Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge

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A c c l a i m f oEro w e n o O . W l r - s o N ' s

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uonslllence "Edward O. Wilson is a hero . . . he has made landmark scientificdiscoveriesand has a writing styleto die for. . . . A complex and nuanced -TheBostonGlobe argument."

of sciencesince popularizers "One of the clearest andmostdedicated -Time T. H. Huxley. . . Mr. Wilsoncando the sciencecnd theprose-" "Exceptionallyinsigh$rl. . . . Looking beyond today'sspectacular . . . in readingthe molecularlycodedbook of life, Wilson advances will give us pointsto a fuhrrein which this biologicalunderstanding polarized much . . . He cutsthrough th" potu".to reshapeourselves. ,,orri.rrt. aboutnatureversusnurtureor genesversusculfure,showing howbothareasrelevantto usasto otheranimals."-ScientificAmerican to be "A workto be held in awe,to be readwith joy and attentiveness, ' act . . an celebratedandchallengedandreturnedto againand again of consummateintellecfual heroism."

-The BaltimoreSun

"An excellentbook. Wilson providessuperb overviewsof Western intellectualhistoryand the current stateof understandingin many -Slate disciplines." academic mind wide-ranging "TheRenaissance scholarstilllives.. . . A sensitive, is courage discoursingbeautifully.. . . Wilson'sbuoyantintellectual *SeattleWeeklY bracing." "Extraordinarilyclear,evocative. . . elegant' . . the sheerbreadthof his proiectand daringin its undertakingwin him the benefitof the -PublishersWeekly doubt....Atourdeforce."

EpwARD O. WTLSoN ,-t


uonslllence EowARD O. WILsoN wasborn in Birmingham,Alabaffia,in 1929. He received his B.S. and M.S. in biology from the University of Alabama and, in 1955,his Ph.D. in biol ogyfrom Harvard, where he has since taught, and where he has receivedboth of its college-wide teaching awards.He is currently Pellegrino University ResearchProfessor and Honorary Curator in Entomology of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard. He is the author of two Pulitzer Prize-winning books,On Human Nature (tqZ8) and The Ants (t99o, with Bert H less-than-enthusiastic GayatriChakravortySpivak(Baltimore:fohnsHopkinsUniversityPress, ry76); Writing and Dffirence. hanslatedby Alan Bass(Chicago: University of Chicago Press,1978);and Dissemination,hanslatedby Barbara |ohnson(Chicago:Universityof ChicagoPress,r98r),Given Derrida's givenby thetransladeliberatelysurrealstyle,much is owedthe exegeses torsin their introductions. Kenneth f. Gergen,"Correspon45- On root metaphorsin psycholog;,': 46 denceversusautonomyin the languageof understandinghuman action," in Donald W. Fiskeand RichardA. Shweder,eds.,Metatheoryin Social Science:Pluralismsand Subiecti'tities(Chicago:Universityof 1986),pp.14r-146. ChicagoPress, 46- GeorgeScialabbawrote about Michel Foucault in "The tormented of Michel Foucault, 47 questof Michel Foucault,"a reviewof The Passion by famesMiller (New York: Simon & Schuster,1993),in The Boston SundayGlobe,3 fanuary:99j, p. Arz. An earlierand fuller accountof Foucault'sscholarship,includinghis "archeologyof knowledge,"is providedby Alan Sheridanin Michel Foucault,TheWill to Truth (London: Thvistock,rg8o).

t'" *^"i,iJfftJ,"*"", 4E' Among the many textbooksand other introductoryaccounhof animal 5r sensesavailable,one of the bestand mostwidely usedis JohnAlcock's Animal Behavior:An EvolutionaryApproach,fifth edition(Sunderland, 1993). MA: SinauerAssociates, >5

Eugene P. Wigner's descriptionof mathematicsas the natural lan' of mathematics effectiveness guageof phpics is in "The unreasonable on Pureand AppliedMathein the naturalsciences," Communications ma;tics, r)t r-r4 (196o).

53- The accountof quantum electrodynamics(Q.E.D.) and measurement 54 of propertiesof the elechonis takenftom David f. Gross,"Physicsand of the NationalAcademyof Scimathematicsat the frontier,"Proceedings Kitences,USA, 85 837v5 (1988),and John R. Gribbin'sSchriidinger's tensand the Searchfor Reality:Solvingthe QuantumMysteies(Boston: Liftle, Brown,1995).ToGribbin I owethe imageryof the flight of a needle acrossthe United Statesto illustratethe accuracyof Q.E.D. and 55- The prospecbof nanotechnology,alongwith scanning-tunneling aredescribedby the multipleauthorsof Nano56 atomicforcemicroscopy, technology:Molecalar Speculationson Clobal Abundance,edited by

Notes 6z-73


B. C. Crandall(Cambridge,MA: MIT Press,1996).The manufactureof highdensity ROMs is describedin ScieneeNews,r48:58 (1995).The exacttiming of chemicalreactionsis describedby RobertF. Servicein "Getting a reactionin close-up,"Science,268::E46(1995);and membranelike self-assembled monolayen of moleculesby George M. Whitesidesin "Self-assembling materials)' ScientificAmerican, 277:



6z Einstein'stribute to Planck hasbeenoften quoted.I do not know the originalathibution,but the wordscan be found,for example,in Walter Kaufrnann'sThe Futureof the Humanities(New York:Reader'sDigest Press,distributedby ThomasY. Crowell,1977). 6z- The individuality of the scientist,his frailties,and his pursuit of re64 searchasan art form aresearchinglyprobedby FreemanDysonin "The scientistasrebel,"TheNewYorkReview of Books,z5May ry9r,pp.7r-. His viewson the subject,independentlyevolvedas a physicist,are in manyrespects closelysimilarto my own. 64- The originalreporton conservedDNA duplication waspublishedby 65 Matthew S. Meselsonand Franklin W. Stahl in hoceedingsof the National Academyof Sciences, USA, 44 67rJz (1958).I am gratefulto Meselsonfor a personaldiscussion of the experiment. 67- My synopsisof the historyand content of logical positivism and the 7o questfor objectivetruth is basedon manytextsand informaldiscussions with scientists and others,but hasbeenmostinfluencedin recentyears by GeraldHolton'sScience (Cambridge,MA: Harvard and Anti-Science UniversityPress,1993),and AlexanderRosenberg's Economics:.MathematicalPoliticsor Science (Chicago:University of DiminishingRetums? of ChicagoPress,r99z). A. Simonhaswriften on the psychologyof oeative thought in 7o Herbert 'Discovery invention,anddevelopment:humancreativethinki ngl' Proceedings of the NationalAcademyof Sciences, USA (PhysicalSciences), 8o:4569-7r(1983).

o*,^:xxTT"t*"^, The Cretan labyrinth and Ariadne's thread have been given diverse over the years.The closestto my own, yet 7t metaphoricalinterpretations differentin keyrespects, is Mary E. Clark'sAriadne'sThread:TheSearch for NewModesof Thinfting(New York: St. Martin'sPress,1989).Clark perceives the labyrinthashumanityt complexenvironmentaland social problemsand the threadas the objectivehuths and realisticthinking neededto solvethem.



The detailsof ant communicationcanbe found inThe Ants(r99o)and 77 loumeyto the Ants:A Storyof Scientifc Exploration(1994),by Bert HiillMA: BelknapPress of HardoblerandEdwardO. Wilson(Cambridge, Press). vardUniversity ?R- Ancestor-summoning by the fivaro is describedby MichaelJ. Harnerin 8o The ltvaro:Peopleof the SacredWatefal/s(GardenCity, M: Doubledayll.{aturalHistoryPress,r97z).The dreamsand art of PabloAmaringo of a Peru' TheReligiousIconography arepresentedin AyahuascaVisions: vian Shaman,by Luis EduardoLuna and PabloAmaringo(Berkeley, CA: No*h AtlanticBooks,r99r). of the biologyof dreamingis explainedby 8r- Currentunderstanding States:How the Brain 86 f . Allan Hobsonin The Chemishyof Conscious Changeslts Mind (Boston:Little, Brown, 1994)and S/eep(New York: ScientificAmericanLibrary,1995).Many of the technicaldetailsof current studiesof the structureand physiologyof dreamingarereviewedin a specialissueof "Dream consciousness: approach," a neurocognitive and Cognition,3: n28 (1994).Recentresearchon the Consciousness adaptivefunction of sleepis reportedby Avi Karni et al. in "Dependence on REM sleepof overnightimprovementof a perceptualskill,"Science, 265 679-82(t994). /a

85- The relationbetweenlive snakesand dream serpentsin the origin of 88 dreamsandmyth givenhereis basedlargelyon BalaiiMundkur'simportant monographTheCult of the Serpent:An InterdisciplinarySumeyof Its Manifestationsand Oigins (Albany,NY: State Universityof New I madein YorkPress,1983)plus,with litde modification,the extensions Biophilia (Cambridge,MA: HarvardUniversityPress,1984). 89- I first used the imagery of changing space-timescalesas magical 9r cinematographyin Biophilia (Cambridge,MA: Haward University Press,1984). 9r- In characterizingthe difficulty of predicting protein structurefrom 9z the interactionof its constituentatoms,I benefitedgreatlyfrom an unpublishedpaperpresentedby S. J. Singerat the AmericanAcademyof Arts and Sciencesin December1993;he hasalsokindly reviewedmy account. 92- Higher-orderinteractionsin rain foresbis describedin my book The 97 Diversityof Lifu (Cambridge,MA: BelknapPressof HarvardUniversity generallyin a specialsectioneditedby Press,r99z),and in ecosystems PeterKareivain the journalEcology,T5:r5z7-59$gg4). 95- An excellent introduction to the meaning and goals of complexity 99 theoryisgivenby HaroldMorowib in the main iournalof thediscipline, of which he is editor, Complexig,r: 4-5 (1995);and by Murray GellMann in the sameissue,pp. 16-19.Among the many full-scaleexposi




tionsofthe subjectthat haveappeared in the r99os,the bestincludeTlre Oigins of Order:Self-Organizationand Selectionin Eyolution,by Stuart A. Kauffman(New York Oxford UniversityPress;1993);and The ColIapseof Chaos: Discoyeing Simplicily in a Complex World, by Jack Cohenand Ian Stewart(NewYork:Viking, 1994). The cell as a slntem of geneticnetworksis describedby William F. Loomisand PaulW. Sternbergin "Geneticnetworks,'. Sclance,269:649 (1995).Their accountis basedon the longer,more technicalreportby HarleyH. McAdamsand Lucy Shapiroin the sameissue(pp.6lo-6). The exponentialrisein computerperfonnanceis describedby lvarspetersonin "Petacrunchers: settinga coursetowardultrafastsupercomputing,"ScienceNews,r47: z7z-5{rg9); and by DavidA. Patterson in ..Microprocessors in zozo,"ScientificAmericen,273:62-7Q99). peta-refers to the orderof magnifudelou,or a thousandtrillion. The opinions of cell biologistson the mostimportantproblemsof cell arrd organismic developmentare reported by Marcia Barinagain "Lookingto development's future,"Science,266: 5614$9g4). cneprrn 6 Tuc MrNo

ro5- Manyof the leadingbrainscientists havewrittenrecentaccountsof their r34 subjectfor the broaderpublic. Fortunately, thoseof mostrecentvintage containamongthem the full rangeof viewsheld by membersof the researchcommunity.The bestsuchworkson the structureof the brain and the neural and biochemicalcorrelatesof behaviorinclude TheEngine of Reason,the Seatof the SouI:A Philosoph:icalloumey into the Brain,byPaulM. Churchland(Cambridge, MA: MIT press,1995); The AstonishingHypothesis:The ScientificSearchfor the Soul, by Francis Crick (New York, Scribner,g94); Descartes' Error: Emotion,Ruoror, and the Human Brain, by Antonio R. Damasio(New york: G. p. put1am,1994);Bight Air,Billiant Fire:On theMatterof theMind, by Gerald M. Edelman (New York: BasicBooks,rygz); The Chemistryof Conscious States:How the Brain Changeslts Mind, by f. Allan Hobson (Boston:Little, Brown,ry94);ImageandBrain:The Resolution of thelmageryDebate,by StephenM. Kosslyn(Cambridge,MA: MIT press, by StephenM. Kossry94);WetMind: TheN ewCognitiyeNeuroscience, lyn and Olivier Koenig (New York Free Press,tggz); How the Mind Worfts,by StevenPinker (New York:W. W. Norton, ry9); andImagesof Mind,by MichaelI. Posnerand MarcusE. Raichle(Newyork: Scientific AmericanLibrary 1994).A thoroughgoingreviewof contemporary researchon emotion is providedby -uttlpt. iuthors in The Naiureif Emotion:FundamentalQuestions, editedby paul Ekmanand Richardf .


Notes ro6-rz9 1994).The poeticallusion Davidson(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress, and heartlesswas to the divisionsof the brain asheartbeat,heartshings, madeby RobertE. Poolin Eve'sRib:TheBiologicalRootsof SexDffirences(NewYork:Crown,1994). The contemporaryview of consciousexperienceis exploredto varying degreesof penetrationby the aboveworks.The many ramificationsin area principalfocusin philosophyopenedby neurobiologicalresearch Towarda Unifted Science the following notableworls: Neurophilosoplry: of the Mind-Brain, by PahiciaS. Churchland (Cambridge,MA: MIT Explained,by Daniel C. Denneft (Boston: Press,1986);Consciousness Little, Brown, ry91;Dawin's Dangerouslilea:Evolutionand the Mean1995); ingsof Life,by DanielC. Dennett(NewYork:Simon& Schuster, of the Mind, by f ohn R. Searle(Cambridge,MA: and,The Rediscovery r99z). MIT Press, of the Mind: A Searchfor the MissingSciRoger Penrose,in Shadows (New York:OxfordUniversityPress,1994),argues enceof Consciousne$ sciencenor artificialcomputationwill solve that neitherconventional arisingfrom the problemof mind. He visualizesa radicalnewaPProach' few brain scienquantumphysicsand a new look at cellularphysiology; tists,however,feel any urgencyto departlrom the Presentcourseof insodramaticallyto the presenttime. vestigation,which hasprogressed are exOther special aspectsof modern researchon consciousness by MargaretA plored in The CreativeMind: Myths 6 Mechanisms, by Daniel Boden (New York:BasicBooks , ry9r);EmotionalIntelligence, Computer, The Emotional 1995); Books, Goleman (New York:Bantam by |os€ A. J6uregui(Cambridge,MA: Blackwell,tggl); The Sexual Brain, by Simon l,eVay (Cambridge,MA: MIT Press,1993);and The Ianguage Instinct:The NewScienceof I'anguageand Mind, by Steven Pinker (NewYork W. Morrow,1994).

In conshuctingmy o$/nbrief account of the physicalbasisof mind, I have drawn to varyingdegreeson each ofthe foregoingworksand on in the consultationwith someof the authorsaswell asotherresearchers brain sciences.I havealsousedthe outstandingreviewsand PeercomandBrainSciences. mentariespublishedin the iournalBehavioral ro6 The number of genesengagedin human brain developmentis rez8 September1995, TheGenomeDirectory, portedin Naturemagazine's p. 8, table8. ro9- Referencesto certainspecificexamplescitedin the chapterarethe folr29 lowing. On the PhineasGage caseand the role of the prefrontallobe: Hanna Damasioet al., "The return of PhineasGage:cluesabout the brain from the skullof a famouspatient,"Science,264toz-5 (1994);and Enor; andon KarenAnn Quinlan and Antonio Damasioin Deseartes'



the roleofthe thalamus,KathyA.Fackelmann in "The consciousmind,', ScienceNer,us, 146:ro-rr (1994).On the explorationof brain neurons: SantiagoRam6n y Caial, Recollections of My Lrfu (Memoirs of the AmericanPhilosophicalSociety,v. 8) ( Society,rg1il, p. 763.On the brain'scategoricalprocessingof animalsas opposedto tools:Alex Martin, Cheri L. Wiggs,Leslie G. Ungerleider,andfamesV. Haxby,"Neuralcorrelates of category-specific knowledge,"Nature, 779: 649-52(1996).The imaginaryexampleof interactionof body and brain is adaptedfrom one given by Antonio Damasioin Descartes' Enor.The "hard problem" of the brain science is explainedby David f . Chalmersin "The puzzleof consciousexperience,"ScientificAmerican, 277: 8o4 (December 1995).Daniel C. Dennetthasthoroughlyexploredand independentlysolvedit in Consciousness Explained(Boston:Little, Brown,r99r).Simon Leys'inteqpre_ tation of Chinesecalligraphyis presented in his reviewof TheChiiese Artof Writing,by f eanFrangoisBilleter(NewYork:Skira/Rizzoli,r99o), inThe NewYorkReviewof Books,43:z83r (ryg6). r3z- The definition of artificial intelligence(AI) used is from an essayby r35 GordonS. Novak,fr., in the AcademicPress Dictionaryof Scienceand Technology, editedby ChristopherMorris (SanDiego:Academicpress, rgg2),p.16o.An excellentaccountofthe useofAI in playingchessand otherdeterministicgames(checkers, go,andbridge)is providedby Fred Guterlin "Silicon Gambit," Discover, ry:48-56(June1996).

t-"* c:i:",lT6u"'u*u r37- The full conceptionof gene-culfurecoevolution(andthe term) wasinr4o troducedby Charlesf. Lumsdenand myselfin Genes,Mind, and CuIture:The CoevolutionaryProcess (Cambridge,MA: HarvardUniversity Press,r98r) and PrometheanFire (Cambridge,MA: HarvardUniversity Press,1983).Key modelsof the interactionof heredityand culture leadingto thisformulationwereconshuctedby RobertBoydandpeterf . Richersonin ry76, Mark W. Feldmanand L. Luca Cavalli-Sforzain 1976,William H. Durham in 1978,andmyselfin rg78.Recentreviewsof gene-culturecoevolutionasadvancedto dateinclude thoseby William H. Durham,Coeyolution:Cenes,Culture,and Human Diversity(Stanford, CA: StanfordUniversityPress,r99r);"The mathematicalmodelling of human culture and its implicationsfor psychologyand the humansciences," by Kevin N. Laland,Bitish loumal of psyihology,g4: t+S4g 0gSl); and "Sociobiologyand sociology,"by FrangoisNielsen, Annual ReviewofSociology,zo:267-7o3(1994).Theseauthorshaveall madeimportantoriginal contributions.Eachplacesdifferentemphases



cycle, on the differentsectionsofthe coevolutionary and interpretations and would no doubt questionsomedetailsin the brief interpretation presentedhere; but I believe the core of my argumentclosely aptheconsensus. proaches An Essayon the Nafural r4o facquesMonod's bookChanceand Necessity: Philosophyof ModemBiology(New York:Knopf,r97r) containsasepigraph this statementby Democritus:"Everythingexistingin the Uni verseis the fiuit ofchanceand necessity." r4r- On the definition of culture, seeAlfredL. Kroeber,Anthropology,wlth r4z supplementsry27-37(New York:Harcourt,Braceand World, 1933);AlnJ L Kroeberand Clyde K. M. Kluckhohn,"Culture: a critical review of conceptsand definitions"(Papersof the PeabodyMuseum of American Archaeologyand Ethnology,HarvardUniversity,v. 47, no. D, pP' Museum,r95z);andWalter MA: The Peabody 6a7-a,656)(Cambridge, in the SymbolicWor/d(CamThe Self Human Career: Goldschmidt,The bridge,MA: B. Blackwell,r99o).Foran accountof the corruptionof the term "culture" in recentpopularliterature,consult"Welcometo postScholar,65 culturalism,"by ChristopherClausen in The Attnerican

37e-88(rye6). aswell as 4z- The nahrreof intelligencein bonobosand other greatapes, r45 culture (or absenceof it), is the subiectof a largerecentliterature'The topicsI havecoveredherearepresentedin greaterdetail and in various and RogerLewin in Kanzi: TheApe part by E. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh it the Brinkof the Human Mind (NewYork:Wiley, 1994);Chimpanzee Cultures,editedby RichardW. Wrangham,W. C. McGrew, Fransde Waal, and Paul G. Heltne (Cambridge,MA: HawardUniversi$ Press, 1994);two generalreviewsby Fransde Waal from HarvardUniversity amongPimates(1989)and GoodNatured:TheOi' Ptess,Peacemaking gins of Right and Wrong in Humans and Other Animals (1996);and tNew cluessurfaceaboutthe makingof the mind,"by foshuaFischman in Science,z6zi r5r7(1993).The silenceof chimpanzeesin contrastto the compulsivevolubility of humansis describedby fohn L' Locke in "Phasesin the child'sdevelopmentof langtagel'Ameican Scientist,Sz: by $6-45 GSS+).The evaluationof speechand bondingis examined as biologito infants "Human vocalizations maternal in Crrne Fernald cally relevant signals:an evolutionaryperspective,"in Ierome H' Barkow,LedaCosmides,and fohn Tooby,eds-,TheMapted Mind: Evoand the Generationof Culture (New York Oxford lutionary Psychology pP.7gr-+8. Press, r99z), University N. Meltzoff 45 The precocityof infant imitation is describedby Andrew and M. f.ith Moore in "Imitation of facial and manual gesturesby human neonates,"Science,ry: 75-8 Qg7); and"Newborn infantsimiChild Development, tate adultfacialgestures," 54 7oz-9 ig87)'



r45- The earlystagesof human culfure asrevealedby recentarchaeological are reportedin "Old datesfor modern behavior,"bv "Ann 46 discoveries Gibbons,Science,268:495-6 (1995);"Did Homoerectustamefire first?," by Michael Balter,in Science,268:ry7o(1995);and .'Did Kenyatools root birth of modernthought in Africa?,"by ElizabethCulotta, in Sci_ ence,zTo:mG7 Qgg5).The modemproliferationof materialculture is describedby Henry Petroskiin "The evolutionof artifacb."Ameican Scientist,8o: 416-zo(rggz). 146 The distinctionbetweenthe two basicclasses of memory wasmadebv

EndelTulvingin E. TulvingandWayneDonaldson,eds.,Oryanizatioi of Memory(NewYork:AcademicPress,r97z),pp. 382-4o3. 148 The definition of memes,the units of culture, as nodesin semantic memorywasproposedby CharlesJ.Lumsdenand EdwardO. Wilson in "The relationbetweenbiologicaland culhrralevolution," loumal of Social and BiologicalStructures,8: 747-59Q985). r49- An introductionto the measures of norm of reactionand heritability is r54 now standardin introductorytextbookson genetics,aswell as in many on-generalbiology.More detailedaccountsand applicatior,,,r. pro_ vided,amongnumerousreferences available,in lntroductionto euinti_ tatiyeGenetics, fourth edition,by DouglasS. Falconerand Trudy F. C. Magfay (Essex,England:Longman,ryg6);Human Heredity:principles and Issues, fourth edition,by Michael R. Cummings(New york: West PublishingCompany,rg97);andBehayioralCenetics,third edition,bv RobertPlominet al. (NewYork:W. H. Freeman,rg97).A summaryof someimportantrecentresearchon the heritabilityof human behavioral traitsis givenby ThomasJ. Bouchard,fr., et al. in ..Sources of human psychologicaldifferences:the Minnesotastudyof twins rearedapart,. Science,z5o:zz3-8(rygo). 156- Recentresearch on thebiologicalbasisof schizophreniais summarized r58 by LeenaPeltonenin "All out for chromosomesix,',Nafure,77B:6654 (tggS);by B. Browerin "Schizophrenia: fetal rootsfor GABA loss,"Sci_ ence News,r47t 247 (1995);and, on brain activip during psychotic ' episodes, by D A. Silbersweig et al., A functional.reu.oanaiomyof hal_ lucinations in schizophrenia)' Nature,778: andR.j. Dolan ry6j (1995), et al., "Dopaminergicmodulationof impaired.ognitiue -Nanre,activationin the anterior cingulatecortex in schizophrenia," 778: rgo-z (rggs). ry9 "fhe estimatednumberof polygenesdetermininghuman skin color is discussed by Curt Sternin Pinciplesof Human Genetics,third edition (SanFrancisco: W. H. Freeman,ryT). 16o The universalsof culture were identified by George p. Murdock in "The commondenominatorof culfures,"in Ralph iirrto.r, ed.,The

N o t e sr 6 o - r 6 5 Scienceof Man in the World Crisis (New York: Columbia University Press,1945).An excellentupdateand evaluationwith the aid ofanthroprinciplesisprovidedby DonaldE' Brown pologicalandsociobiological (Philadelphia:TempleUniversityPress,r99r)' in Himan IJniversals r6o- My imaginaryexerciseon termite civilization,presentedto emphasize of human nature,istakenfrom "Comparativesocialthe16r the uniq:ueness onHumanValues,v.I(SaltLakeCity:UniverLectures ory,"TheTanner sityof Utah Press,r98o),pP.4g-7)' 16z The convergenceof institutions in advancedsocietiesof the old and New Worldswascharacterizedby AlfredV. Kidder in "Looking backof the Ameican PhilosophicalSocie$,87: 527-77 ward.,"Proceedings (r94o). The principle of prepared learning wasformulatedby Martin E P' 163 of I'eaming,compiledby oth"it in BiologicalBoundaries Seligman "ttd (New York: Appleton-Cenhrry-Crofts, Selilman and foanne L. Hager rg72), The epigeneticrules of human socialbehaviorwere enumeratedand 163r6'7 classifiedby Charles f. Lumsden and Edward O. Wilson in Cenes, Press)' MA: HarvardUniversity Mind, and Culturein r98r (Cambridge, recent years in the rules of treatments Among the bestcomprehensive h"ue been Human Ethology,by IrendusEibl-Eibesfeldt(Hawthorne, Genes,Culture,and Human NY: Aldine de Grul'ter, ry8g);Coevolution: Diversity,by William H. Durham (Stanford,CA: StanFordUniversity Press,r99r);and the authorsof TheAdaptedMind, editedby feromeH' Barkow,teda Cosmides,and JohnTooby(NewYork:OxfordUniversity Press,r99z), and especiallythe essayby Tooby and Cosmides,"The foundationsof culture,"pp. r9-r36. psychological 164- The hansitionfrom Moro's reflexof newbornsto the lifelongstartlere1,65 flex is drawnfrom Luther Emmett Holt and fohn Howland,Holt'sDis-

eases of Infancyand Childhood eleventhedition,revisedby L' E' Holt, RustinMclntosh (New York:D. Appleton-Centuryr94o)'The and Jr., of the sensesis basedon reuniversalaudiovisualbias in vocabularies presentedinGenes,Mind, E. O. Wilson, and searchby C. ). Lumsden and Culture (Cambridge, MA: Harvard UniversityPress,r98r), pp' facewasfirst es38-4o. The swift fixation by newbornson the mother's in reported a Ph'D' thesis by CarolynC. Jirari, lablishedin experiments Per' Evolutionary An Infanq: Human in Freedman cited by Daniel G. 1974)'The resultswere spectivi(Hillsdale,Nf: L. Erlbaum Associates, The confirmed and extendedin Biologyand CognitiveDevelopment: Morton and fohn Caseof Face Recognition,by Mark Henry fohnson (Cambridge, MA: B. Blackwell,r99r).

N o t e s1 6 6 - 1 7 7

Tg 166 The cross-culhrral patternof smiling is from the accountby Melvin J. Konnerin "Aspectsofthe developmental ethologyofa foragingpeople," in NicholasG. Blurtonfones,ed.,EthologicalSndiesof Chili ilehivior (New York CambridgeUniversityPress,r97z),p.77; twocontributions by IrendusEibl-Eibesfeldt,"Human ethology:conceptsand implica_ tions for the sciencesof man," Behavioraland Brain-Sciences, z: r_57 (ry79),andHumanEthology(Hawthorne,Ny: Aldinede Gruyter,r9g9j. The combinedaccountgivenhereis takenwith little changefro- b. . f Lumsdenand E. O. Wilson, Cenes,Mind, and Culture (Cambridge, MA: HarvardUniversityPress,r98r),pp.77-8. r66- The accountof reification and the dyadic principle is basedon C. . f 67 Lumsdenand E. O. Wilson,ibid., pp. 93-5,with-the exampleof the Dusunof BorneotakenfromThomasRhysWilliams,Introduition to Socialization:Human CultureTransmitted(St. Louis.MO: C. V. Mosbv. rg72). 168 The heredityof dplexia is discussed by chris Frith and uta Frith in 'A biologicalmarkerfor dyslexia,"Nature, 382:rg-zo (1996).The current statusof behavioralgeneticsof both animalsand humansis authoritatively evaluatedin a seriesof articlespublishedunderthe heading..Behavioralgeneticsin transition"in Science,264: 686-7 $994). 79 169 The Dutch "aggressiongene" is analyzedby H. G. Brunner et al. in "X-linkedborderlinementalretardationwith prominentbehavioraldishrrbance:phenotlpe,geneticlocalization,and evidencefor disfurbed monoaminemetabolism,"Americanloumal of Human Cenetics, 5z: toTzj Q99) The geneassociated with noveltyseekingis reportedby RichardP. Ebsteinet al. in "DopamineD4 receptor1O4Onj exon IIi polymoryhismassociated with the human personalitytrait of Novel$ Seeking,"NatureCenetics,rz: 78-8o(1996). ryz The accountof paralanguageis basedon a comprehensivestudy by IrendusEibl-Eibesfeldt,Human Ethology(Hawthorne;Ny: Aldine de Gruyter,1989),pp. 424112. t7)- The accountgivenhereon the origin ofcolor vocabularieshasbeenas177 sembledfrom manysources, but mostlyfrom the recentlypublishedand importantseriesof articlesby DenisBaylor,JohnGage,john Lyons,and John Mollon in Colour: Art 6 Science.editedby Tievor Lami and Janine Bourriau(New )brk CambridgeUniversitypress,1995).The description of the cross-culturalsfudiesof color vocabularyhas been modifiedfrom C. J.Lumsdenand E. O. Wilson,prometheanFire (Cambridge,MA: HarvardUniversityPress,1983).I havealsoweighed(and recommend)an informativecritique of the mainstreampsychophysiologicalexplanationprovidedby multiple authors,and stoutiyde-fended


N o t e sr 7 8 - r B 6 reviewiournal by others,formingthe maiority,in the peer-commentary zo (z):67-zz8 (ISSZ)'I am gratefulto Iiehavioraland Erain Sciences, william H. Bossertand GeorgeF. Osterfor calculatingthe theoretical maximumnumberof colorvomaximumand the acfual,constrained thatcanbe createdfromelevenbasiccolors. cabularies C H A P T E R8

Tns FrrNess oF HUMANNerunn

ry8- Many of the ideasconcerninghuman natureand the role of epigenetic

r8z rules presentedhere were first developedby CharlesJ' Lumsdenand MA: HarndwaidO. Wilson inGenes,Mind,andCulture(Cambridge, (Cambridge, MA: Fire Promethean r98r) and Press, vard University 1983).Epigeneticrulesarealsoa focusofTheAdapted UniversityPress, Mind, editedby JeromeH. Barkow,Leda Cosmides,and JohnTooby (NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,r99z). r8z- The "classical"approachof sociobiologyto the evolutionof culture is r88 the subjectof an excellentcollectionof articlesand critiquesin Human Nature:ACritical Reader,editedby LauraL. Betzig(NewYork:Oxford publishedandsynthesized UniversityPress,1997).Much of the research in the r98osand r99oshasappearedin the iournalsEthologyandSocioandHuman Nature'The intelbiology,Behavioraland Brain Sciences, lectu-aihistory of sociobiologyand other evolutionaryapproachesto humanbehaviorisably analyzedby Carl N. Degler,In SearchofHuman Nature: The Decline 6 Revivalof Darwinism in Ameican Social Press, r99r)' Thought(NewYork:OxfordUniversity of the family,due chiefly theory and theory kin selection r83 - The originsof to Williim D. Hamilton and RobertL. Trivers,arereviewedin Edward (Cambridge,MA: Belknap The New Synthesis O. Wilson, Sociobiology: and Pressof HarvardUniversityPress,1975),andin manylatertextbooks HumanNafure: ed', L. Betzig, Laura most recently, reviews,including, A CritiealReader(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1997)' r84 Welldocumentedaccountsof genderdifferencesand matingstrategies in particularare the subiectsof Despotismand DifferentialReproduc' tioi: A Darwinian View of History,by Laura L' Beuig (New York Alof Human Mating, by dine, 1986);The Evolutionof Desirc:Strategies and 1994); Eve'sRib,by Robert David ir4.Buss(New York:BasicBooks, 1994). Publishers, (NewYork: Crown E. Pool arisingasa-densityd-ependent r85- The conceptionofterritorial aggression rti6 factorof populationregulationwasintroducedby F'dwardo' wilson in behavior,"inMan andBeast:Comparutite "Competitiveand aggressive andWilton S.Dillon, eds'(WashingF. Eisenberg SocialBehavior, fohn ton, DC: SmithsonianInstitution Press,r97r), pp' :83-zr7'The deep



rootsoftribal shifeand war are effectivelyillustratedin preliteratesocietiesby LaurenceH. KeeleyinWar BdoreCiyilization(New york: Oxford UniversityPress,1996)and in morerecenthistoryby R. paul Shaw and YuwaWong in CeneticSeedsof Warfare:Evolution,Nationalism, andPatriotism(Boston:Unwin Hyman,1989);DanielPatrickMoynihan in Pandaemonium: Ethnicityin IntemationalPolitics(Newyork: Oxford UniversityPress,r99l); and Donald Kaganin On theOriginsofWar and thePresemation of Peace(NewYork:Doubleday,1995). 186- The evidencefor specialized cheaterrecognitionin human mentalder87 velopmentis presentedin "Cognitiveadaptations for socialexchange," by LedaCosmidesandfohn Tooby,in feromeH. Barkowet al., eds.,The AdaptedMind (NewYork OxfordUniversityPress,r99z),pp. :fl7-228. r8&- Human incestavoidance,aswell asthat of nonhumanprimates,is au196 thoritativelyreviewedby Arthur P.wolf in sexual Attractionand chitdhood Association: A ChineseBrief for EdwardWestermarck (Stanford. CA: StanfordUniversityPress,1995).The evidencefor direct recognition of inbreedingdepression by traditionalsocieties, which servesasan enhancementof the Westermarckeffect in the formation of incest taboos,is givenby William H. Durham in Coeyolution: Cenes,Culture. press,r99r). andHuman Diversity(Stanford,CA: StanfordUni'versity

r," s::T;1::"^"", zoz The ambivalence of theAmericanAnthropologicalAssociationtoward the sourcesof human diversitywasexpressed by famespeacock,AAA president,in "Challengesfacing the discipline" (AnthropologyNewsIetter,v. )5, no. 9, pp. I 3), asfollows:"The May 1994retreatincluded planning headsofall Sectionsandrepresentatives from the Long-Range and Financecommittee.The assemblysubcommittees . . . both separatelyand as a body addressed two questions:whither the discipline and whither the AAA. The participantsaffirmedthe strengthof aUding commitmentsto biologicaland cultural variationand to the refusal to biologizeor otherwiseessentializediversity.At the sametime, the groupexpressed a goalof reachingout andstren$heningthe discipline's relevance." zoz Fora sampleof historiesand critiquesof anthropologyfrom widelydiffering viewpoints,seeHerbertApplebaum,ed.,Perspectives in Cultural Anthropology(Albany,NY: StateUniversityof New york, 1987);Donald E. Brown,Human Uniyersals(Philadelphia:Temple Universitypress, r99r);Carl N. Degler,ln Searchof Human Nature:TheDecline6 Revivalof Dawinism in Ameican SocialThougftt(Newyork: Oxford UniversityPress,r99r); Robin Fox, The Searih fo, Society:euest for a


N o t e sz o 3 - z o 6 BiosocialScienceand Morality (New Brunswick,Nf : RutgersUniversity Esof Cultures:Selected Press,rg89);Clifford Geertz,TheInterpretation The Human dt, R. Goldschmi 1973); Walter says(NewYork:BasicBooks, Career:The Selfin the SymbolicWorld(Cambridge,MA: B. Blackwell' r99o);Marvin Harcis,The Riseof AnthropologicalTheory:AHistory of Theoiesof Culture (New York: ThomasY' Crowell, 1968);fonathan Marks,Human Biodiversi$:Cenes,Race,and History(Hawthorne,NY: of Social Philosophy Aldine de Gruy'ter,1995);andAlexanderRosenbery, r995). Press, secondedition(Boulder,CO: Westview Science,

zo3- Within academicsociology,the heresyof foundational biology and zo5 psychologyhasbeenpromotedby,amonga few others,|osephLopreato in Human Nature 6 BioculturalEvolution(Boston:Allen & Unwin, (NewYork: 1984);PierreL. vanden BergheinThe EthnicPhenomenon Elsevier,r98r);and WalterL. Wallace,Principlesof ScientificSociology (Hawthorne,NY: Aldine de Gruyter,1983).A thoroughgoinghistoryof periodis RobertW. Friedrichs'ASociology the disciplinein its classical (NewYork:FreePress,r97o).The later,model-buildingpeof Sociology riod,in which a partialattemptis beingmadeto connectindividualbehaviorto socialpatternin themannerof economictheoryisepitomized of SocialTheory(Cambridge,MA: by |amesS. Coleman'sFoundations BelknapPressof HarvardUniversityPress,r99o). zo3- RobertNisbetexploresthe rootsof the sociologicalimaginationin Sozo4 ciologyasan ArtForm (NewYork OxfordUniversityPress,1976). StandardSocialScienceModel (SSSM)was zo4 The felicitousexpression introducedby |ohn Toobyand Leda Cosmidesin "The Psychological Foundationsof Culture," in f . A. Barkowet al', eds.,TheAdaptedMind (NewYork OxfordUniversityPress,r99z),pp. 19-136.That it still flourisheswithin the socialsciencesis well illustratedby the stronglyconReportof the Gulbenkian shuctivisttone of Open the SocialSciences: Commissionon the Restructuingof the SocialSciences(Stanford,CA: StanfordUniversityPress,1996).The cenhal conceptionwithin it has been well characterizedby many earlierwriters,including Donald E' (Philadelphia:TempleUniversityPress, Brown-see Human lJniversals to Metatheoryin SocialScience: contributors multiple the r99r)-and editedby DonaldW FiskeandRichardA. Pluralisms and Subiectivifies, Shweder(Chicago:Universityof ChicagoPress,1986)'Toobyand Cosalso is by far the mostthoroughandpersuasive, mides,whoseasslssment introducethe IntegratedCausalModel (lCM) to denotethe new causal linkageof psychologyand evolutionarybiolory to the studyof cultures' zo6 The conceptionof hermeneuticsasa thick descriptioncraftedfrom difin Fiskeand Shweder(ibid'), esis well represented fering perspectives peciallyin the articles"Threescientificworldviewsandthe coveringlaw model; by RoyDAndrade,pp. r9-4r, and"science'ssocialsystemofva-

Notes zo7-zz8


lidity-enhancing collectivebeliefchangeand the problemsof the social sciences," pp. ro&-35. zo7 Richard Rorty's interpretation of hermeneutics is given in Philosophy and the Minor of Nafure (Princeton,NJ: Princeton Universitypress, r97q. zo7- The personalizedcharacterizations ofdisciplines in the naturalandsozo8 cial sciencesis basedlooselyon my earlieraccountin "Comparativeso. cial theory" TheTannerLectureson Human Values,v. I (SaltLakeCity: Universityof Utah Press,r98o),pp.49-73. zrr- StephenT. Emlen'ssynthesis of parent-offspringrelationsin birdsand zrz mammalsis givenin "An evolutionary theoryof the family,"Proceeilings of theN ational Academyof Sciences,IJSA, 9z: 8o9zj Q9g5). zzo- I have basedmy interpretationof Gary S. Becker's researchon his zzz maiorworkATreatiseon the Family,enlargededition,and collectionof essays, Accountingfor Tastes(bothfrom Cambridge,MA: HarvardUniversityPress,r99r and 196). I have also benefited from Alexander Rosenberg's insightful Economics: MathematicalPoliticsor Scienceof DiminishingRetums? (Chicago:Universityof ChicagoPress,r99z).We havesubstantiallydifferentassessments, however,of the prospectsfor linking the modelsof economicsto psychology and biology,with Rosenbergbeingthe morepessimistic, for reasons describedin the text. zz4 Rationalchoice theory is oftencalledby other namesin the socialsciences,including public choice,socialchoice, and formal theory.Its weaknesses, especiallyits excessive reliance on abstractand data-free models,have recently been exploredby Donald P. Green and Ian Shapiroin Pathologies of RationalChoiceTheory:A Citique of Ap.pticationsin PoliticalScience(NewHaven:YaleUniversityPress,1994). zz5- The examplesof heuristics("rulesof thumb") usedby peopleduringinzz6 tuitive quantitativereasoningare takenfrom "fudgment under uncertainty:heuristicsand biases,"by AmosTverskyand Daniel Kahneman, in Science,r85: rz4-3r Q974).An updatedexplanationof the concept, with othercasestudies,is providedby the sameauthorsin "On the reality of cognitiveillusions,"PsychologicalReview, ro3:582-9r(1996). ze6 On reasoningin preliterate people:ChristopherRobert Hallpike in The Foundationsof PrimitiveThought (New York Oxford University Press,1979). zz7- Forbleakviewsby leadingphilosophersof the reductionistapproachto zz8 humansocialbehavior,and hencethe entireprogramof uniting biology andthe socialsciences, seePhilip Kitcherin VauttingAmbition:Sociobiologyand the Questfor Human Nature (Cambridge,MA: MIT Press, 1985)andAlexanderRosenberg in his hilogy: Philosophyof SociatScience(Boulder,CO: WestuiewPress,ry88), Economics:Mathematical


N o t e sz z 9 - z 3 8 Politics or Scienceof Diminishing Retums?(Chicago: University of Chicago Press,r99z), andInstrumentalBiology,or the Disunityof Science(Chicago:Universityof Chicago Press,1994).Generallymore favorable stancesare taken, for example,by the philosopherswho editedby |amesH. Fetzer andEpistemology, contributedto Sociobiology (Boston:D. Reidel,1985),and by MichaelRusein TakingDarwinSeiously:ANaturalisticApproachtoPhilosophy(Cambridge,MA: B. Blackwell,rq86).

l?" *"*"totto* TsuAnrs^* Tf,*I"*., ""

zz9 The ry7g-8oReportof the Commissionon the Humanitieswaspublishedasa book:RichardW Lyman etal.,TheHumanitiesin Ameican Life (Berkeley:Universigof CaliforniaPress,r98o). z3o GeorgeSteineron the arts is quotedfrom his commencementaddress at KenyonCollege,publishedinThe Chronicleof HigherEducation,zr )une1996,p. 86. z7z Brain developmentin the musically gifted is reportedby G. Schlaug and co-workersin "Increasedcorpuscallosumsizein musicians,"Nauropsychologia, )7: ro47-r5 (1995),and "ln vivo evidenceof structural brain asymmetryin musicians,"Science,267: 699-7ot (r99). 274 Harold Bloom on postmodernism is cited ftom The WestemCanon: The Booksand Schoolof the Ages(Orlando,FL: HarcourtBrace,1994)' 44- The mood swingsof literary history are describedby EdmundWilson 235 in "Modem literature:betweenthe whirlpoolandthe rock)'NewRepub' EdmundWilson, /ic (November19z6),reprinted in FromtheUncollected selectedand inhoducedby JanetGroth and DavidCashonovo(Athens, OH: Ohio UniversityPress,1995). 235 FrederickTumer diagnosesliterary poshnodemismin "The birtfi of WilsonQuarterly,pp. zGTz(Winter 1996)'The imnaturalclassicism," on literarytheoryis lucidly describedin historipact of postmodemism of Englishstudies," in "The hansformation Abrams M. H. cal contextby D aedalus,n6: rc5-3r(1997). 235- Among the principalworksconhibuting to the biological theoryof arb 238 interpretationand historyare,in chronologicalorder,Charlesf . Lumsden and EdwardO. Wilson, Cenes,Mind, and Culture (Cambridge, MA: Haward UniversityPress,r98r); E. O. Wilson, Biophilia (Cambridge,MA: HarvardUniversityPress,1984);FrederickTurner, Natural on Literatureand Science(NewYork:ParagonHouse Essays Classicism: UniverPublishers,ry85),Beauty: The Valueof Values(Charlottesville: sityPressof Virginia, r99r),and TheCultureof HoP: ANew Bitth of the

Notes 239-z4r


ClassicalSptnf (New York:FreePress,1995);Ellen Dissanayake,What ls Art For? (Seattle,WA: Universityof Washingon Press,1988)and HomoAestheticus: WhereArt ComesFrom and lVhy (New York: Free Press,r99z); IreniiusEibl-Eibesfeldt,Human Ethology(New York: Aldinede Grufer, 1989);MargaretA. Boden,The CreativeMind: Myths6 Mechanisms(New York BasicBooks,r99r); Alexanderf. A,rgnos,A BlessedRagefor Order: Deconstruction,Evolution, and Chaos (lnn Arbor:Universityof MichiganPress,r99r);K"thfy" Coe,"A,rt:the replicableunit-an inquiryinto the possibleorigin of art asa socialbehavior," rS.217-74(1992);WalterA. loumal of Socialand EvolutionarySystems, Koch,The Rootsof Literuture,andW. A. Koch, ed.,TheBiologyof Literature(Bochum:N. Brockmeyer,gg1);RobinFox,TheChallengeof Anthropologt:OId Encountersand New Excursions (New Brunswick,N|: Tiansaction,1994);JosephCaroll, Evolutionand LiteraryTheory(Columbia,MO: Universityof MissouriPress,1995);RobertStorey,Mimesis and the HumanAnimal:On theBiogenetic Foundations of LiteraryRepresentation(Evanston,IL: NorthwesternUniversityPress,1996);Brett Cooke,"Utopia and the art of the visceralresponse," in GaryWesdahl, GeorgeSlusser,and Eric S. Rabin,eds.,Foodsof the God,s: Eating and the Eaten in Fantasyand ScienceFiction (Athens, GA: University of GeorgiaPress,1996),pp. r8&gS; Brett Cooke and FrederickTurner, eds., Biopoetics: Evolutionary Explorations in the Arts (New York: ParagonPress,in press). 239 The metaphorsof art and literary history are takenfrom an article by JohnHollander,"The poetryof architecture,"Bulletin of theAmeican Academyof Artsand Sciences,49:1735 $996). 239 EdwardRothstein'scomparisonofmusic and mathematicsis from his Emblemsof Mind: TheInnerLife of Musicand Mathemafics(NewYork: TimesBooks,1995). 239- Hideki Yukawadescribedcreativityin phpics in Creativityand Intuz4o ition: APhysicistl,ooksEast andWesf,translatedby fohn Bester(Tokyo: KodanshaInternational,distributedin U.S. by Harper & Row, New York,r93). z4o Picassoon the origin of art wasquotedby Brassai(originallyGyula Halasz)in Picasso 6 Co. (london: Thamesand Hudson,1967). z4o The idea of metapatternswasoriginatedby GregoryBatesonin Mind andNature: ANecessary Unif, (NewYork:Dutton, ry7g)andexpanded into biologyand art by Tyler Volk in Metapattemsacross Space,Time, andMind (NewYork:ColumbiaUniversityPress,1995). z4o- Vncent foseph Scully's conception of the evolution of architecture is z4r outlinedin Architecture : TheN atural and the Manmade(NewYork St. Martin'sPress,r99r).



z4r Excellentaccountsof the evolution of Mondrian's art, amongmany available,include fohn Milner'sMondrian (NewYork AbbevillePress, r99z) and Carel Blotkamp'sMondian: The Art of Destruction(New York: H. N. Abrams,1995).The neurobiologicalinterpretationI have givenit is my own. z4z The historyof Chineseand fapanesescript is detailedbyYuiiro Nakata inThe Art of lapaneseCalligraphy(New York:WeatherhillAleibonsha, r97?,). z4z- TIre metaphor of eternityby ElizabethSpiresis givenin het Annonci' 243 ade (New York:Viking Penguin,1989),and is quotedby permissionof thepublisher. '11 The listing of archetypesis largelymy own contrivance,with its eleincludingespecially mentsgleanedfrom manysources, fosephCampbell's The Hero with a ThousandFaces(New York: PantheonBooks, 1949)and The Masksof God: Pimitive Mythology(New York:Viking ANatural Historyof the SeIf Archetypes: Press,1959);Anthony Stevens' (New York: William Morrow, r98z);ChristopherVogler'sThe Witer's loumey:Mythic Structurefor Storytellers6 Screenwiters(StudioCity, andRobinFox'sTheChallengeof CA: Michael WiseProductions,rygz); Anthropology:Old Encountersand New Excursions(New Brunswick, rg94). N): Transaction, 245- Of the many descriptionsof Europeancavernart and otherPaleolithic WhereArt 24g art, and its interpretation,may be citedHomoAestheticus: (New York: Free Press, ComesFrom and Why, by Ellen Dissanayake ry92); Dawn d Art: The Chauvet Cave,the Oldest Known Paintingsin the World, by |ean-MarieChauvet, Eliette Brunel Deschamps,and Christian Hillaire (New York:H. N. Abrams,1996);"Imagesof the lce Age,"by AlexanderMarshack , Archaeology, fuly/Augustrgg1,pp. 29-39; and "The miracleat Chauvet,"by E. H. f. Gombrich,NewYorkReview of Books,14November1996,pp. 8-rz. z5e- Gerda Smets' neurobiologicalstudy of visual arousalis describedin z5t Aesthetic ludgment and Arousal: An Expeimental Contribution to (Leuven,Belgium: LeuvenUniversityPress,1973). Psycho-aesthetics z5r- The experimentalstudiesof optimum femalefacialbeautyarereported by D. I. Perz5z in"Facial shapeand iudgementsof femaleathactiveness," rett, K. A. May, and S. Yoshikawa,Nature, 368:z7E-42(1994).Other aredescribedby David M. Buss studieson ideal physicalcharacteristics 1994). inThe Evolutionof Desire(NewYork:BasicBooks, 254- The account of the Kalahari hunter-gatherersusedhere is given by 258 touis Liebenbergin The Art of Tracking(Claremont,South Africa: and D. Philip, r99o).A comparabledescriptionof AushalianPleistocene Floodin Archaeologyof moderndayAboriginesis providedby Josephine

N o t e s2 5 8 - z 9 o


the Dreamtime:The Storyof Prehistoic Australiaand Its People,rcvised, edition(NewYork:Angus& Robetson, 1995).

25u Someof the themesof the chapteron artsand criticism,particularlythe significanceof mythic archetypesand the relation of scienceto the arts,arebrilliantly anticipatedin NorthropFrye'sAnatotrryof Criticism: Four Essays(Princeton,Nf: Princeton UniversityPress,1957).Frye could not, however,relatehis subjectto the brain sciencesand sociobiology,which did not existin their presentform in the r95os.

u,","l,"i,il"i#,.,o* z6o- Amongkey references to the foundationsof moral reasoning,and parz9o ticularly to the role of the natural sciencesin defining the empiricist world view,are,alphabetically by author:RichardD. Alexander,The Bi(Hawthorne,NY:Aldinede Gruyter,1987);Larry ologyof Morul Systems Arnhart,"The new Darwiniannaturalismin political theoryl'Ameican Political ScienceReview,89: 389-4oo (1995);Daniel Callahan and H. TristramEngelhardt,Jr.,eds.,The Rootsof Ethics:Scienee,Religion, and Values(New York:PlenumPress,1976);AbrahamEdel, In Search of the Ethical: Moral Theory in TwentiethCentury Arnerica (New Brunswick,NJ: Transaction,1993);PaulL. Farber,TheTemptationsof EvolutionaryEflrics (Berkeley:Universityof California Press,1994); MatthewH. Nitecki and DorisV. Nitecki, eds.,EvolutionaryEthics(Nbany: StateUniversityof New York Press,1993);famesG. Paradisand GeorgeC. Williams,Eyolution6 Ethics:T. H. Huxley'sEvolution and Ethics with New EssaTson Its Vicbrtan and SociobiologicalContext (Princeton,Nf : PrincetonUniversityPress,1989);VanRensselaer Potter, Bioethics:Bidge to the Future (EnglewoodCliffs, Nf: Prentice-Hall, r97r); Maft Ridley,The Oigins of Virne: Human Instinctsand the Eyolution of Cooperation(New York:Viking, 1997);Edward O. Wilson,Sociobiology:TheNew (Cambridge,MA: BelknapPressof Synthesis Harvard University Press,1975),On Human Nature (Cambridge, MA: HarvardUniversityPress,1978),and Biophilia (Cambridge,MA: HarvardUniversityPress, ry84);RobertWright, TheMoral Animal: EyoIutionaryPsychology and EverydayLife (New York: PantheonBooks,

rysd. The scholarlysourceson the relation ofscienceto religion from which I havedrawnideasand informationincludeWalterBurkert,Creationof the Sacred:Tracksof Biology in Early Religion (Cambridge, MA: Harvard UniversityPress,1996);|amesM. Gustafson,Ethicsfrom a TheocentricPerspective, vol. 4 Theologyand Ethics(Chicago:Universityof Chicago Press,r98r); John F. Haught, Scienceand Religion:From


Notes 264-278

Conflict to Conyersation(New York:PaulistPress,1995);HansJ. Mol, of ReIdentityandtheSacred:ASketchforaNewSocial-ScientifieTheory Intimationsof Re' Iigion (Oxford:Blackwell,1976);Arthur R. Peacocke, ality: Citical Realism in Scienceand Religion (Notre Dame, IN: Universityof Notre Dame Press,1984);VernonReynoldsand RalphE. S.Tanner,TheBiologyof Religion(BurntMill, Harlow,Essex,England: The EthicalAnimal (New Longman,1983);Conrad H. Waddington, York:Atheneum,196r);EdwardO. Wilson,On HumanNature(Cambridge,MA: HarvardUniversityPress,1978). 264- | have basedthe argument of the religious hanscendentaliston my 266 ownearlyexperiencein the SouthernBaptisttradition,and upon many by Karenfumstrongin A includingexcellentexpositions othersources, Historyof God:The4,ooo-Year of Quest ludaism,Christianity,andlslam (NewYork:AlfredA. Knopf/RandomHouse,1993);PaulJohnsonin The Questfor God:A PersonalPilgimage(NewYork:HarperCollins,g96); fackMiles in God:ABiography(NewYork AlfredA. Knopf,1995);and Richard Swinburnein Is Therea God?(New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).

26s fohn Locke'scondemnation of atheistsis in A Letter on Toleration, Latin text editedby RaymondKlibanskyandtranslatedby ]. W. Gough (Oxford:ClarendonPress, r968). 26:' Robert Hooke on the limits of scienceis quotedby CharlesRichard

Weld in A Historyof The RoyalSociety,with Memoirsof the Presidents, compiledfrom documents,in two volumes(London:)ohn Parker,West Shand,1848), vol. \ p. 46 266 The estimatecited of the number of religionsthroughouthuman history (roo,ooo)wasmadeby AnthonyF. C. Wallacein Religion:An An' thropologicalView(NewYork:RandomHouse,1966). Mary Wollstonecraft on evil: A Vindicationof the Righ* of Woman (London:f. fohnson,r79z). 269 The surveyofthe religiousbeliefofscientistswasconductedby Edward |. l,arson and l,arry Witham and is reportedinThe Chronieleof Higher Education,n April ry97,p. 1.16. The model of the evolution of moral behaviorfollowssimilarreasoning in my first work on the subject,On Human Nature (Cambridge, MA: HarvardUniversityPress,1978),and is consistentwith the theory of gene-culturecoevolutiondetailedin Chapters7 and 8 of the present work. The fundamentalsof the evolutionof cooperation,includingthe useof "/> ,NR the Prisoner's Dilemma,is givenby RobertM. AxelrodinTheEvolution of Cooperation(New York: BasicBoolc,1984)and Martin A. Nowack,

N o t e s2 7 6 - 2 9 3


RobertM. May,andKarl Sigmundin "The arithmeticsof mutual help," ScientificAmeican, fune 1995,pp. 7G8r. Proto-ethicalbehavior in chimpanzees, includingcooperationand refiibution towardthosefailing to cooperate,is describedby Fransde Waal in Peacemaking Among Pimates (Cambridge,MA: HarvardUniversityPress,1989),and Cood Natured:TheOigins of RightandWronginHumansand Other Animals (Cambridge,MA: HarvardUniversityPress,1996). 276 Evidencefor inherited differencesamongpeoplein empathy and in-

fant-caregiver bonding is citedby RobertPlominet al.inBehavioralGenetics,third edition(NewYork W. H. Freeman,1997). 283- Dominancecommunicationin mammalsis described widelyin the lit-

,84 erafureon animalbehavior,for examplein somedetail in my Sociobiol(Cambridge,MA: BelknapPressof HarvardUniogy:TheNewSynthesis versityPress,r975). 28s The accountby St. Teresaof Avila (r5r5-r583)of her mptical experienceof prayeris providedin TheLife of St.Teresa of lesusof the Orderof Our Lady of Carmel,Wiften by Herself,hanslatedfrom the Spanishby David Lewis;it is comparedwith the original autographtext and reeditedwith additionalnotesand introductionby BenedictZimmerman, fifth edition(Westminster, MD: The NewmanPress,1948). z8g- The closingstatementon the relation of scienceand religion is drawn z9o from the r99r-92 Dudleian Lecture I gave at the Haward Divinity School,which was publishedas "The return to natural philosophy," HarvardDivinityBulletin,zt rz-t5 $g9z).

To WHar 291

The genetickinship by common descentof all organismson Earth is detailedat the molecularlevelby f . PeterGogartenin "The earlyevolution of cellularlifel'Trends inEcologyandEvolution,ro: r47-5r(1995). The descentof modern humanity from earlierspeciesof Homo is authoritativelyreviewedby multiple authorsinThe FirstHumans:Human Oigins and Historyto ro,oooBC, Gdran Burenhult, ed. (New York: HarperCollins, r993).

293 Gap analysisis a term borrowedfrom the studyof biologicaldiversity and conservation; it refersto the methodof mappingthe distributionof plant and animal species,overlayingthem with mapsof biologicalreserves,and usingthe informationto selectthe bestsitesfor future reserves.See"Gap analysisfor biodiversitysurveyand maintenance,"by f. Michael Scottand Blair Csuti in Mariorie L. Reaka-Kudla,Don E.


N o t e s2 9 5 - 3 o 8

Wilson,and EdwardO. Wilson, eds.,Biodiversity II Understanding and (Washington,DC: fosephHenry ProtectingOur Biological Resources Press, 1997),pp.)2r-4o. 295- The sectionon presentand future human geneticevolutionhasbeen CeoExtra,no.t, 3o3 modifiedfrom my article"Quo Vadis,HomoSapiens?," The evolutionin headshapeduringthe pastmillenpp. ryq (1995). nium is documentedby T. Bielicki and Z. Welon in "The operationof naturalselectionin human headform in an EastEuropeanpopulation," in Carl f. Bajema, ed.,Natural Selectionin Human Populations: The Measurement Societies of OngoingCeneticEvolutionin Contemporary (New York:Wiley, r97o). The evidencefor recent evolutionin heatshockproteinsis given by V. N. Lyashkoet al. in "Comparisonof the heatshockresponse in ethnicallyand ecologicallydifferenthumanpop ulations," Proceedingsof the National Academyof Sciences,USA, 9r:tz49z-5Q994). The resultsof the Biospherez experimentare discussedby Joel E. 3o5Cohen andDavidTilman in "Biosphere z andBiodiversity: The Lessons 3o6 So Far,"Science274:rr5o4 (1996).A first-handaccountof the two-year AbigailAlling adventurehasbeenpublishedby two of the Biospherians, z and Mark Nelson,in Life UnderClass:TheInsideStoryof Biosphere (Oracle,AZ: Biosphere Press, 1993). 3o7- The mostthoroughand authoritativerecentaccountof human popula3o8 tion growth written for a broadaudienceis |oel E. Cohen'sHow Marry PeopleCan the Earth Support?(New York W. W. Norton, 1995).It is verydifficult to estimatethe total numberof humanswho can existsustainablyon Earth,due, asCohen argues,to factorsasspongyasthe ult! mate levels of food production technologyand averageacceptable qualityof life. Yetan absolutelimit existsandit is not much greaterthan ten billion. The estimatedlimit.of sixteenbillion peoplebasedon total energycaptureby photosynthesis convertedsolelyto humanuseis taken from JohnM. Gowdyand Carl N. McDaniel in "One world,oneexperiment: addressingthe biodiversity-economics conflict," EcologicalEconomics,r5: r8r-92(1995). 3o8 The PAI formula for estimatingimpactof populationon the environment wasdevelopedoriginallyby PaulR. Ehrlich and fohn P. Holdren in "Impact of populationgrowth,"Science,r7r: rze-r7 (r97r),and has in manyaspects since beendiscussed since."It is a roughapproximation, the three multiplicativefactorsare not independent. . . It is especially globalimpacts,wherewe normallymustfall backon usefulin assessing usingper-capitaenergyusein placeof AT": PaulEhrlich, "The scaleof the human enterprise,"in DenisA. SaunderseLal.,NafureConsenation (Chipping Norton, NSW, of FragmentedEcosystems 3: Reconstruction Aushalia:SurreyBeatty& Sons,1993),pp. l-8.



308 The conceptof ecologicalfootprintsasa measureof environmentimpact wasintroducedby William E. Reesand Mathis Wackernagelin "Ecologicalfootprintsand appropriatedcarrying capacity:measuring the nafuralcapitalrequirements of the human economy,"in AnnMari fanssonet al., eds.,Investingin Natural Capital: The EcologicalEco(Washington, nomicsApproachto Sustainablli4, DC: IslandPress,1994), pp.76zjo. statementonpopulation and environment,coau309 An importantgeneral thoredby elevenleadingscientists whoseexpertisecoversvirtuallyall the relevantdisciplines,is "Economicgrowth,carryingcapacity,andthe environment,"by KennethA.rrowet al.,Science,268: 5zo-r(1995).,and accessiblesummariesof the 3og- The mostcomprehensive, on the global environmentareprovidedby the re3r3 immensedatabases portsof the WorldwatchInstitute,headquartered in Washin$on,D.C. They include the hvo annualseriesStateof the World andVital Signs: TheTrendsThat Are ShapingOur Future,publishedby W. W. Norton (NewYork),aswell asoccasionalspecializedWorldwatchPapers,publishedby the Institute.An independentassessment of availabledataby environmentalscientists,confirmingthe sametrendsI havedescribed here,are reportedin "Land resources: On the edgeof the Malthusian precipice?,"proceedings of a conferenceorganizedby D. I. Greenland et al., PhilosophicalTransactions of the RoyalSocietyof landon, SeiesB, 752:859-rq3Qg9). 3r4- Theserecent workson environmentalfactorsin the rise and fall of 3r5 civilizahonsare amongthosethat can be recommendedout of a large literature:"The genesisand collapseof third millennium North Meso. potamian civiliza|oon,"by H. Weissel d,, Science,z6t 995-roo4{lg97); "Climate and the collapseof civilization,"by Tom Abatein BioScience, (1994);andthe exceptionally broadand biologicallyinsightful 44 516-19 Guns,Germs,and Steel:The Fatesof Human Societies, by fared Diamond (NewYork:W W. Norton,1997). 17 An excellentaccountof the r99zUnited Nations Conferenceon Environmentand Development(UNCED), including a historyof the meeting and the substanceofthe bindingconventionsand ofAgendazr, is AdamRogers'TheEarth Summit:APlanetary Reckoning(LosAngeles: GlobalView Press, 1993). the accommodation On of technology,rand economic growth to the 3ry natural environment,seethe U.S.NationalResearchCouncil'sspecial rcpoft, Linking Scienceand Technologyto Society'sEnvironmental Goals,lohn F. Ahearneand H. Guyford Stever,co-chairs(Washington, DC: NationalAcademyPress,1996).Incisivedescriptionsof particular technologicalsolutionsare given by JesseH. Ausubelin "Can technologysparethe eafth? )' AmericanScientist,84 166-78(1996),and



the multiple authorsof the Summer1996issueof Daedalus(fournalof the AmericanAcademyof Artsand Sciences) entitled"Liberationof the Environment." 3r8- The relationsbehveeneconomicsand the environmentisthe subjectof 3r9 a rapidly expandinglibrary of journalsand books.Excellentinhoductionsto the subjectareprovidedby |amesEggert,MeadowlarkBconom(fumonk,NY: M. E. Sharpe,r99z); ics:Work6 Leisurein theEcosystern R. Kerry Turner, David Pearce,and Ian Bateman,EnvironmentalEconomics:An ElementaryIntroduction (Baltimore, MD: fohns Hopkins UniversityPress,1993);PaulHawken,TheEcologyof Commerce: ADecIarationof SustainabilifT(NewYork:HarperCollins,1993);andThomas Michael Power,I-ostkndscapesand FailedEconomies: TheSearchfor a Valueof Place(Washington, DC: IslandPress,1996). 3r8 Frederick Hu on the economicgrowth of nations:"What is competition?,"WorldLinft, July/August 1996,pp. r4-r7. The account of biodiversity and extinction is modifiedfiom portionsof 3zo724 two of my own articles,"Is humanity suicidal?,"The New YorkTimes Magazine, 3o May ry97, pp. 24-9; and "Wildlife: legions of the doomed,"Time(lntemational),3o October1995,pp.j7-. 3zr- On the moral argumentfor the preservationof biodiversity:seemy ear723 liet presentationsin Biophilia (Cambridge,MA: HarvardUniversity Press,1984)and,TheDiversityof Life (Cambridge,MA: BelknapPressof HarvardUniversityPress,r99z); and StephenR. Kellert,The Valueof Life: BiologicalDiversityand Human Socief (Washington,DC: Island Press/Shearwater Boola, 1996)and Knship to Mastery:Biophilia in Human Eyolutionand Dewlopmenf (Washin$on,DC: Island Press,

rys7). 725 On the ultimatelymoral foundations of society:Democracyand Disagreement, byA*y Gutmannand DennisThompson(Cambridge,MA: BelknapPressof HarvardUniversityPress,1996).


in Fon ronry-oNE yEARs,endingwith my retirement intermediate in bilarge classes elementary and taught ryg7,I ologyat HarvardUniversity.In the secondhalf of that period the presentations were part of the core curriculum, commissionedby the Facultyof futs and Sciencesto teachthe basic and "waysofthinking" ofeach ofthe greatbranches substance of learning.The subjectfor which I had particularresponsibillocated ity, evolutionarybiology,is an intellectualcaravanserai It is a lognearthe boundaryof the naturalandsocialsciences. ical meetingplacefor scholarsof diverseinterestswho wishto tradebackand forth. Given that my primaryresearchinterests alsoincludethe evolutionof socialbehavior,I felt comfortable discussingthe key issuesof consiliencewith expertsacrossa largepartof the academy. It would be almostimpossibleto list all thoseI consulted duringthe threeyearsit tookto write Consi/ience.Theyrange in interestsfrom a scholarin Slavicliteratureto the speakerof from Nobel Laureatesin the U.S. House of Representatives, thephysicalsciences and economicsto the chief executiveofficer of an internationalinsurancecompany.Instead,I will take only thosewho readportionsof the spacehereto acknowledge


Acknowledgments manuscript. In expressingmy gratitude for their invaluable help, I also exonerate them from errors and misconceptions that might remain as the book goesto press(September1997).

GaryS.Becker (economics) RodneyA. Brooks (artificial intelligence) TerenceC. Burnham (economics) JosephCarroll (literarytheory) I. BernardCohen (historyof science) foel E. Cohen (ecology) Brett Cooke (literarytheory) William R. Crout (religion) Antonio R. Damasio (neurobiology) DanielC. Dennett (philosophy of science,brainsciences) Ellen Dissanayake (arb theory) GeorgeB. Field (physicalsciences) NewtGingrich (general) PaulR. Gross(general) J.Allan Hobson (psycholory) foshuaLederberg (general) BarbaraK. Lewalski (literarycriticism)

Charlesf. Lumsden (general) MyraA. Mayrnan (thearts) MichaelB. McElroy (atmospheric physics) PeterJ. Mclntyre (evolution) MatthewS.Meselson (molecularbiology) Harold|. Morowitz (complexitytheory) William R. Page(general) RobertPlomin (psychology) William E. Rees (ecology) AngelicaZ.Rudenstine (artshistory) LoyalRue(general) MichaelRuse(general) SueSavage-Rumbaugh (primatology) S.f. Singer (molecularbiology) famesM. Stone(general) Frank|. Sulloway (general) Martin L. Weitzman (economics) IreneK. Wilson (poetry,theolory) Arthur P.Wolf (anthropologS,')



Finally, as I have for all my booksand articles back to 1966, I acknowledge with pleasure the meticulous and invaluable work of Kathleen M. Horton in bibliographic researchand preparation of the manuscript. I am also grateful to John Taylor Williams, agent and adviser,whosewise counsel helped make the project a reality, and to my editor at Knopf, Carol Brown faneway,for her important moral support and help in steering past at least some of the more dangerousreefs unavoidable in such a synthesis.


Abate,Tom, 35r adaptation,seaevolution Adler, Mortimer, r3z aesthetics, seearts;facial beauty;optimum complexity Agassiz, Louis,4o t69, $54, 74o-4r aggression, agriculture,3o9-rr Ahearne,JohnF., 35r Alcock, fohn, 33o alcoholism,r54 Alexander,fuchardD., 347 Alling, Abigail, 35o altruism, 163,:f7, 277, 7483 Amaringo,Pablo,79, 89-9o, 772 AmericanAnthropologicalAssociation, 2oz,AL American HumanistAssociation,286 American PhilosophicalSociety,4z anaconda,T8 anthropicprinciple, 35 anthropology,z oo-2, 2o7,)41-+ ants,74-77,732 Apollo,47,z7z Applebaum,Herbert, 34: aquaculture,3rr aquifers,3ro Aquinas,St. Thomas,z6r

archetlpes, in creative afts, 24)-4, 746-47 architecfure, 239-4r, 45 Argyros,Alexander1., 745 Aristotle,z7r A"rmstrong,Karen,348 A,rmstrong,Louis, "1" Arnhardt,Larry,747 Arrow,Kenneth J., 35r artificial emotion (AE), tf+ artificial intelligence(N), 4z-5, 335 arts,the, 13,79, tz7-28, zzg-rg, 293, 744-7; adaptive advantage,245-46, 346;relation to sociolory,zo3-4 ashology,58,248 astronomy,32,58 Augustineof Hippo, St.,z8r Aushalianaboriginals,346 Ausubel,fesseH., 35r autism,r54 autonomic nervoussystem,r22 Axelrod,Robert M., 348 aydhuasca,Tg-8o Aztecgods,88 Bacon,Francis, 9, z4-3o, 42,328-zg Baiema,Carl |., 35o Balch,StevenH.,328



Bali, culfure and fauna,zo6 brain, 8&9o, rc6-t9, r74, r79; seealso Balter,Michael, 337 colorvision;mind baptism(Christianpractice),248 brain imaging,rr8, rz8-9, ry6, 169,265 Baptists(Christiandenomination),6, brain sciences(cognitive 286 neuroscience),rc8-9, 46, 269,zgr, Barinaga,Marcia,333 )33;see^Isobrain;mind Barkow,feromeH., ;36.1.9;.58,W,3aF,WBrassai,z4o,345 bat echolocation- Einstein,Albert, 5, A4, 62, rc6, 288, 127,729,31r Eisenberg,fohn F., 34o Ekman, Paul,65-6, 771 electroencephalograms, 16,9, z4t--2, 250 electromagnetic spechum, 5o-.1 electroreception,fish, 5r,rz7 elephants,r8o Ellis, Henry 328 Ellis, Lee, zo3 Emerson,Ralph Waldo, 4o Emlen, StephenT., zrr^rz,341' emotion, rzz-6 empathy,276,349 empiricism, ethical,z6o-74 Engelhardt, H. Tiistram, |r., 347 Enlightenment, 8, 15-48,66, 44, z7o, 287,729 environment: current stafus,3o)-4, 35o-z; interactionwith genes, r4g-r1,,2oS,3o3-24;technological maintenance,SrT

enzymes,9r, roo, j32 epic, religiousvs.evolutionary z89jo epigeneticrules(hereditaryregularities in development,including mental), r63jg,zro,11'8,34o; in the arts, z7z-7,z4g-53 defined,163;in ethicsand religion,269-7o,278, zSvz episodicmemory,146 epistasis,genetic,169 epistemology, zo7, z8z,z9z-3 ethics,36,4r, z6o-8o, 347-9 ethnicity, rgg-zoo, 3r+r5 eugenlcs,zoo,)o2-3 evolution:human, rc6-7, 1454, r8z, 245-9,2gr-2,295-jo3, j37, ]'o; naturalselection,57,84-5, ro5-6, rr2, 133-4,t37-4r, 179-82,zt9-ry, zzz-3, 2454, 265, 277, zSvz evolutionarybiolog4 52,zgt evolutionaryepic, z89jo evolutionarypsychology,seesociobiol'og exemptionalism(environmentalethic), 30.4 exogamy,r8g explanation, scientific, 7z-ro4 exploratory instinct, 253-4 extinction,species,1.2o-rt352 exhasensory perception(ESP),rz9, 2.48 facial expressio ns, :64-5, t7z-3 facial beauty,z5r-7, 346 Fackelmann,KathyA., ff S Falconer,DouglasS., 337 fallacies:affirming the consequent,95; nafuralistic,273 family theory zn-\z, ]4J Farber,Pat:,1L.,747 Farrington,Benjamin, 328 Faust,295 FederalReserveBoard,zr5 Feldman,Mark W., 335 feminism,234 Fernald,Anne, 136 Fetzer,famesH., 344 Fischman,|oshua,336 fisheries,global,3rr Fiske,DonaldW.,33o,l+ Flood, Josephine, j46-7

lndex folk psychology(untestedby science), 2OO,224-7

footprint, ecological,3o8,35r forestmanagement,ro Foucault,Michel, 4G7, 33o Fox,Robin, 237,j4r,745, y6 Frazer,famesG., r94 Freedman,Daniel G., 338 Freemasonryz8o free will, r3o-z Freud, Sigmund, 47,8r-2, 8r, tgi.-+, 2@

Friedrich, RobertW., 342 Frith, Chris and Uta, 339 Frye,Northrop,347 fundamentalism,Muslim, zoo GABA (neurotransmitter),156 Gage,John, 339 Gage,PhineasP.,rcg-rc, jA Galileo Galilei, 35 gapanalysis,293,349 Gardner,Howard,3zg Gaukroger,Stephen,329 Geertz,Clifford,34z Gell-Mann, Murray,3Sz genderdifferences,genetic,t7o-r, t84, 2)4,340 gene-culturecoevolution(linkageof geneticand cultural evolution), r18-4o, 17v8z, 237-+, 278-1,,Bs genes,seedeterminism:genetic;genetgene therapy, 3or-z geneticdeterminism,seedeterminism: genetic geneticdisease,157-8,r88j, 299-3or geneticleash,r7r genetics,98j, 156-6o,167-7r,z8z, 2g5-3o3ipopulation genetics, zr6-tg; seealsoDNA; gene-culhrre coevolution;heritability; interaction genius,z1z genotype-environment correlation, r53 Gergen,Kenneth f.,45-6, 33,o Gibbons,Ann, 337 God, 34-6, z16,z7t, z6o-7t,284-8 gods,88, z3r, z4t,286 Goethe,JohannWolfgangvon, 39,295, J29


Gogarten,f. Peter,349 Goldschmidt, Walte4 736, 742 Goleman,Daniel,334 Gombrich,ErnstH.,346 Goodell, Edward,SzS Goodstein,David L., 728,329 Gowdy,john M., 35o 265 Grand Inquisitor, Dostoyevsky's, Greece,ancient, myIh, Tz-7, z7t; philosophy, 77, 66, ry9; religpon, 286 Green, Donald P.,343 Greenland,D. I., f lt Gribben, fohn, 33o Gross,David f., 33o Grossman,Marcel, 5 Groth, Janet,344 Gustafson,famesM., 347 Guterl, Fred, 135 Gutmann, Amy, 352 habit, biological basisof, rr7 habitat selection,3o4 Hallpike, ChristopherRobeft,zz6, 343 hallucination, T&8o Hamilton, William D., 34o Hanun6o (Philippine lan gnage),ry7 Hardy-Weinbergprinciple, :16-18 Hamer, Michael |., 332 Harris, Marvin, :42 Haught, |ohn F., 347 Hawken,Paul, 352 Hawking,Stephen,288 headshape,evolution of,297 hearing,164 hereditarianism,r54-5 heredity,seegenetics;gene-culture coevolution heritability, r5r-5, 317 hermeneutics,z6-1, W-l Herodotus,286 Hennstein, Richard )., r5z heuristics,225-7,347 Hilbert, David,48 Hirshleifer,fack, zzz historicalmaterialism,4r history rr, r5o, r8o, z8o,z9z,Jr4, )25,


Hobson,). Allan,8z, t9,373 Holdren,fohn P.,35o holism, seesynthesis Hollander, fohn, 345



Holldobler, Beft,73z Holt, Luther 8.,338 Holton,Gerald,4, 327,7zg,i3r Hooke, Robert, 265,348 Hu, Frederick, 3l8,352 human epic, z89jo Human Genome Proiect,299 humanism,movement, 37,286 humanities,rz human nature, ry8j6, 46, 48, 34o-r; defined. rz8 Human RelationsArea Files, 16o Hrme,David,,z7r,275 huntergatherers,16r-2, r8z,zz6, 254-8, 34G7 Hutcheson,Francis,275 hyperreligiosity,z8z,z854 hlpothesisformation, 64-5 Icarus,7,327 imitation, infant, 45, 336 incestavoidanceand taboos,188-96, 2rr-r2,34r incomplete penetrance,in heredity, r59 induction, FrancisBacon on,28, 328-9 information, in artsand science,compared,nT-8; saealso commumcation inspiration,seecreativity insulin,gr intelligence, optimum for science,63 interaction,of genesand environment,


Ionian Enchantrnent (preoccupation with unification of knowledge),4-7, 327 Islam,earlyconquesbof,267 Israelikibbutzim, r9r |ackson,Frank, rz7 fames,William,64 fansson,AnnMari, 35r Japanesecalligraphy, z4z, z5r, 746 fduregui,los€4.,3y pzz,242 fefferson,Thomas, z6r |esus,8o, r3o firari, Carolyn G., 338 livarc,78j,77z

|ohnson,Mark H.,338 fohnson,Paul, 348 f udaism, origins, 267,z8o, 286-7 fung, Carl,85 Kac,Mark,6+ Kagan,Donald,34r Kahneman, Daniel, zz5-7, 343 Kalaharihuntergatherers,t66, 754-8,


Kant, Immanuel, zt, ro5,z7r-z IGnzi (bonobo),42-3 Kareiva,PeterM., 332 Karni, Avi, 332 Kasparov,Gary,93 Kauffman,StuartA., 9ffi , Bt Kaufmann,Walter, 33r Kay,Paul,ry5-7 Keats,fohn, r3z Keeley,LaurenceH., 34r Kekule von Shadonitz,Friedrich August,88 Kellert, StephenR., 352 kibbutzim, Israeli,rgr Kidder, Alfred V., 162,738 kin selection,:E3,74o King, Martin Luther, Jr.,z6r Kitcher, Philip, 343 Kluckhohn, Cly de, 42, 96 knowledge,natureo{ 65-7r Koch, Walter,236,345 Koenig,Olivier, 333 Konner, Melvin f., 339 Kosslyn,StephenM., 333 Kroeber,Alfred, W, B6 lKung (fuAMasi),IGlahari Desert,166, 254-8,746*7 labyrinth, of knowledge,7z-4 [,aland, Kevin N., 335 l,amartine,Bruce, 55 Langton,Christopher,96 language,4V-5, 161,, ryS-7, B6 Larson,Edwardf., 348 Lavoisier,Antoine, 55 Leary Timothy,8o Lee, RichardB.,255 Leeuwenhoek,Anton van, 55 Leibniz, Gottfried, 3z Lespinasse, fulie de, r9


lndex l,eucippus,54 LeVay,Simon,334 Lfvi-Shauss,Claude, 167 Lewis,David, 34g Leys,Simon,D9,]35 liberal arts,r3, 295 Liebenberg,Lods, 254{, 346 light, visible, 50 Lincoln, Abraham,z6r Linnaeus,Carolus,4 Locke,fohn, 264 265,748 tocke, fohn L., 336 logical positivism, 67-7r, 33r Loomis,WilliamF., ror Lopreato,f oseph,zo3,342 love:biological origin, r84;role in religion,266 Lucretius,z8r Lumsden,Charlesf ., 48, 276,y5-4o Luna, Luis Eduardo,332 Lyashko,V. N., 35o Lyman, RichardW., 344 Lyons,|ohn,ry7,19 Mackay,Trudy F.C., yl magic,z48-9 Malthus, Thomas,zr3 Marks,|onathan, 342 Marlowe,Christopher,295 Marshack,Alex ander,746 Marshall,Alfred, zr4 Martin, Alex, 335 Marx, Karl, 2oo,2o4 Maxism-l,eninism,267 mathematics:basicnature,6&-9, ro3-4, 33o,345;comParisonwith music,239;role in science,52,zr4 mating shategy,r84 Maxwell, |amesClerk, 93 May, RobertM., 349 Mayas,3r4 Map, Emst,4 McDaniel,Carl N.,35o Mead, Margaret,zoo meaning,neurobiologrof, rz54, 46 Meltzoff, Andrew N., 336 memory nt-2, 146-9,337;unib,


meme,r48,337 Meselson,Matthew S., 65, 33r


Mesopotamia,3r4 metapattems,in afi, 2.4o,745 metaphor,q7, 2jg-4o, 13o,)46 microscopy,historyof, 55 Miles, fack, 348 Mill, fohn Stuart,47 Milner, fohn, 346 Milton, John,z3r mimicry, in human infants,r45 mind, nature of, 66-74 ro1-t1, 231,, 334;FrancisBaconon, u&9; dreaming, 8r-6; drug effects,79-8o mind script, rz8-29 "minor marriages,"Taiwan, r9o Minsky, Marvin L., r34 modernism,in the arts,4r*3, 329 Mol, Hans|., 348 molecular bioloSy,,#o, 65, 74, 9r-z Mollon, fohn, 339 Mondrian, Piet, z4t, z5r,346 monkeys,86, 89, 283 Monod, |acques, r4o, 736 mood, 83,rz6, r59 Moore, G. E., z7z Moore,M. Keith,336 Moro refex, 165,98 Morowitz,Harold,33z Morris, Christopher,335 Morton, fohn, 338 Moses,287 y6 mother-infantbonding, :165, Moynihan, Daniel Pahick,34r multiculturalism, 44, zor-2 multiple competinghypotheses,64-5 Mundkur, B alaii, 86, 772 Murdock, GeorgeP., t6,c,777-8 Murray, Charles,r5z music, in ceremony,248 music, qualities of, 49, V45 musical ability, r5z-3, z3z,144 mutations,r57-6o, 188-9 mysticalexperience,251-4,2844 m1rth,7z-3, z7t-2, z8r, 7zg Nabokov,Madimir, "1' Nakata,Yujiro, 346 nanotechnology,55,ti'o-r narrative,sacred,z8gjo National Academyof Sciences,U.S.A.,




natural history zo5-7 naturalism(environmentalethic),3o4 naturalisticfall acy,z7z natural resources,global, 3o9-rr natural sciences,z8-g, 49-7t, zo8-g, 48-9,265,29r-5 naturafscientists,qualities oI, 4t-2, 57-8,6z-7, 67-7r, r37, zrz,zz7,269. 287-8,33r Nazism,267 Needham, Joseph,31,729 Nelson,Mark, 35o neurobiology,85, t3^t5, 346;seealso brain;mind neurotransmitters,79-8o, 8z-5, ry6, 169,)37 New Agephilosophy,46,285 New Critics, in literature, 235 New Guinea,culture,t66,ry5-6 Newman, John Henry Cardinal,,z6z Ner.+'ton,lsaac, 3r-2, 39 Niehans,Jtirg,zr3-4 Nielsen,Frangois,335 Nisbet, Robert,zoj-4, j+ Nitecki, Matthew and Doris V., 347 NK model, evolution, 97-8 Nobel Prize, 2r2-zr], 24o, z5o norm ofreaction, in genetics,149-5r, 337 Novak,Gordon S.,Ir., llS novelty-seekinggene,169,37g Nowack,Martin A., 348 Nozick, Robert,274 nurfurism, ry4*5,2o4 obesity,r5o Occam'sruzot,57 odor,human,r7z OGOD (one gene,one disease)principle, 158-9 ophidiophobia(fearofsnakes),86 optimum complexity,in the arts,z5o-r, 346 Oster,GeorgeF.,34o Ouroboros,88 Ovid,t47 painting, Tg-8o Paradis, famesG., 347 (nonverbalcommunicaparalanguage tion), r7z-3,319

parentalinvestment,183-4 Pascal,Blaise,z68j Pascal's wager,268-9 PAT (environmentalformula),3o8,35o Patterson, DavidA., 333 Peacock,James,34r Peacocke,Arthur R., 348 Peltonen,Leena,337 Penfield,Wilder, rrr Penrose,Roger,334 Perrett,D. I., 346 personality,heredityof, t6849; seealso heritability;mood PET (positronemissiontomography) imaging,rr8, r56 Peterson,Ivars,333 Petroski,Henry,337 phenylketonuria, 17o, 3oo-r pheromones,human,r7z philosophy,generalqualitiesof, rr-rz, ,1o5,227-6, ^ - - - - a 294, 327, 34)-4 phobias, S6 physical sciences,7z-4 physics, 5j-4, Sg,74-5, g3-4, 239-4o,

345;unificationin, 5,288 Picasso,Pablo,z4o, 345 Pico della Mirandola, Giovanni,4r, 329 Pinker,Steven,,t,334 Planck,Max, i'r, 57, t3r Plomin, Robert,337,349 poetry,spiritual effectof, z7r polygenes,169 Pool,RobertE.,374,Ao Pope,Alexander,3:.,2r4 population genetics,z16-19,z8z, 296-7o7,75o-t. population growth,z9&9, 3o&-ro, 714-17 positivism,67-7r Posner,Michael L, 333 postmodernism,4;.-8,21;.-5,729,)44 Potter,Van Rensselaer, 347 Power,Thomas Michael, 352 pragmatism,4t,67,265 prediction, scientific,74 preparedlearning, 86;seealsoepigenetic rules primitivethought,n6, 254-8,3$, Aq Prisoner'sDilemma, 275-6 Progress,asconcePt,1o7

Index Prometheanknowledge,37 propitiation,283 Proserpine,z3r proteins, gr-2, gg-ro2, 2g7,372 psychoanalysis, 276;seealsodreams; Freud,Sigmund psychology,58,85;Baconon, z&-9; in the arts,236;in economics, zr9-27 quantumelechodynamics (Q.E.D.), 57-4,57,730 Qu€telet Adolphe, 33 Quetzalcoatl,88 Quinlan, KarenAnn, Do-rr,3j4-5 race,r59 racism,37,zoo-r Raichle,MarcusE., 333 rain forest,gz-j, fzo Ram6ny Cajal,Santiago, rr4,335 RatchetofProgress, 295,316 rationalchoice theory,zz4-7, 743 Rawls,fohn, z7z-3 Reaka-Kudla,Marjorie L., 349 reductionism,B, 5y6o,74, gL-3,2o3, z3o,292 Rees,William E.,35r refexes,rzz-3 Regnier,Fred,75 reification(furning conceptsinto imaginedobjects);r6G7, 379 ReignofTerror, France,16 relativism,cultural, zoo-z religion,z6o-r, 28o-9o,347j; aruthor's,6, 27r,348;ofscientists, 6z religiousecstasy,z8z-3, 2844, 349 revelation,divine, 263,269-7o Reynolds,Vernon, 348 Ricardo,David, zr3 Richerson,Peter1., 135 Ridley,Matt,347 Rio Conference,on environment, 3r7-r8,3Sr ritual, 167,248,z8o-r ritualization,r73 r-K continuum, in evolutionarybiology,223-4 Robespierre,Maximilien de, 16 Rogers,Adam, 35r Romanticism,37-40,47 ROMs (read-onlymemories),55,33r


Ronan,Colin A., 329 Rorty,Richard, 2o7,J43 Rosenberg, Alexander,rr-rz, 328,34,


Rothstein,Edward, zfg, As Rousseau,/ean-/acques,16,38-9,44 Roux,Wilhelm, roz Ruse,Michael,344 Russell,Bertrand,45 Rwanda,34-15 Ryle,Gilbert,66 sacrednarrative,z8g-9o sacrifice,248,268,287 Samuelson,Paul, 57,zt4 SantaFe Institute,q6 Satan,z3r,295,)o7 satisficing,in rational choice,zz4 Saunders, DenisA., 35o Savage-Rumbaugh, E. Sue,4j, i,t6 scaling,space-time,+ 8gj4 zzz-23, 256,332 Schelling, Friedrich, 39 Schelling,Thomas?z2z schizophrenia, $4-8, 17 Schlaug,G.,344 Schlick, Moritz,67 Schorske,Carl E., 43,729 Scialabba, George,46, 33o science,seenaturalsciences; socialscienbes sciencefiction,293 scientists,seenafural scientists Scott,f. Michael, 349 Scully,Vincent, 24o-r, J4S Searle,JohnR.,334 sel{ neurobiologyo{ r3o-r self-assembled monolayers (SAMs),55-6 Seligman,Martin E. P.,318 semanticmemory 46 semrotlcs,lgg Sen,AmartyaK., zzz serpents,seesnakes Service,RobertF., 33r Shamos,Moris H., 328 Shapiro,lan,347 Shaw,GeorgeBernard,266 Shaw,R. Paul,34t Shepher,foseph,r9r Sheridan,Alan, 33o



Sherrington,Charles, 728,729 Shweder,RichardA., 11.o,W-) Sigmund, Kail,749 Silberbauer, GeorgeB., 255 D.L.,ZZl Silbersweig, Simmel, Georg,zo4 Simon, Herbert 4., 7o, zz4, 73t S i n g e rS, .J . , m , 3 3 2 sleep,r8z-3 Smets,Gerda, zgo-r, 346 smile, rzz-3, t66.,g1.9 Smith,Adam,zr3,275 snakes, 7&9, 85-8, r38-9, 237,332 Snow,C. P., 43,ry6-7, 329 SocialDarwinism,2oo socialism,3T socialsciences,n, 4o, r97-228, 34r-4 sociobiology,r63j6, 34o;seealso gene-culturecoevolution sociology,zoz- 5, 2o7,7+ sorcery,248-9 Sovietempire, zoo space-timescale,seescaling,spacetime Spinoza,Baruch,287 Spires,ElizabelJ:.,r+-2, Z+6 spirit sticks,Australian,z8o Stahl,FranklinW.,65, 33r StandardSocial SciencesModel (SSSM),2c'4-5,222,7+ stafus,r7o Steiner,Ceorge,z7o, 344 Stephens,James,328 Stern,Curt, 337 Sternberg,Paul W., 333 Stevens,Anthony, 346 Stever,H. Guyford, 35r Stewart,lan,777 Stigler,Georgef., zzz Storey,Robert, 46, 1.45 Straus,Ernst, 35 stronginference,64-5 strucfuralism,r67 Stutz,Roger,55 subiectiveexperience,neurobiolory of, rz6-9 Sulloway,Frank |., r5o supernormalstimulus,z5z-3 Swedenborg,Emanuel, 8o Swinburne, Richard, 348

symbolism,46-7; seealsolanguage; mind Symbolists,in literature,234 synthesis,,g, 73-4, 9:-3, zgz,294 taboos,incest,r9z Tanner,RalphE. S.,348 taste,neurobiologicalaspectsof, 164-5 technology,and environment,3rGr8, 35r-2 Teotihuacdn,z4o Teresaof Avila, St., 285-6,349 termites,16o*r,r8o, 3,38 territorial instinct, $5-6, 267-8,34o-r Thailand,zq8 theism, 35-6, 264-7r, 287 theology,r)o,294 theory,fundamentalnature of,57-8 Theory of Everything(T.O.E.), in physics,287 Thompson,Dennis,35z Thoreau, Henry David,4o Tiger,Lionel,277 Tillich, Paul,287 Tilman, G. David, 3o6,75o Tlaloc (Aztecgod), 88, 248 Tocqueville,Alexisde, zo4 Toennies,FerdinandJ.,zo4 Tooby,John,r8G-7, 1;16,378,3+o,)+, )+ tool-making:animal, 144-5;human, r45 totems,z4g touch, communicationby, r7z transcendentalism:ethical,z6o-74; New England, 39-4o tribalism, 267-8,z77, z8o-r, 298, )r4-r5 higradal system,in Freemasonryz8o Trivers,RobertL., 34o truth, criteria of, 65-7t Tulving, Endel, 146,337 Turgot,Anne Robertfacques,zr Turing, Alan, r3z Turing test,r3,2,r35 Turkmen protein, evolution of,297 Turner, Frederick,275,216,344,Aj Turner, R. Kerry 352 Tversky,Amos, nS-27, 347 Two.Cultures(literary scientific), 4)-4, rj6-7, 23o, 329

Index ufology,58 universals,cultural, 16o-z Urbach,Peter,328 van den Berghe,Piene L., zo3,34z variableexpressivi$,heredity,r59 Veblen,Thorstein,zr4 Vienna Circle, 67-7o v6ron, color, 50 Vogler,Christopher, 329,346 volitional evolution, 299 Volk,Tyler,z4o,745 Waal,Fransde, 41, 376,34g Wackernagel,Mathis, 35r Waddington,Conrad H., 148 Wallace,Anthony F. C., 348 Wallace,Walter L., zo3,342 war, 67, t854, zoo,zg8, T4-r1.,,1,4L watersupplies,3ro-u Weber, Max, zo4 Weinberg,Steven,287 Weiss,H., 35r Weld,CharlesRichard,348 Welon,2.,35o Westermarck,EdwardA., 189-96 Westermarckefie ct, r8gj6, 277,74t


Whewell,William,S Whitehead, AlftedNorth,6r,235 Whitesides, GeorgeM., 5r4,17r Wightman,Mark,55 Wigner,EugeneP.,53,3,3o Williams,GeorgeC., 347 Williams,ThomasRhp, 339 Wilson,Edmund(literarycritic), 2)4-r, )44 Wilson,EdwardO.,publicationreferences,332,735-40,743-4,147-5o, 3r2 Witham,I^tty,l+8 Wolf,ArthurP.,ryo-5,74r Wollstonecraft, Mary 268,348 wolves, socialbehavior, 283 Wong,Yuwa,34r Wordswo*h, William,38 WorldEconomicForum,jr8 WorldWarII.6z Worldwatch Institute,35r Wrangham, RichardW., 336 Wright, Robert,347 xenophobia,27fi Yukawa,Hideki, z3g-4o,145

Grateful acknowledgmentis made to the followingfor permispublishedmaterial: sionto reprintpreviously GEO Extra Nr. r: "Quo Vadis,Homo Sapiens"by EdwardO. Wilson, reprinted courtesyof GEO Extra Nr. r, Hamburg, Germany. Excerptshom Biophilia;The Diversity HamardIJ niversityPress: Fire by Edof Lrfe; Genes,Mind, and Culture; andPromethean ward O. Wilson, reprintedcourtesyof HarvardUniversityPress. The NewYorkTimesCompany:Excerptfrom "Is HumanitySuicidal?" by Edward O. Wilson (The New YorkTimesMagazine, May zo,1993),copyright@ 1993by The New YorkTimesCompany,reprintedcourtesyof The New YorkTimesCompany. David Philip Publishers(Pty) Ltd.: Excerpts from The Art of Tracking:The Origin of Scienceby louis Liebenberg.Reprinted (Pty)Ltd., Claremont, by permissionof David Philip.,Publishers \ SouthAfrica. Time Intemational:Excerpbfrom "l,egionsof the Doomed"by Edward O. Wilson (Time Intemational, October 7o, rg95). Adaptedby permissionaf Timelntemational. Viking Penguia and Elizabeth Spires:Excerpt from "Falling Away"from Annonciadeby ElizabethSpires,copyright@ 1985, 1986,1987,1988,1989by ElizabethSpires.Reprintedby permission of Viking Penguin,a divisionof PenguinBooksUSA Inc., and of ElizabethSpires.