cyclic AMP is a second messenger that activates certain protein kinase enzymes that phosphorylate certain proteins. The phosphorylated protein triggers a chain of reactions that lead to some response in the cell. ■ Certain G proteins activate the membrane-bound enzyme phospholipase C. This enzyme splits a phospholipid, PIP2 (phosphotidylinositol4,5-bisphosphate), into two products, inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). IP3 is a second messenger that can donate phosphate groups to proteins. IP3 binds to calcium channels in the endoplasmic reticulum, which causes the channels to open and release calcium ions into the cytosol. DAG is a second messenger that activates certain protein kinase enzymes. These enzymes phosphorylate a variety of target proteins. ■ Calcium ions can also act as second messengers. They typically combine with the protein calmodulin, which then affects the activity of protein kinases and protein phosphatases.

6.5 (page 147) ■

Intracellular receptors are located in the cytosol or in the nucleus. Their ligands are small, hydrophobic molecules that diffuse across the plasma membrane.

6.4 (page 141) 5 Compare the actions of the main types of receptors in signal transduction. Ion channel–linked receptors convert chemical signals into electrical signals. The gates of many ion channels remain closed until ligands bind to them. ■ Many enzyme-linked receptors are tyrosine kinases, enzymes that phosphorylate proteins. Tyrosine kinase receptors activate several different signal transduction pathways. In a protein kinase cascade, each molecule in the signaling pathway is phosphorylated by the preceding protein kinase in the chain. The last protein kinase in the cascade activates the target protein by phosphorylation. The target protein alters some process in the cell. G protein–linked receptors activate G proteins. A G protein con■ sists of three subunits. It is linked to a molecule of guanosine diphosphate (GDP), a molecule similar to ADP but containing the base guanine instead of adenine. When a ligand binds with the receptor, the GDP is released and is replaced by guanosine triphosphate (GTP). Then one subunit of the G protein separates from the other two subunits. The activated G protein may initiate a signal transduction pathway by binding with a specific protein in the cell. ■

7 Describe three types of responses that cells make to signaling molecules. ■ In response to signaling molecules: ion channels open or close; enzyme activity changes leading to metabolic changes and other effects; and specific genes are activated or repressed. These responses can affect cell shape, cell growth, cell division, cell differentiation, and metabolism. 8 Contrast signal amplification with signal termination. ■ Signal amplification is the process of enhancing the cell’s response to a signal as the signal is relayed through a signal transduction pathway. Before it becomes inactive, each enzyme can catalyze the production of numerous product molecules. ■ Signal termination is the process of inactivating the receptor and each component of the signal transduction pathway once they have done their jobs. Signal termination allows molecules in the system to respond to new signals.

6.6 (page 150) 9 Cite evidence supporting a long evolutionary history for cell signaling molecules. ■ Molecules important in cell signaling first evolved in prokaryotes. G proteins, protein kinases, and phosphatases have been highly conserved and are part of most signaling pathways.

T E S T YO U R U N D E R S TA N D I N G 1. During signal transduction (a) the cell converts an extracellular signal into an intracellular signal that leads to a change in some cell process (b) a signaling molecule activates or represses several genes (c) each enzyme catalyzes production of one molecule of

product (d) relay of the signal is regulated by paracrine regulation (e) the signal is terminated by prostaglandins 2. In paracrine regulation (a) endocrine glands release hormones that are transported by the blood (b) electrical signals are trans-

mitted (c) neurotransmitters signal growth factors (d) prostaglandins terminate signals during signal transduction (e) a local regulator signals nearby cells 3. When a signaling molecule binds with a receptor (a) G proteins are inactivated (b) a third messenger is activated (c) cell signaling is terminated (d) the signaling cell is activated (e) the receptor is activated 4. G protein–linked receptors (a) inactivate G proteins (b) activate first messengers (c) consist of 18 transmembrane alpha helices (d) have a tail that extends into the cytosol and a binding site for a G protein (e) are located in the cytoplasm or nucleus 5. An enzyme-linked receptor (a) is an integral membrane protein (b) would not be found on plant cell surfaces (c) forms a dimer with another enzyme-linked receptor when a ligand binds to it (d) is typically an adenylyl cyclase molecule (e) typically activates ion channels 6. G proteins (a) relay a message from an activated receptor to an enzyme that activates a second messenger (b) are GTP molecules (c) terminate cell signaling (d) directly activate protein kinases (e) function as first messengers

lated (b) the enzyme portion of the receptor is dephosphorylated (c) the receptor is activated and phorphorylates signaling proteins in the cell (d) an ion channel is opened (e) an immediate signal is sent into the nucleus and specific genes are activated or inhibited 11. Scaffold proteins (a) release kinases and phosphatases into the extracellular fluid (b) increase the probability that an enzyme can be used by several different pathways (c) increase accuracy but slow signaling cascades (d) organize groups of intracellular signaling molecules into signaling complexes (e) are transcription factors found mainly in plant cells 12. Each adenylyl cyclase molecule produces many cAMP molecules. This is an example of (a) receptor up-regulation (b) receptor down-regulation (c) signal amplification (d) scaffold (e) similarities produced by evolution 13. Label the following structures in the diagram: first messenger, G protein, ATP, cAMP (second messenger), protein, cell response. (Consult Fig. 6-7 to check your answers.)

7. Which is the correct sequence? 1. protein kinase activated 2. adenylyl cyclase activated 3. cAMP produced 4. proteins phosphorylated 5. G protein activated (a) 1, 2, 3, 5, 4 (b) 5, 3, 2, 1, 4 (c) 5, 2, 3, 4, 1 (d) 5, 2, 3, 1, 4 (e) 2, 3, 1, 4, 5 8. Which is the correct sequence? 1. phospholipase activated 2. G protein activated 3. PIP2 split 4. proteins phosphorylated 5. DAG produced (a) 1, 2, 5, 3, 4 (b) 2, 1, 3, 5, 4 (c) 4, 2, 3, 1, 5 (d) 5, 2, 3, 1, 4 (e) 2, 3, 5, 4, 1

Cytosol

9. Calcium ions (a) can act as second messengers (b) split calmodulin (c) are kept at higher concentration in the cytosol than in the extracellular fluid (d) are produced in the ER by protein kinases and protein phosphatases (e) typically terminate signaling cascades 10. When growth hormone binds to an enzyme-linked receptor (a) G proteins form a cascade of molecules and are phosphory-

CRITICAL THINKING 1. In many instances, the pathway from signaling molecule to final response in the cell involves complex signaling cascades. Give an example of a complex signaling system, and explain why such complexity may have advantages. 2. More than 500 genes have been identified in the human genome that code for protein kinases. What does this imply regarding protein kinases? Explain your answer. 3. EVOLUTION LINK. Cell signaling in plant and animal cells is similar in some ways and different in others. Offer one or more hypotheses for these similarities and differences, and cite specific examples. 4. EVOLUTION LINK. Some of the same G protein–linked receptors and signal transduction pathways found in plants and animals have been identified in fungi and algae. What does this suggest

about the evolution of these molecules? What does it suggest about these molecules and pathways? 5. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND SOCIETY. Mutant Ras proteins have been associated with many types of human cancer. Hundreds of millions of dollars are required for the basic research and development of each new drug. As a citizen are you willing to help fund development of new medications to treat cancer through government-sponsored research? Why or why not? If not, what alternatives do you propose? Additional questions are available in CengageNOW at www.cengage.com/ login.

7

Energy and Metabolism

Keren Su/Corbis

Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). The chemical energy produced by photosynthesis and stored in bamboo leaves transfers to the panda as it eats.

KEY CONCEPTS

A

7.1 Energy, the capacity to do work, can be kinetic energy

nongrowing cells need energy simply to maintain themselves. Cells ob-

(energy of motion) or potential energy (energy due to position or state).

tain energy in many forms, but that energy can seldom be used directly to

7.2 Energy cannot be created or destroyed (the first law of

energy from one form to another. The ordered systems of the cell provide

thermodynamics), but the total amount of energy available to do work in a closed system decreases over time (the second law of thermodynamics). Organisms do not violate the laws of thermodynamics because, as open systems, they use energy obtained from their surroundings to do work.

7.3 In cells, energy-releasing (exergonic) processes drive energy-requiring (endergonic) processes.

7.4 ATP plays a central role in cell energy metabolism by linking exergonic and endergonic reactions. ATP transfers energy by transferring a phosphate group.

ll living things require energy to carry out life processes. It may seem obvious that cells need energy to grow and reproduce, but even

power cell processes. For this reason, cells have mechanisms that convert the information that makes these energy transformations possible. Because most components of these energy conversion systems evolved very early in the history of life, many aspects of energy metabolism tend to be similar in a wide range of organisms. The sun is the ultimate source of almost all the energy that powers life; this radiant energy flows from the sun as electromagnetic waves. Plants and other photosynthetic organisms capture about 0.02% of the sun’s energy that reaches Earth. As discussed in Chapter 9, photosyn-

7.5 The transfer of electrons in redox reactions is another

thetic organisms convert radiant energy to chemical energy in the bonds

way that cells transfer energy.

of organic molecules. This chemical energy becomes available to plants,

7.6 As biological catalysts, enzymes increase the rate of

animals such as the giant panda shown in the photograph, and other

specific chemical reactions. The activity of an enzyme is influenced by temperature, pH, the presence of cofactors, and inhibitors and/or activators.

organisms through the process of cellular respiration. In cellular respiration, discussed in Chapter 8, organic molecules are broken apart and their energy is converted to more immediately usable forms.

This chapter focuses on some of the basic principles that govern how cells capture, transfer, store, and use energy. We discuss the functions of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and other molecules used in energy conversions, including those that transfer electrons in oxidation–reduction (redox) reactions. We also pay particular attention to the essential role of enzymes in cell energy dynamics. The flow of energy in ecosystems is discussed in Chapter 55. POTENTIAL Energy of position

7.1 BIOLOGICAL WORK ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1 2

Define energy, emphasizing how it is related to work and to heat. Use examples to contrast potential energy and kinetic energy.

Energy, one of the most important concepts in biology, can be understood in the context of matter, which is anything that has mass and takes up space. Energy is defined as the capacity to do work, which is any change in the state or motion of matter. Technically, mass is a form of energy, which is the basis behind the energy generated by the sun and other stars. More than 4 billion kilograms of matter per second are converted into energy in the sun. Biologists generally express energy in units of work— kilojoules (kJ). It can also be expressed in units of heat energy— kilocalories (kcal)—thermal energy that flows from an object with a higher temperature to an object with a lower temperature. One kilocalorie is equal to 4.184 kJ. Heat energy cannot do cell work because a cell is too small to have regions that differ in temperature. For that reason, the unit most biologists prefer today is the kilojoule. However, we will use both units because references to the kilocalorie are common in the scientific literature.

Organisms carry out conversions between potential energy and kinetic energy When an archer draws a bow, kinetic energy, the energy of motion, is used and work is performed (FIG. 7-1). The resulting tension in the bow and string represents stored, or potential, energy. Potential energy is the capacity to do work as a result of position or state. When the string is released, this potential energy is converted to kinetic energy in the motion of the bow, which propels the arrow. Most actions of an organism involve a series of energy transformations that occur as kinetic energy is converted to potential energy or as potential energy is converted to kinetic energy. Chemical energy, potential energy stored in chemical bonds, is of particular importance to organisms. In our example, the chemical energy of food molecules is converted to kinetic energy in the muscle cells of the archer. The contraction of the archer’s muscles, like many of the activities performed by an organism, is an example of mechanical energy, which performs work by moving matter.

Review ■

You exert tension on a spring and then release it. How do these actions relate to work, potential energy, and kinetic energy?

KINETIC Energy of motion

FIGURE 7-1 Potential versus kinetic energy The potential chemical energy released by cellular respiration is converted to kinetic energy in the muscles, which do the work of drawing the bow. The potential energy stored in the drawn bow is transformed into kinetic energy as the bowstring pushes the arrow toward its target.

7.2 THE LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE 3

State the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and discuss the implications of these laws as they relate to organisms.

Thermodynamics, the study of energy and its transformations, governs all activities of the universe, from the life and death of cells to the life and death of stars. When considering thermodynamics, scientists use the term system to refer to an object that they are studying, whether a cell, an organism, or planet Earth. The rest of the universe other than the system being studied constitutes the surroundings. A closed system does not exchange energy with its surroundings, whereas an open system can exchange energy with its surroundings (FIG. 7-2). Biological systems are open systems. Two laws about energy apply to all things in the universe: the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

The total energy in the universe does not change According to the first law of thermodynamics, energy cannot be created or destroyed, although it can be transferred or converted from one form to another, including conversions between matter

Closed system

Open system Energy exchange

Surroundings

Surroundings

(a) A closed system does not exchange energy with its surroundings.

(b) An open system exchanges energy with its surroundings.

FIGURE 7-2 Closed and open systems

and energy. As far as we know, the total mass-energy present in the universe when it formed, almost 14 billion years ago, equals the amount of energy present in the universe today. This is all the energy that can ever be present in the universe. Similarly, the energy of any system plus its surroundings is constant. A system may absorb energy from its surroundings, or it may give up some energy to its surroundings, but the total energy content of that system plus its surroundings is always the same. As specified by the first law of thermodynamics, organisms cannot create the energy they require in order to live. Instead, they must capture energy from the environment and transform it to a form that can be used for biological work.

The entropy of the universe is increasing The second law of thermodynamics states that when energy is converted from one form to another, some usable energy—that is, energy available to do work—is converted into heat that disperses into the surroundings (see Fig. 55-1 for an illustration of energy flow through an ecosystem). As you learned in Chapter 2, heat is the kinetic energy of randomly moving particles. Unlike heat energy, which flows from an object with a higher temperature to one with a lower temperature, this random motion cannot perform work. As a result, the amount of usable energy available to do work in the universe decreases over time. It is important to understand that the second law of thermodynamics is consistent with the first law; that is, the total amount of energy in the universe is not decreasing with time. However, the total amount of energy in the universe that is available to do work is decreasing over time. Less-usable energy is more diffuse, or disorganized. Entropy (S) is a measure of this disorder, or randomness; organized, usable energy has a low entropy, whereas disorganized energy, such as heat, has a high entropy.

Entropy is continuously increasing in the universe in all natural processes. Maybe at some time, billions of years from now, all energy will exist as heat uniformly distributed throughout the universe. If that happens, the universe will cease to operate, because no work will be possible. Everything will be at the same temperature, so there will be no way to convert the thermal energy of the universe into usable mechanical energy. As a consequence of the second law of thermodynamics, no process requiring an energy conversion is ever 100% efficient, because much of the energy is dispersed as heat, increasing entropy. For example, an automobile engine, which converts the chemical energy of gasoline to mechanical energy, is between 20% and 30% efficient. Thus, only 20% to 30% of the original energy stored in the chemical bonds of the gasoline molecules is actually transformed into mechanical energy; the other 70% to 80% dissipates as waste heat. Energy use in your cells is about 40% efficient, with the remaining energy given to the surroundings as heat. Organisms have a high degree of organization, and at first glance they may appear to refute the second law of thermodynamics. As organisms grow and develop, they maintain a high level of order and do not appear to become more disorganized. However, organisms are open systems; they maintain their degree of order over time only with the constant input of energy from their surroundings. This is why plants must photosynthesize and animals must eat. Although the order within organisms may tend to increase temporarily, the total entropy of the universe (organisms plus surroundings) always increases over time.

Review ■ ■

What is the first law of thermodynamics? the second law? Life is sometimes described as a constant struggle against the second law of thermodynamics. How do organisms succeed in this struggle without violating the second law?

7.3 ENERGY AND METABOLISM ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVES 4 Discuss how changes in free energy in a reaction are related to changes in entropy and enthalpy.

5 6

Distinguish between exergonic and endergonic reactions, and give examples of how they may be coupled. Compare the energy dynamics of a reaction at equilibrium with the dynamics of a reaction not at equilibrium.

The chemical reactions that enable an organism to carry on its activities—to grow, move, maintain and repair itself; reproduce; and respond to stimuli—together make up its metabolism. Recall from Chapter 1 that metabolism is the sum of all the chemical activities taking place in an organism. An organism’s metabolism consists of many intersecting series of chemical reactions, or pathways. Two main types of metabolism are anabolism and catabolism. Anabolism includes the various pathways in which complex molecules are synthesized from simpler substances, such as in the linking of amino acids to form proteins. Catabolism includes the pathways in which larger molecules are broken down into smaller ones, such as in the degradation of starch to form monosaccharides.

As you will see, these changes involve not only alterations in the arrangement of atoms but also various energy transformations. Catabolism and anabolism are complementary processes; catabolic pathways involve an overall release of energy, some of which powers anabolic pathways, which have an overall energy requirement. In the following sections, we discuss how to predict whether a particular chemical reaction requires energy or releases it.

Enthalpy is the total potential energy of a system In the course of any chemical reaction, including the metabolic reactions of a cell, chemical bonds break and new and different bonds may form. Every specific type of chemical bond has a certain amount of bond energy, defined as the energy required to break that bond. The total bond energy is essentially equivalent to the total potential energy of the system, a quantity known as enthalpy (H).

Free energy is available to do cell work Entropy and enthalpy are related by a third type of energy, termed free energy (G), which is the amount of energy available to do work under the conditions of a biochemical reaction. (G, also known as “Gibbs free energy,” is named for J. W. Gibbs, a Yale professor who was one of the founders of the science of thermodynamics.) Free energy, the only kind of energy that can do cell work, is the aspect of thermodynamics of greatest interest to a biologist. Enthalpy, free energy, and entropy are related by the following equation: H = G + TS

in which H is enthalpy; G is free energy; T is the absolute temperature of the system, expressed in Kelvin units; and S is entropy. Disregarding temperature for the moment, enthalpy (the total energy of a system) is equal to free energy (the usable energy) plus entropy (the unusable energy). A rearrangement of the equation shows that as entropy increases, the amount of free energy decreases: G = H − TS

Chemical reactions involve changes in free energy Biologists analyze the role of energy in the many biochemical reactions of metabolism. Although the total free energy of a system (G) cannot be effectively measured, the equation G = H − TS can be extended to predict whether a particular chemical reaction will release energy or require an input of energy. The reason

∆G = ∆H − T∆S

Notice that the temperature does not change; it is held constant during the reaction. Thus, the change in free energy (∆G) during the reaction is equal to the change in enthalpy (∆H) minus the product of the absolute temperature (T) in Kelvin units multiplied by the change in entropy (∆S). Scientists express ∆G and ∆H in kilojoules or kilocalories per mole; they express ∆S in kilojoules or kilocalories per Kelvin unit.

Free energy decreases during an exergonic reaction An exergonic reaction releases energy and is said to be a spontaneous or a “downhill” reaction, from higher to lower free energy (FIG. 7-3a). Because the total free energy in its final state is less than the total free energy in its initial state, ∆G is a negative number for exergonic reactions. The term spontaneous may give the false impression that such reactions are always instantaneous. In fact, spontaneous reactions do not necessarily occur readily; some are extremely slow. The reason is that energy, known as activation energy, is required to initiate every reaction, even a spontaneous one. We discuss activation energy later in the chapter.

Free energy increases during an endergonic reaction An endergonic reaction is a reaction in which there is a gain of free energy (FIG. 7-3b). Because the free energy of the products is greater than the free energy of the reactants, ∆G has a positive value. Such a reaction cannot take place in isolation. Instead, it must occur in such a way that energy can be supplied from the

Reactants

Products Free energy decreases

Products

Free energy (G)

Free energy (G)

If we assume that entropy is zero, the free energy is simply equal to the total potential energy (enthalpy); an increase in entropy reduces the amount of free energy. What is the significance of the temperature (T)? Remember that as the temperature increases, there is an increase in random molecular motion, which contributes to disorder and multiplies the effect of the entropy term.

is that changes in free energy can be measured. Scientists use the Greek capital letter delta (∆) to denote any change that occurs in the system between its initial state before the reaction and its final state after the reaction. To express what happens with respect to energy in a chemical reaction, the equation becomes

Free energy increases Reactants

Course of reaction

Course of reaction

(a) In an exergonic reaction, there is a net loss of free energy. The products have less free energy than was present in the reactants, and the reaction proceeds spontaneously.

(b) In an endergonic reaction, there is a net gain of free energy. The products have more free energy than was present in the reactants.

FIGURE 7-3 Animated Exergonic and endergonic reactions

Concentration gradient

A Δ B

Exergonic (process occurs spontaneously)

(a) A concentration gradient is a form of potential energy.

(b) When molecules are evenly distributed, they have high entropy.

FIGURE 7-4 Entropy and diffusion The tendency of entropy to increase can be used to produce work, in this case, diffusion.

surroundings. Of course, many energy-requiring reactions take place in cells, and as you will see, metabolic mechanisms have evolved that supply the energy to “drive” these nonspontaneous cell reactions in a particular direction.

Diffusion is an exergonic process In Chapter 5, you saw that randomly moving particles diffuse down their own concentration gradient (FIG. 7-4). Although the movements of the individual particles are random, net movement of the group of particles seems to be directional. What provides energy for this apparently directed process? A concentration gradient, with a region of higher concentration and another region of lower concentration, is an orderly state. A cell must expend energy to produce a concentration gradient. Because work is done to produce this order, a concentration gradient is a form of potential energy. As the particles move about randomly, the gradient becomes degraded. Thus, free energy decreases as entropy increases. In cellular respiration and photosynthesis, the potential energy stored in a concentration gradient of hydrogen ions (H+) is transformed into chemical energy in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as the hydrogen ions pass through a membrane down their concentration gradient. This important concept, known as chemiosmosis, is discussed in detail in Chapters 8 and 9.

At the beginning of a reaction, only the reactant molecules (A) may be present. As the reaction proceeds, the concentration of the reactant molecules decreases and the concentration of the product molecules (B) increases. As the concentration of the product molecules increases, they may have enough free energy to initiate the reverse reaction. The reaction thus proceeds in both directions simultaneously; if undisturbed, it eventually reaches a state of dynamic equilibrium, in which the rate of the reverse reaction equals the rate of the forward reaction. At equilibrium there is no net change in the system; a reverse reaction balances every forward reaction. At a given temperature and pressure, each reaction has its own characteristic equilibrium. For any given reaction, chemists can perform experiments and calculations to determine the relative concentrations of reactants and products present at equilibrium. If the reactants have much greater intrinsic free energy than the products, the reaction goes almost to completion; that is, it reaches equilibrium at a point at which most of the reactants have been converted to products. Reactions in which the reactants have much less intrinsic free energy than the products reach equilibrium at a point where very few of the reactant molecules have been converted to products. If you increase the initial concentration of A, then the reaction will “shift to the right,” and more A will be converted to B. A similar effect can be obtained if B is removed from the reaction mixture. The reaction always shifts in the direction that reestablishes equilibrium so that the proportions of reactants and products characteristic of that reaction at equilibrium are restored. The opposite effect occurs if the concentration of B increases or if A is removed; here the system “shifts to the left.” The actual free-energy change that occurs during a reaction is defined mathematically to include these effects, which stem from the relative initial concentrations of reactants and products. Cells use energy to manipulate the relative concentrations of reactants and products of almost every reaction. Cell reactions are virtually never at equilibrium. By displacing their reactions far from equilibrium, cells supply energy to endergonic reactions and direct their metabolism according to their needs.

Free-energy changes depend on the concentrations of reactants and products

Cells drive endergonic reactions by coupling them to exergonic reactions

According to the second law of thermodynamics, any process that increases entropy can do work. As we have discussed, differences in the concentration of a substance, such as between two different parts of a cell, represent a more orderly state than that when the substance is diffused homogeneously throughout the cell. Freeenergy changes in any chemical reaction depend mainly on the difference in bond energies (enthalpy, H) between reactants and products. Free energy also depends on concentrations of both reactants and products. In most biochemical reactions there is little intrinsic freeenergy difference between reactants and products. Such reactions are reversible, indicated by drawing double arrows:

Many metabolic reactions, such as protein synthesis, are anabolic and endergonic. Because an endergonic reaction cannot take place without an input of energy, endergonic reactions are coupled to exergonic reactions. In coupled reactions, the thermodynamically favorable exergonic reaction provides the energy required to drive the thermodynamically unfavorable endergonic reaction. The endergonic reaction proceeds only if it absorbs free energy released by the exergonic reaction to which it is coupled. Consider the free-energy change, ∆G, in the following reaction: (1) A ¡ B

∆G = +20.9 kJ/mol (+5 kcal/mol)

Because ∆G has a positive value, you know that the product of this reaction has more free energy than the reactant. This is an endergonic reaction. It is not spontaneous and does not take place without an energy source. By contrast, consider the following reaction: (2) C ¡ D

∆G = −33.5 kJ/mol (−8 kcal/mol)

The negative value of ∆G tells you that the free energy of the reactant is greater than the free energy of the product. This exergonic reaction proceeds spontaneously. You can sum up reactions 1 and 2 as follows: (1) A ¡ B

∆G = +20.9 kJ/mol (+5 kcal/mol)

(2) C ¡ D

∆G = −33.5 kJ/mol (−8 kcal/mol)

Overall

∆G = −12.6 kJ/mol (−3 kcal/mol)

Because thermodynamics considers the overall changes in these two reactions, which show a net negative value of ∆G, the two reactions taken together are exergonic. The fact that scientists can write reactions this way is a useful bookkeeping device, but it does not mean that an exergonic reaction mysteriously transfers energy to an endergonic “bystander” reaction. However, these reactions are coupled if their pathways are altered so a common intermediate links them. Reactions 1 and 2 might be coupled by an intermediate (I) in the following way: (3) A + C ¡ I

∆G = −8.4 kJ/mol (−2 kcal/mol)

(4) I ¡ B + D

∆G = −4.2 kJ/mol (−1 kcal/mol)

Overall

In all living cells, energy is temporarily packaged within a remarkable chemical compound called adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which holds readily available energy for very short periods. We may think of ATP as the energy currency of the cell. When you work to earn money, you might say your energy is symbolically stored in the money you earn. The energy the cell requires for immediate use is temporarily stored in ATP, which is like cash. When you earn extra money, you may deposit some in the bank; similarly, a cell may deposit energy in the chemical bonds of lipids, starch, or glycogen. Moreover, just as you dare not make less money than you spend, the cell must avoid energy bankruptcy, which would mean its death. Finally, just as you probably do not keep money you earn very long, the cell continuously spends its ATP, which must be replaced immediately. ATP is a nucleotide consisting of three main parts: adenine, a nitrogen-containing organic base; ribose, a five-carbon sugar; and three phosphate groups, identifiable as phosphorus atoms surrounded by oxygen atoms (FIG. 7-5). Notice that the phosphate Adenine NH2 N

N

CH



N

N

H2C O

P

H

H

O

OH

OH

O Ribose

∆G = −12.6 kJ/mol (−3 kcal/mol)

Note that reactions 3 and 4 are sequential. Thus, the reaction pathways have changed, but overall the reactants (A and C) and products (B and D) are the same, and the free-energy change is the same. Generally, for each endergonic reaction occurring in a living cell there is a coupled exergonic reaction to drive it. Often the exergonic reaction involves the breakdown of ATP. Now let’s examine specific examples of the role of ATP in energy coupling.

Phosphate groups

HC

H

H

Oˉ O



˜ P O˜P O



O

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Hydrolysis of ATP

H2O

NH2 N

N

CH

Review ■



Consider the free-energy change in a reaction in which enthalpy decreases and entropy increases. Is ∆G zero, or does it have a positive value or a negative value? Is the reaction endergonic or exergonic? Why can’t a reaction at equilibrium do work?

HC N

N

Oˉ O H2C

H

H OH

H

O

P O

Oˉ O

˜P

O

■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE 7

Explain how the chemical structure of ATP allows it to transfer a phosphate group and discuss the central role of ATP in the overall energy metabolism of the cell.

OH + HO

P



O

H OH

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)

7.4 ATP, THE ENERGY CURRENCY OF THE CELL



Inorganic phosphate (Pi )

FIGURE 7-5 Animated ATP and ADP ATP, the energy currency of all living things, consists of adenine, ribose, and three phosphate groups. The hydrolysis of ATP, an exergonic reaction, yields ADP and inorganic phosphate. (The black wavy lines indicate unstable bonds. These bonds allow the phosphates to be transferred to other molecules, making them more reactive.)

groups are bonded to the end of the molecule in a series, rather like three cars behind a locomotive, and, like the cars of a train, they can be attached and detached.

Exergonic reactions release energy

ATP donates energy through the transfer of a phosphate group ADP +

When the terminal phosphate is removed from ATP, the remaining molecule is adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (see Fig. 7-5). If the phosphate group is not transferred to another molecule, it is released as inorganic phosphate (Pi). This is an exergonic reaction with a relatively large negative value of ∆G. (Calculations of the free energy of ATP hydrolysis vary somewhat, but range between about −28 and −37 kJ/mol, or −6.8 to −8.7 kcal/mol.) (5) ATP + H2O ¡ ADP + Pi ∆G = −32 kJ/mol (or −7.6 kcal/mol)

Reaction 5 can be coupled to endergonic reactions in cells. Consider the following endergonic reaction, in which two monosaccharides, glucose and fructose, form the disaccharide sucrose.

(7) glucose + ATP ¡ glucose-P + ADP (8) glucose-P + fructose ¡ sucrose + Pi

Recall from Chapter 6 that a phosphorylation reaction is one in which a phosphate group is transferred to some other compound. In reaction 7 glucose becomes phosphorylated to form glucose phosphate (glucose-P), the intermediate that links the two reactions. Glucose-P, which corresponds to I in reactions 3 and 4, reacts exergonically with fructose to form sucrose. For energy coupling to work in this way, reactions 7 and 8 must occur in sequence. It is convenient to summarize the reactions thus: (9) glucose + fructose + ATP ¡ sucrose + ADP + Pi ∆G = −5 kJ/mol (−1.2 kcal/mol)

When you encounter an equation written in this way, remember that it is actually a summary of a series of reactions and that transitory intermediate products (in this case, glucose-P) are sometimes not shown.

ATP links exergonic and endergonic reactions We have just discussed how the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to some other compound is coupled to endergonic reactions in the cell. Conversely, adding a phosphate group to adenosine monophosphate, or AMP (forming ADP), or to ADP (forming ATP) requires coupling to exergonic reactions in the cell.

ATP

Energy released drives endergonic reactions

FIGURE 7-6 ATP links exergonic and endergonic reactions Exergonic reactions in catabolic pathways (top) supply energy to drive the endergonic formation of ATP from ADP. Conversely, the exergonic hydrolysis of ATP supplies energy to endergonic reactions in anabolic pathways (bottom).

(6) glucose + fructose ¡ sucrose + H2O ∆G = +27 kJ/mol (or +6.5 kcal/mol)

With a free-energy change of −32 kJ/mol (−7.6 kcal/mol), the hydrolysis of ATP in reaction 5 can drive reaction 6, but only if the reactions are coupled through a common intermediate. The following series of reactions is a simplified version of an alternative pathway that some bacteria use:

Pi

AMP + Pi + energy ¡ ADP ADP + Pi + energy ¡ ATP

Thus, ATP occupies an intermediate position in the metabolism of the cell and is an important link between exergonic reactions, which are generally components of catabolic pathways, and endergonic reactions, which are generally part of anabolic pathways (FIG. 7-6).

The cell maintains a very high ratio of ATP to ADP The cell maintains a ratio of ATP to ADP far from the equilibrium point. ATP constantly forms from ADP and inorganic phosphate as nutrients break down in cellular respiration or as photosynthesis traps the radiant energy of sunlight. At any time, a typical cell contains more than 10 ATP molecules for every ADP molecule. The fact that the cell maintains the ATP concentration at such a high level (relative to the concentration of ADP) makes its hydrolysis reaction even more strongly exergonic and more able to drive the endergonic reactions to which it is coupled. Although the cell maintains a high ratio of ATP to ADP, the cell cannot store large quantities of ATP. The concentration of ATP is always very low, less than 1 mmol/L. In fact, studies suggest that a bacterial cell has no more than a 1-second supply of ATP. Thus, it uses ATP molecules almost as quickly as they are produced. A healthy adult human at rest uses about 45 kg (100 lb) of ATP each day, but the amount present in the body at any given moment is less than 1 g (0.035 oz). Every second in every cell, an estimated 10 million molecules of ATP are made from ADP and phosphate, and an equal number of ATPs transfer their phosphate groups, along with their energy, to whatever chemical reactions need them.

Review ■

Why do coupled reactions typically have common intermediates?





Give a generalized example of a coupled reaction involving ATP, distinguishing between the exergonic and endergonic reactions. Why is the ATP concentration in a cell about 10 times the concentration of ADP?

7.5 ENERGY TRANSFER IN REDOX REACTIONS ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE 8

Relate the transfer of electrons (or hydrogen atoms) to the transfer of energy.

You have seen that cells transfer energy through the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP. Energy is also transferred through the transfer of electrons. As discussed in Chapter 2, oxidation is the chemical process in which a substance loses electrons, whereas reduction is the complementary process in which a substance gains electrons. Because electrons released during an oxidation reaction cannot exist in the free state in living cells, every oxidation reaction must be accompanied by a reduction reaction in which the electrons are accepted by another atom, ion, or molecule. Oxidation and reduction reactions are often called redox reactions because they occur simultaneously. The substance that becomes oxidized gives up energy as it releases electrons, and the substance that becomes reduced receives energy as it gains electrons. Redox reactions often occur in a series, as electrons are transferred from one molecule to another. These electron transfers, which are equivalent to energy transfers, are an essential part of cellular respiration, photosynthesis, and many other chemical pro-

cesses. Redox reactions, for example, release the energy stored in food molecules so that ATP can be synthesized using that energy.

Most electron carriers transfer hydrogen atoms Generally, it is not easy to remove one or more electrons from a covalent compound; it is much easier to remove a whole atom. For this reason, redox reactions in cells usually involve the transfer of a hydrogen atom rather than just an electron. A hydrogen atom contains an electron, plus a proton that does not participate in the oxidation–reduction reaction. When an electron, either singly or as part of a hydrogen atom, is removed from an organic compound, it takes with it some of the energy stored in the chemical bond of which it was a part. That electron, along with its energy, is transferred to an acceptor molecule. An electron progressively loses free energy as it is transferred from one acceptor to another. One of the most common acceptor molecules in cellular processes is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). When NAD+ becomes reduced, it temporarily stores large amounts of free energy. Here is a generalized equation showing the transfer of hydrogen from a compound, which we call X, to NAD+: XH 2 + NAD+¡ X + NADH + H+ Oxidized

Notice that the NAD+ becomes reduced when it combines with hydrogen. NAD+ is an ion with a net charge of +1. When 2 electrons and 1 proton are added, the charge is neutralized and the reduced form of the compound, NADH, is produced (FIG. 7-7). (Although the correct way to write the reduced form of NAD+

NAD+ (oxidized)

NADH (reduced)

H

H

C

HC

CH N

O



P

CH2

O

Phosphate

H

C

HC

CH

C

NH2

+

X

+

H+

O

N

Ribose

H

OH

OH

H

NH2 N

C O

C

HC

CH

C

CH2

H

Adenine

N

N

Phosphate O

O

HC

Nicotinamide

N P

NH2

+

O

H

O



C

C

+

H

H C

HC

H X

Reduced

FIGURE 7-7 NAD+ and NADH O Ribose

H

H

OH

OH

H

NAD+ consists of two nucleotides, one with adenine and one with nicotinamide, that are joined at their phosphate groups. The oxidized form of the nicotinamide ring in NAD+ (left) becomes the reduced form in NADH (right) by the transfer of 2 electrons and 1 proton from another organic compound (XH2), which becomes oxidized (to X) in the process.

is NADH + H+, for simplicity we present the reduced form as NADH in this book.) Some energy stored in the bonds holding the hydrogen atoms to molecule X has been transferred by this redox reaction and is temporarily held by NADH. When NADH transfers the electrons to some other molecule, some of their energy is transferred. This energy is usually then transferred through a series of reactions that ultimately result in the formation of ATP (discussed in Chapter 8). Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+) is a hydrogen acceptor that is chemically similar to NAD+ but has an extra phosphate group. Unlike NADH, the reduced form of NADP+, abbreviated NADPH, is not involved in ATP synthesis. Instead, the electrons of NADPH are used more directly to provide energy for certain reactions, including certain essential reactions of photosynthesis (discussed in Chapter 9). Other important hydrogen acceptors or electron acceptors are FAD and the cytochromes. Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a nucleotide that accepts hydrogen atoms and their electrons; its reduced form is FADH2. The cytochromes are proteins that contain iron; the iron component accepts electrons from hydrogen atoms and then transfers these electrons to some other compound. Like NAD+ and NADP+, FAD and the cytochromes are electron transfer agents. Each exists in a reduced state, in which it has more free energy, or in an oxidized state, in which it has less. Each is an essential component of many redox reaction sequences in cells.

Review ■

Which has the most energy, the oxidized form of a substance or its reduced form? Why?

completed molecule may enter yet another chemical pathway and become totally transformed or consumed to release energy. The changing needs of the cell require a system of flexible metabolic control. The key directors of this control system are enzymes. The catalytic ability of some enzymes is truly impressive. For example, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) breaks down extremely slowly if the reaction is uncatalyzed, but a single molecule of the enzyme catalase brings about the decomposition of 40 million molecules of hydrogen peroxide per second! Catalase has the highest catalytic rate known for any enzyme. It protects cells by destroying hydrogen peroxide, a poisonous substance produced as a byproduct of some cell reactions. The bombardier beetle uses the enzyme catalase as a defense mechanism (FIG. 7-8).

All reactions have a required energy of activation All reactions, whether exergonic or endergonic, have an energy barrier known as the energy of activation (E A), or activation energy, which is the energy required to break the existing bonds and begin the reaction. In a population of molecules of any kind, some have a relatively high kinetic energy, whereas others have a lower energy content. Only molecules with a relatively high kinetic energy are likely to react to form the product. Even a strongly exergonic reaction, one that releases a substantial quantity of energy as it proceeds, may be prevented from proceeding by the activation energy required to begin the reaction. For example, molecular hydrogen and molecular oxygen can react explosively to form water: 2 H 2 + O 2 ¡ 2 H 2O

7.6 ENZYMES ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVES 9 Explain how an enzyme lowers the required energy of activation for a reaction.

The principles of thermodynamics help us predict whether a reaction can occur, but they tell us nothing about the speed of the reaction. The breakdown of glucose, for example, is an exergonic reaction, yet a glucose solution stays unchanged virtually indefinitely in a bottle if it is kept free of bacteria and molds and not subjected to high temperatures or strong acids or bases. Cells cannot wait for centuries for glucose to break down, nor can they use extreme conditions to cleave glucose molecules. Cells regulate the rates of chemical reactions with enzymes, which are biological catalysts that increase the speed of a chemical reaction without being consumed by the reaction. Although most enzymes are proteins, scientists have learned that some types of RNA molecules have catalytic activity as well (catalytic RNA is discussed in Chapter 13). Cells require a steady release of energy, and they must regulate that release to meet metabolic energy requirements. Metabolic processes generally proceed by a series of steps such that a molecule may go through as many as 20 or 30 chemical transformations before it reaches some final state. Even then, the seemingly

Thomas Eisner and Daniel Aneshansley/Cornell University

10 Describe specific ways enzymes are regulated.

FIGURE 7-8 Catalase as a defense mechanism When threatened, a bombardier beetle (Stenaptinus insignis) uses the enzyme catalase to decompose hydrogen peroxide. The oxygen gas formed in the decomposition ejects water and other chemicals with explosive force. Because the reaction releases a great deal of heat, the water comes out as steam. (A wire attached by a drop of adhesive to the beetle’s back immobilizes it. The researcher prodded its leg with the dissecting needle on the left to trigger the ejection.)

An enzyme lowers a reaction’s activation energy Like all catalysts, enzymes affect the rate of a reaction by lowering the activation energy (EA) necessary to initiate a chemical reaction (FIG. 7-10). If molecules need less energy to react because the activation barrier is lowered, a larger fraction of the reactant molecules reacts at any one time. As a result, the reaction proceeds more quickly. Although an enzyme lowers the activation energy for a reaction, it has no effect on the overall free-energy change; that is, an

KEY POINT

An enzyme lowers the activation energy of a reaction but does not alter the free-energy change.

Activation energy (EA) without enzyme

Free energy (G)

This reaction is spontaneous, yet hydrogen and oxygen can be safely mixed as long as all sparks are kept away because the required activation energy for this particular reaction is relatively high. A tiny spark provides the activation energy that allows a few molecules to react. Their reaction liberates so much heat that the rest react, producing an explosion. Such an explosion occurred on the space shuttle Challenger on January 28, 1986 (FIG. 7-9). The failure of a rubber O-ring to properly seal caused the liquid hydrogen in the tank attached to the shuttle to leak and start burning. When the hydrogen tank ruptured a few seconds later, the resulting force burst the nearby oxygen tank as well, mixing hydrogen and oxygen and igniting a huge explosion.

Activation energy (EA) with enzyme Energy of reactants

Change in free energy (∆G) Energy of products Progress of reaction

FIGURE 7-10 Animated Activation energy and enzymes An enzyme speeds up a reaction by lowering its activation energy (EA). In the presence of an enzyme, reacting molecules require less kinetic energy to complete a reaction.

enzyme can promote only a chemical reaction that could proceed without it. If the reaction goes to equilibrium, no catalyst can cause it to proceed in a thermodynamically unfavorable direction or can influence the final concentrations of reactants and products. Enzymes simply speed up reaction rates.

An enzyme works by forming an enzyme– substrate complex An uncatalyzed reaction depends on random collisions among reactants. Because of its ordered structure, an enzyme reduces this reliance on random events and thereby controls the reaction. The enzyme accomplishes this by forming an unstable intermediate complex with the substrate, the substance on which it acts. When the enzyme–substrate complex, or ES complex, breaks up, the product is released; the original enzyme molecule is regenerated and is free to form a new ES complex: AP/Wide World Photos

enzyme + substrate(s) ¡ ES complex

FIGURE 7-9 The space shuttle Challenger explosion This disaster resulted from an explosive exergonic reaction between hydrogen and oxygen. All seven crew members died in the accident on January 28, 1986.

ES complex ¡ enzyme + product(s)

The enzyme itself is not permanently altered or consumed by the reaction and can be reused. As shown in FIGURE 7-11a, every enzyme contains one or more active sites, regions to which the substrate binds, to form the ES complex. The active sites of some enzymes are grooves or cavities in the enzyme molecule, formed by amino acid side chains. The active sites of most enzymes are located close to the surface. During

Both: Courtesy of Thomas A. Steitz

Active site

(a) Prior to forming an ES complex, the enzyme’s active site is the furrow where the substrate will bind.

(b) The binding of the substrate to the active site induces a change in the conformation of the active site.

FIGURE 7-11 An enzyme–substrate complex This computer graphic model shows the enzyme hexokinase (blue) and its substrate, glucose (red).

the course of a reaction, substrate molecules occupying these sites are brought close together and react with one another. The shape of the enzyme does not seem exactly complementary to that of the substrate. The binding of the substrate to the enzyme molecule causes a change, known as induced fit, in the shape of the enzyme (FIG. 7-11b). Usually, the shape of the substrate also changes slightly, in a way that may distort its chemical bonds. The proximity and orientation of the reactants, together with strains in their chemical bonds, facilitate the breakage of old bonds and the formation of new ones. Thus, the substrate is changed into a product, which diffuses away from the enzyme. The enzyme is then free to catalyze the reaction of more substrate molecules to form more product molecules.

Enzymes are specific Enzymes catalyze virtually every chemical reaction that takes place in an organism. Because the shape of the active site is closely related to the shape of the substrate, most enzymes are highly specific. Most catalyze only a few closely related chemical reactions or, in many cases, only one particular reaction. The enzyme urease, which decomposes urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, attacks no other substrate. The enzyme sucrase splits only sucrose; it does not act on other disaccharides, such as maltose or lactose. A few enzymes are specific only to the extent that they require the substrate to have a certain kind of chemical bond. For example, lipase, secreted by the pancreas, splits the ester linkages connecting the glycerol and fatty acids of a wide variety of fats. Scientists usually name enzymes by adding the suffix -ase to the name of the substrate. The enzyme sucrase, for example, splits sucrose into glucose and fructose. A few enzymes retain traditional names that do not end in -ase; some of these end in -zyme. For example, lysozyme (from the Greek lysis, “a loosening”) is an enzyme found in tears and saliva; it breaks down bacterial cell walls. Other examples of enzymes with traditional names are pepsin and trypsin, which break peptide bonds in proteins.

Scientists classify enzymes that catalyze similar reactions into groups, although each particular enzyme in the group may catalyze only one specific reaction. TABLE 7-1 describes the six classes of enzymes that biologists recognize. Each class is divided into many subclasses. For example, sucrase, mentioned earlier, is called a glycosidase because it cleaves a glycosidic linkage. Glycosidases are a subclass of the hydrolases (see Fig. 3-8b for the hydrolysis of sucrose). Phosphatases, enzymes that remove phosphate groups by hydrolysis, are also hydrolases. Kinases, enzymes that transfer phosphate groups to substrates, are transferases.

Many enzymes require cofactors Some enzymes consist only of a protein. The enzyme pepsin, which is secreted by the animal stomach and digests dietary protein by breaking certain peptide bonds, is exclusively a protein molecule. Other enzymes have two components: a protein called the apoenzyme and an additional chemical component called a cofactor. Neither the apoenzyme nor the cofactor alone has catalytic activity; only when the two are combined does the enzyme function. A cofactor may be inorganic, or it may be an organic molecule. Some enzymes require a specific metal ion as a cofactor. Two very common inorganic cofactors are magnesium ions and calcium ions. Most of the trace elements, such as iron, copper, zinc, and manganese, all of which organisms require in very small amounts, function as cofactors. An organic, nonpolypeptide compound that binds to the apoenzyme and serves as a cofactor is called a coenzyme. Most coenzymes are carrier molecules that transfer electrons or part of a substrate from one molecule to another. We have already introduced some examples of coenzymes in this chapter. NADH, NADPH, and FADH2 are coenzymes; they transfer electrons.

TABLE 7-1

Important Classes of Enzymes

Enzyme Class

Function

Oxidoreductases Transferases

Catalyze oxidation–reduction reactions Catalyze the transfer of a functional group from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule Catalyze hydrolysis reactions Catalyze conversion of a molecule from one isomeric form to another Catalyze certain reactions in which two molecules become joined in a process coupled to the hydrolysis of ATP Catalyze certain reactions in which double bonds form or break

Hydrolases Isomerases Ligases

Lyases

ATP functions as a coenzyme; it is responsible for transferring phosphate groups. Yet another coenzyme, coenzyme A, is involved in the transfer of groups derived from organic acids. Most vitamins, which are organic compounds that an organism requires in small amounts but cannot synthesize itself, are coenzymes or components of coenzymes (see descriptions of vitamins in Table 47-3).

Enzymes are most effective at optimal conditions Enzymes generally work best under certain narrowly defined conditions, such as appropriate temperature, pH (FIG. 7-12), and ion concentration. Any departure from optimal conditions adversely affects enzyme activity. Each enzyme has an optimal temperature Most enzymes have an optimal temperature, at which the rate of reaction is fastest. For human enzymes, the temperature optima are near the human body temperature (35°C to 40°C). Enzymatic

Rate of reaction

Most human enzymes

0

Enzymes of heat-tolerant bacteria

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Temperature (°C)

(a) Generalized curves for the effect of temperature on enzyme activity. As temperature increases, enzyme activity increases until it reaches an optimal temperature. Enzyme activity abruptly falls after it exceeds the optimal temperature because the enzyme, being a protein, denatures.

reactions occur slowly or not at all at low temperatures. As the temperature increases, molecular motion increases, resulting in more molecular collisions. The rates of most enzyme-controlled reactions therefore increase as the temperature increases, within limits (see Fig. 7-12a). High temperatures rapidly denature most enzymes. The molecular conformation (3-D shape) of the protein becomes altered as the hydrogen bonds responsible for its secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures are broken. Because this inactivation is usually not reversible, activity is not regained when the enzyme is cooled. Most organisms are killed by even a short exposure to high temperature; their enzymes are denatured, and they are unable to continue metabolism. There are a few stunning exceptions to this rule. Certain species of archaea (see Chapter 1 for a description of the archaea) can survive in the waters of hot springs, such as those in Yellowstone Park, where the temperature is almost 100°C; these organisms are responsible for the brilliant colors in the terraces of the hot springs (FIG. 7-13). Still other archaea live at temperatures much above that of boiling water, near deep-sea vents, where the extreme pressure keeps water in its liquid state (see Chapter 25 for a discussion of archaea that live in extreme habitats; see also Chapter 55, Inquiring About: Life without the Sun). Each enzyme has an optimal pH Most enzymes are active only over a narrow pH range and have an optimal pH, at which the rate of reaction is fastest. The optimal pH for most human enzymes is between 6 and 8. Recall from Chapter 2 that buffers minimize pH changes in cells so that the pH is maintained within a narrow limit. Pepsin, a protein-digesting enzyme secreted by cells lining the stomach, is an exception; it works only in a very acidic medium, optimally at pH 2 (see Fig. 7-12b). In contrast, trypsin, a protein-splitting enzyme secreted by the pancreas, functions best under the slightly basic conditions found in the small intestine.

Rate of reaction

Trypsin

0

1

2

3

4

5 pH

6

7

8

9

© Henry Holdworth/4wildbynaturegallery.com

Pepsin

10

(b) Enzyme activity is very sensitive to pH. Pepsin is a protein-digesting enzyme in the very acidic stomach juice. Trypsin, secreted by the pancreas into the slightly basic small intestine, digests polypeptides.

FIGURE 7-13 Grand Prismatic Spring in Yellowstone National Park FIGURE 7-12 Animated The effects of temperature and pH on enzyme activity Substrate and enzyme concentrations are held constant in the reactions illustrated.

The world’s third-largest spring, about 61 m (200 ft) in diameter, the Grand Prismatic Spring teems with heat-tolerant archaea. The rings around the perimeter, where the water is slightly cooler, get their distinctive colors from the various kinds of archaea living there.

The activity of an enzyme may be markedly changed by any alteration in pH, which in turn alters electric charges on the enzyme. Changes in charge affect the ionic bonds that contribute to tertiary and quaternary structure, thereby changing the protein’s conformation and activity. Many enzymes become inactive, and usually irreversibly denatured, when the medium is made very acidic or very basic.

Enzymes are organized into teams in metabolic pathways Enzymes play an essential role in reaction coupling because they usually work in sequence, with the product of one enzyme-controlled reaction serving as the substrate for the next. You can picture the inside of a cell as a factory with many different assembly (and disassembly) lines operating simultaneously. An assembly line consists of a number of enzymes. Each enzyme carries out one step, such as changing molecule A into molecule B. Then molecule B is passed along to the next enzyme, which converts it into molecule C, and so on. Such a series of reactions is called a metabolic pathway. Enzyme 1

A

¡ B

Enzyme 2

¡ C

The cell regulates enzymatic activity Enzymes regulate the chemistry of the cell, but what controls the enzymes? One regulatory mechanism involves controlling the amount of enzyme produced. A specific gene directs the synthesis of each type of enzyme. The gene, in turn, may be switched on by a signal from a hormone or by some other signal molecule. When the gene is switched on, the enzyme is synthesized. The total amount of enzyme present then influences the overall cell reaction rate. If the pH and temperature are kept constant (as they are in most cells), the rate of the reaction can be affected by the substrate concentration or by the enzyme concentration. If an excess of substrate is present, the enzyme concentration is the rate-limiting factor. The initial rate of the reaction is then directly proportional to the enzyme concentration (FIG. 7-14a).

Rate of reaction

Rate of reaction

Each of these reactions is reversible, despite the fact that an enzyme catalyzes it. An enzyme does not itself determine the direction of the reaction it catalyzes. However, the overall reaction sequence is portrayed as proceeding from left to right. Recall that if there is little intrinsic free-energy difference between the reactants and products for a particular reaction, the direction of the reaction is determined mainly by the relative concentrations of reactants and products.

In metabolic pathways, both intermediate and final products are often removed and converted to other chemical compounds. Such removal drives the sequence of reactions in a particular direction. Let us assume that reactant A is continually supplied and that its concentration remains constant. Enzyme 1 converts reactant A to product B. The concentration of B is always lower than the concentration of A because B is removed as it is converted to C in the reaction catalyzed by enzyme 2. If C is removed as quickly as it is formed (perhaps by leaving the cell), the entire reaction pathway is “pulled” toward C. In some cases the enzymes of a metabolic pathway bind to one another to form a multienzyme complex that efficiently transfers intermediates in the pathway from one active site to another. An example of one such multienzyme complex, pyruvate dehydrogenase, is discussed in Chapter 8.

Enzyme concentration

(a) In this example, the rate of reaction is measured at different enzyme concentrations, with an excess of substrate present. (Temperature and pH are constant.) The rate of the reaction is directly proportional to the enzyme concentration.

Substrate concentration

(b) In this example, the rate of the reaction is measured at different substrate concentrations, and enzyme concentration, temperature, and pH are constant. If the substrate concentration is relatively low, the reaction rate is directly proportional to substrate concentration. However, higher substrate concentrations do not increase the reaction rate because the enzymes become saturated with substrate.

FIGURE 7-14 The effects of enzyme concentration and substrate concentration on the rate of a reaction

If the enzyme concentration is kept constant, the rate of an enzymatic reaction is proportional to the concentration of substrate present. Substrate concentration is the rate-limiting factor at lower concentrations; the rate of the reaction is therefore directly proportional to the substrate concentration. However, at higher substrate concentrations, the enzyme molecules become saturated with substrate; that is, substrate molecules are bound to all available active sites of enzyme molecules. In this situation, increasing the substrate concentration does not increase the net reaction rate (FIG. 7-14b). The product of one enzymatic reaction may control the activity of another enzyme, especially in a sequence of enzymatic reactions. For example, consider the following metabolic pathway: Enzyme 1 A

Enzyme 2

¡B

¡ C

Enzyme 3

Enzyme 1 (Threonine deaminase) α-Ketobutyrate Enzyme 2 α-Aceto-α-hydroxybutyrate Feedback inhibition

Enzyme 3 α,β-Dihydroxy-β-methylvalerate

(Isoleucine inhibits enzyme 1)

Enzyme 4 α-Keto-β-methylvalerate

Enzyme 4

¡D

Threonine

Enzyme 5

¡E

A different enzyme catalyzes each step, and the final product E may inhibit the activity of enzyme 1. When the concentration of E is low, the sequence of reactions proceeds rapidly. However, an increasing concentration of E serves as a signal for enzyme 1 to slow down and eventually to stop functioning. Inhibition of enzyme 1 stops the entire reaction sequence. This type of enzyme regulation, in which the formation of a product inhibits an earlier reaction in the sequence, is called feedback inhibition (FIG. 7-15). Another method of enzymatic control focuses on the activation of enzyme molecules. In their inactive form, the active sites of the enzyme are inappropriately shaped, so the substrates do not fit. Among the factors that influence the shape of the enzyme are pH, the concentration of certain ions, and the addition of phosphate groups to certain amino acids in the enzyme. Some enzymes have a receptor site, called an allosteric site, on some region of the enzyme molecule other than the active site. (The word allosteric means “another space.”) When a substance binds to an enzyme’s allosteric site, the conformation of the enzyme’s active site changes, thereby modifying the enzyme’s activ-

Isoleucine

FIGURE 7-15 Animated Feedback inhibition Bacteria synthesize the amino acid isoleucine from the amino acid threonine. The isoleucine pathway involves five steps, each catalyzed by a different enzyme. When enough isoleucine accumulates in the cell, the isoleucine inhibits threonine deaminase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in this pathway.

ity. Substances that affect enzyme activity by binding to allosteric sites are called allosteric regulators. Some allosteric regulators are allosteric inhibitors that keep the enzyme in its inactive shape. Conversely, the activities of allosteric activators result in an enzyme with a functional active site. The enzyme cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase is an allosteric enzyme regulated by a protein that binds reversibly to the allosteric site and inactivates the enzyme. Protein kinase is in this inactive form most of the time (FIG. 7-16). When protein kinase activity is

Cyclic AMP Allosteric site Active site

Substrates

Substrates

Regulator (inhibitor)

(a) Inactive form of the enzyme. The enzyme protein kinase is inhibited by a regulatory protein that binds reversibly to its allosteric site. When the enzyme is in this inactive form, the shape of the active site is modified so that the substrate cannot combine with it.

FIGURE 7-16 Animated An allosteric enzyme

(b) Active form of the enzyme. Cyclic AMP removes the allosteric inhibitor and activates the enzyme.

(c) Enzyme–substrate complex. The substrate can then combine with the active site.

Substrate

needed, the compound cyclic AMP (cAMP; see Fig. 3-25 for the structure) contacts the enzyme-inhibitor complex and removes the inhibitory protein, thereby activating the protein kinase. Activation of protein kinases by cAMP is an important aspect of the mechanism of cell signaling, including the action of certain hormones (see Chapters 6 and 49 for discussions of cell signaling).

Enzymes are inhibited by certain chemical agents Most enzymes are inhibited or even destroyed by certain chemical agents. Enzyme inhibition may be reversible or irreversible. Reversible inhibition occurs when an inhibitor forms weak chemical bonds with the enzyme. Reversible inhibition can be competitive or noncompetitive. In competitive inhibition, the inhibitor competes with the normal substrate for binding to the active site of the enzyme (FIG. 7-17a). Usually, a competitive inhibitor is structurally similar to the normal substrate and fits into the active site and combines with the enzyme. However, it is not similar enough to substitute fully for the normal substrate in the chemical reaction, and the enzyme cannot convert it to product molecules. A competitive inhibitor occupies the active site only temporarily and does not permanently damage the enzyme. In competitive inhibition, an active site is occupied by the inhibitor part of the time and by the normal substrate part of the time. If the concentration of the substrate is increased relative to the concentration of the inhibitor, the active site is usually occupied by the substrate. Biochemists demonstrate competitive inhibition experimentally by showing that increasing the substrate concentration reverses competitive inhibition. In noncompetitive inhibition, the inhibitor binds with the enzyme at a site other than the active site (FIG. 7-17b). Such an inhibitor inactivates the enzyme by altering its shape so that the active site cannot bind with the substrate. Many important noncompetitive inhibitors are metabolic substances that regulate enzyme activity by combining reversibly with the enzyme. Allosteric inhibition, discussed previously, is a type of noncompetitive inhibition in which the inhibitor binds to a special site, the allosteric site. In irreversible inhibition, an inhibitor permanently inactivates or destroys an enzyme when the inhibitor combines with one of the enzyme’s functional groups, either at the active site or elsewhere. Many poisons are irreversible enzyme inhibitors. For example, heavy metals such as mercury and lead bind irreversibly to and denature many proteins, including enzymes. Certain nerve gases poison the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is important for the functioning of nerves and muscles. Cytochrome oxidase, one of the enzymes that transports electrons in cellular respiration, is especially sensitive to cyanide. Death results from cyanide poisoning because cytochrome oxidase is irreversibly inhibited and no longer transfers electrons from its substrate to oxygen.

Inhibitor Enzyme

Inhibitor binds to active site

Substrate

(a) Competitive inhibition. The inhibitor competes with the normal substrate for the active site of the enzyme. A competitive inhibitor occupies the active site only temporarily.

Substrates

Active site

Inhibitor Enzyme

Active site not suitable for reception of substrates

(b) Noncompetitive inhibition. The inhibitor binds with the enzyme at a site other than the active site, altering the shape of the enzyme and thereby inactivating it.

FIGURE 7-17 Animated Competitive and noncompetitive inhibition

para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) (FIG. 7-18). When PABA is available, microorganisms can synthesize the vitamin folic acid, which is necessary for growth. Humans do not synthesize folic acid from PABA. For this reason, sulfa drugs selectively affect bacteria. When a sulfa drug is present, the drug competes with PABA for the active site of the bacterial enzyme. When bacteria use the sulfa drug in-

O H2N

C OH Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) O

H2N

S

H N

O

R

Generic sulfonamide (Sulfa drug)

Some drugs are enzyme inhibitors

FIGURE 7-18 Para-aminobenzoic acid and sulfonamides

Physicians treat many bacterial infections with drugs that directly or indirectly inhibit bacterial enzyme activity. For example, sulfa drugs have a chemical structure similar to that of the nutrient

Sulfa drugs inhibit an enzyme in bacteria necessary for the synthesis of folic acid, an important vitamin required for growth. (Note the unusual structure of the sulfonamide molecule; sulfur, which commonly forms two covalent bonds, forms six instead.)

stead of PABA, they synthesize a compound that cannot be used to make folic acid. Therefore, the bacterial cells are unable to grow. Penicillin and related antibiotics irreversibly inhibit a bacterial enzyme called transpeptidase. This enzyme establishes some of the chemical linkages in the bacterial cell wall. Bacteria susceptible to these antibiotics cannot produce properly constructed cell walls and are prevented from multiplying effectively. Human cells do not have cell walls and therefore do not use this enzyme. Thus, except for individuals allergic to it, penicillin is harmless to humans. Unfortunately, during the years since it was introduced, resistance to penicillin has evolved in many bacterial strains. The resistant bacteria fight back with an enzyme of their own, penicillinase, which breaks down the penicillin and renders it ineffective. Because bac-

■ ■

teria evolve at such a rapid rate, drug resistance is a growing problem in medical practice.

Review What effect does an enzyme have on the required activation energy of a reaction? How does the function of the active site of an enzyme differ from that of an allosteric site? How are temperature and pH optima of an enzyme related to its structure and function? Is allosteric inhibition competitive or noncompetitive?









S U M M A RY: F O C US O N L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S

7.1 (page 155) 1 Define energy, emphasizing how it is related to work and to heat. Energy is the capacity to do work (expressed in kilojoules, kJ). Energy can be conveniently measured as heat energy, thermal energy that flows from an object with a higher temperature to an object with a lower temperature; the unit of heat energy is the kilocalorie (kcal), which is equal to 4.184 kJ. Heat energy cannot do cell work. 2 Use examples to contrast potential energy and kinetic energy. ■ Potential energy is stored energy; kinetic energy is energy of motion. ■ All forms of energy are interconvertible. For example, photosynthetic organisms capture radiant energy and convert some of it to chemical energy, a form of potential energy that powers many life processes, such as muscle contraction. ■

7.2 (page 155) 3 State the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and discuss the implications of these laws as they relate to organisms. A closed system does not exchange energy with its surroundings. Organisms are open systems that do exchange energy with their surroundings. ■ The first law of thermodynamics states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be transferred and changed in form. The first law explains why organisms cannot produce energy; but as open systems, they continuously capture it from the surroundings. ■ The second law of thermodynamics states that disorder (entropy) in the universe, a closed system, is continuously increasing. No energy transfer is 100% efficient; some energy is dissipated as heat, random motion that contributes to entropy (S), or disorder. As open systems, organisms maintain their ordered states at the expense of their surroundings. ■

7.3 (page 156) 4 Discuss how changes in free energy in a reaction are related to changes in entropy and enthalpy. As entropy increases, the amount of free energy decreases, as shown in the equation G = H − TS, in which G is the free energy, H is the enthalpy (total potential energy of the system), T is the absolute temperature (expressed in Kelvin units), and S is entropy. ■ The equation ∆G = ∆H − T∆S indicates that the change in free energy (∆G) during a chemical reaction is equal to the change in enthalpy (∆H) minus the product of the absolute temperature (T) multiplied by the change in entropy (∆S). ■

5 Distinguish between exergonic and endergonic reactions, and give examples of how they may be coupled. ■ An exergonic reaction has a negative value of ∆G; that is, free energy decreases. Such a reaction is spontaneous; it releases free energy that can perform work. ■ Free energy increases in an endergonic reaction. Such a reaction has a positive value of ∆G and is nonspontaneous. In a coupled reaction, the input of free energy required to drive an endergonic reaction is supplied by an exergonic reaction. Learn more about exergonic and endergonic reactions by clicking on the figure in CengageNOW.

6 Compare the energy dynamics of a reaction at equilibrium with the dynamics of a reaction not at equilibrium. ■ When a chemical reaction is in a state of dynamic equilibrium, the rate of change in one direction is exactly the same as the rate of change in the opposite direction; the system can do no work because the free-energy difference between the reactants and products is zero. ■ When the concentration of reactant molecules is increased, the reaction shifts to the right and more product molecules are formed until equilibrium is re-established.

7.4 (page 159) 7 Explain how the chemical structure of ATP allows it to transfer a phosphate group and discuss the central role of ATP in the overall energy metabolism of the cell. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the immediate energy currency ■ of the cell. It donates energy by means of its terminal phosphate group, which is easily transferred to an acceptor molecule. ATP is formed by the phosphorylation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP), an endergonic process that requires an input of energy. ■ ATP is the common link between exergonic and endergonic reactions and between catabolism (degradation of large complex molecules into smaller, simpler molecules) and anabolism (synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecules).

7.5 (page 161) 8 Relate the transfer of electrons (or hydrogen atoms) to the transfer of energy. Energy is transferred in oxidation–reduction (redox) reactions. A ■ substance becomes oxidized as it gives up one or more electrons to another substance, which becomes reduced in the process. Electrons are commonly transferred as part of hydrogen atoms.



NAD+ and NADP+ accept electrons as part of hydrogen atoms and become reduced to form NADH and NADPH, respectively. These electrons (along with some of their energy) can be transferred to other acceptors.



7.6 (page 162) 9 Explain how an enzyme lowers the required energy of activation for a reaction. An enzyme is a biological catalyst; it greatly increases the speed of a chemical reaction without being consumed.

An enzyme works by lowering the activation energy (EA), the energy necessary to get a reaction going. The active site of an enzyme is a 3-D region where substrates come into close contact and thereby react more readily. When a substrate binds to an active site, an enzyme–substrate complex forms in which the shapes of the enzyme and substrate change slightly. This induced fit facilitates the breaking of bonds and formation of new ones. Learn more about activation energy by clicking on the figure in CengageNOW.



10 Describe specific ways enzymes are regulated. ■ ■

Activation energy (EA) without enzyme

Free energy (G)



Activation energy (EA) with enzyme Energy of reactants

Change in free energy (∆G) Energy of products Progress of reaction



Enzymes work best at specific temperature and pH conditions. A cell can regulate enzymatic activity by controlling the amount of enzyme produced and by regulating metabolic conditions that influence the shape of the enzyme. Some enzymes have allosteric sites, noncatalytic sites to which an allosteric regulator binds, changing the enzyme’s activity. Some allosteric enzymes are subject to feedback inhibition, in which the formation of an end product inhibits an earlier reaction in the metabolic pathway. Reversible inhibition occurs when an inhibitor forms weak chemical bonds with the enzyme. Reversible inhibition may be competitive, in which the inhibitor competes with the substrate for the active site, or noncompetitive, in which the inhibitor binds with the enzyme at a site other than the active site. Irreversible inhibition occurs when an inhibitor combines with an enzyme and permanently inactivates it. Learn more about enzymes by clicking on the figures in CengageNOW.

T E S T YO U R U N D E R S TA N D I N G 1. Which of the following can do work in a cell? (a) entropy (b) heat (c) heat energy (d) all of the above (e) none of the above 2. In a chemical reaction occurring in a cell, free energy is equivalent to (a) heat energy (b) heat (c) disorder (d) potential energy (e) more than one of the above is true 3. Cells are able to function because they (a) are subject to the laws of thermodynamics (b) have mechanisms that transform energy from the environment into useful forms (c) can use enzymes to convert endergonic reactions into spontaneous reactions (d) all of the above 4. Diffusion is an (a) endergonic process because free energy increases (b) endergonic process because free energy decreases (c) exergonic process because entropy increases (d) exergonic process because entropy decreases (e) more than one of the above 5. A spontaneous reaction is one in which the change in free energy (∆G) has a _____ value. (a) positive (b) negative (c) positive or negative (d) none of these (∆G has no measurable value)

(a) A ¡ B, ∆G = +6.08 kJ/mol (b) C ¡ D, ∆G = +3.56 kJ/mol (c) E ¡ F, ∆G = 0 kJ/mol (d) G ¡ H, ∆G = −1.22 kJ/mol (e) I ¡ J, ∆G = −5.91 kJ/mol 8. Consider this reaction: glucose + 6 O2 ¡ 6 CO2 + 6 H2O (∆G = −2880 kJ/mol). Which of the following statements about this reaction is not true? (a) the reaction is spontaneous in a thermodynamic sense (b) a small amount of energy (activation energy) must be supplied to start the reaction, which then proceeds with a release of energy (c) the reaction is exergonic (d) the reaction can be coupled to an endergonic reaction (e) the reaction must be coupled to an exergonic reaction 9. The required energy of activation of a reaction (a) is fixed, and cannot be altered (b) can be lowered by a specific enzyme (c) can be raised by a specific enzyme (d) b or c, depending on the enzyme (e) none of the above

6. Healthy living cells maintain (a) ATP and ADP at equilibrium (b) equal concentrations of ATP and ADP (c) an ATP/ADP ratio of at least 10:1 (d) an ATP/ADP ratio of no more than 1:10 (e) most of the cell’s stored energy in the form of ATP

10. “Induced fit” means that when a substrate binds to an enzyme’s active site (a) it fits perfectly, like a key in a lock (b) the substrate and enzyme undergo conformational changes (c) a site other than the active site undergoes a conformational change (d) the substrate and the enzyme become irreversibly bound to each other (e) c and d

7. Which of the following reactions could be coupled to an endergonic reaction with ∆G = +3.56 kJ/mol?

11. The function of a biochemical pathway is to (a) supply energy to reactions (b) drive a sequence of reactions in a particular direc-

tion (c) maintain chemical equilibrium (d) make energy available to endergonic reactions (e) any of the above, depending on the pathway 12. In the following reaction series, which enzyme(s) is/are most likely to have an allosteric site to which the end product E binds?

(a) enzyme 1 (b) enzyme 2 (c) enzyme 3 (d) enzyme 4 (e) enzymes 3 and 4 Enzyme 1 A

¡B

Enzyme 2

¡ C

Enzyme 3

¡D

Enzyme 4

¡E

CRITICAL THINKING 1. Given what you have learned in this chapter, explain why an extremely high fever (body temperature above 40°C, or 105°F) can be fatal. 2. EVOLUTION LINK. What does the fact that all organisms use ATP/ADP as central links between exergonic and endergonic reactions suggest about the evolution of energy metabolism? 3. EVOLUTION LINK. Some have argued that “evolution is impossible because the second law of thermodynamics states that entropy always increases; therefore natural processes cannot give rise to greater complexity.” In what ways is this statement a misunderstanding of the laws of thermodynamics? 4. ANALYZING DATA. Does the figure illustrate an exergonic reaction or an endergonic reaction? How do you know?

Free energy (G)

Reactants Free energy decreases

Products Course of reaction

5. ANALYZING DATA. Reactions 1 and 2 happen to have the same standard free-energy change: ∆G − 41.8 kJ/mol (−10 kcal/ mol). Reaction 1 is at equilibrium, but reaction 2 is far from equilibrium. Is either reaction capable of performing work? If so, which one? 6. ANALYZING DATA. You are performing an experiment in which you are measuring the rate at which succinate is converted to fumarate by the enzyme succinic dehydrogenase. You decide to add a little malonate to make things interesting. You observe that the reaction rate slows markedly and hypothesize that malonate is inhibiting the reaction. Design an experiment that will help you decide whether malonate is acting as a competitive inhibitor or a noncompetitive inhibitor. Additional questions are available in CengageNOW at www.cengage.com/ login.

8

How Cells Make ATP: Energy-Releasing Pathways

Digital Vision/Getty Images

Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos). This grizzly, shown attempting to eat a jumping salmon, may also eat fruit, nuts, roots, insects, and small vertebrates such as mice and ground squirrels.

KEY CONCEPTS

C

ells are tiny factories that process materials on the molecular level, through thousands of metabolic reactions. Cells exist in a dynamic

8.1 Aerobic respiration is an exergonic redox process in which glucose becomes oxidized, oxygen becomes reduced, and energy is captured to make ATP.

state and are continuously building up and breaking down the many

8.2 Aerobic respiration consists of four stages: glycolysis,

splitting complex molecules into smaller components, and anabolism,

formation of acetyl coenzyme A, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis.

8.3 Nutrients other than glucose, including many carbohy-

different cell constituents. As you learned in Chapter 7, metabolism has two complementary components: catabolism, which releases energy by the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler building blocks. Anabolic reactions produce proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, polysaccharides,

drates, lipids, and amino acids, can be oxidized by aerobic respiration.

and other molecules that help maintain the cell or the organism. Most

8.4 Anaerobic respiration and fermentation are ATPyielding redox processes in which glucose becomes oxidized, but oxygen does not become reduced. Instead, these processes involve the reduction of inorganic substances (in anaerobic respiration) or organic substances (in fermentation).

source to drive them.

anabolic reactions are endergonic and require ATP or some other energy Every organism must extract energy from food molecules that it either manufactures by photosynthesis or obtains from the environment. Grizzly bears, such as the one in the photograph, obtain organic molecules from their varied plant and animal diets. How do they obtain energy from these organic molecules? First, the food molecules are broken down by digestion into simpler components that are absorbed into the blood and transported to all the cells. The catabolic processes that convert the energy in the chemical bonds of nutrients to chemical energy stored in ATP then occur inside cells, usually through a process known as cellular respiration.

Cellular respiration may be either aerobic or anaerobic. Aerobic

Oxidation

C6H12 O6 ⫹ 6 O2

respiration requires oxygen, whereas anaerobic pathways, which

6 CO2 ⫹ 6 H2O ⫹ energy (in the chemical bonds of ATP)

include anaerobic respiration and fermentation, do not require oxy-

Reduction

gen. In the process of organismal respiration (discussed in Chapter

If we analyze this summary reaction, it appears that CO2 is produced by the removal of hydrogen atoms from glucose. Conversely, water seems to be formed as oxygen accepts the hydrogen atoms. Because the transfer of hydrogen atoms is equivalent to the transfer of electrons, this is a redox reaction in which glucose becomes oxidized and oxygen becomes reduced (see discussion of redox reactions in Chapters 2 and 7). The products of the reaction would be the same if the glucose were simply placed in a test tube and burned in the presence of oxygen. However, if a cell were to burn glucose, its energy would be released all at once as heat, which not only would be unavailable to the cell but also would actually destroy it. For this reason, cells do not transfer hydrogen atoms directly from glucose to oxygen. Aerobic respiration includes a series of redox reactions in which electrons associated with the hydrogen atoms in glucose are transferred to oxygen in a series of steps (FIG. 8-1). During this process, the free energy of the electrons is coupled to ATP synthesis.

46), your lungs provide a steady supply of oxygen that enables your cells to capture energy through aerobic respiration, which is by far the most common pathway and the main subject of this chapter. All three pathways—aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation—are exergonic and release free energy that can be captured by the cell.

8.1 REDOX REACTIONS ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE 1

Write a summary reaction for aerobic respiration that shows which reactant becomes oxidized and which becomes reduced.

Most eukaryotes and prokaryotes carry out aerobic respiration, a form of cellular respiration requiring molecular oxygen (O2). During aerobic respiration, nutrients are catabolized to carbon dioxide and water. Most cells use aerobic respiration to obtain energy from glucose, which enters the cell through a specific transport protein in the plasma membrane (see discussion of facilitated diffusion in Chapter 5). The overall reaction pathway for the aerobic respiration of glucose is summarized as follows:

Review ■



In the overall reaction of aerobic respiration, which reactant becomes oxidized and which becomes reduced? What is the specific role of oxygen in most cells?

8.2 THE FOUR STAGES OF AEROBIC RESPIRATION

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O ¡ 6 CO2 + 12 H2O + energy (in the chemical bonds of ATP)

■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Note that water is shown on both sides of the equation because it is a reactant in some reactions and a product in others. For purposes of discussion, the equation for aerobic respiration can be simplified to indicate that there is a net yield of water:

2 3

List and give a brief overview of the four stages of aerobic respiration. Indicate where each stage of aerobic respiration takes place in a eukaryotic cell.

e1 e2

E

e3

E = e1 + e2 + e3 + e4 + e5 e4 e5

FIGURE 8-1 Changes in free energy The release of energy from a glucose molecule is analogous to the liberation of energy by a falling object. The total energy released (E) is the same whether it occurs all at once or in a series of steps.

also carry out these processes, but because prokaryotic cells lack mitochondria, the reactions of aerobic respiration occur in the cytosol and in association with the plasma membrane.

4 Add up the energy captured (as ATP, NADH, and FADH2) in each stage of 5 6

aerobic respiration. Define chemiosmosis and explain how a gradient of protons is established across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Describe the process by which the proton gradient drives ATP synthesis in chemiosmosis.

1. Glycolysis. A six-carbon glucose molecule is converted to two three-carbon molecules of pyruvate.1 Some of the energy of glucose is captured with the formation of two kinds of energy

The chemical reactions of the aerobic respiration of glucose are grouped into four stages (FIG. 8-2 and TABLE 8-1; see also the summary equations at the end of the chapter). In eukaryotes, the first stage (glycolysis) takes place in the cytosol, and the remaining stages take place inside mitochondria. Most bacteria and archaea

KEY POINT

1 Pyruvate and many other compounds in cellular respiration exist as anions at the pH found in the cell. They sometimes associate with H+ to form acids. For example, pyruvate forms pyruvic acid. In some textbooks these compounds are presented in the acid form.

The stages of aerobic respiration occur in specific locations.

1

2

3

4

Glycolysis

Formation of acetyl coenzyme A

Citric acid cycle

Electron transport and chemiosmosis

Glucose Mitochondrion Acetyl coenzyme A

Citric acid cycle

Electron transport and chemiosmosis

Pyruvate

2 ATP

2 ATP

32 ATP

FIGURE 8-2 Animated The four stages of aerobic respiration Glycolysis, the first stage of aerobic respiration, occurs in the cytosol. Pyruvate, the product of glycolysis, enters a mitochondrion, where cellular respiration continues with the formation of acetyl CoA, the citric acid cycle, and electron transport and chemiosmosis. Most ATP is synthesized by chemiosmosis.

TABLE 8-1

Summary of Aerobic Respiration

Stage

Summary

Some Starting Materials

Some End Products

1. Glycolysis (in cytosol)

Series of reactions in which glucose is degraded to pyruvate; net profit of 2 ATPs; hydrogen atoms are transferred to carriers; can proceed anaerobically

Glucose, ATP, NAD+, ADP, Pi

Pyruvate, ATP, NADH

2. Formation of acetyl CoA (in mitochondria)

Pyruvate is degraded and combined with coenzyme A to form acetyl CoA; hydrogen atoms are transferred to carriers; CO2 is released

Pyruvate, coenzyme A, NAD+

Acetyl CoA, CO2, NADH

3. Citric acid cycle (in mitochondria)

Series of reactions in which the acetyl portion of acetyl CoA is degraded to CO2; hydrogen atoms are transferred to carriers; ATP is synthesized

Acetyl CoA, H2O, NAD+, FAD, ADP, Pi

CO2, NADH, FADH2, ATP

4. Electron transport and chemiosmosis (in mitochondria)

Chain of several electron transport molecules; electrons are passed along chain; released energy is used to form a proton gradient; ATP is synthesized as protons diffuse down the gradient; oxygen is final electron acceptor

NADH, FADH2, O2, ADP, Pi

ATP, H2O, NAD+, FAD

carriers, ATP and NADH.2 See Chapter 7 to review how ATP transfers energy by transferring a phosphate group (see Figs. 7-5 and 7-6). NADH is a reduced molecule that transfers energy by transferring electrons as part of a hydrogen atom (see Fig. 7-7). 2. Formation of acetyl coenzyme A. Each pyruvate enters a mitochondrion and is oxidized to a two-carbon group (acetate) that combines with coenzyme A, forming acetyl coenzyme A. NADH is produced, and carbon dioxide is released as a waste product. 3. The citric acid cycle. The acetate group of acetyl coenzyme A combines with a four-carbon molecule (oxaloacetate) to form a six-carbon molecule (citrate). In the course of the cycle, citrate is recycled to oxaloacetate, and carbon dioxide is released as a waste product. Energy is captured as ATP and the reduced, high-energy compounds NADH and FADH2 (see Chapter 7 to review FADH2). 4. Electron transport and chemiosmosis. The electrons removed from glucose during the preceding stages are transferred from NADH and FADH2 to a chain of electron acceptor compounds. As the electrons are passed from one electron acceptor to another, some of their energy is used to transport hydrogen ions (protons) across the inner mitochondrial membrane, forming a proton gradient. In a process known as chemiosmosis (described later), the energy of this proton gradient is used to produce ATP. Most reactions involved in aerobic respiration are one of three types: dehydrogenations, decarboxylations, and those we informally categorize as preparation reactions. Dehydrogenations are reactions in which two hydrogen atoms (actually, 2 electrons plus 1 or 2 protons) are removed from the substrate and transferred to NAD+ or FAD. Decarboxylations are reactions in which part of a carboxyl group (¬COOH) is removed from the substrate as a molecule of CO2. The carbon dioxide you exhale with each breath is derived from decarboxylations that occur in your cells. The rest of the reactions are preparation reactions in which molecules undergo rearrangements and other changes so that they can undergo further dehydrogenations or decarboxylations. As you examine the individual reactions of aerobic respiration, you will encounter these three basic types. In following the reactions of aerobic respiration, it helps to do some bookkeeping as you go along. Because glucose is the starting material, it is useful to express changes on a per glucose basis. We will pay particular attention to changes in the number of carbon atoms per molecule and to steps in which some type of energy transfer takes place.

In glycolysis, glucose yields two pyruvates The word glycolysis comes from Greek words meaning “sugar splitting,” which refers to the fact that the sugar glucose is metabolized. Glycolysis does not require oxygen and proceeds under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. FIGURE 8-3 shows a simplified overview of glycolysis, in which a glucose molecule consisting of six carbons is Although the correct way to write the reduced form of NAD+ is NADH + H+, for simplicity we present the reduced form as NADH throughout the book.

2

converted to two molecules of pyruvate, a three-carbon molecule. Some of the energy in the glucose is captured; there is a net yield of two ATP molecules and two NADH molecules. The reactions of glycolysis take place in the cytosol, where the necessary reactants, such as ADP, NAD+, and inorganic phosphate, float freely and are used as needed. The glycolysis pathway consists of a series of reactions, each of which is catalyzed by a specific enzyme (FIG. 8-4, pages 178 and 179). Glycolysis is divided into two major phases: the first includes endergonic reactions that require ATP, and the second includes exergonic reactions that yield ATP and NADH. The first phase of glycolysis requires an investment of ATP The first phase of glycolysis is sometimes called the “energy investment phase” (see Fig. 8-4, steps l to 5). Glucose is a relatively stable molecule and is not easily broken down. In two separate phosphorylation reactions, a phosphate group is transferred from ATP to the sugar. The resulting phosphorylated sugar (fructose1,6-bisphosphate) is less stable and is broken enzymatically into two three-carbon molecules, dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P). The dihydroxyacetone phosphate is enzymatically converted to G3P, so the products at this point in glycolysis are two molecules of G3P per glucose. We can summarize this portion of glycolysis as follows: glucose + 2 ATP Six-carbon compound

2 G3P + 2 ADP Threecarbon compound

The second phase of glycolysis yields NADH and ATP The second phase of glycolysis is sometimes called the “energy capture phase” (see Fig. 8-4, steps 6 to 10). Each G3P is converted to pyruvate. In the first step of this process, each G3P is oxidized by the removal of 2 electrons (as part of two hydrogen atoms). These immediately combine with the hydrogen carrier molecule, NAD+: NAD+ + Oxidized

2 H ¡ NADH + H+

(From G3P)

Reduced

Because there are two G3P molecules for every glucose, two NADH are formed. The energy of the electrons carried by NADH is used to form ATP later. This process is discussed in conjunction with the electron transport chain. In two of the reactions leading to the formation of pyruvate, ATP forms when a phosphate group is transferred to ADP from a phosphorylated intermediate (see Fig. 8-4, steps 7 and l0). This process is called substrate-level phosphorylation. Note that in the energy investment phase of glycolysis two molecules of ATP are consumed, but in the energy capture phase four molecules of ATP are produced. Thus, glycolysis yields a net energy profit of two ATPs per glucose. We can summarize the energy capture phase of glycolysis as follows: 2 G3P + 2 NAD+ + 4 ADP ¡ 2 pyruvate + 2 NADH + 4 ATP

KEY POINT

Glycolysis includes both energy investment and energy capture.

Glycolysis

Formation of acetyl coenzyme A

Citric acid cycle

Electron transport and chemiosmosis

Glucose

GLYCOLYSIS Energy investment phase and splitting of glucose Two ATPs invested per glucose

Pyruvate

2 ATP

2 ATP

32 ATP

Glucose

2 ATP 3 steps 2 ADP

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate P

P

Glyceraldehyde phosphate (G3P)

Glyceraldehyde phosphate (G3P)

P

P

Energy capture phase Four ATPs and two NADH produced per glucose P (G3P)

P (G3P)

NAD+

NAD+

NADH

NADH 5 steps

2 ADP

2 ADP

2 ATP

2 ATP

Pyruvate

Pyruvate

Net yield per glucose: Two ATPs and two NADH

FIGURE 8-3 Animated An overview of glycolysis The black spheres represent carbon atoms. The energy investment phase of glycolysis leads to the splitting of sugar; ATP and NADH are produced during the energy capture phase. During glycolysis, each glucose molecule is converted to two pyruvates, with a net yield of two ATP molecules and two NADH molecules.

Pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA In eukaryotes, the pyruvate molecules formed in glycolysis enter the mitochondria, where they are converted to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA). These reactions occur in the cytosol of aerobic prokaryotes. In this series of reactions, pyruvate undergoes a process known as oxidative decarboxylation. First, a carboxyl group is removed as carbon dioxide, which diffuses out of the cell (FIG. 8-5). Then the remaining two-carbon fragment becomes oxidized, and NAD+ accepts the electrons removed during the oxidation. Finally, the oxidized two-carbon fragment, an acetyl group, becomes attached to coenzyme A, yielding acetyl CoA. Pyruvate dehydrogenase, the enzyme that catalyzes these reactions, is an enormous multienzyme complex consisting of 72 polypeptide chains! Recall from Chapter 7 that coenzyme A transfers groups derived from organic acids. In this case, coenzyme A transfers an acetyl group, which is related to acetic acid. Coenzyme A is manufactured in the cell from one of the B vitamins, pantothenic acid. The overall reaction for the formation of acetyl coenzyme A is: 2 pyruvate + 2 NAD+ + 2 CoA ¡ 2 acetyl CoA + 2 NADH + 2 CO2

Note that the original glucose molecule has now been partially oxidized, yielding two acetyl groups and two CO2 molecules. The electrons removed have reduced NAD+ to NADH. At this point in aerobic respiration, four NADH molecules have been formed as a result of the catabolism of a single glucose molecule: two during glycolysis and two during the formation of acetyl CoA from pyruvate. Keep in mind that these NADH molecules will be used later (during electron transport) to form additional ATP molecules.

The citric acid cycle oxidizes acetyl CoA The citric acid cycle is also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the Krebs cycle, after Hans Krebs, the German biochemist who assembled the accumulated contributions of many scientists and worked out the details of the cycle in the 1930s. He received a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1953 for this contribution. A simplified overview of the citric acid cycle, which takes place in the matrix of the mitochondria, is given in FIGURE 8-6, page 180. The eight steps of the citric acid cycle are shown in FIGURE 8-7, page 181. A specific enzyme catalyzes each reaction. The first reaction of the cycle occurs when acetyl CoA transfers its two-carbon acetyl group to the four-carbon acceptor compound oxaloacetate, forming citrate, a six-carbon compound. oxaloacetate + acetyl CoA

citrate + CoA

Four -carbon compound

Six-carbon compound

Two-carbon compound

The citrate then goes through a series of chemical transformations, losing first one and then a second carboxyl group as CO2. One ATP is formed (per acetyl group) by substrate-level phosphorylation. Most of the energy made available by the oxidative steps of the cycle is transferred as energy-rich electrons to NAD+, forming NADH. For each acetyl group that enters the citric acid cycle, three molecules of NADH are produced (steps 3, 4, and 8). Electrons are also transferred to the electron acceptor FAD, forming FADH2.

In the course of the citric acid cycle, two molecules of CO2 and the equivalent of eight hydrogen atoms (8 protons and 8 electrons) are removed, forming three NADH and one FADH2. You may wonder why more hydrogen equivalents are generated by these reactions than entered the cycle with the acetyl CoA molecule. These hydrogen atoms come from water molecules that are added during the reactions of the cycle. The CO2 produced accounts for the two carbon atoms of the acetyl group that entered the citric acid cycle. At the end of each cycle, the four-carbon oxaloacetate has been regenerated, and the cycle continues. Because two acetyl CoA molecules are produced from each glucose molecule, two cycles are required per glucose molecule. After two turns of the cycle, the original glucose has lost all its carbons and may be regarded as having been completely consumed. To summarize, the citric acid cycle yields four CO2, six NADH, two FADH2, and two ATPs per glucose molecule. At this point in aerobic respiration, only four molecules of ATP have been formed per glucose by substrate-level phosphorylation: two during glycolysis and two during the citric acid cycle. Most of the energy of the original glucose molecule is in the form of highenergy electrons in NADH and FADH2. Their energy will be used to synthesize additional ATP through the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis.

The electron transport chain is coupled to ATP synthesis Let us consider the fate of all the electrons removed from a molecule of glucose during glycolysis, acetyl CoA formation, and the citric acid cycle. Recall that these electrons were transferred as part of hydrogen atoms to the acceptors NAD+ and FAD, forming NADH and FADH2. These reduced compounds now enter the electron transport chain, where the high-energy electrons of their hydrogen atoms are shuttled from one acceptor to another. As the electrons are passed along in a series of exergonic redox reactions, some of their energy is used to drive the synthesis of ATP, which is an endergonic process. Because ATP synthesis (by phosphorylation of ADP) is coupled to the redox reactions in the electron transport chain, the entire process is known as oxidative phosphorylation. The electron transport chain transfers electrons from NADH and FADH2 to oxygen The electron transport chain is a series of electron carriers embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes and in the plasma membrane of aerobic prokaryotes. Like NADH and FADH2, each carrier exists in an oxidized form or a reduced form. Electrons pass down the electron transport chain in a series of redox reactions that works much like a bucket brigade, the old-time chain of people who passed buckets of water from a stream to one another, to a building that was on fire. In the electron transport chain, each acceptor molecule becomes alternately reduced as it accepts electrons and oxidized as it gives them up. The electrons entering the electron transport chain have a relatively high energy content. They lose some of their energy at each step as they pass along the chain of electron carriers (just as some of the water spills out of the bucket as it is passed from one person to another).

FIGURE 8-4 A detailed look at glycolysis

CH2OH O

H

A specific enzyme catalyzes each of the reactions in glycolysis. Note the net yield of two ATP molecules and two NADH molecules. (The black wavy lines indicate bonds that permit the phosphates to be readily transferred to other molecules; in this case, ADP.)

H OH

Energy investment phase and splitting of glucose Two ATPs invested per glucose

H

H

HO

OH H

OH

Glucose ATP

Hexokinase

ADP CH2O

P O

H H OH

1

H

H

HO

OH H

OH

Glucose-6-phosphate

Glycolysis begins with preparation reaction in which glucose receives phosphate group from ATP molecule. ATP serves as source of both phosphate and energy needed to attach phosphate to glucose molecule. (Once ATP is spent, it becomes ADP and joins ADP pool of cell until turned into ATP again.) Phosphorylated glucose is known as glucose-6-phosphate. (Note phosphate attached to its carbon atom 6.) Phosphorylation of glucose makes it more chemically reactive.

Phosphoglucoisomerase

CH2O

P O

CH2OH

2

HO

H

OH

H HO

Glucose-6-phosphate undergoes another preparation reaction, rearrangement of its hydrogen and oxygen atoms. In this reaction glucose-6-phosphate is converted to its isomer, fructose-6-phosphate.

H

Fructose-6-phosphate ATP

Phosphofructokinase

ADP P

O

O

CH2

CH2

O

P

Next, another ATP donates phosphate to molecule, forming fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. So far, two ATP molecules have been invested in process without any being produced. Phosphate groups are now bound at carbons 1 and 6, and molecule is ready to be split.

3

H

HO OH

H HO

H

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate Aldolase

P

O

H

CH2 C

C

O

4

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate is then split into two 3-carbon sugars, glyceraldehyde-3phosphate (G3P) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate.

5

Dihydroxyacetone phosphate is enzymatically converted to its isomer, glyceraldehyde-3phosphate, for further metabolism in glycolysis.

O

Isomerase CH2OH

CHOH CH2

Dihydroxyacetone phosphate

O

P

Glyceraldehyde3-phosphate (G3P)

Two glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) from bottom of previous page 2 NAD

Energy capture phase Four ATPs and two NADH produced per glucose

+

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

2 NADH

Pi O C

H

C

˜

P

6

OH

H 2C

P

O

Each glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate undergoes dehydrogenation with NAD+ as hydrogen acceptor. Product of this very exergonic reaction is phosphoglycerate, which reacts with inorganic phosphate present in cytosol to yield 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate.

Two 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate 2 ADP Phosphoglycerokinase 2 ATP O –

C

O

7

HC

OH

H 2C

O

P

One of phosphates of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate reacts with ADP to form ATP. This transfer of phosphate from phosphorylated intermediate to ATP is referred to as substrate-level phosphorylation.

Two 3-phosphoglycerate Phosphoglyceromutase O O–

C

P

HC

O

H 2C

OH

8

3-phosphoglycerate is rearranged to 2-phosphoglycerate by enzymatic shift of position of phosphate group. This is a preparation reaction.

9

Next, molecule of water is removed, which results in formation of double bond. The product, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), has phosphate group attached by an unstable bond (wavy line).

Two 2-phosphoglycerate Enolase

2 H 2O

O C

O–

C

O

CH2

˜

P

Two phosphoenolpyruvate 2 ADP Pyruvate kinase 2 ATP O C

O–

C

O

CH3 Two pyruvate

10

Each of two PEP molecules transfers its phosphate group to ADP to yield ATP and pyruvate. This is substrate-level phosphorylation reaction.

Glycolysis

Formation of acetyl coenzyme A

Citric acid cycle

Glycolysis

Electron transport and chemiosmosis

Glucose

Glucose

Pyruvate

Pyruvate

2 ATP

2 ATP

Formation of acetyl coenzyme A

2 ATP

32 ATP

Acetyl coenzyme A

O H3C

Citric acid cycle

Electron transport and chemiosmosis

2 ATP

32 ATP

Coenzyme A

O C

C

O–

Carbon dioxide

CO2

NAD

NADH NAD+

Coenzyme A

NAD+

C IT R I C ACID CY C L E

H2O

Pyruvate +

Citrate

Oxaloacetate

NADH CO2

FADH2

NADH

5-carbon compound

FAD

NAD+

O H3C

˜

GTP

C S

CoA

NADH GDP

ADP

4-carbon compound

CO2

ATP

Acetyl coenzyme A

FIGURE 8-6 Animated Overview of the citric acid cycle FIGURE 8-5 The formation of acetyl CoA This series of reactions is catalyzed by the multienzyme complex pyruvate dehydrogenase. Pyruvate, a three-carbon molecule that is the end product of glycolysis, enters the mitochondrion and undergoes oxidative decarboxylation. First, the carboxyl group is split off as carbon dioxide. Then, the remaining two-carbon fragment is oxidized, and its electrons are transferred to NAD+. Finally, the oxidized two-carbon group, an acetyl group, is attached to coenzyme A. CoA has a sulfur atom that forms a bond, shown as a black wavy line, with the acetyl group. When this bond is broken, the acetyl group can be readily transferred to another molecule.

Members of the electron transport chain include the flavoprotein flavin mononucleotide (FMN), the lipid ubiquinone (also called coenzyme Q or CoQ), several iron–sulfur proteins, and a group of closely related iron-containing proteins called cytochromes (FIG. 8-8). Each electron carrier has a different mechanism for accepting and passing electrons. As cytochromes accept and donate electrons, for example, the charge on the iron atom, which is the electron carrier portion of the cytochromes, alternates between Fe2+ (reduced) and Fe3+ (oxidized). Scientists have extracted and purified the electron transport chain from the inner mitochondrial membrane as four large, distinct protein complexes, or groups, of acceptors. Complex I (NADH–ubiquinone oxidoreductase) accepts electrons from NADH

For every glucose, two acetyl groups enter the citric acid cycle (top). Each two-carbon acetyl group combines with a four-carbon compound, oxaloacetate, to form the six-carbon compound citrate. Two CO2 molecules are removed, and energy is captured as one ATP, three NADH, and one FADH2 per acetyl group (or two ATPs, six NADH, and two FADH2 per glucose molecule).

molecules that were produced during glycolysis, the formation of acetyl CoA, and the citric acid cycle. Complex II (succinate– ubiquinone reductase) accepts electrons from FADH2 molecules that were produced during the citric acid cycle. Complexes I and II both produce the same product, reduced ubiquinone, which is the substrate of complex III (ubiquinone–cytochrome c oxidoreductase). That is, complex III accepts electrons from reduced ubiquinone and passes them on to cytochrome c. Complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) accepts electrons from cytochrome c and uses these electrons to reduce molecular oxygen, forming water in the process. The electrons simultaneously unite with protons from the surrounding medium to form hydrogen, and the chemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen produces water. Because oxygen is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain, organisms that respire aerobically require oxygen. What happens when cells that are strict aerobes are deprived of oxygen? The last cytochrome in the chain retains its electrons when no oxygen is available to accept them. When that occurs, each

FIGURE 8-7 A detailed look at the citric acid cycle

COO–

8

Malate is dehydrogenated, forming oxaloacetate. Two hydrogens removed are transferred to NAD+. Oxaloacetate can now combine with another molecule of acetyl coenzyme A, beginning new cycle.

Unstable bond attaching acetyl group to coenzyme A breaks. 2-carbon acetyl group becomes attached to 4-carbon oxaloacetate molecule, forming citrate, 6-carbon molecule with three carboxyl groups. Coenzyme A is free to combine with another 2-carbon group and repeat process.

1

Begin with step 1, in the upper right corner, where acetyl coenzyme A attaches to oxaloacetate. Follow the steps in the citric acid cycle to see that the entry of a two-carbon acetyl group is balanced by the release of two molecules of CO2. Electrons are transferred to NAD+ or FAD, yielding NADH and FADH2, respectively, and ATP is formed by substratelevel phosphorylation.

H

C

O

C

H

Glucose

Acetyl coenzyme A

COO–

Malate dehydrogenase

Oxaloacetate COO– H

C

OH

H

C

H

Citrate synthase Coenzyme A

NADH

COO–

NAD+

COO–

Malate 7

With addition of water, fumarate is converted to malate.

Fatty acids

H

C

H

HO

C

COO–

H

C

H

COO–

Citrate H2O

Fumarase H2O



COO H

COO

Aconitase

H2O

C C

COO–

CITRIC ACID CYCLE

H –

Fumarate

HO

C

H

H

C

COO–

H

C COO

FADH2

6

Succinate is oxidized when two of its hydrogens are transferred to FAD, forming FADH2. Resulting compound is fumarate.

NAD+

Succinate dehydrogenase

FAD

C

H

H

C

H

COO–

NADH

COO –

NAD+ Coenzyme A

NADH

Succinate

GDP ATP

C

O

H

C

H

H

C

H

CO2

3

Isocitrate undergoes dehydrogenation and decarboxylation to yield 5-carbon compound α-ketoglutarate.

COO–

α-Ketoglutarate

Coenzyme A

ADP

H –

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

COO– H

Atoms of citrate are rearranged by two preparation reactions: first, molecule of water is removed, and then molecule of water is added. Through these reactions citrate is converted to its isomer, isocitrate.

Isocitrate

GTP Succinyl CoA synthetase

α -Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

COO– CH2

4

CH2

5

2

Succinyl coenzyme A is converted to succinate, and substrate-level phosphorylation takes place. Bond attaching coenzyme A to succinate (~S) is unstable. Breakdown of succinyl coenzyme A is coupled to phosphorylation of GDP to form GTP (compound similar to ATP). GTP transfers its phosphate to ADP, yielding ATP.

C O

˜

S

CoA

Succinyl coenzyme A

CO2

Next α-ketoglutarate undergoes decarboxylation and dehydrogenation to form 4-carbon compound succinyl coenzyme A. Reaction is catalyzed by multienzyme complex similar to complex that catalyzes conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A.

KEY POINT

Electron carriers in the mitochondrial inner membrane transfer electrons from NADH and FADH2 to oxygen.

Cytosol

Outer mitochondrial membrane

Intermembrane space

Inner mitochondrial membrane

Complex I: NADH–ubiquinone oxidoreductase

Complex II: Succinate– ubiquinone reductase

Matrix of mitochondrion

Complex III: Ubiquinone– cytochrome c oxidoreductase

Complex IV: Cytochrome c oxidase

FADH2 FAD

NAD

2 H

+

H2O 1 O 2 2

+

NADH

FIGURE 8-8 Animated An overview of the electron transport chain Electrons fall to successively lower energy levels as they are passed along the four complexes of the electron transport chain located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. (The orange arrows indicate the pathway of electrons.) The carriers within each complex become alternately

acceptor molecule in the chain retains its electrons (each remains in its reduced state), and the entire chain is blocked all the way back to NADH. Because oxidative phosphorylation is coupled to electron transport, no additional ATP is produced by way of the electron transport chain. Most cells of multicellular organisms cannot live long without oxygen because the small amount of ATP they produce by glycolysis alone is insufficient to sustain life processes. Lack of oxygen is not the only factor that interferes with the electron transport chain. Some poisons, including cyanide, inhibit the normal activity of the cytochromes. Cyanide binds tightly to the iron in the last cytochrome in the electron transport chain, making it unable to transport electrons to oxygen. This blocks the

reduced and oxidized as they accept and donate electrons. The terminal acceptor is oxygen; one of the two atoms of an oxygen molecule (written as –21 O2) accepts 2 electrons, which are added to 2 protons from the surrounding medium to produce water.

further passage of electrons through the chain, and ATP production ceases. Although the flow of electrons in electron transport is usually tightly coupled to the production of ATP, some organisms uncouple the two processes to produce heat (see Inquiring About: Electron Transport and Heat). The chemiosmotic model explains the coupling of ATP synthesis to electron transport in aerobic respiration For decades, scientists were aware that oxidative phosphorylation occurs in mitochondria, and many experiments had shown that the transfer of 2 electrons from each NADH to oxygen (via the

In q u ir in g A b o u t E L E C T RO N T R A N S P O RT A N D H E AT and wet woodlands and generally flowers during February and March when the ground is still covered with snow (see figure). Its uncoupled mitochondria generate large amounts of heat, enabling the plant to melt the snow and attract insect pollinators by vaporizing certain odiferous molecules into the surrounding air. The flower temperature of skunk cabbage is 15° to 22°C (59° to 72°F) when the air surrounding it is −15° to 10°C (5° to 50°F). Skunk cabbage flowers maintain this temperature for two weeks or more. Other plants, such as split leaf philodendron (Philodendron selloum) and sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), also generate heat when they bloom and maintain their temperatures within precise limits. Some plants generate as much or more heat per gram of tissue than animals in flight, which have long been considered the greatest heat producers in the living world. The European plant lords-and-ladies (Arum maculatum), for example, produces 0.4 J (0.1 cal) of heat per second per gram of tissue, whereas a hummingbird in flight

electron transport chain) usually results in the production of up to three ATP molecules. However, for a long time, the connection between ATP synthesis and electron transport remained a mystery. In 1961, Peter Mitchell, a British biochemist, proposed the chemiosmotic model, which was based on his experiments and on theoretical considerations. One type of experiment involved using bacteria as a model system (FIG. 8-9). Because the respiratory electron transport chain is located in the plasma membrane of an aerobic bacterial cell, the bacterial plasma membrane can be considered comparable to the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mitchell demonstrated that if bacterial cells were placed in an acidic environment (that is, an environment with a high hydrogen ion, or proton, concentration), the cells synthesized ATP even if electron transport was not taking place. On the basis of these and other experiments, Mitchell proposed that electron transport and ATP synthesis are coupled by means of a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane in eukaryotes (or across the plasma membrane in bacteria). His model was so radical that it was not immediately accepted, but by 1978, so much evidence had accumulated in support of chemiosmosis that Peter Mitchell was awarded a Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The electron transport chain establishes the proton gradient; some of the energy released as electrons pass down the electron transport chain is used to move protons (H+) across a membrane. In eukaryotes the protons are moved across the inner mitochondrial membrane into the intermembrane space (FIG. 8-10). Hence, the inner mitochondrial

Leonard Lee Rue III/Animals Animals

What is the source of our body heat? Essentially, it is a byproduct of various exergonic reactions, especially those involving the electron transport chains in our mitochondria. Some cold-adapted animals, hibernating animals, and newborn animals produce unusually large amounts of heat by uncoupling electron transport from ATP production. These animals have adipose tissue (tissue in which fat is stored) that is brown. The brown color comes from the large number of mitochondria found in the brown adipose tissue cells. The inner mitochondrial membranes of these mitochondria contain an uncoupling protein that produces a passive proton channel through which protons flow into the mitochondrial matrix. As a consequence, most of the energy of glucose is converted to heat rather than to chemical energy in ATP. Certain plants, which are not generally considered “warm” organisms, also have the ability to produce large amounts of heat. Skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus), for example, lives in North American swamps

Skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus) This plant not only produces a significant amount of heat when it flowers but also regulates its temperature within a specific range.

produces 0.24 J (0.06 cal) per second per gram of tissue.

KEY EXPERIMENT QUESTION: What is the mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation? HYPOTHESIS: Peter Mitchell proposed that the cell uses energy released during electron transport to create a proton gradient across a membrane. The potential energy inherent in that gradient then drives the synthesis of ATP. EXPERIMENT: Aerobic bacteria were placed in an acid (high H+ concentration) environment, thus creating a proton gradient across the plasma membrane. This was done under conditions in which no electron transport was occurring.

+

H

H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+

H+

H+

Bacterial cytoplasm (low acid)

H+ H+

H+

H+ H+ H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

ATP

H+

Synthesized

H+

H+ +

+

H

H+

+

H

+

H

+

H

+

H

+

H

+

H

+

H

+

H

H

+

+

H

+

H

+

H

H

+

+

H

H+

H

Plasma membrane

Acidic environment

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The bacteria synthesized ATP in the absence of aerobic respiration. These results supported Mitchell’s view that a proton gradient across a membrane is an essential link in the conversion of the electrical energy of the electron transport chain to chemical energy in ATP.

FIGURE 8-9 Evidence for chemiosmosis

force of protons moving through the enzyme complex. The rotation apparently alters the conformation of the catalytic subunits in a way that drives ATP synthesis. Chemiosmosis is a fundamental mechanism of energy coupling in cells; it allows exergonic redox reactions to drive the endergonic reaction in which ATP is produced by phosphorylating ADP. In photosynthesis (discussed in Chapter 9), ATP is produced by a comparable process.

H+

H+

H+

Outer mitochondrial membrane

H+ H+

H+

H+

H+ + H+ H+ H

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+ H+

H+

H+

Intermembrane space—low pH

H+

H+

H+

H+ H+

H+ H+

H+

H+

Inner mitochondrial membrane

H+

H+

H+

Cytosol

H+

Matrix—higher pH

H+ H+ H+ H+

H+

FIGURE 8-10 The accumulation of protons (H+) within the intermembrane space As electrons move down the electron transport chain, the electron transport complexes move protons (H+) from the matrix to the intermembrane space, creating a proton gradient. The high concentration of H+ in the intermembrane space lowers the pH.

membrane separates a space with a higher concentration of protons (the intermembrane space) from a space with a lower concentration of protons (the mitochondrial matrix). Protons are moved across the inner mitochondrial membrane by three of the four electron transport complexes (complexes I, III, and IV) (FIG. 8-11a). Like water behind a dam, the resulting proton gradient is a form of potential energy that can be harnessed to provide the energy for ATP synthesis. Diffusion of protons from the intermembrane space, where they are highly concentrated, through the inner mitochondrial membrane to the matrix of the mitochondrion is limited to specific channels formed by a fifth enzyme complex, ATP synthase, a transmembrane protein. Portions of these complexes project from the inner surface of the membrane (the surface that faces the matrix) and are visible by electron microscopy (FIG. 8-11b). Diffusion of the protons down their gradient, through the ATP synthase complex, is exergonic because the entropy of the system increases. This exergonic process provides the energy for ATP production, although the exact mechanism by which ATP synthase catalyzes the phosphorylation of ADP is still not completely understood. In 1997, Paul Boyer of the University of California at Los Angeles and John Walker of the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, England, shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery that ATP synthase functions in an unusual way. Experimental evidence strongly suggests that ATP synthase acts like a highly efficient molecular motor: During the production of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate, a central structure of ATP synthase rotates, possibly in response to the

Aerobic respiration of one glucose yields a maximum of 36 to 38 ATPs Let us now review where biologically useful energy is captured in aerobic respiration and calculate the total energy yield from the complete oxidation of glucose. FIGURE 8-12 summarizes the arithmetic involved. 1. In glycolysis, glucose is activated by the addition of phosphates from 2 ATP molecules and converted ultimately to 2 pyruvates + 2 NADH + 4 ATPs, yielding a net profit of 2 ATPs. 2. The 2 pyruvates are metabolized to 2 acetyl CoA + 2 CO2 + 2 NADH. 3. In the citric acid cycle, the 2 acetyl CoA molecules are metabolized to 4 CO2 + 6 NADH + 2 FADH2 + 2 ATPs. Because the oxidation of NADH in the electron transport chain yields up to 3 ATPs per molecule, the total of 10 NADH molecules can yield up to 30 ATPs. The 2 NADH molecules from glycolysis, however, yield either 2 or 3 ATPs each. The reason is that certain types of eukaryotic cells must expend energy to shuttle the NADH produced by glycolysis across the mitochondrial membrane (to be discussed shortly). Prokaryotic cells lack mitochondria; hence, they have no need to shuttle NADH molecules. For this reason, bacteria are able to generate 3 ATPs for every NADH, even those produced during glycolysis. Thus, the maximum number of ATPs formed using the energy from NADH is 28 to 30. The oxidation of FADH2 yields 2 ATPs per molecule (recall that electrons from FADH2 enter the electron transport chain at a different location than those from NADH), so the 2 FADH2 molecules produced in the citric acid cycle yield 4 ATPs. 4. Summing all the ATPs (2 from glycolysis, 2 from the citric acid cycle, and 32 to 34 from electron transport and chemiosmosis), you can see that the complete aerobic metabolism of one molecule of glucose yields a maximum of 36 to 38 ATPs. Most ATP is generated by oxidative phosphorylation, which involves the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis. Only 4 ATPs are formed by substrate-level phosphorylation in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. We can analyze the efficiency of the overall process of aerobic respiration by comparing the free energy captured as ATP to the total free energy in a glucose molecule. Recall from Chapter 6 that although heat energy cannot power biological reactions, it is convenient to measure energy as heat. This is done through the use of a calorimeter, an instrument that measures the heat of a reaction. A sample is placed in a compartment surrounded by a chamber of water. As the sample burns (becomes oxidized), the temperature of the water rises, providing a measure of the heat released during the reaction.

KEY POINT

The electron transport chain forms a concentration gradient for H+, which diffuses through ATP synthase complexes, producing ATP. Glycolysis

Formation of acetyl coenzyme A

Citric acid cycle

Electron transport and chemiosmosis

2 ATP

32 ATP

Glucose

Pyruvate

2 ATP

Cytosol Outer mitochondrial membrane Intermembrane space

H

H+

H+

H+

H+ +

H+

H+

H+

H

H+

H+ H+

H+

H+ H

H

Complex II

Complex I

Matrix of mitochondrion

H+

+

+

Inner mitochondrial membrane

H+

H+

H+

+

H+

H+

H+

Complex III

Complex V: ATP synthase

Complex IV

FADH2 FAD NAD+

1 O 2 2

NADH H+

H+

H2O

2 H+

H+

H+ ADP + Pi

R. Bhatnagar/Visuals Unlimited, Inc.

(a) The electron transport chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane includes three proton pumps that are located in three of the four electron transport complexes. (The orange arrows indicate the pathway of electrons; and the black arrows, the pathway of protons.) The energy released during electron transport is used to transport protons (H+ ) from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space, where a high concentration of protons accumulates. The protons cannot diffuse back into the matrix except through special channels in ATP synthase in the inner membrane. The flow of the protons through ATP synthase provides the energy for generating ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi ). In the process, the inner part of ATP synthase rotates (thick red arrows) like a motor.

ATP

Projections of ATP synthase

250 nm

(b) This TEM shows hundreds of projections of ATP synthase complexes along the surface of the inner mitochondrial membrane.

FIGURE 8-11 A detailed look at electron transport and chemiosmosis

KEY POINT Substrate-level phosphorylation

Oxidative phosphorylation

Glycolysis Glucose

2

are transferred to the electron transport chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane, and up to three molecules of ATP are produced per pair of electrons. In skeletal muscle, brain, and some other types of cells, another type of shuttle operates. Because this shuttle requires more energy than the shuttle in liver, kidney, and heart cells, the electrons are at a lower energy level when they enter the electron transport chain. They are accepted by ubiquinone rather than by NAD+ and so generate a maximum of 2 ATP molecules per pair of electrons. For this reason, the number of ATPs produced by aerobic respiration of 1 molecule of glucose in skeletal muscle cells is 36 rather than 38.

Most ATP is produced by electron transport and chemiosmosis (oxidative phosphorylation)

ATP

2 NADH

4–6

ATP

2 NADH

6

ATP

Pyruvate

Acetyl coenzyme A

Cells regulate aerobic respiration

2

4

ATP

ATP

Total ATP from substratelevel phosphorylation

Citric acid cycle

6 NADH

18

ATP

2 FADH2

4

ATP

32 – 34

ATP

Total ATP from oxidative phosphorylation

FIGURE 8-12 Energy yield from the complete oxidation of glucose by aerobic respiration

When 1 mol of glucose is burned in a calorimeter, some 686 kcal (2870 kJ) are released as heat. The free energy temporarily held in the phosphate bonds of ATP is about 7.6 kcal (31.8 kJ) per mole. When 36 to 38 ATPs are generated during the aerobic respiration of glucose, the free energy trapped in ATP amounts to 7.6 kcal/mol × 36, or about 274 kcal (1146 kJ) per mole. Thus, the efficiency of aerobic respiration is 274/686, or about 40%. (By comparison, a steam power plant has an efficiency of 35% to 36% in converting its fuel energy into electricity.) The remainder of the energy in the glucose is released as heat. Mitochondrial shuttle systems harvest the electrons of NADH produced in the cytosol The inner mitochondrial membrane is not permeable to NADH, which is a large molecule. Therefore, the NADH molecules produced in the cytosol during glycolysis cannot diffuse into the mitochondria to transfer their electrons to the electron transport chain. Unlike ATP and ADP, NADH does not have a carrier protein to transport it across the membrane. Instead, several systems have evolved to transfer just the electrons of NADH, not the NADH molecules themselves, into the mitochondria. In liver, kidney, and heart cells, a special shuttle system transfers the electrons from NADH through the inner mitochondrial membrane to an NAD+ molecule in the matrix. These electrons

Aerobic respiration requires a steady input of fuel molecules and oxygen. Under normal conditions these materials are adequately provided and do not affect the rate of respiration. Instead, the rate of aerobic respiration is regulated by how much ADP and phosphate are available, with ATP synthesis continuing until most of the ADP has been converted to ATP. At this point oxidative phosphorylation slows considerably, which in turn slows down the citric acid cycle. Glycolysis is partly controlled by feedback regulation (see Fig. 7-15 for an illustration of feedback regulation) exerted on the enzyme phosphofructokinase, which catalyzes an early reaction of glycolysis (see Fig. 8-4). The active site of phosphofructokinase binds ATP and fructose6-phosphate. However, the enzyme has two allosteric sites: an inhibitor site to which ATP binds when present at very high levels, and an activator site to which AMP (adenosine monophosphate, a molecule formed when two phosphates are removed from ATP) binds. Therefore, this enzyme is inactivated when ATP levels are high and activated when they are low. Respiration proceeds when the enzyme becomes activated, thus generating more ATP.

Review ■



■ ■

How much ATP is made available to the cell from a single glucose molecule by the operation of (1) glycolysis, (2) the formation of acetyl CoA, (3) the citric acid cycle, and (4) the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis? Why is each of the following essential to chemiosmotic ATP synthesis: (1) electron transport chain, (2) proton gradient, and (3) ATP synthase complex? What are the roles of NAD+, FAD, and oxygen in aerobic respiration? What are some of the ways aerobic respiration is controlled?

8.3 ENERGY YIELD OF NUTRIENTS OTHER THAN GLUCOSE ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE 7

Summarize how the products of protein and lipid catabolism enter the same metabolic pathway that oxidizes glucose.

Many organisms, including humans, depend on nutrients other than glucose as a source of energy. In fact, you usually obtain more of your energy by oxidizing fatty acids than by oxidizing glucose. Amino acids derived from protein digestion are also used as fuel molecules. Such nutrients are transformed into one of the metabolic intermediates that are fed into glycolysis or the citric acid cycle (FIG. 8-13). Amino acids are metabolized by reactions in which the amino group (¬NH2) is first removed, a process called deamination. In mammals and some other animals, the amino group is converted to urea (see Fig. 48-1 for the biochemical pathway) and excreted, but the carbon chain is metabolized and eventually is used as a reactant in one of the steps of aerobic respiration. The amino acid alanine, for example, undergoes deamination to become pyruvate, the amino acid glutamate is converted to a-ketoglutarate, and the amino acid aspartate yields oxaloacetate. Pyruvate enters aerobic respiration as the end product of glycolysis, and a-ketoglutarate and oxaloacetate both enter aerobic respiration as intermediates in the citric acid cycle. Ultimately, the carbon chains of all the amino acids are metabolized in this way.

Each gram of lipid in the diet contains 9 kcal (38 kJ), more than twice as much energy as 1 g of glucose or amino acids, which have about 4 kcal (17 kJ) per gram. Lipids are rich in energy because they are highly reduced; that is, they have many hydrogen atoms and few oxygen atoms. When completely oxidized in aerobic respiration, a molecule of a six-carbon fatty acid generates up to 44 ATPs (compared with 36 to 38 ATPs for a molecule of glucose, which also has six carbons). Both the glycerol and fatty acid components of a triacylglycerol (see Figure 3-12 for structures) are used as fuel; phosphate is added to glycerol, converting it to G3P or another compound that enters glycolysis. Fatty acids are oxidized and split enzymatically into two-carbon acetyl groups that are bound to coenzyme A; that is, fatty acids are converted to acetyl CoA. This process, which occurs in the mitochondrial matrix, is called b-oxidation (beta-oxidation). Acetyl CoA molecules formed by b-oxidation enter the citric acid cycle.

Review ■ ■

PROTEINS

CARBOHYDRATES

FATS ■

Amino acids

Glycolysis

Glycerol

Fatty acids

Glucose

8.4 ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION AND FERMENTATION

G3P

■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE

Pyruvate

8

CO2 Acetyl coenzyme A

Electron transport and chemiosmosis

NH3

H2O

Compare and contrast anaerobic respiration and fermentation. Include the mechanism of ATP formation, the final electron acceptor, and the end products.

Anaerobic respiration, which does not use oxygen as the final electron acceptor, is performed by some prokaryotes that live in anaerobic environments, such as waterlogged soil, stagnant ponds, and animal intestines. As in aerobic respiration, electrons are transferred in anaerobic respiration from glucose to NADH; they then pass down an electron transport chain that is coupled to ATP synthesis by chemiosmosis. However, an inorganic substance such as nitrate (NO3−) or sulfate (SO42−) replaces molecular oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. The end products of this type of anaerobic respiration are carbon dioxide, one or more reduced inorganic substances, and ATP. The following equation summarizes one representative type of anaerobic respiration, which is part of the biogeochemical cycle known as the nitrogen cycle (discussed in Chapter 55).

Citric acid cycle

End products:

How can a person obtain energy from a low-carbohydrate diet? What process must occur before amino acids enter the aerobic respiratory pathway? Where do fatty acids enter the aerobic respiratory pathway?

CO2

FIGURE 8-13 Animated Energy from proteins, carbohydrates, and fats Products of the catabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats enter glycolysis or the citric acid cycle at various points. This diagram is greatly simplified and illustrates only a few of the principal catabolic pathways.

C 6H12 O 6 + 12 KNO3 ¡ Potassium nitrate

6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 12 KNO2 + energy Potassium (in the chemical nitrite bonds of ATP)

TABLE 8-2

A Comparison of Aerobic Respiration, Anaerobic Respiration, and Fermentation

Immediate fate of electrons in NADH Terminal electron acceptor of electron transport chain Reduced product(s) formed

Mechanism of ATP synthesis

Aerobic Respiration

Anaerobic Respiration

Fermentation

Transferred to electron transport chain O2

Transferred to electron transport chain

Transferred to organic molecule

Inorganic substances such as NO3− or SO42− Relatively reduced inorganic substances

No electron transport chain

Water

Oxidative phosphorylation/ chemiosmosis; also substratelevel phosphorylation

Oxidative phosphorylation/chemiosmosis; also substrate-level phosphorylation

Certain other bacteria, as well as some fungi, regularly use fermentation, an anaerobic pathway that does not involve an electron transport chain. During fermentation only two ATPs are formed per glucose (by substrate-level phosphorylation during glycolysis). One might expect that a cell that obtains energy from glycolysis would produce pyruvate, the end product of glycolysis. However, this cannot happen because every cell has a limited supply of NAD+, and NAD+ is required for glycolysis to continue. If virtually all NAD+ becomes reduced to NADH during glycolysis, then glycolysis stops and no more ATP is produced. In fermentation, NADH molecules transfer their hydrogen atoms to organic molecules, thus regenerating the NAD+ needed to keep glycolysis going. The resulting relatively reduced organic molecules (commonly, alcohol or lactate) tend to be toxic to the cells and are essentially waste products.

KEY POINT

Relatively reduced organic compounds (commonly, alcohol or lactate) Substrate-level phosphorylation only (during glycolysis)

TABLE 8-2 compares aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation.

Alcohol fermentation and lactate fermentation are inefficient Yeasts are facultative anaerobes that carry out aerobic respiration when oxygen is available but switch to alcohol fermentation when deprived of oxygen (FIG. 8-14a). These eukaryotic, unicellular fungi have enzymes that decarboxylate pyruvate, releasing carbon dioxide and forming a two-carbon compound called acetaldehyde. NADH produced during glycolysis transfers hydrogen atoms to acetaldehyde, reducing it to ethyl alcohol (FIG. 8-14b). Alcohol fermentation is the basis for the production of beer, wine, and other alcoholic beverages. Yeast cells are also used in baking to

Fermentation regenerates NAD+ needed for glycosis.

Glycolysis

Glycolysis

Glucose

Glucose

2 NAD+

2 NADH

Dwight R. Kuhn

2 ATP

25 μm

2 NAD+

2 NADH

2 ATP 2 Pyruvate

2 Pyruvate

2 Ethyl alcohol

2 Lactate

CO2

(a) Yeast cells (b) Alcohol fermentation

(c) Lactate fermentation

FIGURE 8-14 Animated Fermentation (a) Light micrograph of live brewer’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Yeast cells have mitochondria and carry on aerobic respiration when O2 is present. In the absence of O2, yeasts carry on alcohol fermentation. (b, c) Glycolysis is the first part of fermentation pathways. In alcohol fermentation (b), CO2 is split off, and the two-carbon compound ethyl

alcohol is the end product. In lactate fermentation (c), the final product is the three-carbon compound lactate. In both alcohol and lactate fermentation, there is a net gain of only two ATPs per molecule of glucose. Note that the NAD+ used during glycolysis is regenerated during both alcohol fermentation and lactate fermentation.

produce the carbon dioxide that causes dough to rise; the alcohol evaporates during baking. Certain fungi and bacteria perform lactate (lactic acid) fermentation. In this alternative pathway, NADH produced during glycolysis transfers hydrogen atoms to pyruvate, reducing it to lactate (FIG. 8-14c). The ability of some bacteria to produce lactate is exploited by humans, who use these bacteria to make yogurt and to ferment cabbage for sauerkraut. Vertebrate muscle cells also produce lactate. Exercise can cause fatigue and muscle cramps possibly due to insufficient oxygen, the depletion of fuel molecules, and the accumulation of lactate during strenuous activity. This buildup of lactate occurs because muscle cells shift briefly to lactate fermentation if the amount of oxygen delivered to muscle cells is insufficient to support aerobic respiration. The shift is only temporary, however, and oxygen is required for sustained work. About 80% of the lactate is eventually exported to the liver, where it is used to regenerate more glucose for the muscle cells. The remaining 20% of the lactate is metabolized in muscle cells in the presence of oxygen. For this reason, you continue to breathe heavily after you have stopped exercising: the additional oxygen is needed to oxidize lactate, thereby restoring the muscle cells to their normal state. Although humans use lactate fermentation to produce ATP for only a few minutes, a few animals can live without oxygen for much longer periods. The red-eared slider, a freshwater turtle, remains underwater for as long as two weeks. During this time, it is relatively inactive and therefore does not expend a great deal of energy. It relies on lactate fermentation for ATP production.

■ ■

Both alcohol fermentation and lactate fermentation are highly inefficient because the fuel is only partially oxidized. Alcohol, the end product of fermentation by yeast cells, can be burned and is even used as automobile fuel; obviously, it contains a great deal of energy that the yeast cells cannot extract using anaerobic methods. Lactate, a three-carbon compound, contains even more energy than the two-carbon alcohol. In contrast, all available energy is removed during aerobic respiration because the fuel molecules become completely oxidized to CO2. A net profit of only 2 ATPs is produced by the fermentation of one molecule of glucose, compared with up to 36 to 38 ATPs when oxygen is available. The inefficiency of fermentation necessitates a large supply of fuel. To perform the same amount of work, a cell engaged in fermentation must consume up to 20 times as much glucose or other carbohydrate per second as a cell using aerobic respiration. For this reason, your skeletal muscle cells store large quantities of glucose in the form of glycogen, which enables them to metabolize anaerobically for short periods.

Review What is the fate of hydrogen atoms removed from glucose during glycolysis when oxygen is present in muscle cells? How does this compare to the fate of hydrogen atoms removed from glucose when the amount of available oxygen is insufficient to support aerobic respiration? Why is the ATP yield of fermentation only a tiny fraction of the yield from aerobic respiration?





S U M M A RY: F O C US O N L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S

8.1 (page 173)



1 Write a summary reaction for aerobic respiration that shows which reactant becomes oxidized and which becomes reduced. ■

Oxidation

C 6 H12 O6 ⫹ 6 O2

¡ 6 CO2 ⫹ 6 H2 O ⫹ energy Reduction





Aerobic respiration is a catabolic process in which a fuel molecule such as glucose is broken down to form carbon dioxide and water. It includes redox reactions that result in the transfer of electrons from glucose (which becomes oxidized) to oxygen (which becomes reduced). Energy released during aerobic respiration is used to produce up to 36 to 38 ATPs per molecule of glucose.

Interact with the citric acid cycle by clicking on the figure in CengageNOW. ■

8.2 (page 173) 2 List and give a brief overview of the four stages of aerobic respiration. ■



The chemical reactions of aerobic respiration occur in four stages: glycolysis, formation of acetyl CoA, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis. During glycolysis, a molecule of glucose is degraded to two molecules of pyruvate. Two ATP molecules (net) are produced by substrate-level phosphorylation during glycolysis. Four hydrogen atoms are removed and used to produce two NADH.

During the formation of acetyl CoA, the two pyruvate molecules each lose a molecule of carbon dioxide, and the remaining acetyl groups each combine with coenzyme A, producing two molecules of acetyl CoA; one NADH is produced per pyruvate. Each acetyl CoA enters the citric acid cycle by combining with a four-carbon compound, oxaloacetate, to form citrate, a six-carbon compound. Two acetyl CoA molecules enter the cycle for every glucose molecule. For every two carbons that enter the cycle as part of an acetyl CoA molecule, two leave as carbon dioxide. For every acetyl CoA, hydrogen atoms are transferred to three NAD+ and one FAD; only one ATP is produced by substrate-level phosphorylation.

Hydrogen atoms (or their electrons) removed from fuel molecules are transferred from one electron acceptor to another down an electron transport chain located in the mitochondrial inner membrane; ultimately, these electrons reduce molecular oxygen, forming water. In oxidative phosphorylation, the redox reactions in the electron transport chain are coupled to synthesis of ATP through the mechanism of chemiosmosis. See the electron transport chain in action by clicking on the figure in CengageNOW.

3 Indicate where each stage of aerobic respiration takes place in a euSee the process of glycolysis unfold by clicking on the figure in CengageNOW.

karyotic cell.

Glycolysis

Formation of acetyl coenzyme A

Citric acid cycle

Electron transport and chemiosmosis

Glucose Mitochondrion Acetyl coenzyme A

Citric acid cycle

Electron transport and chemiosmosis

Pyruvate

2 ATP

Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol, and the remaining stages of aerobic respiration take place in the mitochondria. 4 Add up the energy captured (as ATP, NADH, and FADH2) in each stage of aerobic respiration. In glycolysis, each glucose molecule produces 2 NADH and 2 ATPs ■ (net). The conversion of 2 pyruvates to acetyl CoA results in the formation of 2 NADH. In the citric acid cycle, the 2 acetyl CoA molecules are metabolized to form 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, and 2 ATPs. To summarize, we have 4 ATPs, 10 NADH, and 2 FADH2. ■ When electrons donated by the 10 NADH and 2 FADH2 pass through the electron transport chain, 32 to 34 ATPs are produced by chemiosmosis. Therefore, each glucose molecule yields a total of up to 36 to 38 ATPs. 5 Define chemiosmosis and explain how a gradient of protons is established across the inner mitochondrial membrane. ■ In chemiosmosis, some of the energy of the electrons in the electron transport chain is used to pump protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane into the intermembrane space. This pumping establishes a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Protons (H+) accumulate within the intermembrane space, lowering the pH. 6 Describe the process by which the proton gradient drives ATP synthesis in chemiosmosis. ■ The diffusion of protons through channels formed by the enzyme ATP synthase, which extends through the inner mitochondrial membrane from the intermembrane space to the mitochondrial matrix, provides the energy to synthesize ATP. ■

2 ATP









32 ATP

In anaerobic respiration, electrons are transferred from fuel molecules to an electron transport chain that is coupled to ATP synthesis by chemiosmosis; the final electron acceptor is an inorganic substance such as nitrate or sulfate, not molecular oxygen. Fermentation is an anaerobic process that does not use an electron transport chain. There is a net gain of only two ATPs per glucose; these are produced by substrate-level phosphorylation during glycolysis. To maintain the supply of NAD+ essential for glycolysis, hydrogen atoms are transferred from NADH to an organic compound derived from the initial nutrient. Yeast cells carry out alcohol fermentation, in which ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide are the final waste products. Certain fungi, prokaryotes, and animal cells carry out lactate (lactic acid) fermentation, in which hydrogen atoms are added to pyruvate to form lactate, a waste product. Learn more about fermentation by clicking on the figure in CengageNOW.

Summary Reactions for Aerobic Respiration Summary reaction for the complete oxidation of glucose: C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O ¡ 6 CO2 + 12 H2O + energy (36 to 38 ATP) Summary reaction for glycolysis: C6H12O6 + 2 ATP + 2 ADP + 2 Pi + 2 NAD+ ¡ 2 pyruvate + 4 ATP + 2 NADH + H2O

8.3 (page 186) 7 Summarize how the products of protein and lipid catabolism enter the same metabolic pathway that oxidizes glucose. ■ Amino acids undergo deamination, and their carbon skeletons are converted to metabolic intermediates of aerobic respiration. ■ Both the glycerol and fatty acid components of lipids are oxidized as fuel. Fatty acids are converted to acetyl CoA molecules by the process of b-oxidation.

8.4 (page 187) 8 Compare and contrast anaerobic respiration and fermentation. Include the mechanism of ATP formation, the final electron acceptor, and the end products.

Summary reaction for the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA: 2 pyruvate + 2 coenzyme A + 2 NAD+ ¡ 2 acetyl CoA + 2 CO2 + 2 NADH Summary reaction for the citric acid cycle: 2 acetyl CoA + 6 NAD+ + 2 FAD + 2 ADP + 2 Pi + 2 H2O ¡ 4 CO2 + 6 NADH + 2 FADH2 + 2 ATP + 2 CoA

Summary reactions for the processing of the hydrogen atoms of NADH and FADH2 in the electron transport chain: NADH + 3 ADP + 3

Pi + –21 O2

Summary Reactions for Fermentation Summary reaction for lactate fermentation:

+

¡ NAD + 3 ATP + H2O

FADH2 + 2 ADP + 2 Pi + –21 O2 ¡ FAD+ + 2 ATP + H2O

C6H12O6 ¡ 2 lactate + energy (2 ATP) Summary reaction for alcohol fermentation: C6H12O6 ¡ 2 CO2 + 2 ethyl alcohol + energy (2 ATP)

T E S T YO U R U N D E R S TA N D I N G 1. A chemical process during which a substance gains electrons and energy is called (a) oxidation (b) oxidative phosphorylation (c) deamination (d) reduction (e) dehydrogenation 2. Which of the following is a correct ranking of molecules with respect to their energy value in glycolysis (note: > means “greater than”)? (a) two pyruvates > one glucose (b) one glucose > one fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (c) two glyceraldehyde-3-phosphates (G3P) > one glucose (d) two pyruvates > one fructose-1,6bisphosphate (e) two pyruvates > two glyceraldehyde-3phosphates (G3P) 3. The reactions of _____ take place within the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. (a) glycolysis (b) oxidation of pyruvate (c) the citric acid cycle (d) chemiosmosis (e) the electron transport chain

(note: > means “greater than”)? (a) ATP = NADH (b) NAD+ > NADH (c) FAD > FADH2 (d) NADH > ATP 10. A net profit of only 2 ATPs can be produced anaerobically from the _____ of one molecule of glucose, compared with a maximum of 38 ATPs produced in _____. (a) fermentation; anaerobic respiration (b) aerobic respiration; fermentation (c) aerobic respiration; anaerobic respiration (d) dehydrogenation; decarboxylation (e) fermentation; aerobic respiration 11. When deprived of oxygen, yeast cells obtain energy by fermentation, producing carbon dioxide, ATP, and (a) acetyl CoA (b) ethyl alcohol (c) lactate (d) pyruvate (e) citrate 12. Label the figure. Use Figure 8-10 to check your answers.

4. Before pyruvate enters the citric acid cycle, it is decarboxylated, oxidized, and combined with coenzyme A, forming acetyl CoA, carbon dioxide, and one molecule of (a) NADH (b) FADH2 (c) ATP (d) ADP (e) C6H12O6 5. In the first step of the citric acid cycle, acetyl CoA reacts with oxaloacetate to form (a) pyruvate (b) citrate (c) NADH (d) ATP (e) CO2 6. Which of the following is the major source of electrons that flow through the mitochondrial electron transport chain? (a) H2O (b) ATP (c) NADH (d) ATP synthase (e) coenzyme A 7. The “aerobic” part of aerobic cellular respiration occurs during (a) glycolysis (b) the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA (c) the citric acid cycle (d) electron transport (e) all of the above are aerobic processes 8. Substrate-level phosphorylation (a) occurs through a chemiosmotic mechanism (b) accounts for most of the ATP formed during aerobic cellular respiration (c) occurs during the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA (d) occurs during glycolysis and the citric acid cycle (e) requires high energy electrons from NADH 9. Which of the following is a correct ranking of molecules, according to their energy value in oxidative phosphorylation

H+

H+

H+

H+ H+

H+

H+

H+ H+

H+ + H+ H+ H

H+ H+

H+ H+

H+

H+ H+

H+

H+

H+

H+ H+ H+

H+

H+

H+

H+ H+

H+

H+

H+ H+ H+ H+

H+

H+

CRITICAL THINKING 1. How are the endergonic reactions of the first phase of glycolysis coupled to the hydrolysis of ATP, which is exergonic? How are the exergonic reactions of the second phase of glycolysis coupled to the endergonic synthesis of ATP and NADH?

5. EVOLUTION LINK. The reactions of glycolysis are identical in all organisms—prokaryotes, protists, fungi, plants, and animals— that obtain energy from glucose catabolism. What does this universality suggest about the evolution of glycolysis?

2. In what ways is the inner mitochondrial membrane essential to the coupling of electron transport and ATP synthesis? Could the membrane carry out its function if its lipid bilayer were readily permeable to hydrogen ions (protons)?

6. EVOLUTION LINK. Molecular oxygen is so reactive that it would not exist in Earth’s atmosphere today if it were not constantly replenished by organisms that release oxygen as a waste product of photosynthesis. What does that fact suggest about the evolution of aerobic respiration and oxygen-releasing photosynthetic processes?

3. Based on what you have learned in this chapter, explain why a schoolchild can run 17 miles per hour in a 100-yard dash, but a trained athlete can run only about 11.5 miles per hour in a 26-mile marathon. 4. When you lose weight, where does it go?

Additional questions are available in CengageNOW at www.cengage.com/ login.

9

Photosynthesis: Capturing Light Energy

© tbkmedia.de/Alamy

Photosynthesis. These trees use light energy to power the processes that incorporate CO2 into organic molecules.

KEY CONCEPTS

L

ook at all the living things that surround you—the trees, your pet goldfish, your own body. Most of that biomass is made up of carbon-based

9.1 Light energy powers photosynthesis, which is essen-

biological molecules. What is the ultimate source of all that carbon?

tial to plants and most life on Earth.

Surprising to some, the source is carbon dioxide from the air. Your cells

9.2 Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts and requires the

cannot take carbon dioxide from the air and incorporate it into organic

pigment chlorophyll.

molecules—but some plant cells can. They do this through photosynthe-

9.3 Photosynthesis is a redox process.

sis, the sequence of events by which light energy is converted into the

9.4 Light-dependent reactions convert light energy to

stored chemical energy of organic molecules. Photosynthesis is the first

the chemical energy of NADPH and ATP.

step in the flow of energy through most of the living world, capturing

9.5 Carbon fixation reactions incorporate CO2 into

the vast majority of the energy that living organisms use. Photosynthe-

organic molecules.

9.6 Most photosynthetic organisms are photoautotrophs. 9.7 Photosynthesis is important to plants and also other organisms.

sis not only sustains plants (see photograph) and other photosynthetic organisms such as algae and photosynthetic bacteria but also indirectly supports most nonphotosynthetic organisms such as animals, fungi, protozoa, and most bacteria. Each year photosynthetic organisms convert CO2 into billions of tons of organic molecules. These molecules have two important roles in both photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic organisms: they are both the building blocks of cells and, as we saw in Chapter 8, a source of chemical energy that fuels the metabolic reactions that sustain almost all life. Photosynthesis also releases O2, which is essential to aerobic cellular respiration, the process by which plants, animals, and most other organisms convert this chemical energy to ATP to power cellular processes.

In this chapter we first examine how light energy is used in the

One wavelength

synthesis of ATP and other molecules that temporarily hold chemical energy but are unstable and cannot be stockpiled in the cell. We

Longer wavelength

then see how their energy powers the anabolic pathway by which a photosynthetic cell synthesizes stable organic molecules from the simple inorganic compounds CO2 and water. Finally, we explore the role of photosynthesis in plants and in Earth’s environment.

9.1 LIGHT AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE 1

Describe the physical properties of light and explain the relationship between a wavelength of light and its energy.

Because most life on this planet depends on light, either directly or indirectly, it is important to understand the nature of light and its essential role in photosynthesis. Visible light represents a very small portion of a vast, continuous range of radiation called the electromagnetic spectrum (FIG. 9-1). All radiation in this spectrum travels as waves. A wavelength is the distance from one wave peak to the next. At one end of the electromagnetic spectrum are gamma rays, which have very short wavelengths measured in fractions of nanometers, or nm (1 nanometer equals 10–9 m, one-billionth of a meter). At the other end of the spectrum are radio waves, with wavelengths so long they can be measured in kilometers. The portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from 380 to 760 nm is called the visible spectrum because we humans can see it. The visible spectrum includes all the colors of the rainbow (FIG. 9-2); violet has the shortest wavelength, and red has the longest. Light is composed of small particles, or packets, of energy called photons. The energy of a photon is inversely proportional to its wavelength: shorter-wavelength light has more energy per photon than longer-wavelength light. Why does photosynthesis depend on light detectable by the human eye (visible light) rather than on some other wavelength of radiation? We can only speculate about the answer. Perhaps the reason is that radiation within the visible-light portion of the spectrum excites certain types of biological molecules, moving electrons into higher energy levels. Radiation with wavelengths longer than those of visible light does not have enough energy to excite these biological molecules. Radiation with wavelengths shorter than those of visible light is so energetic that it disrupts the bonds of many biological molecules. Thus, visible light has just the right amount of energy to cause the kinds of reversible changes in molecules that are useful in photosynthesis. When a molecule absorbs a photon of light energy, one of its electrons becomes energized, which means that the electron shifts from a lower-energy atomic orbital to a high-energy orbital that is more distant from the atomic nucleus. One of two things then happens to the energized electron, depending on the atom and its

760 nm

TV and radio waves

Red

700 nm

Microwaves Infrared Visible UV X-rays

Gamma rays

Orange Color spectrum of visible light

600 nm Yellow Green 500 nm Blue

Violet Electromagnetic spectrum

400 nm 380 nm

Shorter wavelength

FIGURE 9-1 Animated The electromagnetic spectrum Waves in the electromagnetic spectrum have similar properties but different wavelengths. Radio waves are the longest (and least energetic) waves, with wavelengths as long as 20 km. Gamma rays are the shortest (and most energetic) waves. Visible light represents a small fraction of the electromagnetic spectrum and consists of a mixture of wavelengths ranging from about 380 to 760 nm. The energy from visible light is used in photosynthesis.

surroundings (FIG. 9-3). The atom may return to its ground state, which is the condition in which all its electrons are in their normal, lowest-energy levels. When an electron returns to its ground state, its energy dissipates as heat or as an emission of light of a longer wavelength than the absorbed light; this emission of light is called fluorescence. Alternatively, the energized electron may leave the atom and be accepted by an electron acceptor molecule,

Sun Sunlight is a mixture of many wavelengths

FIGURE 9-2 Visible radiation emitted from the sun Electromagnetic radiation from the sun includes ultraviolet radiation and visible light of varying colors and wavelengths.

Photon

Photon is absorbed by an excitable electron that moves into a higher energy level.

Low energy level High energy level

Electron

Either

Or

Electron acceptor molecule The electron may return to ground level by emitting a less energetic photon.

The electron may be accepted by an electron acceptor molecule.

FIGURE 9-3 Interactions between light and atoms or molecules (Top) When a photon of light energy strikes an atom or a molecule of which the atom is a part, the energy of the photon may push an electron to an orbital farther from the nucleus (that is, into a higher energy level). (Lower left) If the electron returns to the lower, more stable energy level, the energy may be released as a less energetic, longer-wavelength photon, known as fluorescence (shown), or as heat. (Lower right) If the appropriate electron acceptors are available, the electron may leave the atom. During photosynthesis, an electron acceptor captures the energetic electron and passes it to a chain of acceptors.

which becomes reduced in the process; this is what occurs in photosynthesis. Now that you understand some of the properties of light, let us consider the organelles that use light for photosynthesis.

Review ■ ■ ■

Why does photosynthesis require visible light? Which color of light has the longer wavelength, violet or red? Which color of light has the higher energy per photon, violet or red?

9.2 CHLOROPLASTS ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVES 2 3

Diagram the internal structure of a chloroplast and explain how its components interact and facilitate the process of photosynthesis. Describe what happens to an electron in a biological molecule such as chlorophyll when a photon of light energy is absorbed.

If you examine a section of leaf tissue in a microscope, you see that the green pigment, chlorophyll, is not uniformly distributed in

the cell but is confined to organelles called chloroplasts. In plants, chloroplasts lie mainly inside the leaf in the cells of the mesophyll, a layer with many air spaces and a very high concentration of water vapor (FIG. 9-4a). The interior of the leaf exchanges gases with the outside through microscopic pores, called stomata (sing., stoma). Each mesophyll cell has 20 to 100 chloroplasts. The chloroplast, like the mitochondrion, is enclosed by outer and inner membranes (FIG. 9-4b). The inner membrane encloses a fluid-filled region called the stroma, which contains most of the enzymes required to produce carbohydrate molecules. Suspended in the stroma is a third system of membranes that forms an interconnected set of flat, disclike sacs called thylakoids. The thylakoid membrane encloses a fluid-filled interior space, the thylakoid lumen. In some regions of the chloroplast, thylakoid sacs are arranged in stacks called grana (sing., granum). Each granum looks something like a stack of coins, with each “coin” being a thylakoid. Some thylakoid membranes extend from one granum to another. Thylakoid membranes, like the inner mitochondrial membrane (see Chapter 8), are involved in ATP synthesis. (Photosynthetic prokaryotes have no chloroplasts, but thylakoid membranes are often arranged around the periphery of the cell as infoldings of the plasma membrane.)

Chlorophyll is found in the thylakoid membrane Thylakoid membranes contain several kinds of pigments, which are substances that absorb visible light. Different pigments absorb light of different wavelengths. Chlorophyll, the main pigment of photosynthesis, absorbs light primarily in the blue and red regions of the visible spectrum. Green light is not appreciably absorbed by chlorophyll. Plants usually appear green because some of the green light that strikes them is scattered or reflected. A chlorophyll molecule has two main parts, a complex ring and a long side chain (FIG. 9-5). The ring structure, called a porphyrin ring, is made up of joined smaller rings composed of carbon and nitrogen atoms; the porphyrin ring absorbs light energy. The porphyrin ring of chlorophyll is strikingly similar to the heme portion of the red pigment hemoglobin in red blood cells. However, unlike heme, which contains an atom of iron in the center of the ring, chlorophyll contains an atom of magnesium in that position. The chlorophyll molecule also contains a long, hydrocarbon side chain that makes the molecule extremely nonpolar and anchors the chlorophyll in the membrane. All chlorophyll molecules in the thylakoid membrane are associated with specific chlorophyll-binding proteins; biologists have identified about 15 different kinds. Each thylakoid membrane is filled with precisely oriented chlorophyll molecules and chlorophyll-binding proteins that facilitate the transfer of energy from one molecule to another. There are several kinds of chlorophyll. The most important is chlorophyll a, the pigment that initiates the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. Chlorophyll b is an accessory pigment that also participates in photosynthesis. It differs from chlorophyll a only in a functional group on the porphyrin ring: the methyl group (OCH3) in chlorophyll a is replaced in chlorophyll b by a

energy passed to it from the light source, or indirectly by energy passed to it from accessory pigments that have become excited by light. When a carotenoid molecule is excited, its energy can be transferred to chlorophyll a. In addition, carotenoids are antioxidants that inactivate highly reactive forms of oxygen generated in the chloroplasts.

terminal carbonyl group (OCHO). This difference shifts the wavelengths of light absorbed and reflected by chlorophyll b, making it appear yellow-green, whereas chlorophyll a appears bright green. Chloroplasts have other accessory photosynthetic pigments, such as carotenoids, which are yellow and orange (see Fig. 3-14). Carotenoids absorb different wavelengths of light than chlorophyll, thereby expanding the spectrum of light that provides energy for photosynthesis. Chlorophyll may be excited by light directly by

Chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment As you have seen, the thylakoid membrane contains more than one kind of pigment. An instrument called a spectrophotometer measures the relative abilities of different pigments to absorb different wavelengths of light. The absorption spectrum of a pigment is a plot of its absorption of light of different wavelengths. FIGURE 9-6a shows the absorption spectra for chlorophylls a and b. in chlorophyll b CH2

CHO

CH

H C

C H 3C

Palisade mesophyll

Porphyrin ring (absorbs light)

C

C

N

N

C

C

N

N

C

C H

Air space

C

Spongy mesophyll

HC

CH2

C

C

O

O

C

CH3

C

C

CH2

CH2CH3

CH

C C

H

C

Mg

HC H 3C

Vein

C

C

C

in chlorophyll a

CH3

C

O

O

O CH3

CH2

Stoma

CH

(a) This leaf cross section reveals that the mesophyll is the photosynthetic tissue. CO2 enters the leaf through tiny pores or stomata, and H2O is carried to the mesophyll in veins.

C

CH3

CH2 CH2

Inner Outer membrane membrane

CH2

Stroma

HC

Hydrocarbon side chain

CH2

E. H. Newcomb and W. P. Wergin, Biological Photo Service

1 μm

CH2 HC

Thylakoid Thylakoid Granum (stack of membrane lumen thylakoids)

(b) In the chloroplast, pigments necessary for the light-capturing reactions of photosynthesis are part of thylakoid membranes, whereas the enzymes for the synthesis of carbohydrate molecules are in the stroma.

FIGURE 9-4 Animated The site of photosynthesis

CH3

CH2 CH2 CH2 CH H 3C

Intermembrane space

CH3

CH2

CH3

FIGURE 9-5 The structure of chlorophyll Chlorophyll consists of a porphyrin ring and a hydrocarbon side chain. The porphyrin ring, with a magnesium atom in its center, contains a system of alternating double and single bonds; these are commonly found in molecules that strongly absorb certain wavelengths of visible light and reflect others (chlorophyll reflects green). Notice that at the top right corner of the diagram, the methyl group (OCH3) distinguishes chlorophyll a from chlorophyll b, which has a carbonyl group (OCHO) in this position. The hydrophobic hydrocarbon side chain anchors chlorophyll to the thylakoid membrane.

An action spectrum of photosynthesis is a graph of the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths of light. To obtain an action spectrum, scientists measure the rate of photosynthesis at each wavelength for leaf cells or tissues exposed to monochromatic light (light of one wavelength) (FIG. 9-6b). In a classic biology experiment, the German biologist T. W. Engelmann obtained the first action spectrum in 1883. Engelmann’s experiment, described in FIGURE 9-7, took advantage of the shape of the chloroplast in a species of the green alga Spirogyra. Its long, filamentous strands are found in freshwater habitats, especially slow-moving or still waters. Spirogyra cells each contain a long, spiral-shaped, emerald-green chloroplast embedded in the cyto-

KEY EXPERIMENT QUESTION: Is a pigment in the chloroplast responsible for photosynthesis? HYPOTHESIS: Engelmann hypothesized that chlorophyll was the main photosynthetic pigment. Accordingly, he predicted that he would observe differences in the amount of photosynthesis, as measured by the amount of oxygen produced, depending on the wavelengths of light used, and that these wavelengths would be consistent with the known absorption spectrum of chlorophyll.

100 80

EXPERIMENT: The photograph (a) shows cells of the filamentous alga Spirogyra, which has a long spiral-shaped chloroplast. The drawing (b) shows how Engelmann used a prism to expose the cells to light that had been separated into various wavelengths. He estimated the formation of oxygen (which he knew was a product of photosynthesis) by exploiting the fact that certain aerobic bacteria would be attracted to the oxygen. As a control (not shown), he also exposed the bacteria to the spectrum of light in the absence of Spirogyra cells.

Chlorophyll b

60 Chlorophyll a

40 20

400

500

600

700

T. E. Adams/Visuals Unlimited

Estimated absorption (%)

plasm. Engelmann exposed these cells to a color spectrum produced by passing light through a prism. He hypothesized that if chlorophyll were indeed responsible for photosynthesis, the process would take place most rapidly in the areas where the chloroplast was illuminated by the colors most strongly absorbed by chlorophyll.

Wavelength (nm)

(a) Chlorophylls a and b absorb light mainly in the blue (422 to 492 nm) and red (647 to 760 nm) regions.

Relative rate of photosynthesis

100

100 µm

(a)

80 60 40 20

380 400

(b)

400

500

600

700

Wavelength (nm)

(b) The action spectrum of photosynthesis indicates the effectiveness of various wavelengths of light in powering photosynthesis. Many plant species have action spectra for photosynthesis that resemble the generalized action spectrum shown here.

500

600

700

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Although the bacteria alone (control) showed no preference for any particular wavelength, large numbers were attracted to the photosynthesizing cells in red or blue light, wavelengths that are strongly absorbed by chlorophyll (see Fig. 9-6). Thus, Engelmann concluded that chlorophyll is responsible for photosynthesis.

FIGURE 9-7 Animated The first action spectrum of FIGURE 9-6 A comparison of the absorption spectra for chlorophylls a and b with the action spectrum for photosynthesis

760

Wavelength of light (nm)

photosynthesis







What chloroplast membrane is most important in photosynthesis? What two compartments does it separate? What is the significance of the fact that the combined absorption spectra of chlorophylls a and b roughly match the action spectrum of photosynthesis? Why do they not coincide exactly? Does fluorescence play a role in photosynthesis?

9.3 OVERVIEW OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVES 4 Describe photosynthesis as a redox process. 5 Distinguish between the light-dependent reactions and carbon fixation reactions of photosynthesis.

During photosynthesis, a cell uses light energy captured by chlorophyll to power the synthesis of carbohydrates. The overall reaction of photosynthesis can be summarized as follows: 6 CO 2 + 12 H 2O Carbon dioxide

Water

Light energy

¡ C6 H12O6 + 6 O 2 + 6 H 2O

Chlorophyll

Glucose

Oxygen

6 CO 2 + 6 H2O

Light

¡ C6 H12O6 + 6 O 2

Chlorophyll

When you analyze this process, it appears that hydrogen atoms are transferred from H2O to CO2 to form carbohydrate, so you can recognize it as a redox reaction. Recall from Chapter 7 that in a redox reaction one or more electrons, usually as part of one or more hydrogen atoms, are transferred from an electron donor (a reducing agent) to an electron acceptor (an oxidizing agent). Reduction

6 CO2 + 6 H2O

Light

¡ C 6 H12 O6 + 6 O 2

Chlorophyll

Oxidation

¡

Review

product in others. Furthermore, all the oxygen produced comes from water, so 12 water molecules are required to produce 12 oxygen atoms. However, because there is no net yield of H2O, we can simplify the summary equation of photosynthesis for purposes of discussion:

¡

Yet how could photosynthesis be measured in those technologically unsophisticated days? Engelmann knew that photosynthesis produces oxygen and that certain motile bacteria are attracted to areas of high oxygen concentration. He determined the action spectrum of photosynthesis by observing that the bacteria swam toward the parts of the Spirogyra filaments in the blue and red regions of the spectrum. How did Engelmann know bacteria were not simply attracted to blue or red light? Engelmann exposed bacteria to the spectrum of visible light in the absence of Spirogyra as a control. The bacteria showed no preference for any particular wavelength of light. Because the action spectrum of photosynthesis closely matched the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll, Engelmann concluded that chlorophyll in the chloroplasts (and not another compound in another organelle) is responsible for photosynthesis. Numerous studies using sophisticated instruments have since confirmed Engelmann’s conclusions. If you examine Figure 9-6 closely, you will observe that the action spectrum of photosynthesis does not parallel the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll exactly. This difference occurs because accessory pigments, such as carotenoids, transfer some of the energy of excitation produced by green light to chlorophyll molecules. The presence of these accessory photosynthetic pigments can be demonstrated by chemical analysis of almost any leaf, although it is obvious in temperate climates when leaves change color in the fall. Toward the end of the growing season, chlorophyll breaks down (and its magnesium is stored in the permanent tissues of the tree), leaving orange and yellow accessory pigments in the leaves.

When the electrons are transferred, some of their energy is transferred as well. However, the summary equation of photosynthesis is somewhat misleading because no direct transfer of hydrogen atoms actually occurs. The summary equation describes what happens but not how it happens. The how is more complex and involves multiple steps, many of which are redox reactions. The reactions of photosynthesis are divided into two phases: the light-dependent reactions (the photo part of photosynthesis) and the carbon fixation reactions (the synthesis part of photosynthesis). Each set of reactions occurs in a different part of the chloroplast: the light-dependent reactions in association with the thylakoids, and the carbon fixation reactions in the stroma (FIG. 9-8).

ATP and NADPH are the products of the light-dependent reactions: An overview Light energy is converted to chemical energy in the light-dependent reactions, which are associated with the thylakoids. The lightdependent reactions begin as chlorophyll captures light energy, which causes one of its electrons to move to a higher energy state. The energized electron is transferred to an acceptor molecule and is replaced by an electron from H2O. When this happens, H2O is split and molecular oxygen is released (FIG. 9-9). Some energy of the energized electrons is used to phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate (ADP), forming adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In addition, the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+) becomes reduced, forming NADPH.1 NADPH is a hydrogen carrier similar to NADH, differing by the addition of a phosphate group. Unlike NADH, which is generally associated with catabolic pathways like aerobic cellular respiration, NADPH has the ability to provide high-energy electrons to power

Water

Although the correct way to write the reduced form of NADP+ is NADPH + H+, for simplicity’s sake we present the reduced form as NADPH throughout the book. 1

The equation is typically written in the form just given, with H2O on both sides, because water is a reactant in some reactions and a

KEY POINT

The light-dependent reactions in the thylakoids capture energy as ATP and NADPH, which power the carbon fixation reactions in the stroma. Light-dependent reactions (in thylakoids)

Carbon fixation reactions (in stroma) Chloroplast ATP

Light reactions

ADP NADPH

Calvin cycle

NADP+

H2O

O2

CO2

Carbohydrates

FIGURE 9-8 Animated An overview of photosynthesis

as carbon fixation, these reactions “fix” carbon atoms from CO2 to existing skeletons of organic molecules. Because the carbon fixation reactions have no direct requirement for light, they were previously referred to as the “dark” reactions. However, they do not require darkness; in fact, many of the enzymes involved in carbon fixation are much more active in the light than in the dark. Furthermore, carbon fixation reactions depend on the products of the light-dependent reactions. Carbon fixation reactions take place in the stroma of the chloroplast. Now that we have presented an overview of photosynthesis, let us examine the entire process more closely.

certain reactions in anabolic pathways, such as the carbon fixation reactions of photosynthesis. Thus, the products of the lightdependent reactions, ATP and NADPH, are both needed in the energy-requiring carbon fixation reactions.

Carbohydrates are produced during the carbon fixation reactions: An overview The ATP and NADPH molecules produced during the lightdependent phase are suited for transferring chemical energy but not for long-term energy storage. For this reason, some of their energy is transferred to chemical bonds in carbohydrates, which can be produced in large quantities and stored for future use. Known

Review ■

Bernard Wittich/Visuals Unlimited



FIGURE 9-9 Oxygen produced by photosynthesis On sunny days, the oxygen released by aquatic plants is sometimes visible as bubbles in the water. This plant (Elodea) is actively carrying on photosynthesis.

Which is more oxidized, oxygen that is part of a water molecule or molecular oxygen? In what ways do the carbon fixation reactions depend on the lightdependent reactions?

9.4 THE LIGHT-DEPENDENT REACTIONS ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVES 6 Describe the flow of electrons through photosystems I and II in the noncyclic electron transport pathway and the products produced. Contrast this with cyclic electron transport.

7

Explain how a proton (H+) gradient is established across the thylakoid membrane and how this gradient functions in ATP synthesis.

In the light-dependent reactions, the radiant energy from sunlight phosphorylates ADP, producing ATP, and reduces NADP+, forming NADPH. The light energy that chlorophyll captures is

temporarily stored in these two compounds. The light-dependent reactions are summarized as follows: 12 H2O + 12 NADP+ + 18 ADP + 18 Pi

Light

¡ Chlorophyll

6 O2 + 12 NADPH + 18 ATP

Photosystems I and II each consist of a reaction center and multiple antenna complexes The light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis begin when chlorophyll a and/or accessory pigments absorb light. According to the currently accepted model, chlorophylls a and b and accessory pigment molecules are organized with pigment-binding proteins in the thylakoid membrane into units called antenna complexes. The pigments and associated proteins are arranged as highly ordered groups of about 250 chlorophyll molecules associated with specific enzymes and other proteins. Each antenna complex absorbs light energy and transfers it to the reaction center, which consists of chlorophyll molecules and proteins, including electron transfer components, that participate directly in photosynthesis (FIG. 9-10). Light energy is converted to chemical energy in the reaction centers by a series of electron transfer reactions. Two types of photosynthetic units, designated photosystem I and photosystem II, are involved in photosynthesis. Their reaction centers are distinguishable because they are associated with proteins in a way that causes a slight shift in their absorption spectra. Ordinary chlorophyll a has a strong absorption peak at about 660

Primary electron acceptor e-

Chloroplast

Photon

Thylakoid membrane

Photosystem

FIGURE 9-10 Animated Schematic view of a photosystem Chlorophyll molecules (green circles) and accessory pigments (not shown) are arranged in light-harvesting arrays, or antenna complexes. A portion of one such complex within a photosystem is depicted. Each complex consists of several hundred pigment molecules, in association with special proteins (not shown). These proteins hold the pigments in a highly ordered spatial array, such that when a molecule in an antenna complex absorbs a photon, energy derived from that photon is readily passed from one pigment molecule to another (black arrow). When this energy reaches one of the two chlorophyll molecules in the reaction center (green diamonds), an electron becomes energized and is accepted by a primary electron acceptor.

nm. In contrast, the reaction center of photosystem I consists of a pair of chlorophyll a molecules with an absorption peak at 700 nm and is referred to as P700. The reaction center of photosystem II is made up of a pair of chlorophyll a molecules with an absorption peak of about 680 nm and is referred to as P680. When a pigment molecule absorbs light energy, that energy is passed, through a process known as resonance, directly from one pigment molecule to another within the antenna complex until it reaches the reaction center. When the energy reaches a molecule of P700 (in a photosystem I reaction center) or P680 (in a photosystem II reaction center), an electron is then raised to a higher energy level. As we explain in the next section, this energized electron can be donated to an electron acceptor that becomes reduced in the process.

Noncyclic electron transport produces ATP and NADPH Let us begin our discussion of noncyclic electron transport with the events associated with photosystem I (FIG. 9-11). A pigment molecule in an antenna complex associated with photosystem I absorbs a photon of light. The absorbed energy is transferred from one pigment molecule to another until it reaches the reaction center, where it excites an electron in a molecule of P700. This energized electron is transferred to a primary electron acceptor, a special molecule of chlorophyll a, which is the first of several electron acceptors in a series. The energized electron is passed along an electron transport chain from one electron acceptor to another, until it is passed to ferredoxin, an iron-containing protein. Ferredoxin transfers the electron to NADP+ in the presence of the enzyme ferredoxin–NADP+ reductase. When NADP+ accepts two electrons, they unite with a proton + (H ); thus, the reduced form of NADP+ is NADPH, which is released into the stroma. P700 becomes positively charged when it gives up an electron to the primary electron acceptor; the missing electron is replaced by one donated by photosystem II. As in photosystem I, photosystem II becomes activated when a pigment molecule in an antenna complex absorbs a photon of light energy. The energy is transferred to the reaction center, where it causes an electron in a molecule of P680 to move to a higher energy level. This energized electron is accepted by a primary electron acceptor (a highly modified chlorophyll molecule known as pheophytin) and then passes along an electron transport chain until it is donated to P700 in photosystem I. How is the electron that has been donated to the electron transport chain replaced? This occurs through photolysis (light splitting) of water, a process that not only yields electrons but also is the source of almost all the oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere. A molecule of P680 that has given up an energized electron to the primary electron acceptor is positively charged (P680+). P680+ is an oxidizing agent so strong that it pulls electrons away from an oxygen atom that is part of an H2O molecule. In a reaction catalyzed by a unique, manganese-containing enzyme, water is broken into its components: two electrons, two protons, and oxygen. Each electron is donated to a P680 molecule, which then loses its positive charge; the protons are released into the thylakoid lumen. Because oxygen does not exist in atomic form, the oxygen produced

KEY POINT

Noncyclic electron transport converts light energy to chemical energy in ATP and NADPH.

Light-dependent reactions (in thylakoids)

Carbon fixation reactions (in stroma)

Chloroplast ATP Light reactions

ADP

Calvin cycle

NADPH NADP

H2O

2e–

2e–

Primary electron acceptor

Primary electron acceptor

Electron transport chain Production of ATP by chemiosmosis

Relative energy level

Carbohydrates

CO2

O2

Electron transport chain

Ferredoxin 2e–

H+ (from medium)

ATP

NADP+

NADPH

2e– +

1/2 O2 + 2 H

2e–

Photosystem I (P700)

H2O Photosystem II (P680)

1

Electrons are supplied to system from the splitting of H2O by photosystem II, with release of O2 as byproduct. When photosystem II is activated by absorbing photons, electrons are passed along the electron transport chain and are eventually donated to photosystem I.

2

Electrons in photosystem I are “re-energized“ by absorption of additional light energy and are passed to NADP+, forming NADPH.

FIGURE 9-11 Animated Noncyclic electron transport In noncyclic electron transport, the formation of ATP is coupled to one-way flow of energized electrons (orange arrows) from H2O (lower left) to NADP+ (far right). Single electrons actually pass down the electron transport chain; two are shown in this figure because two electrons are required to form one molecule of NADPH.

by splitting one H2O molecule is written –12 O2. Two water molecules must be split to yield one oxygen molecule. The photolysis of water is a remarkable reaction, but its name is somewhat misleading because it implies that water is broken by light. Actually, light splits water indirectly by causing P680 to become oxidized. Noncyclic electron transport is a continuous linear process In the presence of light, there is a continuous, one-way flow of electrons from the ultimate electron source, H2O, to the terminal electron acceptor, NADP+. Water undergoes enzymatically catalyzed photolysis to replace energized electrons donated to the electron

transport chain by molecules of P680 in photosystem II. These electrons travel down the electron transport chain that connects photosystem II with photosystem I. Thus, they provide a continuous supply of replacements for energized electrons that have been given up by P700. As electrons are transferred along the electron transport chain that connects photosystem II with photosystem I, they lose energy. Some of the energy released is used to pump protons across the thylakoid membrane, from the stroma to the thylakoid lumen, producing a proton gradient. The energy of this proton gradient is harnessed to produce ATP from ADP by chemiosmosis, which we discuss later in the chapter. ATP and NADPH, the products of

the light-dependent reactions, are released into the stroma, where both are required by the carbon fixation reactions.

Cyclic electron transport produces ATP but no NADPH Only photosystem I is involved in cyclic electron transport, the simplest light-dependent reaction. The pathway is cyclic because energized electrons that originate from P700 at the reaction center eventually return to P700. In the presence of light, electrons flow continuously through an electron transport chain within the thylakoid membrane. As they pass from one acceptor to another, the electrons lose energy, some of which is used to pump protons across the thylakoid membrane. An enzyme (ATP synthase) in the thylakoid membrane uses the energy of the proton gradient to manufacture ATP. NADPH is not produced, H2O is not split, and oxygen is not generated. By itself, cyclic electron transport could not serve as the basis of photosynthesis because, as we explain later in the chapter, NADPH is required to reduce CO2 to carbohydrate. The significance of cyclic electron transport to photosynthesis in plants is unclear. Cyclic electron transport may occur in plant cells when there is too little NADP+ to accept electrons from ferredoxin. There is evidence that cyclic electron flow may help maintain the optimal ratio of ATP to NADPH required for carbon fixation, as well as provide extra ATP to power other ATP-requiring processes in chloroplasts. Biologists generally agree that ancient bacteria used this process to produce ATP from light energy. A reaction pathway analogous to cyclic electron transport in plants is present in some modern photosynthetic prokaryotes. Noncyclic and cyclic electron transport are compared in TABLE 9-1.

reactions, losing some of its energy at each step. Some of the energy given up by the electron is not lost by the system, however; it is used to provide energy for ATP synthesis. Because the synthesis of ATP (that is, the phosphorylation of ADP) is coupled to the transport of electrons that have been energized by photons of light, the process is called photophosphorylation. The chemiosmotic model explains the coupling of ATP synthesis and electron transport As discussed earlier, the pigments and electron acceptors of the light-dependent reactions are embedded in the thylakoid membrane. Energy released from electrons traveling through the chain of acceptors is used to pump protons from the stroma, across the thylakoid membrane, and into the thylakoid lumen (FIG. 9-12). Thus, the pumping of protons results in the formation of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane. Protons also accumulate in the thylakoid lumen as water is split during noncyclic electron transport. Because protons are actually hydrogen ions (H+), the accumulation of protons causes the pH of the thylakoid interior to fall to a pH of about 5 in the thylakoid lumen, compared to a pH of about 8 in the stroma. This difference of about 3 pH units across the thylakoid membrane means there is an approximately thousand-fold difference in hydrogen ion concentration. The proton gradient has a great deal of free energy because of its state of low entropy. How does the chloroplast convert that energy to a more useful form? According to the general principles of diffusion, the concentrated protons inside the thylakoid might be expected to diffuse out readily. However, they are prevented from doing so because the thylakoid membrane is impermeable to H+

ATP synthesis occurs by chemiosmosis Stroma

Each member of the electron transport chain that links photosystem II to photosystem I can exist in an oxidized (lower-energy) form and a reduced (higher-energy) form. The electron accepted from P680 by the primary electron acceptor is highly energized; it is passed from one carrier to the next in a series of exergonic redox

TABLE 9-1

Thylakoid lumen

A Comparison of Noncyclic and Cyclic Electron Transport Noncyclic Electron Transport

Cyclic Electron Transport

Electron source

H 2O

Oxygen released? Terminal electron acceptor Form in which energy is temporarily captured Photosystem(s) required

Yes (from H2O) NADP+

None—electrons cycle through the system No None—electrons cycle through the system ATP (by chemiosmosis)

ATP (by chemiosmosis); NADPH PS I (P700) and PS II (P680)

Thylakoid membrane

Protons (H+)

FIGURE 9-12 The accumulation of protons in the thylakoid lumen PS I (P700) only

As electrons move down the electron transport chain, protons (H+) move from the stroma to the thylakoid lumen, creating a proton gradient. The greater concentration of H+ in the thylakoid lumen lowers the pH.

except through certain channels formed by the enzyme ATP synthase. This enzyme, a transmembrane protein also found in mitochondria, forms complexes so large they can be seen in electron micrographs (see Fig. 8-11b). ATP synthase complexes project into the stroma. As the protons diffuse through an ATP synthase complex, free energy decreases as a consequence of an increase in entropy. Each ATP synthase complex couples this exergonic process of diffusion down a concentration gradient to the endergonic process of phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP, which is released

KEY POINT

into the stroma (FIG. 9-13). The movement of protons through ATP synthase is thought to induce changes in the conformation of the enzyme that are necessary for the synthesis of ATP. It is estimated that for every four protons that move through ATP synthase, one ATP molecule is synthesized. The mechanism by which the phosphorylation of ADP is coupled to diffusion down a proton gradient is called chemiosmosis. As the essential connection between the electron transport chain and the phosphorylation of ADP, chemiosmosis is a basic

Electron carriers associated with the thylakoid membrane transfer energized electrons from water to NADP+, forming NADPH. ATP is generated by chemiosmosis.

Light-dependent reactions

Carbon fixation reactions

Chloroplast ATP ADP

Light reactions

NADPH

Calvin cycle

NADP

H2O

CO2

O2

Carbohydrates

Thylakoid membrane

Thylakoid lumen

H+

H+

H+

H

1/2 O O22 + 2 H+

H2O

H

H+

H

H

Plastocyanin

H H

+

H

+

Plastoquinone

+

+

H

+

+

H

H

+

H

+

H+

+

Photon

H+

H+

+

+

H

H+ H+

+

3

H+

ATP synthase

Photon Thylakoid Photosystem II membrane

Photosystem I

FerredoxinNADP+ reductase

1

H+

Cytochrome complex 2

Ferredoxin H+

4

+ NADP+

NADPH

ADP + Pi ATP

Stroma

1

Orange arrows indicate pathway of electrons along electron transport chain in thylakoid membrane. Electron carriers within membrane become alternately reduced and oxidized as they accept and donate electrons.

2

Energy released during electron transport is used to transport H+ from the stroma to the thylakoid lumen, where a high concentration of H+ accumulates.

FIGURE 9-13 A detailed look at electron transport and chemiosmosis

3

H+ are prevented from diffusing back into stroma except through special channels in ATP synthase in the thylakoid membrane.

4

H+ flows through ATP synthase, generating ATP.

TABLE 9-2

A Comparison of Photosynthesis and Aerobic Respiration Photosynthesis

Aerobic Respiration

Sites involved (in eukaryotic cells) ATP production

Anabolism CO2, H2O C6H12O6, O2 Cells that contain chlorophyll (certain cells of plants, algae, and some bacteria) Chloroplasts By photophosphorylation (a chemiosmotic process)

Principal electron transfer compound Location of electron transport chain Source of electrons for electron transport chain Terminal electron acceptor for electron transport chain

NADP+ is reduced to form NADPH* Thylakoid membrane In noncyclic electron transport: H2O (undergoes photolysis to yield electrons, protons, and oxygen) In noncyclic electron transport: NADP+ (becomes reduced to form NADPH)

Catabolism C6H12O6, O2 CO2, H2O Every actively metabolizing cell has aerobic respiration or some other energy-releasing pathway Cytosol (glycolysis); mitochondria By substrate-level phosphorylation and by oxidative phosphorylation (a chemiosmotic process) NAD+ is reduced to form NADH* Mitochondrial inner membrane (cristae) Immediate source: NADH, FADH2 Ultimate source: glucose or other carbohydrate O2 (becomes reduced to form H2O)

Type of metabolic reaction Raw materials End products Which cells have these processes?

*NADPH and NADH are very similar hydrogen (i.e., electron) carriers, differing only in a single phosphate group. However, NADPH generally works with enzymes in anabolic pathways, such as photosynthesis. NADH is associated with catabolic pathways, such as cellular respiration.

mechanism of energy coupling in cells. You may recall from Chapter 8 that chemiosmosis also occurs in aerobic respiration (see TABLE 9-2).

Review ■ ■ ■

Why is molecular oxygen a necessary byproduct of photosynthesis? What process is the actual mechanism of photophosphorylation? Why are both photosystems I and II required for photosynthesis? Can cyclic phosphorylation alone support photosynthesis? Explain your answer.

9.5 THE CARBON FIXATION REACTIONS ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVES 8 Summarize the three phases of the Calvin cycle and indicate the roles of ATP and NADPH in the process.

9 Discuss how photorespiration reduces photosynthetic efficiency. 10 Compare the C4 and CAM pathways.

In carbon fixation, the energy of ATP and NADPH is used in the formation of organic molecules from CO2. The carbon fixation reactions may be summarized as follows: 12 NADPH + 18 ATP + 6 CO2 ¡ C6H12O6 + 12 NADP+ + 18 ADP + 18 Pi + 6 H2O

Most plants use the Calvin cycle to fix carbon Carbon fixation occurs in the stroma through a sequence of 13 reactions known as the Calvin cycle. During the 1950s, University of California researchers Melvin Calvin, Andrew Benson, and oth-

ers elucidated the details of this cycle. Calvin was awarded a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1961. The 13 reactions of the Calvin cycle are divided into three phases: CO2 uptake, carbon reduction, and RuBP regeneration (FIG. 9-14). All 13 enzymes that catalyze steps in the Calvin cycle are located in the stroma of the chloroplast. Ten of the enzymes also participate in glycolysis (see Chapter 8). These enzymes catalyze reversible reactions, degrading carbohydrate molecules in cellular respiration and synthesizing carbohydrate molecules in photosynthesis. 1. CO2 uptake. The first phase of the Calvin cycle consists of a single reaction in which a molecule of CO2 reacts with a phosphorylated five-carbon compound, ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP). This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, also known as rubisco. The chloroplast contains more rubisco enzyme than any other protein, and rubisco may be one of the most abundant proteins in the biosphere. The product of this reaction is an unstable six-carbon intermediate, which immediately breaks down into two molecules of phosphoglycerate (PGA) with three carbons each. The carbon that was originally part of a CO2 molecule is now part of a carbon skeleton; the carbon has been “fixed.” The Calvin cycle is also known as the C3 pathway because the product of the initial carbon fixation reaction is a three-carbon compound. Plants that initially fix carbon in this way are called C3 plants. 2. Carbon reduction. The second phase of the Calvin cycle consists of two steps in which the energy and reducing power from ATP and NADPH (both produced in the light-dependent reactions) are used to convert the PGA molecules to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P). As shown in Figure 9-14, for every six carbons that enter the cycle as CO2, six carbons can leave the system as two molecules of G3P, to be used in car-

KEY POINT

ATP and NADPH provide the energy that drives carbon fixation in the Calvin cycle.

Light-dependent reactions

Carbon fixation reactions

Chloroplast ATP Light reactions

ADP NADPH

Calvin cycle

6 molecules of CO2

NADP

H2O

O2

CO2

CO2 molecules are captured by RuBP, resulting in unstable intermediate that is immediately broken apart into 2 PGA.

Carbohydrates

6 molecules of ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) P

P

12 molecules of phosphoglycerate (PGA)

1

CO2 uptake phase

6 ADP

P 6

ATP

12 3

6 molecules of ribulose phosphate (RP) P

RuBP regeneration phase

10 molecules of G3P

CALVIN CYCLE

ATP

12 ADP 2

Carbon reduction phase

P

12 NADPH

12 NADP++

Glucose and other carbohydrate synthesis

12 Pi P 12 molecules of glyceraldehyde-3phosphate (G3P) P 2 molecules of glyceraldehyde-3phosphate (G3P)

FIGURE 9-14 Animated A detailed look at the Calvin cycle 1 This diagram, in which carbon atoms are black balls, shows that six ●

molecules of CO2 must be “fixed” (incorporated into pre-existing carbon skeletons) in the CO2 uptake phase to produce one molecule of a sixcarbon sugar such as glucose. ● 2 Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) is formed in the carbon reduction phase. Two G3P molecules “leave”

bohydrate synthesis. Each of these three-carbon molecules of G3P is essentially half a hexose (six-carbon sugar) molecule. (In fact, you may recall that G3P is a key intermediate in the splitting of sugar in glycolysis; see Figs. 8-3 and 8-4.)

Through a series of reactions G3P is rearranged into new RuBP molecules or another sugar.

PGA is phosphorylated by ATP and reduced by NADPH. Removal of phosphate results in formation of G3P.

the cycle for every glucose formed. ● 3 Ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) is regenerated, and a new cycle can begin. Although these reactions do not require light directly, the energy that drives the Calvin cycle comes from ATP and NADPH, which are the products of the light-dependent reactions.

The reaction of two molecules of G3P is exergonic and leads to the formation of glucose or fructose. In some plants, glucose and fructose are then joined to produce sucrose (common table sugar). (Sucrose can be harvested from sugarcane,

TABLE 9-3

Summary of Photosynthesis

Reaction Series

Summary of Process

Light-dependent reactions (take place in thylakoid membranes) Photochemical reactions

Energy from sunlight used to split water, manufacture ATP, and reduce NADP+

Electron transport

Chemiosmosis

Carbon fixation reactions (take place in stroma)

Needed Materials

End Products

Chlorophyll-activated; reaction center gives up photoexcited electron to electron acceptor Electrons transported along chain of electron acceptors in thylakoid membranes; electrons reduce NADP+; splitting of water provides some H+ that accumulates inside thylakoid space H+ permitted to diffuse across the thylakoid membrane down their gradient; they cross the membrane through special channels in ATP synthase complex; energy released is used to produce ATP

Light energy; pigments (chlorophyll) Electrons, NADP+, H2O, electron acceptors

Electrons

Proton gradient, ADP + Pi, ATP synthase

ATP

Carbon fixation: carbon dioxide used to make carbohydrate

Ribulose bisphosphate, CO2, ATP, NADPH, necessary enzymes

Carbohydrates, ADP + Pi, NADP+

sugar beets, and maple sap.) The plant cell also uses glucose to produce starch or cellulose. 3. RuBP regeneration. Notice that although 2 G3P molecules are removed from the cycle, 10 G3P molecules remain; this represents a total of 30 carbon atoms. Through a series of 10 reactions that make up the third phase of the Calvin cycle, these 30 carbons and their associated atoms become rearranged into six molecules of ribulose phosphate, each of which becomes phosphorylated by ATP to produce RuBP, the five-carbon compound with which the cycle started. These RuBP molecules begin the process of CO2 fixation and eventual G3P production once again. In summary, the inputs required for the carbon fixation reactions are six molecules of CO2 (the source of both the carbons and the oxygens in carbohydrate), phosphates transferred from ATP, and electrons (as hydrogen) provided by NADPH (but ultimately derived from the photolysis of water). In the end, the six carbons from the CO2 are accounted for by the harvest of a hexose molecule. The remaining G3P molecules are used to synthesize the RuBP molecules with which more CO2 molecules may combine. TABLE 9-3 provides a summary of photosynthesis.

Photorespiration reduces photosynthetic efficiency Many C3 plants, including certain agriculturally important crops such as soybeans, wheat, and potatoes, do not yield as much carbohydrate from photosynthesis as might be expected, especially during periods of very hot temperature in summer. This phenomenon is a consequence of trade-offs between the plant’s need for CO2 and its need to prevent water loss. Recall that most photosynthesis occurs in mesophyll cells inside the leaf and that the entry and exit of gases from the interior of the leaf are regulated by stomata, tiny pores concentrated on the underside of the leaf (see Fig. 9-4a). On hot, dry days, plants close their stomata to conserve

NADPH, O2

water. Once the stomata close, photosynthesis rapidly uses up the CO2 remaining in the leaf and produces O2, which accumulates in the chloroplasts. Recall that the enzyme RuBP carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) catalyzes CO2 fixation in the Calvin cycle by attaching CO2 to RuBP. As its full name implies, rubisco acts not only as a carboxylase but also as an oxygenase because high levels of O2 compete with CO2 for the active site of rubisco. Some of the intermediates involved in the Calvin cycle are degraded to CO2 and H2O in a process that is called photorespiration because (1) it occurs in the presence of light; and as in aerobic respiration, (2) it requires oxygen and (3) produces CO2 and H2O. However, photorespiration does not produce ATP, and it reduces photosynthetic efficiency because it removes some of the intermediates used in the Calvin cycle. The reasons for photorespiration are incompletely understood, although scientists hypothesize that it reflects the origin of rubisco at an ancient time when CO2 levels were high and molecular oxygen levels were low. This view is supported by recent evidence that some amino acid sequences in rubisco are similar to sequences in certain bacterial proteins that apparently evolved prior to the evolution of the Calvin cycle. Genetic engineering to produce plants with rubisco that has a much lower affinity for oxygen is a promising area of research to improve yields of certain valuable crop plants.

The initial carbon fixation step differs in C4 plants and in CAM plants Photorespiration is not the only problem faced by plants engaged in photosynthesis. Because CO2 is not a very abundant gas (composing only 0.038% of the atmosphere), it is not easy for plants to obtain the CO2 they need. As you have learned, when conditions are hot and dry, the stomata close to reduce the loss of water vapor, greatly diminishing the supply of CO2. Ironically, CO2 is potentially less available at the very times when maximum sunlight is available to power the light-dependent reactions.

Many plant species living in hot, dry environments have adaptations that facilitate carbon fixation. C4 plants first fix CO2 into a four-carbon compound, oxaloacetate. CAM plants initially fix carbon at night through the formation of oxaloacetate. These special pathways found in C4 and CAM plants precede the Calvin cycle (C3 pathway); they do not replace it. The C4 pathway efficiently fixes CO2 at low concentrations The C4 pathway, in which CO2 is fixed through the formation of oxaloacetate, occurs not only before the C3 pathway but also in different cells. Leaf anatomy is usually distinctive in C4 plants. The photosynthetic mesophyll cells are closely associated with prominent, chloroplast-containing bundle sheath cells, which tightly encircle the veins of the leaf (FIG. 9-15). The C4 pathway occurs in the mesophyll cells, whereas the Calvin cycle takes place within the bundle sheath cells. The key component of the C4 pathway is a remarkable enzyme that has an extremely high affinity for CO2, binding it effectively even at unusually low concentrations. This enzyme, PEP carboxylase, catalyzes the reaction by which CO2 reacts with the three-carbon compound phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), forming oxaloacetate (FIG. 9-16). In a step that requires NADPH, oxaloacetate is converted to some other four-carbon compound, usually malate. The malate then passes to chloroplasts within bundle sheath cells, where a different enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of malate to yield pyruvate (which has three carbons) and CO2. NADPH is formed, replacing the one used earlier. malate + NADP+ ¡ pyruvate + CO2 + NADPH

The CO2 released in the bundle sheath cell combines with ribulose bisphosphate in a reaction catalyzed by rubisco and goes through the Calvin cycle in the usual manner. The pyruvate formed in the decarboxylation reaction returns to the mesophyll cell, where it reacts with ATP to regenerate phosphoenolpyruvate. Because the C4 pathway captures CO2 and provides it to the bundle sheath cells so efficiently, CO2 concentration within the bundle sheath cells is about 10 to 60 times as great as its concentration in the mesophyll cells of plants having only the C3 pathway. Photorespiration is negligible in C4 plants such as crabgrass because the concentration of CO2 in bundle sheath cells (where rubisco is present) is always high. The combined C3–C4 pathway involves the expenditure of 30 ATPs per hexose, rather than the 18 ATPs used by the C3 pathway alone. The extra energy expense required to regenerate PEP from pyruvate is worthwhile at high light intensities because it ensures a high concentration of CO2 in the bundle sheath cells and permits them to carry on photosynthesis at a rapid rate. At lower light intensities and temperatures, C3 plants are favored. For example, winter rye, a C3 plant, grows lavishly in cool weather, when crabgrass cannot because it requires more energy to fix CO2.

CAM plants fix CO2 at night Plants living in dry, or xeric, conditions have a number of structural adaptations that enable them to survive. Many xeric plants have physiological adaptations as well, including a special carbon fixation pathway, the crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) pathway. The name comes from the stonecrop plant family (the Crassulaceae), which uses the CAM pathway, although the pathway has evolved

Upper epidermis Palisade mesophyll Bundle sheath cells of veins Mesophyll

Spongy mesophyll Chloroplasts

(a) In C3 plants, the Calvin cycle takes place in the mesophyll cells and the bundle sheath cells are nonphotosynthetic.

FIGURE 9-15 C3 and C4 plant structure compared

independently in some members of more than 25 other plant families, including the cactus family (Cactaceae), the lily family (Liliaceae), and the orchid family (Orchidaceae) (FIG. 9-17). Unlike most plants, CAM plants open their stomata at night, admitting CO2 while minimizing water loss. They use the enzyme PEP carboxylase to fix CO2, forming oxaloacetate, which is converted to malate and stored in cell vacuoles. During the day, when stomata are closed and gas exchange cannot occur between the plant and the atmosphere, CO2 is removed from malate by a decarboxylation reaction. Now the CO2 is available within the leaf tissue to be fixed into sugar by the Calvin cycle (C3 pathway). The CAM pathway is very similar to the C4 pathway but with important differences. C4 plants initially fix CO2 into four-carbon organic acids in mesophyll cells. The acids are later decarboxylated to produce CO2, which is fixed by the C3 pathway in the bundle sheath cells. In other words, the C4 and C3 pathways occur in different locations within the leaf of a C4 plant. In CAM plants, the initial fixation of CO2 occurs at night. Decarboxylation of malate and subsequent production of sugar from CO2 by the normal C3 photosynthetic pathway occur during the day. In other words, the CAM and C3 pathways occur at different times within the same cell of a CAM plant. Although it does not promote rapid growth the way that the C4 pathway does, the CAM pathway is a very successful adaptation to xeric conditions. CAM plants can exchange gases for photosynthesis and reduce water loss significantly. Plants with CAM photosynthesis survive in deserts where neither C3 nor C4 plants can.

CO2 Mesophyll cell

(3C)

Phosphoenolpyruvate

Oxaloacetate (4C) NADPH

ADP

+

NADP Malate (4C)

ATP Pyruvate (3C)

(3C) Pyruvate

Malate (4C)

Glucose

C

NADP+ CO2 alvin

Bundle sheath cell

NADPH

c y c le

Vein

FIGURE 9-16 Animated Summary of the C4 pathway CO2 combines with phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) in the chloroplasts of mesophyll cells, forming a four-carbon compound that is converted to malate. Malate goes to the chloroplasts of bundle sheath cells, where it is decarboxylated. The CO2 released in the bundle sheath cell is used to make carbohydrate by way of the Calvin cycle.

Review ■ ■ ■ ■

What are the three phases of the Calvin cycle? Which phase of the Calvin cycle requires both ATP and NADPH? In what ways does photorespiration differ from aerobic respiration? Do C3, C4, and CAM plants all have rubisco? PEP carboxylase?

9.6 METABOLIC DIVERSITY ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE Robert W. Domm/Visuals Unlimited

11 Contrast photoautotrophs and chemoheterotrophs with respect to their

FIGURE 9-17 A typical CAM plant Prickly pear cactus (Opuntia) is a CAM plant. The more than 200 species of Opuntia living today originated in various xeric habitats in North and South America.

energy and carbon sources.

Land plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes are known as photoautotrophs. They are phototrophs because they use light energy to make ATP and NADPH, which temporarily hold chemical energy but are unstable and cannot be stockpiled in the cell. They are autotrophs (from the Greek auto, which means “self,” and trophos, which means “nourishing”) that synthesize complex organic compounds from simpler, inorganic raw materials. The chemical energy of ATP and NADPH then drives carbon fixation, the anabolic pathway in which stable organic molecules are synthesized from CO2 and water. These organic compounds are used not only as starting

materials to synthesize all the other organic compounds the photosynthetic organism needs (such as complex carbohydrates, amino acids, and lipids) but also for energy storage. Glucose and other carbohydrates produced during photosynthesis are relatively reduced compounds that can be subsequently oxidized by aerobic respiration or by some other catabolic pathway (see Chapter 8). In contrast, animals, fungi, and most bacteria are known as chemoheterotrophs. They are chemotrophs because they obtain energy from chemicals, typically by redox reactions (see Chapters 7 and 8). They are heterotrophs (from the Greek heter, which means “other,” and trophos, which means “nourishing”) because they cannot fix carbon; they use organic molecules produced by other organisms as the building blocks from which they synthesize the carbon compounds they need. We are so familiar with plants as photoautotrophs and animals such as ourselves as chemoheterotrophs that we tend to think that all organisms should fit in these two “mainstream” categories. Two other types of nutrition are found in certain bacteria. A few bacteria, known as nonsulfur purple bacteria, are photoheterotrophs, able to use light energy but unable to carry out carbon fixation, so they must obtain carbon from organic compounds. Some other bacteria are chemoautotrophs, which obtain their energy from the oxidation of reduced inorganic molecules such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), nitrite (NO2−), or ammonia (NH3). Some of this captured energy is subsequently used to carry out carbon fixation.

Review ■

How does a green plant obtain energy? carbon? How does your body obtain these things?

9.7 PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN PLANTS AND IN THE ENVIRONMENT ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVE 12 State the importance of photosynthesis both in a plant and to other organisms.

Although we characterize plants as photoautotrophs, not all plant cells carry out photosynthesis, and even cells with chloroplasts also possess mitochondria and carry out aerobic respiration. In fact, respiration utilizing the organic molecules the plant has made for itself is the direct source of ATP needed for most plant metabolism. Several mechanisms regulate the relative activities of photosynthesis and aerobic respiration in plants. Although the enzymes of the Calvin cycle do not require light to function, they are actually regulated by light. As a consequence of the light-requiring reactions, the stroma becomes more basic (approximately pH 8), activating rubisco and other Calvin cycle enzymes. In contrast, light tends to inhibit the enzymes of glycolysis in the cytosol. Hence photosynthesis, not aerobic respiration, is favored in the light. When light is very dim, at a point known as the light com-

pensation point, photosynthesis still occurs, but it is not evident because the rate of CO2 fixation by photosynthesis is equal to the rate of CO2 release through aerobic respiration. On the other hand, when light is very bright, photorespiration can significantly diminish photosynthetic yields. As we have seen in this chapter, the reactions of the Calvin cycle provide a net yield of the three-carbon phosphorylated sugar, G3P. What are the various fates of G3P in the plant? Consider a leaf cell actively conducting photosynthesis. A series of enzymes may convert some of the G3P to glucose and then to starch. This starch is stored in starch granules that form inside chloroplasts. It has been recently shown that when this starch is broken down, the disaccharide maltose is typically formed (see Fig. 3-8a). Maltose is transported out of the chloroplast and then cleaved in the cytosol, providing glucose for aerobic respiration. Not all G3P ends up as carbohydrate; some is ultimately converted to amino acids, fatty acids, and other organic molecules needed by the photosynthetic cell. Some of the G3P is exported to the cytosol, where enzymes convert it to the disaccharide sucrose (see Fig. 3-8b). Sucrose is then actively transported out of the cell, moves through the vascular system of the plant (see Chapter 35 for a discussion of plant transport), and is actively transported into the various cells. Sucrose can be broken down to glucose and fructose, which are used in aerobic respiration or as starting points for the synthesis of the various organic molecules the cells need, such as amino acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Important carbohydrates include cellulose for cell walls (see Fig. 3-10) and starch, particularly in starch-storing structures such as roots (see Fig. 3-9a) and developing seeds and tubers (such as potatoes). The benefits of photosynthesis in the environment are staggering. Of course, by fixing carbon, photoautotrophs are the ultimate source of virtually all organic molecules used as energy and carbon sources by chemoheterotrophs such as ourselves (for an exception, see Inquiring About: Life without the Sun in Chapter 55). In carrying out carbon fixation, photoautotrophs remove CO2 from the atmosphere, thereby slowing global warming (see Chapter 57). Also of prime importance is the fact that photolysis of water by photosystem II releases the O2 that all aerobic organisms require for aerobic respiration. Molecular oxygen is so reactive that it could not be maintained in the atmosphere if it were not constantly replenished in this way. As discussed in Chapter 21, the evolution of oxygen-producing photosynthesis was a critical event in the history of life on Earth, which not only permitted the evolution of aerobic organisms, but also made terrestrial life possible because in the stratosphere O2 is converted to ozone (O3), which shields the planet from damaging ultraviolet light.

Review ■ ■

How does a root cell obtain energy? organic molecules? What is the source of molecular oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere?

■ ■

S U M M A RY: F O C US O N L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S

9.1 (page 194) 1 Describe the physical properties of light and explain the relationship between a wavelength of light and its energy. ■ Light consists of particles called photons that move as waves. ■ Photons with shorter wavelengths have more energy than those with longer wavelengths.





9.2 (page 195) 2 Diagram the internal structure of a chloroplast and explain how its components interact and facilitate the process of photosynthesis. In plants, photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts, which are located mainly within mesophyll cells inside the leaf. ■ Chloroplasts are organelles enclosed by a double membrane; the inner membrane encloses the stroma in which membranous, saclike thylakoids are suspended. Thylakoids enclose the thylakoid lumen. Thylakoids arranged in stacks are called grana. ■ Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids, and other photosynthetic pigments are components of the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts. 3 Describe what happens to an electron in a biological molecule such as chlorophyll when a photon of light energy is absorbed. ■ Photons excite biological molecules such as chlorophyll and other photosynthetic pigments, causing one or more electrons to become energized. These energized electrons may be accepted by electron acceptor compounds. ■ The combined absorption spectra of chlorophylls a and b are similar to the action spectrum for photosynthesis.





9.3 (page 198) 4 Describe photosynthesis as a redox process. During photosynthesis, light energy is captured and converted to the chemical energy of carbohydrates; hydrogens from water are used to reduce carbon, and oxygen derived from water becomes oxidized, forming molecular oxygen. 5 Distinguish between the light-dependent reactions and carbon fixation reactions of photosynthesis. ■ In the light-dependent reactions, electrons energized by light are used to generate ATP and NADPH; these compounds provide energy for the formation of carbohydrates during the carbon fixation reactions. ■

Light-dependent reactions (in thylakoids)

Carbon fixation reactions (in stroma) Chloroplast ATP

Light reactions

ADP NADPH

Calvin cycle

NADP+

H2O

O2

CO2

Carbohydrates





Experience the process of noncyclic electron transport by clicking on the figure in CengageNOW.

7 Explain how a proton (H+) gradient is established across the thylakoid membrane and how this gradient functions in ATP synthesis. ■ Photophosphorylation is the synthesis of ATP coupled to the transport of electrons energized by photons of light. Some of the energy of the electrons is used to pump protons across the thylakoid membrane, providing the energy to generate ATP by chemiosmosis. ■ As protons diffuse through ATP synthase, an enzyme complex in the thylakoid membrane, ADP is phosphorylated to form ATP.

9.5 (page 204) 8 Summarize the three phases of the Calvin cycle and indicate the roles of ATP and NADPH in the process. ■ The carbon fixation reactions proceed by way of the Calvin cycle, also known as the C3 pathway. ■ In the CO2 uptake phase of the Calvin cycle, CO2 is combined with ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP), a five-carbon sugar, by the enzyme ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, commonly known as rubisco, forming the three-carbon molecule phosphoglycerate (PGA). In the carbon reduction phase of the Calvin cycle, the energy and ■ reducing power of ATP and NADPH are used to convert PGA molecules to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P). For every 6 CO2 molecules fixed, 12 molecules of G3P are produced, and 2 molecules of G3P leave the cycle to produce the equivalent of 1 molecule of glucose. ■ In the RuBP regeneration phase of the Calvin cycle, the remaining G3P molecules are modified to regenerate RuBP. See the Calvin cycle in action by clicking on the figure in CengageNOW.

Learn more about photosynthesis in plants by clicking on the figures in CengageNOW.

9.4 (page 199) 6 Describe the flow of electrons through photosystems I and II in the noncyclic electron transport pathway and the products produced. Contrast this with cyclic electron transport. Photosystems I and II are the two types of photosynthetic units ■ involved in photosynthesis. Each photosystem includes chlorophyll

molecules and accessory pigments organized with pigment-binding proteins into antenna complexes. Only a special pair of chlorophyll a molecules in the reaction center of an antenna complex give up energized electrons to a nearby electron acceptor. P700 is in the reaction center for photosystem I; P680 is in the reaction center for photosystem II. During the noncyclic light-dependent reactions, known as noncyclic electron transport, ATP and NADPH are formed. Electrons in photosystem I are energized by the absorption of light and passed through an electron transport chain to NADP+, forming NADPH. Electrons given up by P700 in photosystem I are replaced by electrons from P680 in photosystem II. A series of redox reactions takes place as energized electrons are passed along the electron transport chain from photosystem II to photosystem I. Electrons given up by P680 in photosystem II are replaced by electrons made available by the photolysis of H2O; oxygen is released in the process. During cyclic electron transport, electrons from photosystem I are eventually returned to photosystem I. ATP is produced by chemiosmosis, but no NADPH or oxygen is generated.

9 Discuss how photorespiration reduces photosynthetic efficiency. ■

In photorespiration, C3 plants consume oxygen and generate CO2 by degrading Calvin cycle intermediates but do not produce ATP. Photorespiration is significant on bright, hot, dry days when plants close their stomata, conserving water but preventing the passage of CO2 into the leaf.

10 Compare the C4 and CAM pathways. ■



In the C4 pathway, the enzyme PEP carboxylase binds CO2 effectively, even when CO2 is at a low concentration. C4 reactions take place within mesophyll cells. The CO2 is fixed in oxaloacetate, which is then converted to malate. The malate moves into a bundle sheath cell, and CO2 is removed from it. The released CO2 then enters the Calvin cycle. The crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) pathway is similar to the C4 pathway. PEP carboxylase fixes carbon at night in the mesophyll cells, and the Calvin cycle occurs during the day in the same cells. See a comparison of the C3 and C4 pathways by clicking on the figure in CengageNOW.

9.6 (page 208) 11 Contrast photoautotrophs and chemoheterotrophs with respect to their energy and carbon sources. ■ Photoautotrophs use light as an energy source and are able to incorporate atmospheric CO2 into preexisting carbon skeletons. ■ Chemoheterotrophs obtain energy by oxidizing chemicals and obtain carbon as organic molecules from other organisms.



Photosynthesis is the ultimate source of all chemical energy and organic molecules available to photoautotrophs, such as plants, and to virtually all other organisms as well. It also constantly replenishes the supply of oxygen in the atmosphere, vital to all aerobic organisms.

Summary Reactions for Photosynthesis The light-dependent reactions (noncyclic electron transport):

¡ Chlorophyll

6 O2 + 12 NADPH + 18 ATP The carbon fixation reactions (Calvin cycle): 12 NADPH + 18 ATP + 6 CO2 ¡ C6H12O6 + 12 NADP+ + 18 ADP + 18 Pi + 6 H2O By canceling out the common items on opposite sides of the arrows in these two coupled equations, we obtain the simplified overall equation for photosynthesis:

9.7 (page 209)

6 CO2 + H2O

12 State the importance of photosynthesis both in a plant and to other

Carbon dioxide

organisms.

Light

12 H2O + 12 NADP+ + 18 ADP + 18 Pi

Water

Light energy

¡ C6H12O6 + O2 + 6 H2O

Chlorophyll

Glucose Oxygen Water

T E S T YO U R U N D E R S TA N D I N G 1. Where is chlorophyll located in the chloroplast? (a) thylakoid membranes (b) stroma (c) matrix (d) thylakoid lumen (e) between the inner and outer membranes 2. In photolysis, some of the energy captured by chlorophyll is used to split (a) CO2 (b) ATP (c) NADPH (d) H2O (e) both b and c 3. Light is composed of particles of energy called (a) carotenoids (b) reaction centers (c) photons (d) antenna complexes (e) photosystems 4. The relative effectiveness of different wavelengths of light in photosynthesis is demonstrated by (a) an action spectrum (b) photolysis (c) carbon fixation reactions (d) photoheterotrophs (e) an absorption spectrum 5. In plants, the final electron acceptor in noncyclic electron flow is (a) NADP+ (b) CO2 (c) H2O (d) O2 (e) G3P 6. In , electrons that have been energized by light contribute their energy to add phosphate to ADP, producing ATP. (a) crassulacean acid metabolism (b) the Calvin cycle (c) photorespiration (d) C4 pathways (e) photophosphorylation 7. The mechanism by which electron transport is coupled to ATP production by means of a proton gradient is called (a) chemiosmosis (b) crassulacean acid metabolism (c) fluorescence (d) the C3 pathway (e) the C4 pathway 8. The Calvin cycle begins when CO2 reacts with (a) phosphoenolpyruvate (b) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (c) ribulose bisphosphate (d) oxaloacetate (e) phosphoglycerate 9. The enzyme directly responsible for almost all carbon fixation on Earth is (a) rubisco (b) PEP carboxylase (c) ATP synthase (d) phosphofructokinase (e) ligase

10. In C4 plants, C4 and C3 pathways occur at different ; whereas in CAM plants, CAM and C3 pathways . (a) times of day; locations occur at different within the leaf (b) seasons; locations (c) locations; times of day (d) locations; seasons (e) times of day; seasons 11. An organism characterized as a photoautotroph obtains energy and carbon from . from (a) light; organic molecules (b) light; CO2 (c) organic molecules; organic molecules (d) organic molecules; CO2 (e) O2; CO2 12. Label the figure. Use Figure 9-8 to check your answers.

CRITICAL THINKING

2. Only some plant cells have chloroplasts, but all actively metabolizing plant cells have mitochondria. Why? 3. Explain why the proton gradient formed during chemiosmosis represents a state of low entropy. (You may wish to refer to the discussion of entropy in Chapter 7.) 4. The electrons in glucose have relatively high free energies. How did they become so energetic? 5. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND SOCIETY. What strategies may be employed in the future to increase world food supply? Base your answer on your knowledge of photosynthesis and related processes. 6. What would life be like for photoautotrophs if there were no chemoheterotrophs? For chemoheterotrophs if there were no photoautotrophs? 7. What might you suspect if scientists learned that a distant planet has an atmosphere that is 15% molecular oxygen? 8. EVOLUTION LINK. Propose an explanation for the fact that bacteria, chloroplasts, and mitochondria all have ATP synthase complexes.

9. ANALYZING DATA. The figure depicts the absorption spectrum of a plant pigment. What colors/wavelengths does it absorb? What is the color of this pigment?

100 Estimated absorption (%)

1. Must all autotrophs use light energy? Explain.

80 60 40 20

400

500 600 Wavelength (nm)

700

Additional questions are available in CengageNOW at www.cengage.com/ login.

Chromosomes, Mitosis, and Meiosis

Alexey Khodjakov, Wadsworth Center, Albany, NY

10

KEY CONCEPTS

Fluorescence LM of a cultured newt lung cell in mitosis (early prometaphase). The nuclear envelope has broken down, and the microtubules of the mitotic spindle (green) now interact with the chromosomes (blue).

P

re-existing cells divide to form new cells. This remarkable process enables an organism to grow, repair damaged parts, and reproduce.

10.1 In eukaryotic cells, DNA is wound around specific

Cells serve as the essential link between generations. Even the simplest

proteins to form chromatin, which in turn is folded and packaged to make individual chromosomes.

cell contains a large amount of precisely coded genetic information in

10.2 In mitosis, duplicated chromosomes separate (split

nized into informational units called genes, which control the activities

apart) and are evenly distributed into two daughter nuclei. Mitosis is an important part of the cell cycle, which consists of the successive stages through which a cell passes.

the form of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). An individual’s DNA is orgaof the cell and are passed on to its descendants. When a cell divides, the information contained in the DNA must be faithfully replicated and the

10.3 An internal genetic program interacts with external

copies then transmitted to each daughter cell through a precisely choreo-

signals to regulate the cell cycle.

graphed series of steps (see photograph).

10.4 Meiosis, which reduces the number of chromosome

DNA is a very long, thin molecule that could easily become tangled

sets from diploid to haploid, is necessary to maintain the normal chromosome number when two cells join during sexual reproduction. Meiosis helps to increase genetic variation among offspring.

and broken, and a eukaryotic cell’s nucleus contains a huge amount of

10.5 Meiosis and gamete production precede fertilization

structure called a chromosome, each of which contains hundreds or thou-

in the life cycles of sexually reproducing organisms.

sands of genes.

DNA. In this chapter we consider how eukaryotes accommodate the genetic material by packaging each DNA molecule with proteins to form a

We then consider mitosis, the highly regimented process that ensures a parent cell transmits one copy of every chromosome to each of its two daughter cells. In this way, the chromosome number is preserved through successive mitotic divisions. Most somatic cells (body cells) of eukaryotes divide by mitosis. Mitosis is an active area of biological research, and for good reason: errors in mitosis can result in a host of disorders and diseases

such as cancer, a disease condition in which cells divide at an uncontrolled rate and become invasive. Thus, a clearer understanding of mitosis has the potential to improve our treatment of many diseases. Finally, we discuss meiosis, a process that reduces the chromosome number by half. Sexual life cycles in eukaryotes require meiosis. Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of two sex cells, or Jan Hinsch/Photo Researchers, Inc.

gametes, to form a fertilized egg called a zygote. Meiosis makes it possible for each gamete to contain only half the number of chromosomes in the parent cell, thereby preventing the zygotes from having twice as many chromosomes as the parents.

10.1 EUKARYOTIC CHROMOSOMES ■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1 2

Discuss the significance of chromosomes in terms of their information content. Explain how DNA is packed into chromosomes in eukaryotic cells.

The major carriers of genetic information in eukaryotes are the chromosomes, which lie within the cell nucleus. Although chromosome means “colored body,” chromosomes are virtually colorless; the term refers to their ability to be stained by certain dyes. In the 1880s, light microscopes had been improved to the point that scientists such as the German biologist Walther Fleming began to observe chromosomes during cell division. In 1903, American biologist Walter Sutton and German biologist Theodor Boveri noted independently that chromosomes were the physical carriers of genes, the genetic factors Gregor Mendel discovered in the 19th century (discussed in Chapter 11). Chromosomes are made of chromatin, a material consisting of DNA and associated proteins. When a cell is not dividing, the chromosomes are present but in an extended, partially unraveled form. Chromatin consists of long, thin threads that are somewhat aggregated, giving them a granular appearance when viewed with the electron microscope (see Fig. 4-13). During cell division, the chromatin fibers condense and the chromosomes become visible as distinct structures (FIG. 10-1).

DNA is organized into informational units called genes An organism may have thousands of genes. For example, humans have about 20,000 genes that code for proteins. As you will see in later chapters, the concept of the gene has changed considerably since the science of genetics began, but our definitions have always centered on the gene as an informational unit. By providing information needed to carry out one or more specific cell functions, a gene affects some characteristic of the organism. For example, genes govern eye color in humans, wing length in flies, and seed color in peas.

10 μm

FIGURE 10-1 Chromosomes Human chromosomes from an unidentified cell are shown in this fluorescence LM.

DNA is packaged in a highly organized way in chromosomes Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ markedly in their DNA content as well as in the organization of DNA molecules. The bacterium Escherichia coli normally contains about 4 × 106 base pairs (almost 1.35 mm) of DNA in its single, circular DNA molecule. In fact, the total length of its DNA is about 1000 times as long as the length of the cell itself. Therefore, the DNA molecule is, with the help of proteins, twisted and folded compactly to fit inside the bacterial cell (see Fig. 25-2). A typical eukaryotic cell contains much more DNA than a bacterium does, and it is organized in the nucleus as multiple chromosomes; these vary widely in size and number among different species. Although a human nucleus is about the size of a large bacterial cell, it contains more than 1000 times the amount of DNA found in E. coli. The DNA content of a human sperm cell is about 3 × 109 base pairs; stretched end to end, it would measure almost 1 m long. Remarkably, this DNA fits into a nucleus with a diameter of only 10 mm. How does a eukaryotic cell pack its DNA into the chromosomes? Chromosome packaging is facilitated by certain proteins known as histones.1 Histones have a positive charge because they have a high proportion of amino acids with basic side chains (see Chapter 3). The positively charged histones associate with DNA, which has a negative charge because of its phosphate groups, to form structures called nucleosomes. The fundamental unit of each nucleosome consists of a beadlike structure with 146 base pairs of DNA wrapped around a disc-shaped core of eight histone molecules (two each of four different histone types) (FIG. 10-2).

1

A few types of eukaryotic cells lack histones. Conversely, histones occur in one group of prokaryotes, the archaea (see Chapter 25).

DNA wound around a cluster of histone molecules

Histone tails

D. E. Olins and A. L. Olins

Linker DNA

Nucleosome (10 nm diameter)

100 nm

(a) A model for the structure of a nucleosome. Each nucleosome bead contains a set of eight histone molecules, forming a protein core around which the double-stranded DNA winds. The DNA surrounding the histones consists of 146 nucleotide pairs; another segment of DNA, about 60 nucleotide pairs long, links nucleosome beads.

(b) TEM of nucleosomes from the nucleus of a chicken cell. Normally, nucleosomes are packed more closely together, but the preparation procedure has spread them apart, revealing the DNA linkers.

FIGURE 10-2 Nucleosomes

Courtesy of U. Laemmli, from Cell 12:817, 1988. Copyright by Cell Press

Although the nucleosome was originally defined as a bead plus a DNA segment that links it to an adjacent bead, today the term more commonly refers only to the bead itself (that is, the eight histones and the DNA wrapped around them). Nucleosomes function like tiny spools, preventing DNA from becoming tangled. You can see the importance of this role in FIGURE 10-3, which illustrates the enormous length of DNA that unravels from a mouse chromosome after researchers have removed the histones. The role of histones is more than simply structural because their arrangement also affects the activity of the DNA with which they are associated. Histones are increasingly viewed as an important part of the regulation of gene expression—that is, whether genes are turned off or on. We discuss gene regulation by histones in Chapter 14. The wrapping of DNA into nucleosomes represents the first level of chromosome structure. FIGURE 10-4 shows the higher-order structures of chromatin leading to the formation of a condensed chromosome. The nucleosomes themselves are 10 nm in diameter. The packed nucleosome state occurs when a fifth type of histone, known as histone H1, associates with the linker DNA, packing adjacent nucleosomes together to form a compacted 30 nm chromatin fiber. In extended chromatin, these fibers form large, coiled loops held together by scaffolding proteins, nonhistone proteins that help maintain chromosome structure. The loops then interact to form the condensed chromatin found in a chromosome. Cell biologists have identified a group of proteins, collectively called condensin, required for chromosome compaction. Condensin binds to DNA and wraps it into coiled loops that are compacted into a mitotic or meiotic chromosome.

DNA loops

Scaffolding proteins

2 μm

FIGURE 10-3 TEM of a mouse chromosome depleted of histones Notice how densely packed the DNA strands are, even though they have been released from the histone proteins that organize them into tightly coiled structures.

Chromosome number and informational content differ among species Every individual of a given species has a characteristic number of chromosomes in the nuclei of its somatic (body) cells. However, it is not the number of chromosomes that makes each species unique but

KEY POINT

When a cell prepares to divide, its chromosomes become thicker and shorter as their long chromatin fibers are compacted. 1400 nm

K. G. Murti/Visuals Unlimited. Inc.

700 nm

300 nm fiber (looped domains)

30 nm chromatin fiber

Condensed chromosome Condensed chromatin

DNA wound around a cluster of histone molecules

Scaffolding protein Extended chromatin

Packed nucleosomes

Histone 10 nm Nucleosomes

2 nm DNA double helix

FIGURE 10-4 Animated Organization of a eukaryotic chromosome This diagram shows how DNA is packaged into highly condensed metaphase chromosomes. First, DNA is wrapped around histone proteins to form nucleosomes. Then, the nucleosomes are compacted into chroma-

the information the genes specify. Most human somatic cells have exactly 46 chromosomes, but humans are not humans merely because we have 46 chromosomes. Some other species—the olive tree, for example—also have 46. Some humans have an abnormal chromosome composition with more or fewer than 46 (see Fig. 16-4). Other species have different chromosome numbers. A certain species of roundworm has only 2 chromosomes in each cell, whereas some crabs have as many as 200, and some ferns have more than 1000. Most animal and plant species have between 8 and 50 chromosomes per somatic cell. Numbers above and below

tin fibers, which are coiled into looped domains. The looped domains are compacted, ultimately forming chromosomes.

these are uncommon. The number of chromosomes a species has does not indicate the species’ complexity or its status within a particular domain or kingdom.

Review ■



What are the informational units on chromosomes called? Of what do these informational units consist? How is the large discrepancy between DNA length and nucleus size addressed in eukaryotic cells?

10.2 THE CELL CYCLE AND MITOSIS

KEY POINT

PH INTER ASE

■ ■ LEARNING OBJECTIVES 3 4 5

Identify the stages in the eukaryotic cell cycle and describe their principal events. Describe the structure of a duplicated chromosome, including the sister chromatids, centromeres, and kinetochores. Explain the significance of mitosis and describe the process.

When cells reach a certain size, they usually either stop growing or divide. Not all cells divide; some, such as skeletal muscle and red blood cells, do not normally divide once they are mature. Other cells undergo a sequence of activities required for growth and cell division. The stages through which a cell passes from one cell division to the next are collectively referred to as the cell cycle. Timing of the cell cycle varies widely, but in actively growing plant and animal cells, it is about 8 to 20 hours. The cell cycle consists of two main phases, interphase and M phase, both of which can be distinguished under a light microscope (FIG. 10-5).

Chromosomes duplicate during interphase Most of a cell’s life is spent in interphase, the time when no cell division is occurring. A cell is metabolically active during interphase, synthesizing needed materials (proteins, lipids, and other biologically important molecules) and growing. Here is the sequence of interphase and M phase in the eukaryotic cell cycle: G1 phase

S phase Interphase

G2 phase

The cell cycle is the successive series of events in the life of a cell.

G1 (First gap phase)

S (Synthesis phase)

G2 (Second gap phase)

M PHASE (Mitosis and cytokinesis)

FIGURE 10-5 Animated The eukaryotic cell cycle The cell cycle includes interphase (G1, S, and G2) and M phase (mitosis and cytokinesis). Proportionate amounts of time spent at each stage vary among species, cell types, and growth conditions. If the cell cycle were a period of 12 hours, G1 would be about 5 hours, S would be 4.5 hours, G2 would be 2 hours, and M phase would be 30 minutes.

mitosis and cytokinesis M phase

The time between the end of mitosis and the beginning of the S phase is termed the G1 phase (G stands for gap, an interval during which no DNA synthesis occurs). Growth and normal metabolism take place during the G1 phase, which is typically the longest phase. Cells that are not dividing usually become arrested in this part of the cell cycle and are said to be in a state called G0. Toward the end of G1, the enzymes required for DNA synthesis become more active. Synthesis of these enzymes, along with proteins needed to initiate cell division (discussed later in the chapter), enable the cell to enter the S phase. During the synthesis phase, or S phase, DNA replicates and histone proteins are synthesized so that the cell can make duplicate copies of its chromosomes. How did researchers identify the S phase of the cell cycle? In the early 1950s, researchers demonstrated that cells preparing to divide duplicate their chromosomes at a relatively restricted time interval during interphase and not during early mitosis, as previously hypothesized. These investigators used isotopes, such as 3H, to synthesize radioactive thymidine, a nucleotide that is incorporated specifically into DNA as it is synthesized. After radioactive thymidine was supplied for a

brief period (such as 30 minutes) to actively growing cells, autoradiography (see Fig. 2-3) on exposed film showed that a fraction of the cells had silver grains over their chromosomes. The nuclei of these cells were radioactive because during the experiment DNA had replicated. DNA replication was not occurring in the cells that did not have radioactively labeled chromosomes. Researchers therefore inferred that the proportion of labeled cells out of the total number of cells provides a rough estimate of the length of the S phase relative to the rest of the cell cycle. After it completes the S phase, the cell enters a second gap phase, the G2 phase. At this time, increased protein synthesis occurs, as the final steps in the cell’s preparation for division take place. For many cells, the G2 phase is short relative to the G1 and S phases. M phase involves two main processes, mitosis and cytokinesis. Mitosis, the nuclear division that produces two nuclei containing chromosomes identical to the parental nucleus, begins at the end of the G2 phase. Cytokinesis, which generally begins before mitosis is complete, is the division of the cell cytoplasm to form two cells. Mitosis is a continuous process, but for descriptive purposes, it is divided into five stages: prophase ¡ prometaphase ¡ metaphase ¡ anaphase ¡ telophase

PROPHASE

PROMETAPHASE

Phototake; Prometaphase: Ed Reschke/Peter Arnold, Inc.

INTERPHASE

Chromatin

Nucleolus Nucleus Fragments of nuclear envelope

Sister chromatids of duplicated chromosome

Kinetochore Spindle microtubule

Nuclear envelope Centrioles

Developing mitotic spindle

Plasma membrane

(a) Cell carries out normal life activities. Chromosomes become duplicated.

(b) Long fibers of chromatin condense as compact mitotic chromosomes, each consisting of two chromatids attached at their centromeres. Cytoskeleton is disassembled, and mitotic spindle forms between centrioles, which have moved to poles of cell. Nuclear envelope begins to disassemble.

(c) Spindle microtubules attach to kinetochores of chromosomes. Chromosomes begin to move toward cell’s midplane.

FIGURE 10-6 Animated Interphase and the stages of mitosis The LMs show plant cells, which lack centrioles. The drawings depict generalized animal cells with a diploid chromosome number of four; the sizes of the nuclei and chromosomes are exaggerated to show the structures more clearly.

Study FIGURE 10-6 while you read the following descriptions of these stages as they occur in a typical plant or animal cell.

During prophase, duplicated chromosomes become visible with the microscope The first stage of mitosis, prophase, begins with chromosome compaction, when the long chromatin fibers that make up the chromosomes begin a coiling process that makes them shorter and thicker. The compacted chromatin can then be distributed to the daughter cells with less likelihood of tangling. When stained with certain dyes and viewed through the light microscope, chromosomes become visible as darkly stained bodies as prophase progresses. It is now apparent that each chromosome was duplicated during the preceding S phase and consists of a pair of sister chromatids, which contain identical, double-stranded DNA sequences. Each chromatid includes a constricted region called the centromere. Sister chromatids are tightly associated in the vicinity of their centromeres (FIG. 10-7). The chemical basis for

this close association at the centromeres consists of precise DNA sequences that are tightly bound to specific proteins. For example, sister chromatids are physically linked by a ringshaped protein complex called cohesin. Cohesins extend along the length of the sister chromatid arms and are particularly concentrated at the centromere (FIG. 10-8). These cohesins, which hold the replicated chromosomes together from their synthesis in S phase onward, help to ensure accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis. Attached to each centromere is a kinetochore, a multiprotein complex to which microtubules can bind. These microtubules function in chromosome distribution during mitosis, in which one copy of each chromosome is delivered to each daughter cell. A dividing cell can be described as a globe, with an equator that determines the midplane (equatorial plane) and two opposite poles. This terminology is used for all cells regardless of their actual shape. Microtubules radiate from each pole, and some of these protein fibers elongate toward the chromosomes, forming the mitotic spindle, a structure that separates the duplicated chromosomes

ANAPHASE

TELOPHASE

25 μm

METAPHASE

Spindle Cleavage furrow

Centriole pair at spindle pole Cell’s midplane (metaphase plate)

(d) Chromosomes line up along cell’s midplane. Spindle microtubules attach each chromosome to both poles.

Daughter chromosomes

(e) Sister chromatids separate at their centromeres. One group of chromosomes moves toward each pole of cell. Spindle poles move farther apart.

Re-forming nuclear envelope

(f) Chromosomes are grouped at poles. Chromosomes decondense, and nuclear envelopes begin to form. Cytokinesis produces two daughter cells.



▲ FIGURE 10-6 Continued

FIGURE 10-7 Sister chromatids and centromeres

Centromere region Microtubules

Kinetochore

E. J. DuPraw

Sister chromatids

1.0 μm

The sister chromatids, each consisting of tightly coiled chromatin fibers, are tightly associated at their centromere regions, indicated by the brackets. Associated with each centromere is a kinetochore, which serves as a microtubule attachment site. Kinetochores and microtubules are not visible in this TEM of a metaphase chromosome.

during anaphase (FIG. 10-9). The minus ends of these microtubules are at the poles, and the plus ends extend to the cell’s midplane. It might be helpful to review Figure 4-24, which shows the organization of microtubules as linear polymers of the protein tubulin. The organization and function of the spindle require the presence of motor proteins and a variety of signaling molecules. Animal cells differ from plant cells in the details of mitotic spindle formation. In both types of dividing cells, each pole contains a region, the microtubule-organizing center, from which extend the microtubules that form the mitotic spindle. The electron microscope shows that microtubule-organizing centers in certain plant cells consist of fibrils with little or no discernible structure. In contrast, animal cells have a pair of centrioles in the middle of each microtubule-organizing center (see Fig. 4-26). The centrioles are surrounded by fibrils that make up the pericentriolar

KEY POINT

When chromosomes duplicate, sister chromatids are initially linked to one another by protein complexes called cohesins. Cohesin linkages are particularly concentrated in the vicinity of the centromere. Sister chromatids of duplicated chromosome Kinetochore

Prophase

1

Cohesin complexes

As mitosis progresses, cohesins dissociate from the duplicated chromosome arms.

Cohesin complexes in centromere region

Spindle microtubule Metaphase

2

Cohesins then dissociate at the centromere, allowing the daughter chromosomes to separate during anaphase.

Daughter chromosomes

Anaphase

FIGURE 10-8 Cohesins

material. The spindle microtubules terminate in the pericentriolar material, but they do not actually touch the centrioles. Although cell biologists once thought spindle formation in animal cells required centrioles, their involvement is probably coincidental. Current evidence suggests that centrioles organize the pericentriolar material and ensure its duplication when the centrioles duplicate.

Each of the two centrioles is duplicated during the S phase of interphase, yielding two centriole pairs. Late in prophase, microtubules radiate from the pericentriolar material surrounding the centrioles; these clusters of microtubules are called asters. The two asters migrate to opposite sides of the nucleus, establishing the two poles of the mitotic spindle.

Prometaphase begins when the nuclear envelope breaks down During prometaphase the nuclear envelope fragments so that the spindle microtubules come into contact with the chromosomes; units of the disassembled nuclear envelope are sequestered in vesicles to be used later, to assemb