Industrial Revolution Reference Library Cumulative Index (U-X-L Industrial Revolution Reference Library)

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Industrial Revolution Reference Library Cumulative Index (U-X-L Industrial Revolution Reference Library)

Industrial Revolution Cumulative Index Industrial Revolution Cumulative Index Cumulates Indexes For: Industrial Rev

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Industrial Revolution

Cumulative Index

Industrial Revolution

Cumulative Index

Cumulates Indexes For: Industrial Revolution: Almanac Industrial Revolution: Biographies Industrial Revolution: Primary Sources

Industrial Revolution Cumulative Index

Project Editor Matthew May

Composition Evi Seoud

Permissions Margaret Chamberlain

Manufacturing Rita Wimberley

Product Design Pamela A.E. Galbreath, Michelle DiMercurio

©2003 by U•X•L. U•X•L is an imprint of The Gale Group, Inc., a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. U•X•L® is a registered trademark used herein under license. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. For more information, contact: The Gale Group, Inc. 27500 Drake Rd. Farmington Hills, MI 48331-3535 Or you can visit our Internet site at http://www.gale.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means—graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, Web distribution, or information storage retrieval systems—without the written permission of the publisher.

cover photograph of Alexander Graham Bell reproduced by permission of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; cover photograph of the steam locomotive reproduced by permission of the Corbis Corporation; and cover photograph of child laborers reproduced courtesy of the Library of Congress. Back cover photograph of an assembly line reproduced courtesy of the Library of Congress. While every effort has been made to ensure the reliability of the information presented in this publication, The Gale Group, Inc. does not guarantee the accuracy of the data contained herein. The Gale Group, Inc. accepts no payment for listing; and inclusion in the publication of any organization, agency, institution, publication, service, or individual does not imply endorsement of the editors or publisher. Errors brought to the attention of the publisher and verified to the satisfaction of the publisher will be corrected in future editions.

Cover illustration of the Bessemer furnace reproduced courtesy of the Library of Congress;

ISBN: 0-7876-6516-9

Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Cumulative Index IRA = Industrial Revolution: Almanac IRB = Industrial Revolution: Biography IRPS = Industrial Revolution: Primary Sources

A Adamson Act IRB: 44 Addams, Jane IRA: 191 (ill.), 191–192, 199, IRPS: 146–155, 147 (ill.) Adelphi Society of Art IRB: 107 Africa IRA: 221–222 African Americans IRA: 65 (ill.), 204 (ill.), IRB: 41–42. See also Slavery “The Age of Miracles” IRPS: 79–82 Agriculture IRA: 2 (ill.). See also Food chemistry and IRA: 133, 134 cottage industries and IRA: 134 cotton gin and IRB: 196 drugs and IRA: 222–223 enclosure movement and IRA: 23–24, 25, 84 factory system and IRA: 223 finance and IRB: 93, 101–102 food preservation and IRA: 134, 136–140 Great Depression and IRA: 201–202

Henry Ford and IRB: 17–18 livestock and IRPS: 137–138 mechanization of IRA: 3, 24–26, 133–136, IRB: 88, 89, 90–93 physiocrats and IRB: 164 poverty and IRA: 175, IRB: 70 preindustrial IRA: 1, 6–7 process of IRB: 89 productivity and IRA: 3, 5, 25–26, 73–74, 83–84, 134–136, 214, IRB: 93 railroads and IRA: 137, 157, IRB: 59, 61, 63–64, IRPS: 87–88 specialization and IRPS: 4, 8–9 textiles and IRA: 63, 66, 108–109, 222 urbanization and IRA: 134, 210, 213–214, 219 wheat IRB: 51–52, 88, 89, 90 Air IRA: 152–153, 212–213. See also Environment Air conditioning IRA: 139–140 Alchemy IRA: 130. See also Chemistry

References to photographs and illustrations are marked by (ill.); boldface indicates main entries and their page numbers.

1

Allston, Washington IRB: 107 Altgeld, John IRA: 182 American Civil War food preservation and IRA: 138 George Westinghouse and IRB: 185 government and IRB: 43 James J. Hill and IRB: 60 slavery and IRB: 196 tariffs and IRA: 195–196 telegraph and IRB: 11 American Declaration of Independence IRA: 9, 20, IRB: 84, IRPS: 195 American Federation of Labor IRA: 185 (ill.) Congress of Industrial Organizations and IRA: 188 foundation of IRA: 185–186 government and IRB: 43–45 influence of IRB: 37 organization of IRA: 184, IRB: 41, IRPS: 100 purpose of IRPS: 112, 120 American Institute of Electrical Engineers IRA: 127 American Magazine IRB: 124, 127 American Railway Union IRA: 180–181 American Revolution IRA: 9, 30, 48, 209 American system IRA: 145 (ill.). See also Factory system; Manufacturing development of IRA: 144–147, IRB: 16 impact of IRB: 27 productivity and IRB: 22–23 standardization and IRA: 223 American Telegraph Company IRB: 111 American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T) IRA: 168, IRB: 99 2

Cumulative index

American Union Telegraph IRB: 53 American Woolen Company IRPS: 164–166, 166–168, 168–169, 174–175 Amish IRA: 5 (ill.) Anarchism advocacy for IRA: 101, IRB: 85, IRPS: 150–151 definition of IRA: 84, 172 labor and IRA: 179–182 wealth and IRPS: 35, 38–40 Andrews, Samuel IRA: 166, IRB: 142 Animals IRA: 209–210, IRB: 200 (ill.). See also Horses; Livestock Anti-Catholicism IRB: 109 Anti-Semitism IRB: 17, 25, 80, 109 Appert, Nicholas-François IRA: 137 Apprentices IRA: 10 Aristocracy. See also Feudalism; Medieval period definition of IRA: 10 democracy and IRA: 6–7 Enlightenment and IRA: 21–22 industrialization and IRA: 4 Parliament and IRA: 86–87 progress and IRA: 6–7 religion and IRA: 13, 19–20 Arkwright, Richard IRA: 72 (ill.) cotton mill of IRA: 109 spinning machine and IRA: 72, 110 textile factory of IRA: 77, 91, IRPS: 17 Art IRA: 13–14, IRB: 30–31, 102–103, 107–108, IRPS: 36 Ashley, Anthony Ashley Cooper, Lord IRA: 90–91, IRPS: 110 Asia IRA: 193, 214–215, 216–219. See also specific countries

Assembly lines IRA: 145 (ill.), 173 (ill.) American system and IRA: 145, 146 automobiles and IRB: 22–23 definition of IRA: 144 development of IRB: 16 Henry Ford and IRA: 147, 148–151 impact of IRB: 27 standardization and IRA: 223 Associated Press IRPS: 84, 96 Automation IRA: 210, 216, IRB: 41 Automobiles IRA: 114 (ill.), 145 (ill.), 149 (ill.), 150 (ill.), IRB: 21 (ill.), 22 (ill.) air pollution and IRA: 152–153, 212 assembly lines and IRA: 147, 148–151 competition and IRA: 218 internal combustion engine and IRA: 115–116 oil and IRA: 3, 151 production of IRB: 19–23, 24, 27 shock absorbers and IRB: 194 society and IRA: 116, 151–154, 158 tires and IRA: 132

B Baekeland, Leo IRA: 132 Bakelite IRA: 132 Baker, Ray Stannard IRB: 123 Bakunin, Mikhail IRA: 101, IRB: 85 Balliol College IRB: 162–163, 163 (ill.) Baltimore and Ohio Railroad IRB: 53 Bathhouses IRPS: 148, 153 The Battle with the Slum IRB: 118 Baxter, William IRB: 110

IRA = Industrial Revolution: Almanac

IRB = Industrial Revolution: Biography

Beau de Rochas, AlphonseEugène IRA: 114 Bell, Alexander Graham IRA: 119 (ill.), 120, IRB: 55, IRPS: 83 Bentley, Elizabeth IRPS: 107–109 Benz, Karl IRA: 148, IRB: 19 Bessemer, Henry IRA: 129–130, 130 (ill.), IRB: 1 (ill.), 1–7, 12 Bessemer process IRA: 131 (ill.), IRB: 6 (ill.) Andrew Carnegie and IRA: 161, IRB: 1, 8, 12 steel production and IRA: 129–130, IRB: 1, 4–6 Bibles IRA: 16–17, 120 Binfield, Kevin IRA: 94 Black, Joseph IRB: 180 Blenkinsop, John IRA: 54–55 Blutcher IRB: 171–172, 173 Boilers IRA: 36, 37, 39–40, 42, IRPS: 47–48 Bonaparte, Napoléon. See Napoleon I Boulton, Matthew IRA: 48, IRB: 179, 181, 182, IRPS: 53 Boulton and Watt IRA: 59, 60, IRB: 181–182 Bourgeoisie IRA: 103, IRPS: 23, 25–28 Brakes IRA: 126, IRB: 184, 185–187, 193 Breguet, Louis IRB: 110 Brontë, Charlotte IRPS: 65, 69–73 Brown, Moses IRA: 110 Bryan, William Jennings IRA: 186, IRB: 43–44, 44 (ill.), 102 Bryant, William Cullen IRB: 108 Bull Moose Party. See Progressive Party Bureau of Corporations IRB: 157 Burton, Emanuel IRA: 95 Business. See also Finance finance and IRB: 192–194 government and IRA: 188, 196, IRB: 158, IRPS: 195 IRPS = Industrial Revolution: Primary Sources

labor and IRA: 176 management and IRA: 147, 152–153 organization of IRA: 4–5 patents and IRB: 187 rights of IRA: 6–7 The Business of Being a Woman IRB: 128

C Cadillac Motor Car Company IRA: 148, IRB: 21 Calhoun, John C. IRA: 195–196 Canadian Pacific Railroad IRB: 62 Canals IRA: 51–52, 58, IRB: 31, 33–34, 56 Canning IRA: 137–138, IRPS: 144–145 Cannons IRB: 4–5, 5 (ill.) Capital IRA: 44, 102. See also Finance Capital IRA: 100, IRPS: 32 Capitalism Adam Smith on IRPS: 1–2, 3–12 Andrew Carnegie on IRPS: 36–40 competition and IRB: 144, 155–157, 161–162, 165–167 definition of IRA: 84, 102–103, 172 in England IRA: 29–30 factory system and IRA: 76 Karl Marx on IRPS: 22, 24–32 Marxism and IRB: 79–80, 84 muckrakers and IRB: 115–116, 118, 120–122, 127 Progressive Party on IRPS: 198 Capitalists IRA: 102–103. See also specific capitalists Carnegie, Andrew IRA: 161 (ill.), IRB: 8 (ill.), 8–13, IRPS: 2, 34–44, 37 (ill.)

early life of IRA: 160–161, IRB: 8–11, 96 J. P. Morgan and IRB: 95, 101, 104 labor and IRA: 161–163 philanthropy of IRA: 164–165, IRB: 14–15, 53, 102, IRPS: 35, 40–43, 148 railroads and IRB: 10–12, 55, 56 as robber baron IRA: 4 steel and IRA: 130, 161–164, 168, IRB: 1, 8, 11–14, 66, 99, 101, 104, IRPS: 44 wealth and IRA: 164–165 Carnegie, Louise (Whitfield) IRB: 14 Carnegie, Margaret IRB: 14 Carnegie, William IRB: 9 Carnegie Hall IRA: 164, IRB: 15, IRPS: 39 (ill.), 42 Carnegie-Mellon University IRA: 164, IRB: 15, IRPS: 43 (ill.) Carnegie Steel Company IRA: 161–164, IRB: 13–14, 101, IRPS: 44 Carnot, Nicholas Sadi IRA: 138 Carranza, Venustiano IRB: 124 Carrier, Willis IRA: 140 Cartwright, Edmond IRA: 75 Cartwright, William IRA: 95 Casement, General IRPS: 94 Catch-Me-Who-Can IRA: 54 Caus, Salomon de IRA: 38 Celluloid IRA: 132 Central America IRA: 222–223 Central Pacific Railroad IRB: 63, IRPS: 89, 94–96, 97 Charles II IRA: 40, 44 Charter Gasoline Engine Company IRA: 136 Chartists IRA: 97–98, IRPS: 13 Chautauquan IRB: 126 Chemistry IRA: 130–133, 134, 139, IRPS: 141–143, 144 Cumulative index

3

Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad IRB: 65, IRPS: 183–184 Chicago Tribune IRA: 179, IRB: 25 Children IRA: 80 (ill.), 183 (ill.), IRPS: 16 (ill.), 105 (ill.), 128 (ill.), 170 (ill.), 197 (ill.) coal mines and IRA: 50, IRPS: 125 education and IRB: 133, IRPS: 58, 68–69, 164, 170, 173–174, 197–198 factory system and IRA: 4, 63, 65, 77, 79–80, 89–91, 175, 219, IRB: 9, 76–77, 132, IRPS: 13, 101–110, 114, 117, 119, 120–122, 164–174, 177, 203 government regulation and IRPS: 106, 122, 164, 177 guild system and IRA: 28 hours worked by IRA: 4, 85, 86, 89, 91, IRPS: 54–55, 99, 104, 106, 107–109, 110 Mother Jones and IRA: 183, 184 textiles and IRA: 63, 65, 77, 79–80, 89–91, 219 wages of IRPS: 18, 104, 169, 172 Children of the Tenement IRB: 118 China IRA: 99 (ill.), IRPS: 25 (ill.) communism and IRA: 101 industrialization of IRA: 218–219 Marxism and IRB: 79, 80, IRPS: 32 Chorton Twist IRB: 131, 132 Chrysler Corporation IRB: 24, 26 Church of England IRB: 135 Cigar makers IRB: 42 (ill.) factory system and IRA: 175, IRPS: 112–120 4

Cumulative index

labor unions and IRA: 184–185, IRB: 38, 40–41, IRPS: 100 Cigarmakers’ Union IRB: 38, 40–41 Civilian Conservation Corps IRA: 203 Clark, Maurice IRA: 165–166, IRB: 142 Class conflict. See also Marxism Hull House and IRPS: 149 labor unions and IRA: 177, IRB: 39–40, 45 Marxism and IRA: 99–100, 100–101, IRB: 84, IRPS: 2, 23–32 socialism and IRA: 96–97 wealth and IRPS: 37–38 Clay, Henry IRA: 119, 195, IRPS: 80, 82 Clayton Antitrust Act IRA: 197, IRB: 44. See also Monopolies Clermont IRA: 57, 60, IRB: 29, 33 (ill.), 34 Cleveland, Grover IRA: 181 Cloth. See Textiles Coal IRA: 42 (ill.) children and IRPS: 125 coke and IRA: 52, 121 dangers of IRA: 49–50, IRB: 76, 171, IRPS: 124, 125, 133–134 electricity and IRA: 3, 52, 111–112 energy of IRA: 35 environment and IRA: 48–49, 85, 212 factory system and IRA: 49, 52 gas from IRA: 121 government and IRB: 154–155 history of IRA: 47–49, 52 iron and IRA: 49, 52 labor and IRB: 73–76, 154–155, IRPS: 123–134 labor unions and IRA: 182–184, 186–188, 189–190 mines of IRA: 41–43, 49–50, 182–184, IRB:

76, 170, 171, IRPS: 123–134 muckrakers and IRB: 121 railroads and IRA: 51–53, 157, IRB: 60, 171–175 steam engines and IRA: 1, 3, 7, 41–43, 45, 47, 49, 111–112, 213, IRB: 19, 177, 180, 181, IRPS: 45, 47–48, 51–52, 123 steam locomotives and IRA: 52 steel and IRA: 52, 161 technology and IRPS: 133 types of IRA: 49 Coal gas IRA: 121 Coal mines IRPS: 197 (ill.) dangers of IRA: 49–50, IRB: 76, 171, IRPS: 124, 125, 133–134 labor and IRA: 182–184, IRB: 76, 170, IRPS: 123–134 steam engines and IRA: 41–43 Coke IRA: 52, 121. See also Coal Cold War IRPS: 21 Coleridge, Samuel Taylor IRB: 132 Collier’s Magazine IRB: 156 Collodion IRA: 132 Colonialism IRB: 165. See also Mercantilism Africa and IRA: 222 England and IRA: 27, 29, 30, 76 Latin America and IRA: 222 mercantilism and IRA: 20–21, 27, 30, 76 Columbus, Christopher IRA: 20–21 Combination Acts IRA: 103 Communications. See also Internet; Telegraph; Telephones impact of IRPS: 45–46, 75–84 manufacturing and IRB: 106–107, 112 overview of IRA: 3

IRA = Industrial Revolution: Almanac

IRB = Industrial Revolution: Biography

telegraph and IRA: 117–120 telephones and IRA: 120–122 Communism. See also Marxism; Socialism definition of IRA: 84, 172, 210 development of IRA: 99–103, IRB: 80, 81–82, IRPS: 23–32 Great Depression and IRA: 203 impact of IRPS: 21–23, 24, 32 industrialization and IRA: 218–219 labor and IRPS: 62 Lincoln Steffens and IRB: 124, 125 wealth and IRPS: 34–35, 39–40 Communist League IRB: 81, IRPS: 23 The Communist Manifesto IRA: 100–101, IRB: 81–82, 84, IRPS: 21–33, 22 (ill.) A Compendious History of the Cotton Manufacture IRA: 77, 93 Competition. See also Monopolies automobiles and IRA: 218 capitalism and IRB: 144, 155–157, 161–162, 165–167, IRPS: 5, 37–38, 198 factory system and IRPS: 56, 59–61 government and IRB: 155–159, 166–167, IRPS: 177–178, 179–191, 198, 200–202 guild system and IRA: 28 J. P. Morgan and IRB: 103–104 labor and IRA: 93–96, IRPS: 46, 54–59, 61–62, 63–74 monopolies and IRA: 4, 156, 162, 163, 167, 168–169, 197–199, IRB: 104, 149, 155–158 IRPS = Industrial Revolution: Primary Sources

muckrakers and IRA: 162, 163, IRB: 115–116, 126–127 oil and IRA: 163, 166–167, 198–199, IRB: 116 railroads and IRA: 167, 197–198, IRB: 50–51, 55–56, 58–59, 60–67, 96–97, 157, IRPS: 88–89, 179–189 robber barons and IRA: 4 Sherman Antitrust Act and IRB: 144–145 socialism and IRB: 144, 153–154 steamboats and IRB: 34 steel and IRA: 168–169 technology and IRPS: 46 textiles and IRA: 93–96, IRPS: 56, 59–61 Computers IRA: 2, 210, 215–216, IRB: 106, IRPS: 73–74. See also Internet The Condition of the Working Class in England IRPS: 110 Congress of Industrial Organizations IRA: 186, 188–189, IRB: 41, 42, IRPS: 120 Construction IRA: 163, IRB: 13 Continuous inventions IRA: 112, 215 Cooke, Jay IRB: 61 Cooke, William IRPS: 78 Cooperatives anarchism and IRA: 101 factory system and IRB: 130, 134–136 Hull House and IRPS: 149, 152–154 labor unions and IRB: 42–43 Copernicus, Nicolaus IRA: 13 Corporations. See also Stockholders definition of IRA: 144 factory system and IRPS: 23 muckrakers and IRA: 162–163

organization of IRA: 4–5 society and IRPS: 198 stockholders and IRB: 100 Cosmopolitan IRA: 162 Cottage industries. See also Craftsmanship agriculture and IRA: 134 craftsmanship and IRA: 3–4, 211–212 definition of IRA: 10, 64, 210 factory system and IRB: 9, IRPS: 23, 102 guild system and IRA: 28–29 labor and IRA: 66–67 society and IRPS: 36–37 textiles and IRA: 28–29, 63, 66–67, 78, IRB: 9, IRPS: 54, 102 women and IRA: 68 Cotton slavery and IRA: 64, 74 textiles and IRA: 66, 67, 109, IRPS: 60 Cotton gin IRA: 65 (ill.), IRB: 200 (ill.), 202 (ill.) definition of IRA: 64 impact of IRB: 196 invention of IRA: 73–74, IRB: 199–202 slavery and IRA: 64, IRB: 196 Craftsmanship IRA: 2, 3–4, 211–212. See also Cottage industries Craig, James IRB: 179 Crane, W. Murray IRB: 154 Crimean War IRB: 4 Crompton, Samuel IRA: 72–73 Culver, Helen IRPS: 152 The Curse of the Factory System IRA: 86 Cylinders definition of IRA: 36, 75 operation of IRA: 37, 42, 43, 45–47, 113, IRB: 18, 19, IRPS: 47–48 steam locomotives and IRA: 53–54 Cumulative index

5

D Dabney, Morgan and Company IRB: 96 Dailey, Thomas IRPS: 93 Daimler, Gottlieb IRA: 114 (ill.), 115, 148 Dale, David IRB: 132 Danger coal mines and IRA: 49–50, IRB: 76, 171, IRPS: 124, 125, 133–134 factory system and IRA: 85, 89, 173, IRB: 70, 76, 83, 116, 120–121, 149, IRPS: 11–12, 99, 156–163, 164, 170–172, 177, 196, 197 Darlington Railway IRB: 171 Darwin, Erasmus IRA: 48 Das Kapital IRA: 100, IRPS: 32 Davidson, Thomas IRPS: 149 Davy, Humphrey IRB: 171 Dearborn Independent IRB: 25 Debs, Eugene IRA: 180, 181, IRPS: 193 Deere, John IRA: 135–136, IRB: 92, 93, IRPS: 87 Dehydration IRA: 138 Democracy Chartists and IRA: 97–98 definition of IRA: 10 Enlightenment and IRA: 21–22 factory system and IRA: 6–7, 87–89 French Revolution and IRA: 209 Japan and IRA: 218 Parliament and IRA: 86–89 Renaissance and IRA: 20 Democratic Party business and IRA: 196, IRPS: 190, 195 labor and IRA: 186, IRB: 37, 43–44 Denver and Rio Grande Railroad IRB: 55, 56 Depression. See Recessions Descartes, René IRA: 15, 17 (ill.) 6

Cumulative index

Detroit Automobile Company IRA: 148, IRB: 21 Detroit Edison Illuminating Company IRB: 20 Dexterity IRPS: 9–10, 18 Dickinson, H. W. IRA: 58, 60, IRB: 32–33 Discontinuous inventions IRA: 112, 215–216 Disease IRB: 72, 145–146, 170. See also Health Distribution IRA: 125–127, IRB: 143, 184, 189, 193 Division of labor. See specialization Dodge, General IRPS: 94–95 Dodge, Horace IRA: 148 Dodge, John IRA: 148 Douglas, Margaret IRB: 162 Drake, Edwin L. IRA: 112, 165 Drew, Daniel IRB: 50 Drexel, Morgan and Company IRB: 97 Drilling IRB: 143 Drinkwater, Peter IRB: 131 Drugs IRA: 222–223, IRPS: 145 Dry Dock Engine Company IRB: 18, 19 Duncan, Sherman and Company IRB: 96 Durand, Peter IRA: 137–138 Durant, Thomas IRPS: 89, 94, 95, 96 Dyes IRA: 131 Dynamite IRA: 131

E Economy of scale IRA: 143–144. See also Efficiency Edison, Thomas Alva electricity and IRA: 123–126, IRB: 187 General Electric and IRA: 168 Henry Ford and IRB: 20 lighting and IRB: 142 telegraph and IRB: 111

Edison Illuminating Company IRA: 148 Education. See also Literacy Adam Smith and IRB: 162–163, IRPS: 5 children and IRB: 133, IRPS: 58, 68–69, 164, 170, 173–174, 197–198 Eli Whitney and IRB: 197–199 George Stephenson and IRB: 170–171 George Westinghouse and IRB: 185 Ida Tarbell and IRB: 125–126 individualism and IRB: 17 James Watt and IRB: 178 Jane Addams and IRPS: 146 John D. Rockefeller and IRB: 140 J. P. Morgan and IRB: 96 Karl Marx and IRB: 80–81, 86 Lincoln Steffens and IRB: 122–123 literacy and IRB: 38–39 Luddites and IRPS: 64 Mother Jones and IRB: 71 muckrakers and IRB: 121 Nikola Tesla and IRB: 188 philanthropy and IRB: 145–146 public IRB: 178 Robert Owen and IRB: 130–131, 133–134 Samuel F. B. Morse and IRB: 107 service economy and IRA: 215 standardization of IRA: 223 Theodore Roosevelt and IRB: 150 Upton Sinclair and IRB: 119 Edward I IRA: 48, 212 Efficiency IRA: 143–144, 152–153, IRPS: 10, 200. See also Productivity Eisenhower, Dwight D. IRA: 193

IRA = Industrial Revolution: Almanac

IRB = Industrial Revolution: Biography

Electricity basics of IRB: 182, 190–191 coal and IRA: 3, 52, 111–112 distribution of IRA: 125–127, IRB: 184, 189, 193 engines and IRA: 1, 3, 122–123, 127, IRB: 191, 193 factory system and IRA: 127 generation of IRA: 116, 122, 125, IRB: 184, 187, 189–190, 193 lighting and IRA: 123, 125, 127, IRB: 142, 190–191 networks and IRA: 154 railroads and IRB: 191 telegraph and IRA: 116–117, 118–119, IRB: 108–109, IRPS: 77, 79 telephones and IRA: 120 Tennessee Valley Authority and IRA: 202–203 Empiricism IRA: 10, 15, 22, 48. See also Science Enclosure movement. See also Urbanization description of IRA: 23–24, 25, 84 factory system and IRA: 76, 79, 96 textiles and IRA: 66–67, 76, 79 wealth and IRA: 23–24 Energy IRA: 33–34, 35, 47, 138 Engels, Friedrich IRA: 100, IRB: 81, 82, 84, IRPS: 32, 110 Engines IRA: 1, 3, 47, 122–123, 127, IRB: 191, 193. See also Internal combustion engines; Steam engines England. See also Parliament agriculture in IRA: 3, 24–26 capitalism in IRA: 29–30 coal in IRA: 41–42, 112 IRPS = Industrial Revolution: Primary Sources

colonialism of IRA: 27, 29, 30, 76 democracy and IRA: 7 enclosure movement in IRA: 23–24, 25, 66–67, 76, 79, 84, 96 Enlightenment and IRA: 21 factory system and IRA: 76–78, 83–86, 89–95 government and IRA: 20, 86–89, 97–98 guilds in IRA: 27–29 industrial revolution in IRA: 1, 12, 22–23, 45, IRPS: 4–5, 11–12, 13–15 labor unions in IRA: 103–104 mercantilism in IRA: 26–27, 29–30, 76 railroads in IRA: 51–56 Renaissance and IRA: 40 Robert Fulton and IRA: 59–60 socialism in IRA: 96–98 steam engines in IRA: 7 tariffs and IRA: 194 textiles and IRA: 67, 76–78, 109–110, IRPS: 65–66 urbanization of IRA: 83–84 Enlightenment IRA: 21–22 Environment air pollution IRA: 152–153, 212–213 coal and IRA: 48–49, 85, 212, IRPS: 133–134 factory system and IRA: 85 industrialization and IRA: 212–213, IRPS: 192 refrigeration and IRA: 140 water pollution IRA: 85, 140 Erie Railroad Company IRB: 50–51 Evans, Oliver IRA: 139 “Eyewitness at the Triangle” IRPS: 156–163

F Fabian society IRPS: 149

Factory Act of 1833 IRA: 90–91, IRPS: 110 The Factory Girl’s Last Day IRPS: 106 Factory system IRA: 80 (ill.), 90 (ill.), 111 (ill.), IRB: 83 (ill.), IRPS: 16 (ill.), 165 (ill.). See also Manufacturing agriculture and IRA: 223, IRPS: 137–138 capitalism and IRA: 76 children and IRA: 4, 63, 65, 77, 79–80, 89–91, 175, 219, IRB: 9, 76–77, 132, IRPS: 13, 18, 54–55, 58, 68–69, 99, 101–110, 114, 117, 119, 120–122, 164–174, 177, 203 cigar making and IRPS: 112–120 coal and IRA: 49, 52 competition and IRPS: 56, 59–61 cooperatives and IRB: 130, 134–136 cottage industries and IRPS: 23, 102 dangers of IRA: 85, 173, IRB: 70, 76, 83, 116, 120–121, 149, IRPS: 11–12, 99, 156–163, 164, 170–172, 177, 196, 197 democracy and IRA: 6–7, 87–89 electricity and IRA: 127 enclosure movement and IRA: 76, 79, 96 environment and IRA: 85 government and IRA: 6–7, 64, 89–91, 94–95, IRB: 134 government regulation and IRPS: 101–102, 106, 158, 162–163, 177 hours and IRA: 4, 78, 85, 86, 89, 91, 92, 150, 173, 179, 182, IRB: 9, 23, 71, 132–133, IRPS: 29, 55, 99, 101–102, 103–110, 117, 118, 177 Cumulative index

7

housing and IRB: 71, 83, 133, IRPS: 112–122, 152–153 immigration and IRPS: 166 labor and IRA: 4, 78–81, 84–85, 85–86, IRB: 132–134, 203–204, IRPS: 1, 2, 13–19, 28–31, 54–59, 61–62, 63–74, 99–110, 112–122 labor unions and IRPS: 19, 100, 163 meat processing and IRPS: 135–145 muckrakers and IRPS: 135–145, 158 poverty and IRA: 96, 172–175, IRB: 69–70, 71 productivity and IRA: 76–78, 146, IRPS: 13–14, 19, 54–61, 63 property and IRPS: 23, 25–28 railroads and IRA: 52 refrigeration and IRA: 140 social reform and IRA: 91–93 society and IRA: 2, 3–6, 64–66, 78–81, 83–86, 171–175, IRB: 133–136 specialization in IRPS: 3–11 steel and IRA: 130 telegraph and IRA: 117, 121 textiles and IRA: 63–66, 76–78, 90–91, 192, 219, 222, IRB: 9, 76–77, 132, IRPS: 54–62, 63–74, 102, 156–163, 164–175, 203 urbanization and IRA: 5–6, 64, 83–84, 171, IRPS: 23 violence and IRPS: 104, 108, 109 wages and IRA: 4, 79, 80, 85, 89, 96, 150–151, 161–163, 172–173, 177, 180–181, 219, IRB: 9, 17, 23, 25, 26, 27, 39, 83, 120, 132, IRPS: 18, 8

Cumulative index

19, 29–31, 64, 117, 118, 168, 169, 172, 177 wealth and IRA: 64, IRPS: 1, 2, 14, 15 women and IRA: 219, IRPS: 18, 29 wool and IRA: 95 work and IRA: 76, 78–79, 84–85, 85–86, 89–93, 96, 146, IRB: 27, IRPS: 13–19, 28–29, 103–109, 114–120, 136, 138–139, 140–141, 145, 168–174 Fair Labor Standards Act IRPS: 122 Faraday, Michael IRA: 85, 118, 120, 122, IRB: 108 Farming. See Agriculture Federal Reserve Bank IRB: 102 Federal Trade Commission Act IRA: 197 Fermentation IRA: 139 Fertilizers IRA: 133, 134 Feudalism IRA: 4, 10, 13. See also Aristocracy; Medieval period Fielden, John IRA: 86 Fillmore, Millard IRPS: 82–83 Finance. See also Business; Capital agriculture and IRB: 93, 101–102 government and IRA: 21, 22, 155, IRB: 95, 101–102, 109–110 interest and IRA: 19, 220–221 J. P. Morgan and IRA: 167–169, IRB: 14, 64–66, 95, 96–97, 99–102, 103–104, 157, 191 networks and IRA: 154–155 oil and IRA: 165, 166 panic of 1907 and IRB: 193 radio and IRB: 191 railroads and IRA: 154–155, 159–160, 168, IRB: 47–48, 49–53, 64–66, 96–97, 157

Reformation and IRA: 19 regulation of IRPS: 200, 202 steamboats and IRA: 58 steam engines and IRA: 44 steel and IRA: 168–169, IRB: 14, 66, 101, 104 telegraph and IRA: 120, IRB: 106, 107, 109–110, IRPS: 76, 77, 78, 82–83, 84 Fisk, Jim IRB: 47, 50 Fitch, John IRA: 57, IRB: 32 Flagler, Henry M. IRB: 142 Flying shuttle IRA: 75 Food IRPS: 141 (ill.). See also Agriculture preservation of IRA: 134, 136–140 price of IRA: 95 processing of IRB: 116, 120, 121, 122, 149, IRPS: 135–145 railroads and IRA: 121 regulation of IRA: 163, IRPS: 136–137, 144–145 standardization and IRA: 223 urbanization and IRA: 83–84 Food and Drug Act of 1906 IRA: 163, IRB: 120, 122, IRPS: 144–145 Ford, Clara (Bryant) IRB: 19 Ford, Edsel IRB: 19, 27 Ford, Henry IRB: 16 (ill.), 16–27, 21 (ill.) assembly line developed by IRA: 147, IRB: 16 automobiles and IRA: 148–151, IRB: 19–23, 27 early life of IRA: 147–148, IRB: 17–19, 96 labor and IRA: 150–151, 177, IRB: 17, 23–24, 25–27 muckrakers and IRB: 127 reputation of IRB: 24–25 social innovation by IRA: 150–151, IRB: 23–24 tractors and IRA: 136 Ford, Henry, II IRB: 27

IRA = Industrial Revolution: Almanac

IRB = Industrial Revolution: Biography

Ford, John IRA: 147 Ford, William IRB: 17 Ford Motor Company IRA: 147, 148–151, 173 (ill.), IRB: 21–24, 27 Forgery IRB: 2–3 Foster, Jonathan IRB: 173 Frame Breaking Act IRA: 94–95, IRPS: 73 France IRA: 21, 26–27, 29, 58–59. See also French Revolution Frankenstein, Richard T. IRB: 26 (ill.) Franklin, Benjamin IRA: 48, 122, IRB: 30–31 Fraternal orders IRA: 190–191. See also Labor unions Freedom of speech IRA: 98, 100, 103–104, IRB: 81 Freezing IRA: 138 French and Indian War IRA: 23, 30 French Revolution description of IRA: 9, 209 England and IRB: 202 Luddites and IRA: 95, IRPS: 66 Lunar Society and IRA: 48 Reform Bill of 1832 and IRA: 88 socialism and IRA: 96, 97 Frick, Henry Clay IRA: 162, 163, IRB: 12, 13 Fulton, Elizabeth IRB: 31 Fulton, Mary (Smith) IRB: 30, 31 Fulton, Robert IRA: 57–60, 59 (ill.), IRB: 29 (ill.), 29–35 Fulton, Robert (inventor’s father) IRB: 30

G Gagging Acts IRA: 98, 103–104 Galileo Galilei IRA: 13 Gamble, Mr. IRPS: 95 Gary, Elbert H. IRB: 127 IRPS = Industrial Revolution: Primary Sources

Gas IRA: 121. See also Gasoline; Oil Gaskell, Philip IRA: 85–86 Gasoline IRA: 136, 151, IRB: 19. See also Gas; Oil Gaulard, Lucient IRB: 193 General Education Board IRB: 146 General Electric Company IRA: 168, 215, IRB: 99 General Motors Company IRB: 24, 26 George Peabody and Company IRB: 96 German Workers’ Party IRB: 81 Germany IRA: 17–19, 51, 205, IRB: 3–4, 25 Germinal IRPS: 123–134 Gibbs, John IRB: 193 Gilbert, William IRA: 122 Global warming IRA: 212–213 God IRA: 13, 14, 19–20. See also Religion Gold IRA: 27, IRB: 52, 101–102, 193 Gompers, Samuel IRA: 185 (ill.), IRB: 37 (ill.), 37–45 IRPS: 113 (ill.) cigar making and IRA: 184, IRB: 38–39, IRPS: 112–120 early life of IRB: 38–39 labor unions and IRA: 184–186, IRB: 37–38, 39–45, IRPS: 100, 112, 120, 122 politics and IRB: 43–45 Gompers, Sarah (Rood) IRB: 38 Gompers, Solomon IRB: 38 Goodyear, Charles IRA: 132 Gorrie, John IRA: 139 The Gospel of Wealth IRA: 164 Gould, Edith (Kingdon) IRB: 56–57 Gould, George Jay IRB: 47, 53–57 Gould, Helen Day (Miller) IRB: 49 Gould, Jason IRB: 48

Gould, Jay IRB: 47 (ill.), 47–54, 55 Government. See also Government regulation; Politics; specific governmental bodies; specific political parties business and IRA: 188, 196, IRB: 158, IRPS: 195 coal and IRB: 154–155 competition and IRB: 155–159, 166–167 corruption in IRPS: 113, 115 Enlightenment and IRA: 21–22 factory system and IRA: 6–7, 64, 94–95, IRB: 134 finance and IRA: 21, 22, 155, IRB: 95, 101–102, 109–110, IRPS: 76, 77, 78, 82–83 God and IRA: 19–20 labor and IRB: 13, 42, 43–45, 74–76, IRPS: 62, 166, 167, 203 labor suppressed by IRA: 103–104, 162, 178–179, 179–183, 187, 188, 189–190 labor unions and IRA: 103–104, 178–179, 181, 186, 188–189, 203–204, 205 Marxism and IRB: 81–82, 84–85 Medieval period and IRA: 87 muckrakers and IRB: 114, 116, 119, 120, 122, 123–125 poverty and IRA: 194, 199–205 railroads and IRA: 155, IRB: 60–61, 61–62 reform of IRA: 86–89, 97–98, IRPS: 14, 200 rifles and IRB: 202–203 socialism and IRA: 96–101, 176 social work and IRPS: 153, 154 Cumulative index

9

telegraph and IRB: 106, 107, 109–110, IRPS: 76, 77, 78, 82–83 wealth and IRA: 19–20, 86–89, 194 Government regulation. See also specific governmental bodies; specific laws children and IRPS: 106, 122, 164, 177 coal and IRB: 154–155 environment and IRA: 212–213 factory system and IRA: 89–91, IRPS: 101–102, 106, 158, 162–163, 177 food processing and IRB: 120, IRPS: 136–137, 144–145 growth of IRA: 192–193 hours and IRPS: 165, 167, 177, 196–197 labor and IRA: 103–104, 179, 188–189, 196, 202–205 labor unions and IRB: 42, 43–45, 154–155 laissez-faire and IRA: 10, 29–30, 192 monopolies and IRA: 4, 163, 167, 197–199, IRB: 58, 59, 64–66, 139, 143–145, 148–149, 155–159, 166–167, IRPS: 97, 137, 177–178, 179–191, 192, 194, 200–202 muckrakers and IRA: 162–163 oil and IRB: 139, 157 patents and IRPS: 199 poverty and IRA: 199–205 property and IRA: 20 railroads and IRA: 197–198, IRB: 58, 59, 64–66, 157 social reform and IRB: 119, 161–162, IRPS: 192–203 steel and IRB: 66 strikes and IRA: 188–189, 203–204, 205 10

Cumulative index

tariffs and IRA: 109, 172, 193–196 taxes and IRA: 196–197, IRPS: 35, 43, 199 textiles and IRA: 109–110 Theodore Roosevelt and IRPS: 158, 177–178, 182, 190 wages and IRPS: 106, 122, 177, 196–197 Grace, William IRPS: 115 Grand Central Station IRB: 49 (ill.) Grand National Consolidated Trade Union IRA: 92, IRB: 136–137 Gray, Elisha IRA: 120 Great Chicago Fire of 1871 IRB: 72 (ill.), 72–73, 93 Great Depression IRA: 199–205, 201 (ill.), IRB: 25, 125. See also Recessions Great Northern Railroad building of IRPS: 87 Louis Hill and IRB: 67 monopolies and IRA: 197–198, IRB: 65, 66, 157, IRPS: 179, 183–186 Greece IRA: 122 Greene, Catherine IRA: 73, IRB: 196, 199 Grey, Charles Grey, Second Earl IRA: 88 Grosscup, Peter S. IRA: 181 Guest, Richard IRA: 77, 93 Guilds IRA: 10, 27–29, 103 Guizot, François IRPS: 24 Gutenberg, Johannes IRA: 16–17

H Hackworth, Timothy IRB: 173 Halls of Science IRB: 135 Hargreaves, James IRA: 69–72 Harkness, S. V. IRB: 142 Harlan, John Marshall IRPS: 182–189, 184 (ill.)

Harriman, Edward H. IRB: 55–56, 65–66, 66–67 Harris, Mary. See Mary Harris Jones Harrison, Benjamin IRB: 151 Hart, Mr. IRPS: 94 Hautefeuille, Jean de IRA: 44 Haymarket Square Riot IRA: 179–182 Health IRPS: 199. See also Danger; Disease Heat IRB: 180 Heating IRA: 138 Hedley, William IRA: 55, IRB: 173 Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich IRB: 80 Henry, Joseph IRA: 118, IRB: 110 Henry Ford Company IRA: 148. See also Ford Motor Company Henry the Navigator, Prince IRA: 14 Hero IRA: 38 Hewitt and Tuttle IRB: 140, 141–142 Hill, James J. IRB: 58 (ill.) early life of IRB: 59–60 monopolies and IRB: 64–67, 157, IRPS: 179, 180, 183–186, 189 railroads and IRB: 58–59, 60–67, 157, IRPS: 87, 179, 180, 183–186, 189 Hill, Louis IRB: 67 History of the Erie Canal IRB: 31 The History of the Standard Oil Company IRB: 127, 156 Hitler, Adolf IRB: 17, 25 Holmes, Oliver Wendell IRPS: 181 Holocaust IRB: 25 Homestead Strike IRA: 161–163, IRB: 12, 13 Homfray, Samuel IRA: 54 Hoover, Herbert IRA: 203 Horsepower IRPS: 53 Horses IRA: 5 (ill.)

IRA = Industrial Revolution: Almanac

IRB = Industrial Revolution: Biography

agriculture and IRA: 135, 136, IRB: 89 coal and IRA: 41, IRPS: 47, 125 machines and IRA: 209–210 productivity and IRPS: 50–51 railroads and IRA: 51, 53 spinning machines and IRA: 72 transportation and IRA: 158 Horsfall, William IRA: 94–95 Hours Chartists and IRPS: 13 children and IRA: 4, 85, 86, 89, 91, IRPS: 54–55, 99, 104, 106, 107–109, 110 factory system and IRA: 4, 78, 85, 86, 89, 91, 92, 150, 173, 179, 182, IRB: 9, 23, 71, 132–133, IRPS: 29, 55, 99, 101–102, 103–110, 117, 118, 177 Henry Ford and IRB: 23 labor unions and IRA: 179–182, 187 productivity and IRPS: 104 regulation of IRPS: 165, 167, 177, 196–197 Robert Owen and IRB: 132–133 strikes and IRA: 179, 182, 187 Housing IRA: 200 (ill.), IRPS: 116 (ill.) factory system and IRA: 78, 80, IRB: 71, 83, 133, IRPS: 112–122, 152–153 muckrakers and IRB: 114–115, 116, 117–119 society and IRA: 174–175, IRPS: 152–153 strikes and IRA: 180–181 How the Other Half Lives IRA: 162, IRB: 118 Hull, Charles J. IRPS: 151, 152 IRPS = Industrial Revolution: Primary Sources

Hull House IRA: 191–192, IRPS: 146–154, 150 (ill.) Hulls, Jonathan IRA: 56 Hume, David IRA: 21, 22, 29 Huygens, Christian IRA: 44, 114 Hyatt, John Wesley IRA: 132

I Immigration business owners and IRB: 39 factory system and IRPS: 166 labor and IRA: 176–177 muckrakers and IRB: 115, 118–119 politics and IRB: 109 railroads and IRB: 60–61, 63–64, IRPS: 87, 89, 93 social work and IRPS: 146–154 society and IRA: 199, IRPS: 199 India IRA: 68 Individualism IRA: 176, IRB: 17, 26, IRPS: 39–40 Indonesia IRA: 219 Industrial Revolution beginning of IRA: 9–12 first stage of IRA: 1, 112 overview of IRA: 1–2, 209–212 second stage of IRA: 1, 107–108, 112, 205 third stage of IRA: 2, 193, 215–216 Industrial Workers of the World IRB: 45, IRPS: 166–168 An Inquiry Into the Natures and Causes of the Wealth of Nations government regulation and IRA: 29, 192, IRB: 161, 165–167 Karl Marx and IRPS: 32 mercantilism and IRA: 30, IRB: 164–165

specialization and IRPS: 3–11 Institute for the Formation of Character IRA: 92, IRB: 133 Interchangeable parts. See also Standardization assembly lines and IRA: 145–146, 146–147 definition of IRA: 144 development of IRB: 16 humans as IRA: 4, 80–81, 223 rifles and IRB: 197, 203–204 Interest IRA: 19, 220–221. See also Finance Internal combustion engines automobiles and IRB: 19–21 development of IRA: 114–116, 148, IRB: 18, 142 oil and IRA: 1, 113 operation of IRA: 3, 113–114, IRB: 19 International and Great Northern Railroad IRB: 55 International Harvester IRA: 168, IRB: 99 International Ladies Garment Workers Union IRPS: 163 International trade IRA: 217, 218. See also Colonialism; Mercantilism International Workingman’s Association IRB: 84–85 Internet. See also Computers communications and IRA: 117 development of IRPS: 83–84 industrial revolution and IRA: 2 Luddites and IRPS: 73–74 networks and IRA: 154 standardization and IRA: 155 telegraph and IRB: 106 Cumulative index

11

Interstate Commerce Commission IRPS: 199, 202 Inventions IRA: 112, 215–216. See also specific inventions Investment. See Finance Iran IRA: 220, 221 (ill.) Iraq IRA: 220 Iron. See also Steel coal and IRA: 49, 52 properties of IRB: 4 railroads and IRA: 52–53, 157, 161 steam engines and IRA: 45 steel and IRA: 127–130 Iron Molders International Union IRB: 71, 72 Islam IRA: 220–221

K Kay, John IRA: 72, 75 Kelly, William IRA: 129–130, IRB: 6 Kennedy, Michael IRPS: 93 Keyser, Mary IRPS: 152 Killeen, Edward IRPS: 93 King Coal IRB: 121 Kittson, Norman IRB: 60 Knights of Labor IRA: 179–182, 191, IRB: 73 Know-Nothing Party IRB: 109 Knox, John IRB: 178 Koerner, Thomas IRPS: 150 Kuwait IRA: 220

L J J. P. Morgan and Company IRB: 97 Jackson, Andrew IRA: 195 Japan IRA: 205, 217–218 Jefferson, Thomas IRA: 20, 48, 108, IRB: 33–34, IRPS: 195 Jet engine IRA: 57 Joffroy d’Abbans, Marquis de IRA: 56 John (king of England) IRA: 20 Johnson, Caleb IRB: 30 Johnson, Cave IRPS: 83 Johnson, Lyndon IRB: 122 Jolliet, Louis IRA: 52 Jones, Ernest IRB: 131 Jones, George IRA: 184, IRB: 71–72 Jones, Mary Harris (Mother Jones) IRA: 182 (ill.), 183–184, IRB: 69 (ill.), 69–78 Journalism IRB: 81, 82, 115 (ill.), 121. See also Muckrakers; Newspapers Joyce, Patrick IRPS: 93 The Jungle IRA: 163, IRB: 116, 120–121, 156, IRPS: 135–145 12

Cumulative index

Labor IRA: 80 (ill.), 133 (ill.), 183 (ill.), 187 (ill.), 189 (ill.), IRB: 42 (ill.), 83 (ill.), 192 (ill.), IRPS: 55 (ill.), 91 (ill.), 128 (ill.). See also Labor unions; Work anarchism and IRA: 179–182 benefits for IRA: 173–174, 188, 189–190, 191, IRB: 40–41, IRPS: 35 cigar making and IRPS: 112–120 coal and IRB: 73–76, 154–155, IRPS: 123–134 communism and IRPS: 23, 28–31, 62 competition and IRA: 93–96, IRPS: 46, 54–59, 61–62, 63–74 conditions for IRB: 69–70 cottage industries and IRA: 66–67 factory system and IRA: 4, 78–81, 84–85, 85–86, IRB: 132–134, 203–204, IRPS: 1, 2, 13–19, 28–31, 54–59, 61–62, 63–74, 99–100, 112–122 government and IRPS: 62, 166, 167, 203 IRA = Industrial Revolution: Almanac

government regulates IRA: 103–104, 179, 188–189, 196, 202–205 government suppresses IRA: 103–104, 162, 178–179, 179–183, 187, 188, 189–190 guild system and IRA: 10, 27–29, 103 Henry Ford and IRB: 17, 23–24, 25–27 immigration and IRA: 176–177 as interchangeable parts IRA: 4, 80–81, 223 lockouts of IRA: 92 Luddites and IRA: 93–96 machines and IRPS: 54–59, 61–62, 63–74 management of IRA: 152–153 Marxism and IRB: 79–80, 81–82, 83–85 meat processing and IRPS: 136, 138–139, 140–141, 145 productivity and IRPS: 54–61, 63 railroads and IRB: 64 Revolution of 1848 and IRB: 81–82 rights of IRA: 6–7, IRB: 41–42, IRPS: 5, 196–198 slavery and IRB: 120 socialism and IRA: 96–97, 176, 179–182, 184, 186, 190, IRB: 23, 37, 39–40, 43, 44, 45, 130, 132–136, IRPS: 62 specialization and IRPS: 3–11 steam engines and IRPS: 18 steel and IRB: 12, 13 textiles and IRA: 93–96, IRPS: 54–59, 61–62, 63–74, 101–110, 164–175 unemployment and IRPS: 54–59, 61–62, 66, 68 voluntary associations of IRA: 190–191 IRB = Industrial Revolution: Biography

Labor unions. See also Labor; Strikes American Federation of Labor IRA: 184, 185 (ill.), 185–186, 188, IRB: 37, 41, 43–45, IRPS: 100, 112, 120 American Railway Union IRA: 180–181 business opposition to IRA: 161–162, 176 Cigarmakers’ Union IRB: 38, 40–41 cigar making and IRPS: 112, 120 coal and IRA: 182–184, 186–188, 189–190 Congress of Industrial Organizations IRA: 186, 188–189, IRB: 41, 42, IRPS: 120 definition of IRA: 172, 210 early examples of IRA: 92–93, 102–104 factory system and IRPS: 19, 100, 163 government and IRA: 103–104, 178–179, 181, 186, 188–189, 203–204, 205, IRB: 42, 43–45, 154–155 Grand National Consolidated Trade Union IRA: 92, IRB: 136–137 growth of IRA: 177–178, IRB: 41 Haymarket Square Riot and IRA: 179–182 Homestead Strike and IRA: 161–163, IRB: 12, 13 hours and IRA: 179–182, 187 Industrial Workers of the World IRB: 45, IRPS: 166–168 influence of IRB: 37–38 International Ladies Garment Workers Union IRPS: 163 Iron Molders International Union IRB: 71, 72 IRPS = Industrial Revolution: Primary Sources

Knights of Labor IRA: 179–182, 191, IRB: 73 Luddites and IRA: 95 as monopolies IRA: 181 Pullman strike and IRA: 180–181 purpose of IRA: 175–176, 186, IRB: 38, 40–41, 41–43, IRPS: 122 railroads and IRA: 180–181 Robert Owen and IRB: 136–137 United Automobile Workers Union IRB: 17, 25–27 United Mine Workers Union IRA: 184, 186–188, 189–190, IRB: 73, 74, 154–155 violence and IRA: 162–163, 179–183 voluntary associations IRA: 190–191 wages and IRA: 95, 161–163, 178, 180–181, IRPS: 100, 166–168, 174–175 Lacy, Charles IRA: 94, IRPS: 66–67 La Follette, Robert, Jr. IRPS: 203 La Follette, Robert, Sr. IRPS: 203 Laissez-faire IRA: 10, 29–30, 192, IRB: 152–153, 166. See also Government regulation Land IRA: 23–24, IRB: 60, IRPS: 87 “Last Tie” IRPS: 85–97 Latin America IRA: 222–253 Laurrell, Ferdinand IRB: 40 Lawrence Textile Strike of 1912 IRPS: 164–166, 166–168, 174–175, 203 Laws. See Government regulation “Leeds Cloth Merchants Proclamation in Support of Machinery” IRPS: 54–62 Leeds Intelligencer IRPS: 56

Leeds Mercury IRPS: 56 Lenin, Vladimir IRB: 124 Lenoir, Jean-Joseph-Étienne IRA: 114 Leonardo da Vinci IRA: 13 Leupp, C. M. IRB: 48 Lewis, John L. IRA: 186–188, 189–190, IRB: 74 Libraries IRB: 14, IRPS: 42, 148, 153 The Life of Abraham Lincoln IRB: 126 Lighting coal mines and IRB: 171 electricity and IRA: 123, 125, 127, IRB: 182, 190–191 gas and IRA: 121 General Electric and IRA: 168 oil and IRB: 142 standardization and IRA: 155 Lincoln, Abraham IRB: 126, IRPS: 195 Literacy IRA: 16–17, IRB: 38–39, IRPS: 64, 66, 197–198. See also Education Little Sisters of the Poor IRPS: 151 Liverpool and Manchester Railway IRB: 174–175 Livestock IRPS: 135–145. See also Food Livingston, Robert IRA: 58, 60, IRB: 32, 34 Locke, John IRA: 20, 21 Lockouts IRA: 92 Locomotion IRB: 174 Lombe, Sir Thomas IRPS: 17 London Workingman’s Association IRA: 97 Looms IRA: 64, 68–69, 75–76, IRPS: 170 (ill.) Louisiana Purchase IRA: 108, IRB: 33 Louis Phillipe (king of France) IRA: 100 Louis XVI IRA: 97 Lovett, William IRA: 97 Cumulative index

13

Ludd, Ned IRA: 93–94, IRPS: 61–62, 64, 65 Luddites IRA: 93–96, 175, IRPS: 46, 61–62, 63–74 Ludlow Massacre IRB: 75 (ill.) Lunar Society IRA: 48, IRB: 182, IRPS: 12 Luther, Martin IRA: 18–19

M MacArthur, Douglas IRA: 203 Machiavelli, Niccolò IRA: 13–14, 14 (ill.) Machines. See also specific machines energy and IRA: 33–34, 47 engines compared with IRA: 47 humans and IRA: 209–212 interchangeable parts and IRA: 146 labor and IRPS: 54–59, 61–62, 63–74 specialization and IRPS: 10–11 textiles and IRA: 1, 63–66, IRPS: 54–62 Machine tools IRB: 203, IRPS: 10–11 Magna Carta IRA: 6, 20 Mail IRPS: 75, 199 Malaysia IRA: 219 Malthus, Thomas IRA: 83–84, 85 (ill.) Management IRA: 147, 152–153. See also Business Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society IRA: 91–92, IRB: 131–132 Manhattan Elevated Railroad IRB: 54 Mannucci, Aldo IRA: 17 Manufacturing IRA: 145 (ill.). See also Factory system 14

Cumulative index

American system of IRA: 144–147, 223, IRB: 16, 22–23, 27 communications and IRB: 106–107, 112 competition and IRPS: 37–38 Henry Ford and IRA: 147, 148–151 plows and IRA: 135–136 railroads and IRB: 61 rifles and IRB: 197, 202–204 society and IRA: 213–215, IRPS: 37 specialization and IRPS: 3–11 technology and IRA: 3 The Manufacturing Population of England IRA: 85–86 Marconi, Guglielmo IRB: 190 Marquette, Père IRA: 52 Marshall, John IRPS: 110 Marx, Heinrich IRB: 80 Marx, Henriette Presburg IRB: 80 Marx, Jenny (von Westphalen) IRB: 80, 86 Marx, Karl IRA: 99 (ill.), IRB: 79–87, 79 (ill.), IRPS: 21–33, 25 (ill.), 31 (ill.) character of IRB: 85–86, IRPS: 32–33 early life of IRB: 80–81 influence of IRPS: 21–23, 32 Marxism and IRA: 99–103, IRB: 79–80, 81–85, 136, IRPS: 2, 23–32 Samuel Gompers and IRB: 39 Marxism IRA: 99–103, IRB: 79–80, 81–85, IRPS: 2, 21–32. See also Communism; Socialism Mass production IRA: 144. See also Factory system; Manufacturing McBride, John IRA: 186 McClure, S. S. IRB: 123

McClure’s magazine IRA: 163, 167, IRB: 123–124, 126–127, 156 McCormick, Cyrus IRA: 136 (ill.), IRB: 88 (ill.), 88–93 company of IRA: 168, 179, IRB: 93, 99 early life of IRB: 88–90 reapers and IRA: 134–135, IRB: 88, 90–93, 99, IRPS: 87 McCormick, Leander IRB: 91–92, 93 McCormick, Mary Ann Hall IRB: 89 McCormick, Robert IRB: 88–90 McCormick, William IRB: 91–92 McCormick Harvester IRA: 168, 179, IRB: 93, 99 McGuffey, William IRB: 17 McKinley, William IRB: 148, 151, 152, IRPS: 192 McNamara, Frederick IRPS: 93 Meat IRPS: 135–145. See also Food Mechanical power IRA: 3. See also Machines Medieval period. See also Aristocracy; Feudalism alchemy in IRA: 130 definition of IRA: 10 government in IRA: 87 religion during IRA: 13, 14 Renaissance and IRA: 12 wealth and IRA: 22 Mercantilism. See also Colonialism colonialism and IRA: 20–21, 27, 29, 30, 76, IRB: 165 description of IRA: 10, 26–27, IRB: 164–165 in England IRA: 26–27, 76 Merchants IRA: 27–29, 67 Metallurgy IRA: 127–130, IRB: 2. See also Bessemer process; Steel

IRA = Industrial Revolution: Almanac

IRB = Industrial Revolution: Biography

Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer IRB: 122 The Metropolis IRB: 121 Metropolitan Museum of Art IRB: 103, 103 (ill.) Metternich, Klemens von IRPS: 24 Mexican-American War IRA: 108 Mexico IRB: 124 Michelangelo IRA: 13 Michigan Car Works IRB: 18 Microchips IRA: 210, 216. See also Computers Middle Ages. See Medieval period Middle East IRA: 151, 220–221 Middleton Railway IRA: 52 Military IRB: 5 (ill.) industrialization and IRA: 205, IRB: 17 Internet and IRPS: 83–84 rifles and IRB: 197, 202–204 steel and IRB: 4–6 telegraph and IRB: 11 Miller, Patrick IRA: 56 Miller, Phineas IRB: 198–199, 200, 201 Mills IRA: 109–111, IRPS: 49–50. See also Factory system; Textiles Mills, Edgar IRPS: 95 Milwaukee Journal IRPS: 156 The Miner’s Friend IRPS: 47–52 Mississippi River Steamboat Company IRB: 59–60 Missouri Pacific Railroad IRB: 52–53, 55–56 Model A IRB: 22, 24 Model T IRA: 149 (ill.), 150 (ill.), IRB: 22 (ill.) cost of IRA: 149, IRB: 16, 18, 23 production of IRA: 147, 149–150, IRB: 22–23, 24 Money IRPS: 114. See also Finance The Moneychangers IRB: 121 Monopolies. See also Competition IRPS = Industrial Revolution: Primary Sources

competition and IRA: 4, 156, 162, 163, 167, 168–169, 197–199, IRB: 104, 149, 155–158 definition of IRA: 144, 172, IRB: 144–145 government regulation and IRA: 4, 163, 167, 197–199, IRB: 58, 59, 64–66, 139, 143–145, 148–149, 155–159, 166–167, IRPS: 97, 137, 177–178, 179–191, 192, 194, 200–202 J. P. Morgan and IRA: 168–169 labor unions as IRA: 181 muckrakers and IRA: 162, 163, IRB: 126–127, 156 oil and IRA: 163, 166–167, 198–199, IRB: 126–127, 143–145, 149, 157 railroads and IRA: 156, 167, 197–198, IRB: 58, 59, 64–66, 96–97, 149, 157, IRPS: 96–97, 179–191 steel and IRA: 168–169 Theodore Roosevelt and IRPS: 137, 177–178, 179, 180, 190–191, 192, 194, 200–202 William Howard Taft and IRPS: 192, 194 Monroe, James IRB: 108 More, Sir Thomas IRA: 24 Morgan, J. P. IRA: 168 (ill.), IRB: 95–105,100 (ill.), IRPS: 180 (ill.) art and IRB: 102–103 character of IRB: 97–99 early life of IRB: 96–97 finance and IRA: 167–169, IRB: 14, 64–66, 95, 96–97, 99–102, 103–104, 157, 191 John D. Rockefeller and IRB: 95, 104 muckrakers and IRB: 121 philanthropy of IRB: 102–103

radio and IRB: 191 railroads and IRB: 64–66, 96–97, 157, IRPS: 179, 180, 183–186, 189 as robber baron IRA: 4 steel and IRA: 164, IRB: 14, 66, 101, 104, IRPS: 44 wealth of IRB: 48 Morgan, John IRB: 179 Morgan, Junius Spencer IRA: 168, IRB: 96 Morland, Samuel IRA: 44 Morse, Samuel F. B. IRA: 117 (ill.), IRB: 106 (ill.), 106–112 early life of IRB: 107–108 Morse Code and IRA: 118–120, IRB: 10, 106–107, 108–109, IRPS: 77 telegraph and IRA: 117–120, IRB: 106–107, 108–112, IRPS: 46, 75–78, 79–80, 82–83 Morse Code IRA: 118 (ill.), IRPS: 76 (ill.) Andrew Carnegie and IRB: 10 first demonstration of IRA: 119–120, IRB: 110 invention of IRB: 10, 105, 108–109, IRPS: 77 Thomas Alva Edison and IRA: 124 Motors. See Engines Movies IRA: 133 Muckrakers. See also specific muckrakers biographies of IRB: 117–128 definition of IRA: 144 excerpt from IRPS: 135–145 factory system and IRPS: 158 overview of IRA: 162–163, IRB: 114–116 Theodore Roosevelt and IRB: 157, 158–159 trusts and IRB: 156 Muhammad IRA: 220 Muskets. See Rifles Cumulative index

15

Mussolini, Benito IRB: 125 My Life and Work IRB: 17–18

N Napoléon I economy and IRA: 95, IRPS: 65–66 food preservation and IRA: 137 French Revolution and IRA: 97, 209 James J. Hill and IRB: 59 Robert Fulton and IRB: 29 National Academy of Design IRB: 108 National Equitable Labor Exchange IRB: 136 National Labor Relations Act IRA: 188–189, 203–204 National Labor Relations Board IRA: 203, IRB: 26 Native Americans IRA: 112, 134, 196, IRB: 61 Nativist Party IRB: 109 Natural gas IRA: 121, IRPS: 124 Natural law control over IRA: 140 definition of IRA: 10 scientific revolution and IRA: 14–16 socialism and IRA: 99, 100 society and IRA: 20 Nautilus IRA: 58 Navigation IRA: 14, 20–21, 27, 56–61. See also Steamboats Navigation Acts IRA: 27 Networks IRA: 154–160, IRB: 54–56, IRPS: 182 Newcomen, Thomas steam engine built by IRA: 7, 43–45, 213, IRPS: 48–49, 52 steam engine improved after IRA: 45–46, 56, IRB: 180, IRPS: 52–53 New Deal IRA: 179, 202–205 New Harmony IRA: 92, IRB: 135–136 16

Cumulative index

“Newspaper Enterprise— Extraordinary Express from Lexington, Kentucky” IRPS: 80–82 Newspapers IRPS: 75–77, 78–83, 84. See also Journalism Newton, Sir Isaac IRA: 15, 16 (ill.) New View of Society, A IRB: 134–135 New York Central Railroad IRA: 159 New York Evening Post IRB: 123 New York Stock Exchange IRB: 61, 62 (ill.). See also Stock market New York Times IRPS: 113, 115 New York Tribune IRB: 117 New York Volkszeitung IRPS: 112 Nitroglycerine IRA: 131 Nobel, Alfred IRA: 131 Northern Pacific Railroad building of IRB: 61, 63 monopolies and IRA: 197–198, IRB: 64–66, 157, IRPS: 179, 183–186 Northern Securities Co. v. United States IRPS: 179–191 Northern Securities Company IRA: 197–198, IRB: 65–66, 157, IRPS: 179–191 Nuclear power IRA: 213

O Oil IRA: 221 (ill.), IRB: 141 (ill.). See also Gas; Gasoline business of IRB: 143 competition and IRB: 116 discovery of IRA: 112–113, 165, IRB: 141–142 finance and IRA: 165, 166 impact of IRB: 142

internal combustion engine and IRA: 1, 3, 113 John D. Rockefeller and IRB: 116, 125–126, 139, 142–144 Middle East and IRA: 220–221 monopolies and IRA: 163, 166–167, 198–199, IRB: 126–127, 139, 143–145, 149, 157 muckrakers and IRA: 163 transportation and IRA: 3, 151 Oldsmobile IRA: 148 On Ministerial Plan of Reform IRPS: 106 On Poor Laws for Ireland IRPS: 106 On the Distress of the Agricultural Labourers IRPS: 106 Otto, Nikolaus IRA: 115 Ottoman Empire IRA: 220 Out of Mulberry Street IRB: 118 Outram, Benjamin IRA: 53 Owen, Caroline (Dale) IRB: 132 Owen, Robert IRA: 91–93, IRB: 130 (ill.), 130–137 Owen, William IRB: 135, 136

P Pacific Railway Act IRB: 60 Paint IRA: 166, IRB: 3–4 Panama Canal IRB: 56 Panic of 1907 IRB: 193–194 Papin, Denis IRA: 44, 56 Parliament IRA: 87 (ill.), IRPS: 102 (ill.) Chartists and IRA: 97–98, IRPS: 13 Combination Acts IRA: 103 Factory Act of 1833 IRA: 90–91, IRPS: 110 Frame Breaking Act IRA: 94–95, IRPS: 73

IRA = Industrial Revolution: Almanac

IRB = Industrial Revolution: Biography

Gagging Acts IRA: 98, 103–104 Reform Bill of 1832 IRA: 86–89, IRPS: 14 Robert Owen and IRB: 134 Sadler Report and IRPS: 101, 106, 110 tariffs and IRA: 194 Pasteur, Louis IRB: 126 Patents brakes and IRB: 185, 186 canals and IRB: 31 cotton gin and IRA: 74, IRB: 199–200, 201 function of IRB: 3, 200, IRPS: 48 generators and IRB: 184, 189 George Westinghouse and IRA: 126, IRB: 186, 187, 192, 194 government regulation of IRPS: 199 internal combustion engine and IRA: 114 Nikola Tesla and IRA: 126, IRB: 185, 194 reapers and IRA: 136, IRB: 90 refrigeration and IRA: 139 Robert McCormick and IRB: 90 spinning machines and IRA: 69, 72 steamboats and IRA: 56, IRB: 34 steam engines and IRA: 38–39, 42, IRB: 181, IRPS: 45, 48, 49, 52, 53 steel and IRA: 129–130 telegraph and IRA: 124, IRB: 110, 111, IRPS: 78 telephones and IRA: 120 Thomas Alva Edison and IRA: 123 Paul, Lewis IRA: 69 Peabody, George IRB: 96 Peasants IRA: 2 (ill.), 13, 96 Peel, Robert (elder) IRB: 134 Peel, Robert (younger) IRB: 134 IRPS = Industrial Revolution: Primary Sources

Pennsylvania Railroad IRA: 160–161, IRB: 10–11, 55–56 Pensions IRA: 172, 188, 189–190, IRB: 15, IRPS: 42 Percival, Thomas IRB: 132 Perry, Matthew C. IRA: 217, 217 (ill.) Petroleum. See Oil Philanthropy Andrew Carnegie and IRA: 164–165, IRB: 14–15, 53, 102, IRPS: 35, 40–43, 148 Jay Gould and IRB: 53 John D. Rockefeller and IRB: 53, 139, 144–146 J. P. Morgan and IRB: 102–103 Samuel F. B. Morse and IRB: 112 Philippines IRA: 219 Phillips, David Graham IRA: 162 The Philosophy of Manufactures IRPS: 13–20 Physics IRA: 34 Physiocrats IRA: 29, IRB: 164 Pin making IRPS: 3–4, 6–7 Pistons definition of IRA: 36, 75 development of IRA: 41 operation of IRA: 37, 43, 45–47, 113, IRB: 18, 19, IRPS: 48–49 steam locomotives and IRA: 53–54 Plastics IRA: 132–133 Platt, Thomas IRB: 77 Plows IRA: 135–136, IRB: 89, 92, IRPS: 87 Politics IRPS: 147, 148. See also Government; specific political parties Polo, Marco IRA: 218 Poor Laws IRA: 194 Population IRA: 83–84, 108–109, 214, 220. See also Urbanization Potter, Beatrice IRPS: 153 Poverty

agriculture and IRA: 175, IRB: 70 factory system and IRA: 96, 172–175, IRB: 69–70, 71 government and IRA: 194, 199–205, IRPS: 43–44 inequality of IRB: 72 muckrakers and IRA: 162, 163, IRB: 114–115, 116, 117–119, 120–121 social work and IRA: 172, 191–192, IRPS: 146–154 urbanization and IRA: 84 Prices IRB: 18 Priestly, Joseph IRA: 48 Princeton University IRB: 15 “Principles of Population” IRA: 83–84 The Principles of Scientific Management IRA: 152 Printing press IRA: 16–17, 18 (ill.), IRB: 2 Productivity. See also Efficiency agriculture and IRA: 3, 5, 25–26, 73–74, 83–84, 134–136, 214, IRB: 93 automobiles and IRB: 22–23, 27 cotton gin and IRA: 73–74 factory system and IRA: 76–78, 146, IRPS: 13–14, 19, 54–61, 63 hours and IRPS: 104 industrialization and IRA: 4 labor and IRPS: 54–61, 63 specialization and IRPS: 3–4, 6–11 steam engines and IRA: 41–42, 44–45, IRPS: 50–51 steel and IRB: 6 textiles and IRA: 67, 71, 75, 76–78, 93, 112, IRB: 9, 131, IRPS: 54–61, 63 Progress IRA: 6–7, 215–216 Progressive Party muckrakers and IRB: 156 Cumulative index

17

platform of IRPS: 192–203 Theodore Roosevelt and IRB: 158, IRPS: 158, 177–178, 190, 192–193, 200–203 Proletariat IRA: 103, IRB: 83, IRPS: 23, 28–31 Property Communism and IRPS: 39–40 government and IRA: 20, IRPS: 180–181 Marxism and IRA: 99, 100–101, IRPS: 23, 25–28, 31 Protestantism IRA: 17–20 Puffing Billy IRB: 173 Puffing Devil IRB: 172 Pullman, George IRA: 180, 181 Pullman strike IRA: 180–181 Pumps IRA: 7, 39, 41–43

Q Quadricycle IRA: 148, IRB: 20, 21 (ill.)

R Radio IRB: 185, 190–192 Railroads IRA: 53 (ill.), 133 (ill.), 157 (ill.), IRB: 192 (ill.), IRPS: 86 (ill.), 91 (ill.). See also Steam locomotives agriculture and IRA: 137, 157, IRB: 59, 61, 63–64, IRPS: 87–88 Andrew Carnegie and IRA: 160–161, IRB: 10–12, 55, 56 Baltimore and Ohio Railroad IRB: 53 brakes and IRA: 126, IRB: 184, 185–187, 193 Canadian Pacific Railroad IRB: 62 18

Cumulative index

Central Pacific Railroad IRB: 63, IRPS: 89, 94–96, 97 Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy Railroad IRB: 65, IRPS: 183–184 coal and IRA: 51–53, 157, IRB: 60, 171–175 competition and IRA: 167, 197–198, IRB: 50–51, 55–56, 58–59, 60–67, 96–97, 157, IRPS: 88–89, 179–189 Darlington Railway IRB: 171 Denver and Rio Grande Railroad IRB: 55, 56 development of IRA: 50–53, IRB: 172–175 electricity and IRB: 191 Erie Railroad Company IRB: 50–51 factory system and IRA: 52 finance and IRA: 154–155, 159–160, 168, IRB: 47–48, 49–53, 64–66, 96–97, 157 food and IRA: 121 government and IRA: 155, 197–198, IRB: 58, 59, 60–61, 61–62, 64–66, 157 Great Northern Railroad IRA: 197–198, IRB: 65, 66, 67, 157, IRPS: 87, 179, 183–186 growth of IRA: 156–160, IRB: 58–59, 60–64, IRPS: 85–97 immigration and IRB: 60–61, 63–64, IRPS: 87, 89, 93 impact of IRPS: 46, 86–89, 96–97 intercontinental IRB: 60 International and Great Northern Railroad IRB: 55 iron and IRA: 52–53, 157, 161 labor and IRB: 64 IRA = Industrial Revolution: Almanac

labor unions and IRA: 180–181 Liverpool and Manchester Railway IRB: 174–175 Manhattan Elevated Railroad IRB: 54 manufacturing and IRB: 61 Missouri Pacific Railroad IRB: 52–53, 55–56 monopolies and IRA: 156, 167, 197–198, IRB: 58, 59, 64–66, 96–97, 149, 157, IRPS: 96–97, 179–191 networks and IRA: 154–155, 155–156, 156–160, IRB: 54–56, IRPS: 182 New York Central Railroad IRA: 159 Northern Pacific Railroad IRA: 197–198, IRB: 61, 63, 64–66, 157, IRPS: 179, 183–186 Northern Securities Company IRA: 197–198, IRB: 65–66, 157, IRPS: 179–189 Pennsylvania Railroad IRA: 160–161, IRB: 10–11, 55–56 Pullman strike and IRA: 180–181 refrigeration and IRA: 139–140 signaling systems for IRB: 186–187, 193 Southern Pacific Railroad IRB: 55, 67, 74 St. Paul and Pacific Railroad IRB: 60, 61–64 standardization and IRA: 155–156, 158–159 steamboats and IRB: 60 steam locomotives and IRA: 52, 53–56 steel and IRA: 130, 163, IRPS: 96 Stockton and Darlington Railway IRA: 55, IRB: 173–174 strikes and IRA: 180–181 IRB = Industrial Revolution: Biography

telegraph and IRA: 117, 120, 121, IRB: 53, 55, 111, 112, IRPS: 88, 89, 93, 95–96 Texas and Pacific Railroad IRB: 52, 55 transcontinental IRPS: 85–97 transportation and IRA: 50–53, 158 trucking and IRA: 153–154, 158 Union Pacific Railroad IRB: 52, 55, 63, 65, 67, IRPS: 89, 93, 94–96 Wabash Railroad IRB: 51–52, 55 Western Pacific Railroad IRB: 55 Ramsay, David IRA: 38–39 Rawfords Mill IRA: 94, 95 Rayon IRA: 132 Reapers IRB: 91 (ill.) development of IRA: 134–135, IRB: 88, 90–91 impact of IRB: 93, IRPS: 87 operation of IRB: 89 production of IRB: 91–93 Recessions IRA: 201 (ill.) of 1869 IRB: 52 of 1873 IRB: 61 of 1893 IRB: 64–65 of 1907 IRB: 193–194 government regulation and IRA: 193 Great Depression IRA: 199–205, IRB: 25, 125 wages and IRB: 25 Refining IRB: 143 Reform Bill of 1832 IRA: 88–89, IRPS: 14 Refrigeration IRA: 138–140 Regulation. See Government regulation Religion Enlightenment and IRA: 21, 22 God in IRA: 13, 14, 19–20 Islam IRA: 220–221 John D. Rockefeller and IRB: 140 Marxism and IRB: 84 IRPS = Industrial Revolution: Primary Sources

Medieval period and IRA: 13, 14 printing press and IRA: 16–17 Protestantism IRA: 17–20 Reformation and IRA: 17–20 Robert Owen and IRA: 93, IRB: 134, 135 Roman Catholic Church IRA: 13, 16–17, 17–20, 21 science and IRA: 14–15, 18, 19, IRB: 135 Renaissance definition of IRA: 10 democracy and IRA: 20 England and IRA: 40 Enlightenment and IRA: 21–22 literacy and IRA: 16–17 Middle East and IRA: 220 navigation and IRA: 14, 20–21 overview of IRA: 12–14 progress and IRA: 7 Reformation and IRA: 17–20 scientific revolution and IRA: 13, 14–16, 40, 130–131 steam and IRA: 38–41 Republican Party business and IRA: 196, IRB: 43, IRPS: 195 labor unions and IRA: 188, 205 Theodore Roosevelt and IRPS: 190 Reuther, Walter IRB: 26 (ill.) Revolution. See also Industrial Revolution; Marxism American Revolution IRA: 9, 30, 48, 209 French Revolution IRA: 9, 48, 88, 95, 96, 97, 209, IRB: 202, IRPS: 66 Marxism and IRA: 99–103, IRB: 79–80, 81–82, 84, IRPS: 2, 21–22, 23, 29–32 Mexican Revolution IRB: 124

Revolution of 1848 IRB: 81–82, IRPS: 23, 32 Russian Revolution IRA: 9, 101, 203 scientific IRA: 13, 14–16, 40, 130–131 socialism and IRA: 96–97 Revolution of 1848 IRB: 81–82, IRPS: 23, 32 Reynolds, Richard IRA: 53 Rheinische Zeitung IRB: 81 Rifles IRB: 197, 202–204 Riis, Caroline IRB: 117 Riis, Elizabeth (Nielsen) IRB: 118 Riis, Jacob IRA: 162, IRB: 114, 116, 117 (ill.), 117–119, 156 Riis, Mary (Phillips) IRB: 118 Riis, Niels Edward IRB: 117 Roads IRPS: 199 Robber barons. See also specific robber barons definition of IRA: 4, 144, IRB: 47 influence of IRA: 160 muckrakers and IRB: 156 railroads and IRA: 157 Robert Fulton: Engineer and Artist IRB: 32–33 Robert Stephenson and Company IRB: 174–175 Robison, John IRA: 45 Rockefeller, Eliza IRB: 140 Rockefeller, John D. IRA: 166 (ill.), IRB: 139 (ill.) coal and IRB: 75, 76 early life of IRB: 140–141 J. P. Morgan and IRA: 169, IRB: 95, 104 Mother Jones and IRB: 75, 76 muckrakers and IRB: 114, 116, 125, 126–127 oil and IRA: 165–167, 198–199, IRB: 116, 125–126, 139, 142–144, IRPS: 191 philanthropy of IRB: 53, 139, 144–146 as robber baron IRA: 4 Cumulative index

19

Rockefeller, Laura Celestia (Spellman) IRB: 140 Rockefeller, William IRB: 140, 142 Rockefeller Foundation IRB: 146 Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research IRB: 145–146 Rocket IRB: 174 (ill.), 175 Rods IRA: 36, 37, 41, 113, IRB: 18 Roebuck, John IRB: 181 Rogers, Will IRB: 27 Roman Catholic Church IRA: 13, 16–17, 17–20, 21 Roman Empire IRA: 12–13 Röntgen, Wilhelm Conrad IRB: 191 Roosevelt, Alice Hathaway (Lee) IRB: 150 Roosevelt, Alice Lee IRB: 150 Roosevelt, Franklin Delano IRA: 163, 179, 193, 202–205 Roosevelt, Martha (Bulloch) IRB: 149 Roosevelt, Theodore IRA: 198 (ill.), IRB: 148–159, 148 (ill.), 151 (ill.), 153 (ill.), IRPS: 192–203,195 (ill.), 201 (ill.) coal and IRB: 154–155 early life of IRB: 149–150 government regulation and IRPS: 158, 182, 190 monopolies and IRA: 167, 197–199, IRB: 58, 59, 66, 139, 148–149, 155–158, IRPS: 137, 177–178, 179, 180, 190–191 Mother Jones and IRA: 184, IRB: 76–77 muckrakers and IRA: 162, 163, IRB: 114, 118, 120, 123, 157, 158–159, IRPS: 135 political career of IRB: 150–159 Progressive Party and IRB: 158, IRPS: 158, 177–178, 190, 192–193, 200–203 20

Cumulative index

Rough Riders IRB: 148, 150, 151 (ill.), 152 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques IRA: 21 Rubber IRA: 132 Rue, Thomas de la IRB: 3 Rumsey, James IRA: 57 Russia. See also Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Japan and IRA: 217–218 Russian Revolution IRA: 9, 101, 203, IRB: 79, 124, IRPS: 21–22, 32 Russo-Japanese War IRA: 217–218

S Sacco, Nicola IRB: 121 Sadler, Michael IRA: 89–90, 93, IRPS: 13, 101–110 Sadler Report IRA: 89–90, IRPS: 13, 101–109 Sales IRPS: 49 Salt IRA: 139 Sapiro, Aaron IRB: 25 Saudi Arabia IRA: 220 Savannah IRA: 60–61, IRB: 35 Savery, Thomas IRA: 42–43, IRB: 180, IRPS: 45, 47–53 Schwab, Charles IRB: 12, 101 Science chemistry and IRA: 130–133 empiricism of IRA: 10, 15, 22, 48 energy and IRA: 34 industrialization and IRA: 210 instruments for IRB: 178–180 Lunar Society and IRA: 48 management and IRA: 152–153 metallurgy and IRA: 127–130 religion and IRA: 14–15, 18, 19, IRB: 135

Renaissance and IRA: 13, 14–16, 40, 130–131 Scott, Thomas A. IRB: 10 Scythes IRA: 135, IRB: 89, 90 Service economy IRA: 210, 214–215 Seven Years War IRA: 23, 30 The Shame of the Cities IRB: 124 Shay, Michael IRPS: 93 Shepherd, William G. IRPS: 156–163 Sherman Antitrust Act. See also Monopolies description of IRB: 144–145 oil and IRA: 163, 167, 198–199, IRB: 127, 157 Progressive Party and IRPS: 202 railroads and IRA: 197–198, IRB: 66, 157, IRPS: 97, 179–181, 185–189 Shipping. See Navigation Shirley, a Tale IRPS: 65, 69–73 Shock absorbers IRB: 194 Signaling systems IRB: 186–187, 192 (ill.), 193 Sinclair, Guinevere Jeanne IRB: 57 Sinclair, Meta (Fuller) IRB: 120 Sinclair, Upton IRB: 120 (ill.), IRPS: 135–145, 139 (ill.) livestock and IRA: 163, IRB: 116, 119–122 muckraking by IRB: 114, 119–122, 156 Slater, Samuel IRA: 109–110, 110 (ill.), 192 Slavery IRA: 65 (ill.), IRB: 202 (ill.) cotton gin and IRA: 64, 74, IRB: 196, 199, 201 labor and IRB: 120, IRPS: 104, 122 Mother Jones and IRB: 71 political division over IRA: 108–109

IRA = Industrial Revolution: Almanac

IRB = Industrial Revolution: Biography

Robert McCormick and IRB: 89 Small, William IRA: 48 Smart, Peter IRPS: 103–107 Smith, Adam IRA: 193 (ill.), IRB: 161 (ill.), 161–168, IRPS: 4 (ill.), 1–12 capitalism of IRA: 29, IRB: 161–162 competition and IRB: 156, 165–166 death of IRB: 168 early life of IRB: 162–164, IRPS: 5 government regulation and IRA: 192, IRB: 166–167, IRPS: 1–2 James Watt and IRPS: 12 Karl Marx and IRPS: 32 mercantilism and IRA: 10, 30, IRB: 164–165 specialization and IRPS: 3–11 Smith, Adam (economist’s father) IRPS: 5 Smith, Margaret (Douglas) IRPS: 5 Sobrero, Ascanio IRA: 131 Socialism. See also Communism; Marxism Chartists and IRA: 97–98 communism and IRPS: 32 competition and IRB: 144, 153–154 cottage industries and IRPS: 36–37 definition of IRA: 84, 172 Eugene Debs and IRPS: 193 Franklin D. Roosevelt and IRA: 204–205 Henry Ford and IRB: 23 labor and IRA: 96–97, 176, 179–182, 184, 186, 190, IRB: 23, 37, 39–40, 43, 44, 45, 130, 132–136, IRPS: 62 Marxism and IRA: 99–103 Robert Owen and IRB: 130, 132–136 Upton Sinclair and IRB: 116, 121 war and IRB: 44 IRPS = Industrial Revolution: Primary Sources

wealth and IRA: 96–97, IRPS: 34–35, 38–40 Social reform IRA: 91–93, IRB: 23–24, 117–119, 133–136, 161–162 Social security IRA: 193, 203 Social work IRA: 172, 191–192, IRPS: 146–155 Society automobiles and IRA: 116, 151–154, 158 corporations and IRPS: 198 factory system and IRA: 2, 3–6, 64–66, 78–81, 83–86, 171–175, IRB: 133–136 Great Depression and IRA: 199–205 immigration and IRA: 199 Luddites and IRA: 95 manufacturing and IRA: 213–215, IRPS: 37 Marxism and IRA: 102–103 natural law and IRA: 20 progress and IRA: 6–7 Progressive Party and IRPS: 192–203 standardization and IRA: 223 steam locomotives and IRA: 55–56 textiles and IRA: 64–66, 78–81 wealth and IRA: 4, 164–165, IRPS: 34–42 Somerset, Edward IRA: 39–40, 41–42 Sorocold, George IRPS: 50 South America IRA: 222–223 South Brooklyn News IRB: 117 “South Carolina Exposition and Protest” IRA: 195 Southern Pacific Railroad IRB: 55, 67, 74 Soviet Union IRB: 80, 125, IRPS: 21–22. See also Russia Spain IRA: 222

Spanish-American War IRB: 148, 151–152 Specialization IRA: 78–79, 146, IRPS: 3–11 Spinning IRA: 70 (ill.), 71 (ill.), IRPS: 61 (ill.) cottage industries and IRA: 66–67 definition of IRA: 28, 64 machines and IRA: 67, 69–73, 74–75, 109–110, IRPS: 16–17, 108 process of IRA: 68 Spinning jenny IRA: 69–73 Spinning mule IRA: 72–73, 74, IRB: 131 Spinning wheel IRPS: 61 (ill.) St. Paul and Pacific Railroad IRB: 60, 61–64 Stalin, Joseph IRB: 125 Stamps IRB: 2–3 Standardization education and IRA: 223 food and IRA: 223 interchangeable parts and IRA: 4, 80–81, 144, 145–146, 146–147, 223 networks and IRA: 155–156 of people IRA: 223 railroads and IRA: 155–156, 158–159 Standard Oil Company. See also Standard Oil Trust domination by IRA: 198, IRB: 139, 142–144 formation of IRA: 166 muckrakers and IRB: 116, 123, 125, 126–127 Standard Oil Trust. See also Standard Oil Company breakup of IRA: 198–199, IRB: 139, 143–144, 157, IRPS: 191 growth of IRA: 165–167 muckrakers and IRA: 163, IRB: 127 Stanford, Leland IRPS: 89, 94, 95 Stanley, William IRB: 193 Starr, Ellen IRA: 191–192, IRPS: 146, 147, 148, 152 Cumulative index

21

The State and Prospects of the Country IRPS: 106 States’ rights IRPS: 188–189, 196, 200–201 Steam IRA: 16, 34–41, 116, IRB: 180. See also specific technologies Steamboats IRB: 33 (ill.). See also Navigation development of IRA: 56–61, IRB: 32–34 impact of IRA: 158, IRB: 29–30, 34–35 railroads and IRB: 60 Steam engines IRA: 11 (ill.) coal and IRA: 1, 3, 7, 41–43, 45, 47, 49, 111–112, 213, IRB: 19, 177, 180, 181, IRPS: 45, 47–48, 51–52, 123 development of IRA: 1, 7, 11–12, 16, 38–41, 42–47, 213, IRB: 32, 177, 180–183, IRPS: 45, 47–53 energy and IRA: 35 finance and IRA: 44 iron and IRA: 45 labor and IRPS: 18 operation of IRA: 3, 36–37, 113, 116, IRB: 18, IRPS: 47–49, 51–52 patents and IRA: 38–39, 42 productivity and IRA: 41–42, 44–45 pumps and IRA: 7, 39, 41–43 steamboats and IRA: 56–61 textiles and IRA: 72, 75–76, 109, 112, IRB: 181–182 tractors and IRA: 136 transportation and IRA: 3, 50 uses for IRPS: 49–52 Steam locomotives IRA: 53 (ill.), IRB: 174 (ill.). See also Railroads coal and IRA: 52 development of IRA: 52, 53–55, IRB: 169, 171–175, IRPS: 91–92 22

Cumulative index

impact of IRA: 55–56, 158 Steel IRA: 131 (ill.). See also Iron Andrew Carnegie and IRA: 161–164, 168, IRB: 1, 8, 11–14, 66, 99, 101, 104, IRPS: 44 coal and IRA: 52, 161 competition and IRA: 168–169 construction and IRA: 163 factory system and IRA: 130 finance and IRA: 168–169, IRB: 14, 66, 101, 104 government and IRB: 66 iron and IRA: 127–130 labor and IRB: 12, 13 monopolies and IRA: 168–169 patents and IRA: 129–130 plows and IRA: 135 production of IRA: 127–130, 161, IRB: 1, 4–6 properties of IRB: 5, 6 railroads and IRA: 130, 163, IRPS: 96 strikes and IRA: 161–163 tariffs and IRA: 194 transportation and IRA: 130 Steffens, Josephine (Bontecou) IRB: 122–123 Steffens, Lincoln IRB: 114, 116, 122–125, 123 (ill.), 156 Stephens, Uriah IRA: 179 Stephenson, Frances (Henderson) IRB: 170 Stephenson, George IRA: 55, IRB: 169 (ill.), 169–175 Stephenson, Robert IRA: 55, IRB: 170–171, 172–173, 174–175 Stillman, J. D. B. IRPS: 85–97, 87 (ill.) Stockholders IRB: 24, 52, 100. See also Corporations

Stock market IRB: 62 (ill.). See also Wall Street brokerage houses and IRB: 48 crash of IRA: 199–203 finance and IRA: 168 panic of 1873 and IRB: 61 panic of 1907 and IRB: 97, 102, 193–194 regulation of IRPS: 200, 202 telegraph and IRA: 124, IRB: 111, 112 Stockton and Darlington Railway IRA: 55, IRB: 173–174 Strasser, Adolph IRB: 40–41 Strikebreakers IRA: 172, 178–179, 186–187 Strikes Andrew Carnegie and IRA: 161–163 Chartists and IRA: 98 coal and IRA: 186–187, IRB: 74–76, 154–155 definition of IRA: 172, 178 early examples of IRA: 92 Haymarket Square Riot and IRA: 179–182 Homestead Strike IRA: 161–163, IRB: 12, 13 hours and IRA: 179, 182, 187 Knights of Labor and IRA: 179–182 Lawrence Textile Strike of 1912 IRPS: 164–166, 166–168, 174–175, 203 Pullman Strike IRA: 180–181 railroads and IRA: 180–181 regulation of IRA: 188–189, 203–204, 205 steel and IRA: 161–163 strikebreakers and IRA: 172, 178–179, 186–187 violence and IRA: 162–163, 179–183, 186–187 wages and IRA: 161–163, 180–181, IRPS: 164–166, 166–168, 174–175

IRA = Industrial Revolution: Almanac

IRB = Industrial Revolution: Biography

Strutt, Jedediah IRA: 109 Sturgeon, William IRA: 118 Submarines IRA: 58, IRB: 32 Sullivan, Michael IRPS: 93 Sutherland, J. B. IRA: 139 Swan, Joseph IRA: 125 Swedenborg, Emanuel IRPS: 39–40 Symington, William IRA: 56

T Taft, Robert IRA: 188–189 Taft, William Howard IRPS: 190 (ill.) business and IRB: 158, IRPS: 190 defeat of IRPS: 202–203 election of IRA: 186 labor and IRB: 43–44, IRPS: 194 Mother Jones and IRB: 74 nomination of IRPS: 192–193 Taft-Hartley Act IRA: 188–189, 205 Tarbell, Franklin IRB: 125 Tarbell, Ida IRB: 125–128, 126 (ill.), IRPS: 136 (ill.) early life of IRB: 125–126 feminism and IRB: 127–128 muckraking by IRA: 163, 167, IRB: 114, 116, 123, 126–127, 156 Tariffs IRA: 109, 172, 193–196. See also Taxes Taxes IRA: 196–197, IRPS: 35, 43, 199. See also Tariffs Taylor, Frederick IRA: 151 (ill.), 152–153 Technology IRA: 3, IRPS: 45–46, 73–74, 133. See also specific technologies Telegraph IRA: 115 (ill.), 117 (ill.), 118 (ill.), IRB: 106 (ill.), 111 (ill.), IRPS: 76 (ill.), 81 (ill.) American Civil War and IRB: 11 IRPS = Industrial Revolution: Primary Sources

Andrew Carnegie and IRB: 10 development of IRA: 117–120, IRB: 106–107, 108–109, IRPS: 75–78, 82–83 electricity and IRA: 116–117, 118–119, IRB: 108–109, IRPS: 77, 79 factory system and IRA: 117, 121 finance and IRA: 120, IRB: 106, 107, 109–110, IRPS: 76, 77, 78, 82–83, 84 government and IRB: 106, 107, 109–110, IRPS: 76, 77, 78, 82–83 growth of IRA: 120, IRB: 110–112, IRPS: 79–84 impact of IRA: 121–122, IRB: 112, IRPS: 46, 75–84 networks and IRA: 154, 155 operation of IRPS: 77 patents and IRA: 124, IRPS: 78 railroads and IRA: 117, 120, 121, IRB: 53, 55, 111, 112, IRPS: 88, 89, 93, 95–96 Thomas Alva Edison and IRA: 124 transportation and IRA: 117, 120, 121 Telephones IRA: 119 (ill.) impact of IRA: 117 invention of IRA: 120–122, IRPS: 83 standardization and IRA: 155, 156 telegraph and IRB: 55 “Tenement-House Cigar Manufacture” IRPS: 112–122 Tennessee Valley Authority IRA: 202–203 Teoli, Camella IRPS: 164–175 Tesla, Nikola IRA: 126 (ill.), IRB: 184–194, 188 (ill.) awards of IRA: 127

character of IRB: 187–188 death of IRB: 194 electricity and IRA: 125–127, IRB: 184–185, 188–189 inventions of IRB: 184–185, 189–192 Tesla coil IRB: 185, 190 Texas and Pacific Railroad IRB: 52, 55 Textiles IRA:80 (ill.), 90 (ill.), 111 (ill.), IRPS:165 (ill.), 170 (ill.). See also Spinning; Weaving agriculture and IRA:63, 66, 108–109, 222 Asia and IRA:219 children and IRA:63, 65, 77, 79–80, 89–91, 219 clothmaking process IRA:67–69 competition and IRA:93–96, IRPS:56, 59–61 cottage industries and IRA:28–29, 63, 66–67, 78, IRB:9, IRPS:54, 102 cotton and IRA:66, 67 cotton gin and IRB:201–202 dangers of IRA:173, IRPS:156–163 definition of IRA:64 dyes for IRA:131 enclosure movement and IRA:66–67, 76, 79 factory system and IRA:63–66, 76–78, 90–91, 192, 219, 222, IRB:9, 76–77, 132, IRPS:54–62, 63–74, 102, 156–163, 164–175, 203 government regulation and IRA:109–110 labor and IRA:93–96, IRPS:54–59, 61–62, 63–74, 101–110, 164–175 Luddites and IRA:93–96 mechanization of IRA:1, 63–66, 67–76, 109–111, IRPS:16–17, 54–62, 108 Cumulative index

23

Mother Jones and IRA:184 productivity and IRA:67, 71, 75, 76–78, 93, 112, IRB:9, 131, IRPS:54–61, 63 society and IRA:64–66, 78–81 specialization and IRA:78–79 steam engines and IRA:72, 75–76, 109, 112, IRB:181–182 tariffs and IRA: 194–196 wages and IRA: 79, 80 water and IRA: 72, 75, 76, 109, 110 wool and IRA: 66, 67 “Texts of the Nottinghamshire Luddites” IRA: 94 The Theory of Moral Sentiments IRB: 163, 167 Thoreau, Henry David IRA: 81 Time IRA: 6–7, 215, IRPS: 88 Tin Lizzie IRB: 24 Tires IRA: 132 Torpedoes IRA: 59–60 Toynbee, Arnold IRA: 11 Toynbee Hall IRPS: 148 Toynbee House IRA: 191 Tractors IRA: 136, IRB: 89 Trade IRA: 217, 218. See also Colonialism; Mercantilism Trade unions. See Labor unions Trains. See Railroads Transportation. See also Automobiles; Navigation; Railroads; Trucking agriculture and IRA: 137, 157 automobiles and IRA: 151, 158 energy and IRA: 34 impact of IRPS: 45–46 oil and IRA: 3, 151, IRB: 143 overview of IRA: 3, 158 railroads and IRA: 50–53, 158, IRPS: 85–89, 96–97 24

Cumulative index

steamboats and IRA: 56–61, 158, IRB: 34–35 steam engines and IRA: 3, 50, 158 steam locomotives and IRA: 52, 53–56, 158 steel and IRA: 130 telegraph and IRA: 117, 120, 121 trucking and IRA: 153–154, 158 A Treatise on the Improvement of Canal Navigation IRA: 58, IRB: 31 Trevithick, Richard IRA: 53–54, IRB: 172–173 Triangle Shirtwaist Company IRA: 173, 174 (ill.), IRPS: 156–163, 157 (ill.), 159 (ill.), 162 (ill.) Trotsky, Leon IRB: 124 Trucking IRA: 153–154, 158 Truman, Harry IRA: 190, 205, IRPS: 203 Trusts. See Monopolies Tull, Jethro IRA: 25 Turney, Hop IRPS: 83 Tuskegee Institute IRA: 164, IRB: 15, IRPS: 42 Twenty Years at Hull-House IRA: 191–192, IRPS: 146–155 Two Treatises on Government IRA: 20

U Unemployment IRPS: 54–59, 61–62, 66, 68 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics IRB: 80, 125, IRPS: 21–22. See also Russia Union Pacific Railroad George Jay Gould and IRB: 55 James J. Hill and IRB: 63, 65, 67 Jay Gould and IRB: 52 “Last Tie” and IRPS: 89, 93, 94–96 Unions. See Labor unions

United Automobile Workers Union IRB: 17, 25–27 United Mine Workers Union John L. Lewis and IRA: 186–188 Mother Jones and IRA: 184, IRB: 73, 74 pensions and IRA: 189–190 Theodore Roosevelt and IRB: 154–155 United Press IRPS: 156 United States of America IRPS: 22 coal in IRA: 52, 112 individualism in IRA: 176, IRB: 17 industrial revolution in IRA: 1, 110–111, 171–175, IRB: 39 oil and IRA: 112–113, 151 population in IRA: 108–109, 214 service economy in IRA: 214–215 steamboats in IRA: 57, 60–61 tariffs and IRA: 109, 194–196 textiles in IRA: 108–111 urbanization in IRA: 171 United States Steel IRA: 168, IRB: 14, 99, 101, IRPS: 44 University of Chicago IRB: 145 Urbanization IRA: 211 (ill.). See also Enclosure movement agriculture and IRA: 134, 210, 213–214, 219 enclosure movement and IRA: 23–24 factory system and IRA: 5–6, 64, 83–84, 171, IRPS: 23 food and IRA: 83–84 poverty and IRA: 84 Ure, Andrew IRPS: 13–19 U.S. Congress Adamson Act IRB: 44 Clayton Antitrust Act IRA: 197, IRB: 44

IRA = Industrial Revolution: Almanac

IRB = Industrial Revolution: Biography

Fair Labor Standards Act IRPS: 122 Federal Trade Commission Act IRA: 197 Food and Drug Act of 1906 IRA: 163, IRB: 120, 122, IRPS: 144–145 National Labor Relations Act IRA: 188–189, 203–204 Pacific Railway Act IRB: 60 regulatory powers of IRPS: 180–181, 186–189, 202 Sherman Antitrust Act IRA: 163, 167, 197–199, IRB: 66, 127, 144–145, 157, IRPS: 97, 179–181, 185–189, 202 Wholesome Meat Act IRB: 122 U.S. Constitution monopolies and IRPS: 186–189 Progressive Party and IRPS: 195, 196, 200–202 property and IRPS: 180–181 tariffs and IRA: 195 U.S. Department of Defense IRPS: 83–84 U.S. Department of Labor IRPS: 194, 199 U.S. Postal Service IRPS: 75, 199 U.S. Supreme Court IRA: 167, 198–199, IRB: 127, 157, IRPS: 179–191 Utopia IRA: 24

V Vail, Alfred IRB: 110, IRPS: 81 (ill.), 82 Valves IRA: 37, 42, IRPS: 48 Vanderbilt, Cornelius IRA: 159, IRB: 50–51 Vanzetti, Bartolomeo IRB: 121 Victoria Express IRA: 53 (ill.) Videotapes IRA: 156 Villa, Pancho IRB: 75, 124 IRPS = Industrial Revolution: Primary Sources

Violence IRB: 26 (ill.) factory system and IRPS: 104, 108, 109 Haymarket Square Riot and IRA: 179–182 Homestead Strike and IRA: 162–163, IRB: 12, 13 labor unions and IRA: 162–163, 179–183 Lawrence Textile Strike of 1912 and IRPS: 166, 167, 203 Luddites and IRA: 94–95, IRPS: 63–74 Marxism and IRA: 99, IRB: 39, 79, 81–82, IRPS: 2, 32 Pullman strike and IRA: 181 socialism and IRA: 96–97 strikes and IRA: 162–163, 179–183, 186–187, IRB: 73–76 Volta, Alessandro IRA: 122 Voltaire IRA: 21 Voluntary associations IRA: 190–191. See also Labor unions Vulcanization IRA: 132

W Wabash Railroad IRB: 51–52, 55 Wages Chartists and IRPS: 13 children and IRPS: 18, 104, 169, 172 factory system and IRA: 4, 79, 80, 85, 89, 96, 150–151, 161–163, 172–173, 177, 180–181, 219, IRB: 9, 17, 23, 25, 26, 27, 39, 83, 120, 132, IRPS: 18, 19, 29–31, 64, 117, 118, 168, 169, 172, 177 Henry Ford and IRA: 150–151, 172, 177, IRB: 17, 23, 25, 26, 27

immigration and IRA: 177, IRB: 39 labor unions and IRA: 95, 161–163, 178, 180–181, IRPS: 100, 166–168, 174–175 regulation of IRPS: 106, 122, 177, 196–197 Robert Owen and IRB: 132 strikes and IRA: 161–163, 180–181, IRPS: 165–166, 167, 174–175 textiles and IRA: 79, 80 Walden, Or Life in the Woods IRA: 81 Wallace, Henry IRPS: 203 Wall Street IRB: 98 (ill.), 99. See also Stock Market War of 1812 IRB: 204 War of the Austrian Succession IRA: 30 Water pollution of IRA: 85, 140 power of IRA: 34–38, IRPS: 49–50 textiles and IRA: 72, 75, 76, 109, 110 Water frame IRA: 72, 109–110, IRPS: 17 Watt, Agnes Muirhead IRB: 178 Watt, James IRA: 46 (ill.), IRB: 177 (ill.), 177–183 Adam Smith and IRPS: 12 company of IRB: 34 early life of IRB: 178–179 Lunar Society and IRA: 48 steam engine improved by IRA: 11–12, 45–47, 51, 56, 59, 113, IRB: 18, 32, 177, 180–183, IRPS: 45, 48–49, 52–53, 123 travel by IRA: 51, 55 Watt, James (inventor’s father) IRB: 178 Watt, Margaret (Miller) IRB: 179 Wattage IRB: 182 Wealth capitalism and IRA: 102–103 corporations and IRPS: 198 Cumulative index

25

enclosure movement and IRA: 23–24 factory system and IRA: 64, IRPS: 1, 2, 14, 15 government and IRA: 19–20, 86–89, 194 Medieval period and IRA: 22 socialism and IRA: 96–97 society and IRA: 4, 164–165, IRB: 72, IRPS: 34–42 “Wealth” IRPS: 34–44 Weaving IRA: 28, 64, 66–67, 68–69, 74–76 Wedgwood, Josiah IRA: 48 Welfare IRPS: 43–44 Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, First Duke of IRA: 88 West, Benjamin IRB: 31, 107 Western Pacific Railroad IRB: 55 Western Union IRA: 124, IRB: 53, 54–55, IRPS: 89 Westinghouse, George IRA: 127 (ill.), IRB: 184 (ill.), 184–194 brakes and IRB: 184, 185–187 business skill of IRB: 187, 192–194 early life of IRB: 185 electricity and IRA: 123, 126–127, IRB: 184, 187, 189–190, 189–193 Nikola Tesla and IRB: 188 Westinghouse Air Brake Company IRB: 186 Westinghouse Electric IRA: 168, IRB: 99 Westinghouse Engine Company IRA: 148 Wheat IRB: 51–52, 88, 89, 90 Wheatstone, Charles IRPS: 78 Whitney, Eli IRA: 73–74, 74 (ill.), IRB: 108, 196 (ill.), 196–204

26

Cumulative index

Whitney, Eli (inventor’s father) IRB: 197 Whitney, Eli (inventor’s son) IRB: 204 Whitney, Elizabeth IRB: 197 Whitney, Henrietta (Edwards) IRB: 204 Wholesome Meat Act IRB: 122 William III IRPS: 48 Williams, Frederick S. IRB: 171 Wilson, Woodrow election of IRB: 158, IRPS: 202–203 Henry Ford and IRB: 24 labor and IRB: 44–45 Mother Jones and IRB: 75 World War I and IRB: 159 Women cottage industries and IRA: 68 factory system and IRA: 219, IRPS: 18, 29 food and IRPS: 145 guild system and IRA: 28, 103 political equality and IRA: 89, 96, 192, IRB: 69, 127–128, IRPS: 155, 167, 198, 203 social equality and IRPS: 146 telegraph and IRB: 11 Wood IRA: 51–53, 213 Woodruff, Theodore IRB: 10–11 Woodruff Sleeping Car Company IRB: 11 Woods, William A. IRA: 181 Wool cotton and IRA: 74 enclosure movement and IRA: 24 factory system and IRA: 95 mercantilism and IRA: 26 textiles and IRA: 66, 67, IRPS: 60 Work. See also Labor

American system and IRA: 146 coal mines and IRPS: 126–133 factory system and IRA: 76, 78–79, 84–85, 85–86, 89–93, 96, IRB: 27, IRPS: 13–19, 28–29, 103–109, 114–120, 136, 138–139, 140–141, 145, 168–174 industrial revolution and IRA: 2, 211–212 meat processing and IRPS: 136, 138–139, 140–141, 145 specialization of IRPS: 3–11 Workers. See Labor World War I IRB: 17, 25, 44–45, 159 World War II IRA: 188, 204 (ill.), 205, 218, IRB: 17 Wyatt, Benjamin IRA: 53 Wyatt, George IRPS: 93 Wyatt, John IRA: 69 Wylam Dilly IRB: 173

X X-rays IRB: 190–191

Y Yale University IRB: 197–198, 198 (ill.) “Yorkshire Cloth Workers’ Petition” IRPS: 54–62 Young, Owen D. IRB: 127 Young Hegelians IRB: 80

Z Zola, Émile IRPS: 123–134, 124 (ill.)

IRA = Industrial Revolution: Almanac

IRB = Industrial Revolution: Biography