Building the Mobile Internet

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Building the Mobile Internet

Mark Grayson, Kevin Shatzkamer, Klaas Wierenga Cisco Press 800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, IN 46240 Mark Grays

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Building the Mobile Internet Mark Grayson, Kevin Shatzkamer, Klaas Wierenga

Cisco Press 800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, IN 46240

Building the Mobile Internet

Building the Mobile Internet Mark Grayson, Kevin Shatzkamer, Klaas Wierenga Copyright© 2011 Cisco Systems, Inc. Published by: Cisco Press 800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, IN 46240 USA All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review. Printed in the United States of America First Printing February 2011 The Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication data is on file. ISBN-13: 978-1-58714-243-7 ISBN-10: 1-58714-243-0

Warning and Disclaimer This book is designed to provide information on how to enable the mobile Internet. Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty or fitness is implied. The information is provided on an “as is” basis. The authors, Cisco Press, and Cisco Systems, Inc. shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book or from the use of the discs or programs that may accompany it. The opinions expressed in this book belong to the authors and are not necessarily those of Cisco Systems, Inc.

Trademark Acknowledgments All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Cisco Press or Cisco Systems, Inc., cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.

Corporate and Government Sales The publisher offers excellent discounts on this book when ordered in quantity for bulk purchases or special sales, which may include electronic versions and/or custom covers and content particular to your business, training goals, marketing focus, and branding interests. For more information, please contact: U.S. Corporate and Government Sales 1-800-382-3419 [email protected] For sales outside the United States, please contact: International Sales

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iii

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Building the Mobile Internet

About the Authors Mark Grayson is a distinguished consulting engineer at Cisco Systems with responsibility for leading Cisco’s mobile architecture strategy. He has over 20 years of experience in the wireless industry, ranging from the development of military systems, the definition of satellite communication architectures, and the evolution of traditional cellular systems to the creation of the latest small-cell solutions. He holds a first class honors degree in electronics and communications engineering from the University of Birmingham (England) together with a Ph.D. in radio communications. Mark has been granted over 50 patents in the area of mobile communications and is the coauthor of IP Design for Mobile Networks (Cisco Press). You can contact Mark Grayson at [email protected] Kevin Shatzkamer is a distinguished systems architect at Cisco Systems with responsibility for long-term strategy and architectural evolution of mobile wireless networks. He has worked at Cisco and in the mobile wireless industry for over 10 years, focusing on various technologies that include 3G and LTE networks, packet gateways, network-based services and security, video distribution, quality of service, and end-to-end design theory. Kevin holds four issued patents and has 16 pending patents related to all areas of work. Kevin holds a Bachelor of Engineering degree from the University of Florida and a Master of Business Administration from Indiana University. Kevin Shatzkamer is a regular speaker at various trade shows and industry forums and has previously published IP Design for Mobile Networks, a Cisco Press book that discusses the technologies and requirements shaping the future of the mobile Internet, from RAN to services. Kevin’s current area of focus is the end-to-end digital media value chain for mobility, working with both content providers and service providers to create unique mobile media service offerings. You can contact Kevin Shatzkamer at [email protected] Klaas Wierenga is a senior consulting engineer in the office of the CTO at Cisco. His 15plus years of experience include the planning, analysis, and design of numerous solutions for enterprises, municipalities, hospitals, and universities in the fields of mobility, security, and identity worldwide. Klaas is the original creator of the worldwide eduroam service for federated network access in academia and cocreator of the federated identity solution that forms the basis of the Dutch government’s e-Identity portfolio. He is the author of numerous publications and has presented many times on wireless networking, security, and identity topics. Klaas is active within 3GPP, in the group responsible for the security architecture of future mobile networks. He serves as chairman of the Abfab Working Group in the IETF, which deals with federated access for non-web applications, as well as of the Task Force on Mobility and Network Middleware of TERENA, the European Association for Research and Education Networks. Klaas holds a master’s degree in computer science from the University of Groningen (The Netherlands). You can contact Klaas Wierenga at [email protected]

v

About the Technical Reviewer Scott Brim is a Senior Consulting Engineer in the office of the CTO at Cisco. He received a BA magna cum laude from Harvard University and has been active in developing communications technology since 1978. He has been at Cisco since 2000. Previous to that, he was research staff at Cornell University for 18 years and Director of Technology Strategy at Newbridge Networks for 3 years. Technically, he has spent 12 years on Internet routing, 5 years on Internet QoS, and 4 years on mobile services. His particular interest has always been making different technologies or technology layers interwork better. He is currently focused on the future mobile Internet infrastructure and how proposed fundamental changes to Internet architecture in routing, addressing, mobility and identity can create a robust, flexible, beneficial synergy. He has also been active in a number of standards bodies, most recently the IETF, ITU-T, and GSMA.

Building the Mobile Internet

Dedications I dedicate this book to my parents, Anne and Bryan, for their ever-present encouragement and support. I would like to thank my wife Sharon and two sons, Charlie and Harry, not the least for their inspiration for Chapter 7; I’m sure it won’t be long before your networked lives of iPods, iPads, and PCs become fully mobilized Internet experiences. Finally, I would also like to thank the many friends, coworkers, and mentors who, over the last 20-odd years, have helped me achieve so much. —Mark Grayson I dedicate this second book to my wife and family, who, having experienced the time and commitment to authoring a book during the first round, allowed me to write a second one. As I explained the context of this second book, my young children assured me that our content reviewers would catch that I did not reference SpongeBob SquarePants, who, much to my surprise, is the founder of the mobile Internet. Alas, you will find no reference to SpongeBob in this book, partially because we did not have adequate time to receive all relevant copyright information, and partially because we have sought to provide an alternative theory into the development of the mobile Internet. To my children— may your reality always consist of Santa Claus, the Easter Bunny, and SpongeBob SquarePants. —Kevin Shatzkamer I dedicate this book to my wife Licia, who has been very supportive and patient whenever I deviated from my regular pleasant and optimistic self—ahem ;-)—in trying to meet the deadlines of this book while doing my day job. To my parents for making me explain the things I was working on in a nongeek way. And to my former colleagues at SURFnet, current colleagues at Cisco, and all the others I have worked with in the past years for shaping my understanding of the topics at hand and providing the often-so-necessary critique. In particular, I would like to thank the participants in the Task Force on Mobility and Network Middleware of TERENA and the members of the Mobile Internet project team at Cisco, without what I learned in the many discussions, fights, meals, and beers I have had with you, I could not have written this book. —Klaas Wierenga

vii

Acknowledgments We’d like to thank the Pearson production team for their time and effort in creating this book, for patience during the delays resulting from our jobs, and for providing valuable and insightful feedback during the entire process. Specifically: ■

Thanks to Mary Beth Ray for getting this book contracted and managing the process from beginning to end. We understand that we are not always the easiest to work with, and your involvement has made the authoring process a bit less painful.



Thanks to Christopher Cleveland, Mandie Frank, and John Edwards for their fantastic editing of the book.



Thanks to the many others at Pearson who were part of developing and producing this book. Sometimes it is those who remain faceless and nameless that tend to do the majority of the work, and we recognize that.



Thanks to Moray Rumney at Agilent for giving his permission to use the chart in Figure 1-9 and for his comprehensive analysis of the radio frequency challenges in today’s cellular systems.



Thanks to Morgan Stanley Research for its permission to use the chart in Figure 1-1.



Thanks to SURFnet for making the diagrams in Figures 3-3 and 3-9 available under a Creative Commons license.



Thanks to TERENA for its permission to use the chart in Figure 3-7.

We’d like to thank Tom Carpenter for providing technical feedback on the many topics that this book covers. Also, thanks to all the technical reviewers, especially Scott Brim, who took the time to read our gibberish and turn it into gold.

Building the Mobile Internet

Contents at a Glance Introduction

xvii

Part I

Introduction

Chapter 1

Introduction to “Mobility”

Chapter 2

Internet “Sessions”

Part II

Mobility Approaches

Chapter 3

Nomadicity

Chapter 4

Data Link Layer Mobility

Chapter 5

Network Layer Mobility

Chapter 6

Transport/Session Layer Mobility

Chapter 7

Application Mobility

Chapter 8

Locator-Identifier Separation Index

235

1

13

35 55 93

195 219

161

ix

Contents Introduction Part I Chapter 1

xvii

Introduction Introduction to “Mobility” Mobility Market

Consumption Trends Mobile Challenges

Chapter 2

Summary

11

Endnotes

12

1

2 5 9

Internet “Sessions”

13

The Internet and Communication

13

Packet Switching Versus Circuit Switching IP over Everything, Everything over IP Addresses

16

IPv4 Addresses

16

IPv6 Addresses

18

Routing

19

Routers

19

Routing Protocols Broadcast

20

20

IP Multicast

20

Network Address Translation TCP/IP Five-Layer Model

Layer 1: The Physical Layer

23

Layer 2: The Data Link Layer Ethernet ARP

21

21 23

23

24

Layer 3: The Internet or IP Layer Layer 4: The Transport Layer UDP

25

TCP

25

Layer 5: The Application Layer Socket API DNS

28

27

24

24

27

15

14

Building the Mobile Internet

DHCP

29

HTTP

29

Sessions and Mobility

30

Session Persistence and the Locator-Identifier Problem Building the Mobile Internet

Part II Chapter 3

Summary

32

Endnotes

32

30

31

Mobility Approaches Nomadicity

35

Authentication and Authorization

36

Authentication and Authorization in LTE

36

Authentication and Authorization in Wi-Fi Networks Captive Portals

39

39

802.1X and EAP

39

Authentication and Authorization for Internet Applications Federated Identity

41

Federated Access in LTE 3GPP Access

43

43

Non-3GPP Access

43

Federated Access to Wi-Fi Networks

43

Roaming to Other Wi-Fi Networks

44

802.11u

45

Example of Wi-Fi Roaming: eduroam

45

Federated Access to Applications with SAML Location Information and Context Awareness Location Information in LTE

Location Information for Wi-Fi Networks Privacy and Security

51

Privacy and Security in Wi-Fi Networks Privacy and Security in SAML 52

Summary

52

Endnotes

53

50

50

Privacy and Security in LTE

DynDNS

49

49

51

51

48

41

Contents

Chapter 4

Data Link Layer Mobility

55

Mobility Across an Ethernet-Bridged Domain

56

Interaction Between Mobility and Dynamic IP Address Allocation Mobility Using Wireless LAN Technology Fast Wireless LAN Local Mobility

58

59

Wireless LANs and Mobility Across a Layer 3 Domain Interwireless LAN Controller Mobility GPRS Tunneling Protocol

68

GPRS Tunneling Protocol

70

3GPP Mobility Using GTP Access Point Name

62

64

73

73

PDP Context Activation

74

Mobility and Context Transfer

76

Proxy Mobile IPv6-Based Mobility IETF Network-Based Mobility

77 78

WiMAX Mobility Using Proxy Mobile IP WiMAX Session Establishment

79

81

PMIPv6-Based WiMAX Session Mobility PMIPv6-Based Session Termination

84

3GPP Mobility Using Proxy Mobile IP

84

82

Delivering Equivalent GTP Functions with PMIPv6 Intertechnology Handover

85

86

Data Link Layer Solutions to Providing Mobility Across Heterogeneous Access Networks 87 3GPP Generic Access Network

87

Host Impacts of Data Link Layer Mobility

Chapter 5

Summary

90

Endnotes

91

Network Layer Mobility Mobile IPv4

93

96

Mobile IPv4 Technology Overview Network-Specific Terms

Network Element–Specific Terms Addressing-Specific Terms Mobile IPv4 Operation

97

97

100

99

98

89

57

xi

Building the Mobile Internet

Mobile IPv4 Agent Discovery Agent Advertisements Agent Solicitations

101

101

102

Mobile IPv4 Registration and AAA Mobile IPv4 Registration RRQ and RRP Messages

105

Authentication Extensions

108

Mobile IPv4 AAA Interactions RADIUS Interactions

103

103

109

111

Diameter Applications

112

Mobile IPv4 Tunnels, Bindings, and Datagram Forwarding Tunneling and Reverse Tunneling

115

Mobile IPv4 and Layer 2 Interactions Mobile IPv4 in Practice

117

119

3GPP2 Implementation of Mobile IPv4 Mobile IPv6 Technology Overview Mobile IPv6 Operation

119

122

123

Bidirectional Tunneling Mode Route Optimization Mode

123

124

Mobile IPv6 Messages and Message Formats Dynamic Home Agent Discovery Mobile IPv6 Bootstrapping

131 131

Diameter Support for Mobile IPv6

134

Network Mobility Basic Support Protocol Mobile IPv6 in Practice

126

130

RADIUS Support for Mobile IPv6

134

135

WiMAX Forum NWG Implementation of Mobile IPv6 Dual-Stack Mobile IP

140

Mobile IPv4 Extensions to Support IPv6

141

Mobile IPv6 Extensions to Support IPv4

142

MOBIKE Technology Overview

143

IKEv2 Terminology and Processes IKEv2 IKE_SA_INIT IKEv2 IKE_AUTH

114

145 146

IKEv2 Message Formats

148

144

136

Contents

MOBIKE Protocol

150

MOBIKE Call Flows

151

Connectivity Discovery

152

Network Address Translation (NAT) Traversal Authentication and Accounting MOBIKE in Practice

153

154

155

Security Architecture for Non-3GPP Access to Evolved Packet System (EPS) 156

Chapter 6

Summary

159

Endnotes

160

Transport/Session Layer Mobility

161

Lower-Layer Mobility Implications to the Transport Layer Solving Mobility Above the Network Layer SCTP

162

165

166

SCTP Functional Overview SCTP States Initiation

168

Data Transfer Shutdown

167

168 169

173

SCTP Messages

173

Message Format Chunk Types

173

174

SCTP Extensions Multipath TCP

176

179

Resource Pooling Principle

180

MPTCP Functional Architecture Path Management

181

184

MPTCP Application Impacts MPTCP for Mobility

185

185

MSOCKS: An Architecture for Transport Layer Mobility TLM Protocol

187

MSOCKS Summary

189

Other Transport Layer Mobility Approaches Migrate Internet Project Migratory TCP

190

190

189

186

xiii

Building the Mobile Internet

Session Layer Mobility Approaches

Chapter 7

Summary

193

Endnotes

194

Application Mobility

195

User-Centric Mobility

195

191

Application Mobility Using the Domain Name System

197

Applicability of DDNS to Interdevice and Intradevice Mobility Application Mobility Using the Session Initiation Protocol SIP and Capabilities SIP Methods

199

200

SIP Message Format

201

SIP Request and Status Lines SIP Header Fields

203

Basic SIP Mobility SIP Registration

201

202

SIP Message Body

204 204

SIP Authentication

205

SIP Rendezvous Service

207

SIP UA Mobility Example SIP Session Mobility

208

210

SIP REFER-Based Session Mobility

210

3PCC-Based Basic Session Mobility

212

3PCC-Based Enhanced Session Mobility

213

Other Application Aspects for Supporting Mobility

Chapter 8

Summary

215

Endnotes

216

Locator-Identifier Separation

214

219

Approaches to Locator-Identifier Separation HIP

198

199

221

222

Benefits and Challenges

224

Locator-Identifier Separation Protocol – Mobile Node (LISP-MN) LISP

225

LISP-MN

227

Benefits and Challenges

228

225

Contents

NAT66

229

Benefits and Challenges

230

Identifier-Locator Network Protocol (ILNP) Benefits and Challenges Summary

232

Parting Thoughts Endnotes Index

233

235

232

232

231

xv

xvii

Introduction This book examines the different techniques for building mobility into the Internet. The breadth of approaches currently in operation should cause us all to pose the question as to whether, in the future, a single utopian mobility solution can be defined that accommodates all scenarios, or whether solving “mobility” requires a decomposition of the “mobility problem space” into a number of distinct use cases. The tremendous success of mobile broadband–based services based on cellular architectures where mobility has been effectively performed at the data link layer has shown how that approach is perfectly acceptable for providing wide-area mobility to use cases involving a single device with a single interface. Should such data link layer techniques be enhanced to address alternative use cases? This is an important question to answer, because we confidently predict that the mobility use cases will broaden from today’s homogeneous, cellular-only view of the world: ■

Devices will become more heterogeneous from an access perspective. Wi-Fi dualmode capabilities will become widely integrated into the next generation of cellular devices.



Users will increasingly have access to more than a single cellphone for accessing the mobile Internet.



As the majority of users who access the Internet become mobile, applications will increasingly look to become “mobile-aware,” tailoring their operation to address specific limitations of mobile access, including being able to accommodate switches in access technologies and rapid fluctuations in available bandwidth.

This book takes a look at mobility from a broad perspective of use cases and examines how mobility solutions are in fact pervasive across all layers of the protocol stack. The book provides details of how mobility functionality has been added to these layers and describes use cases that demonstrate the different approaches to building the mobile Internet.

Who Should Read This Book This book is intended to increase the reader’s understanding of how mobility can be supported in IP networking. The book assumes at least a basic understanding of standard networking technologies, including the Internet Protocol itself. Many concepts are introduced to give the reader exposure to the key mobility functionality that can coexist across different protocol layers. The book does not give recommendations on which of these technologies should be deployed for supporting mobility use cases, nor does it provide a transition plan for existing network operators for adding mobile functionality. Each network operator is

Building the Mobile Internet

expected to evaluate his or her mobility user case(s) that must be supported and make decisions based on his or her own criteria on which technique(s) to adopt for mobilizing the Internet. This book is written for many levels of technical expertise, including network design engineers and network planning engineers looking to design and implement mobile network migrations toward an all-IP future, networking consultants interested in understanding the technology trends that affect mobile operators, students preparing for a career in IP networking that is increasingly being impacted by mobile technologies, and chief technology officers (CTO) seeking a further understanding of the convergence of IP and mobile technologies.

How This Book Is Organized Although this book can be read from cover to cover, it is designed to be flexible and allows you to easily move between chapters and sections of chapters to learn just the information that you need. This book covers the following topics: ■

Chapter 1, “Introduction to ‘Mobility’”: This chapter defines the mobility market in terms of device proliferation, consumption trends, and radio-specific challenges in scaling for massive adoption of the mobile Internet.



Chapter 2, “Internet ‘Sessions’”: This chapter explains the protocols and layers that make up the Internet architecture, as well as the fundamental problem with that architecture in supporting mobility.



Chapter 3, “Nomadicity”: This chapter describes how users and devices are authenticated for using the network and its applications, in particular those that are not operated by the operator that the user has a subscription with.



Chapter 4, “Data Link Layer Mobility”: This chapter explains the benefits of solving mobility at the data link layer. Contrasting approaches for delivering local- and wide-area wireless mobility are introduced and used with Wi-Fi and cellular technologies.



Chapter 5, “Network Layer Mobility”: This chapter provides an overview of a number of network layer solutions for delivering seamless mobility and session continuity.



Chapter 6, “Transport/Session Layer Mobility”: This chapter describes the advantages of integrating mobility functionality into the transport/session layer. The required mobile modifications to existing transport/session layer protocols are introduced.



Chapter 7, “Application Mobility”: This chapter describes how the application layer can be enhanced with additional mobility functionality, allowing advanced mobility use cases to be supported, including the ability to move media sessions between different devices.

Introduction



Chapter 8, “Locator-Identifier Separation”: This chapter provides an overview of the approaches for redesigning the Internet architecture to allow better mobility, as well as a discussion of the pros and cons of some typical examples of those approaches.

xix

Chapter 1

Introduction to “Mobility”

This book provides insight into techniques for building mobility into the Internet, so perhaps a good place to start would be with a definition of mobility. As is often the case, you could look to Google to provide some inspiration about the definition of mobility. Having entered Oxford English Dictionary and mobility into the search engine, you might be interested to find that one of PageRank’s highest-priority results is associated, not with the Oxford English Dictionary’s (OED’s) definition of mobility, but with a news report describing the new iPhone application for the OED1. As you are surely aware, mobility is becoming a truly pervasive quality associated with nearly all advances in Information and Communications Technology (ICT), including iPhone applications enabling ubiquitous access to online dictionaries. The ability to access any content, on any device over any network in any location, is becoming a reality. Critically, however, mobility has not been integrated into the fabric of the Internet, and instead, a range of different techniques are available for delivering such a mobile experience. This has resulted in the concepts of mobility being widely referenced but seldom understood. The concept of mobility might imply a user with a laptop who wants Internet access everywhere he goes, a user with a mobile device who wants a seamless Internet experience while he is moving, a user wanting to use unlicensed Wi-Fi technology to offload traffic from a conventional cellular network, or a user who has multiple devices and wants a seamless Internet experience across those devices. As today’s networks migrate toward “all-IP,” numerous protocols and solutions have been designed to handle these different types of mobility, with varying degrees of market adoption and formal standardization. This book looks at the protocols that are relevant to the mobility landscape, contrasts different approaches at delivering the mobile experience, and accurately defines and discusses the mobile Internet evolution.

Building the Mobile Internet

Mobility Market Clearly one of the great successes of the 1990s and early 2000s has been the phenomenal growth in the adoption of cellular service. While the first decade of cellular adoption has been driven by simple circuit-switched service voice, using the Global System for Mobile (GSM) communications or Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) standard, and rapid adoption of services based on Short Message Service (SMS), the second decade can be characterized by the initial adoption of IP-based packet services, using low-rate General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) or cdma2000 1xRTT-based radio access networks. The next decade of cellular evolution will see increasing uptake of mobile broadband services, using High Speed Packet Access (HSPA), EVolution-Data Only (EV-DO), Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX), or Long-Term Evolution (LTE) radio access networks. Indeed, mobile broadband subscriber growth is exceeding that of the fixed broadband. In its analysis of Internet Trends2, Morgan Stanley estimates that by 2014, the number of mobile Internet users will surpass the number of fixed Internet users, as illustrated in Figure 1-1. With the mobile broadband subscription rate of growth being greater than twice that of fixed network subscriptions, it is clear that the end of the next decade will see the Internet being dominated by mobile hosts.

Mobile Users > Desktop Internet Users Within 5 Years Global Mobile vs. Desktop Internet User Projection, 2007 2015E

Internet Users (MM)

2,000

1,600

1,200

800 Mobile Internet Users Desktop Internet Users 400

0 2007E 2008E 2009E 2010E 2011E 2012E 2013E 2014E 2015E

Morgan Stanley

Figure 1-1

Source: Morgan Stanley Research.

Growth in Mobile Versus Fixed Broadband Subscribers

Chapter 1: Introduction to “Mobility”

Another key aspect from a mobility market perspective is the rise of multiradio devices. These devices are distinct from cellular-centric multimode devices that have been specified by the likes of the Third Generation Partnership Project (http://www.3gpp.org), a collaboration among various Standards Development Organizations (SDO) that is responsible for developing the set of technical specifications for 3G systems based on the evolved GSM core network. In particular, 3GPP has defined a triple-mode cellular architecture that allows a single radio to be shared among second-generation GPRS, third-generation HSPA, and next-generation LTE radio access modes. While this single-radio definition leads to lower bills of material for devices, the restrictions are such that these dual mode devices can only be connected to one network at any instant.

Wi-Fi Enabled Handsets (Millions)

However, with the increasing adoption of IEEE 802.11–based wireless local-area network (WLAN) technology in smartphone devices, the 2010 decade will see the era of true multiple-radio devices. ABI Research recently predicted that between 2006 and 2015, the Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of Wi-Fi–enabled smartphones will be 85 percent3. Figure 1-2 illustrates this growth in millions of units shipped, so that by 2015, ABI Research estimates that one in three handsets shipped globally will include WiFi–enabled dual-mode capability.

600 500 400 300 200 100 0 2006

Figure 1-2

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Growth in Wi-Fi–Enabled Mobile Handsets

Another key development in the cellular industry is the rise of multiple handsets per subscriber. In 2007, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) reported that over 25 countries had cellular penetration rates in excess of 100 percent, with Italy taking the lead in reaching 150 cellular subscriptions per 100 inhabitants4. Many analysts are predicting this trend will continue. In 2009, the Cisco Internet Business Solutions Group (IBSG) estimated that in 2010, 35 billion devices will be connected to the Internet, equivalent to nearly six devices per person on the planet. Many of these new devices will be used to provide machine-to-machine (M2M) services, and while many M2M devices are not strictly mobile (an M2M-enabled residential utility meter is unlikely to move), it is likely that a significant proportion of these new devices will use wireless connectivity to provide access to M2M services.

3

Building the Mobile Internet

Reinforcing this shift from architectures that assume a single device per user to one where each subscriber has a multitude of devices is the current revolution in tablet-style computers. Tablets, smartbooks, and netbooks will see a blurring of functionality between the legacy laptop and smartphone markets. However, Forrester Research has recently highlighted a shift in the heterogeneous PC market5 where future growth is driven by consumers adopting a “multiple PC” approach to fit their lifestyles: ■

Desktop PCs: Growth will be driven in gaming as well as watching and editing highdefinition and three-dimensional video and graphics.



Tablets: Growth will be driven by their ease of media consumption as well as access to email and web browser–based services.



Netbooks: Growth will be driven by web-centric operating systems and the associated cloud-based applications and storage.

So, if the future mobile market will be characterized by device divergence, with users having a plethora of specialized Internet-enabled devices for watching 3D media, interactive gaming, collaboration, and communications, through to basic Internet-enabled sensors, the networks used to support such devices are set to increasingly converge. This convergence is being driven by the increasing adoption of IP as the convergent technology across “fixed” and “mobile” networks, with IP now recognized as the fundamental building block for all next-generation communication networks. Cellular networks are now evolving to enable the Internet to be available anytime and anywhere. IP is already impacting all aspects of the mobile operator’s network, from radio bearer support through transmission and service delivery capability. Indeed, the various definitions for the next generation of mobile networks all align around an “all-IP” vision, providing purely packet-switched capabilities and solely supporting IP services. As cellular networks transition to “all-IP” networks, the architectures of fixed and cellular networks converge. Figure 1-3 illustrates this, showing a classical fixed broadband network comprised of Customer Premises Equipment (CPE), which provides residential gateway functions, connected to a Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM), which then connects to a Broadband Network Gateway (BNG), which provides the user’s IP Point of Attachment (PoA) to the Internet. An IP/Ethernet transport network is typically used to provide connectivity between the DSLAM and the BNG. The figure then shows a tablet user wirelessly attaching to the residential gateway using, for example, IEEE 802.11–defined Wi-Fi technology, with the solid arrow showing the communications between the tablet user and a correspondent node on the Internet. The lower portion of the figure shows a conventional “all-IP” cellular network comprising a smartphone User Equipment (UE), connected using licensed cellular technology to an Enhanced Node B (ENB) base station. The ENB is connected through an IP/Ethernet transport network to the Packet Data Network Gateway (PGW) and Serving Gateway (SGW) functionality, with the former being the IP PoA for the mobile subscriber. The dual-line arrow shows the communications between the smartphone user and a correspondent node on the Internet.

Building the Mobile Internet

with revenue from data growing at an annualized rate of 40 percent, as illustrated in Figure 1-4. $50 $45 $40 $35 $30 $25 $20 $15 $10 $5 $0

2005

2006 Voice

Figure 1-4

2007

2008

Data

Average Revenue per United States Mobile Subscriber

The IBSG study also highlighted a shift in consumption habits as cellular subscribers started to consume more mobile Internet-based services. When looking at where mobile Internet consumption occurred, Figure 1-5 illustrates the findings of the Connected Life Market Watch study of U.S. mobile Internet consumption. Significantly, while occasional mobile Internet users were more likely to access services when mobile (with 56 percent of usage happening “on the go”), those regular users of mobile Internet–based services were effectively changing their behavior to consume the majority of mobile Internet services from fixed locations (35 percent from within the home and 27 percent from the office).

ON THE GO

56%

IN AN OFFICE

10%

AT HOME

34%

35%

Occasional User

Regular User

38%

27%

Figure 1-5

Location of United States Mobile Internet Consumption

Chapter 1: Introduction to “Mobility”

Note The shift to indoor consumption is significant because conventional macro-cellular networks need to account for the Building Penetration Loss (BPL) experienced as signals propagate through walls, floors, and windows of buildings. The BPL can result in 90–99.9 percent of the energy of wireless signal being lost, just because a user was consuming a service indoors compared to a similarly located outdoor user.

One hypothesis of why more frequent users are more likely to consume mobile Internet services in fixed locations is the increasing shift toward video-based services. To track and forecast the impact of visual networking applications on the growth of the fixed and mobile Internet, Cisco has developed the Visual Network Index (VNI) forecast7. VNI was developed as an annual survey to estimate global IP traffic growth and trends for both consumer and business user groups. In particular, as it relates to mobile Internet consumption, the latest VNI forecast predicts that mobile data in 2014 will be 39 times larger than the mobile data traffic in 2009, as highlighted in Figure 1-6.

PB/Month 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 2009

Figure 1-6

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Monthly Mobile Internet Traffic in Petabytes

The latest VNI study also provides a forecast for the growth of mobile data traffic on a percontent-type basis. Figure 1-7 highlights the forecast growth of mobile video consumption, so that by the end of 2014, video is forecast to comprise 66 percent of all mobile data traffic, and mobile voice traffic will comprise only 4 percent of the overall total traffic. So far, this chapter has looked at where users consume mobile Internet services, highlighting a shift away from truly mobile scenarios to locations that can be characterized as “in-building.” You have seen what types of services are likely to be consumed over mobile devices in the future, with the majority of traffic being related to video services. The final piece of the puzzle is to understand when users access mobile Internet services. Figure 1-8 is a representation of the traffic load in a commercial cellular network offering mobile Internet services over a 24-hour period. The figure clearly illustrates the diurnal variation of traffic load within the network, showing how the data-busy hour is between 8:00 and 9:00 in the evening.

7

Building the Mobile Internet

5,000 4,500 4,000

PB/mo

3,500

Mobile VoIP Mobile Gaming Mobile P2P Mobile Web/Data Mobile Video 8%

3,000

4% 5%

17%

2,500 2,000 1,500

66%

1,000 500 0 2009

2011

2012

2013

2014

Global Mobile Data Traffic Growth by Content

Mobile Internet Traffic

Figure 1-7

2010

00:00

04:00

08:00

12:00

16:00

20:00

Time Figure 1-8

Example Diurnal Variation of Mobile Internet Traffic Load

Note You can also use the information in Figure 1-8 to estimate how much of the daily traffic is consumed within the busy hour. With a throughput profile as shown, we can estimate that around 6 percent of daily mobile Internet consumption occurs in the busy hour. This compares with traditional telephony networks, which are typically dimensioned to support up to 20 percent of daily calls during the busy hour.

The final characteristic of future mobile consumption will be its “always-on” nature. Historically, while cellular network standards have had the capability to support alwayson users, there were often implementation restrictions with the number of always-on users a system could support. So, cellular standards allowed mobile data–enabled devices to be attached to a cellular network without allocating them an IP address. Equally, legacy cellular networks will be typically configured to automatically deallocate a device’s IP

Chapter 1: Introduction to “Mobility”

address after a period of inactivity. This can be contrasted with wireless LAN networks, which have been based on the assumption of an always-on Ethernet service. However, the next generation of cellular standards has been designed to support only always-on behavior. For example, whenever a device attaches to an all-IP LTE network, it will, by default, receive an IP address and be automatically enabled to send and receive IP packets.

Mobile Challenges With the massive increase in forecasted consumption of mobile Internet services, it is interesting to understand how today’s macro-cellular networks are positioned to accommodate this unparalleled growth in capacity. A simple way to evaluate the capacity of a conventional cellular system is to examine three key cellular characteristics: ■

Spectrum: The amount of available radio frequency spectrum is a key factor in determining the capacity of a mobile system. The spectrum suitable for mobile networks is a scarce resource. It must be available in sufficient bandwidths to support higher-speed access while also providing good propagation characteristics required for providing wide-area coverage.



Spectral efficiency: The efficiency by which spectrum is used is another critical factor in determining the capacity of a mobile system. There is an upper bound to the amount of information that can be transferred in a given bandwidth which is subject to background noise, termed the Shannon Limit. It is generally accepted that as more advanced signal-processing techniques are applied to mobile communications systems, they are rapidly approaching such a theoretical limit.



Frequency reuse: Because of its relative scarcity, mobile systems are required to reuse their allocated radio spectrum across a particular network of cell sites. Increasing the capacity by frequency reuse typically means dividing an existing cell into multiple smaller cells.

Agilent has analyzed the growth in average macro-cellular spectrum efficiency as cellular technologies have evolved from the original GSM system to the latest LTE-A standards 8. In parallel, the growth in available spectrum for cellular systems can be mapped. Figure 1-9 shows both of these growth lines over the period from 1990 to 2015 (with efficiency and spectrum being normalized to 1992 levels). The figure also shows the product of the two variables, indicating the estimated growth in average macro-cellular system capacity. Whereas the Cisco VNI forecast estimates that demand for mobile Internet traffic will grow 39-fold over a five-year period, Figure 1-9 illustrates that by only using better radios and more spectrum, the average capacity gains achievable by adopting a conventional macro-cellular approach will see mobile broadband capacity a supply increase by a factor of fourfold over the same five-year period. The only way that networks are going to be able to support the estimated increase in mobile broadband traffic is by increasing the adoption of smaller cells, with the chart in Figure 1-9 forecasting that the number of cells will need to increase tenfold to meet the expected demand in traffic.

9

Chapter 1: Introduction to “Mobility”



Control and Provisioning of Access Points (CAPWAP): An overlay IP-based mobility protocol defined by the IETF to provide mobility services for accessing the Internet by IEEE 802.11–based radio access networks.



Proxy Mobile IP (PMIP): An overlay IP-based mobility protocol defined by the IETF to provide mobility services that have been adopted by those architectures for accessing the Internet by IEEE 802.16e–based WiMAX radio access networks.

As you will see later, Mobile IPv6 does have an optimized routed mode whereby, after having originally traversed a tunnel, packets are subsequently routed directly between a mobile node and a correspondent. However, you will also see how the use of IPv6 routing headers and destination options in the operation of optimal routing simply moves the tunnel operation into the IP host; the IP applications running on a mobile node still need to be shielded from the operation of MIPv6 with route optimization. All this complexity is caused because, when IP was first proposed in 1975, “problems of . . . mobility were many years off.”9 Quite clearly, with the number of mobile broadband users set to eclipse the number of fixed users and with ABI Research10 estimating that 1.15 billion handsets were sold in 2009, “problems of mobility are upon us.” The industry will soon be faced with the situation that the default technique for accessing the Internet will be through a mobility tunnel. Because tunneling of traffic requires stateful tunnel gateways to be operated, services accessed through the “mobile Internet” might end up being more brittle than those accessed through the native IP networks on top of which the mobility tunnels are transported.

Summary The next decade will see the convergence of mobility and the Internet. The various SDOs that define the next generation of wide-area mobile networks have all aligned around an “all-IP” vision, providing access to purely IP-based packet services, with networks that can be transported over converged packet-based networks. However, we confidently predict that the mobility use cases will broaden from today’s homogeneous, cellular-only view of the world: ■

Devices will become more heterogeneous from an access perspective. Wi-Fi dualmode capabilities will become widely integrated into the next generation of cellular devices.



Users will increasingly have access to more than a single device for accessing the mobile Internet.



Next-generation mobile networks will have to support an increasing amount of consumption from indoor locations, requiring techniques to be able to cost-effectively integrate small-cell technologies into the overall mobile network.

These transitions are triggering a reassessment of how best to build the mobile Internet, comparing alternative techniques for providing mobility in an all-IP world.

11

Building the Mobile Internet

Endnotes 1.

http://www.mobilemarketer.com/cms/news/content/1877.html.

2.

http://www.morganstanley.com/institutional/techresearch/pdfs/ Internet_Trends_041210.pdf.

3.

“Mobile Devices Market Forecast Analysis,” ABI Research, June 2010.

4.

http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/19/40/34082594.xls.

5.

“The US Consumer PC Market In 2015,” Forrester Research, June 2010.

6.

http://www.cisco.com/web/about/ac79/docs/CLMW_Mobile_Internet_v20_ 072809FINAL.pdf.

7.

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/netsol/ns827/networking_solutions_sub_solution.html.

8.

M. Rumney, “IMT-Advanced: 4G Wireless Takes Shape in an Olympic Year,” Agilent Measurement Journal, Issue 6, Sept. 2008.

9.

J. Day, Patterns in Network Architecture, Indianapolis, Indiana: Pearson Education; 2008.

10. “Mobile Device Model Tracker,” ABI Research, April 2010.

Chapter 2

Internet “Sessions”

Imagine yourself talking on your mobile phone while driving to the office. On the drive to the office, your mobile phone is connected to a number of different cell towers, and the network somehow has to make sure that the “communication session” ends up at the mobile phone regardless of its location. Apart from the fact that phoning while driving is probably not a good idea from a safety point of view, you have perhaps always taken for granted that you could keep talking without losing your connection to the person on the other end of the line. In reality it is, because of the way the Internet works, hard to enable this kind of seamless, real-time mobility. The problem becomes even harder when sessions need to be kept alive when moving across different types of access networks (for example, from cellular to Wi-Fi) or networks belonging to different operators. This so-called session mobility is one of the more challenging issues in enabling the mobile Internet, a pervasive Internet Protocol–based network that links fixed and mobile nodes, whether they are sensors or servers, standalone, distributed, battery, or line powered. This chapter provides a high-level overview of the way the Internet works and explains where the difficulties lie in making session mobility possible. This background will enable you to appreciate these challenges as well as help you understand the approaches to mobility presented in Part II of this book.

The Internet and Communication The Internet is a network consisting of many smaller networks. Hosts (a traditional term for all computers that are connected to a network) are connected to one or more of these smaller networks. Routers are a special type of hosts that are connected to more than one network and that forward data from one network to the other, as illustrated in Figure 2-1. Two hosts from different networks that want to communicate with each other do so by using the TCP/IP protocol suite, so named after two of the most important protocols in that suite, TCP and IP (explained in more detail later in this chapter). Today, TCP/IP is also used between hosts that are connected to the same network.

Chapter 2: Internet “Sessions”

The benefit of this approach is that the same network communication path can be used for multiple communication sessions (multiplexing). The downside is that the order of packets might not be preserved, resulting in packets being received out of order, and that the delivery of the packets is “best effort.” Other communications might use all the available resources, and thus packets might be dropped or delayed, or the connection can fail completely. For these reasons, it is difficult to provide guaranteed behavior. The cost benefits from sharing capacity, however, usually outweigh the potential problems, resulting in almost all modern networks using packet-switching technology. It is often easier and cheaper to increase capacity than to move to a connection-based model, with the exception of some mobile networks that have limited capacity because of physical limitations of the wireless spectrum.

IP over Everything, Everything over IP The pivot point of TCP/IP-based communications is the Internet Protocol (IP) that is used to transport packets from source to destination. As illustrated in Figure 2-3, IP shields the underlying network technology from the applications that run on the network and vice versa (note that this is a simplified version of the actual protocol stack).

Web

E Mail

Telnet

IP

Ethernet

Figure 2-3

DWD

WiFi

IP over Everything, Everything over IP

In other words, when a new data-link transport technology is developed, ensuring that IP runs on top of it will allow all existing applications to be used. Furthermore, when an application developer makes sure that his or her application uses IP packets for communication between nodes, it will automatically work on all IP networks. This abstraction layer that IP provides between the transport layer and the applications is perhaps the single most important reason why the Internet has become so dominant. Instead of having to wait for an operator to make a certain service available to the users, every clever student can now develop his own application. At the same time, the application that worked over a slow 2-Mbps X.25 time-division multiplexing (TDM)–based network continues to work over the 10-Gbps or more optical networks that are used nowadays.

15

Building the Mobile Internet

Addresses A host on the Internet that wants to communicate with another host needs to be able to uniquely identify that host. Therefore, on the Internet, every host is associated with a globally unique address—the IP address. (Strictly speaking, this is not entirely true because of the use of Network Address Translation (NAT), as will be explained later in this chapter.) Internet communication is about sending IP packets from a source IP address to a destination IP address. The IP address is both used to identify the host itself as well as its location in the network. This means that if a host is at the same time connected to two networks, it will, by definition, also have at least two IP addresses, one for each of its network interfaces. Another important consequence of using the same identifier for both the host itself and its location in the network is that if a host that is attached to one network moves to another network, it must change its IP address. Routers use the IP address of the destination of a communication session to determine how to forward the IP packets from the source to the destination. In its most simple form, an IP packet consists of a source IP address, a destination IP address, and some payload containing the application data. Routers use the destination IP address to forward the packets to the receiver. The receiver copies the source IP address from a received packet into the destination address to send any return packets.

IPv4 Addresses The most commonly used addressing scheme on the Internet today is Internet Protocol version 4, or IPv4, documented in RFC 7911. IPv4 addresses are 32-bit binary numbers usually written in the so-called dotted decimal notation, a representation of the binary number that is easier for humans to remember. In dotted-decimal notation, the IP address is separated into four 8-bit chunks, each separated by a dot. For example, the binary representation 00001010 00000000 00000000 00000001 is written in decimal representation as 10.0.0.1. IP addresses are composed of two parts: a network identifier (net-id) and a host identifier (host-id). The net-id is the same for all hosts on a particular network. In the early days of the Internet, the boundary between the network and the host part of the IP address was at fixed 8-bit positions, resulting in so-called Class A networks (first 8 bits reserved for net-id, 24 bits for host-id), Class B networks (16 bits net-id, 16 bits hostid), and Class C networks (24 bits net-id, 8 bits host-id). This scheme is pretty rigid. If an organization has, for example, 300 hosts (more than the 256 addresses that can be formed with the 8 bits available for host-ids in a Class C network), the IP address registry would have to assign it a Class B network that can be used to address over 65,000 hosts, a large waste of usable addresses. When the Internet became popular in the 1990s, this waste of usable address space resulted in a looming address shortage. To overcome this, the protocols were redesigned to allow a split between net-id and host-id at an arbitrary bit position. This system is called classless interdomain routing (CIDR), documented in RFC 15182. Associated with

Chapter 2: Internet “Sessions”

an IP address is now a network mask that indicates how many bits of the IP address (the so-called prefix) are used to indicate the net-id and how many belong to the host-id (the suffix). So, in the example of the organization with 300 hosts, instead of moving from 256 addresses to 65,536 addresses, it can now go to 2 * 256 = 512 addresses. This together with NAT (discussed later in this chapter) has resulted in postponing the date at which all available address space will ultimately be exhausted. Figure 2-4 shows the division between net-id (here 11 bits) and host-id.

Bit

0 0

3

7

11

15

19

Net id

23

27

31

Host id

10.0.0.0 / 8

10.1.0.0 / 16

10.1.0.0 / 24

10.2.0.0 / 16

10.1.1.0 / 24

10.1.2.0 / 28

Figure 2-5

10.3.0.0 / 16

10.1.2.0 / 24

10.1.2.128 / 28

Aggregation and Subnetting

In essence, IPv4 packets consist of a host IP address, a destination IP address, and the payload containing the application data. Some additional fields are added to indicate the fact that it is an IPv4 packet, a checksum to detect defects caused by transporting the packet, and so on. Figure 2-6 illustrates the format of an IPv4 packet.

17

Building the Mobile Internet

Bit

3

0

7

11

15

19

23

27

31

0 Version

IHL

Type of Service

Total Length

31 Identification

Flags

Fragment Offset

63 Time to Live

Protocol

95

Header Checksum

IPv4 Source Address

127 IPv4 Destination Address

159 Options

Padding

191

Payload (Variable Length)

Figure 2-6

IPv4 Packet Format

IPv6 Addresses Mainly because of the foreseen shortage of IPv4 address space, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has defined a new version of the Internet Protocol, Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6), documented in RFC 24603. IPv6 has a much larger address space by using 128-bit instead of 32-bit addresses. In addition to this, IPv6 contains other features to automatically assign addresses to hosts and to make routing more efficient. Figure 2-7 shows the IPv6 packet format.

Chapter 2: Internet “Sessions”

Bit

3

0

7

11

15

19

23

27

31

0 Version

Flow Label

Traffic Class

31 Payload Length

Next Header

Hop Limit

63 IPv6 Source Address

127

191 IPv6 Destination Address

255

319 Payload (Variable Length)

Figure 2-7

IPv6 Packet Format

Routing As you saw before, all communication between endpoints on the Internet is divided into IP packets sent from a sender to a receiver. Routing is the process of discovering how to forward the packets from sender to receiver.

Routers Routers are intermediate devices in the network that have multiple network interfaces that are connected to more than one network at the same time and that can forward packets from one network to the other. So, for the router to know what to do with a particular IP packet, it needs to have knowledge about networks that can be reached through a particular interface.

19

Building the Mobile Internet

Routing Protocols For hosts that are directly connected to the same network as the router, it is easy to configure the router to send IP packets out over the right interface. The problem is that it is, of course, impossible to know about all the hosts on the Internet and their location, not to mention the fact that this changes every second. This is where routing protocols come in. Through the use of routing protocols, routers learn which networks are reachable through which interface. That is, routers tell other routers to which they have a direct connection, which networks are reachable through them. Routers have an internal table that they use to look up over which interface they should send a packet for a particular IP address. Because of memory limitations, smaller routers usually have only a relatively small number of entries in their routing table for directly attached hosts and forward all other packets to a router that has more routing information. This path is the so-called default route. Routing protocols fall into two broad categories: ■

Interior gateway protocols (IGP): IGPs are the protocols used inside an administrative domain. Examples of widely used IGPs are Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), Routing Information Protocol (RIP), and Intermediate System–to–Intermediate System (IS-IS). These protocols focus on routing IP packets as efficiently as possible.



Exterior gateway protocols (EGP): EGPs are the protocols that are used between administrative domains. Here efficiency is not the only criterion. One particular host is usually reachable through different routes; business relations, reputation, and past experience determine which route is preferred, or even possible. This process is therefore also called policy-based routing. The dominant EGP is Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) (currently version 4, documented in RFC 42714).

The routes that IP packets take often have a large impact on the time needed to send a packet from source to destination. Therefore, a lot of research goes into ensuring that routers learn as soon as possible where to send an IP packet. Inefficient routing leads to detrimental performance of applications.

Broadcast Sometimes all devices on a particular network need to be reached, for example, to find out which device can route packets elsewhere or to find out which device has a particular IP address. This mode of operations is called broadcast. For this purpose, a particular type of IP packet is used where all the bits of the host-id are set to 1. Sending a packet to this IP address (a broadcast message) is the same as sending it to all hosts in the same network as the host.

IP Multicast Often, many thousands of hosts spread over the Internet want to receive the same application data. Think, for example, of a live TV broadcast on the Internet. The way the Internet works, this would result in many thousands of IP packets containing the exact

Chapter 2: Internet “Sessions”

same data, with the only difference being the destination IP address. Special protocols have been developed for this type of application called IP multicast. Multicast routing protocols ensure that the same payload is sent only once over a given connection. For this application, a special set of IP addresses have been reserved (224.0.0.0 through 239.255.255.255) that are not assigned to hosts for normal IP communications, but are reserved just for multicast purposes. The multicast layer can be seen as another abstraction layer on top of the physical network, and just like for regular IP where the routing layer needs to keep track of which IP addresses are associated with which physical addresses, the multicast routing layer needs to keep track of which multicast addresses are associated with which group of hardware addresses.

Network Address Translation In the explanation about hosts on the Internet, you learned that every host could uniquely be identified and had a globally unique IP address. This is not completely true; in reality, networks often use an internal IP addressing scheme that is not exposed to the rest of the Internet (called private addresses). The reasons for this setup vary from the desire to use as few globally unique IP addresses as possible and the (perceived) security benefits of not exposing the internal network setup, to an easier network setup by using much larger address ranges than could be obtained from local Internet registries. If a host that has only a locally unique address wants to communicate with a host on the global Internet, it has to communicate through another host that does have a globally unique address and that maps the local address to a global address. This process is called Network Address Translation (NAT). NAT breaks the normal communication between hosts on the Internet; however, over the years, many protocols have been adapted to be able to deal with NAT. If the IP addresses used internally are also being used externally, problems will arise, because they are not guaranteed to be unique from the point of view of the destination. Therefore, some special ranges of IP addresses have been reserved for use as private addresses. The private address ranges are 10.0.0.0/8, 172.16.0.0/12, and 192.168.0.0/16 and cannot be used on the public Internet. If IPv6 gains wide adoption, NAT will no longer be required for overcoming address shortages. However, NAT solutions are being proposed for coexistence of IPv4 and IPv6 during the transition to IPv6. In that case, NAT is used to translate IPv4 addresses on one network into IPv6 addresses on another network and vice versa.

TCP/IP Five-Layer Model You are now familiar with the importance of the IP layer sitting as an abstraction layer between the application and the network layers. What has not been discussed yet is exactly how the IP packets are turned into something that the network can understand, or how applications that run on the Internet can transform their application-specific data into IP packets. As it turns out, it makes sense to further divide both the network part and the application part to separate generic functionality from specifics. The result of

21

Building the Mobile Internet

that is a layered model, in which the various layers each have their own functionality. For example, this allows different applications to share a generic communications layer and a protocol developer to concentrate on one layer without having to implement the complete protocol stack. In the course of internetworking history, a number of layering approaches have been proposed, all trying to strike a balance between functional decomposition and increased complexity in having to define the interactions between the layers in a network model. A widely accepted model, and the model that will be used as a reference in this book, is the TCP/IP five-layer model, which has been described by Comer5. Figure 2-8 illustrates the TCP/IP five-layer model.

Layer 5

Application Layer

Application Layer

Layer 4

Transport Layer

Transport Layer

Layer 3

Internet or IP Layer

Internet or IP Layer

Layer 2

Data Link Layer

Data Link Layer

Layer 1

Figure 2-8

Physical Layer

TCP/IP Five-Layer Model

The data of one layer is carried as payload in the packets on the layer below it. This process is called encapsulation, as illustrated in Figure 2-9. Data of the higher layers is largely opaque to the layers below it. A particular layer at one host “talks” to the corresponding layer at the other host. “Largely opaque” refers to the fact that it often makes sense from an operational point of view to “leak” information from one layer to the other—for example, to optimize an application for transport over a particular type of network. Lower layers typically refer to those layers that are below the Internet layer (also called the IP layer), and conversely, higher layers are those that are above the Internet layer.

Building the Mobile Internet

assigned to network interfaces. Ethernet addresses (also called MAC addresses, hardware addresses, or Layer 2 addresses) are assigned in blocks to the manufacturers of network interface cards and are unique. The fact that the addresses are specified by the manufacturer and not the network operator also implies that they cannot be assigned in such a way that the host-id and net-id parts of the addresses can be distinguished, and thus they cannot be used for interdomain routing. The use of Ethernet addresses for routing is therefore limited to a single network domain. The popularity of Ethernet in the LAN and the relatively low complexity of Ethernet communication resulted in Ethernet technology being used not only in LANs but also increasingly in WANs. In fact, Ethernet has become the dominant Layer 2 protocol in most networks.

ARP The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) (the Neighbor Discovery Protocol [NDP] serves the same purpose in IPv6) is the protocol that is used to map an IP address to a hardware address. The exact format of the ARP messages depends on the specific hardware and is implemented for many types of hardware. In its most basic form, a host sends a message to all the hosts to which it is directly connected asking for the hardware address that a given IP address is associated with. The host using the specified IP address answers with its hardware address. For efficiency reasons, these answers are cached during a specified amount of time, and hosts that change IP addresses might send a gratuitous response indicating their new IP address.

Layer 3: The Internet or IP Layer As discussed previously, the Internet layer is responsible for handling the communication between hosts on the Internet, or to put it differently, it performs the routing function. It accepts a packet from the transport layer, turns it into an IP packet, and hands it to Layer 2 and vice versa. Examples of Internet layer protocols (apart from IPv4 and IPv6) are Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), ICMPv6 (for control messages), and IPsec (for secure communications between hosts).

Layer 4: The Transport Layer The transport layer is responsible for providing communication between applications on different hosts. The transport layer takes the data stream that comes from a program and divides it into packets. Included in the packets is information on what application transmits the data and which application at the receiving host is supposed to receive it. Instead of referring to programs with their process identifiers (that can change over time), an abstract endpoint of a communication is defined—the protocol port, which is identified

Chapter 2: Internet “Sessions”

by an integer. Well-known port numbers are, for example, TCP port 80 that is used for HTTP, the protocol used on the World Wide Web, and TCP port 25 that is used for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), the protocol used for sending email. Transport layer protocols fall in two broad categories: reliable transport, in which it is guaranteed that the data arrives at the application on the receiving host in order and without errors, and unreliable transport, in which data transport is not guaranteed. Examples of transport layer protocols include Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP), Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP), as well as Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). The latter two are discussed in more detail in the sections that follow.

UDP UDP, documented in RFC 7686, is the main example of a transport protocol that is unreliable. At the transport level, the receiving host will not acknowledge receipt of packets and there are no measures to limit (for example) the data rate at which packets are sent in order to take the available bandwidth into consideration. This does not mean that it is impossible to build reliable connections using UDP; it just means that if reliable connections are needed, they will have to be implemented by the applications. The advantage of using UDP is that because of the lack of overhead that is needed for providing reliability, the protocol can be very simple and therefore efficient and fast. A UDP datagram consists conceptually of two parts: ■



A UDP header consisting of four 16-bit fields containing the following: ■

A UDP source port



A UDP destination port



A UDP message length (that indicates the number of bytes in the packet)



A UDP checksum (to check whether the packet has been changed on the way)

UDP data

UDP packets are encapsulated into IP packets for sending from sender to receiver. Figure 2-10 shows the structure of a UDP datagram.

TCP The most important reliable transport protocol is the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), documented in RFC 7937. When large amounts of data need to be reliably transferred between sender and receiver and vice versa, the burden on application programmers to implement delivery confirmation and error detection becomes high. TCP relieves application programmers from this burden by implementing a reliable transport protocol.

25

Building the Mobile Internet

In other words, the TCP layer will make sure that the sender is informed if a packet doesn’t reach its destination, will adapt the rate of sending packets to the available bandwidth, and will correct errors in transport by having the receiver ask for a packet to be retransmitted until received correctly. Because state information in the endpoints is carefully synchronized, TCP is called connection oriented. You should realize that reliable transport comes at a price, namely, increased overhead. So, for applications that don’t need a reliable transport, it might be better to stick with a simple but fast protocol. Think, for example, of a voice call. If a packet is lost, it doesn’t make much sense to resend it; the moment has literally passed. Reliability, rate adaptation, and error correction are implemented by having the receiver explicitly acknowledge receipt of packets from the sender to the sender.

Bit

0

4

8

12

15

20

24

28

31

0 Source Port

Destination Port

Length

Checksum

31

63

Payload (Variable Length)

Figure 2-10

UDP Datagram

A TCP connection is characterized by the IP addresses of both hosts involved in the communication as well as the port numbers at both the source and destination. Because a TCP connection is identified by an IP address and port number pair, a host can communicate with multiple other hosts using the same port, as long as the combination of IP address and port number is unique. TCP packets (called segments) are much more complex than UDP packets. They contain not only source and destination ports but also a sequence number (to indicate the relative position in the data stream), an acknowledgment number (to indicate the number of the next packet the sender expects), and so on. Figure 2-11 shows the structure of a TCP packet.

Chapter 2: Internet “Sessions”

Bit

3

0

7

11

15

19

23

27

31

0 Source Port

Destination Port

31 Sequence Number 63 Acknowledgment Number 95 Offset

Reserved

Flags

Window Size

127 Checksum

Urgent Pointer

159 Options (Variable Length 0 320 Bits, Depending on Offset Field)

Payload (Variable Length)

Figure 2-11

TCP Packet

Layer 5: The Application Layer The application layer is the layer at which the user applications exist and that uses TCP/IP networks to communicate over. The applications interact with one of the protocols in the transport layer to send and receive data. Examples of application layer protocols include: File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Network Time Protocol (NTP), Post Office Protocol (POP), Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP), Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP), Secure Shell (SSH), and Telnet, as well as Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), Domain Name System (DNS), and Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). The latter three are examined in more detail in the sections that follow.

Socket API If you want to create an application that connects to another application on the Internet, you need some kind of application programming interface (API) to do so. The API needs to be capable of creating connections to other hosts or wait for incoming connections from other hosts. For this purpose, most operating systems have implemented an abstraction of an endpoint for a communication session called a socket. The operating system or

27

Building the Mobile Internet

the program itself associates a socket identifier with the IP address of the host and a port. If the program wants to connect to a remote host, it has to associate a remote address and port with the socket identifier as well. The process of associating socket identifiers with IP addresses and ports is called binding. So, you can identify any given TCP communication session with the 5-tuple {local IP-address, local port, remote IP address, remote port, socket identifier}. For UDP, you only need the local IP address, local port, and socket identifier because UDP is not connection oriented. An important consequence of the way that applications use TCP/IP through the socket API is that if the IP address of a host changes, the identifier for the session must also change. The socket API (for IPv4 defined in the POSIX standard8 and for IPv6 documented in RFC 35429) contains programming primitives for creating and deleting sockets, for reading and writing to sockets, as well as for operations like finding out and assigning the host name of a host, the IP address of a host, and many more.

DNS Hosts on the Internet communicate using IP addresses; however, for humans, IP addresses are difficult to memorize, especially IPv6 addresses. For this reason, a naming scheme that is easier to use by humans is created, as well as a way to map these human-friendly names to machine-friendly addresses and vice versa. This is made possible by the Domain Name System (DNS), documented among others in RFC 103410. DNS consists of a hierarchical naming scheme referred to as domain names. A domain name consists of a number of subnames in decreasing specificity separated by periods. For example, the domain cisco.com refers to the commercial (com) entity (less specific) called Cisco (cisco, more specific). Domain names are at the most general level organized into so-called top-level domains that either indicate a functional role (.com = commercial, .edu = education, .net = networking organization, and so on) or a country (.nl = the Netherlands, .uk = United Kingdom, .us = United States, and so on). Conceptually, the Domain Name System can be visualized as a tree with the top-level domains sharing a common root and the subdomains branching from the top-level domains, as illustrated in Figure 2-12.

“.”

.com

.net

webex.com

linksys.com

host1.cisco.com

Figure 2-12

Domain Name System Tree

.nl

cisco.com

host2.cisco.com

Chapter 2: Internet “Sessions”

Organizations that operate a domain (like com) can delegate the operations of the subdomains of that domain (like cisco) to another entity (like to the company Cisco Systems). The responsible party for a particular (sub)domain is responsible for maintaining the mapping between host names that are of the form name.domain (for example, server1.cisco.com or www.cisco.com) and IP addresses. Domain names are mapped to IP addresses through a process called name resolution. Associated with every domain is a server that has knowledge about the IP addresses of the hosts in that particular domain and of the subordinate server for its subdomains. These servers are called name servers. Client software called resolvers query name servers to find which IP address belongs to a particular host name by first asking the local name server and, if unsuccessful, starting from the top of the DNS tree and traversing down through the DNS tree toward the name server that holds the information for that domain name. To find a host name that is associated with a particular IP address, a similar process is followed. IP addresses are represented in a special top-level domain in the DNS tree—the inaddr.arpa domain. The IP addresses are encoded here in decreasing order of specificity according to their dotted-decimal representation. So, the IP address 209.165.200.226 is represented in DNS as 226.200.165.209-in-addr.arpa, and the same resolution process (in this case called the reverse lookup) can be followed as in the case of mapping of names to addresses.

DHCP You can manually assign an IP address to a host. However, for operational reasons (coordination is needed to make sure that IP addresses are unique) and especially when a host is mobile (and thus will need to get a new IP address all the time), it is easier to dynamically assign an IP address to a host. DHCP is a protocol that can be used by hosts to find out which IP address they have to use on the network to which they are attached (other link-layer-specific approaches exist). To get an IP address, the host (the DHCP client) sends a broadcast message containing a hardware identifier (the MAC address). A server that is configured to administer the IP addresses replies to that message with an IP address and length of validity for that address (a lease). When the validity period is ended (the lease is expired) or the host moves to a new network, the host needs to ask for a new IP address.

HTTP HTTP is an example of an application protocol (documented in RFC 261611), and it is used to request and send data on the World Wide Web. HTTP is used to send web pages (documents encoded in HTML12) from a host running a program that serves web pages (the server) to a host (the client) being able to render the web pages in a program (the browser) that presents the web document in a user-friendly format.

29

Building the Mobile Internet

Each web page is associated with a unique name called a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) (documented in RFC 173813). A URL consists of the protocol used to access the page (HTTP in this case), a host, a port on that host (by default TCP port 80), a path to the page on that host, and the name of the page (default index.html) with the following syntax: http://hostname:port/path/filename So, the file index.html on the host www.cisco.com can be identified by the URL http://www.cisco.com:80/index.html or, by omitting defaults, ashttp://www.cisco.com/. A client asks the server for a particular URL by sending a get command with the URL and the version of HTTP to use as parameters. The server responds by returning the web page that was requested or by sending an error message.

Sessions and Mobility Previous sections used the term session rather loosely, under the assumption that you had an intuitive understanding of what was being discussed. As it turns out, things get a bit ugly when attempting to provide a definition and examine the consequences. As Internet veteran Scott Brim says: “A session is instantiated by shared state for a communication that is not specific to the network path. Sessions may, but need not be, assisted by intermediaries in the network. Sessions can be one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-one, or many-tomany.” Intuitively that makes sense. After all, why would you care what route the bits that comprise your communication take, as long as they end up at the party with whom you are communicating? Looking at the TCP/IP five-layer model, you would expect a session to sit between the transport layer and the application layer. However, there is no session layer in the TCP/IP five-layer model. In general, sessions are considered to be “at the top” of the transport layer. For static nodes, this doesn’t matter that much, but as you will see in the upcoming chapters, when nodes start moving, problems arise.

Session Persistence and the Locator-Identifier Problem Session persistence is the notion that a communications session will be uninterrupted while one or more of the nodes engaged in the communication session move. The reason why making sure of this is a problem is that as you saw earlier in this chapter, irrespective of whether IPv4 or IPv6 is used, a communication session is partly identified by the IP addresses of the communicating hosts (the “Identifier” of the session). At the same time, the IP address of the host also indicates the location of the host in the network (the “Locator” of the session). To put it differently, the IP address is used to route packets to the right destination, so when a host gets connected to a new network, it will have to change its IP address; otherwise, packets will never reach it at its new location, and as a result of that, the session identifier changes and the session breaks.

Chapter 2: Internet “Sessions”

Building the Mobile Internet Building “the mobile Internet” is really about finding solutions for the fact that communication sessions are tied to a specific transport session and thus to a set of IP addresses. There are a number of strategies that can be followed: ■

Accept that application sessions are bound to a transport session: The easiest approach is to just accept the fact that application sessions are in fact tied to a transport session and that, in a number of cases, application sessions are dropped when the point of attachment to the network changes. Actually, many applications are not or should not be that sensitive to interrupted sessions in the first place. If you think about fetching your email, it really doesn’t matter that much whether the first 20 emails are fetched in one session and the next 30 in another, as long as they all end up in your inbox for you to read. Many other applications that are sensitive about session interruptions could relatively easily be made less sensitive, but until recently, the need just was not there. Mobile Internet access that does not require session persistence is also called nomadic or roaming access. Rather than focusing on session persistence, nomadic access focuses on seamless access to different networks. That is, the user doesn’t have to go through administrative or reconfiguration hassles to get connected when arriving at a new location, but sessions will not necessarily stay “up.”



Introduce an application layer “session persistence mechanism” that is not bound to the transport layer session: A small variation on the previous approach is to introduce an application layer session persistence mechanism that is not bound to the transport layer. For example, web browsers can save the state of a communication session in the form of cookies, small pieces of data that are kept in memory or on disk and that contain the relevant information needed to continue the application session at the point where it was left when the host changed its point of attachment. Unfortunately, taking this approach requires implementing a session state in each application that needs session persistency. Another approach is to use the domain name of the host at the application layer instead of the IP address to identify the host. Because the actual transport of the packets will still be based on the IP address, this requires updating the DNS server when a host attaches to a new network.



Keep the same IP address while moving: As you saw earlier in this chapter, the IP layer is an abstraction layer on top of the physical infrastructure. When a host moves to another network, it must change its IP address; otherwise, there would be no way of knowing where to route packets. Inside one (Layer 2) network, it is not necessary to change IP address; all hosts are directly connected. One technique to expand this behavior to multiple networks is to make multiple physical networks appear as one to the IP network by encapsulating

31

Building the Mobile Internet

Layer 2 packets in other Layer 2 packets. This technique is called tunneling (and can also be used on Layer 3, as you will see in other chapters of this book). Hosts appear to be directly connected to the router, while in fact the packets are transported over a number of nodes. ■

Introduce a “new layer”: As you saw before, there are a number of approaches for a layered model of the Internet, and the separation between the different layers is not as strict as sometimes suggested. So, nothing stops the Internet community from “inventing” an extra layer that sits between the transport and the application layer or the transport layer and the network layer, or is a sublayer of the transport layer.



Redesign the TCP/IP protocol stack to achieve separation of locators and endpoint identifiers: A more fundamental approach is to redesign the TCP/IP protocol stack to achieve separation of locators and identifiers; that is, to have different entities describing the location of a node and the node itself, instead of having the IP address being involved in both roles. Of course, such a fundamental change might be hard to achieve. A smooth transition from operations based on the current design is required because a “flag day” is near to impossible with the billions of connected users and devices.

The rest of this book will examine these different strategies in detail; it will explore the different approaches as well as the consequences of adopting them.

Summary This chapter provided an overview of the Internet and the protocols that make it work. It also explained why enabling session mobility is a challenge because of the dual function of an IP address as both an identifier for the network location of a host and an identifier for the host itself. Finally, a sketch of possible approaches for session mobility was introduced that will be examined in more detail in the rest of the book.

Endnotes 1.

RFC 791, “Internet Protocol,” J. Postel, IETF,http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc791.txt, September 1981.

2.

RFC 1518, “An Architecture for IP Address Allocation with CIDR,” Y. Rekhter and T. Li, Eds., IETF, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1518.txt,September 1981.

3.

RFC 2460, “Internet Protocol, Version 6,” S. Deering and R. Hinden, IETF, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2460.txt,December 1998.

4.

RFC 4271, “A Border Gateway Protocol 4,” Y. Rehkter, T. Li, and S. Hares, Eds., IETF, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2460.txt,January 2006.

Chapter 2: Internet “Sessions”

5.

D.E. Comer, Internetworking with TCP/IP, 5th Edition, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall; 2006.

6.

RFC 768, “User Datagram Protocol,” J. Postel, IETF, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc768.txt,August 1980.

7.

RFC 793, “Transmission Control Protocol,” J. Postel, IETF, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc793.txt,September 1981.

8.

IEEE Std. 1003.1-2001, “Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX),” Open Group Technical Standard: Base Specifications, Issue 6, December 2001.

9.

RFC 3542, “Advanced Sockets Application Program Interface (API) for IPv6,” W. Stevens, M. Thomas, E. Nordmark, and T. Jinmei,http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3542.txt, January 2006.

10. RFC 1034, “Domain names—Concepts and Facilities,” P. Mockapetris, IETF, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1034.txt,November 1987. 11. RFC 2616, “Hypertext Transfer Protocol—HTTP/1.1,” R. Fielding, J. Getty, J. Mogul, H. Frystyk, L. Masinter, P. Leach, and T. Berners-Lee,http://www.ietf.org/rfc/ rfc2616.txt, June 1999. 12. “HTML 4.01 Specification,” D. Ragget, A. Le Hors, and I. Jacobs, http://www.w3.org/TR/html401, December 1999. 13. RFC 1738 “Uniform Resource Locators (URL),” T. Berners-Lee, L. Masinter, M. McCahill, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1738.txt,December 1994.

33

Chapter 3

Nomadicity

Rather than focusing on keeping sessions alive, nomadicity is about being able to use the Internet and its services, regardless of location and time. The biggest challenge in gaining ubiquitous access is to be able to use networks and services that are not controlled by the operator that the user has a subscription with. This chapter explains the key concepts that make it possible for users and devices to gain access to IP networks and IP-based applications that are offered by others than their own operator. Nomadic or roaming use of the Internet refers to a usage pattern in which network connectivity is not available (or used) on a permanent basis, but rather intermittently and opportunistically. In other words, no session persistency at the transport layer is assumed. Therefore, this chapter does not cover Layer 2 or Layer 3 mobility, which are part of subsequent chapters. In particular, this chapter will not discuss roaming within the network of a cellular operator because that is based on Layer 2 roaming. The basis of all Internet communications is, obviously, getting access to the Internet in the first place. In a local environment, getting access might be as simple as plugging an unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cable into a wall outlet. As organizations grow bigger, in particular when wireless technologies are deployed or when users need to access the network from outside their own organization, security based on the ability to enter a particular building is no longer sufficient. There is a need to control access to the local network and the Internet in a scalable and efficient way. A similar reasoning holds for application access. Users need to be able to access their networked applications, regardless of where they are. An increasingly popular phenomenon is that of offering applications “in the cloud,” meaning that the application is hosted or offered by a third party somewhere on the Internet. These are examples of the need for authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) mechanisms to control which persons or devices can gain access to the network and what they are allowed to do on that network. This chapter explains those mechanisms as well as the associated opportunities and challenges that come with that ability, in particular in a roaming situation.

Building the Mobile Internet

Authentication and Authorization A central concept for access to networks and applications is that of the digital identity— the digital representation of users or devices. The digital identity is usually associated with a unique identifier (such as a number or a name). Authentication establishes the link between actual persons or devices and their digital representation. In other words, by successfully authenticating yourself, you prove to the network or the application that you are who you claim to be. After successful authentication, the network or the application then decides, based on policies that the operator or owner of the application has defined, what resources you get access to—the authorization. As you can imagine, operators that often have millions of subscribers need to have sophisticated systems to keep track of all these subscribers and to provide adequate mechanisms for provisioning and deprovisioning, billing, authentication, and other services that are available to the subscribers. The servers that perform these tasks are generally referred to as AAA servers (pronounced triple A servers). As you will see in the sections that follow, in different domains, different types of electronic identifiers are used, which results in interoperability challenges. For example, the identifier that is used to gain access to a Long Term Evolution (LTE) network cannot be used just like that to gain access to a Wi-Fi network.

Authentication and Authorization in LTE There are many types of cellular networks in use today. Standardization takes place in the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)1 and 3GPP22 (focusing mainly on the North American market). Instead of describing all the generations (1G, 2G, 2.5G, 3G, and 4G) and all the standards in those generations (CDMA, CDMA2000, EV-DO, HSDPA, GSM, UMTS, and many more) that all come with slightly different authentication methods and various roaming capabilities, this section provides a description of the LTE system for two main reasons: ■

LTE is the technology that gains support from most mobile operators as the technology of choice for their future networks.



LTE is the cellular technology that provides the most comprehensive system for roaming with other cellular but also noncellular network technologies.

Strictly speaking, LTE is only the radio access network technology. The core network architecture goes by the name System Architecture Evolution (SAE) and defines the Evolved Packet Core (EPC), the fixed part of a mobile operator network. But what is commonly referred to as LTE encompasses both the radio and the fixed network. This chapter will follow that convention. Figure 3-1 shows the various components in an LTE network; these are defined in the list that follows. Chapter 4, “Data Link Layer Mobility,” describes the EPC and its associated mobility protocol in more detail.

Chapter 3: Nomadicity

2.

The terminal sends an Attach Request to the MME containing the IMSI or TMSI of the user.

3.

The MME requests authentication information from the HSS.

4.

The Authentication Center function in the HSS takes a random challenge (RAND), uses the shared key Ki that is associated with the IMSI to calculate the expected response (XRES) to that challenge, as well as CK and IK, and sends an authentication vector (AV) containing RAND, XRES, CK, and IK as well as the authentication token (AUTN) used by the SIM for authenticating the network to the UE.

5.

The MME then sends an authentication request to the terminal containing the RAND and AUTN. The SIM authenticates the network by verifying the AUTN and calculates the CK and IK, as well as the response (RES) to the challenge RAND using the same algorithms the HSS used.

6.

The RES is sent to the MME and compared with the XRES. If the RES and XRES match, the terminal gets access.

Authentication and Authorization in Wi-Fi Networks As described in the sections that follow, authentication for Wi-Fi networks typically comes in two flavors—captive portals and IEEE 802.1X.

Captive Portals With the captive portal approach, the device gets access to the local wireless IP network only. Whenever the user requests a web page outside the local network, the captive portal captures that request (hence the name) and instead shows a login page in which the user enters his or her username and password or credit card details. The user credentials are verified in some kind of user database, and upon successful verification, the user then gets access to the Internet. User identifiers take the form of a username.

802.1X and EAP The IEEE 802.1X standard defines a framework for access control to a local-area network by encapsulating Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) messages. Wireless security standards such as WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) and WPA2 use 802.1X and EAP. Figure 3-3 illustrates an 802.1X authentication. 802.1X defines three entities: ■

The supplicant is a piece of code that runs on the user device.



The authenticator is the device that gives the device network access; in Wi-Fi, this is the access point.



The authentication server (typically a RADIUS server) verifies the user credentials in some sort of user database and informs the authenticator of the outcome.

39

Chapter 3: Nomadicity

Authentication Server

EAP Peer EAP Method

EAP Method

EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS, EAP-FAST EAP-SIM, EAP-AKA, etc.

EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS, EAP-FAST EAP-SIM, EAP-AKA, etc.

EAP Framework

EAP Framework EAP Logical Connection

Supplicant

RADIUS

EAP Authenticator

Transport-Layer Protocol (EAPoL)

Transport-Layer Authentication Method

RADIUS RADIUS

Transfer EAP Authentication Parameters

Figure 3-4

EAP Message Communication

Authentication and Authorization for Internet Applications Authentication for network access is relatively difficult because there is no IP connectivity yet, so special protocols like 802.1X need to be used to transport user credentials to the authentication server. But as you saw in Chapter 2, “page 13,” after you have IP connectivity, the sky is the limit. Therefore, it is hard to say anything in general about authentication for networked applications. Many different protocols exist, such as Kerberos, NT LAN Manager (NTLM), HTTP Basic Authentication, and so on. Also, every possible authentication method, ranging from username/password combinations and one-time passwords to smartcard authentication, exists and is in use. For web-based applications, the most common one is still username/password over (hopefully) a Secure Socket Layer (SSL) connection.

Federated Identity When you cross the border into another country or when you enter a shop that offers Wi-Fi, you really don’t want to have to sign up for a contract each time to connect to a network, not to mention the burden of remembering all the different usernames and passwords. Here is where federated identity comes in. In the federated model, a user has a contract with only one (or a few) operators—the “home operator” that establishes the identity of the user. That one identity is then used to gain access to networks or applications managed by other operators. To make this work, the operators of the different networks need to establish a roaming or federation agreement. Such an agreement specifies under what conditions a visited network accepts an authentication statement (“this is a valid user”) from the home operator, how the authentication credentials and accounting data are exchanged, and what financial arrangement is in place for visiting users.

41

Chapter 3: Nomadicity

Federated Access in LTE 3GPP distinguishes two types of federated access: ■

3GPP access15: Describes horizontal roaming.



Non-3GPP access16: Describes vertical roaming.

In both cases, the home network needs to establish a roaming agreement beforehand (and the user’s subscription should allow roaming access).

3GPP Access 3GPP access is access to an LTE network of another operator or to a UMTS or GPRS network. UMTS networks (and GPRS networks that support interworking with LTE) support AKA authentication. Based on the IMSI (that contains a country and an operator code), the MME can ask the home HSS of the user to verify the user rather than the HSS in the serving network. The home HSS must check whether the subscription agreement with the user allows roaming, but apart from that, the authentication process is the same as for the nonroaming case.

Non-3GPP Access Examples of non-3GPP access are CDMA-2000, WiMAX, and Wi-Fi. These networks don’t use the same authentication methods, and the elements in these serving networks don’t understand how to deal with an AKA authentication. So, rather than involving a network element in the serving network directly in the authentication flow with the home network, EAP is used instead. Here EAP provides the necessary abstraction from the actual authentication using AKA. For this purpose, EAP-AKA and its more secure successor EAP-AKA' (EAP-AKA Prime) have been created. The EAP identity contains the IMSI or a pseudonymous identifier that was established in a prior authentication to locate the authentication server for the user. Figure 3-6 shows how AKA authentication can be encapsulated in EAP. Although you can use the IP connectivity of the serving network, the typical use is to tunnel all traffic back to the home network using IPsec.

Federated Access to Wi-Fi Networks Originally, Wi-Fi was intended to be used as a local-area network technology, typically covering an area with a radius of some 30–50 meters. Nowadays, sometimes hundreds to thousands of Wi-Fi access points together form hotspots that provide coverage to complete campuses or even cities. Still, the majority of the hotspot operators provide access to an area with a limited geographical scope (unlike the nationwide coverage that cellular operators provide). To provide coverage beyond the geographical region, hotspot operators need to collaborate so that subscribers of one operator can gain access to the network of another operator.

43

Building the Mobile Internet

EAP Peer

AuC

Authentication Server

SIM Card

EAP-AKA AV Pair Selection

AUTN

AUTN RAND

RAND A3 Algorithm

AV(1…N)

A3 Algorithm Ck

XRES(i)

RES(i)

RES(i)

EAP Framework

Ik

XRES(i) ?

EAP Framework EAP Logical Connection Access Gateway

Supplicant

RADIUS

Transport-Layer Protocol

Transport-Layer Authentication Method

RADIUS

RADIUS

Transfer EAP Authentication Parameters

Figure 3-6

EAP-AKA

Roaming to Other Wi-Fi Networks The main challenges in roaming access for Wi-Fi networks are setting up the roaming agreements and verifying the user credentials at the home network. Because, unlike cellular networks, Wi-Fi hotspots are by virtue of the local-area character of the technology relatively small, setting up roaming agreements with a large number of Wi-Fi operators is hard to scale. To solve the scaling problem, three different types of organizational models emerge: ■

The first model mimics the cellular model. A large operator acquires or leases a large number of hotspots and unifies the authentication across these hotspots. AT&T hotspots and T-Mobile hotspots are examples of this arrangement.



In the second model, a third party acts as a broker for a large number of hotspot operators. The users have a contract with the broker and authenticate and pay for access to the broker. The broker in turn pays the hotspot operator. Examples of this arrangement are Boingo and iPass.



The last model has individual hotspot operators join forces and agree on roaming conditions and credential verification methods. Examples of the latter are FON and the Wi-Fi roaming infrastructures that many schools worldwide participate in— eduroam. (This is further explained later in the section “Example of Wi-Fi Roaming: eduroam.”)

Verification of the credentials of the users at the home network requires transporting the credentials to the home network and sending the outcome of the authentication back to

Chapter 3: Nomadicity

the visited network. The dominant transport protocol for transporting the credentials is RADIUS. The main advantage of the captive portal method for Wi-Fi is that it only requires a web browser on the user device. This is also why it is the most commonly used access method at public hotspots. The main downside is that because the Wi-Fi link is unprotected, simple MAC spoofing can be used by an attacker to piggyback an authenticated user’s connection. Additionally, the user credentials are visible to every hotspot operator (they have to be entered in the web page that the captive portal shows) and can be observed by every RADIUS server in the path to the home RADIUS server. When 802.1X is used, the combination of 802.1X, EAP, and RADIUS allows user credential privacy. This means that users don’t have to worry about giving their password to potentially thousands of hotspot operators, let alone rogue hotspot operators. An added benefit of using 802.1X is that all user traffic is encrypted over the Wi-Fi radio link, allowing the operator to be sure that every packet sent into the network originated from an authentic Wi-Fi user. The added security features of 802.1X and better support in the most common operating systems have resulted in a slow but steady increase in use, especially in corporate environments.

802.11u Two issues that are particularly important for Wi-Fi access are the fact that most Wi-Fi hotspots are relatively small and that there are thousands of them. In a densely populated area, a user easily often “sees” 30 or 40 different Wi-Fi networks, without knowing which of those will have a roaming agreement with the home operator and, if so, under what conditions. This is the problem space that the upcoming IEEE 802.11u17 standard addresses. Hotspots that are 802.11u enabled can broadcast information about the roaming consortia they belong to and under what conditions they can be used.

Example of Wi-Fi Roaming: eduroam An example of a Wi-Fi roaming service is eduroam18. This service is limited to educational institutions. However, its technical setup and broad uptake (more than 500 universities in some 50 countries with over 10 million users) warrant attention. eduroam started out in the Netherlands in 2003 and gained fast popularity in most European countries and later in Australia, Japan, Hong Kong, and Canada. Lately, U.S. schools are joining eduroam and Internet2 is supporting the initiative. Figure 3-7 shows the European national research and education networks that participate in eduroam. (For an up-to-date overview of all participating institutions in Europe and elsewhere, refer to the eduroam website.19)

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Building the Mobile Internet

Figure 3-7 European National Research and Education Networks Participating in eduroam as of May 2010 (courtesy of TERENA) eduroam consists of a few basic elements, described in the following paragraphs. A RADIUS hierarchy is set up consisting of a set of institutional (redundant, for failover purposes), national, and continental RADIUS servers. All institutional RADIUS servers connect to the national servers in their country. All national servers connect to the toplevel servers for their continent, and the continental servers (Europe, America, and AsiaPacific) connect to each other. Figure 3-8 shows the RADIUS hierarchy that constitutes eduroam. The top-level servers that are fully meshed know which top-level servers serve what national domains. The national servers are connected to all institutional servers in their country and to the toplevel servers in their continent. The institutional servers are connected to their national servers.

Building the Mobile Internet

1.

A user from University B in the Netherlands tries to gain access to the network at University A, also in the Netherlands.

2.

The authenticator asks the user (or rather the supplicant) to authenticate.

3.

The user sends the authentication credentials encapsulated in EAP with an EAP identity of [email protected]_b.nl to the authenticator.

4.

The authenticator at University A forwards the EAP message to the RADIUS server of University A.

5.

The University A RADIUS server observes that the EAP identity does not belong to University A and forwards the EAP message to the national RADIUS server for the Netherlands operated by SURFnet, the Dutch research and education network.

6.

The SURFnet RADIUS server for the .nl domain sees that the EAP identity belongs to University B and forwards the EAP message to the University B RADIUS server. (If the EAP identity were not for the .nl domain, the EAP message would be forwarded to the European top-level server.)

7.

The University B RADIUS server deencapsulates the EAP message and verifies the credentials.

8.

University B sends the result of the authentication back along the same route.

9.

The RADIUS server at University A instructs the authenticator to allow access to the user (and possibly to assign the user to a specific VLAN for guests).

Federated Access to Applications with SAML When you assume that more and more applications will be offered “in the cloud,” it is imperative that scalable mechanisms exist for federated identity. The most widespread systems for federated identity to (mainly) web-based application make use of the Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) protocol suite. SAML is an XML-based markup language for transporting authorization assertions between IdPs and RPs. Figure 3-10 shows a typical SAML (version 2.0) flow, which is further described in the list that follows: 1.

The user uses his browser to try to access a resource under control by the RP.

2.

The RP issues an authentication request to the browser (plus a redirect to the IdP).

3.

The browser sends the authentication request to the IdP and asks for an authentication statement.

4.

The user (if not already authenticated) authenticates at the IdP.

5.

The IdP issues an authentication statement to the browser stating that the user is successfully authenticated (plus a redirect back to the RP).

6.

The browser presents the authentication statement to the RP.

7.

The RP gives the user access to the resource (assuming that the user satisfies the RP’s policies and a roaming arrangement exists between the IdP and RP).

Building the Mobile Internet

information in all circumstances, even indoors. This is of particular importance in emergency situations (like 911 or 112 calls in, respectively, the United States and Europe).

Location Information for Wi-Fi Networks Unlike in cellular systems, where there are relatively few radio towers of which the position is well known, for Wi-Fi networks, the location of all access points is not always well known and might change. This makes it comparatively harder to use the location of the access points to reliably determine the position of the mobile equipment. If the location of the access points is stable, however, the location of the access point can be used to determine the location of a mobile terminal accurate to typically about 50 meters, even better if triangulation is used between multiple access points. An example of a Wi-Fi positioning system is the Cisco Wireless Position Appliance20 that is part of the Cisco Context-Aware Mobility solution and that can be used to track assets and users.

Privacy and Security Privacy concerns develop when user data is spread across many locations. Personal Identifiable Information (PII), such as street addresses, IP addresses, first and last names, and login credentials, can be traced back to an individual or a small group of individuals. Privacy regulations often dictate the amount of PII data that can be exchanged. At the same time, users need to be properly authenticated when they are trying to access another network, and users often want to share their location to get location-based services. Law enforcement requires the ability to track crime suspects and monitor their transactions and conversations. For that purpose, operators need to be able to redirect and monitor traffic of particular users without their knowledge. These Lawful Intercept (LI) requirements complicate roaming agreements, traffic offload, and other route optimization functions, because the easiest way to comply with these requirements is to direct all traffic through a central location, where it can be monitored. A useful concept in federated access is that of a “pseudonym,” an identity that is unique for a specific user and often for a specific access network but that can only be linked to an individual user by the home network operator. The extent to which pseudonymity can be used varies from one access technology to another and from implementation to implementation. From a security point of view, a benefit of the federated model is the fact that the sensitive user data is not distributed over many systems, but concentrated in the IdP. Another benefit of having a centralized authentication server is that it is possible to introduce stronger authentication means (like smartcards) without the need to change all applications to support this type of authentication.

Chapter 3: Nomadicity

Apart from authentication and authorization data, the user traffic and the control traffic between the various elements in the network often need to be protected against eavesdropping and tampering. For this purpose, a wide variety of cryptographic means are used.

Privacy and Security in LTE In LTE (unlike UMTS), a great deal of effort has gone into making sure that compromising the security of one network element will not imply compromising the security of the system as a whole. As an example of that, a complex system for the generation of cryptographic keys has been developed that is being used for securing the communication between the various other network elements. In particular, all keys inside a visited network are derived from a “master” key, which is specific for that serving network. This means that if the security in the serving network is breached, this will not have any implications for the home network and the integrity of the user credentials. Traffic between the serving network and the home network is protected using IPsec. In the initial AKA authentication, the IMSI is sent to the serving network, but after that, a temporary identifier is used. This means that the serving network is still capable of observing the IMSI, but at least the casual eavesdropper is unable to monitor the point of attachment of that particular IMSI.

Privacy and Security in Wi-Fi Networks For captive portals, it is by the nature of that technology very difficult to provide location privacy and credential protection, the users submit their credentials after all at that specific location and to the captive portal that is used by the hotspot operator. These problematic security properties are worsened by the fact that users are in a way “trained” to submit their username and password or other authentication credential to every web page that remotely looks like a plausible hotspot page, instead of sharing their credentials only with their home network operator. Furthermore, unlike with 802.1X, typically all users get IP access to the local LAN that the hotspot is connected to, even before authentication. So, it is relatively easy to eavesdrop on the wireless traffic. Using 802.1X in combination with EAP in contrast, it is possible to use pseudonymous identifiers for the users (identifiers such as [email protected] or [email protected]), and in addition to that, 802.1X sets up a secure association between mobile equipment and access point, thereby protecting the user traffic against eavesdroppers on the wireless network.

Privacy and Security in SAML SAML-based identity federations have been designed with user privacy and confidentiality in mind. Users are redirected to their own IdP to perform authentication so that the

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user credentials don’t have to be shared with the RP. Instead of using the actual user identity for interacting with the RP, it is possible to use a pseudonymous identifier that is unique for the user and on a per-RP basis (a so-called targeted identity). From a privacy aspect, there is one concern that has to do with the nature of SAMLbased federations. The SAML model is geared toward an enterprise-centric model. That is to say, the IdP is always a party in a transaction, and therefore the IdP has a good insight in all the transactions that a user performs. In answer to this concern, there has been a lot of interest in what is called user-centric identity. In this model, the user uses an IdP for initial identity proofing and goes on wielding that proof of identity without having to involve the IdP in every transaction. So the Identity Provider does not need to know what services the user accesses. Examples of user-centric identity approaches are OpenID, OAuth, and Infocard.

DynDNS So far, this chapter has concentrated on the user gaining access to the network or application. There is, however, another important issue to consider—how to find the mobile equipment if the other side initiates the communication. As you will see in future chapters, there are a number of solutions that provide a stable anchoring point that can be used to find the current point of attachment or to direct all traffic to, but they require changes in the protocol stack. The standard way of informing “the Internet” where a certain host resides is by using the Domain Name System (DNS). DNS, after all, contains mappings from host names to IP addresses. So, if the entry in DNS is updated every time a host changes its point of attachment (and thus IP address), DNS information can be used to find the target IP address of a connection. This is precisely what Dynamic DNS (DynDNS) is—a DNS server that is optimized for frequent updates of the mapping information. A number of implementations of DynDNS exist, often provided for free. For this to work, a DNS client that updates the current name to IP address mapping every time the host changes IP address is required. Because of the distributed nature of DNS (it takes some time before DNS resolvers become aware of a change), DynDNS is not practical when DNS changes occur very frequently, in the order of magnitude of seconds. Another point of concern is that rogue DNS updates can be used to redirect traffic. Unless the DNS updates can be authenticated—for example by using DNS Secure (DNSSEC)—this is a security problem. DNSSEC, however, is not yet widely in use.

Summary Nomadic use refers to a usage pattern of the Internet with intermittent access. Key to a user experience of anytime, anywhere access to the Internet and its applications are scalable, secure, and seamless access methods. Federated identity plays an important role in providing such a user experience in the presence of multiple-access networks and

Chapter 3: Nomadicity

applications offered by different operators. Nomadic use requires some form of context awareness to provide services that are tailored to location, access method, and device.

Endnotes 1.

The 3D Generation Partnership Project, http://www.3gpp.org.

2.

The 3D Generation Partnership Project 2, http://www.3gpp2.org.

3.

TR 21.905, “Vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications,” http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/21905.htm.

4.

RFC 3310, “HTTP Digest Authentication Using AKA,” A. Niemi, J. Arkko, and V. Torvinen, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc791.txt,September 2002.

5.

RFC 4282, “The Network Access Identifier,” B. Aboba, M. Beadless, J. Arkko, and P. Eronen, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4282.txt,December 2005.

6.

RFC 5247, “Extensible Authentication Protocol Key Management Framework,” B. Aboba, D. Simon, and P. Eronen,http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4282.txt,August 2008.

7.

RFC 5281, “Extensible Authentication Protocol Tunneled Transport Layer Security Authenticated Protocol Version 0,” P. Funk and S. Blake-Wilson, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc5281.txt,August 2008.

8.

“Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protected_Extensible_Authentication_Protocol.

9.

RFC 4851, “The Flexible Authentication via Secure Tunneling Extensible Authentication Protocol Method,” N. Cam-Winget, D. McGrew, J. Salowey, and H. Zhou, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4851.txt,May 2007.

10. RFC 2138, “Remote Authentication Dial In User Service,” C. Rigney, A. Rubens, W. Simpson, and S. Willens, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2138.txt,April 1997. 11. “SAML V2.0 Executive Overview,” P. Madsen, et al.,http://www.oasisopen.org/committees/download.php/13525/sstc-saml-exec-overview-2.0-cd-012col.pdf, April 2005. 12. OpenID, http://openid.net. 13. OAuth, http://oauth.net. 14. IEEE 802.21, http://www.ieee802.org/21. 15. TS 33.401, “3GPP System Architecture Evolution: Security Architecture,” http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/33401.htm. 16. TS 33.402, “3GPP System Architecture Evolution: Security Aspects of non-3GPP Accesses,” http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/33402.htm. 17. IEEE 802.11u, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802.11u.

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18. K. Wierenga and L. Florio. “eduroam: Past, Present and Future.” Computational Methods in Science and Technology, Vol. 11, No. 2: February 2005. 19. eduroam website, http://www.eduroam.org. 20. “Cisco Location Solution Overview,” https://www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/collateral/ns340/ns394/ns348/ns753/net_brochure0900aecd8064fe9d_ps6386_Products_ Brochure.html.

Chapter 4

Data Link Layer Mobility

The fundamental architecture of the Internet is built upon a foundation of associating an IP address, not with a host, but with an interface of a host. Associating an IP address with a host would certainly have facilitated mobility, but as John Day describes1, when IP was first proposed in 1975, “problems of multicast and mobility were many years off.” These architectural issues are compounded by the way in which the upper layers, dealing with applications, are coupled to lower layers, dealing with IP transport. Chapter 2, “Internet ‘Sessions’,” has introduced the concept of Internet sockets that are used to allow communications between remote application processes on different hosts. An Internet socket is identified with a local socket address that includes the local IP address. As a consequence, with application processes running on a host being bound to an Internet socket, which is in turn bound to an individual interface on that host, you can easily see why solving mobility below the IP transport layer is an attractive proposition. Mobility for any existing host or application can be supported by augmenting the data link layer with mobility functionality. Approaches to data link layer mobility “hide” mobility from the IP layer and consequently require the IP Point of Attachment (PoA) to remain static throughput a communications session. A by-product of such approaches is that any mobility events are hidden from the correspondent node (CN), and hence the CN cannot determine that it is communicating with a mobile host. Furthermore, because the data link layer domain might well cover a significant geographic area (and indeed might cover an entire country in the case of packet data–based cellular networks, as you will see later in this chapter), the correspondent node might be unable to derive significant user location information from the associated IP PoA address. Such characteristics might be important for addressing user location privacy issues introduced in Chapter 3, “Nomadicity.” This chapter describes different use cases that have caused specific data link layers to be enhanced with mobility functionality.

Chapter 4: Data Link Layer Mobility

Now, suppose that host H2 subsequently moves from being attached to bridge B1 to bridge B2. The Internet socket of host H1 is oblivious to the move and sends packets to the H2 destination address. These frames are received at bridge B1, which continues to forward them out of interface 1. Only after the MAC record for host H2 has aged out will the bridge B1 start to flood frames destined to host H2 out of interface 1 and interface 2. These frames will be received by bridge B2, which will similarly flood frames out of its interfaces toward the attached host H2. As you can see, if the Internet socket associated with the application is unidirectional, there can be a significant interruption in the communication between hosts H1 and H2 before the MAC table in bridge B1 ages out.

Note

The default timer for aging out MAC entries in Cisco switches is 5 minutes.

The previous description assumes that host H2 had been configured with a static IP address. We have already described how an Internet socket is tied directly to an IP address, and hence the following section will look at how the interactions triggered by dynamic IP address allocation can help in implementing mobility solutions.

Interaction Between Mobility and Dynamic IP Address Allocation When we discuss advanced-use cases involving wireless networks, we often overlook how delivering basic mobility across an enterprise was challenged before the introduction of dynamic IP address allocation. Manually configuring static IP addresses and Domain Name Servers (DNS) was a clear inhibitor to mobility across hierarchical enterprise networks. The administrative burden of managing static IP addresses was removed with the introduction of dynamic IP addresses by the deployment of Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) on the endpoints and corresponding server functionality in the network. Figure 4-2 shows the operation of DHCP, which is described further in the list that follows: 1.

The client first broadcasts a DHCP DISCOVER message, which, in this example, is received by a router that has been configured with DHCP relay functionality. The router unicasts the DHCP message to its configured DHCP server. This allows a single server to provide DHCP services to clients on many subnets.

2.

The DHCP server responds with a DHCP OFFER message that includes an offered IP address as well as subnet mask information. Because more than one DHCP server might have received and responded to the DHCP DISCOVER message, the IP address is only reserved and not allocated to the client.

57

Chapter 4: Data Link Layer Mobility

clients (termed stations in IEEE 802.11), with the combination of access points and stations being referred to as a Basic Service Set (BSS). In addition to single AP deployments, IEEE 802.11 defined the means by which several BSSs can be connected through a localarea network (LAN) and then appear as a single BSS to the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer of any station associated with one of the constituent BSSs (termed Extended BSS in IEEE 802.11). The previous section demonstrated how mobility across a Layer 2 bridged domain can be supported but that the updating of the MAC tables in the bridged domain required the client to reinitialize the DHCP process on its Ethernet interface. In an IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN (WLAN) environment, the movement between APs in an Extended BSS does not trigger a reinitialization of the DHCP process, resulting in the MAC tables not being updated with the clients’ new Point of Attachment to the Ethernet-bridged domain. To accommodate basic mobility in an IEEE 802.11 environment, IEEE 802.11f4 InterAccess Point Protocol (IAPP) was defined to enable mobility across access points. IEEE 802.11f recommendations included the broadcasting of a Layer 2 Update frame by the AP when a new client associates with it. The Layer 2 Update is an IEEE 802.2 eXchange IDentification (XID) Update Response frame sent using the MAC source address equal to the MAC address of the client that has associated with the AP. This ensures that any Layer 2 devices (for example, bridges and switches) update their forwarding tables with the correct port to reach the new client location.

Note In addition to Layer 2 Update frames, IEEE 802.11f defined associated messages sent between access points for supporting mobility between multivendor APs. After a client had associated with an AP, a message was sent to an IAPP multicast address that was used to inform all APs of the MAC address of the client. If there was a preexisting AP with the same MAC address listed in its associations, the message allowed such an AP to remove the client from its list of associations, leading to optimized operation. IEEE 802.11f was defined as Trial-Use Recommended Practice and did not receive wide industry support, due in part to its lack of support for fast interaccess point mobility use cases. In 2006, the IEEE withdrew the recommendation.

Fast Wireless LAN Local Mobility As more real-time IP applications are adopted, the requirement to support fast seamless mobility across a subnet is becoming increasingly important. However, support for fast mobility is hampered by the equally important deployment of WLAN security. Initial attempts at securing WLAN infrastructure using Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) have been shown to be extremely weak. As a result, WEP authentication has been dropped from the IEEE 802.11 specification and has been replaced with IEEE 802.11i5. IEEE 802.11i uses the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), defined in RFC 5247, for providing an end-to-end framework for supporting authentication methods between clients and the network.

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Chapter 4: Data Link Layer Mobility

Master Keying (PMK) material generated by the EAP authentication method to the WLAN access point. Finally, this master keying material is used by the client and access point in a four-way handshake that is used to derive Pairwise Temporal Keys (PTK) that are subsequently used to key the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm. The port connecting the client to the AP is then unblocked, and packets can be securely sent between the client and access point over the Wi-Fi network. You can see that the operation of IEEE 802.11i impacts the deployment of mobility solutions because, as described previously, keying material derived from an agreed EAP method needs to be delivered to the access point before the wireless link can be secured. The time spent during the EAP method needs to accommodate multiple round-trip signaling exchanges between the client and EAP server, key calculation, as well as possible smart-card access. For example, analysis of the EAP-SIM method7 indicates that over 2 seconds is required to perform the EAP negotiation. Obviously, an interruption interval of over 2 seconds is unacceptable if the WLAN network is being used to support realtime services to mobile users.

Note To improve roaming performance, IEEE 802.11i introduced the Proactive Key Caching (PKC) feature. This enables a client station to cache the PMK derived during successful EAP authentication using a particular AP. If, after having left the coverage of this particular AP, the client subsequently moves back into coverage, the client can reuse the cached keying material, avoiding performing a second EAP authentication with the same AP.

Instead of running a complete EAP authentication exchange to derive keying material, an alternative approach is to allow the client to perform an initial signaling exchange with the target access point to allow the calculation of the temporal keys in advance. These keys can then be applied after the client associates with the target access point. This is the basic operation of the IEEE 802.11r8 Fast Transition standard, which defines these initial signaling exchanges as either Over-the-Air, where the client signals the target AP using IEEE 802.11 authentication, or Over-the-Distribution System, where the client signals the target AP through the current AP. You can see from Figure 4-4 how the IEEE 802.11r Fast Transition Authentication signaling between the client and the target AP is used to enable the target AP to derive the Pairwise Temporal Keying material. In addition, the reassociation signaling is enhanced to signal that full IEEE 802.1X/EAP authentication is not necessary, allowing the target AP to directly transition the port to the unblocked state and secure the wireless link between it and the client. Experimental results9 have demonstrated that the transition time using IEEE 802.11r can be decreased to under 50 ms, sufficient to enable mobility to be supported for real-time services.

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GPRS Tunneling Protocol GTP essentially comprises two protocols: ■

GTP-U, which is used for encapsulating user data within the GPRS core network



GTP-C, which is used to signal between the SGSN and GGSN network elements

Not only does GTP-C support tunnel management operations establishment/modifications/termination, but it is also used for context transfer capability and to support quality of service (QoS) negotiation. The GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP) is a UDP-based tunnel protocol that provides mobility based on a Packet Data Protocol (PDP) Context and has been specified by 3GPP in 29.06011. GTP-U has been allocated UDP port 2152 by the International Assigned Number Authority (IANA). Before a mobile device can receive services from the PS core network, it must first activate a Packet Data Protocol (PDP) context. GTP tunnels are identified by a Tunnel Endpoint Identifier (TEID) and are used to carry encapsulated Tunneled Protocol Data Units (T-PDU). The T-PDU typically corresponds to an IP packet to/from a mobile user, with the maximum size of a T-PDU being 1500 bytes. Figure 4-12 shows the 32-bit TEID in the GTP header fields. This should be a random number, dynamically allocated by the receiving-side entity. The other fields are described as follows: ■

Version: The original version 0 of GTP has been replaced with GTP version 1. GTP version 2 has been defined for use in the Evolved Packet Core (EPC), but only for control messages (GTP-C).



Protocol Type (PT): GTP is used to support both mobility procedures and charging record transport. The latter is termed GTP’ and is signified by having the PT set to 0.



Extension Header Flag (E): When set to 1, this is used to signify the presence of the Next Extension Header field.



Sequence Number Flag (S): When set to 1, this is used to signify the presence of the Sequence Number field. GTP supports the option to guarantee the transmission order of T-PDUs, in which case the S flag is set to 1 and the Sequence Number field is increased for each T-PDU sent over GTP-U.



N-PDU Number Flag (PN): When set to 1, this is used to signify the presence of the N-PDU Number field. The Network Protocol Data Unit (N-PDU) number is used to support packet delivery following mobility events when operating in acknowledged mode.



Length: The length of the packet following the mandatory portion of the header.

Chapter 4: Data Link Layer Mobility

Octet 1 2

Version

PT

0

E

S

PN

Message Type

34

Length

58

TEID

9 10

Sequence Number

11

N PDU Number

12

Next Ext Header type

Ext header length Ext header content Next Ext header type

Figure 4-12

GTP Header Fields

GTP supports the ability of a user to have multiple GTP tunnels (corresponding to multiple TEIDs) simultaneously active. These GTP tunnels can terminate on different IP PoAs; for example, allowing a mobile device to be multihomed to different Packet Data Networks (PDN) by having multiple IP addresses assigned over a single access network. 3GPP refers to this concept as multiple Access Point Name (APN) support. For example, this capability can allow a single GPRS device to have one IPv4 address allocated to allow access to a corporate network and a second IPv4 address allocated to allow access to a service provider network. Alternatively, the multiple GTP tunnels can be associated with a single IP PoA, in which case there is a single primary PDP context associated with a single IP address and up to eight supplementary GTP tunnels that are associated with secondary PDP contexts. Besides the unique TEID, each PDP context can be associated with a particular QoS configuration, which then allows the mapping from the GTP tunnel to an Access Network–specific QoS mechanism, for example, using different Radio Access Bearers (RAB) for supporting the transport of T-PDUs sent over different GTP tunnels. The mobile device uses an identifier called the Network Services Access Point Identifier (NSAPI) to uniquely identify a particular GTP context. The NSAPI value is included in the signaling between the mobile and SGSN and incorporated into the TEID exchanged between the SGSN and GGSN.

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Chapter 4: Data Link Layer Mobility



IP unicast: Sending multicast traffic into a unicast GTP tunnel, in which case multiple MBMS-GTP tunnels will need to be established to each access network serving users who have joined the multicast service.



IP multicast: Sending multicast traffic into a multicast GTP tunnel, in which case a single MBMS-GTP tunnel can be used to serve all users who have joined the multicast service.

3GPP Mobility Using GTP As described in the preceding section, GPRS mobility is based on PDP contexts, so after attaching to the network, the mobile device needs to first establish a PDP context. Unlike in the CS world, where a user’s context was fixed throughput the duration of a voice session at the first visited MSC where the call is handled, the 3GPP PS core network defines the ability to transfer the active contexts of a user between SGSNs using the inter-SGSN Gn interface, as shown previously in Figure 4-11. The other key architectural difference between the CS and PS core networks is that in the CS network, voice services are executed by the MSC in the visited network, whereas in the PS core, the GGSN is most likely to be in the home network, even when a subscriber is roaming.

Note The PS core network architecture does not preclude GGSN deployment in a visited, roamed-to network. However, operators have been keen to offer differentiated services through service portals in the home network. Deploying the GGSN in the home network ensures that the subscriber’s operator has full visibility of all packets and is consequently able to provide differentiated services, for example, prepaid-based data roaming services or mobile Virtual Private Network (VPN) access, whereby users’ packets are “tunneled switched” at a home GGSN, switching from GTP encapsulation into a tunnel used for delivering the corporate VPN service (for example, IPSec).

Access Point Name An Access Point Name (APN) identifies a Packet Data Network (PDN) that is configured on and accessible from a GGSN. A PDN corresponds to particular routing domain, and APNs can be configured to use overlapping IP addresses. The APN corresponds to a DNS name of a GGSN and is comprised of two parts: ■

The APN network identifier: Defines the external PDN to which the GGSN is connected.



The APN operator identifier: Defines in which operator PS core network the GGSN is located.

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Building the Mobile Internet

For example, the APN used to access a Cisco corporate VPN service can be of the form cisco.mnc150.mcc310.gprs, where 310 is the Mobile Country Code and 150 is the Mobile Network Code in which the GGSN is located. The APNs to which a subscriber can access are downloaded from the HLR as part of the GPRS Attach Procedure. The APN is also provided by the mobile node when it activates a PDP context, and the SGSN is responsible for checking that the APN is valid; otherwise, the PDP Context request will be rejected.

Note You might have noticed that 3GPP has defined the use of the .gprs top-level domain (TLD). There is no .gprs TLD in the public DNS system. Instead, the mobile operators have agreed to operate a private DNS system that can be used to resolve APNs to GGSN IP addresses on the inter-Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) IP backbone network.

PDP Context Activation To send and receive IP packets, the mobile device must first establish a PDP context. Figure 4-14 shows the signaling procedures involved with context activation, which is initiated by the mobile sending an Activate PDP Context Request message to the network. The message will typically include the APN to which the PDP context should be established as well as the requested QoS parameters. The SGSN will then use the APN to query its local DNS to derive a GGSN IP address. The SGSN will then send a GTP-C Create PDP Context Request message to the GGSN. Table 4-1 shows some of the key information elements in this message. Table 4-1

Create PDP Context Request Message

Information Element

Description

TEID data

TEID that SGSN expects to receive GTP-U messages for this user

TEID signaling

TEID that SGSN expects to receive GTP-C messages for this user

Access Point Name

APN for this PDP context

SGSN address for signaling

IP address for GTP-C messages

SGSN address for user traffic

IP address for GTP-U messages

QoS profile

QoS to apply to this PDP context, including traffic class and bit rates

Chapter 4: Data Link Layer Mobility

The new SGSN needs to recover the PDP context information from the old SGSN, so it uses the old RAI to determine which SGSN holds the existing contexts. The new SGSN sends an SGSN Context Request message to the old SGSN, which is a GTP-C message, including the P-TMSI and P-TMSI signature provided by the User Equipment (UE). The old SGSN, which previously allocated these identities, can then authenticate the request as being from valid UE. The old SGSN then responds to the new SGSN with PDP context information and mobility management information, including cached authentication information that the new SGSN acknowledges. The old SGSN then signals the old access network that buffered and unacknowledged downlink PDUs need to be sent back to the old SGSN, which forwards these to the new SGSN for subsequent sending to the UE. The new SGSN then updates its location with the HLR, triggering the PS Subscriber Profile to be downloaded. The new SGSN then signals the mobile device that its routing area update has been accepted, providing new P-TMSI and P-TMSI signature, which the UE acknowledges with a Routing Area Update Complete message. As you can see, GTP provides more than the simple network-based mobility of the GTPU protocol. Critical GTP-C functionality includes the following: ■

QoS control/context modification



Context transfer capability (allowing keying material to be transferred between SGSNs)



Transient forwarding of data between a source SGSN and a target SGSN to ensure that packets in flight are not lost during handover interruptions

Proxy Mobile IPv6-Based Mobility As highlighted in the introduction to this chapter, the benefit of handling mobility at the link layer is that conventional hosts can continue to use traditional socket interfaces and mobility is hidden below the IP layer. Conversely, handling mobility at the network layer, as discussed in Chapter 5, “Network Layer Mobility,” requires hosts to be mobility aware. The IETF had traditionally looked to support mobility at the network layer using Mobile IP. However, the lack of wide-scale adoption of such technologies by native IP hosts triggered the IETF to form a new working group (WG) focused on Network-based Local Mobility Management (NetLMM). The NetLMM WG was tasked with defining a protocol where IP mobility is handled without the involvement from the mobile node, where mobile functionality in the network is responsible for tracking the user and triggering signaling on its behalf.

Note In many respects, this was a recognition that the majority of mobile subscribers were being supported using network-based mobility through the GTP protocol defined by 3GPP. While GTP continued to be a network-based mobility protocol applied to 3GPP access networks, the mobile industry was calling for a network-based mobility protocol that could be integrated with non-3GPP access networks.

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IETF Network-Based Mobility The network-based mobility protocol selected by the NetLMM WG is based on Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) and specified in RFC 521312. As its name suggests, PMIPv6 uses the MIPv6 concepts that are described in Chapter 5, but now, instead of a mobile host performing the mobility signaling, a proxy mobility agent performs signaling of behalf of a mobile device attached to the network.

Note The network in the IETF network-based mobility does not signify that the network layer is responsible for mobility, rather that the network is responsible for providing mobility services to hosts that are unaware of mobility operations. The NetLMM WG defined PMIPv6 to hide mobility from attached hosts.

Two new network functions are defined in PMIPv6: ■

The Local Mobility Anchor (LMA): Provides the home agent function within a PMIPv6 domain, being the topological anchor point for the mobile node’s care-of address.



The Mobile Access Gateway (MAG): A function of an access router responsible for triggering the mobility-related signaling on behalf of the attached mobile device.

Figure 4-16 shows the signaling exchanges involved with PMIPv6 network-based mobility. The following list describes the operation of network mobility using PMIPv6 based: 1.

A Mobile Node (MN) enters the network and attempts to configure its IP interface by sending a Router Solicitation message to the access router. As part of the network attachment procedure, the MAG will have received an MN identity—for example, as part of the EAP exchange, as described in Chapter 3.

2.

The MAG forms a Proxy Binding Update (PBU) message including the MN Identifier Option and sends this to the LMA.

3.

When the LMA accepts this binding, it sends a Proxy Binding Acknowledgment (PBA) message back to the MAG, including the mobile node’s home network prefixes, and triggers the establishment of a bidirectional tunnel between the LMA and the MAG.

4.

On receiving the PBA, the MAG confirms the tunnel setup and advertises the home prefixes toward the mobile node with a Router Advertisement message.

5.

The mobile device will then configure its IP address using the home prefixes supplied by the LMA, creating an IP address that topologically belongs to the LMA.

6.

The MAG now acts as the default gateway for the mobile node, ensuring that any packet sent by the mobile node will be received by the MAG and reverse-tunneled toward the LMA. Similarly, when the LMA receives packets destined toward the mobile device, it will tunnel these to the MAG, where they are deencapsulated before forwarding on to the mobile node.

Chapter 4: Data Link Layer Mobility

WiMAX core network—namely, Client Mobile IP (CMIP) based and Simple IP client with Proxy Mobile IP (PMIP) based—this chapter will focus on the latter, describing how PMIPv6 is used to hide macro-mobility from attached WiMAX devices.

Note When the first release of WiMAX was specified, the NetLMM WG had not completed its standardization of PMIPv6. Instead, informational RFC 556315 was used to support link layer mobility using PMIPv4.

WiMAX Session Establishment WiMAX uses EAP authentication, and information concerning the PMIPv6 operations is piggybacked on top of the AAA exchange, including the following: ■

IP address options: The ASN-GW includes information on whether it supports IPv4 and/or IPv6 host addressing as well as whether IPv4 transport of PMIPv6 is supported. The home AAA responds with authorized IP address options for the user, including DHCP server information.



PMIP parameters: The home AAA server provides the ASN-GW with the address of the designated LMA selected for handling a particular client’s PMIPv6 session. In addition, the PMIPv6 security bootstrapping parameters are also provided.

Optionally, the home AAA server can be used to allocate the IPv4 MN-HoA or the IPv6 Home Network Prefix. Alternatively, the LMA can be used to allocate such, within its Proxy Binding Acknowledged message. When using data link layer mobility, the client is not presumed to include additional mobility functionality; hence address management and host configuration are typically performed using DHCP. In such cases, the ASN will include a DHCP Proxy, and PMIPv6based address allocation can be triggered by the receipt of a DHCP-Discover message, as shown in Figure 4-18. In this example, the IPv4 MN-HoA has not been received during the AAA exchange, and hence no address is included in the PMIPv6 PBU message. The PMIPv6 LMA HA responds with the PBA message, including the IPv4 MN-HoA address. If a DCPHv4 server address has been received during the AAA exchange, the ASN-GW operates as a DHCP relay, forwarding the DHCP-Discover message but now populating the IPv4 MN-HoA address in the “requested IP address” option, and the standard DHCP exchange continues. The session is now established, and the core network is configured to tunnel packets between the PMIPv6 MAG and LMA.

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Note The binding of the radio bearers to QoS flows does not mean that the intermediate IP network is not involved in supporting end-to-end QoS. The PMIP-MAG and PMIPLMA functions are responsible for ensuring consistent Differentiated Services Code Points (DSCP) operation—for example, by ensuring that the DSCP markings from inner IP packets are copied into the outer IP packet used to transport the PMIPv6 tunnel.

To support PMIPv6 to different routing domains with possibly overlapping IP addresses, generic routing encapsulation (GRE) key extensions for tunneling packets between the access gateway and PDN gateway are used 16. The GRE packet header allows uniquely identifying packets associated with different Packet Data Networks (PDN), even when those PDNs that have allocated overlapping IP addresses.

Intertechnology Handover The 3GPP standard supports intertechnology handover between non-3GPP access networks that are connected to the EPC using PMIPv6 and 3GPP access networks that are connected to the EPC using GTP. Figure 4-22 shows the signaling flows when a device first attaches to the EPC using non-3GPP access technology, which is described further in the list that follows: 1.

The non-3GPP access GW triggers the sending of the PBU message to the PDN GW, establishing the PMIPv6 tunnel.

2.

When the device decides to perform a handover to a 3GPP access network, it signals a handover in the L2/L3 attach procedure.

3.

This signal triggers the 3GPP access gateway—for example, an MME/serving GW or SGSN—to recover the PDN GW address during access authentication.

4.

The 3GPP access gateway then triggers the establishment of a GTP tunnel using a Create Session Request/Response message exchange with the PDN GW.

5.

At this time, the 3GPP Radio Access Bearer is established, which is then signaled to the PDN-GW using a Modify Bearer Request/Response message exchange.

6.

The PDN GW now can route downlink packets destined toward the device using the GTP tunnel.

7.

Finally, the PMIPv6 binding is revoked, which triggers the removal of the PMIPv6 tunnel and the non-3GPP access bearer.

Chapter 4: Data Link Layer Mobility

cellular network will have been configured to broadcast include the same dummy cell in its neighbor list. While native phones will recover this information, they will fail to decode GSM information using the dummy cell identity and hence not report any information to the network. However, a GAN device, which prefers WLAN coverage and recovers the same cell information it received during GANC registration, will start to report the dummy neighbor cell at an artificially high value. This will trigger normal 3GPP procedures for BSC or RNC-to-GANC handover, including the use of GTP for SGSN-based mobility.

Host Impacts of Data Link Layer Mobility One of the key drivers for defining mobility events to be hidden from the IP layer is that all existing applications can be easily supported. However, when the protocol supports handoff between different access technologies, as is the case with PMIPv6, although the IP address is guaranteed to be preserved as the host switches access technologies, the operation of the host when switching network interfaces in the middle of a session is currently undefined and could still result in the session being disconnected when access technologies are changed.

Note 3GPP has defined different access networks for supporting link layer mobility using 2.5G systems based on Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) radio technology, 3/3.5G systems based on Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) radio technology, and most recently with the Evolved Packet System (EPS) based on Orthogonal Frequency Division Access (OFDMA) technology. Importantly, these systems have been defined to operate using a single radio (to allow lower-cost handsets to be developed) but that also presents a single network interface to the host. Hence, handovers between different cellular access technologies are guaranteed to be masked from upper layers in the cellular host.

For multi-interface hosts to support data link layer mobility, the fundamental design principle of associating IP addresses with individual interfaces needs to be resolved. As with other problems, this one can be solved by introducing a level of indirection between the IP layer and the physical interfaces. One such approach is to introduce an intermediate logical interface or Virtual Interface Adaptor (VIA) to hide the link layer mobility from the IP layer. Figure 4-24 shows the host architecture supporting such an approach where the VIA is implemented as a logical interface decoupled from the physical interface. The VIA is then bound to multiple physical interfaces that provide the transmit and receive functionalities for sending packets over the individual physical links. The VIA then enables address continuity during intertechnology handovers, with the change in interface being hidden from the various applications.

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Application Program Datagram Socket Interface

Stream Socket Interface TCP

Raw Socket Interface UDP

IP

IP to VIA Binding

Virtual Interface Adaptor

VIA to Physical Interface Binding

Figure 4-24

Link Layer (Interface #1)

Link Layer (Interface #2)

Physical Layer

Physical Layer

……..

Link Layer (Interface #n) Physical Layer

Virtual Interface Adaptor Architecture

Summary The rationale for attempting to solve mobility at the data link layer is clear. Application processes are bound to Internet sockets, which in turn are bound to individual interfaces on that host. Solving mobility below the IP transport layer ensures that mobility for any existing host or application can be supported by augmenting the data link layer with mobility functionality. Indeed the increasing adoption of IP services on 3GPP-based mobile devices demonstrates how data link layer mobility can be defined to support seamless service across nationwide coverage areas. Given the clear benefits of link layer mobility, this chapter first looked at native Ethernet architectures and demonstrated how Ethernet bridging with hosts enhanced with DHCP capability can be used to provide “plug-and-play” nomadicity across an enterprise Layer 2 network. The introduction of mobility in the enterprise is most often associated with deployment of wireless LAN technology, so we have shown how the introduction of hierarchy into the enterprise wireless LAN architecture has enabled the support of fast, secure mobility across Layer 3 domains.

Chapter 4: Data Link Layer Mobility

This chapter then described those protocols that have been specifically designed to deliver data link layer mobility in wide-area wireless environments. The use of PMIPv6, as defined between the WiMAX ASN-GW and CSN-GW as well as toward 3GPP’s PDN gateway for supporting non-3GPP radio technologies, has been described, together with the more widely deployed GTP protocol. Both approaches allow mobility to be hidden from the network layer. Finally, this chapter concluded with the unfortunate limitations of link layer mobility schemes. While the advantages of such techniques are clear when dealing with a homogeneous access technology, the binding of a socket to an IP address on a host’s interface means that Virtual Interface Adaptor architectures need to be deployed if intertechnology handover is to be supported. The rationale for solving mobility below the IP layer was that this would allow any existing host running any existing application to support mobility. The necessity to augment host functionality with VIA technology then opens the possibility of adding other host functionality to provide alternative means to support mobility. Such approaches will be described in greater details in the following chapters.

Endnotes 1.

J. Day, Patterns in Network Architecture, Indianapolis, Indiana: Pearson Education; 2008.

2.

IEEE 802.1D-2004, “IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks: Media Access Control (MAC) Bridges.”

3.

IEEE 802.11-1999, “Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications.”

4.

IEEE 802.1F-2003, “IEEE Trial-Use Recommended Practice for Multi-Vendor Access Point Interoperability via an Inter-Access Point Protocol Across Distribution Systems Supporting IEEE 802.11 Operation.”

5.

IEEE 802.11I-2004, “Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications Amendment 6: Medium Access Control (MAC) Security Enhancements.”

6.

IEE 802.1X-2004, “IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks: Port Based Access Control.”

7.

J. Korhonen, “Performance Implications of the Multi-Layer Mobility in Wireless Operator Networks,” 4th Berkley-Helsinki Ph.D. Student Workshop on Telecomms. Software Arch., June 2004.

8.

IEEE 802.11R-2008, “Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications—Amendment 2: Fast Basic Service Set (BSS) Transition.”

9.

S. Bangolae, C. Bell, and E. Qi, “Performance Study of Fast BSS Transition Using IEEE 802.11r,” Int. Conf. on Comms. and Mobile Computing, 2006.

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10. RFC 5415, “Control and Provisioning of Wireless Access Points (CAPWAP) Protocol Specification,” P. Calhoun, et. al., March 2009. 11. 3GPP TS 29.060, “General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP) across the Gn and Gp Interface.” 12. RFC 5213, “Proxy Mobile IPv6,” S. Gundavelli, K. Leung, V. Devarapalli, K. Chowdhury, and B. Patil, Aug. 2008. 13. IEEE 802.16e-2005, “IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks. Part 16: Air Interface for Fixed and Mobile Broadband Wireless Access Systems.” 14. WiMAX Forum Network Architecture, “Stage 3 Detailed Protocols and Procedures.” 15. RFC 5563, “WiMAX Forum/3GPP2 Proxy Mobile IPv2,” K. Leung, G. Dommety, P. Yegani, and K. Chowdhury, Feb. 2010. 16. draft-ietf-netlmm-grekey-option, “GRE Key Option for Proxy Mobile IPv6,” A. Muhanna, M. Khalil, S. Gundavelli, and K. Leung, work in progress. 17. draft-yokota-netlmm-pmipv6-mn-itho-support, “Virtual Interface Support for IP Hosts,” H. Yokota, S. Gundavelli, T. Trans, Y. Hong, and K. Leung, work in progress.

Chapter 5

Network Layer Mobility

As discussed in Chapter 2, “Internet Sessions,” Layer 3 (the Internet, or network layer) is responsible for the transmission of datagrams from source to destination. The network layer is responsible for routing functions and fragmentation/reassembly while maintaining any quality of service (QoS) required by the transport layer. This section provides a brief overview of the network layer to illustrate the challenges that arise because of mobility. The Internet Protocol (IP) is the most commonly known example of a Layer 3 protocol, and it provides the foundation upon which the Internet itself was built. IP is responsible for connectionless transfer of packets from an end node, through a network, to another end node. For the network to identify a specific node, an addressing scheme (IP addressing) is used. The IP address uniquely identifies an endpoint connected to the network, and all packets are sent across the network indicating both the source IP address and destination IP address. In addition, TCP, which resides at the transport layer, creates connections, identified by a 4-tuple (source IP address, source port, destination IP address, destination port), used to identify the transmission session. If neither endpoint is mobile, sending traffic from source to destination is trivial. Routers use the hierarchical structure of Internet addressing to locate a path from the source endpoint to the destination endpoint, and the packet is sent to the next hop in that path.

Chapter 5: Network Layer Mobility

support some mechanism of mobility in which the mobile node could continue to communicate with either a static or another mobile node without forcing new session establishment.

Note All RFCs are available at http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfcxxxx.txt, where xxxx is the number of the RFC.

Mobile IPv4 provides this mechanism while imposing no requirements on static nodes. That is, a static node has no awareness that the node with which it is communicating has changed point of attachment. This has allowed Mobile IPv4 to be deployed as an overlay on top of the existing IP/Internet model without any impact to the routing and addressing structure.

Mobile IPv4 Technology Overview Mobile IPv4 uses numerous mobility-specific terms and definitions to address mobility, and also introduces a number of new elements into the IP network architecture. This new terminology can broadly be classified as: ■

Network-specific terms



Network element-specific terms



Addressing-specific terms

Network-Specific Terms For the purpose of understanding, Mobile IPv4 has employed numerous network reference points to better clarify where the mobile node is located: ■

The home network has a network prefix matching that of the mobile node’s home address. (See the section “Addressing-Specific Terms,” later in this chapter, for more detail.) Traffic will be routed normally to the mobile node’s home address when the node is attached to the home network.



The virtual network typically resides on the home agent (see the following section for more detail), but might also reside as a nonphysical entity on any router in the home network. The router that hosts the virtual network advertises reachability to the virtual network to foreign networks.



A foreign network is any network other than the mobile node’s home network. The mobile node might be communicating with a node residing in a foreign network when it changes point of attachment. Mobile IPv4 allows the mobile node to move transparently without any node in the foreign network being aware.

A visited network is a foreign network to which the mobile node is connected. Figure 5-4 illustrates the domains of a Mobile IPv4 network.

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Mobile IPv4 Agent Discovery Mobile Agent Discovery is the method used by the mobile node to determine the network to which it is currently connected. This discovery takes place when a mobile node is first turned on or when a mobile node changes network point of attachment. There are two ways that the mobile node can discover its location—advertisement or solicitation.

Agent Advertisements Agent Advertisement is the method used by the mobility agents to advertise which services it has available. When the mobile node first connects to a new network, it listens for Agent Advertisement messages. Agent Advertisements are unauthenticated multicast messages sent to the “all systems on this link” multicast address (224.0.0.1) or the “limited broadcast” address (255.255.255.255). The Agent Advertisement messages are actually extensions of the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Router Advertisement message. These ICMP Router Advertisement messages are defined in the ICMP Internet Router Discovery Protocol (IRDP), defined in RFC 1256. Figure 5-7 illustrates the ICMP Router Advertisement message format.

Type = 9

Code

Checksum

Number of Addresses

A ddress Entry Size

Lifetime

Router Address 1 Preference Level 1 … Router Address N Preference Level N

Figure 5-7

ICMP Router Advertisement

The extension includes information on registration lifetime, whether the advertising router is a home agent or foreign agent, and the tunnel encapsulation type. In addition, if the mobility agent is a foreign agent, the Agent Solicitation message also includes whether reverse tunneling (see the section “Tunneling and Reverse Tunneling,” later in this chapter) is supported, the foreign agent CoA, and whether the foreign agent has available capacity to accept new registrations. Figure 5-8 illustrates the format of the Agent Advertisement message.

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Type = 9

Code = 16 (Mobile IP)

Checksum

Number of Addresses

Address Entry Size

Lifetime

Router Address 1 Preference Level 1 … Router Address N Preference Level N Extension Type = 16

Sequence Number

Length

Registration Lifetime

Flags

RESERVED

Care of Address 1 … Care of Address N Flags Registration Required

Figure 5-8

Busy (B)

Home Agent (H)

Minimal Foreign GRE RESERVED Agent (F) Encapsulation Encapsulation (M) (G)

Reverse Tunneling (T)

MIPv4 Router Advertisement Extension

Agent Advertisement messages are required when a mobile node cannot discover, through a Layer 2 protocol, both its own local IP address and a local mobility agent. 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2) and other mobility standards rely on link layer mechanisms, such as Point to Point Protocol (PPP), to establish connectivity and Internet Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP) to configure IP over the PPP link. The IP address contained in the IPCP negotiation can be used to determine the network to which the mobile node is connected—home or foreign. After the PPP session is established, Agent Advertisements can be sent over the PPP session. More information on Mobile IPv4 in practice can be found later in this chapter.

Agent Solicitations Because multicast and broadcast Agent Advertisements consume network bandwidth, the rate at which these messages are sent is often limited so as not to consume a significant amount of bandwidth. If the mobile node does not receive any Agent Advertisements for a period of time, it can optionally send an Agent Solicitation message to discover a CoA. Solicitation is a method by which the mobile node solicits an Agent Advertisement message. This Agent Advertisement message can be sent unicast to the mobile node. The Agent Solicitation message is identical to the ICMP Router Solicitation message defined in the IRDP standard. Figure 5-9 illustrates the format of the Agent Solicitation message.

Chapter 5: Network Layer Mobility

Type = 10

Code = 0

C hecksum RESERVED

Figure 5-9

Mobile IPv4 Agent Solicitation Message

Mobile IPv4 Registration and AAA After Agent Discovery has been completed, the mobile node has successfully determined whether it is connected to its home network or a foreign network. While mobile nodes might use regular IP when in the home network, and Mobile IPv4 when in a foreign network, mobile standards organizations, such as 3GPP2, treat all networks as foreign networks and therefore require Mobile IPv4 to be used at all times. RFC 3344 defines three registration events for the mobile node: ■

Registration



Deregistration



Reregistration

The sections that follow describe these registration events in more detail.

Mobile IPv4 Registration A mobile node initiates a Registration Request (RRQ) when either the outcome of its Agent Discovery process concludes that it is connected to a foreign network or a link layer mechanism results in network layer establishment. This RRQ allows the mobile node to request service from a foreign agent (optional), inform the home agent of its current CoA (registration), renew a registration that is about to expire (reregistration), or deregister. RRQ messages originate from a mobile node and are destined for a mobility agent. The mobility agent might be a foreign agent or a home agent, depending on both the mobile node’s preference for CCoA and the foreign agent’s preference for registration. Table 5-1 includes the different scenarios that determine whether the mobile node registers through a foreign agent relay or directly with a home agent. Table 5-1

Policy Enforcement Interaction Descriptions

Mobile Node Foreign Agent Preference Preference Registration Interaction CoA

CoA

The mobile node registers through the foreign agent.

CCoA

CoA

The mobile node registers through the foreign agent. continues

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Discovering the home agent address dynamically (see the following sidebar, “Dynamic Home Agent Assignment”)

Dynamic Home Agent Assignment Some link layer establishment protocols require that the end node include a topologically significant IP address at establishment/registration. As noted earlier in this chapter, PPP IPCP, for example, requires that the registering node be assigned a unique IP address prior to identifying a foreign agent CoA. This ultimately creates a scalability issue for mobile nodes, because the intent of the foreign agent CoA is to allow multiple mobile nodes to share a single CoA. RFC 2290, “Mobile IPv4 Configuration Option for PPP IPCP,” is one of many standards defined to extend link layer mechanisms for support of Mobile IPv4 endpoints. The inclusion of these options using the IPCP IP Address Configuration Option allows the mobile node to determine what IP address to use as the CoA when registering with the home agent. RFC 2794, “Mobile IP Network Access Identifier (NAI) Extension for IPv4,” extended the flexibility of RFC 2290 by allowing a mobile node to be identified by an NAI. In addition to allowing mobile nodes to be authenticated through standard AAA methods (discussed in the next section), this RFC also extended the Mobile IPv4 RRQ process. This extension allows the NAI to be used to determine the mobile node’s home address. A mobility agent includes this message in the RRP. The extension also enables the RRQ to include a “zero” (0.0.0.0) or “all” (255.255.255.255) address for the home agent. This value allows the mobility agent—either directly or through AAA interaction—to dynamically allocate the mobile node’s home agent address. This process is known as dynamic home agent assignment.

RRQ and RRP Messages RRQ and RRP messages in Mobile IPv4 use the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) as the transmission protocol. UDP relies on a simple transmission model that does not involve session establishment, guarantee reliability, or ensure data integrity. UDP, therefore, provides an unreliable transport mechanism for the Mobile IPv4 registration process. The Mobile IPv4 protocol itself provides reliability with the inclusion of retransmission capabilities, validity checksums, and session identification. Figure 5-11 illustrates the format of an RRQ message. Table 5-2 identifies the message fields and their usage.

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Message Type = 1 (RRQ)

S

B

D

M

G

r

T

x

Lifetime

Home Address Home Agent Care of Address Identification

Figure 5-11 Table 5-2

RRQ Message Format RRQ Message Fields and Usage

Message Field

Definition

Simultaneous Bindings (S)

As discussed earlier in this chapter, a mobile node can maintain multiple bindings, or tunnels, with the home agent simultaneously. This bit notifies the home agent that the mobile node intends to establish a new binding while keeping the existing bindings.

Broadcast Datagrams (B)

A home agent can be advised, by the mobile device, to either allow broadcast traffic through the Mobile IPv4 tunnel or to prohibit broadcast traffic through the Mobile IPv4 tunnel.

Decapsulation by Mobile Node (D)

This bit notifies the home agent as to whether the mobile node is operating in CoA or CCoA mode. When operating in CCoA mode, the mobile node is the endpoint for the mobile IPv4 tunnel and is therefore responsible for decapsulation of all packets sent to the CoA. When operating in CoA mode, the foreign agent is the endpoint for the mobile IPv4 tunnel.

Minimal Encapsulation (M)

The mobile node can request which type of encapsulation the home agent uses. This bit requests that the home agent use minimal encapsulation.

GRE Encapsulation (G) The mobile node can request which type of encapsulation the home agent uses. This bit requests that the home agent use GRE encapsulation. Reverse Tunneling Requested (T)

See the “Tunneling and Reverse Tunneling” section, later in this chapter.

Lifetime

This value indicates the number of seconds that the registration is valid. A registration expires if not replied to prior to the expiration of the Lifetime timer.

Home Address

This is the address of the mobile node. If set to “zero” (0.0.0.0), the mobile node expects the IP address to be returned.

Home Agent

This is the address of the home agent. If set to “zero” (0.0.0.0) or (255.255.255.255), the mobile node expects the IP address to be assigned dynamically. See the sidebar “Dynamic Home Agent Assignment,” earlier in this chapter.

Chapter 5: Network Layer Mobility

Message Field

Definition

Care-of Address

This is one of the endpoints for the Mobile IPv4 tunnel. The other endpoint is the home agent. This CoA is either an address on the foreign agent or an address on the mobile node.

Identification

Because UDP does not provide sequencing, the Mobile IPv4 registration process uses a unique identification value to match RRQs from the mobile node to RRPs from the mobility agent. This identification value is constructed by the mobile node, sent to the mobility agent in the RRQ and included by the mobility agent in the RRP.

Extensions

Mobile IPv4 extensions can be added to the RRQ. See the “Authentication and Accounting” section, later in this chapter, for more information on authorization-enabling extensions.

A mobility agent uses the RRP message in response to a RRQ. The RRP is sourced from the mobility agent and destined to the mobile node. The RRP message notifies the mobile node whether the registration request was accepted and for what length of time. Figure 5-12 illustrates the format of an RRP message. Table 5-3 identifies the message fields and their usage. Message Type = 3 (RRP)

Code

L ife tim e Home Address Home Agent Identification

Figure 5-12 Table 5-3

RRP Message Format RRP Message Fields and Usage

Message Field

Definition

Code

The mobility agent notifies the mobile node as to the status of the registration request using a code value. This code value falls into three categories: ■ Accepted ■ Accepted, but simultaneous bindings not supported ■ Denied The mobility agent can deny the registration request for numerous reasons. RFC 3344 maintains a full list of registration denied codes. continues

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Table 5-3

RRP Message Fields and Usage

(continued)

Message Field

Definition

Lifetime

This value indicates the number of seconds that the registration is valid. This value can differ from the value requested by the mobile node in the Lifetime field of the RRP. The mobility agent can assign any number of seconds equal to or less than that requested by the mobile node, including “zero” (which indicates deregistration) or 0xffff (which indicates infinity).

Home Address

This value identifies the IP address of the mobile node.

Home Agent

This value identifies the IP address of the mobile node’s home agent.

Identification

Because UDP does not provide sequencing, the Mobile IPv4 registration process uses a unique identification value to match RRQs from the mobile node to RRPs from the mobility agent. This identification value is constructed by the mobile node, sent to the mobility agent in the RRQ, and included by the mobility agent in the RRP.

Extensions

Mobile IPv4 extensions can be added to the RRQ. See the “Authentication and Accounting” section, later in this chapter, for more information on authorization-enabling extensions.

Authentication Extensions For security purposes, Mobile IPv4 messages rely on shared authentication values, known as message authentication codes, for authenticating messages sent from the mobile node to a mobility agent, and between mobility agents. These authentication values, derived through Hash-based Message Authentication Code (HMAC) with Message Digest algorithm 5 (HMAC-MD5), are used to protect the UDP payload, including all extensions. HMAC-MD5 uses an iterative cryptographic hash function along with the key defined in the security context to create the message authentication code. Security contexts are established between nodes in the Mobile IP network. Each security context contains a shared key or public/private key pair, an authentication algorithm, and a style of replay protection. All security contexts between two nodes are collectively known as a Mobility Security Association. Each security context within the Mobility Security Association is indexed using a Security Parameter Index (SPI) value. When receiving a message that requires authentication, the mobility node uses the SPI value to determine which security context is to be used, and therefore which key is applicable, for the derivation and verification of the authentication value.

Chapter 5: Network Layer Mobility

Mobile IPv4 includes the authenticator in RRPs and RRQs as extensions. There are three types of authentication extensions: ■

MN-HA authenticator: The MN-HA authenticator is used to authorize and validate messages between the mobile node and home agent. This authentication extension is mandatory in all RRQs and all RRPs generated by the home agent. The mobile node and the home agent are required to maintain a security association.



MN-FA authenticator: The MN-FA authenticator is used to authorize and validate messages between the mobile node and foreign agent. This authentication extension is optional in all RRQs and RRPs, because the mobile node and foreign agent are not required to maintain a security association.



FA-HA authenticator: The FA-HA authenticator is used to authorize and validate messages between the foreign agent and home agent. This authentication extension is optional in all RRQs and RRPs, because the foreign agent and home agent are not required to maintain a security association.

Mobile IPv4 AAA Interactions As you have seen in Chapter 3, “Nomadicity,” AAA services have historically been used on the Internet to provide a mechanism by which a network can verify and validate a node attempting to access network services, as well as a means to account for the consumption of those services. AAA relies on credentials communicated by the connecting node to the network access gateway, which can be authenticated prior to allowing access to the network. These credentials can include some form of identification (subscriber or node), other unique data, or digital signature. AAA servers are typically used to interact with the network access gateway by providing credential verification services. The RADIUS protocol, defined in RFC 2865, and the Diameter Base protocol, defined in RFC 3588, are the two most prevalent methods of providing these authentication services. With the growth of Mobile IPv4 as a mechanism to provide network services, RFC 2977, “Mobile IP Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting,” was developed to provide AAA functions to mobile nodes requesting Mobile IPv4 services.

Note RFC 2977, “Mobile IP Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting,” is applicable to both Mobile IPv4 and Mobile IPv6 protocols.

In the Mobile IPv4 AAA architecture, the mobility gateways are the network access gateways contacting either a foreign or home AAA server to validate the credentials provided by the mobile node. The AAA server core functions include the following: ■

Enabling authentication for Mobile IP registration



Authorizing the mobile node



Initiating accounting

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Mutual authentication: With this form of authentication, each node is required to authenticate itself to the other node, in a “handshake” model. In effect, the network element and the client ensure that the other is a trusted entity. Mutual authentication ensures that the both the client and network element are trusted entities, which protects against rogue network elements responding to client traffic.



Mobile IPv4 relies on one-way authentication in which the mobile node replays the challenge presented by the mobility agent. The mobility agent is responsible for rotating challenges to ensure limited lifetime. The foreign agent can send a challenge to the mobile node in Agent Advertisement messages. The mobile node includes the response in an MN-FA challenge extension of the RRQ. This challenge is used to ensure that the mobile node is not replaying an earlier RRQ. This provides local assurance that a legitimate mobile node is attempting to connect to the network, instead of a node that has intercepted an earlier RRQ.

Mobile IPv4 AAA Key Distribution The AAA server can optionally play a critical role in the Mobile IPv4 registration authorization process. The AAA server can maintain a key distribution function for the Mobile IPv4 nodes, including the following: ■

Identification and creation of a security association between the mobile node and home agent so that the mobile node can create the MN-HA authenticator



Identification and creation of a security association between the mobile node and foreign agent so that the mobile node can create the MN-FA authenticator



Identification and creation of a security association between the foreign agent and home agent so that the home agent can create the FA-HA authenticator

RADIUS Interactions The RADIUS protocol, defined in RFC 2865, has already been introduced in Chapter 3 and is the most widely deployed AAA technology to date. This protocol has been deployed in dialup, cable, DSL, and wireless networks. As the most prevalent AAA technology, Mobile IPv4 mobility agents are capable of communicating with AAA servers using the RADIUS protocol through a standardized set of Mobile IPv4 RADIUS attributes. Figure 5-14 illustrates how a mobility agent provides RADIUS AAA support for Mobile IPv4 RRQs.

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Mobile Station

Radio Network

PDSN

AAA

HA

Originate

a b c d e f

Establish A10 Connection LCP Negotiation/no Authentication Authorization IPCP Negotiation/No IP Address MIP Agent Advertisement with Challenge Extension MIP Registration Request

g h

MN FAC Authentication MIP Registration Request MN FAC Authentication MIP Registration Reply

MIP Registration Reply Data Transport

Time

Data Transport

i j k l m Data Transport

Figure 5-25

CDMA Call Flow

After the PPP has been completed, the mobile node initiates an RRQ to the PDSN. The foreign agent function in the PDSN communicates with a AAA server to authenticate the subscriber, retrieve a home agent IP address (if a dynamic home agent is required), the FA-HA SPI. The PDSN then proxies the RRQ message to the home agent, including the MN-FA challenge extension, NAI, and MN-AAA authentication extension. The home agent interacts with the AAA server again to authenticate the mobile node for mobile services. After it is successfully authenticated, the home agent sends an RRP message to the PDSN/FA. The mobile node home IP address can be assigned at many different steps within the call flow, including the following: ■

Mobile IPv4 RRQ: The mobile node can request a specific home IP address, known as a static IP address, from the mobility agents.



FA-CHAP response from the AAA server: If configured for CHAP authentication, the AAA server can assign a home IP address to the mobile node during authorization by the PDSN.

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Mobile IPv4 RRP: The home agent can assign a home IP address, based on NAI, in the Mobile IPv4 RRP message.

After it is established, the mobile node can communicate with corresponding nodes using reverse tunneling. All packets both to and from the mobile node are sent through the home agent. Figure 5-26 illustrates the protocol stack for sending traffic between a mobile node and correspondent node. IP

IP PPP

IP IP/IPSec

IP/IPSec

IP

PPP

RLP

RLP

LAC/ MAC

LAC/ MAC

Airlink

Airlink

MN

RN

Figure 5-26

GRE IP Link Layer

GRE IP Link Layer

Link Layer

Link Layer

Link Layer

Link Layer

Physical Layer

Physical Layer

Physical Layer

Physical Layer

Physical Layer

Physical Layer

RP Interface

PDSN

HA

CN

CDMA End-to-End Protocol Stack

Mobile IPv6 Technology Overview Mobile IPv6 is standardized in RFC 3775. Much like Mobile IPv4, Mobile IPv6 provides transparent mobility support for mobile nodes communicating across IPv6 networks. Mobile IPv6 shares many of the same features and capabilities as Mobile IPv4 while leveraging the advantages that the IPv6 protocol itself provides. The major differences between Mobile IPv4 and Mobile IPv6 include the following: ■

Mobile IPv4 foreign agents provide local mobility agent function for a mobile node that has roamed into a foreign network. Mobile IPv6 does not require a local mobility anchor, so no foreign agent exists in a Mobile IPv6 network.



Because no foreign agent exists, route optimization and reverse tunneling options are not required for Mobile IPv6. The Mobile IPv6 route optimization capability allows the Mobile IPv6 protocol to coexist with ingress filtering devices located at border gateways.



The IPv6 protocol supports neighbor unreachability. This detection can be used in Mobile IPv6 to assure symmetric routing between the mobile node and its default router in the foreign network.



Rather than using IP in IP or other encapsulation techniques, the majority of traffic sent to a mobile node is done so using the IPv6 routing header.



Mobile IPv6 does not create the same challenges with link layer interactions. (See the section “Mobile IPv4 and Layer 2 Interactions,” earlier in this chapter.) Instead of relying on ARP, Mobile IPv6 relies on IPv6 neighbor discovery.

Chapter 5: Network Layer Mobility

Mobile IPv6 Operation Mobile IPv6 operation is similar to that of Mobile IPv4. The mobile node is always reachable through its HoA, regardless of point of attachment. The mobile node registers its CoA with a home agent in the home network whenever it changes point of attachment within foreign networks. While the binding between the mobile node’s CoA and home address allows any node corresponding with the mobile node to continue communication, traffic is routed in a nonoptimal manner. Mobile IPv6 resolves this by allowing the correspondent node to participate in the Mobile IPv6 process. The two nodes (mobile and correspondent) communicate through two different methods—bidirectional tunneling and route optimization—as explained in the sections that follow.

Note As you will see later in this chapter, the operation of route optimization requires that the Correspondent Node supports additional Mobile IPv6 functionality.

Bidirectional Tunneling Mode Bidirectional tunneling mode does not require the correspondent node to support Mobile IPv6. In this mode, traffic is routed similarly to a reverse tunneling mode in Mobile IPv4. Figure 5-27 illustrates bidirectional tunneling mode in Mobile IPv6. Packets from the mobile node toward the correspondent node are tunneled to the home agent and then routed from the home network to the correspondent node. Packets from the correspondent node are routed to the home agent and then tunneled to the mobile node. Bidirectional tunneling mode requires IPv6 neighbor discovery capability in the home agent. IPV6 neighbor discovery, defined in RFC 2461, is an important function in Mobile IPv6. IPv6 neighbor discovery allows a network node to discover the link layer address of nodes residing on the same network and a network host to find a default router. The IPv6 neighbor discovery capability allows Mobile IPv6 to function over any link layer technology and disassociates the home agent from taking part in any link layer communications. When a mobile node moves outside the home network, it registers with the home agent. The home agent uses proxy neighbor discovery to notify link-adjacent nodes that all traffic destined for the mobile node should be sent to the home agent.

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with that recovered from the Options header ensures that the operation of route optimization is masked from the upper layer applications. Figure 5-29 illustrates how a correspondent node uses the home address provided in the Destination Options header. Next Header = 60 (Destination Header)

Hdr Extension Length

Option Type

Option Length

Home Address

Figure 5-29

Mobile IPv6 Destination Options Header

IPv6 Type 2 Routing Header In Mobile IPv6 route optimization mode, the correspondent node uses the mobile node CoA as the destination for all packets. By ensuring that all packets are sent to the mobile node’s CoA, ingress filtering devices or devices that require topologically accurate source/destination address pairs continue to operate normally. Under normal circumstances, the TCP layer would break when the mobile node changes point of attachment because the mobile node’s TCP stack would no longer have an associated flow. The Mobile IPv6 Type 2 Routing header resolves this problem. In Mobile IPv6, the Type 2 Routing header is used in packets sent by the correspondent node to the mobile node. The correspondent node puts the mobile node’s home address in this header. The mobile node replaces the IPv6 destination address in the IPv6 header with the home address provided in the Type 2 Routing header. Figure 5-30 illustrates how a mobile node uses the home address provided in the Type 2 Routing header. Next Header = 43 (Routing Header)

Hdr Extension Length

Routing Type = 2

Segments Left = 1

RESERVED Home Address

Figure 5-30

Mobile IPv6 Type 2 Routing Header

Mobile IPv6 Messages and Message Formats Although it relies heavily on standard IPv6 extensions and protocols, the Mobile IPv6 protocol does define a number of IPv6 header extensions and protocol extensions. The most notable Mobile IPv6 changes are the inclusion of a Mobility header in IPv6 packets and the creation of four new ICMPv6 messages.

Mobile IPv6 Mobility Header The Mobility header is an extension header used by any node participating in the Mobile IPv6 process. This extension can be added by the home agent, mobile node, or correspondent node (when route optimization mode is used). The Mobility header is used for

Chapter 5: Network Layer Mobility

the creation and management of mobility bindings. Figure 5-31 illustrates the structure of the Mobility header. Table 5-4 provides additional information on the Mobility Header (MH) type value.

Next Header = 59 (Mobility Header)

Hdr Extension Length

C hecksum

Figure 5-31 Table 5-4

Mobility Header Type

RESERVED

DATA

IPv6 Mobility Header Structure MH Type-Value Functions

MH Type MH Message

MH Message Function

0

Binding Refresh Request (BRR) message This message is sent by the mobile node to update its binding information in either the home agent or correspondent node.

1

Home Test Init (HoTI) message

This message is sent by the correspondent node to the mobile node’s home address to initiate the return routability procedure. The HoTI message is routed through the home agent.

2

Care-of Test Init (CoTI) message

This message is sent by the correspondent node to the mobile node’s CoA to initiate the return routability procedure.

3

Home Test (HoT) message

This message is sent from the mobile node to the correspondent node in response to the HoTI message.

4

Care-of Test (CoT) message

This message is sent from the mobile node to the correspondent node in response to the CoTI message.

5

Binding Update (BU) message

This message is sent by the mobile node to notify either the home agent or a correspondent node that it has changed network point of attachment and has a new CoA.

6

Binding Acknowledgment (BA) message This message is sent either by the home agent or by a correspondent node to acknowledge that it has received a BU message. continues

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Mobile IPv6 Bootstrapping A mobile node needs a minimal amount of information to register with a home agent. The process of obtaining this information—namely, the IPv6 address, a home agent address, and a security association with the home agent—is known as bootstrapping. RFC 4640 provides guidelines and scenarios where bootstrapping a mobile node in a Mobile IPv6 network is preferable to statically configuring this information. Many protocols have been proposed to facilitate the bootstrapping process, including Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol version 6 (DHCPv6), IEEE 802.1x, and Protocol for carrying Authentication Network Access (PANA). It is important, independent of the bootstrap protocol, that the bootstrapping process be integrated with the AAA functions.

RADIUS Support for Mobile IPv6 Mobile IPv6 interactions with RADIUS servers have not been fully standardized in the IETF. The current working draft, defined in draft-ietf-mip6-radius, describes the set of attributes to facilitate Mobile IPv6 bootstrapping and operations.

Note The draft-ietf-mip6-radius IETF working draft also maintains a list of RADIUS attributes and Diameter Code Values for use when communicating to the AAA infrastructure.

The network access gateway in a Mobile IPv6 network functions similarly to how a foreign agent can function from an AAA perspective in Mobile IPv4. Two scenarios might occur: ■

The access network provider is the same as the mobility service provider.



The access service provider is different from the mobility service provider.

In the first case, when network access is requested, the network access gateway interacts with the access service RADIUS server, which acts as a proxy to the mobility service RADIUS server. The network access gateway retrieves mobile node information through some already-established protocol, such as PPP, DHCPv6, or Internet Key Exchange version 2 (IKEv2). This allows the mobility service RADIUS server to provide the parameters required for the mobile node to initiate the registration request. Figure 5-36 illustrates this scenario. In the second case, Mobile IPv6 bootstrapping is not performed as part of the network access authentication procedure. A protocol between the mobile node and the home agent is required to trigger RADIUS interactions. While there is none specifically defined, this can be Mobile IPv6 or another protocol such as IKEv2. Figure 5-37 illustrates this scenario.

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RADIUS Attributes While the network access gateway makes use of a number of existing RADIUS attributes, including User-Name, Service-Type, NAS-Port-Type, and Calling-Station-ID, a number of new attributes are also defined for Mobile IPv6, as summarized in Table 5-6. Table 5-6

MIPv6 RADIUS Attributes

Attribute

Definition

MIP6-HA

This attribute can be present in either the RADIUS Access Request or Access Accept packet to denote the home agent IP addresses that the mobile node can access.

MIP6-HA-FQDN

This attribute can be present in either the RADIUS Accept Request or Access Accept packet to denote the FQDN of the home agent.

MIP6-HL-Prefix

This attribute can be present in either the RADIUS Accept Request or Access Accept packet to denote the home link prefix of the mobile node.

MIP6-HOA

This attribute is present in the Access Accept packet to denote the home IP address assigned to the mobile node.

MIP6-DNS-MO

This attribute is sent by the network access gateway in the Access Request message to request that the RADIUS server perform a Dynamic DNS update using the mobile node’s FQDN.

MIP6-Careof-Address The home agent sends this attribute in the Access Request message to notify the RADIUS server of the CoA received in the MIPv6 Binding Update message.

Mobility Message Authentication Option Additional RADIUS attributes have been defined in support of RFC 4285, “Authentication Protocol for Mobile IPv6.” This authentication protocol defines a new signaling option, the Mobility Message Authentication Option. This authentication option provides a method of securely transporting information in Binding Update and Binding Acknowledgment messages between the mobile node and home agent. This confidentiality capability is useful when the mobile node is authenticated for access in one operator domain and authenticated for mobility in a different operator domain. The Authentication Protocol for Mobile IPv6 is one option for confidentiality of credentials in the transport network, in addition to an IPsec Security Association (SA) option that exists in the Mobile IPv6 RFC.

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Diameter Support for Mobile IPv6 Mobile IPv6 interactions with Diameter servers are standardized in IETF RFC 5447. The same scenarios presented in the section “RADIUS Support for Mobile IPv6,” earlier in this chapter, are applicable to the Diameter protocol. Similar to the RADIUS attributes defined for Mobile IPv6, Diameter Attribute-Value Pairs (AVP) have been defined, as summarized in Table 5-7. Table 5-7

MIPv6 Diameter AVPs

AVP

Definition

MIP6-Agent-Info

This AVP contains the necessary information to assign a home agent to the mobile node. The AVP contains the following values: ■ MIP-Home-Agent-Address ■ MIP-Home-Agent-Host ■ MIP6-Home-Link-Prefix

MIP-Home-Agent-Address

This AVP contains the IPv6 or IPv4 address of the Mobile IPv6 home agent.

MIP-Home-Agent-Host

This AVP contains the identity of the assigned Mobile IPv6 home agent. The AVP contains the following Diameter base values: ■ Destination-Realm ■ Destination-Host The usage of this AVP is identical to the usage of the MIPHome-Agent-Address AVP, except this attribute relies on updated information from DNS rather than a stored IP address.

MIP6-Home-Link-Prefix

This AVP contains the Mobile IPv6 home network prefix information.

MIP6-DNS-MO

This attribute is sent by the network access gateway in the Access Request message to request that the RADIUS server perform a Dynamic DNS update using the mobile node’s FQDN.

MIP6-Careof-Address

The home agent sends this attribute in the Access Request message to notify the RADIUS server of the CoA received in the MIPv6 Binding Update message.

Network Mobility Basic Support Protocol Network Mobility (NEMO), defined in RFC 3963, is an extension of Mobile IPv6 that enables session continuity for all nodes connected to a mobile network. NEMO introduces the concept of a mobile router, which is a Mobile IPv6 mobile node that can route traffic between its CoA and a subnet that moves with the router. This allows reachability to all nodes behind the mobile router, regardless of their support for any mobility protocol, as the router changes its point of attachment to the network.

Chapter 5: Network Layer Mobility

On initial connection to the WiMAX network, the mobile node listens for Router Advertisement messages. Because there is no foreign agent function in a Mobile IPv6 network, the mobile node must acquire bootstrap information from the network infrastructure. This is done through either DHCPv6 or through the AAA server. The Access Router can also perform access authentication and retrieve dynamic home agent assignment, home link assignment, and home address assignment information from the AAA server. After the bootstrap information, including the home link, the Home Address (HoA), and home agent address are received, the mobile node issues a Binding Update message to the home agent. This BU message includes the following information: ■

Destination Option Header



MN-NAI value



MN-AAA Authentication Option

The mobile node also generates a CoA, based on the subnet it received in the Router Advertisement message. The home agent triggers an Authentication Request message to the AAA server through either RADIUS or Diameter based on information received in the BU message. The AAA server replies with a message indicating the status (Accept/Reject) and the MNHA key for subsequent message processing. The HA also performs a replay check to ensure that the mobile node is not using expired data for authentication and responds with a Binding Acknowledgment message. This BA message includes the following information: ■

Type 2 Routing Header



MN-NAI Mobility Option



MN-HA Authentication Option

Figure 5-40 illustrates a call flow for a WiMAX Mobile IPv6 session setup. When a mobile node changes point of attachment in a WiMAX network, the access router servicing the mobile node can be changed. In this event, the mobile node must listen for, or solicit, a new Router Advertisement message. This new RA provides subnet information that the mobile node uses to determine a new CoA.

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Access Router

MS

HA

H AAA

MS establishes link layer and bootstraps [HL/HA/HoA]

Establish CoA and Create BU with assigned HoA or autoconfigured HoA

a

b

BU (IPv6 Header | Destination Option Header (HAO) | Mobility Header (MH Type 5, MN NAI Mobility option, Mag ID option, MN AAA auth option)

Access Request

Access Accept

HA performs proxy DAD for HoA BA (IPv6 Header | RH Type 2 | Mobility Header (MH Type 6, NAI option, ID option, MN HA auth option)

c

d e f g

NWG R1.0.0 Stage 2 Part 2 7 81

Figure 5-40

WiMAX Mobile IPv6 Session Setup

After the CoA has been calculated, the mobile node sends a Binding Update message to the home agent. During the relocation of the R3 interface from the old access router to the new access router, a data path tunnel is established between the two access routers to ensure that no data traffic is lost. Figure 5-41 depicts the call flow for R3 reanchoring.

Building the Mobile Internet

IPv6

IPv6 IPv6

IPv6

MIPv6

MIPv6

CS Sub Layer 802.16e Interface MS

Intra ASN Data Path

Intra ASN Data Path

Link Layer

Link Layer

Link Layer

PL

PL

PL

PL

PL

HA

CN

802.16e Interface BS

Access Router CMIPv6 Data Plane with Tunneling

IPv6

IPv6 IPv6

MIPv6

MIPv6

CS Sub Layer 802.16e Interface MS

Intra ASN Data Path

Intra ASN Data Path

Link Layer

Link Layer

PL

PL

PL

PL

802.16e Interface BS

Access Router

CN

CMIPv6 Data Plane with RO NWG R1.0.0 Stage 2 Part 2 7 78, 79

Figure 5-42

End-to-End WiMAX Mobile IPv6 Protocol Stack

Dual-Stack Mobile IP Mobile IPv4 and Mobile IPv6 provide technologies for mobility for mobile networks using IPv4 and IPv6 protocols, respectively. These mobility management techniques share a common name and a common function, namely, providing session continuity for a mobile node; however, the protocols themselves are indeed separate and noninteroperable. This does not create a challenge in a network that is built on IPv4 or a network that is built on IPv6. As networks migrate from IPv4 to IPv6 for either business or technical reasons, a new challenge arises in providing session continuity as a mobile node changes point of attachment from an IPv4 domain to an IPv6 domain. Nodes that support both IPv4 and IPv6 protocol stacks are known as dual-stack nodes. These nodes can establish connectivity through IPv4, through IPv6, or through both IPv4 and IPv6 simultaneously. With Mobile IPv4, the node can ensure that applications reliant on IPv4 persist as the node moves from IPv4 subnet to IPv4 subnet. With Mobile IPv6, the node can ensure that applications reliant on IPv6 persist as the node moves

Chapter 5: Network Layer Mobility

from IPv6 subnet to IPv6 subnet. The need to support session persistence as a mobile node moves from IPv4 subnet to IPv6 subnet, or from IPv6 subnet to IPv4 subnet, requires either: ■

A single mobility management protocol



Interactions and visibility between Mobile IPv4 and Mobile IPv6 protocols

Dual-stack mobility, a problem discussed in draft RFC draft-ietf-mip6-dsmip-problem, provides solution requirements for both Mobile IPv4 and Mobile IPv6 so that they can support mobility management for dual-stack devices. In addition, RFC 5454, “Dual-Stack Mobile IPv4,” and RFC 5555, “Mobile IPv6 Support for Dual-Stack Hosts and Routers,” provide extensions and modifications to Mobile IPv4 and Mobile IPv6, respectively, to allow these protocols to understand and manage mobility across the IPv4 and IPv6 domains.

Mobile IPv4 Extensions to Support IPv6 The extensions to Mobile IPv4 in support of IPv6 allow the mobile node to maintain connectivity using only the Mobile IPv4 protocol while moving in an IPv4 or dual-stack network. These extensions provide separation between the signaling protocol (Mobile IPv4) and the IP transport network that tunnels it. This allows Mobile IPv4 to establish both IPv4 and IPv6 tunnels over the IPv4 transport network.

Note Because the signaling protocol is Mobile IPv4, the required mode of operation to support both IPv4 and IPv6 is reverse tunneling or bidirectional tunneling. The route optimization mode provided by Mobile IPv6 cannot be used, because correspondent nodes in a Mobile IPv4 network are unaware of the mobility signaling.

The mobile node communicates information about the IPv6 prefixes to the Mobile IPv4 home agent through RRQ/RRP extensions. Three extensions are added to the RRQ/RRP flows: ■

IPv6 Prefix Request: The mobile node can include one or more of the IPv6 Prefix Request extensions in an RRQ message. This extensions carries information about the IPv6 prefixes that the mobile node is using.



IPv6 Prefix Reply: The Mobile IPv4 home agent responds to the IPv6 Prefix Request in the RRQ with an IPv6 Prefix Reply in the RRP. This extension notifies the mobile node whether the request was accepted or rejected.



IPv6 Tunneling Mode: The mobile node includes a single IPv6 Tunneling Mode extension in an RRQ message. This extension notifies the home agent as to which tunneling protocol should be used for tunneling IPv6 packets.

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Protection against certain types of security attacks, such as replay attacks



The ability for devices to negotiate the security algorithms and keys required to meet their security needs

Initially, endpoints must agree on a set of security protocols to use so that each one sends data in a format the other can understand. They must decide on a specific encryption algorithm to use in encoding data. They must exchange keys that are used to decrypt data that has been cryptographically encoded. IPsec uses the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) protocol for these functions. IKE is a protocol for providing mutual authentication and security association establishment for IPsec VPNs. IKE has countless deployments and almost as many RFCs. RFC 2407, 2408, and 2409 all provide base IKE protocol definition, and numerous RFCs exist for supporting Network Address Translation (NAT) traversal, Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), remote address acquisition, and so on.2 IKEv2, standardized in RFC 4306, centralized all IKE functions into a common RFC and included enhancements to the original IKE protocol for more efficient call setup and lower latency. IKEv2 provides a mechanism for mutual authentication between two Internet nodes andestablishment a Security Association (SA) based on shared secret information and a set of cryptographic algorithms to ensure data confidentiality. Each SA is a logical, simplex connection that provides the secure data connection between devices. IKEv2 communications are request/response-based message flows known as exchanges. An IKE SA is established with two exchanges (four messages)—the IKE_SA_INIT and IKE_AUTH—as described in the sections that follow.

IKEv2 IKE_SA_INIT The IKE_SA_INIT exchange is used to negotiate cryptographic algorithms; to exchange pseudorandom numbers, known as nonces, for replay attack prevention; and to establish a symmetric shared key. This process provides the two nodes with enough information to securely transport information required for IKE_AUTH exchange. The node that sends the initial request message is known as the initiator. The initiator sends the initial request with the following information: ■

Security Parameter Index (SPI): The SPI is a random number used to reference the specific SA.



SAi1: The SAi1 provides the cryptographic algorithms supported by the initiator.



KEi: The KEi provides a random private value used by the SA peer to generate the shared key for traffic flowing from the initiator to the responder. All messages following the IKE_SA_INIT are encrypted and integrity-protected with this shared key.



Ni: The Ni provides the initiator’s nonce value. This nonce is used as part of replay protection.

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The node that responds to the initial request is known as the responder. The responder sends the response with the following information: ■

Security Parameter Index (SPI): The SPI is a random number used to reference the specific SA.



SAr1: The SAr1 provides the cryptographic algorithm that will be used for all communication. The responder selects this algorithm from the list presented by the initiator.



KEr: The KEr provides a random private value used by the SA peer to generate the shared key for traffic flowing from the responder to the initiator. Because the SA is a simplex connection, this shared key can be different than the one generated for the initiator-to-responder direction.



Nr: The Nr provides the responder’s nonce value. This nonce is used as part of replay protection.

Following this exchange, both the initiator and responder have sufficient information to generate a secret shared key, known as an SKEYSEED. Individual keys are then generated from this shared key to determine a unique encryption key and integrity protection key. These keys are used to ensure that all subsequent communication is confidential.

IKEv2 IKE_AUTH The IKE_AUTH exchange is used to authenticate messages between the two peers, exchange identity information, exchange certificates, and establish the SA. The IKE_AUTH exchange when the initiator sends an encrypted message to the responder includes: ■

SPI: The SPI is a random number used to reference the specific SA.



IDi: The IDi provides the initiator’s identity information.



Certificates: The certificate provides validation of identity. This validation is provided by a third-party, trusted validation server.



IDr: If the responder has multiple identities all hosted by the same IP address, the initiator can send the IDr value to indicate which identity it is attempting to communicate with.



SAi2: The SAi2 value contains SA offers from the initiator to the responder.



TSi: The TSi value contains the traffic selector of the initiator.



TSr: The TSr value contains the traffic selector of the responder.

In this message, the initial payload attributes—namely, the SPI, IDi, Certificates, and IDr—are used to establish identity, while the remaining attributes (SAi2, TSi, and TSr) are used to establish the SA.

Building the Mobile Internet

IPsec/IKEv2 Mobility Limitations As Figure 5-46 illustrates, the IKE authentication and security association information used to build the IPsec tunnel is bound to the IP addresses of the IPsec endpoints. The IPsec tunnel is established based on the IP address in the header of the IKEv2 message requesting the IPsec SA. While the tunnel determines both source and destination endpoints, IPsec transport still relies on the hierarchical structure of the Internet for routing, and relies on the IP address to determine both the node identity and the node location. When a mobile node changes point of attachment and receives a new IP address, IPsec cannot continue normally, and rekeying of the IKE SA must occur. In some instances, rekeying is effective. However, in the majority of instances, rekeying the process is either too lengthy to ensure session continuity or requires manual intervention (such as a password).

IKEv2 Message Formats The IKEv2 protocol uses UDP for transport. The IKEv2 packet is structured as follows: ■

IKEv2 header (HDR): The IKEv2 header includes the initiator’s and responder’s SPI value, version (IKE version 2), exchange type (see Table 5-8), and a message ID (for resending lost messages). Figure 5-47 illustrates the IKEv2 HDR format.

IKE SA Initiator’s SPI IKE SA Responder’s SPI Next Payload

Major Version

Minor Version Message ID Length

Figure 5-47 Table 5-8

IKEv2 HDR Format IKEv2 Exchange Type Values

Exchange Type

Value

Reserved

0–33

IKE_SA_INIT

34

IKE_AUTH

35

CREATE_CHILD_SA

36

INFORMATIONAL

37

Exchange Type

Flags

Chapter 5: Network Layer Mobility

Exchange Type

Value

Reserved to IANA

38–239

Reserved for private use

240–255



IKEv2 payload: One or more payloads can be included in an IKEv2 packet. Each payload is identified by the Next Payload field in the preceding payload. Figure 5-48 illustrates a generic payload header. Table 5-9 describes the Next Payload Type field. Next Payload

Figure 5-48 Table 5-9

Critical

RESERVED

Payload Length

Generic Payload Header Next Payload Type

Payload Type

Value

Reserved

1–32

Security Association (SA)

33

Key Exchange (KE)

34

Identification Initiator (IDi)

35

Identification Responder (IDr)

36

Certificate (CERT)

37

Certification Request (CERTREQ)

38

Authentication (AUTH)

39

Nonce (Ni, Nr)

40

Notify (N)

41

Delete

42

Vendor ID (V)

43

Traffic Selector – Initiator (TSi)

44

Traffic Selector – Responder (TSr)

45 continues

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Table 5-9

Next Payload Type

(continued)

Payload Type

Value

Encrypted (E)

46

Configuration (CP)

47

Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)

48

Reserved to IANA

49–127

Reserved for private use

128–255

MOBIKE Protocol The MOBIKE protocol solves the mobility problem inherent in IKEv2 by decoupling the SA from the interface IP address. This allows the end node to move between two IP points of attachment, such as an office Ethernet and Wi-Fi network, and still continue the existing VPN session without rekeying. The MOBIKE protocol provides the following capability extensions to IKEv23: ■

Informs the other peer about all available addresses, known as the peer address set (multihoming)



Determines the preferred address from the peer address set and notifies the peer to use the preferred address



Ensures path connectivity and detects outages



Notifies the other peer of address changes (mobility)



Notifies the other peer of changes in the available address set (multihoming)



Provides NAT traversal functions

To ensure that mobility is transparent to upper layers, MOBIKE only changes the outside tunnel address of the IKE SA. Figure 5-49 illustrates a mobile node moving between two points of attachment while maintaining a VPN session. MOBIKE allows either end of the secure tunnel to have multiple IP addresses, creating M*N possible IP address to IP address combinations. The IKE initiator is responsible for determining which address pair is used for communication. In the case of mobile, especially, the initiator is in a better position to understand interface capabilities and limitations.

Chapter 5: Network Layer Mobility

EAP Peer

Authentication Server

EAP Method

EAP Method

EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS, EAP-FAST EAP-SIM, EAP-AKA, etc.

EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS, EAP-FAST EAP-SIM, EAP-AKA, etc.

EAP Framework

EAP Framework EAP Logical Connection

Supplicant

RADIUS

EAP Authenticator

Transport-Layer Protocol (EAPoL)

Transport-Layer Authentication Method

RADIUS RADIUS

Transfer EAP Authentication Parameters

Figure 5-53

EAP Message Communication

During MOBIKE setup, the EAP exchange occurs as part of the IKE_AUTH exchanges, and it must be completed prior to establishing the IKE_SA. The MOBIKE gateway removes extensible authentication information from the EAP header and inserts it directly into a AAA Request (RADIUS or Diameter). The AAA server processes this information and authenticates the initiator. The MOBIKE gateway then responds to the IKE_AUTH exchange with an EAP success message. Figure 5-54 illustrates this message sequence. After the initiator is authenticated, the IPsec SA can be established and bearer flows begin.

MOBIKE in Practice MOBIKE is well documented in the IETF, but it has limited deployments in either an enterprise scenario or service provider scenario. Some mobile Standards Development Orgnizations (SDOs), such as 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2), have chosen to implement Mobile IP (MIPv4 or MIPv6) in lieu of MOBIKE. These implementation decisions are based on a number of reasons, including the following: ■

MOBIKE is more complex to implement than Mobile IP.



Because MOBIKE uses encryption, MOBIKE headers are larger than Mobile IP headers.



MOBIKE processing is “costly” in terms of power consumption, battery drain, and CPU utilization. Until recently, many mobile devices did not have the capabilities to encrypt/decrypt IKE.



MOBIKE encryption has largely proved unnecessary because mobile networks implement airlink encryption and utilize dedicated backhaul circuits.

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EAP Peer

AuC

Authentication Server

SIM Card

EAP-AKA AV Pair Selection

AUTN

AUTN RAND

RAND A3 Algorithm

AV(1…N)

A3 Algorithm Ck

XRES(i)

RES(i)

RES(i)

EAP Framework

Ik

XRES(i) ?

EAP Framework EAP Logical Connection Access Gateway

Supplicant

RADIUS

Transport-Layer Protocol

Transport-Layer Authentication Method

RADIUS

RADIUS

Transfer EAP Authentication Parameters

Figure 5-56

EAP-AKA

During mobile node authentication, the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) is carried in the IDi payload, and the mobile Access Point Name (APN) is carried in the IDr payload. The ePDG initiates a AAA request and inserts the EAP message so that the AAA server can provide authentication and authorization services for the mobile node. Figure 5-57 illustrates the authentication flow. When the mobile node changes point of attachment between two non-3GPP access networks, INFORMATIONAL exchanges through MOBIKE are used to notify the ePDG of the new address.

Building the Mobile Internet

Endnotes 1.

RFC 3588, “The Diameter Base Protocol.”

2.

“Understanding IKEv2: Tutorial and Rationale for Decisions,” draft-ietf-ipsec-ikev2tutorial-01.txt.

3.

RFC 4621, “Design of the MOBIKE Protocol.”

Chapter 6

Transport/Session Layer Mobility

The TCP/IP transport layer sits above the network layer and is responsible for providing data transport between two end users. While the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model defines five classes of transport protocols depending on capabilities1, the two most common transport protocols are Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), documented in RFC 793, and User Datagram Protocol (UDP), documented in RFC 768. As discussed in Chapter 5, “Network Layer Mobility,” when a mobile node changes point of attachment, the disassociation of the node’s current IP address to that being used by a connection-oriented transport layer protocol for existing connections causes the connection to break. While this is not intended, the protocol is acting properly in tearing down the session. As a refresher, Figure 6-1 illustrates this case. Transport layer mobility provides inherent benefits above and beyond those provided by lower-layer mobility protocols. These benefits include the following: ■

Inherent route optimization: Lower-layer mobility protocols rely on tunnels for mobility, which, by nature, obscure the mobile node’s changing point of attachment by presenting a single, persistent IP address to all corresponding nodes. A transport layer mobility approach avoids the triangular routing that occurs from handling mobility at lower layers.



Inherent traversal of security elements: Lower-layer protocols, such as Mobile IP, can use topologically incorrect source IP addresses on the mobile node for transmission. This leads to many security elements, such as firewalls, impeding data transmission. A transport layer mobility approach always uses topologically correct source IP addresses and therefore does not suffer from the same problems with security mechanisms.

Chapter 6: Transport/Session Layer Mobility

Solving Mobility Above the Network Layer Transport layer approaches to mobility are not entirely contained in the transport layer of the OSI stack. While the transport layer handles session persistence, location management functions are handled separately. Solving mobility above the network layer requires that the underlying layers perform their normal functions, including detecting new networks, building link layer connectivity, and obtaining network-relevant IP addresses. This might create potential problems, because Dynamic Domain Name System (DNS) and other location management approaches take significant time to update globally and converge to a mobile node’s new IP address. By the time this update occurs, the mobile node might be changing point of attachment again! The functions required to support mobility at either the transport layer or session layer are largely grouped into three key functions: ■

Reconfiguration of the host for its new network: Protocols discussed in Chapter 1, “Introduction to “Mobility”,” such as Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), IP auto-configuration, and router discovery mechanisms, are widely deployed techniques for accomplishing this function.



Ensuring reachability for new connections: Protocols discussed in Chapter 2, “Internet “Sessions”,” such as Dynamic DNS, provide sufficient capabilities for this function.



Updating existing connections and rebinding these connections to the new IP address: Numerous protocols can provide this function.

This chapter will look at three techniques designed to solve the third function at the transport layer: ■

Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP): Provides a replacement for TCP, natively supports multiple addresses per host, and allows the addition or deletion of addresses from an existing association. This chapter will also discuss two proposals—cellular SCTP and mobile SCTP—designed to provide optimized handover.



Multipath TCP (MPTCP): Provides extensions to the original TCP to support many of the functions defined by SCTP, without replacing TCP on the millions of end nodes already deployed.



MSOCKS: Provides an architecture for transport layer mobility, a research project conducted by IBM and Carnegie Mellon University. MSOCKS relies on a proxy to provide seamless mobility of the mobile node.

In addition, this chapter also looks at two techniques to solve mobility at the session layer—the Migrate Internet Project and Session Layer Mobility (SLM). These techniques use the often-overlooked session layer to provide the same functions as transport layer mobility without modification or replacement of the transport layer protocol. This is especially interesting because most modern Internet applications do not typically use the session layer.

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SCTP Functional Overview SCTP defines all necessary functions to establish communication, transmit data, and tear down communication. Rather than using terminology such as session or connection, which connote a communications path between two end IP addresses, SCTP creates associations that represent a logical communications path between two end nodes over multiple source or destination IP addresses. An association is defined as a set of IP addresses on each node (source and destination) and a port on each node. Any IP address can be used for either the source or destination IP address of data packets linked to this association. Figure 6-5 illustrates an SCTP association.

SCTP Node 1

SCTP Node 2 Messages

SCTP User Application

SCTP User Application SCTP Association

SCTP Transport IP Network

SCTP Transport IP Network

Network Transport (1 or more IP Addresses)

Figure 6-5

SCTP Association

The packets exchanged over the SCTP association are known as chunks. These chunks are used for both bearer and control functions. Figure 6-6 illustrates the SCTP functional architecture. Sequenced Delivery Within Streams User Data Fragmentation

Association Startup and Teardown

Acknowledgment and Congestion Avoidance Chunk Bundling

Packet Validation

Path Management

Figure 6-6

SCTP Functional Architecture

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SCTP States SCTP transitions through three states during the lifetime of an association. These states are initiation, data transfer, and shutdown. The sections that follow describe the SCTP states in greater detail.

Initiation While TCP relies on a three-way handshake for session setup, SCTP uses a four-message sequence to build an association. By using a four-way handshake, SCTP avoids the common denial of service (DoS) attack known as SYN flooding.

Note A SYN flooding attack occurs when an attacker generates false TCP setup messages to a destination node. In TCP’s three-way handshake mechanism, the receiver of the initial message, termed a SYN, is required to save state information and allocate resources, such as memory, for a Transmission Control Block (TCB), prior to sending a response, termed a SYN-ACK. Because the attacker has no capability to establish a session, it does not respond to this SYN-ACK message, and eventually the receiver will remove the associated TCB. However, if the attacker sends SYN messages at a rapid enough rate, the TCP server can consume all available resources responding to these false TCP setup messages. In such an overload scenario, the TCP server is unable to process legitimate TCP requests.

Figure 6-7 illustrates the four-message sequence compared to the TCP three-message sequence. The receiver of the initial contact message, termed an INIT chunk, does not need to save any state information or allocate any resources. Instead it sends back its response message, an INIT-ACK chunk. Inside both the INIT and INIT-ACK chunk are a number of parameters used in the setup of the initial state: ■

A list of all IP addresses that will be a part of this association



An initial transmission sequence number (TSN) that will be used to reliably transfer data



An initiation tag that must be included on every inbound SCTP packet



The number of outbound streams that each side is requesting



The number of inbound streams that each side is capable of supporting

Rather than consuming resources by building a Transmission Control Block (TCB) from the INIT sequence, the receiver builds a state cookie. The state cookie holds all the information needed by the sender of the INIT-ACK to construct its state. This state cookie is transmitted to the sender in the INIT-ACK chunk.

Chapter 6: Transport/Session Layer Mobility

Server

Client

Server

Client

SYN

INIT

SYN ACK

INIT ACK

ACK

COOKIE ECHO COOKIE ACK

Figure 6-7

Conversation

Conversation

TCP

SCTP

SCTP and TCP Initiation Comparison

In response to the INIT-ACK, the sender echoes the state cookie in a COOKIE-ECHO chunk, allowing the SCTP receiver to fully construct its state. In response to the COOKIE-ECHO, a COOKIE-ACK message is sent that acknowledges that setup is complete. Both chunks in the COOKIE sequence can also include data traffic, because these messages are sent after the association has been validated.

Data Transfer TCP, unlike SCTP, relies on a single function (a sequence number) to provide perfect sequence preservation to the communicating node’s transport layer. Network congestion or packet loss, however, might result in retransmission or reordering of out-of-sequence messages, either in a network node or host node. This delays the presentation of the response until proper sequencing is restored. Figure 6-8 illustrates this strict sequencing approach, denoted by the ACK value being replicated as the SYN value in a subsequent packet. Perfect sequence preservation is not always necessary, especially for Internet sessions. While the goal is to deliver all, or virtually all, packets in a response to the requesting node, it is possible to display parts of the response while waiting for the remainder to arrive. This enables applications that rely on SCTP to achieve better perceived performance, because the end user might consume portions of information (web-page text, for example) while the remainder of the requested information arrives (web-page images, perhaps).

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Building the Mobile Internet

Client

Server Listen State SYN Seq=m

SYN Sent

SYN Received SYN Seq=n ACK m+1

ESTAB

Seq=m+1 ACK n+1 ESTAB

Conversation

Figure 6-8

TCP Strict Sequencing

SCTP differentiates between ordered delivery and reliable delivery, relying on two independent functions to provide transmission and delivery functions. SCTP, instead, uses two sequence numbers: ■

Transmission sequence number (TSN) in the SCTP header ensures reliable delivery to the communicating node’s transport layer. The TSN provides the transmission of packets and detection of packet loss.



Stream sequence number (SSN) in the SCTP packet provides per-packet sequencing to the communicating node’s application layer. The SSN determines the sequence of data delivery and prioritization of buffer usage.

Data transfer in SCTP resembles TCP in many ways, including Selective Acknowledgments (SACK) and flow and congestion control algorithms. Two windows are used—the advertised receive window, which indicates the receiver’s buffer occupancy, and the per-path congestion window, which is used to manage packets along the transmission path.

Multistreaming Multistreaming enables SCTP to provide partial reordering or resequencing of a particular flow, or stream, within the SCTP “session.” This allows SCTP to prioritize specific streams, such as VoIP, within a single session between two nodes, thereby eliminating latency issues that might arise because of buffer availability on either the transmitting or receiving node. Figure 6-9 illustrates how multistreaming provides more robust congestion control mechanisms.

Chapter 6: Transport/Session Layer Mobility

Shutdown Graceful shutdown of the SCTP association is done after both nodes in an association have confirmation that the other node received all DATA chunks. TCP uses a half-open procedure, in which only one side of the TCP session acknowledges that the session has been shut down. SCTP uses a graceful shutdown procedure in which both sides of the SCTP association acknowledge that the association has been shut down. Figure 6-13 illustrates the TCP and SCTP shutdown procedures.

Server

Client

Server

Client

Conversation Conversation SHUTDOWN FIN

Figure 6-13

SHUTDOWN ACK

ACK

SHUTDOWN COMPLETION

TCP

SCTP

TCP and SCTP Shutdown Procedures

Note In error conditions, shutdown might also be done in a nongraceful, abrupt manner. This is known as an abort procedure.

SCTP Messages There are two types of SCTP messages—control and DATA chunks. SCTP allows bundling of these messages into a single message. This improves both transport efficiency and end-node processing of SCTP messages. Bundling is controlled by the application to ensure that retransmission of DATA chunks occurs in error cases.

Message Format The SCTP message contains a common header followed by one or more variable-length data structures (chunks). Figure 6-14 depicts the SCTP message format.

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Building the Mobile Internet

SCTP Common Header

Chunk 1 … Chunk N

Figure 6-14

SCTP Message Format

The SCTP common header contains the following information: ■

Source and destination port numbers: These transport port addresses are used in combination with the source and destination IP addresses to identify the recipient of the SCTP packet. The port numbers allow a single IP address to support multiplexing of different SCTP associations.



Checksum: This value is used to assure data integrity while the packet transits an IP network.



Verification tag: The verification tag holds the value of the initiation tag that was first exchanged between two hosts during the four-way handshake. It must be contained in every SCTP packet that is part of an association. If a packet arrives without the correct verification tag, it is dropped. This serves as protection against old, stale packets arriving from a previous association as well as various “man-in-the-middle” attacks.

Figure 6-15 depicts the SCTP common header format.

Source Port Number

Destination Port Number Verification Tag Checksum

Figure 6-15

SCTP Common Header Format

Chunk Types A chunk uses a type-length-value (TLV) format, and different chunk types are used to carry control or data information inside an SCTP packet. Every chunk type will include TLV header information. The TLV information contains the chunk type, fragmentation and unordered delivery processing flags, and a length field. In addition, a DATA chunk will precede user payload information with the following: ■

TSN (transport sequence number)



Stream identifier

Chapter 6: Transport/Session Layer Mobility



SSN (stream sequence number)



Payload protocol identifier

Figure 6-16 depicts the SCTP chunk format. Table 6-1 provides information on the type of chunks supported in SCTP. Chunk Type

Chunk Flags

Chunk Length

Chunk Value

Figure 6-16 Table 6-1

SCTP Chunk Format SCTP Chunk Types

Chunk Type Chunk Name

Chunk Function

0x00

Payload Data (DATA)

The DATA chunk is used to transmit user data between two peers in an SCTP association.

0x01

Initiation (INIT)

The INIT chunk is used to initiate an SCTP association between two endpoints.

0x02

Initiation Acknowledgment (INIT ACK)

The INIT ACK chunk is used to acknowledge the receipt of an SCTP INIT message. The endpoint sending the INIT ACK message is in the ASSOCIATE state, awaiting a COOKIE ECHO from the SCTP peer.

0x03

Selective Acknowledgment (SACK)

The SACK chunk is used to both confirm receipt of a range of chunks, denoted by the TSN, and to notify the sender of missing chunks, represented by TSN gaps.

0x04

Heartbeat Request (HEARTBEAT)

The HEARTBEAT chunk is used by an SCTP endpoint to check reachability of idle IP addresses that are part of the association. This HEARTBEAT mechanism is used to ensure that alternative paths exist in the event of a primary path failure. HEARTBEATS are exchanged between all idle IP addresses on each endpoint independently.

0x05

Heartbeat Acknowledgment The HEARTBEAT ACK chunk is sent in response (HEARTBEAT ACK) to the HEARTBEAT message, confirming reachability.

0x06

Abort (ABORT)

The ABORT chunk is used to close an association with an SCTP peer.

0x07

Shutdown (SHUTDOWN)

The SHUTDOWN chunk is used to trigger the closing of an SCTP association. continues

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Table 6-1

SCTP Chunk Types

Chunk Type Chunk Name

(continued) Chunk Function

0x08

Shutdown Acknowledgment The SHUTDOWN ACK chunk is used in response to (SHUTDOWN ACK) the SHUTDOWN chunk as part of the graceful shutdown procedure.

0x09

Operation Error (ERROR)

The ERROR chunk is used to communicate some failure in the SCTP association. The ERROR chunk does not indicate a fatal failure unless it is used in conjunction with the ABORT chunk.

0x10

State Cookie (COOKIE ECHO)

The COOKIE ECHO chunk is sent in response to the INIT ACK message as part of the four-way handshake in SCTP.

0x11

Cookie Acknowledgment (COOKIE ACK)

The COOKIE ACK chunk is sent in response to the COOKIE ECHO message. This message is the fourth and final message in the SCTP initiation phase. Each SCTP endpoint has established an association with the other endpoint.

0x12

Explicit Congestion Notification Echo (ECNE)

This chunk value is reserved, but the ECNE has not been formally defined by the IETF.

0x13

Congestion Window Reduced (CWR)

This chunk value is reserved, but the CWR has not been formally defined by the IETF.

0x14

Shutdown Complete The SHUTDOWN COMPLETE chunk is the last (SHUTDOWN COMPLETE) chunk sent and confirms that both endpoints have closed the SCTP association.

In addition to the chunk types defined in Table 6-1, SCTP also reserves chunk values for IETF-defined extensions. The following sections discuss some SCTP extensions that enable mobility.

SCTP Extensions SCTP also allows new chunk types and parameter fields to be defined, making the protocol extensible. These extensions are maintained and managed through Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standards. Unlike many extensible protocols, SCTP does not permit vendor-specific extensions. One specific extension, the ADDIP extension, extends SCTP to be used as a mobility management protocol. The ADDIP extension is defined in RFC 5061, Dynamic Address Reconfiguration.

Chapter 6: Transport/Session Layer Mobility

Dynamic Address Reconfiguration As discussed earlier in this chapter, SCTP allows a multihomed device to take advantage of multiple interfaces by binding them to a single association. However, the protocol, by default, does not allow new IP addresses to be added or deleted, or for the primary address to be reset, without the Dynamic Address Reconfiguration extension defined by RFC 5061. This extension adapts SCTP from a protocol capable of providing resiliency and fault protection into one capable of providing mobility or session continuity as a node changes point of attachment. While originally designed to provide support for hot-pluggable interfaces, the SCTP ADDIP extension maintains an SCTP association across both host and network reconfigurations. These reconfigurations can be the result of either user action, such as watching a video while a passenger in a car, or service provider action, such as IPv6 dynamic network renumbering. For these cases, the SCTP ADDIP extension allows the endpoint that has experienced a change to notify the SCTP peer of the new conditions. The SCTP ADDIP extension consists of two new SCTP chunk types and seven new parameters. Table 6-2 provides information on the new chunk types. Figure 6-17 illustrates the ASCONF chunk format, and Figure 6-18 illustrates the ASCONF-ACK chunk format. Table 6-2

SCTP ADDIP Chunk Types

Chunk Type Chunk Name

Chunk Function

0xC1

Address Configuration Change Chunk (ASCONF)

The ASCONF chunk is used by the local endpoint to communicate an address change to an SCTP peer. This address change might be an addition or deletion of an address to a specific SCTP association, or a change of the primary address used for communication.

0x80

Address Configuration Acknowledgment (ASCONF-ACK)

The ASCONF-ACK chunk is used by a remote endpoint to acknowledge the ASCONF chunk received from a peer.

Chunk Type = 0xC1

Chunk Flags

Chunk Length

Sequence Number Address Parameter ASCONF Parameter #1 … ASCONF Parameter #N

Figure 6-17

SCTP ASCONF Chunk Format

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Building the Mobile Internet

Chunk Type = 0x80

Chunk Flags

Chunk Length

Sequence Number Address Parameter ASCONF Parameter Response #1 … ASCONF Parameter Response #N

Figure 6-18

SCTP ASCONF-ACK Chunk Format

Table 6-3 provides information on the additional SCTP parameters defined in the ADDIP extension. Table 6-3

SCTP ADDIP New Parameter Types

Parameter Type Parameter Name

Parameter Use

Parameter Function

0xC004

Set Primary Address

SCTP INIT/INIT-ACK Chunk

This field contains an IPv4 or IPv6 address, notifying the receiver that the address is to be the primary address for sending traffic to.

0xC006

Adaptation Layer Indication

SCTP INIT/INIT-ACK Chunk

This field pertains to upperlayer protocols, such as adaptation layers that require indication to be carried in SCTP INIT/ACK.

0x8008

Supported Extensions SCTP INIT/INIT-ACK Chunk

This field contains all the chunk types supported by the sending SCTP peer.

0xC001

Add IP Address

SCTP ASCONF

This field contains an IPv4 or IPv6 address, notifying the receiver that the address is to be added to the existing association.

0xC002

Delete IP Address

SCTP ASCONF

This field contains an IPv4 or IPv6 address, notifying the receiver that the address is to be deleted from the existing association.

Chapter 6: Transport/Session Layer Mobility

Parameter Type Parameter Name

Parameter Use

Parameter Function

0xC004

Set Primary Address

SCTP ASCONF

This field contains an IPv4 or IPv6 address, notifying the receiver that the address is to be the primary address for sending traffic to.

0xC003

Error Cause Indication SCTP ASCONF-ACK

This field contains a cause code, identifying a standard SCTP error cause, as defined in RFC 4960.

0xC005

Success Indication

This field contains a success code for a specific parameter. Although, by default, if no Error Cause Indication is sent, the SCTP peer implicitly assumes success, some SCTP peers might send the Success Indication.

SCTP ASCONF-ACK

Mobile SCTP Although only experimental within the IETF, the Mobile SCTP6 variant defines a mechanism for SCTP mobility. Mobile SCTP builds on the ADDIP extension, highlighting how the SCTP protocol can be used for signaling mobility events, recommending enhancements in the mobile node, and highlighting the interaction between link layer mobility mechanisms and transport layer mobility mechanisms. While Mobile SCTP might be a promising first step, a more specified and standardized solution is required to make SCTP viable for delivering full mobility.

Multipath TCP The Multipath TCP workgroup7 in the IETF focuses on modifying the TCP protocol to behave in similar ways to SCTP. Most notably, multipath TCP (MPTCP) extensions allow simultaneous use of multiple paths for TCP sessions. Unlike SCTP, however, the MPTCP can provide the following benefits: ■

Interworking with existing Internet infrastructure



Stability over a wide range of existing Internet paths



Transparency to in-path network nodes (such as Network Address Translation [NAT] devices)

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Chapter 6: Transport/Session Layer Mobility

MPTCP Functional Architecture Many of the principles on which MPTCP is based were developed as part of the Transport Next-Generation (Tng) project8, which proposes decomposing the transport layer into application-oriented functions and network-oriented functions. Figure 6-20 illustrates this approach, creating four logical layers residing between the application and network layers.

Application Layer Semantic Layer Application Layer Transport Layer

Application Oriented Isolation Layer Flow Layer Network Oriented

Network Layer

Endpoint Layer

Datalink Layer

Network Layer Datalink Layer

Figure 6-20

Decomposed Transport Layer in Tng

These logical layers are defined as follows: ■

Semantic layer: Abstracts the communications channel from the application itself. This layer makes the communications paths, such as TCP sessions or SCTP multistreams, available to all applications.



Isolation layer: Provides end-to-end protection and reliability.



Flow layer: Provides congestion control mechanisms, such as TCP windowing, and other performance management capabilities.



Endpoint layer: Implements service and endpoint identification mechanisms, such as port numbers, that can be used to identify and enforce network policies.

With this model, MPTCP provides support for end-to-end, application-oriented functions while supporting in-path network nodes that intervene in segment-by-segment, network-oriented functions. Figure 6-21 illustrates this approach. In fact, MPTCP further seeks to leverage TCP itself for the network-oriented functions, and inserts between the application and TCP layer to provide the application-oriented functions, as illustrated in Figure 6-22.

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End to End

Application Layer

Application Layer

Semantic Layer

Semantic Layer

Isolation Layer

Isolation Layer

Flow Layer

Flow Layer

Flow Layer

Endpoint Layer

Endpoint Layer

Endpoint Layer

Network Layer

Network Layer

Network Layer

Client

Firewall, NAT, Proxy, etc.

Server

Figure 6-21

Decomposed Transport Layer in End-to-End Model

Application Layer

Application Layer

Semantic Layer MP TCP Isolation Layer

Flow Layer TCP Endpoint Layer Network Layer Tng Protocol Stack

Figure 6-22

IP MP TCP Protocol Stack

MPTCP in the Decomposed Transport Model

This functional decomposition of MPTCP and TCP allows MPTCP to control multiple TCP sessions independently as “subflows.” MPTCP controls packet scheduling, interface selection, and path management for each individual TCP session. Figure 6-23 depicts how TCP sessions can be used as MPTCP subflows. Similar to SCTP, MPTCP can take information from the application layer and distribute the data sequence over any number of available TCP sessions, as illustrated in Figure 6-24.

Chapter 6: Transport/Session Layer Mobility

MPTCP Application Impacts As Figures 6-21 and 6-22 illustrate, MPTCP requires support in both endpoints in a session. An MPTCP application programming interface9 (API) is defined in the IETF to provide application developers insight into how an application can exploit the capabilities of multipath transport. The de facto standard API for TCP is the “socket” interface. The socket interface provides transport-independent functions for setting up and tearing down sessions, data transfer, and so on. This API, in short, allows an application to use transport layer functions, including those available in both TCP and UDP. MPTCP leverages the socket API for multihoming shim10 to provide the application layer with access to MPTCP’s path management and interface selection capabilities. Figure 6-26 illustrates how the socket API integrates into the MPTCP architecture.

Application Layer Socket API

MP TCP

TCP

IP MP TCP Protocol Stack

Figure 6-26

Socket API in MPTCP Architecture

MPTCP for Mobility Given some of the inherent functions of MPTCP, including adding and deleting addresses from a session and load sharing across multiple available interfaces, MPTCP is a feasible solution for providing mobility in next-generation mobile networks. However, MPTCP suffers from many of the same concerns as other transport layer mobility mechanisms, including SCTP. To provide full mobility, MPTCP requires additional extensions and enhancements. While these enhancements do not yet exist, the Internet community and IETF working groups will undoubtedly evolve MPTCP for mobility.

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MSOCKS: An Architecture for Transport Layer Mobility MSOCKS originated as a research project at IBM’s Watson Research Center. MSOCKS is largely built on the framework of SOCKS (RFC 1928), which defines a firewall traversal capability for TCP connections. The MSOCKS project creates an architecture known as Transport Layer Mobility (TLM). The TLM architecture seeks to solve a number of problems that have historically not been addressed with a common architecture. These problems are as follows: ■

Providing simultaneous use of multiple interfaces on a mobile node



Allowing the mobile node to change point of attachment



Allowing the mobile node to determine which data flows utilize which available interface

TLM uses a proxy architecture. Proxy architectures have long been deployed in mobile networks for various functions, including delivery of Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) and video services, session-based charging, and transport optimization. An intermediate host, known as a proxy, is placed between the mobile node and destination server. This proxy resides directly in the communications path, mediates communication between the mobile node and server, and provides services on behalf of either. Depending on which layer the proxy functions, these services might include adaptation of HTTP traffic, transcoding/transrating of video traffic, or simply TCP session management. Figure 6-27 illustrates an architecture in which numerous proxies are deployed.

Client

Figure 6-27

Proxy

Server

Conversation Setup

Conversation Setup

Conversation Conversation Teardown

Conversation Conversation Teardown

Proxy Architecture

Chapter 6: Transport/Session Layer Mobility

Most proxies operate on a split-connection model. In this model, an end-to-end communications path between a mobile node and a server is split into two separate connections. One connection exists between the mobile node and the proxy, and another connection exists between the proxy and the server. The TLM architecture relies on a proxy at the transport layer similar to how Mobile IP relies on a gateway at the network layer. A TLM proxy supports mobility by providing a mechanism to migrate the connection between the mobile node and the proxy to a new interface while keeping the connection between the proxy and server unchanged11. Figure 6-28 illustrates the TLM architecture.

Client

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SYN SYN ACK ACK Connect (Addr, Port) SYN SYN ACK ACK

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Figure 6-28

Splice

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TLM Proxy Architecture

Like all transport layer approaches, TLM requires that the underlying layers provide IP address management functions. Upon establishing network layer connectivity, the mobile node would then request that the proxy migrate its sessions to the new interface. Figure 6-29 depicts how a TLM proxy provides mobility functions.

TLM Protocol The TLM architecture requires an intermediate TLM proxy and modification to the mobile node TCP stack, but no modifications to either the server or the mobile node application layer. This approach allows application developers and Internet server hosts to remain unmodified. Figure 6-30 illustrates how the TLM protocol fits within the existing client and server stacks.

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Proxy

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X

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Figure 6-29

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TLM Mobility Functions

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Figure 6-30

TLM Architecture

In addition, the TLM architecture also enables a mobile node to simultaneously use two different interfaces and control which traffic is sent over which interface. This is done by enabling multiple IP interfaces on the TLM proxy and assigning host routes, corresponding to one or more of these interfaces, on the mobile node for specific destination

Chapter 6: Transport/Session Layer Mobility

servers. This allows the mobile node to control not only outbound traffic but also inbound traffic. Figure 6-31 illustrates how TLM allows a mobile node to control which interface traffic uses.

Proxy

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MSOCKS Summary While a prototype for MSOCKS demonstrates the performance improvements and capabilities that a transport-proxy approach can deliver, TLM remains largely a research experiment, with little development in standards organizations. The most notable objection is that TLM is not well suited for interdomain, or interoperator, mobility because the proxy device is fixed, leading to triangular routing. However, the MSOCKS researchers did define a broad set of requirements for transport layer mobility that have been incorporated into both MPTCP and SCTP designs. Innovative approaches to solve mobility at the transport layer, such as MSOCKS, continue to pave the way for the viability of transport layer mobility approaches.

Other Transport Layer Mobility Approaches Numerous other approaches to transport layer mobility have also been proposed over the last several years. Each approach has both merits and drawbacks, and certainly limited degrees of acceptance. Rather than discussing every approach to transport layer mobility, however, the following sections instead provide a few examples of transport layer mobility research projects.

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Migrate Internet Project The Migrate Internet Project12, developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Lab for Computer Science, consists of a new session layer and TCP extensions that allow session migration. Although referred to as a session layer approach, the Migrate Internet Project is similar to TLM in that it relies on TCP options to signal and authenticate session reestablishment; however, the Migrate solution also removes the need for a proxy in the TCP flow. This, in turn, requires that both client and server are Migrate capable. Figure 6-32 illustrates the Migrate approach.

Server SYN Migrate Supported

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SYN ACK Migrate Supported ACK

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X

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Figure 6-32

Migrate Approach

Migratory TCP The Migratory TCP (M-TCP) protocol, proposed by the Discolab at Rutgers University13, also relies on extensions to TCP to communicate and coordinate state information between clients and servers. Instead of being driven by the need to migrate an existing connection between available interfaces on a client device, M-TCP seeks to instead allow a client to move a TCP connection between two servers. Figure 6-33 illustrates M-TCP.

Chapter 6: Transport/Session Layer Mobility

Client

Server 1

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TCP Session Session ID = A SYN Session ID=A, Server = Server 1)

State Request State Reply SYN ACK

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Figure 6-33

Migratory TCP

Session Layer Mobility Approaches The session layer has historically been omitted from real-world implementations of data networks. Applications themselves create and use transport layer connections, rather than relying on the session layer to create them. This leads to some difficulty in using a transport layer approach to resolve mobility, because each transport layer connection that requires mobility manages itself. By placing mobility management, including the capability to monitor movement and trigger binding updates, at the session layer, these functions could be provided on a system-wide level to all overlying applications. Providing many of the same advantages as transport layer mobility, session layer mobility has been an area of research for many years, mainly because of its simplicity. Transport layer protocols are mature and provide numerous functions. Because the session layer is mostly unutilized, adding features tends to be simpler. SLM provides another framework for supporting end-to-end mobility on an existing Internet framework without the use of IP tunnels. SLM relies on a shim layer, called a Session Management (SM) entity, that provides connection control between the application layer and network interface. This shim layer is not significantly different from either the MPTCP architecture or the SCTP multihoming capabilities. Figure 6-34 illustrates the SM entity.

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Client Application Layer

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Unlike the transport layer approaches discussed previously, however, the SLM session layer approach provides location management. Such a session layer might be effectively paired with a mobility-enhanced, lower-layer protocol to divide functions. A logical division of these functions would have the session layer maintaining reachability and the transport layer maintaining connections. The SLM architecture also introduces a new network entity, called the User Location Server (ULS), which is used to locate the called party and provide any address translations necessary. Any correspondent node can retrieve the mobile host’s current location by querying this ULS. This functionality is similar to a home agent control plane in Mobile IP without the requirement for bearer anchoring. In addition, this functionality is similar to the Home Location Registrar (HLR) function in Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) voice networks. Figure 6-35 illustrates the role of the ULS. When a mobile node changes point of attachment, it sends an update to the ULS, much like the Mobile IP Binding Update message. Any protocol can be used to send this update, as long as the ULS understands the update. For example, the ULS can be an extension on existing DNS servers, and Dynamic DNS can be used to update location. Correspondent nodes learn of the ULS address for a specific mobile node either in a session setup message with the mobile node (that is, TCP options) or through a DNS query for the ULS address. There are numerous concerns about the feasibility of this session layer approach. Most notably, this approach is not well suited for session continuity approaches because of delays in updating the ULS. In addition, the limited deployment of session layers within the current Internet architecture makes session layer approaches like SLM difficult to implement.

Building the Mobile Internet

Table 6-4

Transport and Session Layer Approaches to Mobility

Approach

Pros

Cons

SCTP

Multistreaming well suited to mobile wireless networks

Poor support for in-path network elements

Multipath support (through SCTP Concurrent Multipath Transport)

Limited known industry support for adoption and development

Well standardized through the IETF MPTCP

Interworking with existing Internet infrastructure

Framework to support mobility, but no inherent mobility functions

Stability over a wide range of existing Internet paths

Early in standardization process

Transparency to in-path network nodes (such as NAT devices) MSOCKS

Interworking with existing Internet infrastructure

Proxy architecture introduces complexity

Transparency to in-path network nodes (such as NAT devices) when not residing between source and proxy

No standardization efforts under way

Endnotes 1.

H. Zimmermann. “OSI Reference Model—The ISO Model of Architecture for Open Systems Interconnection.” IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 425–432: April 1980.

2.

draft-schuetz-tcpm-tcp-rlci-03.

3.

http://www.crhc.uiuc.edu/%7Enhv/old.papers/mobile-computing/TCP_paper.ps.

4.

http://paul.rutgers.edu/%7Egsamir/research/paper.ps.

5.

RFC 3286, “An Introduction to the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP).”

6.

draft-riegel-tuexen-mobile-sctp-09.

7.

http://tools.ietf.org/wg/mptcp/charters.

8.

draft-iyengar-ford-tng-00.

9.

draft-scharf-mptcp-api-00.

10. draft-ietf-shim6-multihome-shim-api-13. 11. MSOCKS: An Architecture for Transport Layer Mobility,http:// ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel4/5315/14479/00662913.pdf. 12. http://nms.lcs.mit.edu/migrate. 13. http://discolab.rutgers.edu/mtcp.

Chapter 7

Application Mobility

The previous chapters have described techniques for solving the mobility problem using solutions for routing packets toward a particular device using IP identities (addresses) as endpoint identifiers. Application mobility looks to solve the mobility problem using nonIP identities as personal identifiers.

Note There might be a 1-to-1 relationship between a “personal identifier” and a particular user, an N-to-1 relationship where a particular user has multiple personal identifiers, or a 1-to-N relationship where a single personal identifier is shared among multiple users.

Solving mobility using non-IP personal identifiers allows the focus of mobility to switch from the endpoint or device toward the person. This means that we can consider a common personal identity to be associated with multiple devices, allowing application mobility use cases to include techniques for transferring contexts, including media flows, between devices. Because application mobility can solve generic cases where a common non-IP personal identifier is associated with different devices, it can also solve the trivial case where a common non-IP personal identifier is associated with different interfaces on the same devices, in effect offering a holistic approach to mobility. This chapter will start by looking at using application mobility to solve the interdevice use case and then go on to examine any shortcomings of using the same techniques for addressing intradevice mobility.

User-Centric Mobility Figure 7-1 shows a generic example of a user having access to three separate devices. In this example, the smartphone supports multihoming to two different access technologies: a wide-area network (for example, a cellular network) and a local-area network (for example, built using wireless LAN technology). Conversely, the cellphone and laptop can only

Chapter 7: Application Mobility

Note A consequence of solving mobility at the application layer is that unlike alternative approaches to solving mobility, the correspondent node will be fully aware of any changes to the IP address associated with a particular user. Where this IP address can be used to infer the geolocation of a user, the correspondent node might be able to track the location of a particular user, raising specific privacy issues. If the privacy of a user’s location is a concern, application mobility needs to be coupled with other functionality that is able to mask a user’s location.

Application Mobility Using the Domain Name System Perhaps the most widely used application identity on the Internet is the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN). RFC 11231 requires all Internet hosts to provide and interface to the Domain Name System (DNS), which allows all information associated with a specific FQDN to be returned to the requesting application. Because DNS implements a distributed, hierarchical database for associating FQDNs with IP addresses, the same concepts can be reused for providing application layer mobility. The DNS record includes an “A” and/or “AAAA” Resource Record (RR) type that contains the IPv4 and/or IPv6 address(es) associated with the host name (for example, cisco.com A 198.133.219.25) and a domain name pointer (PTR) RR that supports “reverse” DNS lookups, whereby a correspondent node wants to determine which FQDN is associated with an IP address (for example, 25.219.133.198.in-addr.arpa PTRwww9.cisco.com). Although the DNS was originally designed for supporting static mappings of an FQDN to a host’s IP address, enhancements to the system have been defined that support dynamic updates in RFC 21362. Techniques for supporting secure dynamic updates to DNS are specified in RFC 30073 and RFC 40344. These procedures leverage DNS security, including mechanisms based on scalable Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) or secret keys, which allows DNS entities to authenticate DNS requests and responses sent between them. When it comes to who has the authority to update the A and PTR records, a DHCP client can be given the authority to update its A Resource Record. Alternatively, the DHCP server can be responsible for updating both A and PTR RRs. Both options are specified in RFC 47025. Figure 7-2 shows the signaling exchange where the DHCP client is responsible for updating its A record. The client includes the FQDN Option 81 in its DHCP Request message, setting the S bit to 0, which indicates that the DHCP client wants to have responsibility for updating its A RR. The option also includes the client’s FQDN. The exact order of the Dynamic DNS (DDNS) update is not specified, but the signaling exchange shows the update happening before the DHCP Ack is sent back to the client. The DHCP server includes the option in its DHCP Ack with the S bit set to 0, indicating that the server has agreed that the client is responsible for updating its A record. Finally, the client sends the DNS Update to complete the procedure.

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Application Mobility Using the Session Initiation Protocol Specified by IETF RFC 32616, the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an application layer control protocol that provides signaling for the creation, termination, and modification of sessions. Perhaps the most common session type associated with SIP is the media associated with a voice call, where SIP provides the signaling for voice calls in the IP domain to enable Voice over IP (VoIP) services to be deployed.

SIP and Capabilities SIP provides a generic session initiation framework rather than a structured method and protocol for session instantiation and control. Most frequently, the detailed session parameters are agreed between two SIP endpoints using the Session Description Protocol (SDP) that can be embedded within SIP messages, and the actual media session is transported using the Real Time Protocol (RTP). The basic functionality established by SIP can be summarized in three broad capabilities: ■

Addressing: SIP addressing is achieved using the SIP Uniform Resource Identifier (URI). A SIP URI has the form of sip:[email protected] The username part of the URL can be a username, device name, or telephone number. The host part of the URL is either a domain name or a numeric network address, such as an IP address.



Registration: SIP provides a registration service that allows one or more IP addresses to be associated with a particular SIP URI.



Session control: SIP provides the ability to invite another user agent to a particular session, to modify an ongoing session, and to terminate a session.

Architecturally, SIP consists of a number of elements, as illustrated in Figure 7-3. These elements include the following: ■

SIP user agent: SIP relies on a client-server request-response mechanism for session initiation. A User Agent Client (UAC) initiates SIP requests. A User Agent Server (UAS) responds to SIP requests.



SIP proxy server: A proxy server acts as a signaling router for SIP messages. It receives a SIP message from a SIP user agent or another proxy and routes it toward its destination. The proxy server might also provide security or authentication capabilities on the local network (through a client challenge mechanism) to ensure the identity of a SIP client.



SIP registrar: A registrar is a SIP component that accepts SIP user registrations. These registrations are used to establish the reachability of a SIP URI, associating it with one or more host IP addresses.



SIP redirect server: A redirect server can be used to redirect a SIP client session to a new SIP URI, enabling call diversion services to be realized. Redirect servers do not

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SUBSCRIBE/NOTIFY: Enables SIP UAs to be signaled with event notifications that can be used to convey presence information and is defined in RFC 3265.



UPDATE: Allows a session to be modified and is defined in RFC 3311.



REFER: Enables call transfer and is defined in RFC 3515.



MESSAGE: Used for instant messaging and is defined in RFC 3428.

SIP Message Format Having introduced SIP and its methods, the following sections provide some examples of SIP message formats and signaling flows that will be used as a foundation to understand how SIP can provide mobility services. Unlike previous voice signaling protocols, which make extensive use of Abstract Syntax Notation (ASN.1) defined Type Length Value (TLV) encoding to describe message contents, SIP is a text-based protocol similar in many respects to HTTP.

SIP Request and Status Lines SIP request messages begin with a request line, and SIP responses begin with a status line. These lines are followed by header fields that are identical in both request and response messages. The following is an example of a request line: INVITE sip:[email protected] SIP/2.0 where: ■

INVITE indicates the SIP method.



sip:[email protected] is a SIP URI.



SIP/2.0 indicates the protocol version.

The following is an example of a status line: SIP/2.0 180 Ringing where: ■

SIP/2.0 indicates the protocol version.



180 provides a numerical status code of the transaction.



Ringing provides a human-readable format of the transaction status.

Different status codes are defined and range from 100 to 699. Table 7-1 indicates how the status codes are grouped in specific numerical ranges to indicate specific meanings.

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Table 7-1

SIP Numerical Status Code Ranges and Their Meanings

Status Code Range

Meaning

100–199

Provisional

200–299

Success

300–399

Redirection

400–499

Client error

500–599

Server error

600–699

Global failure

SIP Header Fields RFC 3261 defines the six mandatory header fields that are included in every SIP message: ■

To: This header field contains a destination of the transaction request in the form of a human-readable SIP URI.



From: This header field contains the originator of the transaction request in the form of a human-readable SIP URI.



Cseq: This header field contains a sequence number and a method name.



Call-ID: This header contains a unique identifier for the SIP message exchange.



Max-forwards: This header is used to avoid routing loops between SIP proxies. Every proxy that forwards the SIP message will decrement the value of this header by 1. If this value reaches 0, the message is discarded.



Via: This header is used to ensure that SIP messages are routed symmetrically. In other words, a SIP proxy that handles a SIP request can use the Via header to ensure that it handles the SIP response to the transaction.

Another header field that, although not mandatory, plays a critical role in how SIP provides application mobility is the Contact header. This header field contains a SIP URI and is used to indicate how the message originator can be directly contacted—for example, avoiding subsequent SIP exchanges having to be processed by a SIP proxy.

Note SIP also provides the capability to enforce routing of SIP messages by a SIP proxy. In such circumstances, the SIP proxy includes a Record-Route header containing the proxy’s SIP URI in a request. The Record-Route header is included in the response, ensuring that both the originator and destination know that the SIP proxy is required to be included in future transactions. This is ensured by the originator including the Route header in subsequent SIP request messages containing the SIP URI of the proxy recovered from the Record-Route header field.

Chapter 7: Application Mobility

SIP Message Body After the header fields in the SIP message, there is a blank line followed by the SIP message body. When SIP is used to provide VoIP services, one of the most common types of message bodies is the Session Description Protocol (SDP). SDP is specified in RFC 45668 and, when embedded in SIP messages, is used together with an offer/answer model9 to allow two SIP UAs to agree on a multimedia session. Example 7-1 shows an example of an SDP offer by Charlie and a subsequent SDP answer by Harry. The o= field gives the originator’s username and IP address plus a session identifier. The c= line indicates connection data or the IP address where Charlie wants to receive the media stream(s). In this example, Charlie wants to establish two media streams and hence includes two m= lines, one describing the offered audio stream and the other the video stream. The m= lines include the port number where Charlie wants to receive the media stream (20000 for audio and 20002 for video), the audio and video codecs that Charlie’s terminal supports (indicating that the terminal supports both the G.711 μ-law [corresponding to type 0] and GSM [corresponding to type 3] audio codecs and the H.261 video codec [corresponding to type 31]), and the protocol used to transport the media (in this case, RTP/UDP/IP). Example 7-1

SDP Session Description Offer and Answer

v=0 o=Charlie 2790844767 2867892087 IN IP4 64.103.25.233 c=IN IPv4 64.103.25.233 t=0 0 m=audio 20000 RTP/AVP 0 3 a=sendrecv m=video 20002 RTP/AVP 31

v=0 o=Harry 2345662566 236376607 IN IP4 64.103.12.167 c=IN IPv4 64.103.12.167 t=0 0 m=audio 30000 RTP/AVP 0 a=sendrecv

Example 7-1 also shows the SDP answer that Harry responds with. This answer indicates that Harry’s terminal does not support the H.261 video codec (no m= line corresponding to video media is included in the answer) but does support the same G.711 μ-law codec included in Charlie’s offer. The SDP answer then allows a common audio codec to be negotiated between Charlie and Harry, as well as the IP addresses and ports where incoming media is expected to be received by both terminals.

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Example 7-2

SIP REGISTER Message

REGISTER sip:example.com SIP/2.0 To: Charlie From: Charlie ; tag=a73kszlfl Call-ID: [email protected] Cseq: 1 REGISTER Max-Forwards: 70 Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 64.103.25.233:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7 Contact: Content-Length: 0



The request line shows the SIP method as well as the SIP URI identifying the location service for example.com.



The To header field contains the SIP URI identifying the record whose registration status is being created.



The From header field contains the SIP URI of the person creating the registration— in this case, Charlie.



The Call-ID header field contains a fixed value used in all registrations.



The CSeq (Command Sequence) header field contains an integer sequence number and the method name—in this case, REGISTER. Requests within a dialog are identified by a monotonically increasing sequence number. A SIP dialog is typically established with an INVITE/200 OK transaction and terminated with a BYE/200 OK transaction.



The Contact header field contains the address that is requested to be bound to the registration, corresponding to a direct route by which Charlie can be contacted. It can be of the form username at a Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) or, as in this case, an IP address.

The preceding description describes a single registration transaction. Of course, SIP also allows Charlie to register different contact information—for example, associating his SIP URI with the IP address of his mobile phone as well as the IP address of his softphone PC client.

SIP Authentication You know that application mobility requires authentication services to be provided. SIP provides a challenge-response-based mechanism for authentication that is based on authentication in HTTP10 and is known as Digest authentication. Authentication is typically used between a SIP UA and a SIP proxy or registrar server, whereby the server requires each SIP UA to authenticate itself prior to the server processing the method. In general, the registration procedure should always be authenticated to avoid malicious users from registering false contact information for a particular SIP URI.

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the SDP Answer indicating that the media description has been successfully negotiated between the two endpoints.

Note While Figure 7-6 shows the SDP answer being included in the 200 OK message, other options are possible, including the SDP answer being sent with the “180 Ringing” provisional response, which is used to establish “early media” between two endpoints. For example, if the terminating endpoint is a VoIP gateway, such early media can be used to send ringing tones back toward the originating endpoint.

The establishment of the SIP session is completed by Charlie’s SIP UA sending an ACK request message, which does not have a response associated with it. Notice that Charlie has used Harry’s SIP URI received in the contact field of the SIP response message to allow Charlie and Harry to send subsequent SIP messages directly between each other. The negotiated media is then established. Finally, Figure 7-6 shows Harry ending the conversation by sending a SIP BYE request directly to Charlie, who responds with a 200 OK response indicating that the session has been successfully terminated.

SIP UA Mobility Example Using the previously described functionality, you can now see how a basic SIP mobility service can be realized. If the mobility event occurs prior to session establishment, the SIP UA is responsible for registering any newly obtained IP address prior to session establishment.

Note From a client perspective, there needs to be an application programming interface (API) by which the SIP application can determine that the IP address has changed (for example, by repeatedly performing a query/response exchange using a “getLocalIpAddress()” function call).

The more complicated use case is to accommodate SIP mobility during an already established session. Figure 7-7 illustrates the signaling exchanges for supporting SIP mobility when a session has already been established when Charlie’s SIP UA was connected to network 1. In addition, this example highlights the case where the SIP proxy wants to enforce the routing of SIP messages by inserting a Record-Route header in the original INVITE and in particular where such a proxy requires a SIP UA to perform a SIP registration prior to the SIP server providing proxy services. Such operations might be particularly important in mobility scenarios to prevent unauthorized SIP UAs from hijacking the media stream.

Building the Mobile Internet



Media updating delay: The media needs to be updated with the newly negotiated session description.

Simulations of handover performance13 indicate that with a wireless link delay of about 50 ms and an IP delay between SIP UAs of about 75 ms, the media interruption with a SIP-based application handover can exceed 0.8 seconds!

SIP Session Mobility The previous analysis of mobility solutions has been very device-centric. While such approaches might be applicable when the penetration of devices is low, as technology advances, Chapter 1, “Introduction to ‘Mobility’,” has described a future where the number of simultaneous devices associated with a single user is set to increase. With the Cisco Internet Business Solutions Group (IBSG) predicting that by 2010 there will be 35 billion devices connected to the Internet14 (or nearly six devices per person on the planet), one logical consequence is that the future support of mobility must move from the device-centric view of the past (where a user is defined by a single device) toward a user-centric view of the future (where a user has a plethora of devices on which to participate in sessions and consume media). Application mobility is unique in its capability to support interdevice mobility, allowing users to maintain service continuity even when changing the physical device on which the service is consumed. A user might initiate a session on a PC that includes video and audio components but partway through the session, might decide to leave the room in which the PC is located. Instead of terminating and reoriginating the session on a mobile device, SIPbased session mobility allows the transfer of the audio session directly from the PC to the mobile device. Two alternative approaches for realizing session transfer are as follows: ■

SIP REFER15



Third-Party Call Control (3PCC)16

SIP REFER-Based Session Mobility The REFER method is a SIP extension request that causes the recipient of the request to REFER to a resource provided in the request and for the originator of the request to be subsequently informed of the outcome. The SIP REFER method can be used for realizing a call transfer service. Figure 7-8 illustrates the signaling sequence for performing the SIP REFER-based session transfer described previously. Charlie has an established session with Harry using his SIP UA on his PC, using the SIP URI sip:[email protected] Charlie decides to transfer the session to his mobile phone and so sends a SIP REFER request to Harry’s SIP UA, providing the contact information for Charlie’s mobile phone in a Refer-To header field: Refer-To: sip:[email protected]

Chapter 7: Application Mobility

Note Conceptually, the use of the SIP B2BUA for handling mobility and masking the details of session mobility from a correspondent node can be likened to the use of proxies in other alternative approaches to providing mobility.

3PCC-Based Enhanced Session Mobility 3GPP has defined an enhanced 3PCC session mobility architecture, termed Session Continuity18. This architecture defines specific roles for SIP UAs, defining a controller SIP UA role and a controllee SIP UA role. The functionality of the controller SIP UA is augmented with additional functionality for the following: ■

The discovery of controllee SIP UAs



The initiation of interdevice session transfer procedures



3PCC control of the media flows to/from the controllee SIP UA—for example, the ability to add, modify, and release media on the controllee SIP UA

Note The controller SIP UA might even have no local media, in which case it acts purely as a SIP mobility management entity, remotely controlling the transfer of media sessions between one or more controllee SIP UAs.

A controller SIP UA uses the SIP SUBSCRIBE methods to discover the registration status of controllee SIP UAs by subscribing to the Registration events (reg-event) package19. This will trigger the SIP REGISTRAR to send a SIP NOTIFY message when the registration state of the subscribed-to SIP UA changes. After a controller UA has discovered a controllee UA, it can additionally send a SIP OPTIONS request to it to query the controllee SIP UA about its capabilities.

Note The SIP OPTION method is a generic way for a SIP UA to discover the capabilities of another SIP UA or proxy—for example, discovering whether a UA supports a particular SIP method defined by a SIP extension, or whether a UA supports a particular codec type without having to send an INVITE to the other party.

The 3PCC session mobility architecture defined by 3GPP allows the multiple controllee UAs to be involved in a “collaborative session.” In particular, a multimedia session might involve multiple devices, and the controller UA is responsible for combining the services delivered using individual devices into a collaborative session. Figure 7-10 illustrates one example of a collaborative session.

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Chapter 7: Application Mobility

suitable for providing such services, there are other aspects of application definition that can assist in mobilizing certain applications. In particular, how the application specification deals with asynchronous changes of IP addresses can lead to considerable improvements to the user experience when mobility events cause a host to change subnet. One clear example of how application specification can assist in mobility is the Hypertext Transfer Protocol/HTTP 1.1, as specified in RFC 261620. Importantly from a mobility perspective, HTTP 1.1 defines the client behavior when a transport connection is asynchronously closed. Whereas the HTTP 1.1 protocol designers foresaw example use cases corresponding to servers closing an “idle” connection after a client’s request was in progress, the same characteristics can be attributed to the client moving subnets and receiving a new host IP address. RFC 2616 specifies that HTTP 1.1 clients and server must be able to recover from the asynchronous closing of an HTTP 1.1 connection. Client software should reopen the transport connection (reestablish the communication socket, for example using a newly allocated IP address) and retransmit the aborted sequence of requests. Whereas such functionality does not allow sessions to be transferred between hosts, it does represent a foundation for ensuring that the impact on user experience is limited when applications are forced to operate in environments with changing IP addresses.

Note Other applications support mobility by remaining oblivious to mobility itself. These applications ignore any changes to the protocols underneath the application layer and remain unaware of any topologically relevant attachment point. This application class grew largely because lower layers did not support such mobility capabilities. Rather than relying on a binding between an application and TCP port, or TCP port and IP address, these applications use “tokens” within the application layer header that are used to identify both the identity and the session. While mobility protocols themselves rely on maintaining individual connections or sessions, either at the IP layer or TCP layer, these applications do not depend or rely on any level of continuity. Instead, the application itself closes and opens TCP connections as needed to ensure that user data flows continue seamlessly. In fact, these applications do not even distinguish between a loss of connection and change of IP address. Video streamers are one example of this application class.

Summary This chapter has introduced the key aspects of providing mobility at the application layer. Unlike other techniques described in this book, providing mobility at the application layer allows decoupling mobile operations from a particular device, allowing multidevice mobility use cases to be supported. As the number of devices that consumers have access to continues to increase, mobility functionality will increasingly have to accommodate a more subscriber-centric view rather than today’s view of mobility as a device-centric function.

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Starting with examining core functionality required for application mobility, key examples related to providing mobility using DDNS and SIP have been described. Examples have been provided that highlight how application mobility can provide mobility functionality for a single device, although the application quality of experience can be significantly impacted. Such single-device restrictions are not apparent when application mobility is used in a multidevice configuration, and sessions can be switched between devices to allow new mobility applications and use cases to be realized.

Endnotes 1.

RFC 1123, “Requirements for Internet Hosts—Applications and Support,” R. Braden, Oct. 1989.

2.

RFC 2136, “Dynamic Updates in the Domain Name System (DNS UPDATE),” P. Vixie, S. Thomson, Y. Rekhter, and J. Bound, April 1997.

3.

RFC 3007, “Secure Domain Name System (DNS) Dynamic Update,” B. Wellington, Nov. 2000.

4.

RFC 4034, “Resource Records for the DNS Security Extensions,” R. Arends, et. al., March 2005.

5.

RFC 4702, “The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Client Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) Option,” M. Stapp, B. Volz, and Y. Rekhter, Oct. 2006.

6.

RFC 3261, “SIP: Session Initiation Protocol,” J. Rosenberg, et. al., June 2002.

7.

RFC 5411, “A Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP),” J. Rosenberg, Feb. 2009.

8.

RFC 4566, “SDP: Session Description Protocol,” M. Handley, V. Jacobson, and C. Perkins, July 2006.

9.

RFC 3264, “An Offer/Answer Model with Session Description Protocol (SDP),” J. Rosenberg and H. Schulzrinne, June 2002.

10. RFC 2617, “HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication,” J. Franks, et. al., June 1999. 11. 3GPP TS 24.229, “IP multimedia call control protocol based on Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and Session Description Protocol (SDP); Stage 3,” http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/24229.htm. 12. 3GPP TS 33.203, “3G Security; Access security for IP-based services,” http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/specs/html-info/33203.htm. 13. C. Politis, K.A. Chew, and R. Tafazoli, “Multiplayer Mobility Management for All-IP Networks: Pure SIP vs. Hybrid SIP/Mobile IP,” IEEE Veh. Tech. Conf., 2003.

Chapter 7: Application Mobility

14. D. Evans, “Top 25 Technology Predictions,” Cisco IBSG, 2009, https://www.cisco.com/web/about/ac79/docs/Top_25_Predictions_121409rev.pdf. 15. RFC 3515, “The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Refer Method,” R. Sparks, April 2003. 16. RFC 3725, “Best Current Practices for Third Party Call Control (3pcc) in the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP),” J. Rosenberg, et. al., April 2004. 17. RFC 3265, “Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)—Specific Event Notification,” A.B. Roach, June 2002. 18. 3GPP TS 23.237, “IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) Service Continuity, Stage 2,” http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/specs/html-info/23237.htm. 19. RFC 3680, “A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Event Package for Registration,” J. Rosenberg, March 2004. 20. RFC 2616, “Hypertext Transfer Protocol—HTTP 1.1,” R. Fielding, et. al., June 1999.

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Chapter 8

Locator-Identifier Separation

Chapter 2 discussed the Internet protocol stack and in particular the fact that the IP address functions simultaneously as a Routing Locator (which is an identifier with a topological meaning) and as an Endpoint Identifier. Figure 8-1 illustrates this dual role. In retrospect, this can be seen as a design mistake, especially in the light of mobility.

Application Layer

Transport Layer

IP Address, Port (Endpoint Identifier)

Internet Layer

IP Address (Routing Locator)

Data Link Layer

Physical Layer

Figure 8-1

Layers of the Internet Architecture

When a host changes its point of attachment to the Internet, its IP address must change as well, and therefore all transport sessions will break. The previous chapters took the design of the Internet stack as a given and presented various ways of working around the problems that this causes for mobility.

Building the Mobile Internet

This chapter covers a few more fundamental approaches to mobility that do not shy away from redesigning the Internet protocol stack. These proposals share a common approach to separating Routing Locators and Endpoint Identifiers to wean all identification-related functions away from topology-dependent information (such as IP addresses), whereas the solutions presented in the earlier chapters adopt a protocol stack that includes IP as the communication endpoint. This common approach of separating the Routing Locator and Endpoint Identifier is generally called Locator-Identifier Separation, even though this is, strictly speaking, a misnomer. After all, the Routing Locator is also an identifier (namely, that of a location in the routing tree). Likewise, using just identifier as a label for an Endpoint Identifier is much too broad; after all, there are many types of identifiers that are not used to identify an endpoint. However, the remainder of this chapter sticks to this widely used terminology. Much of the work discussed here originates from the Routing Research Group (RRG) in the Internet Research Task Force1 (IRTF), the research-oriented sister organization of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). The reason for it being discussed there is that the lack of Locator-Identifier Separation not only causes problems with mobility but also with routing scalability, multihoming, and traffic engineering. Discussion of these topics is beyond the scope of this book. One issue that is of particular importance for mobility and somewhat less for the other problems is that of user location privacy. When identifiers are long lived and a publicly available mapping exists between identifiers and locators, it is possible to gather the location of a host (a number of services exist that can map IP addresses to geographic location with reasonable accuracy), and therefore the user using it, without the permission or even knowledge of that user. This is considered an invasion of privacy and violates privacy regulations. It is therefore important that the proposed mechanisms, by default, do not reveal the location of a particular host to unknown observers. You must realize that because of the vast amount of deployed computers, routers, and other devices that connect to the Internet, changing the fundamental architecture of the Internet is not easy; in particular, a “flag day” in which all hosts have to change is not feasible. The solutions discussed in this chapter try to strike a balance among changes needed at the hosts, changes needed in the core networks, and the possibility of adopting the solution incrementally. This chapter discusses four solutions that have either been around a bit longer or that have recently gained momentum in the RRG: ■

The Host Identity Protocol (HIP)



Locator-Identifier Separation Protocol – Mobile Node (LISP-MN)



Network Address Translation for IPv6 to IPv6 (NAT66)



Identifier-Locator Network Protocol (ILNP)

Before diving into the details of these solutions, it helps to understand the basic methods for Locator-Identifier Separation, as described in the section that follows.

Chapter 8: Locator-Identifier Separation

Approaches to Locator-Identifier Separation Most approaches to Locator-Identifier Separation fall into two broad categories: ■

Those that introduce an extra layer to hold the original Endpoint Identifiers encapsulated within packets that use Routing Locators as source and destination



Those that split the existing IPv6 address space into a part that has topological meaning and a part that is used to identify the host

Both categories can be further divided into the following: ■

Approaches that act at the host



Approaches that act at the border between a site and the core network

The benefit of implementing Locator-Identifier Separation on the border between a site and the core network is that typically the hosts don’t have to be changed, which is obviously a major obstacle in the adoption of an approach. However, this comes at the expense of end-to-end transparency of the communication, and might have implications for session persistence at the transport layer. Implementing Locator-Identifier Separation at the host does not have those downsides but requires each host to change its networking stack to benefit from Locator-Identifier Separation. HIP, discussed in the section that follows, is an example of an approach that introduces an extra layer at the host. The encapsulation of Endpoint Identifiers at the border of a network is also called a Map-and-Encap scheme. In this approach, packets with source and destination Endpoint Identifiers are encapsulated (the Encap) into packets containing source and destination Routing Locators. To find the Routing Locator corresponding to a particular Endpoint Identifier, some sort of mapping infrastructure is used (the Map). An example of a Map-and-Encap approach is LISP-MN, described later in the chapter. When the existing IPv6 address space is divided into separate IPv6 address spaces for a site network and for the core, this is usually called the Address Rewriting approach, because the IPv6 addresses that are used inside a side are at the border, with the rest of the Internet rewritten into addresses from the core address space. NAT66, described later in a section devoted to this topic, is an example of that. Alternatively, the higher-order 64 bits of an IPv6 address can be designated as a Routing Locator and the lower-order 64 bits as an Endpoint Identifier. Figure 8-2 shows what the IPv6 packet header looks like in this latter case. Hosts in a domain are not aware what their Routing Locator is. So, when a host sends a packet to another host, only the 64 bits of the Endpoint Identifier are specified for the source address. When the packet leaves the domain, the router at the border of the domain adds the Routing Locator part of the source address. When the packet arrives at the destination domain, the router at the border of that domain removes the Routing Locator bits of the destination address and forwards the packet to the destination. This way, the hosts never have knowledge about their own Routing Locator, but they have “normal” IPv6 addresses (consisting of Routing Locator and Endpoint Identifier) for the hosts they correspond with. ILNP, discussed later, is an example of this approach at the host.

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Building the Mobile Internet

Bit

3

0

7

11

15

19

23

27

31

0 Version

Traffic Class

Flow Label

31 Payload Length 63

Next Header

Hop Limit

Source Locator

127 Source Identifier

191 Destination Locator

255 Destination Identifier

319 Payload (Variable Length)

Figure 8-2 Packet Header When Splitting an IPv6 Address into an Endpoint Identifier and a Routing Locator Part

HIP The Host Identity Protocol (HIP), described in RFC 44232 and RFC 52013, introduces a new layer to the Internet protocol stack that sits between the Internet layer and the transport layer (see Figure 8-3). For this new layer, the host identity layer, a new namespace is introduced with Host Identifiers (HI). Each host will have at least one Host Identity and the corresponding identifier. Each Host Identity uniquely identifies a single host. Sockets are no longer bound to IP addresses but rather to HIs, thereby separating the Routing Locator (IP address) and Endpoint Identifier (HI). HIs are translated to IP addresses in the kernel. The HI for a particular server can typically be found in the Domain Name System (DNS). HIs are location independent and persistent (but can be changed).

Chapter 8: Locator-Identifier Separation

Application Layer

Transport Layer

Host Identifier

Host Identity Layer

Host Identifier

Internet Layer

IP Address

Data Link Layer

Physical Layer

Figure 8-3

HIP Stack

HIs are implemented as public keys of a public/private key pair, of which the private keys are stored at the host. Each host is responsible for creating its own public/private key pair. Because having different key lengths is cumbersome for applications, a 128-bit hash value of the HI is used instead of the HI itself—the Host ID Tag (HIT). In addition to providing mobility (change of IP address does not break the socket connection), the use of cryptographic identifiers also allows verification of the corresponding host as well as end-to-end encryption between the hosts (using IPsec Encapsulating Security Payload). Figure 8-4 shows how two hosts that want to communicate establish a shared state using the HIP base exchange. The system that initiates the HIP exchange is called the Initiator, and the peer is the Responder. The Initiator and Responder establish a shared secret for their communication using the Diffie-Hellman (D-H) key exchange4, a protocol that makes it possible for two parties that have no prior knowledge of each other to establish such a shared secret: 1.

The Initiator sends a packet containing its HIT to the Responder.

2.

The Responder answers by sending a puzzle (a cryptographic challenge), D-H parameters, a signature of part of the message using the HI, and the HI itself.

3.

The Initiator verifies the signature, computes the answer to the puzzle, and sends the latter along with the D-H parameter, a signature over part of the message using its HI, and its HI to the Responder.

4.

The Responder verifies the answer to the puzzle and sends a signed message back to the Initiator. The signature is verified by the Initiator.

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Chapter 8: Locator-Identifier Separation

it is questionable how realistic that is. Confidentiality and integrity of the communication between peers are achieved by using IPsec. At the time of introduction (around 2006), HIP didn’t get much traction, however, because of the fact that HIP requires IPv6 and because of the computational overhead of using IPsec. At that time, there was no strong need for an IP mobility solution because of the fact that mobile devices were, to a large extent, mobile phones that were using the Layer 2 mobility solutions in the mobile phone networks. Now that that situation has changed, it appears that existing and relatively widespread solutions such as Mobile IP and Proxy Mobile IP address most of the use cases for which HIP was envisioned.

Locator-Identifier Separation Protocol – Mobile Node (LISP-MN) Locator-Identifier Separation Protocol – Mobile Node (LISP-MN) aims to make it possible for mobile devices to roam while keeping TCP sessions alive and to be simultaneously connected to two different networks (multihomed). LISP-MN achieves this goal by leveraging a LISP infrastructure, so a description of LISP is given first.

LISP LISP5 implements a Map-and-Encap scheme. Packets are encapsulated at the border router of the sender domain (called the Ingress Tunnel Router [ITR] in LISP) and decapsulated at the border router of the receiving domain (the Egress Tunnel Router [ETR] in LISP). This makes it possible for the core routing (the routing between the domains) to be independent of the encapsulated Endpoint Identifiers and thus be optimized for the topological characteristics of the core network. LISP can be seen as adding an extra Internet layer below the existing one, as illustrated in Figure 8-5. So, if a host in one LISP-capable domain wants to send a packet to a host in another LISP-enabled domain, the following happens: 1.

The host looks up the name of the correspondent host in DNS, which gives an Endpoint Identifier.

2.

The host puts its Endpoint Identifier as the source and the correspondent host’s Endpoint Identifier as the destination.

3.

The packet traverses to the ITR. The ITR encapsulates the packet in a new packet with the Routing Locator of the ITR as the source and the Routing Locator of an ETR for the domain as the target (this mapping is either previously cached or is determined by the mapping mechanism).

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Building the Mobile Internet

Application Layer

Identifier

Transport Layer

Identifier

Internet Layer

Identifier

Internet Layer

Locator

Data Link Layer

Physical Layer

Figure 8-5

LISP Stack

4.

The packet traverses to the ETR.

5.

The ETR decapsulates the packet and sends it on to the destination Endpoint Identifier.

For the mapping infrastructure, a number of approaches have been proposed. The most widely used approach is called LISP-Alternative Topology (LISP-ALT). LISP-ALT uses the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) and generic routing encapsulation (GRE) to construct an overlay network for advertising Endpoint Identifier prefixes. Because the mapping mechanism is decoupled from the forwarding mechanism, however, any mapping mechanism can be used. Figure 8-6 shows a typical LISP scenario. The host with Endpoint Identifier 1.0.0.1 wants to send a packet to the host with Endpoint Identifier 2.0.0.2. This is done as follows: 1.

The packet arrives at ITR2 (that has Routing Locator 11.0.0.1).

2.

ITR2 looks up the Routing Locators corresponding with Endpoint Identifier 2.0.0.2, and finds 12.0.0.2 and 13.0.0.2, of which the first has the higher priority.

3.

ITR2 encapsulates the packet with source 1.0.0.1 and destination 2.0.0.2 in a packet with source 11.0.0.1 and destination 12.0.0.2 and forwards the packet as normal over the Internet core.

4.

ETR1 receives the packet and decapsulates it.

5.

ETR1 forwards the packet to 2.0.0.2.

Chapter 8: Locator-Identifier Separation

In LISP, a proxy Map Reply server can be used that is like an anchoring point in Mobile IP; however, unlike with Mobile IP, the actual data flow is never through that server. Given the assumption that Endpoint Identifiers are persistent, this introduces location privacy concerns. The largest obstacle appears to be the requirement for an operational LISP infrastructure. Until LISP is widely deployed, the benefits of LISP-MN are small.

NAT66 Network Address Translation for IPv6 to IPv67 (NAT66) describes a method for providing address independence. Address independence in this context means that the IPv6 addresses that are in use inside a local network do not have to change if the IPv6 prefix that is announced to the outside world changes (if the ISP changes the prefix or when the site changes ISPs). NAT is also widely used for IPv4, both for address independence and as a way of connecting many hosts to the Internet while only using a small amount of global IP addresses. The latter argument obviously doesn’t apply for IPv6; there is no address shortage in IPv6. NAT in an IPv4 environment causes a number of problems for transport and application layer protocols. These problems are extensively documented in RFC 29938, but are often summarized with the phrase “NAT is evil.” Most importantly, NAT for IPv4 requires the translation device to maintain per-node or per-connection state information and to rewrite transport layer headers. NAT will also break security mechanisms that provide integrity protection of the IP header (after all, the IP header changes when the address changes). NAT66 addresses these issues, with the exception of the integrity of the IP header protection, by using no port mapping function (used in IPv4 NAT to map many internal addresses to only one external IP address) and a default mapping mechanism that does not require maintaining state. Figure 8-8 shows the typical operation using NAT66: 1.

The host with internal IPv6 address FD01:0203:0405:0001::1234 in the site with Internal Prefix FD01:0203:0405:/48 sends a packet to the host with IPv6 address 2001:0DB8:5555:0001::1234.

2.

At the NAT66 device, the internal address is rewritten to the external address 2001:0DB8:0001:D550::1234 out of the 2001:0DB8:0001:/48 External Prefix.

3.

The receiving host sends return packets with a source 2001:0DB8:555:0001::1234 and a destination the external address 2001:0DB8:0001:D550::1234.

4.

At the NAT66 device, the external destination address 2001:0DB8:0001:D550::1234 is rewritten to FD01:0203:0405:0001::1234.

5.

The original sending host receives the return packet from 2001:0DB8:5555:0001::1234.

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Chapter 8: Locator-Identifier Separation

Identifier-Locator Network Protocol (ILNP) The Identifier-Locator Network Protocol9 (ILNP) is an example of the approach in which the existing address space is divided into Endpoint Identifiers and Routing Locators. In ILNP, the 128-bit IPv6 addresses in the packet headers are split into 64 bits for the Routing Locator and 64 bits for the Endpoint Identifier. The Locator has significance only in the network layer, and the Identifier has significance only in the transport layer. In addition to that, whereas the use of IP addresses at the application layer is quite common, ILNP is strict about only using fully qualified domain names (FQDN) at the application layer, as illustrated in Figure 8-9.

Application Layer

Transport Layer

Internet Layer

FQDN

Identifier

Locator, Identifier

Data Link Layer

Physical Layer

Figure 8-9

ILNP Stack

Identifiers are, by default, in the IEEE EUI-64 format10, which is a method for encoding MAC addresses into 64-bit IPv6 addresses. Typically, the MAC address of one of the interfaces of the host is used to construct the Identifier so that the Identifier is likely to be globally unique (not strictly necessary for ILNP, but this reduces the burden of checking for duplicate addresses). The Locators name a subnetwork and are used only for packet forwarding, not for anything above the network layer. Instead of using IP addresses at the transport layer, only the Identifier is used. When a host changes its point of attachment, the Locator changes but the Identifier remains the same, so the sessions at the transport layer remain intact. To reflect the fact that IP addresses are split into Locators and Identifiers, new record types are introduced into the DNS for looking up the Identifiers and Locators for a given host and vice versa. If a host changes its point of attachment, it will have to update its DNS to reflect the change of Locator. To minimize the risk for denial of service attacks by inserting false information in DNS, hosts should use Secure DNS Dynamic Updates11, and the use of DNS Secure (DNSSEC)12 is assumed.

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Building the Mobile Internet

Benefits and Challenges ILNP achieves separation of Routing Locators and Endpoint Identifiers. Only the hosts need to change; the routers don’t. This allows an incremental upgrade path. Two hosts that want to communicate can implement ILNP and benefit from the session mobility that is achieved through that without a need for other hosts to upgrade. At the same time, that is challenge, because changes in the host operating systems are not easy to deploy; it basically requires buy-in from the large OS manufacturers. The reliance on DNS casts some doubt as to whether ILNP will work when the host changes point of attachment quickly. Subsecond update rates of DNS information generally don’t work. A more fundamental problem with the use of DNS for looking up the Routing Locator given an Endpoint Identifier is the lack of location privacy this introduces—anyone can look up the location of a particular host at any time, given the Endpoint Identifier. The Endpoint Identifier is, by default, constructed from the MAC address and is therefore persistent. Anyone that has ever learned the MAC address of a particular host can keep track of its location. This issue can be solved by not using EUI-64 addresses and/or by using proxies that mask the actual location; however, that is not the default mode of operation.

Summary There are a number of approaches that try to deal with one of the fundamental flaws of the current Internet architecture: the use of IP addresses both as Routing Locators and as Endpoint Identifiers, resulting in sessions breaking when the host changes its point of attachment. The various approaches fall into two broad categories: ■

Those that introduce an extra layer to hold the original Endpoint Identifiers encapsulated within packets that use Routing Locators as source and destination, either implemented at the border between the site network and the rest of the Internet or at the host



Those that split the existing IPv6 address space into a part that has topological meaning and a part that is used to identify the host also implemented at either the border or at the host

This chapter discussed HIP, LISP-MN, NAT66, and ILNP as typical examples of LocatorIdentifier Separation. Time will tell whether one or more of these solutions will be widely deployed.

Parting Thoughts With the Internet becoming an infrastructure in which the majority of the devices are mobile, a number of challenges surface. They stem from the fact that the Internet has not

Chapter 8: Locator-Identifier Separation

been designed for large numbers of hosts that change their point of attachment on a regular basis. In particular, the fact that a communication session is associated with the IP address of the communicating parties causes trouble when either of them moves. This book introduced a number of solutions to partly overcome this fundamental flaw in the original design of the Internet. Depending on the use case, one or more of these solutions can be applied. And while, as this last chapter illustrates, there is currently no final, all-encompassing solution for this fundamental flaw, there is really no reason not to embrace the mobile Internet.

Endnotes 1.

Internet Research Task Force,http://www.irtf.org.

2.

RFC 4423, “Host Identity Protocol (HIP) Architecture,” R. Moskowitz and P. Nikander, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4423.txt,May 2006.

3.

RFC 5201, “Host Identity Protocol,” R. Moskowitz, P. Nikander, P. Jokela, and T. Henderson, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc5201.txt,April 2008.

4.

RFC 2631, “Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement Method,” E. Rescorla, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2631.txt,June 1999.

5.

D. Meyer. “LISP.” The Internet Protocol Journal, Vol. 11, No. 1: March 2008, http://www.cisco.com/web/about/ac123/ac147/archived_issues/ipj_111/111_lisp.html.

6.

“LISP Mobile Node,” Presentation at IETF, D. Farinacci, V. Fuller, D. Lewis, and D. Meyer, http://www.1-4-5.net/~dmm/talks/IETF76/lisp-ietf-arn-mn.final.pdf,July 2009.

7.

I-D.mrw-nat66, “IPv6-to-IPv6 Network Address Translation (NAT66),” M. Wasserman and F. Baker,http://tools.ietf.org/id/draft-mrw-nat66-00.txt (work in progress), October 2010.

8.

RFC 2993, “Architectural Implications of NAT,” T. Hain,http://www.ietf.org/rfc/ rfc2993.txt, November 2000.

9.

“An Introduction to the Identifier-Locator Network Protocol (ILNP),” R. Atkinson and S. Bhatti, http://www.cs.st-andrews.ac.uk/~saleem/papers/2006/lcs/ilnp/ ab2006.pdf, July 2006.

10. RFC 4291, “IPv6 Addressing Architecture,” R. Hinden and S. Deering, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4291.txt,February 2006. 11. RFC 3007, “Secure Domain Name System (DNS) Dynamic Update,” B. Wellington, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3007.txt,September 2000. 12. RFC 4033, “DNS Security Introduction and Requirements,” R. Arends, R. Austein, M. Larson, D. Massey, and S. Rose, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4033.txt,March 2005.

233

Index Numbers

A

3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project), 3, 36 access, 43 Generic Access Network (GAN), 87-89 implementation in MOBIKE, 156-158 3GPP mobility

A-GPS (assisted GPS), 49 AAA interactions in Mobile IPv4, 109-111 AAA servers, 36, 136 abort procedures (SCTP), 173 Access Point Name (APN), 73-74

with GTP (GPRS tunneling protocol), 73 APN (Access Point Name), 73-74 context transfer, 76-77 PDP context activation, 74-75 with PMIPv6, 84- 86 3GPP2 implementation of Mobile IPv4, 119-122 3PCC-based session mobility, 212-214 802.1X authentication, 39-40 802.11u standard, 45

access points in LTE networks, 37 access routers, 136 ACK method (SIP), 200 ADDIP extension, 176-178 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), 24 in Mobile IPv4, 117, 119 Address Rewriting approach, 221 addresses (Ethernet), 24 addresses (IP), 16 DNS (Domain Name System), 28-29 IPv4, 16-17 IPv6, 18

addresses (IP)

maintaining, 31 NAT (network address translation), 21 private addresses, 21 as Routing Locator and Endpoint Identifier, 219 addressing (SIP), 199 Agent Advertisement messages, 101-102 agent discovery in Mobile IPv4, 101-102 Agent Solicitation messages, 102 aggregation, 17 aging (Ethernet bridges), 56 AKA (Authentication and Key Agreement) protocol, 38 always-on nature of mobile consumption, 8 anchoring points, 52 anycast requests, 130 API (application programming interface), 27 APN (Access Point Name), 73-74 APN network identifier, 73 APN operator identifier, 73 application layer (TCP/IP), 27-30 DNS, 197-198 HTTP 1.1, 214-215 independence from transport layer, 31 mobility continuity, 215 SIP, 199-214 user-centric mobility, 195-196 application programming interface (API), 27

applications federated access with SAML, 48 impacts in MPTCP, 185 Internet applications, authentication and authorization for, 41 architecture of LTE networks, 37 ARP (Address Resolution Protocol), 24 in Mobile IPv4, 117, 119 ARPU (Average Revenue Per User), 5 assisted GPS (A-GPS), 49 associations, 167 attributes (RADIUS) in Mobile IPv6, 133 authentication defined, 36 federated identity, 41-42 for applications with SAML, 48 in LTE networks, 43 in Wi-Fi networks, 43-48 in DNS, 198 for Internet applications, 41 in LTE networks, 36-39 in MOBIKE, 154-155 in Mobile IPv4, 108-109 in SIP, 205-206 in user-centric mobility, 196 in Wi-Fi networks, 39-40 Authentication and Key Agreement (AKA) protocol, 38 authentication servers, 39 authenticators, 39

communication

authorization defined, 36 for Internet applications, 41 in LTE networks, 36-39 in Wi-Fi networks, 39-40 Average Revenue Per User (ARPU), 5

captive portals, 39 CAPWAP (Control and Provisioning of Wireless Access Points), 11, 63-64 care-of address (CoA), 100

B

CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) standard, 2 CDMA data networks, 119-122 cellular service capacity of, 9 growth in, 2-3

B2BUA (Back-to-Back User Agent), 212 Base Transceiver Station (BTS), 119 bidirectional tunneling mode in Mobile IPv6, 123 binding, 28 BNG (Broadband Network Gateway), 4 bootstrapping in Mobile IPv6, 131 BPL (Building Penetration Loss), 7 bridging in data link layer (TCP/IP), 56-57 Brim, Scott, 30 Broadband Network Gateway (BNG), 4 broadcast, 20 BTS (Base Transceiver Station), 119 Building Penetration Loss (BPL), 7 BYE method (SIP), 200

C call flows in MOBIKE, 151 Call-ID header field (SIP), 202 CANCEL method (SIP), 200 capacity of cellular system, 9

CCoA (colocated care-of address), 100

challenge/response authentication in Mobile IPv4, 110-111 chunk types in SCTP, 174-177 CIDR (classless interdomain routing), 16 circuit switching, packet switching versus, 14-15 Class A networks, 16 Class B networks, 16 Class C networks, 16 classless interdomain routing (CIDR), 16 CoA (care-of address), 100 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) standard, 2 colocated care-of address (CCoA), 100 communication IP (Internet Protocol), 15 IP addresses, 16 DNS (Domain Name System), 28-29 IPv4, 16-17

237

communication

IPv6, 18 maintaining, 31 private addresses, 21 as Routing Locator and Endpoint Identifier, 219 NAT (network address translation), 21 packet switching versus circuit switching, 14-15 routing broadcast, 20 defined, 19 multicast, 20-21 protocols, 20 routers, 19 session persistence, strategies for solving, 31-32 connectivity discovery in MOBIKE, 152 consumption trends, 5-9 Contact header field (SIP), 202 context awareness. See location information context transfer, mobility and, 76-77 Control and Provisioning of Wireless Access Points (CAPWAP), 11, 63-64 convergence of networks, 4 cookies, state, 168 correspondent nodes, 99 CPE (Customer Premises Equipment), 4 Cseq header field (SIP), 202

D D-H (Diffie-Hellman) key exchange, 223 data link layer (TCP/IP), 23-24 dynamic IP addresses, 57-58 Ethernet bridging mobility, 56-57 GTP (GPRS tunneling protocol), 68-77 mobility across heterogeneous access networks, 87-89 mobility problems, 55 Proxy Mobile IPv6 mobility, 77-86 wireless LAN mobility, 58-62 across Layer 3 domains, 62- 68 data transfer state (SCTP), 169-172 desktop PCs, growth in, 4 Destination Options header (IPv6), 125-126 DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol), 29, 57-58 Diameter interactions in Mobile IPv4, 112-113 in Mobile IPv6, 134 Diffie-Hellman (D-H) key exchange, 223 Digest authentication, 205 Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM), 4 DNS (Domain Name System), 28-29 application layer mobility, 197-198 DynDNS, 52 domain names, 28 dotted-decimal notation, 16

five-layer model (TCP/IP)

DSLAM (Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer), 4 dual-stack Mobile IP, 140-143 Dynamic Address Reconfiguration, 177-178 Dynamic DNS (DynDNS), 52 dynamic home agent assignment, 105 dynamic home agent discovery in Mobile IPv6, 130 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), 29, 57-58 dynamic IP addresses in data link layer (TCP/IP), 57-58 DynDNS (Dynamic DNS), 52

E EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol), 39-40, 59 MOBIKE support, 154-155 EAP-AKA, 43 EAP-over-RADIUS, 60 eduroam (Wi-Fi roaming service), 45-48 EGP (exterior gateway protocols), 20 ENB (Enhanced Node B) base stations, 4 encapsulation, 22 Endpoint Identifier, IP addresses as, 219. See also Locator-Identifier Separation Enhanced Node B (ENB) base stations, 4 EPC (Evolved Packet Core), 36 Ethernet, 23-24 Ethernet bridging in data link layer (TCP/IP), 56-57

EV-DO (EVolution-Data Only), 2 Evolved Packet Core (EPC), 36 Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), 39-40, 59 MOBIKE support, 154-155 extensions SCTP, 176-179 SIP, 200 exterior gateway protocols (EGP), 20

F FA-HA authenticators, 109 Fast Transition standard, 61 fast wireless LANs, security, 59-62 federated identity, 41-42 for applications with SAML, 48 in LTE networks, 43 in Wi-Fi networks, 43-48 filtering (Ethernet bridges), 56 five-layer model (TCP/IP), 21-22,219 application layer, 27- 30 DNS, 197-198 HTTP 1.1, 214-215 mobility continuity, 215 SIP, 199-214 user-centric mobility, 195-196 data link layer, 23-24 dynamic IP addresses, 57-58 Ethernet bridging mobility, 56-57 GTP (GPRS tunneling protocol), 68-77 mobility across heterogeneous access networks, 87-89

239

five-layer model (TCP/IP)

mobility problems, 55 Proxy Mobile IPv6 mobility, 77-86 wireless LAN mobility, 58-68 Internet layer, 24 network layer dual-stack Mobile IP, 140-143 MOBIKE, 143-158 Mobile IPv4, 96-122 Mobile IPv6, 122-139 mobility problems, 94-95 physical layer, 23 session layer mobility, 191-192 transport layer, 24-26 lower-layer mobility and, 162-164 Migrate Internet Project, 190 Migratory TCP,190 mobility benefits, 161-162 mobility problems, 161, 165 MSOCKS, 186-189 Multipath TCP, 179-185 SCTP, 166-179 fixed broadband usage, mobile broadband usage versus, 2 fixed location consumption, 7 flooding (Ethernet bridges), 56 foreign agents, 98 foreign networks, 97 forwarding (Ethernet bridges), 56 FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name), 197 frequency reuse, 9 From header field (SIP), 202

Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN), 197

G GAN (Generic Access Network), 87-89 Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN), 69 Gateway Mobile Switching Center (MSC), 68 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), 2, 68 Generic Access Network (GAN), 87-89 GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node), 69 Global Positioning System (GPS), 49 Global System for Mobile (GSM) communications, 2, 68 GPRS (General Packet Radio Service), 2, 68 GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP), 10, 68-77 equivalent functionality in PMIPv6, 85-86 GPS (Global Positioning System), 49 GSM (Global System for Mobile) communications, 2, 68 GTP (GPRS (Tunneling Protocol), 10, 68-77 equivalent functionality in PMIPv6, 85-86 GTP-C, 70 GTP-U, 70

IGP (interior gateway protocols)

H HA (Home Agent), 120, 136 handsets per subscriber, 3 hardware addresses, 24 Hash-based Message Authentication Code with Message Digest algorithm 5 (HMAC-MD5), 108 header fields (SIP), 202 heartbeat chunks (SCTP), 172 heterogeneous access networks, data link layer mobility solutions, 87-89 High Speed Packet Access (HSPA), 2 higher layers, 22 HIP (Host Identity Protocol), 222-225 HLR (Home Location Register), 69 HMAC-MD5 (Hash-based Message Authentication Code with Message Digest algorithm 5), 108 HoA (home address), 99 Home Agent (HA), 120, 136 home agents agent discovery, 101-102 defined, 98 dynamic home agent assignment, 105 dynamic home agent discovery in Mobile IPv6, 130 Home ENB (HENB), 5 Home Location Register (HLR), 69 home networks, 97 horizontal roaming 3GPP access, 43 defined, 42

host identifier (host-id), 16 Host Identity Protocol (HIP), 222-225 hosts defined, 13 IP addresses, 16 IPv4, 16-17 IPv6, 18 link layer mobility impacts on, 89 hotspots 802.11u standard, 45 defined, 43 scaling, 44 HSPA (High Speed Packet Access), 2 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), 29-30 HTTP 1.1 in application layer (TCP/IP), 214-215

I-J IAPP (Inter-Access Point Protocol), 59 ICMP message types (Mobile IPv6), 129 Identifier-Locator Network Protocol (ILNP), 231-232 IdP (Identity Provider), 42 IEEE 802.11f standard, 59 IEEE 802.11i standard, 59-60 IEEE 802.11r standard, 61-62 IEEE 802.1X standard, 60 IETF network-based mobility, 78-79 IGP (interior gateway protocols), 20

241

IKEv2 (Internet Key Exchange version 2)

IKEv2 (Internet Key Exchange version 2), 143 terminology, 144-150 IKE_AUTH exchange, 146-147 IKE_SA_INIT exchange, 145-146 ILNP (Identifier-Locator Network Protocol), 231-232 IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity), 38 IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity), 37 in-addr.arpa domain, 29 indoor consumption, 7 INIT chunks, 168 initiation state (SCTP), 168-169 initiators, 145, 223 Inter-Access Point Protocol (IAPP), 59 interdevice mobility with DNS, 198 interior gateway protocols (IGP), 20 International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI), 38 International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI), 37 Internet applications, authentication and authorization for, 41 network elements of, 13-14 Internet Key Exchange version 2 (IKEv2), 143 terminology, 144-150 Internet layer (TCP/IP), 24 Internet Protocol (IP), 15, 93 network convergence around, 4 intertechnology handover, 86

interwireless LAN controller mobility, 64-68 intradevice mobility with DNS, 198 INVITE method (SIP), 200 IP (Internet Protocol), 15, 93 network convergence around, 4 IP addresses, 16, 93 DNS (Domain Name System), 28-29 IPv4, 16-17 IPv6, 18 maintaining, 31 NAT (network address translation), 21 private addresses, 21 as Routing Locator and Endpoint Identifier, 219 IP layer (TCP/IP), 24 IP multicast defined, 20-21 for GTP tunnels, 73 IP unicast for GTP tunnels, 73 IPv4 addresses, 16-17 Mobile IPv4, 96-122 3GPP2 implementation of, 119-122 AAA interactions, 109-111 agent discovery, 101-102 ARP and, 117-119 authentication, 108-109 Diameter interactions, 112-113 dual-stack Mobile IP, 140-143 RADIUS interactions, 111-112 registration, 103-105

layers (TCP/IP)

routing, 114-119 RRQ and RRP messages, 105-108 terminology, 97-100 tunneling, 115-116 IPv4 CoA Option, 143 IPv4 Home Address Option, 143 IPv6 Address Rewriting approach, 221 addresses, 18 Mobile IPv6, 122-139 bidirectional tunneling mode, 123 bootstrapping, 131 Diameter interactions, 134 dual-stack Mobile IP, 140-143 dynamic home agent discovery, 130 ICMP message types, 129 Mobile IPv4 versus, 122 Mobility header, 126-128 NEMO interactions, 134-135 RADIUS interactions, 131-133 route optimization mode, 124-126 WiMAX Forum NWG implementation, 136-139 NAT66, 229-230 IPv6 Prefix Reply extension, 141 IPv6 Prefix Request extension, 141 IPv6 Tunneling Mode extension, 141

K-L key distribution in Mobile IPv4, 111 LACP (Link Aggregation Control Protocol), 180 LAN (local-area networks), 23 Lawful Intercept (LI) requirements, 50 Layer 2 addresses, 24 Layer 3 domains, wireless LAN mobility across, 62-68 layers (TCP/IP), 21-22, 219 application layer, 27-30 DNS, 197-198 HTTP 1.1, 214-215 mobility continuity, 215 SIP, 199-214 user-centric mobility, 195-196 creating new, 32, 222 data link layer, 23-24 dynamic IP addresses, 57-58 Ethernet bridging mobility, 56-57 GTP (GPRS tunneling protocol), 68-77 mobility across heterogeneous access networks, 87-89 mobility problems, 55 Proxy Mobile IPv6 mobility, 77-86 wireless LAN mobility, 58-68 Internet layer, 24

243

layers (TCP/IP)

network layer dual-stack Mobile IP, 140-143 MOBIKE, 143-158 Mobile IPv4, 96-122 Mobile IPv6, 122-139 mobility problems, 94-95 physical layer, 23 session layer mobility, 191-192 transport layer, 24-26 lower-layer mobility and, 162-164 Migrate Internet Project, 190 Migratory TCP,190 mobility benefits, 161-162 mobility problems, 161, 165 MSOCKS, 186-189 Multipath TCP, 179-185 SCTP, 166-179 learning (Ethernet bridges), 56 leases, 29 LI (Lawful Intercept) requirements, 50 Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP), 180 LISP (Locator-Identifier Separation Protocol), 225-226 LISP-ALT (LISP-Alternative Topology), 226 LISP-MN (Locator-Identifier Separation Protocol – Mobile Node), 225-229 LMA (Local Mobility Anchor), 78 local-area networks (LAN), 23 location information, 49 in LTE networks, 49 privacy of, 220 in Wi-Fi networks, 50

location servers (SIP), 200 Locator-Identifier problem, session persistence, 30 strategies for solving, 31-32 Locator-Identifier Separation, 220 approaches to, 221 HIP (Host Identity Protocol), 222-225 ILNP, 231-232 LISP-MN, 225-229 NAT66, 229-230 Locator-Identifier Separation Protocol (LISP), 225-226 Locator-Identifier Separation Protocol – Mobile Node (LISPMN), 225-229 Long Term Evolution networks. See LTE networks lower layers, 22 LTE (Long Term Evolution) networks, 2, 84 authentication and authorization in, 36-39 federated access in, 43 location information in, 49 privacy and security in, 51

M M-TCP (Migratory TCP), 190 M2M (machine-to-machine) services, 3 MAC addresses, 24 MAG (Mobile Access Gateway), 78 Map-and-Encap scheme, 221, 225 Max-forwards header field (SIP), 202

Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number (MSISDN)

MBMS (Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast Service), 72 message authentication codes, 108 message body (SIP), 203-204 message formats IKEv2, 148-150 SIP, 201-204 MESSAGE method (SIP), 201 messages in SCTP chunk types, 174-176 extensions, 176-179 format, 173-174 methods in SIP, 200-201 Migrate Internet Project, 190 Migratory TCP (M-TCP), 190 MIP (Mobile IP), 10 MN-FA authenticators, 109 MN-HA authenticators, 109 MOBIKE, 143-150 3GPP implementation, 156-158 authentication, 154-155 call flows, 151 connectivity discovery, 152 IKEv2 terminology, 144-150 NAT traversal, 153 Mobile Access Gateway (MAG), 78 mobile broadband usage, fixed broadband usage versus, 2 mobile Internet challenges, 9-11 consumption trends, 5-9 defined, 13 Mobile IP (MIP), 10

Mobile IPv4 3GPP2 implementation of, 119-122 AAA interactions, 109-111 agent discovery, 101-102 ARP and, 117, 119 authentication, 108-109 Diameter interactions, 112-113 dual-stack Mobile IP, 140-143 Mobile IPv6 versus, 122 RADIUS interactions, 111-112 registration, 103-105 routing, 114-119 RRQ and RRP messages, 105-108 terminology, 97-100 tunneling, 115-116 Mobile IPv6, 11 bidirectional tunneling mode, 123 bootstrapping, 131 Diameter interactions, 134 dual-stack Mobile IP, 140-143 dynamic home agent discovery, 130 ICMP message types, 129 Mobile IPv4 versus, 122 Mobility header, 126-128 NEMO interactions, 134-135 RADIUS interactions, 131-133 route optimization mode, 124-126 WiMAX Forum NWG implementation, 136-139 Mobile Node Identifier header (Mobile IPv6), 132 mobile nodes, 98 Mobile SCTP, 179 Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number (MSISDN), 37

245

mobility

mobility, 1 in application layer (TCP/IP) continuity, 215 DNS, 197-198 HTTP 1.1, 214-215 SIP, 199-214 user-centric mobility, 195-196 in data link layer (TCP/IP) across heterogeneous access networks, 87-89 dynamic IP addresses, 57-58 Ethernet bridging, 56-57 GTP (GPRS tunneling protocol), 68-77 problems, 55 Proxy Mobile IPv6, 77-86 wireless LANs, 58-68 in MOBIKE, 143 in network layer (TCP/IP) dual-stack Mobile IP, 140-143 MOBIKE, 143-158 Mobile IPv4, 96-122 Mobile IPv6, 122-139 problems, 94-95 in session layer (TCP/IP), 191-192 in transport layer (TCP/IP) benefits, 161-162 lower-layer mobility and, 162-164 Migrate Internet Project, 190 Migratory TCP,190 MSOCKS, 186-187,189 Multipath TCP, 179-185 problems, 161, 165 SCTP, 166-179

mobility groups, 65 Mobility header (Mobile IPv6), 126-128 mobility market, 2-5 Mobility Message Authentication Option, 133 Mobility Security Association, 108 MPLS-TE (Multi-Protocol Label Switching Traffic Engineering), 180 MPTCP (Multipath TCP), 179-185 application impacts, 185 functional architecture, 181-183 mobility in, 185 network layer compatibility, 184 path management, 184 resource pooling principle, 180 MSISDN (Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number), 37 MSOCKS, 186-189 Multi-Protocol Label Switching Traffic Engineering (MPLS-TE), 180 multicast, 20-21 multihoming in MOBIKE, 144 in SCTP, 166, 171 Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast Service (MBMS), 72 Multipath TCP (MPTCP), 179-185 application impacts, 185 functional architecture, 181-183 mobility in, 185 network layer compatibility, 184 path management, 184 resource pooling principle, 180

network layer (TCP/IP)

multiplexing, 15 multiradio devices, 3 multistreaming in SCTP, 166, 170 mutual authentication, 111

N NAI (Network Access Identifier), 40 name resolution, 29 name servers, 29 NAT (network address translation), 21 in MOBIKE, 153 NAT66 (Network Address Translation for IPv6 to IPv6), 229-230 NDP (Neighbor Discovery Protocol), 24 NEMO (Network Mobility) in Mobile IPv6, 134-135 netbooks, growth in, 4 Network Access Identifier (NAI), 40 network address translation (NAT), 21 in MOBIKE, 153 Network Address Translation for IPv6 to IPv6 (NAT66), 229-230 network identifier (net-id), 16 network layer (TCP/IP), 23-24 compatibility with MPTCP, 184 dual-stack Mobile IP, 140-143 MOBIKE 3GPP implementation, 156-158 authentication, 154-155 call flows, 151 connectivity discovery, 152

IKEv2 terminology, 144-150 NAT traversal, 153 Mobile IPv4 3GPP2 implementation of, 119-122 AAA interactions, 109-111 agent discovery, 101-102 ARP and, 117-119 authentication, 108-109 Diameter interactions, 112-113 RADIUS interactions, 111-112 registration, 103-105 routing, 114-119 RRQ and RRP messages, 105-108 terminology, 97-100 tunneling, 115-116 Mobile IPv6 bidirectional tunneling mode, 123 bootstrapping, 131 Diameter interactions, 134 dynamic home agent discovery, 130 ICMP message types, 129 Mobile IPv4 versus, 122 Mobility header, 126-128 NEMO interactions, 134-135 RADIUS interactions, 131-133 route optimization mode, 124-126 WiMAX Forum NWG implementation, 136-139 mobility problems, 94-95

247

Network Mobility (NEMO) in Mobile IPv6

Network Mobility (NEMO) in Mobile IPv6, 134-135 networks, convergence, 4 nomadic access, 35 authentication and authorization, 36 for Internet applications, 41 in LTE networks, 36-39 in Wi-Fi networks, 39-40 defined, 31 DynDNS, 52 federated identity, 41-42 for applications with SAML, 48 in LTE networks, 43 in Wi-Fi networks, 43-48 location information in LTE networks, 49 in Wi-Fi networks, 50 privacy and security, 50 in LTE networks, 51 in SAML-based networks, 51-52 in Wi-Fi networks, 51 non-3GPP access, 43 nonces, 145

O one-way authentication, 110 OPTIONS method (SIP), 200 Over-the-Air signaling, 61 Over-the-Distribution System signaling, 61

P Packet Control Function (PCF), 120 Packet Data Network Gateway (PGW), 4 Packet Data Protocol (PDP) context, 70 Packet Data Serving Node (PDSN), 120 packet switching, circuit switching versus, 14-15 packets, 14 parameter types in SCTP ADDIP, 178 path management in MPTCP, 184 path selection in SCTP, 172 PCF (Packet Control Function), 120 PDP (Packet Data Protocol) context, 70 PDP context activation, 74-75 PDSN (Packet Data Serving Node), 120 PDSN-PDSN interface, 164 persistence, session, 30 strategies for solving, 31-32 Personal Identifiable Information (PII), 50 PGW (Packet Data Network Gateway), 4 physical layer (TCP/IP),23 PII (Personal Identifiable Information), 50 PKC (Proactive Key Caching), 61 PMIP (Proxy Mobile IP), 11 PMIPv6 (Proxy Mobile IPv6), 77 IETF network-based mobility, 78-79

roaming access

WiMAX 3GPP, 84-86 WiMAX mobility, 79-84 PoA (Point of Attachment), 4 port numbers, 25 PRACK method (SIP), 200 privacy, 50 application layer mobility and, 197 in LTE networks, 51 in SAML-based networks, 51-52 user location privacy, 220 in Wi-Fi networks, 51 private IP addresses, 21 Proactive Key Caching (PKC), 61 protocols, routing, 20 proxies defined, 186 SIP, 202 proxy architectures, 186 Proxy Mobile IP (PMIP), 11 Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6), 77-86 3GPP mobility, 84-86 IETF network-based mobility, 78-79 WiMAX mobility, 79-84 proxy servers (SIP), 199 pseudonyms, 50

R RADIUS federated identity, 42 interactions in Mobile IPv4, 111-112 in Mobile IPv6, 131, 133

redesigning TCP/IP protocol stack, 32. See also Locator-Identifier Separation redirect servers (SIP), 199 REFER method (SIP), 201 REFER-based session mobility, 210-211 REGISTER method (SIP), 200 registrars (SIP), 199 registration in DNS, 198 in Mobile IPv4, 103-105 in SIP, 199, 204-205 in user-centric mobility, 196 reliable transport layer protocols, 25 Relying Party (RP), 42 rendezvous service in DNS, 198 in SIP, 207-208 in user-centric mobility, 196 request lines (SIP), 201-202 resolvers, 29 resource pooling principle, 180 responders, 146, 223 return routability procedure, 128 reverse lookup, 29 reverse tunneling in Mobile IPv4, 115-116 roaming access, 35 authentication and authorization, 36 for Internet applications, 41 in LTE networks, 36-39 in Wi-Fi networks, 39-40

249

roaming access

defined, 31 DynDNS, 52 federated identity, 41-42 for applications with SAML, 48 in LTE networks, 43 in Wi-Fi networks, 43-48 location information in LTE networks, 49 in Wi-Fi networks, 50 privacy and security, 50 in LTE networks, 51 in SAML-based networks, 51-52 in Wi-Fi networks, 51 route optimization mode in Mobile IPv6, 124, 126 routers, 13, 19 routing broadcast, 20 defined, 19 in Mobile IPv4, 114-119 multicast, 20-21 protocols, 20 routers, 19 Routing Locator, IP addresses as, 219. See also Locator-Identifier Separation RP (Relying Party), 42 RRP messages in Mobile IPv4, 105-108 RRQ messages in Mobile IPv4, 105-108

S SAE (System Architecture Evolution), 36 SAML (Security Assertion Markup Language), 48 SAML-based networks, privacy and security in, 51-52 scaling hotspots, 44 SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol), 166-179 functional overview, 167 messages, 173-179 states, 168-173 seamless mobility, 95 security, 50-51 authentication. See authentication fast wireless LANs and, 59-62 in LTE networks, 51 in SAML-based networks, 51-52 in Wi-Fi networks, 51 Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML), 48 Security Parameter Index (SPI) values, 108 segments (TCP), 26 Service Provider (SP), 42 Serving Gateway (SGW), 4 Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN), 69 Session Continuity, 213 session control in SIP, 199 session establishment in WiMAX, 81 Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) application layer mobility, 199-214 authentication, 205-206

subnetting

capabilities, 199-200 message format, 201-204 methods, 200-201 mobility example, 208-210 registration, 204-205 rendezvous service, 207-208 session mobility, 210 3PCC-based mobility, 212-214 REFER-based mobility, 210211 session layer (TCP/IP), mobility, 191-192 session mobility, 210 3PCC-based mobility, 212-214 difficulty of, 13 REFER-based mobility, 210-211 in WiMAX, 82-83 session persistence, Locator-Identifier problem, 30 strategies for solving, 31-32 session termination in WiMAX, 84 sessions, defined, 30 SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node), 69 SGW (Serving Gateway), 4 Shannon Limit, 9 Short Message Service (SMS), 2 shutdown state (SCTP), 173 SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) application layer mobility, 199-214 authentication, 205-206 capabilities, 199-200 message format, 201-204 methods, 200-201 mobility example, 208-210

registration, 204-205 rendezvous service, 207-208 session mobility, 210 3PCC-based mobility, 212-214 REFER-based mobility, 210-211 SKEYSEED, 146 SLM (session layer mobility), 191-192 SMS (Short Message Service), 2 socket API, 27-28 in MPTCP, 185 sockets, 27 SP (service Provider), 42 spectral efficiency, 9 spectrum capacity, 9 SPI (Security Parameter Index) values, 108 split tunnel mode, 67 SSN (stream sequence number), 170 state cookies, 168 stateful SIP systems, 206 stateless SIP systems, 206 states in SCTP, 168-173 status codes (SIP), 202 status lines (SIP), 201-202 Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP), 166-179 functional overview, 167 messages, 173-179 states, 168-173 stream sequence number (SSN), 170 strict mode, 68 subnet anycast addresses, 130 subnetting, 17

251

SUBSCRIBE/NOTIFY method (SIP)

SUBSCRIBE/NOTIFY method (SIP), 201 supplicants, 39 symmetrical mode, 67 SYN flooding attacks, 168 System Architecture Evolution (SAE), 36

T T-PDU (Tunneled Protocol Data Units), 70 tablets, growth in, 4 targeted identity, 52 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), 25-26 TCP/IP, 13 five-layer model, 21-22, 219 application layer, 27-30. See also application layer (TCP/IP) data link layer, 23-24. See also data link layer (TCP/IP) Internet (network) layer, 24. See also network layer (TCP/IP) physical layer, 23 session layer mobility, 191-192 transport layer, 24-26. See also transport layer (TCP/IP) IP (Internet Protocol), 15 packet switching, 14 redesigning protocol stack, 32. See also Locator-Identifier Separation TEID (Tunnel Endpoint Identifier), 70 Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI), 37

terminology IKEv2, 144-150 for Mobile IPv4, 97-100 TFT (Traffic Flow Template), 72 Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), 3, 36 TLM (Transport Layer Mobility) architecture, 186-189 TMSI (Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity), 37 To header field (SIP), 202 top-level domains, 28 Traffic Flow Template (TFT), 72 traffic load variations, 7-8 transactions (SIP), 200 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), 25-26 transmission sequence number (TSN), 170 transport layer (TCP/IP), 24-26 independence from application layer, 31 lower-layer mobility and, 162-164 Migrate Internet Project, 190 Migratory TCP, 190 mobility benefits, 161-162 mobility problems, 161, 165 MSOCKS, 186-187, 189 Multipath TCP, 179-185 SCTP, 166-179 Transport Layer Mobility (TLM) architecture, 186-189 triangular routing, 116 TSN (transmission sequence number), 170

wireless LAN controllers (WLCs), mobility between

Tunnel Endpoint Identifier (TEID), 70 Tunneled Protocol Data Units (T-PDU), 70 tunneling bidirectional tunneling mode in Mobile IPv6, 123 defined, 31 in Mobile IPv4, 115-116 Type 2 Routing header (IPv6), 126

U UDP (User Datagram Protocol), 25 ULS (User Location Server), 192 Unicast Reverse Path Forwarding (URPF), 67-68 Uniform Resource Locator (URL), 30 unreliable transport layer protocols, 25 UPDATE method (SIP), 201 URL (Uniform Resource Locator), 30 URPF (Unicast Reverse Path Forwarding), 67-68 user agents (SIP), 199 User Datagram Protocol (UDP), 25 user location privacy, 220 User Location Server (ULS), 192 user-centric identity, 52 user-centric mobility in application layer (TCP/IP), 195-196

V vertical roaming defined, 42 non-3GPP access, 43

VIA (Virtual Interface Adaptor), 89 Via header field (SIP), 202 video consumption trends, 7 Virtual Interface Adaptor (VIA), 89 Virtual Local-Access Networks (VLAN), 180 virtual networks, defined, 97 Visited Mobile Switching Center (MSC), 69 VLAN (Virtual Local-Access Networks), 180 VNI (Visual Network Index), 7

W-Z WAN (wide-area networks), 23 well-known port numbers, 25 WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy), 59 Wi-Fi networks authentication and authorization in, 39-40 federated access in, 43-48 location information in, 50 privacy and security in, 51 Wi-Fi–enabled devices, 3 wide-area networks (WAN), 23 WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access), 2 WiMAX Forum NWG implementation of Mobile IPv6, 136-139 WiMAX mobility, 79-84 Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP), 59 wireless LAN controllers (WLCs), mobility between, 64-68

253

WLANs (wireless LANs), mobility

WLANs (wireless LANs), mobility, 58-62 across Layer 3 domains, 62-68 WLCs (wireless LAN controllers), mobility between, 64-68 Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX), 2