Franz Liszt: A Guide to Research (Routledge Musical Bibliographies)

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Franz Liszt: A Guide to Research (Routledge Musical Bibliographies)

FRANZ LISZT Routledge Music Bibliographies SERIES ED: BRAD EDEN COMPOSERS Isaac Albéniz (1998) Walter A. Clark C. P. E

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FRANZ LISZT

Routledge Music Bibliographies SERIES ED: BRAD EDEN COMPOSERS Isaac Albéniz (1998) Walter A. Clark C. P. E. Bach (2002) Doris Bosworth Powers Samuel Barber (2001) Wayne C. Wentzel Béla Bartók, 2e (1997) Elliott Antokoletz Vincenzo Bellini (2002) Stephen A. Willier Alban Berg (1996) Bryan R. Simms Leonard Bernstein (2001) Paul F. Laird Johannes Brahms (2003) Heather Platt

Christoph Willibald Gluck, 2e (2003) Patricia Howard Charles Ives (2002) Gayle Sherwood Scott Joplin (1998) Nancy R. Ping-Robbins Zoltán Kodály (1998) Mícheál Houlahan and Philip Tacka Franz Liszt, 2e (2004) Michael Saffle Guillaume de Machaut (1995) Lawrence Earp Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (2001) John Michael Cooper

Giuseppe Verdi (1998) Gregory Harwood Tomás Luis de Victoria (1998) Eugene Casjen Cramer Richard Wagner (2002) Michael Saffle Adrian Willaert (2004) David Michael Kidger

GENRES Central European Folk Music (1996) Philip V. Bohlman Chamber Music (2002) John H. Baron Choral Music (2001) Avery T. Sharp and James Michael Floyd

Benjamin Britten (1996) Peter J. Hodgson

Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (2001) Clara Marvin

Ethnomusicology (2004) Jennifer C. Post

Elliott Carter (2000) John L. Link

Giacomo Puccini (1999) Linda B. Fairtile

Jazz Research and Performance Materials, 2e (1995) Eddie S. Meadows

Carlos Chávez (1998) Robert Parker

Maurice Ravel (2004) Stephen Zank

Frédéric Chopin (1999) William Smialek

Gioachino Rossini (2002) Denise P. Gallo

Aaron Copland (2001) Marta Robertson and Robin Armstrong

Alessandro and Domenico Scarlatti (1993) Carole F. Vidali

Gaetano Donizetti (2000) James P. Cassaro

Camille Saint-Saens (2003) Timothy Flynn

Edward Elgar (1993) Christopher Kent

Heinrich Schenker (2003) Benjamin Ayotte

Gabriel Fauré (1999) Edward R. Phillips

Jean Sibelius (1998) Glenda D. Goss

Music in Canada (1997) Carl Morey North American Indian Music (1997) Richard Keeling Opera, 2e (2001) Guy Marco The Recorder, 2e (2003) Richard Griscom and David Lasocki Serial Music and Serialism (2001) John D. Vander Weg

FRANZ LISZT A GUIDE TO RESEARCH SECOND EDITION

MICHAEL SAFFLE

ROUTLEDGE MUSIC BIBLIOGRAPHIES ROUTLEDGE NEW YORK & LONDON

Published in 2004 by Routledge 29 West 35th Street New York, NY 10001 www.routledge-ny.com Published in Great Britain by Routledge 11 New Fetter Lane London EC4P 4EE www.routledge.co.uk Copyright © 2004 by Routledge Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group. This edition published in the Taylor and Francis e-Library, 2005. “To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.” Cover engraving courtesy of the New York Public Library All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system without permission in writing from the author. ISBN 0-203-64445-X Master e-book ISBN

ISBN 0-203-68125-8 (Adobe eReader Format) ISBN 0-4159-4011-7(hbk) Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Saffle, Michael, 1946Franz Liszt : a guide to research / Michael Saffle.-- 2nd ed. p. cm. -- (Routledge music bibliographies) Includes bibliographical references (p. ) and index. ISBN 0-4159-4011-7 (hb : alk. paper) 1. Liszt, Franz, 1811-1886--Bibliography. I. Title. II. Series. ML134.L7S2 2004 016.78!092--dc22

2003026223

once again, for Sue

Contents

Acknowledgments Using this Book

I

II

III

Introducing Liszt Liszt in 1,000 Words Liszt Studies Past and Present

xi xiii

1 1 3

Summarizing Liszt: Compendia and Other Survey Studies Comprehensive Survey Studies Dictionary and Encyclopedia Entries and Related Publications Companions, Conference Proceedings, and Other Collections Programs and Program Booklets Specialized Periodicals, Periodical Issues, and Related Studies

11 11 22 26 34 35

Researching Liszt: Reference Works Bibliographies Musical Catalogs and Related Studies Collection and Exhibition Catalogs Iconographies and Iconographical Studies Discographies and Related Studies Filmographies and Videographies Timelines Research Reports and Related Studies

41 41 45 52 71 74 78 78 78

vii

viii

Contents

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII

The Documentary Legacy Musical Editions and Related Studies Studies of Musical Sources Editions of Literary Works and Related Studies Autobiographies, Diaries, and Related Documents Published Correspondence and Related Studies Memoirs and Reminiscences Collections and Studies of Other Liszt Documents

87 87 102 105 116 117 135 147

Liszt’s Life and Character Biographies and Related Studies Character Studies Specialized Biographical Studies

155 155 166 169

Evaluating Liszt: Studies in Cultural Products, History, Ideologies, and Reception Liszt and European Culture Liszt, Christianity, and Catholicism The Liszt Reception “Postmodern” Perspectives on Liszt

253 253 262 265 269

Liszt as Composer: Studies in Compositional Techniques and Influences Liszt as Composer Liszt’s Compositional Techniques Liszt’s Music and Stylistic Influences Liszt and “Modern” Music Liszt and National Musical Traditions Aesthetics, Criticism, Philosophy, Religion, and Liszt’s Music

275 275 280 294 321 323 332

Liszt as Keyboard Composer: Studies of Works for Solo Piano and Organ Survey Studies Liszt’s Early Piano Pieces (1827–c. 1840) Liszt’s “Mature” Piano Pieces (c. 1835–c. 1869) Liszt’s Late Piano Pieces (Especially c. 1875–1886) Liszt’s Organ Music

341 341 345 347 379 386

Contents

IX

X

XI

XII

Index

ix

Liszt as Instrumental Ensemble Composer Works for Orchestra Works for Other Instrumental Ensembles

393 393 418

Liszt as Vocal Composer Operas Choral Works Works for Solo Voice

425 425 427 447

Liszt as Arranger, Paraphraser, and Transcriber 459 General Studies 459 Liszt’s Arrangements, Paraphrases, and Transcriptions of His Own Works 462 Liszt and Other Composers’ Instrumental Works 464 Liszt and Other Composers’ Vocal Works 469 Arrangements and Transcriptions of Liszt’s Works by Other Composers 481

Liszt Pedagogy, Performance Practice, and Instruments Liszt as Teacher Liszt as Performer / Performing Liszt Liszt Instruments and Related Studies

485 485 493 500 505

Acknowledgments The present research guide could not have been revised without the assistance of a number of individuals and organizations. Chief among them have been Liszt scholars and colleagues Ben Arnold, Luciano Chiappari, Rossana Dalmonte, James Deaville, Zsuzsanna Domokos, Serge Gut, Klára Hamburger, Keith Kinder, Jonathan Kregor, Christo Lelie, Günther Massenkeil, Pauline Pocknell, Michael Short, Charles Suttoni, Cornelia Szabó-Knotik, Gerhard J. Winkler, William Wright and the late Keith T. Johns, Rey M. Longyear, and Lennart Rabes. These men and women gave me copies of their publications or photocopied items in their collections, looked up uncommon items in libraries throughout Europe and the United States, or otherwise contributed to the present volume’s contents. G. Henle Verlag supplied me with information about their Liszt sheet-music publications and sent me a copy of one volume otherwise unavailable at the time; the library of the University of Vienna supplied me a complete photocopy of another, otherwise unobtainable volume. A special word of thanks to Dr. Chiappari, Ms. Pocknell, and Mr. Wright, whose generosity enabled me to obtain copies of publications otherwise absolutely unavailable in the United States; and to Dr. Domokos, who helped me correlate and correct the Hungarian-language citations and entries that follow. I would also like to thank Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University for travel monies that enabled me to visit the Library of Congress; the libraries of Boston University, Harvard University, the University of North Carolina (Chapel Hill), and the University of Chicago; the British Library, London; the library of the Liszt Ferenc Memorial Museum and Research Centre, Budapest; and Hungary’s National Széchényi Library. Thanks, too, to the directors and staffs of these institutions for their hospitality and encouragement. The editors and staff at Routledge (previously Garland Publishing) deserve thanks and praise for their assistance and almost legendary patience. I am especially grateful to Richard Carlin for his many helpful suggestions, and to my copy editors Shannon McLachlan and Robert Sims. I am, as always, grateful to my loving wife Sue for her many kindnesses and patience. M.S. 22 October 2003

xi

Using this Book In the chapters that follow, each book and article cited separately is identified by author(s), title, editor(s), and/or translator(s), if any; publication information (place, publisher, year, and number of pages, if a book; periodical title, volume, date, and page range, if an article); and ISBN, ISSN, and/or Library of Congress shelf-numbers, if available. An example: the first volume of Alan Walker’s Liszt survey study might be identified as Walker, Alan. Franz Liszt: The Virtuoso Years, 1811–1847, rev. ed. Ithaca, NY and London: Cornell University Press, 1987. xxv, 481 pp. ISBN 0801494214. Because Walker’s survey comprises three volumes, however, the revised “Virtuoso Years” installment is actually identified as Walker, Alan. Franz Liszt. 3 vols. ML410.L7W27 (series). Vol. 1: The Virtuoso Years, 1811–1847, rev. ed.; Cornell University Press, 1987. xxv, 481 pp. ISBN 0801494214. NB: The original edition of Walker’s volume was published by Alfred A. Knopf of New York City in 1983; information about earlier or other editions usually appears in descriptions of items rather than in their bibliographic identifications. Each book and article separately identified and described below is also assigned a number. Thus “1” refers to Walker’s three-volume survey study (see above); “2” to the 1968 edition of Peter Raabe’s two-volume Franz Liszt (the original 1931 edition is identified in the annotation); and so on. In certain cases, portions of longer studies are described separately and therefore have been assigned numbers of their own. Thus Walker’s essay “Liszt and the Literature,” which appears as an introduction to his first volume, is identified as 180. Walker. “Liszt and the Literature.” In item 1, vol. 1, pp. 3–29. Cross-referenced books and articles are identified by asterisks (*) as well as item numbers; Walker’s essay, for example, would be cross-referenced as *

Walker, “Liszt and the Literature.” Described as item 180.

xiii

xiv

Using this Book

Books published in multi-volume series are identified by series title and number (if any) immediately after author(s), title(s), editor(s), and/or translator(s) names. Thus 18. Watson, Derek. Liszt. “The Master Musicians.” or 23. Leroy, Alfred. Franc Liszt: L’homme et son ouevre. Musiciens de tous les temps, 5. or 53. Franz Liszt, ed. Heinz-Klaus Metzger and Reiner Riehn = MusikKonzepte 12 (1980). Quotation marks are employed whenever series titles might be confused with book titles. Equals signs are employed whenever periodical volumes or issues have been given over to separately titled Lisztian publications. Because LC (Library of Congress) shelf-numbers vary from library to library, those given below have either been confirmed through the Library’s own on-line catalog or are reprinted as they appear on CIPs (Copyright Information Pages) in the publications themselves. ISBNs (International Standard Book Numbers) and ISSNs (International Standard Serial Numbers), of course, are the same throughout the world. In the pages that follow, ISBNs pertain whenever relevant to hard-cover rather than paperback editions. Certain abbreviations and typographical practices are employed vis-à-vis works titles. Many of Liszt’s compositions, for example, are identified using abbreviated titles: thus “the Faust symphony” (instead of Eine Faust-Symphonie in drei Charakterbildern) and “B-minor Sonata” (as well as Sonata in b minor). In book and article titles, italics are replaced by double or single quotation marks; thus 70. Roberts, Wesley. “Has it Been Ten Years Already? Surveying the First Decennium of the ‘Journal of the American Liszt Society.’” or 98. Short, Michael, and Michael Saffle. “Compiling Lis(z)ts: Cataloging the Composer’s Works and the ‘New Grove 2’ Works List.” Square brackets identify material interpolated into direct quotations. Parentheses separate item and/or page numbers from other portions of annotations.

Using this Book

xv

Except for Russian words and titles, which are transliterated, all citations to languages other than English appear below as they do in the sources consulted. In the index, the German “ß” is alphabetized as “ss”; all other foreign-language characters and diacritical marks are ignored in alphabetization. Finally, a caveat: even in this information-inundated age, with “everything” [sic] available on the Internet, more than a few Liszt publications are surprisingly difficult to locate. Only with considerable difficulty was the present author able to secure examination copies of items 88, 230, 233, and so on. These and other studies were unavailable in American libraries. Other studies could not be located for (re)examination, including Nunzio Di Bella’s Il compositore Salvatore Auteri Manzocchi dall’amicizia con Franz Liszt al Conservatorio di Parma (Parma, 1997). Still other studies were located too late to be included in the pages that follow. These comprise items mentioned in Chapter 1 (note 10) as well as Mária Eckhardt, “Franz Liszt als Bearbeiter und Vermittler von Werken Robert Schumanns,” in “Neue Bahnen”: Robert Schumann und seine musikalische Zeitgenossen, ed. B. R. Appel [Schumann Forschungen, 7] (Mainz, 2002); pp. 29–40; and Christian Ubber, Liszts Zwölf Etüden und ihre Fassungen (1826–1837–1851) (Laaber, 2002).

I Introducing Liszt

LISZT IN 1,000 WORDS Franz Liszt was born on 22 October 1811 at Raiding, today located in Austria’s Burgenland. He received his first piano lessons from his father, Adam Liszt, an employee of the celebrated Eszterházy family. Young Franz was quickly acclaimed a prodigy, and in 1820 a group of Hungarian magnates offered to underwrite his musical education. Shortly thereafter the Liszts moved to Vienna, where Franz studied piano and composition with Carl Czerny and Anton Salieri. Performances there earned Liszt local fame; even Beethoven expressed interest in him. Seeking additional opportunities for his son, Adam took Franz to Paris, where the boy worked briefly with Ferdinando Paër and Anton Reicha. Concert appearances in England and France proved extremely successful, and by 1830 Liszt had published several piano pieces and drafted at least one concerto. In Paris he made the acquaintance of Hector Berlioz, Frédéric Chopin, Heinrich Heine, Victor Hugo, and Felicité Lammenais; in 1832 Liszt also heard Paganini perform and— so the story goes—immediately resolved to master every aspect of keyboard technique. Sometime during the early 1830s Liszt fell in love with the Comtesse Marie d’Agoult, a married woman who later established a reputation for herself as a historian. In 1835 the couple fled to Switzerland, where for a while Liszt taught at the recently established Geneva Conservatory. For several years the lovers lived comparatively secluded lives, interrupted by travels through the Alps and Italy. By 1838 the young composer had published several important works, including 1

2

Franz Liszt

his Apparitions, the first version of his Harmonies poétiques et religieuses, fantasies on themes from operas by Auber, Meyerbeer, and Pacini, and transcriptions of pieces by Rossini and Schubert. Immediately thereafter the comtesse gave birth to Liszt’s children: Blandine, Cosima, and Daniel. Only Cosima—who was married first to Hans von Bülow, then to Richard Wagner—was destined to enter musical history. Blandine died in her twenties after marrying a diplomat; Daniel died in Berlin in 1859. By 1839 Liszt’s appearances as a concert artist had grown into a full-time career, and during the 1840s he performed in almost every corner of Europe. Honors were showered upon him: the University of Königsberg made him a doctor of music, and Budapest’s citizens presented him with a hero’s sword. Unfortunately, Liszt and d’Agoult quarreled more and more frequently, and they separated in 1844. Meetings with artists such as Schumann and Wagner stimulated Liszt’s imagination, however, and during these “years of transcendental execution” he managed to compose dozens of works, including his earliest songs and sacred pieces. Weimar was only one of many German towns Liszt visited in 1841, but he returned the following year to receive an appointment as “Kapellmeister extraordinary” to the grand-ducal court. After meeting the Princess Caroline zu SaynWittgenstein during a tour of Ukraine in 1847, he suddenly retired from the concert stage, spent some months in seclusion with her, then settled in Weimar to devote himself to composition and conducting. For more than a decade Liszt lived in a house known as the Altenburg, much of that time with the princess; he gave recitals, taught himself orchestration, conducted performances of his own and others’ music, and composed almost all his principal works for orchestra as well as dozens of songs and piano pieces, including the B-minor Sonata. Although his productions of Tannhäuser and Lohengrin failed to impress Weimar’s conservative citizens, Liszt became one of Wagner’s most loyal admirers and apologists, Wagner—at least sometimes—one of Liszt’s closest friends. Weimar never entirely approved either of Liszt’s artistic activities or his alliance with Sayn-Wittgenstein, and as the 1850s drew to a close the composer found himself subjected increasingly to criticism from local officials and the musical press. The disastrous reception of Peter Cornelius’s Barber of Baghdad prompted him to resign his court appointment in December 1858, and three years later he settled in Rome. The princess planned to join him after Pope Pius IX confirmed her petition for a divorce from her Russian husband, but permission was later withdrawn and no wedding took place. Instead, in 1865, Liszt took minor orders in the Catholic church and began work on his Missa choralis. By the end of the 1860s he had completed Christus as well as a second oratorio on the life of St. Elisabeth of Hungary. In 1869 Liszt accepted an invitation to return to Weimar and settle in the Hofgärtnerei, a small house on the city’s outskirts. He still spent part of each year in Rome, however; and when his appointment as a Royal Hungarian Counselor

Introducing Liszt

3

in 1871 required him to visit Budapest regularly, he began what he later called his vie trifurquée (or “three-cornered life”). During the 1870s and 1880s he gave more of himself to pedagogical activities. Hundreds of pianists flocked to study with him—first in Germany, then at the Academy of Music he helped establish in Budapest. Old age brought Liszt increased respect from the Western musical world. His influence over its future also grew: Grieg showed him his famous piano concerto in 1869, Borodin visited him during the early 1870s, and the young Debussy heard him play at a private recital in Rome. Yet Liszt’s last years were mostly unhappy: his children were dead or estranged from him, his health began to deteriorate, and he fell prey to depression. Wagner’s unexpected death in 1883 reminded him of his approaching end, and his last works include a series of harmonically progressive piano pieces, several of them written in memory of his former friend. Three years later Liszt undertook a final European “summer” tour, stopping in England, Belgium, and France before arriving in Bayreuth to visit Cosima and attend a performance in the recently completed Festspielhaus. Already, however, he had become very ill, and on 31 July 1886 he died just before midnight. The Princess Sayn-Wittgenstein, with whom Liszt corresponded almost to the day of his death, survived him by less than a year.

LISZT STUDIES PAST AND PRESENT Three decades ago Alan Walker stated that, “Of all the great nineteenth-century composers, Liszt alone still remains to be fully explored” (item 38, p. xiii). A flood of books and articles has appeared since Walker wrote those words, but his statement cannot yet be altogether discarded. Liszt remains an enigmatic figure, more written about (and against) than understood. Today, of course, we understand him better than we once did. But much remains to be learned. And interpreted. The evolution of Liszt studies since the middle of the nineteenth century resembles the evolution of many other humanistic specialties during the same period. Like them, Liszt scholarship has gradually become both more comprehensive and more precise. But Liszt studies has also evolved in its own way. A plethora of nineteenth-century publications had the effect of bringing research almost to a halt during the fifty years separating 1886 (the year of Liszt’s death) and the 1930s. The so-called “Liszt legend”—the assumption that Liszt was a kind of musical saint—also stayed the hands of debunking biographers during most of those years, then drove some of them to attack their subject with more enthusiasm than common sense. Only since the mid-1970s has Liszt studies won recognition throughout Europe and the United States as a field for reputable musicological investigators. And only during the past decade has a “postmodern Liszt” begun to emerge from the workshops of younger and, often, more innovative Liszt specialists.

4

Franz Liszt

Documents associated with the composer’s family and childhood have been traced as far back as the seventeenth century (items 451–453), and during the 1820s journalists reviewed with increasing frequency Liszt’s public performances in Vienna and Paris (see items 381, 389, and so on). In 1829 the first true “study” appeared: an entry about the young musician in an encyclopedia devoted to famous Hungarians.1 By the mid-1830s the European press had begun reporting with some regularity his activities as virtuoso and man-about-Europe. The Revue et gazette musicale de Paris, for example, ran notices of Liszt’s travels and activities, invited him to join its editorial board, and published his first forays into musical journalism (see items 260, 749, and so on). In the 1840s Liszt was the subject of three full-fledged monographs: J. W. Christern’s biography (item 420), Ludwig Rellstab’s account of Liszt’s career and Berlin concerts of 1842 (item 421), and Gustav Schilling’s biographical and musical essay (item 422). Even then, however, a few of the anecdotes in circulation about Liszt were not entirely true. Consider the Weihekuss (or “kiss of consecration”) Beethoven was supposed to have bestowed upon the young prodigy at the conclusion of his Vienna concert on 13 April 1823. Joseph d’Ortigue told this tale in 1835 (see item 424), and it spread quickly across France and Germany. Contemporary accounts of Liszt’s largess also acquired legendary status; these, however, were based more firmly on fact. Some of them were reported in biographies and critical studies of the period; others, however, remained obscure until quite recently, when Zeitungsforschung (“newspaper research”) began to bring to light thousands of Liszt documents printed during the 1830s, 1840s, and 1850s. Yet it was only during his so-called “Weimar years” that Liszt’s compositions began to attract the attention of Europe’s most influential critics. Richard Wagner, for example, took up his pen to praise his friend’s first half-dozen Symphonic Poems (item 1184), and Richard Pohl published a series of articles about Liszt’s Faust and Dante symphonies, his Symphonic Poems, and some of his more familiar choral works (see item 365). Other 1850s and 1860s journalists, however, attacked the Neudeutsche Schule (or “New German School,” a concept closely associated with Liszt and his Weimar circle) and ridiculed the Zukunftsmusik (or “Music of the Future”) it was supposed to have produced. Eduard Hanslick, whose denunciations of musical programmism were disseminated in newspaper notices and reviews as well as in Vom musikalisch-Schönen,2 did much to transform Vienna into a bastion of anti-Liszt sentiment. Yet other Viennese critics rushed to Liszt’s defense; Leopold Zellner, for instance, published the first extended study of the “Gran” Mass, one of Liszt’s most important sacred works (item 1282).3 We know almost nothing about how Liszt responded to criticism during the 1830s and 1840s, decades when virtually everything published about him was either complimentary or inconsequential; we do know, however, that he was well aware that the encouragement he received from the likes of Wagner, Pohl, and Zellner did not fend off the attacks launched against him throughout Central Europe (items 382, 550, and so on). Too, Liszt’s literary output—composed largely of

Introducing Liszt

5

occasional essays, some of considerable interest, as well as a monograph on Chopin—“concluded” with a study of “Gypsy” music (reprinted in item 252, vol. 6) that contained an antisemitic diatribe inserted into it by the Princess SaynWittgenstein (see item 718). Often reticent about expressing his thoughts and feelings, he refused to denounce his friend and former mistress for attributing to him attitudes Hitler later embraced.4 Meanwhile his reputation as a pianist continued to grow, prejudicing virtually everything written about him during his lifetime. After he left Weimar in 1861, Liszt for a time led a more secluded life. As a consequence, comparatively few important or influential accounts of him and his works appeared in print during the decades that followed, when he did so much for public musical life in Hungary. During the late 1870s, however, Liszt was approached by Lina Ramann, a young author who offered to write a “definitive” account of his life and labors. The first volume of Ramann’s Franz Liszt als Künstler und Mensch (item 3, vol. 1) was published in 1880, six years before Liszt’s death; corrections for some of its contents were supplied by Liszt (see item 344, pp. 385ff.). Shortly thereafter Marie Lipsius, who wrote under the pen name “La Mara,” began preparing for press—albeit with the help of the Princess Sayn-Wittgenstein—the first volumes of Liszt’s collected correspondence (item 289). La Mara and the princess did their best in this publication to present flattering documentary portraits of their subject; it was their collaborations, together with Ramann’s biography, that helped consolidate the “Liszt legend.”5 Venerated until the day of his death as a “grand old man” of music, if not of musical creativity, Liszt also received posthumous praise for his keyboard virtuosity as well as his support of artists everywhere. Several decades passed, however, before biographers such as August Göllerich (item 12; see also item 81) and Julius Kapp (item 402) began to do more than rephrase Ramann’s and La Mara’s assessments of their hero’s activities and artistic accomplishments. During the fifty years that separated Liszt’s demise from the early 1930s, comparatively little research about him appeared in print. Jean Chantavoine rediscovered the score of the young composer’s opera Don Sanche (see item 1247), lost for decades in the archives of the Paris Opéra. August Stradal published articles about several of Liszt’s keyboard and orchestral compositions (items 785, 1005, and so on). Alfred Heuß did the same thing (items 1142, 1197, and so on). In 1916 Peter Raabe, then a doctoral candidate at the University of Jena, completed the first serious study of Liszt’s stylistic development (item 1144). Raabe’s researches led to his appointment as curator of the so-called “Liszt Museum” in Weimar; this organization, which was taken over after World War II by the Nationale Forschungs- und Gedenkstätten der klassischen deutschen Literatur, today belongs to the Stiftung Weimarer Klassik. By the mid-1920s a Gesamtausgabe or “complete edition” of Liszt’s music (item 201), published by Breitkopf & Härtel, was well underway. Unfortunately, it was never completed. Then, in the 1930s, two bombshells burst over the heads of Liszt researchers. One of the explosions was ignited by Hungarian expatriate musicologist Emile

6

Franz Liszt

Haraszti, who began examining then-obscure documents associated with Liszt’s early life in Paris. Haraszti laid the foundations for more reliable accounts of his subject’s youthful activities and attitudes, but his writings presented oversimplified accounts of Liszt’s character and literary activities. Because Haraszti learned, for example, that Liszt had been assisted by the Comtesse d’Agoult in writing portions of the Lettres d’un bachelier ès musique (reprinted in items 253, vol. 1; 260; and so on), he concluded that none of the composer’s literary efforts could be genuine (item 272). In fairness to Haraszti, we should remember that Liszt autographs and other manuscripts are still being recovered today; a holograph copy of the legendary “Prélude omnitonique,” for example, was recovered only during the late 1990s and published for the first time only in 2003 (in item 98, p. 257). The other explosion was set off by Wagner expert Ernest Newman, who announced—based on evidence as well as exaggeration and distortion—that “the Master” was anything but saintly. Instead, Newman argued (item 441) that Liszt had been a man “divided against himself,” a disturbed personality whose pretensions to artistic greatness stopped just short of fraud. Newman’s claims have been attacked time and again, but they continue to surface in popular biographies as well as scholarly debates. More damaging to Liszt studies as a discipline, though, was Newman’s reliance on carefully selected, occasionally bowdlerized letters, reminiscences, and “eyewitness” accounts of his subject’s activities and character. By implication, Newman—and many of his followers—repudiated an enormous body of material that still has not been systematically examined. The appearance in 1931 of Raabe’s much more accurate, if somewhat dry, two-volume survey (item 2) did little to offset Haraszti’s and Newman’s more radical conclusions. The rise of Fascism in Europe during the later 1930s and the subsequent devastation caused by World War II also slowed Liszt research for more than a decade. After 1950 Liszt studies slowly began to recover strength. By the mid-1960s what German musicologist Andreas Holzschneider has called the “Liszt renaissance” was well underway (see item 190). Suddenly, this striking figure began to interest a generation of performers and scholars also interested in Mahler, Bruckner, and “authentic” Baroque music. During the 1950s, for example, Hungarian researchers unearthed and wrote about a number of Liszt’s late piano pieces (items 1102, 1115, and so on). These and other unfamiliar works, reprinted in England by the British Liszt Society (especially item 208), inspired more than a few experts to reinvent Liszt as a precursor of musical modernism and even atonality. Humphrey Searle promulgated the avant-garde aspects of his subject’s output in a number of articles as well as in The Music of Liszt (item 776), still the most comprehensive work of its kind in print. Carl Dahlhaus also contributed several influential publications to the Liszt literature (items 910, 920, and so on). Of course, not every mid-twentieth-century study was of equal value: more than a few books and articles by Eastern European specialists, for instance, were tinged with Marxist-Leninist dogma. Nevertheless, scholars in several nations continued

Introducing Liszt

7

to break ground. By 1960 plans had been formulated for a new complete edition of Liszt’s music (items 202 and 234), and during the decades that followed a critical edition of his literary works (item 253) was launched. A proposed new edition of the composer’s collected correspondence, however, never got off the ground (see item 338). The 1970s witnessed the birth of three Liszt periodicals: Liszt Saeculum (item 62), which grew out of the Swedish International Liszt Center’s newsletter edited by Lennart Rabes, and which ceased publication in 2001 following Rabes’s death; the Liszt Society Journal (item 63), founded in London in 1975; and the Journal of the American Liszt Society (item 61), established by Maurice Hinson in 1977. Four Liszt-Studien volumes of essays and conference proceedings were published in Austria and Germany during the l970s, l980s, and early 1990s (items 46–47, 786, and 874); and in 1991 the American “Franz Liszt Studies Series,” under Michael Saffle’s editorship, was launched by Pendragon Press and today comprises almost a dozen volumes in press or print (items 39, 42, and so on). Liszt enthusiasm reached its most recent peak in 1986: the centenary of the composer’s death inspired a host of publications and presentations (see item 73). International conferences were devoted to his life and output (see items 44, 48, and so on), museums held Liszt exhibitions and printed catalogs of Lisztiana (items 135, 141, and so on), and shortly thereafter the groundwork was laid for the publication of not merely one but two new and definitive catalogs of his compositions (see items 94, 96, and so on). Researchers continue to grapple with Liszt discoveries. But these are not the only challenges they face. Old ideas die hard: legends fostered by nineteenthand twentieth-century biographers and scholars have not yet been altogether addressed. Again, consider the Weihekuss story. Scholars have long been aware that Beethoven knew something of the boy Liszt and the concert he presented on 13 April 1823 in Vienna.6 They have also been aware that early accounts of Liszt’s career claim the young prodigy received the “kiss of consecration” at the conclusion of that concert—indeed, that Liszt himself mentioned a kiss in a letter he addressed in 1875 to Ilka Horowitz-Barnay.7 In the early 1980s Alan Walker tackled the legend scientifically (item 1, vol. 1, pp. 80–85). He pointed out that Liszt may well have received a kiss from Beethoven in private (even as he acknowledged that the older musician did not attend the youngster’s April 1823 performance). In an unfortunate review of Walker’s work, Allan Keiler challenged the accuracy of some of these statements—without, however, contributing new evidence of his own (see item 198). Yet even Walker, with a great deal of evidence before arriving at his conclusions, overlooked one important contemporary newspaper article that verified his conclusions: a review of the concert of 13 April 1823 published originally in Der Sammler (and reprinted in item 72, p. 279). All this represents or reflects the positivist strain in Liszt scholarship. More recently, Kevin Kopelson has devoted an entire volume to postmodern musings on “Beethoven’s Kiss” (item 636). To Kopelson, Walker’s oversight and Keiler’s

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errors are beside the point: the Weihekuss story and especially its reception tells us what we (need to) know about gender biases and the marginalizing of gay love in musicological circles. Liszt and Beethoven, Kopelson maintains, are interesting only insofar as they exemplify “perversity” and “desire” as culturalhistorical constructs. Haraszti, Newman, and other “debunkers” were successful in promulgating bizarre notions of Liszt’s shortcomings because so much conflicting evidence had not yet been unearthed or was then—and, in some cases, still is—available only in mutilated editions. Advocates of musical nationalism have also failed for the most part to take into account the evidence at hand. Liszt’s “world” encompassed rural Austria-Hungary in the years before the Congress of Vienna; it also took in the Paris of Victor Hugo, the London of Dickens and the young Bernard Shaw, and the Budapest both of October 1849 (when Hungary was engaged in a revolution the composer witnessed only from a distance) and of June 1867 (when Franz Joseph I was crowned “dual monarch,” an event for which Liszt provided the music). Some experts continue to reject aspects of Liszt as “supranational” figure (see item 484). Others have exalted various of his “nationalisms”: consider Eleanor Perényi’s marvelous account of the young Liszt as French Romantic hero (item 403), or Dezso# Legány’s two-volume chronicle of Liszt’s Hungarian sojourns (item 571). But Liszt was also influenced by German and Russian figures: consider his settings of Goethe’s “Flohlied” and his transcriptions of music by Glinka and Cui. And who but Liszt could have confused “Gypsy” tunes with authentic folksongs, then arranged some of those same tunes so magnificently, outfitting them with chord progressions and keyboard figures that call Berlioz, Chopin, and Thalberg to mind? Alfred Brendel put it well: “Instead of ‘specializing in himself,’ Liszt presents [in his music] a panorama of style” (quoted in item 429, p. 8). Liszt’s contribution to the Western musical tradition continues to be debated. The day is almost over when his works can be dismissed out of hand as vulgar or worthless, yet issues of value remain to be resolved. Charles Rosen has written that “good taste is a barrier to an understanding and appreciation of the nineteenth century,” and that “only a view of Liszt that places the Second Hungarian Rhapsody in the center of his work will do him justice.”8 Here Rosen, who is right about so many things, begs the question by suggesting—rather than demonstrating—that the Hungarian Rhapsodies are negligible. Or does he? Perhaps, as Rosen elsewhere asserts, it is only the “least respectable side” of Liszt’s output that is found in these pieces, and that “it is from the fame of these works that his most earnest admirers” feel he must be rescued.9 Or consider Liszt as pianist. As such, he was unsurpassed; almost every critic would concur with this statement. As a composer, however—or so many critics continue to maintain, Hungarian Rhapsodies or not—Liszt never (or rarely) got his musical balloons off the ground. One assumption underlying such statements is that no one can be a great performer and a great composer—although Bach, Mozart, Beethoven,

Introducing Liszt

9

Brahms, Mahler, Rachmaninoff, Bartók, and a host of other musicians were precisely that. Perhaps this misunderstanding arose when Liszt’s works were first evaluated in “Classical” rather than “Romantic” terms; the compositions of Mozart and Beethoven are, after all, quite different in intention from Liszt’s and were written for a different kind of audience. Yet Liszt was hailed at once for his remarkable piano playing; indeed, he set standards that persist to the present day (see item 387). Put it another way: we now know that Liszt’s reputation contributed to nineteenth- and twentieth-century European and American notions of “virtuosity,” “vulgarity,” and “fame”—the last, we are coming to realize, cannot be considered as altogether different from the adulation also bestowed on Elvis Presley and other rock musicians (see item 767). Envy also enters into many observations about Liszt—just as, to quote Brendel again, and at some length, it has entered into observations about Haydn: Liszt’s early European success as virtuoso and improviser equalled that of Mozart; a few years later, his “genius of expression” (Schumann) and boundless pianistic skill made him, as a player, superior even to Chopin, Mendelssohn, or Clara Schumann. The combination of a lively mind, personal magnetism, masculine beauty, the social triumphs enjoyed by a privileged parvenu, and a love life bordering on scandal turned out to be, within one human being, barely forgivable. There was a conspicuous absence of mitigating circumstances such as Mozart’s or Schubert’s early death, Mozart’s alleged impoverishment and unmarked “pauper’s grave,” Schubert’s syphilis, Beethoven’s deafness, Chopin’s consumption, or Schumann’s mental disorder—features that make the fame of a genius a great deal more gratifying, and guarantee its solidity.… Arguably, Liszt and Haydn are the most frequently misunderstood among major composers; their biographers afford little food for pity.… In old age, Haydn reigned over the musical world as its undisputed leading light. For this, the nineteenth century punished him—as it punished Liszt for his undisputed supremacy as a performer.… Not until our century did a greater number of composers—from Richard Strauss, Ravel, and Busoni to Schoenberg, Bartók, and Boulez—appreciate Liszt by taking him seriously. (Item 429, pp. 7–8.) Idolized during his lifetime as a pianist even as he was damned as a composer (or, at least, damned with faint praise), then ignored by scholars for decades after his death, Liszt is at long last coming into his own. This process has been a lengthy and arduous one, and it is not over yet. The considered judgment of the early twenty-first-century musical establishment is that Liszt was not the least important of the great Romantic composers; that his works drew upon the accomplishments of earlier masters and inspired those of masters to come; and that his long, uneven, and multifaceted life deserves reexamination if only for the conflicting

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attitudes and accomplishments it embodied and inspired.10 Moreover, Liszt cannot and should not be excluded from evaluation as both individual and icon—as an “image” that, among other things, continues to body forth attitudes toward class, ethnicity, and gender characteristic of Western civilization as a whole.

ENDNOTES 1. In Gemälde von Ungern [sic], ed. Johann v. Csaplovics [“Erster Theil”] (Pesth, 1829), pp. 264–65. Like other early Liszt studies—but by no means all of them—this one is identified in item 39. 2. Recently reprinted as: Eduard Hanslick, On the Musically Beautiful, trans. Geoffrey Payzant (Indianapolis, 1986). It should be pointed out that Hanslick disliked Liszt’s music but not Liszt, and he praised Liszt’s keyboard performances. 3. Like so much nineteenth-century periodical material, Zellner’s publications have virtually disappeared from view. Yet they are important and extensive. Consider Zellner’s Blätter für Musik, Theater und Kunst, which, between 1855 and 1859, printed accounts of Liszt matinées at the Weimar Altenburg, articles about Liszt in Hungary and Czechoslovakia—some of them reprinted from Pester Lloyd, a German-language Budapest newspaper—as well as an article about Liszt’s vocal music as a whole, and so on. The Blätter also ran the whole of Zellner’s “Gran” Mass book. 4. One of the Führer’s Siegesfanfaren (or “victory fanfares”) was drawn from Liszt’s Les Préludes. I am indebted to James Deaville for this information. 5. Ramann has often been blamed for disseminating the “legend,” but scholars have begun to exonerate her or, at the very least, consider her scholarly strengths as well as weaknesses. See items 437–438. 6. Published editions of Beethoven’s Konversationshefte (or “conversation books”) testifies to his brief but sincere interest in Liszt. 7. Reprinted in Theodor von Frimmel, Beethoven Studien II: Bausteine zu einer Lebensgeschichte des Meisters (Munich and Leipzig, 1906), pp. 103–4. 8. Quoted from Rosen’s review of Walker’s “Virtuoso Years” volume (item 1, vol. 1). The review appeared in the New York Review of Books 31/6 (12 April 1984), pp. 17–20. 9. Charles Rosen, The Romantic Generation (Cambridge, MA, 1995), p. 491. 10. Liszt publications appear more rapidly, and in more diverse places, than scholars—including the author of the present research guide—can keep up with them. Recent books and articles range in scope from the overarching (Jim Samson’s book about the “Transcendental Etudes”; item 772) to the much more specialized. Into the latter category fall two studies by Ágnes Watzatka: “Engeszer Mátyás,” in Magyar Egyházzene 8 (2000–2001): pp. 337–52, which deals with musician Mátyás Engeszer, his friendship with Liszt, and the premier performance of Liszt’s Die Glocken des Strassburger Münsters on 25 March 1873 in Budapest; and “A Szent Mártonról cimzett pozsonyi Egyházi Zeneegyesület a XIX században,” in Magyar Egyházzene 9 (2001–2002): pp. 2002–28, which deals in part with a performance Liszt conducted in 1840 at St. Martin’s Church, Pressburg [or Preßburg; known today as Bratislava, Slovakia], on behalf of that city’s Church Music Society. Other Hungarian-language studies were received too late even to be cited in this and other footnotes and asides.

II Summarizing Liszt Compendia and Other Survey Studies

Many of the books and articles devoted to Franz Liszt (hereinafter also referred to as “the composer”) deal with only one or at most two or three specific issues: his concert tours, for instance, or thematic transformation in the Faust symphony and the B-minor Sonata. A few publications, however, attempt to deal with all of Liszt, or at least with a broad selection of his activities and accomplishments. This chapter is devoted to identifying and describing such “comprehensive” publications; among these are anthologies of studies by one or more scholars, compendia of several kinds, dictionary and encyclopedia entries, handbooks, “readers,” published conference proceedings, and periodicals devoted entirely or primarily to the composer and his era. A small number of “borderline” studies devoted primarily, but not entirely, to Liszt’s compositions are discussed in Chapter 7; so are studies of the composer’s private and professional activities devoted to individual geographical areas—for example, Hungary—or related to individual organizations—for example, Roman Catholicism. Unless otherwise indicated—and this throughout the present research guide—studies are identified and described under headings, subheadings, or interpolated comments in alphabetical order by author and/or title. Missing ISBN, ISSN, or LC numbers were unavailable. COMPREHENSIVE SURVEY STUDIES The finest survey of Liszt’s life and works undertaken to date is: 1. Walker, Alan. Franz Liszt. 3 vols. rev. ed. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1987–1997. ML410.L7W27.

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Vol. 1: The Virtuoso Years, 1811–1847, 1987. xxv, 481 pp. ISBN 0801494214. Vol. 2: The Weimar Years, 1848–1861, 1989. xvii, 626 pp. ISBN 0801497213. Vol. 3: The Final Years, 1861–1886, 1997. xx, 594 pp. ISBN 0801484537. Engagingly written and unusually detailed, Walker’s monograph will be read, praised, and—occasionally—damned for decades to come. Vol. 1 deals with Liszt’s family, childhood, youth, and “years of transcendental execution” (i.e., 1838–1847) as well as the artist’s earliest compositions; it concludes with a valuable although eccentrically organized “bibliography” (actually a list of source materials) and an appendix devoted to Liszt’s own summary of his concert repertory, the latter preserved in D-WRgs Liszt ms. Z151; its summary of “Liszt and the Literature” (item 180) is well worth reading. Vol. 2 discusses in detail Liszt’s life and compositions of the 1850s as well as documentary evidence concerning his projected marriage with the Princess Carolyne von Sayn-Wittgenstein (item 643). Vol. 3 completes the story and incorporates, among other appendices, a list of Princess Carolyne’s literary works. All three volumes are illustrated with portraits, facsimile reproductions of documents, maps, chronological tables, and scattered musical examples. All are carefully indexed. Throughout these volumes Walker purports to take “nothing on trust as far as Liszt is concerned”; nevertheless, he himself acknowledges that even so massive a work cannot “tell all” (vol. 1, pp. 28–29). Widely praised, the series has won several international prizes for biography as well as criticism concerning errors of fact, narrative tone, and lack of musical analysis. In reviewing especially vol. 3 [in “Godfather,” New York Review of Books 43/19 (28 November 1996): 35–39], D. Kern Holoman refers succinctly to Walker’s weaknesses as well as strengths. For Holoman, “what Walker chooses to cover he covers well: Liszt’s daily life and his relations to people closest to him” On the other hand, Walker’s “tactic of walking the reader through one piece after another with a few one- and two-line musical examples” is less than satisfactory, and his “musical commentary [sometimes] turns purple” [Holoman, p. 36]. In responding adroitly to criticisms leveled against his vol. 1 by Alan Keiler (item 198), Walker announced— among other things—that, “when all three volumes of my biography are in print, the amount of space devoted to Liszt’s music will still exceed that of Lina Ramann [item 3] and Peter Raabe [item 2] combined” [item 199, p. 213]. Unfortunately, his promise was not fulfilled. Originally published between 1983 and 1996 by Alfred A. Knopf of New York City (ISBN 039452540X [three-volume original ed.]). Published in a 1. Hereafter given as “D-WRgs Z15.” Other Weimar Liszt manuscripts are similarly identified throughout the present volume.

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two-volume French translation by Fayaud of Paris (“1811–1861,” in 1989; “1861–1886,” in 1998); portions of vol. 1, dealing with Liszt’s family, appears in German translation as item 714. Rena Mueller reviewed vol. 1 in the Journal of the American Musicological Society 37 (1984): 185–96. Other reviews also exist. Reviews of vol. 2 appeared in the New Hungarian Quarterly 32/123 (Fall 1991): 149–54 [“A Giant in Lilliput”]; the Journal of the American Liszt Society 26 (1989): 67–72; and—together with the French edition of vol. 1—in the Revue de musicologie 78 (1992): 172–76. Holoman’s review of vol. 3 is cited above. Another outstanding assessment of the same volume by Jay Rosenblatt appeared as “Liszt, Liszt Biography, and Walker’s Liszt” in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 40 (1996): 130–43. Two older comprehensive survey studies also deserve close attention: 2. Raabe, Peter. Franz Liszt, rev. Felix Raabe. 2 vols. Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1968. ML410.L7R134 1968. Vol. 1: Liszts Leben. Vol. 2: Liszts Schaffen. Summarizes its author’s researches as curator of the so-called “LisztMuseum” in Weimar. Liszts Leben concludes with a detailed chronological table of Liszt’s personal life and professional career, discussed separately as item 174. Liszts Schaffen contains one of the finest catalogs of Liszt’s compositions in print (item 84) as well as indexes and a bibliography heavily weighted in favor of German-language source materials. Careful and generally accurate in his correction of mistakes found in Ramann’s work (item 3) and other, even earlier studies, Raabe is nevertheless somewhat cursory and rather dry. Both volumes are outfitted with facsimile reproductions of holograph scores—for example, the famous 1830 “Revolutionary” symphony sketch—but contain few additional musical examples. Originally published in 1931, the 1968 edition contains emendations prepared by the author’s son Felix Raabe and printed as “supplements” to each volume; although useful, the younger Raabe’s statements are not always reliable. Peter Raabe’s Wege zu Liszt, to some extent an abridged version of his two-volume study, is described as item 411. 3. Ramann, Lina. Franz Liszt als Künstler und Mensch. 3 vols. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1880–1894. ML410.L7R2. Vol. 1: Die Jahre 1811–1840. Vol. 2: Virtuosenperiode. Die Jahre 1839/40–1847. Vol. 3: Sammlung und Arbeit. Weimar und Rom. Die Jahre 1848–1886.

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The “authorized” biography-cum-musical study, begun under the composer’s supervision but completed after his death. An uneven work, full of exaggerations and distortions introduced by the author herself and Princess Carolyne (item 1, vol. 1, p. 10). Despite its flaws, however, Ramann’s work contains information unavailable in other studies and reflects strongly the adoration once accorded Liszt by his admirers; moreover, Ramann has recently been defended for her real virtues (items 437 and 438). Copiously illustrated with musical examples and quotations from sources of various kinds, including press notices of selected Liszt concerts and the texts of Liszt letters. An uneven English-language translation of vol. 1, prepared by one E. Cowdery, appeared in two vols. as Franz Liszt, Artist and Man: 1811–1840 (London, 1882; ML410.L7R22) and was at once scornfully reviewed in The Musical Times 23 (1882): 678–79. A catalog of Liszt’s compositions to 1840 appears at the beginning of Cowdery’s vol. 1. Although advertised, translations of Ramann’s other volumes never appeared in print. The most important Russian-language summaries of Liszt’s life and works are: 4. Levasheva, O. Franz List. Moscow: “Musika,” 1998. 333 pp. ISBN 5714006453. ML410.L7L45 1998. Examines Liszt’s life and works to some extent from a post-glasnost perspective. Includes thirty-seven scattered musical examples, some multipartite, as well as other illustrations; among the latter are black-and-white facsimile reproductions of several sheet-music covers, one of Ary Scheffer’s 1830s portraits of Liszt, and, as a frontispiece, Devéria’s 1832 portrait. 5. Mil’shtein, Yakov I(saakovich). F. List, rev. ed.; 2 vols. Moscow: “Muzyka,” 1971. USSR 71-VKP. ML410.L7M5 1971. A generally conservative survey, copiously illustrated with musical examples. As one might expect, Mil’shtein provides a great deal of information about Liszt’s Russian travels and his influence on Russian composers. Vol. 2 contains a detailed catalog of Liszt’s compositions (pp. 327–438) drawn almost entirely from Raabe’s Werkverzeichnis (item 84) and from Searle’s 1954 Grove’s Dictionary catalog (item 83). Mil’shtein’s volumes also contain an index of persons, a chronological table of Liszt’s activities, and an extensive bibliography of secondary sources. Also published in Hungarian translation in 1964; a review article, devoted to the latter edition and written by Zoltán Gárdonyi, appeared under the title “Egy jelentös Liszt-monográfiáról” in Magyar zene 6 (1965): 258–65. NB: Soviet-era, Russian-language Liszt publications can be difficult to trace. For a useful guide to at least some of them, see Musikwissenschaftliche

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Literatur sozialistischer Länder, vol. 4: “Sowjetunion, 1945–1966” = Beiträge zur Musikwissenschaft: Sonderreihe Bibliographien (1976), p. 158; periodical citations, together with the sigla employed in this publication, are identified in pp. ix–xiii. An intriguing French-language Liszt survey study has not attracted much scholarly attention: 6. Stricker, Rémy. Franz Liszt. Les tènèbres de la gloire. Paris: Gallimard, 1993. 482 pp. ISBN 207073353X. ML410.L8S92 1993 [University of Chicago Library]. An account of Liszt’s life, character, and works, organized around several “themes” or subjects: “Liszt et les femmes” (with discussions of the composer’s relationships with Marie d’Agoult and their children, Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein, George Sand, Cristina Belgiojoso, Agnes Street-Kindworth, and so on), “Un homme religieux” (with discussions of Liszt’s faith as well as his Christus, “Gran” Mass, and so on), “Improvisation, structure, emprunt” (with discussions of Liszt’s approaches to improvisation, transcription, thematic transformation, and so on). Illustrated with ninety-seven musical examples drawn from the Faust symphony, Les Préludes, the Bagatelle sans tonalité, and a number of other works, as well as eight black-and-white plates of portraits and facsimiles. Also includes three appendices [annexes] devoted to Hamlet and the Stabat Mater dolorosa from Christus, and so on (pp. 451–67) as well as a bibliography (pp. 469–72) and an index of works cited (pp. 473–78). Stricker’s study concludes with a less-than-helpful table of contents; a list of sigla appears on pp. 5–6. Seventeen other book-length survey studies are described or cross-listed below. Some of these are described in greater detail in Chapter 5, Chapter 7, and Chapter 8: ˆ

ˆ

7. Balan, Theodor. Franz Liszt. Bucharest: Editura Muzicala, 1963. 404 pp. ML410.L7B24 1963. Discusses Liszt’s life, character, piano performances, and contributions to keyboard technique in some detail. Balan also provides a useful description of the composer’s 1846–1847 Balkan tours, complete with quotations from newspapers such as Albina Romineasca (pp. 349–66), as well as a scattering of photographic illustrations, 107 short musical examples, and facsimile reproductions of several documents—among them, an album inscription in Liszt’s hand dating from 1823. Unfortunately lacks both bibliography and index. Not to be confused with a much less useful book having the same title and published by the same author, c. 1957 (157 pp.). In Rumanian throughout. ˆ

ˆ

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8. Chantavoine, Jean. Liszt. Paris: F. Alcan, 1920. 247 pp. ML410.L7C4. An intelligent, rather old-fashioned survey, written by the scholar who rediscovered the score of Don Sanche at the turn of this century (item 1247) and published several books and articles about Liszt’s private affairs and musical style. Concludes with a compact catalog of Liszt’s compositions (pp. 240–45) and a brief bibliography. Earlier editions of Chantavoine’s book also exist; one of them, apparently identical to that described above, evidently appeared in print in 1950. 9. Chiappari, Luciano. Franz Liszt. La vita, l’artista, l’uomo. “Musica e musicisti,” 1. Novara: Edizioni “Tempo Sensibile,” 1987. 567 pp. LCCN 88-112392. ML410.L7C5 1987. A substantial account of Liszt’s life in three long chapters, with a fourth devoted to “the man” and “the artist.” Chiappari, who has worked extensively with Italian primary source materials (items 590, 592, 599, and so on), otherwise covers little new ground in this volume; the chapters on Liszt’s compositions (“La musica sinfonica,” pp. 360–74; “La musica per pianoforte,” pp. 374–86; and so on) contain no printed examples and only one manuscript facsimile: that of a copy of the Bagatelle sans tonalité. Outfitted, however, with a scattering of portraits and four appendices: a chronological catalog of works (pp. 449–513; see item 88), a bibliography (pp. 514–29), information about two European Liszt societies (p. 530), and names of Liszt’s pupils (pp. 531–35). Concludes with indexes of compositions and names. 10. Dalmonte, Rossana. Franz Liszt: La vita, l’opera, i testi musicali. Milan: Giangiacomo Feltrinelli, 1983. 389 pp. ISBN 8807180030. ML410.L7D3 1983. An insightful study, illustrated with carefully chosen musical examples. One of Dalmonte’s principal interests is the relationship between music, language, and literature; the third part of her book contains the texts of virtually all Liszt’s songs and choral works and the libretto of Don Sanche in the original French (pp. 199–370). Carefully indexed. * Dömling. Franz Liszt und seine Zeit. Described as item 780. A musical study that also explores important aspects of Liszt’s character and interpersonal relationships. * Engel. Franz Liszt. Der virtuose Klang der Menschlichkeit. Described as item 406. A popular biography, one of many supplemented by a little information about the composer’s music.

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11. Engel, Hans. Franz Liszt. Potsdam: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Athenaion, 1936. 132 pp. ML410.L7E5. An uneven, highly opinionated monograph by the scholar who supplied the Liszt article for the original edition of MGG (item 29), and whose Germanic biases show through almost everywhere. Illustrated with twenty-one portraits and facsimiles of several press clippings and musical manuscripts as well as forty-six short musical examples, the majority of them taken from keyboard and symphonic compositions, and several analytical diagrams. No formal bibliography or other scholarly apparatus, although several paragraphs devoted to sources [Literatur (pp. 127–29)] precede a brief index. 12. Göllerich, August. Franz Liszt. Berlin: Marquardt, 1908. xi, 331 pp. ML410.L7G5. An erratic but often valuable testimonial to Liszt’s genius and character, composed of biographical fragments, “character studies,” and brief discussions of individual compositions as well as several eyewitness accounts. Many of Göllerich’s observations are outdated, but the facsimile reproductions he provides of letters and certain illustrations, together with the complete scores of Liszt’s Les Morts, Fest-Polonaise, and other piano pieces—all of them bound and paginated separately at the end of the volume—are useful. Also illustrated with a scattering of brief musical examples as well as several black-and-white portraits, including a tipped-in reproduction of an 1875 Kosmata photograph of the composer, and a number of other images. Concludes with a list of musical examples (pp. 253–54), three indexes (together pp. 255–70), and a catalog of Liszt’s compositions. Regarding especially Göllerich’s catalog, see item 81; regarding his now-dispersed collection of manuscripts, see item 149. * Hahn et al. Franz Liszt, sein Leben und seine Werke. See item 1179. Contains a sketch of the composer’s career as well as analyses of symphonic works and Die Legende von der heiligen Elisabeth. 13. Hamburger, Klára. Liszt, trans. Gyula Gulyás and Virginia Csontos; trans. rev. Paul Merrick. Budapest: Corvina Kiadó, 1987. 243 pp. ISBN 9631323056. ML410.L7H25513 1987. An admirable account of Liszt’s life and compositions, revised from a volume of the same name published in Hungarian in 1980 (ISBN 963280774X). Hamburger’s scholarship is sound and her writing vigorous; her text abounds with excerpts from Liszt’s correspondence and with references to important secondary studies by other scholars. Unfortunately, the quality of the English-language translation is uneven. Contains scattered musical examples and a few analytical diagrams as well as a chronological

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table of Liszt’s life (pp. 201–7), a catalog of works (pp. 208–27), a bibliography of “important Liszt literature” (pp. 228–32), and two indexes. Reviewed by Walker in the Times Literary Supplement (10 July 1987) and elsewhere. Not to be confused either with Liszt Ferenc (Budapest, 1973), an earlier version of this work, or with her even earlier Liszt biography (item 407). Hamburger’s most recent biographical essay, a survey of Liszt’s life story, appeared recently in item 37. 14. Haschen, Reinhard. Franz Liszt, oder die Überwindung der Romantik durch das Experiment. Frankfurt a.M.: Athenäum, 1989. 386 pp. ISBN 3610085401. As the author himself confesses, more of an “essay” [Versuch (p. 8)] than a systematic biography or musical monograph; Haschen contents himself with scattering observations rather than systematically examining individual works and trends. His “Überwindung” or title chapter (pp. 251–68), however, contains intelligent comments about Liszt’s influences on other composers. Supplemented with notes and source references (pp. 313–33), a useful timeline (pp. 334–46), an even more useful list of analytical studies (pp. 347–50), a discography (pp. 351–56), and an annotated index of individuals’ names (pp. 357–75); concludes with an index of works. Illustrated with a black-and-white facsimile of a Scheffer Liszt portrait as a frontispiece; contains no other images or musical examples. * Hervey. Franz Liszt and His Music. Described as item 784. Includes a sketch of Liszt’s life as well as musical studies. 15. Rehberg, Paula, and Gerhard Nestler. Franz Liszt: Die Geschichte seines Lebens, Schaffens und Wirkens. Zurich: Artemis, 1961. 729 pp. ML410.L7R345. A fulsome popular biography, supplemented with an appendix (pp. 514–99) devoted to well-known aspects of Liszt’s compositional style and development. Illustrated with several portraits and photographs as well as a few musical examples. Also includes an extended, albeit outdated, catalog of Liszt’s musical and literary works (pp. 629–79). See, too, Rehberg’s article “Franz Liszt—Ein Künstlerleben,” published in the Österreichische Musikzeitschrift 16 (1961): 416–28. 16. Stockhammer, Robert. Franz Liszt im Triumphzug durch Europa. Vienna: Österreichischer Bundesverlag, 1986. 187 pp. ISBN 3215056496. ML410.L7S83 1986. A survey study that concentrates on Liszt’s 1840s virtuoso tours, keyboard repertory, and transcriptions (pp. 19–148); supplementary chapters, however,

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deal with such topics as the composer’s childhood and youth, keyboard technique, and—as a Postludium (pp. 156–70)—a synopsis of the “second half” [zweite Lebenshälfte] of his career. Opinions differ about the worth of Stockhammer’s survey: the late Lennart Rabes [in Liszt Saeculum no. 38 (1986): 116–17] questioned its reliability and pointed out its lack of scholarly apparatus. Charles Suttoni, on the other hand, praises Stockhammer for his “well-presented” account of Liszt’s concert tours and for a “lean, concise prose style” [Journal of the American Liszt Society 21 (1987): 64]. Contains scattered musical examples as well as two gatherings of mostly familiar black-and-white portraits and other images; concludes with lists of the composer’s concerts and works from 1838–1847 (pp. 171–78), a brief bibliography (pp. 179–80), and two indexes. 17. Wagner, Manfred. Franz Liszt. Sein Werk—Sein Leben. “Musikportraits,” 6. Vienna: Holzhausen, 2000. 256 pp. ISBN 3854930194. ML410.L7W16 2000. Primarily a biography—but one outfitted with comments about a number of compositions as well as gatherings of fourteen black-and-white plates (between pp. 96–97 and 160–61) mostly devoted to reproductions of familiar portraits, caricatures, musical manuscripts, sheet-music covers, and other images. Concludes with a timeline (pp. 171–89), a works list based on Searle’s researches (pp. 191–239), a brief discography (pp. 241–45), a list of sources (pp. 247–52), a family tree so incomplete as to be useless (p. 253), and information about the illustrations. Although ostensibly a study of the composer as well as the man, Wagner’s volume contains no musical examples. 18. Watson, Derek. Liszt. “The Master Musicians.” Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. xii, 404 pp. ISBN 0198164998. ML410.L7W35 2000. A worthwhile, well-written, all-too-brief introduction to Liszt’s career, character, and compositions; the chapters on music are of necessity perfunctory but contain some seventy musical examples and explain clearly concepts such as “thematic transformation” (see pp. 180–82). Illustrated with black-and-white plates of familiar portraits and caricatures as well as a scattering of facsimiles. Watson provides a catalog of works closely based on item 83 (pp. 333–79); he also provides a calendar of Liszt’s activities (pp. 312–32), a “dictionary” of individuals Liszt knew (pp. 380–84), a selected bibliography (pp. 385–89), and information about the British Liszt Society (p. 390; see item 63). Indexed. Originally published in 1989 by Oxford and Schirmer Books (ISBN 0028727053). Reviewed in that edition, together with other volumes, by

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Erich Roseberg in “Some Thoughts on the Musicologist as Biographer,” The Musical Quarterly 75 (1991): 93–100. * Westerby. Liszt, Composer, and His Piano Works. Described as item 976. Generally classified as a monograph on Liszt’s piano works but fitted out with essential biographical information as well. Two unfinished multivolume Liszt survey studies also deserve attention, although both can be difficult to locate in North American libraries: 19. Gavoty, Bernard. Liszt: le virtuose, 1811–1848. Paris: Julliard, 1980. 356 pp. ISBN 22600022250. ML410.L7G35. A readable account of Liszt’s childhood, youth, and young manhood in Austria-Hungary and France. Gavoty draws extensively on French-language documentary sources; his evaluations of his subject’s Paris performances are intelligent, but his documentation is uneven. Concludes with a chronological table summarizing the composer’s early life (pp. 329–40), a brief catalog of his compositions (pp. 341–48), a number of plates—most of which reproduce well-known images—and a bibliography. Portions of Gavoty’s work are drawn from an unpublished “autobiographical” Liszt letter mentioned in item 76. NB: Gavoty died before he could write a second and final volume dealing with Liszt’s later life and compositions (item 199). 20. Horvath, Emmerich Karl. Franz Liszt: Eine Studie auf der Grundlage der bekannten Quellen, Biographien und zeitgenössischen Darstellungen. Eisenstadt: Nentwich, 1978–1986. LCCN 79-365618. ML410.L7H68 (series). Vol. 1: Kindheit (1811–1827), 1978. Vol. 2: Jugend, 1982. Vol. 3: Franz Liszt in Italien: Aufenthalt mit Marie Gräfin d’Agoult von 1837 bis 1839, 1986. A study of Liszt as man and artist based for the most part on primary sources, especially German-language materials. Horvath does not discuss Liszt’s compositions in a systematic manner, but he does treat several musical subjects in detail, including the composer’s early performances and concert tours. Although somewhat cursory, Horvath’s work is often welldocumented and his vols. 1 and 3 contain especially fine passages. Outfitted as a series with illustrations and lists of sources but no musical examples. Vol. 3 is reviewed in item 200. Not all book-length Liszt survey studies are innovative or especially wellwritten. Many less useful or reliable monographs also exist; the four volumes described below must stand for dozens of others:

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21. Gut, Serge. Franz Liszt. Artigues-prè-Bordeaux: Delmas, 1989. 432 pp. ISBN 287706042X. ML410.L7G95. An ambitious survey study by the author/editor of many fine Liszt publications, including items 47–48. Considers portions of Liszt’s life and various kinds of compositions as well as his literary works, correspondence, relationship with Hungary, friendships with Berlioz, Chopin, and Wagner, and so forth. Gut’s observations are supplemented with several portraits and numerous musical examples as well as appendices containing poems associated with some of Liszt’s programmatic compositions, the text of his will (reprinted in items 283–84), a detailed chronology of his life (pp. 476–539), and so on. Concludes with indexes and an extensive bibliography. Despite its merits, and its author’s insights into Liszt’s music, Gut’s book is full of proofreading errors, outdated information, and—worst of all— material apparently borrowed without acknowledgment from a variety of secondary sources. Walker, who called Gut’s study of Liszt’s musical elements “splendid” (item 199, p. 213; Gut’s study is described as item 791), discusses some of these failings in “Serge Gut’s ‘Liszt,’” Journal of the American Liszt Society 26 (1989): 37–51, and “A Fireside Liszt,” New Hungarian Quarterly 31/117 (Spring 1990): 121–32. Gut replied to the former article in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 30 (1991): 48–57; and Walker counter-replied in the same issue, pp. 58–64. Also reviewed by Jacqueline Bellas, Gut’s sometime collaborator (item 302), in the Revue de musicologie 76 (1990): 112–15. 22. Kraft, Günther. Franz Liszt—Leben, Werk und Vermächtnis. Weimar: Nationale Forschungs und Gedenkstätten der klassischen deutschen Literatur, 1961. 48 pp. ML410.L7K82. A brief summary of Liszt’s career and creative output, published as a “supplement” to item 58. Outfitted with illustrations and a few musical examples. 23. Leroy, Alfred. Franz Liszt: L’homme et son ouevre. Musiciens de tous les temps, 5. Paris: Seghers, 1964. 191 pp. An inferior survey study, characterized by reliance on previous publications rather than original research. Contains sections devoted to Liszt’s life (pp. 11–86), works (pp. 89–175), and discographical information (pp. 183–87). Illustrated with a few portraits and other pictures but no musical examples. Concludes with a short bibliography. Reprinted in 1967. 24. Taylor, Ronald. Franz Liszt: The Man and the Musician. New York: Universe Books, 1986. xv, 285 pp. ISBN 0876634900. ML410.L7T35 1986.

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A disappointing popular biography masquerading as a serious study of Liszt’s life, character, and art. Taylor claims to discuss Liszt’s compositions “primarily as creative expressions of his intellectual and spiritual energy, not as a body of music for analysis in its own technical terms” (p. xiv); unfortunately, his research is as superficial as his musical chitchat. Supplemented by eight pages of illustrations and one or two musical examples. A number of briefer Liszt surveys appeared in print before World War I. Examples include: 25. Lüning, Otto. “Franz Liszt. Ein Apostel des Idealen.” = Neujahrsblatt der Allgemeinen Musik-Gesellschaft [Zürich] 84 (1896): 7–25. ML5.N48 [as periodical]. A hymn of praise to Liszt’s character and artistic accomplishments. Lüning deals with his subject’s compositions almost entirely in terms of their “idealism” and relationship to their creator’s life; he also provides an introduction to the issue as a whole. Illustrated with a photograph of Liszt in old age; includes no musical examples. 26. Vogel, Bernard. Franz Liszt: Abriss seines Lebens und Würdigung seiner Werke. Musikheroen der Neuzeit, 6. Leipzig: Max Hesse, 1888. vi, 131 pp. ML410.L7V7. A musical monograph supplemented with a biographical sketch and chapters about Liszt’s activities as author, conductor, keyboard technician, and pedagogue. Illustrated with musical examples and a portrait. Like others of its kind, Vogel’s work is primarily interesting today for the light it casts on nineteenth-century views of Liszt’s life and compositions. DICTIONARY AND ENCYCLOPEDIA ENTRIES AND RELATED PUBLICATIONS DICTIONARY

AND

ENCYCLOPEDIA ENTRIES

Most articles about Liszt are devoted exclusively to specialized biographical or musical subjects. Three articles published (originally) in musical encyclopedias or dictionaries, however, deserve special attention; these are described in reverse chronological order of publication: 27. Walker, Alan. “Liszt, Franz.” In: The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2d ed.; ed. Stanley Sadie. New York and London: Grove, 2001; Vol. 14, pp. 755–85 [survey article] and 872–77 [bibliography]. ISBN 1561592390. ML100.N48 2001.

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A useful abbreviated survey of Liszt’s life and work available, supplemented by a useful bibliography. Walker supplements his observations on the composer’s career and works with twenty-five musical examples and eleven other illustrations—among them several portraits, a facsimile of the playbill for the composer’s London concert of 21 June 1824, and a reproduction of the well-known engraving of Liszt conducting at Aachen in May 1857. 28. Searle, Humphrey. “Franz Liszt.” In: Chopin, Schumann, Liszt. The New Grove Early Romantic Masters, 1. New York and London: W. W. Norton, 1985; pp. 237–321. ISBN 0393016919. ML390.T28 1985. Drawn to a considerable extent from Searle’s earlier Grove articles (identified under item 83), and supplemented by a works list amended by Sharon Winklhofer (item 99). Despite his pioneering efforts on Liszt’s behalf, including his book-length study of Liszt’s music (item 776), Searle was no musicologist; Winklhofer (item 99) sharply criticized even this revised version of his work. Nevertheless, his comments on Liszt’s compositional style are often insightful. Supplemented by several dozen musical examples as well as twenty-nine portraits and documentary facsimiles, more than a few of which reappear in item 27. Revised from similar material originally published in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Stanley Sadie (New York and London, 1980), vol. 11, pp. 28–74. With regard to a French-language edition of Searle’s article, see item 200. 29. Engel, Hans. “Liszt, Franz.” Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, ed. Friedrich Blume. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1949–1986; vol. 8 [1960], cols. 964–88. ML100.M92. In many respects an outdated survey of Liszt’s life and professional activities as composer, pianist, pedagogue, and musical man-of-affairs. Illustrated with facsimile reproductions of manuscripts and documents as well as several portraits of the composer. Engel takes sides on many controversial issues, among them the role of sonata form in such compositions as Les Préludes. Concludes with a fairly extensive catalog of Liszt’s works (cols. 973–79) and a bibliography heavily biased in favor of German-language secondary-source materials. Numerous corrections and some additional information appear in MGG supplement “E-Z” [1978], cols. 1142–44. An altogether new article, written by Detlef Altenburg, is scheduled to appear in the MGG “Personenteil” series currently appearing under the editorial supervision of Ludwig Finscher (Kassel, 1994–).

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RELATED PUBLICATIONS “Comprehensive” Liszt articles have also appeared in other kinds of publications. Among the most recent of these are: 30. Arnold, Ben. “Franz Liszt: An Autobiographical and Virtuosic Revolution.” In item 40, pp. 3–13. An introduction to interrelationships between Liszt’s life and art. Drawing almost entirely upon pre-1840s events, letters, personal contents, and piano pieces as evidence, Arnold contends that “Liszt’s musical autobiography [i.e., his output as a whole] is an idealized autobiography of himself,” one that “excludes as much as it includes” but succeeds in preserving for us and him “the intense, the spiritual, the extreme, the meaningful” in life (p. 9). Incorporates carefully chosen quotations from several primary and secondary sources, but contains no musical examples. 31. Brendel, Alfred. “The Noble Liszt.” In: Alfred Brendel on Music: Essays. Chicago: A Cappella Books, 2001; pp. 244–53. ISBN 1556524080. ML60.B835 2000 [sic]. Attempts to correct misapprehensions on both sides of the “legend.” Brendel’s comments on Lina Ramann as Liszt biographer may seem a bit exaggerated, but his observations on many musical issues are astute. Published together with brief essays on the Années de pèlerinage, Books I–II (pp. 255–61), the B-minor Sonata (pp. 262–68), the late piano pieces (“Liszt’s Bitterness of Heart”; pp. 273–77), and a number of other, closely related subjects. “The Noble Liszt” appeared originally in the New York Review of Books 33/18 (20 November 1986): 3, 6, 8; it has been reprinted in several collections of Brendel’s essays, including Music Sounded Out: Essays, Lectures, Interviews, Afterthoughts (New York, 1991; ISBN 0374216517) and Musical Thoughts and Afterthoughts (Princeton, NJ, 1976; ISBN 09122-6 [sic]). Both volumes also contain the other essays mentioned above. Finally, many of Brendel’s observations reappear in “The Penalties of Being a True Celebrity,” The Times [London] (3 November 1986): 16b–g, and in other publications. Six older article-length surveys of Liszt’s career and contributions to music include: 32. Antcliffe, Herbert. “Liszt.” In: Antcliffe, Art, Religion and Clothes. The Hague: Hagel, 1927; pp. 81–92. ML60.A57A67. An early, carefully considered challenge to the “Liszt legend” by a musical amateur who revered Liszt as “essentially a religious man,” a great teacher,

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and a source of inspiration to figures such as Hans von Bülow, Karl Klindworth, and Alexander Mackenzie. Often overlooked by researchers. Other older Liszt survey articles exist, some of them scarcely known even to scholars. See, for example, Arthur Seidl, “Lisztiana,” in Seidl, Ascania: Zehn Jahre in Anhalt (Regensburg, 1913): 197–228; for another of Seidl’s studies, see item 545. * Barzun. “Liszt’s Adventures of the Heart and Mind.” Described as item 442. A survey study to the extent that it combines observations on certain of the composer’s experiences and attitudes with aspects of his musical programmism. 33. Bergfeld, Joachim. “Franz Liszts Persönlichkeit und Kunst.” In item 57, pp. 21–42. Describes important features of Liszt’s life and artistic activities, including the uneven quality of his compositional output. Bergfeld refers in passing to much of the Liszt literature published before 1961 as well as studies of such “related” composers as Richard Strauss and Hans Pfitzner. No musical examples. 34. Gray, Cecil. “Franz Liszt.” In: Gray, Contingencies and Other Essays. London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1947; pp. 77–92. ML60.G795. Like items 178–197, an article-length review of problems created by early Liszt researchers; also, however, a synopsis of Liszt’s personality and contributions to music history. Grey attacked what he considers anti-Liszt sentiment in 1930s England, pointing out that charges of “lack of formal cohesion” and “a reliance on programmatic ideas alien to music” in Liszt’s works are unjustified (p. 85). Avoiding the “Liszt legend,” however, he also admits that at least some Liszt pieces “[merit] the denigratory [sic] epithets” of the composer’s harshest critics (p. 78). More concerned with compositional style than biographical anecdote, yet unequipped with musical examples. 35. Schering, Arnold. “Über Liszts Persönlichkeit und Kunst.” Jahrbuch der Musikbibliothek Peters für 1926 [sic] 33 (1927): 31–44. ML5.J15. An unusually intelligent introduction of Liszt’s character and compositions. Includes references to Wagner’s “triumph” over his sometime friend and father-in-law, to Impressionistic elements in such late piano pieces as Jeux d’eaux à la villa d’Este from Book III of the Années de pèlerinage, and to Liszt’s complex artistic personality and its spiritual location at the crossroads of nineteenth-century music [In Liszts Künstlerpersönlichkeit kreuzen

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sich die mannigfachsten geistigen Strömungen des 19. Jahrhunderts (p. 31)]. Incorporates no illustrations or musical examples, however. 36. Schoenberg, Arnold. “Franz Liszt’s Work and Being.” In: Schoenberg, Style and Idea: Selected Writings of Arnold Schoenberg, ed. Leonard Stein. London: Faber & Faber, 1975, pp. 442–47. ISBN 0571097227. ML60.S347 1975b. A loosely organized collection of musings on Liszt’s “fanatical faith,” “instinctive life,” contributions to musical form, and so on. Schoenberg’s central argument seems to be that Liszt’s “craftsmanly deftness, technique and play with materials [were] less remarkable…than the things behind them—the personality, the true artist-being, that draws from direct vision”; he also confesses that, from his perspective, “Liszt created an art form which our time necessarily regards as a mistake, while a later time will perhaps again see exclusively the genius’[s] insight on which it is based” (p. 443). Concerned as much with Schoenberg himself as with his ostensible subject; see Mathias Hansen’s “Franz Liszt im Blickfeld Arnold Schönbergs” in the Festskrift Jan Maegaard, 14.4.1996, ed. Mogens Andersen et al. (Copenhagen, 1996; pp. 97–110), which discusses Schoenberg’s passing interest in Liszt and the essay identified above, and which includes an English-language summary (p. 110). Published originally as “Franz Liszts Werk und Wesen,” Allgemeine MusikZeitung [Berlin] 38/42 (20 October 1911): 1008–10. See, too, Cornelia [Szabó-]Knotik, “Zu Schönbergs ‘Lisztbild,’” Mitteilungsblatt des European Liszt Centre [Eisenstadt] no. 7 (1977): 12–13. COMPANIONS, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, AND OTHER COLLECTIONS COMPANIONS Although not always altogether in purpose or scope, collections of conference proceedings, essay anthologies, and other book-length publications explore the lives and activities of individual composers. Among such publications are three Liszt companions of importance, described or cross-listed below in reverse chronological order of publication: 37. The Liszt Companion, ed. Ben Arnold. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2002. xii, 485 pp. ISBN 0313306893. ML410.L7L565 2002. A fresh look at Liszt’s life, his influence, and especially his musical output, in the form of fifteen chapters by Arnold as well as Klára Hamburger (“Franz Liszt: 1811–1886,” pp. 3–28; see item 13) and eight other scholars.

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Contains items 30, 269, 755, 787, 993, 1093, 1137, 1226, 1240, 1255, 1270, 1318, 1366, and 1387 as well as a synopsis of Liszt’s organ music cited under item 1122. Illustrated with a large number of musical examples, many of them taken from full orchestral and choral-orchestral scores, as well as analytical diagrams and tables of some of the composer’s works; supplemented by an extensive bibliography (pp. 439–57) that recapitulates the citations found in the notes following each chapter. Concludes with two indexes: one of the composer’s works (pp. 459–70), the other of names and subjects. NB: Articles in this and many of the anthologies, readers, and specialized periodical publications described throughout the present research guide are identified by item number rather than volume or periodical title; thus “item 37,” rather than The Liszt Companion. * Hamburger. Liszt kalauz. Described as item 779. Musical rather than “comprehensive” in character. Also items 95, 144, 789, 874, and other, more specialized “readers” and published sets of conference proceedings identified elsewhere in the present research guide. 38. Franz Liszt: The Man and His Music, ed. Alan Walker. New York: Taplinger, 1970. xiv, 471 pp. ISBN 0800829905. ML410.L7W28. A well-known “mostly musical” companion, consisting of contributions solicited from prominent British performers and scholars. Contains items 835, 989, 926, 1094, 1138, 1227, 1326, 1356, 1444, and 1476 as well as a sketch of Liszt’s character by Sacheverall Sitwell (derived from item 416), Arthur Hedley’s article “Liszt the Pianist and Teacher” (pp. 22–35), and a brief sketch of the composer’s choral and organ works (item 1124). A bit dated, but some of its contents remain valuable. Illustrated throughout with musical examples and a few black-and-white portraits and facsimile reproductions, including photographs of Liszt on his deathbed and of his tomb in Weimar (between pp. 368 and 369). Concludes with a timeline (pp. 365–70), a “register of persons” (pp. 371–86), a brief bibliography (pp. 387–89), a “complete” catalog of Liszt’s works (pp. 391–462), and an index. Also available in British editions bearing the imprints of Barrie & Jenkins (1970) and Faber & Faber (1971). CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS Several published sets of conference proceedings deal primarily or even exclusively with Lisztian subjects and are organized around specific eras, themes, or works; the same holds true for other essay and article collections. Specialized collections of published papers and essays are evaluated elsewhere in the present research guide. Among recent sets of conference proceedings devoted to Liszt “in

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general” are the following four volumes, described below in reverse chronological order of publication: 39. Liszt and the Birth of Modern Europe: Music as a Metaphor of Religious, Political, Social, and Aesthetic Transformations, ed. Michael Saffle and Rossana Dalmonte. Analecta Lisztiana, III; Franz Liszt Studies Series, 9. Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon, 2002. xiv, 354 pp. ISBN 157647027X. ML410.L7.I64 2003. The proceedings of an International Conference sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation and held at the Villa Serbelloni, Bellagio (Como), 14–18 December 1998. Includes items 392, 683, 722, 732, 736, 758, 854, 974–975, 1014, 1111, 1210, 1260, 1329, and 1344. Reviewed as a conference by Cornelia Szabó-Knotik, one of the participants, in the Österreichische Musikzeitschrift 54/3 (March 1999): 50. 40. Liszt the Progressive, ed. Hans Kagebeck and Johan Lagerfelt. Studies in the History and Interpretation of Music, 72. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 2001. xviii, 278 pp. ISBN 0773475656. ML410.L7L64 2001. In addition to a preface by Walker (pp. ix–xiii) and articles by Dezso# Legány, this volume consists of items 30, 173, 331, 657, 704, 729, 840, 1335, and 1355; see also items 504 and 577. Also contains the text of a speech presented by Berit Lindholm at the beginning of the May 1996 Stockholm conference at which these essays and others were originally presented as papers, as well as a few musical examples and, as an appendix, a “selective” list of the composer’s works (pp. 255–58). Concludes with a detailed index. Unevenly proofread. 41. Liszt 2000. Selected Lectures Given at the International Liszt Conference in Budapest, May 18–20, 1999, ed. Klára Hamburger. Budapest: Hungarian Liszt Society, 2000. 368 pp. ISBN 9630037297. Contains items 69, 286, 489, 507, 520, 600, 793, 803, 883, 1016, 1201, 1305, 1340, 1455, and 1459; articles mentioned under items 854, 889, 1052, and 1433; articles by Geraldine Keeling and Judith Neslény on the Los Angeles Liszt piano competitions; by Zuzana Vitálová on Schubert’s compositional influence; and by Juliusz Adamowski’s report on Poland’s Liszt Society (pp. 18–22)—the last, published originally as “Ten Year’s Activity of Ferenc Liszt Society in Poland [sic]” in Towarzystwo imienia Ferenca Liszta/Ferenc Liszt Society in Poland (laser-printed; 1999): 1–4. Supplemented as a volume with scattered illustrations, documentary facsimiles, and musical examples; some of its contents appear in Hungarian as well as English. Introduced by a letter from Hungarian President Árpád Göncz addressed to the society as well as Hamburger’s opening address in both

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Hungarian and English (the last, pp. 13–14). Concludes with a list of contributors. Reviewed as a volume in the Revue de musicologie 88 (2002): 229–31. 42. Liszt and His World. Proceedings of the International Liszt Conference Held at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 20–23 May 1993, ed. Michael Saffle. Analecta Lisztiana, I; Franz Liszt Studies Series, 5. Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon, 1998. xi, 391 pp. ISBN 0945193343. ML410.L7I64 1993. Consists of items 96, 118, 121, 309, 570, 572, 631, 724, 765, 802, 912, 1193, 1330, and 1430, together with a brief preface by the editor (pp. ix–xi). Illustrated with scattered facsimile reproductions and musical examples— among them, detailed Schenkerian analytical diagrams for Liszt’s Chasseneige (pp. 356–61; see item 802); also includes as a frontispiece a reproduction of a pencil portrait of Liszt drawn in 1846 by his pupil Fritz von Dardel. Indexed. Three older, possibly less useful collections of Liszt conference papers are more difficult to locate in American archival collections: 43. Proceedings of the International Conference of Liszt Societies, Budapest 1993 = entire issue of the Journal of the Franz Liszt Kring [item 64]: 1995. OCLC 35016341. An incomplete “report” on the centenary celebration of the Hungarian Liszt Society [Liszt Ferenc Táraság], consisting of an introduction by Christo Lelie, eleven papers by the likes of Paul Merrick, Pauline Pocknell, and Gerhard J. Winkler, and a few pages of advertisements for various musical products. Illustrated throughout with scattered photographs, documentary facsimiles, and a few musical examples. Among the papers excluded from publication was a “supplement” to item 71, written by the present author; its findings are incorporated into the present research guide. Except for the Dutch-language introduction, in English and German throughout. 44. Liszt and the Arts: A Collection of Papers Presented at a Liszt Centennial Celebration Sponsored by the Heymann Centre for the Humanities, Columbia University. Semi-private publication, 1996. 84 pp. Contains items 442 and 735, the first of which is reprinted in part from a previous publication; see also items 260, 566, 876, and 1354. Lawrence Kramer’s contribution on Liszt, Goethe, and gender issues (item 1171) contains a number of musical examples; otherwise unillustrated, save for a facsimile of a Devéria lithograph on the cover. Concludes with facsimile reproductions of Columbia’s April 1986 Liszt concert and lecture programs.

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45. Franz Liszt a jeho Bratislavskí priatelia: Práce z konferencie konanej 5. októbra 1973 v Bratislave. Hudobné tradície Bratislavy a ich tvorcovia, 2. Bratislava: Vydavatel’stvo Obzor, 1975. 232 pp. ML410.L7F7. A series of short papers, most of them concerning the composer’s relationship with Central European music and composers, presented in October 1975 at a conference in Bratislava [then part of Czechoslovakia; today the capital of Slovakia]. Contains items 250, 337, 617, and 837, and articles on topics peripheral to Liszt studies. Concludes with an appendix consisting of seventy-three illustrations, among them portraits of Liszt and other musicians, facsimiles of press clippings, and so on. In Slovak and German throughout, with interleaved Russian-language abstracts. Two rather specialized sets of conference proceedings, published in the fourvolume “Liszt-Studien” series established almost thirty years ago, are described in Chapter 7. The remaining two volumes, described below in chronological and numerical order of publication, are more general in character and contents: 46. Kongress-Bericht Eisenstadt 1975, ed. Wolfgang Suppan. Liszt-Studien, 1. Graz: Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, 1977. 233 pp. ISBN 3201010073. ML410.L7E9 1975. The published proceedings of a conference—one of the first of its kind held outside Hungary—sponsored by the European Liszt Centre (ELC), at that time under the direction of Emmerich Karl Horvath, and held 20–25 October 1975. Printed from good-quality typescript. Includes items 93, 235, 591, 607, 820, 953, 961–962, 1161, 1207, 1241, 1245, 1276, 1362, and 1411, some of which contain a scattering of musical examples; also items 183, 235, 706, and 1007. Concludes with a list of the names and addresses of contributors. 47. Referate des 2. Europäischen Liszt-Symposions: Eisenstadt 1978, ed. Serge Gut. Liszt-Studien, 2. Munich and Salzburg: Emil Katzbichler, 1981. 245 pp. ISBN 3873971909. ML410.L7E9 1978. The proceedings of a second ELC conference, this one held 2–7 October 1978. Includes items 103, 336, 567, 815, 826, 827, 866, 894, 1042, 1096, 1147, 1149, 1295, 1365, and 1481, and studies cited under items 125, 938, and 996. Illustrated not only with a number of musical examples printed in rather large type, but with several documentary facsimiles and a caricature of Liszt’s playing whist (p. 171). Concludes with several unpaginated advertisements for Katzbichler publications. Finally, three additional sets of proceedings appeared in “Liszt years”— specifically, in 1961 (the sesquicentennial of the composer’s birth) and 1986 (the centenary of his death). These publications, published as portions or even entire

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issues of magazines, are described below in reverse chronological and/or alphabetical order (by title): 48. Actes du Colloque international Franz Liszt (1811–1886). Tenu dans le cadre d’l’Université de Paris IV–Sorbonne, 27–30 octobre 1986, ed. Serge Gut = entire triple issue of La Revue musicale nos. 405–406–407 (1987). 367 pp. ISSN 0768-1593. ML5.R613. Presents items 338, 391, 466, 483, 593, 611, 637, 761, 764, 832, 893, 929, 940, 1045, 1113, 1189, 1205, 1216, 1296, and 1354; also items 304, 484, 505, and 1436. The contents are identified on the inside front and back covers; they also include an introduction and synopsis [synthèse (the latter, pp. 337–39)] by preeminent French Liszt scholar Serge Gut. Reviewed as a volume by Joan Backus in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 26 (1989): 74–76. 49. “International Franz Liszt Symposium” = Studia Musicologica 28 (1986): 7–302. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. Includes, as the published proceedings of a conference held in 1986 in Budapest and Veszprém, items 126, 626, 681, 682, 705, 721, 792, 815, 818, 879, 995, 1049, 1107, 1163, 1312, 1370, and 1427, and studies mentioned in conjunction with items 94, 95, 245, 302, and 455. Other portions of the same issue contain articles about medieval notation, a canon of Johann Sebastian Bach’s, and other studies (pp. 303ff.) as well as an article about Liszt and Weimar separately identified as item 566. Illustrated in part with images of various kinds and musical examples. 50. “Liszt—Bartók.” = entire volume of Studia Musicologica 5 (1963) [“Ferenc Liszt” = pp. 27–336]. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. Comprises the proceedings of the II. International Musicological Society conference held in Budapest in 1961. Includes items 494, 502, 564, 642, 830, 831, 852, 897, 913, 914, 924, 925, 927, 951, 954, 1077, 1169, and 1445, and items 105, 511, 610, 684, and 1360; a Schlußwort (“conclusion”) by Zoltán Gárdonyi (pp. 333–36); and several contributions concerned with correspondence and cited by Charles Suttoni in his superb bibliography of Liszt letters publications (item 76). When it appeared, these proceedings constituted a groundbreaking collection of Liszt studies; today in large part, the articles it contains are either outmoded or of interest largely for their “takes” on the 1960s and Eastern European Liszt reception. In addition to the proceedings of entire congresses, there exist publications of Liszt “sessions”: clusters of papers given at professional meetings otherwise devoted to non-Liszt subjects. Among such gatherings of printed conference papers are:

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51. “Liszt y la música mediterránea.” In: Actas del XV Congreso de la Sociedad Internacional de Musicología: “Culturas musicales del Mediterraneo y sus ramificaciones,” Vol. 3 = Revista de musicología 16/3 (1993): 1850–67. ISSN 0210-1459. ML5.R212. Includes the published proceedings of “Study Session XIV,” presented as part of the XVI. IMS Congress held in Madrid 3–10 April 1992; these comprise items 242 and 944 as well as James Deaville’s “Giuseppe Verdi in Brendel’s ‘Neue Zeitschrift für Musik’” (pp. 1795–1831) and Tomás Mauricio’s “Liszt y España” (pp. 1850–67; see item 618). Two other Liszt papers (items 991 and 1191) were presented at the same conference but in other sessions. NB: Scattered Liszt papers may be found in other proceedings of IMS congresses; see, for example, items 387, 654, 829, and so on. 52. “Part III: Liszt.” In: Nineteenth-Century Music: Selected Proceedings from the Tenth International Conference, ed. Jim Samson and Bennett Zon (Aldershot, U.K.: Ashgate, 2002); pp. 75–178. ISBN 0754602052. ML196.N73 2001. The published versions of five papers presented as part of the tenth biennial Nineteenth-century Music conference held at the University of Bristol, July 1998. Includes items 754 and 882 as well as Márta Grabócz’s “Common Narrative Structures in Music and Literature: A Semio-stylistic Investigation in the Arts of the Nineteenth Century (Liszt and Goethe)” (pp. 155–68), another of her many papers on issues of Liszt and musical semiotics (see, for example, item 984); finally, see items 1234 and 1299. The remainder of Samson and Zon’s volume is devoted to Wagner, nineteenth-century French music publishing, “Woman and Music,” and other subjects. Indexed as a volume. COLLECTIONS

OF

ARTICLES

AND

ESSAYS

Collections of shorter Liszt studies published independently of scholarly conferences, anniversary celebrations, and other events include the following three volumes: 53. Franz Liszt, ed. Heinz-Klaus Metzger and Reiner Riehn = Musik-Konzepte 12 (1980). 127 pp. ISBN 3883770477. Consists of five principal articles—among them, items 194, 718, 957, and 1160—devoted to Liszt’s personality, literary works, and compositional style. See also item 1135. Illustrated throughout with scattered musical examples and additional illustrations. NB: Although the “Musik-Konzepte” volumes constitute a periodical series of sorts, they are often catalogued individually as monographs and style studies.

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54. Franz Liszt: Beiträge von ungarischen Authoren, ed. Klára Hamburger. Budapest: Corvina, 1978. 336 pp. ISBN 9631300889. ML410.L7F735. A valuable assemblage of studies published originally in Hungarian, or published here for the first time in German. Contains items 451, 579, 819, 821, and 822, and an article by Bálint Sárosi about Hungarian “Gypsy” music (pp. 95–117; see item 925) and several other studies mentioned under items 182, 183, 925, and 1170. Illustrated with twenty-four black-and-white plates (bound between pp. 192 and 193) containing portraits of Liszt, Ferenc Erkel, Mihály Mosonyi, and other figures as well as photographs of two Budapest landmarks, facsimiles of documented and sheet-music covers, a Liszt caricature from a nineteenth-century magazine, and so on; also outfitted with numerous musical examples. Concludes with bibliographic information about the studies themselves (pp. 325–26) and an index of names. Reviewed in detail by Philippe Autexier, “Actualité de la recherche Lisztienne en Hongrie,” Revue de musicologie 67 (1981): 80–89. Several Liszt anthologies have been published only in Hungarian. Among these is the Liszt kiskönyvtár [“Little Liszt Library”], issued in two volumes (1982 and 1984) by the Liszt Ferenc Társaság of Budapest; this irregular periodical contains item 867 as well as studies mentioned under items 515, 532, and so on. 55. Liszt. “Collection génies et réalités,” 31. Paris: Hachette, 1967. 295 pp. ML410.L7L56. A popular work, handsomely bound and illustrated—consider the five “Séquences illustrées” beginning on page 31—but virtually worthless for research purposes. Only Bernard Rajben’s Liszt discography (item 171) is discussed separately in Chapter 3; another article, “Liszt le novateur, essai de recensement” (pp. 233–69), is outfitted with forty-three musical examples. Illustrated with facsimiles of portraits, sheet-music covers, and so on, some in color. FESTSCHRIFTEN Among other Liszt compendia are a few Festschriften [singular: Festschrift]—volumes presented in honor of celebrated scholars, usually at or near the ends of their public careers—as well as anniversary publications and other collections of various kinds. To date, only two Liszt-related Festschriften are widely available in print: 56. New Light on Liszt and His Music: Essays in Honor of Alan Walker’s 65th Birthday, ed. Michael Saffle and James Deaville. Analecta Lisztiana, II; Franz Liszt Studies Series, 6. Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon, 1997. xix, 338 pp. ISBN 0945193734. ML410.L7N3 1997.

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Includes items 156, 240, 307, 573, 656, 703, 767, 885, 937, 973, 1075, 1472, and 1478; also item 1360. Also includes a number of illustrations, among them a handsome black-and-white fold-out of “clandestine” Liszt portraits in Paris (item 240) and a scattering of facsimiles and musical examples. Opens with a discussion of “Alan Walker’s Life and Work” by Deaville (pp. xiii–xix) that contains a list of Walker’s publications. Indexed. 57. Franz Liszt zum 150. Geburtstag. Festschrift zu den Bayreuther Lisztfeiern 1961. Bayreuth: Emil Mühl, 1961. 62 pp. (No LC number available; see Library of Congress card 85-853994.) An anniversary pamphlet consisting of addresses by public officials from Austria and Germany, and items 33, 547, and 876. See also items 1445 and 1460. Except for Bergfeld’s survey and Liszt-Wagner studies, however, not very useful. Illustrated with several plates. One of many “Liszt-year” publications, this one celebrating the sesquicentennial of the composer’s birth in 1811. For information about 1986, the most recent “Liszt-year,” see especially item 73. RELATED PUBLICATIONS Liszt essay collections include at least one “miscellaneous” anthology: 58. Franz Liszt [pamphlet]. Weimar: Nationale Forschungs und Gedenkstätten der klassischen deutschen Literatur, 1961. 32 pp. ML410.L7D48. An anniversary publication dealing primarily—and briefly—with Liszt’s life and musical activities in and around Weimar, although attention is also paid to Liszt’s relationships with other artists. Contains item 692 as well as Gotthold Sobe’s very brief “Liszt and Gounod” (pp. 24–28); see also items 561 and 1445. Item 22 appeared as a “supplement” to this volume. Includes several illustrations. PROGRAMS AND PROGRAM BOOKLETS Although no series of printed Liszt programs compares to the Wagner-oriented Programmhefte der Bayreuther Festspiele, a few booklets are “comprehensive” in that they contain information about both Liszt’s life and music. Especially important among such programs is: 59. Programmaboek. 11e Franz Liszt Festival: Amsterdam 1–3 oktober 2000, ed. Christo Lelie et al. = entire issue of the Journal of the Franz Liszt Kring [item 64] (2000). 79 pp. In addition to the concert programs themselves (pp. 4–5), program notes by Lelie, Peter Scholcz, and other experts (pp. 11–25), and information about the performers, most of them Hungarian or Dutch (pp. 6–10), this

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handsome, paperbound volume contains articles on Willem Mengelberg’s Liszt performances, the Budapest Liszt Academy, and the several versions of Liszt’s Harmonies poétiques et religieuses—the last by Albert Brussee (see items 216 and 1040). Illustrated throughout with black-and-white photographs; facsimiles of music manuscripts, caricatures, and other documentary treasures; and both hand-copied and typeset musical examples. Also includes on its cover a color reproduction of Miklós Barabás’s 1847 Liszt portrait. Mostly in Dutch, although Janós Kárpáti’s Budapest Academy article (pp. 29–34) appears in English. For the most part, older Liszt program booklets seem generally to have been discarded even by librarians as ephemera. Of considerable interest, however, are such programs as those printed on behalf of the 1845 Beethoven festival held at Bonn (items 551 and 552), the 1853 Aachen Festival (item 546), and the pamphlet described below: 60. Kempe, Friedrich. Franz Liszt. Richard Wagner. Aphoristische Memoiren und biographische Rhapsodien. Ein Erinnerungsblatt für die Theilnehmer des dritten Anhalt-Bernburgschen Musikfestes. Eisleben: F. Kuhnt, 1852. 43 pp. ML60.K5. A fascinating festival booklet, rare in American libraries. Kempe provides biographical sketches of both composers to the early 1850s (Liszt: pp. 7–11); he also deals with such works as Wagner’s Fliegende Holländer, Liebesmahl der Apostel, and Tannhäuser (the overture only) as well as Beethoven’s “Choral” fantasy, op. 80—the last a Liszt specialty, performed at the Ballenstedt festival by Hans von Bülow (p. 20)—and Joachim Raff’s overture to König Alfred; and he identifies various performers, including Liszt as “Hofkapellmeister” (pp. 37–43). No illustrations or musical examples. SPECIALIZED PERIODICALS, PERIODICAL ISSUES, AND RELATED STUDIES LISZT PERIODICALS With the exception of a very few compendia, such as Walker’s three-volume monograph (item 1), perhaps the most comprehensive Liszt publications are those periodicals devoted primarily or even exclusively to the composer’s activities, works, and cultural influence. Most of these publications have been sponsored by individual Liszt societies in Great Britain, Holland, the United States, and several other nations. Among them are three especially well-established journals: 61. Journal of the American Liszt Society, ed. (sequentially) by Maurice Hinson, Michael Saffle, Mark Wait, Charles Timbrell, and Rena Mueller. 1977–. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68.

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The most fulsome Liszt periodical to date. Published twice a year for several decades, although somewhat slow to appear since 1999. Includes items 70, 76, 79, and so on, as well as articles about other composers, dozens of book and sound-recording reviews, reports of various kinds (e.g., item 70), and information about the society itself. Among this magazine’s most important contributions to research are Charles Suttoni’s splendid bibliographies of Liszt’s published correspondence (item 76). Articles found in vols. 1–30 were indexed by Wesley Roberts [Journal of the American Liszt Society 31 (1992): 58–84]. NB: Throughout the present research guide this and other Liszt periodicals are identified by title rather than item number. 62. Liszt Saeculum, ed. Lennart Rabes. Stockholm, 1978–2000; 60 numbered issues in all. ISSN 0263-0249. ML410.L7I6. The successor to the International Liszt Centre Quarterly (1972–1978) which, in spite of its name, appeared irregularly during the early 1970s. Includes items 146, 175, and 299. The Saeculum ceased publication upon the death of its editor; no. 60, its last issue, was devoted to reminiscences of Rabes and his work on behalf of Liszt performances and research (item 69). The entire contents of the Saeculum, including the early ILC-Quarterly issues, may soon be made available on CD-ROM (item 69, p. 16). ILCQuarterly and Saeculum issues published between 1972 and 1990 were indexed in a fascicle published separately by Rabes and his colleagues in 1991. 63. Liszt Society Journal [Great Britain], ed. at various times by Vernon Harrison, Leslie Howard, Dudley Newton, Michael Short, Adrian Williams, etc. London, 1975–. ML410.L7L6. Launched in 1975 as a “25th Anniversary Issue” celebrating an organization established in 1950, and published annually ever since. Includes items 86, 137, and 158, as well as musical supplements to some later volumes. An index to vols. 1–10 appeared as a separate fascicle in or around 1986. Musical supplements, some of them bound separately beginning in the late 1980s, have been devoted to such generally unfamiliar works—both newly typeset and reproduced in facsimile—as Liszt’s cadenza to the first movement of Beethoven’s Third Concerto [supplement to 14 (1989): 15–17] and the complete Für Männergesang [supplement to 26 (2001): 8–73] as well as compositions by Borodin, Cui, Anton Rubinstein, etc. Two other Liszt periodicals remain less familiar to American readers: 64. Journal of the Franz Liszt Kring [Tilburg and Vinkeveen, Netherlands], ed. Christo Lelie et al. 1979–. 18 issues to date (2000).

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Strictly speaking, an occasional publication; issues have generally appeared once each year or every other year, some as program bulletins (item 59), although publication was suspended during 2001–2002. Began as the LisztBulletin (1979–1987) and continued as the Bulletin van de Stichting Franz Liszt Kring (1987–1991). Includes items 114, 156, and 506. Some issues include musical supplements; more than a few take the form of program bulletins or consist of published conference proceedings (item 43). May have ceased regular periodical publication, although a program booklet was planned for 2003. 65. Quaderni dell’Istituto Liszt [Bologna], ed. Rossana Dalmonte. 1998–. ISBN 8875925518 (vol. 1; 1998); ISBN 887665206X (vol. 2; 2000). The newest addition to the family of specialized Liszt periodicals. Includes items 81, 330, and 393, and a handsomely illustrated article on Steinway pianos [Quaderni 1 (1998): 127–49], another of Bertrand Ott’s publication on Lisztian keyboard technique [Quaderni 2 (2000): 97–112], and so on. In spite of its purported “quarterly” character, only three issues have appeared to date or were in press at the time the present research guide was drafted: the first was published by Ricordi of Milan, the others by Rugginenti of Bologna. See also item 81. For a description of the recently established organization behind the Quaderni, see Dalmonte, “Istituto Liszt,” Liszt Saeculum no. 58 (1997), p. 45. SPECIALIZED PERIODICAL ISSUES In addition to those issues of musicological magazines devoted to the proceedings of Liszt conferences (items 48–51), a number of special “Liszt” periodical issues also exist; two of them are described below in reverse chronological order of publication: 66. Franz Liszt = entire issue of Ostinato rigore: Revue internationale d’études musicales, no. 18 (2002). ISBN 2858636552. Contains several interesting articles, among them contributions by Serge Gut on the Harmonies poétiques et religieuses cycle, by Adrienne Kaczmarczyk on the composer’s unfinished opera Sardanapale, by Bruno Moysan on “Liszt et Chateaubriand,” by Danièle Pistone on “Franz Liszt et les musiciens de Faust,” and so on. Of special interest is item 711: Pauline Pocknell on Liszt and phrenology! Includes as a cover illustration a drawing by Jean-Joseph Laurens of Bovy’s famous medallion, signed by Liszt on a page of Lauren’s sketchbook—this as a supplement to an iconographical article by Catherine Steinegger on the composer’s relationship with Laurens

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in Montpellier and during his tours of southern France and the Iberian peninsula, 1844–1845. Other articles are outfitted with musical examples. Concludes with abstracts in both French and English (pp. 239–44) as well as several book reviews. Unavailable for examination in full prior to the publication of the present research guide. 67. Liszt = entire issue of Silences [Paris] 3 (July 1986). ISBN 2729102221. ML197.5.S8. A collection of essays—some outstanding, some of indifferent quality— dealing with many aspects of Liszt’s life, activities, and creative accomplishments. Contains items 293, 447, and 1338; also items 740, 879, 1376, and 1393. Of interest to Liszt “hobbyists” is a true/false quiz (Philippe A. Autexier, “Vrai ou faux? Questionnaire-jeu sur Liszt,” pp. 264–66) devoted to exploding many of the misunderstandings surrounding the composer and his contemporaries. Attractively if somewhat eccentrically illustrated. Contains numerous musical examples. A number of “Liszt issues” were published by European musical magazines prior to World War II. For information about some of these—among them, at least one number of Die Musik—consult Marc-André Roberge, “Focusing Attention: Special Issues in German-Language Music Periodicals of the First Half of the Twentieth Century,” RMA Research Chronicle 27 (1994): 71–100. See, too, more recent specialized issues—among them, The Musical Quarterly for July 1936, which contains items 185, 526, 723, 740, and 1432, and articles mentioned in conjunction with items 318 and 373; La Revue musicale for 1 May 1928, which contains items 447, 531, 534, 549, 632, 1397, and 1473, and an article mentioned in conjunction with item 328; and the New Hungarian Quarterly 27/103 (Autumn 1986), which contains items 328, 399, 443, 481, 524, and 578. RELATED STUDIES A handful of articles and occasional items deal with or describe the histories of various Liszt societies, their periodicals, and their editors: 68. “Franz Liszt” Gesellschaft. Eschweiler, 1982–1992. “Festschrift 1992.” No publication information. 57 pp.; paperbound. An occasional publication in honor of a German Liszt organization that has sponsored a number of meetings and concerts and—as these words are written—is planning a tour for its members of Central European “Liszt places” in Austria, Hungary, and Slovakia. Includes a brief discussion by Mária Eckhardt on the composer’s De profundis; reports on meetings by other Liszt societies; programs of lectures and recitals sponsored by the

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society; and so on. Illustrated with a scattering of photographs and documentary facsimiles. Apparently unknown in American libraries, although the present author owns a copy. Regarding the organization itself, see Otmar Jantzen [also “Jansen”], “The Franz-Liszt-Gesellschaft in Eschweiler, West Germany,” Journal of the American Liszt Society 26 (1989): 62–63. Other Liszt societies have distributed newsletters describing their activities. In celebration of the centenary of the composer’s death, for example, the Hungarian Liszt Society issued Jubileumi év 1986: a 48-page history of the organization, complete with black-and-white photographs, a few documentary facsimiles, and a synopsis of its otherwise Hungarian-language contents in English (pp. 46–48). Under the editorship of society officers Detlef Altenburg and Wolfram Huschke, the Franz-Liszt-Gesellschaft, Weimar, issued several Mitteilungen (bulletins) during the early 1990s. Between October 2002 and March 2003 the Gesellschaft also issued two Nachrichten (newsletters), in the first of which Huschke reviewed Jutta Hecker’s Die Altenburg: Geschichte eines Hauses (Weimer, 1955, 1956, and 1962; reprinted Berlin, 1983), one of several Soviet-era “East bloc” publications little-known in the United States. 69. Lagerfelt, Johan. “In Memoriam Lennart Rabes.” In item 41, pp. 15–17. Celebrates Lennart Rabes, the editor of Liszt Saeculum (item 62) and an individual remembered for his “great qualities and normal failings” (p. 17). Also announces plans to donate Rabes’s extensive collection of Lisztiana to a suitable library or museum. Unillustrated. The Liszt literature is dotted with tributes to influential performers and scholars. Among the most recent of these is Elgin [Strub-]Ronayne’s “Humphrey Searle, CBE: 1915–1982,” Liszt Society Journal 26 (2001): 86–90. Searle, the author of a host of other studies, is honored in the same periodical by the publication of his essay “The Unknown Liszt” (pp. 91–99). 70. Roberts, Wesley. “Has it Been Ten Years Already? Surveying the First Decennium of the ‘Journal of the American Liszt Society.’” Journal of the American Liszt Society 21 (1987): 59–61. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Describes the origins of item 61 and evaluates some of the articles that appeared in its first twenty volumes. A few similar articles exist for Liszt publications in individual periodicals; see, for example, Mária [P.] Eckhardt, “Studies and Articles on F. Liszt in ‘Studia Musicologica: [Academiae] Scientiarum Hungaricae,’ 1961–1980,” published in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 10 (1981): 9–14, itself drawn in part on the register of that magazine prepared by Zsuzsanna Szepesi and András Wilheim [Studia Musicologica 21 (1979): 1–77].

III Researching Liszt Reference Works

Reference works include bibliographies, catalogs of musical works (sometimes called “thematic catalogs,” especially when outfitted with musical incipits), collection and exhibition catalogs, discographies, iconographies, and research reports of various kinds. Some of these works are “comprehensive” in that they contain information about several or even most aspects of Liszt’s life and musical activities. Others are highly specialized. Because of their value to researchers, virtually every important Liszt bibliography, catalog, index, and other kind of reference work is described below. Less valuable bibliographies and discographies, many of them appended to other works, are omitted—although more than a few of these are identified in item 74. The only published Liszt iconographies are also described below; works that are more accurately described as “illustrated biographies” are described in Chapter 5. BIBLIOGRAPHIES The most thorough survey of Liszt research published to date is: 71. Saffle, Michael. Franz Liszt: A Guide to Research. New York: Garland, 1991. xviii, 407 pp. ISBN 0824083822. ML134.L7S2 1991. Evaluates well over 1,000 books, monographs, articles, and other publications dealing with the composer’s life, works, and reputation, published as 41

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an earlier version of the present research guide. Incorporates most of the contents of items 72 and 73 as well as other studies published prior to 1992. Also contains eight illustrations, among them reproductions of several portraits, as well as two concert programs, a caricature from the Viennese newspaper Der Floh, and a representative musical manuscript. Supplemented with three discographies (items 165, 166, and 168); concludes with two indexes—the first, of authors, editors, and publishers (pp. 391–400); the second, of selected subjects treated in the entries themselves. With the exception of the present research guide, a revision of item 71, the most complete guides to post-1936 Liszt studies are: 72. Saffle, Michael. “Liszt Research since 1936: A Bibliographic Survey.” Acta Musicologica 58 (1986): 231–81. ISSN 0001-6241. ML5.I6. Identifies and briefly discusses most of the books, monographs, articles, and dissertations about Liszt published since Emile Haraszti’s “Le Problème Liszt” (item 178) and Koch’s Liszt bibliography (item 74), both of which appeared in print during the mid-1930s. Also reprints and discusses a little-known review, originally published in Der Sammler, of Liszt’s 13 April 1823 Weihekuss (“kiss of consecration”) concert in Vienna. 73. Saffle, Michael. “The ‘Liszt-Year’ 1986 and Recent Liszt Research.” Acta Musicologica 59 (1987): 271–99. ISSN 0001-6241. ML5.I6. A continuation of and supplement to item 72, with emphasis on publications and events associated with the centenary of the composer’s death. For additional information especially about concerts and other festive activities, see Liszt Saeculum no. 39 (1987)—itself, a “Liszt-Year 1986” issue. For additional comments on 1986 events and publications, see Charles Suttoni, “Liszt: A Centenary Miscellany of Books and Catalogs,” Journal of the American Liszt Society 21 (1987): 62–66. The only reasonably complete guide to literature about Liszt published before and during the 1930s is: 74. Koch, Lajos. Liszt Ferenc bibliográfiai kisérlet / Franz Liszt: Ein bibliographischer Versuch. Budapest: Székesf o# város Házinyomdája, 1936. 109 pp. ML410.L7K56. Identifies some 5,000 publications, many of them printed in otherwise obscure German- and Hungarian-language newspaper and magazine articles. Despite its size, however, this “bibliographic essay” omits many pre-1936 studies, especially concert reviews and letters by Liszt published in periodicals. Outfitted with an introduction in German and Hungarian; includes German-language summaries of many Hungarian publications. Reprinted

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as a separate volume from the Jahrbuch der Stadtbibliothek Budapest (1935). A somewhat problematic “bibliography of Liszt bibliographies” recently appeared in print: 75. Stock, Karl F., with Rudolf Heilinger and Marylene Stock. LisztBibliographien. Selbständige und verstekte Bibliographien und Nachschlagewerke zu Leben und Werk. Graz: Stock & Stock, 1997. vi, 74 pp. ISBN 3900818223. Consists of 298 entries, presented in chronological order by year, for items 1, 71, 74, and so on, and brief descriptions of their contents. Some of Stock’s entries are quite useful, among them his references to such obscure publications as Adler’s Fach-Katalog der musikhistorischen Abteilung von Deutschland und Oesterreich-Ungarn (Vienna, 1892). Other entries, however, contain howlers; Mona Ilona’s 1982 Fontis artes musicae article about Liszt’s purported aristocratic origins (item 713) is dated “1882”—instead of “1982”—and identified as “No. 4” in “chronological order”! Concludes with an index of authors and cited publication titles. Rare in North American collections: apparently only the Research Division of the New York Public Library owns a copy. A host of bibliographies appear in works described throughout the present volume. They also crop up from time to time in periodical publications: see, for example, John O’Shea, “A Liszt Bibliography,” Liszt Society Journal 13 (1988): 36–38, which identifies among its forty-one entries some uncommon medical studies. An invaluable bibliographic guide to Liszt’s published correspondence deserves the closest attention: 76. Suttoni, Charles. Liszt Correspondence in Print: An Expanded, Annotated Bibliography = entire issue of the Journal of the American Liszt Society 25 (1989). ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Identifies thousands of Liszt letters published since the mid-nineteenth century; an introductory essay summarizes important problems facing students of Liszt’s correspondence. A completely revised version of the original bibliography, which appeared under the title “Franz Liszt’s Published Correspondence: An Annotated Bibliography” in Fontis artes musicae 26 (1979): 191–234. This article is occasionally bound and cataloged as an independent publication [ML134.L774S9]. Concludes with valuable indexes of Liszt’s correspondents and of publishers and/or editors of individual collections. Finally, see Suttoni, Liszt Correspondence in Print: A Supplemental Bibliography = Journal of the American Liszt Society 46 (1999);

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this last publication, which includes previously overlooked items as well as more recent publications, does not incorporate the contents of his 1989 bibliography. Subsumes the “Index of Letters Published for the First Time in the ‘ILCQuarterly’ and ‘Liszt Saeculum’” published in Liszt Saeculum no. 32 (1983): 81–86, as well as many other letters lists. See also item 269. NB: Suttoni’s 1989 and 1999 bibliographies are cited here and elsewhere in the present volume in lieu of virtually all of their contents. A single guide to Liszt portraits and other visual sources of information exists only in a comparatively obscure periodical; a second was never “published” at all: 77. Csatkai, André. “Versuch einer Franz Liszt-Ikonographie.” Burgenländische Heimatblätter 5/2 (May 1936): 34–67. OCLC 15115985. (ISSN and LC numbers unavailable.) Identifies 351 paintings, etchings, lithographs, figurines, and so on, portraying Liszt throughout his life; also includes limited information about the provenance of some of them. Useful but somewhat difficult to obtain: runs of the Heimatblätter are uncommon in American libraries. 78. Liszt Ferenc—karikatúrák / Ferenc Liszt—Caricatures. Budapest, 1988. 13 pp. A photocopied pamphlet—unfortunately unillustrated, except for a single Liszt-Wagner caricature on its cover—describing an exhibition held in March 1988 at the Liszt Ferenc Memorial Museum, Budapest. Provides information about dozens of items, subdivided into categories such as “Paris 1836–37,” “The Sword of Honor (Pest 1840)—Lisztomania (Berlin 1842),” “The Piano King,” and so on. In both English and Hungarian. This is the sole guide to Liszt caricatures in existence; one can only hope that someday a full-fledged Liszt iconography, complete with cartoons and other critical images, will appear in print. Three additional, somewhat more specialized Liszt bibliographies are described or cross-listed below: 79. Arnold, Ben, and Allan Ho. “Liszt Research and Recordings, 1982–1984.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 15 (1984): 105–38. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Identifies secondary sources according to categories (i.e., “Books,” “Articles,” “Scores,” etc.). More recent materials, as well as updated and corrected entries, appear in the “Supplements” [Journal of the American Liszt Society 16 (1984): 35–52; 17 (1985): 24–38; 18 (1985): 36–46; 19 (1986):

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23–42; and 20 (1986): 4–29]. Studies, scores, and recordings issued before 1982 are mentioned only if revised and reissued after that date. Especially useful for discographers. * Deaville. “A Checklist of Publications of Liszt’s Writings, 1849–1879.” Described as item 388, no. 4. Describes dozens of Liszt literary works—among them his F. Chopin (item 262), his “Gypsy”-music book (item 252, vol. 6), and his most important Wagner essays—in terms of their earliest publication. 80. Diamond, Harold J. “Liszt, Franz.” In: Music Analyses: An Annotated Guide to the Literature. New York: Schirmer, 1991; pp. 322–34. ISBN 0028701100. ML128.A7D5 1991. Identifies and evaluates more than seventy analytical studies of various Liszt compositions, including a great many described in the present research guide. NB: Some of the articles Diamond treats either come from periodicals ignored in the present research guide or constitute survey studies of no more or lesser value than those cited in the present chapter. Published too late to be mentioned in item 71.

MUSICAL CATALOGS AND RELATED STUDIES CATALOGS

AND

WORKS LISTS

The most comprehensive list of the composer’s compositions, arrangements, paraphrases, and transcriptions available at the present time is: 81. Howard, Leslie, and Michael Short. [Works list] = entire volume of the Quaderni dell’Istituto Liszt [Bologna] 3. To be published Summer 2004. A comprehensive list of the composer’s works, cross-referenced to items 82–84 whenever relevant. Introduced by Quaderni editor Rossana Dalmonte in an essay devoted to the history and evolution of Liszt catalogs. Among other things, Howard and Short identify some 200 works (!) overlooked by Eckhardt and Mueller in item 82. See also Short, “Towards a Rehabilitation of August Göllerich,” Liszt Society Journal 23 (1998): 45–50, which corrects and comments on the works list published in item 12; the contents of this and other articles by Howard, Short, and Saffle are also reflected in item 98. Less reliable and complete, especially in terms of identifying shorter works and providing information about archival sources, early editions, and other sources of information are concerned, is:

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82. Eckhardt, Mária, and Rena Charnin Mueller. [Catalog of] “Works.” In: The New Grove Dictionary, 2d ed.; ed. Stanley Sadie. London and New York: Grove, 2001; vol. 14, pp. 785–872. ISBN 1561592390. ML100.N48 2001. Numbers, identifies, and occasionally comments on some 1,000 Liszt compositions. Entries are arranged chronologically by lettered category; thus the 338 “LW-A” entries identify works for solo piano; the 60 “LW-B” entries works, for piano four-hands; the 30 “LW-C” entries, works for two pianos; and so on. Like previous Grove Dictionary publications, Eckhardt’s and Mueller’s list cross-references Peter Raabe’s Werkverzeichnis (item 84); it also cross-references entries in Luciano Chiappari’s Op. 1400 catalog (item 88) as well as Searle and Winklhofer’s New Grove list (item 83). Evaluated at length in item 98. Another “New Grove” Liszt reference work remains valuable—not only for its “S” numbers, but also for certain pieces of information incorrectly reproduced or ignored in item 82: 83. Searle, Humphrey, with Sharon Winklhofer. [Catalog of Liszt’s Compositions]. In: Chopin, Schumann, Liszt. The New Grove Early Romantic Masters, 1. New York and London: W. W. Norton, 1985; pp. 322–368. ISBN 0393016919. ML390.T28 1985. The most accurate and complete version of Searle’s several “Grove” works lists, revised by Sharon Winklhofer immediately after Searle’s death from his entries in Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 5th ed. (London, 1954), vol. 5, pp. 263–314, and The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Sadie (London and New York, 1980), vol. 11, pp. 51–71 (item 28). Unfortunately, Winklhofer’s revisions are limited in scope and not always reliable. Illustrated with a few musical examples. Like other published guides to Liszt’s music, the Searle/Winklhofer catalog is based in part on archival catalogs similar to those prepared by Raabe for the Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv, Weimar. Other manuscript catalogs of Liszt pieces have recently been discovered; among these is a list of piano pieces in the hand of the Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein [F-Pn Doc. R 607], cited in item 1, vol. 1, p. 370n, and described in detail by Eckhardt in “Párizsi Liszt-dokumentum 1849-bol,” Zenetudományi dolgozatok (1978): 79–93. Unquestionably the most valuable older works list is: 84. Raabe, Peter. “Verzeichnis aller Werke Liszts nach Gruppen geordnet.” In item 3, vol. 2, pp. 241–364. In certain respects still a useful catalog of Liszt’s compositions; although necessarily out of date, Raabe’s index contains more information about

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many manuscripts and early editions than the Eckhardt/Mueller and Searle/Winklhofer lists discussed as items 82 and 83, although not more than the Howard/Short list (item 81). Illustrated with a few musical examples. Again, evaluated in items 97 and 98. Two lists of lost, unfinished, or otherwise problematic compositions also deserve close attention: 85. Schnapp, Friedrich. “Verschollene Kompositionen Franz Liszts.” In: Von deutscher Tonkunst: Festschrift zu Peter Raabes 70. Geburtstag, ed. Alfred Morgenroth. Leipzig: C. F. Peters, 1942; pp. 19–152. ML55.M55 1942a. Identifies ninety-five works Liszt purportedly began or completed that were subsequently lost. In recent years some of the pieces Schnapp mentions have been rediscovered and even published: the fourth Valse oubliée, for example, as well as a fantasy on themes from Rossini’s Siège de Corinthe (item 992). Includes a facsimile reproduction of an otherwise lost work: Liszt’s youthful Sonata in f minor. Subsumes relevant portions of such earlier works as Ludwig Friwitzer, “Chronologisch-systematisches Verzeichnis sämtlicher Tonwerke Franz Liszts,” Musikalische Chronik [Vienna] 5/3–8 (5 November 1887–31 January 1888): 33ff. 86. Short, Michael. “The Doubtful, Missing, and Unobtainable Works of Ferenc Liszt.” Liszt Society Journal 24 (1999): 28–68. ML410.L7L6. More than a supplement to item 85; instead, Short identifies “new” missing or unobtainable Liszt compositions—among them, an Albumblatt (literally, an “album leaf”: a short piece or fragment, often literally written into a souvenir album) sold at auction by Christie’s in October 1980, as well as the elusive Kavallerie-Geschwindmarsch previously announced both as “already in print” and as “about to be published” (regarding the latter claim, see item 202) and the Trois Chansons for piano (but see item 388, no. 9). Liszt himself was involved in the preparation of two catalogs of his published compositions. The more important of these catalogs is: 87. [Liszt, Franz]. Thermatisches Verzeichniss [sic] der Werke, Bearbeitungen und Transkriptionen von F. Liszt. “Neue vervollständigte Ausgabe.” Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1877. 162 pp. ML134.L7A3. A revised edition of the Thematisches Verzeichniss der Werke von F. Liszt. Von dem Autor verfasst (Leipzig, 1855), an advertising prospectus prepared by Breitkopf & Härtel with the composer’s assistance that provides incipits for important compositions published before 1855 as well as information about literary works and “Liszt portraits.” The 1877 catalog contains additional entries and musical incipits; neither edition, however, mentions

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unpublished works nor addresses systematically which editions of his works Liszt preferred. Reprinted in 1965 by H. Baron of London. Another works list constitutes a conflation of previous publications: 88. Chiappari, Luciano. Liszt “Excelsior!,” Op. 1400: Catalogo delle composizioni cronologico, tematico, alfabetico. Pisa: Pacini, 1996. xii, 355 pp. ISBN 8877811358. A labor of love that, alas! repeats existing knowledge rather than contributing to it. The first real attempt, however, at a chronological catalog of Liszt’s entire output (pp. 1–96, including undated, incomplete, and lost works); this is followed by “thematic”—which is to say, “generic” (works for solo piano, piano four-hands, two pianos, and so on)—and alphabetical catalogs of the same compositions. Outfitted with indexes of Liszt’s songs (pp. 335–39), authors of texts Liszt set to music (pp. 340–43), and the composer’s own literary works (pp. 344–45); Concludes with lists of terms, archival sigla, and music publishers as well as a table of contents. Illustrated with two portrait photographs of the composer. Difficult to use because of Chiappari’s reliance on abbreviations; full of odd spacings and other typographical irregularities. No musical examples. Extremely rare in the United States; the present author knows of no library or archival copy. Systematically cross-referenced in item 82. Four more specialized indexes are described or cross-referenced below: 89. Bates, William H. “An Index to the Organ and Harmonium Works of Franz Liszt.” The Diapason 85/9 (September 1994): 12–14; 85/10 (October 1994): 17–19; and 85/11 (November 1994): 15–16. ISSN 0012-2378. ML1.O41. A three-part catalog of published Liszt compositions for harmonium and/or organ, based on Haselböck’s critical edition (item 203), the incomplete Breitkopf & Härtel Gesamtausgabe published prior to World War II (item 201), the four-volume edition edited by Sandor Margittay of Budapest in 1971–1973, and several other sources. Incorporates no musical examples. See, too, Bates’s review article “The Haselböck Edition of Liszt’s Organ Works,” Journal of the American Liszt Society 28 (1990): 42–68. 90. Hanoch-Roe, Galia. “A Catalog of Liszt’s Original Death-Related Works.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 41 (1997): 111–30. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. In addition to discussing Liszt’s attitude toward death and dying, HanochRoe identifies some fifty pieces (pp. 113–124) on death-related themes; these range from the Zwei Sätze written during the late 1820s or early 1830s in honor of the composer’s father, Adam Liszt, to the Trauermarsch of

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1885, itself later revised and incorporated as László Teleki in the “Hungarian Historical Portraits.” * Irwin. “The Songs of Franz Liszt—A Survey and Catalogue.” Described as item 1319. Presents information about most of Liszt’s published songs [NATS Journal 49/4 (March–April 1993): 15–22]. 91. Wright, William. “The Transcriptions for Cello and Piano of Works by Liszt.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 35 (1994): 30–58. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Comments on the compositions published as item 208, vol. 10, and identifies more recently discovered works. Wright also provides a manuscript facsimile and three musical examples; the latter include eight pages of the “Song to the Evening Star” [O du mein holder Abendstern] from Wagner’s Tannhäuser, which accompany a reconstruction of Liszt’s transcription of that work. Finally, two less important guides to Liszt’s works also deserve to be mentioned here: 92. Morhange-Morchane, Marthe. Liszt, with text by Joseph Bloch. Thematic Guide to Piano Literature, 5. New York: G. Schirmer, 1988. 126 pp. A catalog of published Liszt piano pieces, supplemented with Bloch’s worthwhile comments about many of them. Includes tables, most of them devoted to ranking kinds of compositions (etudes, character pieces, dance pieces, etc.) according to technical difficulty. Also includes 270 single or multiple melodic incipits as well as additional information about certain works. No bibliography or index. 93. Suppan, Wolfgang. “Blasorchesterbearbeitungen Liszt’scher Werke.” In item 46, pp. 179–202. Identifies some of the best-known wind-ensemble arrangements by other composers of Liszt works, among them transcriptions of the Hungarian Rhapsodies, Tasso, the two familiar piano concertos, and so on. Includes several musical examples as well as a measure-by-measure comparison of arrangements of Les Préludes by Grossmann, Müller, Kotter, and Villinger. Suppan’s notes contain valuable bibliographic citations, almost all of them from German-language sources. RELATED STUDIES As the present research guide goes to press, two comprehensive thematic catalogs of Liszt’s compositions have been announced: the first, by Mária Eckhardt and

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Rena Mueller; the second by Leslie Howard and Michael Short. An entire series of publications exists in conjunction with these works-in-progress: 94. Eckhardt, Mária. “A New Thematic Catalog of Liszt’s Compositions.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 27 (1990): 53–57. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. A report on a project that, prior to publication of the present research guide, remains unfinished. According to Eckhardt, work began in October 1986, at a conference held in Budapest and Veszprém during that “Liszt-centenary” year. Concludes with an outline of the proposed catalog’s contents. Less complete than such other synopses of the same undertaking as Eckhardt’s “Die Konzeption eines neuen Thematischen Verzeichnisses der musikalischen Werke Franz Liszts” in item 176, pp. 47–58. Shorter announcements have also appeared in Central European periodicals; see, for example, Eckhardt, “Thematic Catalogue of Liszt’s Compositions,” Hungarian Music Quarterly 1/2 (1989): 4–7. See, too, Zsuzsanna Domokos et al., “A készülo# Liszt Ferenc tematikus katalógus. A Liszt Ferenc Emlékmúzeum és Kutatóközpont munkatársainak poszter-bemutatója,” Zenetudományi dolgozatok (1995–1996): 183–208; this article contains sample catalog entries. The catalog project is reviewed by A. Szanto in “Eine kaum mehr zu überblickende Vielfalt: ein neues thematisches Werkverzeichnis von Franz Liszts Werken in Vorbereitung,” published in two issues of the Neue Musikzeitung 38 (December 1989–January 1990): 49–51. 95. [Proceedings of the] “International Liszt Conference” = entire issue of Studia Musicologica 34/3–4 (1992). ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. Devoted entirely to papers presented in Budapest 21–23 October 1992 and devolving upon the proposed comprehensive Liszt thematic catalog announced in 1986 (items 49 and 94). Includes an introduction by Eckhardt and an article by her entitled “The Liszt Thematic Catalogue in Preparation: Results and Problems” (pp. 221–30), which describes in detail the project’s scope and contents. Also includes items 97, 386, and 1248, as well as articles by Zsuzsanna Domokos, Geraldine Keeling, Paul Merrick, and a number of other scholars, and discussions of various Bartók-, Berlioz-, Britten-, and Schumann-related publications by Bernhard Appel, Paul Banks, D. Kern Holoman, István Kecskeméti, and László Somfai. Keeling’s article (item 386) contains a useful table: “First Known Public Performances by Liszt of his Keyboard Works, 1828–39” (pp. 400–1); several other articles are illustrated with musical examples and a few documentary facsimiles. See also item 989.

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96. Short, Michael (with Leslie Howard). “A New Liszt Catalogue.” In item 42, pp. 75–100. Briefly considers the contents and characters of fifteen previous catalogs and works lists (items 84, 85, 87, and so on) before describing in detail a proposed comprehensive thematic catalogue of Liszt’s compositions currently in progress; item 81 constitutes a preliminary “sketch” of this massive project. Short’s categories for consideration include layout and numbering of individual works, the division of these works into and among categories, nomenclatorial problems, problems with describing and dating manuscripts, and so on. Illustrated with facsimiles of two sheet-music covers: those of the Richault editions of Liszt’s Schubert song and Beethoven symphonies transcriptions (pp. 93–94). Supersedes Short’s previous article: “A Revised Catalogue of the Works of Liszt,” published in the Liszt Society Journal 18 (1993): 15–19. Like other studies by Howard and Short, item 96 incorporates information and approaches to research explained in such articles by Short as “When Is a Date a Date?” [Liszt Society Journal 21 (1996): 34–39], which deals especially with chronology and Liszt’s Réminiscences de Don Juan. Three articles deal especially with the accomplishments and limitations of catalogs and works lists already in print: 97. Mueller, Rena Charnin. “Liszt’s Catalogues and Inventories of His Works.” In item 95, pp. 231–50. Evaluates the scope and contents of previous publications as well as the Programme des Morceaux éxécutés par F. Liszt à ses Concerts, prepared by Liszt himself during the 1840s (in shortened form, “D-WRgs Z15a”; see the footnote to item 1), and other early sources of information. Illustrated diagrammatically; contains no facsimiles or musical examples. 98. Short, Michael, and Michael Saffle. “Compiling Lis(z)ts: Cataloging the Composer’s Works and the ‘New Grove 2’ Works List.” Journal of Musicological Research 21 (2002): 233–62. ISSN 0141-1896. ML5.M6415. Reviews the successes and failures of published Liszt catalogs, especially Eckhardt’s and Mueller’s “New Grove 2” works list (item 82), in terms of typographical errors, problems with nomenclature and dedications, difficulties in dating certain works, and especially documentary lacunae and deficiencies. Illustrated with four facsimile musical examples reproduced from the Breitkopf Liszt Gesamtausgabe (item 201) and transcriptions into modern notation of two previously unpublished piano pieces: the legendary

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Prélude omnitonique and an “Albumblatt Preludio” recently discovered in a private Canadian collection (both p. 257). 99. Winklhofer, Sharon. “The Grove of Academe (II)” [series of reviews]. 19th Century Music 5 (1981–1982): 257–62. ISSN 0148-2076. ML1.N27. Criticizes Searle’s New Grove Liszt article (item 28), claiming that its pages “are littered with subjective assumptions and misrepresentations which modern scholarship cannot substantiate” (p. 257). Concludes with corrections for many of the first 351 entries in Searle’s revised works list; these and other corrections were subsequently incorporated into item 83. With regard to these corrections, see also Allan Ho, “Tentative Revisions to Searle’s New Grove Catalog of Liszt’s Works for Two Pianos and Piano Four-Hands,” Journal of the American Liszt Society 14 (1983): 24–29. COLLECTION AND EXHIBITION CATALOGS Catalogs of Lisztiana in public and private collections, as well as catalogs published in conjunction with special Liszt exhibitions, often contain valuable information about artifacts of all kinds: letters, musical manuscripts, sheet-music, portraits, periodical literature, musical instruments, and so on. Descriptions of individual musical editions, editions of individual letters and collections of correspondence, and manuscripts of individual compositions are described in Chapter 4 and Chapters 8–11. Discussions of individual Liszt instruments are described in Chapter 12. CATALOGS

OF

PERMANENT COLLECTIONS

A few important permanent Liszt collections have never been described in print. Others, however, have been described several times—including collections that have ceased to exist, at least in their original form. Among catalogs of existing collections, those described below are unusually detailed and useful: 100. Auman, Elisabeth [H.], with Raymond A. White et al. The Music Manuscripts, First Editions, and Correspondence of Franz Liszt (1811–1886) in the Collections of the Music Division, Library of Congress. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1991. vi, 126 pp. ML134.L7L5 1991 and Z663.37.M83 1991. Identifies and describes eighty-three musical manuscripts; 252 first and early editions, some of which contain dedications, corrections, emendations, and other autograph inscriptions by the composer; and 263 letters, signed visiting cards and concert programs, and other documents, together with a handful of Liszt photographs. Auman and her colleagues provide an index of correspondents (pp. 105–10) as well as two appendices—which is to say, two additional indexes: the first of composition titles, complete with “Searle numbers”

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(pp. 111–23; see item 83), the second of composers whose works were transcribed, arranged, or paraphrased by Liszt (pp. 124–25). Includes as a cover illustration a “negative” (red on black) partial facsimile of a Liszt manuscript, reproduced from the library’s holdings. Corrections to the addresses, dates, and other details concerning portions of the library’s collection of Liszt correspondence, together with translations and transcriptions of these and other items, many of them acquired since the early 1990s, are in item 301. Supersedes Edward N. Waters’s pamphlet Liszt Holographs in the Library of Congress (Washington, D.C., 1979), which identifies only eighty-nine musical manuscripts, printer’s proofs, and inscribed editions belonging to America’s largest collection of Liszt documents, and which was reprinted in Liszt Saeculum no. 30 (1982): 3–12. 101. Eckhardt, Mária [P.]. Franz Liszt’s Music Manuscripts in the National Széchényi Library, Budapest, ed. Zoltán Falvy. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1986. 252 pp. ISBN 9630541777. ML134.L7E313 1986. A detailed catalog of seventy-eight manuscripts and scores, illustrated with facsimile reproductions of documentary materials and musical examples. Eckhardt’s catalog constitutes an introduction to Liszt’s art, not merely to certain documents. Outfitted with tables, transcriptions of musical passages, and a valuable bibliography. Incorporates relevant material found in István Kecskeméti’s “Two Liszt Discoveries,” The Musical Times 115 (1974): 646–48 and 743–44, and Robert Murányi’s “Neue Liszt-Handschriften in der Széchényi Nationalbibliothek,” Studia Musicologica 27 (1985): 305–24. Kecskeméti’s “discoveries” articles also appeared as “Egy ismeretlen Lisztdal,” Magyar zene 15 (1974): 17–25 and “Liszt Ferenc ismeretlen zongoradarabja,” Magyar zene 14 (1973): 347–72. Distributed in the United States by Pendragon Press as “Studies in Central and Eastern European Music, 2.” Not to be confused with Eckhardt’s “Liszt Ferenc és magyar kortársai az Országos Széchényi Könyvtár dedikált Lisztzenemu# veinek tükrében,” Orságos Széchényi Könyvtár Evkönyve (1973): 87–130, this article identifies and describes handwritten dedications in HBn editions and includes a German-language summary (pp. 128–30). 102. Eckhardt, Mária [P.] et al. Liszt Ferenc hagyatéka / Franz Liszt’s Estate. 2 vols. Budapest: Liszt Ferenc Zenemu# vészeti Fo# iskola, 1986 and 1993. ISBN 9630173107 [set]. ML136.B93L6 1986 [set]. Vol. 1: Könyvek / Books [ISBN 9630173093]. Vol. 2: Zenem u# vek / Music [ISBN 9630173107ö] [sic]. Describes 273 books and other literature from Liszt’s personal library as well as 2,508 pieces of printed music, together with some seventy-six Liszt

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musical autographs (drafts, fair copies, corrected proofs, etc.)—all of them preserved today in the collections of the Budapest Academy of Music. Vol. 1 also contains an introductory essay by Margit Prahács as well as twentythree plates (vol. 1, pp. 177–200) reproducing book pages, some of which include marginal comments in the composer’s hand; several appendices; and indexes of names and titles. Vol. 2 contains an introduction by Eckhardt; an article by Zsuzsanna Domokos on Liszt and the Cecilian movement (pp. 68–84; also item 854); a wealth of appendices and concordances of authors, titles of Liszt compositions, and so on; and twenty-four additional facsimiles of printed and handwritten pages of music (pp. 569–92). In Hungarian and English throughout, including the article by Domokos; other contributions, including a synopsis of Domokos’s study (vol. 2, p. 85), appear in German; quotations from prose and poetic texts appear in their original languages. Vol. 1 was reviewed in item 200. Regarding Liszt’s reading habits, see item 724. Regarding the holdings of Budapest’s Liszt Memorial Museum and Research Centre, see—among other articles—Eckhardt’s “Liszt Ferenc zenemu# kéziratai. A zenem u# vészeti fo# iskola Liszt Ferenc emlékmúzeumában,” Zenetudományi dolgozatok [Budapest] (1986): 235–60; and “A Liszt Ferenc Emlélmúzeum új szerzeményei 1986–1989. I. Liszt-zenemu# kéziratok,” Magyar zene 31 (1990): 57–65. Both articles include facsimiles of important musical manuscripts or autograph corrections to printed editions. Other valuable catalogs of permanent Liszt collections are described or cross-listed below in alphabetical order—first by city, region, or nation; then by author or title: Antwerp: See item 162. Basel 103. Schanzlin, Hans Peter. “Liszt in Basel und die Liszt-Dokumente in der Universitätsbibliothek Basel.” In item 47, pp. 163–71. Provides information about Liszt’s visits to Switzerland as well as informal descriptions of a few musical manuscripts, autograph letters, and pieces of memorabilia—among them, a signed copy of the Faust symphony—owned by the Basel University Library. Illustrated with facsimiles of an Albumblatt and a caricature sketch of Liszt playing whist, one of the composer’s favorite amusements. Bayreuth 104. Fukuda, Wataru. “‘Drei Zigeuner,’ ‘Gebet,’ and ‘Ave maris stella’ from Liszt’s Manuscripts in the Richard Wagner Museum at Bayreuth.” Journal

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of the American Liszt Society 44 (1998): 24–34. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Presents a list of sixteen Liszt documents owned by the museum (pp. 24–25)—among them an Albumblatt entitled “Preludio” and dated 4 February 1841; a sketchbook of Hungarian melodies dated 22 June 1853; and a facsimile of a commemorative leaf with music related to the Liszt/Wagner concert of November 1856 in St. Gallen, Switzerland—as well as detailed descriptions and discussions of the three manuscripts mentioned in the article’s title. Fukuda also provides a facsimile of Liszt’s Preghiera, a version of Gebet for organ or harmonium. Bratislava 105. Hrabussay, Zoltán. “Neznáme rukopisy Franza Liszta na Slovensku.” Hudobnovedné stúdie 4 (1960): 177–96. ISSN 0439-8491. ML55.N8. Discusses Liszt’s involvement with the Zamoyski family and describes a series of letters Liszt addressed to Ludmilla Gizycka-Zamoyska between 1871 and 1880. Hrabussay also includes information about manuscripts of several short Liszt pieces, including a “Ländler” and the Air cosaque. Facsimiles, some accompanied by Slovak translations. In Slovak; summaries in Russian and German. A more cursory discussion of these documents by Hrabussay appeared in item 50, pp. 125–29. See also item 140. NB: As of 1960 the documents in question were owned by the Slovakian Central Archive, Bratislava, and the ZamoyskaWielopolska family of Bratislava-Petrzalka (formerly Preßburg-Engerau). Brussels * Lettres autographes conservées à la Bibliothèque Royale Albert 1er…. Described as item 300. A collection of letters rather than a catalog per se. Budapest In addition to items 101 and 102, the following publications are well worth consulting: 106. Eckhardt, Mária [P.]. Liszt Ferenc Memorial Museum. Liszt Ferenc Academy of Music, Budapest. Catalogue. Budapest: Liszt Ferenc Memorial Museum and Research Center, 1986. 84 pp. ISBN 9630174693. Describes 175 pieces of Lisztiana, including important holographs, concert programs, portraits, and pieces of furniture owned by Liszt during several

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periods of his life. Eckhardt’s introductory material includes English-language texts of Dezso# Legány’s 1984 article “Liszt’s Homes in Budapest” (item 580), János Kárpáti’s article on Liszt pianos (item 1492), and pamphlets by Kálmán d’Isoz and Margit Prahács (items 108 and 109). Illustrated with color and black-and-white photographs as well as facsimile reproductions of a few letters and musical holographs. Concludes with a useful bibliography. NB: The Memorial Museum and Liszt Academy are two “units” overseen by a single larger administrative authority. 107. Eckhardt, Mária [P.]. “Liszt Ferenc Zenemu# kéziratai. A Zenemu# kéziratai Fo# iskola Liszt Ferenc Emlékmúzeumában.” Zenetudományi dolgozatok (1986): 235–60. ISSN 0139-0732. ML55.Z48. Identifies some sixty Liszt holographs owned by the Liszt Ferenc Memorial Museum. Concludes with eighteen facsimile reproductions of manuscript pages, including leaves from the Via crucis and several Liszt transcriptions of Schubert songs. NB: Eckhardt has published other Hungarian-language catalogs and bibliographies dealing with Liszt’s letters. Among these bibliographies is “Liszt Ferenc levelei az MTA Zenetudományi Intézetének Majorgy u# jteményében,” Zenetudományi dolgozatok (1987): 281–302. Another of her articles deals with Budapest’s Franz Liszt Academy of Music and its letters collection: “A Zeneakadémia Liszt Ferenc leveleiben,” in A Liszt Ferenc Zenemu# vészeti Fo#iskola 100 éve. Dokumentumok, tanulmányok, emlékezések (Budapest, 1977): 18–68. 108. Gábry, György. “Franz Liszt-Reliquien im Nationalmuseum Budapest.” Studia Musicologica 17 (1975): 407–23. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. Describes several Liszt artifacts including two wreaths overlaid with gold or silver, a medal minted at Pest in 1873, the famous Ehrensäbel (sword of honor) presented to Liszt in Pest early in 1840, and the Broadwood piano once owned by Beethoven. Illustrated with eight pages of photographs. A Hungarian-language version of this article appeared as “Liszt Ferenc emléktárgyai a Magyar Nemzeti Múzeumban,” Folia historica [Budapest] 5 (1977): 121–37, together with a German-language summary (p. 131). Like other, more recent and more detailed publications, Gábry’s supersedes such outdated pamphlets as Kálmán d’Isoz’s Liszt szobájának kalauza (Budapest, 1925)—itself reprinted in English in item 106. 109. Prahács, Margit. Chambre commémorative de François Liszt [Catalog]. Budapest: “Ecole Supérieure de Musique François Liszt,” 1956. 15 pp. ML410.L7B87.

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Identifies 271 artifacts owned by the Franz Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest. Illustrated with portrait photographs, facsimiles of diplomas, musical examples, and so on. Not to be confused with Prahács’s “Introduction to the Catalog of the Liszt Memorial Rooms of the Academy of Music” (1968), reprinted in English in item 106. See also item 705. The Burgenland [Austria] 110. Klampfer, Josef. Liszt-Gedenkstätten im Burgenland. Burgenländische Forschungen, 43. Eisenstadt: Michael Rötzer, 1961. 129 pp. ML410.L77K63. A description of Liszt monuments in Eisenstadt and Raiding, among them 669 artifacts owned by the Haydn-Museum. Published in conjunction with the 150th anniversary of Liszt’s birth in the latter town. Also contains an outline of Liszt’s life (pp. 77–95), a list of compositions (pp. 96–120), and photographs of Austrian Liszt “memorials.” Also item 124. 111. Winkler, Gerhard J. “Die Lisztiana des Burgenländischen Landesmuseums.” In: Zur Landeskunde des Burgenlandes. Festschrift Hanns Schmid. Wissenschaftliche Arbeiten aus dem Burgenland, 100. Eisenstadt: Kenad & Danek, 1998; pp. 231–36. ISBN 3854051379. More a description of Liszt’s relationship to the Burgenland in general than a museum catalog. Winkler, however, provides some information about the composer’s “birth house” in Raiding, owned by the Landesmuseum, as well as Eisenstadt’s Liszt collections; he also refers in passing to other Burgenland Liszt publications. No illustrations. Reprinted in essentially the same form and under the same title, but with a photograph of the Eisenstadt Liszt memorial, in the Journal of the Franz Liszt Kring (1995): 7–10. For additional information about holdings, see the Burgenländisches Landesmuseum. Katalog der Schausammlung [Katalog Neue Folge, 26] (Eisenstadt, 1985) and item 110. Copenhagen 112. “Hans Christian Andersen’s Travel Album.” Trans. Kirsten Maegaard. Fontis artes musicae 42 (1995): 82–84. ISSN 0015-6191. Mentions an “unknown tiny work” (p. 84) by Liszt preserved in the album and reproduced in H. C. Andersen. Album I–V, ed. Kåre Olsen et al. (Copenhagen, 1980), vol. 1, p. 9; the work itself, an Albumblatt for piano, is entitled “Magyar” and dated 28 June 1841. The Fontis article appeared originally in P2 Musik (1994), trans. Maegaard. See, too, William Wright on Liszt letters in Copenhagen (mentioned in conjunction with item 513), which

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reprints both facsimiles and texts of thirteen documents belonging to the Danish Royal Library. Eisenstadt [Austria] 113. Eckhardt, Mária [P.], and Cornelia [Szabó-]Knotik. Franz Liszt und sein Kreis in Briefen und Dokumenten aus den Beständen des Burgenländischen Landesmuseums. Wissenschaftliche Arbeiten aus dem Burgenland, 66. Eisenstadt: Burgenländisches Landesmuseum, 1983. 160 pp. ISBN 3854050844. ML410.L7F75 1983. A catalog of 121 documents, principally letters, owned by the Landesmuseum. Reproduces the complete texts of these documents as well as German-language translations of “foreign” source materials. Supplemented with several photographs and facsimile reproductions as well as indexes of correspondents and names mentioned in the work itself. NB: Many of the documents described by Eckhardt and [Szabó-]Knotik were written by figures other than Liszt: for example, Princess Carolyne, Richard Wagner, Liszt’s nephew Eduard von Liszt, and so on. Göppingen [Germany] 114. Unveröffentlichte Briefe von Franz Liszt und weitere Schätze im LisztFerenc-Archiv von Göppingen-Budapest = entire issue of the Journal of the Franz Liszt Kring (1998–1999). OCLC 35016341. Describes the scope and examines some of the contents of a private collection owned and supervised by Dr. Lajos Gracza. Includes facsimiles and annotated transcriptions of nine Liszt letters and envelopes, with German translations (where appropriate), as well as an article about the composer’s Glockenlied and his visit to Stuttgart in 1843, facsimiles of six Liszt photographs dating from 1858–1886, and reproductions of both faces of some two dozen medallions that depict either Liszt or—in one case, that of the Cologne Cathedral—an important building associated with the composer’s charitable activities. Also includes a few other illustrations. Morlanwelz [Belgium] 115. Kovacs, Mária. “Des manuscrits de Liszt à Morlanwelz.” Studia Musicologica 30 (1988): 321–32. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. Provides descriptions of three Liszt letters as well as holographs of “Den Cypressen der Villa d’Este—Threnodie,” a variant version of Aux cypres de la Villa d’Este from Book III of the Années de pèlerinage; and of a motif from the symphonic poem Die Ideale. All these belong to the Musée Royal de Mariemont. Also includes the entire “Cypressen” manuscript in facsimile.

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Moscow 116. Johns, Keith T. “Some Little-known Liszt Autographs in Moscow.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 30 (1991): 77–80. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Briefly identifies holdings, mostly letters, owned (at least then) by the Glinka Museum, the Lenin Library, and the Moscow State Conservatory of Music. Concludes with advice for those brave enough to visit Russian archives. See, too, Márta Papp’s “Moszkvai archivumok Liszt-dokumentumai,” published in Magyar zene 27 (1986): 29–38, which describes Liszt letters written in 1841 and 1879–1880 as well as a short composition entitled Ne brani menia, moi drug on a poem by Alexander Tolstoy. Munich 117. Hamburger, Klára. “Unpublished Liszt Letters in Munich.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 29 (1991): 12–26. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. One of many letters collections that, in effect, are also “catalogs” of Liszt documents in particular cities, libraries, or archives. Hamburger identifies, annotates, and presents in their original languages, with brief Englishlanguage summaries, the texts of twenty letters owned by the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek and the Bayerisches Hauptstaatsarchiv, Geheimes Hausarchiv division. Based on Hamburger, “Kiadatlan Liszt-levelek Muenchenben,” Magyar zene 31 (1990): 373–93, which also provides facsimiles. New York City 118. Gottlieb, Jane. “Liszt Collections in New York City Libraries.” In item 42, pp. 137–79. Devoted primarily to the Dana Collection of Liszt piano scores in The Juilliard School library; this is cataloged carefully by Gottlieb (pp. 149–79), who also discusses the Lisztiana belonging to the New York Public Library’s Music Division and the Lachmund Collection belonging to the Pierpont Morgan Library; regarding the latter institution, see item 119. Illustrated with four black-and-white reproductions of sheet-music title pages (pp. 141–44), including the Diabelli edition of the Schubert/Liszt Mélodies hongroises and the Kistner edition of the David/Liszt Bunte Reihe. No musical examples. See, too, Gottlieb’s article “The Juilliard School Library’s Ruth Dana Collection of Liszt Editions,” Journal of the American Liszt Society 30 (1991): 74–76. 119. Turner, J. Rigbie. Nineteenth-Century Autograph Music Manuscripts in The Pierpont Morgan Library: A Check List, intro. Charles Ryskamp. New York: Pierpont Morgan Library, 1982. 53 pp. ISBN 0875980775. ML136.N5P56 1982.

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Identifies manuscripts of about twenty Liszt works owned by or on loan to the Pierpont Morgan Library, including the so-called “Lehman manuscript,” a holograph of the Sonata in b minor reproduced as item 226. No musical examples per se, although Turner’s volume includes a facsimile of a page from a manuscript of the Totentanz. Published originally in 19th Century Music 4 (1981): 49–69 and 157–83; see esp. pp. 160–62. Nuremberg 120. Gottwald, Clytus. “Die Liszt-Autographe des Germanischen Nationalmuseums in Nürnberg.” Die Musikforschung 35 (1982): 166–72. ISSN 0027-4801. ML5.M9437. Describes musical manuscripts owned by the German National Museum, Nuremberg—among them, Hs. 107016, an orchestral draft of Tasso in August Conradi’s hand; holographs of Die Ideale; and several sketches. No illustrations or musical examples. Paris Among the largest collections of Lisztiana in the world is that of the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. Only one study deals with a significant portion of that library’s Liszt holdings: 121. Saffle, Michael. “Liszt Music Manuscripts in Paris: A Preliminary Survey.” In item 42, pp. 101–35. Chiefly an “introduction” to some fifty Liszt music manuscripts—sketches, Albumblätter [plural of “Albumblatt”], drafts, fair copies, and so on— belonging to the “Conservatoire” collections of the Bibliothèque Nationale. Includes two tables (pp. 103–7 and 109–10) that provide information about titles, Raabe and Searle numbers, provenance, microform negative numbers, and so on; these are followed by descriptions of each manuscript by contents, length, foliation, physical dimensions, handwriting(s), and so on (pp. 118–35). Illustrated with two musical examples and four pages of blackand-white documentary facsimiles of pages from the long-unpublished Cinq choeurs (see item 1260), a “Miserere” based on a melody of Palestrina, and a sketch for Liszt’s setting of Hugo’s S’il est un charmant gazon. More specialized studies of Parisian Lisztiana also exist. Among them is: 122. Broussais, Marie. “Liszt. Dans les collections anthropologiques du Musée de l’Homme.” L’Education musicale no. 307 (April 1984): 9–11 and nos. 309–310 (June–July 1984): 29–31. MT2.I5E3. Among the collections of this anthropological institution are two plaster casts of Liszt’s face and skull: the first made between 1824 and 1826 by

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Franz Joseph Gall; the second somewhat later by Pierre Marie Dumoutier, a disciple of Gall and, like him, a phrenologist. Illustrated with photographs of the casts (no. 308, p. 10; nos. 309–10, p. 30). With regard to Liszt and phrenology, see item 711. Raiding [Austria] 123. Krajasich, Peter, and Johann Steuer. Liszt-Museum Raiding. Eisenstadt: E. & G. Horvath, 1981. 68 pp. ISBN 3854050690. Identifies 272 manuscript facsimiles, sheet-music covers, and other artifacts on permanent exhibition in the house where Liszt was born. Illustrated with several black-and-white plates, including photographs of the museum itself. Prefaced by a short historical survey by Krajasich entitled “Liszts Aufenthalte in Raiding” (pp. 9–15). 124. Schenk, Erich. “Das Geburtshaus Franz Liszts zu Raiding im Burgenland.” Österreichische Musikzeitschrift 25 (1970): 229–32. ISSN 0029-9316. ML5.O1983. An informal “catalog,” presented as a biographical sketch with interpolated italicized references to artifacts in Raiding collections. See, too, Schenk’s “Die Franz Liszt-Gedächtnisstätte zu Raiding,” Burgenländische Heimatblätter 23 (1961): 91–95, and Hans Wastl, “Die Franz Liszt-Gedächtnisstätte in Raiding,” in item 110, pp. 11–12. Rome 125. Eo# sze, László. 119 római Liszt dokumentum. Budapest: Zenemu# kiadó, 1980. 184 pp. ISBN 9633303427. ML410.L7E58. Identifies and reproduces 119 letters, musical manuscripts, and other documents currently owned by eight libraries and archives in Rome. Eo# sze’s volume draws heavily on studies by Hamburger, including her “Documents—Liszt à Rome,” Studia Musicologica 21 (1979): 319–44, and “Római Liszt-dokumentumok,” Magyar zene 19 (1978): 55–75. Illustrated with facsimile reproductions and a few musical examples; concludes with a short bibliography. In Hungarian; original documents in French, German, Italian, and Latin; summary in English. Subsumes Eo# sze’s “Római Liszt-kéziratok és dokumentumok,” Magyar zene 20 (1979): 165–72, and “Unbekannte Liszt-Handschriften und Dokumente aus Rom,” item 47, pp. 55–62. NB: Eo# sze overlooked or ignored more than 100 documents owned by Vatican archives and concerned with Liszt’s plans to marry Princess Carolyne. With regard to these documents, see especially item 643.

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Slovakia 126. Tauberová, A. “Franz Liszt in der zeitgenössischen Dokumentation und Ikonographie aus der Slowakei.” In item 49, pp. 225–36. Deals with documents associated with Liszt’s visits to present-day Slovakia in 1839, the 1870s, and the 1880s: concert posters, press clippings, signed pieces of sheet-music, and so on. Illustrated with six facsimiles, including a photograph of Liszt taken by Kozmata of Prague. See also György Gábry, “Lisztove vzt’ahy k Bratislave v zrkadle mad’arsky´ ch pamiatok / Liszts Beziehungen zu Bratislava im Spiegel ungarischer Dokumente,” in item 45, pp. 133–44, which deals especially with nineteenth-century Preßburg [today, Bratislava, Slovakia]. Sopron [Hungary (formerly Ödenburg, Austria-Hungary)]: See items 134 and 140. Szekszárd [Hungary] 127. Vendel-Mohay, Lajosné. Liszt-emlékek Szekszárdon. Szekszárd: Múzeumi Füzetek, 1986. 152 pp. ISBN 9630172275. ML410.L7A4 1986. Describes and reprints, in their original languages and Hungarian, the texts of forty-three Liszt letters owned by the Szekszárd Museum, most of them addressed to Baron Anton Augusz. Illustrated with facsimile reproductions of almost all the letters as well as portraits of Augusz, Ede Reményi, Pál Rosty, and other contemporary figures. Concludes with a brief bibliography and index. Commentary in Hungarian. See also item 312, which contains the bulk of the Liszt-Augusz correspondence. Vienna 128. “Franz Liszt / Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy” = Katalog der Sammlung Anthony van Hoboken in der Musiksammlung der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek. Musikalische Erst- und Frühdrucke, vol. 10; ed. Karin Breitner. Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1994. xi, 189 pp. ISBN 3795207878. ML136.V6N34 1994. Identifies and describes (pp. 1–55) a variety of early Liszt editions; these are also indexed (pp. 185–89); finally, the Katalog includes reproductions of sheet-music covers, dedication pages, and sample music pages for several of them—including Magyar Rhapsodiák no. 12, the complete Album d’un voyageur, and the Missa solemnis (or “Gran” Mass). Other publications deal with a few of the Austrian National Library’s miscellaneous Liszt holdings. See, for example, “Wichtige Neuerwerbungen der Musiksammlung der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek 1993,”

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Österreichische Musikzeitschrift 49 (1994), p. 572, which mentions three recent acquisitions—among them, a manuscript of La Romanesca. * Legány. Franz Liszt: Unbekannte Presse und Briefe…. Described as item 389. A useful collection of letters and press clippings preserved today in Viennese archives and newspapers. Washington, D.C.: See items 100, 301, and 319. Weimar The only recent introduction to most of Weimar’s Lisztiana is rather brief: 129. Liepsch, Evelyn. “Der Nachlass Franz Liszt in Weimar.” In: Das Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv 1896–1996: Beiträge aus dem ältesten deutschen Literaturarchiv, ed. Jochen Golz. Weimar: Böhlau, 1996; pp. 347–52. ISBN 3412120952. PT2145.G7G64 1996. A brief history of the Weimar Liszt collections, now held by the Stiftung Weimarer Klassik. Liepsch refers to Princess Carolyne, the official opening of the “Liszt-Museum” in Weimar’s Hofgärtnerei on 22 May 1887, the roles played by Carl Gille, Alois Obrist, and Peter Raabe in maintaining and cataloging the various collections, and actions taken during World War II to safeguard many items. Unfortunately unillustrated. No “official” catalog of D-WRgs holdings has ever been published, but brief descriptions appeared as early as September 1894, when Arthur M. Abell published “The Liszt Museum in Weimar” in the Musical Courier; this article was reprinted in Liszt Saeculum no. 45 (1990): 20–24. Introductions of sorts to some D-WRgs Liszt materials have appeared as “Franz Liszt’s handschriftlicher Nachlaß im Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv” in Informationen [Nationale Forschungs- und Gedenkstätten der klassischen deutschen Literatur] 2 (1986). Finally, see item 708. NB: The Archiv has begun publishing detailed catalogs of its holdings, entitled Inventare des Goethe- und Schiller-Archivs and compiled by Gerhard Schmid. Two volumes—“Schillerbestand” (vol. 1; Weimar, 1989) and “Goethe-Bestand” (vol. 2; Weimar, 2000)—have already appeared in print. Will a Liszt volume appear? A consummation devoutly to be wished! The most fulsome Weimar Liszt catalog, although one that does not even begin to itemize that city’s remarkable holdings, is: 130. Eckhardt, Mária, and Evelyn Liepsch. Franz Liszts Weimarer Bibliothek. Weimarer Liszt-Studien, 2. Laaber: Laaber-Verlag, 1999. 132 pp. ISBN 3890073245. ML410.L7E42 1999.

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A partial reconstruction and discussion of Liszt’s Weimar library, based in part both on the catalog of an Erfurt book dealer (reproduced in facsimile on pp. 21–56), who sold much of it in 1887, and on documentary evidence discussed in essays by Liepsch. The second of these essays (pp. 73–109), mostly a catalog of Liszt books owned today by the Herzogin Anna Amalin Bibliothek, identifies and reproduces a number of annotated pages from volumes once owned by Liszt. Also includes facsimiles of a handwritten inventory of Liszt’s library (pp. 63–72) and a variety of title pages, concert programs, and other documents—many of them unannotated—preserved today in Weimar archives as well as an introduction by Eckhardt (pp. 9–20), complete with endnotes. Concludes with an index of names. Regarding the Hungarian portions of this collection, see Eckhardt, “Liszt’s Weimar Library: The Hungarica,” New Hungarian Quarterly 32/122 (Summer 1991): 156–64. Three other publications also deal with Lisztiana found in Weimar’s libraries and archives: 131. Kaminiarz, Irina. “Die Musiksammlungen im Archiv der Hochschule für Musik ‘Franz Liszt’ Weimar.” Forum Musikbibliothek: Beiträge und Informationen aus der musikbibliothekarischen Praxis no. 1 (1997): 14–21. ISSN 0173-5187. ML110.F67. Describes the history and contents of collections established as long ago as 1872 but reorganized in October 1995. Among other items, the Hochschule today owns the collection of scores assembled between 1861 and 1937 by the Allgemeine Deutsche Musikverein; a group of manuscripts once owned by Carl Müller-Hartung (1834–1908), including more than thirty Liszt autographs; and a manuscript score of Liszt’s oratorio Die Legende von der heiligen Elisabeth formerly owned by Karl Coepfahrt (1859–1942). Lacks shelf-numbers, illustrations, or musical examples. 132. Saffle, Michael. “Unpublished Liszt Works at Weimar.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 13 (1982): 3–24. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Provides information about eighty-seven Liszt compositions preserved in one or more holograph copies in the collections of the Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv. Illustrated with a facsimile reproduction of D-WRgs I78b: an orchestral transcription by the composer of his youthful Allegro di bravura. Since the early 1980s a number of the pieces mentioned in this article have been published, most of them in the so-called “New Liszt Edition” (item 202). Regarding the “new” Liszt piano concerto mentioned in passing by Saffle, see item 1239. 133. Weilguny, Hedwig. Das Liszthaus in Weimar. Weimar: Nationale Forschungs- und Gedenkstätten der klassischen deutschen Literatur, 1970. 64 pp. + 16 pages of plates. ML410.L7W44 1970.

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One of several short books by Weilguny with the same title, all of which contain histories of the Hofgärtnerei, Liszt’s home in Weimar from 1869 to 1886, and introductions to its post–World War II exhibits. As one might expect, Russian-oriented “treasures” are foregrounded; consider pp. 28–64, which contain a German translation of Borodin’s Liszt reminiscences (item 349). Printed as a tourist souvenir rather than a work of scholarship. Illustrated with several photographs as well as an appendix full of portraits, documentary facsimiles, and reproductions of sheet-music covers. A somewhat different book, bearing the same title but written by Willy Handrick, appeared as Das Liszthaus in Weimar (n.d.; 32 pp.). See, too, Weilguny’s “Liszt-Stätten in Weimar,” Musik und Gesellschaft (1961): 596–98, which contains photographs of the Hofgärtnerei facade and parlor. Finally, an abbreviated catalog published decades ago by the Liszt Museum of Sopron, Hungary, provides a little information for biographers and scholars: 134. A Soproni Liszt Ferenc Múzeum és kiállításai. Gyo# r, 1966. 48 pp. Identifies a bust of Liszt (reproduced on p. 16) and mentions a handful of Liszt manuscripts and programs of Sopron Liszt concerts (p. 41). Published descriptions of Sopron exhibits contain surprisingly little information about Liszt artifacts. Thus Attila Környei’s “Internacionalisták visszaemlékezései a Soproni Liszt Ferenc Múzeum gyu# jteményébol,” published in Arrabona 13 (1971): 417–504, praises ten natives of Sopron honored for activities on behalf of the Soviet Union but says nothing about Liszt. CATALOGS

OF

TEMPORARY EXHIBITIONS

Exhibition catalogs often provide information about artifacts otherwise unavailable in print. The most widely available of these catalogs are described below in alphabetical order—again, first by city or region, then by author or title: Brussels 135. Franz Liszt, 1811–1886. Brussels: Bibliothèque Royale Albert Ier, 1986. 42 pp. ISBN 2870930313. ML141.B85L6 1986. Briefly identifies 211 artifacts displayed at the Royal Library 17–29 November 1986. Often misleading; entry 111, for example—a quotation from Liszt’s letter of 11 January 1842 to the Comtesse d’Agoult—is identified by the heading “Robert Schumann (1810–1856)”! Illustrated with nine plates of portraits, sheet-music covers, buildings, and so on.

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Budapest 136. Bártha, Dénes. Exposition Fr. Liszt dans la grande salle du Musée National Hongrois: Catalogue et introduction. Budapest: Hungarian National Museum, 1936. 51 pp. British Library shelf-number Ac. 7301/11. Describes artifacts displayed in the National Museum, Budapest, in celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of Liszt’s death. Corrected and updated by Eckhardt in “Az 1936-os Liszt-kiállítás dokumentumainak nyomában,” Magyar zene 25 (1984): 141–53. The original pamphlet is rare in American collections. 137. Domokos, Zsuzsanna. “The Liszt Exhibition.” Liszt Society Journal 22 (1997): 4–9. ML410.L7L6. A brief account of artifacts on display in Budapest during a meeting of the Liszt Ferenc Társaság (Hungarian Liszt Society) 14–16 March 1996. Useful for its information about Liszt and Russian music, the exhibition’s special subject, but illustrated only with poorly reproduced black-and-white photographs of a few cases full of “souvenirs.” Regarding the 1988 Budapest exhibition of Liszt caricatures, see item 77. Regarding an exhibition celebrating one 1994 Grand Prix du Disque for a recording of Via crucis, see Domokos’s report in the Liszt Saeculum no. 54 (1995): 77–78. 138. Gábry, György. “Neuere Liszt-Dokumente.” Studia Musicologica 10 (1968): 339–52. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. Describes memorabilia exhibited at the National Museum, Budapest, in 1956—among them, a letter by Friedrich Weitzmann describing how he acquired a lock of Liszt’s hair. Includes two facsimiles and several photographs, including one of the hair. Observations by Gábry about these materials also appeared in Hungarian as “Liszt Ferenc és C. F. Weitzmann,” Magyar zene 24 (1983): 305–11. This last article includes facsimile reproductions of harmonic progressions written in Weitzmann’s hand and discovered among related Liszt documents. See, too, Dennis Hennig, “Musical Puzzles, Photographic Canons, and Enharmonic Caterpillars: Liszt’s Visiting Cards,” Journal of the American Liszt Society 27 (1990): 32–37. * Liszt Ferenc—karikatúrák / Ferenc Liszt—Caricatures. Described as item 78.

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The Burgenland [Austria] 139. Album d’un voyageur. F. Liszt Gedächtnisausstellung anlässlich der 170. Wiederkehr seines Geburtsjahres, ed. János Kárpáti and Peter Krajasich. Eisenstadt: Amt der Burgenländischen Landesregierung, 1981. 87 pp. ISBN 3854050747. Identifies 249 artifacts exhibited in Eisenstadt in 1981 to mark the 170th anniversary of Liszt’s birth. Includes the texts of eight otherwise unpublished Liszt letters as well as eight colored plates, black-and-white illustrations of musical manuscripts, and sheet-music editions. Prefaced with a useful, although incomplete, calendar of Liszt’s travels. The introduction appears in German and Hungarian, the rest in German only. 140. Der Wunderknabe aus Raiding, ed. Hans Rosnak. Eisenstadt: Belvedere, 1985. 88 pp. A publication honoring the 100th anniversary of Liszt’s death in 1886. Includes more than a dozen short articles about Liszt, the Burgenland, and so on, as well as an illustrated catalog of Liszt’s association with and Liszt holdings in the nearby cities of Sopron, Hungary, and Bratislava, Slovakia. Also contains portraits, facsimile reproductions of documents, photographs of monuments, and other images—some of high quality and printed in color. 141. Franz Liszt: Ein Genie aus dem pannonischen Raum. Kindheit und Jugend. Eisenstadt: Burgenländisches Landesmuseum, 1986. 168 pp. ISBN 3854050984. ML141.E36L53 1986. A catalog of 184 artifacts exhibited during 1986 by the Burgenland Regional Museum. Contains items 455, 470, 490, 491, 498, 641, 714, and 943 as well as an article about Franciscanism in Liszt’s Hungary written by P. Michael Weiss, O.F.M. (pp. 24–28). Handsomely illustrated with numerous portraits and photographs, many in color. Reviewed in item 200. 142. Franz-Liszt-Gedenkjahr 1986. Entire “1986” issue of Burgenland—Jahrbuch für ein Land und seine Freunde. Eisenstadt: Belvedere, 1985 [sic]. 82 pp. A memorial anthology, similar in format to item 141. Contains anniversary essays, several short articles—most of them dealing with topics of only peripheral interest to Liszt researchers and not identified separately below—and a variety of color and black-and-white illustrations. An appendix provides biographical sketches of Austrian citizens who took part in 1986 Liszt celebrations.

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143. Katalog der Franz Liszt-Ausstellung im Haydnmuseum des Burgenländischen Heimat- und Naturschützvereins in Eisenstadt, 1936. Eisenstadt, 1936. [19 pp.] Typescript copy in US–Wc: ML141.E36L5. Describes 148 pieces of Lisztiana—musical manuscripts, portraits, pieces of sheet-music, and so on—exhibited at Eisenstadt during the fiftieth anniversary of Liszt’s death. Of limited interest; most of the artifacts identified were borrowed for the exhibition from other collections. Rare in American collections. NB: Today this museum is known as the Burgenländisches Landesmuseum (see items 110 and 111). Krems [Austria] 144. Anna Maria Liszt. Die Mutter des Musikers—ein Leben in Briefen. Vienna: L. Wetzl, 1986. 41 pp. Identifies sixty-eight artifacts, including letters, manuscripts, pieces of sheetmusic, and photographs, displayed at the Historisches Museum, Krems, from 24 April to 30 September 1986 as part of the regional Franz Liszt Festival (pp. 27–41). Also contains items 461, 463, and one of many studies preliminary to item 304; illustrated with portraits, boxed quotations, documentary facsimiles, and additional quotations from Liszt family correspondence. Paris 145. Franz Liszt 1811–1886 et le romantisme français. Paris: Musées de la Ville de Paris, 1986. 67 pp. ISBN 2901414214. An exhibition “organisée dans le cadre du centenaire de la morte de Liszt” and held at the Musée Renan-Scheffer 27 May–28 September 1986. Includes a foreword by Bernard de Montgolfier (pp. 5–7) as well as descriptions of 101 paintings, drawings, engravings, photographs, early sheet-music editions, and so on. Also contains a number of scattered black-and-white reproductions, a timeline (pp. 13–14), quotations from well-known works about Liszt (pp. 62–63), and a bibliography (pp. 64–65); concludes with an index of artists. Most of the artifacts exhibited have already been reproduced in print, but a few may be new to iconographers. Stockholm 146. Kazemi, Changiz. “The Liszt Exhibition in Stockholm, 1986.” Liszt Saeculum no. 38 (1986): 41–62. ISSN 0263-0249. ML410.L7I6. Describes about 100 Liszt portraits, letters, musical manuscripts, and other memorabilia exhibited at the Stockholm Music Museum, Sweden, from 8 June to 30 September 1986. Includes reproductions of the exhibition

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brochure cover and of facsimiles of a number of documents, including a poster for Liszt’s 30 March 1840 concert at the Gewandhaus, Leipzig. Warsaw 147. Wróblewska-Straus, Hanna, and Mária Eckhardt. Chopin and Liszt: An Exhibition Organized in Cooperation with the Franz Liszt Memorial Museum in Budapest. Warsaw: Fryderyk Chopin Society, 1995. 144 pp. ISBN 8385091209. ML141.W2C54 1995. A handsome catalog describing the exhibit mounted at Warsaw’s Ostrogski Castle 1–30 October 1995. Identifies some 237 items (pp. 19–134) ranging in character from pictures of Chopin’s residences to a bust of Liszt in old age. Illustrated throughout with black-and-white reproductions of these and other images; supplemented with eight unpaginated plates containing color reproductions of paintings, manuscripts, and photographs of several pianos. Concludes with a list of sources prepared by both authors and Irena Poniatowska. Unfortunately, at least one otherwise unknown musical autograph is reproduced poorly and its whereabouts left undescribed; see item 98, p. 259. Also available in a Polish edition: Chopin i Liszt: wystawa zorganizowana przy wspólpracy z Museum Pamieci Franciszka Liszta w Budapeszcie (ISBN 8385981209). Reviewed as an exhibition in Chopin Studies 6 (1999): 174–77. CATALOGS

OF

DEFUNCT

OR

REORGANIZED COLLECTIONS

Like exhibition catalogs, catalogs of now-defunct collections may contain information unavailable in other publications. Among such publications are two devoted to some of the Liszt documents belonging since World War II to the Stiftung Weimarer Klassik, formerly the Nationale Forschungs- und Gedenkstätten der klassischen deutschen Literatur in Weimar: 148. Mirus, Adolf. Das Liszt-Museum zu Weimar und seine Erinnerungen, 3d ed. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1902. 84 pp. ML410.L7M53. Traces the history and describes the contents of the so-called “LisztMuseum.” Also provides information and anecdotes about aspects of Liszt’s career, quotations from letters, diplomas, poems, and so on. Illustrated with four pictures of Liszt and his Weimar homes. NB: Earlier editions are somewhat shorter. Other early descriptions of Weimar Lisztiana exist. Among these is “Professor” [?Franz] Bachmann, “Das Liszt-Museum in Weimar,” Neue Musik-Zeitung [Stuttgart] 21 (1900): 269–70 and 280, which includes as an illustration the well-known Louis Held photograph of the composer in the Hofgärtnerei.

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Two published descriptions of other defunct Liszt collections also deserve attention: 149. Jerger, Wilhelm. “Die Handschriften Franz Liszts aus dem Nachlaß von August Göllerich in Linz.” Die Musikforschung 29 (1976): 288–94. ISSN 0027-4801. ML5.M9437. Describes Göllerich’s collection of Lisztiana, which included a number of letters and telegrams, some photographs, and autographs of Die Vätergruft and Der 129. Psalm, among other works. No illustrations or examples, but some letters are reprinted in full. NB: Since this article appeared the Göllerich collection has been auctioned off, much of it by Stargardt’s firm in Marburg; the present whereabouts of some items are unknown. 150. Wolf, Sándor. Franz Liszt. Katalog des Franz Liszt-Gedächtnisszimmers der Sammlung Wolf in Eisenstadt 1936. Vienna: Sándor Wolf, 1936. 9 pp. ML141.E36W6. A privately printed prospectus, illustrated with several Liszt portraits. Also includes the texts of three Liszt letters (nos. 51–53). Outdated, Wolf’s collection having been dismantled long ago. Illustrated with three portraits. LISZTIANA

IN

OTHER CATALOGS

Dozens of museum and auction catalogs mention letters, musical manuscripts, rare editions, and other published and unpublished Lisztiana. Among such catalogs readily available to researchers, the following items may be especially useful: 151. Albrecht, Otto E. A Census of Autograph Music Manuscripts of European Composers in American Libraries. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1953. xvii, 331 pp. ML135.A2A4. Contains brief descriptions (pp. 164–72) of forty-eight Liszt manuscripts owned by or on permanent loan to the Pierpont Morgan Library, the Curtis Institute of Music, Stanford University, and so on. With regard to the Morgan Library, see item 119. No illustrations or musical examples. Some of Albrecht’s entries are outdated or otherwise of little use. 152. Deaville, James [A.]. “The C. F. Kahnt Archive in Leipzig: A Preliminary Report.” Notes 42 (1985–1986): 502–17. ISSN 0027-4380. ML27.U5M695. Evaluates the present state of the archive’s Liszt holdings. Deaville also describes an engraver’s copy of Die Legende von der heiligen Elisabeth, with holograph corrections by Liszt, as well as engraver’s scores corrected by Mahler. Illustrated with several facsimiles; concludes with a short catalog of other documents by Liszt, Mahler, Raff, and so on, owned by the Leipzig Staatsarchiv.

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153. Manuskripte—Briefe—Dokumente von Scarlatti bis Stravinsky. Katalog der Musikautographen-Sammlung Louis Koch, ed. Georg Kinsky. Stuttgart: Felix Krais, 1953. xxii, 360 pp. ML138.K63. Contains brief descriptions (pp. 239–242) of ten Liszt documents, including a holograph draft of the composer’s Requiem für die Orgel and several letters. Also contains descriptions of Liszt holographs preserved in two autograph albums (pp. 322 and 340–41), including an album formerly owned by Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein. Lacks facsimiles and musical examples. To date a single study (actually a pair of studies) has been devoted to Liszt and sales catalogs—specifically, to recent sales of relevant musical manuscripts, holograph letters, and other documents: 154. “Liszt in The Marketplace.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 49 (2001): 42–47, and 50 (2001): 65–70. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. In effect, a research report that “collect[s] all information concerning Liszt and his circle at auction and in sales catalogues” (vol. 49, p. 42). The Lisztiana in question—identified and briefly described by dates of sale, auction houses or other sales venues (including eBay as well as Sotheby’s, Stargardt, and so on), titles, and “types” (“ALS” for “autograph letter, signed”; “MS” for manuscript; and so on)—includes Albumblätter, corrected printers’ proofs of musical editions, letters, photographs, and other treasures. Unfortunately unillustrated.

ICONOGRAPHIES AND ICONOGRAPHICAL STUDIES No full-fledged iconography—which is to say, at once a catalog and an examination of “Liszt images”: portraits, photographs, caricatures, busts, medallions, and the like—has yet appeared in print. The closest thing is a volume devoted exclusively to Liszt photographs: 155. Liszt Ferenc arcai. Fotóportrék. Budapest: Múzsák Közm u# velo# dési Kiadó, n.d. 53 pp. ISBN 9635642768. A collection of fifty-six black-and-white Liszt portrait photos and related images, taken between 1854 and 1886. Introduced in Hungarian by András Fodor (pp. 5–6); concludes with lists of the places where the photographs were taken, the names of other individuals who appear in some of them, and the archives where the original images were found. No information about the various photographers, however. Reviewed—together with items 406, 984, and Liszt Ferenc valgatott levelei (1824–1861), ed. Eckhardt (Budapest, 1989): the last but one of many letters publications ignored in

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the present research guide because it is covered in item 76—by Michael Saffle in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 27 (1990): 58–60. A series of articles, unfortunately difficult to locate in American libraries, presents a great deal of valuable Liszt-iconographical information: 156. Ad de Ray, Door. “Liszt-Iconographie” [sometimes “Listz-Iconographie” [sic]]. Franz Liszt Kring 1 (1979): 9–23; 2 (1980): 11–13; 3 (1981): 10–12; 4 (1982): 10–12; 5 (1983): 12–14; 6 (1985–1986): 9–10; 7 (1986–1987): 26–27; 8 (1988): 11–14; and 9 (1989): 22–23. OCLC 35016341. Reproduces and comments on a host of images; the installment for 1989, for instance, reproduces and describes photographs of the composer dating from the late 1860s and early 1870s. In many respects Ray’s is the broadest and most detailed account of Liszt portraits in existence. Commentary in Dutch. The present author is indebted to Christo Lelie for some of the bibliographic information above. Copies of early Kring issues appear to be unknown in American archives. Five more specialized studies, devoted to individual or “clustered” Liszt images, are described or cross-listed below: * Burger. Franz Liszt: A Chronicle…. Described as item 429. A lavishly illustrated biography that doubles as iconography, especially on account of the number and quality of both its color and black-and-white Liszt portraits. 157. Florea, Anca. “Music in Carol Popp de Szathmary’s Paintings.” Imago musicae 6 (1989): 109–41. ISSN 0255-8931. ML85.I5. Discusses a Szathmary Liszt portrait that may date from the 1830s, as well as an 1847 caricature of Liszt and several friends wading through the snow (pp. 134–41). Szathmary himself specialized in what today would be “folkloric” subjects, including Rumanian and Transylvanian fiddlers, drummers, and other musicians. Illustrated with three reproductions of Liszt sketches made by the artist (p. 136). 158. Mayor, Edward R. “Monumental Associations: Franz Liszt’s Involvement with the World of Nineteenth Century Sculpture.” Liszt Society Journal 25 (2000): 55–60. ML410.L7L6. Describes Liszt’s interests in statues and busts, including Michelangelo’s masterpieces and Thorvaldsen’s “monumental figures of Christ and the Apostles” installed in Copenhagen’s Cathedral Church (p. 55), as well as likenesses of Liszt himself in marble and bronze by the likes of Lorenzo Bartolini and

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Sir Edgar Boehm. Illustrated with a photograph of Bartolini’s 1838 marble Liszt bust. An intriguing, all-too-brief introduction to this subject. 159. Pocknell, Pauline. “Clandestine Portraits: Liszt in the Art of His Age.” In item 56, pp. 123–66. Carefully documents the hypothesis that Liszt’s image is “hidden” in paintings and sculpture by the likes of Edward Burne-Jones (The Beguiling of Merlin), Denis Foyatier (Spartacus and Cincinnatus), Ary Scheffer (Temptation of Christ in the Desert), and especially Henri Lehmann—the last in a series of “spiritual” frescoes painted in 1844 on the walls of the Chapelle du Saint-Esprit, Saint-Merry, Paris. Illustrated with a diagram of the SaintMerry floor plan and eleven black-and-white photographs of various art works including a composite fold-out displaying Liszt, d’Agoult, the Princess Cristina Belgiojoso, and several of their contemporaries depicted in Lehmann’s Saint-Merry frescoes. 160. Walker, Alan. “Joukowsky’s Portraits of Liszt.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 34 (1993): 43–50. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Traces the origins and history of a recently recovered Liszt portrait in oils by Paul, Baron von Joukowsky, painted during September–October 1882 and given to Vincent Risch of Mason & Risch, the Toronto piano manufacturing firm (item 703). The portrait itself is reproduced in black-andwhite on p. 48 of the article. This is by no means Walker’s only article about the portrait; another article of the same name appeared in the Hungarian Quarterly 34/130 (Summer 1993): 142–47. Finally, two additional studies also deal with portraits of the composer: 161. Danek, Victor B. “Liszt (and his Contemporaries) on Stamps.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 23 (1988): 3–18. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Identifies and discusses thirty Liszt stamps issued by Albania, Austria, Germany, Hungary, and a number of other nations, as well as philatelic portraits of Berlioz, Chopin, Mendelssohn, Verdi, Vianna da Mota, Wagner, and other contemporaries. Includes tables of Liszt postal issues from 1932 to 1987 (pp. 4–5) as well as eight plates of stamp reproductions and related illustrations. Other information about Liszt stamps has appeared in Liszt Saeculum as well as specialized philatelic periodicals and reference works. See, for example, “Some Further Philatelistic [sic] Items in Connection with the Liszt Centenary,” Liszt Saeculum no. 40 (1987): 3–4, and Herbert Moore,

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“Paraphrase on Franz Liszt,” Scott Stamp Monthly (September 1986): 12–13. See, too, U. Barthol’s “Liszt und Briefmarken: von einer Biographie besonderer Art,” HiFi-Stereophonie 22 (1983): 1218–20. Like Danek’s study, Barthol’s and Moore’s include illustrations. 162. “Omtrent een Liszt-document in het Museum Vleeshuis.” Musica Antiqua 14/2 (May 1997): 73–76. Describes a photograph of Liszt, taken with Antwerp citizens in 1885. Much of this article is taken up with information about Peter Benoit, Frans van Kuyck, Victor Lynen, and other individuals who took part in Liszt’s visit. Illustrated with two black-and-white reproductions of the photograph, one a close-up. A few other studies of individual Liszt images exist. See, for example, Carlo Vitali, “‘Zur Erinnerung an Liszt’: Un percorso mitografico viennese in due studi,” Quaderni dell’Istituto Liszt 1 (1998): 169–92, which considers Joseph Dannhauser’s celebrated 1840 painting of Liszt fantasizing at a piano surmounted by a bust of Beethoven—this in light both of a short novel published in 1869 by Moritz Bermann and of nineteenth-century Europe’s Beethoven reception. Still other studies mention iconographical issues but have nothing to do with images of the composer; see, for example, Ririko Izumi’s D.M.A. document The Tarantella: Its Iconography and Franz Liszt (Manhattan School of Music, 2001; ISBN 0493188886), which examines the tarantella tradition as well as Liszt’s various works in that dance form, including transcriptions for piano of works by Auber, César Cui, and Ferdinand David. DISCOGRAPHIES AND RELATED STUDIES Surprisingly few attempts have been made to identify and consider seriously recordings of Liszt’s music. Brief lists of phonorecords and CDs appear in survey studies and biographies; the finest of these are described in Chapters 4 and 5. Other older Liszt discographies are identified in reference works such as the International Bibliography of Discographies, ed. David Edwin Cooper (Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1975), p. 101. A handful of comparatively detailed discographical studies are described below—first by kind of recording (cylinder, reproducing-piano rolls, and other recordings, 78rpm phonorecords, 33rpm LPs, CDs, and so on), then in alphabetical order by author: CYLINDERS, REPRODUCING-PIANO ROLLS,

AND

78RPM PHONORECORDS

The first of the three studies described below deals with early Liszt recordings “in general,” the second and third especially with recordings made by Liszt pupils:

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163. Fan, Wei-tsu. Variant Performances of Franz Liszt’s Piano Music in Early Recordings: A Historical Perspective on Textual Alterations. Dissertation: Northwestern University, 1991. viii, 276 pp. (two volumes, paginated as one). UMI Order no. 9313441. Evaluates early sound recordings as evidence for “historical performance practice[s] of Franz Liszt’s piano music,” with emphasis on textual alterations of various kinds (p. 1). Fan begins by discussing Liszt’s own improvisatorial skill (pp. 1–16), then launches into a thorough examination of dozens of phonorecords and reproducing-piano rolls recorded by the likes of Eugen d’Albert, Arthur Friedheim, Moriz Rosenthal, and so on. Includes literally hundreds of musical examples, many of them illustrating variant readings and the performance practices of individual pianists. Also includes as an appendix an “Artist-Index of the Recordings of Liszt’s Piano Music” (pp. 435–53); concludes with a useful bibliography (pp. 454–75) and a résumé of the author’s career. Did Liszt himself leave us any recordings of his piano playing? Robert Matthew Walker concludes regretfully that he did not. See Walker’s “Did Liszt Make a Recording?” in the Liszt Society Journal 27 (2002): 48–51. 164. Thordarson, Runolfur. “Recordings of Works by Liszt Played by his Pupils—A Discography and Evaluation.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 47 (2000): 7–64. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Deals with sound and reproducing-piano recordings by d’Albert, Friedheim, Rosenthal, and other “second-generation” Liszt pupils (pp. 59–67), together with a lengthy discussion of their significance and what they tell us about the “Liszt legacy.” In all, Thordarson identifies 189 recordings, some 100 of which are available today on phonorecords, CDs, or cassette tapes. Includes as its only illustration a facsimile of a Rosenthal playbill dating from December 1912. No musical examples. Apparently supersedes the same author’s “Discography: Works by Liszt Played by His Pupils,” Journal of the American Liszt Society 31 (1992): 47–55. 165. Wodehouse, Artis. “Early Recordings: The Liszt Pupils.” In item 71, pp. 359–64. Devoted to identifying and evaluating fifteen recordings made between 1911 and 1940 by pianists or conductors who studied with Liszt: Arthur Nikisch (in a 1920 recording of the Liszt-Doppler Hungarian Rhapsody no. 1, with the Berlin Philharmonic); Felix Weingartner (in a 1940 recording of Les Préludes, with the London Symphony Orchestra); and pianists such as Arthur de Greef, Lamond, and Joseph Weiss. Brief but intelligent observations by a pianist known for her work with Gershwin’s early acoustic, electrical, and reproducing-piano recordings. Regarding Lamond, see also item 1457.

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33RPM (LONG-PLAYING,

OR

LP) PHONORECORDS

166. Arnold, Ben. “Liszt Recordings on Long-playing Phonorecords.” In item 71, pp. 365–79. Identifies and reviews LPs of Liszt works for piano, organ, orchestra, chamber ensembles, choruses, and solo vocalists with keyboard accompaniment. Among the performers Arnold singles out are Vladimir Ashkenazy (the “Transcendental” etudes), Alfred Brendel (the B-minor Sonata), James Conlon (the Dante symphony), Antal Dorati (Christus), Glenn Gould (the Beethoven-Liszt Symphony no. 5 transcription), Bernard Haitink (the Symphonic Poems), Martin Haselböck (the “Ad nos” and “BACH” fantasies and fugues for organ), and Sviatoslav Richter (Piano Concertos nos. 1–2). Labels on which these and other recordings appeared range from RCA, Decca, and Philips to Dover, Pye, and the Connoisseur Society’s recording of operatic fantasies for piano four-hands and two pianos by Richard and John Contiguglia. Regarding Conlon’s Liszt recordings overall, see item 1485. 167. Holcman, Jan. “Liszt in the Records of His Pupils.” Saturday Review of Literature 44 (23 December 1961): 45–47 and 57. ISSN 0036-4983. Z1219.S25. This surprisingly useful article of Liszt recordings on LPs, published as part of a tribute to the composer shortly after the 150th anniversary of his birth, contains a catalog (p. 46) identifying dozens of recordings. COMPACT DISKS (CDS)

AND

OTHER DIGITAL RECORDINGS

168. Fagan, Keith. “Liszt Recordings on Compact Disks.” In item 71, pp. 380–89. Devoted to evaluating the best CDs available at the beginning of 1991. A few of the works Fagan discusses are also described in item 166. Others remain among the only recordings available of various Liszt masterpieces: for example, the “Gran” Mass, performed by the Hungarian Radio and Television Chorus and Budapest Symphony, and conducted by János Ferencsik (Hungaroton HCD 11861–2). The last item Fagan considers, a “Legendary Masters of the Piano” series of early Liszt acoustic and reproducing-piano recordings, deserves special attention; see the lengthy review of the entire series by Kent Holliday in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 22 (1987): 46–61. 169. Fagan, Keith. “Liszt on Compact Disks: A Survey.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 22 (1987): 68–71; 23 (1987): 106–9; and 26 (1989): 56–61. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Identifies and evaluates most of the important CDs devoted to Liszt’s keyboard music, choral compositions, songs, and so on, available during the 1980s. Among Fagan’s choices are digital remasterings of recordings that

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appeared originally on phonorecords and cassette tapes, including a 1967 recording by Horowitz of Liszt’s Scherzo und Marsch. NB: The installment of Fagan’s article published in volume 24, pp. 96–100, deals with recordings by such Liszt contemporaries as Brahms, Hummel, and Thalberg. Readers should consult also Fagan’s numerous contributions to the Liszt Society Journal. Among these is an insightful synopsis of issues involving Liszt and recording: “Liszt, Discographies and Critics,” Liszt Society Journal 17 (1992): 85–88. RELATED STUDIES 170. Fagan, Keith. “Liszt and One Hundred Years of Recording.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 20 (1986): 33–37. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Summarizes issues involving Liszt’s compositions and various kinds of recordings. Interesting primarily because so little has been published on this topic; unfortunately contains no discographical details. Similar in its lack of facts is Johannes-Leopold Mayer, “Franz Liszt und die Schallplatte” (item 177, pp. 56–63). 171. Rajben, Bernard. “Catalogue commenté et discographie critique.” In item 55, pp. 271–87. An annotated survey of selected Liszt recordings made before the 1970s. 172. The Greatness of Franz Liszt: Leslie Howard Talks to Martin Anderson.” Fanfare 23/2 (November–December 1999): 62–81. ISSN 0148-9364. ML156.9.F36. A conversation about Howard’s self-proclaimed “outrageous” undertaking (p. 63): a fifty-six-volume recorded library of Liszt’s complete works for piano, including the concertos and other works for piano, voice, and/or various instrumental ensembles. As of late 2002 the project comprised ninety-six CDs! More detailed than John Tibbetts’s article “Marathon Man: Leslie Howard Records Piano Liszt, Complete,” in the American Record Guide 59/5 (September–October 1996): 6–9. Regarding other, large-scale Liszt recording projects, see Adrian Corleonis, “Liszt, Johansen and the Romantic Century,” Fanfare 6/4 (1983): 94–109 [concerning Gunnar Johansen’s career and especially his fifty LPs of Liszt piano pieces, recorded between 1961 and 1976], and P. J. Rabinowitz, “Every Note He Ever Wrote: the Naxos Liszt Project,” Fanfare 18/4 (1995): 18, 22, 24, 26 [concerning a multi-pianist “task force” assembled on behalf of a second complete piano-works recording; among the pianists named are Arnoldo Cohen, Jenö Jandó, and Philip Thomson]. Rabinowitz, incidentally, asserted that Howard “would be hard pressed to really finish” the Hyperion project [p. 22]; it was completed several years ago.

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FILMOGRAPHIES AND VIDEOGRAPHIES To date no one has published a guide to Liszt on screen. The most complete discussion of this fascinating subject remains: 173. Tibbetts, John C. “The Truth in Masquerade: Images of Franz Liszt in the Movies.” In item 40, pp. 209–22. Concerned especially with such major biographical motion pictures, or “biopics,” as A Song to Remember (1945) and Song Without End (1960), both directed by Charles Vidor; as well as Ken Russell’s Lisztomania (1975), Richard Moser’s Liszt’s Rhapsody (1995)—the last a “little fable about multiculturalism”—and cameo “Liszt appearances” in films ranging from Arthur Lubin’s Phantom of the Opera (1943) to Tony Palmer’s massive Wagner (1984). Tibbetts also deals briefly with such issues as the Hollywood “star system,” shifting public notions of fame, and legal issues governing movie production and distribution. Unfortunately unillustrated. TIMELINES 174. Raabe, Peter. “Zeittafel.” In item 2, vol. 2, pp. 274–318. Summarizes Liszt’s life and times in three columns—the first devoted to compositions, the second to activities and relationships, and the third to contemporary events. Generally accurate and unusually detailed, this table provided much of the information for a similar table in item 21, pp. 476–539. See also item 428. 175. Liszt, Eduard von [Jr.]. “Skizzenartige Darstellung des Lebenslaufs Abbe Franz Liszt von seinem Cousin Dr. Eduard Ritter von Liszt Jun.” Liszt Saeculum nos. 36/37 (1985–1986): 16–30. ISSN 0263-0249. ML410.L7I6. A somewhat deceptive title: this is neither a biographical sketch nor a set of reminiscences, but a table of important dates in Liszt’s life, from his birth in 1811 to the death of Princess Carolyne in 1887. Regarding her death, see item 1, vol. 3, pp. 541–43.

RESEARCH REPORTS AND RELATED STUDIES RESEARCH REPORTS Research reports vary widely in length, contents, and purpose. Some are short, anecdotal accounts of “what’s happening” in Liszt studies; others are serious discussions of complex issues involving archival materials or interpretive dilemmas. Among the most fulsome reports is:

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176. Die Projekte der Liszt-Forschung. Bericht über das internationale Symposion Eisenstadt, 19.–21. Oktober 1989, ed. Detlef Altenburg and Gerhard J. Winkler. Wissenschaftliche Arbeiten aus dem Burgenland, 87. Eisenstadt: Burgenländisches Landesmuseum, 1991. 123 pp. ISBN 3854051182. Concerned mostly with several large-scale research projects proposed or in progress during the 1980s. Interestingly enough, none of these has yet been completed and at least one—a comprehensive edition of the composer’s correspondence (item 338)—never will be. Includes items 254 and 255; see also items 94, 236, 245, 253, 302, and 338 on the proposed Eckhardt-Mueller thematic catalog, the ongoing “New Liszt Edition” (item 202), the Sämtliche Schriften edition of Liszt’s prose works (item 253), and—by Dezso# Legány—the failed letters project. Yet another article by Gut deals with his edition of the Liszt-d’Agoult letters published recently as item 302. Sulyok’s article contains short musical examples. The only other book-length report on Liszt studies remains: 177. Liszt heute. Bericht über das internationale Symposion in Eisenstadt, 8.–11. Mai 1986, ed. Gerhard J. Winkler and Johannes-Leopold Mayer. Wissenschaftliche Arbeiten aus dem Burgenland, 78. Eisenstadt: Rötzer, 1987. 167 pp. ISBN 3854051042. Consists of fourteen papers presented at the symposium held at Eisenstadt in May 1986. With two or three exceptions, these papers deal with the effects of recent researches on Liszt’s reputation throughout the Western world: Austria, England, the United States, France, Germany, Hungary, and so on. Supplemented with scattered musical examples and bibliographic citations in the form of endnotes. NB: Because this collection is itself a research report, most of its contents are not discussed separately throughout the present volume; see, however, item 764. Four detailed and influential Liszt research-report articles and essays are described or cross-referenced below: 178. Haraszti, Emile. “Le problème Liszt.” Acta Musicologica 9 (1937): 123–36; and 10 (1938): 32–46. ISSN 0001-6241. ML5.I6. An evaluation of pre-1936 Liszt research based on the assumption that Liszt’s life and music constitute “the most complex problem in the history of modern music.” Haraszti supports that hypothesis with discussions of: early Liszt biographies, including Ramann’s (item 3); the reliability of the published Liszt correspondence (item 289); Raabe’s failure (item 2) to consult French-language sources; the importance of Liszt’s contributions to nineteenth-century piano technique; and so on. Throughout this and other of his studies Haraszti maintains that France, especially Paris, and French

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Romanticism determined Liszt’s development, a claim that has been questioned by many scholars. Draws in part upon Haraszti’s “Liszt Literature Fifty Years after His Death,” published in the Hungarian Quarterly 1 (1936): 312–21. This shorter, slightly earlier study evaluates pre-1936 monographs by Zoltán Gárdonyi (items 935 and 936) and Andor Sommsich (item 419), although it rather surprisingly fails to mention the distortions and outright errors in Ernest Newman’s and Sacheverell Sitwell’s monographs (respectively, items 441 and 416). 179. Legány, Dezs o# . “New Directions in Liszt Research.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 20 (1986): 125–36. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Suggests that future Liszt researchers should address such subjects as the character of Liszt’s biographers, not just the composer himself; the dates of Liszt’s letters, published as well as unpublished; slanders aimed at Liszt’s memory by Newman; and so on. Legány praises a number of studies, including Suttoni’s 1979 correspondence bibliography (item 76), and describes attempts to establish a Liszt Research Center in Budapest—now a reality. Supplements but does not altogether supersede Legány’s “Some Problems in Liszt Research,” Journal of the American Liszt Society 7 (1980): 17–26, which evaluates Raabe’s work as well as discusses problems with Liszt’s published correspondence, the provenance and authenticity of the composer’s literary works, catalogs of his compositions, and his 1874 concerts in Pozsony. See, too, Legány’s “Gemeinsame künftige Forschungen in Zeichen von Franz Liszt,” Liszt Saeculum no. 40 (1987): 5–8. * Saffle. “Liszt Research since 1936” and “The ‘Liszt-Year’ 1986.” Described as items 72 and 73. 180. Walker, Alan. “Liszt and the Literature.” In item 1, vol. 1, pp. 3–29. An excellent evaluation of important Liszt publications, including Lina Ramann’s “authorized” biography, La Mara’s various Liszt publications, Carolyne von Sayn-Wittgenstein’s influence on the composer, Newman’s infamous character study, and some of the spurious rumors that have crept into print between the middle of the nineteenth century and the end of the twentieth. Illustrated with a facsimile of a page from Ramann’s biography, complete with Liszt’s handwritten emendations (p. 9). Twenty more limited or specialized research reports and related studies are described or cross-referenced below:

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181. Altenburg, Detlef. “Franz Liszt (1811–1886). Bilanz eines Gedenkjahres.” Musica 41 (1986): 508–13. ISSN 0027-4518. ML5.M71357. A brief survey of Liszt studies published shortly before and during the centenary celebration of the composer’s death. Limited almost entirely to German-language publications. 182. Bartók, Béla. “Liszt Problems [1936].” in: Béla Bartók: Essays, ed. Benjamin Suchoff. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 1993; pp. 501–10. ISBN 080326108X. ML60.B2613 1993. An influential essay by twentieth-century Hungary’s foremost composer. Bartók deals with the popularity of Liszt’s music, its influence on musical history, and Liszt’s relationship with Hungary and Hungarian music. Originally published as “Liszt problémák,” Nyugat 29 (1936): 171–79. Reprinted in Hungarian in Zenetudományi tanulmányok 3 (1955): 17–26, with summaries in English, German, and French (pp. 548–49), and in German in item 54 (pp. 122–32). Suchoff’s edition appeared originally in 1976 (New York: St. Martin’s Press; ISBN 0571101208). NB: Bartók’s essay appeared originally in a censored version; discussion of the censored passages appear in Journal of the American Liszt Society 21 (1987): 26–30 and 22 (1987), p. 88. 183. Bartók, Béla. “Liszt’s Music and the Public of Today.” In: Béla Bartók: Essays, ed. Benjamin Suchoff. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 1993; pp. 451–54. ISBN 080326108X. ML60.B2613 1993. A much shorter essay than “Liszt Problems” (item 182). Deals primarily with the composer’s works and turn-of-the-century taste, and contends that “the public today has not yet got used to” Liszt’s music. Published originally as “Liszt zenéje és a mai közönség,” Népm u# velés 6/17–18 (October 1911): 359–62. Reprinted in Hungarian in Zenetudományi tanulmányok 3 (1955): 13–16, with summaries in English, German, and French (p. 547). Also published in English in the New Hungarian Quarterly 2/1 (January 1961): 5–8; in Italian in Nuova Rivista musicale Italiana 4 (1970): 913–16; and in German in item 54, pp. 118–21. See, too, Zoltán Falvy, “Franz Liszt in den Schriften Béla Bartóks” (item 46, pp. 65–71). 184. Bekker, Paul. “Franz Liszt Reconsidered,” trans. Arthur Mendel. The Musical Quarterly 28 (1942): 186–89. ISSN 0027-4631. ML1.M725. An attempt at counteracting the abrasive Liszt studies of Newman and others devoted to destroying the so-called “Liszt legend” and a review of the research that went into those studies. Bekker contends that many people

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find Liszt’s music uncongenial because they cannot acknowledge his genius and noble character. Published posthumously. 185. Bekker, Paul. “Liszt and His Critics.” The Musical Quarterly 22 (1936): 277–83. ISSN 0027-4631. ML1.M725. A defense of Liszt as a composer, based on Bekker’s contention that widespread failure in recognizing “all-inclusive cultural element[s]” in his creative work resulted in much of the antagonism that work has faced during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (p. 281). Bekker also argues that Liszt’s ability as a performer actually interfered with his reputation as a composer, an argument easily substantiated by anyone familiar with the critical literature published during the composer’s lifetime. 186. Cook, Nicholas. “Liszt—100 Years On.” The Musical Times 127 (1986): 372–76. ISSN 0027-4666. ML5.M65. Primarily a discussion of Liszt’s influence on twentieth-century music. Cook maintains that “the heart of Liszt’s modernity lies in his conception of music being essentially psychological” (p. 372). Illustrated with several musical examples, including a passage from the Carrousel de Madame Pelet-Narbonne, and references to well-known Liszt studies. 187. Dömling, Wolfgang. “‘Kein Klavierspieler für ruhige Staatsbürger.’ Zum 100. Todestag von Franz Liszt.” Österreichische Musikzeitschrift 41 (1986): 65–71. ISSN 0029-9316. ML5.O1983. Evaluates Liszt’s reputation as a virtuoso performer and composer of virtuoso piano music, especially during the late 1830s and 1840s. Illustrated with Charles Renouard’s 1886 drawing of the composer at the keyboard. * Hamburger. “‘Musicien humanitaire.’” Described as item 443. More an apostrophe to Liszt’s personality and cultural contributions than a review of research. 188. Helm, Everett. “Franz Liszt, das ewige Enigma—Warum?” In item 47, pp. 13–22. Considers the composer’s personality, largely in terms of such important documents as Marie d’Agoult’s novel Nélida (item 377), Haraszti’s biography (item 401), Walker’s Franz Liszt: The Man and His Music, and so on. * Helm. “Franz Liszt—ein Opfer seiner Biographen?” Described as item 439. Deals with Liszt’s complex personality as well as with a number of important secondary sources.

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189. Hinson, Maurice. “The Present State of Liszt Studies Related to his Piano Works.” Piano Quarterly 23/89 (Spring 1975): 50–56. ISSN 0031-9354. ML1.P66. A bibliographic survey of keyboard studies prefaced by an introduction. Somewhat cursory but useful for specialists interested in this enormous topic. Reprinted in the Liszt Society Journal 2 (1977): 27–28. 190. Holschneider, Andreas. Was bedeutet uns Franz Liszt? Veröffentlichungen der Joachim Jungius-Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, 31. Göttingen: Vanderhoeck & Ruprecht, 1977. 18 pp. ISBN 352585575. ML410.L7H66. A public lecture, delivered on 14 December 1976, that grapples with the so-called “Liszt renaissance” of the 1950s and 1960s. Holschneider claims that only today can we view such figures as Liszt and Mahler with relative objectivity. Acknowledges the appearance of a post–World War II “flood” of Liszt publications in England and Hungary, but ignores other many other important studies, including American doctoral dissertations described elsewhere in the present research guide. 191. Kárpáti, János. “Das Erbe Franz Liszts und die ungarische Musikwissenschaft.” Musik und Gesellschaft 6 (1956): 453–56. ISSN 0027-4755. ML5.M9033. Evaluates a few of the numerous contributions Hungarian scholars have made to Liszt studies and to music in general, and singles out studies by Aladór Tóth (item 196) and Bence Szabolczi (item 478) for special praise. 192. Kolleritsch, Otto. “Bemerkungen zur neuen Liszt-Rezeption.” Studia Musicologica 25 (1983): 135–43. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. Traces the growth of interest in Liszt and his music from the nineteenth century to the 1980s. Kolleritsch discusses briefly Raabe’s survey study as well as specialized musical studies by Ernst-Günther Heinemann (item 969), Peter Schwarz (item 1123), and Dieter Torkewitz (item 799). Like Holschneider (in item 190), Kolleritsch compares recent interest in Liszt’s music to the “Mahler revival” of the 1960s. Limited to German-language publications. 193. Legány, Deszo# . “The Unknown Liszt: Some New Information and Corrections of Earlier Errors.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 40 (1996): 24–29. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Concerned primarily with correcting and supplementing otherwise available information about Liszt’s ancestors and early years—including the lives of Adam and Sebastian Liszt, Ramann’s biography, and Liszt’s own youthful religious interests. No illustrations or musical examples.

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194. Nagler, Norbert. “Das Liszt-Bild—ein wirkungsgeschichtliches Missverständnis?” In item 53, pp. 115–27. Challenges researchers to abandon preconceived views when searching for the real pianist and composer. Nagler includes as evidence for his arguments quotations from many well-known books and articles on Liszt (items 36, 478, and 791). Bibliographic citations appear in some seventy footnotes. 195. Orga, Ates. “Franz Liszt: Time for Reassessment.” Musical Opinion 96 (1973): 511–15 and 621–22. ISSN 0027-4623. ML5.M78. Identifies lacunae in Liszt research before the 1970s. Among other topics, Orga discusses the unusual character of some late Liszt piano pieces and praises Walker’s “companion.” * Short and Saffle. “Compiling Lis(z)ts.” Described as item 98. In part, an evaluation of contributions made by previous catalogers of Liszt’s compositions. 196. Tóth, Aladár. “Liszt Ferenc a magyar zene útján.” Zenetudományi tanulmányok 3 (1955): 27–54. A review of Hungarian contributions to Liszt scholarship that draws heavily on the author’s volume Liszt Ferenc a magyar zene útján (Budapest 1939). Tóth maintains that “flourish and chauvinistic self-deception” blinded Hungarians during the 1930s to the “profound musical traditions” revealed in Liszt’s own work as well as the music of Bartók and Kodály. Includes abstracts in German and English (pp. 549–50). 197. Waters, Edward N. “Sur la piste de Liszt.” Notes 27 (1970–1971): 665–70. ISSN 0027-4380. ML27.U5M695. A chatty account of European excursions undertaken to track down littleknown Liszt artifacts. Among other discoveries, Waters located in London’s British Library a holograph draft of the last De la situation des artistes essay published by Liszt in 1835 in the Revue et Gazette Musicale (among other editions, see item 264). Also comments on individual Liszt studies prior to 1970 and explains how the Library of Congress acquired the Rosenthal-Liszt collection. RELATED STUDIES (ESPECIALLY

REVIEWS)

Studies other than research reports per se also evaluate portions of the Liszt literature. Most book reviews deal in detail only with a single book or article, but a few extraordinary reviews attempt much more. One review of Alan Walker’s massive monograph—and Walker’s reply—deserve special attention:

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198. Keiler, Allan. “Liszt Research and Walker’s ‘Liszt.’” The Musical Quarterly 70 (1984): 374–403. ISSN 0027-4631. ML1.M725. A commentary on recent directions in Liszt research as well as a review of the 1983 edition of item 1, vol. 1. Keiler criticizes Walker for his “anecdotal” approach to biography as well as isolated errors of fact. Apparently Keiler presented the portions of this review dealing with Liszt’s Weihekuss concert at the 1986 Cleveland meeting of the American Musicological Society. Regarding the kiss, see items 72 and 633–36. 199. Walker, Alan. [Reply to Allan Keiler’s] “Liszt Research and Walker’s ‘Liszt.’” The Musical Quarterly 71 (1985): 211–19. ISSN 0027-4631. ML1.M725. A delightfully written counterthrust aimed at Keiler (item 198) as well as certain attitudes toward writing about music. Includes a little information about the then-unpublished second and third volumes of Walker’s comprehensive survey study. Finally, two additional reviews also contain general information about manuscripts, source materials, and the evolution of Liszt studies as a musicological specialty: * Autexier. “Actualité de la recherche Lisztienne en Hongrie.” See item 54. A volume-by-volume review of Franz Liszt: Beiträge aus ungarischen Authoren (item 54). Both Hamburger’s anthology and Autexier’s summary call to mind what Gerald Abraham once called “Musicology’s language curtain”: that is, the barrier of understanding that prevented, at least until recently, the dissemination in Western Europe and the United States of research originally published in Eastern European languages. 200. Gut, Serge. “La recherche Lisztienne depuis 1982.” Revue de musicologie 74 (1988): 81–96 and 75 (1989): 76–100. ML5.R32. At once a critique of item 1 (vol. 1; 1983 edition) and other studies published prior to 1982, as well as a collection of comments about items 13, 20 (vol. 3, 102, 113, 141, 285, 344, 379, 429 (original German edition), 738, 780, 972, and 1367; also item 562. Also reviews a French-language edition of Searle’s 1980 New Grove Liszt article (see item 28).

IV The Documentary Legacy

MUSICAL EDITIONS AND RELATED STUDIES Most of the enormous number of compositions, paraphrases, and transcriptions Liszt worked on during his lifetime have been published, some in dozens—even hundreds—of editions. The publications discussed below constitute the most complete collected editions of Liszt’s works currently available, or are noteworthy for either their format (e.g., facsimile editions) or contents (e.g., works published recently for the first time); they also include studies of individual editions or of problems associated with preparing some compositions for press. COLLECTED EDITIONS No “complete” edition of Liszt’s music has yet appeared in print. The broadestbased edition published to date remains: 201. Grossherzog Carl Alexander Ausgabe der musikalischen Werke Franz Liszts, issued by the “Franz Liszt-Stiftung.” Five published series of vols.; incomplete. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, c. 1907–1936. M3.L77. Series I, vols. 1–13: Orchestral works (including three works for piano and orchestra). Series II, vols. 1–10, 12: Works for piano solo. Series III, vols. 1–3: Transcriptions for piano of works by Beethoven and Wagner.

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Series V, vols. 3, 5–7: Sacred vocal works. Series VII, vols. 1–3: Works for solo voice. Widely known among Lisztians as the “Collected Edition,” “Old Liszt Edition,” or simply “GA” (for Gesamtausgabe, or “collected edition”), this handsome series reprints all Liszt’s Symphonic Poems, most of his original piano works, most of his songs, and many sacred works. Omitted were the composer’s organ works, several of his works for piano and orchestra, and virtually all his paraphrases and arrangements other than his Beethoven symphony transcriptions and his transcriptions from Wagner’s operas. Each volume is accompanied by scanty editorial notes; some volumes contain “alternate versions” of individual passages or even entire pieces, but other versions are ignored. Illustrated with a few facsimile reproductions of manuscript pages but no detailed descriptions of source materials. Gradually being replaced by the “New Liszt Edition” or “NGA” (item 202). Reprinted by Gregg International in 1966 and by Belwin-Mills during the 1970s. With regard to the first of these reprint editions, see item 243. With regard to editorial practices in the piano-music volumes, see Ferruccio Busoni, “Die Ausgaben der Liszt’chen Klavierwerke,” reprinted in Von der Einheit der Musik (Berlin, 1922): 45–67; also Heinrich Schwartz, “Zur Gesamtausgabe der Werke Liszts,” Neue Musik-Zeitung 33/2 (1911–1912), p. 55, for additional information about the early history and publications of the edition overall. NB: The “Gesamtausgabe” mentioned in item 243 concerns the nineteenthcentury edition of Liszt’s songs published by C. F. Kahnt of Leipzig. Liszt works also appear, reprinted, in dozens of anthologies; see Sterling E. Murray, Anthologies of Music: An Annotated Index, 2d ed. (Warren, MI, 1992), p. 128, for references to all or parts of the Faust symphony, the two most familiar piano concertos, the “Transcendental” Etudes, and so on, as reprinted in the likes of The Comprehensive Study of Music (New York, 1977), Frank Murray’s Music in the Romantic Period: An Anthology with Commentary (New York, 1986), the various Norton Anthology editions, and so on. Well underway, but by no means finished, is what has been announced as a much more complete edition of Liszt’s musical works: 202. Franz Liszt. Neue Ausgabe sämtlicher Werke / Ferenc Liszt: New Edition of the Complete Works, ed. Imre Sulyok et al. Budapest: Editio Musica, 1970–. M3.L722. Series 1: Works for Piano Solo. 18 vols. (complete). Series 2: Free Arrangements and Transcriptions for Piano Solo. 24 vols. planned; most now in print.

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Widely known as the “New Liszt Edition” (NLE) or “NGA” (for Neue Gesamtausgabe, or “new collected edition”). In progress; the volumes published to date contain virtually all Liszt’s works for solo piano, including all of the pieces also available in item 201. In spite of its many fine qualities, however, a few NLE volumes are outfitted with imperfect critical notes; a larger number of volumes also omit early versions of important works, such as the 1839 edition of the “Transcendentals.” Reviewers have drawn attention time and time again to some of these problems; see, for example, items 238 and 239 as well as observations by Serge Gut and others in the Revue de musicologie 78 (1992): 176–79 and 84 (1998): 330–34. (A more serious problem is the possible cessation of the series altogether, which was originally intended to comprise ten series of volumes in all.) Other reviews are more favorable and less closely linked to textual issues; see, for example, Robert Anderson’s “Borrowed Plumes,” a review of Liszt’s Beethoven symphonies transcriptions [NLE II/17–19] published in The Musical Times 135 (1994): 92–94. Finally, reviewed as a series by Leslie Howard in “The New Liszt Edition,” published in the October 1986 issue of Music and Musicians, pp. 14–15, and separately in the Liszt Society Journal 17 (1992): 88–89. Howard mentions musicological weaknesses in the volumes he discusses, but he also praises the “NLE” as a whole for legibility, format, and—of course—some of the pieces themselves. Distributed in Western Europe by Bärenreiter and in the United States by Theodore Presser. NB: Scholars should check NLE volumes to see whether they contain critical notes; many of the volumes on sale in Western Europe and America omit them. In addition to the “regular” series, NLE has issued a series of Liszt first and supplementary, including a version of Resignazione for piano solo, ed. Sulyok and Mezo# , and A la Chapelle Sixtine for orchestra, ed. Mezo# . See, too, Mezo# , “Three Liszt Premieres,” Hungarian Music Quarterly 4/1 (1993): 24–27. Finally, see items 234–237. A first-rate edition of Liszt’s collected organ music also exists: 203. Liszt, Franz. Sämtliche Orgelwerke / The Complete Works for Organ, ed. Martin Haselböck. 10 vols. Vienna: Universal-Edition, 1985–1999. M3.1.L57H3. An important collection of music, much of it the finest of its kind composed during the nineteenth century. Includes item 1121: the edition’s Forschungsbericht [= vols. 10a/b], an invaluable publication in its own right. In addition to presenting material not yet published in “NLE” volumes, Haselböck’s edition supplants those of Margittay and Straube; the latter was recently reprinted by Dover as Organ Works, ed. Karl Straube (Mineola, NY, 1996;

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ISBN 0486290832). Vols. 1–9 of Haselböck’s edition were reviewed in Notes 48 (1991–1992): 665–69; a sort of summary of the same volumes, together with information about the music they contain, appeared in the Liszt Society Journal 16 (1991): 33–37. Collections of Liszt’s arrangements, paraphrases, and transcriptions, most of them for keyboard instruments, include: 204. F. List. Opernye transkriptsii dlia fortep’iano, ed. V. S. Belov and K. S. Sorokin. 7 vols., bound as 6. Moscow: “Gos. Muz. Izd.,” 1958–1968. M22.L77B4. A valuable edition of Liszt’s operatic transcriptions and paraphrases. Difficult to obtain; fortunately, most or even all of its contents are available in item 202. Not to be confused with other Soviet Liszt editions, including Vengerskie rapsodii (an edition of the Hungarian Rhapsodies published in 1965), Sochineniia dlia fortep’iano (Liszt’s collected principal piano works published in 5 vols. from 1960 to 1975), and so on. Russian-language title and contents pages but little or no commentary in any language. NB: The New Grove 2 catalog of Liszt’s compositions (item 82) gives “Gosudarstvennoe Muzykal’noe Izdatel’stvo” (or “Gos. Muz. Izd.”) as the title for the opera-transcription series; this is the name of the Soviet State Music Publishing House, not of a printed edition of music. 205. Liszt, Franz. Complete Piano Transcriptions from Wagner’s Operas, ed. Charles Suttoni. New York: Dover, 1981. 160 pp. ISBN 0486241262. M34.L774W13. Includes transcriptions from Lohengrin, Parsifal, Rienzi, Tannhäuser, and Tristan und Isolde; also contains an informative introduction, however. Closely related to items 206 and 207. 206. Liszt, Franz. Piano Transcriptions from French and Italian Operas, ed. Charles Suttoni. New York: Dover, 1982. 247 pp. ISBN 0486242730. M22.L77P4. Reprints many of the composer’s keyboard paraphrases and transcriptions from stage works by Bellini, Donizetti, Gounod, Handel, Mozart, Meyerbeer, Rossini, Tchaikovsky, and Verdi. Also includes an unpaginated fourpage introductory essay. 207. Franz Liszt. The Schubert Song Transcriptions for Solo Piano. 3 vols.; ed. Alan Walker et al. Mineola, NY: Dover, 1996–1999. ISBNs 048628865X [I], 0486288765 [II], and 0486406229 [III].

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Facsimiles of sheet-music editions dating from the late 1830s and 1840s. Vol. 1, for example, contains Ave Maria, Der Erlkönig, and ten other Schubert songs; vol. 3 the complete Schwanengesang. These transcriptions, together with items 205 and 206, are by no means all of Dover’s Liszt reprint editions; see, for example, Les Préludes and Other Symphonic Poems (New York, 1994; ISBN 0486283224). MUSICAL EDITIONS

AS (OR IN)

SERIAL PUBLICATIONS

Serial publications of musical editions also exist: 208. Liszt Society Publications. London: Schott, 1950–1978; Aylesbury, England: Bardic 1987–1988; Edinburgh: Hardie Press, 1992–. M3.L77L5. Vol. 1: Late Piano Works, 1952. Vol. 2: Early and Late Piano Works, n.d. Vol. 3: Hungarian and Late Piano Works, 1954. Vol. 4: Dances for Piano, n.d. Vol. 5: Various Piano Pieces, 1968. Vol. 6: Selected Songs, 1975. Vol. 7: Unfamiliar Piano Works, 1978. Vol. 8: Overture to King Lear by Berlioz, trans. Liszt; ed. Robert Threlfall, Leslie Howard, and Kenneth Souter, 1987. [unnumbered]: Piano Piece No. 1 in A-Flat, ed. Souter, 1988. Vol. 9: Grosses Konzertstück on Themes from Mendelssohn’s “Songs Without Words” and Concerto pathétique, ed. Howard, 1998. Both works for two pianos; sold in duplicate copies. ISBN 0946868220. Vol. 10: The Complete Music for Piano and Violoncello, ed. Howard, with Steven Isserlis, 1992. Vol. 11: The Complete Music for Pianoforte, Violin and Violoncello [Urtext], ed. Howard, 1996. A miscellany, begun as collections of songs and piano pieces mostly unavailable elsewhere during the 1950s and early 1960s—the Csárdás macabre (vol. 1), Réminiscences de Boccanegra (vol. 2), Magyar dalok (vol. 7), and so on—and, in that form, influential primarily for bringing Liszt’s later works to the attention of performers. Uneven; several volumes lack information about sources, editing techniques, and so on; further, the Piano Piece seems to be part of the series but carries no volume number. Vol. 8 (the King Lear transcription), on the other hand, contains an “editorial supplement” by Threlfall and Howard printed separately as an insert.

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A description of vols. 1–10 appeared in the Liszt Society Journal 21 (1996): 46–47. With regard to vol. 10, see Elgin Strub-Ronayne, “Entdeckungsreise zu Franz Liszt. Die erste Gesamtausgabe der Werke für Violoncello und Klavier,” Das Orchester 42/3 (February 1994): 12–15; Strub-Ronayne provides a photograph of the Palazzo Vendramin-Calergi, Venice, where in 1882 Liszt composed La lugubre gondola. NB: The Liszt Society has also issued a number of “Music Sections” as supplements to its regular journal; see item 210 for additional information about these valuable reprints. 209. “The [Liszt] Urtext Edition.” Munich: G. Henle, c. 1978–. Années de pèlerinage I (Switzerland) [173]. Années de pèlerinage I (Italy) [174]. Années de pèlerinage III [175]. Sonata in b-minor [273]. Consolations [465]. 2 Concert Etudes [479]. Trois Etudes de Concert [481]. 2 Ballades [490]. Liebesträume (Three Notturni) [634]. Harmonies poétiques et religieuses [639]. “Transcendental Etudes” [717]. Funérailles [748]. Begun as a series during the 1970s and edited variously by the likes of Ernst-Günter Heinemann, Hans-Martin Theopold, and—in the case of the facsimile edition of the B-minor Sonata (item 226)—Claudio Arrau. Most of the volumes are outfitted with carefully prepared introductions and notes. Even in these publications, however, errors occur; thus an important, although obscure manuscript of the Trois Etudes de Concert held in a French archive—a document that proves Liszt sometimes gave programmatic titles to his keyboard studies—was overlooked by the editor of that volume. Dr. Norbert Gertsch of Henle-Verlag provided additional information about the series as a whole; in doing so, however, he did not mention the “Transcendental Etudes” edition, nor has the present author seen a copy of it. 210. [Musical supplements to the] Liszt Society Journal. In item 63. ML410.L7L6. Sometimes bound with journal issues themselves, sometimes spiral-bound as independent “music sections.” The Rarities supplement to vol. 14 (1989) contains several songs and piano pieces, for example; that to vol. 18 (1993) the complete Weihnachtsbaum or “Christmas Tree” suite for piano four-hands;

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that to vol. 19 (1994) transcriptions by Liszt of works by Russian composers; and that to vol. 28 (2003; pp. 1–44), virtually every Albumblatt Liszt composed. Erratically catalogued by many librarians and often overlooked by performers and scholars. 211. Rarità Lisztiane—Liszt Rarities. Issued by the Istituto Liszt, Bologna. 1. [Variations sur le] Carnaval de Venise. Milan: Rugginenti, 2001. ISBN 8876652175. 2. La lugubre gondola. “First edition of the Venice manuscripts.” Milan: Rugginenti, 2002. ISBN 8876654259. Editions of previously unknown and unpublished works for solo piano. Both numbers are supplemented by detailed notes in both English and Italian, and by documentary facsimiles. An admirable addition to the Liszt literature. REPRINT EDITIONS A number of extremely useful and comparatively inexpensive reprint editions exist; these include items 204 and 205 to 207 as well as the following publications: 212. Liszt, Franz. Werke für Klavier zu 2 Händen, ed. Emil von Sauer. 12 vols. Leipzig: C. F. Peters, 1917. M22.L77. A widely used performance edition of Liszt’s most familiar works for solo piano. Includes the Hungarian Rhapsodies and “Transcendental Etudes” (1852 version); excludes the B-minor Sonata, the Beethoven symphony transcriptions, many operatic paraphrases, and so on. A Liszt pupil himself, von Sauer added to his teacher’s musical texts, performing directions considered necessary today by many performers. Reprinted after 1945 by the London and New York City branches of the C. F. Peters Co. See, too, Sauer, “Meine erste Begegnung mit Liszt,” reprinted in Liszt Saeculum no. 31 (1983): 55–56. Finally, see Liszt: Piano Music from his Early Years, ed. Maurice Hinson [“Classics in Context”] (Van Nuys, CA, 1990)—a keyboard anthology that also contains brief, illustrated essays on Liszt’s childhood, youth, and performing skills (pp. 3–9) as well as suggestions for further reading (p. 10), notes on the compositions included in the edition (pp. 11–13), and such pieces as Liszt’s first composition (a variation on Diabelli’s famous waltz), five of the early Etude[s] en douze exercises, the Scherzo in g minor, and so on. Together with items 260 and 341, Hinson’s volume was reviewed in the New Hungarian Quarterly 32/123 (Fall 1991): 155–58.

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213. Liszt, Franz. 25 Songs for Voice and Piano [high voice] and 22 Songs for Voice and Piano [low voice], ed. Richard Miller. New York: International Music, 1998. M1620.L77M5. By no means all of Liszt’s works for solo voice, but a useful two-volume collection nonetheless. Other songs may be found in items 201, series VII; 207; 208, vol. 6; and 210. Two editions of Liszt’s contributions to keyboard technique also deserve attention: 214. The Liszt Studies, ed. Elyse Mach. New York and London: Associated Music Publishers, 1973. xxvi, 85 pp. MT225.L777. Includes materials borrowed from item 215 as well as translations from Boissier’s account of Liszt’s pedagogical practices (item 348). Also includes reminiscences by Liszt’s great-granddaughter, Mme. Blandine Ollivier de Prévaux. An eccentric study aimed at a popular market; lacks both bibliography and index. 215. Liszt, Franz. Technische Studien für das Pianoforte, ed. Alexander Winterberger. 12 vols. Leipzig: G. Schuberth, 1887. M3.3L77T4. Presents keyboard exercises written by Liszt during the last decades of his life and published for the first time a year after his death. Not to be confused either with item 214, which contains some of the same material, or with the Liszt-Pedägogium edited by Lina Ramann and originally published in 1901 (item 1439). Several other, even more eccentric studies of the Studien exist; see, for example, Mariann Ábrahám’s Liszt Technical Studies: seeking ways and means [sic] and Liszt: Path-Seeking Thoughts on the Technical Studies—during practise [again, sic]; the former self-published, the latter published by Editio Musica (plate no. Z. 12 266). RECENT FIRST EDITIONS During the last two decades and especially since 1995, works by Liszt have appeared in print for the first time, or have been reprinted for the first time since their original publication. Among the most important of these publications is: 216. Liszt, Franz. Harmonies poétiques et religieuses (1847 version). “First Complete Edition,” ed. Albert Brussee. 2 vols. Heuzen: XYZ, 1997; plate nos. XYZ 1093–XYZ 1094. OCLC 41140651. A critical edition of the collection in its first iteration, rather than the 1830s piano piece of the same name. Includes introductory comments in English and Dutch, scattered musical examples, facsimiles of pages from Liszt

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sketchbook D-WRgs N9 (from which some of the pieces were reconstructed by Brussee), colored cover reproductions of a painting by Leo von Klenze, notes and performance suggestions for each piece, and—of course—the music. Vol. 1 includes the Litanies de Marie, vol. 2 Le Lampe du Temple and other little-known, previously unpublished material. Reviewed in the Revue de musicologie 85 (1999): 164–66. See, too, Brussee’s “The First Cycle of ‘Harmonies poétiques et religieuses,’” in the Liszt Society Journal 20 (1995): 7–37, which contains a considerable number of illustrations and musical examples as well as a diagram representing the complex history behind the composition in question; the diagram also appears in item 216, vol. 2. Finally, see item 1040. Other recent Liszt first editions include: 217. Liszt Ferenc. Albumblätter für Prinzessin Marie von Sayn-Wittgenstein, ed. Mária Eckhardt. Budapest: Editio Musica, 2000; plate no. Z. 14268. 24 pp. MT243.L57. Consists of four short compositions, including Lilie and a mazurka, together with documentary facsimiles of all four. Also illustrated with three facsimiles of sketchbook pages containing jottings for the same pieces, one of them a version of Freudvoll und leidvoll. Title information all appears on the full-title page in English and Hungarian; an English-language version of Eckhardt’s introductory notes appears on pp. 13–14. An edition of the Princess’s complete scrapbook, published as no. 179 in the series “Kultur-Stiftung der Länder-Patrimonia” and under the title Das Album der Prinzessin Marie von Sayn-Wittgenstein (Weimar, 2000; 48 pp.), is purported to exist; the present author has never seen a copy. * Dernières orchestrations de Franz Liszt. Described as item 225. At once a first and a facsimile edition of a “forgotten” orchestral arrangement by Liszt. 218. Liszt, Franz. Concerto for Piano No. 3, Op. posth., in E-flat Major, ed. Jay Rosenblatt. Budapest: Editio Musica [also London: Boosey & Hawkes], 1989; plate no. Z 13 618. 67 pp. The full score of a “new” concerto linked thematically with the composer’s earliest keyboard compositions and completed c. 1840. Reviewed in Notes 48 (1991–1992): 1447–49 and in the Revue de musicologie 78 (1992): 350–51. Rosenblatt’s edition is also available in a two-piano reduction (Budapest: Editio Musica, 1989; plate no. Z 13 619). Regarding the concerto itself, see item 1239.

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219. Liszt, Franz. Fantasie über Themen aus den Opern von Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart “Die Hochzeit des Figaro” und “Don Giovanni,” ed. Leslie Howard. Budapest: Editio Musica, 1997; plate no. Z14 135. LCCN 98-707958. The first edition of an operatic paraphrase long believed lost; see the Revue de musicologie 84 (1998): 334–35. Regarding the music, see item 1404. 220. Liszt, Franz. Grande fantaisie symphonique [“Lélio” fantasy] for piano and orchestra, arr. for two pianos by Manfred Thiele; ed. Reiner Zimmermann. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1981; plate no. EB 7427. 85 pp. [score]. M1011.L77G77 1981. A useful stopgap edition of an important, previously unavailable work. Orchestral parts are available for rental from the Breitkopf offices in Leipzig. A laudatory review, written by Ralph P. Locke, appeared in Notes 41 (1984–1985): 383–85. 221. Liszt, Franz. St. Stanislaus: Scene 1, Two Polonaises, Scene 4, ed. Paul Munson. Recent Researches in the Music of the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries, 26. Middleton, WI: A-R Editions, 1998. ISBN 0895794063. M2.R23834, vol. 26. Presents fragments from Liszt’s unfinished oratorio. Illustrated with two facsimiles from Weimar manuscripts and outfitted with useful introductory notes. Derived in part from Munson’s doctoral dissertation (item 1288). 222. Liszt, Franz. Walse [sic] in A Major for piano, ed. Rena [Charnin] Mueller. Bryn Mawr, PA: Thorpe Music Publishing, 1996. 8 pp. LCCN 97-704260. M3.3.L77W35 1996 case. The first edition of a work sold in 1995 at auction in manuscript form and once part of the estate of Pauline Viardot-Garcia. Includes an editorial introduction. One edition of an arrangement by a colleague of Liszt’s also deserves attention: 223. Liszt, Franz. Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen: Präludium für Orgel nach J. S. Bachs Cantate, arr. Alexander Winterberger. Vienna: Universal, 1999; plate no. UE 31 260. 8 pp. M3.1.L57W4 1999 M3. Originally for piano; arranged by Winterberger for organ. Issued as a supplement to Haselböck’s ten-volume edition of Liszt’s organ works (item 203). NB: Other recent editions of Liszt “arrangements” also exist; see, for example, Carl Tausig’s solo-piano transcription of Les Préludes, published by Editio Musica in 1997 and briefly described in the Revue de musicologie 83 (1997): 327.

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224. Liszt, Franz. Missa choralis…Nach dem Erstdruck von 1869 samt einem vollständigen Faksimile der autographen Urschrift von 1865, ed. Thomas Kohlhase. Stuttgart: Carus, 1984; plate no. 40.647/01. M2013.L59. A carefully prepared edition, supplemented by introductory comments in English, French, and German (pp. ii–vi) and a complete or almost complete facsimile reproduction of the 1869 manuscript (D-WRgs C18 = pp. vii–xvi). One in a Liszt choral-works series published by Carus or in preparation that will eventually include the composer’s settings of Psalms 23, 116, 129, and 137. * “The [Liszt] Urtext Edition.” Described as item 209. FACSIMILE EDITIONS A few Liszt works have been published in facsimile editions, the most important of which include: 225. Haine, Malou. Dernières orchestrations de Franz Liszt / Laatste orkestraties van Franz Liszt / Franz Liszt’s Last Orchestrations. Spirmont, Belgium: Mardaga, 2000. 143 pp. ISBN 2870097476. At once a full-color facsimile edition of Jules Zarebski’s (or Zarembski’s) Dances galiciennes, in Liszt’s orchestral autograph (unpaginated, but in effect pp. 49–142) and a commemorative publication celebrating the first performance of that arrangement during June 2000 at the Musical Instrument Museum, Brussels. Haine also provides a lengthy essay describing Liszt’s relationship with the Polish composer and a description of the manuscript itself (pp. 9–47); this appears in three columns, in French, Flemish (or Dutch), and English. Concludes with a one-page table of contents. See also Haine, “A Liszt Manuscript Newly Discovered in Belgium: The Orchestration of Two ‘Dances galiciennes’ and a Mazurka Composed by Juliusz Zarembski,” Journal of the American Liszt Society 41 (1997): 38–48. 226. Liszt, Franz. Klaviersonate h-Moll. Faksimile nach dem im Eigentum von Robert Owen Lehman befindlichen Autograph, with “Final Thoughts” by Claudio Arrau. Munich: G. Henle, 1973. 38 pp. M23.L774. A full-color facsimile of the so-called “Lehman manuscript” deposited in the Pierpont Morgan Library, New York City. A handsome publication marred, according to some experts, by inadequate color definition and other technical problems. Detailed discussions of the “Lehman manuscript” itself may be found in items 241 and 1060.

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Seven other Liszt facsimile editions are described below: 227. Liszt, Franz. Cinque melodie ungheresi per pianoforte, ed. Pietro Scarpini. Torino: Fratelli Pozzo-Salvati-Gros, 1963. 17 pp. ML96.5L77. Contains two colored, foldout facsimiles of the complete musical text for Liszt’s Ungarische Volkslieder. Rare in the United States; the Library of Congress owns a copy. 228. Liszt, Franz. Es war einmal ein König… Goethes Flohlied in der Vertonung von Franz Liszt. Faksimile-Ausgabe mit Anmerkungen zum Goethe-Verständnis und zu einigen Goethe-Kompositionen Liszts, ed. Hans Rudolf Jung. Weimar: Nationale Forschungs- und Gedenkstätten der klassischen deutschen Literatur, 1961. 14 pp., facsimile. ISBN 3744300331. ML96.5.L77 (case). A reproduction, somewhat reduced in size, of D-WRgs E7. Accompanied by an essay explaining the provenance of the autograph itself, Liszt’s interest in Goethe’s life and poetry, his settings of other Goethe texts, and so on. Illustrated with about a half-dozen printed musical examples. Like item 227 and several of the facsimiles described below, all but unknown in North America; the Library of Congress apparently shelves its copy with its collection of Liszt holographs! 229. Liszt, Franz. Faksimile der Notenhandschrift “Es muß ein Wunderbares sein…” [sic] von Franz Liszt, ed. Hans Rudolf Jung. Weimar: Nationale Forschungs- und Gedenkstätten der klassischen deutschen Literatur, 1986. 8 pp, facsimile. ISBN 3744300080. A reproduction in a single leaf of D-WRgs D86, inserted into an essay about the manuscript itself, the composer’s relationship to the solo-song traditions of the nineteenth century, and so on. The cover reproduces a Liszt medallion cast during the 1850s. 230. Liszt, Franz. Ich liebe dich. Transcription for Piano-Solo. A Facsimile of the Autograph Manuscript in the Music Division of the Library of Congress. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1993. 1 bifolium [= 4 pp.]. A two-page facsimile, printed on tan cardboard, of one of Liszt’s neater manuscripts. Includes as its unnumbered p. 4 a rather sugary essay (“The Manuscript”) by Walker, which gives background information about both song and document. 231. Liszt, Franz. XIX. Magyar rapszóda zongorára. / XIX. Ungarische Rhapsodie für Klavier. / XIX. Hungarian Rhapsody for piano solo (1885), ed. Mária [P.] Eckhardt. Budapest: Editio Musica, 1985. 39 pp., folio. ML96.5.L77.

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A handsome, full-color reproduction of H-Bn Mus. ms. 353. The edition is large enough, if not always clear enough, to be used at the keyboard. Concludes with a postscript by Eckhardt. Evaluated as an edition in the Revue de musicologie 73 (1987), p. 151. 232. Liszt, Franz. Nonnenwerth. Lied für eine Singstimme und Klavier. 2. bisher unveröffentliche Fassung, ed. Otto Goldhammer. Weimar: Nationale Forschungs- und Gedenkstätten der klassischen deutschen Literatur, 1961. Rare: US-Wc shelf-number M1621.L [case]. A facsimile of D-WRgs D94, supplemented with a complete transcription of the music and an essay by Goldhammer as well as additional musical examples. 233. Liszt, Franz. Revive Szégedin!, ed. Klára Hamburger. Szeged: n.p., 1986. Unpaginated. ISBN 963758160X. Consists of a brief introductory essay, followed by two facsimiles of this march: one bound, the other merely inserted. The bound facsimile reproduces a manuscript written entirely by Liszt; the inserted facsimile a manuscript in another hand, with Liszt’s corrections. Rare in American archives and collections; the present author owns a photocopy given him by William Wright of Glasgow, Scotland, and at least a few of the 500 original printed copies still exist in Hungary. See also item 1385. RELATED STUDIES Four articles that spell out or discuss NLE editorial decisions and procedures are described below, in chronological order of publication: 234. Goldhammer, Otto. “Die neue Liszt-Ausgabe. Der kulturelle Beitrag der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik zum Liszt-Jahr 1961.” Beiträge zur Musikwissenschaft 2/3–4 (1960): 69–85. ML5.B352. A summary of proposed German contributions, especially by the Goetheund Schiller-Archiv, to item 202, series I; also includes information about NLE editorial policies overall. Since the 1960s, however, “NLE” editors have reformulated several of their protocols. Includes scattered short musical examples, some embedded in the text, as well as two full pages of music from Liszt’s Chasse-neige and the first “Paganini Etude.” Additional information about “NLE” editorial policies appeared in a pamphlet by Zoltán Gárdonyi and Otto Goldhammer entitled Franz Liszts musikalische Werke. Richtlinien für die Edition (Budapest and Weimar, 1961). 235. Gárdonyi, Zoltán. “Hauptprobleme der neuen Liszt-Ausgabe.” In item 46, pp. 73–79.

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Describes basic NLE editorial policies of the 1960s and early 1970s, including the decision to publish only final versions of compositions known to exist in earlier versions. Many of Gárdonyi’s statements reappear, albeit in different wording, in the introductory words found at the beginning of each NLE series-I fascicle. See also Antal Boronkay, “Frühe und endgültige Fassungen von LisztWerken in der neuen Liszt-Ausgabe” (also item 46, pp. 47–51). Boronkay describes his own NLE editorial work, problems associated with individual Liszt manuscripts, and aspects of such compositions as the Großes Konzertsolo, the Praeludium und Fuge über BACH (the so-called “BACH” prelude and fugue) for solo piano, and the B-minor Sonata. Illustrated with the opening measures of the last work. 236. Sulyok, Imre. “The New Liszt Edition.” New Hungarian Quarterly 26/99 (Autumn 1985): 188–94. ISSN 0028-5390. DB901.H83. Presents new NLE policies, including the decision to publish at least a few preliminary versions of works later revised and republished by Liszt. Illustrated with a facsimile reproduction of H-Bn Mus. ms. 274, containing additions to Hungarian Rhapsody no. 2. A very slightly different version of this article appeared under the same title but without facsimile illustration in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 19 (1986): 5–9; other comments, along similar lines, appeared as “Stand und Planung der ‘Neuen Liszt-Ausgabe’” in item 176, pp. 21–25. 237. New Liszt Edition / Neue Liszt-Ausgabe, Series I–II. Budapest: Editio Musica, 1994. 84 pp. (No ISBN or LC numbers available.) Both a sales catalog and a synopsis of NLE publications to date. Useful for its index of series I–II contents (pp. 63–84; but see item 1426!) as well as its several documentary facsimiles and its item-by-item description of individual volume contents. Numbered “Z.80 031,” although no plate numbers appear on catalog pages. Paperbound only; the cover features a color photograph of a grand piano supporting a bust of the composer and a collection of NLE volumes. See, too, Imre Mezo# , “A Liszt-összkiadásról,” Zenetudományi Dolgozatok (1995–1996): 177–81. Reviews of Liszt editions sometimes comment on editorial procedures, or correct misprintings, or identify and discuss source materials overlooked by the editors of the editions themselves. Two reviews of NLE volumes are described below: 238. Ho, Allan. [Review.] Notes 40 (1983–1984): 886–88. ISSN 0027-4380. ML27.U5M695. Evaluates item 202, series I, vols. 15–16: Liszt’s transcriptions for piano of his own compositions. Ho praises aspects of these volumes; he also

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points out compositions overlooked or omitted by NLE editors. NB: Notes has reviewed a great many NLE volumes; Michael Saffle’s review in Notes 44 (1987–1988): 815–17, for example, points out questionable editing practices and examines the contents of one Library of Congress Liszt manuscript vis-à-vis NLE I/13 and I/18. 239. Rucker, Patrick. [Review.] Journal of the American Liszt Society 24 (1988): 113–16. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Examines and describes differences between NLE texts of Liszt-Schubert transcriptions and the texts of the original editions. Illustrated with musical examples from Diabelli’s edition of the Schubert/Liszt Das Wandern (c. 1847) and portions of the same transcription in “NLE” format. Four discussions of Liszt first or facsimile editions also deserve attention: 240. Eckhardt, Mária. “Liszt’s Contribution to the Breitkopf Chopin Edition.” In item 56, pp. 167–80. Concerned with the first collected edition of Chopin’s works (Leipzig, 1879–1902), for which Liszt edited the Préludes. Eckhardt quotes at length from the composer’s correspondence with Breitkopf & Härtel, the edition’s publishers, and provides facsimiles of a cover page from the edition and the first page of the C-Major Prelude, op. 28, no. 1 (pp. 169–70). 241. Longyear, Rey M. “The Text of Liszt’s B Minor Sonata.” The Musical Quarterly 60 (1974): 435–50. ISSN 0027-4631. ML1.M725. A description of the “Lehman manuscript,” reproduced in facsimile in item 226. Sharon Winklhofer (item 1060) has objected to some of Longyear’s conclusions on the grounds that the facsimile edition is inadequate for scholarly purposes. 242. Saffle, Michael. “Early Italian Editions of Liszt’s Works.” In item 51 [Revista de musicología 16/3 (1993)], pp. 1781–94. Evaluates difficulties associated with dating, describing, and “defining”— that is, distinguishing between—early Liszt editions of all kinds, especially those printed in Milan. “A careful comparison of 1830s and 1840s Italian Liszt editions with those published around the same time [elsewhere]… reveals that the Italian editions usually appeared earlier…and…often contain early versions of works later revised and republished in other parts of Europe” (p. 1785). Includes facsimiles of the cover pages for the Ricrodi edition of the Sonnambula fantasy and the Lucca edition of Liszt’s fantasy on Robert le diable, together with related musical examples. 243. Searle, Humphrey. “The Breitkopf Collected Edition of Liszt’s Works.” Published at the end of the Gregg reprint of item 201 (Series VII, vol. 3). 38 pp.

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A comparatively detailed survey of the “Old Liszt Edition,” evidently intended as an introduction to Liszt’s music as a whole but little-known among performers and scholars. Concludes with a catalog (pp. 6–38) of the composer’s works, adapted from Searle’s 1954 Grove’s Dictionary catalog (item 83). The Music Division of the Library of Congress keeps a copy on the Music Division reading-room shelves. Finally, a very few studies of editions prepared by Liszt of other composers’ works have also appeared in print. These include: 244. Veszprémi, Lili. “Liszt—Bartók—Weiner a Mondschein-szonátáról.” Parlando 21/5 (May 1979): 8–12. Compares three editions of Beethoven’s Sonata, op. 27, no. 2. Similar studies by Veszprémi have also appeared in Parlando, Hungary’s best-known musiceducation journal; see, for example, “Liszt—Bartók—Weiner Beethoven két legkönnyebb szonátájáról,” Parlando 21/9 (September 1979): 1–7. STUDIES OF MUSICAL SOURCES Liszt sketched, drafted, and revised hundreds of his compositions, some of them as many as half a dozen times. He also prepared two or more draft manuscripts for many of his works. Representative studies of Liszt drafts and revisions are described below. Studies of individual works revised by Liszt, together with studies of documents “as” finished works or in terms of the compositional processes they preserve, are described in Chapters 7–11. GENERAL STUDIES No book-length survey of all Liszt’s revisions and drafts has appeared in print, but several dissertations grapple with these materials: * Hansen. Variationen und Varianten…. Described as item 781. A study of source materials that, in effect, covers much of Liszt’s enormous compositional output. 245. Mueller, Rena [Charnin]. Liszt’s “Tasso” Sketchbook: Studies in Sources and Revisions. Dissertation: New York University, 1986. xiii, 418 pp. A detailed discussion of “how Liszt composed, exploring diverse works presented in Weimar sketchbook N5, and placing them in the context of Liszt’s life and of the other primary sources for his music” [DAI 47 no. 08A (February 1987), p. 2792]. Mueller’s primary object of investigation is the “Tasso” sketchbook itself, but she also discusses Tasso as a composition, portions of the Harmonies poétiques et religieuses, the Ernani

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transcriptions, and Liszt’s “reminiscences” of La favorite and Robert le diable. Illustrated with musical examples. Concludes with a useful bibliography (pp. 338–51) and four appendices, two of which identify thirtyfour Liszt copyists (pp. 356–64) and 104 kinds of Liszt music papers (pp. 365–88). Also contains facsimile reproductions of several manuscript pages and tracings of some forty-two watermarks found in relevant documents Summarized in DAI, as previously cited. Material derived from this dissertation also appeared in Mueller’s article “Liszt’s Tasso Sketchbook: Studies in Sources and Chronology,” published in item 49, pp. 273–93, which provides cursory descriptions of the other eight D-WRgs Liszt sketchbooks as well as a diagram of the sketchbook’s physical structure (p. 276). See, too, Mueller, “Sketches, Drafts and Revisions: Liszt at Work” (item 176, pp. 26–35). * Saffle. Franz Liszt’s Compositional Development…. Described as item 782. Examines revisions for some of Liszt’s keyboard, symphonic, and chamber compositions. STUDIES

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OTHER AUTOGRAPH MANUSCRIPTS

Four shorter but nevertheless careful studies of sketches and revisions are identified below; other studies especially of manuscripts in relationship to finished compositions or compositional processes are described in Chapters 7–11: 246. Bertagnolli, Paul A. “A Newly Discovered Source for Franz Liszt’s ‘Chöre zu Herder’s “Entfesseltem Prometheus.”’” Journal of Musicology 19 (2002): 125–70. ISSN 0277-9269. ML1.J693. Describes a score once owned by Wendelin Weißheimer, “an assistant director of Leipzig’s Euterpe concert series and one of Liszt’s composition students during the late Weimar period” (p. 127). Carefully illustrated with nine documentary facsimiles as well as diagrams concerning foliation, the handwritings of copyists found in the score, and related subjects. Concludes with a one-page abstract. Also item 1256: one of Bertagnolli’s several studies of Liszt’s “Prometheus Nachlaß” (or legacy). 247. Johns, Keith [T.]. “Franz Liszt’s N6 Sketchbook held at the Goethe-Schiller Archive in Weimar.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 20 (1986): 30–33. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. A brief but intelligent survey of D-WRgs N6, which contains musical notations made by Liszt during the early 1830s. Concludes with a catalog of sketches for “major” Liszt works contained in this document. 248. Johns, Keith [T.]. “The ‘N’ Series of Liszt’s Sketchbooks.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 19 (1986): 20–22. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68.

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Outlines the contents of D-WRgs N1–N2, a pair of sketchbooks dating from several periods of Liszt’s life and containing themes which later appeared in Tasso, portions of the Années de pèlerinage, Via crucis, and the Sonata in b minor. No musical examples. See also item 1222. Finally, see Rezso# Kókai’s “Liszt Ferenc vázlatkönyveiro# l,” published in Magyar muzsika (1935): 12–21, a pioneering description of the “N” sketchbooks as a whole, illustrated with a few musical examples. 249. Papp, Géza. “Unbekannte Verbunkos-Transkriptionen von Franz Liszt.” Studia Musicologica 29 (1987): 183–218. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. Identifies and describes a notebook Liszt used to jot down “Gypsy” tunes; the notebook is owned today by the Wagner Archives, Bayreuth [shelfnumber: “Ch 1 Mappa Originalmanuskripte von Franz Liszt Nr. 1”]. Illustrated with twelve pages of facsimiles, eighteen musical examples, and an appendix reproducing a handwritten transcription of the notebook’s verbunkos or “recruiting dance” contents (pp. 206–18). An extraordinarily vague discussion of the same document appeared decades ago; see Otto Goldhammer, “Liszt, Brahms und Reményi,” Studia Musicologica 5 (1963): 89–100. GRAPHOLOGICAL STUDIES ˆ

250. Mil’shtein, Yakov [Isaakovich]. “O niektor y´ ch zvlástnostiach hudobn y´ ch rukopisov Franza Liszta / Über einige Besonderheiten der Handschriften Liszts.” In item 45, pp. 47–66. A brief, somewhat superficial survey of Liszt’s handwriting that, nevertheless, includes interesting observations about early documents. A more detailed discussion of this topic was presented by Sharon Winklhofer some years ago at a meeting of the New York State chapter of the American Musicological Society. See, too, Imre Sulyok’s “Handschriften und Privatsammler” in the Journal of the Franz Liszt Kring (1995): 23–24; among other Liszt-related subjects, Sulyok compares Liszt’s scripts with some of his copyists’ and raises the issue of forged Liszt musical manuscripts. Finally, concerning copyists, see items 245 and 246. Many scholars consider handwriting “analysis” intellectually suspect. Unfortunately, the following monograph lends credibility to that opinion: 251. Gille-Maisani, J.-Ch. Ecritures de compositieurs, de Beethoven à Debussy. Musique et graphologie. Paris: Dervy-Livres, 1978. xi, 215 pp. ISBN 2850760684. ML93.G54 Describes character traits purportedly possessed by famous Romantic and post-Romantic composers, including Liszt (pp. 79–92), by analyzing their

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handwriting. Includes seven facsimile pages of letters Liszt wrote on 13 March 1825, 22 May 1855, 15 May 1882, 16 February 1885, and so on. An eccentric but carefully documented study; useful for its facsimiles (if for nothing else), but full of references to astrology and arcane source materials. See, too, item 788. EDITIONS OF LITERARY WORKS AND RELATED STUDIES Liszt’s literary works include several books, a number of lengthy articles, and a variety of concert reports, reviews, and miscellaneous musings. The precise authorship of some of these works remains in doubt, since the Comtesse d’Agoult and the Princess Sayn-Wittgenstein (respectively) almost certainly drafted portions of the “Bachelor” letters and the monograph on “Hungarian” (actually “Gypsy” and popular) music. Today, however, it is generally accepted that Liszt himself wrote most of the prose published under his name. Studies dealing with Liszt’s literary works and “cultural” issues are described at the end of the present chapter and in Chapter 6. The studies described immediately below present or comment on the works themselves. COLLECTED EDITIONS Although incomplete, two collected editions of Liszt’s literary works have been or are being published: 252. Franz Liszt. Gesammelte Schriften, ed. Lina Ramann. 6 vols. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1881–1899. ML410.L7A1. Vol. 1: Friedrich Chopin. Vol. 2: Essays und Reisebriefe. Vol. 3: Dramaturgische Blätter. Vol. 4: Aus der Annalen des Fortschritts. Vol. 5: Streifzüge: kritische, polemische und zeithistorische Essays. Vol. 6: Die Zigeuner und ihre Musik in Ungarn. An unfortunately bowdlerized collection of Liszt’s principal literary works, translated into German and published without scholarly apparatus of any kind. Vols. 2–5 contain most of Liszt’s shorter essays but not all of them; Ramann either made no attempt to track down all of her subject’s literary efforts or deliberately excluded some of them from her edition. In German throughout, despite the fact that Liszt himself wrote mostly in French. Other editions also exist, including a Volksausgabe—which is to say, a popular or “peoples” edition—in four fascicles (Leipzig, 1910; ML410.L7A12). A collection of articles taken from item 252, published

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under the editorship of Wolfgang Marggraf as Schriften zur Tonkunst (Leipzig, 1981), is said to exist; the present author has never seen a copy. Finally, regarding vol. 6, see item 281. 253. Franz Liszt: Sämtliche Schriften, ed. Detlef Altenburg et al. Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1986–. ML60.L48615 (series). Vol. 1: Frühe Schriften, ed. Rainer Kleinertz and Serge Gut (2000). ISBN 3765102326. Vol. 3: Die Goethe-Stiftung, ed. Altenburg, Britta Schilling-Wang, Wolfran Huschke, and Wolfgang Marggraf (1997). ISBN 3765102342. Vol. 4: “Lohengrin” und “Tannhäuser” von Richard Wagner, ed. Rainer Kleinertz, with Gerhard J. Winkler (1989). ISBN 3765102350. Vol. 5: Dramaturgische Blätter, ed. Dorothea Redepenning, Britta Schilling, and Altenburg (1989). ISBN 3765102369. A new, comprehensive, and highly scholarly edition of Liszt’s literary works. Vol. 1 contains the composer’s writings published prior to 1842: the De la situation essays, the Lettres d’un voyageur, and a number of concert reviews and miscellaneous items; it also contains two appendices presenting articles written by Marie d’Agoult during 1835–1836 and by Hector Berlioz, François-Joseph Fétis, Heinrich Heine, Germanus Lepic, and George Sand around the same time (together, pp. 397–454). Vol. 3 is devoted almost exclusively to the De la Fondation–Goethe à Weimar essay; vol. 4 to the Wagner essays of the early 1850s; and so on. All volumes in French and German (wherever appropriate), often on facing pages. Regarding the edition as a whole, see Altenburg’s article “Liszts Schriften: zur Konzeption und zu Problemen der historisch-kritischen Ausgabe” (item 176, pp. 69–76). Vol. 1 was reviewed by Vincent Arlettaz in the Revue de musicologie 88 (2002): 221–23; vol. 5 by Mária Eckhardt [“Liszt on Opera”] in the New Hungarian Quarterly 30/116 (Winter 1989): 115–18. Many of Altenburg’s contributions to the edition as a whole were anticipated in his unpublished doctoral dissertation, Studien zum Musikdenken und zu den Reformplänen von Franz Liszt (University of Cologne, 1980). For Heine’s opinion of Liszt’s virtuosity, see The Attentive Listener: Three Centuries of Music Criticism, ed. Harry Haskell (London, 1995; ISBN 0571161456): 115–20; the review in question appeared originally in the Augsburger allgemeine Zeitung of 1844. Two articles related more or less directly to Altenburg’s edition are described below: 254. Kleinertz, Rainer. “Zu Liszts Bedeutung für die Wagner-Rezeption.” In item 176, pp. 77–89.

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A brief but careful review of Liszt’s role especially in Wagner’s theoretical writings; Kleinertz emphasizes publications by both composers “bridging” the Weimar performances of Lohengrin and Tannhäuser and the publication of Wagner’s Opera and Drama. A similar article by Kleinertz appeared as “Wagner y Liszt: dos posiciones sobre el drama musical” in Revista de musicología 16/6 (1993): 3163–70. 255. Winkler, Gerhard J. “Liszt als Interpret Wagners,” In item 176, pp. 90–105. Even more careful and thorough than item 254. Winkler concentrates on Liszt’s own Lohengrin et Tannhäuser monograph, including references to the first publication in 1851 of the “Lohengrin” section in the Leipzig’s Illustrirte Zeitung, passages from Wagner’s Art-Work of the Future, and so on. Like item 254, contains no illustrations or musical examples. ANTHOLOGIES Two less extensive collections of Liszt’s literary works are described below: 256. Franz Liszt: Artiste et société. Edition des texts en français, ed. Rémy Stricker. “Harmoniques.” Paris: Flammarion, 1995. 424 pp. ISBN 2080668978. OCLC 33032482. A new edition of Liszt’s six De la situation des artistes articles, the Lettres d’un bachelier ès musique, and a variety of other French-language texts, including his Goethe-Foundation essay (item 258), his essay on Wagner’s Lohengrin and Tannhäuser (item 259), and his Paganini obituary (item 266). In addition to introductory observations, Stricker provides a number of illustrations, including a facsimile of the Revue et gazette musicale for 6 December 1835, containing the opening portion of Liszt’s letter to George Sand. Also contains notes (pp. 393–408), an index (pp. 409–16), and photographic credits as well as a concluding table of contents. Reviewed by Michael Short in the Liszt Society Journal 20 (1995): 70–71, who compliments Stricker on his thoroughness and compares his edition with item 260. 257. Liszt, Franz. Pages romantiques, ed. Jean Chantavoine; pref. Serge Gut. Plan de la Tour [Var]: Editions d’Aujourd’hui, 1985. xii, 290 pp. ISBN 2730702741. Contains most of the articles published under Liszt’s name between 1835 and 1840 in the Revue et gazette musicale. Especially valuable because Ramann’s edition of Liszt’s “complete” literary works (item 252) consists entirely of German translations. Largely reprinted from Chantavoine’s original anthology (Paris, 1912).

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Other reprint editions of Liszt’s literary works include Des Bohémiens et de leur musique en Hongrie, “nouvelle edition”: originally published in 1881 by Breitkopf & Härtel, it was reprinted in facsimile in 1973 by Mantin Sändig of Wiesbaden. See, too, Liszt, The Gipsy in Music, “Englished” by Edwin Evans; 2 vols. (London: William Reeves, n.d.): a translation outfitted with seven portraits and “Preceded by an Essay on Liszt and his Work” (pp. xiii–xx). FACSIMILE EDITIONS Several of Liszt’s books and essays have appeared as facsimile publications: 258. Liszt, Franz. De la Fondation-Goethe à Weimar / Zur Goethe-Stiftung in Weimar, ed. Otto Goldhammer and Heinz Holtzhauer. Weimar: Nationale Forschungs- und Gedenkstätten der klassischen deutschen Literatur, 1961. 61+7 pp. PT2145.G6L5 1961. Reproduces Liszt’s handwritten draft proposal for an arts foundation honoring the memory of Johann Wolfgang Goethe and Weimar’s literary legacy. Includes lengthy essays about Liszt’s life and works, the original French-language text of the essay, and a German-language translation. With regard to Liszt’s plans for the foundation, see especially item 568. 259. Liszt, Franz. Lohengrin et Tannhäuser de Richard Wagner, pref. Jacques Bourgeois. Paris: Adef-Albatros, 1980. Paginated erratically. OCLC 13599390. A fascimile of the pamphlet originally published in French in 1851. Bourgeois’s preface includes information about Liszt’s essays, their publication history, and their considerable influence on Wagner’s reputation. In French throughout. Uncommon in North American libraries, although those of Yale University and the University of Ottawa own copies. Liszt’s Wagner essay is among his most frequently translated and reprinted works. In addition to items 252 and 253, see “Wagner’s ‘Tannhäuser,’” Dwight’s Journal of Music for 19 November–17 December 1853. EDITIONS

OF

INDIVIDUAL LITERARY WORKS

Individual editions are identified below in alphabetical order—first by Englishlanguage book or article-series title, then by edition title and/or editor’s name: The “Bachelor” Essays 260. Liszt, Franz. An Artist’s Journey: Lettres d’un bachelier ès musique, 1835–1841, ed. and trans. Charles Suttoni. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1989. xxvii, 260 pp. ISBN 0226485102. ML410.L7A3 1989.

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A painstakingly annotated, lively translation of the essays originally published in the Revue et gazette musicale and elsewhere. Contains several essays missing from items 252 and 257. Illustrated with twenty-two portraits, photographs, maps, and other visual aids; outfitted with copious notes, index, and bibliography. NB: This volume also contains translations of George Sand’s “Letter of a Voyager to Liszt,” essays by other nineteenthcentury literary figures, and Liszt’s essay on church music; with regard to English-language translations of this last essay, see item 749. Reviewed favorably by Dezso# Legány in the New Hungarian Quarterly 32/123 (Fall 1991): 155–58 and elsewhere. Excerpts from Suttoni’s observations appear as “Liszt the Writer” in item 44, pp. 64–74. See, too, the Divagazioni di un musicista romantico, a collection of Liszt’s writings edited by Raoul Meloncelli (ISBN 8885026257) and published in Italian. 261. “Liszt the Writer: Impressions of Genoa and Florence,” trans. Adrian Williams. Liszt Society Journal 11 (1986): 39–43. ML410.L7L6. An English-language version of two “Bachelor” articles published in 1839 under Liszt’s name in L’Artiste and omitted from Ramann’s and Chantavoine’s collections but included in item 253, vol. 1. Illustrated with a view of Genoa, a portrait of sculptor Lorenzo Bartolini, a picture of Bartolini’s studio in Florence, and a photo of the Bartolini Liszt bust. Des Bohémiens: See item 257. F. Chopin 262. Liszt, Franz. Frederic Chopin, trans. Edward N. Waters. New York: The Free Press, 1963. vii, 184 pp. ML410.C54L738. A readable English-language version of Liszt’s F. Chopin, originally published in the 1850s in part as a memorial to the Polish composer’s life and work. Includes an essay about the monograph’s history and some of its textual problems. Some of the ideas presented in this essay also appear in item 280. Excerpts from Liszt’s Chopin have appeared several times in English translation. See, for example, Franz Liszt, “Chopin a National Poet,” in Pleasures of Music: A Reader’s Choice of Great Writings about Music and Musicians from Cellini to Bernard Shaw, ed. Jacques Barzun (New York, 1951): 289–90; in the reprint edition of 1977, the same excerpt appears on pp. 110–11. See, too, Ramann’s translation, which also appeares in the form of excerpts as “Fr. Chopin’s Individualität” in Sammlung musikalischer Vorträge, ed. Paul Graf Waldersee; vol. 1 (Leipzig, 1880): 21–56.

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Other Individual Literary Works * Bangert. “Franz Liszt’s Essay on Church Music…” Described as item 749. Contains a complete English-language translation of Liszt’s essay as well as observations on its gestation and significance. 263. Liszt, Franz. “Berlioz and his ‘Harold’ Symphony.” In: Source Readings in Music History from Classical Antiquity through the Romantic Era, ed. Oliver Strunk. New York: W. W. Norton, 1950; pp. 847–76. ML160.S89. One of Liszt’s most intriguing essays, in this edition excerpted and translated into English from the first four of five installments published originally in the Neue Zeitschrift für Muisk 43 (1855). See item 736 for a discussion of Liszt’s historical philosophy based in large part on his discussion of Berlioz’s programmatic masterpiece. Reprinted in subsequent editions of Source Readings—including the latest, revised by Leo Treitler (New York, 1998; ISBN 0393966992). NB: Both the 1965 and 1998 Source Readings editions have been published as singleor double- as well as multi-volume sets; in the five-volume 1965 edition, for instance, Liszt’s essay may be found in vol. 5, pp. 107–33. Germanlanguage versions of Liszt’s essay, in whole or part, may be found in item 253, vol. 1; in the Sammlung musikalischer Vorträge, ed. Paul, Graf Waldersee [“Neue Reihe”], vol. 3 (Leipzig, 1881), pp. 317–405; and in Felix M. Gatz, Die Musik-Asthetik grosser Komponisten. Ein Quellenbuch (Stuttgart, 1929, pp. 35–45. The Vorträge were reprinted in 1976 by Kraus of Nendeln, Liechtenstein; Gatz’s “source book” also includes comments made by Liszt about Mozart in 1856. 264. Liszt, Franz. “De la situation des artistes.” Liszt Society Journal 9 (1984): 29–30. ML410.L7L6. Introductory comments in English by Eunice Mistarz, followed by the French-language text of Liszt’s essay, reproduced from British Library Add. ms. 33965, fols. 237–42. Unfortunately incomplete, the editor having omitted Liszt’s marginal notes to the typesetter for the edition published in the Revue et gazette musicale. 265. Liszt, Franz. “Lettre d’un voyageur. To M. George Sand.” Liszt Society Journal 19 (1994): 50–54. ML410.L7L6. Liszt’s reply to Sand’s own Lettre d’un voyageur (“On Lavater and an Empty House”). Sand’s letter appeared in the Revue des deux mondes (1 September 1835); Liszt’s reply is reprinted in both French and German in item 253, vol. 1, pp. 100–29. With regard to both documents, see Lynn Hoggard’s translation of “A Concert in Geneva” (also found in item 253, vol. 1, pp. 403–10, in its

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original French); the “Concert” dramatic sketch, published anonymously but written by Marie d’Agoult and introduced (in this edition) by Hoggard, appears in the same issue of the Liszt Society Journal, pp. 36–49. 266. Liszt, Franz. “Paganini.” Liszt Society Journal 7 (1982): 41–42. ML410.L7L6. An English-language translation of Liszt’s obituary on his talented contemporary, also available in its original French and in German translation in item 253, vol. 1, pp. 384–89. 267. Liszt, Franz. “Robert Schumann (1855),” trans. Christopher Anderson, Michael Cooper, and R. Larry Todd. In: Schumann and His World, ed. Todd. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994; pp. 338–61. ISBN 0691036977. ML410.S4S323 1994. Also includes introductory observations about Schumann’s relationship with Liszt and notes. Other translations of literary works by Liszt include the preface to the composer’s Années de pèlerinage, Book I, in Music and Aesthetics in the Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries, ed. Peter le Huray and James Day (Cambridge University Press, 1981; ISBN 0521234263): 537–40, and “Liszt’s Essay on John Field,” Liszt Society Journal 14 (1989): 34–39. RELATED STUDIES Among shorter surveys of Liszt’s literary works, the following articles are especially worthwhile: 268. Altenburg, Detlef. “Die Schriften von Franz Liszt: Bemerkungen zu einem zentralen Problem der Liszt-Forschung.” In: Festschrift Arno Forchert zum 60. Geburtstag am 29. Dezember 1985, ed. Gerhard Allroggen and Altenburg. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1986; pp. 242–51. ISBN 3761807767. ML55.F657 1986. Discusses problems associated with Liszt’s literary efforts, including their authenticity, the limitations of Ramann’s “complete” edition, philological characteristics of individual publications, the reception of individual works by the musical world, and so on. Includes numerous references to primary and secondary sources in the form of footnotes. Again, Altenburg’s observations in this article anticipate aspects of item 253. 269. Suttoni, Charles. “Liszt’s Writings and Correspondence.” In item 37, pp. 29–39. A well-written, amply documented introduction to Liszt’s books, articles, and letters. Suttoni concentrates on the scope, character, and published sources of the composer’s correspondence; he also neatly encapsulates the

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literary works as grounded “in Liszt’s abiding three-fold conception of musical art: an active appreciation of the classics; an ample opportunity to experience the modern; and all possible encouragement for the young and the new” (p. 31). Also touches on Liszt’s purported antisemitism, the absence of a reliable and comprehensive edition of his letters, and the remarkable number of subjects touched upon by a composer who, perhaps, “has left us a fuller record of his life and times” than any other musician (p. 37). See, too, Suttoni, “Liszt the Writer” (item 260). Other, even briefer discussions of Liszt’s literary activities include: * Bauer. “The Literary Liszt.” Described as item 723. As much a study of Liszt’s literary interests as of the books and articles published under his name. 270. Hübsch-Pfleger, Lini. “Franz Liszt als Schriftsteller.” Musica 15 (1961): 534–37. ISSN 0027-4518. ML5.M71357. A brief introduction to Liszt’s literary interests and output as well as to his possible collaboration with the Comtesse d’Agoult and Princess Carolyne. With regard to this last issue, see item 1, vol. 2, pp. 368–96, and items 272 and 273. 271. Schemann, Ludwig. “Liszt als Schriftsteller.” Bayreuther Blätter 10 (1887): 285–330. ML5.B35. A wordy summary of Liszt’s literary efforts, written in 1885–1886 and published as a tribute to the composer shortly after his death. Interesting primarily for students of nineteenth-century music criticism and Rezeptionsgeschichte (“history of reception”). With regard to these topics, see items 272 and 273 and relevant portions of items 268 and 269 as well as other studies described in the present research guide. The authenticity of Liszt’s literary works was debated with special fervor in several essays published between the 1930s and the 1986 Liszt centenary. Three of these articles are described below, in chronological order of their appearance: 272. Haraszti, Emile. “Franz Liszt: Author Despite Himself.” The Musical Quarterly 33 (1947): 490–516. ISSN 0027-4631. ML1.M725. Argues that the Comtesse d’Agoult and the Princess Sayn-Wittgenstein served as the “ghost writers” who produced the books and articles published under Liszt’s name. Haraszti made skillful use of source materials available during the 1940s, but his contention that none of Liszt’s essays survives in his own handwriting was disproved almost two decades ago by Waters (item

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197). Includes quotations from Liszt’s correspondence as well as from selected literary works. Not to be confused with similar publications by Haraszti, including “Die Authorschaft der literarischen Werke Franz Liszts,” Ungarische Jahrbücher 21 (1941): 173–236 and “Franz Liszt, écrivain et penseur,” Revue de musicologie [“Série speciale,” no. 2] (July 1943): 19–28 and [no. 3] (1944): 12–24. Haraszti’s opinions are weighed in the balance and found wanting by Alexander Main; see Main’s published conference paper entitled “Franz Liszt the Author, 1834–47: An Old Question Answered Anew” in Musique et le rite sacré et profane: Actes du XIIIe Congrès de la Société Internationale de Musicologie: Strasbourg, 29 août—3 septembre 1982, ed. Marc Honegger and Paul Prevost (Strasbourg, 1964; ISBN 2868201075), vol. 2, pp. 637–56. 273. Lowens, Irwing. “Liszt as Music Critic.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 6 (1979): 4–9. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. In spite of its title, almost entirely devoted to reevaluating Liszt’s collaboration with Marie d’Agoult and Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein. Lowens considers Eleanor Perényi’s suggestions concerning d’Agoult’s “qualifications” regarding the more musical passages in the “Bachelor” letters and “De la situation” essays a “much more rational explanation of the nature of Liszt’s literary contribution to the world of letters” than Haraszti’s (item 403, pp. 8–9). Includes quotations from relevant texts. 274. Eckhardt, Mária [P.]. “New Documents on Liszt as Author.” New Hungarian Quarterly 25/93 (Autumn 1984): 1–14. ISSN 0028-5390. DB901.H83. Demonstrates conclusively that Liszt played a role in writing at least some of the books and articles published under his name. Eckhardt illustrates her discussion with facsimiles of six documents belonging to the Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv, Weimar; the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris; the Liszt Ferenc Museum of Sopron, Hungary; and an unnamed private collection. Each document includes at least Liszt’s signature; three of them represent holograph fragments from F. Chopin (items 252 [vol. 1] and 262) and a draft of Liszt’s obituary of Paganini (items 253 [vol. 1] and 266). Reprinted under the same title but without facsimile illustrations in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 18 (1985): 52–66. Liszt functioned in some of his writings as a critic of contemporary performers and composers. Studies of his published criticism include: 275. Berg, Michael. “Der Künstler als Kritiker: Anmerkungen zu Liszts Schumann-Essay.” Musik und Gesellschaft 36 (1986): 347–49. ISSN 0027-4755. ML5.M9033.

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Discusses Liszt’s 1855 article about Robert Schumann and his music (item 252, vol. 5; item 253, vol. 1, pp. 374–83; and item 267) in light of Liszt’s other literary works, especially the 1835 De la situation des artistes essays. Among other topics, Berg mentions the possibility that Liszt’s essay was intended as a reply to issues raised by Eduard Hanslick in his famous book about the “musically-beautiful.” Illustrated with several photographs. A second, less significant article by Berg appeared under the title “Zu Franz Liszts kritikkritischen Ideen” (item 789, pp. 153–58). 276. Morgan-Browne, H. P. “Franz Liszt: Music Critic.” Liszt Society Journal 15 (1990): 61–62. ML410.L7L6. A hymn of praise for Liszt’s critical abilities and especially for the breadth of his tastes; as Morgan-Browne puts it, the composer “could take Grieg, some Benoit, some Delibes, and some Wagner, say, in immediate succession, and appreciate their aims…almost as well as if he had spent days attuning his mind beforehand to their special temperatures” (p. 61). Originally published in 1937, it seems—but precisely where Dudley Newton, then editor of the Journal, did not tell his readers. 277. Reuss [or Reuß], Eduard. “Liszt als Kritiker.” Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 78 (1911): 173–75, 192–94, 208–10, and 230–32. ML5.N4. Deals with Liszt’s Schumann and Wagner essays as well as his 1837 article about Thalberg for the Revue et gazette musicale (item 253, vol. 1, pp. 350–57). Reuss wanders from topic to topic, considering such issues of peripheral interest to Lisztians as Schopenhauer’s impact on nineteenthcentury culture. Lacks illustrations, extended quotations, and specific citations of secondary sources. Three additional discussions of Liszt’s literary works in terms of their contents, dissemination, and influence are described below: 278. Deaville, James. “The New Critical Edition of Liszt’s Writings: A Report.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 26 (1989): 52–55. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Praises Detlef Altenburg and his colleagues on behalf of item 253, vol. 5, after assessing the need for a new collected edition of the composer’s works (also item 273, p. 9). Among other issues Deaville raises are the attention paid to details by the Sämtliche Schriften’s editors and their “clever, workable scheme whereby variants are clearly indicated without disrupting the presentations of the articles” (p. 54); he is slightly less sanguine about Altenburg’s cautious assessment of the origins and impact of Liszt’s writings, and he suggests a correction concerning the origin of the term Neudeutsche Schule (or “New German School”; p. 55).

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279. Redepenning, Dorothea. “Liszts Opernschriften in der Übersetzung von Aleksandr Serov. Anmerkungen zur frühen Wagner-Rezeption in Rußland.” In: Musikkulturgeschichte. Festschrift für Constantin Floros zum 60. Geburtstag, ed. Peter Petersen. Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1990; pp. 325–40. ISBN 3765102652. ML55.F64 1990. Describes how and why Serov translated Liszt’s essays on Meyerbeer’s Robert, Beethoven’s music for Egmont, Mendelssohn’s Midsummer Night’s Dream, and, of course, Wagner’s Tannhäuser and Lohengrin (among others)—all published originally in the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik—and reprinted them in his Teatral’nyi i muzykal’nyi vesnik, thereby altering the history of Russian music. Includes extensive quotations from prose sources but no musical examples. See, too, “Pis’ma Serova k Lista” in Sovetskaya muzyka 1 (January 1984): 77–86; not seen, but cited as item 690 as well as in the Music Index and several on-line sources. 280. Waters, Edward N. “‘Chopin’ by Liszt.” The Musical Quarterly 47 (1961): 170–94. ISSN 0027-4631. ML1.M725. Describes the origins and character of Liszt’s book-length tribute to his Polish colleague. Reproduces a letter addressed to Liszt by Sainte-Beuve on 31 March 1850, reprinted from item 297. Also includes lengthy quotations from item 262. Finally, several nineteenth-century discussions of individual Liszt literary works continue to interest specialists. Among such discussions is: 281. Adelburg, August von. Entgegnung auf die von Dr. Franz Liszt in seinem Werke “Des Bohémiens et de leur musique en Hongrie” aufstellte Behauptung, dass es keine ungarische Nationalmusik, sondern bloss eine Musik der Zeigeuner, gibt. With a foreword by Alexander von Czeke. Pest: Lampel, 1859. 30 pp. British Museum shelf-number “7896.b.6.” OCLC 9810898. Attacks Liszt’s book on “Gypsy” music (item 252, vol. 6) for implying that nineteenth-century Hungary possessed no other traditional music. Discussed at greater length in item 1, vol. 1, p. 341n. Rare in American libraries, although Boston University purportedly owns a copy. Another discussion of the same volume, written by one Sámuel Brassai, was published at Kolozsvár in 1860 and in Hungarian under the title Magyar-vagy Czigány-Zene?… Not seen; cited in item 27, p. 584, and in Klára Hamburger’s “Liszt cigánykönyvének magyarországi fogadtatása,” Muzsika 43 (2000): 20–25 [I: 1859–1861] and 44 (2001): 11–17 [II: 1881–1886], which reproduces in facsimile the title page of Brassai’s pamphlet.

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AUTOBIOGRAPHIES, DIARIES, AND RELATED DOCUMENTS AUTOBIOGRAPHIES

AND

CONFESSIONAL WRITINGS

The text of Liszt’s only autobiographical statement is reprinted in: 282. Kapp, Julius. “Autobiographisches von Franz Liszt.” Die Musik 11 (1911–1912): 10–21. ML5.M9. Contains the original French text of an encyclopedia article Liszt rewrote on galleys supplied by the editor of the Biographie des contemporains (Paris: Giaeser & Co.) in 1881. Kapp also reproduces the texts of four Liszt letters and a letter addressed to Liszt by the Viennese critic Eduard Hanslick on 8 October 1854. Other nonepistolary, autobiographical sources of information about Liszt’s life, activities, and character include: 283. Liszts Testament, ed. Friedrich Schnapp. Weimar: Hermann Böhlaus, 1931. 31 pp. ML410.L7A112. Reproduces the complete text of the will Liszt completed on 14 September 1866. Includes information about what happened to some of the objects Liszt left various individuals; also includes the texts of several letters as well as a facsimile reproduction of the cover of a holograph copy of the Trois Odes funèbres, printed as a frontispiece. NB: The words “Franz Liszt Bund,” the name of the organization that sponsored Schnapp’s publication, are sometimes taken by librarians to be this pamphlet’s “title.” See also item 1, vol. 2, pp. 557–63, and item 284. 284. Liszt, Franz. Mein letzter Wille, ed. Emmerich Karl Horvath. Eisenstadt: Horvath, 1970. 31 pp. Another transcription of the testament also reproduced in item 283. Like Schnapp, Horvath provides information about the present whereabouts of objects Liszt mentioned in his will but is more up to date. Illustrated with a number of portraits, including pictures of Liszt being buried at Bayreuth and of the Liszt memorial at Raiding, Austria. DIARIES The publications below are described in chronological order of their diary contents: 285. Liszt, Franz. Tagebuch 1827. Im Auftrag der Stadt Bayreuth, ed. Detlef Altenburg and Rainer Kleinertz. 2 vols. Bayreuth: Neff, 1986. ISBN 3701402299. A facsimile reproduction of a document owned by the Richard WagnerArchiv, Bayreuth (vol. 1), and an annotated transcription (vol. 2). Liszt’s

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“diary” is actually a daybook, full of seemingly random but nevertheless interesting jottings on various topics. Both volumes are handsomely boxed and represent Bayreuth’s nod in Liszt’s direction during the 1986 centennial celebrations. Reviewed in item 200. 286. Pocknell, Pauline. “Franz Liszt’s Unpublished Pocket-Diary for 1832: A Guide to his Memories.” In item 41, pp. 52–77. An outstanding interpretive study of what might appear at first to be a disappointing and scanty miscellany of quotations, events, and observations. Pocknell describes the diary, owned today by the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. She also comments on the young composer’s readings, attendance at public lectures, and attitudes toward the arts and society. Finally, she demonstrates what the document in question reveals about Liszt’s 1832 visit to Rouen. For additional information about that visit, together with facsimiles of other diary pages, see: * Eckhardt. “Diary of a Wayfarer.” Described as item 627. Among other documents, Eckhardt reproduces passages from a pocket diary Liszt kept during 1835. 287. Liszt, Franz. “‘Memento journalier, 1861–1862’: Liszt Ferenc Kiadatlan Naplója,” ed. Ervin Major; intro. Gyula Végh. 2 parts. In: Muzsika [Budapest] (January–February 1930): 22–33 and (March 1930): 86–98. Not seen; apparently reprints and discusses passages from one or more of Liszt’s daybooks. COLLECTIONS

OF

AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL DOCUMENTS

Anthologies of several kinds are described later in the present chapter. One collection of autobiographical Liszt documents, however, must be mentioned here: 288. Liszt: A Self-portrait in His Own Words, ed. David Whitwell. Northridge, CA: Winds, 1986. vii, 242 pp. ML410.L7A163 1986. A summary of Liszt’s life, character, and activities drawn from the composer’s letters, essays, and other documents. Includes observations made by Liszt on the Jews, the peoples of various nations, and a variety of individuals—among them, Bach, Ludwig II of Bavaria, Tolstoy, and Wagner. Lacks scholarly apparatus, bibliography, and index. PUBLISHED CORRESPONDENCE AND RELATED STUDIES Although an enormous amount of Liszt’s correspondence remains unpublished, thousands of letters have already appeared in print. It is impossible to identify

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this literature in the present research guide, much less evaluate it in any detail. Fortunately, almost all of Liszt’s published correspondence has been evaluated by Charles Suttoni (see item 76). The books and articles described below have been selected because of their importance, or because they exemplify outstanding scholarship, or because they appeared in print too recently for Suttoni to cite them. Collected editions are described first, followed by other kinds of published letters and studies of Liszt’s correspondence. Unless otherwise noted, editions of correspondence belonging to individual institutions or addressed to particular recipients or groups are described first in alphabetical order according to those institutions, recipients, or groups. Finally, letters written by Liszt have appeared in many kinds of studies, including some of the books and articles described in Chapter 3; other letters appear in survey studies (Chapter 2), biographies (Chapter 5), and a few studies of his music (Chapters 7–11). COLLECTED EDITIONS No comprehensive collected edition of Liszt’s correspondence exists; a plan proposed during the 1980s to publish such an edition (item 338) was almost immediately abandoned. The closest approach to a complete edition of Liszt letters remains: 289. Franz Liszt’s Briefe, ed. “La Mara” [pseud. Marie Lipsius]. 8 vols. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1893–1905. ML410.L7A3. Vol. 1: Von Paris bis Rom. Vol. 2: Von Rom bis an’s Ende. Vol. 3: An eine Freundin [Agnès Street-Klindworth]. Vols. 4–7: An Fürstin Carolyne Sayn-Wittgenstein (4 vols.). Vol. 8: 1823–1886. Neue Folge zu Bde. I und II. (supplementary volume). The largest single published collection of Liszt’s correspondence to date. Includes 2,492 letters, among them letters dating from every period of Liszt’s life and addressed to virtually all his correspondents. Unfortunately unreliable; full of editorial suppressions—indicated, however, in many instances—and occasional errors. Published in French- and German-language versions, even though Liszt wrote most of his letters in French. No critical apparatus or bibliographic citations, although indexes of names appear in vols. 2–8. Vol. 5 also contains Liszt’s will (see items 283 and 284). With regard to La Mara’s editorial work, see the introductions to items 76 and 301. With regard to the textual integrity of vol. 3, see item 317. With regard to vols. 4–7, see “Liszt’s Letters to Princess Wittgenstein,” Liszt Society Journal 8 (1983): 19–25 and 9 (1984): 34–41.

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An abridged edition of this collection also appeared as: 290. Letters of Franz Liszt, trans. Constance Bache. 2 vols. St. Clair Shores, MI: Scholarly Press, 1972. ISBN 0403003601. ML410.L7A31, vols. 1–2. Although no more reliable than item 289, its model, Bache’s translation contains four letters missing from La Mara’s volumes. Available in several reprint editions. Originally published in 1894 by H. Grevel of London. More important, especially for English-speaking Lisztians—although necessarily less complete than La Mara’s edition—is: 291. Franz Liszt: Selected Letters, trans. and ed. Adrian Williams. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1998. xxx, 1063 pp. ISBN 0198166885. ML410.L7A4. Presents the texts of 946 letters dating from the composer’s earliest years until just before his death, supplemented by running commentary concerning Liszt’s activities and attitudes and by apparatus of various kinds: a list of the letters by number, recipient, date, and page number(s) (pp. xvi–xxxix); brief biographies of the recipients—this is possibly the most interesting part of Williams’s volume, apart from the translations themselves (pp. 949–1003)—a list of sources and their sigla “in general” as well as published sources for each letter (pp. 1005–13); and various indexes. Includes twenty-three illustrations, mostly familiar portraits, bound between pp. 536 and 537. Handsomely printed and illustrated on its dust jacket with a photograph of the composer “in middle life”; unfortunately, devoted exclusively to letters already in print somewhere or other. Reviewed by Michael Saffle in the Journal of the American Musicological Society 53 (2000): 159–64 and by Pauline Pocknell (item 304). Five other extensive and diversified collections of Liszt letters addressed to a variety of correspondents deserve to be consulted regularly by Liszt researchers: 292. Franz Liszt: Briefe aus ungarischen Sammlungen, 1835–1886, ed. Margit Prahács. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1966. 484 pp. ML410.L7A314. After items 289 and 291, one of the largest collections of Liszt’s correspondence in print and certainly one of the best. Contains 605 fully annotated and indexed letters printed in Prahács’s text; supplemented with 160 pages of commentary containing fourteen additional letters (pp. 312, 336, 338, 342, 353, 355, 375, 380, 385, 404, 426, 434, 440, and 447). Concludes with indexes of names and topics. Also published in Budapest by Editio Musica. Fine anthologies of Liszt letters have also appeared in Hungarian. The best of these is Liszt Ferenc válogatott levelei (1824–1861), ed. Mária Eckhardt (Budapest: Zenemu# kiadó, 1989; ISBN 9633306779); Eckhardt’s collection

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includes indexes of pieces by Liszt as well as of persons and places referred to in the 160 letters it reprints and is illustrated with several facsimiles, including one of a note dated 10 June 1826 and reproduced from a manuscript owned by the Bibliothèque Nationale, Lyon. 293. Franz Liszt. Correspondance: Lettres choisis, ed. Pierre-Antoine Huré and Claude Knepper. Paris: Jean-Claude Lattès, 1987. 596 pp. ML410.L7A4 1987. A compilation of some 400 letters that corrects omissions and errors found in earlier editions of Liszt’s letters to his mother Anna (item 305), Marie d’Agoult (item 303), and Agnès Street-Klindworth (items 289 [vol. 3] and 317). In French throughout. A much shorter Huré-Knepper collection of Liszt correspondence, based on D-WRgs holographs, appeared under the title “Huit lettres inédites” in item 67, pp. 16–35. 294. Franz Liszt in seinen Briefen, ed. Eduard Reuß [or Reuss]. Stuttgart: Greiner & Pfeiffer, n.d. vi, 235 pp. ML410.L7R58. Consists of excerpts from item 289, grouped according to recipients and published around the turn of the last century. In German throughout. 295. Franz Liszt in seinen Briefen. Eine Auswahl, ed. Hans Rudolf Jung. Frankfurt: Athenäum, 1988. 523 pp. ISBN 3610084707. OCLC 18476550. Contains 170 letters, some of them never previously published, including four letters by Liszt’s father Adam. Illustrated with sixteen black-and-white plates of portraits, facsimile manuscript pages, sheet-music covers, and so on (pp. 257–72). Concludes with more than 150 pages of detailed commentary, information about the source of each letter, and a useful index. Originally published in 1987 by Henschel of East Berlin. For additional information about some of the source materials used by Jung in both the Frankfurt and East Berlin texts of this anthology, see Gerhard J. Winkler’s review in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 23 (1988): 113–15. 296. Franz Liszt—L’artiste, le clerc. Documents inédits, ed. Jacques Vier. Paris: Editions du Cèdre, 1950. 158 pp. ML410.L7A18. A miscellany of letters, including more than two dozen addressed to the composer’s mother Anna before her death in 1866. Also includes the texts of letters to Marie d’Agoult, Jules Janin, Maurice Schlesinger, and other important figures in Liszt’s life. With regard to articles about many of these figures, see Chapter 5. Three collections of correspondence consist of letters written by members of Liszt’s circle:

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297. Briefe hervorragender Zeitgenossen an Franz Liszt, ed. La Mara. 3 vols. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1895–1904. ML410.L7L52. Next to Franz Liszt’s Briefe and Williams’s compendium, the largest published collection of Liszt letters. Includes 798 missives addressed to the composer between 1824 and 1854 (vol. 1), 1855 and 1881 (vol. 2), and 1836–1881 (vol. 3, issued as a supplement [Neue Folge]). The letters themselves are printed in French or German, according to the language they were written in. Unfortunately lacks both bibliography and critical apparatus, aside from brief biographies of correspondents. 298. Marie d’Agoult/George Sand. Correspondance, ed. Charles F. Dupêchez; 3d rev. ed. Paris: Bartillat, 1995. 303 pp. ISBN 2841002586. PQ2152.A38Z49 2001. A handsome edition of the letters exchanged by two (?) of Liszt’s lovers. Among other illustrations provided by Dupêchez is virtually every extant portrait of d’Agoult, some rare and little-known; he also provides a brief list of references (pp. 291–93). Notes supply information of great value to students of Liszt’s life and compositions. 299. Pocknell, Pauline. “Princess Carolyne von Sayn-Wittgenstein: Correspondence with Liszt’s Family and Friends.” Liszt Saeculum nos. 49 (1992): 3–67 [Part I] and 50 (1993): 3–35 [Part II]. ISSN 0263-0249. ML410.L7I6. Like Pocknell’s other letters studies (items 317, 321–27, and so on), a work of meticulous transcription, translation, and annotation. Includes the texts of ten letters, written between 1850 and 1875 and addressed to François-Joseph Fétis, Eduard von Liszt, and Henreitta von Liszt; each letter is reproduced in facsimile as well as presented in both its original French and English (in facing columns). Also includes lists of sources and sigla in each part of the article. EDITIONS

OF

LETTERS OWNED

BY

INDIVIDUAL INSTITUTIONS

300. Lettres autographes conservées à la Bibliothèque Royale Albert 1er.— Ferenc Liszt, ed. Yves Lenoir. Fontes musicae Bibliothecae Regiae Belgicae, 1. Brussels: Royal Belgian Library, 1986. 32 pp. ISBN 287093033X. A pamphlet-sized collection of seven letters published in facsimile, in their original French texts, and in Flemish translations. Includes a previously unpublished note addressed 16 September 1826 to one Paultre de Lamothe. 301. Liszt Letters in the Library of Congress, trans. and ed. Michael Short. “Franz Liszt Studies Series,” 10. Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon, 2003. xiv, 391 pp. ISBN 1576470202. ML410.L7vbA4 2002.

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Provides translations of and detailed notes for 307 letters addressed by Liszt to a host of correspondents between 1829 and 1886, together with transcriptions of the original texts, a scattering of musical examples, and seventeen reproductions of letter pages and envelopes, concert programs, and musical manuscripts. Short’s edition corrects references to many of the same letters found in item 100 as well as providing information about documents acquired by the library since the early 1990s. Includes as a frontispiece a reproduction of Antoine Bovy’s Liszt silhouette; concludes with a register of the letters according to earlier LC numbering (pp. 365–70), a list of sources and sigla (pp. 371–77), and indexes of names and musical compositions cited either in the letters themselves or the accompanying notes. Supersedes Edward N. Waters’s article “Franz Liszt to Richard Pohl,” published in Studies in Romanticism 6 (1967): 193–202, which describes and quotes from the Liszt-Pohl portions of the Library’s correspondence. * Eckhardt and Knotik. Franz Liszt und sein Kreis… Described as item 113. A museum catalog as well as a collection of letters written by Princess Carolyne, Liszt’s nephew Eduard von Liszt, Richard Wagner, etc. EDITIONS OF LETTERS ADDRESSED TO INDIVIDUAL RECIPIENTS AND GROUPS Marie d’ Agoult [née Flavigny] 302. Franz Liszt [et] Marie d’Agoult. Correspondance, ed. Serge Gut and Jacqueline Bellas. Paris: Arthème Fayard, 2001. 1,344 pp. ISBN 221361010X. ML410.L7A4 2001. A stupendous work of scholarship, comprising the complete texts of 562 letters exchanged by Liszt and the comtesse between 1833 and 1864. Supplemented with detailed notes, timelines for each of fourteen chapters representing stages in the stormy Liszt-d’Agoult relationship, and the texts of eight additional documents; the last ranges from a letter addressed to the comtesse by Théophile de Ferrière on 1 January 1834, to extracts from Marie’s diaries of May–June 1861. Gut and Bellas build and improve upon the edition of Daniel Ollivier published during the 1930s (item 303); hence the title-page description of their work as a “nouvelle édition revue, augmentée et annotée.” They also provide a glossary of individuals mentioned in the various documents (pp. 1225–1302); a list of surnames, nicknames, and pseudonyms—the only one of its kind and value in print (pp. 1303–5); a concordance of city names in various languages (pp. 1307–8); and a list of works consulted (pp. 1309–10). Illustrated with a small number of documentary facsimiles; concludes with indexes of personal names and compositions by Liszt. Reviewed by Pauline Pocknell (see item 304). Closely related studies include two of Gut’s articles: “Die Neuausgabe des Liszt-d’Agoult-Briefwechsels. Ein ‘Werkstattbericht,’” in item 176, pp.

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117–21, and “Nouvelle approche des premières oeuvres de Franz Liszt d’après la correspondance Liszt-d’Agoult,” in item 49, pp. 237–48. NB: A few of Liszt’s letters to the comtesse have been reprinted elsewhere; see, for instance, Famous Love Letters: Messages of Intimacy and Passion, ed. Ronald Tamplin (Pleasantville, NY, 1995): 58–61, which quotes from and comments on a letter Liszt addressed to d’Agoult in December 1834. 303. Correspondance de Liszt et de la Comtesse d’Agoult, ed. Daniel Ollivier. 2 vols. Paris: Bernard Grasset, 1933–1934. ML410.L7A32 1933–1934. Contains 566 letters exchanged by Liszt and Marie d’Agoult, his lover and the mother of his three children. Also includes Liszt’s copies of letters to several miscellaneous correspondents and to the committee charged with erecting a memorial to Beethoven in Bonn. A German-language edition of the first volume, edited by Käthe Illich, was published in Berlin in 1933 under the title Briefe an Marie Gräfin d’Agoult. Item 302 supersedes both editions. Anna Liszt [née Lager] 304. Franz Liszt: Briefwechsel mit seiner Mutter, ed. Klára Hamburger. “Festgabe zum zehnjährigen Bestehen der Kulturpartnerschaft Bayreuth—Burgenland.” Eisenstadt: Amt der Burgenländischen Landesregierung, 2000. 544 pp. ISBN 3901517227. A carefully compiled, edited, and annotated collection of 121 letters addressed by Liszt to his mother [= “F1–121” (pp. 39–369)]. Hamburger provides an enlightening introduction (pp. 13–37) and notes as well as the texts of all letters in both French and German; she also reproduces the texts of seventy letters from Anna Liszt to her son [= “A1–70” (pp. 371–505)] and eleven to the Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein, as well as the texts of two other letters, a scattering of illustrations—among them several facsimiles of concert programs, portraits of Liszt, and a photograph of Anna Liszt herself (the last p. 470)—and a list of sigla and sources (pp. 529–35). Concludes with an index. Reviewed in Music & Letters 82 (2001): 639–42; the Revue de musicologie 87 (2001): 197–98; and, together with items 291 and 302, by Pauline Pocknell in a forthcoming 2004 issue of the Canadian University Music Review. Supersedes Hamburger’s “Liszt Anna. Arcképvázlat Liszt Ferenc édesanyjáról, ismeretlen dokumentumok fényében,” Magyar zene 27 (1986): 126–66; “Madame Liszt (Versuch eines Bildnisentwurfs auf Grund von unbekannten Dokumenten),” Studia Musicologica 27 (1985): 325–78; and “Madame Liszt (Versuch eines Porträts von bisher unveröffentlichten Dokumenten),” item 144, pp. 20–25. See, too, Eckhardt, “Une femme simple, mère d’un génie européen: ‘Anna Liszt / Quelques aspects d’une correspondance’,” in item 48, pp. 199–214, and Hamburger, “Aus der Korrespondenz der Familie Liszt,” Studia Musicologica 31 (1989): 441–63.

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305. Franz Liszt: Briefe an seine Mutter, ed. La Mara. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1918. 156 pp. ML410.L7A39. A German-language edition of 102 letters written by Liszt between 1827 and 1866. Superseded by item 304. Blandine Liszt [wife of Emile Ollivier] 306. Correspondance de Liszt et de sa fille Madame Emile Ollivier, 1842–1862, ed. Daniel Ollivier. Paris: Bernard Grasset, 1936. 341 pp. ML410.L7A28. Contains 179 letters addressed by Liszt not only to his daughter Blandine, but also to his other children (Cosima and Daniel) as well as the children as a group. Concludes with an index of names. NB: Much of this volume’s contents appeared originally in the Revue de musicologie 105 (1935): 836–68 and 106 (1936): 111–44. 307. Troisier de Diaz, Anne. “Selections from the Correspondence of Blandine, Daughter of Liszt and Wife of Emile Ollivier.” In item 56, pp. 91–122. Consists of twenty-three letters from Blandine to her father as well as to Joseph Lecourt, Eduard von Liszt, Emile (her husband), Désmosthène Ollivier, and Princess Carolyne: all of them written 1857–1862 and presented in their original French as well as in English translation. Also includes introductory words about Blandine and her relationship with Liszt, and the text of a single letter sent by Ernest Ollivier in 1865 to Marie d’Agoult and describing his feelings on the third anniversary of Blandine’s death in childbirth. Joachim Raff 308. Raff, Helene. “Franz Liszt und Joachim Raff im Spiegel ihrer Briefe.” Die Musik 1 (1901–1902): 36ff. ML5.M9. Discusses the relationship Liszt and Raff enjoyed during much of their lives. Helene Raff illustrates her reminiscences with the complete texts of more than fifty letters, most of them Liszt’s and only two of them published in item 289. Important not only for the letters themselves but for Helene Raff’s affirmation of her father’s belief that he “taught” Liszt how to write for the orchestra. With regard to this last topic, see items 309 and 1146. 309. Deaville, James. “A ‘Daily Diary of the Weimar Dream’: Joachim Raff’s Unpublished Letters to Doris Genast, 1852–1856.” In item 42, pp. 181–216. A study of previously obscure documents—letters Raff addressed to his fiancée—which, as Deaville concludes, “illuminate the general musical and social life within the Liszt circle of the early 1850s” and “shed new light

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upon such diverse areas of interest as Brahms’s visit to Weimar in 1853, the genesis of specific literary and musical works by Liszt, the Karlsruhe music festival of 1853,” and so on (p. 215). Contains extensive quotation from the letters themselves and other primary sources; illustrated with a single facsimile of a letter page. Richard Wagner 310. Briefwechsel zwischen Wagner und Liszt, ed. Erich Kloss. 3d enlarged ed.; 2 vols. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1910. ML410.W1A362 1912. Contains the texts of 351 letters exchanged by the two composers between 1841 and 1882; vol. 2 concludes with an index of names. Letters in French and German, with German-language translations of French letters printed in appendices. NB: Earlier editions of the Liszt-Wagner correspondence, also published by Breitkopf & Härtel, are far less reliable; they were prepared (anonymously) by Cosima, Liszt’s daughter, very shortly after her father’s death in 1886. Translations made during the 1890s by Francis Hueffner (into English) and L. Schmidt-Lacant (into French) were based on the pre-Kloss texts. The Kloss edition is also available in a 1943 French-language version edited by G. Samazeuilh. 311. Franz Liszt—Richard Wagner. Briefwechsel, ed. Hanjo Kesting. Frankfurt a.M.: Insel, 1988. 757 pp. ISBN 3458143696. ML410.L7A4 1988. A new, somewhat sparsely annotated edition of the Liszt-Wagner letters published previously in several editions. Includes twenty letters omitted from other editions. Concludes with German-language translations of French texts and with an index of names. Other Individuals 312. [Augusz, Anton]. Franz Liszts Briefe an Baron Anton Augusz, 1846–1878, ed. Wilhelm von Csápo. Budapest: Franklin, 1911. 233 pp. ML410.L7A37. Comprises 117 letters preceded by the editor’s reminiscences of Liszt (“Aus meinen Erinnerungen”; pp. 1–38). Illustrated with facsimile reproductions of several manuscripts, including an Albumblatt dating from 1839 and a Liszt portrait as frontispiece. Most of the letters are printed in French, although some were written in and appear in German. With regard to other Liszt-Augusz letters, see item 127. A Hungarian-language edition of this volume was also published in 1911 under the title Liszt Ferencz levelei báró Augusz Antalhoz.

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313. [Bülow, Hans von]. Briefwechsel zwischen Franz Liszt und Hans von Bülow, ed. La Mara. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1898. viii, 426 pp. ML410.L7A39. A collection of 216 letters spanning the years 1851–1884, although most of them date from the 1850s and 1860s. Bülow was Liszt’s pupil and friend as well as the first husband of the composer’s daughter Cosima. Includes a “miscellaneous” Liszt letter; concludes with an index of names. Also published in French (Leipzig, 1899). 314. [Carl Alexander, Grand Duke of Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach]. Briefwechsel zwischen Franz Liszt und Carl Alexander Grossherzog von Sachsen, ed. La Mara. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1909. 266 pp. ML410.L7A33. Reprints some 200 letters exchanged by Liszt and his sometime patron, Weimar’s grand duke, between 1845 and 1886, together with a letter from Wagner to Carl Alexander and a few miscellaneous missives. Also available in a French edition (Leipzig, 1909). With regard to the grand duke’s relationship with Liszt, see item 664. 315. [Gille, Carl]. Franz Liszt’s Briefe an Carl Gille. Mit einer biographischen Einleitung, ed. Adolf Stern. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1903. lxv, 96 pp. ML410.L7A36. Includes seventy-four letters in all—among them letters addressed to Gille and quoted in the introduction, and letters written by Cornelius and Richard Wagner. 316. [Liszt, Cosima, and Daniela Wagner]. Liszt, Franz. Lettres à Cosima et à Daniela, ed. Klára Hamburger. “Collection ‘Musique-Musicologie.’” Liège: Pierre Mardaga, 1996. 240 pp. ISBN 287009549X. Includes the texts of 153 letters Liszt addressed to one of his daughters and one of his granddaughters between 1845 and 1886, together with five additional letters in the form of appendices (pp. 220–29), a bibliography (pp. 230–32), and indexes of personal names and Liszt’s compositions (pp. 233–38); concludes with a table of contents. Illustrated with twenty-two works of art, photographs, and documentary facsimiles, including several Liszt portraits and two manuscript pages from Christus. Hamburger’s useful notes appear after each letter; she also provides an introduction (pp. 7–20) and information about many documentary sources. Supersedes “Liszt, Father and Grandfather: Unpublished letters to Cosima and Daniela von Bülow,” New Hungarian Quarterly 32/121 (Spring 1991): 118–31. Reviewed as a volume by Adrian Williams in Music & Letters 78 (1997): 442–44. * [Sayn-Wittgenstein, Carolyne zu.] See item 289, vols. 4–7.

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317. [Street-Klindworth, Agnes]. Franz Liszt and Agnes Street-Klindworth: A Correspondence, 1854–1886, trans. and ed. Pauline Pocknell. “Franz Liszt Studies Series,” 8. Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon, 2001. lxix, 452 pp. ISBN 1576470067. A complete, uncensored, exhaustively annotated edition of Liszt’s 160 surviving letters to Klindworth, originally published in deliberately falsified versions as item 289, vol. 3 (item 1, vol. 2, pp. 209ff, and items 76, 340, etc.). Pocknell provides three (!) introductory essays and fifty-three documentary facsimiles and other illustrations—among them, as a frontispiece, a reproduction of the only known portrait of Agnes. She also provides transcriptions of the letters in their original languages (mostly French; pp. 299–382) and an extensive bibliography (pp. 383–407). Concludes with a lengthy index. Praised by Serge Gut in the Revue de musicologie 88 (2002): 223–26. Finally, two disappointing book-length collections of letters continue to “haunt” the Liszt literature: 318. The Letters of Franz Liszt to Marie zu Sayn-Wittgenstein, ed. Howard E. Hugo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1953. x, 376 pp. ML410.L7A365. A surprisingly poor collection, full of errors and rash editorial opinions. Contains a number of letters originally printed in several periodical publications and addressed by Liszt to Marie, a princess in her own right as daughter of Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein and later the wife of Konstantin Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst. Concludes with critical notes and an index but lacks the texts of the letters in their original French. Reviewed at some length—and with devestating wit—by Jacques Barzun in The Musical Quarterly 40 (1954): 110–15. See, too, “Letters to Marie Wittgenstein” in The Musical Quarterly 22 (1936): 259–76. 319. The Letters of Franz Liszt to Olga von Meyendorff, 1871–1886, in the Mildred Bliss Collection at Dumbarton Oaks, ed. William Tyler and Edward N. Waters. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks, 1979. xxi, 532 pp. ISBN 0884020789. ML410.L7A363. Another lackluster publication. Tyler and Waters provide comparatively little information about the provenance and contents of these letters, their index is disappointing, and no French-language texts accompany their translations. A detailed discussion of this collection, written by Mária Eckhardt, appeared in Studia Musicologica 22 (1980): 468–74; Sharon Winklhofer, who reviewed it for 19th Century Music [4 (1980–1981): 266–70], observed that “the specialist will not be served” by its contents (p. 266).

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LETTERS

IN

PERIODICAL PUBLICATIONS

Individual Liszt letters have appeared in a variety of formats: as magazine articles, in newspapers, in museum catalogs, and so on. Virtually all periodical Liszt-letter publications to date are identified in item 76, but some of these deserve special attention. Appropriately, one of the most interesting recent series of such publications is Suttoni’s own: 320. Suttoni, Charles. “Liszt’s Letters.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 2–20 (1977–1986). ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. “Liszt to Alfred Jaëll and the E-flat Concerto”; 2 (1977): 32–34. “Liszt’s Letters (2); The ‘Hungarian Rhapsodies’”; 3 (1978): 27–29. “Liszt’s Letters (3); The Goethe Centenary”; 4 (1978): 57–59. “Liszt’s Letters (4); Isolation in Geneva”; 5 (1979): 75–78. “Liszt’s Letters (5)”; 6 (1979): 34–36. “Liszt’s Letters (6); ‘Reminiscences of Norma’”; 7 (1980): 77–79. “Liszt’s Letters: Anton Rubinstein at Weimar”; 8 (1980): 75–76. “Liszt Letters: The Tonsure and Minor Orders”; 9 (1981): 95–98. “Liszt’s Letters: Carl Gille”; 10 (1981): 71–76. “Liszt’s Letters: An Alpine Interlude”; 11 (1982): 42–46. “Liszt Letters: Emile Deschamps”; 12 (1982): 63–65. “Liszt Letters: Carolyne Wittgenstein on Their Publication”; 13 (1983): 116–19. “Liszt’s Letters: Lamennais’ Paroles d’un croyant”; 14 (1983): 71–73. “Liszt’s Letters: A Little-known Letter to Schumann”; 15 (1984): 174–77. “Liszt’s Letters: A Traveling Gypsy Troupe”; 16 (1984): 112–14. “Liszt’s Letters: Perseus, Cellini and Berlioz”; 17 (1985): 97–106. “Liszt’s Letters: A List for Herbeck (hereto unpublished)”; 18 (1985): 137–38 and 19 (1986), p. 149. “Liszt’s Letters: Valérie Boissier”; 19 (1986): 146–49. “Liszt’s Letters: A Last Note to Nourrit”; 20 (1986): 136–39. Each article in this worthwhile series presents a Liszt letter in both its original language and English, together with introductory observations and annotations. Most of Suttoni’s articles are illustrated with facsimile reproductions from letters manuscripts or early editions. The Herbeck installment reproduces a page entitled “Liste der verlangten Musikalien” missing from the Liszt-Herbeck letter of 11 October 1859, at least insofar as it appeared originally in item 289.

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The other most important living English-language Liszt-letters specialist is Pauline Pocknell. Among her various publications are item 317 and the following seven more specialized studies, the last of them co-authored by the late Lennart Rabes: 321. Pocknell, Pauline. “Franz Liszt and Joseph Maria Lefebvre: A Correspondence, 1841–1848.” Liszt Saeculum nos. 54 (1995): 39–76 [Part I] and 55 (1995): 3–37. ISSN 0263-0249. ML410.L7I6. Presents in complete facsimile reproduction, careful transcription, and English-language translation some twenty-three of Liszt’s letters to Lefebvre, one of the composer’s closest friends of the 1840s and an important piano manufacturer in Cologne. Among other subjects, these letters present otherwise undocumented details of the composer’s concert tours. Includes, as do most of Pocknell’s publications, fulsome notes as well as a list of sources and sigla. 322. Pocknell, Pauline. “Franz Liszt: Fifteen Autograph Letters, 1841–1883” = entire issue of the Journal of the American Liszt Society 39 (1996). ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Another of Pocknell’s painstaking transcription/translation publications, copiously outfitted with notes and supplementary information. Illustrated with thirteen facsimiles and photographs, including an 1866 Paris photograph of Liszt, a reproduction of Bovy’s 1837 medallion of the composer, announcements of several concerts and festivals, and a reproduction of the original cover of Otto Singer’s cantata The Landing of the Pilgrim Fathers (Cincinnati, 1876), with its Liszt dedication. 323. Pocknell, Pauline. “Franz Liszt to Marie Pleyel: An Unknown Letter from the British Tours (1840–41).” Liszt Society Journal 18 (1993): 1–10. ML410.L7L6. Valuable not only for its transcription and translation of a letter written during December 1840, and its information about the Liszt-Pleyel relationship, but also for the letter’s remarkable character as “non-travel document”; in its pages, as Pocknell points out, Liszt avoids references to “weather, scenery, company,” and so on, and instead paints a verbal picture of “bucolic ease in gentle climes and medieval splendour, symbolic perhaps of his hopes at the start” of an exhausting tour (p. 5). Concludes with several pages of detailed notes. 324. Pocknell, Pauline. “Two Roman Holographs in a North American Archive: Liszt to Giovanni Sgambati; [and] to an Erard Representative.” Liszt Saeculum nos. 47–48 (1992): 24–36. ISSN 0263-0249. ML410.L7I6.

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Presents complete facsimiles, transcriptions, and translations of two notes— the first dating from 1879, the second from 1885—once owned by Isador Philippe and belonging today to the University of Louisville library. Pocknell also provides information about a Liszt coat of arms, Sgambati’s compositions, and other related issues. Concludes with detailed notes. 325. Pocknell, Pauline. “Liszt and the Hamburg Connection: Two Unpublished Letters to Friends.” Liszt Saeculum no. 57 (1996): 11–22. ISSN 0263-0249. ML410.L7I6. Similar to items 323 and 324, except that this time Pocknell deals with a letter addressed to Schuberth’s publishing firm (October 1840), and to Therese Bacheracht, née von Struve (August 1842), together with the English text of a second letter to Bacheracht written in December 1840. Regarding evidence in these letters that Liszt did not visit Nonnenwerth during the summer of 1842, see item 559. 326. Pocknell, Pauline. “The Diplomatic Liszt. Two Notes to Don Onorato Caetani, Prince of Teano.” Liszt Saeculum no. 52 (1994): 3–12. ISSN 0263-0249. ML410.L7I6. Again, Pocknell presents facsimiles, transcriptions, and translations: this time of “formal duty-notes” dating from 1876 and 1879—the first preserved only in a handwritten copy made by Lina Ramann and kept in Weimar— that “reveal the nature of his coping mechanisms” when confronted with claims upon his time and artistic enthusiasms (p. 9). Also includes facsimiles of a playbill and list of participants for an all-Liszt concert presented on 1 May 1876 in Düsseldorf. 327. Pocknell, Pauline, with Lennart Rabes. “Franz Liszt on the Road to St Petersburg: Reflections on an Unpublished Letter of 1842 to Councillor Malinski in Königsberg.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 41 (1997): 21–37. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Identifies the twelve known letters Liszt wrote between 11 March and 11 April 1842 on his way to Russia, especially one addressed to Malinski of 7 April 1842 and presented for the first time in this article in complete facsimile, transcription, and translation. Also includes information about Liszt’s 1842 experiences in Königsberg; regarding the last subject, see item 544. Several biographical studies are, in essence, studies of letters and their contents. These include: 328. Eckhardt, Mária [P.]. “Liszt in his Formative Years—Unpublished Letters, 1824–1827.” New Hungarian Quarterly 27/103 (Autumn 1986): 93–107. ISSN 0028-5390. DB901.H83.

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Describes and reprints in their original French texts eight extremely early Liszt letters preserved in the collections of the Richard Wagner Archives, Bayreuth. Illustrated with a facsimile of a letter addressed by Liszt on 3 April 1824 to Comtesse Eugénie de Noirberne. Also includes two letters by Adam Liszt. Outfitted with numerous and detailed endnotes. 329. Jung, Hans Rudolf. “Einige Lebens- und Schaffensprobleme Franz Liszts in den Jahren 1859 bis 1861—Dargestellt unter Verwendung unveröffentlichter Briefe des Komponisten.” In item 478, pp. 56–69. Deals with Liszt’s difficulties in Weimar during the late 1850s, his compositional activities during those years, and his resignation as director of the Hoftheater. Jung quotes from previously unpublished letters written by Liszt during 1859–1860 and owned by the Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv, Weimar, and the Deutsche Staatsbibliothek, Berlin [then East Berlin]. Some of the documents quoted in this article also appear in item 295. Also contains useful bibliographic citations in the form of endnotes. The following four outstanding studies appeared in print recently and deserve special recognition: 330. Beghelli, Marco. “Nuove lettere per Madame Helbig.” Quaderni dell’Istituto Liszt 1 (1998): 7–79. ISBN 8875925518. An exemplary study of ten communications from Liszt to one of his Roman pupils, herself a Russian princess and the author of important Liszt reminiscences (item 598). Beghelli provides facsimiles of the letters, but not of the single telegram, as well as transcriptions of Liszt’s French-language texts and translations into Italian; he also provides detailed commentary and notes. Equipped with its own bibliography (pp. 73–75) and index (pp. 76–78); concludes with an English-language summary. 331. Suttoni, Charles. “Liszt in Letters to Victor Schoelcher.” In item 40, pp. 187–208. A collection of nine letters dating from 1834 to 1839 and addressed by Liszt to Schoelcher, one of his earliest friends and possibly an important influence upon his political thinking, especially between 1837 and 1839; a tenth letter dates from 1879. Suttoni provides complete transcriptions and translations as well as information about Schoelcher’s life and career. No facsimiles or other illustrations, however. 332. Suttoni, Charles. “Unpublished Liszt Letters at Yale: The Horowitz Papers.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 49 (2001): 1–9. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68.

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Identifies and reprints the texts of six letters formerly in the possession of concert pianist Vladimir Horowitz, together with brief comments on other portions of Yale’s Horowitz collection. 333. Wright, William. “New Letters of Liszt” [Parts 1–2]. Journal of the American Liszt Society 31 (1992): 7–33 [Part I] and 33 (1993): 10–36 [Part II]. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Presents the complete texts of thirty-eight previously unpublished letters, written between 1824 and 1886 and owned by the International Music Museum and Royal College of Music, both of London; the Hertford County Record Office; the Castle Howard (York) archives; the collections of Sir David Ogilvy and several other individuals; and so on. Illustrated with facsimiles of five letters, printed on glossy paper and bound between pp. 14–15 [Part I] as well as additional unpaginated pages containing—among other treasures—an 1841 Liszt portrait by James Minasi and a facsimile of a playbill for a Liszt benefit concert of 17 June 1825 [Part II; the playbill, p. 11]. Related to other of Wright’s studies in terms of their “English connections”; see items 519ff. Part 3, containing fourteen letters in all (including two by Anna Liszt) addressed to Julius Benedict, Henry Chorley, and Louise de Mercy-Argenteau (regarding the last individual, see item 679), was scheduled for publication in the Hungarian Quarterly 44/170 (Summer 2003), shortly before the present research guide went to press. Finally, three additional letters publications exemplify either those confusions that pepper the Liszt literature over “what” was published “when” and “where,” or the complex character of items that are at one and the same time editions, catalogs, and biographical studies: 334. Bodo, Árpád [sic]. “Discovery of Letter by Liszt.” Liszt Society Journal 4 (1979), p. 30. ML410.L7L6. Introduces, then reprints in English, the text of a note Liszt addressed to Amalie von Fabry on 21 November 1879. Also published [?in Hungarian] in an unidentified issue of Dunántuli Napló. Like other “unpublished” Liszt letters, however, this one had already appeared in print; see Imre Achátz, “Ein unveröffentlicher Liszt-Brief im Archiv des Komitats Baranya,” Studia Musicologica 20 (1978): 405–12. And item 76, entry 800. * Hamburger. “Documents—Liszt à Rome.” See item 125. A reference work as well as a collection of letter texts. * Hamburger. “Liszt et Pauline Viardot-Garcia….” Described as item 694. Draws upon the complete texts of seven letters (pp. 198–202) in order to evaluate the composer’s relationship with an important musician and correspondent.

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RELATED STUDIES In addition to transcriptions and translations of the composer’s correspondence, scholars have also published studies of Liszt’s epistolary habits, attitudes, and output. Among these studies is a pamphlet-length survey of Liszt as letter writer: 335. Bondeville, M. Emmanuel. Un grand epistolier Franz Liszt. Paris: DirminDidat, 1978. 13 pp. ML410.L7B63. The text of a lecture delivered on 15 November 1978 before the Académie des Beaux-Arts. Bondeville deals rather superficially with Liszt’s letters, literary studies, and contacts with certain literary figures. Illustrated with a familiar lithograph Liszt portrait. Two worthwhile studies of the letter sketchbooks Liszt used during much of his life deserve attention: 336. Eckhardt, Mária [P.]. “Zur Frage der Liszt’chen Briefkonzeptbücher.” In item 47, pp. 43–54. Describes Liszt’s “letter-sketchbooks,” based on an examination of H-Bn Mus. ms. 376, which contains drafts of more than 300 letters Liszt written between January 1877 and May 1878, as well as other documents preserved in the Library of Congress and in Weimar archives. Includes six facsimile reproductions: five of them taken from the “Budapest Sketchbook” (identified above), the other from a letter Liszt addressed to Baron Augusz on 8 June 1877. Among Eckhardt’s other studies of Liszt letters and related documents are “Liszt Ferenc levelei. Az MTA Zenetudományi intézetének majorGyu# jteményében,” Zenetudományi dolgozatok (1987): 281–302, which deals with eight letters as recent Budapest Liszt acquisitions and contains six pages of documentary facsimiles—including one of a telegram from Liszt to Ferenc Erkel and “A Liszt Ferenc Emlékmúzeum új szerzeményei 1986–1989. II. Liszt–levelek,” Magyar zene 31 (1990): 233–54, which also deals with recent Budapest acquisitions and contains eleven pages of documentary facsimiles. 337. Kraft, Günther. “Franz Liszt v zrkadle svojich skicárov / Franz Liszt im Spiegel seiner Konzeptbücher.” In item 45, pp. 109–22. An introduction to Liszt’s letter-sketchbooks based on discussion of Weimar Staatsarchiv document “Hausarchiv Carl Alexander Nr. 1622,” identified by Eckhardt in item 336. Kraft intended to publish a longer article about Weimar Liszt letter-sketchbooks in Beiträge zur Musikwissenschaft, but his death put an end to this plan. See, however, Paul Bertagnolli’s description of a Liszt

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letter draft to Johann Herbeck, published as “Heavenly Proclamations, the Wiener Männersangverein, and a Newly Discovered ‘Konzept-Brief’” in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 50 (2001): 1–8. The most important discussion of the “complete” Liszt letters-edition project proposed almost twenty years ago remains: 338. Knepper, Claude. “Le project d’édition intégrale de la correspondance de Franz Liszt.” In item 48, pp. 347–64. Announces the publication of a new complete edition of Liszt’s correspondence, a Herculean undertaking. Presented at the 1986 Paris Liszt conference; published as an appendix to its proceedings. Evaluated as a project by Dezso# Legány in “Konzeption und Editionsprinzipien einer Gesamtausgabe der Liszt-Briefe: eine kritische Würdigung” (item 176, pp. 109–16). Finally, several important studies examine published editions Liszt’s correspondence for their impact on the lives, thoughts, and works of other composers, or in terms of their overall reliability. Among these are: 339. Bónis, Ferenc. “Liszt und Wagner-Briefe an Mosonyi in Kodálys wissenschaftlicher Bearbeitung.” Die Musikforschung 39 (1986): 317–34. ISSN 0027-4801. ML5.M9437. Traces the history and describes the significance of several letters edited by Zoltán Kodály for publication during the 1920s. Includes the complete texts of two letters Liszt addressed to Mosonyi during 1857 and 1862 as well as two letters Wagner addressed to Mosonyi in 1863 and 1865. Illustrated with a complete facsimile reproduction of Liszt’s 29 April 1857 letter as well as facsimiles of Kodály’s hand- and typewritten transcripts. Both Liszt letters contain musical examples, reproduced in handwritten copies apparently prepared by the author. See also Janos Breuer, “Zoltán Kodály on Liszt,” Liszt Society Journal 22 (1997): 9–11, a brief synopsis of the younger Hungarian composer’s “take” on his predecessor. 340. Winklhofer, Sharon. “Editorial Censorship in Liszt’s Letters to Agnès Street-Klindworth.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 9 (1981): 42–49. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Discusses editorial suppression in the published text of item 289, vol. 3, based on a study of copies of Liszt letters presented in D-WRgs. Winklhofer describes how and why La Mara and the Princess Sayn-Wittgenstein conspired to falsify materials. With regard to the Liszt-Agnes affair, see item 317 and several studies described in Chapter 5.

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MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES Much of what we know about Liszt comes from reminiscences and other eyewitness accounts of his life and musical activities. Although the books and articles described below do not take into account every extant, first-person account of Liszt and his circle, they represent most of them in one edition or another. Quotations from these and a few other reminiscences also appear in the publications described throughout Chapter 5. COLLECTIONS

OF

MEMOIRS

The finest collection of Liszt reminiscences ever to appear in print is: 341. Portrait of Liszt by Himself and His Contemporaries, ed. Adrian Williams. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1990. xiii, 746 pp. ISBN 1198161506. ML410.L7W55 1989 [sic]. A massive assembly of press clippings, reminiscences, reports of individual performances, and other biographical documents. Williams has divided his material among chapters devoted to individual years or groups of years in Liszt’s life; he also provides a running commentary and copious bibliographic citations. Illustrated with more than two dozen mostly familiar black-and-white portraits, facsimile reproductions of manuscript pages, and other pictures. A valuable reference work that can also be read as a biography, Williams’s book suffers only from its reliance on French and English sources. Concludes with an index of names and composition titles. Reviewed in the Revue de musicologie 78 (1992): 170–72 and by Michael Saffle—together with items 260 and 429—in Notes 47 (1990–1991): 1133–35. See also item 212. Two other anthologies deserve careful attention: 342. “Liszt Through the Decades of His Life: A Selection of Contemporary Impressions.” Liszt Society Journal 11 (1986): 2–21. ML410.L7L6. A biographical sketch in the form of quotations from such figures as Liszt’s father Adam Liszt, Valérie Boissier (item 348), Jules Janin, Otto Roquette, and others. Illustrated with several well-known portraits of Liszt and his contemporaries. NB: The Liszt Society Journal has published similar collections of vignettes, most of them available from other published sources— for example, “Sketches of the Master,” selected and translated by Adrian Williams [Liszt Society Journal 1 (1975): 17–18]. See also item 343. 343. ”1886: Liszt’s Last Months and Death. A Selection of Contemporary Impressions.” Liszt Society Journal 11 (1986): 102–10. ML410.L7L6.

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An anthology of excerpts from well-known reminiscences of Liszt’s last months (January–July 1886), taken from recollections by August Stradal (item 370) as well as from the London Times, the Budapest “Musical Journal” Zenelap, and so on. Illustrated with photographs of Liszt taken in London in April 1886, in Luxembourg in July 1886, and on his deathbed in Bayreuth, as well as a contemporary sketch of Liszt’s Bayreuth funeral, held on 3 August 1886. REMINISCENCES

OF

INDIVIDUAL AUTHORS

Perhaps the single most important individual volume of Liszt reminiscences is: 344. Ramann, Lina. Lisztiana: Erinnerungen an Franz Liszt in Tagebuchblättern, Briefen und Dokumenten aus den Jahren 1873–1886/87, ed. Arthur Seidl and Friedrich Schnapp. Mainz and New York: B. Schott’s Sons, 1983. 475 pp. ISBN 3795717825. ML410.L7R315. A fascinating collection of documents, complete by 1895 but left unpublished at Ramann’s death. Among other things, Lisztiana contains a number of Liszt letters, an index of selected items of Liszt correspondence (pp. 455–58), the questionnaires (pp. 385–408) Liszt completed for Ramann’s three-volume study of his life and music (item 3), and a catalog of Liszt’s works mentioned in Ramann’s text. Illustrated with photographs, musical examples, and facsimile reproductions of several documents. Reviewed in item 200. Thirty-six additional sets of individual Liszt “reminiscences” are described or cross-referenced below in alphabetical order—first by memoir writers’ surnames, then by titles: 345. [Agoult, Marie d’.] “Stern, Daniel” [pseud. of Marie d’Agoult]. Mémoires (1833–1854), intro. Daniel Ollivier; 5th ed. Paris: Calman Levy, 1927. xii, 246 pp. PQ2152.A38Z32 1927. D’Agoult’s published autobiographical account of her years with Liszt, which include the well-known “Journal des Zyï” (pp. 173–80) as well as many other passages pertinent to Liszt scholarship. Walker (item 1, vol. 1, pp. 259ff.) has questioned the veracity of these reminiscences. Not to be confused with d’Agoult’s Souvenirs, which describe her experiences of 1806–1833. Reprinted, together with the Souvenirs, in a new edition as Mémoires, souvenirs et journaux de la Comtesse d’Agoult, 2 vols.; ed. Daniel Stern and Charles Dupêchez (Paris, 1990). Reviewed as such in the Liszt Saeculum no. 49 (1992): 79–84. See, too, Meine Freundschaft mit Franz Liszt: Ein Roman der Liebe aus dem Memoiren einer berühmten Frau, translated into German by Egas von

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Wenden (Dresden, 1930): a posthumous d’Agoult “reader,” consisting of excerpts from her written remarks about Liszt. The Freundschaft is illustrated with several plates, most of them portraits of d’Agoult at various ages as well as with a facsimile of her handwriting. Rare, at least in the United States: the National Union Catalog [pre-1956 imprints series, vol. 5, p. 233] gives only a Dewey shelf-number [780.9 L774ya] for this volume. Finally, see item 377. 346. [Apponyi, Count Albert.] Apponyi, Albert. “Reminiscences of Liszt,” intro. Adrian Williams, Liszt Society Journal 3 (1978): 2–7. ML410.L7L6. Includes Apponyi’s impressions of Liszt as pianist and composer, together with “some interesting remarks on his [own] musical background and on the power of music” (p. 2). Includes, among other observations, an account of the first performance of Die Glocken des Strassburger Münsters, which Wagner heard in Apponyi’s presence in March 1875 and from which he apparently borrowed a theme for Parsifal. Excerpted from Chapter 3 (pp. 63–107) of The Memoirs of Count Apponyi (New York, Toronto, and London, 1935), a volume compiled by the count’s widow and little-known even now to many Lisztians. 347. [Boise, Otis B.] Boise, Otis B. “An American Composer Visits Liszt.” The Musical Quarterly 43 (1957): 316–25. ISSN 0027-4631. ML1.M725. An account of Boise’s visits with Liszt during 1876–1877, the advice about composition he received, and his recollections of Raff and some of Liszt’s piano pupils. Illustrated with a photograph of the author as well as a facsimile of a Liszt letter addressed to Boise and dated 20 July 1876. 348. [Boissier, Valérie.] Boissier, Valérie. Liszt pédagogue. Leçons de piano données par Liszt à Mlle. Valérie Boissier à Paris en 1832, ed. “Caroline Butini” [also known as Mme Auguste Boissier]. Paris: H. Champion, 1927. 96 pp. ML410.L7B62. A handsomely printed transcription of Mlle Boissier’s 1832 diary, one of the most valuable eyewitness accounts of Liszt’s pedagogical practices ever published. Illustrated in this edition with a portrait of Mme Auguste Boissier, the pianist’s mother, and with several famous diagrams Liszt drew for his pupil to illustrate ways of playing the piano. NB: Mlle Boissier is better known to students of nineteenth-century belles lettres as Catherine Valérie, Comtesse de Gasparin. Translations of Boissier’s diary have appeared in several languages, including German, Italian, and Spanish. Excerpts from them appear in Elyse Mach’s “Recollections of the Young Liszt as Teacher,” Piano Quarterly 23/89 (Spring 1975): 12–16, and other publications, including Marie-Rose

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Clouzot’s brief “Liszt pédagogue,” La Revue musicale [“Numéro special”] (1 May 1928). The 1930 German-language edition of Liszt pédagogue includes the text of a letter written by Liszt in 1855 missing in the original volume. Finally, otherwise unpublished portions of Mlle Boissier’s diary may be found in the first volume of La comtesse Agénor de Gasparin et sa famille, ed. Caroline Barbey-Boissier (Paris, 1902). 349. [Borodin, Alexander P.] Habets, Alfred. Borodin and Liszt, trans. Rosa Newmarch. London: Digby, Long & Co., 1895. 192 pp. ML410.B73H13. Contains “Liszt, as Sketched in the Letters of Borodin” (pp. 107–92), a collection of some or all of Borodin’s letters to his wife, as well as part of a letter Borodin addressed to César Cui on 12 June 1881. Illustrated with several portraits. A later edition of Habets’s book was reprinted in 1977 in facsimile by AMS Press of New York City (ISBN 0404129382). Often confused with several related collections of letters (item 76, entry 510). Passages from Borodin’s letters also appear in David Lloyd-Jones’s “Borodin on Liszt,” Music & Letters 42 (1961): 217–26. Finally, see Borodin, Vospominaniia o F. Liste (Moscow, 1953), and “Meine Erinnerungen an Liszt” in item 133, pp. 28–64. A brief review by Tamara Burde of Borodin’s Liszt reminiscences appeared as “Liszt in Erinnerungen von Alexander Borodin” in item 789, pp. 159–66. 350. [Brunswick, Theresa.] Hornyák, Mária. “Liszt in Martonvásár (11. Mai 1846).” Studia Musicologica 30 (1988): 333–41. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. At once a “reminiscence” (albeit a brief one), preserved in a manuscript belonging to the Szabó Ervin Bibliothek, and a study of Liszt’s 1846 concert tours of Hungary and the Balkans; Hornyák is interested in both. Includes a one-page facsimile from Brunswick’s diary (p. 339), together with a complete transcript of the entry in question. Also includes a picture of the Brunswick-Schloß as it appeared early in the nineteenth century. * [Csápo Wilhelm von.] [reminiscences]. Described under item 312. 351. [Czerny, Carl.] Czerny, Carl. Erinnerungen aus meinem Leben, ed. Walter Kolneder. Collections d’études musicologiques, 46. Strasbourg: P. H. Hertz, 1968. 78 pp. ML410.C99A3. Contains a fascinating account of Liszt’s youthful musical talent and training (pp. 27–29), recorded by one of nineteenth-century Europe’s most important piano pedagogues. Also includes the text of a letter Liszt wrote Czerny in September 1852. Despite the place of publication, in German throughout.

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An English-language translation of the Liszt portions of this document appeared under the title “Recollections from My Life” in The Musical Quarterly 42 (1956): 314–16. Another translation, this one by Elgin Ronayne, appeared in the Liszt Society Journal 26 (2001): 14–16. * [Draeseke, Felix.] Guitierrez-Denhoff. “Felix Draeseke und Franz Liszt….” Described as item 667. 352. [“B. E.”] “Reminiscences of Liszt.” Liszt Society Journal 9 (1984): 42–44. ML410.L7L6. Purports to be an account of someone’s 1871 love affair with Liszt! The Liszt Society Journal’s editors say the article was originally published in 1886 but do not identify a particular source. Illustrated with a photograph of Weimar and that city’s Herder Church. 353. [“Eliot, George” (pseud. of Marian or Mary Ann Evans).] Eliot, George. “Three Months in Weimar.” Fraser’s Magazine 51 (June 1855): 699–706 and “Liszt, Wagner and Weimar.” Fraser’s Magazine 52 (July 1855): 48–62. Among the most widely quoted of Liszt reminiscences. One of Victorian England’s foremost novelists, Eliot visited Weimar with her husband George Henry Lewis in order for him to research his Life and Works of Goethe. Quoted, among other places, in items 1 and 341. One of many myths surrounding Liszt is the notion that he may have been portrayed in Eliot’s 1876 novel Daniel Deronda. See Rey Longyear, “Klesmer, not Liszt: George Eliot’s Musical Portrait,” Journal of the American Liszt Society 23 (1988): 30–52, for a more precise treatment of this subject. See, too, “The Monthly Musical Record—London (Reprint),” Liszt Saeculum nos. 36–37 (1985–1986): 31–50, a miscellany containing, among other items, Friedrich Niecks’s article “George Eliot as a Musician” [Monthly Musical Record (October–November 1886): 44–46 and 47–49]. 354. [Fay, Amy.] Fay, Amy. Music-Study in Germany, ed. Fay Peirce. New York: Macmillan, 1913. 352 pp. ML417.F272. Contains delightful, often-quoted remarks about Liszt, many of his more important pupils, and Weimer in the 1870s and 1880s. Available in a variety of editions, including one boasting an introduction by Edward O. D. Downes and published in 1979 by Da Capo Press of New York City (ML417.F286A3 1979). Fay returned to the United States after completing her “German studies”; a volume of her correspondence appeared recently under the title More Letters of Amy Fay: The American Years, 1879–1916, ed. Margaret

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W[illiam] McCarthy (Detroit, 1986). See, too, McCarthy, Amy Fay: America’s Notable Woman of Music (Harmonie Park, MI, 1995), which contains several of Fay’s articles, including one described as item 633. Among other Fay reminiscences is “Musical Hours in Weimar with the Pianists of the Future,” reprinted in the Inter-American Music Review 7/2 (Spring–Summer 1986): 79–83; this article was originally published on 20 July 1876 in the Boston Daily Advertiser under the pen-name “Zero.” 355. [Ferrata, Giuseppe.] Shipley, Linda P. “Memoirs and Music of Giuseppe Ferrata, A Pupil of Liszt.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 28 (1990): 31–41. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. As much or more about Ferrata’s compositions as his memoirs; Shipley provides facsimiles of pages from that composer’s Song of Thanksgiving and Gavotte, op. 14, no. 4, as well as two additional musical examples. However, she also quotes from Ferrata’s reminiscences, themselves originally published in New Orleans newspapers or magazines of the 1910s and 1920s. Also illustrated with a facsimile of a Liszt letter to his pupil, superimposed upon which is a photograph of Ferrata in middle age. 356. [Friedheim, Arthur.] Friedheim, Arthur. Life and Liszt: The Recollections of a Concert Pianist, ed. Theodore L. Bullock. New York: Taplinger, 1961. viii, 335 pp. ML417.F75A3. Contains valuable information about Liszt and his pedagogical activities. Also contains chapters entitled “Liszt the Conductor,” “Liszt the Pianist,” and “Liszt the Composer.” Illustrated with photographs of Liszt, the Hofgärtnerei in Weimar, and Friedheim himself. Reviewed by Walter Wolfe in the Spring 1962 issue of the Piano Quarterly, p. 26. Reprinted in Remembering Franz Liszt, ed. Michael Grant (New York, 1986; ISBN 087910113X), pp. 1–335; indexed. NB: Only the first sixteen of Friedheim’s Life and Liszt chapters deal exclusively or substantially with Liszt. The rest of this book is an account of Friedheim’s subsequent concert career, compiled from previously unpublished manuscripts by Bullock. * Göllerich. The Piano Master Classes of Franz Liszt…Described as item 1452. An extremely detailed account of Liszt’s Weimar piano classes and musical opinions. 357. [Gottschalg, Alexander Wilhelm.] Gottschalg, Alexander Wilhelm. Franz Liszt in Weimar und seine letzten Lebensjahre. Erinnerungen und Tagebuchnotizen nebst Briefen des Meisters, ed. Carl Alfred René. Berlin: Glaue, 1910. viii, 158 pp. ML410.L7G68.

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Personal observations by one of Liszt’s closest friends and sometime musical collaborator. Contains discussions about Liszt’s relationships with Hoffmann von Fallersleben, Princess Carolyne, and Wagner. Gottschalg also reprints forty-eight letters Liszt addressed to him between 1862 and 1883 (pp. 57–127). Illustrated with portraits of both musicians. * [Helbig, Nadine.] Helbig. “Liszt in Rome.” Described as item 598. 358. [Lachmund, Carl.] Living with Liszt. From The Diary of Carl Lachmund: An American Pupil of Liszt, 1882–1884, ed. Alan Walker. “Franz Liszt Studies Series,” 4. Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon, 1994. xliv, 421 pp. ISBN 0945193564. ML417.L14A3 1994. A new edition of Lachmund’s reminiscences, equipped with a lengthy preface and detailed notes. Illustrated with twenty portraits, photographs, and other images. Also includes four appendices, the first of which— “Lachmund and his American Circle” (pp. 347–69)—reproduces the texts of twenty-six letters owned today by the New York Public Library’s Lachmund Archive and addressed to Lachmund by the likes of Frederick Corder, Giuseppe Ferrata (item 355), Hugo Mansfeldt (item 1458), and others. Excerpts from Lachmund’s diary and Walker’s introduction were published in Liszt Saeculum no. 53 (1994): 3–12. See, too, Mein Leben mit Franz Liszt: Aus dem Tagebuch eines Liszt-Schülers, ed. Mabel Wagnalls (Eschwege, 1970)—essentially, a German version of the same material. 359. [Langgaard, Siegfried.] “Reminiscences of the Danish Pianist and Liszt Pupil, Siegfried Langgaard (1852–1914),” ed. Elgin Ronayne. Liszt Society Journal 25 (2000): 48–54. ML410.L7L6. Includes an English translation of Langgaard’s “Some Observations on Liszt’s Residence in Weimar and His Instruction” (pp. 48–51), together with the texts of four Liszt letters to the pianist and quotations from other letters regarding Liszt in his last years. Illustrated with a photograph of the Hofgärtnerei. 360. [Lenz, Wilhelm von.] Lenz, Wilhelm von. The Great Piano Virtuosos of Our Time, ed. Philip Reder. London and New York: Regency Press, 1971. 169 pp. ML397.L57 1971. Presents Lenz’s fascinating first-hand account of Liszt in Paris during the late 1820s. Portions of Lenz’s testimony have been challenged by Walker (item 1, vol. 1, pp. 135–36), but Walker also repeats many of the Russian’s intriguing observations. Translated from Die grossen Pianovirtuosen unserer Zeit aus persönlicher Bekanntschaft: Liszt—Chopin—Tausig (Berlin, 1872). The original edition

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of the English-language translation, now rather scarce, appeared in 1899. See, too, Lenz’s Les grands Virtuoses du piano. Liszt—Chopin—Tausig— Henselt: souvenirs personnels, trans. Jean-Jacques Eigeldinger (Paris, 1995), esp. pp. 39–56. 361. [Meyer, Waldemar.] Robert, Walter. “Two Chapters from Waldemar Meyer’s ‘Aus einem Künstlerleben.’” Journal of the American Liszt Society 20 (1986): 50–55. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Discusses Meyer’s visits with Liszt and reproduces his accounts of those visits, including remarks about rehearsals for and performances of Wagner’s Ring des Nibelungen in Bayreuth, 1875–1876. 362. [Parry, John Orlando.] Beale, Willert. “Memories of John Orlando Parry.” Liszt Society Journal 9 (1984): 16–18. ML410.L7L6. An eyewitness account of Liszt’s British tours of 1840–1841. Parry, who accompanied Liszt on these tours, also left a diary, described as item 515; Walker (item 1, vol. 1, p. 361) reproduces the 23 November 1840 entry from that diary. Illustrated with a portrait of Parry completed c. 1845. 363. [Perry, Philip B.] “Letters from a Musical Student in Germany: Correspondence of Philip B. Perry, 1883–1884,” ed. Peter A. Munstedt. Music Reference Services Quarterly 3/1 (1994): 49–54. ISSN 1058-8167. ML110.M87. Reprints the texts of several letters describing Liszt and 1880s Weimar that appeared originally in Perry’s Musical Magazine (January–February 1915), a periodical that survives today only in scattered copies. The “Liszt letters” in question appear in Munstedt’s article on pp. 50–54. 364. [Pictet, Adolphe.] Pictet, Adolphe. Une course à Chamounix. Conte fantastique. Paris: Benjamin Duprat, 1838. 195 pp. PQ 2382 + P138.C6. Describes Liszt’s 1835 visit to Switzerland with the Comtesse d’Agoult and retinue. Quoted at some length by several biographers and scholars, including Walker (item 1, vol. 1, esp. pp. 220ff.) and Perényi (item 403). One of Pictet’s most famous passages, a description of Liszt improvising on an organ at Fribourg (pp. 186ff.; see item 1494) should be read in light of similar reminiscences; see, for example, B. de Miramonde Fitz-James, “Une improvisation de Liszt,” Les amis de l’orgue [“Numéro spécial” 30–31] (June–September 1937): 66–70, which tells how Liszt played the organ for Autran in a deserted church at midnight. The original edition of Pictet’s book is rare in America; copies exist in several European libraries, including F-Pn and D-F. Reprinted in Geneva by the “Journal de Genève” press (1930).

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365. [Pohl, Richard.] Pohl, Richard. Franz Liszt. Studien und Erinnerungen = Gesammelte Schriften über Musik und Musiker, vol. 2. Leipzig: Bernhard Schlicke, 1883. xv, 402 pp. ML410.L7P7. An anthology of articles about Liszt, many of them reminiscences of personal encounters; among these are “Ein Besuch auf der Altenburg (pp. 56–71) and “Reisebriefe aus Thüringen, an Franz Brendel” (pp. 72–84). Also contains Pohl’s lengthy accounts of Liszt and the 1853 Karlsruhe and 1857 Aachen music festivals (regarding the latter, see item 546) as well as articles about the symphonies, Symphonic Poems, and choral works (see items 1155, 1167, 1183, 1218, 1291, and 1298), a description of Liszt’s resignation in 1859 from the directorship of the Weimar Hoftheater (see item 565), and several concert reviews. Reprinted in facsimile in 1973 by Dr. Martin Sändig of Wiesbaden [ISBN 3500282709]. * [Rellstab, Ludwig.] Rellstab. Franz Liszt…. Described as item 421. Includes Rellstab’s impressions of Liszt’s 1841–1842 Berlin concerts. 366. [Rohlfs, Gerhard.] Rohlfs, Gerhard. Erinnerungen an Franz Liszt (Weimar 1871–1886), ed. Klaus Reinhardt. Hannover: Jan Reinhardt, 1993. 32 pp. OCLC 34859578. Fond reminiscences (pp. 7–10) originally published in Westermanns Monatsheften in 1900. Includes the texts of eighteen short, mostly undated letters from Liszt to Rohlfs (pp. 21–28), themselves illustrated with facsimiles of two of the letters and of a playbill for a memorial concert in honor of the death of Marie Moukhanoff, presented in Weimar on 17 June 1875. Concludes with notes; lacks bibliography, index, or musical examples. 367. [Rosenthal, Moriz.] Barnett, Elise Braun. “An Annotated Translation of Moriz Rosenthal’s ‘Franz Liszt, Memories and Reflections.’” Current Musicology 13 (1972): 29–37. ISSN 0011-3735. ML1.C98. Reprints in English Rosenthal’s “Franz Liszt: Erinnerungen und Betrachtungen,” which appeared originally in German in Die Musik 11 (1911–1912): 46–51. * [Schmalhausen, Lina.] The Death of Liszt…. Described as item 480. 368. [Siloti, Alexander.] Siloti, Alexander. My Memories of Liszt. Edinburgh: Methuen Simpson, n.d. 76 pp. ML410.L7S51. An eyewitness account of Liszt’s last years, written by one of his most celebrated pupils. Illustrated with a couple of portraits and facsimile reproductions of several musical manuscripts. Reprinted complete in Remembering Franz Liszt, ed. Michael Grant (New York, 1986; ISBN 087910113X), pp. 338–75, which also provides a photograph of Liszt with Siloti opposite

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p. 338. See, too, Siloti’s “Meine Erinnerungen an Franz Liszt,” translated Sophie Korsunska and published in the Zeitschrift des Internationalen Musikgesellschaft 14 (1913): 294–318. 369. [Stasov, Vladimir Vlasilevich.] Stasov, Vladimir Vlasilevich. Selected Essays on Music, trans. Florence Jonas; intro. Gerald Abraham. New York and Washington: Frederick A. Praeger, 1968. (v), 202 pp. ML60.S823S42. Includes “A Letter from Liszt” (pp. 62–65), “Liszt, Schumann and Berlioz in Russia” (pp. 117–94; see esp. pp. 169–94), and several other articles that mention Liszt and his activities. Among the latter is “Review of the Musical Events of the Year 1847,” Stasov’s first published essay and the source of the famous line “what the piano is to Liszt, the orchestra is to Berlioz” (p. 25), and “Review of the Year,” in which the author carefully compares Henselt’s transcription of Weber’s Freischütz overture with Liszt’s transcriptions (esp. pp. 34–37). Illustrated with a frontispiece that reproduces Repin’s portrait of Stasov; contains, however, no other images or musical examples. Bibliographic citations are limited to footnotes; concludes with an index of names. 370. [Stradal, August.] Stradal, August. Erinnerungen an Franz Liszt. Bern: P. Haupt, 1929. 173 pp. ML410.L7S85. Another eyewitness account of Liszt in old age, recording events dating for the most part from 1885–1886. Stradal, one of Liszt’s numerous piano pupils, includes sketches of Liszt as man (pp. 167–73) and teacher (pp. 157–66). Illustrated with several well-known portraits of Liszt and two musical examples. Excerpts from Stradal’s volume were translated by Adrian Williams and published under the title “Liszt as Teacher and Educator” in the Liszt Society Journal 11 (1986): 86–88; neither these nor item 370 should be confused with Stradal’s “Roman reminiscences” cited in item 598. 371. [Strelezki, Anton.] Strelezki, Anton. “Some Personal Recollections of Chats with Liszt,” Liszt Society Journal 15 (1990): 52–54 [i]. and 18 (1993): 52–59. ML410.L7L6. Begins in 1869, when Strelezki met the composer. Among other memories of Strelezki’s are those of Liszt performing his own Pester Carneval and Strelezki’s relationship with Robert Schumann. Published originally in 1893. Also published in English in Liszt Saeculum nos. 20–22 (1978): 4–13. 372. [Wagner, Richard.] Wagner, Richard. My Life, ed. Mary Whittal; trans. Andrew Gray. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1983. ix, 786 pp. ISBN 0521229294. ML410.W1W146 1983.

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A famous—some might say infamous—autobiographical statement, written by the man who was, by turns, Liszt’s friend, musical mentor-disciple, enemy, and son-in-law. Contains dozens of important passages dealing with the earliest Liszt-Wagner encounters, Liszt’s productions of Tannhäuser (see item 656) and Lohengrin in Weimar, Liszt’s and Wagner’s attitudes toward each other, and so on. Cited here in lieu of numerous Germanlanguage editions. And, it should be remembered, by no means Wagner’s last word on Liszt; among other selections and editions, consider “Wagner’s First Meeting with Liszt,” translated from Wagner’s Eine Mitteilung and published in the Liszt Society Journal 14 (1989): 10–11. 373. [Weingartner, Felix.] Weingartner, Felix. “Erinnerungen an Liszt.” Liszt Saeculum no. 49 (1992): 68–72. ISSN 0263-0249. ML410.L7I6. Memories of Weimar in the 1880s, presented in the form of facsimile pages taken from Weingartner’s collected literary efforts [Akkorde (Leipzig, 1912)]. Reprinted elsewhere in a variety of versions; see, for example, “Franz Liszt, as Man and Artist,” The Musical Quarterly 22 (1936): 255–58, and “Weingartner Remembers Liszt,” Liszt Society Journal 14 (1989): 18–19 [i], 15 (1990): 25–27 [ii], and 18 (1993): 46–51 [iii]. NB: Some of the page numbers given for this and other articles in vol. 18 are incorrect; furthermore, [iii] is followed by the words “to be continued,” although nothing more about Weingartner appears in subsequent Journal issues. 374. [Wohl, Janka.] Wohl, Janka. François Liszt: Recollections of a Compatriot, trans. B. Peyton Ward. London: Ward & Downey, 1887. 246 pp. ML410.L7W82. Anecdotal and unsystematic; Wohl rather coyly skips over Liszt’s Weimar years, then tells one story after another mostly about his Budapest circle and concert appearances. Her attempt to be as “temperate as is possible” in the portrayal of her own impressions may strike modern readers as a pose. Quoted in item 341, pp. 526–29. Reprinted serially in Liszt Saeculum nos. 24–29 (1979–1982); the quotation is taken from this edition [Liszt Saeculum no. 24 (1976), p. 6]. Also available in French (Paris, 1887). Two misleading titles also deserve to be mentioned here: 375. Smidak, Emil F. Isaak-Ignaz Moscheles. The Life of the Composer and His Encounters with Beethoven, Liszt, Chopin and Mendelssohn. Aldershot, U.K.: Scolar, 1989. 237 pp. ISBN 0859678210. ML410.M8456 1989. Contrary to its subtitle, this volume contains no substantial Liszt reminiscences—or, indeed, much about Liszt at all. Also available in German (Vienna: Edition Wien, 1988; ISBN 3850580229).

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376. “Wagner, Cosima.” Franz Liszt. Ein Gedenkblatt von seiner Tochter, 2d ed. Munich: F. Bruckmann, 1911. 126 pp. ML410.L7W14. A “souvenir” commemorating the centenary of Liszt’s birth as well as an account of Cosima’s relationships with her father (Liszt), her husband (Richard Wagner), and Princess Carolyne. Supplemented by excerpts from a variety of letters. In spite of Cosima’s purported authorship, however, this “reminiscence” was actually prepared by Hans von Wolzogen and published originally as “Zu Liszts Briefen an die Fürstin Carolyne Sayn-Wittgenstein” in the Bayreuther Blätter 23 (1900): 622ff. LISZT

IN

FICTION

Liszt was “remembered” in novels by several of his contemporaries. Among the most important of these fictionalized accounts are two especially invidious volumes: 377. Agoult, Marie d’ [as “Daniel Stern”]. Nélida, ed. Charles F. Dupêchez. Paris: Calmann-Lévy, 1987. xxii, 272 pp. ISBN 2702115616. A poison-pen letter in the form of a roman à clef, with the despicable and sterile painter Guermann Regnier standing in for Liszt, the long-suffering Nélida de la Theiellaye for Marie herself, the Marquise de Zepponi for an “amalgam of Liszt’s supposed mistresses,” and so on. Reviewed by Pauline Pocknell in Liszt Saeculum no. 49 (1992): 79–84—the quotation is taken from p. 80 of this review—together with item 346 and Dupêchez’s Marie d’Agoult, 1805–1876 (Paris, 1989). Originally published in 1847 in Paris; soon to be reprinted by the State University of New York Press in a translation by Lynn Hoggard (LC Control Number 2002192964). Regarding Liszt’s presence in other pieces of fiction, see item 353. 378. “Knepp, Anton.” Les Amours de Liszt et de la Cosaque, ed. Pierre-Antoine Huré and Claude Knepper. Paris: Parution, 1987. x, 234 pp. LCCN 89-138868. ML410.L7K53 1987. Ostensibly the work of a Catholic priest who served as the composer’s confessor, located by Huré and Knepper in a remote corner of what used to be Austria-Hungary. In fact, the work of the infamous “Olga [de] Janina” [pseud. of Olga Zielinska-Piasecka, a.k.a. “Robert Franz” and “Sylvia Zorelli”]: a pianist of talent, although quite possibly insane, who produced several slanderous books about Liszt, including the Souvenirs d’une Cosaque by “Robert Franz” (Paris, 1874). Les Amours was published originally as Les Amours d’une Cosaque. Par une amie de l’abbe X. (Paris: Degorce-Gadot, 1875). Like Janina’s other volumes, Les Amours de Liszt ridicules the composer as snobbish, hypocritical, and excessively religious, and also mocks Marie d’Agoult, Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein and other members of the composer’s circle. Huré and Knepper’s edition is supplemented with five

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appendices, each devoted to an aspect of the Liszt-Janina relationship (pp. 185–225); the second, for instance, reprints letters concerning the infamous Olga written between 1870 and 1873; the third contains texts associated with the Souvenirs scandal from 1874 to 1878; and so on. Concludes with notes on Knepp’s text; no musical examples, illustrations, bibliography, or index. See, too, “Olga de Janina,” Souvenirs d’un pianiste reponse aux Souvenirs d’une Cosaque (Paris: Lachaud & Burdin, 1874), and “Sylvia Zorelli,” Le roman du pianiste et de la Cosaque (Paris: Chez tous les libraries, 1875). In their original editions Janina’s books are quite uncommon in American collections.

COLLECTIONS AND STUDIES OF OTHER LISZT DOCUMENTS DOCUMENTARY BIOGRAPHIES The largest anthology of nonautobiographical Liszt documentary material remains: 379. Liszt et son temps. Documents choisis, présentés et annotés, ed. PierreAntoine Huré and Claude Knepper. Paris: Hachette, 1987. 699 pp. ISBN 2010117700. ML410.L7H926 1987. A sort of “documentary biography” consisting of running commentary interspersed with quoted materials pertaining to Liszt’s personal and professional activities. Occasionally useful but generally disappointing; most of the documents Huré and Knepper quote from are either already familiar to Lisztians, or inadequately annotated, or both. On pp. 142–43, for example, Huré and Knepper reproduce only part of Liszt’s October 1841 letter to the Princess Belgiojoso; the complete letter was published in Autour de Mme d’Agoult et de Liszt, pp. 180–83, one of many letters omitted from the present volume but described in item 76. In French throughout. Reviewed in item 200. Other outstanding documentary collections include: * Burger. Franz Liszt: A Chronicle…. Described as item 429. Both a heavily illustrated biography and a collection of prose and poetry material. DOCUMENTS ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED

IN

NEWSPAPERS

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MAGAZINES

Advertisements and announcements, news stories, feature articles, and concert reviews scattered throughout the nineteenth- and twentieth-century European and American periodical press tell us a great deal about Liszt’s life, creative endeavors,

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and reputation. Among the most important studies of these materials are two monographs by one of Hungary’s finest Liszt scholars: 380. Legány, Dezso# . “Liszt in Rom—nach der Presse (Erster Teil).” Studia Musicologica 19 (1977): 85–107. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. Draws upon periodicals in order to examine Liszt’s Roman activities during the latter part of his life, especially 1861–1865. Legány provides quotations from several newspapers, including L’osservatore Romano, Pesti napló, and Eptacordo as well as a valuable review of secondary sources touching on Liszt’s years in Rome, and on Roman life during the 1860s (pp. 85n–86n). NB: Despite its subtitle, no further installments of this study have appeared in Studia Musicologica. Instead, see item 595. * Legány. Franz Liszt: Unbekannte Presse und Briefe…. Described as item 389. Includes dozens of newspaper clippings, most of them associated with Liszt’s Viennese concerts of the 1840s. Four studies of individual periodical publications are described or crossreferenced below: 381. Franz Liszt in Paris. Eine Rezension aus dem Jahre 1824, ed. Friedrich Schnapp. Weimar: Hermann Böhlaus, 1930. 14 pp. + supplement. ML410.L7S34. A handsome edition of A. Martainville’s well-known review, originally published in Le Drapeau blanc on 9 March 1824. Illustrated with a manuscript facsimile “supplement” and accompanied by an afterword written by Peter Raabe. Martainville’s review appears substantially complete and in English in item 1, vol. 1, pp. 99–101. It also appears in German in item 429, p. 34. 382. Johns, Keith T. “Franz Liszt’s Symphonic Poems and the Press: The Reception of the First Performances, 1850–1861.” Revista de Musicología 16/6 (1993): 3531–42. ISSN 0210-1459. ML5.R212. Primarily a study of “references and cross-references to some 125 performances” in central Europe and North America (p. 3531), both as reflected in various newspapers and magazines and as reported at greater length by its author in items 1177, 1222, and so on. 383. Szerzo# , Katalin. “Contemporary Reports on Liszt in the ‘Gazetta musicale di Milano’ (1870–86).” Studia Musicologica 29 (1987): 245–57. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925.

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A “servicable” (p. 245) evaluation of Liszt–reportage in one of Europe’s most important music periodicals between the 1840s and 1886. Szerzo# ends by discussing the Gazetta’s obituary of her subject. Includes quotations from a number of articles in the original Italian; concludes with a short bibliography. Other versions of this article appeared as “‘Il celebre maestro….’ Reports on Liszt in the ‘Gazetta musicale di Milano’ in the Years 1870–1886,” Periodica musica 5 (1987): 24–31, and “‘Il celebre maestro….’ Egykorú tudósítások Lisztro# l a Gazzetta musicale di Milano hasábjain (1870–1886),” Magyar zene 27 (1986): 39–48. ˆ

384. Vyslouzil, J. “Ferenc Liszt und Otakar Hostinsky.” Studia Musicologica 31 (1989): 433–440. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. A study difficult to place in a single category, but one devoted largely to Czech music critic and aesthetician Hostinsky’s Liszt writings, including articles published in Dalibor and other Prague newspapers and magazines, and his views concerning the Liszt-Smetana musical-aesthetic relationship. No illustrations or musical examples. Finally, three additional studies devoted to “Liszt and the press” are described below; another is cross-listed and its scope suggested: 385. Bellas, Jacqueline. “Du fantastique au merveilleux: Liszt, fils d’Hoffmann, chez M. de Pontmartin.” In: Missions et démarches de la critique. Mélanges offerts au professeur J. A. Vier. Paris: Klincksieck, 1973; pp. 157–70. Not seen. According to RILM 10 (1976), entry 5675, this article deals in part with a story, itself published in Le Ménestrel for June 1845, based on a description of concerts Liszt gave at Avignon the previous month and apparently written by Count Armand de Pontmartin, Liszt’s host in that city. NB: RILM also gives the language of this article as German; it must be French. 386. Keeling, Geraldine. “Concert Announcements, Programs and Reviews as Evidence for First or Early Performances by Liszt of His Keyboard Works to 1847.” In item 95, pp. 397–404. Builds upon Keeling’s earlier study of evidence uncovered in newspaper and magazine accounts of the composer’s Paris performances in the 1830s and early 1840s. Keeling also discusses Liszt’s performances in 1838–1839 Vienna and documents early performances of such unfamiliar pieces as his Grande Valse di bravura as well as his own fantasies on La Fiancée, La Juive, and Niobe. Includes a valuable table (pp. 400–1). Less detailed, however, than item 534; furthermore, and in contradistinction to the title of her article, Keeling scarcely mentions the years 1840–1847.

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* Newton, Williams, and Wright. See items 516, 517, and 519–525. Accounts of Liszt’s visits to the British isles, based largely on press reports and concerned largely with evaluating their significance. 387. Saffle, Michael. “Liszt’s Reputation: The Role of ‘Rezeptionsästhetik.’” In: Trasmissione e recezione delle forme di cultura musicale. Atti del XIV Congresso della Società Internazionale di Musicologica, Bologna, 27 agosto–1º settembre 1987, ed. Lorenzo Bianconi et al. 3 vols. Torino: EDT, 1990; vol. 3, pp. 805–10. ML160.S6 1987. Grapples with such categories as “engagement” and “display” vs. “profundity” not only in recent secondary studies of the composer’s music, but as presented—and, to a large extent, subsequently derived from—1830s and 1840s magazine and newspaper reviews of his performances. Among other sources, Saffle cites such German music magazines as the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung and such broader-based periodicals as the Frankfurter Konversationsblatt. OTHER DOCUMENTS

AND

DOCUMENTARY STUDIES

Among studies of unpublished or otherwise little-known “miscellaneous” Liszt documents—certificates, editions of individual letters, press clippings, trinkets, and so on, as well as letters and musical compositions—is the following series of short articles: 388. “Liszt Documents.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 22–30 (1987–1991). ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. No. 1: Saffle, Michael. “Lisztiana in Early American Music Magazines”; 22 (1987): 62–67. No. 2: Macdonald, Hugh, and William Wright. “A Lost Liszt Piano Piece Recovered”; 23 (1988): 99–100. No. 3: Young, Francis A. “An Unpublished Liszt Letter to Madame de Retz”; 23 (1988): 101–03. No. 4: Deaville, James. “A Checklist of Publications of Liszt’s Writings, 1849–1879”; 24 (1988): 86–90. No. 5: Saffle, Michael. “An ‘Unpublished’ Liszt Letter to Franz Xaver Witt”; 24 (1988): 91–95. No. 6: Saffle, Michael. “Little-known Liszt ‘Sheet-Music’ Letters”; 28 (1990): 69–72. No. 7: Wright, William. “Liszt’s 1827 Concert Appearances in London: Reviews, Notices, Playbills, and Programs”; 29 (1991): 61–66. No. 8: Cross, Richard E. “A New Liszt Letter to Madame Lynen”; 30 (1991): 65–67.

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No. 9: Saffle, Michael. “Three Little-known Liszt Piano Pieces”; 30 (1991): 68–70. No. 10: Yerushalmi, Ophra. “A Liszt Letter to Alexandre Weill (Frankfurt 1842)”; 30 (1991): 71–73. An irregular series. No. 1, for example, describes references to Liszt that appeared in such periodicals as the Musical World and New York Musical Times before 1861 and includes a facsimile page from that publication illustrating what may have been the first “original” Liszt study, written by an American in 1853; no. 5 identifies and discusses a letter addressed by Liszt to the founder of the German Cecilianist movement on 15 July 1874 and omitted from “Vierzehn Original-Briefe Liszts an Witt,” ed. Karl Weinmann [Musica Sacra 46 (1913): 289–95]; and so on. Nos. 2, 4, 7, and 9 are cross-referenced elsewhere in the present research guide; those numbers containing letters are identified in item 76. Important collections of documents other than those restricted to letters (although they may also contain them) include: 389. Franz Liszt: Unbekannte Presse und Briefe aus Wien, 1822–1886, ed. Dezso# Legány. Wiener musikwissenschaftliche Beiträge, 13. Vienna and Graz: Hermann Böhlaus, 1984. 265 pp. ISBN 3205005430. ML410.L7F72 1984. A valuable collection of correspondence and press clippings preserved in eight Viennese libraries and archives. Among 210-odd items are some seventy letters addressed to Bösendorfer between 1870 and 1886. Legány provides valuable comments about each document as well as bibliographic citations and an index. Reviewed in detail in item 500. Other anthologies also contain press documents relevant to Liszt’s concert tours; see, for example, the report of Liszt’s second Munich concert of 25 October 1823, reprinted in Quellen zur Österreichischen Musikgeschichte I, ed. Rudolf Flotzinger [Musicologica Austriaca, 3] (Munich and Salzburg, 1982), p. 85. 390. Haraszti, Emile. “Liszt à Paris: Quelques documents inédits.” La Revue musicale 165 (April 1936): 241–58 and 167 (July–August 1936): 5–16. ISSN 0768-1593. ML5.M613. A groundbreaking study of miscellaneous documents pertaining primarily to Liszt’s early Paris years. Reproduces and comments on letters of introduction Liszt received from Bretfeld and de la Ferté; letters and notices published during the 1820s in La Pandore, the Journal des débats, and other newspapers; other letters by Liszt’s father Adam Liszt; and so on. Includes photographs of the tomb of Liszt’s mother as well as of a number of posters, portraits, and concert programs. In French throughout.

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Nine additional studies of miscellaneous Liszt documents are described or cross-referenced below: * Calza. Interpretazione letteraria…. Described as item 1477. Reproduces in facsimile a letter purportedly written by Liszt about how to perform Chopin’s piano preludes. Commentary in Italian. 391. Chailley, Jacques. “Documents relatifs aux ‘Préludes’ de Liszt.” In item 48, pp. 307–35. A miscellany of source materials bearing on item 345 and the genesis of Les Préludes. Includes letters addressed by Liszt to several individuals— among them, Joseph Autran, author of the poems for Les quatre élémens, on which Liszt’s unfinished “first draft” of Les Préludes was based. Also contains press clippings associated with Liszt’s concert tours of 1844–1845 and three letters addressed by Princess Carolyne to Autran during 1856–1857. Outfitted with its own table of contents (p. 307). 392. Dalmonte, Rossana. “Liszt a Venezia negle anni Ottanta: nuovi documenti.” Quaderni dell’Istituto Liszt 1 (1998): 81–125. ISBN 8875925518. Examines documents concerning Liszt’s relationship with Venetian music professor Bassanti, the documents themselves discovered in the library of the Conservatorio “Benedetto Marcello.” Dalmonte reproduces complete facsimiles of nine letters and provides transcriptions as well as translations into Italian. Concludes with an English synopsis. For additional information about Bassanti and the history of Liszt’s “gloomy gondolas,” see item 1111. 393. Deaville, James. “The Politics of Liszt’s Virtuosity: New Light on the Dialectics of a Cultural Phenomenon.” In item 39, pp. 115–42. Deals primarily with a secret document in which “Liszt associate P. Lázár Horváth reported [on 4 May 1846] at great length to an unidentified Austrian official about Liszt’s contacts with various Hungarian revolutionaries during his concert trip to Pest” (p. 116). Deaville illustrates his observations with two facsimile pages from Horvath’s report (pp. 117–18); he also provides a complete annotated transcription of the report (pp. 137–42). 394. “Ein Liszt-Dokument aus der 1840er Jahren.” Studia Musicologica 4 (1963): 191–93. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. Traces the provenance and summarizes the contents of a certificate purportedly written by Liszt in praise of Carl Jean’s pianos and dated 22 August 1847. A facsimile reproduction of this “testimonial” appears as an illustration. 395. Haraszti, Emile. “Trois faux documents sur Fr. Liszt.” Revue de musicologie 42 (1958): 193–216. ML5.R32.

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Identifies and discusses misleading references to Liszt’s relationships with Franck, Musorgsky, and Schumann. Márta Papp’s article “Liszt and Musorgsky: The Genuine and False Documents of the Relationship Between the Two Composers” [Studia Musicologica 29 (1987): 267–84] examines some of the same material; Papp also reproduces a good deal of Russian text in the original Cyrillic and provides a facsimile of a letter Liszt addressed to Vasili Bessel on 25 May 1873 (pp. 270–71). 396. Liszt tanulmányok, ed. Zsuzsa Dömötör, Mária Kovács, and Ilona Mona. Budapest: Zenemu# kiadó, 1980. 153 pp. ML410.L7L63. Examines published accounts of Liszt’s 1840 Hungarian tour and discusses such related topics as “Franz Liszt and the Age of Hungarian Reform, 1839–1840.” Concludes with a chronological table of Liszt’s early Hungarian activities. Other Hungarian-language Liszt documentary studies include Marianne Pándi, “Liszt Ferenc az egykorú magyar sajtó tükrében: hírek és recenziók a Honmu# vészben,” Magyar zene 9 (1968): 75–80, which deals with reports of Liszt’s 1830s Paris activities as reported in A Hon, the Pester Zeitung, and other Hungarian papers. 397. Murányi, Robert [Árpád]. “Unknown Liszt Relics.” Studia Musicologica 4 (1962): 201–9. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. Deals with miscellany of artifacts, including a letter written by Liszt on 29 September 1881, a rosary, a portrait of the composer, and so on. Illustrated with six pages of photographs and documentary facsimiles. A second article by Murányi, devoted to other artifacts, appeared in Hungarian under the title “Ismeretlen Liszt emlékek” in Magyar zene 5 (1964): 528–32. 398. Walker, Alan. “Daniel Liszt: Two Unpublished Documents.” Liszt Saeculum nos. 36–37 (1985–1986): 51–56. ISSN 0263-0249. ML410.L7I6. Includes a facsimile reproduction of the first page of a Latin essay for which the composer’s son Daniel won an important prize in 1856 (p. 55). Finally, two studies deal with Lisztiana in the writings of his contemporaries: 399. Vörösmarty, Mihály. “To Ferencz Liszt,” trans. Alan Dixon. New Hungarian Quarterly 27/103 (Autumn 1986): 139–41. ISSN 0028-5390. DB901.H83. A verse translation of Vörösmarty’s tribute to Liszt, originally published in 1841. Several other translations of Vörösmarty’s ode also exist. See, for example, Patrick Rucker, “Vörösmarty’s Ode to Liszt,” Journal of the American Liszt Society 20 (1986): 42–48; Rucker’s article includes a brief introductory essay about the poet and his contributions to Hungarian literature. Yet

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another translation appeared in the 1937 Universal-Edition publication of Kodály’s Ode to Franz Liszt, with English-language text by Elisabeth M. Lockwood [plate no. 10862]. The original poem has been published several times, among them in Zenetudományi tanulmányok 3 (1955): 11. 400. Winklhofer, Sharon. “Lisztiana in Cosima Wagner’s Diaries, 1869–1877.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 7 (1980): 27–34. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Summarizes Cosima’s attitudes toward her father, as revealed in the Tagebücher (or diaries) published for the first time several decades ago in both German and English. Winklhofer pays special attention to Cosima’s divorce from Hans von Bülow and her newfound liaison with Wagner, as well as to Cosima’s personality and her faithful record of life’s “ironies.”

V Liszt’s Life and Character

Hundreds of Liszt biographies have appeared in print. Some are mere sketches of the artist’s life; others are lengthy, complex studies. Among the most reliable “lives” of Liszt are portions of several multi-volume survey studies described in Chapter 2. Biographical information also appears in items described almost everywhere else in the present volume. BIOGRAPHIES AND RELATED STUDIES MODERN BIOGRAPHIES Reliable, readable accounts of Liszt’s life can be found today in virtually every bookstore and library. Unfortunately, however, many of the Liszt biographies published during the past century have been mere popularizations of their subject’s accomplishments. Three outstanding exceptions to this situation are: 401. Haraszti, Emile. Franz Liszt. Paris: A. & J. Picard, 1967. 306 pp. ML410.L7H29. A book-length miscellany, compiled from Haraszti’s papers after his death in 1958. Describes much of Liszt’s life but ignores his childhood and other important topics. Although uneven, this volume reflects its author’s extensive knowledge of primary sources, especially French-language materials. Some chapters are especially valuable—among them, those dealing with Liszt and Balzac and with the representation of Liszt in Balzac’s Béatrix

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and d’Agoult’s Nélida (item 377). Contains an introduction by André Schaeffner and several illustrations. 402. Kapp, Julius. Liszt, eine Biographie. Berlin: Schuster & Loeffler, 1908. 607 pp. ML410.L7K33. An important work, first published before World War I and reprinted many times; unfortunately, post-1911 editions do not contain the documentary material found in the original publication. Full of anecdotes about Liszt and his associates as well as an extensive bibliography (pp. 547–600), a catalog of compositions, occasional illustrations and documentary facsimiles, and more than two dozen otherwise unpublished Liszt letters. 403. Perényi, Eleanor. Liszt: The Artist as Romantic Hero. Boston: Little, Brown, 1974. x, 466 pp. ISBN 0316699101. ML410.L7P3. A brilliant interpretive study, based almost exclusively on letters Liszt exchanged with colleagues, d’Agoult, and Princess Carolyne zu SaynWittgenstein. Although issued as a popular publication, this book deserves the most serious attention; Rena Mueller called it “extraordinarily worthwhile” in a review published in Current Musicology 20 (1975): 96–104. Perényi promulgates the thesis that “Liszt was the first musician to benefit from the Romantic cult of genius,” and that it was this cult—French Romanticism at its most extravagant (as well as his own “self-created demon”)— that “even now…obscures his stature as one of the innovators of nineteenth–century music” (p. 3). Unfortunately, she has little to say about her subject after 1861; she leaves Liszt at the threshold of old age. Illustrated with several portraits; concludes with a short bibliography. Less important but nevertheless useful Liszt biographies often overlooked by specialists include: 404. Morrison, Bryce. Liszt. “Illustrated Lives of the Great Composers.” London and New York: Omnibus, 1989. 111 pp. ISBNs 0711910332 [hard-bound edition] and 0711916829 [paper-bound edition]. ML410.L7M68 1989. A brief biography outfitted with more than 100 mostly familiar black-andwhite illustrations (portraits, caricatures, documentary facsimiles, sheet-music covers, and so on) and with a colored collage of Liszt images on the cover of the paperback edition. For Morrison, Liszt remains the “outrageously gifted” but “deeply divided nature” (p. xi) that stimulated Ernest Newman to produce his unpleasant character study (item 441). Contains a one-page bibliography (p. vi); concludes with a two-page index. No musical examples as such, at least none that are discussed in the text, and no real scholarly apparatus. Reviewed in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 26 (1989): 72–74.

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405. Walker, Alan. Liszt. London: Faber & Faber, 1971. 108 pp. ISBN 0571091202. ML410.L7W29. Published primarily as a book for young people. Not to be confused with item 1, Walker’s splendid study of Liszt’s life and music. Illustrated with portraits and photographs of Liszt and his surroundings, facsimiles of various documents, and so on. Seventeen additional biographies, by no means all of uniformly high quality, are described or cross-referenced below: 406. Engel, Adalbert. Franz Liszt. Der virtuose Klang der Menschlichkeit. Gernsbach: Casimir Katz, 1989. 519 pp. ISBN 3925825304. A popular biography outfitted with a number of imperfect reference “supplements,” including a detailed list of the composer’s ancestors and descendents (pp. 470–78; this is perhaps the volume’s most interesting feature), a timeline (pp. 480–94), a list of letters editions (p. 513), and a cursory bibliography (pp. 506–11). Illustrated with three gatherings of black-andwhite plates. Indexed. 407. Hamburger, Klára. Liszt Ferenc. Budapest: Gondolat Kiadó, 1966. 483 pp. ISBN 963280774X. ML410.L7H255 1980. More or less “straight” biography; not to be confused with broader, even more reliable studies by the same author (see especially item 13). Concludes with a bibliography and catalog of Liszt’s works (pp. 413–56). A useful synopsis of Hamburger’s researches into Liszt’s life and character appears in item 37, pp. 3–28. 408. Helm, Everett. Franz Liszt in Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddokumenten. Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1972. 160 pp. ML410.L7H37. A compact account of Liszt’s life and activities, supplemented by excerpts from a variety of sources. Illustrated with small, black-and-white reproductions of portraits, facsimiles of several manuscripts, and so on. Concludes with an abbreviated catalog of Liszt’s principal works [Hauptwerke (pp. 151–52)], a short bibliography (pp. 153–55), and a list of discographical recommendations (pp. 155–56); also includes a Zeittafel (pp. 144–47). * Horvath. Liszt (3 vols.). Described as item 21. Covers Liszt’s life and musical activities from birth through the late 1830s. 409. Jankélévitch, Vladimir. Liszt. Rhapsodie et improvisation, ed. Françoise Schwab. Paris: Flammarion, 1998. 173 pp. ISBN 2080676865. ML410.L7J33 1998.

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An impressionistic biography-cum-philosophical character study by the author of a lengthy series of philosophical and musical monographs devoted to Debussy, Fauré, “irony,” Plotinus, and so on. Published posthumously; apparently edited by Schwab from a collection of essays that appeared originally in Europe, the Revue philosophique de la France et de l’étranger, and so on. Includes fourteen single and multi-partite musical examples drawn from the Sonata in b minor, the Faust symphony, Ce qu’on entend sur la montagne, the two familiar piano concertos, and so on, as well as from Albeniz’s Merlin. Worth examining, if only because many other Liszt biographies have shied away from philosophical issues. 410. Koronghy, Clara von. Die Musik war sein Leben: Gedenkbuch für Franz Liszt. Eisenstadt: Horvath, 1984. 168 pp. ML410.L7K75 1984. A biographical study-cum-reminiscence collection, describing Liszt’s relationships with several Austrian families, including the Hennigs and Vetzkos. Koronghy also deals with Liszt’s family (pp. 15–21) and travels, especially within Austria-Hungary (pp. 43–66), as well as iconographical issues (pp. 155 ff.). Amply illustrated with black-and-white photographs. One of many 1986 “Liszt year” publications (item 73). * Raabe. Liszts Leben = item 2, vol. 2. 411. Raabe, Peter. Wege zu Liszt. Deutsche Musikbücherei, 13. Regensburg: Gustav Bosse, 1943. 167 pp. ML410.L7R13. Much shorter than item 2 and almost entirely biographical. An interesting “introduction” to Nazi-era attitudes toward Liszt. Includes some references to individual compositions and musical style but no musical examples. 412. Rattalino, Piero. Liszt, o il giardino d’armida. Torino: E.D.T., 1993. 118 pp. ISBN 8870631796. ML410.L7R333 1993. A biography in four parts, illustrated with a single cover photograph of the composer in old age. Worth consulting if only for the list of programs Liszt presented in Trieste (p. 36) and for yet another discussion of “Lisztomania” (pp. 33–53). Includes a brief bibliography (pp. 113–14); concludes with an index of names. 413. Rostand, Claude. Liszt, trans. John Victor. London: Calder & Boyars, 1972. 192 pp. ML410.L7R7213. Essentially a year-by-year chronicle of Liszt’s life, although four of its eight chapters present superficial summaries of Liszt’s reputation as a pianist and his compositional output. Illustrated with portraits and a few melodic musical examples as well as a facsimile example of F-Pn Mus. ms. 175: a table of key signatures Liszt prepared near the end of his life for some unknown

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reason. Includes a short catalog of works and a bibliography. Originally published in French in 1960 by Editions du Seuil of Paris. 414. Rueger, Christoph. Franz Liszt. Des Lebens Widerspruch. Die Biographie. Munich: Langen Müller, 1997. 251 pp. ISBN 3784426077. ML410.L7R76 1997. A lively popular biography; lacks scholarly apparatus and a solid bibliography. Rueger deals with contemporary social and political issues as well as Liszt’s development as personality, performing musician, and composer. Includes ninety-six scattered black-and-white illustrations, among them portraits of Balzac, Czerny, Napoleon II, Paganini, Salieri, George Sand, and so on, as well as facsimiles of several familiar documents (including Liszt’s sketch for the “Revolutionary Symphony” also found in item 2); views of Paris, Nonnenwerth, and Weimar, reproductions of several sheetmusic covers; and a variety of portraits, photographs, and caricatures of the composer. Concludes with a timeline (pp. 235–41), a list of sources (p. 242), an index of citations to Liszt’s works (pp. 243–45), and an index of names. Replaces Rueger’s earlier Liszt biography, Magie in Schwarz und Weiß: Franz Liszt (Berlin, 1986; ISBN 3781718271), described by Charles Suttoni (item 76) as a “popularly oriented and generously illustrated biography” that presents Liszt as a “‘European,’ viewed against the supranational cultural currents” of his time. 415. Schibli, Sigfried. Franz Liszt: Rollen, Kostüme, Verwandlungen. Munich: Piper, 1986. 170 pp. ISBN 2492152384. ML410.L7S35 1986. Explores the hypothesis that Liszt adopted a number of disguises, selfconsciously playing the successive parts of virtuoso, Kapellmeister, and cleric. Schibli also deals cursorily with Liszt’s correspondence and with several compositions, including the B-minor Sonata. Illustrations include reproductions of portraits, paintings, caricatures, and a handful of short musical examples. 416. Sitwell, Sacheverall. Liszt, rev. ed. New York: Dover Books, 1967. 400 pp. ML410.L7S62 1967. Elegantly written but unfortunately ill-documented and inaccurate. Sitwell considers Liszt interesting above all as a performer (p. xxi) and only incidentally influential as a creative force in nineteenth-century music. The original 1934 edition concludes with an abbreviated catalog of Liszt’s works (pp. 338–57), a chronological outline of his life, an outdated bibliography, and four appendices devoted to the lives of Alkan, Sivori, John Field, and Walter Bache; a fifth appendix quotes the same part of H. R. Haweis’s My Musical Life (3d ed.; London, 1891), also quoted at length at the end of

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item 403. Revisions made by Sitwell in old age were confined to a sevenpage postscript dated “1955.” See also item 38. 417. Smets, Irene. Liszt en zejn tijd. Brussels: BRT [“brt uitgave”], 1987. 393 pp. ISBN 3050960081. ML410.L7S64 1987. A popular biography in Flemish, outfitted with a scattering of facsimiles and portraits as illustrations—among the latter, and unusual in Liszt studies, a photograph of Grand-Duke Carl Alexander (p. 344), one of the more influential figures in the composer’s musical career. No musical examples. Concludes with the briefest of bibliographies (p. 391; the references are mostly to out-of-date publications) and a table of contents. 418. Sogny, Michel. L’admiration créatrice chez Liszt. Paris: Buchet-Chastel, 1975. 186 pp. ML410.L7S653. A biography fleshed out with psychoanalytic speculation (pp. 99–105) as well as with the texts of several “unpublished” letters (pp. 149–175). NB: Most of these letters appeared in print long ago, some in such obvious places as Franz Liszt’s Briefe (item 289). Supplemented by a chronological outline of Liszt’s activities and a bibliography. Derived from Sogny’s dissertation “Le processus de l’esprit créateur chez Liszt” (Paris, 1974); see French Language Dissertations in Music: An Annotated Bibliography, ed. Jean Gribensk (Stuyvesant, NY, 1979), pp. 191–92. 419. Sommsich, Andor. Liszt Ferenc élete. Budapest: Magyar Irodalmi Társaság, 1925. 480 pp. Rare: the Boston Public Library is said to own a copy of this volume. A commendable work, now out of date. Haraszti praised Sommsich in his 1936 evaluation of published Liszt literature (item 178), and Hungarian scholars still cite him from time to time. Contains a list of compositions and a bibliography especially useful for pre-1918 Hungarian-language publications (pp. 475–78). Illustrated with a frontispiece Liszt portrait. * Walker. Franz Liszt. Described as item 1. A study of Liszt’s music as well as, with Perényi’s volume, the finest Liszt biography in existence. OLDER BIOGRAPHICAL STUDIES In general, recent Liszt biographies are more reliable than earlier studies. A few nineteenth-century monographs, however, contain valuable information about Liszt’s character and activities. These include: 420. Christern, J. W. Franz Liszt. Nach seinem Leben und Werke aus authentischen Berichten dargestellt. Leipzig: Schuberth, 1842. 43 pp. ML410.L7Z2846M.

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The first important “book-length” biography of Liszt, containing valuable information about the artist’s early concert tours; as a consequence, cited and evaluated—often, in company with items 421 and 422—in a variety of studies, including reception studies identified in Chapter 6. Concludes with a one-page catalog of pieces Liszt completed before c. 1841. The Library of Congress owns a copy [shelf-number ML95.L68 case] containing emendations and corrections in Liszt’s hand; see item 440. 421. Rellstab, Ludwig. Franz Liszt. Beurteilungen—Berichte—Lebensskizze. Berlin: Trautwein, 1842. iv, 76 pp. ML410.L7R35. A valuable source of information about Liszt’s concert career, especially his Berlin performances of the early 1840s (pp. 29–56); also includes reviews, occasionally revised and edited, which originally appeared in the Vossische Zeitung (pp. 1–28). Lacks illustrations and musical examples. Reprinted serially in Liszt Saeculum nos. 23–24, 27–28, and 32–34. 422. Schilling, Gustav. Franz Liszt: Sein Leben und Wirken aus nächster Beschauung. Stuttgart: Stoppani, 1844. xvi, 267 pp. ML410.L7Z833M. Another early biography of interest. Schilling provides a great deal of information about Liszt’s early virtuoso concert tours. Includes illustrations of several kinds but offers no systematic discussion of musical issues. One of the most interesting older Liszt biographies remains: 423. La Mara. Franz Liszt, 13th ed. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1920. 77 pp. ML410.L7L774. A popular work by the author and editor of many other important studies, including item 289. Illustrated with a portrait of Liszt as a frontispiece; supplemented with a catalog of works (pp. 57–78), including some bibliographic entries. Other older biographies include Eduard Reuß, Franz Liszt: ein Lebensbild [“Männer der Zeit,” 5] (Dresden and Leipzig, 1898), which contains a single Liszt portrait as frontispiece. Among early Liszt biographies are several works cited primarily because they provided information adopted wholesale, or sometimes criticized, by the authors of subsequent studies. Perhaps the most famous of these publications is: 424. Ortigue, Joseph d’. “Franz Liszt.” Revue et gazette musicale de Paris 2/24 (14 June 1835): 197–204. A “legendary” account of Liszt’s early life, complete with an account of the famous Weihekuss—which Beethoven is supposed to have bestowed on Liszt in 1823 Vienna—argued over in items 424, 471, and 633–636. Transformed into German by one “Herr Flechsig,” who is also sometimes credited

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with writing it, and published in the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 4 (1836); this translation is discussed separately in item 460. Other Revue et gazette musicale Liszt biographical sketches also exist; see, for example, Katharine Ellis’s comments on Stoepel’s sketch in her Music Criticism in Nineteenth-century France (Cambridge, 1995), p. 53; Ellis also discusses “Liszt vs. Fétis” in the Revue (pp. 149–52) and reviews of Liszt’s music in that magazine (pp. 152–54). NB: Runs of the Revue et gazette are rare in American libraries; the Library of Congress owns a partial run on microfilm, the Eastman School of Music a complete run in hard copy. Not all early Liszt biographies are reliable; some are merely considered curiosities today. Three examples are described below: 425. Duverger, J. Notice biographique sur Franz Liszt, ed. M. E. Pascallet; 2d ed. Paris: Amyot, May 1843. 66 pp. Rare: US-Wc shelf-number ML410.L7D9. A less important work, full of small errors: the date of Liszt’s honorary doctorate from the University of Königsberg is given as 1841, instead of 1842. Like other biographical “notices,” this pamphlet testifies to the hunger of nineteenth-century music lovers for information about Liszt, reliable or otherwise. Includes the texts of letters Liszt wrote in 1838–1839. Apparently published previously in the Revue générale. NB: “Duverger” may have been the Comtesse d’Agoult (see item 76, entry 434). 426. Ledos de Beaufort, Raphael. Franz Liszt. The Story of His Life, to Which Are [sic] Added Liszt as a Littérateur by T. Carlaw Martin. London: Oliver Ditson, 1887. 233 pp. ML410.L7L3 1887. A cheap popular biography, issued in several editions and under several titles—at least one of which, published in 1886 in London, contains Nadine Helbig’s essay “Liszt in Rome” (item 598). Another edition appeared under the title The Abbé Liszt: The Story of His Life (London, ?1866). The 1887 London edition concludes with a list of compositions (pp. 228–31) and a roll call of “principal pupils” (pp. 232–33). 427. Nohl, Louis. Life of Liszt, trans. George P. Upton. Chicago: A. C. McClurg, 1889. 198 pp. ML410.L7N85. A lackluster biography outfitted with an appendix containing some intriguing source materials: a letter written by Adam Liszt in 1824, a review of “Don Sancho” [sic] published in the Harmonicon in 1825, and so on. A 1970 reprint of this volume (Detroit: Gale Research Co.) includes a Liszt portrait; the original edition lacks illustrations as well as musical examples.

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428. Nádor, T. Liszt Ferenc életének krónikája. Nagy muzsikusok életének krónikája, 12. Budapest: Zenemu# kiadó, 1975. 344 pp. ISBN 9633300843. ML410.L7N2. A year-by-year, often day-by-day “chronicle” of Liszt’s life and activities, supplemented by a few musical examples. Often less reliable than Raabe’s table (item 174), but more readable; Raabe’s is a reference tool, not a “narrative.” ILLUSTRATED BIOGRAPHIES The handsomest and most accurate of these publications remains: 429. Burger, Ernst. Franz Liszt: A Chronicle of His Life in Pictures and Documents, trans. Stewart Spencer; foreword by Alfred Brendel. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989. 358 pp. ISBN 0691091333. ML410.L7B913 1989. A year-by-year, sometimes day-by-day synopsis of Liszt’s undertakings, lavishly illustrated with some 650 portraits, photographs, documentary facsimiles of various kinds, and other images; more than a few important pictures are reproduced in color. The synopses are presented in both tabular and prose forms; Burger’s volume, then, is at once an iconographical study, a picture biography, and a timeline. Includes item 31 as a foreword (pp. 7–8) as well as “Liszt as Seen by Others” (pp. 330–32), a collection of reminiscences by the likes of Peter Cornelius, Claude Debussy, Clara Schumann, and so on; this is followed by translations of relevant documentary texts (pp. 335–44), detailed notes concerning sources and archival locations of various images (pp. 345–48), and indexes of names and Liszt’s works. Originally published as Franz Liszt. Eine Lebenschronik in Bildern und Dokumenten (Munich, 1986). Reviewed in that form in the Times Literary Supplement for 10 July 1987. NB: The original volume contained errors corrected in the English-language edition. Seven additional heavily illustrated Liszt biographies are described below: 430. Bártha, Dénes von. Franz Liszt, 1811–1886: Sein Leben in Bildern. Leipzig: Bibliographisches Institut, 1936. 46 pp. ML410.L7B28. A small book consisting of an introductory essay and forty-six black-andwhite reproductions of Liszt portraits, pictures of places where he lived, facsimiles of musical compositions, and so on. Bártha’s book has been superseded by more recent publications (items 429, 432, and 433).

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431. Bory, Robert. La vie de Franz Liszt par l’image, précedée d’une introduction biographique par A. Cortot. Paris: Horizons de France, 1936. 249 pp. ML410.L7B662. A somewhat drab survey of Liszt’s life in the form of numerous black-andwhite illustrations. Also includes facsimiles of four Liszt letters as well as other documents. Students of twentieth-century pianism in general and of Alfred Cortot in particular may wish to consult that artist’s introductory essay. Also printed in 1936 at Geneva. 432. Füssmann, Werner, and Béla Mátéka. Franz Liszt: Ein Künstlerleben in Wort und Bild. Langensalza: J. Beltz, 1936. xv, 301 pp. ML410.L7F9. A handsome Liszt picture book, containing 315 carefully identified blackand-white illustrations and supplemented with a bibliography. Mátéka also collaborated on item 433. 433. László, Zsigmond, and Béla Mátéka. Liszt Ferenc élete képekben és dokumentumokban. Budapest: Zenem u# kiadó, 1978. viii, 195 pp. ISBN 9633302498. ML88.L48L45. An important study, containing 378 numbered illustrations: portraits, musicmanuscript facsimiles, sheet-music covers, and so on. Different from other László-Mátéka publications—for example, Franz Liszt. A Biography in Pictures (London: Barrie & Rockliff, 1968)—and should not be confused with them. 434. Szelényi, István. Liszt Ferenc élete képekben, 3d ed. Budapest: Zenemu# kiadó, 1961. 70 pp. ML410.L7S988. Consists of an introductory biographical essay and eighty-eight illustrations, many of them portraits. 435. Weilguny, Hedwig, and Willy Handrick. Franz Liszt, 6th ed. Leipzig: Volksverlag Weimar, 1980. 176 pp. ML88.L48W4. A handsome volume of pictures, most of them familiar to students of Liszt’s life and work. Similar to item 436, but more fulsome and more handsomely printed. Includes facsimiles of Liszt letters, other documents, and a bibliography. 436. Weilguny, Hedwig, and Willy Handrick. Franz Liszt: Biographie in Bildern. Leipzig: Deutscher Verlag für Musik, 1961. 168 pp. ML88.L48W4 1961. Contains 164 illustrations of Liszt, his loved ones, some of his acquaintances, places he lived, and so on; supplemented with an introductory essay by Weilguny (pp. 7–40). Unfortunately, Weilguny and Handrick’s volumes,

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as well as those by László, Mátéka, and Szelényi, pale in both scope and beauty next to Burger’s work. RELATED STUDIES Two articles, published comparatively recently, have attempted to reevaluate Lina Ramann’s role not only as a Liszt biographer but as a musicological pioneer: 437. Deaville, James. “Writing Liszt: Lina Ramann, Marie Lipsius, and Early Musicology.” Journal of Musicological Research 21 (2001): 73–97. ISSN 0141-1896. ML5.M6415. Acknowledges that “‘faithfulness,’ ‘reliability,’ and ‘truth’ are relative concepts” where biography of any kind is concerned (p. 79), then goes on to justify the author’s claims that Ramann “played the male” in her relationship—on paper and off—to a “masculinized” Liszt, while La Mara “played the female” to a “feminized” Liszt (pp. 93, 95). In large part Deaville considers Ramann and La Mara intriguing figures precisely because they were excluded from traditional musicology; he provides five pages of documentary facsimiles, four of them (pp. 81–84) drawn from Ramann’s partially unpublished questionnaires sent to Liszt and preserved today in the Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv, Weimar (see also item 344); he also provides a photograph of attendees, including Liszt, at the 1886 Tonkünstlerversammlung in Sondershausen (p. 94). 438. Rieger, Eva. “So schlecht wie ihr Ruf? Die Liszt-Biographin Lina Ramann.” Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 147/7–8 (July–August 1986): 16–20. ML5.N4. Reevaluates Ramann and her Liszt publications, based on the hypothesis that this pioneering scholar was “a well-integrated personality, able to fight when challenged on important issues” […eine integre Persönlichkeit, die auch kämpfen konnte, wenn es um seine ihr wichtige Sache ging (p. 20)]. Rieger also discusses briefly the character and extent of Ramann’s two most important Liszt studies: Franz Liszt als Künstler und Mensch (item 3) and Lisztiana (item 344). Illustrated with facsimiles of two Ramann questionnaires and with a portrait of Ramann herself. Other studies of Liszt biographies and biographical issues include: 439. Helm, Everett. “Franz Liszt: ein Opfer seiner Biographen?” In: Festschrift für einen Verleger. Ludwig Strecker zum 90. Geburtstag, ed. Carl Dahlhaus. Mainz: B. Schott, 1973; pp. 167–77. ML55.S848F5 1973. Reviews Liszt’s life in order to assess evidence for and against the so-called “Liszt legend.” Helm concludes that although Marie d’Agoult and Princess Carolyne must have helped Liszt with his literary works, the composer

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himself must bear some of the burden for his occasionally exaggerated reputation. Includes numerous source citations. 440. “Views and Reviews.” The Musical Quarterly 22 (1936): 354–61. ISSN 0027-4631. ML1.M725. A description of Christern’s pioneering biography (item 420), together with a biographical sketch of that author, a facsimile reproduction of a page from his book containing holograph corrections in Liszt’s hand, and an explanation of how Liszt’s copy of Christern’s monograph was purchased by the Library of Congress. Concludes with an incomplete catalog of Liszt’s emendations in the Congress copy (pp. 358–60). CHARACTER STUDIES Liszt has been served better by biographers than by students of human nature. Few studies of his character exist, and none of them tackles all the problems associated with this thorny subject. The most famous Liszt character study—and, almost every Lisztian would agree, the most controversial—is: 441. Newman, Ernest. The Man Liszt: A Study of the Tragi-comedy of a Soul Divided Against Itself. London: Cassell, 1934; and New York: Charles Scribner, 1935. Both xxii, 313 pp. ML410.L7N4. A dishonest, poorly argued, yet extremely influential attack on the so-called “Liszt legend.” Although Newman considered his subject an “extraordinary man…perhaps the most elusive psychological problem in all music” (p. ix), he discussed him with a remarkable lack of sympathy. Illustrated with a few portrait photographs; prefaced with a list of sources (pp. xviii–xxii). NB: Newman’s opinions about Liszt were not always negative, however. See the “Study of Liszt,” reprinted in the Liszt Society Journal 8 (1983): 32–33. Reprinted in 1970 in a facsimile edition issued by Victor Gollancz of London; an excerpt also appears in The Music Lover’s Companion, ed. Gervase Hughes and Herbert van Thal (London, 1971), pp. 141–46. Carl Engel’s biting attack on Newman’s work appeared in the “Views and Reviews” column of The Musical Quarterly 21 (1935): 230–240. Seven less influential character studies are described or cross-referenced below: 442. Barzun, Jacques. “Liszt’s Adventures of the Heart and Mind.” In item 44, pp. 7–16. Liszt and Romanticism, Liszt as Hungarian, what Liszt read—all these and other subjects are mentioned by Barzun, who takes as his starting point a

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definition of “the word ‘literature’ in the broadest possible sense” (p. 7), and who refers to the composer’s “great fund of passionate energy,” his “singular combination of restlessness and fidelity” (p. 11), and his interest in musical programmism. Originally delivered at the Library of Congress as a lecture entitled “Literature in Liszt’s Mind and Work” and apparently published in pamphlet form by the library; the present author has never seen a copy. 443. Hamburger, Klára. “‘Musicien humanitaire.’” New Hungarian Quarterly 27/103 (Autumn 1986): 85–92. ISSN 0028-5390. DB901.H83. An apostrophe to Liszt’s character as well as his artistic contributions to cultural life. Asserts that nineteenth-century Europe could not tolerate “such a radiant spirit” as Liszt and thus defaced his memory. Also reviews the contents and implications of some published Liszt letters as well as biographies by Raabe (item 2, vol. 1) and Haraszti (item 401). Reprinted in the Liszt Society Journal 20 (1995): 62–69. 444. Heinemann, Michael. “Liszts Maskeraden.” In: Biographische Konstellation und künstlerisches Handeln, ed. Giselher Schubert. Frankfurter Studien, 6. Mainz and New York: Schott, 1997; pp. 81–93. ISBN 3795703204. ML3915.B56 1997. Discusses how to “read” Liszt’s compositions for insights into his character and music. Heinemann provides an example: the “contemporary” [vergegenwärtlich (p. 90)] character of a scene featuring Valentine and Raoul as “Protestant” and “Catholic” forces in Meyerbeer’s Les Huguenots, which Liszt paraphrased in his 1836 Réminiscences of that opera. No musical examples, however, and few direct citations from other primary or secondary sources. 445. Hood, David. “Half-Zigeuner, Half-Franciscan: A Personal Reflection on Franz Liszt’s Life and Personality.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 36 (1994): 46–53. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Cursory and flattering, with emphasis on the composer’s complex personality. One gimmick, borrowed from cultural historian Henrik Willem van Loon: the idea of an “ideal dinner party” attended by the composer as well as Maria Callas, Napoléon III, the young Arthur Sullivan, and Oscar Wilde (!), complete with comments about what such an event might reveal of the “real” Liszt. 446. Knotik, Cornelia. “‘Génie oblige.’ Selbstdarstellung und Stilisierung der Person Franz Liszts.” Österreichische Musikzeitschrift 41 (1986): 77–82. ISSN 0029-9316. ML5.O1983. Describes Liszt’s artistic, nationalistic, and clerical “posturing” apart from his accomplishments as composer, performer, and pedagogue. Illustrated

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with two portraits of the artist—one as “Abbé,” the other in Hungarian costume. An intriguing study, unfortunately on the brief side. * Sitwell. “Liszt: A Character Study.” See item 38, pp. 1–21. Drawn for the most part from the author’s book-length monograph (item 416). 447. Suarès, André. “Liszt le magnanime.” La Revue musicale [“Numéro special”] (1 May 1928): 5–17. ISSN 0768-1593. ML5.M613. A flattering sketch of Liszt’s character, similar to a number of other articles omitted from the present research guide. Well-intended but cursory and possibly too “enthusiastic” in tone. Not to be confused with another essay by Suarès of the same name (in item 67, pp. 142–47). The publishers of Silences, in which this “other” article appeared, however, identify its source as a previously unedited F-Pn manuscript. Older and much more difficult to obtain are three studies of Liszt’s psychic physiognomy and functioning: 448. Quéro, Robert. Franz Liszt (1811–1886). Etude psycho-pathologique. Dissertation: University of Bordeaux, 1932. 147 pp. (No LC number available.) Not seen. References to this study are scattered through the Liszt literature. According to the National Union Catalog, Pre-1956 Imprints, vol. 477, p. 150, the Yale University library once owned a copy. The present author was unable to locate the copy purportedly owned by the National Széchényi Library, Budapest. 449. Schramek, Rudolf. “Franz Liszt: Eine psychologische Untersuchung über Leben und Werk.” Archiv für die gesamte Psychologie 92 (1934): 45–84. BF3.A7. A psychological examination of Liszt’s personality and fluctuations in his artistic output. Schramek believes the later 1850s, especially 1857, were Liszt’s “peak” years as a composer because his life in Weimar with Princess Carolyne fed his creative energies. Illustrated with several intriguing graphs. 450. Takács, Menyhért. Liszt Ferenc érzelmi világa / Die Gefühlswelt Franz Liszts. Musicologica Hungarica, 4. Budapest: National Széchényi Library, 1941. 234 pp. ML410.L7T3. Subtitled “a study in the artistic psychology of romantic music” [in German, Eine Studie zur Kunstpsychologie der romantischen Musik], but perhaps more properly considered a psychological profile of Liszt’s personality, considered in successive chapters in terms of his affinity for mankind and values, his religious sentiments, and—almost in passing—the emotional character of

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certain compositions. Published bilingually: the first half in Hungarian (pp. 1–206), the second in German (pp. 207 ff.). Lacks musical examples.

SPECIALIZED BIOGRAPHICAL STUDIES Quite a few book-length Liszt biographies are disappointing in their detail and scope. A large number of more specialized studies, however, have filled many gaps in our knowledge of his character and affairs. The most important of these studies are described below—first, by subcategory; then alphabetically by author, subject, and/or title. ANCESTORS

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FAMILY

Genealogical Studies Liszt’s ancestry has been traced with care by several first-rate scholars: 451. Békefi, Erno# . “Franz Liszt. Seine Abstammung—seine Familie,” trans. Klára Litkei. In item 54, pp. 7–48. A thorough study of Liszt’s ancestors, tracing the family back through father Adam, grandfather Georg Adam [List], and great-grandfather Sebastian [Liszt], as well as through mother Maria Anna [neé Lager] Liszt, maternal grandfather Mathias Lager, Jr., and maternal great-grandfather Mathias Lager Sr. Békefi also deals briefly with peripheral family members. Originally published in Hungarian as Liszt Ferenc származása és családja (Budapest, 1973). Illustrated in this version with facsimiles of genealogical documents missing from the more accessible German-language version. NB: This latter title should not be confused with item 452. 452. Csekey, István. Liszt Ferenc származása és hazafisága. Budapest: Franklin Nyomda, 1937. 36 pp. Rare: the Austrian National Library owns a copy (shelf-number 147.091–B. 25, 9). The first “scientific” study of Liszt’s family background and ties to Hungary. Among other topics, Csekey deals with the rumor proposed by nineteenthcentury newspapers such as the Buda-Pesti rajzolatok and the Pester Tageblatt that Liszt was descended from nobility. On this last topic, see item 451 and item 1, vol. 1, pp. 30–31. Csekey’s pamphlet includes two fold-out tables. 453. Liszt, Eduard von. Franz Liszt: Abstammung, Familie, Begebenheiten. Vienna and Leipzig: Wilhelm Braumüller, 1937. xiv, 111 pp. ML410.L7Z4957. Primarily an account of Liszt’s immediate ancestors and contemporary family members. The older Eduard von Liszt, a distinguished lawyer and

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civil servant, was Franz Liszt’s nephew and corresponded regularly with his uncle for several decades; the 1937 volume was compiled by his son, who provides chapters on “Franz Liszt und Wien” (pp. 70–81) and other subjects, among them the composer’s old age, death, and burial. Illustrated with sixty images, bound together at the end of the volume, comprising portraits of family members, photographs of various Liszt places, and a few documentary facsimiles. Accompanied by appendices containing two letters addressed by Liszt to Eduard’s father (pp. 98–102), information about Liszt’s servant “Mischka” (pp. 103–5), and Liszt anecdotes; also includes a list of sources (pp. xi–xiv), a family tree (p. xv), and copious quotations from the composer’s correspondence. A diagrammatic summary of information available in this volume appeared as Eduard von Liszt, “Stammtafel der Familie Liszt,” Österreichische Musikzeitschrift 16 (1961), p. 429, itself published as a pamphlet with fourpage introduction (Vienna, 1940). 454. Wamser, Heinrich. “Abstammung und Familie Franz Liszts.” Burgenländische Heimatblätter 5/2 (May 1936): 24–34. OCLC 15115985. (ISSN and LC numbers unavailable.) Less detailed than the studies described immediately above; instead, useful primarily for several facsimile reproductions of genealogical documents (between pp. 52 and 53). Studies of Liszt’s relationship with family members cannot always be distinguished neatly from the genealogical studies described above. The studies described below, however, deal for the most part with events after 1811 as well as with Liszt’s children or other relations. Individual Relatives A. Liszt’s Father Adam Liszt Two comparatively recent studies of the life and character of the composer’s father deserve close attention: 455. Winkler, Gerhard J. “Adam Liszt—Charakterstudie eines Vaters.” In item 141, pp. 60–75. A concise, intelligent account of Adam Liszt’s personality and relationship with his son. Illustrated with a facsimile of H-Bn “Acta musicalia” ms. 170, fol. 530/31: a letter Adam Liszt addressed in July 1819 to Esterházy Prince Nikolaus II, which is also quoted in the Haydn Yearbook 13–16 (1982–1985): 183 ff. See, too, Winkler’s somewhat shorter article “Adam

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Liszt und Franz Liszt. Zur Anatomie einer folgenreichen Vater-Sohn Beziehung” (item 49, pp. 11–19). Most discussions of Liszt’s father include quotations from his correspondence, especially the letters he exchanged with Carl Czerny. Early “editions” of these letters include C. F. Pohl, “Aus Franz Liszts Jugendleben,” Münchener Propylaen 1 (1869): 145 ff.; translated as “Incidents of Franz Liszt’s Youth” in the Monthly Musical Record 1 and 2 (1871–1872) and reprinted in the Liszt Society Journal 15 (1990): 2–5 and 16 (1991): 2–7. Like other publications containing Liszt letters, these are identified and described in item 76. Finally, see János Hárich [also given as “Johann Harich”], Liszt Ferenc családja és az Esterházy hercegek (Budapest, 1934), a short pamphlet describing Adam Liszt’s relationship with the Eszterházy family in terms of H-Bn “Acta musicalia” documents. Regarding Hárich, see item 457. 456. Winkler, Gerhard J. “Franz Liszts Kindheit. Versuch eines biographischen Grundrisses.” Die Musikforschung 39 (1986): 335–40. ISSN 0027-4801. ML5.M9437. Similar in content to item 455, but more sophisticated; Winkler challenges the opinions of other scholars, including Walker (item 1, vol. 1), concerning the probity and familial disinterestedness of a father who lived off his son’s earnings for several years. Footnotes identify virtually everything published before 1986 about Liszt’s ancestors and family. Other studies of Adam Liszt’s activities and character include: 457. Csekey, István. “Franz Liszts Vater: Nach bisher unveröffentlichten Dokumenten dargestellt.” Die Musik 29/9 (June 1937): 631–35. ML5.M9. A pioneering discussion of three “Acta musicalia” documents (nos. 3500, 3506, and 4216) also reprinted elsewhere. No illustrations. NB: Since Csekey completed this study several documents associated with Liszt’s father have come to light. Among them is a report of Adam Liszt’s participation in an 1810 concert conducted in Eisenstadt by Beethoven. See Johann Harich [also given as “János Hárich”], “Beethoven in Eisenstadt,” Burgenländische Heimatblätter 21 (1959): 168–88, esp. 183–85. 458. Haraszti, Emile. “Deux franciscains: Adam et Franz Liszt.” La Revue musicale 174 (1937): 269–71. ISSN 0768-1593. ML5.M613. Discusses Liszt’s lifelong interest in St. Francis of Assisi and the order he founded as well as Adam Liszt’s unsuccessful Franciscan novitiate. With regard to Adam and Franz Liszt’s “Franciscan” interests, see also item 752;

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see, too, László Bucsi, “Liszt és a magyar ferencesek,” Magyar zene 28 (1987), pp. 50–52. 459. La Mara. “Aus Franz Liszts erster Jugend. Ein Schreiben seines Vaters mit Briefen, Czerneys an ihn.” Die Musik 5/3 (1905–1906): 15–29. ML5.M9. A valuable source of information, especially insofar as the texts of Adam Liszt’s letters to Carl Czerny are concerned; most of its contents, however, have been thoroughly assimilated by other authors. Closely related to item 455. See, too, La Mara’s Classisches und Romantisches aus der Tonwelt (Leipzig, 1892), pp. 233–62. One misleading title occasionally encountered in the Liszt literature is correctly identified below: 460. [“Adam Liszts Tagebuch.”] See the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 4 (1836): 13–16, 19–21, 23–24, 27–30, 31–33, and 39–40. ML5.N4. A translation into German by “E. Flechsig” for the Neue Zeitschrift of d’Ortigue’s 1835 biography (item 424), purportedly based in part on diaries kept by Adam Liszt; the diaries themselves were lost during Liszt’s lifetime. Quotations from the diaries appear in a number of scholarly studies, including item 1, vol. 1. B. Liszt’s Mother Anna Maria [née Lager] Liszt In addition to collections of Liszt’s correspondence with his mother (item 304), three articles tell the tale of their relationship: 461. Horvath, Emmerich Karl. “Hochzeit und Leben in Raiding.” In item 144, pp. 17–19. A brief but well-documented sketch of Anna’s life, especially her years with husband Adam and son Franz in Raiding. Also includes descriptions of her originally published by Eduard von Liszt, Lina Ramann, August Göllerich, and so on. 462. Legány, Dezso# . “Liszt’s Inheritance.” Liszt Society Journal 12 (1987): 2–7. ML410.L7L6. Describes Anna’s character and explains how she “inspired” her son during the early years of his musical career. Contains a good-quality, black-andwhite reproduction of the only known photograph of the composer’s mother. 463. Leibnitz, Thomas. “Franz Liszt und seine Mutter: Zur Geschichte einer Beziehung in Briefen.” In item 144, pp. 9–16.

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Evaluates Liszt’s relationship with his mother, based on published and unpublished correspondence. Information about Anna’s ancestors and life also appears in Walter Dobner’s “Blau-gelbe Liszt-Spuren. Zur mütterlichen Herkunft von Franz Liszt” (item 144, pp. 7–8). C. Liszt’s Children Blandine, Cosima, and Daniel Two full-length monographs about Liszt’s offspring have appeared in print: 464. Bory, Robert. Liszt et ses enfants. Blandine, Cosima, Daniel d’après une correspondance inédite avec la Princesse Marie Sayn-Wittgenstein. Paris: R. A. Correa, 1936. 227 pp. ML410.L7B648. Describes Liszt’s uneasy relationship with his children, in part through some sixty letters written between 1853 and 1860. Bory also reprints the complete text of a letter Liszt addressed to his daughters on 14 September 1855, a document also published in item 301. Profusely illustrated. 465. Rain, Henriette. Les enfants du génie: Blandine, Cosima et Daniel Liszt. Paris: Presses de la Renaissance, 1986. 347 pp. ISBN 2856163645. ML410.L7R17 1986. An unillustrated, mass-market “biography” of the artist and his children, written up almost like a novel and supported with only a few bibliographic citations. A detailed review of this volume by Pauline Pocknell, published in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 20 (1986): 152–61, corrects a number of errors and supplies English-language translations of two important letters. According to Pocknell, “The definitive biography of Blandine, Cosima and Daniel Liszt still awaits its writer.” Also item 316. At least two articles have been devoted solely to Daniel Liszt’s life and activities: 466. Bellas, Jacqueline. “Liszt…prénom Daniel.” In item 48, pp. 215–34. A detailed biographical sketch of Daniel Liszt, illustrated with copious quotations from letters and other documents, many of them previously unpublished. No illustrations, however. 467. Walker, Alan. “A Boy Named Daniel.” New Hungarian Quarterly 27/101 (Spring 1986): 204–20. ISSN 0028-5390. DB901.H83. A spirited description of the life and character of Liszt’s only son. Walker illustrates his observations with facsimile reproductions of previously unpublished baptismal records, photographs of Daniel and his tomb, a relief of Daniel (anon.; c. 1857), and three letters addressed by Daniel to his father between 1848 and 1857. Reprinted in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 20 (1986): 56–80. See also item 398.

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A third article deals with an incident from Daniel’s life: 468. Brody, Elaine. “All in the Family: Liszt, Daniel and Ary Scheffer.” Nineteenth-century French Studies 13 (1985): 238–43. ISSN 0146-7891. PQ1.N55. Deals in part with Liszt’s attempt to introduce Daniel to Ary Scheffer, a wellknown Dutch painter responsible for an outstanding portrait of the composer. Includes the text of a letter Liszt sent Scheffer on 17 October 1855. Rumors have credited Liszt with a number of illegitimate children, but only one of these spurious offspring has been discussed in a book of his own: 469. Berthoud, Dorette. Davila, fils de Liszt? Sa vie, son oeuvre, le secret de ses origines d’après ses lettres, les documents réunis par sa fille, la générale Perticari et quelques sources nouvelles. Neuchâtel: La Baconnière, 1956. 291 pp. ML410.L7Z2583M. A curiosity, written to support claims that Dr. Carlos Davila was a child of Liszt’s and the Comtesse d’Agoult. Not seen but mentioned in several Liszt bibliographies and in item 1, vol. 1, pp. 24–25. A well-researched study that raises but does not attempt to solve the “Davila” problem—and one that includes extensive quotations from both Davila’s letters and those of the Comtesse—is Jacques Vier’s “Un Breton d’adoption, grand médicin de roumanie, le docteur Carlos Davila: Documents inédits,” published in the Annales de Bretagne [“publiée par le Faculté des Lettres et Sciences humaines di Rennes”] 71/2 (June 1959): 133–96. * Haine. “Franz Servais, Illegitimate Son of Franz Liszt?” See item 691. D. Liszt’s Grandfather Georg Adam Liszt A single short article has been devoted to this progenitor: 470. Tobler, Felix. “Georg Adam Liszt. Seine Tätigkeit als Schulmeister, Notär und Bediensteter der Esterházyschen Zentralverwaltung (1774–1811).” In item 141, pp. 15–23. Describes the ancestors and affairs of Liszt’s paternal grandfather, Georg Adam Liszt [or List]. Tobler refers to ecclesiastical histories of the Burgenland and to documents owned by archives housed in Eisenstadt and nearby towns. No illustrations. CHILDHOOD

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YOUTH

Three book-length studies have been devoted exclusively or at least primarily to Liszt’s pre-“transcendental” years and experiences:

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471. Hupfer, Thomi. Franz Liszt als junger Mann: eine Leserei. Bern: Peter Lang, 2001. vii, 405 pp. ISBN 3906767302. A sophisticated “reading” of the earliest Liszt literature, including such works as Schilling’s and d’Ortigue’s biographies (respectively, items 422 and 424) as well as reports in various magazines and newspapers; as much, therefore, a critical study of sources as a series of explorations into Liszt’s youthful activities, character, and compositions. Hupfer likens some descriptions of Liszt performances to film sequences […in der Weise eines Hollywood-Szenariums berichten (p. 207)], and he deals with a variety of reported relationships and episodes, including the Weihekuss “fable” (pp. 246–60). Includes transcriptions of dozens of press reports and other documents in their original languages (pp. 291–371), complete with its own table of contents, as well as notes (pp. 279–90), a useful bibliography (pp. 373–92) and index. Presented as a doctoral dissertation at the Universität Basel in 1999. 472. László, Zoltán. Az ifjú Liszt, 1811–1839. Budapest: Zenemu# kiadó, 1962. 174 pp. ML410.L7L37. A detailed description of Liszt’s family, childhood, experiences in Paris and Vienna, and first “transcendental” concert tours. Illustrated with a number of black-and-white photographs but no musical examples. Available only in Hungarian. 473. Za l uski, Iwo and Pamela. Young Liszt. London: Peter Owen, 1997. 208 pp. ISBN 0720610036. ML410.L7Z25 1997. Tells the composer’s tale from birth through 1835 or thereabouts in a lively but not always accurate manner. Illustrated with two useful maps—one of the Burgenland, c. 1811 (opposite p. 1), the other of “Franz Liszt’s Paris” from 1823–1835 (as a frontispiece)—and four plates of mostly familiar black-and-white portraits; unfortunately, the Paris map is so small that one would have to know the names of the streets in order to find the keyed-in locations (the Conservatoire, the Hotel de Ville, and so on) in “real life.” Concludes with a brief bibliography (pp. 199–203), mostly of secondary sources and survey studies, and with an index. Among shorter studies devoted in large part to the same material are: 474. Fábián, Imre, and Arisztid Valkó. “Aus Franz Liszts Jugend.” Österreichische Musikzeitschrift 16 (1961): 430–36. ISSN 0029-9316. ML5.O1983. Discusses Liszt’s earliest musical experiences. Valuable primarily because Fábian and Valkó reprint the entire texts of several H-Bn “Acta musicalia”

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documents—for example, no. 170, a letter Adam Liszt sent Prince Esterházy on 4 August 1819 on behalf of his son. Illustrated with facsimiles of parts of “Acta musicalia” nos. 3500 (a request addressed by Adam Liszt to Prince Esterházy on 13 April 1820) and 3325. Another study of “Acta musicalia” Liszt documents by Valkó appeared as “A Liszt család a levéltári iratok tükrében” in Magyar zene 1/4 (February 1961): 388–99 and 1/5 (March 1961): 498–507. 475. Harich, Johann. “Franz Liszt—Vorfahren und Kinderjahre.” Österreichische Musikzeischrift 26 (1971): 503–14. ISSN 0029-9316. ML5.O1983. Deals with Liszt’s father and grandfather as well as important incidents from Liszt’s own childhood. Drawing on “Acta musicalia” documents, Harich also traces Liszt’s ancestry back to his great-grandfather, Sebastian List. Includes a facsimile reproduction of H-Bn “Acta musicalia” no. 3325, a letter addressed by Antonio Salieri to Prince Esterházy on behalf of the young Liszt, then Salieri’s pupil. An English-language translation of this letter appears in item 1, vol. 2, pp. 74–75. 476. Riemann, Hugo. “Zeitbilder aus Franz Liszt’s Jugendleben….” In: Riemann, Musikalische Rückblicke, vol. 2 (Berlin: Harmonie, 1900), pp. 78–110. Deals in part with Liszt’s early Paris years as well as with the history of Don Sanche and the young composer’s relations with Chopin, George Sand, and other friends and acquaintances. Published in a volume that also contains a brief discussion of Liszt and Bach as well as a number of Wagner studies; hence, perhaps, Riemann’s interest in Liszt’s only opera, a work the composer may have had very little to do with. Finally, among less valuable studies of these topics is the article described below: 477. Lindman, Stig. “Anteckningar kring Liszt.” Musikrevy [Helsingborg, Norway] 41 (1986): 177–80. ISSN 0027-4844. ML5.M9635. A synopsis of Liszt’s childhood and “relations”—including d’Agoult, his children, and Princess Carolyne. Valuable primarily for its facsimile reproductions of several important documents, including the program for Liszt’s Vienna concert on 13 April 1823 and several portraits. THE “WEIMAR YEARS”: SEE LAST YEARS

AND

ESPECIALLY ITEM

DEATH: SEE

ALSO ITEM

1,

1,

VOL.

VOL.

2.

3.

The most comprehensive account of this fascinating and depressing subject remains:

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478. Szabolcsi, Bence. The Twilight of Ferenc Liszt, trans. András Deák. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959. 134 pp. ML410.L7S983. A heartfelt tribute to Liszt’s old age, especially the time he spent in Hungary. Szabolczi supplements his observations with the complete texts of some of Liszt’s late pieces (pp. 81–134), among them the Csárdás obstiné and Ossa arida. Also supplemented with observations of a Marxist-Leninist flavor. Published originally under the title Liszt Ferenc estéje (Budapest, 1956) as well as in German- and Russian-language editions. Also published under the same title in Zenetudományi tanulmányok 3 (1955): 211–65, with summaries in German and English (pp. 553–54). Finally, a short article by Szabolcsi that presents closely related material appeared under the title “Franz Liszts Lebensabend” in Musik und Gesellschaft (1956): 16–17. Other, more specialized studies include two very different publications: 479. Carthe, Erich. “Wie Franz Liszt seinen Letzten Geburtstag feierte…[sic] Ein Beitrag zur Liszt-Gedenkfeier.” Liszt Saeculum no. 59 (1997): 20–21. ISSN 0263-0249. ML410.L7I6. A brief report of Liszt’s activities in Munich and Innsbruck with the likes of Lina Schmalhausen and a group of serenaders 16–22 October 1885. Reprinted from an anonymous clipping, probably published in 1911 in a German newspaper and found in a Stockholm shop. 480. The Death of Franz Liszt, Based on the Unpublished Diary of his Pupil Lina Schmalhausen, ed. Alan Walker. Ithaca, NY and London: Cornell University Press, 2002. xiv, 208 pp. ISBN 0801440769. ML417.S295.A3 2002. A translation of Schmalhausen’s Liszts letzte Lebenstage, drafted by Richard Sikora (p. x) and revised by Walker, together with the latter’s commentary and notes. Among the fascinating aspects of Schmalhausen’s entries, several of which have been published by Walker (item 1, vol. 3, pp. 508 ff.), is the light they cast on Bayreuth’s appropriation of Liszt as propaganda material for the “Wagner machine” run by Liszt’s daughter Cosima. Supplemented with sixteen black-and-white illustrations, including a photograph of Liszt with Schmalhausen printed both on the dust jacket cover and on p. xiv; also includes a bibliography (pp. 195–198). More extensive observations by the present author are scheduled to appear in a forthcoming issue of Music & Letters. With regard to the same general subject-matter, see John G. O’Shea, “Liszt’s Last Illness,” in Liszt Saeculum no. 40 (1987): 9–12, and “Liszt’s Illnesses and Death,” Liszt Saeculum no. 44 (1990): 24–35. See, too, most of the Liszt biographies

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described above and item 453, pp. 88–97 (on Liszt’s death and burial in Bayreuth). TRAVELS

AND

INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITIES

Liszt spent much of his life traveling; at one time or another he visited virtually every part of continental Europe and made occasional excursions into Great Britain, Ireland, Russia, and Turkey. No study devoted exclusively to these travels as a whole has ever been published, but several introductions to many of them exist: 481. Kárpáti, János. “Liszt the Traveller.” New Hungarian Quarterly 27/103 (1986): 108–18. ISSN 0028-5390. DB901.H83. An outline of Liszt’s numerous journeys, not merely his concert tours of the 1830s and 1840s. Kárpáti believes Liszt traveled so much “because [he was] driven by a kind of Faustian insatiability,” wanting “to incorporate everything, to be left out of nothing” (p. 117). Illustrated with eight pages of plates, two in color, reproducing portraits of the composer and some of his contemporaries, title pages from first editions of his published compositions, and facsimile reproductions of certain documents—among the last, a letter addressed by Berlioz to Liszt in 1836. 482. Liszt und die Nationalitäten. Bericht über das internationale musikwissenschaftliche Symposion Eisenstadt, 10.–12. März 1994, ed. Gerhard J. Winkler. Wissenschaftliche Arbeiten aus dem Burgenland, 93. Eisenstadt: Burgenländisches Landesmuseum, 1996. 196 pp. Devoted primarily to Liszt’s relationships with various national musics, although most of its twelve articles also raise biographical issues; Michael Saffle’s “Liszt und die Deutschen, 1840–1845” (pp. 114–26), for example, describes the composer’s German concert tours (see item 543), while Cornelia Szabó-Knotik raises issues of cosmopolitanism, patriotism, and the Volksgeist (or “spirit of the people”) in her examination of Liszt’s songs (“Franz Liszt—die Stimmen der Völker in seinen Liedern,” pp. 98–113). Also includes items 728 and 773; see, too, items 764 and 765. Illustrated as a volume with a scattering of charts, diagrams, and musical examples. * Stockhammer. Franz Liszt im Triumphzug durch Europa. Described as item 16. Devoted in large part to Liszt’s virtuoso tours of 1838–1847, and outfitted with a sketchy chronological table of his 1840s concerts (pp. 171–175) and travel information of various kinds. An exhibition of Liszt’s travel memorabilia also contains a summary of his excursions:

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* Album d’un voyageur…. Described as item 139. Contains a preliminary “catalog” of Liszt’s principal voyages throughout his life. Three other survey studies of “Liszt as traveler” are described below: 483. Autexier, Philippe A. “Musique sans frontières? Les choix des programmes de Liszt pour ses concerts de la période virtuose.” In item 48, pp. 297–305. Compares hundreds of concert programs played by Liszt during the 1840s in France and Germany to demonstrate that national elements influenced choices of certain selections—for example, his preference for playing Schubert to German-speaking listeners. Illustrated with two valuable tables (pp. 299 and 301) identifying several dozen selections most frequently performed by Liszt—among them, the Grand galop chromatique. Useful but brief. 484. Gut, Serge. “Nationalism and Supranationalism in Liszt.” Liszt Society Journal 19 (1994): 28–35. ML410.L7L6. Treats of Liszt’s fondness for several countries—especially France, where he grew up, and Hungary, his native land—as well as his lifelong internationalism. In terms of these arguments, Gut’s article is relevant for any student of Liszt’s travels and international activities, although it discusses none of the composer’s national involvements in any detail. Originally published as “Nationalisme et supranationalisme chez Franz Liszt” (item 48, pp. 277–86). 485. Timbrell, Charles. “On the Trail of Liszt, Chopin and Sand: 1833–1847.” Piano Quarterly 34/135 (Fall 1986): 49–56. ISSN 0031-9354. ML1.P66. Describes Liszt’s visits to Geneva, Chamonix, Nohant, and so on. Illustrated with photographs of some of these places as they exist today. Timbrell includes quotations from a variety of letters and documents, including Sand’s Lettres d’un voyager (see item 253, vol. 1) and Pictet’s Une Course à Chamounix (item 364). Virtually everything else published about Liszt’s travels is limited in scope or chronology to individual areas or eras. The finest such studies are described below—first, in alphabetical order according to the country, region, or city Liszt visited or considered visiting; then by author and/or title: America Although Liszt never set foot in the United States, he numbered many Americans among his acquaintances and pupils. The only study devoted to Liszt’s decadeslong relationship with America and Americans is:

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486. Lowens, Irving. “Liszt and America.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 4 (1978): 4–10. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Documents early references to Liszt and performance of his works in the United States between 1840 and the 1890s. Among other sources, Lowens quotes from John W. Moore’s Complete Encyclopaedia of Music, published in 1854, and from “reminiscences” published by several of Liszt’s American pupils. Concludes with a brief description of two offers extended to Liszt to visit the New World: one in 1874 or 1875 to attend a performance of the so-called “Gran” Mass in Cincinnati, the other (by Steinway & Co.) to undertake a concert tour of Atlantic seaboard cities for $100,000. Other studies have dealt more intensively with Liszt’s reception as a composer in the New World: 487. Deaville, James. “‘Westwärts zieht die Kunstgeschichte’: Liszt’s Symphonic Poems in the New World.” In: Identität—Kultur—Raum. Kulturelle Praktiken und die Ausbildung von Imagined Communities in Nordamerika und Zentraleuropa, ed. Susan Ingram et al. Vienna: Turia + Kant, 2001; pp. 223–43. ISBN 3851323017. Although Liszt never visited America in person, his music did. Deaville describes concerts of the composer’s works conducted by the likes of Carl Bergmann, Theodore Thomas, and Carl Zerrahn between 1852 and the 1880s; he also provides tables identifying individual concerts by performers and symphonic works premiered (pp. 232–38), as well as quotations from the Knoxville Daily Chronicle of 1883 and the Philadelphia Inquirer of 1874 (p. 239). Concludes with notes, a list of sources, and a published version of the discussion that took place after Deaville’s paper was presented at a conference held in Semmering bei Wien, Austria, in May 2000. * Saffle. “Lisztiana in Early American Music Magazines.” Described as item 388, no. 1. Austria In Liszt’s day “Austria” did not exist. Consequently, it is difficult today to separate “Austrian” Liszt studies from studies dealing with other areas of what once was the Austro-Hungarian empire. One study that considers both Austrian and Hungarian issues is: 488. Legány, Dezso# . “Österreichisch-ungarische Beziehungen im letzten Zeitabschnitt des Lebens von Liszt.” In: Kontakte österreichischer Musik nach Ost und Südost, ed. Rudolf Flotzinger. Grazer musikwissenschaftliche Arbeiten, 3. Graz: Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, 1978; pp. 7–16. ISBN 320101043X. ML246.1.K65.

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An introduction to Liszt’s relationships with natives or residents of AustriaHungary during the last years of his life. Best read in conjunction with several of the studies described below. Twelve additional pamphlets and articles dealing with visits Liszt paid to cities and towns located in present-day Austria are described below in alphabetical order by location, then by author: A. The Burgenland (Raiding and Environs) 489. Erhardt, Johann. “Die Besuche des Knaben Franz Liszt in den Nachbargemeinden von Raiding.” In item 41, pp. 29–34. Identifies and comments on Liszt’s visits not only to Raiding itself, but to Deutschkreuz (1811 and 1884), Frankenburg (1881), Lackenbach (1811 and 1822), and Neckenmarkt (1881). Erhardt provides little documentation not found in other sources; nevertheless, his article is easier to read than Winkler’s more probing essay (item 456). See also Erhardt, “Franz Liszt und die Heimat seiner Kindheit,” Journal of the Franz Liszt Kring (1995): 4–6, which includes a photograph of Liszt’s “birth house.” 490. Meyer, Wolfgang. “Der Meierhof in Raiding—der Schauplatz von Liszts Kindheit.” In item 141, pp. 47–53. An architectural description of the house Liszt first lived in and its renovations following his death. Illustrated with a nineteenth-century sketch of the building made by one Grünes, and with several floor plans. NB: An excellent color photograph of the Meierhof as it appears today is printed at the end of item 141. 491. Prickler, Harald. “Franz Liszts Geburtsort und Geburtshaus.” In item 141, pp. 29–46. Traces the history of Raiding from the late sixteenth century to the present day and the origins and activities of Liszt’s Burgenland ancestors. Illustrated with a useful “family tree” (pp. 30–31). Some of Prickler’s endnotes correct minor errors in the original edition of item 1, vol. 1. 492. Sylvester, Hans. “Franz Liszt und das Burgenland.” Burgenländische Heimatblätter 5/2 (May 1936): 21–24. OCLC 15115985 (ISSN and LC numbers unavailable.) A brief account of Liszt and the area where he was born and grew up. Sylvester includes information about visits Liszt paid to the Burgenland after he and his father moved to Vienna in 1822. Several shorter articles on Liszt and Burgenland places also exist—among them, Viktor Jovanovic’s “Liszt in Eisenstadt,” Burgenländische Heimatblätter

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3–4 (1934–1935), p. 82. NB: The term “Burgenland” is a modern Austrian political designation; in Liszt’s day the area around Raiding and Eisenstadt was at least as much Hungarian as Austrian. 493. Winkler, Gerhard J. “…und sey gewiss dass du mit unsrer Rückkehr der erste Besuch seyn wirst…’ [sic]: Liszt und Eisenstadt.” In: Eisenstadt. Bausteine zur Geschichte. Anlässlich der 350-Jahrfeier der Freistadterhebung Eisenstadt, ed. Harald Prickler and Johann Seedoch. Eisenstadt: Nentwich-Lattner, 1998; pp. 540–50. ISBN 3900356386. Deals with Liszt’s childhood and the present capital of Austria’s Burgenland, his visit of February 1840, and especially with the character and correspondence of the composer’s father. Concludes with a color photograph of the memorial to Liszt carved by A. Jaray in 1936 and located today in Eisenstadt’s Esterházy-Platz. B. The Steiermark 494. Suppan, Wolfgang. “Franz Liszt und die Steiermark.” In item 50, pp. 301–10. Describes both Liszt’s trips to Graz and to Marburg, Styria (today Maribor, Slovenia), during June 1846, and the performances he gave during those visits. Suppan reprints observations originally published in the Tagespost [Graz] and reprinted in otherwise obscure local histories; he also comments on regional performances of the composer’s works during the 1860s and 1870s. Includes the contents of two programs taken from 1840s posters. Another article by Suppan with the same title appeared in the Mitteilungen des Steirischen Tonkünstlerbundes 53/54 (July–December 1972): 1–8; not seen, but identified in RILM 7 (1973), entry 670. C. Vienna 495. Bolte, Theodor. Franz Liszts Aufenthalt in Wien. Vienna: Wilhelm Fischer, 1912. 20 pp. Rare: the Liszt Research Centre, Budapest, owns a copy of this pamphlet. Treats of the composer’s visits to Austria’s capital from the 1820s to the 1880s—not, as its title might be taken to imply, with a single visit. Includes about a half-dozen black-and-white illustrations. 496. Deutsch-German, Alfred. Franz Liszt und seine Familie in Wien. Vienna: Josef Rosler, 1906. 3 pp. Rare: the National Széchényi Library, Budapest, owns a copy of this pamphlet. Discusses some of Liszt’s adventures in Vienna, 1822–1824. Cited in item 1, vol. 1, p. 452. A much longer version of this publication purportedly

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appeared in the Neue Musik- und Literatur-Zeitung [Vienna] 3/12 (15 September 1906); not seen, but cited on the cover page of item 496 and in item 74, p. 17. 497. Hellsberg, Clemens. “Franz Liszt und die Wiener Philharmoniker.” Musikblätter der Wiener Philharmoniker 51/2 (November 1996): 48–53. Deals briefly with Liszt’s Vienna concerts, especially those of March and May 1846, March 1858, and January 1874. Hellsberg, however, also devotes himself to comments about the orchestra’s history, to premiere performances of works by Brahms, Bruckner, and Czerny, and to Wagner’s Vienna sojourns. Illustrated with a reproduction of Carl Hoffmann’s lithograph Liszt as Conductor (p. 53), from a copy owned by Vienna’s Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde. The Musikblätter is rare in America. 498. Leibnitz, Thomas. “Wien (1822/23).” In item 141, pp. 96–102. An account of Adam and Franz Liszt’s sojourns in Vienna after 1819, Liszt’s studies with Czerny, the child’s first Viennese concerts, and so on. Illustrated with a facsimile reproduction Liszt’s first published composition: a variation on Diabelli’s famous waltz tune. 499. Stockhammer, Robert. “Die Weiner Konzerte Franz Liszts.” Österreichische Musikzeitschrift 16 (1961): 437–42. ISSN 0029-9316. ML5.O1983. An introduction to the numerous concerts Liszt presented in Vienna during almost sixty years of his life, especially those of the late 1830s and 1840s. Supplanted by Stockhammer’s own survey study (item 17). Eyewitness descriptions of Liszt’s 1830s Vienna concerts were published in 1941 in Hungarian under the title Liszt Ferenc árvízi hangversenyei Bécsben 1838/9, ed. Béla Csuka; the author of these accounts was Teréz Walker (Madame Ferenc Pulszky). Not seen; cited in item 76. Other brief accounts of individual performances—among them Norbert Tschulik’s “Vor 100 Jahren: Franz Liszt spielte im Wiener Musikverein,” Österreichische Musikzeitschrift 29 (1974): 34–35, which deals with the composer’s concert on 13 January 1874—are scattered throughout the literature. 500. Walker, Alan. “Liszt and Vienna.” New Hungarian Quarterly 26/99 (Autumn 1985): 253–59. ISSN 0028-5390. DB901.H83. Primarily a review of Legány’s anthology of Liszt letters and press clippings in Viennese collections (item 389) as well as a survey of Liszt’s relationship with a city he both loved and hated. Reprinted in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 19 (1985): 10–20.

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The Balkans (especially present-day Bulgaria and Rumania) Liszt traveled through the Balkans when much of that region belonged to AustriaHungary. Subsequent political developments, including the Stalinization of much of that region after 1945, made it difficult for researchers to work there. Several important studies, described or cross-referenced below, deal with places located today mostly in Rumania: ˆ

501. Beu, Octavian. Franz Liszt în tara noastra. Sibiu: Krafft & Drotleff, n.d. 99 pp. ML410.L7B45. Summarizes Liszt’s visits during the mid-1840s to portions of present-day Rumania. Beu reproduces facsimiles from newspaper pages, musical manuscripts, Liszt’s Rumanian passport, and so on. Other illustrations include a color portrait of Liszt, entitled “Amica Liszt” and painted by Carol Popp de Szathmáry, bound as a frontispiece. Studies of Liszt and the Balkans also include István Lakatos, Liszt Ferenc Kolozsváron (Kolozsvár, 1944), a study of Liszt’s visits to the city known today Cluj-Napoka. 502. Hoffman, A., and N[icolae] Missir. “Sur la tournée de concerts de Ferenc Liszt en 1846–47 dans le Banat, la Transylvanie et les Pays Roumains.” In item 50, pp. 107–24. Describes Liszt’s Balkans concert tour of November 1846 to June 1847. Includes a table listing the dates, places, and programs for many individual concerts (pp. 121–24). Hoffman and Missir quote in translation from concert notices and reviews originally published in such newspapers as Albina Romînaesca; they also reprint information from item 501. Includes a reproduction of Szathmáry’s sketch of Liszt at the keyboard (item 157). With regard to press coverage of Liszt’s Rumanian travels, see also item 1, vol. 1. ˆ

A second article on the same topic, but written by Missir alone, appeared in Rumanian under the title “Turneul de concerte întreprins de Franz Liszt în 1846–1847” in Studii si Cercetari de istoria artei 8/2 (1961): 490–504. A third, this one devoted exclusively to Liszt’s November 1846 concerts in Arad, appeared as Lajos Pintér, “Liszt Ferenc aradi hangversenyei,” Magyar zene 28 (1987): 189–99. Finally, see S. Petrov, “Proizvedeniia Ferentsa Lista v Bolgarii,” in item 50, pp. 249–53, which deals with Liszt’s brief visit to parts of present-day Bulgaria; Petrov’s article is published in Bulgarian. ˆ

Belgium Liszt’s visits to Belgium were less frequent and important than his sojourns in France, Germany, Hungary, and Italy. Only one study devoted exclusively to them has appeared in print:

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503. Vander Linden, A. “Liszt et la Belgique.” Studia Musicologica 11 (1969): 281–90. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. Deals with the composer’s Belgian tours of the 1840s and 1880s. Includes observations Fétis made about Liszt, quotations from Liszt’s correspondence, and documentary evidence—for example, the text of Liszt’s diploma as honorary president of the Brussels Musical Society. See, too, Mária Kovács, “Documents sur Liszt en Belgique,” Studia Musicologica 23 (1982): 157–62, itself originally published as “Ismeretlen Liszt-levelek” in Magyar zene 21 (1980): 182–89. Studies referring only in part to Liszt’s contacts with Belgium and its musical life include: 504. Haine, Malou. “Franz Liszt’s Last Journeys to Belgium and Paris, March to June 1886.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 42 (1997): 26–42. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. A useful survey of Liszt’s thirteen visits to Belgian cities, among them Antwerp and Liège, between 1841 and 1886 and especially of those from the latter year. Carefully documented but lacks illustrations or musical examples. Also published in French as “Derniers Voyages de Franz Liszt en Balgique et à Paris, Mars–Juin 1886,” Liszt Saeculum no. 57 (1996): 3–10. See, too, Haine’s more specialized study, “Franz Liszt Feted in Belgium in 1881 by His Former Pupils Julius Zarebski, Johanna Wenzel, Anna Falk-Mehling and Franz Servais” (item 40, pp. 31–54). 505. Legány, Dezso# . “The Coming of French and Belgian Music to Budapest and Liszt’s Role.” Studia Musicologica 36/1–2 (1995): 39–46. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. An English-language version of “L’arrivée de la musique française et de la musique belge à Budapest: Le rôle de Liszt,” trans. Edith Weber and published in French in item 48, pp. 87–93. Demonstrates that Liszt did much to bring French and Belgian music, especially opera, to Hungary’s capital. Legány refers to the careers of a number of artists, including Franz Servais (item 691). Includes the text of a Liszt letter written in 1881. No musical examples. Four additional pamphlets and articles dealing with visits Liszt paid to cities and towns located in present-day Belgium are described below in alphabetical order by location, then by author. A. Antwerp 506. Baeck, Eric, and Hedwige Baeck-Schilders. Liszt in Antwerpen / Liszt in Antwerp = entire issue of the Journal of the Franz Liszt Kring [item 64] (1996). OCLC 35016341.

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Not a program book (see item 59), but a three-part monograph on nineteenth-century Antwerp musical life, Liszt’s visits to this important Belgian city from the 1840s to 1886, and Liszt “traces” in Antwerp today. Concludes with a valuable collection of facsimiles, mostly clippings from Le Figaro, Le Guide musicale, and other French and Belgian newspapers (pp. 43–91); illustrated elsewhere with portraits, photographs, and additional documentary facsimiles. Except for the clippings, in both Flemish and English throughout. See, too, “Liszt et Anvers” by the same authors, published in the Revue de musicologie 80 (1994): 306–22, which summarizes the composer’s Antwerp visits and includes quotations from the periodical press as well as programs for the composer’s concerts of 1 and 7 March 1841, a photograph of Liszt at his Antwerp hotel in 1885, and a variety of other information. Finally, see Andre M. Pols, “Liszt en Antwerpen,” Von de Altenburg naar de Hofgärtnerei (een loofdstuk uit het leven van Liszt) (Antwerp, 1932): 89–104. B. Dinant 507. Haine, Malou. “Liszt à Dinant le 21 octobre 1840: réalité ou fiction?” In item 41, pp. 78–100. Did Liszt visit Dinant on his way to Hamburg in the fall of 1840? If so, what did he do there? Stimulated by a report cited in item 586, Haine provides lengthy, carefully detailed answers to these questions; she includes as part of her documentation complete transcriptions of a lengthy “Feuilleton” addressed to the editor of L’Indépendant and published in that paper on 8 November 1840 (pp. 79–85) and an unsigned article entitled “Liszt à Dinant” that appeared in the Revue et gazette musicale de Paris on 15 November the same year (pp. 95–97). Also item 504. Helene Bock related an interesting Liszt anecdote in “Liszts Aufenthalt in Dinant,” Neue MusikZeitung [Stuttgart] 14 (1893): 130. C. Liège 508. Duchesne, Jean. “Franz Liszt and the Musical Life of Liège.” Liszt Saeculum no. 53 (1994): 13–26. ISSN 0263-0249. ML410.L7I6. A well-documented survey of Liszt’s Liège sojourns of the 1840s, 1881, and 1886, and of his personal and professional influence on César Franck— who, among other encounters, heard Liszt play his “BACH Prelude and Fugue” in Paris in 1866. Illustrated with facsimiles of title pages: one of Franck’s three Trios (p. 20); the other of his fourth Trio, dedicated to Liszt (p. 19).

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509. Quitin, José. “Franz Liszt à Liège en 1841, 1842 et 1846.” Bulletin de la Société Liégecise de musicologie [Liège] no. 56 (January 1987): 1–19. Devoted primarily to Liszt’s 1841–1842 visits to Liège, although Quitin also comments on the composer’s early years and his return to Belgium in 1886. This article incorporates quotations from the Journal de Liège, the texts of several letters, and the contents of several concert programs that include comments about Liszt playing some of his own works from 1840s manuscript copies. Presented as a lecture in December 1986, Quitin’s paper is “keyed” to recordings of Liszt’s works; references to these recordings are the only musical examples to appear in the typescript Bulletin, itself rare in American libraries. Canada 510. Pocknell, Pauline. “Liszt and His Canadian Circle.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 38 (1995): 37–66. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Largely a discussion of Liszt’s relationship with Mason & Risch, a Toronto piano-manufacturing firm (item 703), and of Canadian interest in Liszt and his music during the later decades of the nineteenth century. Includes more than a dozen illustrations, including photographs of Canadian Liszt fans and facsimiles of two clippings from the Toronto Globe (1882) devoted to Lisztian subjects. Czech Republic Formerly part of Czechoslovakia, this new nation encompasses several areas and cultures, among them Bohemia and its capital city, Prague. The most complete introductions to Liszt’s relationship with Bohemia and its capital are: 511. Buchner, Alexander. Franz Liszt in Bohemia, trans. Roberta Samsour. London: Peter Nenill, 1962. 190 pp. ML410.L7B85. A valuable study of Liszt’s involvement with Bohemia’s musical and cultural life during much of the nineteenth century. Buchner describes his subject’s Bohemian concerts in some detail; he also discusses the music of Smetana, Janácek, and other Czech composers. Illustrated handsomely with 167 photographs, including facsimile reproductions of letters, musical manuscripts, and so on, as well as portraits of Liszt and his Czech contemporaries. ˆ

NB: The German-language edition of this book, published in Prague in 1962, includes a survey of Liszt’s relationship with Bohemia based on almost 250 letters (pp. 187–206) missing from other editions. Buchner also published in German an article entitled “Liszt in Prag” (item 50, pp. 27–36).

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512. Plevka, Bohumil. Liszt a Praha. Prague: Editio Supraphon, 1986. 137 pp. ML410.L7P55. Primarily a study of Liszt’s Prague concerts in 1840 and 1846, although Plevka also includes information about his subject’s correspondence with prominent Czech composers, including Smetana. Illustrated with facsimile reproductions of concert programs and manuscripts. Concludes with an index. In Czech; summaries in German (pp. 130–31) and Hungarian (pp. 132–33). Denmark Liszt had even less to do with Denmark than with Belgium. The only study devoted exclusively to Liszt’s 1841 Danish concert tour is: 513. Johnsson, Bengt. “Liszt and Denmark,” trans. Per Skanfte Hansen. Liszt Society Journal 21 (1996): 2–10. ML410.L7L6. Describes Liszt’s contact with Danes, especially Hans Christian Andersen, during his visit to Copenhagen in June–July 1841. Johnsson reprints portions of concert reviews and notices from several nineteenth-century Danish newspapers. Published originally under the title “Liszt og Danmark” in the Dansk musiktidsskrift 37 (1962): 79–82 and 38 (1963): 81–86. See, too, William Wright, “Liszt Letters from the Royal Library, Copenhagen (1841–1886),” Liszt Saeculum no. 54 (1995): 3–38. England (see also “Ireland” and “Scotland”) Liszt visited England several times during his childhood and virtuoso tours; he also made a “farewell” visit in March 1886, shortly before his death. The more comprehensive of these studies would seem to be: 514. Allsobrook, David Ian. Liszt: My Travelling Circus Life. “Music in Georgian and Victorian Society.” Carbondale, IL, and Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1991. 215 pp. ISBN 0809317850. ML410.L7A66 1991. Broader in scope than item 515; instead of relying exclusively on Parry’s diaries, Allsobrook draws upon a host of additional 1840s primary sources, especially newspaper and magazine reports, reminiscences, and the composer’s published correspondence. “Liszt’s London Season, 1840” (pp. 8–37) includes a useful sketch of that city’s musical life during the 1830s and early 1840s; “Later Careers” (pp. 176–98) briefly describes Liszt’s 1886 English sojourn. Includes four plates of portraits and other illustrations as well as a scattering of documentary facsimiles and Parry’s sketches; also includes a bibliography (pp. 199–200); concludes with an index.

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Most studies of Liszt’s English sojourns concentrate on his concert tours of 1840–1841. Among such studies are: 515. “‘Fantastic Cavalcade’: Liszt’s British Tours of 1840 & 1841 from the Diaries of John Orlando Parry.” Liszt Society Journal 6 (1981): 2–16 and 7 (1982): 16–26. ML410.L7L6. An extremely entertaining eyewitness account of Liszt’s British tours in 1840–1841, written by the performer/composer who accompanied him on them. Transcribed from two handwritten volumes owned by the University Library of Wales in Aberystwyth (mss. 17717 and 17718). Quotations and a facsimile page from these volumes appear in item 1, vol. 1, pp. 359–65. See also item 514, which draws in large part upon Parry’s diaries. A Hungarian-language synopsis of Liszt’s British tours (including Scotland and Ireland) appeared as: Dezso# Legány, “Liszt Albionban,” in Liszt kiskönyvtár 2 (1984): 19–35. With regard to the subject of this last article, see also items 586 and 614. 516. “From ‘The Musical World,’” ed. Dudley Newton. Liszt Society Journal 9 (1984): 31–33; 10 (1985): 8–11; and 11 (1986): 52–55. ML410.L7L6. Consists of excerpts from the British music magazine in question dealing with Liszt’s visits to England, 1840–1841. Also contains a few miscellaneous clippings, including translated passages from a French periodical dealing with Liszt’s 1842 Berlin concerts, clippings from The Musical World of 1838–1839 dealing with Liszt’s literary works and Vienna concerts, and so on. No illustrations or musical examples. The British Liszt journal has published several similar collections of press clippings; see, for example, “Liszt’s Playing in London in 1840 & 1841: Some Contemporary Opinions,” Liszt Society Journal 6 (1981): 16–18, which reproduces three clippings from The Athenaeum (16 May, 13 June, and 4 July 1840, and 19 June 1841) dealing with Liszt’s British tours. 517. “Liszt’s British Tours: Reviews and Letters.” Liszt Society Journal 8 (1983): 2–8; 9 (1984): 2–15 [“Liszt’s British Tours (ii): Reviews and Miscellanea”]; 10 (1985): 6–7; 11 (1986): 44–51; and 12 (1987): 22–23. ML410.L7L6. A collection of press clippings and other documents—among them, reviews, notices, and poems from such papers as the Hampshire Advertiser & Salisbury Guardian and the Somerset Country Gazette; also includes excerpts from the composer’s published correspondence with the Comtesse d’Agoult (item 303). Illustrated in the first installment with a sketch of Liszt made by Nancy Mérienne (?late 1830s) and a photograph of a ballroom in Bath where Liszt played in 1840 as well as with a facsimile of an advertisement

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from the Bath Herald of 29 August 1840. Illustrated in the second installment with views of the Montpellier Rotunda at Clifton and the Assembly Rooms in Cheltenham. 518. Newton, Dudley. “Liszt and His Glass: Some Pianistic Alterations.” Liszt Society Journal 13 (1988): 40–60. ML410.L7L6. Identifies and evaluates reviews of performances Liszt gave in London during 1840–1841, couched in the form of a reply to remarks about Liszt’s pianism published by Adrian Williams in the Liszt Society Journal 12 (1987): 60–61. Newton quotes from a variety of documents, including minutes of a meeting of the Directors of the Philharmonic Society, London, held on 6 June 1840. Concludes with eight musical examples. Williams counter-replied to Newton’s observations on pp. 60–63 of the Liszt Society Journal 13 (1988). Regarding the glass, see item 710. Four studies of Liszt’s visits during the 1820s and 1840s to England’s “provincial” cities and towns, as well as to London, include: A. Cheetwood 519. Wright, William. “Liszt and the Cheetwood Connection.” Liszt Society Journal 23 (1998): 5–16. ML410.L7L6. Deals with Liszt’s visits during 1824–1825 to the village of Cheetwood and, as related subjects, the composer’s 1827 funeral march (item 991); his “Tyrolean melody”—an Albumblatt apparently unrelated to the melody employed in the Grande Fantaisie sur le Tyrolienne (see also item 98, p. 256–57); and his relationship with members of Cheetwood’s local militia. Illustrated with (?) Winterhalter’s Liszt portrait and a portrait of the militia’s Ensign Ewart. B. London 520. Wright, William. “Liszt’s London Concert Appearances in 1827.” Liszt Society Journal 16 (1991): 8–12. ML410.L7L6. Identifies in tabular form and discusses Liszt’s nine London performances of 21 May–14 June 1827, and reprints whole or in part reviews of them published in the Times, the Morning Post, the Morning Herald, and various music magazines. See, too, item 388, no. 7: Wright’s article on “Liszt’s 1827 Concert Appearances in London.” 521. Wright, William. “More Light on Young Liszt: London, 1824–1825.” In item 41, pp. 35–51.

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Supplements previous studies of Liszt’s early visits to England’s capital and provides quotations from The Harmonicon, the Quarterly Music Magazine and Review, and various London newspapers. Illustrated with three facsimiles, including a page from King George IV’s menu book for 3 May 1825 and the only surviving portrait of “Master Antonio Minasi,” with whom Liszt performed a duet. C. Manchester 522. Wright, William. “Liszt in Manchester.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 41 (1997): 1–20. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. An outstanding examination of Liszt’s visits to one of England’s most important Midlands cities during 1824–1825. Includes detailed notes (pp. 12–20) as well as portraits of child prodigies George Aspull and the “Infant Lyra”; also includes a facsimile of a Scots air—the only musical example Wright provides—upon which Liszt improvised on 16 June 1825. Finally, several studies of Liszt’s 1886 visit to England and especially London include: 523. Williams, Adrian. “Liszt’s Last Visit to England: A Miscellany of Eyewitness Reports.” Liszt Society Journal 5 (1980): 15–26. ML410.L7L6. A collection of quotations from Sir George Grove, Constance Bach, Bram Stoker, and so on, concerning Liszt’s April 1886 London sojourn. Not to be confused with item 524. A number of Monthly Musical Record articles and notices pertaining to Liszt’s last years (1885–1886) are reprinted in Liszt Saeculum nos. 36/37 (1985–1986): 31–50. 524. Williams, Adrian. “Liszt’s Last Visit to London: April 1886.” New Hungarian Quarterly 27/103 (Autumn 1986): 131–38. ISSN 0028-5390. DB901.H83. A blow-by-blow account of Liszt’s 1886 visit to England, including numerous but incomplete quotations from a variety of newspapers and magazines: The Musical Times, the Times of London, the Daily Telegraph, the Pall Mall Gazette, and so on. Anecdotes include accounts of Liszt’s private performances for Queen Victoria and the Duchess of Cambridge. 525. Wright, William. “Liszt in London, 1886.” Liszt Society Journal 25 (2000): 96–106. ML410.L7L6. Less extensive than item 524, but quite carefully documented. Wright reproduces the texts of several obscure letters, clarifies certain issues about the composer’s Der Vätergruft and its English publication, and reproduces in rather poor black-and-white facsimile a Liszt portrait painted in January 1886 by Sally von Kugulgen.

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France Liszt made his home in France during much of his early life, and he visited that country many times after abandoning it as his residence in 1844. No single study deals comprehensively with Liszt and French topics, although several biographies (especially item 403) concern themselves with it. A brief, although readable introduction to Liszt’s association with his adopted “native” land is: 526. Tiersot, Julien. “Liszt in France.” The Musical Quarterly 22 (1936): 284–94. ISSN 0027-4631. ML1.M725. A somewhat superficial summary of Liszt’s involvement with France and the French people. Among other topics Tiersot mentions the young Liszt’s arrival in Paris, his liaison with Marie d’Agoult, his lifelong fondness for French ideas and people, and French premieres during Liszt’s old age of such works as the “Gran” Mass and Die Legende von der heiligen Elisabeth. Illustrated with the 1824 Leprince engraving of Liszt at the keyboard, dated 13 March 1825 and signed by the composer. Studies of Liszt’s visits to and relationship with parts of France are described below—first by regions (in alphabetical order); second, by cities and towns in various regions (again, in alphabetical order): A. Alsace 527. Serra, Roch. “Liszt en Alsace.” Liszt Saeculum nos. 41–42 (1988): 5–10. ISSN 0263-0249. ML410.L7I6. Consists entirely of press clippings from the Currier du Haut-Rhin and other papers, as well as diary entries and poems, all of them associated with Liszt’s 1845 tour of Strasbourg, Colmar, Mulhouse, and other Rhenish cities. Illustrated with a facsimile program for Liszt’s Thann concert of 6 July 1845. B. Avignon 528. Machard, Roberte. “Franz Liszt et Avignon.” Revue de musicologie 62 (1976): 132–38. ML5.R32. Summarizes Liszt’s visits to Avignon during 1845 and reprints articles about Liszt originally published in Le Mémorial de Vaucluse (11 May 1845) and other local papers. Mauchart’s observations are supplemented by facsimile reproductions of a letter Liszt wrote to Armand de Pontmartin on 9 May 1845 and of a playbill for Liszt’s recital of 8 May 1845. With regard to the Liszt-Pontmartin letter, see item 385. 529. Photiadès, Constantin. “En Avignon, avec Liszt et Berlioz.” La Revue musicale [“Numéro special”] (1 May 1928): 18–32. ISSN 0768-1593. ML5.M613.

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Describes some of Liszt’s activities in France during the late 1830s and early 1840s. Includes the texts of seven Liszt letters owned (at least at one time) by the Musée Calvet, Avignon, as well as a letter by Berlioz; also illustrated with two portraits. C. Bourges 530. Pocknell, Pauline. “Franz Liszt à Bourges.” Cahiers d’archéologie & d’histoire du Berry [“La vie musicale à Bourges au XIXe siècle”] no. 113 (March 1993): 23–48. ISSN 007-9693 [sic]. An invaluable study of Liszt’s visits to Bourges in 1837 and especially in 1832; unfortunately for Americans, the Cahiers is difficult to obtain. Pocknell provides quotations from little-known newspapers, among them the Gazette du Berry politique et d’annonces and the Journal du Cher. Supplemented with the program of Liszt’s 28 September 1832 concert, information about the Petit family who hosted Liszt during his August–September 1832 visit, and the complete texts of several letters exchanged by Liszt and his mother. Illustrated with facsimiles of some of the letters and other documents, including pages from Liszt’s 1832 diary owned by the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, as well as with pictures of various kinds; in the last category is a reproduction of a miniature 1832 Liszt portrait owned today by the Stiftung Weimarer Klassik. D. Marseilles 531. Eckhardt, Mária [P.]. “Liszt à Marseille.” Studia Musicologica 24 (1982): 163–97. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. Describes Liszt’s relationship with Marseilles and its citizens between 1825 and 1866. Includes quotations from Liszt’s correspondence and other documents as well as lengthy concert reviews originally published during July–August 1844 in the Sud and Sémaphore, both Marseilles newspapers. Another iteration of this article appeared as “Liszt Marseille városában” in Magyar zene 22 (1981): 259–84. E. Paris A useful introduction to Liszt’s lengthy association with France’s capital is: 532. Prod’homme, J. G. “Liszt et Paris.” La Revue musicale [“Numéro special”] (1 May 1928): 105–23. ISSN 0768-1593. ML5.M613. A sketch of Liszt’s almost life-long association with the French capital. Prod’homme quotes from several published Liszt letters as well as from press clippings and other documents.

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Two Prod’homme articles with similar titles appeared as “Liszt en France” in the Nouvelle Revue de Hongrie (1936): 322–32 and “Liszt à Paris” in La Revue musicale 11 (1911): 479–83. A somewhat more fulsome account of Liszt’s relationship with the French capital, written by Eckhardt, was published as “Liszt és Párizs,” in Liszt kiskönyvtár 1 (1982): 15–36. Four somewhat more specialized studies of Parisian concerts and visits are described or cross-listed below: * Haine. “Franz Liszt’s Last Journeys to Belgium and Paris….” Described as item 504. 533. Hamburger, Klára. “Megnyílik-e számára a halhatatlanság kapuja? (A Párizsi szaksajtó az élo# és halott Liszt Ferencro# l, 1886–ban).” Magyar zene 25 (1984): 52–58. ISSN 0025-0384. ML5.M14. Deals with Liszt’s final visit to Paris in April 1886. A valuable study, unfortunately available only in Hungarian. A similar article, also written by Hamburger, appeared in German under the title “‘Ob sich ihm wohl je die Pforte der Unsterblichkeit erschließt?’—Über die Pariser Presse während Liszts letzter Anwesenheit 1886” (item 789, pp. 110–22). 534. Keeling, Geraldine. “Liszt’s Appearances in Parisian Concerts, 1824–1844.” Liszt Society Journal 11 (1986): 22–34 and 12 (1987): 8–22. ML410.L7L6. Describes dozens of recitals Liszt played or participated in between 1824 and 1844. In addition to places, dates, and other historical information, Keeling provides bibliographic citations for reviews published in newspapers and music magazines of the time. Illustrated with poorly reproduced portraits of Giuditta Pasta, Cinti-Damoreau, and Henri Herz—all of whom appeared with Liszt on one of more of the concerts in question; also illustrated with facsimiles of the title page from Le Ménestrel (29 January 1837) and the cover from Esmeralda, a piece of sheet-music by Mlle Louise Bertin for which Liszt supplied a piano accompaniment. Regarding Esmeralda, see item 1401. 535. Wangermée, Robert. “Conscience et inconscience du virtuose romantique: à propos des années Parisiennes de Franz Liszt.” In: Music in Paris in the Eighteen-Thirties / La musique à Paris dans les années mil huit cent trente, ed. Peter Bloom. Musical Life in 19th-Century France, 4. Stuyvesant, Pendragon, 1987; pp. 553–73. ISBN 0918728711. ML270.8P2M76 1987. Discusses Liszt’s life and activities in 1830s Paris as well as the history and purpose of his literary works. Wangermée quotes extensively from the “Bachelor” and “De la situation” essays as well as periodicals such as the

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Revue musicale and Revue des deux mondes. Includes an English-language abstract (pp. 571–73). At least one other article also deals specifically with Liszt’s early years in Paris: 536. Roudier, Alain. “Master Liszt in London 1824…[sic] ‘The little man tried out all the pianos.’” Harpa-Piano: Zeitschrift für Harfe und Klavier / Revue de harpe et piano / Harp and Piano Journal no. 1 (Spring 1997): 27–31. In spite of its title, a one-page synopsis in English, French, and German of Liszt’s earliest encounters with the Erard family of Paris during 1823–1824 (p. 27); this is followed by facsimiles of a playbill for Liszt’s London Argyll Rooms concert of 21 June 1824, a letter of Adam Liszt’s dated 5 May 1824 (both p. 28), a transcription of that letter and translations of it into English and French (p. 29), and other Erard-related documents. See, too, Sébastian Erard: A European pioneer of instrument making = Harpa no. 18 (Summer 1995) = Proceedings of the International Erard Symposium, Michaelstein, 13–14 November 1994 [Michaelsteiner Konferenzberichte, 48], p. 20: another summary of the Liszt-Erard relationship as well as other comments on Liszt and contemporary musical figures. NB: The trilingual Harpa-Piano, a comparatively new periodical, is scarce in American libraries. Apparently its predecessor, Harpa, is also trilingual; each of the articles in issue no. 18 is printed in parallel columns. F. Pau 537. Blanc, C. “Le centenaire des concerts donnés par Franz Liszt à Pau, 1844–1944.” Bulletin de la Société des Sciences, Lettres et Arts de Pau (1945). No other information available. Not seen; cited in item 1, vol. 1, p. 408n, and apparently unavailable in the United States. Not even the Liszt Ferenc Research Centre, Budapest had a copy as of 1995. G. Provence 538. Carrières, Marcel. Franz Liszt en Provence et en Languedoc en 1844. Beziers: Claude Borreda, 1981. 39 pp. ML410.L77C316. A well-researched account of Liszt’s visits to and concert performances in Lyon, Avignon, Toulon, and so on, between June and August 1844. Includes the text of a letter Liszt wrote to Lambert Massart on 26 August 1844. Carrières also provides a concert calendar (pp. 33–34) as well as quotations

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from obscure press clippings and a bibliography. Other articles also review Liszt’s several visits to Lyon—among them, Antoine Sallès’s “Liszt à Lyon, 1826, 1836, 1837, 1844, 1845,” Revue musicale de Lyon 9 (1911–1912): 18–27, which also appeared as a pamphlet (Paris: E. Fromont, 1911). H. Rouen 539. Goubault, C. “Les trois concerts de Franz Liszt à Rouen (1825, 1832, 1841).” Revue internationale de musique française 13 (1984): 90–94. ML270.R48. A brief survey of three Liszt visits to Rouen. Uncommon in American libraries. I. Southeastern France 540. Bellas, Jacqueline. “Un virtuose en tournée…[sic] (Franz Liszt dans le SudOuest en 1844).” Littératures VIII [Annales de la Faculté de Lettres, Université de Toulouse] 9 [sic] (1960): 5–50. PN 3.T64 no. 8. A detailed account of Liszt’s 1844 French concert tour, fleshed out with quotations from a wealth of source materials. Bellas provides day-by-day calendars for her subject’s visits to Toulouse (25 August–5 September), Bordeaux (7 September–6 October), and Pau (7–21 October 1844). Certain details of her work are corrected—or at least supplemented—by other scholars, including Walker (item 1, vol. 1) and Autexier (see item 54). No illustrations or musical examples. Germany All told, Liszt spent as much, perhaps more, time in Germany than any other part of Europe. No monograph deals with all of Liszt’s German experiences, but two rather obscure articles have been devoted to his German activities: 541. Raabe, Peter. “Franz Liszt und das deutsche Musikleben.” Zeitschrift für Musikwissenschaft 104 (1937): 253–59. A brief survey of Liszt’s intermittent but lifelong association with Germany, German music, and German musicians. Written after Hitler’s ascent to power, this article—like item 411—deserves to be consulted by students of Nazi propaganda. Other Nazi-inspired, pro-German Liszt publications include Hans Engel’s “Franz Liszt—Deutscher!” [Deutsche Musikkultur 1 (1936): 102–3]. Nor was Liszt claimed only by pre-World War II German propagandists. See Franz Schneider, “‘Génie oblige!’ Rhapsodische Gedanken über Franz

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Liszts politischen Charakter,” Bulletin: Musikrat der DDR (?1986): 2–13, which makes Liszt out to have been a prototypical Marxist-Leninist. 542. Frenzel, Heinrich. “Der deutsche Franz Liszt.” Zeitschrift für Musik 101 (1934): 23–27. Argues that Liszt was German (rather than Hungarian) because: 1) he could not speak Hungarian; 2) he lived and worked extensively in Germany; 3) he claimed that he “felt at home” in Weimar (in his letter to Gille of 10 September 1863), and so on. Interesting to students of Nazi-inspired, pro-German propaganda. The work is useless as musicology, Liszt’s Hungarian loyalties having been irrefutably established. Several other studies concentrate on the composer’s 1840s German concerts and sojourns: 543. Saffle, Michael. Liszt in Germany, 1840–1845: A Study in Sources, Documents, and the History of Reception. “Franz Liszt Studies Series,” 2. Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon, 1994. xiii, 340 pp. ISBN 0945193394. ML410.L7S24 1994. Identifies and, insofar as possible, describes 298 performances given in various parts of “Germany”—today, some of those places are located in Poland—between March 1840 and October 1845. Saffle also discusses at some length the role of newspaper and magazine sources in documenting and interpreting Liszt’s activities, and provides accounts of real-life travel experiences im Vormärz (i.e., in Germany prior to the revolutions of March [März] 1848). Supplemented with a register that identifies each concert by place, date, time of day, musical numbers performed, and relevant primary sources (pp. 227–78); other appendices contain the texts of selected reviews and letters previously available only in nineteenth-century German newspapers and magazines. Illustrated with fourteen portraits and documentary facsimiles (one of them as a frontispiece), two maps (one of which was erroneously omitted in the book’s first printing but subsequently added), and two tables of concert activities. Concludes with a bibliography (pp. 301–22) and an index. See, too, Saffle, “Liszt in Germany: Problems and Discoveries,” Mitteilungen der Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung 48 (December 1986): 15–23. 544. Saffle, Michael. “Liszt’s ‘Unknown’ German Tours,” Liszt Society Journal 19 (1994): 4–27. ML410.L7L6. Treats especially those concerts less frequently or less well documented (e.g., in item 1, vol. 1) and provides facsimile illustrations from the Patriotisches Wochenblatt [Frankfurt a.d.O.] and the Heidelberger Journal, both of 1843 (pp. 25–27). Completed prior to the publication of item 543.

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A single even more specialized study describes Liszt’s decades-long association with an important German musical organization: 545. Seidl, Arthur. “Franz Liszt und der ‘Allgemeine deutsche Musik-Verein’ (1911).” In: Seidl, Ascania: zehn Jahre in Anthalt. Gesammelte Aufsätze aus Erlebnissen, Anregungen und Studien. Regensburg: Gustav Bosse, 1913; pp. 183–96. ML283.A754. The only survey published to date on Liszt’s relationship with one of Germany’s leading professional music organizations, although James Deaville is planning to address this subject at greater length in a forthcoming examination of Liszt’s German reception. Unfortunately, Seidl’s article is undocumented and unillustrated; on the other hand, the volume in which it appears is a limited edition, outfitted with gold-bordered pages boasting colored capital letters at the beginnings of chapters. Also contains “Lisztiana” (pp. 197–228), purportedly a study of the composer’s character and music but devoted in large part to Wagner. Ascania is uncommon; the Library of Congress owns a copy no longer in good condition. Regarding the Allgemeine Deutsche Musik-Verein (ADMV) and Liszt, see also item 905. More than two dozen monographs, published sets of conference proceedings, pamphlets, and articles have also been devoted to Liszt and individual German cities and regions; for the most part, these are described below in alphabetical order—first by city or region, then by author and/or title: A. Aachen 546. Sietz, Reinhold. “Das Niederrheinische Musikfest 1857 under dem Dirigenten Franz Liszt.” Zeitschrift des Aachener Geschichtsvereins 69 (1957): 79–110. Discusses and evaluates Liszt’s unfortunate relationship with musicians and critics at the 1857 Aachen Music Festival, based on documents belonging to the Aachener Stadtarchiv. The Geschichtsverein newsletter is rare in American libraries. NB: Richard Pohl left an eyewitness account of Liszt’s participation; see “Vom Aachener Musikfest, Pfingsten 1857” in item 365, pp. 181–98. See, too, Otmar Jantzen, “Liszt in Aachen,” Liszt Saeculum no. 45 (1990): 18–19, which reprints Liszt letters associated with the festival. B. Bayreuth 547. Kapp, Julius. “Franz Liszts Opfertod in Bayreuth.” In item 57, pp. 13–17. Deals primarily with Liszt’s last hours during July 1886. Unfortunately brief; Kapp provides no illustrations or extensive quotations from eyewitnesses.

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See, too, “The Liszt-Mausoleum in Bayreuth,” Liszt Saeculum no. 24 (1979): 44 ff., which describes Liszt’s last resting place in “Wagner’s own city” after its renovation and dedication in March 1979. Finally, see items 343, 478, and 480. 548. Waters, Edward N. “Liszt: Bayreuth’s Forgotten Man.” Studia Musicologica 11 (1969): 473–80. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. An account of Liszt’s trips to Bayreuth to visit his daughter Cosima and son-in-law Richard Wagner and the cool reception accorded Liszt on most of those visits. Among other documents quoted by Waters is an otherwise unpublished note Liszt sent Emiglio Broglio in 1876. Other brief studies of Liszt’s Bayreuth sojourns include Dezso# Legány’s “Liszt und Bayreuth,” Liszt Saeculum no. 60 (2001): 39–41, which mentions visits made in 1872, 1873, 1876 (for the first Bayreuth Wagner Festival), 1877, 1878, 1879, 1881, 1882, 1883, 1884, and 1886. C. Berlin 549. Beyer, R. von. “Le voyage de Liszt à Berlin, d’après de vieux papiers de famille,” trans. J. Peyraube. La Revue musicale [“Numéro special”] (1 May 1928): 71–75. ISSN 0768-1593. ML5.M613. A “literary” sketch of Liszt’s triumphal 1842 visit to Berlin, illustrated with several portraits of the artist and with quotations from contemporary descriptions of “Lisztomania” and its effects. Includes brief descriptions of his successful appearance before students at the University of Berlin. Detailed descriptions of Liszt’s Berlin performances have appeared in dozens of newspapers and magazines. Zsigmond Vita’s article “Erdélyi magyar naplóíró Liszt Ferenc Berlini hangversenyeiro# l,” published in Magyar zene 1/7–8 [August–October 1961]: 153–63, for example, reprints an eyewitness account by János Gáskar originally published in 1842. 550. Johns, Keith T. “The Music of the Future and the Berlin Critics: Franz Liszt Returns to the Singakademie, December 1855.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 23 (1988): 19–29. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. At once a study of Liszt’s activities in Berlin on behalf of his 6 December 1855 concert and the reception of his music—Tasso and Les Préludes, the E-flat Major Concerto (with Hans von Bülow as soloist), “Psalm 13,” and other works—as exemplary of Zukunftsmusik in the largely derogatory reports published in Die Zeit, the National-Zeitung, the Vossische and Spenersche Zeitungen, and a variety of other newspapers and musical magazines. Much of this material reappears or is paraphrased in items 382 and 1179.

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D. Bonn 551. Breidenstein, H. K. Festgabe zu der am 12ten August 1845 stattfindenden Inauguration des Beethoven-Monuments. Bonn: Habicht, 1845. 37 pp. ML410.B4B74. The official program for the dedication of the Beethoven memorial statue substantially paid for by Liszt. An important source of information about Liszt’s musical contributions to the August 1845 ceremonies as well as to German musical life of that decade. Reprinted in German as a book (Bonn: L. Röhrscheid, 1983; ISBN 3792804719). Also reprinted in both facsimile and English-language translation in Liszt Saeculum, as was the complete text of Breidenstein’s Zur Jahresfeier der Inauguration des Beethoven-Monuments (Bonn: T. Habicht, 1846); the latter pamphlet contains programs for concerts presented by Liszt and other artists at the 1845 Bonn ceremonies. In the Saeculum the Festgabe in facsimile appeared in no. 25 (1979): 1–103 and, as translated by Joan Morgan, in no. 27 (1981): 28–41; the Jahresfeier, as translated by Hilary Casson, appeared in no. 31 (1983): 23–49. See, too, Henry Fothergill Chorley, “The Beethoven-Festival at Bonn, 1845,” reprinted in Liszt Saeculum no. 25 (1979): 104–19 and “Die Enthüllung des Denkmals für Beethoven zu Bonn”—the last published originally in the Allgemeine Musik-Zeitung [Leipzig] (1945) and reprinted in Liszt Saeculum no. 31 (1983): 50–55. Finally, see item 1259. 552. Irmen, Hans-Josef. “Franz Liszt in Bonn, oder: Wie die erste Beethovenhalle entstand.” Studien zur Bonner Musikgeschichte des 18. und 19. Jahrhunderts, ed. Marianne Bröcker and Günther Massenkeil. Beiträge zur rheinischen Musikgeschichte, 116. Cologne: Arno Volk, 1978; pp. 49–65. ISBN 3872521098. ML283.8B65S8. A useful account of Liszt’s efforts not only on behalf of musical events at the 1845 Beethoven festival at Bonn but toward constructing a temporary concert hall for the celebration concerts. Lacks illustrations. E. Breslau [today, Wroc l aw, Poland] 553. Schreiber, F. J. A. Andenken. Dr. Franz Liszt und dessen Anwesenheit in Breslau. Breslau: G. Günther, 1843. 14 pp. Rare: the University Library, Wroc l aw, owns two copies of this book. Describes Liszt’s extended visit to Breslau in early 1843 and records several anecdotes about his largess there. Illustrated with an otherwise unknown portrait of Liszt at the keyboard; supplemented with programs for most of his Silesian recitals. Overlooked in item 74 and many early Liszt bibliographies.

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F. Donaueschingen 554. Schuler, Manfred. “Franz Liszt am Fürstlich Fürstenbergischen Hof zu Donaueschingen.” Musik in Baden-Württemberg: Jahrbuch 1 (1994): 19–29. ISBN 3476012646/ISSN 0947-8302. Deals primarily with Liszt’s visits to Donaueschingen, Hechingen, and Stuttgart in November 1843, the works he played, the people he met— including members of the local nobility, who conferred upon him the Fürstlich-Hohenzollerschen Hausorden, third class—and accounts in contemporary press. Thoroughly documented: Schuler quotes carefully from Varnhagen von Ense’s reminiscences; local newspapers, including the Karlsruher Zeitung, Munich’s Politische Zeitung, and the Schwäbischer Merkur; and a variety of secondary sources. G. Freiburg i.Br. 555. Wohlfahrt, Hannsdieter. “Franz Liszt und Ebnet. Der Wideraufbau der ‘Maison Ehrmann’ aus Straßburg im Ebneter Schloßpark.” In: Europa. Residenz der schönen Künste. Festschrift für Hannsdieter Wohlfarth, ed. Markus Zimmermann. Oberrheinische Quellen und Forschungen, 6. Freiburg i.Br.: “Musik Forum,” 1998; pp. 47–50. ISBN 3980639304. An account of Liszt’s visit to Freiburg, 1–7 June 1882, where the composer stayed in a villa transported stone by stone from Strasbourg by August Ehrmann, the “Schwager” of Marie d’Agoult. Illustrated with a pencil sketch of Liszt made at Bayreuth in 1876. H. Jena 556. Johns, Keith T. “A Concert in Jena.” Liszt Society Journal 13 (1988): 29–30. ML410.L7L6. Describes the first major performance of Liszt’s Symphonic Poems outside of (although close to) Weimar. Includes quotations from advertisements and reviews published in the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik and Jena’s Wochenblätter. I. Karlsruhe: See item 365. J. Leipzig 557. Johns, Keith T. “Liszt at the Gewandhaus: A Study of Documents for the 26 February 1857 Concert.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 27 (1990): 38–47 and 29 (1991): 36–46 [Part II]. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Another of the author’s studies of the contemporary German reception accorded Liszt’s “Music of the Future,” especially his Symphonic Poems— on this occasion, Les Préludes and Mazeppa, as well as the familiar E-flat

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Major Piano Concerto. The first part includes facsimiles of pages from appropriate issues of Felix Draeseke’s article in the Anregungen für Kunst, Literatur, und Wissenschaft (p. 42) as well as from an issue of the Rheinische Musik-Zeitung (p. 43); the second part quotes extensively from Leopold Damrosch’s reactions to Liszt’s works. K. Regensburg 558. Libbert, Jürgen. “Franz Liszt und seine Beziehungen zu Regensburg. Ein Beitrag zur Vorgeschichte der Regensburger Kirchenmusikschule und der Budapester Musikakademie.” In item 1440, pp. 149–84. An account of Liszt’s relationships with Franz Xaver Witt and other members of Regensburg’s conservative Cecilianist culture; less a study of a locality than of a musical movement. Supplemented with two illustrations. Among similar studies of German “Liszt places” is Sigmund Muenz, “The Baden-Baden Known to Liszt,” Liszt Society Journal 8 (1983): 40–42. L. The Rhineland 559. Dupêchez, Charles F. “Franz Liszt and Marie d’Agoult at Nonnenwerth in 1842?” Liszt Saeculum no. 57 (1996): 23–25. ISSN 0263-0249. ML410.L7I6. Traces Liszt’s and Marie d’Agoult’s July and August 1842 activities, in large part through d’Agoult’s diary as preserved in F-Pn document N.A.F. 14322, in order to prove that, whatever else Liszt did during those months, “he did not go to Nonnenwerth” (p. 25). In other words, Dupêchez corrects Kaufmann (item 560). 560. Kaufmann, Paul. “Franz Liszt am Rhein.” Der schaffende Rhein [Koblenz] 7 (1931): 44–55. An account of Liszt’s interest in the Rhineland and contributions to the Beethoven memorial project organized in part by Kaufmann’s father Leopold Kaufmann, mayor of Bonn during the 1840s. Includes passages from the older Kaufmann’s letters. Unfortunately difficult to obtain. Not to be confused with Kaufmann’s more familiar article, “Franz Liszt am Rhein,” Die Musik 26 (1933–1934): 118–21, which also deals with Liszt’s visits to Bonn, Cologne, and Nonnenwerth during the early 1840s, and which includes passages from Leopold Kaufmann’s letters omitted from the “Schaffende Rhein” study. M. Sondershausen 561. Eberhardt, Hans. “Franz Liszt und Sondershausen.” Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 43 (1986): 201–17. ISSN 0003-9293. ML5.A63.

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Describes Liszt’s visits to Sondershausen from the mid-1850s to 1886. A much less detailed article by Eberhardt on the same topic and with the same title appeared in item 58, pp. 29–32. N. Weimar Only Budapest, Paris, and Rome loomed as large in Liszt’s life as did this small Thuringian town—previously, however, the home of Goethe and Schiller and for several centuries one of Germany’s cultural capitals. Two book-length studies have been devoted to Liszt’s Weimar visits, which took place between the early 1840s and 1886: 562. Marggraf, Wolfgang. Franz Liszt in Weimar. Weimar: Tradition und Gegenwart, 23. Weimar: Buchdruckerei Weimar, “November 1972.” 48 pp. ML410.L7M37. A readable account of Liszt’s tenure as Kapellmeister to the court at Weimar as well as his other visits to Goethe’s city. Like other Liszt studies published in the former DDR (East Germany), this study is shot through with Marxist “interpretation.” Illustrated with black-and-white reproductions of familiar portraits, landscapes, medallions, and so on—among them the Steckbrief (or “wanted poster”) associated with Wagner’s flight from Dresden to Weimar in 1849 (p. 19). Concludes with information about these illustrations (pp. 46–47) and a very brief bibliography. A shorter survey of Liszt’s Weimar activities appeared as Karl-Heinz Köhler, “Skizzen zum Werken Franz Liszts in Weimar,” Bulletin: Musikrat der DDR (?1986): 14–22. Much more important is Wolfram Huschke’s Musik im klassischen und nachklassischen Weimar (Weimar, 1982), which includes an unusually reliable and well-written account of Liszt’s activities as composer, conductor, and general musical factotum to the Weimar court (pp. 116–85). Huschke’s work is reviewed in item 200. 563. Liszt und die Weimarer Klassik, ed. Detlef Altenburg. Weimarer LisztStudien, 1. Laaber: Laaber-Verlag, 1997. 200 pp. ISBN 3890073387. ML410.L7L65 1997. A collection of essays derived from papers presented at a 1992 post-DDR Weimar Liszt conference. Includes Lothar Ehrlich’s “Liszt und Goethe” (pp. 33–45), Wolfram Huschke’s “Liszts Goethe-Lieder: Liszt contra Goethe?” (pp. 59–67), Pauline Pocknell’s “Liszts Klavierbearbeitung eines Themas aus den ‘Idealen’: Zur Geschichte eines Autographs” (pp. 115–32), and items 1175, 1209, 1219, 1257, 1258, and 1269, as well as an introductory essay by Altenburg (“Franz Liszt und das Erbe der Klassik”; pp. 9–32) closely related to item 731. Illustrated with scattered facsimiles and musical examples; concludes with an index of names.

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NB: The phrase “Liszt-Studien” appears in the full or series titles of several other studies described in the present research guide, especially items 46 and 47. Even more confusing is that item 789, like Liszt und die Weimarer Klassik, sports the phrase “Weimarer Liszt-Studien 1” on its title page; these two volumes, however, should not be confused with each other. Two other studies devoted entirely or almost entirely to Liszt, Weimar, and the 1850s, are described or cross-referenced below: 564. Kraft, Günther. “Das Schaffen von Franz Liszt in Weimar.” In item 50, pp. 193–210. A survey of Liszt’s activities especially during the 1850s—among them, his plans for a Goethe Foundation (items 253 [vol. 3]; and 258); his enthusiasm for the Hungarian uprisings of the late 1840s; his sympathy with “workers,” exemplified for Kraft and other Communist authors in the Arbeiterchor for male chorus and keyboard accompaniment; and so on. Kraft also refers to Liszt’s many sojourns in 1870s and 1880s Weimar. Incorporates quotations from a number of Liszt letters as well as articles in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung, but lacks musical examples. Regarding the Arbeiterchor, see especially item 1266. * Walker. Franz Liszt: The Weimar Years…. Described as item 1, vol. 2. Covers virtually every aspect of Liszt’s longest and best-known German sojourn, 1848–1861. Finally, seven additional studies deal with Liszt in and around Weimar from more specialized points of view: 565. Bamberg, Edward von. “Liszts Rücktritt von der Weimarischen Opernleitung.” Deutsche Rundschau 190 (1922): 66–78 and 190–99. AP30.P4. An account of the administrative and artistic circumstances behind Liszt’s resignation from the directorship of Weimar’s Stadttheater in December 1858. Bamberg provides no extended quotations from eyewitnesses or excerpts from contemporary newspapers or magazines. See, too, Richard Pohl, “Liszts Rücktritt von der Weimarer Bühne (1859)” in item 365, pp. 134–37. 566. Keiler, Allan. “Liszt and the Weimar Hoftheater.” Studia Musicologica 28 (1986): 431–50. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. A short survey of Liszt’s involvement with Weimar and its musical establishment until the beginning of the 1860s, followed by a discussion of Liszt’s activities at the Hoftheater as operatic producer and conductor. Among related topics, Keiler refers to little-known documents preserved today in the Weimar Staatsarchiv—not to be confused with the Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv,

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which owns hundreds of quite different documents; he also evaluates Liszt’s abilities as an orchestral conductor. No musical examples. Reprinted, but not acknowledged as such in item 44, pp. 19–30. NB: Keiler’s article was not included among the studies described under item 48; it appeared in a different Studia fascicle. See, too, Karl-Heinz Köhler, “Franz Liszt— Weimar und seine Hofkapelle” (item 789, pp. 101–9). 567. Jung, Hans Rudolf. “Das Wirken Johann Nepomuk Hummels und Franz Liszts in Weimar.” In item 47, pp. 78–89. Discusses some of the material covered in item 1, vol. 2, pp. 84–88, as well as musical life in Weimar during the mid-nineteenth century and both Hummel’s and Liszt’s contributions to it; like many other “East bloc” scholars of the 1960s and 1970s, Jung mentions Liszt’s Arbeiterchor and Funérailles (the latter commemorating the Hungarian uprising of the late 1840s; see item 1044) as representative facets of his Weimar “work.” Draws extensively on the published Liszt correspondence. Lacks musical examples. Another article along similar lines, but devoted exclusively to Liszt, is Richard Pohl’s “Liszt in Weimar, als Dirigent und Komponist” (reprinted in item 365, pp. 138–80). 568. Möller-Weiser, Dietlind. “Franz Liszt und die Goethe-Stiftung—Chronologie eines Fehlschlages.” In: Festschrift Arno Forchert zum 60. Geburtstag am 29. Dezember 1985, ed. Gerhard Allroggen and Detlef Altenburg. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1986; pp. 252–63. ISBN 3761807767. ML55.F657 1986. Describes Liszt’s plans for a “Goethe Foundation” to support artistic endeavors of various kinds. Outfitted with quotations from and references to Liszt’s De la Fondation-Goethe à Weimar; additional information about Liszt’s plans for the foundation appears in item 1, vol. 2, pp. 126–29. 569. Raabe, Peter. Weimarer Lisztstätten. Weimar: Hermann Böhlaus, 1932. 8 pp. ML410.L7R136. A visual survey of “Liszt places” in Weimar, including the Altenburg, Hofgärtnerei, and so on. Illustrated with twelve rather poor black-and-white photographs. Issued by the “Franz Liszt Bund.” For additional information about the Altenburg and its history as a residence for Liszt and other inhabitants, see Hecker’s Die Altenburg (cited under item 68). * Strub-Ronayne. “Liszt and the Founding of the Weimar Conservatory.” Identified under item 1450. 570. Winkler, Gerhard J. “Liszt’s ‘Weimar Mythology.’” In item 42, pp. 61–73. Similar to item 731 in that Winkler deals largely with Weimar as a center of German “classicism” and Liszt’s role (actual, not metaphorical) as

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Goethe’s successor directing the Weimar Court Theater. Winkler also identifies three categories of Liszt compositions associated more or less directly with special town and court events, and he asserts that Liszt’s observations about Goethe and Schiller in his Lohengrin et Tannhäuser essay (items 253 [vol. 4] and 259), as well as in his admiration for Carlyle’s On Heroes, reflect Weimar traditions Liszt incorporated into “his personal mythology” (p. 70). Great Britain: See “England” and “Scotland.” Holland: See “Netherlands.” Hungary Liszt may not have lived as long in Hungary as he did in Germany, but he always considered himself Hungarian. A number of studies describe Liszt’s Hungarian visits and acquaintances, but the three described immediately below are especially important: 571. Legány, Dezso# . Liszt Ferenc and His Country, 2 vols. ML410.L7L33. Vol. 1: 1869–1873, trans. Gyula Gulyás. Budapest: Editio Musica, 1983. 325 pp. ISBN 963131541X. Vol. 2: 1874–1886, trans. Elizabeth Smith-Csicsery-Rónay; rev. Paul Merrick. Budapest: Occidental, 1991. ISBN 0911050663. A splendid account of Liszt’s sojourns in his native land during his “later years” by the dean of Hungarian Liszt scholars, marred only by the surprisingly stiff English prose of Legány’s translators. Supplemented with quotations from Liszt letters and press clippings; vol. 2 also contains twentyfour illustrations bound between pp. 128 and 129. Concludes in both volumes with valuable notes and bibliographic citations. Vol. 1 appeared originally as Liszt Ferenc Magyarországon. 1869–1873 (Budapest, 1983; ISBN 9633301343); vol. 2 as Liszt Ferenc Magyarországon. 1874–1886 (Budapest, 1986; ISBN 963306256). NB: The review of vol. 2 by Mária Eckhardt, published in Studia Musicologica 31 (l989): 424–28, identifies this work by an English-language title but refers to the original Hungarian text. 572. Legány, Dezso# . “Liszt in Hungary, 1820–1846.” In item 42, pp. 3–16. An excellent introduction to the earliest Hungarian portions of the composer’s life. Among other subjects Legány discusses Liszt’s first Hungarian press clippings and his tours of Hungary and portions of what today is Rumania during the 1840s.

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573. Legány, Dezso# . “Liszt in Hungary, 1848–1867.” In item 56, pp. 3–15. Picks up where item 572 left off; in this installment Legány tackles the premiere performances of the “Gran” and Hungarian Coronation Masses. No musical examples in either article, however. Together, these two articles constitute a “pre-quel” of sorts to item 471. Three additional pamphlets, articles, and portions of larger volumes may be of interest especially to students of the Hungarian Liszt reception: 574. “Liszt.” In: Musica Hungarica, ed. Bence Szabolcsi and Miklós Forrai. Budapest: Editio Musica and Qualiton, 1963–1964. Booklet and phonorecords; pp. 130–33. A very brief introduction to the composer’s life and works by celebrated scholars, illustrated with recordings of four representative works: the Csárdás macabre and Ossa arida, the “Benedictus” from the Missa coronationalis, and an except from the symphonic poem Hungaria; the orchestra selections are conducted by János Ferencsik. Strongly Hungarian-nationalist in content and style. A curiosity; rare in America, although the University of Chicago Library owns a copy. 575. Sebestyén, Ede. Liszt Ferenc hangversenyei Budapesten. Hat évtized krónikája. Budapest: Liszt Ferenc Társaság Kiadása, 1944. 210 pp. ML410.L7S852M. Covers six decades of concerts Liszt presented in Budapest between the 1820s and the 1880s. Superseded to a considerable extent by items 571–573, but still worth consulting. 576. Siklóssy, Ladisla. “Le centenaire de retour de François Liszt dans sa patrie.” Nouvelle Revue de Hongrie [Budapest] 33 (1940): 115–24. AP25.N54. A survey of Liszt’s association with Hungary, published as a tribute to the composer on the 100th anniversary of his 1840 Pest concerts. Omitted, as were several other short Liszt-and-Hungary studies, from item 72. In addition to the years he spent in Hungary during the last decades of his life, Liszt also toured his native land as a virtuoso performer. The following eyewitness account of his earliest Hungarian tours deserves close attention: 577. Schober, Franz von. Briefe über F. Liszts Aufenthalt in Ungarn. Berlin: Schlesinger, 1843. 62 pp. ML410.L7S36. An account of Liszt’s spectacularly successful Hungarian concerts of the late 1830s and 1840, written at Liszt’s request. Includes the texts of several well-known Liszt letters, two of them also published in contemporary Pest newspapers.

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For an account of Liszt’s relationship with Schober and especially with several of Schober’s poems Liszt set to music, see Mária Eckhardt, “Schubert’s and Liszt’s Friend and Poet: Franz von Schober”: in English in item 40, pp. 15–30 and Liszt Saeculum no. 56 (1996): 13–19, and in German as “Franz von Schober: Schuberts und Liszts Dichterfreund” in Schubert durch die Brille [Tutzing] no. 18 (1997): 69–79. Nine other studies of Liszt’s visits to and sojourns in various Hungarian cities and towns are described or cross-referenced below, for the most part in alphabetical order—first by city or town, then by author and/or title. A. Budapest Accounts especially of Liszt’s later years in Budapest include: 578. Legány, Dezso# . “Liszt and the Budapest Musical Scene: Influences and Contacts, 1869–1886.” New Hungarian Quarterly 27/103 (Autumn 1986): 119–30. ISSN 0028-5390. DB901.H83. Presents information treated in greater detail in item 571, and facts about Liszt’s relationships with Ole Bull, Ferenc Korbay, and Niels Gade. Legány also reprints the texts of two Liszt letters dating from 1886. 579. Prahács, Margit. “Franz Liszt und die Budapester Musikakademie.” In item 54, pp. 49–94. An important study of Liszt’s contributions to the establishment of Budapest’s Academy of Music between the 1840s and his death in 1886. Contains a great deal of information about Budapest concert programs and academy repertory during the 1870s and 1880s as well as quotations from newspaper articles and the complete texts of several official letters addressed to Liszt— in his capacity as the first director of the academy—in 1873 and 1875. Originally as “A zenemu# vészeti Fo# iskola levéltárában” in Zenetudományi tanulmányok 7 (1959): 427–582, together with a French-language summary (pp. 692–93). See, too, item 1448 in Chapter 12. Two articles describe Liszt’s sumptuous Budapest apartments—especially the flat located in the building that, today, houses the Liszt Reference Memorial Museum and Research Centre as well as the offices of the Hungarian Liszt Society: 580. Legány, Dezso# . “Liszt’s Homes in Budapest.” New Hungarian Quarterly 25/93 (Spring 1984): 211–15. ISSN 0028-5390. DB901.H83. A description of several apartments inhabited by Liszt between 1871 and 1880, including rooms in the Academy of Music on what then was the Sugár út. In this article Legány supplies two pages of plates containing shots of Hal tér 4, where Liszt lived in a flat of which our knowledge today

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“is rather poor” (p. 211), and of Münnich Ferenc utca 23, where the composer’s first Budapest home stood. Reprinted in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 17 (1985): 4–14, together with two photographs of Liszt, pictures of some of his Budapest furniture, and a floor plan of his rooms in the academy building. Also reprinted in item 106. Other studies of Liszt’s “Hungarianism” and his Hungarian “haunts and homes” exist but are difficult to locate. See, for example, István Vitéz, Liszt, a magyar (Rajka: self-published [“I. Vitéz”], 1991); the Library of Congress owns a copy of this 87-page pamphlet, but the present author has never been able to find it “on the shelves.” 581. Shrady, Nicholas. “Historic Houses: Franz Liszt. The Composer’s Restored Residence in Budapest.” Architectural Digest 53/1 (January 1996): 100–3 and 140. ISSN 0003-8520. NA730.C2A7. A superbly illustrated discussion of Liszt’s second-floor apartment at Vörösmarty utca 35 in today’s Budapest. Includes seven first-rate color photographs by Lars Hansson, six of them interior shots, as well as a witty description of Liszt’s life in his most important Budapest home; Shrady aptly describes the museum’s locks “of the maestro’s hair, his gloves and walking stick, a bronze replica of his right hand, even a few of his cigars” as “devotional esoterica” (p. 100). B. Martonvásár: See item 351. C. Pécs 582. Csekey, István. “Franz Liszt in Pécs (Fünfkirchen),” trans. Hanna Schüler. Die Musikforschung 11 (1958): 69–75. ISSN 0027-4801. ML5.M9437. Describes Liszt’s October 1846 visit to this southern Hungarian city. Includes quotations from contemporary newspaper reports of Liszt’s activities and performances. Other studies dealing with similar material by Csekey include Liszt Ferenc Baranyában (Pécs, 1956): a pamphlet about Liszt in southern Hungary illustrated with black-and-white photographs, among them two facsimiles of 1846 concert programs. D. Sopron: See especially item 140. E. Szekszárd 583. Csányi, László. Szekszárd és nagyvilág: Liszt Ferenc, 1881–1886–1986. Szekszárd: Város Tanácsa, 1987. 96 pp. ISBN 9630325810. ML410.L7S987 1987.

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A centenary commemorative volume of Liszt’s relationship with the city now most often associated with him by way of his “Szekszárd” Mass. Includes an essay by Klára Hamburger (“Liszt Ferenc és Szekszárd”; pp. 3–11), an article by András Lux on the Hexameron variations (pp. 35–48), and a brief description by Rezso# Husek of the Szekszárd “Liszt Cult” (pp. 91–94)—all in Hungarian. Most of the scattered illustrations are photos of Szekszárd city monuments; among these pictures, however, are a few documentary facsimiles and a photograph of Liszt taken by Ferenc Kózmata. Finally, at least one article deals with choirs, choral, music, and Liszt’s Hungarian musical life: 584. Eckhardt, Mária [P.]. “Liszt kapcsolata korának hazai kórusmozgalmával.” Magyar zene 19 (1978): 121–29. ISSN 0025-0384. ML5.M14. Concerned primarily (but not entirely) with Hungarian performances of Liszt’s choral works as well as his interest in choral music between c. 1840 and the 1880s. Eckhardt refers frequently to Sebestyén’s study (item 575), and she quotes liberally from Liszt’s published correspondence. Iberia (including Portugal and Spain) Although he never returned to the Iberian peninsula in later life, Liszt toured Spain, Portugal, and Gibraltar during 1844–1845. The most reliable single account of that tour in English is: 585. Stevenson, Robert. “Liszt in the Iberian Peninsula, 1844–1845.” InterAmerican Music Review 7/2 (Spring–Summer 1986): 3–22. ISSN 0195-6655. ML1.I7173. A detailed assessment of Liszt’s visits to Madrid, Lisbon, Andalusia, Valencia, and Barcelona, supplemented with numerous quotations from contemporary newspapers and magazines. Stevenson refers to such variegated sources as the Bayreuther Blätter, dictionaries of important Spanish and Portugese musical figures, and José Vianna da Motta’s “O centenario de Liszt,” Illustraça’ portuguesa (13 November 1911). Illustrated with two examples of Iberian folk music. For studies of Liszt in either Portugal or Spain, see either items 608 and 609 or items 618–623. Ireland 586. Arnold, Ben, and Michael Saffle. “Liszt in Ireland (and Belgium): Reports from a Concert Tour.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 26 (1989): 3–11. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68.

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Traces Liszt’s 1840–1841 tour of Ireland by means of contemporary press notices and reviews. Includes facsimiles of advertisements from the Cork Constitution and Dublin Evening Packet as well as lengthy quotations from the Ulster Times and other papers. Among the clippings reprinted from the last paper is a reference to an otherwise little-known Liszt performance in Dinant, Belgium; with regard to the last event, see especially item 507. 587. Gaffney, Séamus. “Liszt in Ireland.” Liszt Society Journal 19 (1994): 55–65. ML410.L7L6. Includes tables of Liszt’s 1840 and 1841 concerts in Belfast, Clonmel, Cork, Donaghadee, Dublin, and Limerick, as well as quotations from the Dublin Evening Post, the Freeman’s Journal, Saunder’s News-Letter, and other contemporary periodicals. Otherwise drawn largely from Parry’s diaries (item 515); ignores the contents of item 586. Italy Liszt was fond of Italy; during the late 1830s and 1860s he lived there for several years at a time. No study has dealt comprehensively with Liszt’s Italian sojourns, but several scholars have dealt with individual visits in detail. Among the more comprehensive of their publications—most of which, however, pay more attention to the 1830s than the 1860s—are: * Horvath. Franz Liszt in Italien…. Described as item 21, vol. 3. * Mastroianni. “The Italian Aspect of Franz Liszt.” Described as item 945. Devoted more, however, to Liszt’s Italianate music and musical contacts than his visits to Italy. 588. Segnitz, Eugen [von]. “Franz Liszt und Italien. Liszts erster Aufenthalt von 1837 bis 1839.” Neue Musikzeitung [Stuttgart] 25 (1903–1904): 51–54 and 102–4. ML5.N3. Describes Liszt’s first extended visits to Italy; illustrated with a well-known portrait of Liszt as a young man (p. 53). No longer the only work on this subject, having been supplanted by items 21, 590, 592, and portions of item 1, vol. 2. See, too, Dario Simoni, Un soggiorno di Francesco Liszt a San Rossore (Pisa: Nistri-Lischi, “anno XIV” [?1936]), which deals primarily with Liszt’s 1839 activities. Simoni’s is one of several Italian Liszt studies difficult to obtain in the United States. Finally, see item 596. Fourteen books and articles have been devoted to Liszt and individual Italian cities and regions; these are described or cross-referenced below in alphabetical order—first by city or region, then by author and/or title.

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A. Bologna 589. Salemi, Nunzio. “Liszt a Bologna.” Quaderni dell’Istituto Liszt 1 (1998): 151–68. ISBN 8875925518. Deals with Liszt’s visits to Bologna in October and December 1838 and includes, among other information, a facsimile of a program the composer performed at the Casino during his second visit (p. 160). Concludes with a brief English-language summary. B. Como (including Bellagio) 590. Chiappari, Luciano. Liszt a Como e Milano. Pisa: Pacini, 1997. xii, 403 pp. ML410.L7C52. A handsome, meticulously documented and described account of Liszt’s visits to northern Italy during the late 1830s. Among the dozens of illustrations Chiappari provides are familiar portraits, facsimiles of letters, programs, and other documents, and still other images—among them, more than a few fascinating sheet-music covers—depicting the homes and concert halls where the composer performed, Includes a substantial appendix of documentary texts, including many newspaper and magazine reports and reviews (pp. 215–315), as well as notes (pp. 319–89) and even calendars for 1837 and 1838 (pp. 316–17). Concludes with an index and list of illustrations. 591. Rüsch, Walter. “Franz Liszt in Bellagio.” In item 46; pp. 155–61. Discusses Liszt’s sojourn of the mid-1830s in terms of d’Agoult’s Mémoires (item 346) and Liszt’s compositions of that time, with special reference to Marie d’Agoult’s memoirs in their German-language edition (item 345), Stradal’s book-length Liszt reminiscences (item 370), and the preface to the composer’s own Album d’un voyageur. No musical examples. C. Florence 592. Chiappari, Luciano. Liszt a Firenze, Pisa e Lucca. Pisa: Pacini, 1989. xiv, 207 pp. ISBN 8877810106. ML410.L7C53 1989. Resembles item 590 in its organization, including the inclusion of a substantial number of documentary texts (pp. 129–71)—among them several letters, reviews from such papers as Florence’s Giornale del commercio, and several poems by Cesare Boccella in Liszt’s honor—as well as a wealth of images: portraits, photographs of people, places, and art works; documentary facsimiles; maps; and even a reproduction of the celebrated but lost Triumph of Death fresco in Pisa (p. 97), supposedly the inspiration for Liszt’s

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Totentanz. Also includes notes (pp. 175–99), calendars for 1838–1839 (pp. 172–73) and, at the very end, an index and a list of illustrations. D. Grotammare * Capocasa and Chiappari. Liszt francescano tra Umbria e Marcha…. Described as item 599. Another study of Liszt’s visits to this little-known “Liszt place” is: Franz Liszt e l’Italia. L’amore per i piccoli centri. Il soggiaorno a Grottammare, ed. Claudia Colombati (Grottammare: Comune di Grottammare, 1998). Not seen; see Chapter 1. E. Lucca: See item 592. F. Milan: See item 590. 593. Suttoni, Charles. “Franz Liszt à Milan.” In item 48, pp. 177–87. A carefully documented account of Liszt’s 1838 travels in Italy, especially Milan. Supplemented with extensive quotations, some translated into French, from Milanese newspapers such as La Moda, as well as from the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung and Liszt’s correspondence, including his letters to several periodicals. G. Montemario 594. Chiti, Gian Paolo. “Montemario—Oasis for Franz Liszt for 1862–1868.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 20 (1986): 82–109. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Describes the hill called Monte Mario outside Rome, the chapel built on that hill by Giovanni de Rossi in 1628, and Liszt’s life in one of the church’s cells during the 1860s. Chiti quotes from several accounts of Liszt’s activities during those years as well as from the published correspondence. Concludes with detailed notes, a bibliography of “essential” sources, and five photographs of the “Madonna del Rosario” today. H. Pisa: See item 592. I. Rome Among the most important descriptions of Liszt’s Roman sojourns are: 595. Legány, Dezso# . “Liszt a Roma,” trans. Sophie Le Castel. Nuova Rivista Musicale Italiana 21 (1987): 571–94. ISSN 0029-6228. ML5.A617.

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Devoted mostly to Liszt’s Roman sojourns of the 1860s, although Legány also refers to earlier and later visits. Especially valuable are its thirteen portraits, photographs, and other illustrations; this article is also supplemented with eight pages [printed on tinted paper and separately paginated as “I–VIII”] of additional facsimiles. Translated from item 380 [Studia Musicologica 19 (1977): 85–108], in which it appears without illustrations or supplementary facsimile documentation; the two versions of this article exemplify the problems associated with narrowly classifying by “scope” or “contents” many Liszt publications. 596. Segnitz, Eugen [von]. Franz Liszt und Rom. Musikalische Studien, 8. Leipzig: Hermann Seemann, 1901. 74 pp. ML410.L7S4. Deals with Liszt in Rome during the 1830s and 1860s. Includes more than sixty-five references to letters, published works of reminiscence, and so on. Also includes Bibliographic citations in the form of notes. Segnitz’s pamphlet was reprinted by Kraus in 1976. A related article by Segnitz appeared under the title “Francesco Liszt e Roma” in Rivista musicale italiana 13 (1906): 113–34. NB: This article evidently was intended as the first in a series, but subsequent installments were never published. See, too, Wesley Roberts, “The Hôtel Alibert: Liszt’s Last Residence in Rome,” Journal of the American Liszt Society 36 (1994): 42–45, which contains a photograph of the hotel (p. 45). Two older, although not necessarily less important publications are: 597. Angelis, Aberto de. “Liszt à Roma.” Rivista Musicale Italiana 18 (1911): 308–55. ML5.R8. Primarily a study of Liszt’s life in Rome during 1861–1865, although de Angelis also refers to Liszt’s travels of the 1880s. References to several of his musical works are scattered throughout this lengthy article. 598. Helbig, Nadine. “Liszt in Rome.” Liszt Society Journal 3 (1978): 37–43. ML410.L7L6. Opens with an eyewitness account of Liszt in Rome that appeared originally in 1907 in the Deutsche Revue and in certain editions of item 426. Subsequent articles in this series consist of materials taken from various sources, including the diaries of Curd von Schloezer; see the Liszt Society Journal 4 (1979): 19–25 and 10 (1985): 30–36; the journal installments include miscellaneous illustrations. Reprinted in the original German in Liszt Saeculum nos. 9–10 (1974–1975): 25–28; nos. 13–14 (1975–1976): 15–18; nos. 15–16 (1976): 7–10; and so on;

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and in English, as translated by Adrian Williams, in Liszt Saeculum nos. 20–22 (1977–1978): 32–34 and no. 23 (1978): 34–41. See, too, August Stradal’s reminiscences, published originally as “Franz Liszts Aufenthalt in Rom im Winter 1885/86,” Neue Musikzeitung [Stuttgart] 9–10 (1926): 188–92 and 213–15, which includes three small photographs of the Via Bubuino and memorials in Roman graveyards. Finally, see item 370. J. Umbria 599. Capocasa, Tiziana, and Luciano Chiappari. Liszt francescano tra Umbria e Marcha: dai santuari di Assisi, Cascia e Loreto a Grottammare. Grottammmare [Ascoli Piceno]: Stamperia dell’Arancio, 2000. 112 pp. (ITFiC it01656392. In addition to the more familiar images one expects of Chiappari, this volume features a collection of color illustrations: facsimiles of letters and sheet-music pages; reproductions of frescoes from the basilica in Assisi; photographs of the basilica as well as other buildings, musical instruments, and even pieces of furniture; as well as Liszt portraits (pp. 64–80). The appendix (pp. 81–107) contains fifteen translated (into Italian) and annotated letters written by Liszt between February and August 1868 as well as other texts. Outfitted with marginal notes. Concludes with a one-page table of contents and an index printed of a separate sheet of stiff paper and inserted into the back of the volume. K. Venice 600. Chiappari, Luciano. “Liszt a Venezia.” In item 41, pp. 100–7. Describes Liszt’s visits to and relationship with Venice and, to some extent, Venetian music between 1838 and his last visits in 1883 and January 1886. Useful but brief. Chiappari’s article is the only one published in item 41 in Italian. 601. Dalmonte, Rossana. “Liszt in Venice: Between Poetics and ‘Rezeptionsgeschichte.’” Journal of the American Liszt Society 27 (1990): 17–24. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. At once a capsule history of the composer’s Venetian visits and an essay on his states of mind, as expressed in Venezia e Napoli and the “profoundly disillusioned” late piano pieces (p. 23). Dalmonte also quotes from reviews in 1838 issues of the Gazetta privilegiana di Venezia and Il Gondoliere. See, too, Dalmonte, “Liszt a Venezia megli anni Ottanta: Nuovi documenti,” Quaderni dell’Istituto Liszt 1 (1998): 81–126. Finally, see item 1111.

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Lithuania 602. Schwarz, Werner, “Franz Liszt in Nordosteuropa: Zu seinem 175. Geburtstag und 100. Todestag.” Musik des Ostens 11 (1989): 213–20. ISSN 0580-3225. ML240.M88. Deals with the composer’s first journey from Berlin to Russia and especially with the concerts Liszt gave in Riga on 16, 18, 20, and 24 March 1842. Schwarz provides complete programs for all four concerts (pp. 216–17), together with reviews published in the Rigaische Stadtblätter and information about Riga’s musical life during the 1830s and 1840s. See, too, an obscure article dealing with some of the same material and cited several times by Schwarz: Maria von Grewingk, “Franz Liszt im Baltikum, ein Gedenkblatt,” Baltische Monatsschrift 62/10–12 (December 1931): 624–31. Luxembourg Few studies of Liszt’s brief visits to this small country have appeared in print. The most easily available are: 603. Ögren, Lennart. “Liszt in Luxembourg.” Liszt Saeculum no. 57 (1996): 26–30. ISSN 0263-0249. ML410.L7I6. A first-person account of visiting Luxembourg with Liszt in mind. Ögren concentrates on Liszt’s sojourn of June 1886, cites Penning’s study (item 604), and quotes from contemporary press clippings as well as Ramann’s Lisztiana; he also describes Colpach Castle, where the composer spent several memorable days. No illustrations or musical examples. A more detailed and much more extensively illustrated account of Liszt’s visits to Luxembourg is difficult to obtain. See Guy May, “Franz Liszt und Luxemburg,” Nos Cahiers 3 (1986): 87–122; May’s German-language study, also published as a pamphlet, includes the French-language text of an article about Liszt that appeared in 1886 in the Jean de Luxembourg. 604. Penning, Jim. “Liszt in Luxembourg.” Liszt Society Journal 9 (1984): 45–53. ML410.L7L6. Deals with Liszt’s several visits to this Duchy. Penning quotes articles originally published in 1845 and 1886 in the Luxemburger Wort and the L’Indépendance Luxembourgeoise. Illustrated with a facsimile of an advertising poster for a Liszt concert and several photographs of “Liszt pianos.” Netherlands Surveys especially of Liszt’s 1842 visit to this small country include:

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605. Lelie, Christo. “Liszt’s Dutch Concerts in 1842: Contemporary Press Reports.” Journal of the Franz Liszt Kring (1995): 10–13. A brief, press-oriented survey of the composer in several Netherlands cities; Lelie also provides a useful table of Liszt’s entire Dutch concert tour (p. 13). Reprinted with the same title—but without two facsimile reproductions of pages from Amsterdam’s Algemeen Handelsblad and Leiden’s Leydsche Courant—in Liszt Saeculum no. 53 (1994): 27–30. 606. Scholcz, Peter. “Liszts eerste concerten in Nederland, 1842.” Piano Bulletin [European Piano Teachers Association] no. 1 (1986): 20–29. OCLC 39525524. Describes Liszt’s visit to Holland during November–December 1842 and his concerts in Amsterdam, den Haag, Leiden, and so on. Illustrated with a facsimile page from the Nederlandsch musikaal tijdschrift, two lithographs of Liszt’s reception by students in Schouwburg, reproductions of several short press clippings, and—on the cover—a portrait of Liszt in old age. A single additional study concentrates on Liszt and Holland’s capital city: * Scholcz and Lelie. Franz Liszt in Amsterdam. Described as item 59. Deals in part with the composer’s 1866 Amsterdam sojourn. See, too, Scholcz’s article “Liszts bezoek aan Amsterdam in 1866,” “Liszt in Amsterdam” 1991 = entire issue of the [Journal of the] Franz Liszt Kring (1991): 22–25, which also includes several illustrations. Poland Like his visits to Luxembourg, Liszt’s Polish travels have received comparatively little attention. One brief account of them is easy to locate: 607. Donath, Adolf. “Franz Liszt und Polen.” In item 46, pp. 53–64. ISBN 3201010073. ML410.L7E9 1975. Primarily a description of Liszt’s visits to Chopin’s homeland during the 1840s, although Donath also mentions Liszt’s friendship with pianist and composer Juliusz Zarebski during 1854–1855 and the possibility that Liszt possessed a passive understanding of the Polish language. Other studies of Liszt’s Polish visits and colleagues include István Csaplarós, “Koncerty Liszta w Polsce w 1843 R,” Ruch muzyczny 5/20 (1961): 3–5. Polish borders have shifted several times since the eighteenth century; parts of what were Germany, or Austria-Hungary, or even Russia in Liszt’s day are

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today Polish soil. The study cross-referenced below deserves to be mentioned under “Poland” as well as “Germany”: * Schreiber. Andenken…. Described as item 553. Reviews the concerts Liszt presented in and around Breslau (today, Wroc l aw) during 1843. Portugal: See also “Iberia.” 608. Bedbrook, Gerald S. “Liszt in Lisbon.” Liszt Society Journal 6 (1981): 29–30. ML410.L7L6. A description of Liszt’s visit to the Portuguese capital during January–February 1845, drawn to a considerable extent from previously published secondary sources. Illustrated with two portraits of Liszt and a picture of the artist’s “Lisbon” piano. Another account of the composer’s Portuguese sojourn is Fernando Laires, “Franz Liszt in Portugal,” Piano Quarterly 23/89 (Spring 1975): 34–37; Laires, however, describes individual concerts in more detail and also deals with social events and decorations Liszt received in honor of his art. See, too, Nancy Lee Harper, “Liszt in Portugal: A Question of His Concerts,” Journal of the American Liszt Society 50 (2001): 18–25, which contains a single illustration (erroneously headed “Fig. 2”) of a piano played by Liszt in Lisbon. 609. Reis, Pedro Batalha. Liszt na sua passagem por Lisboa em 1845. Lisbon: Sassetti, 1945. 172 pp. ML410.L7B29. A patriotic description of Liszt’s Portuguese sojourn, illustrated with a number of portraits, concert programs, and facsimile reproductions of manuscript pages, a photograph of one of Liszt’s pianos, and so on. In Portuguese. * Stevenson. “Liszt at Madrid and Lisbon, 1844–45.” Described as item 585. Russia Although comparatively brief, Liszt’s visits to Russia in 1842–1843 and 1847 helped open that nation’s ears to Western European music. Among recent summaries of Liszt’s relationship with Russia and its composers is: 610. Krauklis, G[eorgii] V[ilgelmovich]. “Ferents List i russkaia muzykal’naia kul’tura.” Studia Musicologica 29 (1987): 285–94. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. Describes Liszt’s impact on Russian music through eyewitness accounts of his performances and reminiscences of his later years recorded by Russian critics and composers. Extensive bibliographic citations but no musical examples. In Russian throughout. A shorter synopsis of much of the same

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material also exist; see, for instance, D. Lehmann’s “Bemerkungen zur Liszt-Rezeption in Rußland in den vierziger und fünfziger Jahren des 19. Jahrhunderts” (item 50, pp. 211–15). Three additional but somewhat briefer accounts of Liszt’s Russian tours, all of them published since the 1930s, are described below: 611. Gojowy, Detlef. “Liszt et la Russie.” In item 48, pp. 95–101. Describes the composer’s Russian concert tours as well as his associations with or influences on contemporary Russian composers. Contains lengthy quotations from letters written by Glazunov, Shostakovich, and even Prokofieff. See, too, Gojowy’s “Liszt, Busoni und die neuen Ufer im Osten,” published in Kunst-Gespräche. Musikalische Begegnungen zwischen Ost und West, ed. Peter Andraschke and Edelgard Spaude (Freiburg i.Br., 1998): 107–23, which deals primarily with Liszt’s influence in Russia. No musical examples appear in either article. 612. Khvostenko, V. “List v russii.” Sovetskaia muzyka nos. 11–12 (November– December 1936): 30–48 [“1842”] and 78–92 [“1843”]. Essentially a sizeable collection of press clippings associated with Liszt’s visits to Moscow and St. Petersburg and taken from Severnaia pchela, Moskvitianin, and other newspapers. In Russian throughout. Omitted from several standard Liszt bibliographies; cited by Walker, however, who incorrectly dated from “1937” in item 1, vol. 1, p. 378n. 613. Rudakova, Je. “Liszt in Rußland.” Sowjetwissenschaftl. Kunst und Literatur [Berlin] 3/10 (March 1962): 313–22. Deals with Liszt’s Russian tours of 1842–1843, his acquaintances among Russian composers, and so on. Includes quotations from Stasov’s reviews of Liszt performances (item 369) as well as information about Russian observations of Liszt’s death, including a description of a November 1886 Liszt concert. Also published as “List v russii,” Sovetskaia muzyka 25/11 (November 1961): 68–76. Scotland 614. Wright, William. “Press Reviews of Liszt’s Concerts in Scotland.” Liszt Society Journal 13 (1988): 65–69. ML410.L7L6. Describes concerts Liszt presented in Edinburgh and Glasgow during January 1841. Wright quotes extensively from such newspapers as Glasgow’s Courier and Edinburgh’s Evening Courant. Illustrated with a poor nineteenth-century picture of the Edinburgh Assembly Rooms, where Liszt performed. See, too, items 514 and 515.

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Slovakia Liszt made a number of visits to the city known today as Bratislava and known to nineteenth-century Austria-Hungary as Preßburg. The most comprehensive description of these visits remains: ˆ

ˆ

615. Orel, Dobroslav. Frantisek Liszt a Bratislava; na základe nevydané korrespondence Fr. Liszta a knez ny C. Wittgensteinové. Bratislava: Filosofická Fakulta University Komenského, 1925. iii, 72 pp. B18.S6B73, roc. = 3, Cis. 36. ˆˆ

ˆ

ˆ

An account of Liszt’s relationship with the city of Bratislava as well as a collection of forty letters written by Liszt between 1869 and 1886. Orel also reprints the texts of letters addressed by Princess Carolyne to Jan Batka. Concludes with eight illustrations, among them facsimiles of Liszt letters. Commentary in Czech; letters texts in their original languages. Published in the series “Bratislava. Univerzita. Filozofické faculta. Sborník, roc. 3, Cislo 36 [10]”; hence the LC call number given above. ˆ

ˆ

Two additional studies of Liszt’s Bratislava sojourns are described below: ˆ

616. Furch, Frantisek. “Liszt in Bratislava.” Musik und Gesellschaft 11 (1961): 603–6. ISSN 0027-4755. ML5.M9033. Deals with visits Liszt made to the city he knew as Preßburg in 1820, 1858, and the 1880s. Unfortunately extremely cursory; contains no illustrations. ˆ

617. Novácek, Zdenko. “Franz Liszt a Bratislava / Franz Liszt und Bratislava.” In item 45, pp. 7–20. Another account of Liszt’s relationship with Preßburg. In Slovak and German; summary in Russian. A short article by Novácek dealing primarily with Slovak musical figures is described as item 951. See, too, Franz Zagiba’s somewhat more carefully researched article “Franz Liszt und Preßburg,” published in the Burgenländische Heimatblätter 14 (1952): 164–70. ˆ

Spain: See also “Iberia.” 618. Forinelli, Arturo. “Liszt y España.” Escorial 9 (1943): 9–42. A little-known study of Liszt’s travels in Spain “generally,” especially his relationship with Spanish music and musicians. Apparently cited nowhere in the Liszt literature except items 71 and 72. See, too, Tomás Fernández Mauricio (item 51, pp. 1850–67); Mauricio’s article is almost entirely a conflation drawn from sources Forinelli also explores, as well as a synopsis of Spanish musical influences on Liszt.

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More specialized studies are described below in alphabetical order by city and/or region, then by author and/or title: A. Barcelona and Catalonia 619. Stevenson, Robert. “Liszt at Barcelona.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 12 (1982): 6–13. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Describes Liszt’s visit to Barcelona during April 1845 and some of the musical performances he heard in that city. Stevenson quotes lengthy passages from reviews published originally in the Diario de Barcelona. 620. Stevenson, Robert. “Liszt on the East Coast of Spain.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 4 (1978): 11–17. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. In part a synthesis of Eduardo Ranch’s Centenario pamphlet (item 623). Stevenson reviews Liszt’s visit to Valencia and Barcelona during March–April 1845, quoting from notices and reviews published in the playbills, the newspaper Diario marcantil de Valencia, and other sources. Subsequently published as “Liszt en la costa oriental de Espana,” Heterofonia 12/64 (1979): 13–17. B. Cádiz: See item 622. C. Madrid 621. Stevenson, Robert. “Liszt at Madrid and Lisbon, 1844–45.” The Musical Quarterly 65 (1979): 493–512. ISSN 0027-4631. ML1.M725. Claims that Liszt was “both the first and the greatest virtuoso to tour the Spanish peninsula” and supports this claim by cataloging Liszt’s Iberian repertory and summarizing his reception in Madrid and Lisbon during 1844–1845. This article contains numerous quotations from newspapers such as the Diario de Madrid, Revista de teatros, Revista universal Lisbonense, and so on. Concludes with a discussion of Le Forgeron, the only composition known to date from Liszt’s visit to Lisbon and one of the sources for Les Préludes. Translated into Spanish and reprinted as “Franz Liszt en Madrid y Lisboa (1844–1845)” in Heterofonia 13/68 (January–March 1980): 6–17 and 13/69 (April–June 1980): 4–8; the second installment contains the notes. Another article by Stevenson appeared as “Liszt in Andalusia” in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 26 (1989): 33–36. Finally, with reference exclusively to Spain’s capital city, see “Liszt in Madrid,” published originally in 1845 in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung and reprinted in Liszt Saeculum nos. 17–19 (1977): 34–35.

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D. Sevilla 622. Barón, Máximo Pajares. “Franz Liszt en Sevilla y en Cádiz (diciembre 1844–enero 1845).” Revista de musicología 10/3 (1987): 887–918. ISSN 0210-1459. ML5.R212. More specialized and even more heavily documented than Stevenson’s studies, especially insofar as its lengthy quotations from such periodical publications as La Iberia musical y literaria and El Comercio are concerned. Barón attempts to identify precisely every piece Liszt performed in the south of Spain and provides publication details and Searle numbers for a number of sheet-music editions; he also provides a summary of his work in Latin (p. 887). No facsimiles or musical examples, however. See, too, Andrés Ruiz Tarazona’s article “Liszt en Madrid” in the same issue of Revista, pp. 879–86. E. Valencia 623. Ranch, Eduardo. Centenario de la estancia de Franz Liszt en Valencia. Valencia: Ranch [self-published], 1945. ML410.L7R32 (according to a National Union Catalog entry). Not seen but quoted extensively by Stevenson in his several studies. Apparently in Spanish throughout. Switzerland Liszt’s Swiss sojourns were comparatively few and far between, but he did visit that country several times during the 1830s–1850s. No studies examine all his visits; two of the best, described below in reverse chronological order, deal with his “honeymoon” trip of 1835–1836: 624. Motta, Cesare Simeone. Liszt viaggiatore europeo. Il soggiorno svizzero e italiano di Franz Liszt e Marie d’Agoult (1835–1839). Biblioteca del viaggio in Italia, 58. Moncalieri [Italy]: Centro Interuniversitario di Ricerche sul “Viaggio in Italia,” 2000. 168 pp. ISBN 8877600586. ML410.L7M7 2000. More detailed than Kárpáti’s survey (item 481) but restricted to Liszt’s Italian and Swiss sojourns of the late 1830s. Includes useful notes (pp. 123–41) and a bibliography (pp. 145–54) as well as an index (pp. 155–65); concludes with a table of contents as well as information about the ten pages of illustrations this volume contains. Motta cites many other kinds of sources but makes comparatively little use of contemporary magazines and newspapers.

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625. Bory, Robert. Un retraite romantique en Suisse. Liszt et la Comtesse d’Agoult, 2d rev. ed. [Lausanne and] Paris: Victor Attinger, 1930. 173 pp. ML410.L7B65 1930. A book-length account of Liszt’s extended visits to Switzerland in the 1830s with the mother-to-be of his three children. Supplemented with portraits and other illustrations as well as an appendix (pp. 99–172) containing thirtysix letters written by Liszt, d’Agoult, George Sand, and Adolphe Pictet. A previous edition (1923) lacks some of this material. Also published in 1934 in German as Franz Liszt und Marie d’Agoult in der Schweiz, trans. Ludwig Überfeldt. Three accounts of Liszt in Switzerland are, or deal with, primary sources of information: 626. Bellas, Jacqueline. “François Liszt et le “département des livres.’” In item 49, pp. 89–97. Deals with Liszt’s mid-1830s Swiss sojourns especially in terms of individual documents, among them a letter Liszt sent his mother in July 1835. Bellas also discusses the authorship of one of Liszt’s earliest articles, and especially Liszt’s personal library. 627. Eckhardt, Mária [P.]. “Diary of a Wayfarer: The Wanderings of Franz Liszt and Marie d’Agoult in Switzerland, June–July 1835.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 11 (1982): 10–17. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Draws upon Liszt’s pocket diary for 1835 (F-Pn N.a.fr. 14.320), in which the composer recorded details of his exploits with d’Agoult. Eckhardt concentrates on the contents of the diary, however, rather than on its provenance and physical characteristics. A similar article by Eckhardt appeared as “Egy utazó naplója (Liszt Ferenc és Marie d’Agoult svájci vándorlása 1835 Június-júliusában)” in Zenetudományi dolgozatok [Budapest] (1984): 54–66. See, too, Jacques Burdet, “Liszt et Mendelssohn dans le Canton de Vaud,” Revue musicale de Suisse Romande 25/2 (June 1972): 6–7, which deals in part with concerts Liszt presented at Lausanne on 16 July and 8 October 1836. Finally, see item 286, which mentions the composer’s more obscure visits to Switzerland in the early 1830s. * Pictet. Une course à Chamounix…. Described as item 364. An eyewitness account of Liszt’s 1830s visits to Switzerland with the Comtesse d’Agoult.

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Two additional articles are devoted to Liszt in particular Swiss cities: A. Geneva * Viala. “Franz Liszt au Conservatoire (1835–1836).” Described as item 1449. Devolves mostly upon Liszt’s brief pedagogical career in 1830s Geneva. B. St. Gallen 628. Szadrowsky-Burckhardt, M. “Wagner und Liszt in St. Gallen, 1856.” Schweizerische Musikzeitung 96 (1956): 476–80. ML5.S34. A discussion of the joint concert presented by Wagner and Liszt in St. Gallen on 23 November 1856. Szadrowsky-Burckhardt quotes from published letters to provide information about Liszt’s and Wagner’s attitudes toward their unusual project. Turkey Liszt visited Turkey only once, in 1847. Only one article has been devoted exclusively to that visit: 629. Missir de Lusignan, Livio. “Liszt et l’empire Ottoman en 1847.” In item 48, pp. 189–96. Deals primarily with Liszt’s concert performances in Constantinople during July–August 1847. Includes quotations from the Courrier de Constantinople as well as several secondary sources on Turkish history. Interesting but in some respects less satisfactory than item 1, vol. 1, pp. 440–42, even though Missir de Lusignan corrects Walker on several points. Unfortunately lacks facsimile reproductions and other illustrations. LISZT

AND

HIS CONTEMPORARIES

Liszt knew thousands of people, including many of the most important figures in nineteenth-century art, letter, music, poetry, publishing, and religious life. Studies of Liszt’s relationships with a variety of figures are described below according to various categories and subcategories. Studies of Liszt’s musical indebtedness to or influence on eighteenth-, nineteenth-, and twentieth-century composers are described in Chapter 7. Liszt and Marie, Comtesse d’Agoult Three especially useful and recent studies have been devoted exclusively to Liszt’s relationship with the comtesse—herself a novelist and, later, an historian of importance:

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630. Dupêchez, Charles F. Marie d’Agoult, 1805–1876, 2d ed. Paris: Plon, 1994. 40 pp. ISBN 2259004059. PS2152.A38Z848 1994. Subtitled on the cover but not the full title page “Le grand amour de Liszt,” this study examines the comtesse’s life intelligently and at length. Supplemented with a gathering of plates (between pp. 224 and 225) containing facsimiles of portraits, photographs, oil paintings, and other images of Liszt and Marie, their children, Marie’s daughter Claire by her husband Charles, Marie and daughter Cosima in old age, and so on. Dupêchez also provides detailed notes (pp. 309–40), a timeline of Marie’s life and career (pp. 341–61), iconographical information (pp. 363–65), a list of archival sources (pp. 367–82), a bibliography of secondary sources (pp. 383–86), and an annotated index of names and places (pp. 387–405). Concludes with an unpaginated genealogical table of Marie’s descendents by both Liszt and Charles d’Agoult and with a table of contents. Originally published in 1989; the edition described above contains a number of important corrections. * Gut and Bellas. Correspondance. Described as item 302. 631. Suttoni, Charles. “Liszt and Madame d’Agoult: A Reappraisal.” In item 42, pp. 17–36. An outstanding assessment of this important relationship and undeniably provocative; Suttoni asserts that the couple remained together for as long as they did because the comtesse “got and held on to Liszt with a series of pregnancies” (p. 34), and that Marie herself “was neither the grand, gracious lady, nor the naïve victim of [the composer’s] callous philandering that some biographers still make her out to be” (p. 35). Includes selected quotations for Liszt’s correspondence. Other accounts of the Liszt-d’Agoult relationship include: 632. Hevesy, André de. “Liszt et Madame d’Agoult.” La Revue musicale [“Numéro special”] (May 1928): 33–46 and 8 (June 1928): 155–68. ISSN 0768-1593. ML5.M613. A study of this fascinating affair, based to a considerable extent on the couple’s correspondence. Illustrated with Ary Scheffer’s famous Liszt portrait. The significance of this article is dealt with in item 76. Other studies of the Liszt-d’Agoult affiar include Charlotte Haldane’s The Galley Slaves of Love: The Story of Marie d’Agoult and Franz Liszt (London, 1957). A novel-like account of a stormy love-affair, prejudiced in favor of the lady. See, too, Franca Ottino, Romanticismo privato. Franz Liszt e Marie d’Agoult (Florence, 1997).

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* Tarasti. “The Case of ‘Obermann’….” Described as item 1019. Although his is primarily a semiotic study of Senancour’s novel and Liszt’s Vallée d’Obermann, Tarasti also examines ways in which the music (and fiction) may serve to illuminate the couple’s real-life relationship. Liszt and Ludwig van Beethoven Liszt’s personal encounter or encounters with Beethoven have inspired a flood of speculation, much of it based on little more than conjecture. Four representative Liszt-Beethoven biographical studies are described below, in chronological order of publication: 633. Fay, Amy. “From Beethoven to Liszt,” Etude 16/7 (July 1908): 426–47; reprinted in Margaret William McCarthy, Amy Fay: America’s Notable Woman of Music [cited under item 354], pp. 171–74. An account at second hand—Liszt may have described the incident to Fay herself—of the kiss Beethoven is supposed to have bestowed, and quite possibly did bestow in private, on Liszt in childhood. When and where the event may have taken place has been hotly debated for more than a century. 634. Nohl, Walther. “Der elfjährige Liszt und Beethoven.” Neue Musikzeitung [Stuttgart] 48 (1927): 307–9. A pioneering attack on the Weihekuss legend. Nohl quotes passages from Beethoven’s conversation books for March–April 1823 in order to “prove” the event did not take place. (NB: One cannot “prove” a negative!) Cited in item 1 and other authorities; now out of date. See, too, La Mara’s even briefer article “Beethovens Weihekuss,” published in the Allgemeine Musikzeitung 49 (1913): 544–46. 635. Keiler, Allan. “Liszt and Beethoven: The Creation of a Personal Myth.” 19th Century Music 12/2 (Fall 1988): 116–31. ISSN 0148-2076. ML1.N27. Examines surviving information about Liszt’s early musical training, preferences, and performances, based on archival documents as well as on some of the earliest surviving Liszt biographies. Much of this essay is devoted to the Weihekuss story, which Keiler considers part of “a complicated personal myth” (p. 130) constructed by Liszt by the 1840s. See also item 1, vol. 2, pp. 81–85, and item 72; the latter includes a transcription of a contemporary Viennese newspaper article that says nothing about Beethoven kissing Liszt at the boy’s 13 April 1823 concert. 636. Kopelson, Kevin. Beethoven’s Kiss: Pianism, Perversion, and the Mastery of Desire. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1996. 198 pp. ISBN 0804725977. ML700.K560 1996.

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A postmodern gender-fantasy on the Weihekuss episode as well as what the author describes “perversely”—in an academic sense, if not an erotic one— as the “homophobic attack” leveled by Eleanor Perényi against Alan Walker’s contention that Liszt identified posthumously with Chopin and conceived of the Funérailles as a threnody to his Polish contemporary (item 636, p. 38). Concludes with notes (pp. 171–81), a bibliography (pp. 183–91), and an index. Reviewed in the Reader’s Guide to Lesbian and Gay Studies, ed. Timothy F. Murphy (Chicago, 2000; ISBN 1579581420), p. 401, where even Ivan Raykoff—in an attempt to extend sympathy to his subject—calls Kopelson’s volume “highly subjective” and hesitates over its “camp sensibility.” Liszt and Hector Berlioz Among Liszt’s most cherished colleagues and friends was the French composer and journalist Hector Berlioz. Unfortunately, Liszt’s enthusiasm for his colleague’s music was not altogether reciprocated. Unfortunately, too, much of the composers’ correspondence appears to have been lost. Only two studies have been devoted exclusively to the Liszt-Berlioz relationship: 637. Bailbé, Joseph-Marc. “Liszt et Berlioz: Une poétique du voyage.” In item 48, pp. 167–76. Describes the “voyages” of Liszt and Berlioz during the 1830s and 1840s— which is to say, the thoughts and experiences as well as the actual travels of the two composers). Includes quotations from Liszt’s correspondence as well as his own Lettres d’un bachelier (item 253, vol. 1), George Sand’s novel Consuelo, Jules Janin’s Voyage en Italie, and so on. See, too, Hennie Molenaar, “Ik vind mij terug in zijn ziel: Berlioz en Liszt, een romantische vriendschap,” Mens en melodie 47 (1992): 464–67. 638. Reeve, Katerine Kolb. “Primal Scene: Smithson, Pleyel, and Liszt in the Eyes of Berlioz.” 19th Century Music 18 (1994–1995): 211–35. ISSN 0148-2076. ML1.N27. A psychological exploration of various “memorable, formative, related events” in Berlioz’s life (p. 215), among them his early contacts with and impressions of Liszt’s virtuoso piano playing. See especially pp. 226–31, where Liszt receives more attention than elsewhere in this intriguing study. Illustrated with seven plates, only two of which are Liszt “images.” Liszt and Frédéric Chopin 639. Forrai, Miklos. “Die Beziehungen zwischen Ferenc Liszt und Fryderyk Chopin.” Wiener Chopin-Blätter (February 1990): “I–III.”

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A brief survey of the Liszt-Chopin relationship, supplemented with comments about the ballade as a musical form and with a photograph of the author. Other surveys also exist, the composer’s own F. Chopin (items 252 [vol. 1], and 262) among them. Unfortunately, the present author has never seen a copy of Cecile Raynaud-Brukardt, Le Chopin de Liszt, entre biographie et analyse esthetique, published in Warsaw in 1995. 640. Gut, Serge. “Frédéric Chopin et Franz Liszt: une amitié à sens unique.” In: Sur les traces de Frédéric Chopin, ed. Danièle Pistone. Paris: Champion, 1984; pp. 53–68. ISBN 2852031337. ML410.C54S87. Includes biographical information as well as a section (pp. 64–68) devoted to mutual musical influences, which Gut maintains ended for Liszt by 1855; Chopin, of course, died in 1849. Among other issues, Gut presents arguments concerning the possibility that Liszt adapted the left-hand octaves in his own Funérailles from Chopin’s Polonaise in A-flat Major. Includes three musical examples and a photograph of a Pleyel piano; ends with a cartoon in which Chopin “corrects” Pauline Viardot-Garcia’s accompanimental keyboard style as too Lisztian. Liszt and Carl Czerny The best account of Liszt’s relationship with his only “real” teacher was written by the world’s foremost Czerny expert: 641. Wehmeyer, Grete. “Carl Czerny (1791–1857)—Der Klavierlehrer von Franz Liszt.” In item 141, pp. 103–15. Examines Liszt’s relationship with Czerny in Vienna and afterwards. Includes quotations from Czerny’s autobiography (item 352) and portions of the Liszt-Czerny and Adam Liszt-Czerny correspondence. Illustrated with Joseph Kriehuber’s 1828 Czerny lithograph. Two additional Liszt-Czerny articles are described or cross-referenced below: * Domokos. “Carl Czernys Einfluss auf Franz Liszt.” Described as item 864. Mostly concerned with issues of musical style and influence, although Domokos briefly describes the relationship teacher and pupil enjoyed especially during the 1820s. ˆ

642. Gardavsky´ , C. “Liszt und seine tschechischen Lehrer.” In item 50, pp. 69–76. A brief discussion of Liszt’s musical relationship with his teacher and friend during the young musician’s early years in Vienna, although Gardavsky´ devotes as much or more space to Liszt and Reicha; on the last subject, see item 1440. Several other Liszt-Czerny biographical studies have appeared

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in print, among them: H. Vilma Hoffmann’s article “Liszt és Czerny,” published in Új zenei szemle 3/10 (October 1952): 13–18. Liszt and the Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein By far the most important examination of Liszt’s relationship with his lover, confidante, and friend is: 643. Walker, Alan. Liszt, Carolyne, and the Vatican: The Story of a Thwarted Marriage [as it emerges from the original Church documents], ed. and trans. Gabriele Erasmi. “Franz Liszt Studies Series,” 1 [formerly the “American Liszt Society Studies Series”]. Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon, 1991. xvi, 257 pp. ISBN 0945193092. ML410.L7W293 1991. At once an account of Liszt’s unsuccessful attempt to marry the princess and an edition of some 129 documents either summarized or translated into English from the French, German, Italian, Latin, and Russian in facing columns. Walker’s essay (pp. 1–28), which carries the volume’s title, tells the amazing tale of an attempted annulment approved both by the Holy Congregation of Cardinals and the pope himself—twice!—then, in effect, “overturned” by the Hohenlohes, who “stood to lose millions of roubles if the ceremony went ahead” (p. 15). Includes a timetable of relevant events (pp. xi–xvi) and fourteen black-and-white illustrations, among them portraits of Liszt, the princess, and Pius IX, and documentary facsimiles; concludes with an essay on Pius IX’s Rome (pp. 233–39), an “index to the annulment documents” (pp. 241–49), a brief list of sources and sigla, and a general index. A preliminary study appeared as Walker, “Liszt, Carolyne, and the Vatican: The Story of a Thwarted Marriage,” Journal of the American Liszt Society 24 (1988): 33–44. See, too, item 1, vol. 2, pp. 566–80. Regarding the princess’s writings, see item 1, vol. 3, pp. 553–54. Three other, now somewhat outdated studies of the same relationship also exist: 644. Grazia, Donna M. di. “Liszt and Carolyne Sayn-Wittgenstein: New Documents on the Wedding That Wasn’t.” 19th Century Music 12 (1988–1989): 148–62. ISSN 0148-2076. ML1.N27. Describes Liszt’s thwarted attempt to marry Princess Carolyne as revealed in Vatican documents previously discovered by Walker (item 643). Concludes with an appendix of “Principal Characters” in the Liszt-Wittgenstein affair as well as a second appendix devoted to identifying and summarizing the contents of forty-five archival sources. Illustrated with facsimile reproductions of two documents, the second a letter in Liszt’s hand dated 16 October 1860 and addressed to Cardinal De Luca.

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645. Merrick, Paul. “Liszt’s Transfer from Weimar to Rome: A Thwarted Marriage.” Studia Musicologica 21 (1979): 219–38. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. Casts doubts on the “fortuitousness” of Liszt’s last-minute failure to marry Princess Carolyne on 22 October 1861. Merrick bases his conclusion on evidence derived from a variety of documents, including Liszt’s correspondence with the princess and then-Monseigneur Hohenlohe, later Liszt’s close friend. As much a study of Liszt’s relationship with the princess as with Italian authorities. Like item 644, superseded by items 1, vol. 2, and 643. * Wallace. Liszt, Wagner and the Princess. Described as item 653. Devoted as much to Liszt’s relationship with Wagner, and Wagner’s relationship with the princess. Liszt and Robert Schumann Liszt’s real friendship with Schumann (and, of course, with Clara Wieck Schumann, Robert’s wife) was short-lived, but the two musicians met on several occasions and corresponded fairly frequently. Unfortunately, the most comprehensive account of the Liszt-Schumann(s) relationship is difficult to obtain: 646. Franz Liszt/Robert e Clara Schumann, ed. Luciano Chiappari. Florence: Passigli, 1994. 156 pp. ISBN 36802427 [sic]. Both a survey of Liszt and the Schumanns, complete with handsome illustrations, and an Italian translation of Liszt’s writings about them. Includes “Liszt e il suo specchio” by Piero Rattolino (pp. 7–26); “Liszt, Robert e Clara Schumann” by Chiappari himself (pp. 27–52); and the texts of Liszt’s articles about both artists, translated in Italian by Chiappari and Livia Brunelli (pp. 53–154). Lacks bibliography and index(es), but includes notes at the ends of several sections as well as good-quality reproductions of portraits, photographs, engravings, and other images—among them a cover illustration taken from a watercolor or pastel of Schumann in his study by L. Balastriero. NB: The texts of Liszt’s essays in their original French or German may be found in item 252; that of “Compositions pour piano, de M. Robert Schumann” (1837) in both French and German in item 253, vol. 1, pp. 374 ff. Four other shorter and somewhat more specialized Liszt-Robert Schumann studies are described below: 647. Claudon, Francis. “Le ‘grand classique’ des Romantiques flamboyants: Chopin vu par Liszt et par Schumann,” In: Deutsche Musik im Wegekreuz zwischen Polen und Frankreich. Zum Problem musikalischer Wechselbeziehungen im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, ed. Christoph-Hellmut Mahling and Kristina Pfarr. Mainzer Studien zur Musikwissenschaft, 34. Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1996; pp. 68–75. ISBN 3795208637. ML297.D48 1996.

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Less biographical than critical; Claudon concentrates on Schumann’s early opinions of Liszt and Chopin as seen in the German composer’s Neue Zeitschrift critiques. Still, something of the relationship between Schumann and Liszt seeps through; certainly Liszt was “moved”—perhaps not altogether favorably—by Schumann’s assessment of his work. Again, no musical examples. 648. Kapp, Julius. “Franz Liszt und Robert Schumann.” Die Musik 13 (1913–1914): 67–85. ML5.M9. A useful synopsis; Kapp mentions such topics as Liszt’s 1840 Leipzig concerts—presented, as it were, under Schumann’s “protection”—as well as the Leipzig premiere of Schumann’s Genoveva, and Liszt’s remarks about that work. Illustrated with numerous quotations from the composers’ substantial correspondence. 649. Mahling, Christoph-Hellmut. “Nähe und Distanz. Bemerkungen zum Verhältnis von Robert Schumann zu Frédéric Chopin und Franz Liszt.” In: Das musikalische Kunstwerk: Geschichte—Ästhetik—Theorie. Festschrift Carl Dahlhaus zum 60. Geburtstag, ed. Hermann Danuser et al. Laaber: Laaber Verlag, 1988; pp. 517–25. ISBN 3890071449. ML55.D185 1988. Deals especially with Schumann’s observations about Chopin and Liszt. Includes familiar quotations from newspaper and magazine reviews, letters, diary entries, and other Schumann sources, many of which pit the “virtuoso” Liszt against the “composer”—the last an issue musicologists have had trouble moving beyond. 650. Walker, Alan. “Schumann, Liszt, and the C Major Fantasie, Op. 17: A Declining Relationship.” Music & Letters 60 (1979): 156–66. ISSN 0027-4224. ML5.M64. A study more of the composer’s unsteady relationship with Schumann than of the Fantasie itself. Inspired by the sale in 1977 of the original Fantasie manuscript, which Schumann dedicated to Liszt. Illustrated with facsimile reproductions of three Schumann manuscript pages owned by the National Széchényi Library, Budapest. Liszt and Richard Wagner None of Liszt’s relationships has inspired more attention—or misunderstanding— than his admiration for, enmity toward, and familial ties with Richard Wagner. Among studies of Liszt’s and Wagner’s interactions with and thoughts concerning each other are three largely biographical studies: 651. Gleaves, Ian Beresford. “Liszt and Wagner.” Wagner 6/3 (July 1985): 77–99. ML410.W1A585.

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An intelligent if prejudiced account not only of a relationship that flourished throughout most of both composers’ lives, but of mutual musical influences. Like most Wagnerians, Gleaves cannot resist putting Liszt down; in his concluding remarks, he observes that it may have been the Hungarian composer’s “very versatility, both in his own artistic activity and in its influence…that is ultimately responsible for restricting and limiting” his own achievements (p. 98). Which achievements those may be Gleaves does not say. Includes a variety of musical examples. 652. Kapp, Julius. Richard Wagner und Franz Liszt. Eine Freundschaft. Berlin: Schuster & Loeffler, 1908. 204 pp. ML410.W19K27. Describes Liszt’s friendship and quarrels with Wagner from the early 1840s, when they first met, through Wagner’s death in 1883. Kapp devotes whole sections of his book to Liszt’s support of Wagner’s creative efforts; to the quarrel that separated the composers for more than a decade when Cosima, Liszt’s daughter, left her first husband Hans von Bülow for Wagner; and to the last, more or less reconciled years of Liszt-Wagner friendship. Concludes with dozens of quotations from Liszt’s and Wagner’s letters about each other’s characters and compositions, and with an index. 653. Wallace, William. Liszt, Wagner and the Princess. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1927. xiv, 196 pp. ML410.L7W3. An “anti-Liszt legend” study of the composer’s relationships with Princess Carolyne and his son-in-law, Richard Wagner, although portions of this volume also touch on Liszt’s earlier love affairs, Béatrix as a novel (the latter, pp. 44–47), and so on. Wallace is especially harsh on the princess, claiming that she was a “bigoted and opinionated woman who kill[ed] the soul in Liszt, day by day, inch by inch” (p. 187). Illustrated with four portraits as well as a two-page facsimile of a poster advertising the 100th Bayreuth performance of Parsifal on 19 August 1897 (bound between pp. 178 and 179); concludes with a bibliography. Also published the same year in London by Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. Among other, less important studies of the princess as an individual is “The Princess Wittgenstein: Some Contemporary Impressions,” Liszt Society Journal 7 (1982): 32–38, which includes a photograph taken in 1876. See, too, Vernon Harrison, “The Princess Wittgenstein: A Character Study,” Liszt Society Journal 7 (1982): 26–31; Harrison’s article, however, is astrological rather than psychological. Four shorter or more specialized studies of the Liszt-Wagner relationship also deserve attention:

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654. Abert, Amalie, and Léon Guichard. “Liszt und Wagner.” In: Report of the Eighth Congress of the International Musicological Society, New York (1961), ed. Jan LaRue. 2 vols. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1962. Abert’s paper, which appears in vol. 1, pp. 314–32, summarizes the LisztWagner relationship and musicologists’ attitudes in Germany and France toward both composers. “Liszt, Wagner, and the Relationship between Music and Literature in the 19th Century,” published in vol. 2, pp. 140–45, constitutes a transcript of a roundtable discussion of the same topics. 655. Haraszti, Emile, and Bertita Paillard. “Franz Liszt and Richard Wagner in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870,” trans. Willis Wager. The Musical Quarterly 35 (1949): 386–411. ISSN 0027-4631. ML1.M725. Contends that during the 1850s and 1860s Liszt “was a source of information to the French government”—although, according to Haraszti, none of the composer’s diplomatic reports appears to have survived (see esp. pp. 386–98). Haraszti argues from such evidence as Liszt’s friendship with French ministers at the Weimar court, and his attitudes toward French and Prussian royalty and political leaders. The rest of the article deals with Wagner’s diplomatic activities. See also Haraszti, “Deux agents secrets de deux causes enemies: Wagner et Liszt,” Revue d’histoire diplomatique 66 (1952): 223–44. Finally—and, perhaps, most important—see item 317. 656. Suttoni, Charles. “Liszt and Wagner’s ‘Tannhäuser.’” In item 56, pp. 17–51. Describes “Liszt’s involvement, or lack thereof” in three performances of Wagner’s early masterpiece—those of 1849 Weimar, 1856 Berlin, and 1861 Paris—as paradigmatic not only of the two composers’ relationship, but what happened during “Liszt’s residence in Weimar as well as Wagner’s years as a political fugitive from Germany” (p. 17). Suttoni draws upon, and sometimes criticizes, such secondary sources Huschke’s Musik im klassischen und nachklassischen Weimar (see item 562), Ernest Newman’s classic four-volume Wagner biography (London and New York, 1933–1947), and items 289 and 313. Also reproduces a caricature of Wagner riding into the Wartburg on Liszt’s back (p. 46). See, too, Peter Ackermann’s much more cursory “Oper und musikalisches Drama: Franz Liszts Tannhäuser-Abhandlung,” Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 145/11 (1984): 4–7, which deals with the same general subject. Finally, see Mark Alexander’s D.M.A. document, An Historical Exploration of Franz Liszt’s Role Preparing, Performing, and Promoting Richard Wagner’s “Lohengrin” (Austin: University of Texas, 2001); summarized in DAI 62 no. 03A (2001), p. 826.

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657. Wults, Philip. “Franz Liszt: Wagner’s Unwilling Muse.” In item 40, pp. 239–54. Essentially a diatribe against Wagner as anti-Semite; Wults invokes Liszt largely to denigrate Wagner and describes their “symbiosis” as “Liszt giving and Wagner taking” (p. 243). He asserts that, in such private writings as his Braunes Buch (or “Brown Book”; one of Wagner’s diaries), Wagner “was obviously lashing out at Liszt, the Abbé’s fellow Catholics and compatriot Hungarians” (p. 245) when he inveighs against Rome and Hungary. Liszt and Other Contemporaries Dozens of studies have been devoted to Liszt’s relationships with other individuals, including Beethoven, Longfellow, and Pope Pius IX. Forty-five of those studies are described or cross-listed below in alphabetical order—first, by name of contemporary/contemporaries, whether individuals or families [in square brackets]; then in alphabetical order by author and/or title: ˆ

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658. [Albach, Stanislaus.] Gájdos, Vsevlad [Jozef]. “Franz Liszt und Stanislaus Albach.” Burgenländische Heimatblätter 33 (1971): 156–68. OCLC 15115985. (ISSN and LC numbers unavailable.) Discusses Liszt’s visits to Eisenstadt in 1840, 1846, and 1848, with special reference to Albach’s diary descriptions of these visits. Also includes two Liszt letters and the dedication inscription of the composer’s Missa quattour vocum. 659. [Balzac, Honoré (de).] Marix (or Marix-Spire), Thérèse. “Histoire d’une amitié: Fr. Liszt et H. de Balzac.” Revue des études hongroises 12 (1934): 36–68 and “Appendice,” pp. 323–29. Examines the comparatively brief but complicated history of Liszt’s relationships not only with Balzac, but with the notorious Madame de Hanska, especially during the early 1840s. NB: Corrections to the first part of the article appear on pp. 328–29 of the “Appendice.” Also item 76, entry 231. 660. [Belgiojoso, Princess Christina.] Brombert, Beth Archer. “The Wanderer’s Fantasy.” Liszt Society Journal 6 (1981): 24–28 and 8 (1983): 7–15. ML410.L7L6. A synopsis of Liszt’s extended relationship with another “princess,” this one a woman with whom he corresponded and to whom he dedicated his fantasy on themes from Bellini’s I Puritani. The second installment of this article is illustrated with a reproduction of a pastel portrait of the princess, c. 1836. Derived from Brombert’s book Christina: Portraits of a Princess (London, 1978).

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661. [Brendel, Franz.] Deaville, James [A.]. “Franz Brendel—ein Neudeutscher aus der Sicht von Wagner und Liszt.” In item 874, pp. 36–47. Evaluates Brendel’s relationships with Liszt and Wagner as well as the roles he played during the 1850s as editor of the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik and an influential champion of the “New German School.” Deaville cites a variety of source materials, including Wagner’s prose works and a number of Liszt letters. Regarding “Neudeutsche” issues, see also Friedrich Riedel’s brief article “Die Neudeutsche Schule—ein Phänomen der deutschen Kulturgeschichte des 19. Jahrhunderts” (item 874, pp. 13–18). 662. [Caetani family.] Pocknell, Pauline. “Franz Liszt and the Caetanis.” Liszt Saeculum no. 46 (1991): 25–32. ISSN 0263-0249. ML410.L7I6. Traces Liszt’s relationship with Onoratio Caetani, himself the son of Don Michelangelo Caetani, Duke of Sermoneta, between the early 1860s and the early 1880s. Unillustrated, although Pocknell does provide a table of known letters linking Liszt with the Caetanis. Closely linked in subject matter with item 663. 663. [Carl-Alexander, Grand Duke of Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach.] Hamburger, Klára. “Franz Liszt, Carl Alexander grand-duc de Weimar et Michelangelo Caetani duc de Sermoneta.” Studia Musicologica 25 (1983): 145–58. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. Deals primarily with letters exchanged during the 1860s by Weimar’s grandduke and Michelangelo Caetani, especially in light of Liszt’s activities in Rome during that time. Illustrated with four pages of facsimiles. What might be called “early installments” of this article appeared under the titles “Franz Liszt et Michelangelo Caetani, duc de Sermoneta” in Studia Musicologica 21 (1979): 239–65; “Liszt Ferenc, Carl Alexander weimari nagyherceg és Michelangelo Caetani, Sermoneta hercege” in Magyar zene 24 (1983): 291–304; and “Liszt Ferenc ès Michelangelo Caetani, Sermoneta hercege” in Magyar zene 20 (1979): 173–97. The Studia Musicologica article contains documentary facsimiles as well as the complete texts of two Liszt letters dating from 1872 and 1878. 664. [Carl-Alexander, Grand-Duke of Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach.] Raabe, Peter. Grossherzog Carl Alexander und Liszt. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1918. v, 113 pp. ML410.L7R131. A groundbreaking account of Liszt’s long, important, but difficult relationship with his principal German patron. Covers events between the early 1840s and Liszt’s death in 1886. Includes portraits, pictures of Weimar “Liszt places,” and fold-out facsimiles on blue paper of two letters. Additional

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information about Liszt and the Grand Duke appears throughout item 1, vol. 2. For more on Liszt and his principal Weimar patron—as well as Hans Christian Andersen’s Liszt reminiscences and hopes for Weimar preferment—see Anna Harwell Celenza, “The Poet, the Pianist, and the Patron: Hans Christian Andersen and Franz Liszt in Carl Alexander’s Weimar,” 19th Century Music 26 (2002–2003): 130–54. Celenza’s article appeared too late to be numbered and evaluated separately in the present research guide. 665. [Cohen, Hermann.] Cross, Richard. “‘Puzzi’ Revisited: A New Look at Hermann Cohen.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 36 (1994): 19–41. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Describes the life and career of an unusual student and friend of Liszt, a pianist turned composer and German Jew turned Carmelite monk. Citing otherwise obscure sources, Cross traces Cohen’s career, mentions his encounters with his mentor, and reproduces in its entirety Cohen’s 1869 duet for two voices and piano entitled L’àme et l’ange; Cross also illustrates his observations with two portraits of Cohen and lists his various compositions (the last, p. 31). Regarding Cohen especially as Liszt’s pupil, see item 1456. See, too, JeanBernard Desagulier, Hermann Cohen, élève de Franz Liszt: Thèse de nouveau doctoral, Université Paris IV (Sorbonne)…année 1996–1997 (Villeneuved’Ascq, 2002; ISBN 2284026278). Not seen; cited in WorldCat on-line and other sources. * [Cornelius, Peter.] Walter. Der beschwerliche Weg des Peter Cornelius zu Liszt…See item 891. Contains a chapter (pp. 30–52) devoted to Cornelius’s personal and professional relationship with Liszt. 666. [Didier, Euphémie.] Bellas, Jacqueline. “Liszt et la fille de Madame D.… [sic] Documents inédits.” Littératures [Annales de la Faculté des Lettres, Université de Toulouse-Le Mirail] 2 (1980): 133–40. PN695.L58. Deals with Liszt’s short–lived relationship with Euphémie Didier, a pupil of his during the early 1830s. Includes the complete text of a letter addressed to Liszt by Mlle Didier on 12 February 1831, as well as letters or quotations from them addressed by Mlle Didier to Liszt at about the same time. 667. [Draeseke, Felix.] Guitierrez-Denhoff, Martella. “Felix Draeseke und Franz Liszt. Biographie einer Beziehung.” In item 895, pp. 3–21.

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A study of the Liszt-Draeseke relationship between 1853 and 1884, published as an “introduction” to a volume otherwise composed of musical studies. Contains a single musical example, embedded in a footnote and incorporating the so-called “Tristan chord.” 668. [Erkel, Ferenc.] Legány, Dezso# . “Liszt’s and Erkel’s Relations and Students.” Studia Musicologica 18 (1976): 19–50. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. Describes Liszt’s students and musical activities during his years with the Academy of Music, Budapest. Legány includes a catalog of pieces performed by Liszt’s pupils at orchestral academic-year closing concerts between 1878–1885 (pp. 44–46) and a list of the composer’s Budapest pupils during 1876–1886 (pp. 46–50). According to Legány, the school might have achieved “greater things” had Liszt’s plans been realized (p. 24); unfortunately, they were not. A similar article by Legány—complete with summaries in English and German—appeared as “Erkel és Liszt Zeneakadémiája (1876–1877)” in Magyar zenetörténeti tanulmányok 3 (1973): 103–13; summarized in RILM 10 (1976), entry 2932. Two other articles—the first accompanied by summaries in English, German, and Russian—appeared as “Erkel és Liszt Zeneakadémiája (1875–1876)” in Magyar zenetörténeti tanulmányok 2 (1969): 247–66, and as “Erkel és Liszt Zeneakadémiája (1876–1877)” in Mosonyi Mihály és Bartók Béla emlékére, ed. Ferenc Bónis = Magyar zenetörténeti tanulmányok (1973;. ML55.M58), pp. 103–14. Much of Legány’s material also appears in items 573, 577, and especially 571. 669. [Fay, Amy.] McCarthy, Margaret W[illiam]. “Amy Fay’s Reunions with Franz Liszt: 1875, 1876, 1885.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 24 (1988): 23–32. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Describes trips Fay made to visit Liszt in Weimar after those described in her musical reminiscences (item 354). Illustrated with passages from littleknown Fay letters and portraits of Fay and her sister. 670. [Goldschmidt, Adalbert von.] Saffle, Michael. “Adalbert von Goldschmidt: A Forgotten Lisztophile.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 21 (1987): 31–41. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Summarizes Liszt’s relationship with this little-known Viennese composer and discusses Liszt’s piano transcription of passages from Goldschmidt’s oratorio Die sieben Todsünden. Includes several musical examples and an inserted facsimile reproduction of the original sheet-music cover for Liszt’s arrangement.

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671. [Gottschalg, August Wilhelm.] Hintzenstern, Michael von. “Franz Liszt und sein ‘legendarischer Kantor.’ Zur Zusammenarbeit mit A. W. Gottschalg.” Musik und Kirche 56 (1986): 115–20. ISSN 0027-4771. ML5.M9043. A useful sketch of Liszt’s friendship with the organist-editor-friend to whom were dedicated such works as the Evocation à la Chapelle Sixtine and the “Weinen, Klagen” variations. Supplemented with quotations from contemporary periodicals and the published Liszt correspondence. 672. [Gounod, Charles.] Sobe, Gotthold. “Liszt und Gounod.” In item 58, pp. 24–28. Describes Liszt’s relationship with Gounod during the middle years of the nineteenth century; Sobe also reproduces the text of a letter Liszt addressed to Gounod on 24 January 1861. 673. [Grieg, Edvard.] Rabes, Lennart. “Franz Liszt and Edvard Grieg, with Notes on the Holberg Suite, Op. 40.” Liszt Saeculum no. 52 (1994): 30–40. ISSN 0263-0249. ML410.L7I6. More Grieg than Liszt, although Rabes provides extensive and useful translations from Grieg letters that mention Liszt—in some cases, together with the original Norwegian in facing columns—and a facsimile of Liszt’s 29 December 1868 letter to his Scandinavian contemporary. Illustrated with a photograph of the Holberg statue in Bergen and two Grieg caricatures. No musical examples. See also item 895. 674. [Heine, Heinrich.] Chantavoine, Jean. “Franz Liszt et Heinrich Heine.” Le Courrier musical [Paris] 14 (1911): 386–93. ML5.C708. A useful introduction to Liszt’s relationship with Heine as well as the Heine texts Liszt chose to set as songs. Illustrated with several quotations from the poet’s verse, part of Kriehuber’s famous painting Une matinée chez Liszt, and a facsimile of a letter Liszt wrote in Rome on 27 July 1869. 675. [Hohenlohe, Gustav (Cardinal and Papal Almoner).] Merrick, Paul. “Liszt and Cardinal Hohenlohe.” Liszt Society Journal 6 (1981): 31–32. ML410.L7L6. Briefly describes the career and musical sympathies of the Catholic prince who seems to have “encouraged” Liszt to abandon plans to marry Princess Carolyne. On this topic, see especially item 643. 676. [Janin, Jules.] Bellas, Jacqueline. “Janin et Liszt, ou le critique et l’amitié.” In: Jules Janin et son temps: Un moment du Romantisme, pref. PierreGeorges Castex. Paris: PUF [Publications de l’Université de Rouen], 1974; pp. 61–84. PQ2311.J2Z83 1974.

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Discusses Liszt’s rather amiable relationship with Jules Janin, an important nineteenth-century French drama critic. Bellas quotes extensively from Janin’s articles in the Journal des débats as well as published Liszt letters. 677. [Kemble, Adelaide.] Pocknell, Pauline. “A Temporary Fellowship: Franz Liszt’s and Adelaide Kemble’s Symbiotic Relations. Socio-Critical Aspects and Aftermath of Their Concerts in London, Liège and the Rhineland in 1841.” Liszt Society Journal 25 (2000): 61–90. ML410.L7L6. Explores the composer’s little-known and short-lived professional relationship with a celebrated English singer who appeared on stage with him twice in London and with whom he corresponded during his German tours. Among the variegated contents of this outstanding article are passages from Henry James’s notebooks; evidently James took the plot of Washington Square from his knowledge of Kemble’s family! Also includes nine illustrations, among them a drawing of Kemble in profile, a reproduction of a playbill for Liszt’s May 1841 “Grand Morning Concert” in Glasgow, and facsimiles of letters by both Kemble and Liszt. Concludes with a timeline of Liszt-Kemble performances between May–October 1841 (pp. 82–85) as well as detailed notes. Regarding Liszt and Liège, see items 508 and 509; regarding Liszt in the Rhineland, see item 559. * [Klindworth, Agnes (Street-) and George.] See items 317, 693, 708, and so on. 678. [Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth.] Waters, Edward N. “Liszt and Longfellow.” The Musical Quarterly 41 (1955): 1–25. ISSN 0027-4631. ML1.M725. Describes Longfellow’s admiration for Liszt’s music and his visits to Liszt during the winter of 1868–1869. Waters reprints complete a number of Liszt letters from 1868 to 1874, and he quotes from a variety of other primary sources—some of which touch on Die Glocken des Strassburger Münsters, Liszt’s only composition on a Longfellow text. Illustrated with a single musical example, two portraits of Liszt, and two facsimiles of Liszt letters (the portraits and facsimiles bound between pp. 4 and 5). Much of the same material is also discussed in Richard Silverman’s article “Longfellow, Liszt, and Sullivan,” published in The Music Review 36 (1975): 253–60. * [Mendelssohn, Felix.] Little. “Mendelssohn and Liszt.” Described as item 865. As much a biographical as a musical study. 679. [Mercy-Argenteau, Louise de.] Suttoni, Charles. “Liszt and Louise de Mercy-Argenteau.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 34 (1993): 1–10. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68.

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Outlines Liszt’s friendship with the music-loving Countess de Caraman [a.k.a. Countess de Mercy-Argenteau] (1837–1890), whom he probably met in May or June 1861 and knew until his death in 1886. Includes quotations from the Countess’s Reminiscences (London, 1916) and other documents; no illustrations, however. See, too, Carlo Bronne, La Comtesse de Mercy-Argenteau et la musique russe (Paris, 1935), which includes large sections on Liszt. 680. [Meyendorff family.] Jung, Hans Rudolf. “Liszt and the Meyendorff Family.” In item 56, pp. 53–74. Deals not only with Liszt and the baroness (item 319) but also draws upon her son Alexander’s collection of Lisztiana to describe the composer’s relationships with Olga’s husband Felix and her sons Alexander, Michael, Peter, and especially Clemens—the last of whom was encouraged by Liszt in his brief artistic career. Illustrated, among other items, with several of Clemens’s Liszt sketches as well as a photograph of the baroness with her youngest son, Alexander (the last p. 57). 681. [Montgolfier, Jenny.] Suttoni, Charles. “Young Liszt, Beethoven and Madame Montgolfier.” In item 49, pp. 21–34. Deals with little-known incidents in Liszt’s early life, including his relationship with Jenny Montgolfier. Suttoni reproduces whole and in facsimile a letter Liszt wrote to Madame Montgolfier in 1826 which, in part, bears witness to the young artist’s admiration for Beethoven. 682. [Ollivier, Emile.] Hamburger, Klára. “Liszt and Emile Ollivier.” In item 49, pp. 65–77. Describes Liszt’s relationship with his son-in-law Emile Ollivier, husband to his daughter Blandine and a important figure in nineteenth-century French culture. Hamburger provides the texts of six previously unpublished letters addressed by Liszt to Démosthène and Ollivier between 1858–1866. See also item 307. Published under the title “Liszt és Emile Ollivier” in Magyar zene 28 (1987): 75–87; illustrated in this version with eight pages of letter texts and Hungarian-language translations. Finally, see Hamburger, “Liszt and Emile Ollivier,” Liszt Society Journal 21 (1996): 23–31. 683. [Pius IX (born Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti).] Pocknell, Pauline. “Liszt and Pius IX: The Politico-Religious Connection.” In item 39, pp. 61–93. Examines Liszt’s relationship with “Pio Nono” and the political intrigues he carried on together with Agnes Street-Klindworth and her father as well as the composer’s strongly expressed interest and circumstantial evidence of his direct involvement on behalf of the Vatican Bank and Belgian financier André

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Langrand-Dumonceau, “the promoter of an immense Catholic financial empire…in Austria, Belgium, England, Holland, and Hungary” (p. 80)—the last, subjects altogether ignored by Liszt’s other biographers, even Walker, although G. Jacquemyns linked Landgrand-Dumonceau with the Klindworths in his Langrand-Dumonceau promoteur d’une puissance financière catholique (5 vols.; Brussels, 1960). Pocknell’s groundbreaking study concludes with three pages of sources and sigla, many of them cited nowhere else. Overshadows both Paul Merrick’s “Liszt and Pope Pius IX, 1846–1878,” Liszt Society Journal 7 (1982): 39–41; and Willi Reich’s “Papst Pius IX. bei Franz Liszt,” Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 119 (March 1958): 145–46. * [Raff, Joachim.] See items 308 and 309. * [Reicha, Antoine.] See items 642, 965, and 1440 (pp. 9–24). 684. [Reményi, Ede.] Legány, Dezso# . “Reményi and Liszt.” Liszt Society Journal 22 (1997): 21–24. ML410.L7L6. Describes Liszt’s professional encounters with Hungarian violinist Ede Reményi, for whom the composer wrote Epithalam and with whom he performed and visited in Karlsruhe, Liebenstein, Pest, and other places. See, too, Otto Goldhammer’s article, “Liszt, Brahms und Reményi,” in item 50, pp. 89–100, which deals—insofar as it concerns Liszt—with a manuscript of the “Ungarischer Romanzero”: a collection of musical fragments by Janós Bihari, Antal Csermák, and other early nineteenth-century figures. 685. [Rubinstein, Anton.] Moskva, Julia Victorovna. “Liszt and Anton Rubinstein.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 26 (1989): 29–32. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. A brief synopsis of the Liszt-Rubinstein relationship. Includes quotations from Liszt’s 1850s letters to the Russian pianist as well as from Josef Hofmann’s Liszt reminiscences—the last, but one of several sets of memoirs otherwise ignored in the present research guide. 686. [Saint-Circq, Caroline de.] Fabre, Michel. “Liszt et Plante: Le premier amour et le dernier concert.” La Revue internationale de musique française 16 (1985): 107–14. ML270.R48. Deals with Liszt’s 1844 visit to Pau where, between engagements as a concert artist, he visited his childhood sweetheart Caroline Saint-Circq. No illustrations. 687. [“Sand, George” (pseud. for Aurore Dupin, Baroness Dudevant).] DelaigueMoins, Sylvie. Franz Liszt et George Sand “entre amour et amitié.” Vendoeuvres [France]: Lancosme, 2000. 373 pp. ISBN 2912184118. ML410.L7D45 2000.

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Far and away the best study of the Liszt-Sand relationship, covering both individuals’ lifetimes but concentrating on the 1830s. Illustrated with about two dozen black-and-white portraits and other illustrations, including the familiar Kriehuber Liszt “image.” Delaigue-Moins also provides an appendix (pp. 335–44) containing the complete or partial contents of five important documents as well as a map—unfortunately spotty—of Liszt’s European concert tours. Concludes with extensive endnotes (pp. 345–70), a brief bibliography (pp. 371–72), and a table of contents. Also item 730. In this study, Powell touches on Sand’s novels, Liszt’s influence on his contemporaries, certain compositions (including the “Contrabandista” fantasy), and the Liszt-Sand “affair.” 688. [Schlesinger, Maurice.] Bellas, Jacqueline. “La tumultueuse amitié de Franz Liszt et de Maurice Schlesinger. Autour d’une correspondance inédite.” Littératures [“Annales de la Faculté des Lettres et Sciences humaines de Toulouse, Nouv. sér. t. 1.”] 12 (1965): 7–20. PN695.L58. Discusses Liszt’s relationship during the 1830s and early 1840s with Maurice Schlesinger, editor and publisher of the Revue et gazette musicale de Paris. Includes the complete texts of nine letters addressed by Liszt to Schlesinger between 1827–1841 as well as quotations from the “Bachelor” essays (item 260) originally published in the Revue and attributed by many scholars to the Comtesse d’Agoult. For more information about Schlesinger and his music magazine, see Anne Randier-Glenisson, “Maurice Schlesinger, editeur de musique et fondateur de la Gazette musicale de Paris, 1834–1846,” Fontis artes musicae 38 (1991): 37–48. 689. [Schmalhausen, Lina.] Keeling, Geraldine [Field]. “Liszt and Lina Schmalhausen.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 5 (1979): 47–53. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Describes the warm friendship Liszt enjoyed with Schmalhausen between 1879 and 1886. Keeling also discusses a photograph of Liszt and Schmalhausen taken at Weimar in 1884, and she quotes extensively from published Liszt reminiscences as well as Kinsky’s catalog of the long-defunct Wilhelm Heyer collection. With regard to Schmalhausen’s diary of Liszt’s last days, see item 480. * [Schober, Franz von.] Eckhardt. “Schubert’s and Liszt’s Friend and Poet….” See item 575. 690. [Serov, Alexander Nikolayevich.] Serov, A. [?] “Pis’ma Serova k Listu,” Sovetskaya Muzyka 1 (January 1984): 77–86. Not seen.

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691. [Servais, Franz.] Haine, Malou. Franz Servais et Franz Liszt: une amitié filiale. Mardaga: Conseil de la Musique de la Communaute Française de Belgique, 1996. 208 pp. ISBN 2870096259. ML410.L7H23 1996. The biography of a relationship—warm, but almost certainly not literally “familial”—largely documented with extracts from both men’s correspondence, and richly illustrated with portraits, photographs, and reproductions of medallions, documents of various kinds, and other images. Concludes with a bibliography (pp. 196–99), an index (pp. 200–6), and a two-page table of contents. Reviewed by Adrian Williams in Music & Letters 78 (1997): 444–46. See also Haine’s article “Franz Servais, Illegitimate Son of Franz Liszt?” in the Liszt Society Journal 22 (1997): 14–21, published in French as “Franz Servais, fils illegitime de Franz Liszt?” Liszt Saeculum no. 56 (1996): 3–12. Haine firmly denies the possibility that Servais could have been “either an adoptive or illegitimate son of Franz Liszt” [Liszt Society Journal 22 (1997): 21]. 692. [Stavenhagen, Bernhard.] Jung, Hans Rudolf. “Der Liszt-Schüler Bernhard Stavenhagen (1862 bis 1914) und seine Beziehungen zu Weimar.” In item 58, pp. 13–23. Touches on Liszt’s relationship with Stavenhagen, one of the most important virtuoso pianists of the early twentieth century. Additional information about Liszt pupils may be found in many of the items described in Chapter 12; Stavenhagen, for example, is discussed in item 1460. 693. [Street-Klindworth, Agnes.] Walker, Alan. “Liszt and Agnes Street-Klindworth: A Spy in the Court of Weimar?” Studia Musicologica 28 (1986): 47–63. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. Describes Liszt’s emotionally charged relationship with the “Freundin” to whom the letters in item 317 were addressed, and who functioned as a political agent in Weimar during the 1850s. Illustrated with quotations from Liszt’s correspondence and with a facsimile page from a letter Liszt addressed to his inamorata in 1856. Some of this material reappears in item 1, vol. 2, pp. 209–24. 694. [Viardot-Garcia, Pauline.] Hamburger, Klára. “Liszt et Pauline ViardotGarcia (dans l’optique de sept lettres inédits).” Studia Musicologica 34 (1996): 187–202. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. In addition to reprinting and annotating the letters in question, Hamburger summarizes Liszt’s relationship with Viardot-Garcia, herself an important performer, especially insofar as her visits to Budapest and Weimar in November 1859 are concerned.

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695. [Witt, Franz Xaver.] Scharnagl, August. “Franz Liszt—Franz Witt.” Musica Sacra 106 (1986): 444–47. ISSN 0179-356X. ML5.M74. The only published study of Liszt’s somewhat shaky relationship with nineteenth-century Germany’s most important Cecilianist and the founder of both Musica Sacra and the Fliegende Blätter für katholische KirchenMusik. Illustrated with quotations from the published Liszt-Witt correspondence and a fragmentary facsimile of a letter Liszt addressed to Witt on 15 July 1874 from the Villa d’Este outside Rome. NB: The complete text of this last letter appears in German and English translation in item 398, no. 5. 696. [Zarembski, Jules.] Haine, Malou. “Un élève particuliérement doué de Franz Liszt: Jules Zarembski.” Liszt Saeculum no. 58 (1997): 3–12. ISSN 0263-0249. ML410.L7I6. Presents Zarembski as a composer, chamber performer, and ardent defender of Liszt’s music [ardent défenseur de la musique de Liszt; p. 8]; Haine also describes occasions on which the two men met and made music. See also Haine’s “Dix-neuf Lettres de la correspondance entre Liszt et les époux Zarembski,” published in the same number of the Saeculum, pp. 13–26: a transcription of the texts of some twenty—not nineteen—documents exchanged by or related to the two composers. Liszt’s Relationships with Groups and Organizations A. “Liszt and Women” Whether Liszt was a womanizer is uncertain, as well as a matter of personal definition; that he had several important love affairs during his life cannot be denied. Biographers and scholars have devoted several books to the women in Liszt’s life; the most comprehensive include: 697. Horvath, Emmerich Karl. Frauen um Liszt. Die Sprache der Liebe. Eisenstadt: Ernst & Georg Horvath, 1971. 124 pp. ML410.L7H7. A privately printed, ill-organized survey of Liszt’s adventures with the Comtesse d’Agoult, Princess Carolyne, Agnès Street-Klindworth, and other ladies—among them, Charlotte van Hagen and the infamous Lola Montez. Outfitted with some two dozen illustrations, many of them having nothing directly to do with the topic in question; concludes with an index of names. 698. Kapp, Julius. Franz Liszt und die Frauen. Leipzig: Friedrich Rothbarth, 1911. 86 pp. ML410.L7K4. An outdated survey of this complex and fascinating topic. Kapp concentrates on Liszt’s relationships with Marie d’Agoult and Princess Carolyne, but he also mentions Lina Schmalhausen, George Sand, Charlotte von

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Hagen, and so on. Illustrated with portraits of Liszt’s most important female friends. 699. La Mara. Liszt und die Frauen. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1911. 321 pp. ML410.L7L69. Describes Liszt’s relationships with twenty-six women, including such little-known figures as Countess Louis Plater, Emilie Merian-Genast, Sofie Menter, and Nadine Helbig, as well as the obligatory Caroline de SaintCriq, Marie d’Agoult, and Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein. Includes twentythree portraits. A second edition appeared in 1919. B. Liszt and His Publishers 700. [Publishers] Rosenthal, Albi. “Franz Liszt and His Publishers.” Liszt Saeculum no. 38 (1986): 3–40. ISSN 0263-0249. ML410.L7I6. Evaluates Liszt’s relationships with the directors of more than a dozen firms, including Schlesinger, Kistner, Härtel, Senff, and Schuberth. Rosenthal’s conclusions are supported by the contents of letters, most of them previously unpublished, owned by Rosenthal. A valuable collection of documentary material, presented as a “survey” of this neglected topic. Supplemented with thirteen reproductions of letters and contracts; unfortunately, many of these images are so poor as to be unreadable. See, too, item 301, in which Michael Short presents transcriptions and translations of Liszt letters addressed to Breitkopf & Härtel, Kahnt, and Schuberth. Finally, see András Kürthy, “L’histoire du rapport de Liszt et de la Casa Ricordi,” Studia Musicologica 29 (1987): 325–42, which deals with Liszt and Italy’s most important music-publishing firm. C. Liszt and Piano Manufacturers The following article serves as an introduction to this intriguing subject: 701. Lelie, Christo. “Franz Liszt en de pianobouw.” “Liszt-festival 1988” = entire issue of the [Journal of the] Franz Liszt Kring (1988): 5–10. A summary of Liszt’s relationships with and opinions of a variety of pianos and their manufacturers; brief but nevertheless useful. Lelie mentions such firms as Boisselot, Broadwood, Chickering, Erard, Graf, Pleyel, and Wenen. Includes among its five illustrations several photographs of Liszt instruments. Apparently available only in Dutch. See, too, Geraldine Keeling’s survey of Liszt’s youthful relationship with German manufacturers, published as “Konzertklaviere in Deutschland” in item 786, pp. 68–75. Four other, more specialized studies of the composer’s relationships with various piano-makers are described below, in alphabetical order by manufacturer:

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702. [Bösendorfer.] Harrandt, Andrea. “Der Pianist und sein ‘Klaviermacher’: eine Liszt-Miscelle.” Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Musikwissenschaft no. 23 (July 1991): 55–58. Deals with Liszt’s relationship from 1846 to 1886 with Bösendorfer, Viennese premiere piano-manufacturing firm. Includes quotations from the Wiener allgemeine Musik-Zeitung, the Wiener Theaterzeitung, and other periodical sources of information. No illustrations. The Mitteilungen is rare in American archives. 703. [Mason & Risch.] Keeling, Geraldine. “Liszt and Mason & Risch.” In item 56, pp. 75–90. Summarizes the composer’s relationship with the Canadian firm that sent him pianos in 1881 and 1882, and to which he sent a portrait of himself (item 160). Most of Keeling’s article, however, deals with the history of Mason & Risch as well as its co-founder Michael Risch’s visits to Liszt in Weimar; reports of the firm’s pianos in the London Times, the Illustrated London News, and other papers; and, again, that portrait. Supplemented by several illustrations, including portraits of the manufacturers and a facsimile of an advertisement for their pianos; also contains a poem (!) describing the portrait. See also item 510. 704. [Steinway.] Keeling, Geraldine. “Liszt and Steinway.” In item 40, pp. 89–109. A rambling account both of the Steinway family and Steinway pianos in general, parts “of Liszt’s life from 1864 until his death in 1886” (p. 109), and of two particular instruments owned by Liszt and the many events and individuals associated with them, including Olga von Meyendorff (see items 319 and 680). 705. [Streicher.] Keeling, Geraldine. “Liszt and J. B. Streicher, a Viennese Piano Maker.” In item 49, pp. 35–46. Describes Liszt’s professional relationship with Streicher and his pianos, a relationship that lasted from the late 1830s to the early 1860s. Includes portraits of Streicher and his wife, as well as photographs of two Streicher pianos owned by Budapest’s Hungarian National Museum. Regarding the Budapest instruments and the “Liszt pianos” manufactured by Erard and other firms, see item 1500. D. Liszt and Other Groups and Organizations * [Allgemeine Deutsche Musik-Verein (or ADMV).] Seidl. “Franz Liszt….” Described as item 545.

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* [Students.] Legány. “Liszt’s and Erkel’s Relations and Students.” Described as item 668. See, too, other books and articles described in Chapter 12. 706. [Weimar church musicians.] Hintzenstern, Michael von. “Der Kreis evangelischer Kirchenmusiker um Franz Liszt.” Musik und Kirche 56 (1986): 120–25. ISSN 0027-4771. ML5.M9043. Treats of Liszt’s relationships with such figures as Johann Gottlob Töpfer, Alexander Wilhelm Gottschalg, Christoph Bernhard Sulze, and Karl Müller-Hartung. With regard to Gottschalg, see items 357 and 617. A similar article by Hintzenstern appeared under the title “Franz Liszt und der Weimarer Organistenkreis—die Geschichte einer langjährigen Zusammenarbeit” in Musik und Gottesdienst 20 (1986): 197–203. A second article appeared under the almost identical title “Franz Liszt und die Weimarer Organistenkreis” in item 789, pp. 140–52. Finally, see Milton Sutter, “Liszt and the Weimar Organist-Composers” (item 46, pp. 203–13). OTHER SPECIALIZED BIOGRAPHICAL STUDIES Liszt’s Involvement in Revolutions and Political Affairs * Haraszti. “Franz Liszt…Franco-Prussian War.” Described as item 665. 707. Merrick, Paul. “Liszt in 1848: A Revolutionary Change of Heart?” Liszt Society Journal 4 (1979): 6–8. ML410.L7L6. Describes Liszt’s brief involvement (at a distance) with the tragic Hungarian Revolution of 1848. See also item 972. 708. Pocknell, Pauline. “Liszt, the Klindworths, and Austro-Hungarian Affairs.” Liszt Society Journal 22 (1997): 24–34. ML410.L7L6. Begins by reexamining Haraszti’s claim (in item 272) that Liszt never wrote anything except personal letters, then challenges the claim that he even wrote all of his own letters, especially in terms of his receiving certain diplomatic missives, the “lovely Agnes” [i.e., Agnes Street-Klindworth] (item 317), Princess Carolyne, and possibly Cardinal Antonelli. Illustrated with nine facsimiles drawn from documents owned by Harvard’s Houghton Library; the Hof- Haus- und Staatsarchiv, Vienna; and the Goethe- und SchillerArchiv, Weimar. Reprinted from the Hungarian Quarterly no. 143 (1996): 132–49, where it appeared originally. Regarding Liszt, Agnes, the Vatican, and other closely related issues, see, too, Pocknell’s article “Liszt, les Klindworth et les ‘rapports belges’,” published in the Bulletin de la Société Liégeoise de musicologie [Liège] no. 87 (December 1994): 18–31.

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* Walker. “Liszt and Agnes Street-Klindworth….” Described as item 693. LISZT’S MEDICAL HISTORY The most fulsome discussion of this subject remains: 709. O’Shea, John. “Franz Liszt—A Medical History.” Liszt Saeculum nos. 36–37 (1985–1986): 60–62. ISSN 0263-0249. ML410.L7I6. Refers to Liszt’s youthful seizures as well as his dental problems, sebaceous cysts (not moles or warts), poor vision in old age, and final, fatal illness in Bayreuth. Cursory and not entirely reliable. See, too, O’Shea, “The Abbe and Alcohol: Did Liszt Have a Major Alcoholic Illness?” in Liszt Saeculum no. 40 (1987): 12–15. Finally, see O’Shea’s “Liszt’s Illnesses and Death” (item 480), and Jeffrey and Michael Saffle, “Medical Histories of Prominent Composers: Recent Research and Discoveries,” Acta Musicologica 65 (1993), esp. p. 95. Three more specialized studies, devoted to aspects of Liszt’s health and interest in medical (or quasi-medical) theories, are described or cross-referenced below: 710. Ewing, Cecil C. “Liszt’s Glass: Graefe and the Cataract Operation of 1886.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 40 (1996): 30–47. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. A detailed examination of the kind of treatment and specific experiences Liszt underwent at the hands of Alfred Graefe, together with observations about Liszt’s almost life-long eye problems. Includes twelve illustrations, several of them medical diagrams, as well as documentary facsimiles and photographs of Liszt (equipped with monocle) and Graefe. See, too, John O’Shea more cursory article, “Liszt’s Failing Eyesight,” Liszt Society Journal 21 (1996): 39–42. 711. Pocknell, Pauline. “Le Liszt des phrènologues: ou Liszt, Castle, la Comtesse et la Princesse.” In item 66, pp. 169–83. Concerns the almost forgotten but fascinating nineteenth-century belief linking cranial shape and individual character. Pocknell not only quotes from Liszt’s correspondence with Michael Castle of 1844–1846 and reproduces passages of his rare phrenological monographs, but refers to such early Liszt biographies as items 424 and 425 as well as the composer’s German concert tours. Unfortunately unillustrated with anatomical replicas or diagrams. * The Death of Franz Liszt…. Described as item 480.

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Liszt, “Nobility,” and Decorations Three studies have been devoted to rumors that Liszt was descended from Hungarian noblemen: 712. Kunnert, Heinrich. “Der Ritterstand Franz Liszts.” Burgenländische Heimatblätter 5/2 (1936): 50–5l. OCLC 15115985. (ISSN and LC numbers unavailable.) Describes the title and rank acquired by Liszt when he became a Knight of the Iron Crown, 3rd class, under the monarchy of Austria-Hungary in 1859. Includes quotations from the Wiener Zeitung, where the original announcement of Liszt’s award appeared, as well as Hungarian newspapers. 713. Mona, Ilona. “Über Franz Liszts Nobilität: Dichtung und Wahrheit.” Fontis artes musicae 29 (1982): 169–82. ISSN 0015-6191. Reviews published statements for and against claims made on Liszt’s behalf that their hero was descended directly from Hungarian nobility. Illustrated with facsimile reproductions of several documents, among them an advertisement placed in Viennese newspapers by Liszt’s “cousin” Eduard von Liszt to obtain information about the family’s ancestry. Includes abstracts in French and English (p. 182). Based on the author’s Liszt Ferenc és a reformkor, 1839–1840 (Budapest, 1980). Not seen; a reference to it appears in RILM 16 (1982), p. 321. A reproduction of the coat of arms belonging to the defunct “Liszti” family of Hungary—arms once reputed to be Liszt’s own—may be found in Karl Semmelweis, “Das Adalwappen Franz Liszts,” Burgenländische Heimatblätter 31/1 (1969): 43–45. 714. Walker, Alan. “‘Edelwerden ist viel mehr, denn edel sein von Eltern her,’” trans. Susanne Klement. In item 141, pp. 11–14. Deals with much of the material found in items 712 and 713. Revised and translated from item 1, vol. 1. Studies of individual decorations and awards received by Liszt include: 715. Keeling, Geraldine. “Liszt and the Legion of Honour.” Liszt Society Journal 10 (1985), p. 29. ML410.L7L6. Corrects Walker’s statement (item 1, vol. 1, p. 146) that Liszt was received into the French Legion of Honor only in 1860, instead of 1845. Keeling cites the Revue et gazette musicale 12/20 (18 May 1845): 159, to prove her point.

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716. Lakatos, István. “A Kolozsvári Dalkör tiszteletbeli tagjai: Mosonyi, Erkel, Ábrányi, Ruzitska és Liszt.” Magyar zenetörténeti tanulmányok 3. [See item 668] (1973): 79–84. ML55.M58. Explains that Liszt was offered an honorary membership in the Kolozsvár Singing Circle in 1872, but his reply to the circle’s letter has been lost. Includes summaries in German and English. 717. Lehrs, K. “Franz Liszt. Ehrendoctor der philosophischen Faculität der Universität zu Königsberg.” Wissenschaftliche Monats-Blätter [Königsberg] 4 (1876): 175–76. Describes how Liszt came to be awarded an honorary doctorate in music by Königsberg, instead of Berlin. Lehrs also describes the award ceremonies and other details of Liszt’s visit to East Prussia in 1842. Material from this essay reappears in item 543 and other, closely associated studies. Miscellaneous Studies Two studies devoted to other specialized biographical subjects are described below: 718. Riehn, Rainer. “Wider die Verunglimpfung des Andenkens Verstorbener. Liszt soll Antisemit gewesen sein….” In item 53, pp. 100–14. Evaluates and rejects charges that Liszt, like Wagner, was anti-Jewish. Among other sources, Riehn considers an article by Peter Gradenwitz published in the Allgemeine Jüdische Wochenzeitung (14 September 1979) that renewed charges made in the nineteenth century against Liszt’s “Gypsy”-music book (item 252, vol. 6). A shorter version of Riehn’s article appeared under the title “Tentation antisémite ou calomnie?” (item 67, pp. 230–41). With regard to Liszt, antisemitism, and the authorship of the “Gypsy” book, see item 1, vol. 2, pp. 388–90. 719. Valentin, Erich. “Eine Mozart-Initiative Franz Liszts.” Acta Mozartiana 33 (1986): 17–19. Deals with Liszt’s interest in Mozart’s music, his transcriptions from Mozart’s works, and especially a proposal to celebrate the centenary of Mozart’s birth by establishing a “Mozart Foundation” similar to those already established on behalf of Bach and Handel. Valentin also reproduces the complete text of Liszt’s letter to Eduard Liszt of 9 February 1856. Finally, any figure as important as Liszt is bound to be written about from what politely may be called eccentric points of view. One unusual biographical essay is described below:

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720. Harrison, Vernon. “Franz Liszt: An Astrological Study.” Liszt Society Journal 5 (1980): 2–14. ML410.L7L6. Uses astrological data and methods to describe Liszt’s character and to determine the precise time of his birth. Those skeptical of such investigations will not be slow to notice that Harrison’s argument is circular: he cites the composer’s personality traits in order to help fix his time of birth, then writes as if that time had something to do with character—a solid example of circular reasoning. Illustrated with arcane charts and diagrams.

VI Evaluating Liszt Studies in Cultural Products, History, Ideologies, and Reception

Although ill-educated by today’s school-going standards, Liszt was an avid reader and art lover; he knew many of the important painters, philosophers, and poets of his day, and he flirted with and even embraced several political and social movements—including Saint-Simonism, Freemasonry, and religious reform. He also experimented with musical programmism and developed the “symphonic poem” as one result of such experimentation. The studies described below deal with these interrelated subjects; they represent a “half-way point” in the present research guide insofar as they link studies more exclusively documentary and biographical (i.e., Chapters 2–5) with more exclusively musical studies (i.e., Chapters 7–12). LISZT AND EUROPEAN CULTURE SURVEY STUDIES Most studies of Liszt and broader cultural issues deal at most with one or two facets of this intriguing topic: Freemasonry, for example, or the Franciscan tradition, or Liszt’s personal relationships with certain literary figures. Exceptions include:

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721. Pestalozza, Luigi. “Il ruolo di Liszt nella formazione delle culture nazionali in Europa.” In item 49, pp. 201–12. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. A survey of Liszt’s lifelong, complex involvement with contemporary artistic and intellectual movements—among them, the Revue et gazette musicale; the publishing firm of Breitkopf & Härtel; composers such as Berlioz, Grieg, and Wagner; and literary issues. Broad in scope but almost entirely undocumented. 722. Saffle, Michael. “Liszt and the Birth of Modern Europe: Reflections on Modernity, Wagner, the Oratorio, and ‘Die Legende von der heiligen Elisabeth’.” In item 39, pp. 3–24. A series of short essays on what critics mean when they refer to Liszt as a “modern” figure and his music as “modernist”; Liszt and Wagner as manifestations of similar as well as quite different responses to the political, religious, and social attitudes of their day; and the evolution of the oratorio in Liszt’s hands and Wagner’s speculative literary works. Includes two fullpage examples drawn from Elisabeth as well as references to the Industrial Revolution, the “new MGG” Sachteil article on “Oratorio,” Stravinsky’s Sacre du printemps, and the Chanel suit. LISZT

AND

LITERATURE

Liszt’s knowledge of poetry, drama, fiction, and other literary genres was considerable. Introductions to the character and extent of that knowledge include: 723. Bauer, Marion. “The Literary Liszt.” The Musical Quarterly 22 (1936): 295–313. ISSN 0027-4631. ML1.M725. Summarizes the contents of Liszt’s principal literary works and identifies and discusses his interest in poems and plays by Dante, Goethe, Hugo, and other authors, as well as the contents of the Gesammelte Schriften (pp. 303–5; see item 252). NB: Bauer completed her essay before questions were raised about the authenticity of Liszt’s literary output; consequently, she broke ground when she proposed that a few of his books and articles— especially his biography of Chopin and his “Gypsy” book—reflect “the collaboration of Princess Carolyne von Sayn-Wittgenstein” (p. 304). 724. Hankiss, Jean. “Liszt écrivain et la littérature europénne.” Revue de littérature comparée 17 (1937): 299–329. ISSN 0035-7466. PN851.R4. Reviews relationships between Liszt’s own literary works and those of previous and contemporary European authors. Still of value to specialists; otherwise out-of-date. More detailed discussions of Liszt’s actual literary knowledge may be found in:

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725. Arnold, Ben. “Liszt as Reader, Intellectual, and Musician.” In item 42, pp. 37–60. A groundbreaking examination of Liszt’s reading habits, intended to illuminate the composer’s “remarkable knowledge of the literature and ideas of his time” (p. 38). In addition to quotations from Liszt’s letters, Arnold provides three valuable tables: the first of Liszt’s “core reading”—the Bible, Dante’s Commedia, Goethe’s Faust, Pascal’s Pensées, and so on (p. 48); the second of his readings in French-language publications, among them novels by Balzac, Dumas, Flaubert, Hugo, George Sand, and so on (pp. 49–54); and the third of his readings in German, which included fiction and nonfiction by Hoffmann von Fallersleben, Hebbel, Heine, Nietzsche, Schiller, Uhland, and Richard Wagner (pp. 55–59). A fourth table identifies Liszt’s knowledge of publications in other languages, including Greek and Roman classics in translation; works by such English authors as Byron, Darwin, George Eliot, Longfellow, Milton, and Shakespeare; and a few works in Italian and Russian (together, pp. 59–60). 726. Fauré-Cousin, Jeanne, and France Clidat. Aux sources littéraires de Franz Liszt = entire double issue of La Revue musicale 292–93 (1973). ISSN 0768-1593. ML5.M613. A book-length examination of the literary works behind such well-known compositions as the Dante symphony, the Faust symphony and “Scenes” from Leuan’s Faust, Mazeppa (Byron and Hugo), and the “Petrarch Sonnets.” Concludes with a four-page chronological summary of Liszt’s life and activities. Regarding especially Liszt’s readings in Dante’s Commedia, see Mario Tedeschi Turco, “‘In questo stato son, donna per voi’: Note sul Petrarca di Franz Liszt,” Letter Italiane 52 (2000): 272–81; Turco’s article carries the theme of Liszt and European culture back to the early Italian Renaissance. Other specialized studies of Liszt’s literary encounters and knowledge focus for the most part on either the composer’s knowledge of particular national literatures or the works of individual authors. Among studies of Liszt and French literature and literary figures are the following articles: 727. Guichard, Léon. “Liszt et la littérature française.” Revue de musicologie 56 (1970): 3–34. ML5.R32. Describes Liszt’s relationships with several important literary figures of 1830s–1840s France, including Lamennais, Lamartine, and Victor Hugo. Includes three appendices: the first deals with the problem of the authenticity of Liszt’s literary works; the second identifies by “author” those Liszt compositions inspired by works of French literature; and the third reviews the Lamartine/Autran problem vis-à-vis the symphonic poem Les Préludes.

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Regarding Liszt, Lamartine, Autran, and the Préludes, see especially items 1214–1217. 728. Guillaume, Jean. “Liszt et Nerval.” Bulletin Baudelairien 19/3 (December 1984): 85–86. ISSN 0007-4128. PQ2191.Z5B22. One of several contributions to otherwise exclusively literary periodicals concerning Liszt’s associations with and borrowings from novelists and poets. See, too, Stefano Ragni on “Liszt and Mazzini,” in the Annali dell’Università per Stranieri di Perugia 16 (1991): 119–36. 729. Pocknell, Pauline. “Liszt and Senancour: Romantic Cult Heroes.” In item 40, pp. 123–50. Considers the implications of an “unlikely conjuncture in time, place, and affinities”: those of Liszt as younger Hungarian composer and of Senancour as older French writer, thinker, and recluse,” as “Romantic cult heroes” (p. 123). Pocknell describes their meetings; their “hero” status, especially in 1833; and Senancour’s influence both on Marie d’Agoult as author, and on Liszt’s Vallée d’Obermann—the last, inspired by Senancour’s novel of the same name. As much a study of cultural attitudes and influences as of literary-musical aesthetic issues. Concludes with a four-page bibliographycum-discography that every student of Romanticism ought to consult. Regarding Obermann as a piano piece, see items 1016–1019. 730. Powell, David A. “Musical-Literary Intertextuality: George Sand and Franz Liszt.” In: Correspondances: Studies in Literature, History, and the Arts in Nineteenth-century France, ed. Keith Busby. “Faux titre: Etudes de langue et littérature françaises publiées,” 63. Amsterdam and Atlanta, GA: Rodopi, 1992; pp. 165–76. ISBN 9051832966. ISSN 0167-9392. Mostly about Le Contrebandier—Powell describes it as “one of Sand’s early attempts to use an explicitly musical foundation for a literary creation” (p. 165)—and what it may owe to Liszt’s “Contrabandista” keyboard fantasy, regarding which “the musical structure…remains the prevalent basis for the short story” (p. 167). Illustrated with quotations from Sand’s prose in French as well as a diagram of Liszt’s Rondeau fantastique, Sand’s “analysis” of it, and the structure of her story (p. 172). Studies of Liszt and German literature, especially the works of Weimar’s “classical” poets and playwrights, include: 731. Altenburg, Detlef. “Franz Liszt and the Legacy of the Classical Era.” 19th Century Music 18 (1994–1995): 46–63. ISSN 0148-2076. ML1.N27. Concerned mostly with Schiller’s and especially Goethe’s Weimar legacy and Liszt’s promotion of music and other cultural products in that small

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but influential city during the late 1840s and 1850s. Altenburg discusses such closely related subjects as the Schiller poem on which Liszt based his Ideale, the composer’s activities at the 1849 Goethe centennial celebrations and, above all, his plans for a Goethe Foundation; he also mentions the Viennese classical school of composition. An elegant German-nationalist contribution to the Liszt literature: consider its opening sentence, which places the composer in the role of John the Baptist, who “prepared the way” for Wagner’s musical-dramatic salvation offering (p. 46). 732. Bahr, Ehrhard. “The Silver Age of Weimar. Franz Liszt as Goethe’s Successor: A Study in Cultural Archaeology.” Goethe Yearbook 10 (2001): 191–202. ISSN 0734-3329. PT2046.G73. Employs Goethe’s name “as an archaeological marker in the discourse of that period, much [as] archaeologists look for potsherds in different layers of a culture,” and presents Liszt’s music-making as “the forerunner of Richard Wagner’s Bayreuth” (p. 192). Bahr also discusses Liszt’s Weimar performances, Wagner’s association with the town, and especially the organization of the Neu-Weimar-Verein in 1854—the last a “Liszt society” (p. 197), which failed to develop “a meaningful cultural program of its own” and finally deteriorated “into a social club” (p. 199). Carefully documented. Older, more obscure publications on closely related subjects also exist; see, for example, G. Hollitzer’s Liszt Ferenc és a weimari irodalmi élet (Budapest, 1913), on Liszt and Weimar’s literary life. 733. Bertagnolli, Paul. “Liszt, Goethe, and a Musical Cult of Prometheus.” In item 39, pp. 169–96. Links a number of Liszt’s Weimar-era works, including his symphonic poem Prometheus and the Entfesseltem Prometheus choruses, with literary and musical masterpieces by Aeschylus, Beethoven, Byron, Goethe, Hesiod, and Johann Gottfried Herder, as well as with Woldemar Bargiel’s much more obscure op. 17 Prometheus overture. Includes substantial discussions of Greek legend and tragedy, the Sturm und Drang literary movement of the 1770s, Goethe’s fragmentary Prometheus play, and a number of secondary sources; also includes four musical examples. 734. Schuler, Manfred. “Uhland in seinen Beziehungen zu Beethoven und Liszt.” Musik in Baden-Württemberg 2 (1995): 43–50. ISSN 0947-8302. Aside from the opening pages devoted to Beethoven, Schuler’s article consists of comments on Liszt’s Der Vätergruft, which employs Uhland’s verse, and of a discussion of the poet’s response to the composer’s performances in and around Stuttgart, November 1843; one response took the form of a poem published only in 1911. Includes quotations from the Schwäbische Chronik, the Karlsruher Zeitung, and other local papers.

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Liszt’s knowledge of English literature was more limited; as a consequence, few studies of that knowledge have appeared in print. Among them is: 735. Woodring, Carl. “Byron and Liszt.” In item 44, pp. 55–63. Compares two remarkable men, both of them “legends while alive” (p. 55). As Woodring points out, however, Byron shared none of Liszt’s enthusiasm for music, while Liszt shared much of Byron’s zest for literature and living; Woodring also describes “Byronic” aspects of Liszt’s thought and investigates the significance of several mottoes from Byron the composer employed in his Album d’un voyageur and his interest in the poet’s writings about Sardanapalus. LISZT, HISTORY,

AND

HISTORICAL MOVEMENTS

The best introduction to this complex subject is: 736. Szabó-Knotik, Cornelia. “Tradition as a Source of Progress: Franz Liszt and Historicism.” In item 39, pp. 143–56. A compact synopsis of Liszt’s own historical views, including his critical opinions of past eras, his conviction that “artists are of fundamental importance for the moral and social improvement of mankind” (p. 146), and his notions of “epochs,” “progress,” and the significance of historical “monuments.” Szabó-Knotik also refers especially to the historical philosophies of Hegel, Herder, and Nietzsche, and she quotes from several of Liszt’s essays, especially his discussion of Berlioz’s Harold en Italie. Regarding Liszt and Hegel, see also Alessandra Belli Lazzarini, “Hegel e Liszt: un incontro sulla musica,” Diastema 8 (1994): 17–24; another article by Lazzarini on the same subject appeared in Civiltà musicale 11/3 (1996): 3–27. Liszt and Antiquity Liszt’s knowledge of ancient Greece and Rome was limited, but his enthusiasm was real. Among the very few studies to discuss that knowledge and enthusiasm is: * Bertagnolli. “Liszt, Goethe, and a Musical Cult of Prometheus.” Described as item 733. Refers, among other things, to the influence of Hesiod and Aeschylus on Goethe and Herder and, through them, on several of Liszt’s works. 737. Eo# sze, László. “Liszt’s Conception of the Greek World.” Liszt Society Journal 23 (1998): 51–58. ML410.L7L6. Explores Romantic interest in the figures of Orpheus and Prometheus, as inspired by the likes of Johann Winckelmann in his Geschichte der Kunst des Altertums (Berlin, 1764) and some of Goethe’s writings. For Eo# sze,

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Liszt could scarcely have avoided incorporating references to Greek myth in his music—or, as he puts it precisely but ungrammatically, “in Weimar [during the 1850s], the Prometheus theme almost hang in the air” (p. 52). Illustrated with several full-score excerpts from Liszt’s Prometheus and Orpheus; also incorporates references to the theoretical treatises of Carl Friedrich Weitzmann and Prometheus Bound by Aeschylus. Liszt and Freemasonry Liszt’s association with Freemasons and their beliefs lasted for decades. The best discussion of Liszt as Freemason remains: 738. Autexier, Philippe A. Mozart & Liszt sub rosa. Poitiers: Philippe A. Autexier [self-published], 1984. 190 pp. A valuable monograph, consisting of essays summarizing the Masonic activities of Mozart and Liszt; printed in both French and German, and followed by hundreds of annotated texts associated with those activities. Autexier traces Liszt’s flirtation with Freemasonry from its beginnings in 1840s Germany to its end with the composer’s death in 1886; he reproduces diary entries, diplomas, letters, Masonic lodge registers, newspaper notices, and so on—many of them previously unknown. Illustrated with a number of facsimile reproductions. Somewhat difficult to obtain. A “Supplement à la partie documentaire,” containing corrections to the original volume, was issued by Autexier in 1986. Reviewed in item 200. Another, quite different study of the same general topic by the same author also deserves attention: 739. Autexier, Philippe A. “The Masonic Thread in Liszt.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 22 (1987): 3–18. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Summarizes Liszt’s interest in Freemasonry but concentrates on his Masonic activities in Bordeaux in 1844. Outfitted with tables, two short musical examples, and a previously unpublished portrait of Liszt dating from his Bordeaux visit. Material closely associated with the contents of items 738 and 739 has also appeared as “F. L…T” in item 67; pp. 172–83. A two-part article, based on Autexier’s material, was published by Lennart Rabes as “Franz Liszt the Freemason” in Liszt Saeculum nos. 32 (1983): 22–57 and 33 (l984): 10–22. Finally, see Autexier’s chapter “Franz Liszt, 1811–1886” in his own La Lyre maçonne: Mozart Haydn Spohr Liszt [sic] (Paris, 1997; ISBN 2905319569), pp. 245–84, for additional information as well as a bibliography (pp. 285–97) that identifies a number of otherwise virtually unknown articles devolving upon Liszt and Freemasonry; includes a table of contents [Sommaire].

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Liszt, French Romanticism, and French Romantic Philosophers An excellent introduction to Liszt’s involvement with French Romanticism may be found in: 740. Gut, Serge. “Franz Liszts Verhältnis zur französischen Romantik.” In item 482, pp. 7–18. Partially devoted to romanticism in Liszt’s works, including the original Harmonies poétiques et religieuses, Ricordanza, and several of the operatic paraphrases—among them, the Réminiscences de la Juive. Gut also considers Liszt’s infatuation with the thoughts and words of Chateaubriand, Hugo, Lammartine, and Senancour (regarding the last, see item 729) as well as Chopin’s musical style; he also points out negative influences— observing, for instance, that Liszt’s Mazeppa calls to mind Hugo’s poem and, as a consequence, the “bombastic tendencies” of much French-romantic poetry […die bombastischen Züge der französischen Romantik (p. 9)]. Includes eight unnumbered musical examples. 741. Lang, Paul Henry. “Liszt and the Romantic Movement.” The Musical Quarterly 22 (1936): 314–25. ISSN 0027-4631. ML1.M725. A short but insightful survey of Liszt’s involvement with Romantic principles, especially those of French Romanticism, and the impact those principles had on fundamental aspects of his compositional development. Lang believes that “Liszt’s great innovation and achievement consisted in proving that it was possible to create a well-rounded and logically organized piece of music without forcing the ideas into the established frames of traditional [i.e., Classical] forms” (p. 321). Lacks illustrations and musical examples. Very few studies deal specifically with Liszt’s enthusiasm for speculative thought, including the ideas and writings of such individuals as Félicité de Lamennais: 742. Philippe, Laurent André Marie. Franz Liszt and His Search for Ideals. D.M.A. document: University of Washington, 1993. ii, 80 pp. A stimulating, highly speculative account of the young composer’s development as both thinker and “feeler.” Philippe considers such issues as Liszt’s reaction to his father’s death, his infatuating with the Saint-Simonians, and his devoted to “priest-philosopher” Lamennais, of whom Marie d’Agoult was “critical…and probably jealous” (p. 68); and who Liszt left “alone on the [social-political] battlefield” when he “eloped” with the comtesse to Switzerland in 1835 (p. 70). Includes a bibliography (pp. 75–77) as well as a brief biography of Philippe himself, already an established orchestral conductor at the time this lengthy essay was completed.

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Regarding Lamennais in particualar, see also Márta Grabócz, “Liszt és a ‘filozófiai eposzok,’” Magyar zene 27 (1986): 21–28, and Imre Révész, “Liszt és Lamennais,” Zenetudományi tanulmányok 1 (1953): 115–23. Liszt and Saint-Simonism Liszt was involved for a time with several revolutionary movements in 1830s France. The best study of his brief but active enthusiasm for the teachings of Claude Henri, Comte de Saint-Simon remains: 743. Locke, Ralph P. “Liszt’s Saint-Simonian Adventure.” 19th Century Music 4 (1980–1981): 209–27. ISSN 0148-2076. ML1.N27. Contends that Liszt sought to distance himself from a movement he never ceased to admire, and reviews a large body of documentary evidence about Liszt and Saint-Simon’s followers to support that contention. Locke’s article is valuable not only for its discussion of its subject’s idealism but also for its information about Saint-Simon, his followers among early nineteenthcentury musicians, and beliefs and practices attributed to of the philosopher’s disciples. Illustrations include a page of Liszt’s corrections for the first volume of Ramann’s survey study (item 3) and three caricatures. Important corrections for this article appeared in 19th Century Music 5 (1982), p. 281. The article itself is based to a considerable extent on Locke’s dissertation, Music and the Saint-Simonians: The Involvement of Félicien David and Other Musicians in a Socialist Movement (University of Chicago, 1980). LISZT

AND THE

VISUAL ARTS

Liszt always enjoined painting and sculpture; among his many friends and acquaintances were a number of noted visual artists, including Delacroix, Ingres, and Kaulbach. Three studies of his intellectual and artistic interests in “images,” especially insofar as they inspired him to compose individual pieces of music, are described below: 744. Hill, Nancy Klenk. “Landscape, Literature, and Liszt.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 8 (1980): 15–24. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Deals with Liszt’s interest in painting and literature, especially his characteristically Romantic convictions that words (as “program” or “story”) must mediate to the other arts, including music. For Hill, Liszt—like other Romantics—was interested in depicting landscapes in such works as the Album d’un voyageur and Ce qu’on entend sur la montagne (the so-called “Mountain Symphony”). As she correctly explains, “To Liszt, and to many others in [the nineteenth century], music was better able to express the emotions than was either literature or painting, because it was not so tied

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to thought” (p. 16). Includes quotations from Delacroix’s diaries, poems by Goethe, Homer, and Wordsworth, and references to Constable’s landscapes. Alas, lacks visual illustrations. 745. Mayor, Edward. “Liszt and Romantic Landscape Vision.” Liszt Society Journal 22 (1997): 39–41. ML410.L7L6. A hodge-podge of references to Byron’s verse, Turner’s watercolors of Lake Lucerne, Liszt’s enthusiasm for Michelangelo, and other loosely related subjects. Mayor’s essay lacks documentation, illustrations, and musical examples; nevertheless, it remains the only discussion of Liszt and “landscape issues” ever published. 746. Salmen, Walter. “Liszt und Wagner in ihren Beziehungen zur bildenden Kunst.” In item 874, pp. 152–61. Summarizes Liszt’s interest in painting and sculpture—especially with reference to works by celebrity figures such as Michelangelo and Raphael as well as such comparatively little-known individuals as Edward von Steinle and Mihály Zichy; and especially with regard to such compositions as (respectively) Il Penseroso, Sposalizio, St. François de Paule marchant sur les flots, and Von der Wiege bis zum Grabe. Lacks both illustrations and musical examples. NB: Only pp. 152–58 of Salmen’s study are devoted to Liszt; the rest belongs to Wagner. LISZT, CHRISTIANITY, AND CATHOLICISM Liszt was a sometime Freemason, often an avid reader, but always a Catholic. As such, he was especially interested in liturgical reform and “new” kinds of religious music, but his faith also inspired him in his personal and professional lives overall. Among several brief introductions to Liszt’s religious convictions is: 747. Nixon, Philipp. “Franz Liszt on Religion.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 17 (1985): 15–19. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. A brief review of Liszt as a devout man; thus, in part, a refutation of attacks on his faith by Newman (item 441) and other scholars. Nevertheless, Nixon also observes that “Liszt experienced the opposing pulls of ascetic Christianity and worldly fame,” and that the “certain independence” the composer noted in himself “is seen in his flaunting of conventional morality” (p. 15). Includes quotations from several Liszt letters and references to one or two compositions. Lacks musical examples. A definitive account of Liszt’s religious convictions and acitivites remains to be written; unfortunately, by contemporary standards—especially those of postmodern

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inquiry—the subject appears to be losing ground, while issues involving gender, race, and virtuosity are being ever more extensively and imaginatively explored. Nevertheless, eight specialized (albeit somewhat “old-fashioned”) studies of the composer’s religious attitudes, activities, and involvements are described or cross-referenced below. 748. Angelis, Alberto de. “Christo in Liszt.” Rivista Musicale Italiana 48 (1946): 380–86. ML5.R4. A brief discussion of Liszt and Catholicism, including references to the composer’s relationship with Pius IX, the oratorio Christus, the Dante symphony, and so on. Largely superseded by more recent publications. 749. Bangert, Mark. “Franz Liszt’s Essay on Church Music (1834) in the Light of Felicité Lamennais’s System of Religious and Political Thought.” Student Musicologists at Minnesota 5 (1972): 182–219. ISSN 0585-4598. ML1.S898. Describes the origins of Liszt’s first article (actually published in 1835) and its significance for his lifelong interest in church-music reform. Bangert argues plausibly that Liszt’s essay was probably written under the direct influence of Lamennais. Concludes with a complete translation into English of the essay itself (pp. 176–80). Reprinted in Church Music [St. Louis, Missouri] “No. 2” (1973): 17–25. See, too, Catherine Dale’s article “The Mirror of Romanticism: Images of Music, Religion and Art Criticism in George Sand’s Eleventh ‘Lettre d’un voyageur’ to Giacomo Meyerbeer,” The Music Review 54 (1993), esp. pp. 212–13, for more of Liszt’s comments on church music. 750. Bauer, Hans-Joachim. “Franz Liszts Reformen zur Kirchenmusik.” Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch 73 (1989): 63–76. ISSN 0075-6199. ML5.K58. Summarizes the composer’s lifelong concern with church-music reform, beginning with his 1835 article (item 749). Bauer also considers the Mass for Male Voices of 1848, Regensburg and its Cecilian movement, and other issues. No musical examples. Regarding Cecilianism especially, see items 102 and 753. 751. Felix, Werner. “Die Reformideen Franz Liszts.” In: Festschrift Richard Münnich zum 80. Geburtstag, ed. Hans Pischner. Leipzig: Deutscher Verlag für Musik, 1957. pp. 104–15. ML55.M62P5 1957. Examines Liszt’s youthful enthusiasm for remaking Christian music along theatrical as well as liturgical lines. Emphasizes “reform” in a manner perhaps too emphatic in light of the composer’s actual liturgical works, but

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in a manner altogether in keeping with Communist-era Eastern European Liszt publications. An evaluation of some of Felix’s ideas, written by Zoltán Gárdonyi, appeared as “Néhány ujább Liszt-tanulmányról” in Magyar zene 1/3 (December 1960): 238–42. See, too, Josef Heinrichs, “Franz Liszts kirchenmusikalischer Reformplan,” Musica Sacra 76 (1956): 44–49, which includes a Liszt portrait. ˆ

ˆ

752. Gájdos, Vsevlad [Jozef]. “War Franz Liszt Franziskaner?” Studia Musicologica 6 (1964): 299–310. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. Traces the Liszt family’s involvement with Franciscanism from Adam Liszt’s unsuccessful novitiate through his son’s honorary memberships in several Franciscan societies. Gájdos concludes that, despite his flirtations with this order and its teachings, Liszt never became a “real” Franciscan. ˆ

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Evidently based on Gájdos’s pamphlet Zu den Beziehungen Franz Liszts zur Slowakei. Der Ursprung der Franziskanertradition in der Familie Franz Liszts (Bratislava, 1944). Not seen; nor is it clear whether this last publication appeared originally as an independent volume or merely as an offprint from Acta Academiae Scientiarum et Artium Slovacae 10 (?1944): 482–?502. Yet another brief article by Gájdos appeared as “Bol Frantisek Liszt frantiskanom?” in Slovenská hudba 12 (1968): 258–60. Finally, see László Bucsi, “Liszt és a magyar ferencesek,” Magyar zene 28 (1987): 50–52. ˆ

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* Knotik. Musik und Religion im Zeitalter des Historismus. Described as item 970. Contains lengthy discussions of Christus, Liszt’s Catholic faith, and related issues. * Pocknell. “Liszt and Pius IX: The Politico-Religious Connection.” Described as item 683. Explores political and economic intrigues and religious attitudes and convictions. 753. Saffle, Michael. “Liszt and Cecilianism: The Evidence of Documents and Scores.” In: Der Caecilianismus: Anfänge—Grundlagen—Wirkungen, ed. Hubert Unverricht. Eichstätter Abhandlungen zur Musikwissenschaft, 5. Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1988; pp. 203–13. ISBN 3795205506. ML3006.I58 1985 [sic]. Describes Liszt’s real, if less than passionate devotion to the Cecilianist movement through references to letters, newspaper clippings, and especially such compositions as the Missa choralis. No musical examples. See, too,

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Patrick M. Liebergen’s brief article “The Cecilian Movement in the Nineteenth Century,” published in the Choral Journal 21/9 (May 1991): 13–16; only the last two pages of this latter article, however, refer to Liszt. THE LISZT RECEPTION (see also Chapter 7, items 963–968) Studies devoted to the acclaim or ridicule heaped upon Liszt’s activities and cultural “products” by audiences, critics, performers, and scholars have grown apace in recent years. Many, although not all, of these studies have drawn heavily upon German-language sources of information—in part, of course, because Rezeptionsgeschichte (literally, “reception-history”) and Zeitungsgeschichte (literally, “newspaper-history”) are largely German critical inventions. Among the best introductions to the Liszt reception in Germany are three articles by Canadian-American scholar James Deaville, a specialist in Central European Liszt criticism as well as postmodern Lisztian issues: 754. Deaville, James. “The Controversy Surrounding Liszt’s Conception of Programme Music.” In item 52, pp. 98–124. Reconsiders “one of the chief cultural struggles of the nineteenth century” (item 1, vol. 2, p. 338): the battle for and against program music in Central Europe, fought by such polemicists as Brendel, Bronsart, Draeseke, Hanslick and, to a lesser extent, Liszt himself, in the pages of Vienna’s Neue freie Presse as well as the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, the Niederrheinische Musik-Zeitung, and the Musikalisches Wochenblatt. For “pro-programmists” (to coin an awkward epithet), such music “was the final consequence of the development of instrumental music to its highest expressive ability” (item 754, p. 111); for their opponents, it remains anathema even today. Deaville’s study concludes with several appendices, including a list (pp. 123–24) of “responses” to Hanslick’s Vom musikalisch-Schönen, itself one of the most influential aesthetics tracks in history. Regarding Hanslick, see item 963. 755. Deaville, James. “Liszt in the German-Language Press.” In item 37, pp. 41–54. Traces Liszt’s image [Bild] as it evolved from adulation during the 1830s and 1840s through contestation (1850s and 1860s) to veneration (1870s and 1880s). Deaville concentrates more on nineteenth-century Germany as a whole than on articles and reviews published in particular periodicals. Among the many and varied sources he cites are several of his own studies as well as Bernstein’s and Leppert’s postmodern assessments of virtuosity (respectively, items 766 and 770); Annette Hein’s “Es ist viel Hitler in Wagner”: Rassismus und antisemitistische Deutschtumsideologie in den

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“Bayreuther Blätter” (Tübingen, 1996); nineteenth-century articles drawn from Saffle’s monograph on Liszt’s 1840s German tours (item 543); and observations otherwise available only in the pages of the Allgemeine Wiener Musik-Zeitung, the Niederrheinische Musik-Zeitung, and the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik. 756. Deaville, James. “Liszt’s Virtuosity and His Audience: Gender, Class and Power in the Concert Hall of the Early 19th Century.” In: Das Andere: Eine Spurensuche in der Musikgeschichte des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts, ed. Annette Kreutziger-Herr. Frankfurt a.M. and New York: Peter Lang, 1998; pp. 281–300. At once a work of Rezeptionsgeschichte and a postmodern encounter with “virtuosic performance of the 19th century,” especially insofar as the example of Liszt can be theorized in terms of “otherness” (pp. 281 and 283; see item 773), power relationships, and various artistic-social situations. Includes two tables pertaining to Liszt’s Viennese performances of 1838–1840 and 1846, to which most of Deaville’s citations from contemporary press accounts—including more than a few from the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung—refer. Concludes with a list of secondary sources. Another version of Deaville’s article was presented at the 1997 Congress of the International Musicological Society, London; a summary of that version appears in the Congress’s proceedings, published as Musicology and Sister Disciplines: Past, Present, Future, ed. David Greer et al. (Oxford University Press, 2001), pp. 608–9. Six additional, more specialized reception-history studies dealing with Liszt “sightings” in nineteenth- and twentieth-century German concert houses, newspapers, and other publications are described below: 757. Gärtner, Markus. “Hanslick und Liszt. Rekonstruktion einer musikästhetischen Kontroverse.” Musik und Ästhetik 6/23 (July 2002): 13–31. A study of the Liszt-Hanslick controversy not only from the perspective of the critic’s “hardened attitudes,” but of certain critical links between the two men, including their “common starting positions” regarding Beethoven and Schumann (p. 31). Carefully documented; concludes with a paragraphlong English-language summary, from which the quotations above were taken. Regarding Schumann’s attitudes toward Liszt’s music, see Otto Kolleritsch, “Liszt in der Kritik Robert Schumanns” (item 46, pp. 131–36). 758. Morrow, Mary Sue. “Deconstructing Brendel’s ‘New German’ Liszt.” In item 39, pp. 157–68. Examines especially Franz Brendel’s polemics on behalf of Liszt’s compositions, as well as those of his contemporaries Berlioz and Wagner.

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Morrow considers these propaganda pieces in light of long-standing proGerman musical biases among German critics and in terms of polemicist tactics—tactics such as those employed by Ronald Reagan who, “even as he railed about mostly fictional welfare queens driving Cadillacs at the expense of honest, hard-working citizens,” consciously ignored “the whitecollar savings-and-loan scandal that cost those same citizens billions of dollars” (p. 158). Contains quotes or paraphrases from a number of sources, including Brendel’s own Geschichte der Musik (Leipzig, 1889, and other editions), eighteenth-century Berlin’s Musikalisches Kunstmagazin, and studies by Altenburg and Johns. See, too, item 661. 759. Münch, Stephan. “‘Diese blutige Ironie der eitlen Apotheosen…’ Zur Rezeption und Deutung der Tasso-Musiken Franz Liszts.” In: Festschrift Christoph-Hellmut Mahling zum 65. Geburtstag, ed. Axel Beer et al.; 2 vols. Mainzer Studien zur Musikwissenschaft, 37. Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1997; vol. 2, pp. 955–74. ISBN 3795209005. ML55.M23 1997. To a considerable extent a study of Liszt’s 1855 Berlin concerts and their reception in daily newspapers, including the Spenersche and Vossische Zeitungen, as well as in such magazines as Signale für die musikalische Welt and Kladderdatsch. Münch also discusses Tasso as a symbol of the chasm [Kluft (p. 971)] he believes separated members of the nineteenthcentury bourgeoisie from contemporary artists. Includes four musical examples as an appendix (p. 972), and references to Orpheus, Prometheus, and other Liszt Symphonic Poems, especially Tasso. 760. Quinn, Erika J. Composing a German Identity: Franz Liszt and the Kulturnation, 1848–1886. Dissertation: University of California, Davis, 2001. ISBN 0493307087. Unavailable for direct examination. According to Quinn’s abstract [DAI 62 07A (2001), p. 2531], largely a discussion—based on the composer’s letters and writings, magazine and newspaper articles, and “images”—of the “German cultural project Liszt participated in” a “‘universal’ mission” carried out by the Bildungsbürgertum or educated middle classes to “forward nationalist ideas in the face of the defeat of a liberal political agenda and censorship.” Apparently includes a useful bibliography. 761. Redepenning, Dorothea. “Liszt tel qu’on l’a vu: Images allemandes de Liszt en 1911, 1936 et 1961.” In item 48, pp. 261–73. Difficult to summarize, but an invaluable source of information for anyone interested in German responses to Liszt during three anniversaries of his birth and death. Redepenning cites more than 100 sources; with a few exceptions—Heuß’s study of motivic interconnections in Ce qu’on entend sur la montagne (item 1197), for instance, as well as several of Peter

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Raabe’s publications and August Stradal’s Roman reminiscences—these and similarly obscure sources have been excluded from the present research guide. Lacks illustrations or musical examples, however; the inclusion of a few of both would have fleshed out this article nicely. 762. “Schindler on Liszt.” Liszt Society Journal 17 (1992): 13–21. ML410.L7L6. Essentially a collection of translated passages written by a man remembered today primarily for his Beethoven monographs [Biographie von Ludwig van Beethoven (Münster, 1840) and Beethoven in Paris (Münster, 1842)]. Begins with a sketch of Anton Schindler’s life; concludes with an excerpt from Eduard Hüffer’s 1909 dissertation. Poorly documented—not even the names of the author or translator, if in fact they are different individuals, are given—but intriguing, if only as a stimulus to Liszt scholars seeking new sources of information about their subject. Accompanied by a page of corrections inserted in copies of the 1992 Liszt Society Journal. Three studies concentrate on the French Liszt reception of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries: 763. Murphy, Kerry. “Liszt and Virtuosity in Paris in the 1830s: The Artist as Romantic Hero.” In: Essays in Honour of David Evatt Tunley, ed. Frank Callaway. Nedlands [Western Australia]: Callaway International Resource Centre for Music Education [University of Western Australia], 1995; pp. 91–103. ISBN 0864224095. ML55.T86 1995. Identifies characteristically French Romantic notions—including the “poetic,” enthusiasm for “genius,” and widespread acceptance of physical expressions of feeling—in relation to the Liszt reception in 1830s France. Murphy also mentions respect paid to Liszt’s charitable undertakings. Includes a few translated quotations from the Revue et gazette musicale but lacks visual images and musical examples. * Keeling. “Concert Announcements, Programs and Reviews….” Described as item 386. 764. Pistone, Danièle. “Liszt et Paris au XXe siècle.” In item 48, pp. 237–44. Provides an intriguing, unfortunately all-too-brief glimpse into the French Liszt reception, beginning with the Exposition of 1900 and moving on to such publications as Boissier’s memoirs, the Gut-Bellas edition of the composer’s correspondence with the Comtesse d’Agoult, and Gut’s article “Das Liszt-Bild in Frankreich—gestern und heute” (item 482, pp. 102–12). See, too, Christian Goubault, “Le centième anniversaire de la naissance de Liszt: Un génie ignoré ou boycotté en France?” (also item 48, pp. 245–60), which deals with 1911 French Liszt celebrations.

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Finally, several studies have concentrated on the Liszt reception in other parts of the world—specifically, Scandinavia and the United States. The most important of these studies are described or cross-listed below: * Deaville. “‘Westwärts zieht die Kunstgeschichte’…” Described as item 487. 765. Rabes, Lennart. “Liszt’s Scandinavian Reputation.” Item 42, pp. 217–47. A detailed account of the Liszt reception in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Rabes describes the composer’s 1841 visit to Copenhagen, Swedish artist Fritz von Dardel’s impressions of Liszt, reviews of Liszt performances in such nineteenth-century newspapers as Oslo’s Nordisk Musik-Tidende and Stockholm’s Dagens Nyheter, and especially Liszt’s Nordic pupils. Rabes treats this last subject at considerable length in “Prominent Lisztians of Scandinavia” (pp. 236–46), which features descriptions of the careers of Franz Berwald (see item 890), Siegfried Langgaard (see item 359), Alexandra Lindberg, and a number of other individuals. Outfitted with extensive quotations from a variety of sources, including little-known Liszt letters, and illustrated with a facsimile of a Preludio for organ, presented by Liszt to J. J. Hartmann in 1885 and originally published in the Musikbladet. See, too, “Liszt and the Swedish Hanslick,” Liszt Society Journal 22 (1997): 34–39, which Rabes devoted to the poisonous criticism of Wilhelm Peterson-Berger, long associated with the Dagens Nyheter, and which also appeared under the same title in the Liszt Saeculum no. 57 (1996): 31–36. One of Peterson-Berger’s own articles, actually a Liszt obituary entitled “On Musical Form,” is reprinted in Harry Haskell’s anthology (see item 253, pp. 311–14). Finally, see Mária Eckhardt, “Liszt und die Musik der skandinavischen Länder” (in item 482, pp. 151–62), which reviews Liszt’s relationships with such composers and performers as Grieg, Niels Ravnkilde, and Ludvig Schytte. * Saffle. “Lisztiana in Early American Music Magazines.” Described as item 388, no. 1. “POSTMODERN” PERSPECTIVES ON LISZT By “postmodern” is meant the Weltanschauung that has prevailed among many “cultivated” Europeans and Americans since 1965 or so. Put it another way: certain questions of scientific method associated with Thomas Kuhn’s books and essays, the critical theories of such different writers as Jacques Derrida and Camille Paglia, the music of Laurie Anderson and Philip Glass, the fiction of Barthes, Borges, and Thomas Pynchon, the paintings of David Hockney, and the films of Martin Scorsese have all been described as quintessentially “postmodern.”

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VIRTUOSO

Postmodern students of Liszt’s life, music, and reputation have concentrated on the issue of “virtuosity”; without meaning to, they have thereby perpetuated the myth of Liszt as “performer” rather than “composer”—although they have, at the same time, reconceptualized those terms to suit their own perspectives. Perhaps the most detailed postmodern exploration is of Liszt as “virtuoso”: 766. Bernstein, Susan. Virtuosity of the Nineteenth Century: Performing Music and Language in Heine, Liszt, and Baudelaire. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1998. ix, 239 pp. ISBN 0804732795. ML3849.B37 1998. Examines “a specific point of intersection between music and literature”: the “constellation of virtuosity” as exemplified by the three individuals named in the author’s subtitle (pp. 5–6). Bernstein considers such subjects as Heine’s music criticism, issues of rhapsody and authorship, Baudelaire’s essay on Wagner’s Tannhäuser, and so on; she refers to Liszt in most of her arguments, although she concentrates on his Hungarian Rhapsodies, his historical persona as “a legend subject to no particular rigor” (p. 109), and his “explicit identification of the modern virtuoso…with the ancient rhapsode” in Chapter 4 and especially Chapter 5 (the latter: “Liszt’s Bad Style,” pp. 109–30). Long on postmodern theorizing; short on facts. Consider: Bernstein believes none of Liszt’s literary works are by him; she even quotes Haraszti’s articles as well as Waters’s introduction to Liszt’s Chopin (item 262) in support of her claim that “no [literary] manuscripts in his hand survive” (p. 8). Concludes, however, with detailed notes (pp. 197–217) as well as with a bibliography (pp. 219–33) that extends well beyond the merely musicological, and with an index mostly of names. Based on the author’s doctoral dissertation of the same name (The Johns Hopkins University, 1991). Reviewed in its revised form by Ulrich Baer in Modern Language Notes 114 (2000): 1125–30 and by Dana Gooley in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 50 (2001): 76–81. Other, somewhat more circumscribed investigations into virtuosity—not all of them equally “postmodern” in content or critical approach—include the seven books, dissertations, and articles described or cross-referenced below: 767. Deaville, James. “The Making of a Myth: Liszt, the Press, and Virtuosity.” In item 56, pp. 181–95. Begins with a citation from Susan McClary’s Feminine Endings (University of Minnesota Press, 1991), then goes on to consider “Liszt and Elvis” and Lisztomania, Ken Russell’s 1975 spoof of virtuosity and the Liszt-Wagner relationship; the evolution of virtuosity from accomplishment to flaw; and

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especially what Deaville calls “the topos of Liszt as transcendental virtuoso” (p. 185), as reflected in a host of nineteenth-century reviews and twentieth-century college music textbooks. Illustrated with a photograph of Roger Daltrey from Russell’s film, complete with piano-keyboard-figured coat (p. 183); also includes quotations from many of the studies cited in the present research guide—among them, articles by Paul Bekker, Alfred Brendel (item 429), and Emile Haraszti. * Deaville. “The Politics of Liszt’s Virtuosity….” Described as item 384. Concerned with cultural history and Rezeptionsgeschichte as well as the contents of a particular document. 768. Kramer, Lawrence. “Franz Liszt and the Virtuoso Public Sphere: Sight and Sound in the Rise of Mass Entertainment.” In: Kramer, Musical Meaning: Toward a Critical History. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2002; pp. 68–99. ISBN 0520228243. ML3845.K814 2002. A discussion of the pianist’s contributions to public performance by means of such concepts as “ceremony and carnival,” an archetypal “exaltationdebasement narrative,” and “displacement”—the last in something like Foucault’s sense of “cultural amnesia” (p. 82). Illustrated both as a volume (consider its front cover) and as an article (p. 88) with János Jánko’s oftenreproduced 1873 comics Liszt at the Keyboard; also includes several examples from Liszt’s B-minor Sonata. Reviewed by Michael Saffle in the Journal of Musicological Research 21 (2002): 151–54. See also item 1172. 769. Hopcroft, Marischka. Franz Liszt as Virtuoso Critic. Dissertation: University of California, Los Angeles; 2001. 327 pp. ISBN 0493356312. Not seen. According to the abstract published in DAI 62 no. 08A (2001), p. 2624, concerned with the “polarized response” to Liszt’s virtuosity as well as with the composer’s own “merging of masculinized and feminized musical themes through his performance tropes,” which offered “new models of gender identification,” and links between such works as the Hungarian Rhapsody no. 10 and “Homeric traditions of oratory and mimesis.” 770. Leppert, Richard. “Cultural Contradiction, Idolatry, and the Piano Virtuoso: Franz Liszt.” In: Piano Roles: Three Hundred Years of Life with the Piano, ed. James Parakilas. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999; pp. 252–81. ISBN 0300080557. ML650.P37 1999. A sophisticated discussion of virtuosity broken down into short essays bearing such titles as “Identification with the Machine” (p. 272), “Recovery of Masculinity” (p. 278), and so on. Piano Roles as a volume is handsomely illustrated; Leppart’s article, for instance, contains several color images—among

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them, reproductions of Last-Liszt-Lust (literally, “boredom-Liszt-desire”: a cartoon published in 1842 Berlin) as well as Dannhauser’s famous painting, drawings by Daumier, Gustave Doré, and so on. Leppart also briefly considers Liszt’s portrayal in such Hollywood biopics as Song Without End and Lisztomania (pp. 355–56; also item 173). 771. Mäkelä, Tomi. “Franz Liszt, Friedrich Wieck und Gustav Schilling—der Vortrag und die Zeit der ‘Krise der Virtuosität.’” In: Mäkelä, Virtuosität und Werkcharakter. Eine analytische und theoretische Untersuchung zur Virtuosität in den Klavierkonzerten der Hochromantik. Berliner musikwissenschaftliche Arbeiten, 37. Munich and Salzburg: Emil Katzbichler, 1989; pp. 65–74. ISBN 3873970775. ML1263.M34 1989. A brief, infrequently cited evaluation of Liszt as virtuoso, especially as reflected in the thoughts and writings of Friedrich Wieck and Gustav Schilling as well as Liszt’s own essays on Chopin and Clara Schumann. In addition to the chapter identified above, Mäkelä also devotes pp. 118–57 of his volume to a comparison of “first-rate” romantic piano concertos [… romantische Klavierkonzerte “ersten Ranges” (p. 118)], including Liszt’s two most familiar contributions to that form; the discussion in question also incorporates by reference some eighty musical examples (pp. 196–223). 772. Metzner, Paul. “The Early Career of Franz Liszt (1811–1886) as a Concert Pianist.” In: Metzner, Crescendo of the Virtuoso: Spectacle, Skill, and SelfPromotion in Paris during the Age of Revolution. Studies on the History of Society and Culture, 30. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1998; pp. 136–59. ISBN 0520206843. DC731.M56 1998. Less a description of Liszt’s youthful Parisian career than an abbreviated critical biography, interleaved with lengthy asides concerning the rise of concert life in nineteenth-century Europe, the career of Jenny Lind, the character of early musical competitions, and so on. Part of a lengthy study otherwise devoted to such figures as legendary chef Marie-Antoine Carême, chess genius François-André Philador, and illusionist Jean-Eugène RobertHoudin. Illustrations scattered throughout Metzner’s volume include several Liszt portraits. Derived in large part from Metzner’s doctoral dissertation Crescendo of the Virtuoso: Virtuosity in Paris During the Age of Revolution: A Study of Personality and Values (University of Washington, 1989). Among other works on Liszt and virtuosity recently published is Jim Samson’s Virtuosity and the Musical Work: The “Transcendental Studies” of Liszt (New York, 2003; ISBN 0521814944); unfortunately, Samson’s study was unavailable when the present research guide was drafted.

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OTHER LISZT ISSUES

In addition to virtuosity, postmodern critics have deconstructed the composer’s fascination with the “otherness” of Eastern lands and peoples, the “cult of Napoleon” in nineteenth-century Europe, notions of Monumentalgeschichte (literally, the “history of monuments”; see items 736 and 775), and especially issues devolving upon audience, class, and gender. Five studies of these and closely related issues are described or cross-referenced below: 773. Deaville, James. “Liszts Orientalismus: Die Gestaltung des Andersseins in der Musik?” In item 482, pp. 163–83. A detailed discussion of Liszt’s atypical interest in “Gypsies” as “exotics,” and particularly of Hunnenschlacht as an expression of musical “otherness.” Deaville also provides lists of “exotic” works by nineteenth-century French authors (pp. 165–66) and a guide to the Murls, a group of like-minded Weimar musicians and writers who surrounded Liszt and referred to each other as “Ali Pascha” (Joseph Joachim), “Nakib Pascha” (Joachim Raff), and so on. Followed by a collection of black-and-white reproductions of images (pp. 184–90) more or less closely associated with Liszt’s life and music, including Ingres’s Grand Odalisque and Kaulbach’s Hunnenschlacht; these in turn are followed by several pages of orchestral excerpts from Le Désert by Félicien David and Liszt’s symphonic poem (together, pp. 191–95). 774. Gooley, Dana. “Warhorses: Liszt, Weber’s ‘Konzertstück,’ and the Cult of Napoleon. 19th-Century Music 24 (2000–2001): 62–88. ISSN 0148-2076. ML1.N27. Begins by commenting on a caricature of Liszt on horseback, the composer’s “military aura,” and the nineteenth-century’s enthusiasm for Napoléon as a historical icon; then goes on to examine both Liszt performances of Weber’s concerto as well as revisions for an edition issued by Cotta in 1881. Gooley maintains that “Liszt’s bravura has often been characterized as ‘Faustian’ or ‘Mephistophelean’” and that examining its “Napoléonic” draws attention “to its worldliness—its refusal to escape entirely into a Faustian realm of fantasy” (p. 88). Illustrated with four plates of Liszt “poses,” three musical examples, and the Miroir drolatique caricature of 8 July 1842 (p. 63). Derived in part from the author’s doctoral dissertation, Liszt and His Audiences, 1834–1847: Virtuosity, Criticism, and Society in the Virtuosenzeit (Princeton University, 1999), which incorporates lists of archival sources (p. 372), primary sources such as newspapers magazines, and collections of correspondence (pp. 372–78), and secondary sources of various kinds. Summarized in DAI 60 no. 10A (1999), p. 3569.

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* Kopelson. Beethoven’s Kiss: Pianism, Perversion, and the Mastery of Desire. Described as item 636. 775. Rehding, Alexander. “Liszt’s Musical Monuments.” 19th-Century Music 26 (2002–2003): 52–72. ISSN 0148-2076. ML1.N27. A sophisticated comparison of Liszt’s life and works, on the one hand, with their “write-ups” in the Liszt literature on the other. Or, as Rehding puts it, “[C]ritics have recently begun to reexamine Liszt’s compositional and performing career as an integral part of his biography” (p. 53); his assessment of all this involves discussing the composer’s 1845 Beethoven cantata, his symphonic poem Tasso, and the Weihekuss incident. Illustrated with two plates of images and two musical examples. * Skoumal. “Liszt’s Androgynous Harmony.” Described as item 816.

VII Liszt as Composer Studies in Compositional Techniques and Influences

Studies of Liszt as composer include summaries of his compositional output and studies of individual compositional procedures; examinations of stylistic influences on his own works; discussions of his influence on the music of his contemporaries and successors; and assessments of his relationship with contemporary movements, attitudes, and individual critics. Studies of individual Liszt compositions are dealt with in Chapters 8–11, studies of “Liszt pedagogy and performance practices” in Chapter 12. LISZT AS COMPOSER MUSICAL SURVEY STUDIES Only one English-language publication claims to introduce its readers to all— or at least most—of Liszt’s compositions, paraphrases, and transcriptions: 776. Searle, Humphrey. The Music of Liszt, rev. ed. New York: Dover Books, 1966. xi, 207 pp. ML410.L7S395 1966. The best single-volume survey of Liszt’s compositional output available. Searle begins with juvenilia and moves briskly—sometimes a bit too briskly— through an immense body of work. A composer himself, he offers penetrating 275

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observations about many Liszt pieces; unfortunately, his observations are supplemented with comparatively few musical examples. Concludes with a chronological outline of Liszt’s life and an early version of Searle’s several catalogs (revised as item 83). Originally published in 1954. Three other survey studies, described or cross-referenced below, are either less complete or available only in French or German: 777. Banowetz, Joseph. Franz Liszt: An Introduction to the Composer and His Music. Park Ridge, IL: General Words and Music, 1975. x, 61 pp. MT247.L77. Examines Liszt’s music through examples—in effect, Banowetz’s is a collection of keyboard pieces as well as arrangements of works originally composed for other media, all of them identified in an introductory essay before being allowed to speak for themselves. Contains En rêve, the “Five Hungarian Folksongs,” two early versions of “Transcendental Etudes,” Sospiri!, and so on. No fragmentary musical examples or bibliography. Other introductions of this kind to Liszt’s music also exist. See, for example, Liszt by Sir Alexander C. Mackenzie (London and Edinburgh, 1913), which also includes an introductory essay (pp. 7–30) and several piano pieces: the Liebesträume no. 3, the third Consolation, and so on. 778. Moysan, Bruno. Liszt. “Pour la Musique” [a series edited by Rémy Stricker]. Paris: Editions Jean-Paul Gerserot, 1999. 127 pp. ISBN 2877474461. Not seen; cited in several on-line indexes and publisher’s catalogs. Apparently limited to the composer’s more familiar works and stylistic procedures. * Raabe. Liszts Schaffen. Described as item 3, vol. 2. Discusses or refers to most of Liszt’s musical works systematically and intelligently but in a cursory manner. A single “reader” is devoted exclusively to surveying Liszt’s musical output: 779. Liszt kalauz, ed. Klára Hamburger. Budapest: Zenemu# kiadó, 1986. 423 pp. ISBN 9633306051. ML410.L7H257 1986. Consists of an introduction followed by chapters on many important works: the thirteen Symphonic Poems (pp. 18–80); the Faust and Dante symphonies (pp. 81–97) and “Episodes from Lenau’s Faust” (pp. 98–110); the five Masses, including the Requiem (pp. 185–233); and so on. Concludes with a bibliography (pp. 416–20) and a table of contents. Lacks musical examples and remains available only in Hungarian, both of which limit its usefulness for readers around the world.

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Four additional studies examine much of Liszt’s output from the perspective of his innumerable revisions and republications: 780. Dömling, Wolfgang. Franz Liszt und seine Zeit. “Große Komponisten und ihre Zeit.” Laaber: Laaber-Verlag, 1985. 336 pp. ISBN 3921518865. ML410.L7D83 1985. Devoted both to Liszt’s music and to its “background”: that is, the times, circumstances, and individuals that influenced the creation and form of individual compositions. Dömling’s book is thus part biography, part purely “musical” study; yet biographical facts are treated throughout this book more as means than ends, as keys to Liszt’s creativity than to his character or personal life. Includes a chronological table [Chronik (pp. 9–46)] as well as a considerable number of scattered musical examples, a bibliography (pp. 323–29), and an extensive catalog of compositions (pp. 285–321). Illustrated with thirty-two plates (pp. 217–48) of portraits and other images, including a few cartoons. Indexed. Reviewed in item 200. Apparently reprinted in 1998; the present author has never seen a copy of that edition. Also published in Spanish as Franz Liszt y su tiempo (Madrid, 1993). 781. Hansen, Bernard. Variationen und Varianten in den musikalischen Werken Franz Liszts. Dissertation: Universität Hamburg, 1959. 187 pp. Assesses Liszt’s compositional output and style based on manuscript revisions and “alternate” passages as well as differing versions of selected vocal and instrumental compositions. Hansen refers regularly throughout his dissertation to D-WRgs Liszt manuscripts, the Breitkopf & Härtel Gesamtausgabe (item 201), and other familiar publications. Illustrated with a large number of hand-copied musical examples, detailed corrections and additions to Raabe’s catalog of Liszt’s works (Hansen, pp. 96–101), an excellent bibliography, and innumerable bibliographic citations in the form of endnotes. A fine study, unfortunately difficult to obtain. 782. Saffle, Michael. Franz Liszt’s Compositional Development: A Study of the Principal Published and Unpublished Instrumental Sketches and Revisions. Dissertation: Stanford University, 1977. ix, 203 pp. ML410.L7S24 1979 [sic]. Evaluates the enormous legacy left by Liszt in the form of sketches, drafts, revisions, and “alternate” versions for hundreds of piano pieces, orchestral works, and so on; one chapter also discusses song revisions. Includes a number of musical examples as well as a bibliography that served as the starting point for items 71–73 and the present research guide. Summarized

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in DAI 38 no. 09 (March 1978): 5117A–5118A; reprinted in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 4 (1978): 69–70. 783. Souter, Kenneth. “Liszt’s Revisions.” Liszt Society Journal 8 (1983): 9–11. ML410.L7L6. Of necessity, an extremely cursory introduction to what, in effect, are hundreds of published and unpublished sketches, drafts, revisions, and “alternate” versions. Souter mentions several versions of Nonnenwerth, a piece Liszt recomposed several times both for solo piano and for voice and piano. Lacks musical examples. Finally, several older surveys of Liszt’s music also exist: 784. Hervey, Arthur. Franz Liszt and His Music. London: John Lane, 1911. 160 pp. ML410.L7H33. A “borderline” study; contains sketches of Liszt’s life (pp. 1–21), a chapter entitled “The Musician and the Man” (pp. 22–46), another about Liszt’s personality and influence, descriptions of various pieces, catalogs of compositions and literary works, and a bibliography. 785. Stradal, August. Franz Liszts Werke. Leipzig: C. F. Kahnt, 1904. 41 pp. A highly condensed survey of Liszt pieces familiar to turn-of-the-century concert audiences, illustrated with scattered musical examples. Scarce in American archives; Harvard University’s Loeb Music Library keeps its copy in the “depository.” SURVEYS

OF THE

EARLY WORKS

The only book-length examination of this fascinating topic is: 786. Der junge Liszt. Referate des 4. Europäischen Liszt-Symposions: Wien 1991, ed. Goltfried Scholz, Cornelia Szabó-Knotik, and Gerhard J. Winkler. Liszt-Studien, 4. Munich and Salzburg: Emil Katzbichler, 1993. 144 pp. ISBN 3873971941. ML410.L7E9 1991 [sic]. Devoted, approximately, to Liszt’s life and music prior to the “Weimar Years” of the late 1840s and 1850s. Includes items 834, 864, and 1261, and Serge Gut’s “Die Frühwerke Liszts—Einführung” (pp. 29–30), discussions of the pianos Liszt played during his German concert tours, and accounts of his youthful keyboard technique. Illustrated with scattered facsimiles and musical examples, including Mittag’s 1842 lithograph portrait of Liszt reproduced as a frontispiece. Unfortunately, one contribution— Harald Ossberger’s “Liszts Klangvorstellung” (pp. 86–94), with its special

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reference to the Album d’un voyageur and four nineteenth- and twentiethcentury pianos—lacks printed musical examples; instead, a footnote indicates that at the 1991 conference in Vienna the relevant passages were presented as pre-recorded tape selections. Shorter surveys of Liszt’s youthful compositions, described in reverse chronological order, include: 787. Saffle, Michael. “The Early Works.” In item 37, pp. 57–69. Identifies and briefly evaluates most of the pieces Liszt completed prior to 1835—including such early piano works as the A-Major Waltz of 1823, the Duo for violin and piano of c. 1835, and the composer’s only completed opera, Don Sanche; Saffle also mentions many of the unpublished or “lost” works treated at greater length in items 85 and 86. Includes seven musical examples. 788. Nugent, George. “The Heroic Idiom in Early Works of Liszt.” Liszt Saeculum no. 51 (1993): 46–60. ISSN 0263-0249. ML410.L7I6. Mostly devoted to the 1827 Marche funèbre for piano (item 991), although Nugent also discusses “heroic” gestures in such works as Don Sanche, the composer’s fragmentary “Revolutionary symphony,” and Beethoven’s Eroica. Also includes observations about and examples of Liszt’s “scribal habits of the 1820s” as well as four other facsimiles, diagrams, and hand-copied musical examples; concludes with a transcription of the complete Marche. SURVEYS

OF THE

“MATURE” WORKS

Two book-length studies, one of them more analytical than “generally” musical, examine the music Liszt wrote during the late 1840s, 1850s, and early 1860s: * Damschroder. A Schenkerian Study of Liszt’s Weimar Repertoire. Described as item 801. Deals almost exclusively with compositions conceived and completed during the late 1840s and 1850s. 789. Weimarer Liszt-Studien. Bericht über die wissenschaftliche Konferenz “Das Weimarer Schaffen Franz Liszts und seine Ausstrahlung auf die Weltmusikkultur,” ed. Uta Eckhardt et al. Weimar: Arbeitskreis “Franz Liszt,” 1987. 171 pp. A valuable collection of essays, unfortunately printed on extremely poorquality paper. Contains seventeen short articles, largely musical in orientation and all of them originally presented at the Hochschule für Muisk “Franz Liszt” in May 1986, only six of which (items 959, 1194, 1203, 1208, 1265,

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and 1361) are described elsewhere in the present research guide; references to other Studien articles also appear under items 275, 350, 535, 566, and 706. Lacks portraits, photographs, and so on, although a few diagrams are scattered throughout the book as a whole; its very few musical examples— and this for a set of papers devoted largely to musical issues—are confined to an “appendix” of five unnumbered pages. STUDIES

OF THE

LATE WORKS

Surveys of the composer’s later works, especially those composed during the 1870s and 1880s, include: 790. Searle, Humphrey. “Liszt’s Final Period (1860–1886).” Proceedings of the Royal Music Association 78 (1951–1952): 67–81. ML28.L8M8. A “borderline” study, dealing with Liszt’s overall compositional development and with several individual works and stylistic innovations in his late piano pieces. An influential essay, published when the composer’s last compositions were little-known. Supplemented with nine musical examples. With regard to the dissemination during the 1950s of Liszt’s last keyboard works, see Chapter 1. * Szabolczi. The Twilight of Ferenc Liszt. Described as item 478. LISZT’S COMPOSITIONAL TECHNIQUES Liszt’s characteristic compositional style, as well as many of his technical procedures and innovations, have been described and evaluated by dozens of experts. Published studies of style and compositional procedures “in general”—that is, throughout all or much of Liszt’s output, rather than in terms of individual compositions or genres—are described below; so are studies pertaining to aesthetic, programmatic, religious, and specialized influences and issues. On the other hand, studies limited to examining procedural and stylistic issues either in particular pieces or pieces for particular performing ensembles are described in Chapters 8–11. SURVEY STUDIES Only three broad-based, book-length discussions of Liszt’s compositional methods have appeared in print, two of them devoted exclusively to the keyboard etudes and transcriptions: 791. Gut, Serge. Franz Liszt: Les éléments du langage musical, pref. Jacques Chailley. Paris: Klincksieck, 1975. xvii, 504 pp. ISBN 2252017716. ML410.L7G95.

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Identifies and analyzes Liszt’s distinctive “musical language.” After summarizing his musical and literary outputs, Gut turns to such “grammatical” and “syntactical” topics as melody, harmony, and rhythm; within these broader categories he also discusses individual “words” and “phrases,” including pentatonic and “twelve-tone” melodic structures, the use of passages derived from bel canto opera arias, individual intervals as units of harmonic structure and expression, dissonance, modal writing, Hungarian and “Gypsy” rhythms, and so on. Illustrated with 200 musical examples, identified both in the text and in a separate index (pp. 501–4). Includes a useful bibliography and a catalog of Liszt’s works (pp. 473–95). A borderline study, dealing as much with compositional practices and influences as with genres and individual pieces. Revised from Gut’s dissertation, Franz Liszt: Les éléments du langage musical (University of Poitiers, 1972; 508 pp.), summarized in DAI 41 (1981), p. 680C [entry 5/4526c]. * MacIntosh. A Study of…Innovations [in]…Selected Etudes. Described as item 1034. * Bellak. Compositional Technique in the Transcriptions…. Described as item 1364. Another, much shorter study deals with Liszt’s overall style in terms of Romantic traditions and devices: 792. Jiránek, J[aroslav]. “Franz Liszts Beitrag zur Musiksprache der Romantiker.” In item 49, pp. 137–51. Evaluates the stylistic evolution of Liszt’s music, based in part on a comparative study of two versions of Vision and Wilde Jagd (“Transcendental Etudes” nos. 6 and 8). Jiránek, however, concentrates on stylistic rather than documentary issues in an attempt to deal comprehensively with Liszt’s contribution to the language of musical Romanticism. Illustrated with ten musical examples and two tables of differences between early and late versions of the etudes in question. A less significant study, devoted only in part to Romanticism and Liszt, appeared as György Kroó, “Einige Probleme des Romantischen bei Chopin und Liszt,” in The Book of the First International Musicological Congress Devoted to the Works of Frederic Chopin: Warsaw, 16–22 February 1960, ed. Zofia Lissa (Warsaw, 1963), pp. 319–23. STUDIES

OF

INDIVIDUAL COMPOSITIONAL PROCEDURES

Liszt employed virtually every device available to nineteenth-century composers: counterpoint, chromatic harmony, keyboard figures, modal figures, motivic and melodic transformation, various structural patterns and devices, and so on. Again, studies of such procedures involving individual compositions or genres

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are described in Chapters 8–11. Broader-based studies are described below, in alphabetical order—first, by procedure; then, unless otherwise indicated, by author and/or title. Cross-referenced studies are sometimes cited after “new” citations. Counterpoint 793. Willms, Christina-Maria. “Liszts Orchesterfugati. Programmische Funktion und kompositorische Gestaltung.” In item 41, pp. 217–31. Devoted to identifying, discussing, and evaluating the programmatic and structural significance of fugues and fugatos not only in the Faust symphony and Prometheus, but also in the “Gran” Mass, Psalm 13, the B-minor Sonata, and the Totentanz. Willms supplements her study with seven short, typeset musical examples; two tables, incomplete but nevertheless useful, of fugal passages in various works (pp. 219 and 224); and two facsimiles— one from an 1855 “overture” sketch, the other from an early edition of Prometheus. * Cinnamon. “Third-related Harmonies….” See item 806. Explains how such harmonies “serve as contrapuntal (melodically generated) chords that result from counterpoint and voice leading within the prolongation of a more structural harmony” (p. 1). Form Liszt’s ingenious—some would say, cavalier—use of existing musical forms and his facility in erecting “abstract” structures upon programmatic foundations, have received comparatively little attention from scholars. Two exceptions are: 794. Backus, Joan [Pauline]. Aspects of Form in the Music of Liszt: The Principle of Developing Ideas. Dissertation: Victoria University [Toronto, Canada], 1985. (No LC number available.) Not seen. According to DAI 47/3 (September 1986): 703A–704A, a study of the “delicate balance [in Liszt’s music] between the expression of thematic elements and the requirements of formal order.” Drawing on Carl Dahlhaus’s idea of the “history” of a theme, Backus describes thematic transformation (the “principle of developing ideas”) in the Harmonies poétiques et religieuses, the “Dante” sonata, the Faust symphony, and so on. Illustrated with musical examples. Concludes with a bibliography. See also item 1023. 795. Dalmonte, Rossana. “Franz Liszt: le parole e le forme.” In: Musica senza aggettivi: studi per Fedele d’Amico, 2 vols.; ed. Agostino Ziino. Quaderni della Rivista Italiana di Musicologica, 25. Florence: L. S. Olschki, 1991; vol. 1, pp. 355–63. ISBN 8822239032 [both vols.]. ML55.D22 1991.

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A short but intriguing discussion of the interactive roles played by words and musical form in Liszt’s music. Among the expressive devices Dalmonte mentions are citation and onomatopoeia. No musical examples, however. A larger number of scholars have discussed traditional structural patterns, especially sonata (also sonata-allegro) form, and Liszt’s compositional corpus: 796. Angerer, Manfred. “Die Einsamkeit der meditierenden Seele. Zu Liszts Konzeption der musikalischen Großform.” Österreichische Musikzeitschrift 41 (1986): 72–76. ISSN 0029-9316. ML5.O1983. Evaluates Liszt’s innovations in large-scale musical forms, with references to works such as the Symphonic Poems, the Sonata in b minor, Christus, and so on. Angerer maintains that Liszt rejected classical forms because they hindered the unity he sought to achieve between genuine expressiveness and large-scale structure. Illustrated only with a portrait of Liszt; contains no musical examples. * Kaplan. “Sonata Form in the Orchestral Works of Liszt….” Described as item 1148. * Kovács. “Formprinzipien…in den Spätwerken von Liszt.” Described as item 938. Deals, among other subjects, with Liszt’s structural use of such devices as whole-tone and “Hungarian” scale patterns. 797. Kroó, György. “A romantikus szonáta néhány problémája Chopin-nél és Liszt-nél.” Magyar zene 1/1 (September 1960): 23–30. ISSN 0025-0384. ML5.M14. Deals with “extensions” of traditional sonata-allegro patterns in the piano concertos and certain character pieces by Chopin and Liszt. Groundbreaking when it appeared in print, in spite of its brevity and lack of musical examples. * Saffle. “Sonata Form in Festklänge….” Described as item 1201. 798. Satyendra, Ramon. “Liszt’s Open Structures and the Romantic Fragment.” Music Theory Spectrum 19 (1997): 184–205. ISSN 0195-6167. MT6.M962. Almost exclusively a study of “open form” in Liszt’s late piano pieces, including the Csárdás obstinée, En rêve, the Mephisto Waltz no. 4, and the Valse oubliée no. 4; Satyendra has less to say about such equally “fragmentary” works as the early Apparitions, which also reflect notions “of ‘striving without reaching’” and reveal “a view of the compositional process as always in progress and, in this sense…incomplete” (p. 205). Includes fifteen musical examples.

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Harmony Liszt’s harmonic vocabulary was enormous, his use of that vocabulary flexible and imaginative. A variety of studies have explored these issues, among these a single volume devoted to the composer’s youthful innovations: 799. Torkewitz, Dieter. Harmonisches Denken im Frühwerk Franz Liszts. Freiburger Schriften zur Musikwissenschaft, 10. Munich: Emil Katzbichler, 1978. 127 pp. ISBN 3873970570. ML410.L7T25 1978. An intelligent analysis of Liszt’s compositional inventiveness between 1824 and 1839, almost entirely in terms of piano pieces. Torkewitz deals with such topics as Reicha’s possible influence on Liszt’s sense of unconventional harmony, the influence of programmism on harmonic choices, and the probability that Liszt made concessions in his post-1835 keyboard works because of the unfavorable reception his earliest pieces received from the critics. Profusely illustrated with musical examples; concludes with a lengthy bibliography. Other studies deal with harmonic aspects of Liszt’s late works: 800. Baker, James Marshall. “The Limits of Tonality in the Late Music of Franz Liszt.” Journal of Music Theory 34/2 (Fall 1990): 145–73. ISSN 0891-7639. ML1.J68. Considers Liszt’s later contributions to music literature largely as exemplifying “a delicate balance between tonal and nontonal structures” (p. 146); Baker pays special attention to En rêve, RW—Venezia, and Unstern!; he also discusses Liszt’s influence on Scriabin (the last, pp. 171–72). Includes seven musical examples. * Lemoine. Tonal Organization in Selected Late Piano Works…. Described as item 1096. * Ott. “Closing Passages and Cadences in the Late Piano Music….” Described as item 1097. It is difficult to exaggerate the impact of Heinrich Schenker’s approach to harmonic analysis on American music theorists. Surprisingly, only two Schenkerian studies of Liszt’s music have appeared to date: 801. Damschroder, David Allen. The Structural Foundations of “The Music of the Future”: A Schenkerian Study of Liszt’s Weimar Repertoire. Dissertation: Yale University, 1981. iv, 185 pp. ML410.L6D189. Proposes that “linear analytical procedures” similar to those developed by Schenker can be used to demonstrate “creditable—and successful—extensions of compositional procedures in ten works written by Liszt during the

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late 1840s and 1850s, among them the Sonata in b minor, movements of the Faust symphony, and several shorter piano pieces. Damschroder also deals briefly with the evolution of Zukunftsmusik (“Music of the Future”) as well as Weimar’s importance in nineteenth-century musical history. Numerous musical examples. Summarized in DAI 42/5 (November 1981), p. 1843A; reprinted in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 13 (1983): 190–91. See, too, item 807. 802. White, John D. “Liszt and Schenker.” In item 42, pp. 353–64. Confronts the fact that “Heinrich Schenker seems to have entirely avoided the music of Franz Liszt” (p. 353) and explains the role of Kulturkampf values in shaping the theorist’s outlook. White then turns to Chasse-neige (“Transcendental Etude” no. 12): a work “so convincing” in its modulations “that it [could] serve well as an example of chormatic harmony in a sophomore theory course” (p. 356). Illustrated with several diagrams and musical examples—among them, one of the “Chasse-neige ‘Urlinie’ and ‘Ursatz,’” two middle-ground analyses of the same etude, one as an “SATB chorale phrase,” and a full-fledged diagrammatic representation of the etude in Schenkerian terms (the last, pp. 357–61). Paul Merrick, a British musicologist who teaches in Budapest, has published a series of interrelated studies dealing with Liszt’s fondness for—as well as the structural and programmatic significance of—particular keys and key signatures. Merrick’s studies include: 803. Merrick, Paul. “G flat or F sharp? The Cycle of Keys in Liszt’s Music.” In item 41, pp. 188–200. Raises two interrelated and apparently unanswerable questions: why didn’t Liszt composed a “Transcendental” etude with a six-flat key signature? and why did he almost invariably employ F-sharp Major instead of G-flat Major in other of his works? Merrick believes the answer may lie in Liszt’s use of C-sharp Major, which may have suggested “eternity” [aeternitas (p. 194)] to him, as well as in the fact that only Christus “presents us with [Liszt’s] completed key system in relation to the whole cycle of 5ths” (p. 200). Includes several tables pertaining to keys, key signatures, and various compositions that employ large numbers of sharps and flats; also includes five musical examples. 804. Merrick, Paul. “Liszt’s Use of the Key of D Major: Some Observations.” Liszt Society Journal 23 (1998): 27–32. ML410.L7L6. Proposes a link between a “religious element” in many Liszt works and D Major as tonality and key signature; among such “elements” are the grandioso section [m. 101] of the B-minor Sonata, portions of the Dante

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symphony, and a particular passage [mm. 178–222] from the Bénédiction de Dieu dans la solitude movement of the Harmonies poétiques. Merrick observes that the “only music in Christus in D Major has a text about Mary” (p. 32); true, but all of the music in Liszt’s oratorios is “religious”! Includes three tables of compositions and key references but no musical examples. 805. Merrick, Paul. “‘nach Ges dur’ [sic]: Liszt’s Marking in His Copy of Handel’s Opera ‘Almira.’” Studia Musicologica 42 (2001): 349–72. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. A study not only of Liszt’s sole Handel paraphrase, the Sarabande und Chaconne (item 852), but of the significance of G-flat Major as tonality and key signature throughout his musical output. Best read in conjunction with items 803 and 804. Includes several diagrams as well as seven examples, among them the complete Liszt-Handel paraphrase (pp. 350–56). Finally, see items 1007 and 1248. Fourteen additional studies of Liszt’s various harmonic practices are described or cross-referenced below: 806. Cinnamon, Howard. “Tonal Arpeggiation and Successive Equal Third Relations as Elements of Tonal Evolution in the Music of Franz Liszt.” Music Theory Spectrum 8 (1986): 1–24. ISSN 0195-6167. MT6.M962. Evaluates the unbalancing effects of augmented triads and other “equal third relations” in several of Liszt’s characteristic works. Includes diagrams and seventeen musical examples. See, too, the same author’s “Third-related Harmonies as Elements of Contrapuntal Prolongation in Some Works by Franz Liszt,” In Theory Only 12/5–6 (September 1992): 1–30, which refers to Blume und Duft, the Faust symphony, Spozalizio, and other pieces; this article contains thirteen inset examples as well as eight full pages of music. 807. Damschroder, David Allen. “Structural Levels: A Key to Liszt’s Chromatic Art.” College Music Symposium 27 (1987): 46–58. ISSN 0069-5696. ML1.C825. Argues that “Roman-numeral” analysis of Romantic harmony is doomed to failure, and that only a Schenkerian approach to those practices can help critics understand Liszt’s “chromatic practice.” Illustrated with more than a dozen examples, including isolated chord progressions, Schenkerian diagrams, and excerpts from such works as the Sonata in b minor and Vallée d’Obermann. 808. “‘Exempli gratia’: When Is an Augmented-sixth Chord not an Augmentedsixth Chord?” In Theory Only 1/11–12 (February–March 1976): 76–79. ISSN 0360-4365. ML1.I59.

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An unsigned analysis of the chord in measure 1 of Liszt’s song Il m’aimait tant, together with an explanation that, in its several appearances in the song, the chord in question never functions as a “German” augmentedsixth. Includes musical examples. 809. Hitzlberger, Thomas. “Zwischen Tonalität und Rationalität. Anmerkungen zur Sequenz- und Figurationstechnik Liszts.” In item 979, pp. 32–59. Deals almost equally with characteristic motivic or scalar figures (wholetone passages, “circles of thirds,” passages derived from diminished-seventh chords, chromatic figures, etc.) in Liszt’s music and with the harmonic working-out of those motifs and figures. Illustrated with motivic examples and diagrams—a few of the latter are difficult to “read”—as well as longer excerpts from the Faust symphony, various keyboard etudes, and the Totentanz for piano and orchestra. 810. Longyear, Rey M., and Kate R. Covington. “Liszt, Mahler, and a Remote Tonal Relationship in Sonata Form.” In: Studien zur Instrumentalmusik. Lothar Hoffmann-Erbrecht zum 60. Geburtstag, ed. Anke Bingmann et al. Frankfurter Beiträge zur Musikwissenschaft, 20. Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1988; pp. 457–68. ISBN 3795205263. ML460.S9 1988. Describes Liszt’s use of tonic-minor/mediant-major modulations, possibly “the most remote feasible key-relationship[s] for the construction of a sonata-form exposition in the nineteenth century” (p. 458). Illustrated with musical examples drawn from Tasso and the first and third movements of the Faust symphony as well as Mahler’s Symphony no. 2. 811. Longyear, Rey M., and Kate R. Covington. “Tonic Major, Mediant Major: A Variant Tonal Relationship in 19th-century Sonata Form.” Studies in Music [University of Western Ontario] 10 (1985): 105–39. ISSN 0703-3052. Deals with the specified harmonic relationship in Les Préludes and Orpheus (pp. 126–30) as well as works by Beethoven, Dvor ák, Rimsky-Korsakov, and other Romantic composers. Includes three diagrams and numerous musical examples. ˆ

812. Revitt, Paul J. “Franz Liszt’s Harmonization of Linear Chromaticism.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 13 (1983): 25–52. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. A comparatively detailed discussion of Liszt’s harmonizations of chromatic lines, based on the assumption that such harmonizations must be understood as “part of a broader view of nineteenth-century musical style” (p. 25). Beginning with simpler examples, Revitt works his way through passages

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taken from the Faust symphony, portions of the Album d’un voyageur, the “Transcendental” and “Paganini” etudes, Hungaria, and so on. Includes thirtytwo musical examples, several of them reproduced from full orchestral scores. 813. Rummenhöller, Peter. “Die verfremdte Kadenz: Zur Harmonik Franz Liszts.” Zeitschrift für Musiktheorie 9 (1978): 4–16. ML5.Z42. Describes delayed and avoided cadential patterns in such compositions as the Concerto in A Major, Orpheus, and two of the “Petrarch Sonnets” as well as works by Beethoven. Rummenhöller concludes that altered cadential patterns do more to disturb “cadential events” than do other kinds of chromaticism. Illustrated with twenty-four musical examples. A similar synopsis appeared as “Zur Harmonik Franz Liszts” in Rummenhöller’s Romantik in der Musik: Analysen, Portraits, Reflexionen (Kassel and Munich: Bärenreiter and Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1989; ISBNs 342344934 [“dtv”] and 376184493X [“Bärenreiter”]), pp. 181–85. 814. Satyendra, Ramon. “Conceptualising Expressive Chromaticism in Liszt’s Music.” Music Analysis 16 (1997): 219–52. ISSN 0262-5245. ML1.M2125. Examines the significance of certain innovations by referring to the Csárdás obstinée and Via crucis as well as the B-minor Sonata, Beethoven’s op. 81a Sonata, Wagner’s Rheingold, and a number of other works. Satyendra acknowledges that “the notion of a contextually defined syntactical process runs against the grain of tonal analysis” (p. 244), and that works such as the Csárdás obstinée are “‘equivocal’” in their “semblance” of nontonal syntax (p. 245). Includes twenty musical examples. Like item 798, based on the author’s dissertation, Chromatic Tonality and Semitonal Relationships in Liszt’s Late Style, 2 vols. (University of Chicago, 1992). 815. Seidel, Elmar. “Über den Zusammenhang zwischen der sogenannten Teufelsmühle und dem 2. Modus mit begrenzter Transponierbarkeit in Liszts Harmonik.” In item 47, pp. 172–206. Traces the history of the so-called “Devil’s Mill” harmonic progression built upon a rising or falling chromatic bass-line and consisting entirely of dominant-seventh, diminished-seventh, and second-inversion chords. Seidel describes how Liszt uses related progressions in the “Dante” sonata, Ce qu’on entend sur la montagne, and Ab irato. Concludes with twenty-six musical examples, several of them “Devil’s Mill” patterns. 816. Skoumal, Zdenek. “Liszt’s Androgynous Harmony.” Music Analysis 13 (1994): 51–72. ISSN 0262-5245. ML1.M2125. Begins by examining the “weakening of tonal syntax that characterises late nineteenth-century music” (p. 51), then goes on to examine three late piano

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pieces: La lugubre gondola I, Nuages gris, and R.W.—Venezia. Skoumal’s principal argument is that Lisztian harmony, “with its circles of thirds is harmony that seems, at times, to deny the existence of the dominant” and thus becomes “androgynous,” a construct “entirely at home within the radically transformed musical language of the early twentieth century” (p. 70). Outfitted with nineteen musical examples, including reductions and sets of chord progressions taken from or relating to Die tote Nachtigall, the Missa pro organo, and all of Sei still (the last, pp. 56–57). 817. Sólyom, György. “Álkonszonanciák. Sajátos harmóniai jelenség Liszt kései zenéjében.” Magyar zene 25 (1984): 161–64. ISSN 0025-0384. ML5.M14. A short study of “false consonances,” enharmonic chord progressions, and harmonic patterns in several Liszt works. Includes nine musical examples. * Walker. “Liszt and the 20th Century” Described as item 926. Like several closely related studies, considers harmonic gestures insofar as they anticipate “modern” musical practices. 818. Zeke, Lajos. “‘Successive Polymodality’ or Different Juxtaposed Modes Based on the Same Final in Liszt’s Works: New Angle on the ‘Successive and Simultaneous’ Unity of Liszt’s Musical Language.” In item 49, pp. 173–85. Describes harmonic variation in Liszt’s music, especially the Sonata in b minor, through an examination of scales and chords that share common final tones. Zeke also discusses tritone figures and the “Gypsy” scale (item 824). A difficult article to summarize, and one that perhaps has as much to do with scalar patterns as with harmonic language and function. Illustrated with several diagrams and five musical examples. A version of this article appeared as “Szukszcessziv polimodalitás. A hangrendszer kiépítésének egy sajátos módja Liszt mu# veiben” in Magyar zene 27 (1986): 83–101. Modality, Modal Harmony, and “Exotic” Scales Most of the unusual scales, melodic patterns, and harmonic progressions in Liszt’s compositions can be divided into two categories: those generally familiar to European composers before the middle of the nineteenth century and those of “exotic,” antique, or folk origin. Patterns derived from or related to the Church modes of Medieval and Renaissance music, for example, appear in a number of works. The most detailed descriptions of these patterns appears in: 819. Bárdos, Lajos. “Modale Harmonien in den Werken von Franz Liszt,” trans. Imre Ormay. In item 54, pp. 133–67. Identifies and discusses harmonic progressions in Liszt’s music derived from Catholic liturgical music as well as such modified modes as the so-called

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“harmonic” major, the Indolydian scale, and so on. Copiously illustrated with musical examples, many of them taken from sacred works—Christus, the Hungarian Coronation Mass, and Die Legende von der heiligen Elisabeth—as well as pieces by Josquin, Lasso, and Palestrina. Originally published under the title “Modális harmóniák Liszt mu# veiben” in Zenetudományi tanulmányok 3 (1955): 55–81, supplemented with summaries in German (p. 550) and English (p. 551). Also published under the same title in Harminc irás (Budapest, 1969). 820. Gut, Serge. “Die historische Position der Modalität bei Franz Liszt.” In item 46, pp. 97–103. A brief review of selected modal melodic and harmonic patterns found in such sacred compositions as Christus, the “Seven Sacraments,” and the Pater noster of 1878. Among other issues raised by Gut is Liszt’s claim to have composed the nineteenth-century’s first “entirely modal piece of music” [erstes durchgened modales Stück (p. 101)]: the Te deum laudamus of 1859. Includes eight musical examples. Six additional studies of scalar patterns, especially “exotic” patterns, employed by Liszt are described or cross-referenced below: 821. Bárdos, Lajos. “Die volksmusikalischen Tonleitern bei Liszt,” trans. Imre Ormay and Franz Winkler. In item 54, pp. 168–96. Identifies scalar patterns in Liszt’s works derived from traditional music, especially Hungarian folk tunes, and discusses their significance in the Hungarian Rhapsodies, Christus and St. Elisabeth, the Sonata in b minor, and so on. Illustrated with dozens of musical examples, some of them taken from Bartók’s music. Concludes with a table of the thirteen principal scales Liszt borrowed from folk music—for example, the “Hungarian” minor, modified Aeolian, Dorian, and Phrygian scales, the so-called “Kecskeméti” scale, and so on. Originally published under the title “Liszt Ferenc népi hangsorai” in Harminc írás (Budapest, 1969). Another article by Bárdos dealing with Liszt’s use of “exotic” scales appeared as “Liszt Ferenc ‘népi’ hangsorai” in Magyar zenetörténeti tamulmányok 1 (1968): 177–200. NB: The Tamulmányok includes issues published under their own titles (see item 898). 822. Gárdonyi, Zoltán. “Neue Ordnungsprinzipien der Tonhöhen in Liszts Frühwerken.” In item 54, pp. 226–73. Describes the appearance in Liszt’s youthful piano pieces of whole-tone and pentatonic scalar figures, modulations and chord progressions based on whole-tone patterns, and the use of Neapolitan chords and progressions in subdominant passages. Includes fifty-eight musical examples, several of

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them from works by Chopin and Bartók. An outstanding study, equipped with a large number of notes and references to secondary sources (pp. 269–73). Apparently revised and expanded from item 823. 823. Gárdonyi, Zoltán. “Neue Tonleiter- und Sequenztypen in Liszts Frühwerken (Zur Frage der ‘Lisztschen Sequenzen’).” Studia Musicologica 11 (1969): 169–99. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. Discusses motivic and scalar materials in youthful Liszt keyboard compositions, including whole-tone passages, the tritone, diminished and augmented thirds, and so on, and their significance in such works as the original version of the Harmonies poétiques et religieuses, the “Malédiction” concerto, and the Grand galop chromatique. Copiously illustrated with musical examples. Earlier studies by Gárdonyi have been incorporated into more recent publications; see, for example, his “Distancia-elvu# jelenségek Liszt zenéjében,” Zenetudományi tanulmányok 3 (1955): 91–100, for which German- and English-language summaries also exist (p. 551). * Kovács. “Formprinzipien und ungarische Stileigentümlichkeiten….” Described as item 938. Refers throughout to “exotic” (i.e., Hungarian) and whole-tone patterns in Liszt’s late piano pieces. 824. Ott, Leonard [W]. “The Gypsy Scale: A Stylistic Detail.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 2 (1977): 24–31. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Evaluates the role played by the so-called “Gypsy” scale (C/D/E-flat/Fsharp/G/A-flat/B/C) in a large sample of Liszt’s works, including the fourth “Mephisto Waltz,” the Trauer-Vorspiel und Marsch, and the Csárdás macabre. Illustrated with thirteen musical examples. * Thompson. The Evolution of Whole-Tone Sound…. Described as item 986. Motivic and Thematic Processes A skillful creator of melodies, Liszt established an even greater reputation for himself as a “transformer” of melodic materials, whether written originally by himself or by other composers. The most fulsome studies of melodic transformation in Liszt’s music remain: 825. Anderson, John Lyle. Motivic and Thematic Transformation in Selected Works of Liszt. Dissertation: The Ohio State University, 1977. xiv, 154 pp. MT92.L57A5 1977aM. Explores thematic transformation as a process common to the works of Liszt, Berlioz, and Franck, and explains how that process functions in such

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compositions as the Sonata in b minor, the Faust symphony, Les Préludes, and the Piano Concerto no. 2. Through analysis, Anderson attempts to answer “the provocative question: what can be done to a given thematic idea?” in “free form” music of the mid-nineteenth century; he also mentions thematic-transformational processes in works by Bartók and Schoenberg. Includes analytical diagrams and tables, musical examples, and a bibliography. Summarized in DAI 38/5 (November 1977), p. 2400A; reprinted in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 8 (1980): 102–3. * Fowler. “Multilevel Motivic Projection….” Described as item 982. * Hitzlberger. “Zwischen Tonalität und Rationalität….” Described as item 809. 826. Viret, Jacques. “L’expressivité mélodique chez Franz Liszt: Etude de sémantique musicale.” In item 47, pp. 237–44. A brief discussion of mostly undulating melodic patterns—rather than, say, rhythmic patterns associated with thematic transformations—in Sposalizio and such songs as “Petrarch Sonnet” no. 123, Freudvoll und leidvoll, and Ich möchte hingehn, as well as portions of Christus and the Faust symphony. Illustrated with thirty-three musical examples; concludes with a one-page list of their sources. Particular motifs reappear in much of Liszt’s music, among them a fanfarelike figure associated with Swiss alphorns and ringing bells. Two scholars have written about various iterations of this figure: 827. Batta, András. “Die ‘Glockenspiel-Idee’ bei Liszt: Ein Problem der Lisztschen Kompositionstechnik.” In item 47, pp. 25–35. Describes the appearance of a “Glockenspiel-motive” (e.g., G-sharp/E/Csharp) and related motives in such works as Les Cloches de Genève, portions of the “Transcendental Etudes,” the Weihnachtsbaum suite, and so on. Outfitted with nine musical examples. Another version of this article appeared under the title “A ‘harangjátékelv’ Liszt zenéjében” in Magyar zene 20 (1979): 147–56. 828. Den Berg, Rudolf [Johannes] van. “A Chracteristic Type of Motif as a Syntactic Idiosyncrasy in Compositions by Franz Liszt.” SAMUS: South African Journal of Musicology / Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir musiekwetenskap 12 (1992): 67–85. ISSN 0258-509X. ML5.S667. Identifies and carefully examines various forms of an “alphorn,” “bell,” or “fanfare” motif composed of four notes, “three of which outline melodically a single triad” while the fourth is “positioned…so as to form a stepwise conjunction to one of the triad members” (p. 67). In its “bell” form this

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motif can be identified “in actual clock chimes, such as the well known Cambridge of Westminster quarters composed by William Crotch in 1793” (p. 68); in this and other forms it appears in such different works as Am Grabe Richard Wagners, Book III of the Années de pèleringe, the Faust symphony, the Album d’un voyageur, and Via crucis, where it plays various structural and programmatic roles. Includes nineteen musical examples as well as endnotes that mention item 827; also includes one-paragraph summaries in English and Afrikaans. Based on the author’s Afrikaans dissertation, Klokkespelmotiewe as vormgenerende klankselle in die laat werke van Franz Liszt (University of South Africa, 1989). Keyboard figures also play various roles in Liszt works for both piano and instrumental ensembles: 829. Seidel, Wilhelm. “Über Figurationsmotive von Chopin und Liszt.” In: Report on the International Musicological Society Congress, 1972, ed. Henrik Glahn et al. Copenhagen: Hansen, 1974; pp. 647–51. ML36.I67 1972. A cursory discussion of the character of keyboard figuration in the Baroque, Classic, and Romantic periods, as well as its influence on rhythm and form. Includes musical examples from Chopin’s and Liszt’s works. Other Compositional Procedures * Arnold. “Recitative in Liszt’s Solo Piano Music.” Described as item 981. Explores the appearance of instrumental recitatives in a surprisingly large number of the composer’s keyboard works. 830. Chomi n´ ski, Jósef M. “Einige Probleme der Klangtechnik von Liszt.” In item 50, pp. 37–47. Deals with densities, timbres, accented notes and chords, rhythmic patterns, dynamics, and other aspects of sheer sound in Liszt’s output as a whole, especially some of his religious works. No musical examples. Originally published in Polish as “G l owne problemy techniki dzwiekowej Liszta” in Muzyka [Warsaw] 6/4 (1961): 37–46; translated into German on pp. 102–9 of the same periodical. 831. Federhofer, Hellmut. “Die Diminution in den Klavierwerken von Chopin und Liszt.” In item 50, pp. 49–57. Devoted to such characteristic Lisztian keyboard figures as octaves, scalelike ornaments, arpeggios of several kinds, and so on. Federhofer also comments on the declamatory character of certain Liszt melodies, likening them to operatic tunes; he refers especially to Chopin’s Ballade no. 4 as

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well as numbers from Liszt’s Années de pèlerinage and Hungarian Rhapsodies. Includes two short musical examples. Another, somewhat more general comparison of Chopin’s and Liszt’s piano writing exists. See Yakov Mil’shtein, “Fortepiannaya faktura Shopena i Lista” in The Book of the First International Musicological Congress Devoted to the Works of Frederic Chopin: Warsaw, 16–22 February 1960, ed. Zofia Lissa (Warsaw, 1963): 341–46. Unfortunately, Mil’shtein’s article is available only in Russian and lacks musical examples. 832. Stricker, Rémy. “Liszt et l’emprunt.” In item 48, pp. 65–72. A brief, unsatisfactory introduction literally to “borrowings” in Liszt’s music, including self-borrowings in Christus, Spozalizio (“borrowed” from Ralphael’s painting), the Trauermarsch for piano solo, and other works. Intriguing but undocumented; also lacks musical examples. 833. Torkewitz, Dieter. “Modell, Wiederholung—Sequenz. Über Liszts Technik der Intensivierung, mit einer Anmerkung zu Wagner.” In item 874, pp. 177–88. Describes Liszt’s regular “intensification” of harmonic and melodic materials through repetition and transformation; Torkewitz systematically analyzes how the composer employed such procedures in Hamlet as well as portions of Orpheus and Wagner’s Siegfried. Contains several diagrams and about a dozen short musical examples. LISZT’S MUSIC AND STYLISTIC INFLUENCES Liszt influenced—and was influenced by—more than a dozen important composers as well as the national and traditional musics of France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Russia, and so on. Studies emphasizing musical influences on Liszt and of Liszt’s musical influences on others are described below. Studies emphasizing Liszt’s personal and professional relationships with other composers, as well as his travels and international activities, are described in Chapter 5. SURVEY STUDIES No large-scale survey exists of Liszt’s musical background, but two short articles serve as introductions to it: 834. Altenburg. “Kompositorische Einflüsse—Einführung.” In item 786, pp. 15–18. Summarizes in a very few pages Liszt’s stylistic “location” in nineteenthcentury music.

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835. Walker, Alan. “Liszt’s Musical Background.” In item 38, pp. 36–78. A useful summary of the most important musical influences on Liszt’s compositions and style. Among other figures, Walker discusses Chopin, Czerny, Paganini, and Wagner; he also refers to other piano virtuosos, including Dreyschock and Thalberg, as well as the evolution of Liszt’s keyboard style. Includes a black-and-white reproduction of Barabás’s 1847 and Lehmann’s 1839 oil portraits of Liszt, a facsimile of a page from a holograph of the composer’s Polonaise in c minor, and thirty-eight musical examples taken from the “Transcendental” and “Paganini” etudes, the Sonata in b minor, and such late works as Am Grabe Richard Wagners. CLASSICAL, “ANTIQUE,”

AND

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ON

LISZT’S MUSIC

“Antique” influences on Liszt’s music-making include Bach, Handel, grand opera, and Gregorian chant as well as the works of Haydn, Mozart, and other pre-Romantic masters. The two studies described below emphasize “classical” music “in general” and Liszt’s compositional style: 836. Chantavoine, Jean. “Franz Liszt et l’art classique.” Le Courrier musical [Paris] 9 (1906): 193–98 and 231–35. ML5.C708. Discusses formal and expressive influences exerted by classical composers, especially Beethoven, on Liszt’s music. In the second part of this article Chantavoine deals with such works as Les Préludes and the Faust symphony to demonstrate that his subject made use of, but was not pinned down by, classical models. Unfortunately contains no musical examples. 837. Felix, Werner. “Franz Liszt a klasika / Franz Liszt und die Klassik.” In item 45, pp. 21–38. A brief survey of eighteenth-century musical influences on Liszt—Bach and Handel among them. Includes no musical examples. An “appendix” to this article appeared under the title “Noch einmal: Franz Liszt und die Klassik” in item 45, pp. 64–70. Two other articles deal with pluralistic or “mixed”—which is to say, old and new—aspects of Liszt’s compositions: 838. Ackermann, Peter. “Alte und neue Musik im Spätwerk Franz Liszts.” In: Alte Musik als ästhetische Gegenwart. Bericht über den internationalen musikwissenschaftlichen Kongreß Stuttgart 1985, 2 vols. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1987; vol. 2, pp. 251–55. ISBN 3761807678. ML36.I629 1985. An intriguing discussion of “antique” musical elements (e.g., the appearance of complete Protestant hymn tunes in unusual settings, melodic

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references—or possible references—to works by Hassler and Bach, use of modal harmonies, etc.) in such works as the Via crucis. Ackermann argues that quotations from older works did not provide Liszt with “novel” musical material; instead, they suited his last years, his mood of compositional negation (p. 254). Includes a single short musical example. 839. Eriksen, Asbjørn Ø. “Liszt og det forvirrende mangfold. Noen tanker etter Liszt-jubileet.” Studia Musicologica Norvegica [Oslo] 13 (1987): 113–30. ISSN 0332-5024. ML3797.1.S87. An interesting, necessarily abbreviated survey of Liszt’s stylistic “pluralism” (English-language summary, p. 130), including Renaissance, Baroque, Viennese-classical, Romantic, Impressionist, and atonal elements. Among other secondary sources, Eriksen cites in his notes articles by Scandinavian scholars otherwise unknown in the literature. Illustrated with thirteen musical examples drawn from the Bagatelle sans tonalité, Christus, the Consolations, the Missa choralis, the Sonata in b minor, Unstern!, and so on. Inadvertently omitted from items 71 and 72. Finally, another article deals with a genre associated both with seventeenthand eighteenth-century musicians and with much of Liszt’s compositional output: 840. Saffle, Michael. “Liszt and the Traditions of the Keyboard Fantasy.” In item 40, pp. 151–85. Reviews the many and various traditions, some of them little-known today, associated especially with eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century fantasies in general and keyboard fantasies in particular. Saffle points out that, between 1829 and 1835, “Liszt drew increasingly upon keyboard fantasy traditions and made them his own” (p. 176) in the Allegro di bravura, the Apparitions, and the Fantaisie romantique sur deux mélodies suisses; later, these traditions were taken over into the composer’s Sonata, his Symphonic Poems, and other mature musical works. Illustrated with twelve examples drawn from the pieces mentioned above as well as Chopin’s Fantaisie, op. 49, and Mozart’s C-minor Fantasy (K. 475). INFLUENCES EXERTED

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BY

EARLIER COMPOSERS

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STYLES

Nineteen books and articles are described below in alphabetical order—first, by composer or stylistic movement; then, for the most part, by author and/or title: Johann Sebastian Bach 841. Heinemann, Michael. Die Bach-Rezeption von Franz Liszt. Musik und Musikanschauung im 19. Jahrhundert, 1. Cologne: “studio,” 1993. 275 pp. ISBN 3895640042. ML410.L7H344 1996.

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An invaluable introduction to Liszt’s lifelong involvement with Bach’s music. Heinemann sets out to correct assumptions that Liszt’s significance was altogether future-oriented […der Bedeutung Liszts für die Neue Musik (p. 7)]; on the other hand, he seeks to avoid presenting Liszt as the “culmination” [Kulminationspunkt (p. 7)] of what began as an eighteenthcentury musical tradition. Perhaps the most interesting portion of Heinemann’s monograph is Chapter 5 (pp. 196–220), which considers “implicit compositional practices” [implizites Komponieren] and reveals reflections of such works as Bach’s Magnificat and Cantatas 31, 71, and 80 throughout Liszt’s corpus. Includes two appendices: the first identifies pieces of sheetmusic by Bach that survive in Liszt’s Nachlaß, in this instance owned by Weimar’s Zentralbibliothek (pp. 233–36); the second presents the contents of Gottschalg’s Repertorium, for which Liszt prepared several Bach arrangements (pp. 237–46). Illustrated with a host of musical examples. Unindexed; concludes, however, with an outstanding bibliography. 842. Kabisch, Thomas. “Zur Bach-Rezeption Franz Liszts.” In: Alte Musik als ästhetische Gegenwart. Bericht über den internationalen musikwissenschaftlichen Kongreß Stuttgart 1985, 2 vols. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1987; vol. 1, pp. 477–84. ISBN 3761807678. ML36.I629 1985. Identifies and evaluates Bach quotations or paraphrases in such works as Liszt’s “Weinen, Klagen” variations and his piano transcription of Bach’s Prelude and Fugue in g minor (BWV 542). Includes five musical examples, four of them in an appendix. Another comparatively brief study places both composers together geographically and culturally; see François Sabatier’s “Weimar de Jean-Sébastien Bach à Franz Liszt” in L’Orgue no. 246 (1998): 13–18, which also describes Liszt’s residences at the Altenburg and Hofgärtnerei. 843. Redepenning, Dorothea. “Franz Liszts Auseinandersetzung mit Johann Sebastian Bach.” Studia Musicologica 32 (1992): 97–123. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. Much of this article is devoted to a comparative study of the so-called “BACH Prelude and Fugue” in both Liszt’s organ and piano versions and August Stradal’s arrangement, although Redepenning also considers the “Weinen, Klagen” variations and Via crucis as well as the full scope of Bach’s influence on Liszt’s style as a whole. Includes a table of when Liszt worked on which of his Bach-related works between 1842 and 1877 (pp. 98–99); also includes eleven musical examples. See, too, item 476. Ludwig van Beethoven By far the most thorough discussion of Liszt’s reaction to Beethoven’s life and music is:

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844. Schröter, Axel. “Der Name Beethoven ist heilig in der Kunst”: Studien zu Liszts Beethoven-Rezeption, 2 vols. Musik und Musikanschauung im 19. Jahrhundert; Studien und Quellen, 6. Sinzig: “studio,” 1999. ISBN 389564031X. ML410.L7S386 1999. A massive study of musical influence, concentrating on Liszt’s performances as pianist and conductor of Beethoven’s works, his transcriptions for piano of the Beethoven symphonies, and his own “Beethoven compositions”—including the Bonner Beethoven-Kantate of 1845 and the 1867 cadenza to Beethoven’s Third Piano Concerto—as well as certain similarities in style and procedure between such works as Beethoven’s “Moonlight” Sonata, op. 27, no. 2, and Liszt’s Pensée des morts. Schröter, however, does not discuss every possible link between the two composers; see, for example, William Drabkin’s discussion of the two composers’ Masses in D Major (item 846). Schröter’s vol. 1 contains a number of analytical charts and diagrams as well as numerous quotations from periodicals such as the Vossische Zeitung describing Liszt’s 1842 Beethoven performances in Berlin; vol. 2 consists of 109 often multi-partite musical examples (pp. 1–103), followed by a timeline spanning the years 1820–1886 (pp. 105–22), a list of sigla and sources (pp. 124–25), and a valuable bibliography of primary and secondary references. Not indexed. Originally presented as Schröter’s doctoral dissertation at the Universität Paderborn (1996). Other studies of Beethoven’s influence on Liszt include: 845. Damschroder, David. “Liszt’s Composition Lesson from Beethoven (Florence, 1838–1839): ‘Il Penseroso.’” Journal of the American Liszt Society 28 (1990): 3–19. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Explains that, in addition to “straightforward borrowings of rhythm, melody, and key center” from Beethoven’s early funeral marches, Il Penseroso also reflects Liszt’s “applications of larger-scale structural components” from his predecessor’s works (p. 5). Illustrated with a number of Schenkerian diagrams as well as musical examples taken from Beethoven’s Sonatas, opp. 26 and 27, no. 2; the Eroica symphony; and Schubert’s Wanderer fantasy. Also includes all of Il Penseroso (pp. 6–7) and an excerpt from La Notte. 846. Drabkin, William. “Beethoven, Liszt, and the ‘Missa solemnis.’” In item 39, pp. 237–52. Primarily a comparison of the Kyrie from Beethoven’s Missa solemnis, op. 123, with the opening of Liszt’s “Gran” Mass; nevertheless, Drabkin also considers the extent of the older composer’s influence overall, maintaining as he does that “the music of Liszt does not often suggest as direct comparison with Beethoven as with Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann, and

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Brahms” (p. 237)—a statement that Axel Schröter, in effect, partially refutes in item 844. Illustrated with three full-page, multi-partite musical examples as well as four tables of comparisons between Beethoven’s Mass and Liszt’s. 847. Loos, Helmut. “Die Beethoven-Nachfolge Franz Liszts.” In: Beethoven und die Nachwelt: Materialien zur Wirkungsgeschichte Beethovens, ed. Loos. Bonn: Beethoven-Haus, 1986; pp. 41–64. ML410.B41B4153 1986. A valuable introduction to Beethoven’s influence on Liszt’s life and music. Loos dodges the question of the older composer’s presence at Liszt’s concert of 13 April 1823, but he does discuss Beethoven works the younger composer played during his virtuoso tours of 1838–1847. Illustrated with several portraits as well as two facsimiles from Liszt’s piano transcriptions of Beethoven’s Third and Ninth Symphonies. 848. Stockhammer, Robert. “Die Bedeutung Beethovens im Leben Franz Liszts.” Musica 15 (1961): 529–34. ISSN 0027-4518. ML5.M71357. Summarizes some of Beethoven’s influence on Liszt’s activities and music. Stockhammer quotes from a variety of sources, including the famous Konversationshefte (or “conversation books”), in which the deaf older composer was forced to write down his various observations. Includes reproductions of two Beethoven portraits. 849. Tari, Lujza. “Eine instrumentale ungarische Volksmelodie und ihre Beziehungen zu Liszt und Beethoven.” Studia Musicologica 25 (1983): 61–71. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. Identifies a traditional “Gypsy” figure and discusses its appearance in both Liszt’s Hungarian Rhapsody no. 14 and the slow movement of Beethoven’s Quartet, op. 59, no. 2. Tari speculates that Liszt probably collected the melodic figure in question during his 1840s concert tours. Outfitted with about a dozen musical examples. 850. Wolff, Konrad. “Beethovenian Dissonances in Liszt’s Piano Works.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 1 (1977): 4–8. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Contends that Liszt’s concept of dissonance was influenced by Beethoven, and that “Liszt’s dissonances have little in common with Wagner’s”—which are employed “for the purpose of delaying a harmonic resolution”—but rather are intended “to evoke extreme states of mind” (p. 5). Wolff discusses especially three dissonant chords and chord progressions taken from the second Valse oubliée and Csárdás obstiné as well as Liszt’s cadenza for Beethoven’s C-minor Concerto (see item 63). Includes five musical examples, one of them from Beethoven’s op. 126 Bagatelles.

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Gregorian Chant 851. Sambeth, Heinrich. “Die Gregorianische Melodien in den Werken Franz Liszts, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung seiner kirchenmusikalischen Reformpläne.” Musica Sacra 55 (1925): 255–65. ISSN 0179-356X. ML5.M74. A discussion of Liszt’s Catholic faith and his lifelong interest in the reform of liturgical music, as well as the appearance of Gregorian melodies in such works as the Missa choralis. Unfortunately includes no musical examples, although the work from which it was derived—Sambeth’s doctoral dissertation Franz Liszt und die Gregorianische Melodien und ihre Bedeutung für die Entwicklung seiner Religiosität und Kunstanschauung (Universität Münster, 1923)—certainly does. NB: The title of Sambeth’s article appears in several forms throughout the Liszt literature. George Frederick Handel (or Händel) 852. Rackwitz, Werner. “Liszts Verhältnis zur Musik Georg Friedrich Händels.” In item 50, pp. 267–75. Deals with such topics as Liszt’s occasional performances during the 1840s of Handel keyboard works, his interest in some of Handel’s oratorios— among them, Judas Maccabeus and Messiah—and his arrangement of the Sarabande and Chaconne in 1873 from Almira (regarding the last work, see item 805). Lacks musical examples. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 853. Sittner, Hans. “Liszt und Mozart.” Österreichische Musikzeitschrift 27 (1972): 405–11. ISSN 0029-9316. ML5.O1983. A brief survey of Liszt’s attitudes toward Mozart’s music and his use of Mozartian themes in operatic paraphrases. Lacks musical examples. Other studies that mention Mozart’s impact upon Liszt’s music include James Parakilas’s article “Nineteenth-century Musical Tributes to Mozart,” published in Studies in Music [University of Western Ontario] 8 (1983), esp. pp. 54 ff. Regarding Liszt’s Don Giovanni paraphrase, see items 1405–1407. Giovanni Pierluigi Palestrina, the “Palestrinastil,” and the Capella Sistina The best studies of these interlocking influences—that of Palestrina on nineteenthcentury Cecilianist composers (Liszt among them) and on the music of the Sistine Chapel, Rome (and the Chapel’s music on Liszt’s works)—include:

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854. Domokos, Zsuzsanna. “The Musical Traditions of the Capella Sistina and Liszt’s Church Music.” In item 39, pp. 25–45. Proclaims that the conservative compositional style employed by nineteenthcentury Sistine Chapel musicians, proved itself a “most decisive” influence on Liszt’s church music, especially during his latter years (p. 25). Domokos also admits that, “Whereas Chapel composers aimed at preserving the spirit and style of Palestrina’s works, the fact remains that there were certain differences between their declared stylistic purity and their everyday practices” (p. 28)—or, in other words, that Palestrina’s music and Cecilianist liturgical works are not identical. Illustrated with fifteen examples reproducing portions of Giuseppe Baini’s Tantum ergo, Domenico Mustafà’s Dies irae, and Liszt’s Ave maris stellae, Missa choralis, plus all of Crux! Also published in Hungarian as “A Cappella Sistina tradíciójának hatása Liszt egyházzenei mu# veire” in Magyar zene 39 (2001): 355–74. See, too, Domokos’s other articles: “The ‘Miserere’ Tradition of the Cappella Sistina, Mirrored in Liszt’s Works,” in item 41, pp. 117–34 (also printed in Hungarian, but without accompanying illustrations and musical examples, as “A Cappella Sistina ‘Miserere’-tradicíójának hatása Liszt mu# veire,” pp. 108–16), and “The Performance Practice of the Cappella Sistina as Reflected in Liszt’s Church Music,” Studia Musicologica 41 (2000): 389–406. Finally, see Domokos, “Liszt’s Connection with the Cecilian Movement” in item 102, vol. 2, pp. 76–84, and Johann Herczog, “Liszts Verhältnis zur Accademia di Santa Cecilia. Zunftdenken und verdeckte Einflußnahme,” in item 1440, pp. 133–48 (the last, of course, only in passing concerned with Cecilianist issues). 855. Pozzi, Raffaele. “L’immagine ottocentesca del Palestrina nel rapporto tra Franz Liszt e il movimento ceciliano.” In: Palestrina e la sua presenza nella musica e nella cultura europea dal suo tempo ad oggi. Atti del II Convegno Internazionale di Studi Palestriniani, ed. Lino Bianchi and Giancarlo Rostirolla. Palestrina: Centro Studi Palestriniani, 1991; pp. 461–78. ML410.P15C78 1986 [sic]. A discussion and review of the secondary literature concerning such interrelated subjects as nineteenth-century Cecilianist music, the Palestrinastil, and relevant Liszt works—among them, the “Miserere” from the Harmonies poétiques et religieuses. Illustrated with three musical examples, including one drawn from Franz Xaver Witt’s Missa in Hon. S. Augustini and a comparable passage from Liszt’s Missa choralis. Shorter, less satisfactory studies of Palestrina’s influence on Liszt and his contemporaries also exist: 856. Ackermann, Peter. “Ästhetische und kompositionstechnische Aspekte der Palestrina-Rezeption bei Franz Liszt.” In: Palestrina und die Idee der

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klassischen Vokalpolyphonie im 19. Jahrhundert. Zur Geschichte eines kirchenmusikalischen Stilideals, ed. Winfried Kirsch et al. “Palestrina und die Kirchenmusik im 19. Jahrhundert,” 1. Regensburg: Gustav Bosse, 1989; pp. 243–56. ISBN 376492375X. ML2905.P34 1989 Bd. 1. A much more cursory study than items 854 and 855. Supplemented with two musical examples. 857. Seidel, Elmar. “Ueber die Wirkung der Musik Palestrinas auf das Werk Liszts und Wagners.” In item 874, pp. 162–76. Briefly examines Liszt’s contact with and fondness for Palestrina’s Stabat mater and Magnificat octo tonum, and the influence of those and other works on portions of the Missa choralis as well as Wagner’s Parsifal. Concludes with twelve hand-copied musical examples. Protestant Church Music 858. Gut, Serge. “Franz Liszt et le choral luthérien.” In: Histoire, humanisme, et hymnologie. Mélanges offerts au Professeur Edith Weber, ed. Pierre Guillot and Louis Jambou. “Musiques/Ecritures.” Paris: Presses de l’Université de Paris-Sorbonne, 1997; pp. 109–21. ISBN 2840500809. ML55.W28 1997. Describes how Liszt, himself a Catholic and a composer of Catholic liturgical music, employed Lutheran chorales in such works as his Huguenots fantasy, “Weinen, Klagen” variations, Via crucis and—with regard to original but “hymn-like” tunes—the Sonata in b minor, Les Morts, and the “St. Francis of Paola Walking on the Waters.” Includes five musical examples as well as a list of works employing relevant tunes (p. 110). 859. Sulyok, Imre. “Evangelisch-Lutherische Beziehung in den Werken von Franz Liszt.” Musik und Kirche 56 (1986): 125–28. ISSN 0027-4771. ML5.M9043. A compact survey of Lutheran elements in Liszt’s music, especially hymn tunes and music associated with Protestant texts. Among other compositions Sulyok refers to Liszt’s organ transcription of Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott, his setting of Der 137. Psalm and his use of the famous “B-A-C-H” (i.e., B-flat/A/C/B natural) motif in several nonliturgical works. No musical examples. INFLUENCES EXERTED

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Liszt was influenced by several composers and musical movements contemporaneous with him. No general study of such influences has ever been published; instead, scholars have discussed the influences exerted on Liszt’s music by individual nineteenth-century composers, especially Wagner. Biographical studies of

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other composers and Liszt are described in Chapter 5; certain studies of his relationship with the “Music of the Future” and other nineteenth-century compositional currents are described below; others are identified in item 1, vol. 2, pp. 338–67. Hector Berlioz 860. Haraszti, Emile. “Berlioz, Liszt, and the Rákóczy March.” The Musical Quarterly 26 (1940): 200–31. ISSN 0027-4631. ML1.M725. Traces the origins of the Rákóczy tune used by Berlioz and Liszt to Pannonia, a collection of Hungarian songs published between 1826 and 1829. Haraszti asserts that Liszt was the first to employ this melody (in the earliest version of his Hungarian Rhapsody no. 15) but that Berlioz made better use of it in his Damnation de Faust. Illustrated with several short musical examples, a facsimile of the first page of Berlioz’s Marche hongroise, and one of a poster advertising Berlioz’s concert at the National Hungarian Theater on 20 February 1846. See also item 879. Frédéric Chopin 861. Azoury, Pierre. “Fellow Pianist and Composer: Franz Liszt.” In: Azoury, Chopin Through His Contemporaries: Friends, Lovers, and Rivals. Contributions to the Study of Music and Dance, 54. Westport, CT, and London: Greenwood, 1999; pp. 127–49. ISBN 031330971X. ML410.C54A84 1999. At once a study of lives, personalities, and musical events and influences, all of which impacted upon Chopin. Although Azoury provides no musical examples, he does quote from Liszt’s correspondence; he also describes Liszt performances of—and with—Chopin, especially in Paris during the 1830s; finally, he comments on musical similarities and differences between the two composers, and discusses Liszt’s Chopin biography. 862. Badura-Skoda, Paul. “Chopin und Liszt.” Österreichische Musikzeitschrift 17 (1962): 60–64. ISSN 0029-9316. ML5.O1983. Mentions Liszt’s biography of Chopin, his use of mazurka rhythms in several piano pieces, his fondness for Chopin’s music, and so on. No musical examples, however. See, too, Dorel Handman’s “Chopin’s Influence on Two Liszt Etudes” in Musical America 69/3 (February 1949): 28 and 164; Handman’s briefer comments are supplemented with seventeen short musical examples. See also item 640, especially pp. 64–68. 863. Pattison, F. L. M. “A Folk Tune Associated with Chopin and Liszt.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 20 (1986): 38–41. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68.

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Identifies a tune incorporated by Chopin in a recently discovered Allegretto for piano and in Liszt’s Duo Sonata for piano and violin. Illustrated with a facsimile reproduction of the Chopin manuscript. Carl Czerny 864. Domokos, Zsuzsanna. “Carl Czernys Einfluß auf Liszt. Die Kunst des Fantasierens.” In item 786, pp. 19–28. Summarizes Czerny’s understanding of keyboard fantasy gestures, especially as presented in his Systematische Anleitung zum Fantasieren, op. 200, as well as the presence of such gestures in Liszt’s earliest keyboard works—among them, his Impromptu brillant on themes by Rossini and Spontini, his Rondo di bravura, and his “Rossini Variations” of 1824. Domokos does not go on, however, to consider Liszt’s later keyboard fantasies, nor does she extrapolate from keyboard-fantasy traditions to the gestures and organizational patterns found in his Sonata and Symphonic Poems. Concludes with three pages of musical examples, including excerpts from Czerny’s Anleitung and fantasy on Donizetti’s Lucrezia Borgia, op. 387; Ignaz Moscheles’s op. 70 studies; and Ferdinand Ries’s Grandes Variations sur un thème hongroise, op. 15. Also published as “Czerny hatása Lisztre: A fantaziálás mu# veszete” in Magyar zene 33 (1992): 70–96. NB: Czerny and Liszt may have influenced each other in their “Romantic” styles of keyboard composition. Studies on this topic include Randall Sweets, “Carl Czerny Reconsidered: Romantic Elements in His Sonata, op. 7,” Journal of the American Liszt Society 16 (1984): 54–71. * Gardavsky´ . “Liszt und seine tschechischen Lehrer.” Described as item 642. Refers briefly to keyboard technique, phrasing, and concert repertory. Felix Mendelssohn (also Mendelssohn-Bartholdy) 865. Little, William A. “Mendelssohn and Liszt.” In: Mendelssohn Studies, ed. R. Larry Todd. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992; pp. 106–25. ISBN 0521417767. ML410.M5M63 1992. Neatly and precisely evaluates encounters between the two composers during the 1830s and early 1840s, with an emphasis on Liszt’s visits to Leipzig in 1840 and 1842. Little, who correctly identifies Mendelssohn as “at best a reluctant Francophile” (p. 107), cites the familiar criticisms leveled by Mendelssohn personally against Liszt’s music and lifestyle as well as selected anti-Lisztian volleys by Mendelssohn biographers Heinrich Eduard Jacob, Herbert Kupferberg, and Erich Werner. Little’s contention, however, that Liszt played “the Dionysian” to Mendelssohn’s “Apollonian” à la Aschenbach and Tadzio in Thomas Mann’s Death in Venice (p. 125) altogether ignores Liszt’s profound religious convictions and plumps, once

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again, for the misleading pianist-vs.-composer dichotomy. As much biographical as musical in content; contains no musical examples. Giacomo Meyerbeer 866. Kantner, Leopold. “Meyerbeersche Spuren in Werken Franz Liszts.” In item 47, pp. 90–96. Evaluates Liszt’s knowledge of Meyerbeer’s works as well as stylistic similarities shared by both composers—among them, a willingness to use musical materials that originated in countries other than their own, a fondness for “bombastic” expressive devices and Italianate melody, and so on. Includes two musical examples, drawn from Tasso and Meyerbeer’s Le Prophète. Niccolò Paganini 867. Batta, András. “Paganini és Liszt.” Liszt kiskönyvtár 1 (1982): 7–14. An introduction to this interesting, often ignored topic. Unfortunately, this article, together with the “Little Liszt Library” in which it appears, may not exist in any American archive. For other “Little Liszt Library” publications, see items 515 and 532. Gioacchino Rossini 868. Risaliti, Riccardo. “Liszt & Rossini.” Liszt Society Journal 4 (1979): 16–19. ML410.L7L6. Reminds us of Liszt’s interest in bel canto melody as well as certain of Rossini’s compositions. Risaliti devotes most of his attention to transcriptions from and paraphrases of such works as the Soirées musicales and the operas Ermione and Armida; he also mentions the “lost” Siège de Corinthe variations, since rediscovered (see item 992). Illustrated with a single musical example from the opening of Liszt’s Impromptu brillant sur des thèmes de Rossini et Spontini. Translated by Adrian Williams from Risaliti’s Italianlanguage article “Rossini e Liszt,” published in the Bollettino del centro Rossiniano di studi no. 3 (1972): 40–46. Franz Peter Schubert The most fulsome discussion of Schubert’s influence on Liszt remains: 869. Kabisch, Thomas. Liszt und Schubert. Berliner musikwissenschaftliche Arbeiten, 23. Munich and Salzburg: Emil Katzbichler, 1984. 153 pp. ISBN 3873970635. ML390.K12 1984.

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An insightful discussion of Schubert’s music and its influence on Liszt’s performing career and compositional development. Kabisch evaluates the musical style of both composers in terms of variation-writing, rhythmic figures, harmony, part-writing, motivic and structural preferences, form, and so on; he goes on to analyze in some detail works such as Schubert’s A-minor Sonata, op. posth., and Liszt’s Totentanz; and he treats Liszt’s Schubert transcriptions and quotes eyewitness accounts of Liszt’s Schubert performances. Illustrated with numerous musical examples as well as quotations from letters, press clippings, and other documents; concludes with an unusually useful bibliography. Other studies of the same or closely related material include: 870. Hilmar, Ernst. “Das Schubert-Bild bei Liszt.” Schubert durch die Brille [Tutzing] no. 18 (1997): 59–68. ML410.S3S2989. Mostly devoted to Liszt’s transcriptions of Schubert songs, his Weimar production of Alfonso e Estrella, and the role of the Wanderer fantasy in his own music and performances. No musical examples. Other brief descriptions of Liszt’s indebtedness to Schubert include Luc van Hassalt’s “Liszt en Schubert,” published in Dutch in the Piano Bulletin 4/1 (1986): 42–44. 871. Hinrichsen, Hans-Joachim. “‘Gerüstklänge’: verwandte Prinzipien formbildender Harmonik bei Schubert und Liszt.” Schubert durch die Brille no. 11 (June 1993): 91–106. ML410.S3S2989. An intelligent discussion of scales, chords, and other compositional building blocks in terms of Schubert’s influence on Liszt. Includes four pages of musical examples drawn from the Faust and Dante symphonies, Schubert’s Sonata in C Major (D. 845), and other relevant pieces of music. Robert Schumann 872. Serauky, Walter. “Robert Schumann in seinem Verhältnis zu Ludwig van Beethoven und Franz Liszt.” In: Robert Schumann: Aus Anlass seines 100. Todestages, ed. Eberhard Rebling. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1956; pp. 68–72. ML410.S4M68. Contains brief remarks about Liszt’s personal relationship with Schumann; Serauky also refers to Schumannesque elements in the B-minor Sonata and Liszt’s two familiar piano concertos. No musical examples. * Walker. “Schumann, Liszt and the C Major ‘Fantasie’….” Described as item 650. Deals primarily with the Liszt/Schumann relationship, although Walker also refers to Liszt’s and Schumann’s influences on each other between 1840 and 1856.

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Giuseppe Verdi 873. Domokos, Zsuzsanna. “Liszt e Verdi / Liszt és Verdi.” In: Giuseppe Verdi e l’Ungheria. Budapest, Biblioteca Nazionale Széchényi: 25 ottobre–31 dicembre 2001 / Giuseppe Verdi és Magyarország. Országos Széchényi Könyvtar Budapest: 2001. oktober 25.–december 31. Budapest: Istituto Italiano di Cultura, 2001; pp. 104–31. ISBN 9630085011. Provides details about and a good deal of documentation concerning Liszt’s performances of Verdi’s works, most of them at the keyboard, and about his various Verdi transcriptions. Among other subjects Domokos explores in some detail is the significance of individual arias in both Don Carlo, Ernani, and Rigoletto as operas and their reappearance in Liszt’s keyboard paraphrases; her article concludes with a two-page catalog of Liszt-Verdi musical publications, complete with Liszt Research Centre and Széchényi Library shelf-numbers. In both Hungarian and Italian, printed on facing pages. Lacks musical examples, although the Liszt e Verdi exhibition catalog is illustrated with scattered photographs and sketches of operatic scenes and costumes as well as a number of documentary facsimiles, some in color. Richard Wagner The musical relationship shared by Liszt and Wagner during much of their lives was almost as complex as it was important. The most extensive introduction to this intriguing subject is: 874. Franz Liszt und Richard Wagner. Musikalische und geistesgeschichtliche Grundlagen der neudeutschen Schule. Referate des 3. Europäischen LisztSymposions: Eisenstadt 1983, ed. Serge Gut. Liszt-Studien, 3; “Kongreßbericht Eisenstadt 1983.” Munich and Salzburg: Emil Katzbichler, 1986. 210 pp. ISBN 3873971933. ML410.L7E95 1983 [sic]. The third in a series of four sets of conference proceedings, the rest of which are described elsewhere in the present research guide as items 46, 47, and 786. Purportedly devoted especially to “New German” topics, although some of its contributors emphasize more general musical issues. Includes items 329, 661, 746, 833, 857, 880, 1101, 1114, 1198, 1275, 1298, 1339, and 1423; also item 953. Illustrated as a volume with scattered charts, diagrams, and musical examples. Four shorter but nevertheless substantial studies also reveal much about Liszt’s and Wagner’s mutual borrowings, intellectual as well as musical: 875. Arnold, Ben. “Wagner and Liszt: Borrowings, Thefts, and Assimilations Before 1860.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 30 (1991): 3–20. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68.

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Maintains that “Wagner’s influence on Liszt was at its greatest in the early 1850s”—which is to say, prior to the completion of the Faust symphony (p. 5)—and suggests ways in which Liszt may have influenced Wagner, especially c. 1856, including the anticipation in Tasso of “Alberich’s obsessive will” in Rheingold (p. 12). Includes ten two-part musical examples drawn from Les Préludes as well as Wagner’s Eine Faust-Overtüre, Rheingold, Siegfried, Tristan und Isolde, and Die Walküre. Published too late to be included in item 71. 876. Bergfeld, Joachim. “Richard Wagner und Franz Liszt.” In item 57, pp. 43–62. An outline of Liszt’s complex, occasionally unfortunate relationship with Wagner and the musical interrelationships of these two composers. Bergfeld discusses in some detail such topics as Wagner’s debt to Liszt, and Liszt’s activities on behalf of Wagner’s works and career. Illustrated with nine musical examples. Similar articles include Thomas Baker, “Wagner’s View of Liszt as Musician” (item 44, pp. 31–38). 877. Köhler, Rafael. “Die Musik als Bewegungskunst bei Franz Liszt und Richard Wagner.” In: Köhler, Natur und Geist. Energetische Form in der Musiktheorie. Beihefte zum Archiv für Musikwissenschaft, 37. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 1996; pp. 111–71. ISBN 351506818X. ML5.A63 Suppl. Bd. 37. A painstaking investigation of Liszt’s views on the expressive range and character of music, with frequent references to Wagner’s aesthetic pronouncements and compositional style. Köhler begins with Liszt’s review of Die Musik des 19. Jahrhunderts by A. B. Marx, then turns to such issues as instrumental vs. vocal music, Liszt’s opinions of Wagner’s earliest musicdramas, his writings about Berlioz and Schumann, and so on. Besides primary sources, Köhler cites studies by Detlef Altenburg (especially item 953), Peter Ackermann (see also item 953), and Carl Dahlhaus (item 1147). No musical examples. 878. Winkler, Gerhard J. “Liszt und Wagner. Notizen zu einer problematischen Beziehung.” Österreichische Musikzeitschrift 41 (1986): 83–89. ISSN 0029-9316. ML5.O1983. Reviews certain problems associated with Liszt’s artistic influence on Wagner (and vice versa), including similarities between portions of Wagner’s music-dramas and such pieces as Unstern!, Am Grabe Richard Wagners, and Excelsior! Illustrated with several short musical examples and a reproduction of Wilhelm Backmann’s painting of Wagner “at home” at Wahnfried with Liszt, Cosima, and Hans von Wolzogen. Five somewhat more specialized discussions of Liszt and Wagner’s symbiotic musical relationship are described or cross-listed below:

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879. Eo# sze, László. “Liszt und Wagner. Neue Aspekte eines Künstlerbundes.” In item 49, pp. 195–200. A sketch of Liszt’s personal relationship with Wagner, followed by discussions of “Wagner-respect” in such Liszt works as Am Grabe Richard Wagners and illustrated with two passages from the latter work. A similar article by E o# sze appeared as “Liszt és Wagner (Egy m u# vészbarátság új megvilágításban)” in Magyar zene 28 (1987): 131–40; this last article contains four musical examples, among them passages from Orpheus, the Faust symphony, and Act II of Die Walküre. Shorter studies of the LisztWagner relationship include Gut’s own “Faust et Wotan” in item 67, pp. 162–71, and Renzo Cresti, “Berlioz e Liszt guidano Wagner,” Richerche musicali 5 (March 1981): 26–43 [the latter cited in RILM 15 (1981), entry 627]. 880. Gut, Serge. “De Liszt à Wagner en passant par ‘Parsifal.’” Revue musicale de Suisse Romande 30 (1977): 152–55. ISSN 0027-4348. ML5.R46. Examines certain similarities between Parsifal and such Liszt pieces as Excelsior! and Am Grabe Richard Wagners. Illustrated with brief musical examples. See, too, Serge Gut, “Berlioz, Liszt und Wagner: Die französischen Komponisten der Neudeutschen Schule” (item 874, pp. 48–55), and Arthur W. Marget, “Liszt and ‘Parsifal,’” The Music Review 14 (1953): 107–24, which includes the text of a note Liszt sent Longfellow in or around 1874. 881. Leverett, Adelyn Peck. “Liszt, Wagner and Heinrich Dorn’s ‘Die Niebelungen.’” Cambridge Opera Journal 2 (1990): 122–44. ISSN 0954-5867. Devoted, insofar as Liszt is concerned, mostly to his Lohengrin and Tannhäuser essays. Leverett observes that “Liszt’s disingenuous insistence on the novelty of Wagner’s [Leitmotiv] technique [insofar as the representation as well as the expressive character of melody is concerned] can only be understood as a polemic” on behalf of his friend and future son-in-law, and that Liszt would have argued in any case “for a revaluation of thematic reminiscence itself, Wagner’s works merely providing him with the occasion” (p. 125). Also devoted mostly to Dorn’s now-obscure work, performed by Liszt in January 1854 at Weimar. Includes twelve musical examples drawn from the “other” Nibelungen. 882. Rehding, Alexander. “TrisZtan: or, the Case of Liszt’s ‘Ich möchte hingehn.’” In item 52, pp. 75–97. Less concerned with the appearance of the celebrated “Tristan chord”— actually, a harmonic progression, and, in fact, not quoted precisely as Wagner wrote it—in ‘Ich möchte hingehn’; instead, Rehding explores “reasons that might have moved Liszt to return to the song, more than a decade

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after its inception, to insert” this particular bit of paraphrased material (p. 79). Supplemented with the entire text of Herwegh’s poem in both English and German (p. 80) as well as musical examples drawn from Tristan und Isolde and quotations from prose commentaries as Alfred Lorenz’s Geheimnis der Form Richard Wagners and Wagner’s own pamphlet on Liszt’s Symphonic Poems (the latter, item 1184). * Schibli. “Richard Wagner/Franz Liszt: Isolde’s Liebestod.” Described as item 1425. Carl Maria von Weber 883. Schneider, Corinne. “Liszt médiateur des oeuvres de Weber à Paris (1828–1844).” In item 41, pp. 257–82. Only indirectly a study of Weberian aspects of Liszt’s own compositions; Schneider devotes most of her article to an evaluation of Liszt as a Parisian exponent of Weber’s works, although that subject itself suggests influences of several possible kinds. Contains a valuable set of notes identifying reviews and notices in such papers as L’Artiste, the Journal des débats, and the Revue et gazette musicale (pp. 275–80) as well as a table of Konzertstück performances between 1833 and 1844 (p. 269); concludes with a bibliography of secondary sources. Lacks musical examples. Regarding Weber’s Konzertstück, one of Liszt’s “war horses,” see especially item 775. Regarding his Parisian performances, see items 386 and 534. 884. Tusa, Michael C. “Exploring the Master’s Inheritance: Liszt and the Music of Carl Maria von Weber.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 45 (1999): 1–33. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Reconsiders Liszt’s enthusiasm for and knowledge of Weber’s works, especially the piano pieces and operas, discussed in terms of biographical evidence; Tusa also discusses individual documented performances, evaluates Liszt as a Weber editor, and considers “the significance of Weber’s music for Liszt’s development as pianist and composer” (p. 1). Supplemented with four substantial musical examples (pp. 27–33) and three tables, one of them a catalog of Liszt’s Weber transcriptions (p. 24). LISZT’S INFLUENCE

ON

CONTEMPORARY

AND

LATER COMPOSERS

AND

STYLES

Liszt also influenced contemporary and subsequent European and American composers. Again, no general study of such influences has ever been published; instead, scholars have discussed Liszt’s influence on individual musicians and their works. Thirty-six studies of Liszt’s influence on important nineteenth- and early twentieth-century composers are described or cross-referenced below:

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Károly Aggházy 885. Holliday, Kent. “Károly Aggházy, Lisztian Protégé and Protean Composer: Eclectic Aspects of His Piano Style.” In item 56, pp. 271–304. Considers Liszt’s influence on Aggházy, a much more conservative Hungarian composer and the creator of dozens of “character pieces, nationalistic [works], programmatic compositions, and imitations of earlier styles” (p. 276). Illustrated with fifty-three interpolated musical examples as well as a facsimile of the title page of Aggházy’s Soirées hongroises (the last, p. 275); Holliday also provides lists of the younger composer’s solo-piano and piano four-hands pieces (pp. 274 and 276). Charles-Henri-Valentin Alkan [né Morhange] 886. François-Sappey, Brigitte. “Sonatas d’Alkan et de Liszt. Opéras latents… [sic].” In: D’un Opéra l’autre. Hommage à Jean Mongrédien, ed. Jean Gribenski. Paris: Presses de l’Université de Paris-Sorbonne, 1996; pp. 55–66. ISBN 2840500639. ML1950.D86. To a considerable extent a comparison of purported “Faustian” or divine/diabolical narrative strategies in Alkan’s Quasi-Faust, op. 33, and Liszt’s B-minor Sonata. Includes about a dozen musical examples as well as introductory musical mottoes from Liszt’s and Alkan’s works that match or approximate (respectively) portions of the Crux fidelis and Verbum supernum chant tunes. Béla Bartók 887. Falvy, Zoltán. “Franz Liszt e Béla Bartók,” trans. Gudrum Stühff-Mazzoni. Nuova Rivista musicale Italiana 3 (1969): 664–71. ISSN 0029-6228. ML5.R8. Describes parallels in the lives and works of the two composers, as presented in Bartók’s writings about Liszt (items 182 and 183). No musical examples. 888. Kecskeméti, István. “An Early Bartók-Liszt Encounter.” New Hungarian Quarterly 9/29 (Spring 1968): 206–10. ISSN 0028-5390. DB901.H83. Discusses Bartók’s early musical development, especially between 1905 and 1908, as well as certain similarities between that composer’s Bagatelle, op. 6, no. 14, and Liszt’s Bagatelle sans tonalité. No musical examples. A similar article by Kecskeméti appeared under the title “Egy korai BartókLiszt-találkozás Mefisztó jegyében” in Magyar zene 7/4 (1966): 3–8 [also given as pp. 352–57 in some copies]; it includes two examples.

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889. Somfai, László. “Liszt’s Influence on Bartók Reconsidered.” New Hungarian Quarterly 27/102 (Summer 1986): 210–19. ISSN 0028-5390. DB901.H83. Traces Bartók’s lifelong interest in Liszt, beginning in 1896 and culminating in the younger composer’s essays about Liszt and Hungarian music. NB: Somfai challenges Kecskeméti (item 888) and the possibility that Liszt’s music influenced Bartók’s directly; Somfai stresses “indirect” influences. Illustrated with a catalog of Liszt pieces performed in public by Bartók during his career (pp. 214–15) and several musical examples. A similar Liszt-Bartók article by Somfai appeared under the title “Bartók és a Liszt-hatás. Adatok, ido# rendi összefüggések, hipotézisek” in Magyar zene 27 (1986): 335–51; this article includes the scale-like passages found in Liszt’s B-minor Sonata that Bartók used in some of his own pieces but never acknowledged as “Lisztian.” A second Liszt-Bartók article, Imre Sulyok’s “Bartók Béla kézírása a weimari Liszt-anyagban,” appeared in the same issue of Magyar zene, pp. 352–53. Finally, see János Breuer, “Bartók spielt Liszt,” in item 41, pp. 350–60 (also printed in Hungarian as “Bartók, a Liszt-pianista,” pp. 339–49). Both articles contain tables identifying individual Bartók performances of Liszt keyboard works. Franz Berwald 890. Stahmer, Klaus. “Zur zyklischen Sonatenform (F. Berwalds Duo für Violoncello und Klavier, 1858).” In: Beiträge zur Musikgeschichte Nordeuropas. Kurt Gudewill zum 65. Geburtstag, ed. Uwe Haensel. Wolfenbüttel and Zurich: Möseler, 1978; pp. 79–90. OCLC 4320467. (No ISBN available.) ML55.G88 1978. Examines Berwald’s experimental approach to what Stahmer calls “antiClassical sonata theory,” especially in terms of the duo’s “complex formal plan” and its resemblance to Liszt’s B-minor Sonata (abstract; RILM 7806070-ae). Of marginal interest insofar as many Lisztians are concerned, yet suggestive of Liszt’s still-undisclosed influence over his contemporaries throughout the world. No musical examples. Anton Bruckner 891. Bruckner-Symposion. Bruckner, Liszt, Mahler und die Moderne, im Rahmen des Internationalen Brucknerfestes Linz 1986. Bericht, ed. Renate Grasberger et al. Linz: Anton Bruckner Institut, 1989. 197 pp. ML410.B88B79 1986. Includes Othmar Wessely’s brief survey “Bruckner und Liszt” (pp. 67–72), Gernot Gruber’s “Franz Liszt’s letzte Symphonische Dichtung ‘Von der Wiege bis zum Grabe’” (pp. 73–78), Steffen Lieberwirth’s “Bruckner und Liszt im ‘Schutz- und Trutzbündnis’ Leipziger Konzertvereine” (pp. 79–93),

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Siegfried Mauser’s “Melodische Strukturen im Spätwerk Franz Liszts” (pp. 95–103), and Rudolf Stephan’s “Bruckner und Liszt. Hat der Komponist Franz Liszt Bruckner beeinflußt?” (pp. 169–80); concludes with a “Diskussionsbeitrag zum Thema Bruckner und Liszt” written by Constantin Floros (pp. 181–88). Many of these and other articles are illustrated with portraits, photographs, scattered documentary facsimiles and—notably in the cases of Floros, Mauser, and Stephan—carefully chosen musical examples drawn largely from Liszt’s choral works, including the “Gran” Mass, as well as from such late piano pieces as Nuages gris. Peter Cornelius 892. Niemöller, Klaus W[olfgang]. “Cornelius und Franz Liszt.” In: Peter Cornelius als Komponist, Dichter, Kritiker und Essayist, ed. Kurt Oehl. Studien zur Musikgeschichte des 19. Jahrhunderts, 48. Regensburg: Gustav Bosse, 1977; pp. 81–92. ISBN 3764921250. ML410.C8P48. Describes Liszt’s relationship with Cornelius as well as his influence on Cornelius’s thinking and musical style. Illustrated with quotations from the younger composer’s literary works rather than with musical examples. Jacob P. Walter’s pamphlet Der beschwerliche Weg des Peter Cornelius zu Liszt und Wagner [Kleine Mainzer Bücherei, 8] (Mainz, 1974) also deals with the Liszt-Cornelius friendship. Claude Debussy 893. Biget, Michelle. “Etude comparée du geste pianistique chez Liszt et chez Debussy.” In item 48, pp. 155–63. Deals with similarities and differences between Liszt’s keyboard writing and that of Debussy. Unfortunately illustrated only with brief excerpts from Liszt’s B-minor Sonata, although Biget refers to such Debussy pieces as Pour le piano, L’Isle joyeuse, various of the Préludes, and some of Scriabin’s keyboard works. 894. Gut, Serge. “Liszt et Debussy: Comparaison stylistique.” In item 47, pp. 63–77. Describes whole-tone patterns, chords composed of fourths and fifths, pentatonic passages, and other “Impressionistic” effects in the works of Debussy and Liszt—among them, portions of the Années de pèleinage, Via crucis, Unstern!, and Debussy’s Images. As much a discussion of differences between the two composers’ styles as of Liszt’s influence on Debussy. Includes about two dozen musical examples. See, too, József Ujfalussy, “Debussy és Liszt,” Magyar zene 28 (1987): 115–18, a brief sketch of Liszt’s influence on Debussy’s work that, unfortunately, lacks musical examples.

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Felix Draeseke 895. Draeseke und Liszt. Draesekes Liedschaffen. Tagungen 1987 und 1988 in Coburg, ed. Helga Lühning and Helmut Loos. Veröffentlichungen der Internationalen Draeseke-Gesellschaft: Schriften, 2. Bad Honnef: Gudrun Schröder, 1988. viii, 268 pp. ISBN 3926196114. ML410.D81D7 1988. Consists of item 667; Loos’s “Felix Draesekes Symphonische Vorspiele” (pp. 77–102), which incorporates references especially to Liszt’s Symphonic Poems, including Festklänge; and Lühning’s “‘Helgas Treue.’ Ballade und Melodram von Draeseke und Liszt” (pp. 37–55), which reprints the complete score of Draeseke’s op. 1 ballad (pp. 56–75) and raises issues associated with Liszt’s little-known melodramas. Also contains scattered musical examples and facsimiles of various works by Liszt’s younger contemporary. Concludes with a catalog of Draeseke’s ballads and songs (pp. 257–61) and an index. César Franck: See item 508. Charles Gounod: See item 58. Edvard Grieg 896. MacDougald, Duncan. “Liszt y Edvard Grieg: Franz Liszt y la formación de la estructura musical del siglo XIX.” Revista musical Chilena 10/50 (July 1955): 17–27. ISSN 0716-2790. ML5.R283. Concerned mostly with Liszt’s interest in Grieg and his music, although MacDougald also refers vaguely to “compositional influences.” Contains no musical examples, although the author illustrates some of his observations with quotations from letters exchanged by the two composers. In Spanish. See, too, item 673. ˆ

Leos Janácek ˆ

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897. Stedron, B. “Leos Janácek und Ferenc Liszt.” In item 50, pp. 295–99. Briefly describes both composers’ interests in “revolutionary” politics, Janácek’s interest in Liszt’s music, and especially Janácek’s arrangement of Liszt’s Missa pro organo. Extremely cursory; in addition to lacking musical examples, Stedron’s article mentions few works by either composer besides Janácek’s arrangement of the Missa pro organo. ˆ

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Zoltán Kodály 898. Ittzés, Mihály. “Kodály és Liszt.” Kodály Zoltán és Szabolcsi Bence emlékezete, ed. Ferenc Bónis [Magyar zenetörténeti tamulmányok].

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Kecskemét: Kodály Intézet, 1992; pp. 71–89. ISBN 9637295070. ML410.K732K63 1992. A short but useful summary of Kodály’s writings about Liszt; his borrowings from or adaptations of Liszt’s harmonic and stylistic vocabulary; and the Psalmus Hungaricus, composed by Kodály in 1936 in Liszt’s honor. Illustrated with nine largely multi-partite examples drawn mostly from “Hungarian” passages in Liszt’s own works as well as Kodály’s choral compositions. Synopses in English and German of Ittzés’s article appear, respectively, on pp. 310 and 322–23. Regarding Kodály’s Psalmus, see item 1304. See, too, Zoltán Gárdonyi’s article “Zoltán Kodály über Liszts Hungarismen,” published in Studia Musicologica 25 (1983): 131–34, which is concerned for the most part with the remarks about Liszt recorded in a letter Kodály sent Gárdonyi on 24 November 1929. György Ligeti 899. Sabbe, Herman. “Qu’est-ce qui constitue une ‘tradition’? Liszt—Ligeti: Une lignée?” Studia Musicologica 35 (1993–1994): 221–27. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. A rather vague discussion of ways in which Bartók’s works may have served to join Liszt’s with Ligeti’s […des rapprochements entre les uvres respectifs de Liszt et de Bartók, de Bartók et de Ligeti (p. 221)]. Ligeti would seem to be an unlikely twentieth-century “Lisztian,” even though he composed a piece called Hungarian Rock. No musical examples. Edward MacDowell 900. Pesce, Dolores. “MacDowell’s ‘Eroica Sonata’ and its Lisztian Legacy.” The Music Review 49 (1988): 169–89. ISSN 0027-4445. ML5.M657. Compares MacDowell’s sonata with Liszt’s B-minor Sonata and “Eroica” etude. Pesce maintains that the American composer’s music reveals its debt to Liszt “in several ways” (p. 187). She also considers MacDowell’s penchant for Tennysonian romanticism and supplements her concluding arguments with a facsimile reproduction of a Doré illustration for the former Poet Laureate’s Idylls of the King. Includes eleven musical examples drawn from the works mentioned above, together with three analytical diagrams. Regarding MacDowell, see also item 930. Gustav Mahler 901. Williamson, John. “Liszt, Mahler and the Chorale.” Proceedings of the Royal Music Association 108 (1981–1982): 115–25. ML28.L8M8.

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Devoted to chorale tunes and endings in Liszt works, among them the Faust and Dante symphonies, as well as of the influence those endings exerted upon Mahler’s Second or “Resurrection” Symphony. Illustrated with several short musical examples. See, too, items 1171–1175, all devoted, in one way or another, to Liszt, Goethe’s Faust, and the “Eternal Feminine.” 902. Zychowie, James L. “Liszt and Mahler: Perspectives on a Difficult Relationship.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 36 (1994): 1–18. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Explores ways in which Liszt may have influenced Mahler musically, even though Mahler eventually “rejected program music in the sense that Liszt had used it” (p. 1). Among other points, Zychowie links Mahler’s Eighth Symphony with the conclusion of Liszt’s Faust. Includes two tables: one identifying Mahler’s performances of Liszt’s works, 1890–1909 (pp. 10–11); the other appearances of the Ewigkeit (“eternity”) motif in Mahler’s works. Olivier Messiaen 903. Hsu, Madeleine. Olivier Messiaen, the Musical Mediator: A Study of the Influence of Liszt, Debussy, and Bartók. Madison, WI, and London: Associated University Presses, 1996. ISBN 0838635954. ML410.H595H8 1996. Argues that “a number of Messiaen’s works written between 1943 and 1948 use cyclic themes in the manner of Liszt” (p. 135). Hsu also admits, however, that “Messiaen ignored Liszt” (p. 134); her suggestions that Messiaen somehow absorbed Liszt by way of Debussy and—perhaps—Bartók may be true, but she provides no documentation; she also suggests that Messiaen’s “ambivalence” regarding religious issues interfered with his acknowledging certain stylistic influences (p. 146). A disappointing study. No relevant musical examples. Another study that mentions Liszt, Debussy, and Bartók is Leslie Howard’s Master’s thesis, Ferenc Liszt as Precursor of Wagner, Debussy, Schoenberg and Bartók (Kanach University [Australia], 1972). Francis Poulenc 904. Reichwald, Siegwart. “Poulenc’s ‘Concerto pour orgue’: Bach, Liszt, and Stravinsky.” The American Organist 33/8 (August 1999): 34–36. ISSN 0164-3150. ML1.M327. Essentially program notes for Poulenc’s Concerto, with brief asides concerning Stravinsky and Liszt—in the latter case, Reichwald devotes several paragraphs to “Liszt and Romanticism” and refers to the composer’s

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Symphonic Poems as well as to Bach’s Fantasy in g minor (BWV 542). Includes five musical examples, none drawn from Liszt’s compositions. Maurice Ravel 905. Weiss-Aigner, Günter. “Eine Sonderform der Skalenbildung in der Musik Ravels.” Die Musikforschung 25 (1972): 323–26. ISSN 0027-4801. ML5.M9437. Demonstrates that Ravel’s early works were influenced by whole- and halfstep scale patterns related to the diminished-seventh chord and derived from Liszt’s works. Contains two examples: the first from the composer’s Totentanz, the second from his Jeux d’eaux à la Villa d’Este. Max Reger 906. Deaville, James. “‘…im Sinne von Franz Liszt…’: Reger and the Allgemeine Deutsche Musikverein.” In: Musikalische Moderne und Tradition: Internationaler Reger-Kongress, Karlsruhe 1998, ed. Alexander Becker et al. Reger-Studien, 6; Schriftenreihe des Max-Reger-Instituts Karlsruhe, 13. Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Härtel, 2000; pp. 121–43. ISBN 3765103357. ML410.R25I58 1998. Less concernd with compositional style than another kind of influence: that of Liszt’s conception of the musical role to be played by the Allgemeine Deutsche Musik-Verein (ADMV; see item 545) in German musical life and especially the performance and dissemination of Reger’s music. Concludes with seven tables identifying ADMV Reger documents, works by Reger performed at ADMV festivals from 1901 to 1913, the texts of previously unpublished Reger letters held in the ADMV archives, Weimar, and so on. Lacks musical examples. Julius Reubke 907. De Backer, Helmut, and Jos Moors. “Liszt—Reubke: meester en leerling?” Orgelkunst [Grimbergen, Belgium] 15/1 (March 1992): 7–18; no. 2 (June 1992): 51–61; and no. 3 (September 1992): 99–107. ML549.8.O92. A study of the composer’s influence on Reubke’s celebrated Sonata. Part 1 is devoted mostly to Liszt’s “Ad nos” Fantasy and Fugue; Part 2 to Reubke’s “Psalm 94” sonata, and no. 3 to particular instruments played by both composers. Includes in nos. 1–2 several hand-copied musical examples. See, too, Matthew Manwarren, D.M.A. document, The Influence of Liszt’s Sonata in B Minor on Julius Reubke: A Study of Reubke’s Sonata in B-flat Minor for Piano and the Sonata on the Ninety-fourth Psalm for Organ (University of Cincinnati, 1993).

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Albert Roussel 908. Grabócz, Marta. “La Dramaturgie du deuil dans la musique pour piano de Roussel: Sa parente avec celle des oeuvres de Liszt et Debussy.” In: Albert Roussel: Musique et esthétique: actes du Colloque international Albert Roussel, 1869–1937, ed. Manfred Kelkel. “Musique et Esthetique.” Paris: J. Vrin, 1989; pp. 159–70. ISBN 2711642674. ML410.R88C6 1987 [sic]. A comparative semiotic study of such Liszt works as Aux Cyprès à la Villa d’Este from the Années de pèlerinage, Book III, with such of Roussel’s piano pieces as the Tragiques, op. 1; the Prélude, op. 14; and so on. Grabócz ferrets out a number of characteristic topoi, including “heroic,” “macabre,” and “pastoral” gestures. Illustrated with five tableaux, some of them in fact musical examples. Camille Saint-Saëns 909. Pollei, Paul. “Lisztian Piano Virtuoso Style in the Piano Concerti of Camille Saint-Saëns.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 7 (1980): 59–76. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Reviews Lisztian borrowings and adaptations in important keyboard works by Saint-Saëns, including several of the French composer’s piano concertos, his Rhapsodie d’Auvergne, and his Toccata, op. 72. Pollei maintains that Saint-Saëns, especially in his concertos, “inherited the virtuosic procedure…characterized by Franz Liszt in his most expansive manner” (p. 61); he also classifies virtuoso passages in Saint-Saëns’s music as “bravura,” “toccata,” “cascade,” “filligree,” and “semplice.” Includes eleven musical examples drawn from Saint-Saëns’s five piano concertos as well as his Rhapsodie d’Auvergne and Toccata. See also item 1430. Arnold Schoenberg 910. Dahlhaus, Carl. “Liszt, Schönberg und die große Form. Das Prinzip der Mehrsätzigkeit in der Einsätzigkeit.” Die Musikforschung 41 (1988): 202–13. ISSN 0027-4801. ML5.M9437. To a considerable extent a comparison of Liszt’s B-minor Sonata with Schoenberg’s String Quartet no. 1, as well as a discussion of what William Newman called “double-function form” (see item 1072). A most intelligent discussion—although, by granting Liszt the “respectability” of having influenced a mainstream Austro-German figure, may be understood as fulfilling what James Hepokowski has described as broader politico-musical goals [see Hepokowski, “The Dahlhaus Project and Its Extra-musicological Sources,” 19th Century Music 14 (1990–1991): 221–46]. Dahlhaus’s article lacks musical examples.

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Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin [also “Skriabin” and “Skrjabin”] 911. Gárdonyi, Zsolt. “Paralipomena zum Thema ‘Liszt und Skrjabin.’” In item 979, pp. 9–31. Examines Lisztian influence on this fascinating Russian composer, including the latter’s possible derivation of his well-known “Mystical Chord” from the concluding measures of Liszt’s Nuages gris. Illustrated with twenty-three musical examples drawn from works by Bartók, Debussy, Ravel, and Stravinsky as well as sonatas by Scriabin and Liszt’s Années de pèleinage and Prometheus. Bedˇrich Smetana 912. DeLong, Kenneth. “Hearing His Master’s Voice: Smetana’s ‘Swedish’ Symphonic Poems and their Lisztian Models.” In item 42, pp. 295–334. Devoted to important middle-period works by a composer who, although “usually treated as a peripheral member of Liszt’s Weimar circle” (p. 295), was—as DeLong correctly maintains—directly influenced by Liszt’s Symphonic Poems, including Tasso. Supplemented with fifteen musical examples drawn from Smetana’s Hakon Jarl, Richard III, and Wallenstein’s Camp as well as Liszt’s Mazeppa, and with a facsimile of the Prague program of 5 January 1862 during which two of Smetana’s Symphonic Poems were first performed. 913. Hudec, Vl[adimir]. “Zum Problem des ‘Lisztartigen’ in Smetanas symphonischen Dichtungen.” In item 50, pp. 131–37. Less detailed than DeLong’s (item 912) of Liszt’s influence on his Czech contemporary, especially Smetana’s Symphonic Poems. Hudec also deals with literary influences on both composers, thematic transformation as a compositional device, and certain relationships between music and philosophy. Illustrated with a number of musical examples, among them quotations from Tasso and Hakon Jarl. 914. Jiránek, J[aroslav]. “Liszt und Smetana. (Ein Beitrag zur Genesis und eine vergleichende Betrachtung ihres Klavierstils.)” In item 50, pp. 139–92. Describes Smetana as a “creative student” of Liszt and examines in considerable detail Smetana’s keyboard writing in terms of Liszt’s compositional styles. Includes twenty-five musical examples, many of them taken from such piano pieces as Smetana’s Bagatelles, Liszt’s youthful Etude en douze exercices, and his “Dante” sonata. Less important articles about Liszt and Smetana have also appeared in print. See, for instance, Otto Beyer, “Liszt und Friedrich Smetana,” Neue MusikZeitung [Stuttgart] 14 (1893): 238–39, which includes the text of a Liszt

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letter dated 12 April 1854. See, too, Jiránek, “Liszt és Smetana,” Magyar zene 1/9 (December 1961): 26–32. Richard Strauss 915. Birkin, Kenneth. “‘Ich dirigiere mit Vergnügen…’ Liszt’s Influence on Richard Strauss—Strauss Conducts Franz Liszt.” Studia Musicologica 43 (2002): 73–92. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. Devoted in large part to Strauss’s orchestral performances of Liszt’s symphonic music, although Birkin also deals with “the concept of an extramusical stimulus whose aesthetic and formal design would shape, and in turn be shaped by, the musical structure” (p. 83): a concept the author asserts Strauss derived from Liszt and one that influenced Strauss’s Sinfonia Domestica as well as his Don Juan, Don Quixote, and Till Eulenspiegel. Illustrated with eight facsimiles, including programs for Strauss’s Weimar concerts of 17 November 1890 (the Faust symphony) and 19 October 1891 (Les Préludes); lacks musical examples. 916. Todd, R. Larry. “Strauss before Liszt and Wagner: Some Observations.” In: Richard Strauss: New Perspectives on the Composer and His Work, ed. Bryan Gilliam. Durham, NC, and London: Duke University Press, 1992; pp. 3–40. ISBN 0822312077. ML410.S93R515 1992. A lengthy, largely Strauss-oriented article; devoted only in part to Liszt and, among other issues, to Strauss’s “Lisztian notion that the poetic idea should shape and determine the musical form” (p. 3). Illustrated with twenty-four musical examples; some extensive, a few multi-partite. See also item 917. 917. Wajemann, Heiner. “Die Einflüsse: Brahms, Liszt, Wagner, Mozart und andere.” Richard Strauß-Blätter no. 43 (June 2000): 149–79. ML410.S93R46. Full of passing references, direct and indirect, to Liszt’s influence on Strauss—among them, a tabular programmatic analysis of the younger composer’s Aus Italien (pp. 160–62). Concludes with several pages of notes and an English-language synopsis (the latter, p. 177). Johann Gottlob Töpfer 918. Bahr, Hans-Peter. “Im Schatten Liszts: Johann Gottlob Töpfer. In: Zur deutschen Orgelmusik des 19. Jahrhunderts, ed. Hermann Busch and Michael Heinemann. Studien zur Orgelmusik, 1. Sinzig: “studio,” 1998; pp. 209–17. ISBN 3895640352. Describes Liszt’s relationship with, and musical influence on, a somewhat older but contemporary Weimar organist, organ-builder, and composer of

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a number of sacred works. Includes discussions of Töpfer’s Sonata in d minor and C-minor Fantasy; Bahr makes occasional references to Liszt’s influence—for instance, elements of Lisztian harmonic expansion and chromaticism [harmonische…Weitung und Chromatisierung des Satzes (p. 216)] in Töpfer’s last works—but employs no musical examples to make his points. NB: Gottschalg wrote a biography of Topfer [Dr. Johann Gottlob Töpfer (Weimar, 1867)]. Regarding other portions of Zur deutschen Orgelmusik, see item 1126. LISZT AND “MODERN” MUSIC By “modern” is meant the Weltanschauung that prevailed among “cultivated” Europeans and Americans between c. 1880 and 1965. Put it another way: the scientific and philosophical systems devised by Einstein, Freud, and Jean-Paul Sartre, the music of Bartók, Schoenberg, and Richard Strauss, the novels of Joyce, Proust, and Thomas Mann, the paintings of Picasso and Salvador Dalí, and the films of Charlie Chaplin have all been cited as quintessentially “modern.” Liszt’s relationship with modern music is difficult to evaluate. In some senses, he seems to have anticipated—possibly even influenced—certain progressive tendencies characteristic of much modern composition; in other senses, Liszt himself seems sometimes to have indulged in musical experimentation for its own sake. The most complete introduction to many of these issues remains: 919. Bárdos, Lajos. Liszt Ferenc a jövo# zenésze. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1976. 86 pp. ISBN 9630507390. ML410.L7B27. Describes many of Liszt’s “progressive” harmonic and structural innovations; illustrated with dozens of well-chosen musical examples. Useful but not widely available in Western Europe and the United States. More accessible is Bárdos’s article “Ferenc Liszt, the Innovator,” published in Studia Musicologica 17 (1975): 3–38, which also contains musical examples. Eight articles also summarize much of Liszt’s influence on “new musics” of various kinds: 920. Dahlhaus, Carl. “Franz Liszt und die Vorgeschichte der neuen Musik. Zum 150. Geburtstag des Komponisten.” Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 122 (1961): 387–91. ML5.N4. A brief but penetrating look at progressive motivic, harmonic, and structural elements in the first movement of the Dante symphony and Hamlet. Dahlhaus concludes that these and other Liszt works—not just the last piano pieces, but pieces composed as early as the 1830s and 1840s—anticipate the “voice” of modernism […die Stimmung, die am Ursprung der Moderne

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steht (pp. 390–91)], with its characteristic world-weariness and anxiety. Illustrated with fourteen musical examples. Regarding the composer’s earlier musical experiments, see items 786, 787, and especially 799. 921. Forte, Allen. “Liszt’s Experimental Idiom and Music of the Early Twentieth Century.” 19th Century Music 10 (1986–1987): 209–28. ISSN 0148-2076. ML1.N27. Approaches the topic of Liszt’s influence on modern music with caution, and with careful attention to previous studies. Forte maintains that when Liszt created what was “remarkably similar…to the innovative music that followed the ‘Jahrhundertwende,’ he anticipated a significant historical development”—without, however, having influenced that development directly (p. 210). Includes fourteen musical examples, many of them Schenkerian reductions, taken from or referring to both versions of Vallée d’Obermann as well as Blume und Duft, Hamlet, Unstern!, and so on; supplemented by detailed notes. Reprinted as “Liszt’s Experimental Idiom and Twentiethcentury Music” in Music at the Turn of Century: A “19th Century Music” Reader, ed. Joseph Kerman (Berkeley, CA, 1990), pp. 93–114. 922. Johnsson, Bengt. “Modernities in Liszt’s Works.” Svensk Tidskrift for Musikforskning 46 (1964): 83–117. ISSN 0081-9816. ML5.S96. A useful catalog, primarily of harmonic devices, illustrated with dozens of musical examples drawn from every period of Liszt’s compositional career. 923. Leibowitz, R[ené]. “Les prophéties de Franz Liszt.” In: Leibowitz, L’évolution de la musique de Bach à Schoenberg. Paris: Correa, 1951; pp. 141–53. ML160.L8. One of the earliest arguments in favor of Liszt as a “modern” composer and in support of unusual musical moments in his pieces as “anticipations” of twentieth-century practice. Well-written and illustrated with several musical examples. * Saffle. “Liszt and the Birth of Modern Europe:…” Described as item 722. Considers modern and modernist aspects of Liszt’s music as well as Liszt the historical figure. 924. Searle, Humphrey. “Liszt and 20th Century Music.” In item 50, pp. 277–81. Concentrates on issues of musical form, “tone rows” in several works, and harmonic experiments of various kinds; Searle also observes that “Liszt is now much better appreciated in England than before” (p. 281) and comments on British attitudes toward the late works. Includes four musical examples, all of them taken from the last piano pieces. Brief but insightful.

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An article by Searle with the same title and virtually the same contents, but without musical examples, appeared in the New Hungarian Quarterly 3/6 (April–June 1962): 217–20. See, too, Searle’s “Liszt and the 20th Century,” published in the Piano Quarterly 23/89 (Spring 1975): 38–40, and “The Unknown Liszt,” described under item 69. 925. Szelényi, István. “Der unbekannte Liszt.” In item 50 pp. 311–31. Another catalog of Liszt’s modernisms, including metabolons (i.e., tetrachord patterns of several kinds similar to those found in writings about ancient Greek music); whole-tone scalar patterns; and unusual modes, among them the so-called “Hungarian” minor scale. Illustrated with dozens of short examples drawn from the B-minor and “Dante” sonatas, the “Malédiction” concerto, Les Morts, Prometheus, and Unstern! Reprinted in item 54, pp. 274–91. Also published in Hungarian under the title “Az ismeretlen Liszt” in Magyar zene 1/9 (December 1961): 11–25. Yet another article by Szelényi dealing with related topics appeared under the title “El o# futár vagy valóraváltó? Stíluskritikai kísérlet Liszt alkotókorszakaival kapcsolatban” in Magyar zene 8 (1967): 231–41. 926. Walker, Alan. “Liszt and the Twentieth Century.” In item 38, pp. 350–64. Deals primarily with Impressionistic and atonal elements in such Liszt pieces as the Csárdás macabre, the Dante symphony, several of the Hungarian Rhapsodies, and the Bagatelle sans tonalité. Includes twenty-four musical examples. Shorter surveys of these and related issues include: Werner Danckert, “Liszt als Vorläufer des musikalischen Impressionismus,” Die Musik 21/5 (February 1929): 341–45; Cor de Groot, “Niet de oude maar de jonge Liszt was een avantgardist: wie speelt hem nog zoals hij het wilde?” Mens en melodie 41 (1986): 438–50; R. Haglund, “Liszt som modernist,” Musikrevy 36 (1981): 165–69; Lini Hübsch-Pfleger, “Liszts Einfluß auf die Entwicklung der neuen Musik,” Der Musikhandel 12 (1961): 309–10; Paul Pisk, “Elements of Impressionism and Atonality in Liszt’s Last Piano Pieces,” Radford Review 23 (1969): 171–76; and Lennart Rabes, “Franz Liszt—en avantgardist,” Musikrevy 41 (1986): 181–87. LISZT AND NATIONAL MUSICAL TRADITIONS Liszt was fascinated by traditional and regional musical styles, including “Gypsy” music and the folk musics associated with a variety of Western European cultures. He was also influenced or inspired by musical developments in Bohemia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, and Slovakia. Studies of national elements in his compositions

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or musical outlook are described below. Studies of his travels and sometime fascination with various national or folk traditions are described in appropriate sections of Chapter 5. SURVEY STUDIES Two articles, both of them published several decades ago, describe how Liszt drew upon various national musical materials in some of his compositions, and how his use of these materials influenced musical movements throughout Europe: 927. Gárdonyi, Zoltán. “Nationale Thematik in der Musik Franz Liszts bis zum Jahre 1848.” In item 50, pp. 77–87. Summarizes especially Liszt’s pre-1848 interest especially in folk melodies and discusses the appearance of some of them in the “Revolutionary” symphony (never completed), the “Spanish Fantasy,” and even the comparatively obscure Grande Valse di bravura. Gárdonyi emphasizes but does not limit himself to issues touching on the Hungarian uprising at the end of the 1840s. Lacks musical examples. 928. Kraft, Günther. “Franz Liszt und die nationalen Schulen in Europa.” In: Festschrift Richard Münnich zum 80. Geburtstag. ed. Hans Pischner. Leipzig: Deutsche Verlag für Musik, 1957; pp. 85–103. ML55.M62P5 1957. Deals with the complex issue of national motifs and references in dozens of Liszt works. Contains a catalog of “national” Liszt works (pp. 97–99) but no musical examples. See, too, Walter Georgii’s short survey, “Franz Liszt und die nationalen Besonderheiten des Musikempfinden,” published in the Allgemeine Musik-Zeitung 43 (1916): 487–90; this compact, somewhat disjointed discussion mentions such various national influences on Liszt’s music as his travels, Italian and Dutch paintings, and Goethe’s Faust. A third article, published much more recently, deals with the influence of the Lisztian symphonic poem on the development of nationalistic musical consciousness before about 1914: 929. Altenburg, Detlef. “La Notion lisztienne de poème symphonique dans son interpénétration avec la conscience nationale à fin du XIXe siècle et au début du XXe.” In item 48, pp. 287–95. A few words about the symphonic poem, Liszt’s Hungarian Rhapsodies, and a scattering of other composers and works—including Sibelius (En saga and Kullervo), Smetana (Richard III and Ma vlást), and the young Richard Strauss. No musical examples.

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Liszt’s enthusiasm for the works of nationalist composers—and especially for the music of Hungary, his self-proclaimed native land—influenced his own musical development as well as the development of musical nationalism in much of nineteenth-century Europe. In all, twenty-five studies of Lisztian influences on the music-making of various nations and peoples are described or cross-referenced below in alphabetical order—first, by nationality; then, in most cases, by author and/or title: American Music 930. Saffle, Michael. “Lisztian Elements in Late Nineteenth-Century American Symphonic Poems.” Liszt Society Journal 23 (1998): 33–44. ML410.L7L6. A brief introduction to Liszt’s influence on such nineteenth-century American figures as Edward MacDowell and John Knowles Paine. Saffle points out that at least certain Symphonic Poems by these composers, like those by Liszt, exhibit the use of “archetypal narrative patterns,” “musical topics,” and one or, at most, a small number of motifs to establish both compositional unity…and narrative diversity” (p. 34). Includes eleven examples, most of them reproduced from full scores of MacDowell’s Lamia and Paine’s Poseidon and Amphitrite. See, too, Hon-Lun Yang’s dissertation, A Study of the Overtures and Symphonic Poems by American Composers of the Second New England School (Washington University, 1998; UMI 9905228). Austrian [i.e., Austro-Hungarian] Music 931. Winkler, Gerhard J. “Soirées de Vienne und all’ongarese: Eine ‘österreichische’ Dreiecksbeziehung: Schubert-Liszt-Brahms.” In: Musikjahrhundert Wien, 1797–1897—Ausstellung der Musiksammlung der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek Wien, ed. ?Thomas Leibnitz. Vienna: Austrian National Library, 1997; pp. 37–45. ISBN 3854501137. One of a rapidly increasing number of studies devoted to the “exotic,” the “Gypsy,” and the “Other” in nineteenth-century European art music. Note the quotation marks in Winkler’s title; here “Austrian” is taken to refer to a cultural construct, not a geological or political entity. Chinese Music 932. Yang, Hon-Lun. “Liszt and the Chinese Piano Tradition.” Liszt Society Journal 26 (2001): 3–13. ML410.L7L6.

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A remarkable study of music all but unknown to many Western artists: the keyboard works of such post-Mao, “mainland” composers and compositions as the Yellow River Concerto, Huwai Pluang’s Rongchang chun jiao, and Jianzhong Wang’s Shan dandan Kaikua hong. Yang also refers to pre1949 pieces influenced by Liszt and explains that, in China, Liszt has long been considered the “‘King of the Piano’ and the ‘Piano Magician’” (p. 4). Illustrated with five examples, several of them multi-partite, as well as with a reproduction of an anonymous watercolor depicting the composer as “keyboard magician” (also p. 4). French Music 933. Timbrell, Charles. “Liszt and French Music.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 6 (1979): 25–33. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Summarizes Liszt’s influences on French music during the 1870s as well as the influences of French music on him during the 1820s and 1830s. Timbrell itemizes such “French” characteristics of Lisztian works as the use of idée fixe motifs, frequent changes in meter and phrase lengths, and pure orchestral colors; the interpolation of ad libitum passages; and so on. Concludes with a valuable discussion of Lisztian elements in works by SaintSaëns, d’Indy, Franck, and Debussy. Illustrated with musical examples. German Music 934. Deaville, James. “Die Liszt-Schule und die komische Oper.” In: Deutsche Oper zwischen Wagner und Strauss. Tagesbericht Dresden 1993 mit einem Anhang von der Draeseke-Tagung Coburg 1996, ed. Sieghard Döhring et al. Chemnitz: Gudrum Schröder, 1998; pp. 11–32. ISBN 3926196238. Examines Liszt’s influence on such works as Bronsart’s Jery und Bätely, Cornelius’s Der Barbier von Bagdad, Lassen’s Le roi Edgar, and Ritter’s Der faule Hans. Perhaps the most interesting feature is Deaville’s “take” on the carnivalesque as an aspect [die carnevalistischen Kategorien (p. 20)] of Liszt’s Weimar during the 1850s as well as of selected stage works. Includes as an appendix [Anhang] a table of comic operas by members of Liszt’s “school” (p, 30) as well as quotations from various documents. No musical examples. Uncommon in American libraries. “Gypsy” Music: See items 941–943. Hungarian Music Liszt’s interaction with Hungarian music and musical figures extended across his entire compositional career. Three studies, two of them sometimes confused with

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each other, describe with unusual thoroughness Hungarian aspects of Liszt’s own works: 935. Gárdonyi, Zoltán. Die ungarischen Stileigentümlichkeiten in den musikalischen Werken Franz Liszts. “Ungarische Bibliothek, 1/16.” Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1931. 84 pp. ML410.L7G2. A study of Hungarian influences on Liszt’s compositions and style. Illustrated with thirteen musical examples (pp. 81 ff.) as well as tables of thematic sources for the Hungarian Rhapsodies (pp. 76–79). Other, highly specialized investigations into Liszt’s Rhapsodies and Hungarian music of the early nineteenth century (including the verbunkos or recruiting dance) have also appeared in print. See, for example, Géza Papp’s “Liszt ismeretlen verbunkos-átiratai,” Magyar zene 28 (1987): 173–88, and “Az úgynevezett Chlopiczky-nóta. Néhány hangszeres adalék Liszt VI. Rapszódiájának elso# témájához,” Magyar zene 28 (1987): 43–48; both articles are amply illustrated with musical examples. Finally, see Bálint Sárosi, “Liszt und die Zigeunermusikanten,” in item 141, pp. 91–95, which includes a facsimile reproduction of a page from D-WRgs J9: the first page of Hungarian Rhapsody no. 8. 936. Gárdonyi, Zoltán. Liszt Ferenc magyar stilusa / La style hongrois de Franz Liszt. Musicologica Hungarica, 3. Budapest: National Széchenyi Library, 1936. 125 pp. ML410.L7G2 1936. Deals more with Hungarian influences on Liszt’s compositional style than specific Hungarian tunes or sources for individual compositions. Gárdonyi discusses Zum Andenken, the Hungarian Rhapsodies, and Hungaria at some length, and he refers to Hungarian aspects of late Liszt piano pieces. Concludes with twelve pages of musical examples and a useful bibliography. Bilingual: in French (pp. 57–120) and Hungarian. NB: This monograph should not be confused with item 935, even though both items have sometimes been assigned the same Library of Congress catalog number! 937. Hamburger, Klára. “Program and Hungarian Idiom in the Sacred Music of Liszt.” In item 56, pp. 239–51. Largely a study of characteristic “Hungarian” intervallic and scalar figures (among them, the “Gypsy” scale), rhythmic figures, and other smaller devices found in such “non-Hungarian” works as Le Forgeron, Les Mortes, and Der 137. Psalm, as well as in the “Gran” and Hungarian Coronation Masses—the last pieces, works with strong national associations. For Hamburger, “Hungarian stylistic elements are by no means confined by Liszt” to the Rhapsodies or Hungaria, “but appear in other of his works as well” (pp. 242–43). Illustrated with thirteen musical examples also drawn from the Missa choralis, Christus, and Via crucis.

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Three shorter studies dealing with Hungarian music and Liszt are described below: 938. Beninger, Eduard. “Franz Liszt und die ungarische Musik.” Burgenländische Heimatblätter 5/2 (May 1936): 41–50. OCLC 15115985. (ISSN and LC numbers unavailable.) A brief survey of Liszt’s “Hungarian” experiences, associations, and works. See, too, Sándor Kovács, “Formprinzipien und ungarische Stileigentümlichkeiten in den Spätwerken von Liszt” (item 47, pp. 114–22), itself derived from Kovács’s “Formaproblémák és magyaros stiluselemek Liszt kései zongoramu# veiben,” Magyar zene 20 (1979): 157–64. Finally, see A[ndrás] Wilheim’s “Liszt és a huszadik század,” Magyar zene 27 (1986): 115–25. Beninger’s study, as well as items 939 and 940, occasionally touch on issues overlooked or ignored in the otherwise more important monographs by Gárdonyi and Hamburger described above. 939. Csomasz Tóth, Kálmán. “Egy népszeru# dallamunk eredetéhez.” Magyar zene 15 (1974): 73–77. ISSN 0025-0384. ML5.M14. Demonstrates that Magasan repül a daru, a tune Liszt used as the basis of his Hungarian Rhapsody no. 14, was probably borrowed from a singing exercise found in the 1740 Hungarian edition of the Geneva Psalter. Includes musical examples. Regarding Magasan, see item 941. 940. Gergeley, Jean. “Liszt et l’école hongroise de Paris.” In item 48, pp. 75–86. Deals with Liszt, Hungarian and “Turkish” musical traditions of the early nineteenth century, and Hungarian composers living in Paris during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries—among them, Sándor Bertha and Kornél Ábrányi. Includes ten musical examples from such works as Liszt’s La Notte, Adalbert Gyrovetz’s Fête hongroise, and Bertha’s Palotás. Separating the “Gypsy” from the “Hungarian,” at least in Liszt’s corpus, is neither altogether possible nor desirable; nevertheless, several excellent styles of specifically “Gypsy” elements have appeared in print. The finest of these is: 941. Hamburger, Klára. “Franz Liszt und die ‘Zigeunermusik.’” In: Die Musik der Sinti und Roma, 3 vols.; ed. Anita Awosusi. Heidelberg: Dokumentations- und Kulturzentrum Deutscher Sinti und Roma, 1996–1998; vol. 1 [1996], pp. 83–97. ISBN 3929446073. ML3580.M85 1996. Explores Liszt’s interest in “Gypsy” tunes and instrumental figures; the significance of his Des Bohémiens monograph (item 252, vol. 6); alla Zigarese elements in his late works, including the Csárdás obstinée; and especially borrowings or adaptations from such preexisting popular tunes

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as Magasan repül a daru (“High flies the crane”) and Szülöldemen (“In my Homeland”) in the Hungarian Rhapsodies. Illustrated with eleven unnumbered musical examples and a “frontispiece” photograph of Liszt taken in his last years (p. 82). For general comments about “Gypsy” music in nineteenth-century Hungary, see “Die ungarische ‘Zigeunermusik’” in the same publication, vol. 1, pp. 93–98. See, too, Emile Haraszti’s “La question tzigane-hongroise,” reputed to have appeared in the proceedings of the 1930 International Musicological Society’s Congress, held at Liège, Belgium, pp. 140–45; the present author has never seen a copy. Finally, see relevant passages in M. P. Baumann’s article “The Reflection of the Roma in European Art Music,” published in The World of Music 38 (1996): 110–33, and especially in The Style Hongrois in the Music of Western Europe by Jonathan Bellman (Boston, 1993; ISBN 1555531695). Two older, less extensive studies of the same material also exist: 942. Barusi, Joseph. Liszt et la musique populaire et tzigane. Paris: Librarie Leroux, 1937. 38 pp. A short, uncommon pamphlet, reprinted—according to the title page—from the Etudes hongroises, vols. 14–15, and devoted to Liszt’s relationship with “Gypsy” music. Includes no musical examples. Barusi’s study appeared too late to be mentioned in item 74 and was overlooked in item 71. The Music Library of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, owns a copy. 943. Mayerhofer, Claudia. “Liszt und seine Beziehung zu den Zigeunern.” In item 141, pp. 76–90. Deals with the “Gypsies” as transient “citizens” of nineteenth-century Austria-Hungary, Liszt’s interest in their music, and his book about their music. Illustrated with several pictures of “Gypsy” music-makers dating from Liszt’s lifetime but contains no musical examples; concludes with photoreproductions of two letters. Italian Music 944. Dalmonte, Rossana. “Liszt and Italian Folklore.” In item 51 [Revista de musicología 16/3 (1993)], pp. 1832–49. Evaluates not only Liszt’s indebtedness to Italian melody in particular, but explores his use of particular melodies—including the Canzone di gondoliere and La Biondina—in such works as Venezia e Napoli from Book II of the Années de pèlerinage, the Dante symphony, and Tasso: Lamento e trionfo. Dalmonte provides facsimile reproductions of eighteenth- and early

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nineteenth-century sources of these and other Italian tunes, as well as a diplomatic transcription of a fragment found in D-WRgs N8: the celebrated “Tasso sketchbook.” 945. Mastroianni, Thomas. “The Italian Aspect of Franz Liszt.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 16 (1984): 6–19. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Identifies and discusses four important Italian influences on Liszt’s musicmaking: art and literature, Niccolò Paganini, the Roman Catholic Church, and bel canto opera. Illustrated with a very poor reproduction of a painting by Raphael as well as twelve musical examples drawn from portions of the Années de pèlerinage, the “Dante” sonata, and Liszt’s paraphrase of Verdi’s Rigoletto. Mexican Music 946. Stevenson, Robert. “Liszt in Mexico, 1840–1911.” Inter-American Music Review 7/2 (Spring–Summer 1986): 23–32. ISSN 0195-6655. ML1.I7173. Deals primarily with performances of Liszt’s works in Mexico prior to World War I. Stevenson also includes the text of a diploma awarding Liszt honorary membership in the Mexican Philharmonic Society and a complete facsimile reproduction of the funeral march dedicated by Liszt to the memory of Mexico’s Emperor Maximilian I, who died in 1867. Lacks other musical examples. Polish Music 947. Swaryczewska, Katarzyna. “Franciszek Liszt a muzyka polska.” Muzyka [Warsaw] 6/4 (1961): 21–36. ML5.M9918. Reviews Liszt’s interest in Polish composers—among them, Chopin—as well as Liszt’s own mazurkas and other adaptations of Polish musical materials, and so on. A German summary appears later in the same issue (p. 102). Russian Music Only one full-fledged book has been devoted exclusively to the symbiotic relationship between Liszt’s music and the lives and styles of Russian composers: 948. László, Zsigmond. Liszt és az orosz zene. Budapest: Magyar-Szovjet Társaság, 1955. 120 pp. ISBN 9635642164. ML410.L7L26. Identifies and discusses Russian elements in Liszt’s works and Lisztian elements in Russian music, especially pieces by nineteenth-century composers. Strongly influenced by Marxist-Leninist orthodoxy. Illustrated with

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plates of portraits and other pictorial materials and with a few poorly printed musical examples. An article by László with the same title as his book appeared in Új zenei szemle 6/1 (January 1955): 7–9; this also contains musical examples. Several shorter but nevertheless important studies of the same general topic also deserve attention. Among them is: 949. Abraham, Gerald. “Liszt’s Influence on the ‘Mighty Handful.’” In: Abraham, On Russian Music: Critical and Historical Studies. New York: Johnson Reprint Corp., 1970; pp. 81–90. ML300.A1605 1970b. An introduction to Liszt’s influence on selected works by Musorgsky, Balakirev, Rimsky-Korsakov, Borodin, and Cui. Illustrated with brief excerpts from Der nächtliche Zug and the Totentanz as well as pieces by Musorgsky and Rimsky-Korsakov. Originally published by Charles Scribner of New York City in 1939; also reprinted in 1970 by Books for Libraries Press of Freeport, NY. As might be expected, other studies of this subject are available only in Central and Eastern European languages; see, for example, Yakov [Isaakovich] Mil’shtein, “Az orosz Liszt-kutatás kevéssé ismert lapjai,” Magyar zene 18 (1977): 354–61, which also mentions Liszt artifacts preserved in Soviet collections. Slavic Music 950. Be l za, Igor. “Liszt i kultura muzyczna narodow s l owian´ efich.” Muzyka [Warsaw] 6/4 (1961): 3–20. ML5.M9918. Summarizes Liszt’s interest in the traditional and art musics of Eastern Europe, including those of Poland, Bohemia, Slovakia, and so on. No musical examples or summary. Slovak Music ˆ

951. Novácek, Z[denko]. “Der entscheidende Einfluss von Liszt auf die fortschrittliche Musikorientation in Pressburg.” In item 50, pp. 233–39. Deals with Liszt’s visits to present-day Bratislava in 1840, 1858, 1872, and so on, and more especially with his influence on such local figures as Ludmilla Sámoysky, Fany Kováts, and Karl Mayrberger. Lacks musical examples. NB: The title given for this article on the contents page of item 50 [Studia Musicologica 5 (1963)] and in some reference works is different from that reproduced above, itself taken from the first page of the article.

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Swiss Music 952. Gut, Serge. “Swiss Influences on the Compositions of Franz Liszt,” trans. Michael Short. Journal of the American Liszt Society 38 (1995): 1–22. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Explains that “the very scale” of the fame accorded the Swiss volume of the Années de pèlerinage “has eclipsed the true importance and originality of the links that bind the Hungarian composer with Helvetia” (p. 1), then goes on to summarize Liszt’s visits in Switzerland between 1826 and 1856 and discuss musical interrelationships between the Album d’un voyageur and the first Années volume. Includes a map, a diagram, and ten musical examples. AESTHETICS, CRITICISM, PHILOSOPHY, RELIGION, AND LISZT’S MUSIC Liszt’s compositional style and procedures can be better understood through investigations of aesthetic issues associated with motivic and melodic transformation, structural articulation, and “programmism” in some of his most representative works; they can also be better understood through investigations of individual works of music criticism as well as critical theories of various kinds, philosophic principles, religious attitudes, and so on. Studies of aesthetic issues per se are described below, but many of the studies described in Chapters 8–11 deal with similar issues, albeit more peripherally. PROGRAMMATIC

AND

SEMIOTIC ISSUES

Many studies of Liszt aesthetics have dealt with programmism and the related field of musical semiotics. Studies of programs for individual Liszt works are scattered throughout Chapters 8–11, especially Chapter 9. Ten studies devoted to programmism per se are described or cross-referenced below: 953. Altenburg, Detlef. “Eine Theorie der Musik der Zukunft. Zur Funktion des Programms im symphonischen Werk von Franz Liszt.” In item 46, pp. 9–25. A short but systematic summary of Liszt’s attitudes toward program-music and the “Music of the Future,” accompanied by detailed bibliographic citations in the form of endnotes. Unfortunately includes no musical examples. Peter Ackermann’s article “Absolute Musik und Programmusik: Zur Theorie der Instrumentalmusik bei Liszt und Wagner,” published in item 874, pp. 21–27, only touches on Liszt’s ideas about musical programmism and the ability of instrumental works—for example, the Tannhäuser overture—to “tell a story.” * Bongrain. “La figuration musicale….” Described as item 1189. A quasi-semantic discussion of issues relating to programmism in Liszt’s Symphonic Poems.

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954. Felix, Werner. “Liszts Schaffen um 1848. Versuch zur Deutung seiner Programmusik.” In item 50, pp. 59–67. Reviews the programmatic compositions Liszt completed during his early “Weimar years” (i.e., c. 1848–1854) and speculates upon the influence of Hungary and the Hungarian uprisings on such works as the Arbeiterchor, Héroïde funèbre, and Hungaria. Includes two short musical examples and an outline of Liszt’s early “Weimar” programmatic works (pp. 60–61). 955. Heinrichs, Josef. Über den Sinn der Lisztschen Programmmusik. Kempen: Thomas Druckerei- und Buchhandlung. 1929. 111 pp. ML410.L7H35. Concerned with most of Liszt’s symphonic works as well as the Sonata in b minor and such topics as the relationship between programmism and nonmusical arts. Provides musical examples and a bibliography. 956. Kabisch, Thomas. “Außermusikalische Implikationen des musikalischen Materials: Zum Spätwerk Franz Liszts.” Musica 39 (1985): 549–56. ISSN 0027-4518. ML5.M71357. A brief discussion of programmatic elements in pieces such as Von der Wiege bis zum Grabe, the Réminiscences de Boccanegra, and some of the late piano works. Supplemented with several musical examples and two analytical diagrams. * Johns. The Symphonic Poems of Franz Liszt. Described as item 1177. A semiotic study of Liszt’s programmism in terms of musical structure and topical references as well as manuscript and print sources. 957. Nagler, Norbert. “Die verspätete Zukunftsmusik.” In item 53, pp. 4–41. Deals with the so-called “Music of the Future,” Liszt, and other figures associated with that movement. No musical examples. See, too, Robert Determann’s Begriff und Ästhetik der “Neudeutschen Schule” (BadenBaden, 1989; ISBN 3873205815), an intelligent discussion of this complex phenomenon. 958. Rackwitz, Werner. “Tradition und Zukunftsmusik. Zur musikalischen Position Franz Liszts.” Musik und Gesellschaft 36 (1986): 338–41. ISSN 0027-4755. ML5.M9033. Includes information about historical and aesthetic issues as well as Liszt’s influence on twentieth-century practices. NB: A number of articles like this one were published in 1986, the most recent ‘Liszt Year’: among them, Wolfgang Marggraf’s “‘…den Speer in den unendlichen Raum der Zukunft schleudern.’ Traditionsbezüge und Innovationen im Schaffen Franz Liszts,” which appeared in the same issue of Musik und Gesellschaft, pp. 342–47.

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959. Slomma, Horst. “Liszts Programmusik im Blick musikästhetischer Reflektionen.” In item 789, pp. 89–100. Reviews influential ideas about Liszt’s musical programmism, the “worldwide” impact of those ideas and of the symphonic poem as a genre, and important ideas about programmism presented by Dahlhaus, Hanslick, Busoni, and other commentators. Lacks musical examples. Yet another study—this one devoted to Liszt, programmism, and musical semiotics—deserves special attention: 960. Tarasti, Eero. “The Mythical in Liszt and Slavonic Music.” In: Tarasti, A Semiotic Approach to the Aesthetics of Myth and Music, especially that of Wagner, Sibelius and Stravinsky. Approaches to Semiotics, 51. The Hague, Paris, and New York: Mouton, 1979; pp. 131–51. ISBN 9027979189. ML3849.T37. An insightful discussion of musical and programmatic elements in Tasso, Les Préludes, and Die Ideale, illustrated with musical examples. Tarasti, one of the leading figures in musical semiotics as a specialty, strongly influenced Keith Johns’s study of the Symphonic Poems (item 1177). LISZT

AND

“TASTE”

Questions associated with Liszt’s musical taste have been discussed in two uneven but intriguing articles: 961. Benary, Peter. “Geschmack und Stil bei Franz Liszt.” In item 46, pp. 37–45. A multifaceted essay that deals, in turn, with such issues as Liszt’s character, the position of the virtuoso vis-à-vis musical life in general and nineteenthcentury European concert performances in particular, the Princess SaynWittgenstein’s opinions of her lover’s works, and the expressive nature of the Symphonic Poems. Contains no musical examples. 962. Heinemann, Ernst Günter. “Kunstbegriff und Engagement bei Liszt.” In item 46, pp. 105–14. A sketch of Liszt’s musical career; at the same time, a speculative essay dealing with Liszt’s purported attempt to combine elements of high art and Kitsch in his compositions, among them many of his best-known religious works. Heinemann seems to dislike religious music; he considers the Missa choralis little more than Cecilianist propaganda […als Reflex auf die ahistorische Stilfiktion des von Caecilianismus propagierten Palestrinaideals…bemüht (p. 111)]. Again, lacks musical examples.

Liszt as Composer

CONTEMPORARY MUSIC CRITICS

335 AND

MUSICAL CRITICISM

Comparatively little has been written about nineteenth–century music criticism and its aesthetic impact on, or at least its intellectual relationship to, Liszt’s music. Two studies dealing exclusively with the aesthetic positions of Liszt’s critics vis-à-vis his compositions are described below: 963. Altenburg, Detlef. “Vom poetisch Schönen: Franz Liszts Auseinandersetzung mit der Musikästhetik Eduard Hanslicks.” In: Ars musica, musica scientia: Festschrift Heinrich Hüschen zum fünfundsechzigsten Geburtstag, ed. Altenburg. Cologne: Verlag der Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Rheinische Musikgeschichte, 1980; pp. 1–9. ISBN 3885830027. ML55.H87 1980. A complicated discussion of Vom musikalisch-Schönen (Hanslick’s book); the “Music of the Future”; Liszt’s correspondence with Hanslick, Brendel, Schumann, and other figures; and so on—in effect, an essay about the conflict between advocates of “New German School” aesthetics and antiprogrammism as an aesthetic posture. Lacks musical examples. 964. Suppan, Wolfgang. “Franz Liszt—zwischen Friedrich von Hausegger und Eduard Hanslick: Ausdrucks- contra Formästhetik.” Studia Musicologica 24 (1982): 113–31. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. Discusses Wagner, Brahms, and Liszt, with references to Hausegger’s Musik als Ausdruck (1885), and to Liszt’s refusal to write a preface to Hanslick’s Vom musikalisch-Schönen. No musical examples. Four additional studies have been devoted to the influence of individual critics on Liszt’s compositions: 965. Heinemann, Michael. “Liszts Fugen und Rejcha.” Musiktheorie 8 (1993): 241–47. ISSN 0177-4182. ML5.M96358. To a considerable extent a comparison of Liszt’s “Ad nos” and “BACH” fugues for organ with observations found in the treatises of Antoine Reicha, one of the composer’s early teachers and author of the Traité de haute composition musicale (1824) and other theoretical works. Lacks musical examples. With regard especially to the Liszt-Reicha educational relationship, see Rémy Stricker, “Franz Liszt and Antoine Reicha” (item 1440, pp. 9–24). 966. Hennig, Dennis. “Weitzmann and the Liszt Machine.” Miscellanea Musicologica [Adelaide, Australia] 16 (1989): 109–34. ISSN 0076-9355. ML5.M34. A fascinating discussion of Liszt, Carl Friedrich Weitzmann, and the “Music of the Future,” the last “inextricably linked” with what Hennig calls “the

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exaltation of Liszt” during the latter portions of his career (p. 109). Among other things, Hennig provides a detailed list of Weitzmann’s publications (pp. 120–22); on the other hand, he offers us no musical examples. See, too, Hennig’s briefer but perhaps more readily available article, “Musical Puzzles, Photographic Canons, and Enharmonic Caterpillars: Liszt’s Visiting Cards” in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 27 (1990): 32–37, which deals with Weitzmann’s Rätzel-Canons (“riddle canons”) as explained by György Gábry in “Liszt Ferenc és C. F. Weitzmann,” Magyar zene 24 (1983): 305–10. 967. Móricz, Klára. “The Ambivalent Connection between Theory and Practice in the Relationship of F. Liszt and F.-J. Fétis.” Studia Musicologica 35 (1993–1994): 399–420. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. Reconsiders Fétis’s position among Liszt commentators “both as a highly progressive theorist and an almost reactionary critic” (p. 399), based on the biographies of Christern (item 420), Ramann, and others. Móricz examines especially relationships between Liszt’s music and principles exemplified in Fétis’s Traité complet (1879), and she provides two pages of facsimile examples from that theoretical work. 968. Todd, R. Larry. “The ‘Unwelcome Guest’ Regaled: Franz Liszt and the Augmented Triad.” 19th Century Music 12 (1988–1989): 93–115. ISSN 0148-2076. ML1.N27. Examines Liszt’s life-long use of augmented chords. In support for his argument that “Liszt was the first composer to establish the augmented triad as a truly independent sonority,” Todd compares passages from the Harmonies poétiques et religieuses, Lyon, La lugubre gondola, and so on, with works by Wagner and Schumann, and with harmonic progressions from texts by K. F. Weitzmann. Contains sixteen mostly multi-partite musical examples. Another study appeared as “Franz Liszt, Carl Friedrich Weitzmann, and the Augmented Triad” in The Second Practice of Nineteenth-Century Tonality, ed. William Kinderman and Harald Krebs (Lincoln, NE, and London, 1996; ISBN 0803227248), pp. 153–77. In this article Todd discusses Weitzmann’s work mostly on pp. 156–61. See, too, item 966. RELIGIOUS ASPECTS

OF

LISZT’S MUSIC

The role played by Liszt’s religious beliefs and attitudes in both his sacred and secular compositions has been the subject of at least four specialized studies: * Gifford. Religious Elements…in the Solo Piano Works of Franz Liszt. Described as item 983.

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969. Heinemann, Ernst Günter. Franz Liszts Auseinandersetzung mit der geistlichen Musik: zum Konflikt zwischen Kunst und Engagement. Musikwissenschaftliche Schriften, 12. Munich and Salzburg: Emil Katzbichler, 1978. 160 pp. + 45 pp. of musical examples. ISBN 3873971119. ML410.L7H34. A sophisticated, albeit somewhat disappointing discussion of “conflicting” stylistic elements in Liszt’s music, especially his more important religious works—for example, Christus, the Missa choralis, Via crucis, and so on. Heinemann contends that much of Liszt’s sacred music reflects compromises between its composer’s imagination, performance-practice stipulations, and liturgical requirements. Short musical examples appear throughout the book itself and thirty-four longer examples in an appendix (pp. 116–60). Contains an excellent bibliography (pp. 106–15). See, too, item 962. 970. Knotik, Cornelia. Musik und Religion im Zeitalter des Historismus: Franz Liszts Wende zum Oratorienschaffen als aesthetisches Problem. Wissenschaftliche Arbeiten aus dem Burgenland, 64. Eisenstadt: Burgenländisches Landesmuseum, 1982. 98 pp. ISBN 3854050771. A study of several interrelated musical and aesthetic topics, including programmism in such works as Hunnenschlacht and Ce qu’on entend sur la montagne, and the influence of Beethoven on Liszt’s musical development. Central to Knotik’s arguments is a lengthy discussion (pp. 38–80) of Christus as well as relationships between that oratorio, Liszt’s Catholicism, and nineteenth-century attitudes toward religious art, the theology of “Christ” oratorios, and so on. Interspersed with musical examples of various kinds and several pictures, among them the illustration on which Hunnenschlacht was based. Contains a number of portraits, pictures of Liszt “monuments” in the Austrian Burgenland, and other illustrations as well as a useful bibliography. 971. Niemöller, Klaus W[olfgang]. “Zur religiösen Tonsprache im Instrumentalschaffen von Franz Liszt.” In: Religiöse Musik in nicht-liturgischen Werken von Beethoven bis Reger, ed. Walter Wiora et al. Studien zur Musikgeschichte des 19. Jahrhunderts, 51. Regensburg: Gustav Bosse, 1978; pp. 119–42. ISBN 3764921358. ML2900.R44. Summarizes the role of religious elements in Liszt’s musical output as a whole, especially his instrumental works. Niemöller reaffirms the literary and spiritual influences of Lamennais, Lamartine, and other figures on the composer’s religious thinking; he also deals with the composer’s early literary works and religious aspects of his late piano pieces. Lacks musical examples.

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OTHER EXAMINATIONS

OF

LISZT

AS

COMPOSER

One book-length study considers the composer’s religious convictions and interests in conjunction with his revolutionary enthusiasms: 972. Merrick, Paul. Revolution and Religion in the Music of Liszt. London and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987. xvi, 328 pp. ISBN 0521326273. ML410.L7M4 1987. Begins by taking Liszt seriously as a man of political and religious ideas, then goes on to demonstrate how those ideas influenced much of his compositional output—not just the masses and oratorios, but the Sonata in b minor, certain symphonic works, including Les Morts; the shorter choral pieces; and other compositions. Merrick devotes entire chapters to the unfinished “Revolutionary” symphony, Liszt’s interest in Palestrina’s music, and religious symbolism in the Sonata. Illustrated with 192 handsomely printed musical examples; concludes with a short chronological table of Liszt’s Weimar activities (pp. 311–14) and extensive bibliographic citations in the form of endnotes. Uneven in quality, Merrick’s book has won mixed reviews from well-known Lisztians. Alexander Main, for instance, criticized it rather harshly in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 22 (1987): 75–78. Also reviewed by Alan Walker in the Times Literary Supplement for 10 July 1987. Finally, three studies also involve issues that cross lines drawn by some scholars between politics, religion, and social issues: 973. Arnold, Ben. “Liszt and the Music of Revolution and War.” In item 56, pp. 225–38. Essentially an introduction to Liszt’s revolutionary interests, especially as they manifested themselves in “nearly a dozen significant compositions” related to contemporary events and ideas (p. 225). Among other aspects of his subject, Arnold identifies three motifs shared by many Liszt pieces, including Le Forgeron and the Sunt lacrymae rerum. Illustrated with three multi-partite musical examples and three tables: the first of “war-related works” for piano composed during the nineteenth-century (pp. 227–28); the second of similar works for chorus or orchestra composed between 1750 and 1900 (pp. 228–29); and the third of Liszt’s own “works of revolution and war” (p. 234)—among them Lyon, Funérailles, and two of the pieces from the “Historical Hungarian Portraits.” See, too, Arnold’s Music and War: A Research and Information Guide (New York, 1993), esp. pp. 89–91; pp. 109–11 identify printed editions and recordings of Liszt’s war-related works.

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974. Bartoli, Jean-Pierre. “Liszt and French Exoticism in Music.” In item 39, pp. 197–214. Examines not only Liszt’s interest in “Gypsy” music—itself one reason why his musical development drew closer during the 1840s to “Chopin’s nationalist-musical goal: the defense of one’s fatherland by means of new artistic venues” (p. 213)—but also France’s fascination with “foreign” musics, as reflected in Auber’s Cheval de bronze, Félicien David’s Mélodies orientales, and Francisco Salvador-Daniel’s Ma Gazelle: Chanson mauresque d’Alger. Includes seven examples drawn from most of the works mentioned and Liszt’s Magyar dallok and Zum Andenken. An eighth example illustrates the differences between the “Hungarian” and “Oriental” minor scales (p. 209). 975. Beghelli, Marco. “Liszt and Franciscan Fashion at the End of the Nineteenth Century,” trans. Roberta Giordani. In item 39, pp. 47–60. Describes the long-lived Franciscan fad that influenced D’Annunzio’s poetry, Debussy’s Martyr de Saint Sébastien, Giocomo Puccini’s Suor angelica, and Liszt’s “Franciscan Legends” and Cantico del sol, and portions of Christus. For Beghelli, Liszt’s “Franciscanism…seem[s] to have been interpreted and accepted mainly as a fashion and fetishistically, rather than sincerely and in terms of [its] spiritual significance” (p. 50)—a position Paul Merrick (see item 972) and other partisans would almost certainly dispute. Supplemented with five full-page musical examples.

VIII Liszt as Keyboard Composer Studies of Works for Solo Piano and Organ

Liszt’s works for piano, separated here for purposes of discussion from his piano paraphrases and transcriptions, remain by far the most familiar part of his corpus. Although considerable difficulties exist for anyone trying to separate the composer’s “original” works from his “arrangements,” “transcriptions,” and “paraphrases”—what, for example, of the Réminiscences de Don Juan, based on Mozart’s themes but inconceivable as the work of anyone other than Liszt?—the present chapter examines those works published originally and exclusively as “original” work. Much of this material—the Sonata in b minor, the “Transcendental” and “Paganini” etudes, and so on—is described under “Mature Piano Pieces.” Works completed before c. 1840 are described under “Earlier Piano Pieces”; works composed during Liszt’s last years are described under “Late Piano Pieces.” Studies of arrangements, paraphrases, and transcriptions for piano as well as other media are described in Chapter 11. SURVEY STUDIES Only one book-length survey of Liszt’s piano works has appeared in print: 976. Westerby, Herbert. Liszt, Composer, and His Piano Works: Descriptive Guide and Critical Analysis, Written in a Popular and Concise Style. London: William Reeves, 1936. xxii, 336 pp. MT145.L51W4. 341

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Essentially a performer’s guide to Liszt’s more familiar compositions for solo piano. A “borderline” work, Westerby’s volume also includes a sketch of the composer’s life and chapters on his compositional style and pedagogical topics. Old-fashioned in some respects but still useful in others: piano teachers, for instance, may wish to consult Westerby’s descriptions of individual pieces ranked according to technical and interpretive difficulty. Outfitted with portraits, musical examples, diagrams, and a bibliography. Reprinted in 1970 by Greenwood Press. Another piano-works survey volume was unavailable for examination: see Bengt Johnsson, Liszts klavermusik [Engstroms & Sodrings Musikbibliothek, 8] (Copenhagen, 1989; ISBN 8787091259). Four other, somewhat more restricted and specialized surveys of Liszt’s piano music also exist: 977. Hinson, Maurice. At the Piano with Liszt. Sherman Oaks, CA: Alfred Publishing Co., 1986. 63 pp. M22.L77H5. A collection of the composer’s piano music introduced by short essays about Liszt the pianist and teacher, Liszt’s use of musical form, contemporary approaches to performing his piano works, etc. Includes seventeen compositions, among them the first Consolation, Hungarian Rhapsody no. 3, excerpts from the Weihnachtsbaum suite, and so on. Illustrated with several portraits of Liszt and miscellaneous musical examples. 978. Range, Hans-Peter. Franz Liszt: Einführung in die konzertanten Klavierwerke. Von Beethoven bis Brahms, 6 [but published with other volumes]. Lahr/Schwarzwald: Moritz Schauenburg, 1968; pp. 167–88. MT140.R35 1968. A work-by-work description of Liszt’s better-known piano compositions with and without orchestra. Includes brief synopses of the Sonata in b minor and the “Transcendental Etudes” as well as such paraphrases as the Réminiscences de Don Juan, the two familiar concertos for piano and orchestra, and so on. Superficial. Includes no musical examples. 979. Virtuosität und Avantgarde. Untersuchungen zum Klavierwerk Franz Liszts, ed. Zsolt Gárdonyi and Siegfried Mauser. Mainz: Schott, 1988. 116 pp. ISBN 3795717973. MT145.L51V6 1988. A collection of comparatively lengthy essays about Liszt’s virtuoso and experimental keyboard writing, supplemented with a considerable number of diagrams and musical examples Contains items 809, 911, 1036, and 1100. Reviewed by Peter Ramroth in Die Musikforschung 45 (1992): 328.

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980. Walker, Alan. “Liszt and the Keyboard.” The Musical Times 118 (1977): 717–21. ISSN 0027-4666. ML5.M65. A useful introduction to this complex topic, illustrated with seven short musical examples. NB: Corrections by Howard Schott to some of Walker’s observations were published in The Musical Times 118 (1977), p. 911. Many of Walker’s observations are presented more fully and with more extensive musical illustrations in item 1, vol. 1, pp. 285–318. Six books and articles deal with various compositional procedures throughout Liszt’s piano works: 981. Arnold, Ben. “Recitative in Liszt’s Solo Piano Music.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 24 (1988): 3–22. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Identifies and categorizes dozens of recitative passages—some labeled as such by Liszt, some unlabeled—in pieces ranging from the Sonata in b minor to the late keyboard works. Illustrated with six detailed tables, one of them devoted to death-related works (p. 21), and seven musical examples, some multi-partite. 982. Fowler, Andrew. “Multilevel Motivic Projection in Selected Piano Works of Liszt.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 16 (1984): 20–34. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Describes how the simultaneous projection on several levels of motivic materials provides “structural coherence” in such works as the Funérailles, the Pensées de mort from the Harmonies poétiques et religieuses, and the so-called “Dante” sonata. Fowler illustrates his remarks with several diagrams and almost a dozen numbered musical examples. 983. Gifford, David E. Religious Elements Implicit and Explicit in the Solo Piano Works of Franz Liszt. Dissertation: University of Missouri at Kansas City, 1984. viii, 75 pp. ML410.L7G44 1985. Discusses attitudes that may have influenced Liszt’s choices of keys, melodic materials, and final Plagal cadences in piano pieces with “religious” titles. Gifford concludes that at least some of Liszt’s keyboard works have “musical characteristics which set them apart from other piano compositions,” characteristics that justify “referring to these particular works as religious.” Supplemented with musical examples and a short bibliography. Summarized in DAI 45/9 (March 1985), p. 2687A; reprinted in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 19 (1986): 182. 984. Grabócz, Márta. Morphologie des oeuvres pour piano de Liszt. Influence du programme sur l’évolution des formes instrumentales, pref. Charles Rosen. Paris: Editions Kimé, 1996. 222 pp. ISBN 284174034X.

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Treats a number of interrelated topics dealing with programmism, musical form, and keyboard compositions such as Lyon, Vallée d’Obermann from the Années de pèlerinage, piano versions of the “Petrarch Sonnets,” and so on. Among other points, Grabócz emphasizes Liszt’s position as a forerunner of twentieth-century music, the presence of “bridge” structures in his programmatic works, and musical topoi, including pastoral and “makabreske” figures. Contains seventy-five often multi-partite musical examples, numerous tables, and other analytical aids. Outfitted with an appendix containing literary quotations that appear at the beginnings of certain Liszt keyboard pieces; concludes with a bibliography. Except for quotations, in French throughout. For review information, see item 155. Originally published under the same title in 1986 by MTA Zenetudományi Intézet of Budapest (ISBN 9630172933). See, too, shorter but closely related studies by Grabócz, such as “Die Wirkung des Programms auf die Entwicklung der instrumentalen Formen in Liszts Klavierwerken,” Studia Musicologica 22 (1980): 299–325; “A programszeru# ség hatása a hangszeres formák fejlo# désére Liszt zongoramu# veiben,” Magyar zene 21 (1980): 278–300; “Renaissance de la forme énumérative, sous l’influence du modèle épique, dans les oeuvres pour piano de Liszt; facteurs de l’analyse structurale et sémantique,” Studia Musicologica 26 (1984): 199–218; and “A szemantikai kategóriák típusai. Kisérlet a narratív irodalmi szemiotika alkalmazására Liszt mu# veinek elemzésében,” Zenetudományi dolgozatok [Budapest] (1987): 117–36. Although the last study is more theoretically “semiotic” and contains no musical examples, it also deals with such works as the Vallée d’Obermann, the B-minor Ballade, and other keyboard pieces. Finally, see item 52. 985. Pesce, Dolores. “Expressive Resonance in Liszt’s Piano Music.” In: Nineteenth-century Piano Music, ed. R. Larry Todd. New York: Schirmer, 1990; pp. 355–411. ISBN 0028725514. ML706.N56 1994. Examines a considerable number of Liszt’s keyboard works—the “Dante” sonata, Pensée des morts, “Sonnet 47” from Book III of the Années, and so on—according to Pesce’s thesis that “their form is dependent on…ideas, both musical and extramusical” (p. 355). Includes its own bibliography (pp. 409–11) as well as twenty-three musical examples and three documentary facsimiles. An important, well-written study. Similar if less intelligent studies also exist; see, for example, A. B. Hersh, A Consideration of Programmatic Associations in the Piano Music of Liszt (D.M.A. document: Indiana University, 1971), and many of the items cited below. 986. Thompson, Harold Adams. The Evolution of Whole-Tone Sound in Liszt’s Original Piano Works. Dissertation: Louisiana State University, 1974. xv, 316 pp. ML410.L7T5 1974.

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Combines “analysis” with “a musicological approach” to explore Liszt’s use of whole-tone materials (including “rotating-mediant” constructions, a term borrowed from George Rochberg) in such pieces as the “Dante” sonata, the Csárdás obstiné, Unstern!, and the Bagatelle sans tonalité. Extensively illustrated with musical examples. Concludes with a short bibliography. Summarized in DAI 36/1 (July 1975), p. 22A. Finally, one study examines the composer’s keyboard writing for organ as well as piano: 987. Thiedt, Catherine Eleanor. The Idiomatic Character of Romantic Keyboard Composition: A Comparison of Selected Piano and Organ Works of Franz Liszt and a Study of Differences in Their Styles. Dissertation: University of Rochester, 1975. ix, 218 pp. MT145.L51T44 1975. Evaluates Liszt’s approach to keyboard writing through an examination of three organ works and piano transcriptions of two of them. Summarized in DAI 36/11 (May 1976), p. 7039A.

LISZT’S EARLY PIANO PIECES (1827–c. 1840) Only two monographs have been devoted exclusively to Liszt’s earlier keyboard compositions, especially those completed before c. 1840. Both of them deal primarily with stylistic issues: 988. Kókai, Rudolf [Rezso# ]. Franz Liszt in seinen frühen Klavierwerken. Kassel: Bärenreiter; and Budapest: Akadémiai kiadó, 1968. 140 pp. ML410.L7K7 1969. A valuable study of Liszt’s musical development before the mid-1830s. Among other topics, Kókai deals systematically with Liszt’s use of thematic material and rhythmic figures, his youthful brand of keyboard writing, and his use of musical form. Illustrated with eighty-eight musical examples, some of them taken from D-WRgs Liszt sketchbooks (pp. 121–40), as well as three unpaginated facsimile reproductions from D-WRgs Liszt manuscripts N6 and J44. Also contains a useful bibliography and a catalog of Liszt works written between 1822 and 1840 (pp. 9–18). Published originally in 1935 by Franz Wagner of Leipzig. * Torkewitz. Harmonisches Denken im Frühwerk Franz Liszts. Described as item 799. Concerned almost exclusively with harmony in piano pieces Liszt completed before the mid-1830s.

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Three shorter survey studies also exist: 989. Kentner, Louis. “Solo Piano Music (1827–1861).” In item 38, pp. 79–133. Although Kentner claims in his title to discuss Liszt’s early keyboard works, he concentrates almost entirely on works from the Weimar years: the Sonata in b minor, the “Dante” sonata, the Ballades, and various versions (especially the last) of the Etudes d’exécution transcendante. Nevertheless, some room is devoted to youthful efforts. Illustrated with seventy-six musical examples as well as several plates of Liszt portraits. See, too, Serge Gut’s article “Nouvelle approche des premières oevures de Franz Liszt d’après la correspondance Liszt-d’Agoult,” published in item 95, pp. 237–48; Gut discusses a host of early Liszt works, principally “original” piano pieces and operatic transcriptions, and provides the text of a previously unpublished piece: the Valse à Marie (pp. 243–44), composed in November 1842. * Saffle. “The Early Works.” Described as item 787. Devoted mostly to piano pieces, Liszt having composed little for other performing forces prior to 1835. 990. Stradal, August. “Die ersten Jugendwerke Franz Liszts.” Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 80 (1913): 109–15. ML5.N4. Identifies many of Liszt’s earliest compositions, including their little-used opus numbers. Stradal repeatedly corrects Ramann’s “official” Liszt biography (item 2). Includes one musical example: the theme from the Allgero di bravura, which the article’s author describes as fast Schubertisch (“almost Schubert-like”; p. 114). A worthwhile study; some of the pieces it mentions continue to be ignored. Finally, two studies of individual early Liszt piano pieces are described below: 991. Nugent, George. “An Early Entry for Liszt’s Heroic Genres.” In: Actas del XV Congreso de la Sociedad Internacional de musicología: “Culturas musicales del Mediterraneo y sus ramificaciones,” Vol. 6 = Revista de musicología 16/6 (1993): 3519–30. ISSN 0210-1459. ML5.R212. Announces the discovery of Liszt’s youthful Marche funèbre of 1827, a work written shortly after his father’s death. Nugent provides a complete facsimile of the Marche; much of this article, in fact, is a study of the manuscript that once belonged to William Andrews Clark Jr., founder of the Los Angeles Philharmonic. Also includes four musical examples. Closely resembles item 788, also by Nugent. 992. Reich, Nancy B. “Liszt’s Variations on the March from Rossini’s ‘Siège de Corinthe.’” Fontis artes musicae 23 (1976): 102–06 and 26 (1979): 235–36. ISSN 0015-6191.

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Traces the provenance and examines the contents of a manuscript completed by Liszt in 1830 and currently owned by the Manhattanville College Library in Purchase, New York. Illustrated in the first installment (1976) with a complete facsimile reproduction of the document in question. Reprinted— unfortunately, without the facsimile reproductions published in the original— in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 7 (1980): 35–41. LISZT’S “MATURE” PIANO PIECES (c. 1835–c. 1869) Descriptions of survey studies, discussions of individual “mature” Liszt piano pieces, and collections are described below in alphabetical order—first by work and/or collection, then by author and/or title—followed by studies of a very few miscellaneous works. SURVEY STUDIES No book-length survey exists of the piano pieces Liszt composed during and for about a decade after his so-called “Weimar Years.” Only his most experimental and very last pieces are generally considered stylistically “late”; these works are described below in a section of their own. Two surveys, however, have been devoted to works composed almost entirely between the early 1840s and the late 1860s: 993. Arnold, Ben. “Piano Music: 1835–1861.” In item 37, pp. 73–137. Identifies and in many cases explores in some detail a considerable number of important pieces, among them the “Dante” sonata, the Magyar dallok (as well as the more familiar Hungarian Rhapsodies), many of the works in march and dance forms, and so on. Arnold provides fifteen mostly multipartite musical examples, all of them taken from more familiar works, as well as eight diagrams: two of them outlining the organization of the B-minor Sonata (pp. 121–22), one the form of the Scherzo und Marsch (p. 118), another that of the Grosses Konzertsolo (p. 115), and so on. See, too, item 1093, which deals with pieces dating from the later 1860s. 994. Wheeler, Dale John. Franz Liszt’s Solo Piano Music from His Roman Period, 1862–1868. D.M.A. document: University of Oklahoma, 1999. xix, 372 pp. OCLC 48600441. Considers some forty-seven compositions for solo piano, including transcriptions, as well as works for orchestra and chamber ensembles dating from or associated with Liszt’s various Roman sojourns of the 1860s. For Wheeler, these pieces, especially the piano works, “form a critical link between the vivid soundscapes of Liszt’s middle years and the forwardlooking experiments of his old age” (abstract). Illustrated with charts,

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diagrams, and musical examples; also includes discographical information as well as an extensive bibliography (pp. 325–47). Summarized in DAI 60 no. 08A (1999), p. 2734. THE ALBUM D’UN VOYAGEUR, ANNÉES RELATED WORKS

DE PÈLERINAGE, AND

CLOSELY

The three volumes of Liszt’s “Years of Pilgrimage,” as well as several sets of pieces associated with them and other works upon which portions of the volumes themselves are based, have received considerable analytical and critical attention. Among existing studies is one that deals with the Album d’un voyageur and its relationship to portions of the “Pilgrimage” volumes as iterations of each other: 995. Kroó, György. “‘La ligne intérieure’—the Years of Transformation and the ‘Album d’un voyageur.’” In item 49, pp. 249–60. As interesting as item 1004, somewhat broader in scope, and much more accessible for non-Hungarian readers. Kroó describes the ideas behind and the compositional history of the Album and the several volumes of the Années, especially in terms of music written prior to 1842 and Liszt’s possible attitudes toward creating collections of his own works. Unfortunately contains no musical examples. Historical studies of the Album include: 996. Main, Alexander. “New Dates for the Traveller’s Album.” Journal of Musicological Research 3 (1981): 411–22. ISSN 0141-1896. ML5.M6415. A shorter version of “Liszt and Lamartine: Two Early Letters,” published in item 47, pp. 132–42. Main devotes both articles to the histories of several early Liszt piano works, among them the Album. No musical examples. Because the Liszt-Studien (item 47) version of this article is cited in item 76 (entry 813), it—and many other letters studies—is ignored in Chapter 4. The Journal of Musicological Research version was inadvertently omitted from item 72. Three monographs have been devoted to the Années de pèlerinage in their entirety: 997. Cornette, Arthur Jacob Hendrik. Liszt en zijne “Années de pèlerinage.” Antwerp: Opdebeek, 1924. 60 pp. ML410.L7C8. Originally published in 1917, this “impressionistic” account of Liszt’s pieces as souvenirs of happy wanderings has been reprinted several times. Cited throughout the literature but no longer worth consulting, except as one contribution among many to the Netherlands’ Liszt-reception.

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998. Rüsch, Walter. Franz Liszts Années de pèlerinage. Beiträge zur Geschichte seiner Persönlichkeit und seines Stiles. Bellinzoca: Leins & Vescovi, 1934. 62 pp. ML410.L7R8. Superior to item 997; nevertheless, Rüsch deals with all three “Years of Pilgrimage” volumes in a somewhat cursory manner. Illustrated with numerous musical examples as well as a one-page bibliography. Presented as a doctoral dissertation in 1934 at the University of Zurich. 999. Wilson, Karen Sue. A Historical Study and Stylistic Analysis of Franz Liszt’s “Années de pèlerinage.” Dissertation: University of North Carolina, 1977. xiv, 313 pp. ML410.L7W55 1977. A two-part study: the first part examines the origins of all three Années volumes; the second discusses stylistic issues—among them, thematic material, harmonic progressions, structure, texture, sonority, and keyboard writing. Includes musical examples and a bibliography. Summarized in DAI 39/1 (July 1978), p. 20A; reprinted in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 7 (1980), p. 97. Several shorter introductions to the Années also exist. See, for example, F. E. Kirby’s “Liszt’s Pilgrimage” in the Piano Quarterly 23/89 (Spring 1975): 17–21, which describes portions of the cycle, especially the Vallée d’Obermann and the “Dante” sonata. Kirby also reproduces some of the cover art employed in the 1855 and 1858 editions. Four articles also examine the Années as a whole: 1000. Eigeldinger, Jean-Jacques. “Les Années de pèlerinage de Liszt: Notes sur la genèse et l’esthétique.” Revue musicale de Suisse Romande 33 (1980): 147–72. ISSN 0027-4548. ML5.R4. Deals with such diverse topics as musical “tourism” during the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the influences of the Swiss countryside and of Italian painting, sculpture, and poetry on Liszt’s music, and the theory that the third Années volume represents an interior journey of the soul and of religious sentiment. Eigeldinger also provides commentary on each movement from the series as a whole and briefly analyzes some of the pieces. Outfitted with musical examples and other images, including facsimiles of original-edition sheet-music covers. 1001. Fowler, Andrew. “Franz Liszt’s ‘Années de pèlerinage’ as Megacycle.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 40 (1996): 113–29. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. An intelligent examination of all the entire “Years of Pilgrimage” series as a “monumental work” which, like Wagner’s Ring, reflects “aspects of the

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Romantic aesthetic that its composition helped define” (p. 127). Illustrated with a chronological table devoted to the contents of all three volumes (p. 115) and fifteen additional figures, most of them musical examples. 1002. Gorczycka, Monika. “Nowatorstwo techniki dzwiekowej ‘Années de pèlerinage’ Liszta.” Muzyka [Warsaw] 6/4 (1961): 47–59. ML5.M9918. Deals with Liszt’s keyboard writing in many of the “Years of Pilgrimage” pieces; illustrated with musical examples. In Polish; summarized in German on pp. 109–110 of the same periodical. Other Polish-language studies dealing with Liszt’s keyboard writing are more general in character. See, for example, Jerzy Morawski, “Faktura fortepianowa Liszta” in Muzyka [Warsaw] 7/1 (1962): 29–38; summarized in French on p. 59. 1003. Kaczmarczyk, Adrienne. “Liszt: ‘Marie, Poème’ (A Planned Piano Cycle).” Journal of the American Liszt Society 41 (1997): 88–101. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Deals with Marie, Poème en 6 chants (pour piano) that Liszt once mentioned in a letter to Ferdinand Hiller, preserved today in a single thirteenmeasure sketch that belonged to Joseph Pierre. Includes three musical examples, including facsimiles from the composer’s N8 Weimar sketchbook. See, too, Kaczmarczyk’s “Liszt: ‘Marie, poème’ (egy tervezett zongoraciklus),” published in Magyar zene 35 (1994): 161–72. Studies of interrelationships between the Album and the “Years of Pilgrimmage,” Book I, include: 1004. Kroó, György. Az elso# Zarándokév: Az Albumtól a Suite-ig. Budapest: Zenemu# kiadó, 1986. 128 pp. ISBN 9633306027. ML410.L7K86 1986. A detailed discussion of issues involved in the transformation of the seven Album pieces into seven numbers from the first Années volume. Illustrated with facsimiles of covers for early editions of the works in question, and with musical examples. Extensive quotations from Liszt’s correspondence of the 1830s and 1840s appear in an appendix (pp. 112–28) in their original languages. Commentary and translation from quotations are entirely in Hungarian. Summarized at length in an Italian-language article entitled “Ferenc Liszt: dall’Album alla Suite,” Musica/Realtà 19 (April 1986): 117–37 and 20 (August 1986): 149–69.) See also item 995. 1005. Stradal, August. “Das ‘Album d’un voyageur’ und ‘La première Année de pèlerinage’ (‘La Suisse’) von Franz Liszt.” Neue Musik-Zeitung [Stuttgart]

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33 (1912): 41–43, 153–54, 195–96, 214–15, 255–57, 296–98, 355–56, 394–95, 436–37, and 476–78. A piece-by-piece, measure-by-measure comparison of Liszt’s earlier Album d’un voyageur pieces with the later versions that became Book I of the “Years of Pilgrimage” collection. Although published before World War I, Stradal’s study has never been superseded. Illustrated with dozens of musical examples. Studies of the Années de pèlerinage, Book I (“Switzerland”), include the following: 1006. Hughes, William H., Jr. Liszt’s “Première Année de pèlerinage: Suisse.” A Comparative Study of Early and Revised Versions. Dissertation: University of Rochester, 1985. xii, 311 pp. ML95.3H894. Deals with Liszt’s alterations and improvements for seven pieces found in the first volume of the “Years of Pilgrimage” collection: Chapelle de Guillaume Tell, Au lac de Wallenstadt, Pastorale, and so on. Among other topics, Hughes also discusses the circumstances of Liszt’s life during the 1830s and 1840s, nineteenth-century pianos, and interpretive indications in the several manuscripts and scores he examined. Includes numerous musical examples. Summarized in DAI 46/4 (October 1985), p. 832A; reprinted in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 18 (1985): 181. Similar but briefer and possibly less important surveys also exist. See, for example, Serge Gut’s “serial” essay “Franz Liszt: ‘Année de pèlerinage. Première Année: Suisse,’” published during 1986–1987 in L’Education musicale, vols. 333, pp. 11–16; 334, pp. 5–9; 335, pp. 19–24; and 336, pp. 14–18. 1007. Merrick, Paul. “The Role of Tonality in the Swiss Book of Années de Pèlerinage.” Studia Musicologica 39 (1998): 367–83. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. The most fulsome of Merrick’s many studies insofar as his theories of harmonic symbolism are concerned; for Merrick, the key of C—at least within the confines of the early Années pieces—stands for “man, hero, ideals, church”; the key of A-flat for “love, still water”; the key of E for “peasant religious festival”; and so on (p. 383). Includes about a dozen lettered musical examples. See, too, Dieter Presser, “Liszts ‘Années de pèlerinage. Première Année: Suisse’ als Dokument der Romantik” (item 46, pp. 137–53). Presser evaluates Liszt’s Swiss collection by comparing its contents with works by Beethoven and Schumann; he also considers such polarities as “Man” vs. “Nature”; finally, he briefly investigates elements of Liszt’s phrase-structures, melodic periodicity, and harmonic progressions. No musical examples.

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Studies of the Années, Book II—which is also the first of that series’s “Italian” volumes—include: 1008. Cinnamon, Howard. Third-Relations as Structural Elements in Book II of Liszt’s “Années de pèlerinage” and Three Later Works. Dissertation: University of Michigan, 1984. 302 pp. Discusses harmonic practices characteristic not only of the earlier Italian Années pieces, but also of the first movement of the Faust symphony, La lugubre gondola, and the song Blume und Duft. These practices include “tonic arpeggiating [i.e., I–III–V–I] progressions” of varying sophistication. Includes musical examples. Summarized in DAI 45 no. 12A (June 1985), p. 3475; reprinted in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 18 (1985): 182. With regard to Cinnamon’s analysis of harmonic practices in other Liszt works, see item 806. Other studies of the Années, Book II, include MengYin Tsai’s D.M.A. document, Franz Liszt’s Lyricism: A Discussion of the Inspiration for His First Italy Album of Année [sic] de pèlerinage” (University of Washington, 2001; no ISBN available). Not seen; cited on-line by FirstSearch and other search engines, in which Tsai’s title may be misquoted. Studies of the Années, Book III—the second “Italian” volume—include: 1009. Pesce, Dolores. “Liszt’s ‘Années de pèlerinage,’ Book 3: A ‘Hungarian’ Cycle?” 19th Century Music 13 (1989–1990): 207–29. ISSN 0148-2076. ML1.N27. Proposes a “conceptual link to the Holy Crown” of Hungary in this set of piano pieces ostensibly associated with Italy. As Pesce explains, the Crown’s image of cypress trees, Liszt’s reference to Virgil’s Aeneid— which “already has a Hungarian association” for the composer—and “the fact that all four threnodies [in the Années volume] contain melodic material derived from Hungary’s national anthem” (p. 228) suggest the composer’s faith in his native land. Illustrated with analytical diagrams, musical examples, and so on. See, too, Pesce, “‘Magyar’ ciklus-e a ‘Zarándokévek’ harmadik kötete?” in Magyar zene 31 (1990): 347–72, which includes ten musical examples and a picture of the “Crown of St. Stephen.” Regarding the “Cypresses” from this volume of the Années, see items 1093 and 1098. Among studies of individual “Album” and “Annees” pieces are several discussions of Après une lecture de Dante (Fantasia quasi Sonata), the so-called “Dante” sonata from Book II. Four of these studies are described below:

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1010. Grew, Eva Mary. “Liszt’s Dante Sonata.” The Chesterian 21 (1940): 33–40. Deals primarily with Liszt’s interest in Dante and his Commedia. Grew concludes that there are no important similarities between the sonata and the Dante symphony. Lacks musical examples. 1011. Robert, Walter. “‘Après une lecture de Dante (Fantasia quasi Sonata)’ of Liszt.” Piano Quarterly 23/89 (Spring 1975): 22–27. ISSN 0031-9354. ML1.P66. A survey of the circumstances surrounding the composition of the sonata. Illustrated with two portraits of Liszt and two musical examples. 1012. Winklhofer, Sharon. “Liszt, Marie, and the Dante Sonata.” 19th Century Music 1 (1977–1978): 15–32. ISSN 0148-2076. ML1.N27. As much a study of Liszt’s wanderings with Marie d’Agoult and his early piano output as a description of the sonata itself, a fantasy Winklhofer claims the composer modeled not on Dante’s Commedia but on a poem by Victor Hugo; after 1849 he changed the piece’s title to reflect its literary inspiration. Includes a single documentary facsimile and the complete French text of Hugo’s poem. 1013. Yeagley, David A. “Liszt’s ‘Dante Sonata’: Origins and Criticism.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 37 (1995): 1–12. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Although more recent than items 1010–1012, a rather disappointing review of what is already known of this work’s background and critical reception. Lacks musical examples. Derived, perhaps, from Yeagley’s D.M.A. document Franz Liszt’s Dante Sonata: The Origins, the Criticism, a Selective Musical Analysis, and Commentary (University of Arizona, 1994)—the latter, according to DAI 55 no. 10A (1994), p. 3036, a study of “innovative harmonies, creative use of octaves, chords, and original concepts of notation and rhythm” cited as “interesting” rather than necessarily “religious” in character. The short piano piece Lyon, published independently in its first iteration, has received special attention from several scholars, in large part because of its social “subject matter”: 1014. Giani, Mauricio. “Once More ‘Music and the Social Conscience’: Reconsidering Liszt’s ‘Lyon.’” In item 39, pp. 95–114. In part a reply to item 1015, in part a reconsideration of ways in which Lyon reflects the composer’s Saint-Simonian sympathies; Giani, however, asserts that Liszt “sought, above all, not so much to make a revolutionary

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social statement as to erect a cohesive musical structure, one in which intertextual connections are…subordinated within a self-consistent architectonic scheme” (p. 111). Includes seven musical examples, among them portions of Félicien David’s Hymne à Saint-Simon and Rouget de Lisle’s Premier Chant des industriels. 1015. Main, Alexander. “Liszt’s ‘Lyon’: Music and the Social Conscience.” 19th Century Music 4 (1981): 228–43. ISSN 0148-2076. ML1.N27. Traces the history and explains the “revolutionary” significance of this early work, later incorporated into the Album d’un voyageur. Main provides new dates for several early Liszt piano pieces (p. 243), and he reprints most or all of a letter Liszt addressed to Félicité Lamennais on 18 December 1837. Also contains seven musical examples. Among shorter, less significant studies of the same piece is Gábor Darvas, “Liszt Ferenc: Lyon (Zenei dokumentum a munkásmozgalom történetéhez),” Új zenei szemle 4/1 (January 1953): 18–21, which contains eight musical examples. Liszt’s Vallée d’Obermann, ostensibly related to Senancour’s almost forgotten novel, has attracted attention because of its programmatic as well as its purely musical characteristics: 1016. Bartoli, Jean-Pierre. “Des ‘Cloches de G*****’ aux ‘Cloches de Genève’ et les deux versions de la ‘Vallée d’Obermann’ de Franz Liszt—une étude comparative.” In item 41, pp. 135–56. A comparison of both “Cloches” pieces—the earlier from the Album d’un voyageur, the later from Book I of the Années de pèlerinage—with reference to a variety of related issues, including the relationship of both works to Vallée d’Obermann, the appearance of similar musical materials in Mendelssohn’s Lieder ohne Worte, and so on. Illustrated with nine musical examples and several tables, including an Annexe [“appendix”] that identifies almost a dozen similarities between the Cloches de G***** and Chopin’s Barcarolle. 1017. Biget, Michèle. “Ecriture(s) instrumentale(s). Liszt: ‘La vallée d’Obermann.’” L’Analyse musicale 21/4 (November 1990): 85–95. ISSN 0295-3722. ML5.A54. A structural-expressive study of Obermann, primarily from a pianist’s perspective and thus emphasizing such issues as deciphering notational difficulties, realizing timbre in performance, and so on. Biget provides eight hand-copied, mostly multi-partite musical examples as well as a tabular description of the “six grandes sections” of the work: section 1, beginning with the Lento assai introductory phrase (mm. 1–5); section 2, beginning at Un poco piu di moto ma sempre lento; and so on (p. 90).

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1018. Fowler, Andrew. “Music and Program in Liszt’s ‘Vallée d’Obermann.’” Journal of the American Liszt Society 29 (1991): 3–11. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Admitting that relationships between the 1842 iteration of the piano piece and a quotation from Senancour’s novel appended to it “cannot be defined precisely” (p. 10), Fowler nevertheless explores possible programmatic elements in both published versions of Liszt’s Obermann; he also compares its contents to broader mythic patterns, including “separation-initiation-return,” as described by Joseph Campbell in The Hero with a Thousand Faces (p. 11). Includes seven musical examples drawn from the 1842 and 1855 versions of the piano piece. For closely related remarks about mythic, narrative, and semiotic aspects especially of the composer’s symphonic works, see items 960 and 1019. See, too, Richard Stein, “Liszts ‘Vallée d’Obermann,’” Die Musik 13 (1913–1914): 262–69, which is largely concerned with the significance of improvisation in Romantic music. 1019. Tarasti, Eero. “The Case of ‘Obermann’: Franz Liszt and Marie d’Agoult in Switzerland.” In: Interdisciplinary Studies in Musicology: Report from the First Interdisciplinary Conference, Poznan, November 23–24, 1991, ed. Jan Steçszewski and Maciej Jab l on´ ski. “Poznan; Society of Friends of Learning—Musicological Section Works,” 2. Poznan [Poland]: “ars nova,” 1993, pp. 91–105. ISBN 8385409904. A semiotic dissection of Liszt’s piece in terms of the “Obermann phase” of the composer’s journeys with the Comtesse d’Agoult during the mid1830s. Tarasti quotes from Senancour’s Obermann as well as d’Agoult’s letters and memoirs; he also refers to such secondary sources as Irene Schärer’s Obermann: Versuch einer Analyze (Zurich, 1955); finally, he identifies several basic “isotopies”—other music historians might consider some of Tarasti’s choices topical rather than “isotopical”—such as “flight” music, “pastoral” music, and “wandering” music. Illustrated with eleven musical examples, several of them lengthy. The three “Petrarch Sonnets,” which exist in several iterations for voice and piano as well as solo piano, have attracted attention especially from theorists: 1020. Cinnamon, Howard. “Chromaticism and Tonal Coherence in Liszt’s ‘Sonetto 104 del Petrarca.’” In Theory Only 7/3 (August 1983): 3–19. ISSN 0360-4365. ML1.I59. A Schenkerian study of the “Sonnet” for solo piano in its Années version, and especially the roles played by certain chromatic figures and mediant/sub-mediant relationships as structural elements. Includes nine

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diagrammatic representations of harmonic progressions but no musical examples per se. 1021. Fowler, Andrew. “Franz Liszt’s ‘Petrarch Sonnets’: The Persistent Poetic Problem.” Indiana Theory Review 7/2 (Winter 1986): 48–68. ISSN 0271-8022. MT6.I52. Argues that “subsurface motivic relationships reveal a bond” between the last solo-piano version of “Sonnet 47” and the final version for baritone and piano (p. 48), and that Liszt’s revisions constitute “logical sequels to his unfailing search for the perfect union of literary and musical art” (p. 58). Supplemented with four musical examples, the complete text of Petrarch’s poem in both Italian and English (p. 59), and the complete piano and final vocal versions of the piece in question (pp. 60–68). Also includes a summary (p. 58). 1022. Neumeyer, David. “Liszt’s ‘Sonetto 104 del Petrarca’: The Romantic Spirit and Voiceleading.” Indiana Theory Review 2/2 (Winter 1979): 2–22. ISSN 0271-8022. MT6.I52. A study of voiceleading and its implications for musical structure in the “Petrarch Sonnet” no. 104, especially the piano version, outfitted with four pages of Schenkerian reduction diagrams and sixteen musical examples. See, too, Kálmán d’Isoz’s pamphlet Liszt három Petrarca szonettjero#l (Budapest, 1941/42 [sic])—today an uncommon publication, although the Liszt Ferenc Research Centre in Budapest owns at least one copy. At least three published studies of Sposalizio are worth consulting: 1023. Backus, Joan [Pauline]. “Liszt’s ‘Sposalizio’: A Study in Musical Perspective.” 19th Century Music 12 (1988–1989): 173–83. ISSN 0148-2076. ML1.N27. Proposes a program for the piece in question, based on an examination of Lo sposalizio della Vergine in versions by Raphael and Perugino. Backus illustrates her theory with an analytical diagram and seven musical examples as well as reproductions of the paintings mentioned above; to a considerable extent her article is couched as a reply to remarks made by Leon Plantinga in Romantic Music: A History of Musical Style in Nineteenthcentury Europe (New York, 1984), p. 188. See, too, Ute Jung-Kaiser’s closely related article “Liszts Raffael-Interpretation—oder die Frage nach der ‘verborgenen Verwandtschaft der Werke des Genies’” in the Zeitschrift für Musikpädagogik 14/52 (1989): 19–24. 1024. Eigeldinger, Jean-Jacques. “Anch’io son pittore ou Liszt compositeur de ‘Sposalizio’ & ‘Penseroso.’” In: De l’Archet au pinceau. Rencontres entre

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musique et arts visuels en Suisse romande, ed. Philippe Junod and Sylvia Wuhrmann. Lausanne: Editions Payot, 1996; pp. 49–74. ISBN 2601031727. ML3849.D39 1996. A second, somewhat shorter study of relationships between paintings and “pictorial” pieces of music, subdivided into five mini-essays. Among other issues raised by Eigeldinger is Liszt’s use of harmonic and rhythmic “cells” as structural units; unlike Backus and Way (items 1023 and 1025), he also explores relationships between Michelangelo’s statue and Liszt’s Perseroso. Illustrated with images of relevant artworks, reproductions of etchings based Ralphael’s and Michelangelo’s masterpieces and employed as models for the title pages of Liszt’s pieces (the last, pp. 62 and 69), Adolf von Stürler’s 1839 Liszt portrait (p. 53), and seven or eight musical examples. Published in a Polish translation as “‘Anch’io son pittore’: Liszt jako kompozytor ‘Sposalizio’ i ‘Penseroso,’” Muzyka [Warsaw] 42 (1997): 93–115. 1025. Way, Elizabeth. “Ralphael as a Musical Model: Liszt’s ‘Sposalizio.’” Journal of the American Liszt Society 40 (1996): 103–12. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. An intriguing discussion of the “biclimactic” organization undergirding both Raphael’s painting and Liszt’s piano piece, and an evaluation of formal originality reflected in the composer’s ambiguous use of motivic materials (p. 110). Illustrated with three musical examples as well as a reproduction of the painter’s Lo sposalizio della Vergine on p. 105. Three studies deal with the mini-collection Venezia e Napoli: 1026. Lin, Lin. Liszt’s “Venezia e Napoli”: A Historical Study and Musical Analysis. D.M.A. document: University of Cincinnati, 2001. xiv, 166 pp. ISBN 0493237615. Unavailable for examination; according to the abstract available on-line from FirstSearch, a study “of both versions [of the pieces in question] as individual pieces and coherent sets, concentrating on formal structure, thematic transformation, harmonic design” as well as a comparison of the two versions [see DAI 62 no. 05A (2001), p. 1632]. Includes a bibliography (pp. 147–52) and a list of Liszt’s solo-piano pieces based on Italian themes. 1027. Schenkman, Walter. “The ‘Venezia e Napoli’ Tarantella: Genesis and Metamorphosis.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 6 (1979): 10–24 [“The Liszt-Cottrau Connection”]; 7 (1980): 42–58 [“The Transition from ‘Tarantelles’ to ‘Tarantella’”]; 8 (1980): 44–59 [“The Specifics of the Changes between ‘Tarantelles’ and ‘Tarantella’”]. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68.

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Describes in detail the genesis of and revisions for the work best known today as the Tarantella from Liszt’s revised Venezia e Napoli. The first installment deals with Guillaume Cottrau, from four of whose canzonas (Fenesta ca lucive, Lo Guarracino, Fenesta vascia, and Michelemmà) Liszt drew thematic materials for the original Tarantelles; according to Schenkman, Liszt makes at least one “incongruous” alteration in material borrowed from his Italian predecessor. The second installment deals with revisions for the Tarantelles; Schenkman explains that Liszt outgrew the disparity between “pianist” and “composer” pointed out to him by Ernest Legouve in 1840, and that changes in the original Tarantelles involved virtually every aspect of their musical character. The third and final installment consists of a detailed comparison of the two versions of this composition; Schenkman pays special attention to the musical content of Liszt’s revisions—to Liszt’s “new and better ways of musical expression” ([“Specifics”], p. 53). Copiously illustrated throughout with musical examples. 1028. Stradal, August. “Liszts Sammlung Venezia e Napoli.” Neue Musik-Zeitung [Stuttgart] 43 (1922): 376–78. A short but enjoyable synopsis of this delightful collection. Among other things, Stradal points out thematic relationships between Tasso, the Triomphe funèbre du Tasse, and the “Chant du goldolier” tune. Includes five musical examples. Regarding the “Chant,” see item 944. Finally, two studies dealing with other, individual “Album” and “Pilgrimage” pieces are described below: 1029. Heinemann, Ernst Günther. “Liszts ‘Angelus’—Beobachtungen zum kompositorischen Entstehungsprozess.” In: Musik. Edition. Interpretation. Gedenkschrift Gunther Henle, ed. Martin Bente. Munich: G. Henle, 1980; pp. 213–17. ISBN 387328032. ML55.H44 1980. Describes compositional changes between c. 1877 and 1883 in surviving documentary sources for Angelus, published in Book III of the Années de pèlerinage. Heinemann maintains that, despite these changes, there was no smoothing out of the musical material; consequently, Liszt’s piece still seems uneven. No musical examples. 1030. Schnitzler, Günter. “Künste im Gespräch. Zu Bezügen zwischen Salvator Rosa, E. T. A. Hoffmann und Franz Liszt.” In: Welttheater. Die Künste im 19. Jahrhundert, ed. Peter Andraschke and Edelgard Spaude. “Rombach Wissenschaft—Reihe Literatur,” 16. Freiburg i.Br.: Rombach, 1992; pp. 211–27. ISBN 3793090699. NX542.A1W45 1992. Begins with a discussion of Rosa’s early nineteenth-century landscapes in terms of their “dark palettes” and picturesque subject matter. Schnitzler

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provides color reproductions of four of Rosa’s paintings (pp. 214–15); he also evaluates Liszt’s Canzonetta del Salvator Rosa in terms of its relationship to the composer’s opinions about interarts relationships and Hoffmann’s writings (pp. 222–27). Includes one musical example from the conclusion of the Canzonetta. NB: A second article in this anthology— Peter Andraschke’s “Bild und Komposition” (pp. 228–47)—is devoted mostly to Liszt’s Sposalizio and Il Penserioso in both piano and organ versions; it includes a color reproduction of Raphael’s Betrothal of the Virgin (1504) and three musical examples. THE BALLADES 1031. Parakilas, James. “Liszt and the Narrative Tradition to 1880” = Chapter 4 of Parakilas, Ballads Without Words: Chopin and the Tradition of the Instrumental “Ballade.” Portland, OR: Amadeus, 1992; pp. 91–129, esp. pp. 93–114. ISBN 0931340470. ML460.P34 1992. Reviews the origins and describes the characteristics of Liszt’s Ballade in D-flat Major (pp. 97–101) and especially the “Hero and Leander” Ballade in b minor (esp. pp. 101–14). For Parakilas, keyboard narrative structures are of considerable interest; consequently, he points out Liszt’s reliance on “rhythmic flexibility” (p. 112) and notes the composer’s indebtedness to Chopin’s four Ballades, an influence “more deeply felt in [Liszt’s] Second Ballade than in his first” (p. 113). Each portion of the chapter contains its own diagrams and musical examples; of special interest is a chart of tempos, keys, and themes in “Hero and Leander” (p. 111). 1032. Wagner, Günther. “Die Klavierballaden von Liszt.” In: Wagner, Die Klavierballade um die Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts. Berliner musikwissenschaftliche Arbeiten, 9. Munich and Salzburg: Emil Katzbichler, 1976; pp. 49–70. ISBN 3873970392. ML747.W33. An analytical discussion, unfortunately less lively than Parakilas’s (item 1031) of both Liszt ballades, especially the b-minor. Wagner compares Liszt’s musical structures to sonata-allegro conventions. Musical examples and useful analytical diagrams. THE ETUDES, INCLUDING

THE

“TRANSCENDENTAL”

AND

“PAGANINI” ETUDES

Although Liszt’s “Transcendental Etudes” are monuments to his abilities as composer and virtuoso performer, only one book-length study of them was available when the present research guide was drafted. For a second study, see item 772: 1033. Conway, James Bryant. Musical Sources for the “Etudes d’exécution transcendante”: A Study in The Evolution of Liszt’s Compositional and

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Keyboard Techniques. Dissertation: University of Arizona, 1969. 214 pp. ML410.L7C66. Evaluates the changes Liszt made in transforming early versions of the “Transcendentals” into the version published in 1852; Conway also discusses keyboard writing and style as exemplified by these works. Numerous musical examples and a bibliography. An appendix presents an English-language translation of the critical notes that accompanied the 1826 and 1852 editions of the etudes when they were reprinted in item 201. A competent musicological study written primarily from a pianist’s point of view. Summarized in DAI 30/5 (November 1969), p. 2055A. Another volume deals somewhat more cursorily with Liszt’s keyboard studies overall: 1034. MacIntosh, Wilson Legare, Jr. A Study of the Technical and Stylistic Innovations of Franz Liszt as Demonstrated in an Analysis of Selected Etudes. Dissertation: Columbia University, 1983. v, 277 pp. Explores Liszt’s technical and stylistic innovations through detailed analyses of eight representative keyboard studies drawn from the “Transcendental” and “Paganini” etudes, the Trois Etudes de concert (or “Three Concert Etudes”), and the Zwei Konzertetüden. MacIntosh discusses in some detail Liszt’s expansion of keyboard sonorities, including certain harmonic practices, as well as keyboard writing and technical aspects of piano-playing. Musical examples. Summarized in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 16 (1984): 187. At least three shorter studies of these pieces also exist: 1035. Hunkemöller, Jürgen. “Perfektion und Perspektivenwechsel. Studien zu den drei Fassungen der ‘Etudes d’exécution transcendante’ von Franz Liszt.” Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 51 (1994): 294–314. ISSN 0003-9293. ML5.A63. Examines stylistic changes that began with the 1826 version of what became the “Transcendentals” and culminated in the 1850s in the final version of those pieces, based largely on three versions of the a-minor etude. Hunkemöller also reviews the history [Fakten] of the various editions and provides four analytical diagrams as well as three musical examples. *

Jiránek. “Franz Liszts Beitrag zur Musiksprache der Romantik.” Described as item 792.

1036. Schütz, Georg. “Form, Satz- und Klaviertechnik in den drei Fassungen der ‘Grossen Etüden’ Franz Liszts.” In item 979, pp. 71–115.

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Traces the evolution of the “Transcendentals” through three published editions: those of 1826, 1839, and 1852. Schütz discusses details of melodic development and transformation (especially transformations of certain keyboard figures), form, and harmony. Illustrated with analytical diagrams and harmonic/motivic reductions as well as scattered musical examples from all three versions of these pieces and the 1804 etude collection of Johann Baptist Cramer. Other studies of all three “Transcendental” versions also exist. See, for example, Raffaella Benini, Il virtuosismo trascendentale di Franz Liszt nelle tre versioni delle “Etudes” (1826, 1838, 1851) e il superamento della tecnica pianistica classica (Bologna, 1995); unfortunately, Benini’s monograph was unavailable for examination. Only one extended study has been devoted to the so-called “Paganini Etudes”: 1037. Altman, Ian Henry. Liszt’s Grand Etudes after Paganini: A Historical and Analytical Study. Dissertation: University of Cincinnati, 1984. iii, 310 pp. ML410.L7A68 1985. Explores Liszt’s tribute to Paganini’s genius in terms of the origins of both versions of the “Paganini Etudes,” the differences between the versions, and the musical character of these pieces—works, according to Altman, that lie “between the partition [i.e., mere transcription] and the fantasy.” Supplemented with musical examples and a short bibliography. Summarized in DAI 45/6 (December 1984), p. 1565A; reprinted in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 18 (1985): 183. Several studies have evaluated Liszt’s role in the evolution of the keyboard etude as a genre. Among them is: 1038. Gurk, Else. Die Entwicklung der Klavieretüde von Mozart bis Liszt, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Methode des Klavierunterrichts. Dissertation: University of Vienna, 1930. 123 pp. Typescript. Musicological Library of the University of Vienna: shelf-number E135. Deals with early Romantic keyboard studies of several composers, among them Liszt (pp. 107–23)—the culmination of the “virtuose Stil.” Describes in some detail keyboard figurations in the earliest version of the “Transcendental” etudes. Illustrated with musical examples and bibliographic citations. Other, more recent, but not necessarily more valuable dissertations cover some of the same ground; see, for example, Ching Ling Yang, The Development of the Piano Etude from Muzio Clementi to Anton Rubinstein: A Study of Selected Works from 1801 to 1870 (D.M.A. document: University of North Carolina [Greensboro], 1998).

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Finally, among a small number of works that discuss other Liszt etudes, the one described below is of special interest: 1039. Elliker, Calvin. “The Autograph Manuscript of Franz Liszt’s ‘Ab irato’.” Notes 51 (1994–1995): 1238–53. ISSN 0027-4380. ML27.U5M695. Describes the character and contents of a manuscript owned by the University of Michigan and previously mentioned in Notes 43 (1986–1987), p. 782; Elliker also erects a history of the etude in question, referring to all four surviving versions. Also includes a single musical example per se as well as a complete facsimile of the manuscript and facsimile reproductions of four Liszt sheet-music cover pages. THE HARMONIES POÉTIQUES ET RELIGIEUSES AND CLOSELY RELATED WORKS The title “Harmonies” refers, of course, not only to the individual piano piece composed by Liszt during the 1830s, but to several iterations of a collection of pieces compiled during the 1840s and 1850s based in part on the earlier work. Among discussions of the evolution of the collection is the following article: 1040. Brussee, Albert. “The ‘Harmonies poétiques et religieuses’ in its First Version (1847),” trans. Sjon van d’Hof and Michael Short. Journal of the American Liszt Society 44 (1998): 1–23. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Summarizes much of the research that went into item 216: a new critical edition of the Harmonies volume as Liszt first completed and assembled it during October–December 1847. Illustrated with two facsimile reproductions of pages from Liszt’s Weimar “N5” sketchbook, which contains the previously unknown piece known as Marie, as well as four diagrammatic figures and four musical examples. A closely related article, this one equipped with scattered photographs and seventeen musical examples, appeared under the title “The Cycle ‘Harmonies poétiques et religieuses’: Early Versions (1834–1846)” in the Liszt Society Journal 27 (2002): 13–47. Several briefer studies concern themselves entirely with the individual piano piece of the mid-1830s: 1041. Backus, Joan [Pauline]. “Liszt’s ‘Harmonies poétiques et religieuses’: Inspiration and the Challenge of Form.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 21 (1987): 3–21. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Describes the 1830s piece in terms of musical and rhetorical qualities, the later with Lamartine’s prose in mind. Backus also points out “some remarkable parallels” (p. 16) between Liszt’s work and both Beethoven’s Fantasy, op. 77, and Sonata, op. 27, no. 2 (the “Moonlight”). Outfitted

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with a diagram and ten musical examples. NB: Interrelationships exist between Liszt’s music and Lamartine’s “Harmonies”; see Judith Barban, “Liszt and Lamartine: Poetic and Religious Harmonies,” The Comparatist: Journal of the Southern Comparative Literature Association 16 (May 1992): 115–22, which deals with this subject. 1042. Torkewitz, Dieter. “Die Erstfassung der ‘Harmonies poétiques et religieuses’ von Liszt.” In item 47, pp. 220–36. Examines closely the original version of the Harmonies and discusses the evolution of the composer’s musical style at a crucial moment of his career. Torkewitz also refers to Liszt’s “N6” Weimar sketchbook as well as studies by Kókai and other scholars. Supplemented with twenty-one musical examples in the form of an appendix. Finally, four articles have been devoted to portions or aspects of the more familiar Harmonies collection: 1043. Gut, Serge. “The Chronological and Psychological Reasons for a Double Motivic Relationship in the ‘Harmonies poétiques et religieuses.’” Liszt Society Journal 24 (1999): 4–15. ML410.L7L6. Builds upon studies by Brussee and Kaczmarczyk (the last, item 1044) in order to examine carefully two “emotion laden” (item 1043, p. 13) Leitmotive employed by Liszt in the 1830s piano piece as well as portions of the two Harmonies collections and several other works, including the B-minor Sonata. Illustrated with four tables, seventeen numbered musical examples, and one or two unnumbered diagrams; among the examples is a lengthy passage of Gregorian chant related to the Pater noster published in the second collection. See, too, Gut’s “Reflections on the Cycle ‘Harmonies poétiques et religieuses’ by Franz Liszt,” Liszt Society Journal 21 (1996): 10–23, itself a reevaluation of Brussee’s earlier work and especially his “diagram” (item 216). *

Gut. “Le profane et le religieux….” Described as item 1310. Includes comments on the Ave Maria found in the second Harmonies collection.

1044. Kaczmarczyk, Adrienne. “The Genesis of the ‘Funérailles’: The Connections Between Liszt’s ‘Symphonie révolutionnaire’ and the Cycle ‘Harmonies poétiques et religieuses.’” Studia Musicologica 35 (1993–1994): 361–98. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. Based on the premise that the “Revolutionary” symphony (especially the “Rákóczi et Dombrowski” movement) and the piano piece, two works

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“apparently totally different in character,” display “considerable parallels” in their final versions (p. 361). A useful and detailed discussion of important music, illustrated with two tables of motifs and other material—such as a comparison of Liszt’s “N1” Weimar sketchbook contents with passages taken from the Princess Sayn-Wittgenstein’s catalog of his compositions (D-WRgs 141/1)—as well as six musical examples. Apparently translated or adapted from Kaczmarczyk, “A ‘Funérailles’ genezise. (Liszt Forradalmi szimfóniájának és Harmonies poétiques et religieuses-ciklusának összefüggéseiro# l),” Magyar zene 34 (1993): 274–98; this article includes twelve musical examples. Finally, see Martijn van den Hoek, “‘Funerailles’: een interpretatieles,” Piano Bulletin 4/1 (1986): 30–35, which contains nine musical examples. 1045. Mueller, Rena [Charnin]. “Le cahier d’esquisses du ‘Tasso’ et la composition des ‘Harmonies poétiques et religieuses.’” In item 48, pp. 11–28. Part discussion of the evolution of the revised Harmonies collection, part documentary study devoted to uncovering source materials dealing with that evolutionary process. No facsimiles or musical examples but numerous references to D-WRgs and other archival sources, especially the “N” series of D-WRgs sketchbooks. Mueller even provides three annexes (“appendices”) identifying individual sources; the last briefly describes all nine sketchbooks in chronological order of contents (p. 28). See also item 245. THE HUNGARIAN RHAPSODIES Given their enormous—perhaps even unfortunate—popularity, surprisingly few studies of the Rhapsodies have appeared in print. Perhaps the most comprehensive are: 1046. Gárdonyi, Zoltán. “A Chronicle of Franz Liszt’s ‘Hungarian Rhapsodies.’” Liszt Society Journal 20 (1995): 38–61. ML410.L7L6. Outlines the history and identifies the sources of the melodies Liszt employed in these colorful compositions. Concludes with a “catalogue” of the Rhapsodies (pp. 44–53) and three additional appendices devoted to the origins of individual themes, “authorized” transcriptions and arrangements of the Rhapsodies by other composers, and the so-called “Rumanian Rhapsody.” Includes a scattering of musical examples, many of them taken from early nineteenth-century Hungarian publications. Possibly less accessible than item 1047, the Liszt Society Journal being found in too few American libraries, but even more authoritative; nevertheless, corrected and commented on by David Clegg in “Franz Liszt: A Chronicle of the Hungarian Rhapsodies: Some Observations,” Liszt Society Journal 21 (1996): 32–34.

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1047. Gárdonyi, Zoltán. “Paralipomena zu den Ungarischen Rhapsodien Franz Liszts.” In item 54, pp. 197–225. A detailed study of this remarkable set of piano pieces, especially in terms of their origins and thematic materials. Supplemented with six musical examples supplement as well as a great deal of information about manuscript and other sources. Most studies of the Rhapsodies at least mention the Magyar dallok and Magyar rhapsodiák, collections of shorter piano pieces on which many of the later works were based. A very brief discussion of the Dallok may be found in August Stradal, “Zwei verschollene ungarische Rhapsodien von Franz Liszt,” Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 78 (1911): 229–30, which contains two short musical examples. With regard to the themes of the Rhapsodies and their “Hungarian” character, see several of the studies described in Chapter 7. Another important but much older study also deserves to be consulted: 1048. Arminski, Hermann. Die ungarischen Phantasien von Franz Liszt. Dissertation: University of Vienna, 1929. 186 pp. Typescript. Musicological Library of the University of Vienna: shelf-number E122. An account of the form, melodies, harmonic processes, and other musical aspects of the Rhapsodies; Arminski also discusses Liszt’s book about the “Gypsies” and selected aspects of keyboard writing and performance. Includes musical examples. Almost entirely superseded by items 1046 and 1047. Three shorter or more specialized studies of the Rhapsodies are described below: 1049. Altenburg, Detlef. “Liszts Idee eines ungarischen Nationalepos in Tönen.” In item 49, pp. 213–23. An introduction to the rhapsody as a musical genre, beginning with Tomásek’s use of “rhapsody” as a title for keyboard works and various ways in which Liszt’s pieces embody his attitudes toward the Hungarian people. No musical examples. NB: A study by Kenneth DeLong, dealing with some of the same material—including Tomásek’s works—and illustrated with appropriate musical examples, appeared as “The Piano Rhapsodies of J. V. Vor isek” in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 26 (1989): 12–18. ˆ

ˆ

ˆ ˆ

1050. Eckhardt, Mária [P.]. “Die Handschriften des Rákóczi-Marsches von Franz Liszt in der Széchényi Nationalbibliothek, Budapest.” Studia Musicologica 17 (1975): 347–405. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925.

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Describes H-Bn Mus. mss. 16, 22, 23, and 5.829 and discusses the complicated history of these documents, all of them arrangements of the famous “Rákóczi” tune. Lavishly illustrated with musical examples and facsimile reproductions, including a complete transcription of H-Bn Mus. ms. 22, dating from 1840. An outstanding study, not entirely superseded by Eckhardt’s catalog of Széchényi Liszt holographs (item 101). A similar article by Eckhardt appeared under the title “Liszt Rákóczi indulójának kéziratai az Országos Széchényi Könyvtárban” in Magyar zene 17 (1976): 161–89. 1051. Kecskeméti, István. “Unbekannte Eigenschrift der XVIII. Rhapsodie von Franz Liszt.” Studia Musicologica 3 (1962): 173–79. ISSN 0039-3266. ML5.S925. Describes H-Bn Mus. ms. 3.276, a previously unknown draft of Hungarian Rhapsody No. 18. Includes a “critical report” describing differences between the autograph and published versions of the work. Illustrated with facsimile reproductions from the manuscript in question as well as musical examples. A Hungarian-language version of this article appeared under the title “Liszt XVIII. rapszódiájának ismeretlen kézirata” in Magyar zene 5 (1964): 191–94. Two articles have been devoted entirely to the “last” reconstructed Liszt rhapsody: 1052. Gárdonyi, Zoltán. “Eine unbekannte Liszt-Rhapsodie? Zum Druck einer frühen Werkfassung.” Musica 25 (1971): 153–54. ISSN 0027-4518. ML5.M71357. Concludes that the composition published by Rudolf Otte as Liszt’s “Hungarian Rhapsody No. 20” is actually a draft for Magyar dallok no. 9. Similar to item 1053, but earlier, less detailed, and less well-documented. For more information another of the Dallok, see item 1087. See, too, Ferenc László’s more recent article “Die ‘Walachische Melodie’ in der ‘Ungarischen Rhapsodie’ Nr. 20 von Franz Liszt” (item 41, pp. 232–40), which deals with closely related issues. 1053. Winkler, Gerhard J. “Noch einmal: Franz Liszts ‘XX. Ungarische Rhapsodie.’ Rekonstruktion einer Unterstellung.” Burgenländische Heimatblätter 48 (1986): 176–84. OCLC 15115985. (ISSN and LC numbers unavailable). Describes a holograph manuscript of the so-called “Hungarian Rhapsody No. 20” deposited in the Burgenland Regional Museum by the Rudolf Otte Foundation. Like Gárdonyi, Winkler demonstrates that this piece is virtually identical with no. 9 from Liszt’s Magyar dallok. Illustrated with a

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facsimile page from the “Otte” manuscript as well as the opening pages of two published versions of this work. Finally, a warning: less useful, occasionally even confusing, studies associated—at least in title—with the Rhapsodies should be consulted only with caution. One example of such studies is described below: 1054. Bertha, Alexandre de. “Les ‘Rhapsodies Hongroises’ de Franz Liszt.” Report of the Fourth Congress of the International Musicological Society (1911). London: Novello, 1912; pp. 210–24. (No LC number available.) Sums up the compositional history and describes the musical character of the more familiar Rhapsodies. Bertha spends much of this essay discussing the friendship between Liszt and Chopin, Liszt’s patriotism as a Hungarian, and so on. In French; an English-language abstract appears on p. 54. Even more cursory studies of these pieces have appeared in published collections of IMS proceedings. See, for instance, Alfons Ott, “Die ‘Ungarische Rhapsodien’ von Franz Liszt,” published in the Bericht über den Internationalen musikwissenschaftlichen Kongress Kassel 1962 (Kassel, 1963), pp. 210–12. THE “MEPHISTO WALTZES” Only three studies of these pieces are currently available: 1055. Feofanov, Dmitry. “How to Transcribe the Mephisto Waltz for Piano.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 11 (1982): 18–27. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Discusses the little-known evolution of the first “Mephisto Waltz” from orchestral work to piano solo. Feofanov quotes passages from Lenau’s Faust and speculates about the virtues of a “combined” waltz based both on Liszt’s keyboard arrangement and on Busoni’s transcription of the original orchestral version. Includes about a dozen unnumbered and poorly printed musical examples. A borderline study, concerned with both “original” and “transcribed” music. 1056. Hunt, Mary Angela. Franz Liszt: The “Mephisto Waltzes.” Dissertation: University of Wisconsin, 1979. ii, 169 pp. ML410.L7H94 1985. A survey study of these four fascinating pieces as well as the Bagatelle sans tonalité. Hunt also considers differences between keyboard and orchestral versions of the first waltz. Illustrated with musical examples. Summarized in DAI 40/6 (December 1978), p. 2971A; reprinted in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 10 (1981), p. 126.

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1057. Rosado, Sara. “Liszt, Lenau, and the Four Mephisto Waltzes.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 45 (1999): 34–45. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Like Feofanov (item 1055), considers the “Mephistos” as both piano and orchestral pieces. Rosado also examines several other, closely related works: the Zwei Episoden from Lenau’s Faust, the song Die drei Zigeuener, and the melodrama Der traurige Mönch. Her discussion is useful and includes measure-by-measure references to compositional details; unfortunately, it contains no musical examples. An appendix (pp. 40–45) includes the complete text of Lenau’s poem “Der Tanz in der Dorfschenke,” upon which the second of the Zwei Episoden for orchestra was based. THE SONATA

IN b MINOR

No other Liszt composition has received more attention from performers and scholars than the B-minor Sonata (also simply “Sonata”). Each of the studies described below has its merits, but three of the best and most wide-ranging examinations of this masterpiece deserve special attention: 1058. Hamilton, Kenneth. Liszt: Sonata in B Minor. “Cambridge Music Handbooks.” Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. xii, 89 pp. ISBN 0521465702. ML410.L7H258 1996. Introduces Liszt’s “masterpiece,” describes its history, discusses sonata form in other of the composer’s works, evaluates programmatic and structuralist analyses of the Sonata already in print, raises issues of pianism and performance practice, and generally provides the groundwork for any future discussion of this remarkable composition. In addition, Hamilton discusses Liszt’s influence on such works as Felix Draeseke’s Sonata quasi fantasia, op. 6, Sergei Liapunov’s F-minor Sonata, and Julius Reubke’s “Psalm 94” sonata for organ (regarding Reubke, see item 907)—unfortunately, without relevant musical examples; he also provides ten excerpts from the Sonata itself, including several from the surviving “Lehman manuscript,” as well as a couple of tables and quotations from a variety of prose sources. Concludes with notes (pp. 83–84), a brief but useful bibliography (pp. 85–86), and an index of names and works. 1059. Heinemann, Michael. Franz Liszt: Klaviersonate h-moll. Meisterwerke der Musik: Werkmonographien zur Musikgeschichte, 61. Munich: Wilhelm Fink, 1993. 77 pp. + Tafelbeispiele. ISBN 3770527828. ML410.L7H346 1993. Similar in many respects to item 1058, although Heinemann supplements his observations with a collection of documents pertaining to the Sonata’s

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reception (pp. 62–72). Illustrated with six musical examples in the text and twelve in the unpaginated “table of examples” at the end of the volume. Concludes as a book with a four-page bibliography of editions and secondary sources. Among other book- and pamphlet-length studies of the Sonata is V. Tsukkerman’s Sonata si-minor F. Lista (Moscow, 1984). Unavailable for examination; a review of Tsukkerman’s monograph appeared in Russian in Sovetskaia muzyka (November 1985): 102–3. 1060. Winklhofer, Sharon. Liszt’s Sonata in B Minor: A Study of Autograph Sources and Documents. Ann Arbor Studies in Musicology, 29. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press, 1980. 298 pp. ISBN 0835711196. ML410.L7W56. A painstaking discussion of the history of Liszt’s B-minor Sonata, based to a considerable extent on an examination of the “Lehman manuscript” owned by the Pierpont Morgan Library, New York. Winklhofer considers this document “a revealing source of information about the composer’s creative process” (p. 93); she incorrectly asserts, however, that “such an approach is new in Liszt studies” (p. 1), overlooking Mária Eckhardt’s earlier Studia Musicologica and Magyar zene articles. Nevertheless, Winklhofer’s is a splendid documentary study, examining—among other things—Liszt’s use of collettes (or “pasteovers”) and their contents. Illustrated with appropriate facsimiles and musical examples; concludes with an excellent bibliography (pp. 281–93) and an index. Derived from Winklhofer’s doctoral dissertation, The Genesis and Evolution of Liszt’s “Sonata in B Minor”: Studies in Autograph Sources and Documents (University of California, Los Angeles, 1978). Summarized in DAI 39 no. 05A (November 1978), p. 2613; reprinted in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 5 (1979), p. 90. Several dissertations that deal with the Sonata consider that work exclusively from various analytical perspectives: 1061. Becker, Ralf-Walter. Formprobleme in Liszts h-moll Sonate: Untersuchungen zu Liszts Klaviermusic um 1850. Dissertation: University of Marburg, 1979. 162 pp. Typescript; the Universitätsbibliothek, Marburg a.d.L., owns at least one copy. Discusses at some length the compositional genesis and contents of the Sonata as well as other piano pieces composed by Liszt during the 1840s and 1850s. Contains dozens of musical examples, several tables, and a bibliography. Summarized neither in DAI nor the Journal of the American Liszt Society. See, too, item 1064.

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Still other documents attempt to identify or interpret various programs “hidden” in the Sonata. Among such speculative publications are: 1062. Minotti, Giovanni. “Franz Liszt’s ‘Monument für Beethoven,’” In: Minotti, Die Geheimdokumente der Davisbündler. Große Entdeckungen über Bach, Mozart, Beethoven, Schumann, Liszt und Brahms. Leipzig: Steingräber, 1934; pp. 171–220. MT140.M66G4. A remarkable argument on behalf both of Liszt’s borrowings from Beethoven and of a program built upon those borrowings that emphasizes a conflict between good and evil; Minotti uncovers the presence of a “python motif” in Liszt’s Sonata, for instance, as well as convincing harmonic parallels between that work and the opening movement of Beethoven’s Sonata, op. 111. Illustrated with dozens of musical examples, many of them drawn from such works as Mozart’s Fantasy in c minor (K. 475), and Beethoven’s “Waldstein” Sonata, op. 53. Overlooked by the present author in item 71 and, apparently, by every other “Sonata expert.” Other studies also consider the Sonata from a religious perspective. See, for example, Melinda Lee Hickmann’s Meaning in Piano Music with a Religious Theme…(D.M.A. document, University of Cincinnati, 2001), which proposes that Liszt “must have had a religious program in mind when he composed” that work (quoted from the on-line abstract). Still, other studies also consider the Sonata in terms of Leitmotive—perhaps because, in Hitler’s Germany, “Wagnerian” compositional procedures tended to be foregrounded rather than overlooked. See Paul Egert’s article “Die Klavier-Sonate in h-moll von Franz Liszt” in Die Musik 28–2 (1936): 673–82, which uncovers several Wagnerian motifs in Liszt’s composition; Egert also links the Sonata metaphysically with the musical grammar of the medieval German musicians. 1063. Szász, Tibor. Liszt’s Divine and Diabolical Symbolism: Key to the Religious Program in the Sonata in B Minor. Dissertation: University of Michigan, 1985. (No LC number available.) A highly speculative yet detailed study of the Sonata in terms of melodies found elsewhere in Liszt’s music (e.g., the “Crucifixion music” from the Via crucis), the possible presence of a program in the Sonata based on biblical texts and Milton’s Paradise Lost, motifs from the Sonata that recur in other of the composer’s programmatic pieces, and so on. Illustrated with quotations from Liszt’s correspondence, tables of themes, reproductions of Renaissance woodcuts illustrating scenes from the Last Judgment, and so on. A lecture presented by Szász on 26 June 1986 at the Library of Congress was published under the title “Liszt’s Symbolism and Musical Structure” (Typescript, US-Wc shelf-number ML410.L7S95 1986). See, too, Szász,

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“Liszt’s Symbols for the Divine and Diabolical: Their Revelation of a Program in the B Minor Sonata,” Journal of the American Liszt Society 15 (1984): 39–95. Two studies treat the Sonata as exemplary of Liszt’s influence on the works of other composers: 1064. Rea, John Rocco. Franz Liszt’s “New Path of Composition”: The Sonata in B Minor as Cultural Paradigm. Dissertation: Princeton University, 1978. 447 pp. (No LC number available.) Evaluates Liszt’s accomplishments based primarily on an examination of thematic transformation and other processes in the Sonata. Rea also deals with musical and theoretical works that shaped Liszt’s earlier style, and he proposes a new theory of thematic transformation in the Sonata and the first movement of the Faust symphony. Concludes with a bibliography. Summarized in DAI 39/6 (December 1978), p. 3217A; reprinted in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 7 (1980): 96–97. NB: Rea’s work was identified under the author’s second name in item 72. 1065. Schläder, Jürgen. “Zur Funktion der Variantentechnik in den Klaviersonaten f-moll von Johannes Brahms und h-moll von Franz Liszt.” Hamburger Jahrbuch für Musikwissenschaft [“Brahms und seine Zeit”] 7 (1984): 171–97. ISBN 3890070183. ML5.H16. Compares variations of thematic materials found in Brahms’s op. 5 sonata with that of Liszt’s. Schläder pays special attention to such topics as motivic extension, the harmonic implications of motivic and thematic materials and the realization of those implications in developmental passages, etc. Illustrated with a diagram and about a dozen musical examples. Ten additional articles devoted to Liszt’s Sonata, especially to issues of formal organization, are described below: ˆ

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1066. Felix, Václav. “Uplatneni principu cisté tóniky v Lisztove Sonáte h moll.” Zivá hudba (1973): 5–40. ML55.Z6. Not seen. According to RILM 10 (1976), citation 2868, an analysis of the Sonata’s structure, based upon principles developed by Karel Janácek. Musical examples and bibliographic citations. In Czech; the RILM summary, however, is given in German. ˆ

1067. Geck, Martin. “Architektonische, psychologische oder rhetorische Form? Franz Liszts ‘Klaviersonate h-moll.’” In: Festschrift Klaus Hortschansky zum 60. Geburtstag, ed. Axel Beer and Laurenz Lütteken. Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1995; pp. 425–33. ISBN 379520822X. ML55.H646 1995.

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Beginning with Becker (item 1061) and other, earlier studies, Geck reviews “objective” vs. “subjective” elements in the Sonata’s structure and expressive character. No musical examples. Among other briefer German-language discussions of the sonata, see Hans Hering, “Franz Liszt: Grande Sonate pour le Pianoforte,” in the Jahrbuch Peters 1981–82 [sic] (Leipzig, 1985), pp. 9–17, and Schibli’s Sigfried “Sonate für Klavier h-Moll,” in the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 145/11 (November 1984): 29–32. 1068. Ka n´ ski, Jósef. “The Problem of Form in Franz Liszt’s Sonata in B Minor.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 5 (1979): 4–15. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Subtitled “Transformations of the Sonata Form in the Romantic Period,” Ka n´ ski’s article, devoted primarily to structural issues, defends the thesis that Liszt’s work is a “monothematic composition based entirely on one, two-part theme [i.e., mm. 8–17]…subject to harmonic, rhythmic, and agogic transformations” (p. 7); it also contains remarks about virtuoso keyboard writing and related issues as well as seventeen musical examples. Originally published in Polish under the title “Problem formy w Sonacie h-Moll F. Liszta” in Studia muzykologiczne 4 (1955): 276–94. 1069. Kardos, István. Die klassische Sonatenform in Liszt’s H-moll [sic]. Berlin: F. W. Peters, 1972. 16 pp. A review of the most traditional elements of sonata-allegro form in Liszt’s masterpiece. Illustrated with five pages of musical analysis and a detailed analytical diagram (pp. 8–9). Uncommon; the National Széchényi Library, Budapest, owns a copy [shelf-number SZ Liszt 177]. Other short, originally “obscure” Sonata discussions exist in print; see, for instance, Edward Sackville-West’s article “Liszt’s Piano Sonata,” published originally in 1944 and reprinted in Essays on Music: An Anthology from “The Listener,” ed. Felix Aprahamian (London, 1967), pp. 141–45. 1070. Longyear, Rey M. “Liszt’s B Minor Sonata: Precedents for a Structural Analysis.” The Music Review 34 (1973): 198–209. ISSN 0027-4445. ML5.M657. A study of Liszt’s masterpiece in terms of “double-function form” (item 1072) as well as the result of “several generations of experimentation” on the part of composers such as Beethoven, Clementi, and Schubert (p. 199). Includes a “double function” diagram (p. 198); a second, primarily harmonic analytical diagram (p. 203); and three multi-partite musical examples. Longyear’s analysis reappears, with some small changes, in his Nineteenth–century Romanticism in Music, 3d ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1988), pp. 146–61; the double-function diagram appears on p. 152.

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1071. Ott, Bertrand. “An Interpretation of Liszt’s Sonata in B Minor,” trans. Sida Roberts and P. Vaugelle. Journal of the American Liszt Society 10 (1981): 30–38; and 11 [“Conclusion”] (1982): 40–41. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Discusses the Sonata in terms of the Faust story, Berlioz’s music for the Damnation de Faust, and Liszt’s own Faust symphony. Observing that “it would be a pity” to consider the Sonata a mere formal structure, Ott argues that the piano piece can be considered a “launching pad” for his largest orchestral work (vol. 10, p. 37). The “Conclusion” discusses in programmatic terms details of the Sonata’s structure verified in part by Winklhofer in her examination of previously unknown material hidden under pasteovers in the “Lehman manuscript.” Illustrated with quotations from Goethe’s Faust; the first portion of Ott’s article also contains two musical examples. A shorter version of this article appeared under the title “Pour une interprétation de la sonate de Liszt” in the Revue musicale de Suisse Romande 37 (1984): 172–83. 1072. Saffle, Michael. “Liszt’s Sonata in B Minor: Another Look at the ‘Double Function’ Question.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 11 (1982): 28–39. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Reviews the double-function scheme proposed for the Sonata by William Newman [in The Sonata Since Beethoven, 3d ed. (New York, 1983; ISBN 0393952908), esp. pp. 359–78] and explains how Liszt used melodic materials to fulfill “at one and the same time” requirements of both single- and multi-movement sonata forms. Supplemented with twelve musical examples, some of them multi-partite, as an appendix (pp. 36–39). NB: Newman also discusses the “Dante” sonata and provides an analytical diagram on p. 372 of his book. See, too, such examinations of doublefunction and fantasy influences on Liszt’s Sonata as Chunghwa Hur’s Schubert’s Wanderer Fantasie: a Creative Springboard to Liszt’s Sonata in B Minor (D.M.A. document, University of Arizona, 1997) and Jackson Yi-shun Leung’s A Selective Study of Sonata-Fantasies in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century (D.M.A. document, University of Cincinnati, 1990). Finally, see item 910. 1073. Sandresky, Margaret V. “Tonal Design in Liszt’s Sonata in B Minor.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 10 (1981): 15–29. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Considers the harmonic “ground play” of the Sonata as a “dramatic struggle between the two opposing [harmonic] forces” of the descending opening theme and the “upward thrust” of subsequent passages, especially in

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mm. 334 ff. (p. 15). Sandresky summarizes her analytical argument in two tables; she also provides fourteen musical examples, some of them multipartite (pp. 20–29). 1074. Tanner, Mark. “The Power of Performance as an Alternative Analytical Discourse: The Liszt Sonata in B Minor.” 19th Century Music 24 (2000–2001): 173–94. ISSN 0148-2076. ML1.N27. Ostensibly a discussion of how the Sonata has been played; in fact, a close comparison of “absolute” and programmatic structural paradigms proposed to date—among them, those found in a number of the studies discussed above. Includes a useful diagrammatic summary of these and other paradigms (p. 185) as well as a single musical example and five other charts. Tanner suggests that “for some performers of the Sonata…it is evident that structure and program can exist side by side, with neither stimulus necessarily asserting ascendancy over the other” (p. 184); he concludes that “pianists have recognized the sense of emancipation that comes from performing a work that can support a multitude of meanings” (p. 192). 1075. Wilde, David. “Liszt’s Sonata: Some Jungian Reflections.” In item 56, pp. 197–224. Explores the Sonata from the perspective of archetypes of human perception and experience: the “hero,” the “anima,” and so on. Wilde confesses that “anyone whose ‘Weltanschauung’ is rationalist/positivist, on the one hand, or fundamentalist/religious on the other, will find it difficult to accept Jung’s thesis” (p. 198); whether he proves his points is open to doubt, but he presents them clearly. Includes eleven examples, all of them from the Sonata itself. OTHER PIECES The Consolations 1076. Diercks, John. “‘The Consolations’: ‘delightful things hidden away’ [sic].” Journal of the American Liszt Society 3 (1978): 19–24. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Examines these pieces as a “six-unit group” (p. 19). Diercks several times remarks on the Mendelssohn-like quality of these works, adding that they “represent a master composer in his creative prime” (p. 24); for the most part, however, his observations resemble program notes more than probing musical scholarship. Includes seven musical examples, among them one from the symphonic poem Orpheus. Several examples are not identified at all.

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1077. Helm, Everett. “A Newly Discovered Liszt Manuscript.” In item 50, pp. 101–6. Explains how Helm acquired the manuscript of Madrigal, an early version of the fifth Consolation for solo piano, evidently completed in 1844. Helm also compares melodic, rhythmic, harmonic, and other details in both versions of this work, but he provides no musical examples. 1078. Kielien-Gilbert, Marianne. “The Functional Differentiation of Harmonic and Transpositional Patterns in Liszt’s ‘Consolation’ No. 4.” 19th Century Music 14 (1990–1991): 48–59. ISSN 0148-2076. ML1.N27. An investigation of the “counterpoint of harmonic and thematic-formal functions” that “often” emerges through close analysis of the piece in question (p. 48). Illustrated with diagrams and six musical examples, one of them drawn from Mahler’s Des Knaben Wunderhorn. The Liebesträume 1079. Cook, Nicholas. “Liszt’s Second Thoughts: ‘Liebestraum’ No. 2 and Its Relatives.” 19th Century Music 12/2 (Fall 1988): 163–72. ISSN 0148-2076. ML1.N27. Discusses the so-called “Cross” motif in several Liszt works, among them Liebesträume No. 2, as well as the first of the Fünf kleine Klavierstücke, an untitled piece in E Major, and the song Gestorben war ich. Cook provides five musical examples as well as several quotations from the text of Gestorben. NB: Each individual piece is entitled “Liebesträume”; that is, each is concerned with “dreamS” of love. *

Wuellner. “Franz Liszt’s ‘Liebestraum’ [sic] No. 3….” Described as item 1373.

The “Weinen, Klagen” Variations 1080. Bollard, David. “An Introduction to Liszt’s ‘Weinen, Klagen’ Variations.” Studies in Music no. 22 [University of Western Australia, Nedlands] (1988): 48–64. ISSN 0081-8267. ML5.S9255. Deals with “variation” as a historical and compositional technique, and considers the background and character of this important but little-known work. In addition to providing twelve musical examples in the form of an appendix (pp. 57–64), Bollard quotes a pre–World War I piano teacher who, when asked what influence the composer had exerted on musical history, replied: “None at all! with the exception of some well-executed transcriptions from the Lieder of Schubert, and his [own] etudes…[Liszt’s] music is of no importance” (p. 55).

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1081. Crisp, Deborah. “Liszt’s Monument to Bach: The Variations on ‘Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen,” for Solo Piano.” Musicology Australia 21 (1998): 37–49. ISSN 0814-5857. ML5.M897. Treats this piece especially in terms of Liszt and “variation” as a genre— in this case, especially, vis-à-vis Bach’s own twelve variations on the same tune in his 1714 cantata Weinen, Klagen (BWV 12). Crisp explains that Liszt borrows “techniques of pairing and dovetailing” motivic statements from Bach, employed “so as to mask the underlying regularity” and move “gradually away from a strict passacaglia format to one in which the motive is given much freer treatment” (p. 37). Outfitted with a diagrammatic symmary of Liszt’s work (p. 40) and ten lengthy musical examples consisting of collections of interrelated motifs. 1082. Tannenbaum, Michele. “Liszt and Bach: ‘Invention’ and ‘Feeling’ in the ‘Variations on a Motive of Bach.’” Journal of the American Liszt Society 41 (1997): 49–87. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. A first-rate discussion of the passacaglia procedures Liszt employed to extract the last possible drop of musical meaning from the motif in question—among them, the reiteration of Bach’s own Was Got tut, das ist wohlgetan harmonization at the conclusion of this striking work. Tannenbaum also explains that Liszt “reinforces his musical symbols with profuse performance directions” (p. 84) based on the rhetorical figures employed by Bach and other pre-Romantic composers. Incorporates nineteen musical examples, many of them reductions or other kinds of diagrammatic representations of compositional contents. See, too, Tannenbaum’s doctoral dissertation Tradition and Innovation in Franz Liszt’s Variations on a Motive of Bach (Kent State University, 1993). Other Pieces 1083. Bass, Richard. “Liszt’s ‘Un sospiro’: An Experiment in Symmetrical Octave-Partitions.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 32 (1992): 16–37. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Considers ways in which octaves may be subdivided symmetrically according to various intervallic schemes—that is, by minor thirds (C, E-flat, F-sharp, A, C), by major thirds (C, E, G-sharp/A-flat, C), and so on. Bass then goes on to explain that, “as early as 1848, Liszt was capable of logically incorporating ideas based on symmetrical division of the octave within a single coherent musical structure” (p. 36), and precisely how such divisions were employed within a particular composition. Includes seventeen musical examples, several of them diagrammatic.

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1084. Block, Joseph. “Liszt’s ‘Die Zelle in Nonnenwerth.’” Piano Quarterly 81 (1973): 4–11. ISSN 0031-9354. ML1.P66. Traces the history of Die Zelle in Nonnenwerth as piano piece and song. Block also reprints one of the two 1843 versions of the piece and suggests how the piece might be performed. 1085. Dumm, Robert. “Franz Liszt’s ‘Romance’: From Poem to Song to Piano Solo.” Clavier 38/7 (September 1999): 20–26. ISSN 0009-854X. M1.C79. Describes how Liszt reworked the original version of Oh! pourquoi donc into the Romance of 1848. Dumm reprints the entire piano piece (pp. 23–25) and provides additional short musical examples as well as reproductions of two Liszt portraits. Emphasizes keyboard issues over issues involving transcription processes. NB: According to Dumm, the original version of the song appeared in October 1996 in Muzsika, a Hungarian magazine; the present author has been unable to obtain a copy of this publication. 1086. Pugliatti, Salvatore. “Espressioni musicali francescane: ‘La predica agli uccelli’ di Liszt.” La Rassegna musicale 14 (May 1941): 208–17. ML5.R1816. A measure-by-measure programmatic analysis of “St. Francis Preaching to the Birds,” the first of Liszt’s two Legendes (also called the “St. Francis Legends,” although each piece deals with the miracles of a different saint) for piano. Includes a few musical examples. NB: The Rassegna musicale is scarce in the United States; the Performing Arts Division of The New York Public Library owns a copy. 1087. Saunders, Steven. “An Unknown Musical ‘Souvenir’ of Franz Liszt.” Liszt Saeculum no. 52 (1994): 41–46. ISSN 0263-0249. ML410.L7I6. Describes and reprints in complete facsimile (pp. 42–43) and transcription (pp. 44–45) an Albumblatt closely related to Magyar dallok no. 10 and dated March 1840; in other words, a souvenir of Liszt’s first visit to Leipzig. Saunders also briefly mentions other Lisztiana belonging to the “Harrach archive” containing the legacy of the Harrach family and specifically the Countess Ludmilla Harrach, to whom the Albumblatt was probably presented. 1088. Schnapp, Friedrich. “Liszt: A Forgotten Romance,” trans. Humphrey Searle. Music & Letters 34 (1953): 232–35. ISSN 0027-4224. ML5.M64. Deals with Romance, a previously unknown early version of the Romance oubliée “discovered” by Schnapp among Busoni’s papers in Berlin but

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identified previously by Raabe (item 84, entry 66a). Supplemented with observations about Liszt’s penchant for revisions and harmonic sense but no musical examples. Concerning the musical quality of Romance, Schnapp observes merely that “it seems impossible to give an objective judgment on music so highly ‘subjective’” (p. 235). 1089. Short, Michael. “The Klavierstück in F# Major (G. 193).” Liszt Society Journal 16 (1991): 64–65. ML410.L7L6. Identifies documents that provide information permitting a “more precise dating” of this short piano piece from October–November 1854 (p. 65). No musical examples. NB: “G. 193” in Short’s title refers to entry 193 in the Grove’s Dictionary lists of the composer’s works prepared by Humphrey Searle (a more common abbreviation is “S. 193”), as amended by Sharon Winklhofer, and published in 1954 and 1980. See item 83. 1090. Szelényi, László. “Franz Liszt: ‘Wiegenlied—Chant de Berceau.’” Die Musikerziehung 34 (1980–1981): 19–24. ML5.M9435. A brief discussion of this charming piece, a quite different one from the Berceau described in item 1091. Szelényi’s article is illustrated with a few musical examples. See, too, Sergio Gallo’s D.M.A. document, The “Berceuse” for Piano: An Overview of the Genre [University of California, Santa Barbara, 1998; DAI 60 no. 03A (1998), p. 586], which includes a discussion of Liszt’s several cradle-songs. 1091. Wheeler, Dale. “Liszt’s ‘Berceuse’: Hommage to Chopin or…?” Journal of the American Liszt Society 50 (2001): 47–56. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Examines both versions of this lovely cradle-song. Wheeler employs four examples in making his points, among which is the suggestion that the birth of Cosima’s daughter Blandine Elisabeth, her second child, in March 1863—not thoughts of Chopin as “musical precursor”—may have inspired Liszt to elaborate upon and republish the work in question. 1092. Youens, Laura. “Liszt’s March ‘Vom Fels zum Meer.’” Early Keyboard Journal 8 (1990): 61–90. ISSN 0899-8132. ML549.8.E2. Corrects errors in accounts of when and for whom Vom Fels was composed, based in part on a description of D-WRgs U13 (pp. 83–90) as well as on evidence contained in another manuscript, one purchased by Youens’s father in 1962; Youens also reevaluates information presented in such secondary sources as Ramann’s three-volume Liszt survey (item 2). Includes seven musical examples. NB: Youens also discusses arrangements of the march for “piano duet,” two pianos eight-hands, and orchestra. Unavailable when item 71 went to press.

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LISZT’S LATE PIANO PIECES (Especially c. 1875–1886) SURVEY STUDIES Among the best surveys of these difficult, often experimental works, are the following book chapters: 1093. Arnold, Ben. “Piano Music: 1861–1886.” In item 37, pp. 139–77. Identifies and describes a surprising number of works, among them the “Cypresses at the Villa d’Este” from Book III of the Années de pèlerinage, the “Hungarian Historical Portraits,” and Unstern! Although Arnold employs only eight musical examples as well as several analytical diagrams to make his points, he probes much more deeply than does John Ogden (item 1094); he also describes Liszt’s late piano transcriptions and neatly summarizes his compositional development as “more religious,” “increasingly austere,” and “exhibiting thinner textures, more potent dissonances, and freer forms” with each year that passed, especially during the later 1870s and 1880s (p. 139). 1094. Ogden, John. “Solo Piano Music (1861–1886).” In item 38, pp. 134–67. Compares Liszt’s earlier and later compositional styles, then describes such works as the “Franciscan Legends,” the “Spanish Rhapsody,” the “Weinen, Klagen” variations, Book III of the Années de pèlerinage, the “Christmas Tree” suite, and so on. In considering these works, Ogden is less concerned with Liszt’s harmonic innovations than are many other commentators; his observations are accompanied by more than fifty musical examples. NB: The third Années volume and associated pieces is discussed above under “Mature Piano Pieces.” Other and briefer discussions of the late pieces include William Yeomans, “The Late Piano Works of Liszt,” Monthly Musical Record 79 (1949): 31–37, illustrated with seven musical examples. Four studies emphasizing compositional procedures are also worth consulting: 1095. Lee, Robert Charles. Some Little-known Late Piano Works of Liszt (1869–1886): A Miscellany. Dissertation: University of Washington, 1970. viii, 264 pp. ML410.L7L44x 1970b. Essentially an introduction to some two dozen works, many of them unfamiliar to performers and music-lovers as late as the 1960s but much more often played and heard today. The compositions in question include the Bagatelle sans tonalité and several of the works associated with motifs from the life and music of Wagner (items 1111–1114). Outfitted with a useful bibliography as well as facsimile reproductions and musical examples. Summarized in DAI 31/7 (January 1971), p. 3584.

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Some of the pieces Lee describes were edited by him and published as Drei späte Klavierstücke (Kassel, 1969). Lee also published an edition (Seattle, 1963) of three other late Liszt pieces: Sospiri!, the Toccata, and the Carousel de Madame Pelet-Narbonne. 1096. Lemoine, Bernard C. Tonal Organization in Selected Late Piano Works of Franz Liszt. Dissertation: Catholic University of America, 1976. iv, 244 pp. ML410.L7L4456. Investigates “elements of tonal organization and structural coherence” in six late Liszt piano pieces: Nuages gris, La lugubre gondola nos. 1–2, R.W.—Venezia, Unstern!, and the Bagatelle sans tonalité. Includes eleven musical examples and several graphs illustrating chord progressions and overall harmonic patterns. Summarized in DAI 37/3 (September 1976), p. 1289A; an article derived directly from this dissertation appeared under the same title in item 47, pp. 123–31. See, too, Lawrence Kramer, “The Mirror of Tonality: Transitional Features of Nineteenth-century Harmony,” 19th Century Music 4 (1980–1981), esp. pp. 203–6, which includes five examples drawn from Liszt’s Nuages gris. 1097. Ott, Leonard [W.]. “Closing Passages and Cadences in the Late Piano Music of Liszt.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 5 (1979): 64–74. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Examines final and nonfinal cadential patterns in more than a dozen late Liszt works, including numbers from the Weihnachtsbaum suite, La lugubre gondola No. 1, the third “Mephisto Waltz,” and so on. Illustrated with twenty-five musical examples. 1098. Shipwright, Edward Ralph. A Stylistic and Interpretive Analysis of Selected Compositions from the Late Piano Works of Franz Liszt. Dissertation: Columbia University, 1977. iii, 332 pp. MT145.L51S44 1976. Analyzes selected compositions from Liszt’s last years, including the Csárdás macabre, the Réminiscences de Boccanegra, Aux cyprès de la Villa d’Este from Book III of the Années, En rêve, and so on. Shipwright also deals briefly with programmism as a possible analytical paradigm in pieces such as Unstern!, and with Liszt’s harmonic vocabulary and its relationship with Hungarian music and musical impressionism. Summarized in DAI 37/8 (February 1977), p. 4949A; reprinted in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 5 (1979): 91–92. Finally, three additional examinations of these pieces are described below:

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1099. Cannata, David Butler. “Perception & Apperception in Liszt’s Late Piano Music.” Journal of Musicology 15 (1997): 178–207. ISSN 0277-9269. ML1.J693. Largely, but not altogether, devoted to Am Grabe Richard Wagners and R. W.—Venezia, two of Liszt’s “Wagner pieces” (items 1111–1114), although Cannata also discusses at length the Angelus from Book III of the Années de pèlerinage. In brief, a challenge aimed at those who consider the composer’s late works “‘experimental,’” and an “attempt to explain the network of allusion” that Liszt established between many of these pieces (p. 179). An intriguing collection of somewhat disjointed observations, supplemented with two tables—the second a list of sources and subtitles for various iterations of the Angelus (p. 199)—and six musical examples. Longer studies are not always better than shorter ones. Compare Cannata’s article with William Good’s doctoral dissertation, The Late Piano Works of Franz Liszt and Their Influence on Some Aspects of Modern Piano Composition (Indiana University, 1965), itself a rather disappointing study; summarized in DAI 24/11 (May 1964), p. 6761. 1100. Mauser, Siegfried. “Demontage und Verklärung: Zur Form und Dramatugie in den späten Klavierstücken Franz Liszts.” In item 979, pp. 60–70. Discusses the thorny problem of programmism and expressive devices or references in such pieces as R.W.—Venezia and La lugubre gondola. Mauser several times refers to Karl-Heinz Stockhausen’s theory of “Moment-form” and his use of “deformation processes” [Deformationsprozess (p. 65)]. Illustrated with three musical examples, comprising the whole of Resignazione, In festo transfigurationis, and La lugubre gondola no. 1 (pp. 67–70). 1101. Redepenning, Dorothea. “Erinnerung und Vergessen: Bemerkungen zu einigen Spätwerken Franz Liszts.” In item 874, pp. 119–27. Deals with remembrance, lamentation, and sorrow as emotional themes in such late works as the Romance oubliée, Am Grabe Richard Wagners, and Sospiri! as well as the song Pourquoi donc. Redepenning concludes that these pieces employ characteristic compositional devices of their own, including extremely slow tempi, repetition, and the development of thematic material through variation. Contains two musical examples. CSÁRDÁS

MACABRE

1102. Szelényi, István. “Liszt Ferenc ‘Csárdás macabre’-ja.” Új zenei szemle 4/10 (October 1953): 6–8. ML5.U5.

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One of the earliest accounts of this fascinating piece, published for the first time during the early 1950s. Musical examples. Another article by Szelényi about this piece—or, rather, about a two-piano arrangement of it—appeared as “A ‘Csárdás macabre’ hiteles szövege” in Új zenei szemle 6/1 (January 1955): 7–9. See, too, Ervin Major, “A ‘Csárdás macabre’ története,” Új zenei szemle 4/10 (October 1953): 9–11. 1103. Wellings, Joy. “The ‘Csárdás macabre’: A Study of Motivic Unity.” Liszt Society Journal 7 (1982): 2–6. ML410.L7L6. Describes Liszt’s piece primarily in terms of motivic processes; illustrated with fourteen musical examples. NB: Wellings’s article is apparently based on an unpublished University of Melbourne thesis dealing with Liszt’s piano music. THE “HUNGARIAN HISTORICAL PORTRAITS” 1104. Claus, Linda. “An Aspect of Liszt’s Late Style: The Composer’s Revisions for ‘Historische, Ungarische Portraits.’” Journal of the American Liszt Society 3 (1978): 3–18. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Describes four of the “Portraits” preserved in manuscripts acquired in 1966 by the Library of Congress. Claus observes that “all…Liszt’s additions of one measure or more [of music] occur at major points of articulation—beginning, end, or interior sectional divisions” (p. 4); she also notes, however, that it is impossible today to determine how many of these additions merely correct mistakes made by copyists in lost manuscripts. Copiously illustrated with musical examples and documentary facsimiles—unfortunately, many of them almost illegible—as well as two charts outlining chronological and publication data (p. 16). 1105. Howard, Leslie. “‘Mosonyi’: An Unknown Holograph.” Liszt Society Journal 18 (1993): 11–14. ML410.L7L6. Concerned with a manuscript owned by the Library of Congress, with reorganizing the order of the “Portraits,” and with a new ending for Mosonyi discovered by Howard—one that “probably represents Liszt’s last written thoughts on the piece” in question (p. 12). Illustrated with two pages of documentary facsimiles. Like several other papers presented at the 1993 Budapest Liszt conference, omitted from item 43. 1106. Kroó, György. “Franz Liszts ‘Ungarische Bildnisse.’” Musik und Gesellschaft 11 (1961): 599–603. ISSN 0027-4755. ML5.M9033. A short introduction to these pieces, illustrated with more than a dozen very short thematic examples and a reproduction of the Liszt portrait

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painted by Bernhard Blockhorst. Another article by Kroó about these pieces was published under the title “Liszt Ferenc: Magyar arcképek” in Új zenei szemle 7/1 (January 1956): 9–17; it contains six musical examples. 1107. Legány, Dezso# . “Hungarian Historical Portraits.” In item 49, pp. 79–88. Discusses issues related especially to three letters Liszt addressed to Olga von Meyendorff on 26 February 1885, and to the publisher Táborszky on 8 June and 30 July 1885. Includes six musical examples taken from Széchenyi, Teleki, and other of the “Portraits”; these are also discussed in some detail. 1108. Wellings, Joy. “Liszt’s ‘Hungarian Historical Portraits.’” Liszt Society Journal 11 (1986): 88–92 and 12 (1987): 48–53. ML410.L7L6. Examines each of the “Portraits” in turn, describing them in terms of thematic material, harmonic progressions, keyboard writing, and so on, as well as in terms of their namesakes. Includes twenty musical examples divided between the two issues. UNSTERN! 1109. Kabisch, Thomas. “Struktur und Form im Spätwerk Franz Liszts: Das Klavierstück ‘Unstern’ (1886).” Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 42 (1985): 178–99. ISSN 0003-9293. ML5.A63. Investigates motivic and rhythmic patterns in one of Liszt’s most experimental late works. Illustrated with a diagram of underlying rhythmic patterns in this four-part [vierteilig (p. 182)] work as well as other charts and six musical examples. See, too, Dieter Rexroth’s “Zum Spätwerk Franz Liszts—Material und Form in dem Klavierstück ‘Unstern,’” published in the Bericht über den international musikwissenschaftlichen Kongreß Bonn 1970, ed. Hans Eggebrecht (Kassel, 1971), pp. 544–47, which demonstrates that the scale pattern used in Unstern! is related to “materialpitch constellations, key relationships, and formal and structural organization” [RILM 85-06025-ap]. 1110. Schmidt, D. “Liszt und die Gegenwart: Versuch einer theoretischen Schlussforgerung aus der Lektüre dreier Analysen zum Klavierstück ‘Unstern!’” Musiktheorie 11 (1996): 241–52. ISSN 0177-4182. ML5.M96358. Deconstructs or at least reexamines carefully claims made by Dahlhaus (item 920) as well as Kabisch, Leibowitz, Redepenning, and Rexroth concerning their analyses of this short but intriguing piano piece. Unfortunately, Schmidt’s article lacks musical examples.

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Another article about Unstern! may be found in an Italian-language publication; see Maria Francesca Agresta, “‘Unstern’ come chiave di lettura dell’ultimo Liszt,” Civiltà musicale 2/2 (June 1988): 9–25. Among other things, Agresta reproduces the entire composition in question (pp. 22–25). THE “WAGNER” PIECES, INCLUDING VARIOUS VERSIONS OF LA LUGUBRE GONDOLA 1111. Dalmonte, Rossana. “Liszt and the Death of the Old Europe: Reflections on ‘La lugubre gondola,’” trans. Roberta Giordani. In item 39, pp. 301–21. Reexamines the compositional history of the various “gloomy gondolas,” based on new evidence uncovered in manuscripts belonging to the Conservatory “Benedetto Marcello,” Venice. Dalmonte also speculates upon the various versions of La lugubre gondola—including those she describes for the first time—as representing “the symbolic death of the Old Europe” (p. 318), the “death in Venice” tradition also reflected in Thomas Mann’s novella, and suggests that “Liszt was the only composer of his generation to have experienced Romanticism until and including its decline” (p. 321). Includes four musical examples as well as several reproductions from the documents in question. A “companion piece” of sorts to item 722. 1112. Hamburger, Klára. “Dem Andenken Richard Wagners.” Liszt Saeculum no. 52 (1994): 13–19. ISSN 0263-0249. ML410.L7I6. Actually deals with the histories and stylistic characteristics of four works: La lugubre gondola nos. 1–2 (but see item 1111! The traditional numbers assigned these pieces are incorrect), R.W.—Venezia, and Am Grabe Richard Wagners, all of them composed between 1882 and 1883. Hamburger reproduces the title and inscription from a manuscript of the last piece and provides fourteen musical examples of various kinds. 1113. Stenzl, Jürg. “L’énigme Franz Liszt: Prophéties et conventions dans les oeuvres tardives: ‘R.W.—Venezia’ (1883).” In item 48, pp. 127–35. Describes the form and musical contents of Liszt’s late tribute to Wagner, including “innovations” (i.e., unusual harmonies, motivic “cells,” etc.) and a few Hungarian or “Gypsy” elements. Illustrated with the complete text of R.W.—Venezia and two facsimile reproductions of fragments from a manuscript in a private Swiss collection. 1114. Winkler, Gerhard J. “Liszt contra Wagner. Wagnerkritik in den späten Klavierstücken Franz Liszts.” In item 874, pp. 189–210. Deals with Liszt’s transcriptions of Wagner’s Parsifal as well as Liszt’s R. W.—Venezia, Am Grabe Richard Wagners, and Excelsior. Winkler analyzes keyboard passagework and compositional details; he also maintains

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that these works reflect back at the world musical elements that originated with them and were made much of by Wagner; hence “Wagner-criticism” in this article’s title. Illustrated with quotations from Liszt letters, Göllerich’s diary entries, and poems by Lenau as well as thirteen musical examples. See also item 1099. OTHER PIECES 1115. Szelényi, István. “Liszt Ferenc: Hangnemnélküli bagatell.” Új zenei szemle 7/9 (September 1956): 3–7. ML5.U5. Describes the “Bagatelle Without Tonality” in stylistic terms. Szelényi mentions that the figure E/F/B, which opens the Bagatelle, appears in De Profundis, the unfinished oratorio St. Stanislaus, and so on. Illustrated with seven musical examples. Two facsimiles of the original Bagatelle manuscript were published in Szelényi’s article “Adalékok Liszt ‘Hangnamnélküli bagatell’ cimu# mu# véhez” in Magyar zene 6 (1965): 399–404. 1116. Szelényi, István. “Liszt: Negyedík elfelejtett keringo# .” Új zenei szemle 6/7–8 (July–August 1955): 8–10. ML5.U5. Devoted to the fourth Valse oubliée, composed c. 1885. NB: The complete “Valse” is printed as an eight-page insert to this article. Like items 1115 and 1117, superseded in large part by the appearance of the relevant compositions—together with critical apparatus and, in some cases, facsimiles of manuscripts and other source materials—in NLE volumes (item 202). 1117. Torkewitz, Dieter. “Anmerkungen zu Liszts Spätstil. Das Klavierstück ‘Preludio funèbre (1885).’” Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 35 (1978): 231–36. ISSN 0003-9293. ML5.A63. Deals briefly with technical details of the composition in question and issues of programmism and dramatic effect. Includes one musical example. Of importance because no other article has been devoted to this intriguing vignette. 1118. Torkewitz, Dieter. “Choralstil und Aura im späten 19. Jahrhundert. Über eine wenig bekannte Sammlung von (Klavier-) Chorälen Franz Liszts.” Musiktheorie 16 (2000): 249–59. ISSN 0177-4182. ML5.M96358. Examines the collection of keyboard chorale harmonizations composed by Liszt c. 1878 and published in item 202. (NB: Many of these pieces also exist in arrangements for chorus, organ, and/or other performing forces.) Torkewitz discusses not just the chorales but ways in which they resemble and differ from similar harmonizations prepared by Johann Crüger, Carl Niemeyer, the Abbé Volger, Bach, and Liszt. Includes five multi-partite musical examples.

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1119. Wellings, Joy. “Liszt’s Christmas Tree.” Liszt Society Journal 13 (1988): 4–28. ML410.L7L6. Traces the origins of this infrequently performed Weihnachtsbaum keyboard suite, then describes each of its twelve parts in terms of melodic and harmonic material, form, keyboard writing, and so on. Illustrated with several analytical tables and twenty-four musical examples. 1120. Wuellner, Guy S. “Franz Liszt’s ‘Prelude on Chopsticks.’” Journal of the American Liszt Society 4 (1978): 37–44. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Describes the origins and musical character of Liszt’s contribution to a volume of paraphrases on the so-called “Chopsticks” theme (also known as the “Flohwaltz”). Wuellner quotes from Liszt’s correspondence with Alexander Borodin, who sent a copy of the Paraphrases to Liszt in 1877 and evidently saw to it that Stasov published Liszt’s letter of acknowledgment in a Russian magazine. Includes a single musical example. LISZT’S ORGAN MUSIC Comparatively little-known even today, Liszt’s compositions for organ include some of the finest works for that instrument written during the nineteenth century. Most of the books and articles described in this chapter fall into two categories: general studies of Liszt’s organ music and activities or specialized studies of individual compositions. A new complete edition of Liszt’s organ music is described in Chapter 3 (item 203). Studies devoted to Liszt’s arrangements and transcriptions for the organ are described in Chapter 11, while instrument and performance-practice studies are described in Chapter 12. SURVEY STUDIES Three book-length surveys of Liszt’s organ music exist; all of them, especially the first, deserve careful consideration: 1121. Haselböck, Martin. Franz Liszt und die Orgel, with contributions by Hermann J. Busch, Michael Gailit, and Michael von Hintzenstern = item 203, “Textbände” vols. “10/a–b.” [2 vols.] Vienna: Universal Edition, c. 1999; plate nos. UE 17 882a–17 882b. ISBNs 3702402454 and 3702402489. By far the most thorough and reliable survey of Liszt’s organ works and relationship with the organ as instrument and other organists in existence. Not strictly speaking a “readable” volume; rather, a Forschungsbericht (“research report” or critical commentary) to Haselböck’s complete edition of Liszt’s organ compositions. Vol. “a” describes and analyzes the Fantasie und Fuge über den Choral “Ad nos, ad salutarem undam” (pp. 13–64;

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hereafter the “Ad nos” fantasy and fugue), the Präludium und Fugue über das Thema BACH in its 1855 and 1870 versions (pp. 65–109; hereafter the “BACH” Prelude and Fugue), the organ prelude of 1859 on Bach’s cantata Weinen, Klagen (pp. 146–48), and a host of other works, including transcriptions of certain orchestral compositions for organ. Two appendices are devoted to Liszt’s works for harmonium or piano, and to reconstructing the organ version of the composer’s In Festo transfigurationis. Vol. “b,” paginated as a sequel to its predecessor, deals with other soloorgan compositions as well as orchestral and choral works that contain organ parts, Liszt’s notation for the organ, and a collection of reminiscences and eyewitness accounts of “Liszt als Organist” (pp. 411–20). It concludes with a chronology of the composer’s life and organ works (pp. 487–95), a bibliography (pp. 497–503), a brief discography (p. 504), a list of works (pp. 505–11), and two indexes. Both volumes are richly illustrated with portraits, photographs of instruments, documentary facsimiles of several kinds, and musical examples. 1122. Kielniarz, Marilyn Torrison. The Organ Works of Franz Liszt. Dissertation: Northwestern University, 1984. v, 250 pp. ML410.L7K5 1984a. Describes major developments in Liszt’s process of organ composition, especially thematic transformation, chromaticism, and other devices. Includes numerous musical examples; concludes with an annotated bibliography of source materials and performance editions. Summarized in DAI 46 no. 02A (August 1985), p. 296. See also Kielniarz’s “Organ Music” in item 37, pp. 193–211, a useful and more easily accessible survey (her dissertation being more difficult to obtain), illustrated with sixteen musical examples. 1123. Schwarz, Peter. Studien zur Orgelmusik Franz Liszts. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Orgelkomposition im 19. Jahrhundert. Berliner musikwissenschaftliche Arbeiten, 3. Munich: Emil Katzbichler, 1973. 139 pp. ISBN 3873970317. ML410.L7S39. An uneven discussion of Liszt’s organ works and the compositional principles employed in them. Schwarz deals competently with some of the pieces he analyzes; in attempting to describe other works in terms of twentieth-century practices, however, he overlooks or ignores conflicting manuscript evidence as well as the “climate” of nineteenth-century musical style. Contains numerous musical examples and a short bibliography. Summarized (in English) in the Journal of the American Liszt Society 5 (1979): 91. A number of articles, many of them brief, have also dealt with Liszt’s organ works overall. Seven of these articles are described or cross-referenced below:

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1124. Brafield, Mark. “The Organ Works of Liszt.” Liszt Society Journal 4 (1979): 9–12. ML410.L7L6. Describes basic features of the Phantasie und Fuge über den Choral “Ad nos, ad salutarem undam” and the Praeludium und Fuge über BACH (also referred to, respectively, as “Ad nos” and “BACH”) as well as the “Weinen, Klagen” variations for organ. Brafield also mentions some of the shorter pieces and the character of the Merseburg Cathedral organ for which Liszt wrote several of his larger organ pieces. Concludes with translations of letters Liszt addressed to Breitkopf & Härtel on l December 1851, and to Louis Köhler on 24 May 1853. Includes several short musical examples. Similar short surveys include Robert Collet, “Choral and Organ Works” survey in item 38, pp. 318–45, esp. pp. 345 ff.; Gerhard Knapper, “Die drei großen Orgelwerke von Franz Liszt,” Musica Sacra 106 (1986): 363–64; Erik Lundqvist, “Liszt och orgeln.” Musikrevy 41 (1986): 188–92; and Humphrey Searle, “Liszt’s Organ Music,” The Musical Times 112 (1971): 597–98. 1125. Busch, Hermann J. “Franz Liszts Orgelmusik für die kirchenmusikalische Praxis.” Musica Sacra 106 (1986): 435–43. ISSN 0179-356X. ML5.M74. One of the few studies devoted to such shorter works as the Missa pro organo and the Requiem für die Orgel as well as some of the larger, nonliturgical compositions. Busch traces Liszt’s interest in religious music to his earliest literary works and considers the suitability of various pieces for actual church use and performance on particular instruments. 1126. Busch, Hermann J. “Die Orgelwelt Franz Liszts und die Klanggestalt seiner Orgelmusik.” In: Zur deutschen Orgelmusik des 19. Jahrhunderts, ed. Busch and Michael Heinemann. Studien zur Orgelmusik, 1. Sinzig: “studio,” 1998; pp. 115–34. ISBN 3895640352. Like several other studies, this one of Busch’s concentrates on ways in which particular instruments shaped the sound of particular Liszt organ pieces. Includes specifications for Weimar’s Stadtkirche organ (p. 116) and the Demstedt organ where Gottschalg played during the 1860s (pp. 129–30) as well as information about the original Merseburg Cathedral organ (pp. 118–20). Also includes brief comments on the “BACH” Prelude and Fugue. the “Weinen, Klagen” variations, the Evocation à la Chapelle Sixtine, and other, shorter pieces. 1127. Gárdonyi, Zoltán. “The Organ Works of Franz Liszt.” New Hungarian Quarterly 26/100 (Winter 1985): 243–52. ISSN 0028-5390. DB901.H83. An intelligent summary of Liszt’s lifelong accomplishments as an organist and organ composer. No musical examples. Published originally under the title “Liszt Ferenc orgonamuzsikája” in Magyar zene 25 (1984): 333–45.

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1128. Haselböck, Martin. “Liszt’s Organ Works.” The American Organist 20/7 (July 1986): 56–63. ISSN 0164-3150. ML1.M327. A useful introduction to Liszt’s organ music. Haselböck mentions almost all of the principal compositions and elaborates on several other topics: “Organ romanticism” (item 1121), Liszt as organist, arrangements and transcriptions for organ, and so on. Illustrated with facsimiles of manuscripts for “Ad nos,” “BACH,” Evocation, and portions of the Missa pro organo as well as a sketch made of Liszt by the American composer Edward McDowell. See, too, a somewhat shorter article by Haselböck entitled “Franz Liszt als Orgelkomponist” and published in Musik und Kirche 56 (1986): 215–18. *

Smith. “Franz Liszt and the Organ.” Described as item 1498. Deals primarily with individual instruments Liszt wrote for or played.

1129. Sutter, Milton. “Liszt and His Role in the Development of 19th Century Organ Music.” Music [“Magazine of the American Guild of Organists”; later, The American Organist] 9 (1975): 35–39. ISSN 0164-3150. ML1.M327. Another better-than-average survey article. Sutter discusses some of Liszt’s organ compositions as well as his interest in organ performance and the Merseburg Cathedral organ, for which instrument he wrote the “BACH” Prelude and Fugue. Includes several musical examples. Similar, short articles have appeared in other periodicals aimed especially at professional organists; see, for example, “La cas de Franz Liszt,” L’Orgue no. 246 (1998): 21–32, which includes seven musical examples as well as a short discography. Seven short studies of Liszt’s organ music deal exclusively with individual compositions. These studies are described or cross-referenced below in alphabetical order (by author). THE “AD

NOS”

FANTASY

AND

FUGUE

1130. Edler, Arnfried. “‘In ganz neuer und freier Form geschrieben.’ Zu Liszts Phantasie und Fuge über den Choral ‘Ad nos, ad salutarem undam.’” Die Musikforschung 25 (1972): 249–58. ISSN 0027-4801. ML5.M9437. Identifies the principal theme of the “Ad nos” fantasy and fugue as that sung by the Anabaptists in Meyerbeer’s Le Prophète. Edler also describes similarities between Liszt’s work and Der 94. Psalm, composed by his student Julius Reubke. 1131. Todd, R. Larry. “Liszt, Fantasy and Fugue for Organ on ‘Ad nos, ad salutarem undam.’” 19th Century Music 4 (1980–1981): 250–61. ISSN 0148-2076. ML1.N27.

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An analysis of “Ad nos” based on the premises that the work is written in one-movement sonata form with a two-part development separated by an “Adagio,” and with the fugue serving as recapitulation. Todd mentions such devices in “Ad nos” as whole-tone scale-patterns, diminished-seventh harmonies, and augmented triads; he also maintains that the work as a whole demonstrates Liszt’s inclinations “toward a more pervasive monothematicism” (p. 251). Supplemented with ten musical examples. A comparatively cursory discussion of the “Ad nos” fantasy appeared as Andrew C. J. Smith, “Liszt’s First Organ Work,” Liszt Society Journal 18 (1993): 20–26. THE “FANTASY

AND

FUGUE

ON

BACH”

1132. Dömling, Wolfgang. “Franz Liszt und B-A-C-H.” In: Alte Musik als ästhetische Gegenwart. Bericht über den international musikwissenschaftlichen Kongreß Stuttgart 1985, ed. Dietrich Berke and Dorothee Hanemann. 2 vols. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1987; vol. 1, pp. 159–61. ISBN 3761807678 (set). ML36.I629 1985. Briefly considers Liszt’s “BACH” Prelude and Fugue as an “answer” to Schumann’s six fugues on the “BACH” tune (i.e., B-flat/A/C/B-natural) for organ, op. 60 (p. 159). No musical examples. 1133. Haselböck, Martin. “Von der Erst- zur Urfassung—Neue Erkenntnisse zu Liszts Präludium und Fuge über B-A-C-H.” Musik und Kirche 56 (1986): 219–24. ISSN 0027-4771. ML5.M9043. Primarily an examination of D-WRgs manuscripts of the first version the “BACH” prelude and fugue in light of registration indications and possibilities. Illustrated with several musical examples taken from the published score and with photographs of two organs known to Alexander Winterberger, for whom “BACH” was written. See, too, such comparatively obscure studies of the same material “Bach and Liszt,” in Hugo Riemann’s Musikalische Rückblicke, vol. 2 (Berlin, 1900), pp. 186–91, and Odile Jutten’s “Le prelude et fugue sur B.A.C.H. de Franz Liszt—Genèse d’une interpretation,” published in L’Orgue: Cahiers et memoires [ISSN 0030-5176] no. 51 (1994), p. 90. 1134. Heinemann, Michael. “Romantischer Orgelbarock. Die Merseburger Domorgel und Liszt’s ‘BACH.’” Musik und Kirche 62 (1996): 141–46. ISSN 0027-4771. ML5.M9043. A somewhat rambling discussion of the Ad nos fantasy and fugue, Liszt’s opinion of Thomas Carlyle’s On Heros, Hero-Worship and the Heroic in History, Bach’s place in Liszt’s imagination as Legitimationsfigur—that is, a predecessor whose works can be borrowed from to “legitimize” Liszt’s

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own (p. 145)—and so forth. Also includes passages on the Merseburg organ and the BACH Prelude and Fugue. No musical examples. *

Saffle. “New Light on Playing Liszt’s ‘Prelude and Fugue on BACH.’” Described as item 1480. Primarily a study in performance directions and specifications.

1135. Zacher, Gerd. “Eine Fuge ist eine Fuge ist eine Fuge. (Liszts B-A-C-H Komposition für Orgel.)” Musik und Kirche 47 (1977): 15–23. ISSN 0027-4771. ML5.M9043. Explains that Liszt solved certain subtle problems in fugal practice and chromaticism in “BACH” by use of variation and sonata form. Zacher also identifies five fugal expositions, identifies the structural center of the fugue itself (mm. 170–174), and compares the work as a whole with Bach’s Gminor Fugue (BWV 542). Includes musical examples and diagrams. Reprinted in item 53, pp. 88–99, but without musical examples.

IX Liszt as Instrumental Ensemble Composer

WORKS FOR ORCHESTRA Liszt was at least as great a composer for orchestra as for the piano; in addition, he also produced a small but interesting body of works for chamber ensembles. Studies of his “original” orchestral and other ensemble works are described below; studies of his orchestral arrangements and transcriptions are described in Chapter 11. SURVEY STUDIES Liszt’s compositions for orchestra rank among his most important and controversial works. Among general or survey studies of his orchestral compositions are the following three articles: 1136. Hamilton, Kenneth. “Liszt.” In: The Nineteenth-century Symphony, ed. D. Kern Holoman. London and New York: Schirmer Books and PrenticeHall International, 1997; pp. 142–62. ISBN 002871105X. ML1255.N5 1996 [sic]. An excellent introduction to the composer’s orchestral works, illustrated with six musical examples taken from the Dante symphony, Hamlet and Héroïde funèbre (both symphonic poems), and Liszt’s keyboard transcription of Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony. Hamilton also speculates on Liszt’s

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intentions to help German music break out of a “rut” dug by composers contented “with churning out pallid sonata forms modeled after prescriptions” by the likes of Czerny and A. B. Marx (p. 143). 1137. Saffle, Michael. “Orchestral Works.” In item 37, pp. 235–79. Identifies and describes the composer’s principal orchestral compositions. Saffle emphasizes Liszt’s use of expressive devices, including various instrumentation strategies, programmism, and such topoi as pastoral, military, and “storm and stress” musics. Illustrated with eighteen full-page examples drawn from orchestral scores of the Faust and Dante symphonies, Les Morts, and nine of the thirteen Symphonic Poems; concludes with five pages of notes. 1138. Searle, Humphrey. “The Orchestral Works.” In item 38, pp. 279–317. An informative survey of Liszt’s orchestral output, illustrated with fiftyeight mostly brief musical examples. More an introduction to the works themselves than a discussion of Liszt’s brand of orchestration, the origin of some of his orchestral pieces in keyboard works, the role programs of various kinds played in his development as a composer, and other closely related subjects. Several older, book-length studies of the same compositional corpus also exist: 1139. Boutarel, Amédée. L’oeuvre symphonique de Franz Liszt et l’esthétique moderne. Paris: Henri Heugel, 1886. 61 pp. ML410.L7B67. A pamphlet-sized survey of Liszt’s symphonic works and the “modern tendencies” present in their formal and expressive properties; Boutarel glosses over many issues but provides more detailed comments on the Dante and Faust symphonies. Supplemented with a short Liszt biography (pp. 59–61). Originally published in installments in Le Ménéstrel. 1140. Brendel, Franz. Franz Liszt als Symphoniker. Leipzig: C. Merseburg, 1859. 55 pp. ML410.L7B7. A historically significant introduction to Liszt’s orchestral compositions and especially to his musical programmism and thematic techniques. Lacks musical examples. Reprinted from the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 49/8–14 (20 August–1 October 1858): 73ff. 1141. Chop, Max. Franz Liszts symphonische Werke, geschichtlich und musikalisch analysiert. 2 vols. “Reclams Universal-Bibliothek,” 6519 and 6548. Leipzig: Phillip Reclam, 1924–1925. MT130.L7C4.

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Introduces Liszt’s better-known orchestral works. Vol. 1 is devoted to the Faust and Dante symphonies and the works associated with Lenau’s Faust; vol. 2 deals solely with the first twelve Symphonic Poems. Includes scattered musical examples. 1142. Heuß [or Heuss], Alfred. Erläuterungen zu Franz Liszts Sinfonien und sinfonischen Dichtungen. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1912. 195 pp. MT130.L7H5. A short guide to Liszt’s principal symphonic works: the two symphonies, the first twelve Symphonic Poems (i.e., omitting Von der Wiege bis zum Grabe), and so on. Like other studies of its kind and vintage, it ignores the Trois Odes funèbres, the concertos, and other, less familiar pieces. Contains numerous musical examples. NB: Heuß served as the editor for this volume, part of Breitkopf & Härtel’s “Kleiner Konzertführer” series; the authors themselves include Hermann Kretschmar, Richard Pohl, and Georg Münzer. One book-length study is much more recent as well as more difficult to obtain, at least at the time the present research guide went to press: 1143. Shulstad, Elizabeth Reeves. The Symbol of Genius: Franz Liszt’s Symphonic Poems and Symphonies. Dissertation: Florida State University, 2001. xiii, 179 pp. ISBN 0493137130. Not seen; described in DAI 62 no. 02A (2001), p. 387 as a study that “traces English and German literary and philosophical works from the eighteen through the early nineteenth centuries…[describing] artistic genius,” especially Schopenhauer’s World as Will and Representation, and the impact they had on discussions of “art and genius” concerning Liszt, Wagner, and such works as Tasso, Orpheus, Prometheus, and the Faust symphony. References to the theories of Michel Foucault also place this study within the sphere of postmodern Liszt studies, where it is crossreferenced; see Chapter 6 of the present guide. Concludes with a list of bibliographical references (pp. 164–78). Three research works of various lengths attempt to answer questions involving Liszt’s responsibility for orchestrating several of the earlier Symphonic Poems; these studies are described below in chronological order of publication: 1144. Raabe, Peter. Die Entstehungsgeschichte der Orchesterwerke Franz Liszts. Dissertation: University of Jena, 1916. 54 pp. ML410.L7R13. One of the first detailed studies of Liszt manuscript materials. Among other topics, Raabe examines and refutes Helene Raff’s claims (item 308) that her husband actually orchestrated Liszt’s early Symphonic Poems. Raabe’s monograph is illustrated with an unfortunately small number of

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passages transcribed from what today are D-WRgs manuscripts of Tasso and several other Symphonic Poems. 1145. Haraszti, Emile. “Les origines de l’orchestration de Franz Liszt.” Revue de musicologie 34 (1952): 81–100. ML5.R32. A valuable survey of Liszt’s early orchestral works, especially the influence of Conradi and Raff on compositions such as Tasso and Ce qu’on entend sur la montagne. Illustrated with examples taken from D-WRgs Liszt mss. B22 and A2b. Unfortunately, much of Haraszti’s argument and virtually all his examples appear to have been borrowed from Raabe, especially from item 1144. 1146. Bertagnolli, Paul A. “Amanuensis or Author? The Liszt-Raff Collaboration Revisited.” 19th Century Music 26 (2002–2003): 23–51. ISSN 0148-2076. ML1.N27. A marvelously detailed yet readable study of three interrelated issues: notions of “textuality” in terms of collaboration, especially from certain postmodern perspectives; the Liszt-Raff collaborative relationship during the 1850s; and surviving sketches, drafts, and revisions for the symphonic poem Prometheus. Bertagnolli provides nineteen plates of various D-WRgs manuscripts pertaining to Liszt’s various “Prometheus” compositions, including the choruses composed to Herder’s texts. The complex issue of who provided precisely what and when cannot easily be summarized—Bertagnolli, after all, requires almost thirty pages simply to review the evidence; nevertheless, there can be no doubt that “conflict was inevitable when individuals with such strong personalities as Liszt, Raff, and Princess Carolyne [zu Sayn-Wittgenstein] worked and lived in close proximity” (p. 35), and that Raff’s reputation as a composer in his own right need neither be exalted nor tarnished by his work “for” Liszt. Finally, four studies concerned principally with issues of orchestral scoring and/or sonata form are described or cross-referenced below: 1147. Dahlhaus, Carl. “Liszts Idee des Symphonischen.” In item 47, pp. 36–42. An influential article by one of this century’s most influential musicologists. Dahlhaus uses Newman’s idea of “double” structural function (item 1072) to explain how Liszt could adapt sonata form to programmatic works. In recent years Dahlhaus’s theory has been “adapted” by a number of scholars. Lacks musical examples. 1148. Kaplan, Richard. “Sonata Form in the Orchestral Works of Liszt: The Revolutionary Reconsidered.” 19th Century Music 8 (1984–1985): 142–52. ISSN 0148-2076. ML1.N27.

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Attempts to prove that many of Liszt’s larger works, including Orpheus and the first movement of the Faust symphony, can be understood in terms of sonata form—principally, as “the result of the expressiveness and the strongly individual nature of Liszt’s development sections” (p. 150). Illustrated with diagram-analyses of the “Faust” movement as well as seven short musical examples from Les Préludes, Prometheus, Orpheus, and other Symphonic Poems. Corrections to and criticisms of Kaplan’s article, written by Rey M. Longyear and Kate Covington, were published in 19th Century Music 9 (1985–1986): 158–60. 1149. Pistone, Danièle. “Liszt et l’orchestre: Tradition et avenir.” In item 47, pp. 143–52. Describes Liszt’s changing attitude toward symphonic music and the orchestra by examining the instrumentation called for in Christus, Don Sanche, the Faust and Dante symphonies, Les Préludes, Tasso, and the two more familiar piano concertos. Illustrated with four instrumentation tables (pp. 146–49) and supplemented with a few quotations from secondary sources; all too brief, otherwise. *

Saffle. “Liszt’s Use of Sonata Form.” Described as item 1201. Explains the obvious but long-overlooked: that Festklänge is built on wellestablished sonata-form principles.

THE SYMPHONIES Unless otherwise indicated, studies concerned with each of the two Liszt symphonies are described below in alphabetical order—first, by abbreviated or familiar symphony title; then by author and/or study title: The Dante Symphony 1150. Barricelli, Jean-Pierre. “Liszt’s Journey through Dante’s Hereafter.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 14 (1983): 3–15. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. A musico-programmatic analysis of the Dante symphony, based on the premise that “When Liszt spoke of a ‘transposition of art’…he implied a strong measure of interpretation by one art of the other, accessible to analysis and not merely suggesting a ‘reaction to’ the original subject.” Illustrated with lengthy quotations (in Italian) from Dante’s Commedia and more than a dozen short musical examples. Reprinted from the Bucknell Review 26 (1982): 149–66. 1151. Draeseke, Felix. “Liszts Dante-Symphonie.” Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 53 (1860): 193–96, 201–04, 213–15, and 221–23. ML5.N4.

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A groundbreaking review of this remarkable and still comparatively littleknown work, illustrated with scattered musical examples. Cited occasionally in the secondary literature. 1152. Fitz-James, B. de Miramonde. “Liszt et la Divine Comédie.” Revue de musicologie 22 (1938): 81–93. ML5.R32. Traces Liszt’s idea of a symphony based on Dante’s poem to a meeting with Autran in 1845. Fitz-James includes the texts of letters Liszt addressed to Autran in 1845. Other, older articles about Liszt’s settings of the Commedia also exist—among them, André Pirro’s “Franz Liszt et la ‘Divine Comédie’” in Dante, mélanges de critique et d’érudition françaises (Paris, 1921), pp. 165–84. 1153. Harrison, Vernon. “The Dante Symphony.” Liszt Society Journal 11 (1986): 56–69. ML410.L7L6. A lengthy prolegomena to Liszt’s work, dealing primarily with the Commedia and its medieval Christian philosophy. Only at the end of his article does Harrison turn to the symphony itself (a “glorious failure” Harrison nevertheless wishes he himself had written) in order to describe its overall organization and principal melodies. Illustrated with fourteen brief musical examples. 1154. Knight, Ellen. “The Harmonic Foundation of Liszt’s Dante Symphony.” Journal of the American Liszt Society 10 (1981): 56–63. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Examines interrelationships between a sectional scheme of organization and certain motifs and harmonic progressions in the symphony itself. Knight contends that, despite its episodic character and comparatively weak sense of musical coherence, Liszt’s symphony is a carefully constructed work; she even proposes two possible schemes: a “conventional” one, oriented around D Major/minor and a plan “based on chromatic alteration” of a diminished-seventh chord built on “B” (p. 60). Includes seven musical examples in an appendix and a single diagram. 1155. Pohl, Richard. “Liszts Symphonie zu Dantes ‘Divina Comedia.’” In item 365, pp. 238–46. A synopsis of the symphony by one of Liszt’s most faithful apologists. Lacks musical examples. 1156. Williamson, John. “Liszt and Form—Some Thoughts on the First Movement of the Dante Symphony.” New Hungarian Quarterly 27/104 (Winter 1986): 213–20. ISSN 0028-5390. DB901.H83.

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Considers traditional and radical elements in the Dante symphony. Williamson asserts that the really remarkable aspects of Liszt’s “Inferno” movement are those that negate conventional symphonic practices. Illustrated with seven musical examples. The Faust Symphony The most fulsome and reliable study of this marvelous piece is: 1157. Redepenning, Dorothea. Franz Liszt. Faust-Symphonie. Meisterwerke der Musik, 46. Munich: Wilhelm Fink, 1988. 87 pp. ISBN 3770524527. MT130.L7R4 1988. The most thorough and only recent book-length description of the origins, character, and significance of Liszt’s symphony “in three character sketches” as based on Goethe’s Faust, Parts I–II. The author provides diagrammatic outlines of each movement as well as eighteen mostly multipartite musical examples. In a section entitled “Dokumente” (pp. 72–84), she also reproduces historically significant comments about the symphony by the likes of Brendel, Hanslick, and so on. Concludes with lists of sources and editions (p. 85), a bibliography (pp. 85–86), and information about Redepenning herself. Reviewed by Peter Ramroth in Die Musikforschung 45 (1992): 327–28. Thirteen smaller-scale or more specialized studies of Liszt’s Faust are described below: 1158. Brown, David. “The Introduction to Liszt’s Faust Symphony, with a Postscript on the B minor Sonata.” The Music Review 49 (1988): 267–71. ISSN 0027-4445. ML5.M657. An investigation of biographical “cells” present in both works, illustrated with twelve musical examples. For Brown, “suggestions of cipher generation [i.e., the use by Liszt of motifs to represent stages of his own character and development]…confirm the long-suspected autobiographical nature of the Faust Symphony [and] also hint that there was a more personal element in the piano Sonata” (p. 271). Brown, of course, is by no means the first individual to attempt such analysis. See items 1062 and 1063 concerning the B-minor Sonata. 1159. Dahlhaus, Carl. “Liszts ‘Faust-Symphonie’ und die Krise der symphonischen Form.” In: Über Symphonien. Beiträge zu einer musikalischen Gattung: Festschrift Walter Wiora zum 70. Geburtstag, ed. Christoph-Hellmut Mahling. Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1979; pp. 129–39. ISBN 3795202620. ML1255.U3.

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Evaluates structural “irregularities” in the first movement of Liszt’s symphony in terms of sonata form rather than musical programmism. Like everything Dahlhaus wrote, penetrating and argumentative. Like several other of his Liszt studies, lacks musical examples. 1160. Floros, Constantin. “Die Faust-Symphonie von Franz Liszt. Eine semantische Analyse.” In item 53, pp. 42–87. Demonstrates that Liszt’s symphony alludes musically to Goethe’s play, that the five themes of the symphony refer to five aspects of Faust’s character, that the augmented-triad and major-third relation are Faustian symbols, and that the curse is the basic idea behind the “Mephistopheles” movement. Supplemented with musical examples. 1161. Gruber, Gernot. “Zum Formproblem in Liszts Orchesterwerken—exemplifiziert am ersten Satz der Faust-Symphonie.” In item 46, pp. 81–95. Deals with sonata-allegro vs. programmatic (i.e., “rhetorical”) elements in the opening movement of the Faust symphony. Gruber argues that sonata form plays an important role in Liszt’s work, although he also identifies a number of “abnormal” gestures and structural relationships in Liszt’s music. Illustrated with five short musical examples. 1162. Harrison, Vernon. “Liszt’s ‘Faust Symphony’ and Carl Jung: A Psychological Interpretation.” Liszt Society Journal 26 (2001): 76–85. ML410.L7L6. A somewhat disorganized series of musings on Jungian ideas; Harrison begins by asserting that Faust as a literary figure is one of several archetypal images of the human condition and Liszt’s symphony on Goethe’s drama an explication of “the eternal struggle of ‘I want’ versus ‘I ought’” (p. 79). Supersedes as well as supplements Harrison’s “Liszt’s Faust Symphony: A Psychological Interpretation,” Liszt Society Journal 4 (1979): 2–5, which also contains quotations from Goethe and T. S. Eliot and includes six short musical examples. 1163. Longyear, Rey M., and Kate R. Covington. “Tonal and Harmonic Structures in Liszt’s Faust Symphony.” In item 49, pp. 153–71. Counters attacks against the “formlessness” and “lack of coherence” of the Faust symphony since the nineteenth century by describing the composition’s overall formal structure, fundamental motivic materials, certain harmonic details (e.g., parallel structures in the symphony’s outer movements), and so on. Longyear and Covington illustrate their discussion with outlines (pp. 156–158) and more than a dozen musical examples, many of them concerned with motifs and functional harmony.

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1164. Motte, Diether de la. “Keine Geschichte: Liszts ‘Faust-Symphonie.’” In: Das musikalische Kunstwerk: Geschichte—Ästhetik—Theorie. Festschrift Carl Dahlhaus zum 60. Geburtstag, ed. Hermann Danuser et al. Laaber: Laaber Verlag, 1988; pp. 547–53. ISBN 3890071449. ML55.D185 1988. Predicated on the notion that the three “character portraits” that comprise the symphony tell no extra-musical story between and among themselves; instead, they present themselves “simultaneously” […Liszts Charakterbilder aber sind ganz ausdrücklich keine Geschichte, sind zeitlos oder meinetwegen gleichzeitig (p. 547)] as embodiments of both unique and shared musical materials. Illustrated with a full page of motivic examples in the form of a chart. 1165. Niemöller, Klaus Wolfgang. “Zur nicht-tonalen Thema-Struktur von Liszts ‘Faust-Symphonie.’” Die Musikforschung 22 (1969): 69–72. ISSN 0027-4801. ML5.M9437. A “reply” to Ritzel’s 1967 Musikforschung article (item 1168). Niemöller demonstrates that the “dodecaphonic” theme for the Faust symphony was derived by Liszt from “Gypsy”-scale patterns and the augmented triads that can be derived from them. He also argues that the principal melody of the symphony’s first movement may be interpreted programmatically as a selfportrait of Liszt as Hungarian. Includes diagrams and two musical examples. 1166. Ott, Leonard [W]. “The Orchestration of the ‘Faust Symphony.’” Journal of the American Liszt Society 12 (1982): 28–37. ISSN 0147-4413. ML410.L7A68. Evaluates Liszt’s brand of orchestration in light of Berlioz’s treatise, aspects of the Symphonie fantastique, and Ott’s four-fold schema of “timbral flow” (e.g., alternation and exchange, overlapping, expansion and contraction, and stability). A strikingly perceptive study, illustrated with eight musical examples and quotations from several secondary sources. 1167. Pohl, Richard. “Liszts Faust Symphonie.” In item 365, pp. 247–320. An intelligent, influential analysis of Liszt’s symphony, illustrated with twenty-one musical examples. Originally published in the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 57/1–21 (4 July–21 November 1862): 1ff. Like other early studies of Liszt’s symphonic works, Pohl’s article constitutes a reply to anti-Liszt reviews published in magazines and newspapers. An especially interesting defense of the Faust symphony, and one little-known to many scholars, appeared a few years later. See Eugen von Blum, Beleuchtung des durch Franz Liszt’s ‘Faust-Sinfonie’ in Breslau hervorgerufenen Zeitungsstreites (Breslau, 1964). The Library of Congress owns a copy of this rare pamphlet (ML410.L7B6).

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1168. Ritzel, Fred. “Materialdenken bei Liszt: Eine Untersuchung des ‘Zwölftonthemas’ der Faust-Symphonie.” Die Musikforschung 20 (1967): 289–94. ISSN 0027-4801. ML5.M9437. Argues that the opening theme of the Faust symphony is derived from the augmented triad, itself self-sufficient in tone image and function, an hypothesis contradicted two years later by Niemöller (item 1165). Ritzel’s article is illustrated with diagrams and six musical examples. 1169. Somfai, László. “Die Metamorphose der ‘Faust-Symphonie’ von Liszt.” In item 50, pp. 283–93. Not to be confused with item 1170: this is a shorter, less “scientific” study, containing different musical examples. Like many commentators, Somfai strives to “place” Liszt in a sylistic procession connecting Beethoven and Wagner with Arnold Schoenberg; hence his observation that the Hungarian composer’s “more significant themes tend toward atonality” [Die wichtigsten Themen streben teilweise dem Atonalen zu (p. 292)]. Along similar lines, see Somfai, “Metamorphoses of Liszt’s Faust Symphony,” in the New Hungarian Quarterly 2/3 (July–September 1961): 75–83. 1170. Somfai, László. “Die musikalischen Gestaltwandlungen der Faust-Symphonie von Liszt.” Studia Musicologica 2 (1962): 87–137