##### Citation preview

Take AIM and Succeed!

Aufmann Interactive Method

AIM

The Aufmann Interactive Method (AIM) is a proven learning system that has helped thousands of students master concepts and achieve results.

To follow the AIM, step through the HOW TO examples that are provided and then work through the matched EXAMPLE / YOU TRY IT pairs.

Aufmann HOW TO • 1

Multiply: ⫺3a14a2 ⫺ 5a ⫹ 62 ⫺3a14a ⫺ 5a ⫹ 62 ⫽ ⫺3a14a22 ⫺ 1⫺3a215a2 ⫹ 1⫺3a2162 ⫽ ⫺12a3 ⫹ 15a2 ⫺ 18a 2

• Use the Distributive Property.

Interactive EXAMPLE • 2

YOU TRY IT • 2

Multiply: 2a2b14a2 ⫺ 2ab ⫹ b22

Multiply: ⫺a213a2 ⫹ 2a ⫺ 72

Solution 2a2b14a2 ⫺ 2ab ⫹ b22 ⫽ 2a 2b(4a2) ⫺ 2a 2b(2ab) ⫹ 2a 2b(b2) ⫽ 8a4b ⫺ 4a 3b2 ⫹ 2a 2b3

For extra support, you can find the complete solutions to the YOU TRY IT problems in the back of the text.

Method SOLUTIONS You Try It 1TO CHAPTER 4 “YOU TRY IT”

2 1⫺2y ⫹ 32 1⫺4y2 SECTION 4.3 ⫽ ⫺2y(⫺4y) ⫹ 3(⫺4y) ⫽ 8y ⫺ 12y

You Try It 2

⫺a213a2 ⫹ 2a ⫺ 72 ⫽ ⫺a2(3a2) ⫹ (⫺a2)(2a) ⫺ (⫺a2)(7) ⫽ ⫺3a4 ⫺ 2a3 ⫹ 7a2

You Try It 4 You Try It 5

Dick Aufmann

Joanne Lockwood

We have taught math for many years. During that time, we have had students ask us a number of questions about mathematics and this course. Here you find some of the questions we have been asked most often, starting with the big one.

Introductory Algebra An Applied Approach

EIGHTH EDITION

Richard N. Aufmann Palomar College

Joanne S. Lockwood Nashua Community College

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Introductory Algebra: An Applied Approach, Eighth Edition Richard N. Aufmann and Joanne S. Lockwood Acquisitions Editor: Marc Bove Developmental Editor: Erin Brown Assistant Editor: Shaun Williams Editorial Assistant: Kyle O’Loughlin

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Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 13 12 11 10 09

Contents Timothy Hearsum/Digital Vision/Getty Images

Preface

xiii

AIM for Success

CHAPTER 1

xxiii

Prealgebra Review

1

Prep Test 1 SECTION 1.1 Introduction to Integers 2 Objective A To use inequality symbols with integers 2 Objective B To use opposites and absolute value 4 SECTION 1.2 Addition and Subtraction of Integers 8 Objective A To add integers 8 Objective B To subtract integers 9 Objective C To solve application problems

11

SECTION 1.3 Multiplication and Division of Integers 16 Objective A To multiply integers 16 Objective B To divide integers 18 Objective C To solve application problems

20

SECTION 1.4 Exponents and the Order of Operations Agreement 23 Objective A To evaluate exponential expressions 23 Objective B To use the Order of Operations Agreement to simplify expressions 24 SECTION 1.5 Factoring Numbers and Prime Factorization 29 Objective A To factor numbers 29 Objective B To find the prime factorization of a number 30 Objective C To find the least common multiple and greatest common factor 31 SECTION 1.6 Addition and Subtraction of Rational Numbers 34 Objective A To write a rational number in simplest form and as a decimal 34 Objective B To add rational numbers 36 Objective C To subtract rational numbers 38 Objective D To solve application problems 39 SECTION 1.7 Multiplication and Division of Rational Numbers 45 Objective A To multiply rational numbers 45 Objective B To divide rational numbers 47 Objective C To convert among percents, fractions, and decimals Objective D To solve application problems 50

49

SECTION 1.8 Concepts from Geometry 56 Objective A To find the measures of angles 56 Objective B To solve perimeter problems 58 Objective C To solve area problems 59

CONTENTS

v

vi

CONTENTS

FOCUS ON PROBLEM SOLVING: Inductive Reasoning 66 • PROJECTS AND GROUP ACTIVITIES: The +/- Key on a Calculator 67 • CHAPTER 1 SUMMARY 68 • CHAPTER 1 CONCEPT REVIEW 72 • CHAPTER 1 REVIEW EXERCISES 73 • CHAPTER 1 TEST 75

CHAPTER 2

Variable Expressions Prep Test

77

77

SECTION 2.1 Evaluating Variable Expressions 78 Objective A To evaluate a variable expression

78

SECTION 2.2 Simplifying Variable Expressions 82 Objective A To simplify a variable expression using the Addition 82 Objective B To simplify a variable expression using the Multiplication 84 Objective C To simplify a variable expression using the Property 85 Objective D To simplify general variable expressions

Properties of Properties of Distributive 87

SECTION 2.3 Translating Verbal Expressions into Variable Expressions 92 Objective A To translate a verbal expression into a variable expression, given the variable 92 Objective B To translate a verbal expression into a variable expression and then simplify 93 Objective C To translate application problems 95 FOCUS ON PROBLEM SOLVING: From Concrete to Abstract 101 • PROJECTS AND GROUP ACTIVITIES: Prime and Composite Numbers 102 • CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 103 • CHAPTER 2 CONCEPT REVIEW 105 • CHAPTER 2 REVIEW EXERCISES 106 • CHAPTER 2 TEST 109 • CUMULATIVE REVIEW EXERCISES 111

CHAPTER 3

Solving Equations Prep Test

113

113

SECTION 3.1 Introduction to Equations 114 Objective A To determine whether a given number is a solution of an equation 114 Objective B To solve an equation of the form x ⫹ a ⫽ b 115 Objective C To solve an equation of the form ax ⫽ b 116 Objective D To solve application problems using the basic percent equation 118 Objective E To solve uniform motion problems 122 SECTION 3.2 General Equations—Part I 133 Objective A To solve an equation of the form ax ⫹ b ⫽ c Objective B To solve application problems using formulas

133 136

SECTION 3.3 General Equations—Part II 145 Objective A To solve an equation of the form ax ⫹ b ⫽ cx ⫹ d 145 Objective B To solve an equation containing parentheses 146 Objective C To solve application problems using formulas 148 SECTION 3.4 Translating Sentences into Equations 153 Objective A To solve integer problems 153 Objective B To translate a sentence into an equation and solve SECTION 3.5 Geometry Problems 160 Objective A To solve problems involving angles 160 Objective B To solve problems involving the angles of a triangle

155

162

vii

CONTENTS

SECTION 3.6 Mixture and Uniform Motion Problems 167 Objective A To solve value mixture problems 167 Objective B To solve percent mixture problems 169 Objective C To solve uniform motion problems 171 FOCUS ON PROBLEM SOLVING: Trial-and-Error Approach to Problem Solving 179 • PROJECTS AND GROUP ACTIVITIES: Nielsen Ratings 180 • CHAPTER 3 SUMMARY 181 • CHAPTER 3 CONCEPT REVIEW 184 • CHAPTER 3 REVIEW EXERCISES 185 • CHAPTER 3 TEST 187 • CUMULATIVE REVIEW EXERCISES 189

CHAPTER 4

Polynomials Prep Test

191

191

SECTION 4.1 Addition and Subtraction of Polynomials 192 Objective A To add polynomials 192 Objective B To subtract polynomials 193 SECTION 4.2 Multiplication of Monomials 196 Objective A To multiply monomials 196 Objective B To simplify powers of monomials

197

SECTION 4.3 Multiplication of Polynomials 200 Objective A To multiply a polynomial by a monomial 200 Objective B To multiply two polynomials 200 Objective C To multiply two binomials using the FOIL method Objective D To multiply binomials that have special products Objective E To solve application problems 203 SECTION 4.4 Integer Exponents and Scientific Notation 208 Objective A To divide monomials 208 Objective B To write a number in scientific notation SECTION 4.5 Division of Polynomials 218 Objective A To divide a polynomial by a monomial Objective B To divide polynomials 218

201 202

213 218

FOCUS ON PROBLEM SOLVING: Dimensional Analysis 222 • PROJECTS AND GROUP ACTIVITIES: Diagramming the Square of a Binomial 224 • Pascal’s Triangle 224 • CHAPTER 4 SUMMARY 225 • CHAPTER 4 CONCEPT REVIEW 228 • CHAPTER 4 REVIEW EXERCISES 229 • CHAPTER 4 TEST 231 • CUMULATIVE REVIEW EXERCISES

233

CHAPTER 5

Factoring Prep Test

235

235

SECTION 5.1 Common Factors 236 Objective A To factor a monomial from a polynomial Objective B To factor by grouping 238

236

242 SECTION 5.2 Factoring Polynomials of the Form x2 ⫹ bx ⫹ c Objective A To factor a trinomial of the form x2 ⫹ bx ⫹ c Objective B To factor completely 244

242

250 SECTION 5.3 Factoring Polynomials of the Form ax2 ⫹ bx ⫹ c Objective A To factor a trinomial of the form ax2 ⫹ bx ⫹ c by using trial factors 250 Objective B To factor a trinomial of the form ax2 ⫹ bx ⫹ c by grouping 252

viii

CONTENTS

SECTION 5.4 Special Factoring 258 Objective A To factor the difference of two squares and perfect-square trinomials 258 Objective B To factor completely 260 SECTION 5.5 Solving Equations 266 Objective A To solve equations by factoring Objective B To solve application problems

266 268

FOCUS ON PROBLEM SOLVING: Making a Table 275 • PROJECTS AND GROUP ACTIVITIES: Evaluating Polynomials Using a Graphing Calculator 276 • Exploring Integers 277 • CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY 277 • CHAPTER 5 CONCEPT REVIEW 280 • CHAPTER 5 REVIEW EXERCISES 281 • CHAPTER 5 TEST 283 • CUMULATIVE REVIEW EXERCISES 285

CHAPTER 6

Rational Expressions Prep Test

287

287

SECTION 6.1 Multiplication and Division of Rational Expressions 288 Objective A To simplify a rational expression 288 Objective B To multiply rational expressions 289 Objective C To divide rational expressions 291 SECTION 6.2 Expressing Fractions in Terms of the Least Common Multiple (LCM) 296 Objective A To find the least common multiple (LCM) of two or more polynomials 296 Objective B To express two fractions in terms of the LCM of their denominators 297 SECTION 6.3 Addition and Subtraction of Rational Expressions 300 Objective A To add or subtract rational expressions with the same denominators 300 Objective B To add or subtract rational expressions with different denominators 301 SECTION 6.4 Complex Fractions 309 Objective A To simplify a complex fraction

309

SECTION 6.5 Solving Equations Containing Fractions 314 Objective A To solve an equation containing fractions SECTION 6.6 Ratio and Proportion 318 Objective A To solve a proportion 318 Objective B To solve application problems 319 Objective C To solve problems involving similar triangles

314

319

SECTION 6.7 Literal Equations 326 Objective A To solve a literal equation for one of the variables

326

SECTION 6.8 Application Problems 330 Objective A To solve work problems 330 Objective B To use rational expressions to solve uniform motion problems 332 FOCUS ON PROBLEM SOLVING: Negations and If . . . then Sentences 338 • PROJECTS AND GROUP ACTIVITIES: Intensity of Illumination 339 • CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY 341 • CHAPTER 6 CONCEPT REVIEW 344 • CHAPTER 6 REVIEW EXERCISES 345 • CHAPTER 6 TEST 347 • CUMULATIVE REVIEW EXERCISES 349

CONTENTS

CHAPTER 7

Linear Equations in Two Variables Prep Test

ix

351

351

SECTION 7.1 The Rectangular Coordinate System 352 Objective A To graph points in a rectangular coordinate system 352 Objective B To determine ordered-pair solutions of an equation in two variables 354 Objective C To determine whether a set of ordered pairs is a function 356 Objective D To evaluate a function 359 SECTION 7.2 Linear Equations in Two Variables 364 Objective A To graph an equation of the form y ⫽ mx ⫹ b Objective B To graph an equation of the form Ax ⫹ By ⫽ C Objective C To solve application problems 369

364 366

SECTION 7.3 Intercepts and Slopes of Straight Lines 374 Objective A To find the x- and y-intercepts of a straight line 374 Objective B To find the slope of a straight line 375 Objective C To graph a line using the slope and the y-intercept 378 SECTION 7.4 Equations of Straight Lines 384 Objective A To find the equation of a line given a point and the slope 384 Objective B To find the equation of a line given two points Objective C To solve application problems 387

385

FOCUS ON PROBLEM SOLVING: Counterexamples 392 • PROJECTS AND GROUP ACTIVITIES: Graphing Linear Equations with a Graphing Utility 392 • CHAPTER 7 SUMMARY 393 • CHAPTER 7 CONCEPT REVIEW 396 • CHAPTER 7 REVIEW EXERCISES 397 • CHAPTER 7 TEST 399 • CUMULATIVE REVIEW EXERCISES 401

CHAPTER 8

Systems of Linear Equations Prep Test

403

403

SECTION 8.1 Solving Systems of Linear Equations by Graphing 404 Objective A To solve a system of linear equations by graphing

404

SECTION 8.2 Solving Systems of Linear Equations by the Substitution Method 412 Objective A To solve a system of linear equations by the substitution method 412 Objective B To solve investment problems 416 SECTION 8.3 Solving Systems of Linear Equations by the Addition Method 422 Objective A To solve a system of linear equations by the addition method 422 SECTION 8.4 Application Problems in Two Variables 428 Objective A To solve rate-of-wind or rate-of-current problems Objective B To solve application problems using two variables

428 429

FOCUS ON PROBLEM SOLVING: Calculators 435 • PROJECTS AND GROUP ACTIVITIES: Solving a System of Equations with a Graphing Calculator 435 • CHAPTER 8 SUMMARY 436 • CHAPTER 8 CONCEPT REVIEW 438 • CHAPTER 8 REVIEW EXERCISES 439 • CHAPTER 8 TEST 441 • CUMULATIVE REVIEW EXERCISES 443

x

CONTENTS

CHAPTER 9

Inequalities Prep Test

445

445

SECTION 9.1 Sets

446

Objective A To write a set using the roster method Objective B To write and graph sets of real numbers

446 447

SECTION 9.2 The Addition and Multiplication Properties of Inequalities 453 Objective A To solve an inequality using the Addition Property of Inequalities 453 Objective B To solve an inequality using the Multiplication Property of Inequalities 454 Objective C To solve application problems 456 SECTION 9.3 General Inequalities 461 Objective A To solve general inequalities Objective B To solve application problems

461 462

SECTION 9.4 Graphing Linear Inequalities 465 Objective A To graph an inequality in two variables

465

FOCUS ON PROBLEM SOLVING: Graphing Data 469 • PROJECTS AND GROUP ACTIVITIES: Mean and Standard Deviation 469 • CHAPTER 9 SUMMARY 471 • CHAPTER 9 CONCEPT REVIEW 472 • CHAPTER 9 REVIEW EXERCISES 473 • CHAPTER 9 TEST 475 • CUMULATIVE REVIEW EXERCISES 477

CHAPTER 10

Radical Expressions Prep Test SECTION 10.1

479

479 Introduction to Radical Expressions 480 Objective A To simplify numerical radical expressions Objective B To simplify variable radical expressions

480 482

SECTION 10.2

SECTION 10.3

Multiplication and Division of Radical Expressions Objective A To multiply radical expressions 490 Objective B To divide radical expressions 491

SECTION 10.4

Solving Equations Containing Radical Expressions 496 Objective A To solve an equation containing a radical expression Objective B To solve application problems 498

490

496

FOCUS ON PROBLEM SOLVING: Deductive Reasoning 502 • PROJECTS AND GROUP ACTIVITIES: Distance to the Horizon 503 • CHAPTER 10 SUMMARY 504 • CHAPTER 10 CONCEPT REVIEW 506 • CHAPTER 10 REVIEW EXERCISES 507 • CHAPTER 10 TEST 509 • CUMULATIVE REVIEW EXERCISES 511

xi

CONTENTS

CHAPTER 11

513

513

SECTION 11.1

Solving Quadratic Equations by Factoring or by Taking Square Roots 514 Objective A To solve a quadratic equation by factoring 514 Objective B To solve a quadratic equation by taking square roots

SECTION 11.2

Solving Quadratic Equations by Completing the Square Objective A To solve a quadratic equation by completing the square 520

SECTION 11.3

SECTION 11.4

Graphing Quadratic Equations in Two Variables 530 Objective A To graph a quadratic equation of the form y ⫽ ax2 ⫹ bx ⫹ c 530

SECTION 11.5

Application Problems

516

520

535

Objective A To solve application problems

535

FOCUS ON PROBLEM SOLVING: Algebraic Manipulation and Graphing Techniques 540 • PROJECTS AND GROUP ACTIVITIES: Graphical Solutions of

Quadratic Equations 541 • Geometric Construction of Completing the Square 543 • CHAPTER 11 SUMMARY 543 • CHAPTER 11 CONCEPT REVIEW 545 • CHAPTER 11 REVIEW EXERCISES 546 • CHAPTER 11 TEST 548 • CUMULATIVE REVIEW EXERCISES 550

FINAL EXAM APPENDIX

552 557

Appendix A: Keystroke Guide for the TI-84 Plus Appendix B: Tables 565

SOLUTIONS TO YOU TRY ITS

557

S1

ANSWERS TO THE SELECTED EXERCISES GLOSSARY INDEX

G1 I1

INDEX OF APPLICATIONS

I9

A1

Preface Timothy Hearsum/Digital Vision/Getty Images

T

he goal in any textbook revision is to improve upon the previous edition, taking advantage of new information and new technologies, where applicable, in order to make the book more current and appealing to students and instructors. While change goes hand-in-hand with revision, a revision must be handled carefully, without compromise to valued features and pedagogy. In the eighth edition of Introductory Algebra: An Applied Approach, we endeavored to meet these goals. As in previous editions, the focus remains on the Aufmann Interactive Method (AIM). Students are encouraged to be active participants in the classroom and in their own studies as they work through the How To examples and the paired Examples and You Try It problems. The role of “active participant” is crucial to success. Providing students with worked examples, and then affording them the opportunity to immediately work similar problems, helps them build their confidence and eventually master the concepts. To this point, simplicity plays a key factor in the organization of this edition, as in all other editions. All lessons, exercise sets, tests, and supplements are organized around a carefully constructed hierarchy of objectives. This “objective-based” approach not only serves the needs of students, in terms of helping them to clearly organize their thoughts around the content, but instructors as well, as they work to design syllabi, lesson plans, and other administrative documents. In order to enhance the AIM and the organization of the text around objectives, we have introduced a new design. We believe students and instructors will find the page even easier to follow. Along with this change, we have introduced several new features and modifications that we believe will increase student interest and renew the appeal of presenting the content to students in the classroom, be it live or virtual.

Changes to the Eighth Edition With the eighth edition, previous users will recognize many of the features that they have come to trust. Yet, they will notice some new additions and changes:

• • • • • • •

Enhanced WebAssign® now accompanies the text Revised exercise sets with new applications New In the News applications New Think About It exercises Revised Chapter Review Exercises and Chapter Tests End-of-chapter materials now include Concept Reviews Revised Chapter Openers, now with Prep Tests PREFACE

xiii



Take AIM and Succeed!

Introductory Algeb ra: An Applied Approach is organized around a carefully constructed hierarchy of OBJECTIVES. This “objective-based” approach provides an integrated learning environment that allows students and professors to find resources such as assessment (both within the text and online), videos, tutorials, and additional exercises.

Chapter Openers are set up to help you organize your study plan for the chapter. Each opener includes: Objectives, Are You Ready? and a Prep Test.

CHAPTER

what you need to know to be successful in the coming chapter. Complete each PREP TEST to determine which topics you may need to study more carefully, versus those you may only need to skim over to review.

Panoramic Images/Getty Images

OBJECTIVES

Each Chapter Opener outlines the OBJECTIVES that appear in each section. The list of objectives serves as a resource to guide you in your study and review of the topics.

3

Solving Equations SECTION 3.1 A To determine whether a given number is a solution of an equation B To solve an equation of the form x⫹a苷b C To solve an equation of the form ax 苷 b D To solve application problems using the basic percent equation E To solve uniform motion problems SECTION 3.2 A To solve an equation of the form ax ⫹ b 苷 c B To solve application problems using formulas SECTION 3.3 A To solve an equation of the form ax ⫹ b 苷 cx ⫹ d B To solve an equation containing parentheses C To solve application problems using formulas SECTION 3.4 A To solve integer problems B To translate a sentence into an equation and solve SECTION 3.5 A To solve problems involving angles B To solve problems involving the angles of a triangle SECTION 3.6 A To solve value mixture problems B To solve percent mixture problems C To solve uniform motion problems

ARE YOU READY? Take the Chapter 3 Prep Test to find out if you are ready to learn to: • • • •

Solve equations Solve percent problems using the basic percent equation Solve problems using formulas Solve integer, geometry, mixture, and uniform motion problems PREP TEST

Do these exercises to prepare for Chapter 3. 1. Write

9 100

as a decimal.

3. Evaluate 3x2 ⫺ 4x ⫺ 1 when x ⫽ ⫺4.

5. Simplify:

1 2 x⫹ x 2 3

2. Write

3 4

as a percent.

4. Simplify: R ⫺ 0.35R

6. Simplify: 6x ⫺ 3共6 ⫺ x兲

7. Simplify: 0.22共3x ⫹ 6兲 ⫹ x

8. Translate into a variable expression: “The difference between five and twice a number.”

9. Computers A new graphics card for computer games is five times faster than a graphics card made two years ago. Express the speed of the new card in terms of the speed of the old card.

10. Carpentry A board 5 ft long is cut into two pieces. If x represents the length of the longer piece, write an expression for the length of the shorter piece in terms of x.

113

xiv

PREFACE

SECTION 3.3

General Equations—Part II

145

SECTION

3.3 OBJECTIVE A

Tips for Success Have you considered joining a study group? Getting together regularly with other students in the class to go over material and quiz each other can be very beneficial. See AIM for Success at the front of the book.

General Equations—Part II To solve an equation of the form ax ⫹ b ⫽ cx ⫹ d In solving an equation of the form ax ⫹ b ⫽ cx ⫹ d, the goal is to rewrite the equation in the form variable ⫽ constant. Begin by rewriting the equation so that there is only one variable term in the equation. Then rewrite the equation so that there is only one constant term. HOW TO • 1

Solve: 2x ⫹ 3 ⫽ 5x ⫺ 9 2x ⫹ 3 ⫽ 5x ⫺ 9

2x ⫺ 5x ⫹ 3 ⫽ 5x ⫺ 5x ⫺ 9

• Simplify. There is only one variable term.

⫺3x ⫹ 3 ⫺ 3 ⫽ ⫺9 ⫺ 3

• Subtract 3 from each side of the equation.

⫺3x ⫽ ⫺12

• Simplify. There is only one constant term.

⫺3x ⫺12 ⫽ ⫺3 ⫺3

• Divide each side of the equation by ⫺3.

x⫽4

• The equation is in the form variable ⫽ constant.

The solution is 4. You should verify this by checking this solution.

EXAMPLE • 1

YOU TRY IT • 1

Solve: 4x ⫺ 5 ⫽ 8x ⫺ 7

Solve: 5x ⫹ 4 ⫽ 6 ⫹ 10x

Solution 4x ⫺ 5 ⫽ 8x ⫺ 7

4x ⫺ 8x ⫺ 5 ⫽ 8x ⫺ 8x ⫺ 7 ⫺4x ⫺ 5 ⫽ ⫺7 ⫺4x ⫺ 5 ⫹ 5 ⫽ ⫺7 ⫹ 5

• Subtract 8x from each side. • Add 5 to each side.

⫺4x ⫽ ⫺2 ⫺4x ⫺2 ⫽ ⫺4 ⫺4

new topic of discussion. In each section, the HOW TO’S provide detailed explanations of problems related to the corresponding objectives.

• Subtract 5x from each side of the equation.

⫺3x ⫹ 3 ⫽ ⫺9

In each section, OBJECTIVE STATEMENTS introduce each

The EXAMPLE/YOU TRY IT matched pairs are designed to actively involve you in learning the techniques presented. The You Try Its are based on the Examples. They appear side-by-side so you can easily refer to the steps in the Examples as you work through the You Try Its.

• Divide each side by ⫺4.

Complete, WORKEDOUT SOLUTIONS to the You Try It problems are found in an appendix at the back of the text. Compare your solutions to the solutions in the appendix to obtain immediate feedback and reinforcement of the concept(s) you are studying.

d ⫽ 25

SECTION 3.3

Unknown: x

You Try It 1 5x ⫹ 4 ⫽ 6 ⫹ 10x 5x ⫺ 10x ⫹ 4 ⫽ 6 ⫹ 10x ⫺ 10x ⫺5x ⫹ 4 ⫽ 6 ⫺5x ⫹ 4 ⫺ 4 ⫽ 6 ⫺ 4 ⫺5x ⫽ 2 ⫺5x 2 ⫽ ⫺5 ⫺5 2 x⫽⫺ 5 2 The solution is ⫺ . 5

Solution • Subtract 10x. • Subtract 4. • Divide by ⫺5.

The fulcrum is 16 ft from the 45-pound force.

SECTION 3.4 You Try It 1

You Try It 2 5x ⫺ 10 ⫺ 3x ⫽ 6 ⫺ 4x 2x ⫺ 10 ⫽ 6 ⫺ 4x 2x ⫹ 4x ⫺ 10 ⫽ 6 ⫺ 4x ⫹ 4x 6x ⫺ 10 ⫽ 6 6x ⫺ 10 ⫹ 10 ⫽ 6 ⫹ 10 6x ⫽ 16 6x 16 ⫽ 6 6 8 x⫽ 3 8 The solution is . 3

F1x ⫽ F2 共d ⫺ x兲 45x ⫽ 80共25 ⫺ x兲 45x ⫽ 2000 ⫺ 80x 45x ⫹ 80x ⫽ 2000 ⫺ 80x ⫹ 80x 125x ⫽ 2000 2000 125x ⫽ 125 125 x ⫽ 16

• Combine like terms. • Add 4x. • Add 10. • Divide by 6.

The smaller number: n The larger number: 12 ⫺ n The total of three times the smaller number and six

amounts to

seven less than the product of four and the larger number

PREFACE

xv

Introductory Algeb ra: An Applied Approach contains A WIDE VARIETY OF EXERCISES that promote skill building, skill maintenance, concept development, critical thinking, and problem solving.

SECTION 3.2

General Equations—Part I

3.2 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

promote conceptual understanding. Completing these exercises will deepen your understanding of the concepts being addressed.

To solve an equation of the form ax ⫹ b ⫽ c

For Exercises 1 to 80, solve and check. 1. 3x ⫹ 1 ⫽ 10

2. 4y ⫹ 3 ⫽ 11

3. 2a ⫺ 5 ⫽ 7

4. 5m ⫺ 6 ⫽ 9

5. 5 ⫽ 4x ⫹ 9

6. 2 ⫽ 5b ⫹ 12

7. 2x ⫺ 5 ⫽ ⫺11

8. 3n ⫺ 7 ⫽ ⫺19

9. 4 ⫺ 3w ⫽ ⫺2

10. 5 ⫺ 6x ⫽ ⫺13

11. 8 ⫺ 3t ⫽ 2

12. 12 ⫺ 5x ⫽ 7

113. True or false? If a store uses a discount rate of 15%, you can find the sale price of an item by multiplying the regular price of the item by 1 ⫺ 0.15, or 0.85.

114. If the discount rate on an item is 50%, which of the following is true? (S is the sale price, and R is the regular price.) (i) S ⫽ 2R (ii) R ⫽ 2S (iii) S ⫽ R (iv) 0.50S ⫽ R

OBJECTIVE C

40. Business A custom-illustrated sign or banner can be commissioned for a cost of \$25 for the material and \$10.50 per square foot for the artwork. The equation that represents this cost is given by y ⫽ 10.50x ⫹ 25, where y is the cost and x is the number of square feet in the sign. Graph this equation for values of x from 0 to 20. The point (15, 182.5) is on the graph. Write a sentence that describes the meaning of this ordered pair.

y Cost (in dollars)

To solve application problems

39. Use the oven temperature graph on page 369 to determine whether the statement is true or false. Sixty seconds after the oven is turned on, the temperature is still below 100°F.

200

(15, 182.5)

100

0

x 20 10 Area (in square feet)

Distance (in miles)

43. Taxi Fares See the news clipping at the right. You can use the equation F ⫽ 2.80M ⫹ 2.20 to calculate the fare F, in dollars, for a ride of M miles. Graph this equation for values of M from 1 to 5. The point (3, 10.6) is on the graph. Write a sentence that describes the meaning of this ordered pair.

20 Fare (in dollars)

Working through the application exercises that contain REAL DATA will help prepare you to answer questions and/or solve problems based on your own experiences, using facts or information you gather.

42. Veterinary Science According to some veterinarians, the age x of a dog can be translated to “human years” by using the equation H ⫽ 4x ⫹ 16, where H is the human equivalent age for the dog. Graph this equation for values of x from 2 to 21. The point whose coordinates are (6, 40) is on this graph. Write a sentence that explains the meaning of this ordered pair.

Human age (in years)

D

41. Emergency Response A rescue helicopter is rushing at a constant speed of 150 mph to reach several people stranded in the ocean 11 mi away after their boat sank. The rescuers can determine how far they are from the victims by using the equation D ⫽ 11 ⫺ 2.5t, where D is the distance in miles and t is the time elapsed in minutes. Graph this equation for values of t from 0 to 4. The point (3, 3.5) is on the graph. Write a sentence that describes the meaning of this ordered pair.

F

(3, 10.6)

5 0

1 2 3 4 5 Distance (in miles)

M

Applying the Concepts 44. Graph y ⫽ 2x ⫺ 2, y ⫽ 2x, and y ⫽ 2x ⫹ 3. What observation can you make about the graphs?

xvi

PREFACE

8 6 4

(3, 3.5)

2 0

1 2 3 4 Time (in minutes)

t

H 100 50 (6, 40) 0

10 20 Dog’s age (in years)

x

In the News Rate Hike for Boston Cab Rides

15 10

10

Taxi drivers soon will be raising their rates, perhaps in an effort to help pay for their required switch to hybrid vehicles by 2015. In the near future, a passenger will have to pay \$5.00 for the first mile of a taxi ride and \$2.80 for each additional mile. Source: The Boston Globe

139

SECTION 4.4

116. If n is a positive integer greater than 1, how many zeros appear before the decimal point when 1.35 ⫻ 10 n is written in decimal notation?

117.

217

Integer Exponents and Scientific Notation

Technology See the news clipping at the right. Express in scientific notation the thickness, in meters, of the memristor.

118. Geology The approximate mass of the planet Earth is 5,980,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg. Write the mass of Earth in scientific notation.

In the News HP Introduces the Memristor

IN THE NEWS application

exercises help you master the utility of mathematics in our everyday world. They are based on information found in popular media sources, including newspapers and magazines, and the Web.

Hewlett Packard has announced the design of the memristor, a new memory technology with the potential to be much smaller than the memory chips used in today’s computers. HP has made a memristor with a thickness of 0.000000015 m (15 nanometers).

Physics The length of an infrared light wave is approximately 0.0000037 m. Write this number in scientific notation.

120.

Electricity The electric charge on an electron is 0.00000000000000000016 coulomb. Write this number in scientific notation.

AP Images

Source: The New York Times

119.

HP Researchers View Image of Memristor

121. Physics Light travels approximately 16,000,000,000 mi in 1 day. Write this number in scientific notation. In the News H tt t Pl

APPLYING THE CONCEPTS

Applying the Concepts

exercises may involve further exploration of topics, or they may involve analysis. They may also integrate concepts introduced earlier in the text. Optional calculator exercises are included, denoted by .

224

CHAPTER 4

t

137. In your own words, explain how the signs of the last terms of the two binomial factors of a trinomial are determined.

For Exercises 138 to 143, factor. 138. 共x ⫹ 1兲2 ⫺ 共x ⫹ 1兲 ⫺ 6

139. 共x ⫺ 2兲2 ⫹ 3共x ⫺ 2兲 ⫹ 2

140. 共y ⫹ 3兲2 ⫺ 5共y ⫹ 3兲 ⫹ 6

Polynomials

PROJECTS AND GROUP ACTIVITIES Diagramming the Square of a Binomial

1. Explain why the diagram at the right represents 1a ⫹ b22 ⫽ a2 ⫹ 2ab ⫹ b2. 2. Draw similar diagrams representing each of the following.

a

b

a2

ab

b ab

b2

a

1x ⫹ 222 1x ⫹ 422

Pascal’s Triangle

PROJECTS AND GROUP ACTIVITIES appear at the

end of each chapter. Your instructor may assign these to you individually, or you may be asked to work through the activity in groups.

Simplifying the power of a binomial is called expanding the binomial. The expansions of the first three powers of a binomial are shown below. 1a ⫹ b21 ⫽ a ⫹ b

Point of Interest Pascal did not invent the triangle of numbers known as Pascal’s Triangle. It was known to mathematicians in Chi b bl l

1a ⫹ b22 ⫽ 1a ⫹ b21a ⫹ b2 ⫽ a2 ⫹ 2ab ⫹ b2 1a ⫹ b23 ⫽ 1a ⫹ b221a ⫹ b2 ⫽ 1a2 ⫹ 2ab ⫹ b221a ⫹ b2 ⫽ a3 ⫹ 3a2b ⫹ 3ab2 ⫹ b3

PREFACE

xvii

Introductory Algeb ra: An Applied Approach addresses students’ broad range of study styles by offering A WIDE VARIETY OF TOOLS FOR REVIEW.

CHAPTER 4

SUMMARY

At the end of each chapter you will find a SUMMARY with KEY WORDS and ESSENTIAL RULES AND PROCEDURES. Each entry includes an example of the summarized concept, an objective reference, and a page reference to show where each concept was introduced.

KEY WORDS

EXAMPLES

A monomial is a number, a variable, or a product of numbers and variables. [4.1A, p. 192]

5 is a number; y is a variable. 2a3b2 is a product of numbers and variables. 5, y, and 2a3b2 are monomials.

A polynomial is a variable expression in which the terms are monomials. [4.1A, p. 192]

5x2y ⫺ 3xy2 ⫹ 2 is a polynomial. Each term of this expression is a monomial.

A polynomial of two terms is a binomial. [4.1A, p. 192]

x ⫹ 2, y2 ⫺ 3, and 6a ⫹ 5b are binomials.

A polynomial of three terms is a trinomial. [4.1A, p. 192]

x2 ⫺ 6x ⫹ 7 is a trinomial.

The degree of a polynomial in one variable is the greatest exponent on a variable. [4.1A, p. 192]

The degree of 3x ⫺ 4x3 ⫹ 17x2 ⫹ 25 is 3.

CHAPTER 4

CONCEPT REVIEW Test your knowledge of the concepts presented in this chapter. Answer each question. Then check your answers against the ones provided in the Answer Section. 1. Why is it important to write the terms of a polynomial in descending order before adding in a vertical format?

2. What is the opposite of ⫺7x3 ⫹ 3x2 ⫺ 4x ⫺ 2?

3. When multiplying the terms 4p3 and 7p6, what happens to the exponents?

CONCEPT REVIEWS actively engage you as you study and review the contents of a chapter. The ANSWERS to the questions are found in an appendix at the back of the text. After each answer, look for an objective reference that indicates where the concept was introduced.

4. Why is the simplification of the expression ⫺4b(2b2 ⫺ 3b ⫺ 5) ⫽ ⫺8b3 ⫹ 12b ⫹ 20 not true?

CHAPTER 4

By completing the chapter REVIEW EXERCISES, you can practice working problems that appear in an order that is different from the order they were presented in the chapter. The ANSWERS to these exercises include references to the section objectives upon which they are based. This will help you to quickly identify where to go to review the concepts if needed.

xviii

PREFACE

REVIEW EXERCISES 1. Multiply: 12b ⫺ 3214b ⫹ 52

2. Add: 112y2 ⫹ 17y ⫺ 42 ⫹ 19y2 ⫺ 13y ⫹ 32

3. Simplify: 1xy5z321x3y3z2

4. Simplify:

8x12 12x9

5. Multiply: ⫺2x14x2 ⫹ 7x ⫺ 92

6. Simplify:

3ab4 ⫺6a2b4

7. Simplify: 1⫺2u3v424

8. Evaluate: 12322

9. Subtract: 15x2 ⫺ 2x ⫺ 12 ⫺ 13x2 ⫺ 5x ⫹ 72

10. Simplify:

a⫺1b3 a3b⫺3

CHAPTER 4

TEST

Each chapter TEST is designed to simulate a possible test of the concepts covered in the chapter. The ANSWERS include references to section objectives. References to How Tos, worked Examples, and You Try Its, that provide solutions to similar problems, are also included.

CUMULATIVE REVIEW EXERCISES

1. Simplify:

3 5 ⫺ ⫺ 16 8

3. Simplify:

1 2

3

7 9

3 5 ⫺ 8 6

2. Evaluate ⫺32 ⭈

⫹2

5. Simplify: ⫺2x ⫺ 1⫺xy2 ⫹ 7x ⫺ 4xy

4. Evaluate

3

⭈ ⫺

b ⫺ 1a ⫺ b22

and b ⫽ 3.

b2

5 . 8

when a ⫽ ⫺2

2. Subtract: ⫺15 ⫺ 共⫺12兲 ⫺ 3

3. Simplify: ⫺24 ⭈ 共⫺2兲4

4. Simplify: ⫺7 ⫺

a2 ⫺ 3b

6. Simplify: 6x ⫺ 共⫺4y兲 ⫺ 共⫺3x兲 ⫹ 2y

8. Simplify: ⫺2 冤5 ⫺ 3共2x ⫺ 7兲 ⫺ 2x冥

2 9. Solve: 20 ⫽ ⫺ x 5

11. Write

1 8

12 ⫺ 15 ⭈ 共⫺4兲 2 ⫺ 共⫺1兲

when a ⫽ 3 and b ⫽ ⫺2.

7. Simplify: 共⫺15z兲 ⫺

as a percent.

2 5

3.

Simplify:

5.

12x3 ⫺ 3x2 ⫹ 9 3x2

2.

Divide:

12x2 ⫺3x8

4.

Simplify: 1⫺2xy2213x2y42

Divide: 1x2 ⫹ 12 ⫼ 1x ⫹ 12

6.

Multiply: 1x ⫺ 321x2 ⫺ 4x ⫹ 52

CUMULATIVE REVIEW EXERCISES, which appear at the

end of each chapter (beginning with Chapter 2), help you maintain skills you previously learned. The ANSWERS include references to the section objectives upon which the exercises are based.

3 4

1. Evaluate ⫺兩⫺3兩.

2a ⫺ 2b2

Multiply: 2x12x2 ⫺ 3x2

6. Simplify: 112x2 ⫺

FINAL EXAM

5. Evaluate

1.

A FINAL EXAM appears after the last chapter in the text. It is designed to simulate a possible examination of all the concepts covered in the text. The ANSWERS to the exam questions are provided in the answer appendix at the back of the text and include references to the section objectives upon which the questions are based.

10. Solve: 4 ⫺ 2共3x ⫹ 1兲 ⫽ 3共2 ⫺ x兲 ⫹ 5

12. Find 19% of 80.

3 4

PREFACE

xix

 Other Key Features MARGINS

Within the margins, students can find the following.

Take Note boxes alert students to concepts

Integrating Technology boxes, which are offered as optional instruction in the proper use of the scientific calculator, appear for selected topics under discussion.

that require special attention.

Point of Interest boxes, which may be historical in nature or be of general interest, relate to topics under discussion.

Tips for Success boxes outline good study habits.

OBJECTIVE C

To multiply two binomials using the FOIL method

Take Note

It is frequently necessary to find the product of two binomials. The product can be found using a method called FOIL, which is based on the Distributive Property. The letters of FOIL stand for First, Outer, Inner, and Last. To find the product of two binomials, add the products of the First terms, the Outer terms, the Inner terms, and the Last terms.

FOIL is not really a different way of multiplying. It is based on the Distributive Property. 共2x ⫹ 3兲 共x ⫹ 5兲 ⫽ 2x共 x ⫹ 5兲 ⫹ 3共 x ⫹ 5兲 F O I L ⫽ 2x 2 ⫹ 10x ⫹ 3x ⫹ 15 ⫽ 2x 2 ⫹ 13x ⫹ 15

IMPORTANT POINTS Passages of text are now

highlighted to help students recognize what is most important and to help them study more effectively.

HOW TO • 3

Multiply: 12x ⫹ 321x ⫹ 52 12x ⫹ 321x ⫹ 52 Multiply the First terms. 12x ⫹ 321x ⫹ 52 Multiply the Outer terms. 12x ⫹ 321x ⫹ 52 Multiply the Inner terms. 12x ⫹ 321x ⫹ 52 Multiply the Last terms. Add the products. Combine like terms.

12x ⫹ 321x ⫹ 52

2x ⭈ x ⫽ 2x2 2x ⭈ 5 ⫽ 10x 3 ⭈ x ⫽ 3x 3 ⭈ 5 ⫽ 15 F O I L ⫽ 2x2 ⫹ 10x ⫹ 3x ⫹ 15 ⫽ 2x2 ⫹ 13x ⫹ 15

EXAMPLE • 2

PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGIES The text features

a carefully developed approach to problem solving that encourages students to develop a Strategy for a problem and then to create a Solution based on the Strategy.

YOU TRY IT • 2

Find three consecutive even integers such that three times the second equals four more than the sum of the first and third.

Find three consecutive integers whose sum is negative six.

Strategy • First even integer: n Second even integer: n ⫹ 2 Third even integer: n ⫹ 4 • Three times the second equals four more than the sum of the first and third.

Solution 3共n ⫹ 2兲 ⫽ n ⫹ 共n ⫹ 4兲 ⫹ 4 3n ⫹ 6 ⫽ 2n ⫹ 8 3n ⫺ 2n ⫹ 6 ⫽ 2n ⫺ 2n ⫹ 8 n⫹6⫽8 n⫽2 n⫹2⫽2⫹2⫽4 n⫹4⫽2⫹4⫽6

The three integers are 2, 4, and 6. Solution on p. S8

FOCUS ON PROBLEM SOLVING At the end of each

chapter, the Focus on Problem Solving fosters further discovery of new problem-solving strategies, such as applying solutions to other problems, working backwards, inductive reasoning, and trial and error.

FOCUS ON PROBLEM SOLVING Dimensional Analysis

In solving application problems, it may be useful to include the units in order to organize the problem so that the answer is in the proper units. Using units to organize and check the correctness of an application is called dimensional analysis. We use the operations of multiplying units and dividing units in applying dimensional analysis to application problems. The Rule for Multiplying Exponential Expressions states that we multiply two expressions with the same base by adding the exponents. x4 ⭈ x6 ⫽ x4 ⫹6 ⫽ x10 In calculations that involve quantities, the units are operated on algebraically. HOW TO • 1

5m 3m

The area of the rectangle is 15 m2 (square meters). HOW TO • 2

3 cm 10 cm

xx

PREFACE

A rectangle measures 3 m by 5 m. Find the area of the rectangle.

A ⫽ LW ⫽ 13 m215 m2 ⫽ 13 ⭈ 521m ⭈ m2 ⫽ 15 m2

5 cm

A box measures 10 cm by 5 cm by 3 cm. Find the volume of

the box. V ⫽ LWH ⫽ 110 cm215 cm213 cm2 ⫽ 110 ⭈ 5 ⭈ 321cm ⭈ cm ⭈ cm2 ⫽ 150 cm3 The volume of the box is 150 cm3 (cubic centimeters).

General Revisions • • • • • • • • •

Section 9.1 was revised to include an introduction to interval notation. In the remainder of the chapter, the solution sets to inequalities are written either in set-builder notation or in interval notation. Chapter Openers now include Prep Tests for students to test their knowledge of prerequisite skills for the new chapter. Each exercise set has been thoroughly reviewed to ensure that the pace and scope of the exercises adequately cover the concepts introduced in the section. The variety of word problems has increased. This will appeal to instructors who teach to a range of student abilities and want to address different learning styles. Think About It exercises, which are conceptual in nature, have been added. They are meant to assess and strengthen a student’s understanding of the material presented in an objective. In the News exercises have been added and are based on a media source such as a newspaper, a magazine, or the Web. The exercises demonstrate the pervasiveness and utility of mathematics in a contemporary setting. Concept Reviews now appear in the end-of-chapter materials to help students more actively study and review the contents of the chapter. The Chapter Review Exercises and Chapter Tests have been adjusted to ensure that there are questions that assess the key ideas in the chapter. The design has been significantly modified to make the text even easier to follow.

Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank the people who have reviewed this manuscript and provided many valuable suggestions. Chris Bendixen, Lake Michigan College Dorothy Fujimura, CSU East Bay Oxana Grinevich, Lourdes College Joseph Phillips, Warren County Community College Melissa Rossi, Southwestern Illinois College Daryl Schrader, St. Petersburg College Yan Tian, Palomar College The authors would also like to thank the people who reviewed the seventh edition. Dorothy A. Brown, Camden County College Kim Doyle, Monroe Community College Said Fariabi, San Antonio College Kimberly A. Gregor, Delaware Technical and Community College Allen Grommet, East Arkansas Community College Anne Haney Rose M. Kaniper, Burlington County College Mary Ann Klicka, Bucks County Community College Helen Medley, Kent State University Steve Meidinger, Merced College James R. Perry, Owens Community College Gowribalan Vamadeva, University of Cincinnati Susan Wessner, Tallahassee Community College Special thanks go to Jean Bermingham for her work copyediting and proofreading, to Pat Foard for preparing the solutions manuals, and to Cindy Trimble for her work in ensuring the accuracy of the text. We would also like to thank the many people at Cengage Learning who worked to guide the manuscript from development through production.

Instructor Resources Print Ancillaries Complete Solutions Manual (1-439-04712-X) Pat Foard, South Plains College The Complete Solutions Manual provides workedout solutions to all of the problems in the text. Instructor’s Resource Binder (0-538-49774-2) Maria H. Andersen, Muskegon Community College The Instructor’s Resource Binder contains uniquely designed Teaching Guides, which include instruction tips, examples, activities, worksheets, overheads, and assessments, with answers to accompany them. Appendix to accompany Instructor’s Resource Binder (0-538-49774-2) Richard N. Aufmann, Palomar College Joanne S. Lockwood, Nashua Community College New! The Appendix to accompany the Instructor’s Resource Binder contains teacher resources that are tied directly to Introductory Algebra: An Applied Approach, 8e. Organized by objective, the Appendix contains additional questions and short, in-class activities. The Appendix also includes answers to Writing Exercises, Focus on Problem Solving, and Projects and Group Activities found in the text.

Electronic Ancillaries Enhanced WebAssign Used by over one million students at more than 1,100 institutions, WebAssign allows you to assign, collect, grade, and record homework assignments via the Web. This proven and reliable homework system includes thousands of algorithmically generated homework problems, links to relevant textbook sections, video examples, problem-specific tutorials, and more. Solution Builder (1-439-04716-2) This online solutions manual allows instructors to create customizable solutions that they can print out to distribute or post as needed. This is a convenient and expedient way to deliver solutions to specific homework sets.

PowerLecture with Diploma® (1-439-04735-9) This CD-ROM provides the instructor with dynamic media tools for teaching. Create, deliver, and customize tests (both print and online) in minutes with Diploma’s Computerized Testing featuring algorithmic equations. Easily build solution sets for homework or exams using Solution Builder’s online solutions manual. Quickly and easily update your syllabus with the new Syllabus Creator, which was created by the authors and contains the new edition’s table of contents. Practice Sheets, First Day of Class PowerPoint® lecture slides, art and figures from the book, and a test bank in electronic format are also included on this CD-ROM. Text Specific DVDs (1-439-04715-4) Hosted by Dana Mosely and captioned for the hearing-impaired, these DVDs cover all sections in the text. Ideal for promoting individual study and review, these comprehensive DVDs also support students in online courses or those who may have missed a lecture.

Student Resources Print Ancillaries Student Solutions Manual (1-439-04711-1) Pat Foard, South Plains College The Student Solutions Manual provides worked-out solutions to the odd-numbered problems in the textbook. Student Workbook (1-439-04717-0) Maria H. Andersen, Muskegon Community College Get a head-start! The Student Workbook contains assessments, activities, and worksheets from the Instructor’s Resource Binder. Use them for additional practice to help you master the content.

Electronic Ancillaries Enhanced WebAssign If you are looking for extra practice or additional support, Enhanced WebAssign offers practice problems, videos, and tutorials that are tied directly to the problems found in the textbook. Text Specific DVDs (1-439-04715-4) Hosted by Dana Mosley, an experienced mathematics instructor, the DVDs will help you to get a better handle on topics found in the textbook. A comprehensive set of DVDs for the entire course is available to order.

 AIM for Success: Getting Started Welcome to Introductory Algebra: An Applied Approach! Students come to this course with varied backgrounds and different experiences in learning math. We are committed to your success in learning mathematics and have developed many tools and resources to support you along the way. Want to excel in this course? Read on to learn the skills you’ll need and how best to use this book to get the results you want. Motivate Yourself

You’ll find many real-life problems in this book, relating to sports, money, cars, music, and more. We hope that these topics will help you understand how you will use mathematics in your real life. However, to learn all of the necessary skills and how you can apply them to your life outside this course, you need to stay motivated.

Take Note

Make the Commitment

THINK ABOUT WHY YOU WANT TO SUCCEED IN THIS COURSE. LIST THE REASONS HERE (NOT IN YOUR HEAD . . . ON THE PAPER!):

We also know that this course may be a requirement for you to graduate or complete your major. That’s OK. If you have a goal for the future, such as becoming a nurse or a teacher, you will need to succeed in mathematics first. Picture yourself where you want to be, and use this image to stay on track. Stay committed to success! With practice, you will improve your math skills. Skeptical? Think about when you first learned to ride a bike or drive a car. You probably felt self-conscious and worried that you might fail. But with time and practice, it became second nature to you.

Motivation alone won’t lead to success. For example, suppose a person who cannot swim is rowed out to the middle of a lake and thrown overboard. That person has a lot of motivation to swim, but will most likely drown without some help. You’ll need motivation and learning in order to succeed.

You will also need to put in the time and practice to do well in mathematics. Think of us as your “driving” instructors. We’ll lead you along the path to success, but we need you to stay focused and energized along the way.

LIST A SITUATION IN WHICH YOU ACCOMPLISHED YOUR GOAL BY SPENDING TIME PRACTICING AND PERFECTING YOUR SKILLS (SUCH AS LEARNING TO PLAY THE PIANO OR PLAYING BASKETBALL):

AIM FOR SUCCESS

xxiii

If you spend time learning and practicing the skills in this book, you will also succeed in math. You can do math! When you first learned the skills you just listed, you may have not done them well. With practice, you got better. With practice, you will be better at math. Stay focused, motivated, and committed to success. It is difficult for us to emphasize how important it is to overcome the “I Can’t Do Math Syndrome.” If you listen to interviews of very successful athletes after a particularly bad performance, you will note that they focus on the positive aspect of what they did, not the negative. Sports psychologists encourage athletes to always be positive—to have a “Can Do” attitude. Develop this attitude toward math and you will succeed. Skills for Success

Think You Can’t Do Math? Think Again!

GET THE BIG PICTURE If this were an English class, we wouldn’t encourage you to look ahead in the book. But this is mathematics—go right ahead! Take a few minutes to read the table of contents. Then, look through the entire book. Move quickly: scan titles, look at pictures, notice diagrams.

Getting this big picture view will help you see where this course is going. To reach your goal, it’s important to get an idea of the steps you will need to take along the way. As you look through the book, find topics that interest you. What’s your preference? Horse racing? Sailing? TV? Amusement parks? Find the Index of Applications at the back of the book and pull out three subjects that interest you. Then, flip to the pages in the book where the topics are featured and read the exercises or problems where they appear.

WRITE THE TOPIC HERE:

xxiv

AIM FOR SUCCESS

WRITE THE CORRESPONDING EXERCISE/PROBLEM HERE:

You’ll find it’s easier to work at learning the material if you are interested in how it can be used in your everyday life. Use the following activities to think about more ways you might use mathematics in your daily life. Flip open your book to the following exercises to answer the questions.

(see p. 159, #33) I’m trying to figure out how many text messages I can afford to send in a month. I need to use algebra to . . .

(see p. 308, #81) I’m comparing the gas mileage between two cars. I need algebra to . . .

(see p. 323, #21) I’m making a dessert for a party. I need enough servings for 25 people. I need algebra to . . .

You know that the activities you just completed are from daily life, but do you notice anything else they have in common? That’s right—they are word problems. Try not to be intimidated by word problems. You just need a strategy. It’s true that word problems can be challenging because we need to use multiple steps to solve them: 䊏 䊏 䊏 䊏 䊏

Read the problem. Determine the quantity we must find. Think of a method to find it. Solve the problem. Check the answer.

In short, we must come up with a strategy and then use that strategy to find the solution.

We’ll teach you about strategies for tackling word problems that will make you feel more confident in branching out to these problems from daily life. After all, even though no one will ever come up to you on the street and ask you to solve a multiplication problem, you will need to use math every day to balance your checkbook, evaluate credit card offers, etc. Take a look at the following example. You’ll see that solving a word problem includes finding a strategy and using that strategy to find a solution. If you find yourself struggling with a word problem, try writing down the information you know about the problem. Be as specific as you can. Write out a phrase or a sentence that states what you are trying to find. Ask yourself whether there is a formula that expresses the known and unknown quantities. Then, try again! EXAMPLE • 5

YOU TRY IT • 5

A student must have at least 450 points out of 500 points on five tests to receive an A in a course. One student’s results on the first four tests were 94, 87, 77, and 95. What scores on the last test will enable this student to receive an A in the course?

A consumer electronics dealer will make a profit on the sale of an LCD HDTV if the cost of the TV is less than 70% of the selling price. What selling prices will enable the dealer to make a profit on a TV that costs the dealer \$942?

Strategy To find the scores, write and solve an inequality using N to represent the possible scores on the last test.

Solution Total number of points on the five tests

Your solution is greater than or equal to

450

94 ⫹ 87 ⫹ 77 ⫹ 95 ⫹ N ⱖ 450 353 ⫹ N ⱖ 450 353 ⫺ 353 ⫹ N ⱖ 450 ⫺ 353 N ⱖ 97

• Simplify. • Subtract 353.

The student’s score on the last test must be greater than or equal to 97.

Solutions on p. S23

Page 456

AIM FOR SUCCESS

xxv

The attendance policy will tell you: • How many classes you can miss without a penalty • What to do if you miss an exam or quiz • If you can get the lecture notes from the professor if you miss a class

Take Note When planning your schedule, give some thought to how much time you realistically have available each week. For example, if you work 40 hours a week, take 15 units, spend the recommended study time given at the right, and sleep 8 hours a day, you will use over 80% of the available hours in a week. That leaves less than 20% of the hours in a week for family, friends, eating, recreation, and other activities. Visit http://college. cengage.com/masterstudent/ shared/content/time_chart/ chart.html and use the Interactive Time Chart to see how you’re spending your time—you may be surprised.

On the first day of class, your instructor will hand out a syllabus listing the requirements of your course. Think of this syllabus as your personal roadmap to success. It shows you the destinations (topics you need to learn) and the dates you need to arrive at those destinations (by when you need to learn the topics). Learning mathematics is a journey. But, to get the most out of this course, you’ll need to know what the important stops are and what skills you’ll need to learn for your arrival at those stops.

GET THE BASICS

Let’s get started! Create a weekly schedule. First, list all of your responsibilities that take up certain set hours during the week. Be sure to include: 䊏 䊏 䊏

• • 䊏 䊏

AIM FOR SUCCESS

each class you are taking time you spend at work any other commitments (child care, tutoring, volunteering, etc.)

Then, list all of your responsibilities that are more flexible. Remember to make time for:

xxvi

Take Note Take a look at your syllabus to see if your instructor has an attendance policy that is part of your overall grade in the course.

STUDYING You’ll need to study to succeed, but luckily you get to choose what times work best for you. Keep in mind: Most instructors ask students to spend twice as much time studying as they do in class (3 hours of class ⫽ 6 hours of study). Try studying in chunks. We’ve found it works better to study an hour each day, rather than studying for 6 hours on one day. Studying can be even more helpful if you’re able to do it right after your class meets, when the material is fresh in your mind. MEALS Eating well gives you energy and stamina for attending classes and studying. ENTERTAINMENT It’s impossible to stay focused on your responsibilities 100% of the time. Giving yourself a break for entertainment will reduce your stress and help keep you on track. EXERCISE Exercise contributes to overall health. You’ll find you’re at your most productive when you have both a healthy mind and a healthy body.

Here is a sample of what part of your schedule might look like:

8–9

9–10

10–11

11–12

Monday

History class Jenkins Hall 8–9:15

Eat 9:15–10

Study/Homework for History 10–12

Tuesday

Breakfast

Math Class Douglas Hall 9–9:45

Study/Homework for Math 10–12

1–2

2–3

3–4

Lunch and Nap! 12–1:30

Eat 12–1

English Class Scott Hall 1–1:45

4–5

5–6

Work 2–6

Study/Homework for English 2–4

Hang out with Alli and Mike 4–6

ORGANIZATION Let’s look again at the Table of Contents. There are 11 chapters in this book. You’ll see that every chapter is divided into sections, and each section contains a number of learning objectives. Each learning objective is labeled with a letter from A to E. Knowing how this book is organized will help you locate important topics and concepts as you’re studying. PREPARATION Ready to start a new chapter? Take a few minutes to be sure you’re ready, using some of the tools in this book. 䊏 CUMULATIVE REVIEW EXERCISES: You’ll find these exercises after every chapter, starting with Chapter 2. The questions in the Cumulative Review Exercises are taken from the previous chapters. For example, the Cumulative Review for Chapter 3 will test all of the skills you have learned in Chapters 1, 2, and 3. Use this to refresh yourself before moving on to the next chapter, or to test what you know before a big exam.

Here’s an example of how to use the Cumulative Review: • Turn to page 189 and look at the questions for the Chapter 3 Cumulative Review, which are taken from the current chapter and the previous chapters. • We have the answers to all of the Cumulative Review Exercises in the back of the book. Flip to page A8 to see the answers for this chapter. • Got the answer wrong? We can tell you where to go in the book for help! For example, scroll down page A8 to find the answer for the first exercise, which is 6. You’ll see that after this answer, there is an objective reference [1.2B]. This means that the question was taken from Chapter 1, Section 2, Objective B. Go here to restudy the objective. 䊏 PREP TESTS: These tests are found at the beginning of every chapter and will help you see if you’ve mastered all of the skills needed for the new chapter.

Features for Success in This Text

12–1

Here’s an example of how to use the Prep Test: • Turn to page 191 and look at the Prep Test for Chapter 4. • All of the answers to the Prep Tests are in the back of the book. You’ll find them in the first set of answers in each answer section for a chapter. Turn to page A9 to see the answers for this Prep Test. • Restudy the objectives if you need some extra help.

AIM FOR SUCCESS

xxvii

Before you start a new section, take a few minutes to read the Objective Statement for that section. Then, browse through the objective material. Especially note the words or phrases in bold type—these are important concepts that you’ll need as you’re moving along in the course. As you start moving through the chapter, pay special attention to the rule boxes. These rules give you the reasons certain types of problems are solved the way they are. When you see a rule, try to rewrite the rule in your own words. Rule for Multiplying Exponential Expressions If m and n are positive integers, then x m ⭈ x n ⫽ x m ⫹ n.

Page 196

Knowing what to pay attention to as you move through a chapter will help you study and prepare. We want you to be actively involved in learning mathematics and have given you many ways to get hands-on with this book.

INTERACTION 䊏

HOW TO EXAMPLES Take a look at page 46 shown here. See the HOW TO example? This contains an explanation by each step of the solution to a sample problem. Find the product of 7.43 and ⫺0.00025.

HOW TO • 3

7.43 ⫻ 0.00025 3715 1486 0.0018575

2 decimal places 5 decimal places

• Multiply the absolute values.

7 decimal places

7.431⫺0.00025 2 ⫽ ⫺0.0018575

• The signs are different. The product is negative.

Page 46

Grab a paper and pencil and work along as you’re reading through each example. When you’re done, get a clean sheet of paper. Write down the problem and try to complete the solution without looking at your notes or at the book. When you’re done, check your answer. If you got it right, you’re ready to move on. 䊏

EXAMPLE/YOU TRY IT PAIRS You’ll need hands-on practice to succeed in mathematics. When we show you an example, work it out beside our solution. Use the Example/You Try It pairs to get the practice you need. Take a look at page 46, Example 1 and You Try It 1 shown here: EXAMPLE • 1

YOU TRY IT • 1

12 3 Multiply: ⫺ a⫺ b 8 17 Solution 3 12 3 ⫺ a⫺ b ⫽ 8 17 8

# #

9 ⫽ 34

Page 46

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AIM FOR SUCCESS

• The signs are the same. The product is positive.

3 # 2 # 2 # 3 2 # 2 # 2 # 17 1

5 4 a⫺ b 8 25

Multiply:

1

1

• Write the answer in simplest form.

You’ll see that each Example is fully worked-out. Study this Example carefully by working through each step. Then, try your hand at it by completing the You Try It. If you get stuck, the solutions to the You Try Its are provided in the back of the book. There is a page number following the You Try It, which shows you where you can find the completely worked-out solution. Use the solution to get a hint for the step on which you are stuck. Then, try again! When you’ve finished the solution, check your work against the solution in the back of the book. Turn to page S3 to see the solution for You Try It 1. Remember that sometimes there can be more than one way to solve a problem. But, your answer should always match the answers we’ve given in the back of the book. If you have any questions about whether your method will always work, check with your instructor. REVIEW We have provided many opportunities for you to practice and review the skills

you have learned in each chapter. 䊏

SECTION EXERCISES After you’re done studying a section, flip to the end of the section and complete the exercises. If you immediately practice what you’ve learned, you’ll find it easier to master the core skills. Want to know if you answered the questions correctly? The answers to the odd-numbered exercises are given in the back of the book.

CHAPTER SUMMARY Once you’ve completed a chapter, look at the Chapter Summary. This is divided into two sections: Key Words and Essential Rules and Procedures. Flip to page 225 to see the Chapter Summary for Chapter 4. This summary shows all of the important topics covered in the chapter. See the reference following each topic? This shows you the objective reference and the page in the text where you can find more information on the concept.

CONCEPT REVIEW Following the Chapter Summary for each chapter is the Concept Review. Flip to page 228 to see the Concept Review for Chapter 4. When you read each question, jot down a reminder note on the right about whatever you feel will be most helpful to remember if you need to apply that concept during an exam. You can also use the space on the right to mark what concepts your instructor expects you to know for the next test. If you are unsure of the answer to a concept review question, flip to the answers appendix at the back of the book.

CHAPTER REVIEW EXERCISES You’ll find the Chapter Review Exercises after the Concept Review. Flip to page 345 to see the Chapter Review Exercises for Chapter 6. When you do the review exercises, you’re giving yourself an important opportunity to test your understanding of the chapter. The answer to each review exercise is given at the back of the book, along with the objective the question relates to. When you’re done with the Chapter Review Exercises, check your answers. If you had trouble with any of the questions, you can restudy the objectives and retry some of the exercises in those objectives for extra help.

AIM FOR SUCCESS

xxix

CHAPTER TESTS The Chapter Tests can be found after the Chapter Review Exercises and can be used to prepare for your exams. The answer to each test question is given at the back of the book, along with a reference to a How To, Example, or You Try It that the question relates to. Think of these tests as “practice runs” for your in-class tests. Take the test in a quiet place and try to work through it in the same amount of time you will be allowed for your exam.

Here are some strategies for success when you’re taking your exams:

• • • • EXCEL 䊏 䊏

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AIM FOR SUCCESS

Read the directions carefully. Work the problems that are easiest for you first. Stay calm, and remember that you will have lots of opportunities for success in this class! Visit www.cengage.com/math/aufmann to learn about additional study tools! Enhanced WebAssign® online practice exercises and homework problems match the textbook exercises. DVDs Hosted by Dana Mosley, an experienced mathematics instructor, the DVDs will help you to get a better handle on topics that may be giving you trouble. A comprehensive set of DVDs for the entire course is available to order.

Your instructor will have office hours where he or she will be available to help you. Take note of where and when your instructor holds office hours. Use this time for one-on-one help, if you need it.

Form a study group with students from your class. This is a great way to prepare for tests, catch up on topics you may have missed, or get extra help on problems you’re struggling with. Here are a few suggestions to make the most of your study group:

Test each other by asking questions. Have each person bring a few sample questions when you get together.

Get Involved

Scan the entire test to get a feel for the questions (get the big picture).

Compare class notes. Couldn’t understand the last five minutes of class? Missed class because you were sick? Chances are someone in your group has the notes for the topics you missed.

• •

Brainstorm test questions.

Practice teaching each other. We’ve found that you can learn a lot about what you know when you have to explain it to someone else.

Make a plan for your meeting. Agree on what topics you’ll talk about and how long you’ll be meeting. When you make a plan, you’ll be sure that you make the most of your meeting.

It takes hard work and commitment to succeed, but we know you can do it! Doing well in mathematics is just one step you’ll take along the path to success.

I succeeded in Introductory Algebra! We are confident that if you follow our suggestions, you will succeed. Good luck!

Rubberball

AIM FOR SUCCESS

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CHAPTER

1

Prealgebra Review

Panoramic Images/Getty Images

OBJECTIVES SECTION 1.1 A To use inequality symbols with integers B To use opposites and absolute value SECTION 1.2 A To add integers B To subtract integers C To solve application problems SECTION 1.3 A To multiply integers B To divide integers C To solve application problems SECTION 1.4 A To evaluate exponential expressions B To use the Order of Operations Agreement to simplify expressions SECTION 1.5 A To factor numbers B To find the prime factorization of a number C To find the least common multiple and greatest common factor SECTION 1.6 A To write a rational number in simplest form and as a decimal B To add rational numbers C To subtract rational numbers D To solve application problems SECTION 1.7 A To multiply rational numbers B To divide rational numbers C To convert among percents, fractions, and decimals D To solve application problems SECTION 1.8 A To find the measures of angles B To solve perimeter problems C To solve area problems

ARE YOU READY? Take the Chapter 1 Prep Test to find out if you are ready to learn to: • Add, subtract, multiply, and divide integers and rational numbers • Evaluate numerical expressions • Convert among percents, fractions, and decimals • Solve perimeter and area problems PREP TEST Do these exercises to prepare for Chapter 1. 1. What is 127.1649 rounded to the nearest hundredth?

2. Add: 3416  42,561  537

3. Subtract: 5004  487

4. Multiply: 407  28

5. Divide: 11,684  23

6. What is the smallest number that both 8 and 12 divide evenly?

7. What is the greatest number that divides both 16 and 20 evenly?

8. Without using 1, write 21 as a product of two whole numbers.

9. Represent the shaded portion of the figure as a fraction in simplest form.

10. Which of the following, if any, is not possible? a. 6  0 b. 6  0 c. 6  0 d. 6  0

1

2

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

SECTION

1.1

Introduction to Integers

OBJECTIVE A

To use inequality symbols with integers It seems to be a human characteristic to group similar items. For instance, a biologist places similar animals in groups called species. Nutritionists classify foods according to food groups; for example, pasta, crackers, and rice are among the foods in the bread group.

Mathematicians place objects with similar properties in groups called sets. A set is a collection of objects. The objects in a set are called the elements of the set. The roster method of writing sets encloses a list of the elements in braces. Thus the set of sections within an orchestra is written {brass, percussion, string, woodwind}. When the elements of a set are listed, each element is listed only once. For instance, if the list of numbers 1, 2, 3, 2, 3 were placed in a set, the set would be {1, 2, 3}. The symbol 僆 means “is an element of.” 2 僆 B is read “2 is an element of set B.” Given C  {3, 5, 9}, then 3 僆 C, 5 僆 C, and 9 僆 C. 7 僆 C is read “7 is not an element of set C.” The numbers that we use to count objects, such as the students in a classroom or the horses on a ranch, are the natural numbers. Natural numbers  51, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, . . .6

Point of Interest The Alexandrian astronomer Ptolemy began using omicron, 0, the first letter of the Greek word that means “nothing,” as the symbol for zero in 150 A.D. It was not until the 13th century, however, that Fibonacci introduced 0 to the Western world as a placeholder so that we could distinguish, for example, 45 from 405.

The three dots mean that the list of natural numbers continues on and on and that there is no largest natural number. The natural numbers alone do not provide all the numbers that are useful in applications. For instance, a meteorologist also needs the number zero and numbers below zero. Integers  5. . . , 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, . . .6 Each integer can be shown on a number line. The integers to the left of zero on the number line are called negative integers. The integers to the right of zero are called positive integers, or natural numbers. Zero is neither a positive nor a negative integer. Integers –5

–4

–3

Negative integers

–2

–1

0

Zero

1

2

3

Positive integers

4

5

SECTION 1.1

Introduction to Integers

3

The graph of an integer is shown by placing a heavy dot on the number line directly above the number. The graphs of 3 and 4 are shown on the number line below.

–5

–4

–3

–2

–1

0

1

2

3

4

5

Consider the following sentences. The quarterback threw the football and the receiver caught it. A student purchased a computer and used it to write history papers. In the first sentence, it is used to mean the football; in the second sentence, it means the computer. In language, the word it can stand for many different objects. Similarly, in mathematics, a letter of the alphabet can be used to stand for a number. Such a letter is called a variable. Variables are used in the following definition of inequality symbols.

Point of Interest The symbols for “is less than” and “is greater than” were introduced by Thomas Harriot around 1630. Before that, ⬱ and ⬲ were used for  and , respectively.

Inequality Symbols If a and b are two numbers and a is to the left of b on the number line, then a is less than b. This is written a  b. If a and b are two numbers and a is to the right of b on the number line, then a is greater than b. This is written a  b.

Negative 4 is less than negative 1. 4  1

–5

–4

–3

–2

–1

0

1

2

3

4

5

–5

–4

–3

–2

–1

0

1

2

3

4

5

5 is greater than 0. 50

There are also inequality symbols for is less than or equal to () and is greater than or equal to (). 7 15

7 is less than or equal to 15. This is true because 7  15.

6 6

6 is less than or equal to 6. This is true because 6  6.

EXAMPLE • 1

YOU TRY IT • 1

Use the roster method to write the set of negative integers greater than or equal to 4.

Use the roster method to write the set of positive integers less than 7.

Solution A  54, 3, 2, 16

Your solution • A set is designated by a capital letter.

Solution on p. S1

4

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

EXAMPLE • 2

YOU TRY IT • 2

Given A  {6, 2, 0}, which elements of set A are less than or equal to 2?

Given B  {5, 1, 5}, which elements of set B are greater than 1?

Solution Find the order relation between each element of set A and 2.

6  2 2  2 0  2 The elements 6 and 2 are less than or equal to 2.

Solution on p. S1

OBJECTIVE B

To use opposites and absolute value Two numbers that are the same distance from zero on the number line but are on opposite sides of zero are opposite numbers, or opposites. The opposite of a number is also called its additive inverse.

Tips for Success Some students think that they can “coast” at the beginning of this course because the topic of Chapter 1 is a review of prealgebra. However, this chapter lays the foundation for the entire course. Be sure you know and understand all the concepts presented. For example, study the properties of absolute value presented in this lesson.

The opposite of 5 is 5.

5

5

−5 −4 −3 −2 −1

0

1

2

3

4

5

The opposite of 5 is 5. The negative sign can be read “the opposite of.” 12 2  2 12 2  2

The opposite of 2 is 2. The opposite of 2 is 2.

The absolute value of a number is its distance from zero on the number line. Therefore, the absolute value of a number is a positive number or zero. The symbol for absolute value is two vertical bars, 0 0 . The distance from 0 to 3 is 3. Therefore, the absolute value of 3 is 3.

3

−5 −4 −3 −2 −1

0

1

2

3

4

5

0

1

2

3

4

5

03 0  3 The distance from 0 to 3 is 3. Therefore, the absolute value of 3 is 3. 03 0  3

3 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1

SECTION 1.1

Point of Interest The definition of absolute value given in the box is written in what is called rhetorical style. That is, it is written without the use of variables. This is how all mathematics was written prior to the Renaissance. During that period from the 14th to the 16th century, the idea of expressing a variable symbolically was developed. Using variables, the definition of absolute value is x, x  0 0x 0  • 0, x  0 x, x  0

Introduction to Integers

5

Absolute Value The absolute value of a positive number is the number itself. For example, 0 9 0  9. The absolute value of zero is zero. 0 0 0  0

The absolute value of a negative number is the opposite of the negative number. For example, 0 7 0  7.

HOW TO • 1

 012 0  12

Evaluate:  012 0

EXAMPLE • 3

• The absolute value symbol does not affect the negative sign in front of the absolute value symbol.

YOU TRY IT • 3

Evaluate 04 0 and  010 0 .

Evaluate 05 0 and  023 0 .

Solution 04 0  4  010 0  10

EXAMPLE • 4

YOU TRY IT • 4

Given A  再12, 0, 4冎, find the additive inverse of each element of set A.

Given B  再11, 0, 8冎, find the additive inverse of each element of set B.

Solution 1122  12 0  0 14 2  4

Your solution • Zero is neither positive nor negative.

EXAMPLE • 5

YOU TRY IT • 5

Given C  再17, 0, 14冎, find the absolute value of each element of set C.

Given D  再37, 0, 29冎, find the absolute value of each element of set D.

Solution 017 0  17 00 0  0 014 0  14

Solutions on p. S1

6

CHAPTER 1

Preaglebra Review

1.1 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To use inequality symbols with integers

1. Explain the difference between the natural numbers and the integers.

2. Name the smallest integer that is larger than any negative integer.

For Exercises 3 to 12, place the correct symbol,  or , between the two numbers. 3. 8 8. 42

6 27

4. 14 9. 0

16 31

5. 12

1

6. 35

10. 17

0

11. 53

28 46

7. 42

19

12. 27

38

For Exercises 13 to 22, answer true or false. 13. 13  0

14. 20  3

15. 12  31

16. 9  7

17. 5  2

18. 44  21

19. 4  120

20. 0  8

21. 1 1

22. 10 10

For Exercises 23 and 24, determine which of the following statements is true about n. (i) n is positive. (ii) n is negative. (iii) n is zero. (iv) n can be positive, negative, or zero. 23. The number n is to the right of the number 5 on the number line. 24. The number n is to the left of the number 5 on the number line.

For Exercises 25 to 30, use the roster method to write the set. 25. The natural numbers less than 9

26. The natural numbers less than or equal to 6

27. The positive integers less than or equal to 8

28. The positive integers less than 4

29. The negative integers greater than 7

30. The negative integers greater than or equal to 5

31. Given A  57, 0, 2, 56, which elements of set A are greater than 2?

32. Given B  58, 0, 7, 156, which elements of set B are greater than 7?

33. Given D  523, 18, 8, 06, which elements of set D are less than 8?

34. Given C  533, 24, 10, 06, which elements of set C are less than 10?

35. Given E  535, 13, 21, 376, which elements of set E are greater than 10?

36. Given F  527, 14, 14, 276, which elements of set F are greater than 15?

SECTION 1.1

Introduction to Integers

7

37. Given that set A is the positive integers less than 10, which elements of set A are greater than or equal to 5?

38. Given that set B is the positive integers less than or equal to 12, which elements of set B are greater than 6?

39. Given that set D is the negative integers greater than or equal to 10, which elements of set D are less than 4?

40. Given that set C is the negative integers greater than 8, which elements of set C are less than or equal to 3?

OBJECTIVE B

To use opposites and absolute value

For Exercises 41 to 45, find the additive inverse. 41. 4

42. 8

43. 9

44. 28

45. 36

48. 177 2

49. 1392

50. 1132

53.  082 0

54.  053 0

55.  081 0

For Exercises 46 to 55, evaluate. 47. 140 2

46. 1142 51.

074 0

52.

096 0

For Exercises 56 to 63, place the correct symbol,  or , between the two expressions. 56.

083 0

058 0

57.

022 0

019 0

58.

043 0

60.

068 0

042 0

61.

012 0

031 0

62.

045 0

64. Use the set A  58, 5, 2, 1, 36. a. Find the opposite of each element of set A. b. Find the absolute value of each element of set A.

052 0 061 0

59.

071 0

092 0

63.

028 0

043 0

65. Use the set B  511, 7, 3, 1, 56. a. Find the opposite of each element of set B. b. Find the absolute value of each element of set B.

66. True or false? The absolute value of a negative number n is greater than n.

Applying the Concepts 67. If x represents a negative integer, then x represents a __________________ integer. 68. If x is an integer, is the inequality 0 x兩  3 always true, sometimes true, or never true?

8

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

SECTION

1.2 OBJECTIVE A

Addition and Subtraction of Integers To add integers A number can be represented anywhere along the number line by an arrow. A positive number is represented by an arrow pointing to the right, and a negative number is represented by an arrow pointing to the left. The size of the number is represented by the length of the arrow. −4

+5 – 10

–9

–8

–7

–6

–5

–4

–3

–2

–1

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Addition is the process of finding the total of two numbers. The numbers being added are called addends. The total is called the sum. Addition of integers can be shown on the number line. To add integers, start at zero and draw, above the number line, an arrow representing the first number. At the tip of the first arrow, draw a second arrow representing the second number. The sum is below the tip of the second arrow. 4  12 2  6

426 +4 – 4 –3 –2 –1

0

1

2

+2 3

4

5

−2 6

7

−4

–7 –6 –5 – 4 –3 –2 –1

0

1

2

3

4

4

5

6

7

4  12 2  2

4  2  2

+4

−4

−2

+2 –7 –6 –5 – 4 –3 –2 –1

0

1

2

3

4

– 4 –3 –2 –1

0

1

2

3

The pattern for addition shown on the number lines above is summarized in the following rules for adding integers. Addition of Integers To add two numbers with the same sign, add the absolute values of the numbers. Then attach the sign of the addends. To add two numbers with different signs, find the absolute value of each number. Subtract the smaller of the two numbers from the larger. Then attach the sign of the number with the larger absolute value.

Tips for Success The HOW TO feature indicates an example with explanatory remarks. Using paper and pencil, you should work through the example. See AIM for Success at the front of the book.

Add: 12  1262 12  126 2  38 • The signs are the same. Add the absolute values of the

HOW TO • 1

numbers 112  262 . Attach the sign of the addends.

HOW TO • 2

Add: 19  8 08 0  8 • The signs are different. Find the absolute value of each number.

019 0  19 19  8  11 19  8  11

• Subtract the smaller number from the larger. • Attach the sign of the number with the larger absolute value.

SECTION 1.2

9

Find the sum of 23, 47, 18, and 10. Recall that a sum is the answer to an addition problem.

HOW TO • 3

23  47  1182  110 2  24  118 2  1102  6  1102  4

Tips for Success One of the key instructional features of this text is the Example/You Try It pairs. Each example is completely worked. You are to solve the You Try It problems. When you are ready, check your solution against the one given in the Solutions section at the back of the book. The solution for You Try It 1 below is on page S1 (see the reference at the bottom right of the You Try It). See AIM for Success at the front of the book.

• To add more than two numbers, add the first two numbers. Then add the sum to the third number. Continue until all the numbers are added.

The phrase the sum of in the example above indicates the operation of addition. All of the phrases below indicate addition. added to

9  162  3

more than

3 more than 8

8  3  5

the sum of

the sum of 2 and 8

2  182  10

increased by

7 increased by 5

7  5  2

the total of

the total of 4 and 9

4  192  5

plus

6 plus 10

EXAMPLE • 1

6  1102  4

YOU TRY IT • 1

Solution 52  1392  91

EXAMPLE • 2

YOU TRY IT • 2

Add: 37  152 2  1142

Add: 51  42  17  1102 2

Solution 37  1522  114 2  15  114 2  29

EXAMPLE • 3

YOU TRY IT • 3

Find 11 more than 23.

Find 8 increased by 7.

Solution 23  11  12

Your solution Solutions on p. S1

OBJECTIVE B

To subtract integers Look at the expressions below. Note that each expression equals the same number. 8  3  5 8 minus 3 is 5. 8  132  5 8 plus the opposite of 3 is 5. This example suggests the following. Subtraction of Integers To subtract one number from another, add the opposite of the second number to the first number.

10

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

HOW TO • 4

Subtract: 21  140 2

Change this sign to plus.

21  140 2  21  40  19 Change 40 to the opposite of 40.

HOW TO • 5

Subtract: 15  51

Change this sign to plus.

15  51  15  151 2  36 Change 51 to the opposite of 51.

Subtract: 12  121 2  15 12  121 2  15  12  21  115 2  9  115 2  6

HOW TO • 6

Find the difference between 8 and 7. A difference is the answer to a subtraction problem.

HOW TO • 7

8  7  8  17 2  15

The phrase the difference between in the example above indicates the operation of subtraction. All of the phrases below indicate subtraction.

Take Note Note the order in which numbers are subtracted when the phrase less than is used. If you have \$10 and a friend has \$6 less than you do, then your friend has \$6 less than \$10, or \$10  \$6  \$4.

minus

5 minus 11

5  11  16

less

3 less 5

3  5  8

less than

8 less than 2

the difference between

the difference between 5 and 4

5  4  9

decreased by

4 decreased by 9

4  9  13

subtract . . . from

subtract 8 from 3

3  8  11

EXAMPLE • 4

2  18 2  6

YOU TRY IT • 4

Subtract: 14  18  121 2  4

Subtract: 9  112 2  17  4

Solution 14  18  121 2  4  14  118 2  21  14 2  32  21  14 2  11  14 2  15

EXAMPLE • 5

YOU TRY IT • 5

Find 9 less than 4.

Subtract 12 from 11.

Solution 4  9  4  19 2  13

Your solution Solutions on p. S1

SECTION 1.2

OBJECTIVE C

11

To solve application problems Positive and negative numbers are used to express the profitability of a company. A profit is recorded as a positive number; a loss is recorded as a negative number. HOW TO • 8

Circuit City Stores, Inc. Net Income (in millions of dollars)

The bar graph below shows the net income for Circuit City Stores, Inc., for the years 2004 through 2008. Calculate the total net income for Circuit City Stores for these five years. 200

140 62

100 0 −100

2004

2007 2005

2006

2008

−8

−89

−200 −300 −400

−320

Source: Circuit City Stores, Inc.

Strategy To determine the total net income, add the net incomes for the years shown in the graph. Solution 89  62  140  18 2  1320 2  215

The total net income for 2004 through 2008 is \$215 million.

EXAMPLE • 6

YOU TRY IT • 6

The average temperature on Mercury’s sunlit side is 950°F. The average temperature on Mercury’s dark side is 346°F. Find the difference between these two average temperatures.

The average daytime temperature on Mars is 17°F. The average nighttime temperature on Mars is 130°F. Find the difference between these two average temperatures.

Strategy To find the difference, subtract the average temperature on the dark side (346) from the average temperature on the sunlit side (950).

Solution 950  1346 2  950  346  1296

The difference between the average temperatures is 1296°F. Solution on p. S1

12

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

1.2 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

1. Explain how to add two integers with the same sign.

2. Explain how to add two integers with different signs.

For Exercises 3 to 28, add. 3. 3  182

4.

6  19 2

5. 8  3

7. 3  180 2

8.

12  11 2

9. 23  123 2

6.

9  2

10.

12  112 2

11. 16  1162

12.

17  17

13. 48  1532

14.

19  1412

15. 17  13 2  29

16.

13  62  138 2

17. 3  18 2  12

18.

27  (42)  (18)

19. 13  1222  4  15 2

20.

14  13 2  7  1212

21. 22  20  2  1182

22.

6  18 2  14  14 2

23. 16  1172  118 2  10

24.

25  131 2  24  19

25. 26  1152  111 2  1122

26.

32  40  18 2  119 2

27. 17  1182  45  1102

28.

23  115 2  9  1152

29. Find the sum of 42 and 23.

30.

What is 4 more than 8?

31. What is 16 more than 31?

32.

Find 17 increased by 12.

33. Find the total of 17, 23, 43, and 19.

34.

What is 8 added to 21?

For Exercises 35 and 36, without finding the sum, determine whether the sum is positive or negative. 35. 812 + (537)

36.

The sum of 57 and 31

SECTION 1.2

OBJECTIVE B

13

To subtract integers

37. What is the difference between the terms minus and negative?

38. Explain how to subtract two integers.

For Exercises 39 to 68, subtract. 39. 16  8

40.

12  3

41.

7  14

42.

69

43. 7  2

44.

9  4

45.

7  122

46.

3  14 2

47. 6  13 2

48.

4  12 2

49.

6  1122

50.

12  16

51. 4  3  2

52. 4  5  12

53. 12  172  8

54. 12  132  115 2

55. 19  119 2  18

56. 8  182  14

57. 17  182  19 2

58. 7  8  11 2

59. 30  1652  29  4

60. 42  182 2  65  7

61. 16  47  63  12

62. 42  130 2  65  1112

63. 47  1672  13  15

64. 18  49  184 2  27

65. 19  17  136 2  12

66. 48  19  29  51

67. 21  114 2  43  12

68. 17  117 2  14  21

69. Find the difference between 21 and 36.

70.

What is 9 less than 12?

71. What is 12 less than 27?

72.

Find 21 decreased by 19.

73. What is 21 minus 37?

74.

Subtract 41 from 22.

14

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

For Exercises 75 and 76, without finding the difference, determine whether the difference is positive or negative. 75. 25  52

76. The difference between 8 and 5

OBJECTIVE C

To solve application problems

Geography The elevation, or height, of places on Earth is measured in relation to sea level, or the average level of the ocean’s surface. The table below shows height above sea level as a positive number and depth below sea level as a negative number. Use the table for Exercises 77 to 80.

Continent

Highest Elevation (in meters)

Lowest Elevation (in meters)

Africa

Mt. Kilimanjaro

5895

Qattara Depression

133

Asia

Mt. Everest

8850

400

Europe

Mt. Elbrus

5634

Caspian Sea

28

America

Mt. Aconcagua

6960

Death Valley

86

Paula Bronstein/Getty Images

77. Find the difference in elevation between Mt. Aconcagua and Death Valley.

78. What is the difference in elevation between Mt. Kilimanjaro and the Qattara Depression? Mt. Everest

79. For which continent shown is the difference between the highest and lowest elevations greatest?

80. For which continent shown is the difference between the highest and lowest elevations smallest?

Chemistry The table at the right shows the boiling point and the melting point in degrees Celsius of three chemical elements. Use this table for Exercises 81 and 82.

Chemical Element

Melting Point

357

39

62

71

Xenon

107

112

Mercury

81. Find the difference between the boiling point and the melting point of mercury.

Boiling Point

82. Find the difference between the boiling point and the melting point of xenon.

SECTION 1.2

Geography The graph at the right shows Earth’s three deepest ocean trenches and its three tallest mountains. Use this graph for Exercises 83 to 85.

Kangchenjunga 8586

9000

Qogir 8611

15

Mt. Everest 8850

8500

Meters

8000

83. What is the difference between the depth of the Philippine Trench and the depth of the Mariana Trench?

0 − 10,000 − 10,500 − 11,000

84. What is the difference between the height of Mt. Everest and the depth of the Mariana Trench?

− 11,500

− 10,630 − 10,540 Tonga Philippine Trench Trench − 11,520 Mariana Trench

85. Could Mt. Everest fit in the Tonga Trench?

86. Golf Scores In golf, a player’s score on a hole is 0 if he completes the hole in par. Par is the number of strokes in which a golfer should complete a hole. In a golf match, scores are given both as a total number of strokes taken on all holes and as a value relative to par, such as 4 (“4 under par”) or 2 (“2 over par”). a. See the news clipping at the right. Convert each of Woods’ scores for the first three days into a score relative to par. b. In a golf tournament, players’ daily scores are added. Add Woods’ three daily scores to find his score, relative to par, for the first three days of the tournament. c. Woods’ score on the fourth day was 71. What was his final score, relative to par, for the four-day tournament?

In the News Woods Leads 2008 Buick Invitational With scores of 67, 65, and 66 on his first three days, Tiger Woods leads going into the last day of this four-day tournament. Par for the 18-hole golf course at Torrey Pines Golf Club is 72 strokes. Source: sports.espn.go.com

b. Suppose the Aurora Borealis is sailing at sea level. It drills a hole 964 m deep in the ocean floor. The bottom of the hole is 4261 m below sea level. Use a negative number to represent the depth of the ocean floor below sea level.

Applying the Concepts 88. If a and b are integers, is the expression 0a  b 0  0a 0  0b 0 always true, sometimes true, or never true? 89. Is the difference between two integers always smaller than either one of the numbers in the difference? If not, give an example for which the difference between two integers is greater than either integer.

ERI/AFP/Newscom

87. Ocean Research The Aurora Borealis is a polar research ship currently under design. Scientists hope it will be operative by the year 2014. Plans call for the ship to have the ability to drill a hole 1000 m deep, even when it is sailing on seas as deep as 5000 m. (Source: European Science Foundation) a. Suppose the Aurora Borealis is sailing at sea level, 4673 m above the ocean floor. It drills a hole in the ocean floor 852 m deep. Use a negative number to represent the depth of the hole below sea level.

16

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

SECTION

1.3 OBJECTIVE A

Point of Interest The cross  was first used as a symbol for multiplication in 1631 in a book titled The Key to Mathematics. Also in that year, another book, Practice o f the Analytical A rt, advocated the use of a dot to indicate multiplication.

Multiplication and Division of Integers To multiply integers 326 3#26 13 2 12 2  6 312 2  6 1322  6

Several different symbols are used to indicate multiplication. The numbers being multiplied are called factors; for instance, 3 and 2 are factors in each of the examples at the right. The result is called the product. Note that when parentheses are used and there is no arithmetic symbol, the operation is multiplication. Multiplication is repeated addition of the same number. The product 3  5 is shown on the number line below.

0

1

2

5 3

4

5

6

7

5 8

⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

5

3  5  5  5  5  15

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Now consider the product of a positive and a negative number. ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

315 2  15 2  152  15 2  15 This suggests that the product of a positive number and a negative number is negative. Here are a few more examples. 417 2  28

182 7  56

6 # 7  42

To find the product of two negative numbers, look at the pattern at the right. As 5 multiplies a sequence of decreasing integers, the products increase by 5. The pattern can be continued by requiring that the product of two negative numbers be positive.

These numbers decrease by 1.

These numbers increase by 5.

5  3  15 5  2  10 5  1  5 5  0  0 5  112  5 5  122  10 5  13 2  15

Multiplication of Integers To multiply two numbers with the same sign, multiply the absolute values of the numbers. The product is positive. To multiply two numbers with different signs, multiply the absolute values of the numbers. The product is negative.

HOW TO • 1

51122  60

Multiply: 5112 2

• The signs are different. The product is negative.

SECTION 1.3

Multiplication and Division of Integers

17

Find the product of 8 and 16. A product is the answer to a multiplication problem.

HOW TO • 2

8116 2  128

• The signs are the same. The product is positive.

The phrase the product of in the example above indicates the operation of multiplication. All of the phrases below indicate multiplication. 719 2  63

times

7 times 9

the product of

the product of 12 and 8

multiplied by

15 multiplied by 11

twice

twice 14

1218 2  96

151112  165 2114 2  28

Multiply: 215 2 17 2 14 2 • To multiply more than two numbers, multiply 215 2 17 2 14 2  1017 2 14 2 the first two. Then multiply the product by the  70142  280

HOW TO • 3

third number. Continue until all the numbers are multiplied.

Consider the products shown at the right. Note that when there is an even number of negative factors, the product is positive. When there is an odd number of negative factors, the product is negative.

13 2 152 12 2 15 2 162 14 2 13 2 15 2 172 13 2 13 2 15 2 14 2 152 16 2 13 2 14 2 12 2 110 2 152

 15  60  420  900  7200

This idea can be summarized by the following useful rule: The product of an even number of negative factors is positive; the product of an odd number of negative factors is negative.

EXAMPLE • 1

YOU TRY IT • 1

Multiply: 13 2415 2

Multiply: 819 210

Solution 13 24152  1122 15 2  60

EXAMPLE • 2

YOU TRY IT • 2

Multiply: 1214 2 132 15 2

Multiply: 12 2 318 2 7

Solution 12142 13 2 15 2  1482 13 2 15 2  144152  720

EXAMPLE • 3

Find the product of 13 and 9. Solution 1319 2  117

YOU TRY IT • 3

What is 9 times 34? Your solution Solutions on p. S1

18

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

OBJECTIVE B

To divide integers

Take Note

For every division problem there is a related multiplication problem.

Think of the fraction bar as 8 “divided by.” Thus is 2 8 divided by 2. The number 2 is the divisor. The number 8 is the dividend. The result of the division, 4, is called the quotient.

8 4 2

4 # 2  8.

because

Division

Related multiplication

This fact and the rules for multiplying integers can be used to illustrate the rules for dividing integers. Note in the following examples that the quotient of two numbers with the same sign is positive.

Point of Interest There was quite a controversy over the date on which the new millennium started because of the number zero. When our current calendar was created, numbering began with the year 1 because 0 had not yet been invented. Thus at the beginning of year 2, 1 year had elapsed; at the beginning of year 3, 2 years had elapsed; and so on. This means that at the beginning of year 2000, 1999 years had elapsed. It was not until the beginning of year 2001 that 2000 years had elapsed and a new millennium began.

12  4 because 4 # 3  12. 3

The next two examples illustrate that the quotient of two numbers with different signs is negative. 12  4 because 14 2 13 2  12. 3

To divide two numbers with the same sign, divide the absolute values of the numbers. The quotient is positive. To divide two numbers with different signs, divide the absolute values of the numbers. The quotient is negative.

36  9  4

We can denote division using, for example, 63  172 , 63 . 7冄 63, or 7

12  4 because 14 23  12. 3

Division of Integers

HOW TO • 4

Take Note

12  4 because 4132  12. 3

Divide: 36  9 • The signs are different. The quotient is negative.

Find the quotient of 63 and 7. A quotient is the answer to a division problem.

HOW TO • 5

63 9 7

• The signs are the same. The quotient is positive.

The phrase the quotient of in the example above indicates the operation of division. All of the phrases below indicate division.

divided by

15 divided by 3

the quotient of

the quotient of 56 and 8

the ratio of

the ratio of 45 and 5

divide . . . by . . .

divide 100 by 20

15  132  5

1562  182  7

45  152  9

100  1202  5

SECTION 1.3

HOW TO • 6



Simplify: 

Multiplication and Division of Integers

19

56 7

56 56  a b  18 2  8 7 7

The properties of division are stated below. In these statements, the symbol ⬆ is read “is not equal to.”

Properties of Zero and One in Division 0  0. a a If a 0,  1 . a a  a. 1 a is undefined. 0 If a 0,

Zero divided by any number other than zero is zero. Any number other than zero divided by itself is one. A number divided by one is the number. Division by zero is not defined.

12 12 12  4,  4, and   4 suggests the following rule. 3 3 3 a a a   . If a and b are integers, and b ⬆ 0, then b b b

The fact that

EXAMPLE • 4

Divide: 11202  18 2 Solution 11202  18 2  15 EXAMPLE • 5

Divide: 1135 2  19 2 Your solution YOU TRY IT • 5

95 5 Solution 95  19 5 Divide:

Divide:

EXAMPLE • 6

Simplify: 

YOU TRY IT • 4

81 3

Solution 81  1272  27  3 EXAMPLE • 7

Find the quotient of 98 and 14. Solution 98  114 2  7

YOU TRY IT • 6

Simplify: 

36 12

YOU TRY IT • 7

What is the ratio of 72 and 8? Your solution Solutions on p. S1

20

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

OBJECTIVE C

Peter Titmuss/Alamy

Balance of Trade (in billions of dollars)

2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Total

497 608 712 753 700 3270

Source: www.census.gov

To determine the average annual trade deficit for the years 2003 through 2007, divide the sum of the balances of trade by the number of years (5). 3270  5  654 The average annual trade deficit for the years 2003 through 2007 was \$654 billion. EXAMPLE • 8

YOU TRY IT • 8

The daily high temperatures (in degrees Celsius) for six days in Anchorage, Alaska, were 14°, 3°, 0°, 8°, 2°, and 1°. Find the average daily high temperature.

The daily low temperatures (in degrees Celsius) during one week were recorded as 6°, 7°, 0°, 5°, 8°, 1°, and 1°. Find the average daily low temperature.

Strategy To find the average daily high temperature: • Add the six temperature readings. • Divide the sum by 6.

Solution 14  3  0  18 2  2  11 2  18 18  6  3

The average daily high temperature was 3°C. Solution on p. S1

SECTION 1.3

Multiplication and Division of Integers

21

1.3 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To multiply integers

For Exercises 1 to 20, multiply. 1. 114 23

2. 1716 2

3.

1122 15 2

5. 11123 2

6. 8121 2

7. 6119 2

4.

113 2 19 2

8. 17113 2

9. 715 2 13 2

10.

13 2 12 28

11. 318 2 19 2

12. 716 2 152

13. 19 2715 2

14.

18 27110 2

15.

13 2712 28

16. 914 2 182 1102

17. 719 2 11124

18. 1214 2712 2

19.

11429111 20

20.

113 2 115 2 119 20

21. What is 14 multiplied by 25?

22. What is 4 times 8?

23. Find the product of 4, 8, and 11.

24. Find the product of 2, 3, 4, and 5.

25. You multiply four positive integers and three negative integers. Is the product positive or negative?

OBJECTIVE B

To divide integers

For Exercises 26 to 53, divide. 26. 12  162

27. 18  13 2

31. 156 2  8

32.

36.

44 4

42. 

80 5

48. 9  0

37.

36 9

43. 

49.

11442  12

114 6

121 2  0

38.

28.

172 2  19 2

29.

33.

193 2  13 2

34. 48  18 2

98 7

44. 0  192

50.

132 12

39.

85 5

1642  18 2

40. 

30. 42  6 35. 57  13 2

120 8

41. 

72 4

45. 0  114 2

46.

261 9

47.

128 4

250 25

52.

0 0

53.

58 0

51.

54. Find the quotient of 132 and 11.

55. What is 15 divided by 15?

56. Divide 196 by 7.

57. Find the quotient of 342 and 9.

22

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

58. Without finding the quotient, determine whether the opposite of the quotient of 520 and 13 is positive, negative, zero, or undefined.

OBJECTIVE C

To solve application problems

60. Meteorology The low temperatures for a 10-day period in a midwestern city were 4°F, 9°F, 5°F, 2°F, 4°F, 1°F, 2°F, and 2°F. Calculate the average daily low temperature for this city.

Luciana Whitaker/Getty Images

59. Meteorology The high temperatures for a 6-day period in Barrow, Alaska, were 23°F, 29°F, 21°F, 28°F, 28°F, and 27°F. Calculate the average daily high temperature.

01–02

02–03

03–04

04–05

05–06

12

12

27

8

31

Applying the Concepts 65. If x 僆 再6, 2, 7冎, for which value of x does the expression 3x have the greatest value? 66. If 4x equals a positive integer, is x a positive or a negative integer? Explain your answer.

In the News Evening Newspapers Face Extinction The Daily Mail, Hagertown, Maryland’s evening newspaper, first went to press on July 4, 1828. It ceased publication on September 28, 2007. This newspaper is another casualty amid the ever-declining interest in afternoon editions of newspapers in the United States. Source: Newspaper Association of America

SECTION 1.4

Exponents and the Order of Operations Agreement

23

SECTION

1.4 OBJECTIVE A

Exponents and the Order of Operations Agreement To evaluate exponential expressions Repeated multiplication of the same factor can be written using an exponent.

Point of Interest René Descartes (1596–1650) was the first mathematician to use exponential notation extensively as it is used today. However, for some unknown reason, he always used x x for x 2.

2 # 2 # 2 # 2 # 2  25 ← Exponent

a # a # a # a  a4 ← Exponent

Base

Base

The exponent indicates how many times the factor, which is called the base, occurs in the multiplication. The multiplication 2 # 2 # 2 # 2 # 2 is in factored form. The exponential expression 25 is in exponential form. 21 is read “2 to the first power” or just “2.” Usually the exponent 1 is not written. 22 is read “2 to the second power” or “2 squared.” 23 is read “2 to the third power” or “2 cubed.” 24 is read “2 to the fourth power.” a4 is read “a to the fourth power.” There is a geometric interpretation of the first three natural-number powers.

41  4 Length: 4 ft

42  16 Area: 16 ft2

43  64 Volume: 64 ft3

To evaluate an exponential expression, write each factor as many times as indicated by the exponent. Then multiply. Evaluate 122 4. 12 2 4  12 2 12 2 12 2 122  16

HOW TO • 1

Take Note Note the difference between (2)4 and 24. (2)4 is the fourth power of 2: (2)4  16. 24 is the opposite of the fourth power of 2: 24  16.

HOW TO • 2

• Write 2 as a factor 4 times. • Multiply.

Evaluate 24.

24  12 # 2 # 2 # 2 2  16

• Write 2 as a factor 4 times. • Multiply.

24

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

EXAMPLE • 1

YOU TRY IT • 1

Evaluate 5 .

Evaluate 63.

Solution 53  15 # 5 # 5 2  125

3

EXAMPLE • 2

YOU TRY IT • 2

Evaluate 142 4.

Evaluate 13 2 4.

Solution 14 2 4  14 2 14 2 14 2 142  256 EXAMPLE • 3

Evaluate 132

2

YOU TRY IT • 3

Evaluate 133 2 12 2 3.

#2. 3

Solution 13 2 2 # 23  132 13 2 # 12 2 12 2 12 2  9 # 8  72 EXAMPLE • 4

YOU TRY IT • 4

Evaluate 112 6.

Evaluate 11 2 7.

Solution The product of an even number of negative factors is positive. Therefore, 11 2 6  1.

EXAMPLE • 5

Evaluate 2 # 132

2

YOU TRY IT • 5

# 11 2 .

Solution 2 # 132 2 # 11 2 9  2 # 9 # 112  18

Evaluate 22 # 11 2 12 # 13 2 2.

9

Your solution • 13 2 2  9; 11 2 9  1 Solutions on pp. S1–S2

OBJECTIVE B

To use the Order of Operations Agreement to simplify expressions Let’s evaluate 2  3 # 5. There are two arithmetic operations, addition and multiplication, in this expression. The operations could be performed in different orders. We could multiply first and then add, or we could add first and then multiply. To prevent there being more than one answer for a numerical expression, an Order of Operations Agreement has been established. The Order of Operations Agreement Step 1 Perform operations inside grouping symbols. Grouping symbols include parentheses ( ), brackets [ ], braces { }, the absolute value symbol 兩兩, and the fraction bar. Step 2 Simplify exponential expressions. Step 3 Do multiplication and division as they occur from left to right. Step 4 Do addition and subtraction as they occur from left to right.

SECTION 1.4

Integrating Technology See the Keystroke Guide: Basic Operations for instruction on using a calculator to evaluate a numerical expression.

Exponents and the Order of Operations Agreement

25

Evaluate 12  2418  5 2  22. 12  2418  5 2  22  12  2413 2  22 • Perform operations inside grouping

HOW TO • 3

symbols. • Simplify exponential expressions. • Do multiplication and division as they occur from left to right.

 12  2413 2  4  12  72  4

 12  18  6

• Do addition and subtraction as they occur from left to right.

One or more of the steps listed above may not be needed to evaluate an expression. In that case, proceed to the next step in the Order of Operations Agreement. 48  13  1 2  2. 21 12 48  13  1 2  2  22 • Perform operations above and below the 21 3

HOW TO • 4

Evaluate

422 22 4

EXAMPLE • 6

fraction bar and inside parentheses. • Do multiplication and division as they occur from left to right. • Do addition and subtraction as they occur from left to right.

YOU TRY IT • 6

Evaluate 6  34  16  8 2 4  2 .

Evaluate 7  232 # 3  7 # 2 4 2.

Solution 6  3 4  16  8 2 4  23  6  3 4  12 2 4  23

3

 6  6  23 668 18  7

• Perform operations inside grouping symbols. • Simplify exponential expressions. • Do multiplication and division from left to right. • Do addition and subtraction from left to right.

Solution on p. S2

26

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

EXAMPLE • 7

YOU TRY IT • 7

Evaluate 4  3[4  216  3 2]  2.

Evaluate 18  5[8  212  5 2]  10.

Solution 4  3[4  216  32]  2  4  3[4  2 # 3]  2

 4  3[4  6]  2  4  3[2]  2 462

• Perform operations inside grouping symbols.

• Do multiplication and division from left to right.

43 7

• Do addition and subtraction from left to right.

EXAMPLE • 8

Evaluate 27  15  2 2  132 2

Solution 27  15  22 2  13 2 2 # 4  27  32  132 2 # 4  27  9  9 # 4 39#4  3  36  39

YOU TRY IT • 8

2

# 4.

Evaluate 36  18  5 2 2  13 2 2 # 2. Your solution

• Perform operations inside grouping symbols. • Simplify exponential expressions. • Do multiplication and division from left to right. • Do addition and subtraction from left to right.

Solutions on p. S2

SECTION 1.4

Exponents and the Order of Operations Agreement

27

1.4 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To evaluate exponential expressions

For Exercises 1 to 27, evaluate. 1. 62

2. 74

6. 12 2 3

7.

11. 2 # 13 2 2

3. 72

13 2 4

8.

12. 2 # 14 2 2

13.

16. 15 2 2 # 33

17.

20. 12 2 # 12 2 2 24. 12 2 # 23 # 13 2 2

15 2 3

11 2 9 # 33

13 2 # 22

4. 43

5.

13 2 2

9. 44

10.

14 2 4

15.

13 2 3 # 23

14.

11 2 8 18 2 2

18.

15 2 # 34

19.

12 2 # 122 3

21. 23 # 33 # 14 2

22.

13 2 3 # 52 # 10

23.

17 2 # 42 # 32

25. 32 # 13 2 2

26.

12 2 3 132 2 11 2 7

27. 82 # 13 2 5 # 5

For Exercises 28 to 31, without finding the product, determine whether the product is positive or negative. 28. The fifth power of 18

OBJECTIVE B

29. The opposite of (–7)8

30. –(92)(–63)

31. (–9)2(–6)3

To use the Order of Operations Agreement to simplify expressions

For Exercises 32 to 64, evaluate by using the Order of Operations Agreement. 32. 4  8  2

33. 22 # 3  3

34. 213  42  13 2 2

35. 16  32  23

36. 24  18  3  2

37. 8  132 2  122

38. 8  213 2 2

39. 16  16 # 2  4

40. 12  16  4 # 2

28

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

41. 16  2 # 42

42. 27  18  132 2

43. 4  12  3 # 2

44. 16  15  152  2

45. 14  22  14  72

46. 3  2[8  13  22 ]

47. 22  4[16  13  5 2]

48. 6 

50. 96  2[12  16  2 2 ]  32

51. 4[16  17  1 2 ]  10

52. 18  2  42  13 2 2

53. 18  19  23 2  13 2

54. 16  318  32 2  5

55. 418 2  [217  32 2]

56.

119 2  122 62  29

 12  5 2

16  4 2 22  2

57. 16  4 #

49. 24 

33  7  122 2 23  2

1  13 22 # 3

59. 18  16 2  11  12 2 2

60. 4 # 23 

62. 123  13 2 2 123  13 2 2

63. 62 # 3  22 11  5 2 2

65. Which expression is equivalent to 15  15  3  42? (i) 30  3  16 (ii) 15  5  16 (iii) 15  5  16

32  152 85

58. 7  3[1  12  13 2 2 2]

61.

18  32 2 10  12 # 3  72 11

64. 14  22 13  42 2

(iv) 15  15  (1)2

Applying the Concepts 66. The following was offered as the simplification of 6  214  92 . 6  214  92  6  215 2  8152  40 If this is a correct simplification, write yes for the answer. If it is incorrect, write no and explain the incorrect step.

SECTION 1.5

Factoring Numbers and Prime Factorization

29

SECTION

1.5 OBJECTIVE A

Factoring Numbers and Prime Factorization To factor numbers A factor of a number is a natural number that divides the number with a remainder of 0. 12  1  12 12  2  6 12  3  4

The factors of 12 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12 because each of these numbers divides 12 with a remainder of 0. Note that both the divisor and the quotient are factors of the dividend.

12  4  3 12  6  2 12  12  1

To find the factors of a number, try dividing the number by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, . . .. Those numbers that divide the number evenly are its factors. Continue this process until the factors start to repeat. HOW TO • 1

40  1  40 40  2  20 40  3 40  4  10 40  5  8 40  6 40  7 40  8  5

Find all the factors of 40. 1 and 40 are factors. 2 and 20 are factors. Remainder is not 0. 4 and 10 are factors. 5 and 8 are factors. ← Remainder is not 0. Remainder is not 0. 8 and 5 are factors. ←

Factors are repeating. All the factors of 40 have been found.

1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 20, and 40 are the factors of 40. The following rules are helpful in finding the factors of a number. 2 is a factor of a number if the last digit of the number is 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8.

528 ends in 8; therefore, 2 is a factor of 528. (528  2  264)

3 is a factor of a number if the sum of the digits of the number is divisible by 3.

The sum of the digits of 378 is 3  7  8  18. 18 is divisible by 3; therefore, 3 is a factor of 378. (378  3  126)

5 is a factor of a number if the last digit of the number is a 0 or a 5.

495 ends in 5; therefore, 5 is a factor of 495. (495  5  99)

EXAMPLE • 1

YOU TRY IT • 1

Find all the factors of 18.

Find all the factors of 24.

Solution 18  1  18 18  2  9 18  3  6 18  4 18  5 18  6  3

Remainder is not 0. Remainder is not 0. The factors are repeating.

1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 18 are the factors of 18.

Solution on p. S2

30

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

OBJECTIVE B

To find the prime factorization of a number A natural number greater than 1 is a prime number if its only factors are 1 and the number. For instance, 11 is a prime number because the only factors of 11 are 1 and 11. A natural number greater than 1 that is not a prime number is a composite number. An example of a composite number is 6. It has factors of 1, 2, 3, and 6. The number 1 is neither a prime nor a composite number. Prime numbers less than 50  2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47 The prime factorization of a number is the expression of the number as a product of its prime factors. We use a “T-diagram” to find the prime factors of a number. Begin with the smallest prime number as a trial divisor, and continue to use prime numbers as trial divisors until the final quotient is 1. HOW TO • 2

84

Take Note A prime number that is a factor of a number is called a prime factor of the number. For instance, 3 is a prime factor of 18. However, 6 is a factor of 18 but is not a prime factor of 18.

Point of Interest Prime numbers are an important part of cryptology, the study of secret codes. Codes based on prime numbers with hundreds of digits are used to send sensitive information over the Internet.

Find the prime factorization of 84.

2 2 3 7

42 21 7 1

84  2  42 42  2  21 21  3  7 771

The prime factorization of 84 is 22

#3#

7.

Finding the prime factorization of larger numbers can be difficult. Try each prime number as a trial divisor until the square of the trial divisor exceeds the number. HOW TO • 3

177 3 59 59 1

Find the prime factorization of 177. • For 59, only try prime numbers up to 11 because 112  121  59.

The prime factorization of 177 is 3

EXAMPLE • 2

#

59.

YOU TRY IT • 2

Find the prime factorization of 132.

Find the prime factorization of 315.

Solution 132 2 66 2 33 3 11 11 1

#3#

132  22

11

EXAMPLE • 3

YOU TRY IT • 3

Find the prime factorization of 141.

Find the prime factorization of 326.

Solution 141 3 47 47 1

141  3

#

• For 47, try prime numbers up to 7 because 72  47.

47 Solutions on p. S2

SECTION 1.5

OBJECTIVE C

Factoring Numbers and Prime Factorization

31

To find the least common multiple and greatest common factor The least common multiple (LCM) of two or more numbers is the smallest number that is a multiple of all the numbers. For instance, 24 is the LCM of 6 and 8 because it is the smallest number that is divisible by both 6 and 8. The LCM can be found by first writing each number as a product of prime factors. The LCM must contain all the prime factors of each number. HOW TO • 4

Find the LCM of 10 and 12. Determine the prime factorization of each number.

#5 #2#

Factors of 10

LCM  2

3

#2#3#

⎧ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩

10  2 12  2

5  60

Factors of 12

The LCM of 10 and 12 is 60. Find the LCM of 8, 14, and 18. Determine the prime factorization of each number.

HOW TO • 5

82

#2#

#

14  2

2

18  2

7

#3#

3

The LCM must contain the prime factors of 8, 14, and 18. LCM  2

#2#2#3#3#

7  504

The greatest common factor (GCF) of two or more numbers is the greatest number that divides evenly into all the numbers. For instance, the GCF of 12 and 18 is 6, the largest number that divides evenly into 12 and 18. The GCF can be found by first writing each number as a product of prime factors. The GCF contains the prime factors common to each number. Find the GCF of 36 and 90. Determine the prime factorization of each number.

HOW TO • 6

36  2 90  2

#2# 3# # 3# 3#

• The common factors are shown in red.

3 5

The GCF is the product of the prime factors common to each number. The GCF of 36 and 90 is 2 EXAMPLE • 4

3  18.

YOU TRY IT • 4

Find the LCM of 15, 20, and 30. Solution 15  3 # 5 20  2 # 2 # 5 LCM  2 # 2 # 3 # 5  60

Find the LCM of 20 and 21.

30  2

#3#

EXAMPLE • 5

YOU TRY IT • 5

Find the GCF of 30, 45, and 60. Solution 30  2 # 3 # 5 45  3 GCF  3 # 5  15

#3#

#3#

5

Find the GCF of 42 and 63. 60  2

#2#3#

Your solution 5 Solutions on p. S2

32

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

1.5 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To factor numbers

For Exercises 1 to 30, find all the factors of the number. 1. 4

2. 20

3. 12

4. 7

5. 8

6. 9

7. 13

8. 30

9. 56

10. 28

11. 45

12. 33

13. 29

14. 22

15. 52

16. 37

17. 82

18. 69

19. 57

20. 64

21. 48

22. 46

23. 50

24. 54

25. 77

26. 66

27. 100

28. 80

29. 85

30. 96

31. True or false? If 6 is a factor of a number n, then 12 must also be a factor of n.

OBJECTIVE B

32. True or false? If 18 is a factor of a number n, then 6 must also be a factor of n.

To find the prime factorization of a number

For Exercises 33 to 62, find the prime factorization of the number. 33. 14

34. 6

35. 72

36. 17

37. 24

38. 27

39. 36

40. 115

41. 26

42. 18

43. 49

44. 42

45. 31

46. 81

47. 62

48. 39

49. 89

50. 101

51. 86

52. 66

53. 95

54. 74

55. 78

56. 67

57. 144

58. 120

59. 175

60. 160

61. 400

62. 625

63. True or false? The prime factorization of 44 is 4  11.

64. True or false? A composite number must have at least two different prime factors.

SECTION 1.5

OBJECTIVE C

Factoring Numbers and Prime Factorization

33

To find the least common multiple and greatest common factor

For Exercises 65 to 94, find the LCM. 65. 3, 8

66. 5, 11

67. 4, 6

68. 6, 8

69. 9, 12

70. 8, 14

71. 14, 20

72. 7, 21

73. 12, 36

74. 6, 10

75. 48, 60

76. 16, 24

77. 80, 90

78. 35, 42

79. 72, 108

80. 5, 12

81. 24, 45

82. 8, 20

83. 32, 80

84. 20, 28

85. 3, 8, 12

86. 6, 12, 18

87. 3, 5, 10

88. 6, 12, 24

89. 3, 8, 9

90. 4, 10, 14

91. 10, 15, 25

92. 8, 12, 18

93. 18, 27, 36

94. 14, 28, 35

98. 11, 19

99. 6, 8

For Exercises 95 to 124, find the GCF. 95. 4, 10

96. 9, 15

97. 5, 11

100. 7, 28

101. 6, 12

102. 14, 42

103. 8, 28

104. 24, 36

105. 60, 70

106. 72, 108

107. 40, 56

108. 48, 60

109. 35, 42

110. 45, 63

111. 60, 90

112. 45, 55

113. 20, 63

114. 28, 45

115. 6, 12, 20

116. 12, 18, 24

117. 6, 12, 18

118. 30, 45, 75

119. 24, 36, 60

120. 10, 30, 45

121. 26, 52, 78

122. 100, 150, 200

123. 36, 54, 360

124. 18, 27, 36

125. True or false? If the LCM of two numbers is their product, then one of the two numbers must be the GCF of the numbers.

126. True or false? If the GCF of two numbers is one of the two numbers, then the LCM of the numbers is the other of the two numbers.

Applying the Concepts 127. Explain why 2 is the only even prime number.

128. Choose some prime numbers and find the square of each number. Now determine the number of factors in the square of the prime number. Make a conjecture as to the number of factors in the square of any prime number.

34

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

SECTION

1.6

Addition and Subtraction of Rational Numbers

OBJECTIVE A

To write a rational number in simplest form and as a decimal

Take Note

A rational number is the quotient of two integers. A rational number written in this way is commonly called a fraction. Some examples of rational numbers are shown at the right.

4 4 The numbers  , , 9 9 4 and all represent the 9 same rational number.

3 , 4

4 , 9

15 , 4

8 , 1



5 6

Rational Numbers a

Point of Interest As early as 630 A.D., the Hindu mathematician Brahmagupta wrote a fraction as one number over another, separated by a space. The Arab mathematician al Hassar (around 1050 A.D.) was the first to show a fraction with the horizontal bar separating the numerator and denominator.

4 6

A rational number is a number that can be written in the form , where a and b are integers and b b ⬆ 0.

Because an integer can be written as the quotient of the integer and 1, every integer is a rational number.

6

6 1

8 

A fraction is in simplest form when there are no common factors in the numerator and 4 2 the denominator. The fractions and are equivalent fractions because they represent the 6

3

2

same part of a whole. However, the fraction is in simplest form because there are no 3 common factors (other than 1) in the numerator and denominator. To write a fraction in simplest form, eliminate the common factors from the numerator and a a denominator by using the fact that 1   . b

4 2  6 2

# #

2 2  3 2

#

2 1 3

#

2 2  3 3

# #

2 2  3 3

b

1

2 3

8 1

The process of eliminating common factors is usually written as shown at the right.

2 4  6 2 1

HOW TO • 1 1

2 18  30 2 1

Write

# 31 # 3 3 # 3 #5  5 1

18 30

in simplest form. • To eliminate the common factors, write the numerator and denominator in terms of prime factors. Then divide by the common factors.

A rational number can also be written in decimal notation. three tenths 0.3 

3 10

forty-three thousandths 0.043 

43 1000

A rational number written as a fraction can be written in decimal notation by dividing the numerator of the fraction by the denominator. Think of the fraction bar as meaning “divided by.”

SECTION 1.6

HOW TO • 2

0.625 8冄 5.000 4 8 20 16 40 40 0

Addition and Subtraction of Rational Numbers

Write 58 as a decimal. • Divide the numerator, 5, by the denominator, 8.

When the remainder is zero, the decimal is called a terminating decimal. The decimal 0.625 is a terminating decimal.

HOW TO • 3

0.3636 11冄 4.0000 3 3 70 66 40 33 70 66 4

35

4

Write 11 as a decimal. • Divide the numerator, 4, by the denominator, 11.

No matter how long we continue to divide, the remainder is never zero. The decimal 0.36 is a repeating decimal. The bar over the 36 indicates that these digits repeat.

5  0.625 8

4  0.36 11

Every rational number can be written as a terminating or a repeating decimal. Some numbers—for example, 17 and ␲—have decimal representations that never terminate or repeat. These numbers are called irrational numbers. 17 ⬇ 2.6457513 . . .

The rational numbers and the irrational numbers taken together are called the real numbers.

Take Note Rational numbers are 10 6 fractions, such as  or , 7 3 in which the numerator and denominator are integers. Rational numbers are also represented by repeating decimals such as 0.25767676... or terminating decimals such as 1.73. An irrational number is neither a terminating decimal nor a repeating decimal. For instance, 2.45445444544445... is an irrational number.

The diagram below shows the relationships among some of the sets of numbers we have discussed. The arrows indicate that one set is contained completely within the other set. Natural numbers

Write

Integers

Rational numbers Real numbers Irrational numbers

Note that there is no arrow between the rational numbers and the irrational numbers. Any given real number is either a rational number or an irrational number. It cannot be both. However, a natural number such as 7 can also be called an integer, a rational number, or a real number.

EXAMPLE • 1 90 168

␲ ⬇ 3.1415926 . . .

YOU TRY IT • 1

in simplest form.

Solution

60 Write 140 in simplest form.

1

90 2 # 3 # 3 # 5 15  # # # #  168 2 2 2 3 7 28 1

1

Solution on p. S2

36

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

EXAMPLE • 2

Write

3 20

YOU TRY IT • 2 4

as a decimal.

Write as a decimal. Place a bar over the repeating 9 digits.

Solution 3  3  20  0.15 20

Solution on p. S2

OBJECTIVE B

Point of Interest One of the earliest written mathematical documents is the Rhind Papyrus. It was discovered in Egypt in 1858 but it is estimated to date from 1650 B.C. The Papyrus shows that the early Egyptian method of calculating with fractions was much different from the methods used today. The early Egyptians used unit fractions, which are fractions with a numerator of 1. With 2 the exception of , fractions 3 with numerators other than 1 were written as the sum of two unit fractions. For 2 instance, was written as 11 1 1  . 6 66

To add rational numbers Two of the 7 squares in the rectangle have dark shading. This is

2 7

3 7

of the entire rectangle. Three of the 7 squares

in the rectangle have light shading. This is

3 7

of the

entire rectangle. A total of 5 squares are shaded. This is 5 7

2 7

2 3 2+3 5 = + = 7 7 7 7

of the entire rectangle. Addition of Fractions To add two fractions with the same denominator, add the numerators and place the sum over the common denominator.

HOW TO • 4

Find the sum of

3 1 31   8 8 8 1 4   8 2

3 8

1 8

and .

• The denominators are the same. Add the numerators. • Write the answer in simplest form.

To add fractions with different denominators, first rewrite the fractions as equivalent fractions with a common denominator. Then add the fractions. The common denominator is the least common multiple (LCM) of the denominators. The least common multiple of the denominators is frequently called the least common denominator. 7 11  10 12 The LCM of 10 and 12 is 60.

HOW TO • 5

Take Note In this text, we will normally leave answers as improper fractions and not change them to mixed numbers.

7 11 42 55    10 12 60 60 97 42  55   60 60

• Rewrite each fraction as an equivalent fraction with a denominator of 60. • Add the fractions.

SECTION 1.6

Addition and Subtraction of Rational Numbers

37

If one of the addends is a negative rational number, use the same rules as for addition of integers.

Take Note Although we could write the 8 answer as , in this text we 15 8 write  . That is, we place 15 the negative sign in front of the fraction.

5 3 Add:   6 10 The LCM of 6 and 10 is 30.

HOW TO • 6

5 3 25 9     6 10 30 30 25  9  30 16 8   30 15

• Rewrite each fraction as an equivalent fraction with a denominator of 30. • Add the fractions.

To add decimals, write the numbers so that the decimal points are in a vertical line. Then proceed as in the addition of integers. Write the decimal point in the answer directly below the decimal points in the problem. HOW TO • 7

114.030  89.254 24.776

• The signs are different. Find the difference between the absolute values of the numbers. 0114.03 0  114.03; 089.254 0  89.254

114.03  89.254  24.776

• Attach the sign of the number with the larger absolute value. Because 0114.03 0  089.254 0 , use the sign of 114.03.

EXAMPLE • 3

YOU TRY IT • 3

5 7  a b 16 40

5 11  a b 9 12

Solution The LCM of 16 and 40 is 80.

25  114 2 5 7 25 14 11  a b   a b   16 40 80 80 80 80 EXAMPLE • 4

Find the total of

YOU TRY IT • 4 3 1 4, 6,

and

5 8.

Solution The LCM of 4, 6, and 8 is 24.

7

5

Find 8 more than  6 . Your solution

3 1 5 18 4 15      4 6 8 24 24 24 18  4  15 37   24 24 EXAMPLE • 5

YOU TRY IT • 5

Solution 4  2.37  1.63

Your solution Solutions on p. S2

38

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

OBJECTIVE C

To subtract rational numbers Subtracting fractions is similar to adding fractions in that the denominators must be the same. Subtraction of Fractions To subtract two fractions with the same denominator, subtract the numerators and place the difference over the common denominator.

Take Note 3 10

less than

4 15



4 15

3

4

What is 10 less than 15? 4 3 8 9 • The LCM of 15 and 10 is 30. Rewrite    each fraction as an equivalent 15 10 30 30 fraction with a denominator of 30. 8  19 2 89   • Subtract the fractions. 30 30 1 1   30 30

HOW TO • 8 translates as

3 . 10

HOW TO • 9

7 5 Subtract:   a b 8 12

7 5 21 10   a b    a b 8 12 24 24 21  110 2 21  10   24 24 11 11   24 24

• The LCM of 8 and 12 is 24.

• Subtract the fractions.

Subtract: 2.984  11.45 2 2.984  11.45 2  2.984  1.45  1.534

HOW TO • 10

EXAMPLE • 6

1 5 3 Subtract:    a b 2 6 4 Solution 1 5 3 6 10 9 • The LCM of 2,    a b    a b 6, and 4 is 12. 2 6 4 12 12 12 6  10  192  12 6  10  9 7   12 12 EXAMPLE • 7

YOU TRY IT • 6

Subtract:

7 5 1  a b  8 12 9

YOU TRY IT • 7

Subtract: 45.2  56.89

Subtract: 12.03  19.117

Solution 45.2  56.89  11.69

Your solution Solutions on p. S2

SECTION 1.6

OBJECTIVE D

Addition and Subtraction of Rational Numbers

39

24

22.5 20.8

2001 20

2007

16 12.0

12 8

9.3 9.8 7.2 6.5

8.2 6.0 4.3

4 0

N .A m er ic La a tin Am er E ic as a te rn E ur W op es e te rn E ur op e M id dl e E as t

The graph at the right shows the number of barrels of oil, in millions, produced each day in 2001 and 2007 for five regions of the world. Use this graph for Example 8 and You Try It 8.

Barrels of Oil Produced Per Day (in millions)

To solve application problems

Source: www.opec.org

EXAMPLE • 8

YOU TRY IT • 8

Using the graph above, find the total number of barrels of oil produced each day in 2007 for the five regions shown.

For the regions given in the graph above, find the difference between the total number of barrels of oil produced each day in 2007 and in 2001.

Strategy To find the total number of barrels: • Read the numbers from the graph that correspond to 2007 (6.5, 9.8, 12.0, 4.3, 22.5). • Add the numbers.

Solution 6.5  9.8  12.0  4.3  22.5  55.1

In 2007, a total of 55.1 million barrels of oil were produced each day in the five regions shown.

EXAMPLE • 9

YOU TRY IT • 9

A cabinet maker is joining two pieces of wood. What is the measure of the cut from the left side of the board so that the pieces fit as shown?

1

1

Barbara Walsh spent 6 of her day studying, 8 of her 1

day in class, and 4 of her day working. What fraction of her day did she spend on these three activities?

Strategy To find the measure of the cut, 7 5 subtract 16 in. from 8 in. Solution 5 14 5 9 7     8 16 16 16 16

? in.

7 in. 8

9

The cut must be made 16 in. from the left side of the board. Solutions on pp. S2–S3

40

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

1.6 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To write a rational number in simplest form and as a decimal

For Exercises 1 to 18, write each fraction in simplest form. 1.

7 21

2.

10 15

3. 

7.

12 8

8.

36 4

9.

13. 

28 20

14. 

20 5

8 22

0 36

15. 

45 3

4. 

8 60

5. 

50 75

6. 

20 44

60 100

12. 

14 45

10.

12 18

11. 

16.

44 60

17.

23 46

18.

31 93

For Exercises 19 to 36, write as a decimal. Place a bar over repeating digits. 19.

4 5

20.

1 8

21.

1 6

25. 

2 9

26. 

5 11

27. 

31. 

7 18

32. 

17 18

33.

7 12

9 16

22.

5 6

23. 

28.

7 8

29.

34.

15 16

35. 

1 3

24. 

11 12

6 7

1 20

30.

4 11

36.

5 13

37. The denominator of a fraction that is in simplest form is a multiple of 3. You write the fraction as a decimal. Is the result a terminating or a repeating decimal?

OBJECTIVE B

For Exercises 38 to 71, add. 1 4 38.   a b 5 5

2 4 39.   a b 9 9

40.

1 5  a b 6 6

41.

1 5   8 8

SECTION 1.6

42.

2 5  3 12

43.

46.

5 3  a b 12 8

3 5 50.   a b 4 6

Addition and Subtraction of Rational Numbers

44.

5 5  8 6

5 5 47.   6 9

48.



5 11 51.   8 12

52.

1 5 2   3 6 9

3 5 3 54.    a b 8 12 16

1 3  2 8

55.

3 7 5  a b  a b 8 12 9

6 17  a b 13 26

5 3 7  a b  a b 16 4 8

45

1 5  18 27

49.

3 11  a b 5 12

53.

1 2 1   2 3 6

1 11 1 56.   a b  8 12 3

58. 7.56  0.462

59. 1.09  6.2

60. 32.1  6.7

61. 5.138  18.41 2

62. 16.92  6.956

63. 48  134.122

64. 19.84  17

65. 3.739  12.03 2

57.

66. 2.34  13.7 2  15.601 2

67. 5.507  14.91 2  15.2

68. 7.89  12.041  14.151 2

69. 3.04  12.1912  10.062

70. 91.2  24.56  142.037 2

71. 81.02  175.6032  117.8 2

5 6

73. Find the total of 58 and  .

74. Find  increased by .

1 6

75. What is  added to  ?

76. Find 1.45 more than 7.

77. What is the sum of 4.23 and 3.06?

5 16

72. What is 34 more than  ? 5 9

3 8

5 12

For Exercises 78 to 81, estimate each sum to the nearest integer. Do not find the exact sum. 78.

7 4  8 5

79.

1 1  a b 3 2

80. 0.125  1.25

41

81. 1.3  0.2

42

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

OBJECTIVE C

To subtract rational numbers

For Exercises 82 to 113, subtract. 82.

3 5  8 8

86.

1 5  9 27

87.

89.

2 1  3 12

90. 

83.

5 8  9 9 5 5  8 6

88.

11 5  12 8

95.

3 3  a b 8 4

96.

98.

1 5 2   2 6 3

99. 

1 5  2 8

91. 

3 5 93.   a b 4 6

5 4 92.   6 9

3 1 85.   a b 4 4

1 5 84.   6 6

94.

7 3 5  a b  a b 16 4 8 19 5 2  a b  a b 18 6 9

7 11  a b 13 26

4 5  a b 5 12

1 5 5  a b 97.   8 12 16

100.

5 7 7  a b  8 12 9

1 11 1 101.   a b  8 12 3

102. 6.322  9.123

103. 43.1  19.37

104. 3.04  15.128 2

105. 25  134.122

106. 20.04  141.22

107. 0.354  16

108. 1.023  11.023 2

109. 5.0614  2.31

110. 4.32  16.1 2  14.0322

111. 1.204  15.0272  12.3

112. 9.2  15.02  16.614 2

113. 6.97  13.258 2  13.7122

5

3

114. What number is 6 less than  8 ?

1

5

115. Find the difference between 2 and 16.

SECTION 1.6

2

3

Addition and Subtraction of Rational Numbers

4

43

2

117. What number is 5 less than 15?

116. What is 3 less 4?

5 9

1 6

118. Find the difference between  and  .

119. Find

5 16

less

7 . 12

For Exercises 120 to 123, without finding the difference, determine whether the difference is positive or negative. 120.

1 1  5 2

121. 0.0837  0.24

OBJECTIVE D

122. 21.765  (15.1)

3 9 123.   a b 4 10

To solve application problems 3

2

124. Food Science A recipe calls for 4 c of vegetable broth. If a chef has 3 c of vegetable broth, how much additional broth is needed for the recipe?

125. Carpentry 3

1

A piece of lath 16 in. thick is glued to the edges of a wood strip

Lath

Oil Consumption The graph at the right shows the numbers of barrels of oil per day, in millions, that are consumed by various countries and the numbers of barrels of oil per day, in millions, those countries import. Use this graph for Exercises 126 to 129. 126. How many barrels of oil per day are consumed by these five countries?

Barrels per Day (in millions)

that is 4 in. wide. What is the width of the wood and lath?

25

15

Imported 13.2

10 5.6 5.4 5 0

127. How many barrels of oil per day are imported by these five countries?

Consumed

20.7 20

6.5 3.2

United States

Japan

China Countries

Source: IEA

128. For these five countries, what is the difference between the number of barrels of oil per day consumed and the number imported?

129. What is the largest difference among the numbers of barrels of oil consumed by these five countries?

2.7 2.1

2.2 2.3

Germany

South Korea

44

CHAPTER 1

Caffeine Content the right.

Prealgebra Review

For Exercises 130 to 133, use the information in the news clipping at

130. How much more caffeine does a 12-ounce Diet Dr. Pepper contain than a 12-ounce Dr. Pepper? 131. If you drink one 12-ounce Diet Pepsi and one 12-ounce Mountain Dew, how much caffeine have you consumed? 132. Find the difference in the caffeine content of a 12-ounce serving of Diet Coke and a 12-ounce serving of Diet Mountain Dew. 133. A 12-ounce cup of coffee may contain anywhere from 156 mg to 288 mg of caffeine. Find a combination of four different 12-ounce sodas that together contain less caffeine than one 12-ounce cup of coffee. Optometry A diopter is a measure of the strength of a lens. When lenses are combined, their strengths are added to find the total strength of the final lens. An optometrist can use this property of lenses to design an eyeglass lens that corrects more than one aspect of a person’s vision. A negative diopter lens corrects nearsightedness and a positive diopter lens corrects farsightedness. 134. Find the total strength of a lens made by combining a –1.75 diopter lens with a 0.5 diopter lens.

In the News How Much Caffeine Do You Drink? Food researchers at Auburn University conducted a study of the caffeine content of sodas, analyzing the amount of caffeine present in a 12-ounce serving. Soda Coca-Cola® Diet Coke® Dr. Pepper® Diet Dr. Pepper® Mountain Dew® Diet Mountain Dew® Pepsi® Diet Pepsi®

Caffeine 33.9 mg 46.3 mg 42.6 mg 44.1 mg 54.8 mg 55.2 mg 38.9 mg 36.7 mg

Source: www.washingtonpost.com

135. Find the total strength of a lens made by combining a 1.50 diopter lens with a 3.75 diopter lens.

138. In which years did Circuit City Stores have a negative earnings per share? 139. In which year did Circuit City Stores have its lowest earnings per share?

Earnings per Share (in dollars)

137. An optometrist adjusts a lens to have a diopter value of 4.5 by combining it with a lens that has a negative diopter value. Was the diopter value of the original lens less than 4.5 or greater than 4.5? 1 Finance The graph at the right shows the earnings per share for Circuit City Stores for the years 2005 through 2008. Use this graph for Exercises 0.31 138 to 141. 0

2005

Tetra Images/Alamy

136. Will a 0.75 diopter lens combined with a lens that has a diopter measure greater than 1 create a lens with a positive diopter value or a negative diopter value?

0.77 2007 2006

2008

−0.05

−1

−2

Source: Circuit City Stores

140. What was the decrease in earnings per share between 2007 and 2008? 141. What was the difference in earnings per share between 2006 and 2008?

Applying the Concepts 142. The numerator of a fraction is 1. If the denominator is replaced by 2, 3, 4, 5, . . . , are the resulting fractions getting smaller or larger? 143. The numerator of a fraction is 1. If the denominator is replaced by 2, 3, 4, 5, . . . , are the resulting fractions getting smaller or larger?

−1.94

SECTION 1.7

Multiplication and Division of Rational Numbers

45

SECTION

1.7 OBJECTIVE A

Multiplication and Division of Rational Numbers To multiply rational numbers 2

4

2

4

2

4

The product 3  5 can be read “3 times 5” or “3 of 5.” Reading the times sign as “of ” can help with understanding the procedure for multiplying fractions. 4 5

of the bar is shaded. 4

2

of the bar is then shaded dark yellow. 4

2

4

2 4 5

of 5  3  5  3

8

 15

Multiplication of Fractions The product of two fractions is the product of the numerators over the product of the denominators.

After multiplying two fractions, write the product in simplest form. Use the rules for multiplying integers to determine the sign of the product. 3 # 10 4 21 The signs are different. The product is negative. Multiply: 

HOW TO • 1



3 4

#

# #

10 3  21 4

10 21

• Multiply the numerators. • Multiply the denominators.

#2#5 # 2 2 # 3 # 7 1 1 3 # 2 # 5 5    2 # 2 # 3 # 7 14 3



1

1

• Write the prime factorization of each number. • Divide by the common factors. Then multiply the remaining factors in the numerator and in the denominator.

This problem can also be worked by using the greatest common factor (GCF) of the numerator and the denominator. Multiply: 

HOW TO • 2



3 4

#

3 4

10 30  21 84

#

10 21 • Multiply the numerators. • Multiply the denominators.

1

5 6 # 5   # 6 14 14 1

• Divide the numerator and denominator by the GCF.

46

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

To multiply decimals, multiply as with integers. Write the decimal point in the product so that the number of decimal places in the product equals the sum of the numbers of decimal places in the factors. HOW TO • 3

7.43  0.00025 3715 1486 0.0018575

Find the product of 7.43 and 0.00025. 2 decimal places 5 decimal places

• Multiply the absolute values.

7 decimal places

7.4310.00025 2  0.0018575

EXAMPLE • 1

• The signs are different. The product is negative.

YOU TRY IT • 1

12 3 Multiply:  a b 8 17 Solution 12 3 3  a b  8 17 8

Multiply:

5 4 a b 8 25

# #

12 17

• The signs are the same. The product is positive.

1

1

3 # 2 # 2 # 3  2 # 2 # 2 # 17 1

1

9  34

• Write the answer in simplest form.

EXAMPLE • 2

YOU TRY IT • 2

Find the product of

4 3 9 , 10 ,

and 185 .

Solution 4 # 3 5 4 # 3 # a b   # 9 10 18 9 10

10 Find the product of  54,  83, and  27 .

# #

5 18

• The product is negative.

1



# 21 # 31 # 51 #3#2#5#2#3# 2

3 1



1 27

EXAMPLE • 3

1

1

3

1

• Write the answer in simplest form.

YOU TRY IT • 3

Multiply: 4.0610.065 2

Multiply: 0.03412.14 2

Solution The product is positive.

4.0610.0652  0.2639 Solutions on p. S3

SECTION 1.7

OBJECTIVE B

Multiplication and Division of Rational Numbers

47

To divide rational numbers The reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction with the numerator and denominator 3 4 5 2 interchanged. For instance, the reciprocal of 4 is 3, and the reciprocal of  2 is  5 . The product of a number and its reciprocal is 1. This fact is used in the procedure for dividing fractions. 3 4

#

4 12  1 3 12



5 2

#

2 10 a b  1 5 10

Study the example below to see how reciprocals are used when dividing fractions. Divide:

5 3  5 6 3 3 # 3 5 5 5    5 6 5 5 # 6 6 3 6 # 5 5  1 3 6  #  5 5

6 5 6 5

• Multiply the numerator and denominator by the reciprocal of the divisor.

• The product of a number and its reciprocal is 1.

18 25

• A number divided by 1 is the number.

3

5

3

These steps are summarized by 5  6  5

# 65  1825.

Division of Fractions To divide two fractions, multiply the dividend by the reciprocal of the divisor.

Take Note The method of dividing fractions is sometimes stated, “To divide fractions, invert the divisor and then multiply.” Inverting the divisor means writing its reciprocal.

3 18  a b 10 25 The signs are different. The quotient is negative.

HOW TO • 4

Divide:

3 18 3 18 3  a b   a  b  a 10 25 10 25 10 3 # 25   10 # 18 2

1

#

1

3# 5 5 # 2 1

#5 #3#

3



#

25 b 18

5 12

1

To divide decimals, move the decimal point in the divisor to the right so that the divisor becomes a whole number. Move the decimal point in the dividend the same number of places to the right. Place the decimal point in the quotient directly over the decimal point in the dividend. Then divide as with whole numbers.

48

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

Take Note The procedure for dividing decimals as we do at the right can be justified as follows. 11.4 2  10.36 2 1.4  0.36 1.4 # 100  0.36 100 140  36 ⬇ 3.9

Divide: 11.42  10.36 2 . Round to the nearest tenth. The signs are the same. The quotient is positive.

HOW TO • 5

3.88 ⬇ 3.9 0.36.冄 1.40.00 1 08 32 0 28 8 3 20 2 88 32

• Move the decimal point 2 places to the right in the divisor and then in the dividend. Place the decimal point in the quotient directly over the decimal point in the dividend.

• Note that the symbol ⬇ is used to indicate that the quotient is an approximate value that has been rounded off.

11.42  10.36 2 ⬇ 3.9

EXAMPLE • 4

Divide: a

YOU TRY IT • 4

3 9 b  10 14

Divide:

Solution The quotient is negative. a

3 9 3 # 14 b   a b 10 14 10 9 3 # 2 # 7  2 # 5 # 3 # 3 7  15

5 10  a b 8 11

Your solution • Multiply by the reciprocal of the divisor.

• Write the answer in simplest form.

EXAMPLE • 5

YOU TRY IT • 5

Find the quotient of  85 and 167 .

7 What is  31 divided by 15 ?

Solution The quotient is positive.

5 7 5 7   a b   8 16 8 16 5 16  # 8 7 5 # 16 10   # 8 7 7

• Multiply by the reciprocal of the divisor. • Write the answer in simplest form.

EXAMPLE • 6

YOU TRY IT • 6

Divide: 4.152  125.22 . Round to the nearest thousandth.

Divide: 134 2  19.02 2 . Round to the nearest hundredth.

Solution Divide the absolute values. The quotient is negative. 4.152  125.2 2 ⬇ 0.165

Solutions on p. S3

SECTION 1.7

OBJECTIVE C

Multiplication and Division of Rational Numbers

49

To convert among percents, fractions, and decimals “A population growth rate of 3%,” “a manufacturer’s discount of 25%,” and “an 8% increase in pay” are typical examples of the many ways in which percent is used in applied problems. Percent means “parts of 100.” Thus 27% means 27 parts of 100. In applied problems involving a percent, it may be necessary to rewrite a percent as a fraction or as a decimal, or to rewrite a fraction or a decimal as a percent. 1

To write a percent as a fraction, remove the percent sign and multiply by 100. 27%  27 a

1 27 b  100 100

To write a percent as a decimal, remove the percent sign and multiply by 0.01. 33%



33(0.01)



0.33

Move the decimal point two places to the left. Then remove the percent sign.

Take Note The decimal equivalent of 100% is 1. Therefore, multiplying by 100% is the same as multiplying by 1 and does not change the value of the fraction. 5 5 5  112  1100%2 8 8 8

5

To write a fraction as a percent, multiply by 100%. For example, 8 is changed to a percent as follows: 5 5 500  1100% 2  %  62.5%, 8 8 8

or

1 62 % 2

To write a decimal as a percent, multiply by 100%. 0.82



0.821100% 2



82%

Move the decimal point two places to the right. Then write the percent sign.

EXAMPLE • 7

YOU TRY IT • 7

Write 130% as a fraction and as a decimal.

Write 125% as a fraction and as a decimal.

Solution

1 130 13 130%  130 a b   100 100 10 130%  13010.01 2  1.30

EXAMPLE • 8

YOU TRY IT • 8

1 Write 33 % as a fraction. 3

2 Write 16 % as a fraction. 3

Solution 1 1 1 100 1 1 33 %  33 a b  a b  3 3 100 3 100 3

Solutions on p. S3

50

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

EXAMPLE • 9

YOU TRY IT • 9

5

9

Write 6 as a percent.

Write 16 as a percent.

Solution 5 5 500 1  1100% 2  %  83 % 6 6 6 3

EXAMPLE • 10

YOU TRY IT • 10

Write 0.027 as a percent.

Write 0.043 as a percent.

Solution 0.027  0.0271100% 2  2.7%

Solutions on p. S3

OBJECTIVE D

To solve application problems

EXAMPLE • 11

YOU TRY IT • 11 1 3

A picture frame is supported by two hooks that are and 23 of the distance from the left-hand side of the 1 frame. If the frame is 31 2 in. wide, how far from the left side of the frame are the hooks placed?

A piece of fabric 20 ft long is being used to make cushions for outdoor furniture. If each cushion 1 requires 1 2 ft of fabric, how many cushions can be cut from the fabric?

Strategy To find the location of the hooks, multiply the 1 1 2 width of the frame, 31 2 in., by 3 and 3. Recall that to multiply a mixed number by a fraction, first write the mixed number as an improper fraction: 1 2  31  1  63 31 2  2 2

Solution 1 1 31 #  2 3 1 2 31 #  2 3

Your solution 63 2 63 2

# #

1 21 1   10 3 2 2 2  21 3 1

The hooks are placed 10 2 in. and 21 in. from the left side of the frame.

Solution on p. S3

SECTION 1.7

51

Multiplication and Division of Rational Numbers

1.7 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To multiply rational numbers

For Exercises 1 to 30, multiply. 1.

2 3

5 7

2.

1 3 a b 2 8

3.

5 8

5.

5 3 a b 12 10

6.

a

7.

6 26 a b 13 27

9.

3 3 a b a b 5 10

13.

3 5 2 a b a b 4 6 9

14.

1 2 6 a b a b a b 2 3 7

15.

3 5 3 a b a b a b 8 12 10

16.

5 4 7 a b a b 16 5 8

17.

a

18.

5 5 16 a b a b a b 8 12 25

19.

8 11 3 a b a b a b 9 12 4

20.

3 7 5 a b a b 8 10 9

21. 0.4613.9 2

22. 0.7816.8 2

23.

18.23 2 10.09 2

24.

25. 0.4810.85 2

26. 0.05613.425 2

28. 4.23710.54 2

29.

#

10.

3 4

11 6 b a b 12 7

3 11 a b 5 12

11.

15 4 7 b a b a b 2 3 10

a

3 b 10

3 2 a b 4

30.

7 10

33. Multiply 0.23 by 4.5.

34. Multiply 7.06 by 0.034.

35. Without finding the product, determine whether than 1.

11 13

#

50 51

is greater than 1 or less

7 15

8.

1 6 a b 6 11

12.

5 2 a b 8

13.739 2 12.032

32. Find the product of 

#



10.003 2 10.189 2

31. Find the product of  and .

5 16

4.

27. 6.510.0341 2

18.004 2 13.4 2

4 5

#

5 14

and  .

52

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

OBJECTIVE B

To divide rational numbers

For Exercises 36 to 47, divide. 36.

3 9  a b 8 10

37.

a

2 3 b  15 5

38.

8 4 a b  a b 9 5

39.

a

11 22 b  a b 15 5

40.

a

11 7 b  a b 12 6

41.

a

3 5 b  10 12

42.

a

6 b 6 11

43.

a

26 13 b  27 6

44.

a

11 5 b  12 3

45.

a

3 5 b  a b 10 3

46.

5 15 a b  8 16

47.

8 4  a b 9 3

7 9

5 18

48. Find the quotient of  and  .

50. What is

1 2

1 4

divided by  ?

49. Find the quotient of

51. What is 

5 18

5 8

7 12

and  .

divided by

15 ? 16

For Exercises 52 to 55, divide. 52. 25.61  15.2 2

53.

10.1035 2  10.023 2

54. 10.2205 2  10.21 2

55.

10.357 2  1.02

For Exercises 56 to 59, divide. Round to the nearest hundredth. 56. 0.0647  0.75

57. 27.981  59.2

58. 2.45  121.442

59. 3.2  145.122

60. Find the quotient of 0.3045 and 0.203.

61. Find the quotient of 3.672 and 3.6.

62. What is 0.00552 divided by 1.2?

63. What is 0.01925 divided by 0.077?

64. Without finding the quotient, determine whether 8.713  7.2 is greater than 1 or less than 1.

SECTION 1.7

Multiplication and Division of Rational Numbers

53

For Exercises 65 to 82, use the Order of Operations Agreement to simplify the expression. 2 1 2 7 3 9 3 1 2 5  a b a b  65. 66.    67. 3 4 5 8 4 8 4 2 16

68.

5 5 9 a b   6 12 14

69.

7 2 2 3  a b  a b 12 3 4

70.

71.

2 3 4 5 a ba b  a ba b 3 4 5 8

72.

1 9 2 2  a b a b 8 4 3

3 5 4 73.    4 8 5

74.

5 3 1 a b   12 2 9 4 2

75.

2 3 2 2 a b  a b 3 3

76.

77. 1.2  2.32

78. 4.01  0.218.1  6.4 2

80. 8.1  5.213.4  5.92 2

81.

OBJECTIVE C

3.8  5.2 1.2 2  a b 0.35 0.6

a

a

1 3 2 5 15  b  a  b 2 4 18 24

5 2 2 7 7 2  b  a  b 6 3 18 12

79. 0.03

#

0.22  0.53

82. 0.32  3.412.012  11.752

To convert among percents, fractions, and decimals

83. Explain how to write a percent as a fraction.

84. Explain how to write a fraction as a percent.

For Exercises 85 to 94, write as a fraction and as a decimal. 85. 75%

86. 40%

87. 64%

88. 88%

89. 175%

90. 160%

91. 19%

92. 87%

93. 5%

94. 8%

1 97. 12 % 2

1 98. 37 % 2

2 99. 66 % 3

For Exercises 95 to 104, write as a fraction. 1 95. 11 % 9

100.

1 % 4

2 96. 4 % 7

101.

1 % 2

1 102. 6 % 4

1 103. 83 % 3

3 104. 5 % 4

54

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

For Exercises 105 to 114, write as a decimal. 105. 7.3%

106. 9.1%

107. 15.8%

108. 16.7%

109. 0.3%

110. 0.9%

111. 9.9%

112. 9.15%

113. 121.2%

114. 18.23%

For Exercises 115 to 134, write as a percent. 115. 0.15

116. 0.37

117. 0.05

118. 0.02

119. 0.175

120. 0.125

121. 1.15

122. 1.36

123. 0.008

124. 0.004

125.

27 50

126.

83 100

127.

1 3

128.

130.

4 9

131.

7 8

132.

9 20

133. 1

4

135. Does 3 represent a percent greater than 100% or less than 100%?

OBJECTIVE D

3 8

2 3

To solve application problems

5

A board 36 8 in. long is cut into two pieces of equal length. If the saw 1

blade makes a cut in. wide, how far from the left side of the board should the cut 8 be made?

5 11

134. 2

136. Does 0.055 represent a percent greater than 1% or less than 1%?

137. Carpentry A carpenter has a board that is 14 ft long. How many pieces 3 ft long can the carpenter cut from the board? 4

138. Carpentry

129.

1 2

SECTION 1.7

Multiplication and Division of Rational Numbers

3

139. Construction A stair is made from an 8-inch riser and a 4 -inch foot plate. How many inches high is a staircase made from 10 of these stairs?

140. Interior Design 3

55

Foot plate Riser

1

An interior designer needs 122 yd of fabric that costs \$5.43 per

yard and 5 4 yd of fabric that costs \$6.94 per yard to reupholster a large sofa. Find the total cost of the two fabrics.

3

141. Food Science A recipe calls for 4 c of butter. If a chef wants to increase the recipe by one-half, how much butter should the chef use?

142. Recycling See the news clipping at the right. Determine the numbers of aluminum cans collected a. in 1995 and b. in 2005. Round to the nearest hundred million.

143. Recycling The plastic pellets used to make a container from new plastic cost \$.84 per pound, while those used to make a container from recycled plastic cost \$.66 per pound. In 2006, 5.5 million pounds of plastic were used to make the plastic containers (such as drink bottles) sold in U.S. stores. (Source: scienceline.org) Find the cost of the plastic pellets needed to make 5.5 million pounds of plastic containers from a. new plastic and b. recycled plastic.

In the News Aluminum Recycling Down During the period 1995–2005, aluminum cans became thinner. As a result, the number of cans made from 1 lb of aluminum went from 31.07 cans to 34.01 cans. In 2005, 1.511 billion pounds of aluminum cans were collected for recycling, down significantly from the 2.017 billion pounds collected in 1995. Source: The Aluminum Association

2 3

144. Rope Length You cut a 12-foot-long rope into pieces ft long. Without finding the number of pieces, determine if the number of pieces is greater than or less than 12.

Applying the Concepts 5

4

145. Find a rational number that is one-half the difference between 11 and 11.

146. Given any two different rational numbers, is it always possible to find a rational number between the two given numbers? If so, explain how to find such a number. If not, give two rational numbers for which there is no rational number between them.

56

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

SECTION

1.8 OBJECTIVE A

Concepts from Geometry To find the measures of angles The word geometry comes from the Greek words for “earth” (geo) and “measure” (metron). The original purpose of geometry was to measure land. Today, geometry is used in many disciplines such as physics, biology, geology, architecture, art, and astronomy. Here are some basic geometric concepts. A plane is a flat surface, such as a table top, that extends indefinitely. Figures that lie entirely in a plane are called plane figures.

Plane

Space extends in all directions. Objects in space, such as a baseball, a house, or a tree, are called solids. A line extends indefinitely in two directions in a plane. A line has no width.

Line

A

A ray starts at a point and extends indefinitely in one direction. By placing a point on the ray at the right, we can name the ray AB. A line segment is part of a line and has two endpoints. The line segment AB is designated by its two endpoints.

Take Note When using three letters to name an angle, the vertex is always the middle letter. We could also refer to the angle at the right as CAB.

Point of Interest The Babylonians chose 360 for the measure of one full rotation, probably because they knew that there are 365 days in a year and that the closest number to 365 with many divisors is 360.

Ray AB B

A

Line segment AB

B

Lines in a plane can be parallel or intersect. Parallel lines never meet. The distance between parallel lines in a plane is always the same. We write p 储 q to indicate that line p is parallel to line q. Intersecting lines cross at a point in the plane.

p Parallel q lines

An angle is formed when two rays start from the same point. Rays AB and AC start from the same point A. The point at which the rays meet is called the vertex of the angle. The symbol  is read “angle” and is used to name an angle. We can refer to the angle at the right as A, BAC, or x.

B

Intersecting lines

x

A

C Ray

An angle can be measured in degrees. The symbol for degree is . A ray rotated one revolution about its beginning point creates an angle of 360 .

360°

The measure of an angle is symbolized by m. For instance, mC  40°. Read this as “the measure of angle C is 40 .”

40º C

SECTION 1.8

Concepts from Geometry

1

57

p

One-fourth of a revolution is 4 of 360 , or 90 . A 90 angle is called a right angle. The symbol is used to represent a right angle.

q 90º

Perpendicular lines are intersecting lines that form right angles. We write p  q to indicate that line p is perpendicular to line q.

p⊥q

Right angle

Complementary angles are two angles whose sum is 90 . mA  mB  35°  55°  90°

35º

A

55º

B

A and B are complementary angles. 180º

1

One-half of a revolution is 2 of 360 , or 180 . A 180 angle is called a straight angle.

Straight angle

Supplementary angles are two angles whose sum is 180 . mA  mB  123°  57°  180°

123º A

57º B

A and B are supplementary angles. EXAMPLE • 1

YOU TRY IT • 1

Find the complement of 39 .

Find the complement of 87 .

Solution To find the complement of 39 , subtract 39 from 90 .

90°  39°  51° 51 is the complement of 39 . EXAMPLE • 2

YOU TRY IT • 2

Find the supplement of 122 .

Find the supplement of 87 .

Solution To find the supplement of 122 , subtract 122 from 180 .

180°  122°  58° 58 is the supplement of 122 . EXAMPLE • 3

For the figure at the right, find mAOB. Solution mAOB is the difference between mAOC and mBOC. mAOB  95°  62°  33° mAOB  33°

YOU TRY IT • 3 A

For the figure at the right, find mx.

B

95º

x 95º 34º

62º O

C

Solutions on p. S3

58

CHAPTER 1

OBJECTIVE B

Prealgebra Review

To solve perimeter problems Perimeter is the distance around a plane figure. Perimeter is used in buying fencing for a yard, wood for the frame of a painting, and rain gutters for a house. The perimeter of a plane figure is the sum of the lengths of the sides of the figure. Formulas for the perimeters of four common geometric figures are given below. C

A triangle is a three-sided plane figure. Perimeter  side 1  side 2  side 3

A

B

An isosceles triangle has two sides of the same length. An equilateral triangle has all three sides the same length. A parallelogram is a four-sided plane figure with opposite sides parallel. A rectangle is a parallelogram that has four right angles.

Parallelogram

Width

Perimeter  2  length  2  width

Length

A square is a rectangle with four equal sides. Side

Perimeter  4  side A circle is a plane figure in which all points are the same distance from point O, the center of the circle. The diameter of a circle is a line segment across the circle passing through the center. AB is a diameter of the circle at the right. The radius of a circle is a line segment from the center of the circle to a point on the circle. OC is a radius of the circle at the right. The perimeter of a circle is called its circumference. Diameter  2  radius or Radius  Circumference  2   radius or where ␲ ⬇ 3.14 or ␲ ⬇

HOW TO • 1

1 2 1  2

C

A

B O

1  diameter 2 Circumference   diameter

22 . 7

The diameter of a circle is 25 cm. Find the radius of the circle.

#

diameter

#

25  12.5

SECTION 1.8

EXAMPLE • 4

Concepts from Geometry

59

YOU TRY IT • 4

Find the perimeter of a rectangle with a width of 6 ft and a length of 18 feet.

Find the perimeter of a square that has a side of length 4.2 m.

Solution Perimeter  2 # length  2 # width  2 # 18 ft  2 # 6 ft  36 ft  12 ft  48 ft

EXAMPLE • 5

YOU TRY IT • 5

Find the circumference of a circle with a radius of 23 cm. Use 3.14 for ␲.

Find the circumference of a circle with a diameter of 5 in. Use 3.14 for ␲.

Solution Circumference  2 # ␲ # radius ⬇ 2 # 3.14 # 23 cm  144.44 cm

EXAMPLE • 6

YOU TRY IT • 6

A chain-link fence costs \$6.37 per foot. How much will it cost to fence a rectangular playground that is 108 ft wide and 195 ft long?

A metal strip is being installed around a circular table that has a diameter of 36 in. If the per-foot cost of the metal strip is \$3.21, find the cost for the metal strip. Use 3.14 for ␲. Round to the nearest cent.

Strategy To find the cost of the fence: • Find the perimeter of the playground. • Multiply the perimeter by the per-foot cost of the fencing.

Solution Perimeter  2

2

# #

length  2 195 ft  2

# width # 108 ft

 390 ft  216 ft  606 ft Cost  606  \$6.37  \$3860.22 The cost is \$3860.22. Solutions on pp. S3–S4

OBJECTIVE C

To solve area problems Area is a measure of the amount of surface in a region. Area is used to describe the size of a rug, a farm, a house, or a national park.

1 in2

1 in.

Area is measured in square units. A square that is 1 in. on each side has an area of 1 square inch, which is written 1 in2.

1 in.

60

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

1 cm2 1 cm

A square that is 1 cm on each side has an area of 1 square centimeter, which is written 1 cm2.

1 cm

Areas of common geometric figures are given by the following formulas. 3 cm

RECTANGLE Area  length  width  3 cm 2 cm  6 cm2

Width

2 cm

Length 2 cm

SQUARE Area  side  side  2 cm 2 cm  4 cm2

Side

2 cm

Side

PARALLELOGRAM The base of a parallelogram is one of the parallel sides. The height of a parallelogram is the distance between the base and the opposite parallel side. It is perpendicular to the base.

Height Base

Area  base  height  5 ft 4 ft  20 ft2

4 ft 5 ft

CIRCLE The height of a triangle is always perpendicular to the base. Sometimes it is necessary to extend the base so that a perpendicular line segment can be drawn. The extension is not part of the base.

TRIANGLE For the triangle at the right, the base of the triangle is AB; the height of the triangle is CD. Note that the height is perpendicular to the base.

C

1  base  height 2 1  5 in. 4 in.  10 in2 2

Area  4 in.

D

A

5 in.

4 in.

Area  ␲(radius)2 ⬇ 3.14(4 in.)2  50.24 in2

Take Note

B

EXAMPLE • 7

C

A

D

B

YOU TRY IT • 7

Find the area of a rectangle whose length is 8 in. and whose width is 6 in.

Find the area of a triangle whose base is 5 ft and whose height is 3 ft.

Solution Area  length  width

 8 in.  6 in.  48 in2 Solution on p. S4

SECTION 1.8

EXAMPLE • 8

Concepts from Geometry

YOU TRY IT • 8

Find the area of a circle whose diameter is 5 cm. Use 3.14 for ␲.

Find the area of a circle whose radius is 6 in. Use 3.14 for ␲.

Solution

1 Radius  2 1  2

61

#

diameter

#

5 cm  2.5 cm

Area  ␲ # 1radius2 2 ⬇ 3.1412.5 cm 2 2  19.625 cm2

EXAMPLE • 9

YOU TRY IT • 9

Find the area of the parallelogram shown below.

Find the area of the parallelogram shown below.

12 ft

28 in. 15 in.

7 ft

Solution Area  base # height  12 ft  7 ft  84 ft2

EXAMPLE • 10

YOU TRY IT • 10

To conserve water during a drought, a city’s water department is offering homeowners a rebate on their water bill of \$1.27 per square foot of lawn that is removed from a yard and replaced with droughtresistant plants. What rebate would a homeowner receive who replaced a rectangular lawn area that is 15 ft wide and 25 ft long?

An interior designer is choosing from two hallway rugs. A nylon rug costs \$12.50 per square yard, and a wool rug costs \$19.30 per square yard. If the dimensions of the hallway are 4 ft by 18 ft, how much more expensive is the wool rug than the nylon rug? Hint: 9 ft2  1 yd2.

Strategy To find the amount of the rebate: • Find the area of the lawn. • Multiply the area by the per-square-foot rebate.

Solution Area  length  width  25 ft  15 ft  375 ft2

Rebate  375  \$1.27  \$476.25 The rebate is \$476.25. Solutions on p. S4

62

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

1.8 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To find the measures of angles

1. How many degrees are in a right angle?

2. How many degrees are in a straight angle?

3. Find the complement of a 62° angle.

4. Find the complement of a 13° angle.

5. Find the supplement of a 48° angle.

6. Find the supplement of a 106° angle.

7. Find the complement of a 7° angle.

8. Find the complement of a 76° angle.

9. Find the supplement of an 89° angle.

11. Angle AOB is a straight angle. Find mAOC.

10. Find the supplement of a 21° angle.

12. Angle AOB is a straight angle. Find mCOB.

C 48° A

O

C 79°

B A

13. Find mx .

O

B

14. Find mx. 29°

x

x

39°

15. Find mAOB .

16. Find mAOB.

A

C

A 86°

32° C

38°

45° O

O

B

B

17. Find mAOC .

18. Find mAOC.

C A

138° O

19. Find mA .

154° A O

59° B

20. Find mA.

211°

68° A

21. How many degrees does the hour hand on an analog clock travel through in 1 h?

A

C 22° B

SECTION 1.8

OBJECTIVE B

Concepts from Geometry

63

To solve perimeter problems

22. Find the perimeter of a triangle with sides that measure 2.51 cm, 4.08 cm, and 3.12 cm.

23. Find the perimeter of a triangle with sides that measure 4 ft 5 in., 5 ft 3 in., and 6 ft. 2 in.

24. Find the perimeter of a rectangle whose length is 4 ft 2 in. and whose width is 2 ft 3 in.

25. Find the perimeter of a rectangle whose dimensions are 5 m by 8 m.

26. Find the perimeter of a square whose side measures 13 in.

27. Find the perimeter of a square whose side measures 34 cm.

28. Find the circumference of a circle whose radius is 21 cm. Use 3.14 for ␲.

29. Find the circumference of a circle whose radius is 3.4 m. Use 3.14 for ␲.

30. Find the circumference of a circle whose diameter is 1.2 m. Use 3.14 for ␲.

31. Find the circumference of a circle whose diameter is 15 in. Use 3.14 for ␲.

32. Art The wood framing for an art canvas costs \$5.81 per foot. How much would the wood framing cost for a rectangular picture that measures 3 ft by 5 ft?

34. Sewing To prevent fraying, a binding is attached to the outside of a circular rug whose radius is 3 ft. If the binding costs \$1.55 per foot, find the cost of the binding. Use 3.14 for ␲.

35. Landscaping A drip irrigation system is installed around a circular flower garden that is 4 ft in diameter. If the irrigation system costs \$5.46 per foot, find the cost to place the irrigation system around the flower garden. Use 3.14 for ␲.

36. Which has the greater perimeter, a square whose side measures 1 ft or a rectangle that has a length of 2 in. and a width of 1 in.?

33. Ceramics A decorative mosaic tile is being installed on the border of a square wall behind a stove. If one side of the square measures 5 ft and the cost of installing the mosaic tile is \$6.86 per foot, find the cost to install the decorative border.

64

CHAPTER 1

OBJECTIVE C

Prealgebra Review

To solve area problems

37. Find the area of a rectangle that measures 4 ft by 8 ft.

38. Find the area of a rectangle that measures 3.4 cm by 5.6 cm.

39. Find the area of a parallelogram whose height is 14 cm and whose base is 27 cm.

40. Find the area of a parallelogram whose height is 7 ft and whose base is 18 ft.

41. Find the area of a circle whose radius is 4 in. Use 3.14 for ␲.

42. Find the area of a circle whose radius is 8.2 m. Use 3.14 for ␲.

43. Find the area of a square whose side measures 4.1 m.

44. Find the area of a square whose side measures 5 yd.

45. Find the area of a triangle whose height is 7 cm and whose base is 15 cm.

46. Find the area of a triangle whose height is 8 in. and whose base is 13 in.

47. Find the area of a circle whose diameter is 17 in. Use 3.14 for ␲.

48. Find the area of a circle whose diameter is 3.6 m. Use 3.14 for ␲.

50. Interior Design One side of a square room measures 18 ft. How many square yards of carpet are necessary to carpet the room? Hint: 1 yd2  9 ft2.

51. Carpentry A circular, inlaid-wood design for a dining table costs \$35 per square foot to build. If the radius of the design is 15 in., find the cost to build the design. Use 3.14 for ␲. Round to the nearest dollar. Hint: 144 in2  1 ft2.

52. Interior Design A circular stained glass window costs \$68 per square foot to build. If the diameter of the window is 4 ft, find the cost to build the window. Round to the nearest dollar.

49. Landscaping A landscape architect recommends 0.1 gal of water per day for each square foot of lawn. How many gallons of water should be used per day on a rectangular lawn that is 33 ft by 42 ft?

SECTION 1.8

Concepts from Geometry

65

53. Construction The cost of plastering the walls of a rectangular room that is 18 ft long, 14 ft wide, and 8 ft high is \$2.56 per square foot. If 125 ft2 are not plastered because of doors and windows, find the cost to plaster the room. 54. Interior Design A room is 12 ft long, 9 ft wide, and 9 ft high. Two adjacent walls of the room are going to be wallpapered using wallpaper that costs \$25.25 per square yard. What is the cost to wallpaper the two walls? Hint: 1 yd2  9 ft2. Interior Design A carpet is to be installed in one room and a hallway, as shown in the diagram at the right. For Exercises 55 to 58, state whether the given expression can be used to calculate the area of the carpet in square meters.

7m

5.5 m 1m

55. 5.5(7)  12(1)

56. 5.5(12)  4.5(5)

57. 12(1)  4.5(7)

58. 5.5(7)  1(5)

12 m

Applying the Concepts 59. Find the perimeter and area of the figure. Use 3.14 for ␲.

60. Find the perimeter and area of the figure. 60 ft

70 m

12 ft 28 ft

42 ft

40 m 20 m

61. A trapezoid is a four-sided plane figure with two parallel sides. The area 1 of a trapezoid is given by Area  2 # height1base 1  base 2 2. See the figure at the right. a. Find the area of a trapezoid for which base 1 is 5 in., base 2 is 8 in., and the height is 6 in.

Base 1 Height Base 2 13 in.

b. Find the area of the trapezoid shown at the right. 6 in.

16 in.

62. Draw parallelogram ABCD or one similar to it and then cut it out. Cut along the dotted line to form the shaded triangle. Slide the triangle so that the slanted side corresponds to the slanted side of the parallelogram as shown. Explain how this demonstrates that the area of a parallelogram is the product of the base and the height.

63. Explain how to draw the height of a triangle.

D

C

h

A

b B

66

CHAPTER 1

Whole Numbers

FOCUS ON PROBLEM SOLVING Inductive Reasoning

Suppose you take 9 credit hours each semester. The total number of credit hours you have taken at the end of each semester can be described by a list of numbers. 9, 18, 27, 36, 45, 54, 63,... The list of numbers that indicates the total credit hours is an ordered list of numbers called a sequence. Each number in a sequence is called a term of the sequence. The list is ordered because the position of a number in the list indicates the semester in which that number of credit hours has been taken. For example, the 7th term of the sequence is 63, and a total of 63 credit hours have been taken after the 7th semester. Assuming the pattern continues, find the next three numbers in the pattern 6, 10, 14, 18,... This list of numbers is a sequence. The first step in solving this problem is to observe the pattern in the list of numbers. In this case, each number in the list is 4 less than the previous number. The next three numbers are 22, 26, 30. This process of discovering the pattern in a list of numbers is called inductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning involves making generalizations from specific examples; in other words, we reach a conclusion by making observations about particular facts or cases. Try the following exercises. Each exercise requires inductive reasoning. For Exercises 1 to 4, name the next two terms in the sequence. 1. 1, 3, 5, 7, 1, 3, 5, 7, 1, . . .

2. 1, 4, 2, 5, 3, 6, 4, . . .

3. 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 16, . . .

4. A, B, C, G, H, I, M, . . .

For Exercises 5 and 6, draw the next shape in the sequence. 5.

6.

For Exercises 7 and 8, solve. 1

2

6

7

3

4

5

7. Convert 11, 11, 11, 11, and 11 to decimals. Then use the pattern you observe to 9

convert 11, 11, and 11 to decimals. 1 2 4 5 7 , , , , and 33 to decimals. 33 33 33 33 8 13 19 convert 33, 33, and 33 to decimals.

8. Convert to

Then use the pattern you observe

Chapter 1 Projects and Group Activities

67

PROJECTS AND GROUP ACTIVITIES The +/- Key on a Calculator

Using your calculator to simplify numerical expressions sometimes requires use of the +/- key or, on some calculators, the negative key, which is frequently shown as (-) . To enter 4: • For those calculators with +/- , press 4 and then +/- . • For those calculators with (-) , press (-) and then 4.

Here are the keystrokes for evaluating the expression 314 2  152 . Calculators with +/- key: 3 x 4 +/- - 5 +/- = Calculators with (-) key: 3 x (-) 4 - (-) 5 = This example illustrates that calculators make a distinction between negative and minus. To perform the operation 3  13 2 , you cannot enter 3 - - 3. This would result in 0, which is not the correct answer. You must enter 3 - 3 +/-

=

or

3 -

(-) 3 =

For Exercises 1 to 6, use a calculator to evaluate. 2. 318 2

1. 16  2

4. 50  114 2 Balance of Trade

5. 4  132

3. 47  19 2

6. 8  16 2 2  7

2

Objective 1.3C on page 20 describes the concept of balance of trade. You can find data on international trade at www.census.gov. Here is a portion of a table from that website. U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services (in millions of dollars)

Period (2008) January February March

Balance

Exports

Imports

Total

Goods

Services

Total

Goods

Services

Total

Goods

Services

58,711 61,435 56,964

70,147 72,483 68,403

11,436 11,048 11,439

149,389 152,551 149,706

104,686 108,098 105,029

44,703 44,453 44,677

208,100 213,985 206,670

174,833 180,580 173,432

33,267 33,405 33,238

The sum of the cost of goods exported and the cost of services exported equals the total cost of exports. For January 2008: 104,686  44,703  149,389 The total cost of exports minus the total cost of imports equals the total balance. For January 2008: 149,389  208,100  58,711 1. The difference between the cost of goods exported and the cost of goods imported equals the balance of the cost of goods. Show this calculation for January 2008. 2. Use the “Balance” columns to show that, for January 2008, the balance of the cost of goods plus the balance of the cost of services equals the total balance of trade.

68

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

CHAPTER 1

SUMMARY KEY WORDS

EXAMPLES

The set of natural numbers is 再1, 2, 3, 4, 5, . . .冎. The set of integers is 再. . . , 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .冎. [1.1A, p. 2] A number a is less than a number b, written a  b, if a is to the left of b on the number line. A number a is greater than a number b, written a  b, if a is to the right of b on the number line. The symbol means is less than or equal to. The symbol means is greater than or equal to. [1.1A, p. 3]

5  3 3 3 5 5

90 4 7 6 9

Two numbers that are the same distance from zero on the number line but on opposite sides of zero are opposite numbers or opposites. [1.1B, p. 4]

7 and 7 are opposites.

The absolute value of a number is its distance from zero on the number line. [1.1B, p. 4]

An expression of the form an is in exponential form. The base is a and the exponent is n. [1.4A, p. 23]

54 is an exponential expression. The base is 5 and the exponent is 4.

A natural number greater than 1 is a prime number if its only factors are 1 and the number. [1.5B, p. 30]

3, 17, 23, and 97 are prime numbers.

The prime factorization of a number is the expression of the number as a product of its prime factors. [1.5B, p. 30]

23 # 32 of 504.

The least common multiple (LCM) of two or more numbers is the smallest number that is a multiple of all the numbers. [1.5C, p. 31]

The LCM of 4, 8, and 12 is 24.

The greatest common factor (GCF) of two or more numbers is the greatest number that divides evenly into all of the numbers. [1.5C, p. 31]

The GCF of 4, 8, and 12 is 4.

A rational number (or fraction) is a number that can be written a in the form b, where a and b are integers and b 0. A fraction is in simplest form when there are no common factors in the numerator and denominator. A rational number can be represented as a terminating or repeating decimal. [1.6A, pp. 34–35]

3 , 8

An irrational number is a number that has a decimal representation that never terminates or repeats. [1.6A, p. 35]

␲, 12, and 1.34334333433334 . . . are irrational numbers.

 43 and 34 are opposites. 冨2.3冨  2.3

#

7 is the prime factorization

9

 2 and 4 are rational numbers written in simplest form.

3 8

is a fraction in simplest form.

1.13 and 0.473 are also rational numbers.

Chapter 1 Summary

The rational numbers and the irrational numbers taken together are the real numbers. [1.6A, p. 35]

3 , 8

The reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction with the numerator and denominator interchanged. [1.7B, p. 47]

The reciprocal of 6 is 5.

Percent means “parts of 100.” [1.7C, p. 49]

72% means 72 of 100 equal parts.

5

6

1

3

The reciprocal of  3 is  1 or 3.

A

Line

Ray AB B

A

Line segment AB

B

p Parallel q lines

Lines in a plane can be parallel or intersect. Parallel lines never meet. The distance between parallel lines in a plane is always the same. Intersecting lines cross at a point in the plane. [1.8A, p. 56]

A right angle has a measure of 90°. Perpendicular lines are intersecting lines that form right angles. Complementary angles are two angles whose sum is 90°. A straight angle has a measure of 180°. Supplementary angles are two angles whose sum is 180°. [1.8A, p. 57]

9

 2 , 4, 1.13, 0.473, ␲, 12, and 1.34334333433334 . . . are real numbers.

A plane is a flat surface that extends indefinitely. A line extends indefinitely in two directions in a plane. A ray starts at a point and extends indefinitely in one direction. A line segment is part of a line and has two endpoints. [1.8A, p. 56]

An angle is formed when two rays start from the same point. The point at which the rays meet is called the vertex of the angle. An angle can be measured in degrees. The measure of an angle is symbolized by m. [1.8A, p. 56]

p || q

Intersecting lines

This angle can be named A, BAC, CAB, or x.

B A

x C

90°

41°

A

B

49°

m ∠ A + m ∠ B = 90°

A and B are complementary angles. 145º C C m ∠ C + m ∠ D = 180°

35º

C and D are supplementary angles.

A circle is a plane figure in which all points are the same distance from point O, the center of the circle. A diameter of a circle is a line segment across the circle passing through the center. A radius of a circle is a line segment from the center of the circle to a point on the circle. The perimeter of a circle is called its circumference. [1.8B, p. 58]

69

70

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

ESSENTIAL RULES AND PROCEDURES

EXAMPLES

To add two numbers with the same sign, add the absolute values of the numbers. Then attach the sign of the addends. [1.2A, p. 8]

7  15  22 7  115 2  22

To add two numbers with different signs, find the absolute value of each number. Subtract the smaller of the two numbers from the larger. Then attach the sign of the number with the larger absolute value. [1.2A, p. 8]

7  115 2  8 7  15  8

To subtract one number from another, add the opposite of the second number to the first number. [1.2B, p. 9]

7  19  7  119 2  12 6  1132  6  13  7

To multiply two numbers with the same sign, multiply the absolute values of the numbers. The product is positive. [1.3A, p. 16]

7 # 8  56 718 2  56

To multiply two numbers with different signs, multiply the absolute values of the numbers. The product is negative. [1.3A, p. 16]

7 # 8  56 718 2  56

To divide two numbers with the same sign, divide the absolute values of the numbers. The quotient is positive. [1.3B, p. 18]

54  9  6 1542  19 2  6

To divide two numbers with different signs, divide the absolute values of the numbers. The quotient is negative. [1.3B, p. 18]

154 2  9  6 54  19 2  6

Properties of Zero and One in Division [1.3B, p. 19] 0 a a a

If a 0,  0. If a 0,  1. a 1

a

a 0

is undefined.

Order of Operations Agreement [1.4B, p. 24] Step 1 Perform operations inside grouping symbols. Grouping

symbols include parentheses ( ), brackets [ ], braces { }, the fraction bar, and the absolute value symbol ƒ ƒ . Step 2 Simplify exponential expressions. Step 3 Do multiplication and division as they occur from left

to right. Step 4 Do addition and subtraction as they occur from left

to right.

0 0 5 12 1 12 7 7 1 8 is undefined. 0

50  15 2 2  217  162

 50  15 2 2  219 2

 50  25  219 2

 2  1182  16

Chapter 1 Summary

To add two fractions with the same denominator, add the numerators and place the sum over the common denominator. [1.6B, p. 36]

7 1 71 8 4     10 10 10 10 5

To subtract two fractions with the same denominator, subtract the numerators and place the difference over the common denominator. [1.6C, p. 38]

7 1 71 6 3     10 10 10 10 5

To multiply two fractions, place the product of the numerators over the product of the denominators. [1.7A, p. 45]



To divide two fractions, multiply the dividend by the reciprocal of the divisor. [1.7B, p. 47]

2 4 4    5 3 5

To write a percent as a fraction, remove the percent sign and

60%  60 a

multiply by

1 100 .

[1.7C, p. 49]

2 3

#

5 2  6 3

# #

5 10 5   6 18 9

#

3 2 # 2 # 3 6   # 2 5 2 5

1 60 3 b   100 100 5

To write a percent as a decimal, remove the percent sign and multiply by 0.01. [1.7C, p. 49]

73%  7310.01 2  0.73 1.3%  1.310.012  0.013

To write a decimal or a fraction as a percent, multiply by 100%. [1.7C, p. 49]

0.3  0.31100% 2  30% 5 500 5  1100% 2  %  62.5% 8 8 8

Diameter  2 [1.8B, p. 58]

#

1 2

#

diameter

71

Find the diameter of a circle whose radius is 10 in. Diameter  2 # radius  2110 in.2  20 in.

Perimeter is the distance around a plane figure. [1.8B, p. 58] Triangle: Perimeter  side 1  side 2  side 3 Rectangle: Perimeter  2 # length  2 # width Square: Perimeter  4 # side Circle: Circumference  2 # ␲ # radius

Find the perimeter of a rectangle whose width is 12 m and whose length is 15 m. Perimeter  2 # 15 m  2 # 12 m  54 m Find the circumference of a circle whose radius is 3 in. Use 3.14 for ␲. Circumference  2 # ␲ # 3 in. ⬇ 18.84 in.

Area is a measure of the amount of surface in a region. [1.8C, pp. 59–60] 1 Triangle: Area  # base # height 2 Rectangle: Area  length # width Square: Area  side # side Parallelogram: Area  base # height

Find the area of a triangle whose base is 13 m and whose height is 11 m. 1 Area  # 13 m # 11 m  71.5 m2 2 Find the area of a circle whose radius is 9 cm.

Circle:

Area  p

#

19 cm2 2 ⬇ 254.34 cm2

72

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

CHAPTER 1

CONCEPT REVIEW Test your knowledge of the concepts presented in this chapter. Answer each question. Then check your answers against the ones provided in the Answer Section. 1. How is the opposite of a number different from the absolute value of the number?

2. How do you evaluate the absolute value of a number?

3. What is the difference between a minus sign and a negative sign?

4. Explain how to determine the sign of the product of two nonzero integers.

6

7

5. What are the values of 0 and 1?

6. What are the steps in the Order of Operations Agreement?

7. List the prime numbers less than 50.

8. How is prime factorization used to find the LCM of two or more numbers?

9. When adding two fractions, why is it important to first find a common denominator?

10. When multiplying two fractions, do you have to first find a common denominator?

11. How do you find the reciprocal of a fraction?

12. Write 85% as a decimal and as a fraction.

13. What is the word used for the perimeter of a circle?

14. State the formulas for the area of a circle and the area of a triangle.

Chapter 1 Review Exercises

73

CHAPTER 1

REVIEW EXERCISES 7 as a decimal. 25

2. Write

3. Evaluate 52.

4. Evaluate 5  22  9.

5. Find mAOB for the figure at the right.

6. Write 6.2% as a decimal.

A 82º

7. Multiply: 16 2 17 2

B

45º O

9. Find the complement of a 56° angle.

11. Find all of the factors of 56.

5

C

8. Simplify:

1 1 5   3 6 12

10. Given A  再4, 0, 11冎, which elements of set A are less than 1?

12. Subtract: 5.17  6.238

2

13. Write 8 as a percent.

14. Write 15 as a decimal. Place a bar over the repeating digits of the decimal.

15. Subtract: 9  13

16. What is 5 less than 15?

17. Find the additive inverse of 4.

18. Find the area of a triangle whose base is 4 cm and whose height is 9 cm.

19. Divide: 100  5

20. Write 792% as a fraction.

21. Find the prime factorization of 280.

22. Evaluate 32  4[18  112  20 2].

2

4

1

74

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

23. Add: 3  1122  6  142

25. Write

19 35

as a percent. Write the remainder

in fractional form.

24. Find the sum of

4 5

3 8

and  .

26. Find the area of a circle whose diameter is 6 m. Use 3.14 for ␲.

27. Multiply: 4.3211.07 2

28. Evaluate  05 0 .

29. Subtract: 16  13 2  18

30. Divide: 

18 27  35 28

31. Find the supplement of a 28° angle.

32. Find the perimeter of a rectangle whose length is 12 in. and whose width is 10 in.

33. Place the correct symbol,  or , between the two numbers.  06 0 010 0

34. Evaluate

52  11  123  22 2 . 22  5

35. Education To discourage random guessing on a multiple-choice exam, a professor assigns 6 points for a correct answer, 4 points for an incorrect answer, and 2 points for leaving a question blank. What is the score for a student who had 21 correct answers, 5 incorrect answers, and left 4 questions blank?

36. Currency The graph at the right shows the responses of 2136 adults to the question “Would you favor or oppose abolishing the penny so that the nickel would be the lowest denomination coin?” (Source: Harris Interactive) What percent of those surveyed opposed abolishing the penny? Round to the nearest tenth of a percent.

37. Chemistry The temperature at which mercury boils is 357°C. The temperature at which mercury freezes is 39°C. Find the difference between the boiling point and the freezing point of mercury.

38. Landscaping A landscape company is proposing to replace a rectangular flower bed that measures 8 ft by 12 ft with sod that costs \$3.51 per square foot. Find the cost to replace the flower bed with the sod.

Should the penny be abolished?

491 In Favor 1260 Opposed

385 Not Sure

Source: Harris Interactive

Chapter 1 Test

75

CHAPTER 1

TEST 1. Divide: 561  133 2

2. Write

5 6

as a percent. Write the remainder in frac-

tional form.

3. Find the complement of a 28° angle.

4. Multiply: 6.0210.89 2

5. Subtract: 16  30

6. Write 37 % as a fraction.

5 7 7. Subtract:   a  b 6 8

8. Evaluate

9. Multiply: 516 2 13 2

11. Evaluate 133 2

#

22.

13. Place the correct symbol,  or , between the two numbers. 2 40

1 2

10  2  2  6. 2  14 2

10. Find the circumference of a circle whose diameter is 27 in. Use 3.14 for ␲.

12. Find the area of a parallelogram whose base is 10 cm and whose height is 9 cm.

14. What is

2 5

3 4

more than  ?

76

CHAPTER 1

Prealgebra Review

15. Evaluate  04 0 .

16. Write 45% as a fraction and as a decimal.

17. Add: 22  14  182

18. Multiply: 4

19. Find the prime factorization of 990.

20. Evaluate 16  2[8  314  2 2]  1.

21. Subtract: 16  130 2  42

22. Divide: A

#

12

5 5  a b 12 6

B 94º

23. Find mx for the figure at the right.

47º O

x

24. Evaluate 32  4  20  5. C

7

26. Finance The table below shows the first-quarter net income for 2008 for four automobile companies. Profits are shown as positive numbers. Losses are shown as negative numbers. One-quarter year is 3 months. a. If earnings were to continue through the year at the same level, what would be the annual profit or loss for Ford Motor Company? b. For the quarter shown, what was the average monthly profit or loss for General Motors Corporation? Round to the nearest thousand dollars.

Automobile Company Ford Motor Co. General Motors Corp. Honda Motor Co. Toyota Motor Corp.

Andrew Fox/Alamy

25. Write 9 as a decimal. Place a bar over the repeating digit of the decimal.

First Quarter 2008 Net Income (in millions of dollars) 100 3,251 6,060 17,146

27. Recreation The recreation department for a city is enclosing a rectangular playground that measures 150 ft by 200 ft with new fencing that costs \$8.52 per foot. Find the cost of the new fencing.

Source: finance.yahoo.com

CHAPTER

2

Variable Expressions OBJECTIVES

Panstock/First Light

SECTION 2.1 A To evaluate a variable expression SECTION 2.2 A To simplify a variable expression using the Properties of Addition B To simplify a variable expression using the Properties of Multiplication C To simplify a variable expression using the Distributive Property D To simplify general variable expressions SECTION 2.3 A To translate a verbal expression into a variable expression, given the variable B To translate a verbal expression into a variable expression and then simplify C To translate application problems

ARE YOU READY? Take the Chapter 2 Prep Test to find out if you are ready to learn to: • Evaluate a variable expression • Simplify a variable expression • Translate a verbal expression into a variable expression

PREP TEST Do these exercises to prepare for Chapter 2. 1. Subtract: 12  共15兲

2. Divide: 36  共9兲

3 5 3. Add:   4 6

4. What is the reciprocal of  ?

9 4

3 5 5. Divide:    4 2

7. Evaluate:

3

9. Evaluate: 7  2  3

6. Evaluate: 24

8. Evaluate: 3  42

10. Evaluate: 5  7共3  22兲

77

78

CHAPTER 2

Variable Expressions

SECTION

Five terms 2

3x

 5y  2xy  x Variable terms

 7

⎫ ⎬ ⎭

Today, x is used by most nations as the standard letter for a single unknown. In fact, x-rays were so named because the scientists who discovered them did not know what they were and thus labeled them the “unknown rays” or x-rays.

Note that the expression has five addends. The terms of a variable expression are the addends of the expression. The expression has five terms.

3x2  5y  2xy  x  7 3x2  共5y兲  2xy  共x兲  共7兲

⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

Historical manuscripts indicate that mathematics is at least 4000 years old. Yet it was only 400 years ago that mathematicians started using variables to stand for numbers. The idea that a letter can stand for some number was a critical turning point in mathematics.

A variable expression is shown at the right. The expression can be rewritten by writing subtraction as the addition of the opposite.

⎫ ⎬ ⎭

Point of Interest

Often we discuss a quantity without knowing its exact value—for example, the price of gold next month, the cost of a new automobile next year, or the tuition cost for next semester. Recall that a letter of the alphabet, called a variable, is used to stand for a quantity that is unknown or that can change, or vary. An expression that contains one or more variables is called a variable expression.

⎫ ⎬ ⎭

Before you begin a new chapter, you should take some time to review previously learned skills. One way to do this is to complete the Prep Test. See page 77. This test focuses on the particular skills that will be required for the new chapter.

⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭

Tips for Success

To evaluate a variable expression

⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭

OBJECTIVE A

Evaluating Variable Expressions

⎫ ⎬ ⎭

2.1

Constant term

The terms 3x2, 5y, 2xy, and x are variable terms. The term 7 is a constant term, or simply a constant. Each variable term is composed of a numerical coefficient and a variable part (the variable or variables and their exponents).

Numerical coefficient 3x2  5y



2xy



1x  7

Variable part

When the numerical coefficient is 1 or 1, the 1 is usually not written 共x  1x and x  1x兲.

Variable expressions occur naturally in science. In a physics lab, a student may discover 1 that a weight of 1 pound will stretch a spring inch. Two pounds will stretch the spring 2 1 inch. By experimenting, the student can discover that the distance the spring will stretch 1 is found by multiplying the weight by . By letting W represent the weight attached to 2 the spring, the student can represent the distance the spring stretches by the variable 1 expression W. 2

With a weight of W pounds, the spring will stretch

1 2

 W 苷 W inches.

With a weight of 10 pounds, the spring will stretch called the value of the variable W.

1 2

 10 苷 5 inches. The number 10 is

With a weight of 3 pounds, the spring will stretch

1 2

1 2

1 2

 3 苷 1 inches.

SECTION 2.1

Evaluating Variable Expressions

79

Replacing each variable by its value and then simplifying the resulting numerical expression is called evaluating a variable expression.

Integrating Technology See the Keystroke Guide: Evaluating Variable Expressions for instructions on using a graphing calculator to evaluate variable expressions.

Evaluate ab  b2 when a 苷 2 and b 苷 3. Replace each variable in the expression by its value. Then use the Order of Operations Agreement to simplify the resulting numerical expression.

HOW TO • 1

ab  b2 2共3兲  共3兲2  6  9  15 When a 苷 2 and b 苷 3, the value of ab  b2 is 15.

EXAMPLE • 1

YOU TRY IT • 1

Name the variable terms of the expression 2a2  5a  7.

Name the constant term of the expression 6n2  3n  4.

Solution 2a2 and 5a

EXAMPLE • 2

YOU TRY IT • 2

Evaluate x2  3xy when x 苷 3 and y 苷 4.

Evaluate 2xy  y2 when x 苷 4 and y 苷 2.

Solution x2  3xy 32  3共3兲共4兲  9  3共3兲共4兲  9  9共4兲  9  共36兲  9  36  45

EXAMPLE • 3 a b ab 2

Evaluate

2

when a 苷 3 and b 苷 4.

Solution a2  b2 ab

YOU TRY IT • 3

Evaluate

a2  b2 ab

when a 苷 5 and b 苷 3.

32  共4兲2 9  16  3  共4兲 3  共4兲 7   1 7 EXAMPLE • 4

YOU TRY IT • 4

Evaluate x2  3共x  y兲  z2 when x  2, y  1, and z  3.

Evaluate x3  2共x  y兲  z2 when x  2, y  4, and z  3.

Solution x2  3共x  y兲  z2 22  3冤2  共1兲冥  32  22  3共3兲  32  4  3共3兲  9 499  5  9  14

Solutions on p. S4

80

CHAPTER 2

Variable Expressions

2.1 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To evaluate a variable expression

For Exercises 1 to 3, name the terms of the variable expression. Then underline the constant term. 1. 2x2  5x  8

2. 3n2  4n  7

3. 6  a4

For Exercises 4 to 6, name the variable terms of the expression. Then underline the variable part of each term. 4. 9b2  4ab  a2

5. 7x2y  6xy2  10

6. 5  8n  3n2

For Exercises 7 to 9, name the coefficients of the variable terms. 7. x2  9x  2

8. 12a2  8ab  b2

10. What is the numerical coefficient of a variable term?

9. n3  4n2  n  9

11. Explain the meaning of the phrase “evaluate a variable expression.”

For Exercises 12 to 32, evaluate the variable expression when a 苷 2, b 苷 3, and c 苷 4. 12. 3a  2b

13. a  2c

14. a2

15. 2c2

16. 3a  4b

17. 3b  3c

18. b2  3

19. 3c  4

20. 16  共2c兲

21. 6b  共a兲

22. bc  共2a兲

23. b2  4ac

24. a2  b2

25. b2  c2

26. 共a  b兲2

27. a2  b2

28. 2a  共c  a兲2

29. 共b  a兲2  4c

30. b2 

ac 8

31.

5ab  3cb 6

32. 共b  2a兲2  bc

SECTION 2.1

81

Evaluating Variable Expressions

For Exercises 33 to 50, evaluate the variable expression when a 苷 2, b 苷 4, c 苷 1, and d 苷 3. 33.

bc d

34.

db c

35.

2d  b a

36.

b  2d b

37.

bd ca

38.

41. 共d  a兲2  5

39. 共b  d兲2  4a

40. 共d  a兲2  3c

42. 3共b  a兲  bc

43.

b  2a bc2  d

44.

b2  a ad  3c

46.

5 4 a  c2 8

47.

4bc 2a  b

45.

1 2 3 2 d  b 3 8

3 1 48.  b  共ac  bd兲 4 2

2 1 49.  d  共bd  ac兲 3 5

50. 共b  a兲2  共d  c兲2

For Exercises 51 to 54, without evaluating the expression, determine whether the expression is positive or negative when a  25, b  67, and c  82. 51. (c  a)(b)

52. (a  c)  3b

53.

bc abc

54.

ac b2

55. The value of a is the value of 3x2  4x  5 when x 苷 2. Find the value of 3a  4. 56. The value of c is the value of a2  b2 when a 苷 2 and b 苷 2. Find the value of c2  4.

Applying the Concepts For Exercises 57 to 60, evaluate the expression for x 苷 2, y 苷 3, and z 苷 2. 57. 3x  x3

58. zx

59. xx  yy

61. For each of the following, determine the first natural number x, greater than 1, for which the second expression is larger than the first. a. x3, 3x b. x4, 4x c. x5, 5x d. x6, 6x

60. y 1x 2 2

82

CHAPTER 2

Variable Expressions

SECTION

2.2 OBJECTIVE A

Simplifying Variable Expressions To simplify a variable expression using the Properties of Addition Like terms of a variable expression are terms with the same variable part. (Because x2 苷 x  x, x2 and x are not like terms.)

Like terms 3x



4



7x



9

 x2

Like terms

Constant terms are like terms. 4 and 9 are like terms.

To simplify a variable expression, use the Distributive Property to combine like terms by adding the numerical coefficients. The variable part remains unchanged.

Distributive Property

Take Note Here is an example of the Distributive Property using just numbers. 2共5  9兲  2共5兲  2共9兲  10  18  28 This is the same result we would obtain using the Order of Operations Agreement.

If a, b, and c are real numbers, then a 共b  c兲  ab  ac.

The Distributive Property can also be written ba  ca 苷 1b  c2a. This form is used to simplify a variable expression. To simplify 2x  3x, use the Distributive Property to add the numerical coefficients of the like variable terms. This is called combining like terms.

2x  3x  共2  3兲x  5x

2共5  9兲  2共14兲  28 The usefulness of the Distributive Property will become more apparent as we explore variable expressions.

Take Note Simplifying an expression means combining like terms. The constant term 5 and the variable term 7p are not like terms and therefore cannot be combined.

Simplify: 5y  11y 5y  11y  共5  11兲y • Use the Distributive Property.  6y

HOW TO • 1

Simplify: 5  7p The terms 5 and 7p are not like terms.

HOW TO • 2

The expression 5  7p is in simplest form.

The Associative Property of Addition If a, b, and c are real numbers, then 共a  b兲  c  a  共b  c兲.

When three or more terms are added, the terms can be grouped (with parentheses, for example) in any order. The sum is the same. For example, 共5  7兲  15  5  共7  15兲 12  15  5  22 27  27

SECTION 2.2

Simplifying Variable Expressions

83

The Commutative Property of Addition If a and b are real numbers, then a  b  b  a.

When two like terms are added, the terms can be added in either order. The sum is the same. For example, 15  共28兲  共28兲  15 13  13

2x  共4x兲  4x  2x 2x  2x

The Addition Property of Zero If a is a real number, then a  0 苷 0  a 苷 a.

The sum of a term and zero is the term. For example, 9  0  0  共9兲  9

5x  0  0  5x  5x

The Inverse Property of Addition If a is a real number, then a  共a兲  共a兲  a  0.

The sum of a term and its opposite is zero. Recall that the opposite of a number is called its additive inverse. 12  共12兲  共12兲  12  0

7x  共7x兲  7x  7x  0

Simplify: 8x  4y  8x  y 8x  4y  8x  y • Use the Commutative and  共8x  8x兲  共4y  y兲 Associative Properties of Addition to

HOW TO • 3

rearrange and group like terms. • Combine like terms.

Simplify: 4x2  5x  6x2  2x  1 4x2  5x  6x2  2x  1 • Use the Commutative and  共4x2  6x2兲  共5x  2x兲  1 Associative Properties of Addition to

HOW TO • 4

rearrange and group like terms. • Combine like terms.

YOU TRY IT • 1

Simplify: 3x  4y  10x  7y

Simplify: 3a  2b  5a  6b

Solution 3x  4y  10x  7y 苷 7x  11y

EXAMPLE • 2

YOU TRY IT • 2

Simplify: x2  7  4x2  16

Simplify: 3y2  7  8y2  14

Solution x2  7  4x2  16 苷 5x2  23

Your solution Solutions on p. S4

84

CHAPTER 2

Variable Expressions

OBJECTIVE B

To simplify a variable expression using the Properties of Multiplication In simplifying variable expressions, the following Properties of Multiplication are used.

Take Note The Associative Property of Multiplication allows us to multiply a coefficient by a number. Without this property, the expression 2(3x) could not be changed.

The Associative Property of Multiplication If a, b, and c are real numbers, then 共ab兲c  a 共bc兲.

When three or more factors are multiplied, the factors can be grouped in any order. The product is the same. 3共5  6兲  共3  5兲6 3共30兲  共15兲6 90  90

Take Note The Commutative Property of Multiplication allows us to rearrange factors. This property, along with the Associative Property of Multiplication, allows us to simplify some variable expressions.

2共3x兲  共2  3兲x  6x

The Commutative Property of Multiplication If a and b are real numbers, then ab 苷 ba.

Two factors can be multiplied in either order. The product is the same. 5共7兲  7共5兲 35  35

The Multiplication Property of One If a is a real number, then a  1 苷 1  a 苷 a.

The product of a term and 1 is the term. 91199

The Inverse Property of Multiplication If a is a real number and a is not equal to zero, then

a

1 a

Take Note We must state that x 苷 0 because division by zero is undefined.

1 1  a1 a a

is called the reciprocal of a.

1 a

is also called the multiplicative inverse of a.

The product of a number and its reciprocal is 1. 7

1 1 苷 7苷1 7 7

x

1 1 苷  x 苷 1, x x

x苷0

The multiplication properties are used to simplify variable expressions. Simplify: 2共x兲 • Use the Associative Property of 2共x兲  2共1  x兲 Multiplication to group factors.  32共1兲4 x  2x

HOW TO • 5

SECTION 2.2

HOW TO • 6

Simplify:

3 2x 2 3



3 2 x 2 3

3 2  x 2 3 1x x 

Simplifying Variable Expressions

85

3 2x 2 3

• Note that

2x 2  x. 3 3

• Use the Associative Property of Multiplication to group factors.

Simplify: 共16x兲2 • Use the Commutative and 共16x兲2  2共16x兲 Associative Properties of Multiplication to  共2  16兲x rearrange and group factors.  32x

HOW TO • 7

EXAMPLE • 3

YOU TRY IT • 3

Simplify: 2共3x2兲

Simplify: 5共4y2兲

Solution 2共3x2兲  6x2

EXAMPLE • 4

YOU TRY IT • 4

Simplify: 5共10x兲

Simplify: 7共2a兲

Solution 5共10x兲  50x

EXAMPLE • 5

Simplify: 

YOU TRY IT • 5

3 2 x 4 3

Simplify: 

Solution 3 2 1  x  x 4 3 2

OBJECTIVE C

3 7  a 5 9

Solutions on p. S4

To simplify a variable expression using the Distributive Property Recall that the Distributive Property states that if a, b, and c are real numbers, then a共b  c兲  ab  ac The Distributive Property is used to remove parentheses from a variable expression. Simplify: 3共2x  7兲 3共2x  7兲  3共2x兲  3共7兲 • Use the Distributive Property. Multiply  6x  21 each term inside the parentheses by 3.

HOW TO • 8

86

CHAPTER 2

Variable Expressions

Simplify: 5共4x  6兲 5共4x  6兲  5共4x兲  共5兲共6兲 • Use the Distributive Property.  20x  30

HOW TO • 9

Simplify: 共2x  4兲 共2x  4兲  1共2x  4兲 • Use the Distributive Property.  1共2x兲  共1兲共4兲  2x  4

HOW TO • 10

Note: When a negative sign immediately precedes the parentheses, the sign of each term inside the parentheses is changed. 1 Simplify:  共8x  12y兲 2 1 1 1  共8x  12y兲   共8x兲   共12y兲 2 2 2  4x  6y

HOW TO • 11

• Use the Distributive Property.

An extension of the Distributive Property is used when an expression contains more than two terms. Simplify: 3共4x  2y  z兲 3共4x  2y  z兲  3共4x兲  3共2y兲  3共z兲 • Use the Distributive Property.  12x  6y  3z

HOW TO • 12

EXAMPLE • 6

YOU TRY IT • 6

Simplify: 7共4  2x兲

Simplify: 5共3  7b兲

Solution 7共4  2x兲  28  14x

EXAMPLE • 7

YOU TRY IT • 7

Simplify: 共2x  6兲2

Simplify: 共3a  1兲5

Solution 共2x  6兲2  4x  12

EXAMPLE • 8

YOU TRY IT • 8

Simplify: 3共5a  7b兲

Simplify: 8共2a  7b兲

Solution 3共5a  7b兲  15a  21b

Solutions on p. S4

SECTION 2.2

EXAMPLE • 9

Simplifying Variable Expressions

87

YOU TRY IT • 9

Simplify: 3共x2  x  5兲

Simplify: 3共12x2  x  8兲

Solution 3共x2  x  5兲  3x2  3x  15

EXAMPLE • 10

YOU TRY IT • 10

Simplify: 2共x2  5x  4兲

Simplify: 3共a2  6a  7兲

Solution 2共x2  5x  4兲  2x2  10x  8

Solutions on p. S4

OBJECTIVE D

To simplify general variable expressions When simplifying variable expressions, use the Distributive Property to remove parentheses and brackets used as grouping symbols. Simplify: 4共x  y兲  2共3x  6y兲 4共x  y兲  2共3x  6y兲 • Use the Distributive Property.  4x  4y  6x  12y • Combine like terms.  10x  16y

HOW TO • 13

EXAMPLE • 11

YOU TRY IT • 11

Simplify: 2x  3共2x  7y兲

Simplify: 3y  2共y  7x兲

Solution 2x  3共2x  7y兲  2x  6x  21y  4x  21y

EXAMPLE • 12

YOU TRY IT • 12

Simplify: 7共x  2y兲  共x  2y兲

Simplify: 2共x  2y兲  共x  3y兲

Solution 7共x  2y兲  共x  2y兲  7x  14y  x  2y  8x  12y

EXAMPLE • 13

Simplify: 2x  332x  3共x  7兲4 Solution 2x  332x  3共x  7兲4  2x  332x  3x  21 4  2x  33x  21 4  2x  3x  63  5x  63

YOU TRY IT • 13

Simplify: 3y  2 3x  4共2  3y兲4 Your solution

Solutions on p. S4

88

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Variable Expressions

2.2 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To simplify a variable expression using the Properties of Addition

1. What are like terms? Give an example of two like terms. Give an example of two terms that are not like terms.

2. Explain the meaning of the phrase “simplify a variable expression.”

For Exercises 3 to 38, simplify. 3. 6x  8x

4. 12x  13x

5. 9a  4a

7. 4y  10y

8. 8y  6y

9. 7  3b

6. 12a  3a

10. 5  2a

11. 12a  17a

12. 3a  12a

13. 5ab  7ab

14. 9ab  3ab

15. 12xy  17xy

16. 15xy  3xy

17. 3ab  3ab

18. 7ab  7ab

1 1 19.  x  x 2 3

2 3 20.  y  y 5 10

21. 2.3x  4.2x

22. 6.1y  9.2y

23. x  0.55x

24. 0.65A  A

25. 5a  3a  5a

26. 10a  17a  3a

3 1 7 x x x 4 3 8

28. y2  8y2  7y2

29.

2 3 11 30.  a   a  a 5 10 15

31. 7x  3y  10x

32. 8y  8x  8y

33. 3a  共7b兲  5a  b

34. 5b  7a  7b  12a

35. 3x  共8y兲  10x  4x

36. 3y  共12x兲  7y  2y

37. x2  7x  共5x2兲  5x

38. 3x2  5x  10x2  10x

27. 5x2  12x2  3x2

SECTION 2.2

89

Simplifying Variable Expressions

39. Which of the following expressions are equivalent to 10x  10y  10y  10x? (i) 0 (ii) 20y (iii) 20x (iv) 20x  20y (v) 20y  20x

OBJECTIVE B

To simplify a variable expression using the Properties of Multiplication

For Exercises 40 to 79, simplify. 40. 4共3x兲

41. 12共5x兲

42. 3共7a兲

43. 2共5a兲

44. 2共3y兲

45. 5共6y兲

46. 共4x兲2

47. 共6x兲12

48. 共3a兲共2兲

49. 共7a兲共4兲

50. 共3b兲共4兲

51. 共12b兲共9兲

52. 5共3x2兲

53. 8共7x2兲

54.

1 58.  共2x兲 2

1 59.  共4a兲 4

55.

1 共6x2兲 6

56.

1 60.  共7n兲 7

1 10

66.

2 70.  共12a2兲 3

75. 共33y兲

57.

1 61.  共9b兲 9

65. 共10n兲 

1 共5a兲 5

1 共9x兲 3

76. 共6x兲

2 7

62. 共3x兲

67.

5 71.  共24a2兲 8

1 共8x兲 8

72. 0.5共16y兲

77. 共10x兲

1 12

64. 共6y兲 

68. 0.2共10x兲

69. 0.25共8x兲

73. 0.75共8y兲

74. 共16y兲

63. 共12x兲

1 共14x兲 7

1 共3x2兲 3

78. 共8a兲 

3 4

79. 共21y兲 

80. After multiplying x2 by a proper fraction, is the coefficient of x2 greater than 1 or less than 1?

1 6

3 7

90

CHAPTER 2

Variable Expressions

OBJECTIVE C

To simplify a variable expression using the Distributive Property

For Exercises 81 to 119, simplify. 81. 2共4x  3兲

82. 5共2x  7兲

83. 2共a  7兲

84. 5共a  16兲

85. 3共2y  8兲

86. 5共3y  7兲

87. 共x  2兲

88. 共x  7兲

90. 共10  7b兲2

91.

93. 3共5x2  2x兲

94. 6共3x2  2x兲

95. 2共y  9兲

97. 共3x  6兲5

98. 共2x  7兲7

99. 2共3x2  14兲

101. 3共2y2  7兲

102. 8共3y2  12兲

89.

1 共6  15y兲 3

103. 3共x2  y2兲

92.

1 共8x  4y兲 2

96. 5共2x  7兲

100. 5共6x2  3兲

104. 5共x2  y2兲

2 105.  共6x  18y兲 3

1 106.  共x  4y兲 2

107. 共6a2  7b2兲

108. 3共x2  2x  6兲

109. 4共x2  3x  5兲

110. 2共y2  2y  4兲

2 112.  共6x  9y  1兲 3

113. 4共3a2  5a  7兲

114. 5共2x2  3x  7兲

115. 3共4x2  3x  4兲

116. 3共2x2  xy  3y2兲

117. 5共2x2  4xy  y2兲

118. 共3a2  5a  4兲

119. 共8b2  6b  9兲

111.

3 共2x  6y  8兲 4

120. After the expression 17x  31 is multiplied by a negative integer, is the constant term positive or negative?

SECTION 2.2

OBJECTIVE D

Simplifying Variable Expressions

91

To simplify general variable expressions

121. Which of the following expressions is equivalent to 12  7(y  9)? (i) 5(y  9) (ii) 12  7y  63 (iii) 12  7y  63 (iv) 12  7y  9 For Exercises 122 to 145, simplify. 122. 4x  2共3x  8兲

123. 6a  共5a  7兲

124. 9  3共4y  6兲

125. 10  共11x  3兲

126. 5n  共7  2n兲

127. 8  共12  4y兲

128. 3共x  2兲  5共x  7兲

129. 2共x  4兲  4共x  2兲

130. 12共y  2兲  3共7  3y兲

131. 6共2y  7兲  共3  2y兲

132. 3共a  b兲  共a  b兲

133. 2共a  2b兲  共a  3b兲

134. 4 3 x  2共x  3兲4

135. 2 3 x  2共x  7兲4

136. 2 33x  2共4  x兲4

137. 5 3 2x  3共5  x兲4

138. 3 32x  共x  7兲4

139. 2 33x  共5x  2兲4

140. 2x  33 x  共4  x兲4

141. 7x  3 3 x  共3  2x兲4

142. 5x  232x  4共x  7兲4  6

143. 0.12共2x  3兲  x

144. 0.05x  0.02共4  x兲

145. 0.03x  0.04共1000  x兲

Applying the Concepts

147. Give examples of two operations that occur in everyday experience that are not commutative (for example, putting on socks and then shoes).

146. Determine whether the statement is true or false. If the statement is false, give an example that illustrates that it is false. a. Division is a commutative operation. b. Division is an associative operation. c. Subtraction is an associative operation. d. Subtraction is a commutative operation.

92

CHAPTER 2

Variable Expressions

SECTION

2.3 OBJECTIVE A

Tips for Success Before the class meeting in which your professor begins a new section, you should read each objective statement for that section. Next, browse through the objective material. The purpose of browsing through the material is so that your brain will be prepared to accept and organize the new information when it is presented to you. See AIM for Success in the Preface.

Translating Verbal Expressions into Variable Expressions To translate a verbal expression into a variable expression, given the variable One of the major skills required in applied mathematics is to translate a verbal expression into a variable expression. This requires recognizing the verbal phrases that translate into mathematical operations. A partial list of the verbal phrases used to indicate the different mathematical operations follows. Addition

Subtraction

Point of Interest The way in which expressions are symbolized has changed over time. Here are how some of the expressions shown at the right may have appeared in the early 16th century. R p. 9 for x  9. The symbol R was used for a variable to the first power. The symbol p. was used for plus.

Multiplication

R m. 3 for x  3. The symbol R is still used for the variable. The symbol m. was used for minus. The square of a variable was designated by Q and the cube was designated by C. The expression x 2  x 3 was written Q p. C.

Division

Power

y  6

more than

8 more than x

x  8

the sum of

the sum of x and z

x  z

increased by

t increased by 9

t  9

the total of

the total of 5 and y

5  y

minus

x minus 2

x  2

less than

7 less than t

t  7

decreased by

m decreased by 3

m  3

the difference between

the difference between y and 4

y  4

subtract...from...

subtract 9 from z

z  9

times

10 times t

10t

twice

twice w

2w

of

one-half of x

1 x 2

the product of

the product of y and z

yz

multiplied by

y multiplied by 11

11y

divided by

x divided by 12

the quotient of

the quotient of y and z

the ratio of

the ratio of t to 9

t 9

the square of

the square of x

x2

the cube of

the cube of a

a3

x 12 y z

Translate “14 less than the cube of x” into a variable expression. 14 less than the cube of x • Identify the words that indicate the

HOW TO • 1

mathematical operations.

x  14 3

• Use the identified operations to write the variable expression.

SECTION 2.3

93

Translating Verbal Expressions into Variable Expressions

Translating a phrase that contains the word sum, difference, product, or quotient can be difficult. In the examples at the right, note where the operation symbol is placed.



xy

the sum of x and y



the difference between x and y



xy xy

the product of x and y



x y

the quotient of x and y HOW TO • 2

Translate “the difference between the square of x and the sum of y and z” into a variable expression. • Identify the words that indicate the the difference between the square of mathematical operations. x and the sum of y and z x2  1y  z2

EXAMPLE • 1

• Use the identified operations to write the variable expression.

YOU TRY IT • 1

Translate “the total of 3 times n and 5” into a variable expression.

Translate “the difference between twice n and the square of n” into a variable expression.

Solution the total of 3 times n and 5

3n  5

EXAMPLE • 2

YOU TRY IT • 2

Translate “m decreased by the sum of n and 12” into a variable expression.

Translate “the quotient of 7 less than b and 15” into a variable expression.

Solution m decreased by the sum of n and 12

m  1n  122

Solutions on p. S5

OBJECTIVE B

To translate a verbal expression into a variable expression and then simplify In most applications that involve translating phrases into variable expressions, the variable to be used is not given. To translate these phrases, a variable must be assigned to an unknown quantity before the variable expression can be written.

94

CHAPTER 2

Variable Expressions

HOW TO • 3

Translate “a number multiplied by the total of six and the cube of the number” into a variable expression. • Assign a variable to one of the the unknown number: n unknown quantities.

the cube of the number: n3 the total of six and the cube of the number: 6  n3 n16  n32

EXAMPLE • 3

• Use the assigned variable to write an expression for any other unknown quantity. • Use the assigned variable to write the variable expression.

YOU TRY IT • 3

Translate “a number added to the product of four and the square of the number” into a variable expression.

Translate “negative four multiplied by the total of ten and the cube of a number” into a variable expression.

Solution the unknown number: n the square of the number: n2 the product of four and the square of the number: 4n2 4n2  n

EXAMPLE • 4

YOU TRY IT • 4

Translate “four times the sum of one-half of a number and fourteen” into a variable expression. Then simplify.

Translate “five times the difference between a number and sixty” into a variable expression. Then simplify.

Solution the unknown number: n

1 one-half of the number: n 2 the sum of one-half of the number and 1 fourteen: n  14 2

1 n  14 2  2n  56

4

Solutions on p. S5

SECTION 2.3

OBJECTIVE C

Translating Verbal Expressions into Variable Expressions

95

To translate application problems Many applications in mathematics require that you identify the unknown quantity, assign a variable to that quantity, and then attempt to express other unknown quantities in terms of the variable. HOW TO • 4

The height of a triangle is 10 ft longer than the base of the triangle. Express the height of the triangle in terms of the base of the triangle.

b + 10

the base of the triangle: b

• Assign a variable to the base of the triangle.

b

the height is 10 more than the base: b  10

• Express the height of the triangle in terms of b.

EXAMPLE • 5

YOU TRY IT • 5

The length of a swimming pool is 4 ft less than two times the width. Express the length of the pool in terms of the width.

The speed of a new jet plane is twice the speed of an older model. Express the speed of the new model in terms of the speed of the older model.

Solution the width of the pool: w the length is 4 ft less than two times the width: 2w  4

EXAMPLE • 6

YOU TRY IT • 6

A banker divided \$5000 between two accounts, one paying 10% annual interest and the second paying 8% annual interest. Express the amount invested in the 10% account in terms of the amount invested in the 8% account.

A guitar string 6 ft long was cut into two pieces. Express the length of the shorter piece in terms of the length of the longer piece.

Solution the amount invested at 8%: x the amount invested at 10%: 5000  x

Solutions on p. S5

96

CHAPTER 2

Variable Expressions

2.3 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To translate a verbal expression into a variable expression, given the variable

For Exercises 1 to 26, translate into a variable expression. 1. the sum of 8 and y

2. a less than 16

3. t increased by 10

4. p decreased by 7

6. q multiplied by 13

7. 20 less than the square of x

9. the sum of three-fourths of n and 12

8. 6 times the difference between m and 7

10. b decreased by the product of 2 and b

11. 8 increased by the quotient of n and 4

12. the product of 8 and y

13. the product of 3 and the total of y and 7

14. 8 divided by the difference between x and 6

15. the product of t and the sum of t and 16

16. the quotient of 6 less than n and twice n

17. 15 more than one-half of the square of x

18. 19 less than the product of n and 2

19. the total of 5 times the cube of n and the square of n

20. the ratio of 9 more than m to m

21. r decreased by the quotient of r and 3

22. four-fifths of the sum of w and 10

23. the difference between the square of x and the total of x and 17

24. s increased by the quotient of 4 and s

25. the product of 9 and the total of z and 4

26. n increased by the difference between 10 times n and 9

SECTION 2.3

Translating Verbal Expressions into Variable Expressions

97

27. Write two different verbal phrases that translate into the variable expression 5(n2  1).

OBJECTIVE B

To translate a verbal expression into a variable expression and then simplify

For Exercises 28 to 39, translate into a variable expression. 28. twelve minus a number

29. a number divided by eighteen

30. two-thirds of a number

31. twenty more than a number

32. the quotient of twice a number and nine

33. eight less than the product of eleven and a number

34. the sum of five-eighths of a number and six

35. the quotient of seven and the total of five and a number

36. the quotient of fifteen and the sum of a number and twelve

37. the difference between forty and the quotient of a number and twenty

38. the quotient of five more than twice a number and the number

39. the sum of the square of a number and twice the number

a 40. Which of the following phrases translate into the variable expression 32  ? 7 (i) the difference between thirty-two and the quotient of a number and seven (ii) thirty-two decreased by the quotient of a number and seven (iii) thirty-two minus the ratio of a number to seven

For Exercises 41 to 56, translate into a variable expression. Then simplify. 41. ten times the difference between a number and fifty

42. nine less than the total of a number and two

43. the difference between a number and three more than the number

44. four times the sum of a number and nineteen

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45. a number added to the difference between twice the number and four

46. the product of five less than a number and seven

47. a number decreased by the difference between three times the number and eight

48. the sum of eight more than a number and one-third of the number

49. a number added to the product of three and the number

50. a number increased by the total of the number and nine

51. five more than the sum of a number and six

52. a number decreased by the difference between eight and the number

53. a number minus the sum of the number and ten

54. two more than the total of a number and five

55. the sum of one-sixth of a number and four-ninths of the number

56. the difference between one-third of a number and five-eighths of the number

OBJECTIVE C

To translate application problems

For Exercises 57 and 58, use the following situation: 83 more students enrolled in springterm science classes than enrolled in fall-term science classes. 57. If s and s  83 represent the quantities in this situation, what is s?

59. Museums In a recent year, 3.8 million more people visited the Louvre in Paris than visited the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. (Sources: The Art Newspaper; museums’ accounts) Express the number of visitors to the Louvre in terms of the number of visitors to the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

isifa Image Service s.r.o./Alamy

58. If n and n  83 represent the quantities in this situation, what is n?

The Louvre

SECTION 2.3

Translating Verbal Expressions into Variable Expressions

60. Salaries For an employee with a bachelor’s degree in business, the average annual salary depends on experience. An employee with less than 5 years’ experience is paid, on average, \$29,100 less than an employee with 10 to 20 years’ experience. (Sources: PayScale; The Princeton Review) Express the salary of an employee with less than 5 years’ experience in terms of the salary of an employee with 10 to 20 years’ experience.

61. Websites See the news clipping at the right. Express the number of unique visitors to Microsoft websites in terms of the number of unique visitors to Google websites.

99

In the News Google Websites Most Popular During the month of February 2008, Google websites ranked number one in the world, with the highest number of unique visitors. Microsoft websites came in second, with 63 million fewer unique visitors. Source: comScore

62. Telecommunications In 1951, phone companies began using area codes. According to information found at www.area-code.com, at the beginning of 2008 there were 183 more area codes than there were in 1951. Express the number of area codes in 2008 in terms of the number of area codes in 1951.

?

63. Sports A halyard 12 ft long was cut into two pieces of different lengths. Use one variable to express the lengths of the two pieces.

64. Natural Resources Twenty gallons of crude oil were poured into two containers of different sizes. Use one variable to express the amount of oil poured into each container.

x

200

mi

65. Rates of Cars Two cars start at the same place and travel at different rates in opposite directions. Two hours later the cars are 200 mi apart. Express the distance traveled by the slower car in terms of the distance traveled by the faster car.

66. Social Networking In June 2007, the combined number of visitors to the social networking sites Facebook and MySpace was 116,314. (Source: www.watblog.com) Express the number of visitors to MySpace in terms of the number of visitors to Facebook.

S

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67. Medicine According to the American Podiatric Medical Association, the bones in your foot account for one-fourth of all the bones in your body. Express the number of bones in your foot in terms of the total number of bones in your body.

68. Sports The diameter of a basketball is approximately four times the diameter of a baseball. Express the diameter of a basketball in terms of the diameter of a baseball.

70. Endangered Species Use the information in the news clipping at the right. a. Express the number of wild tigers in India in 2007 in terms of the number of wild tigers in India in 2002.

b. Express the number of wild tigers in Tamil Nadu in 2007 in terms of the number of wild tigers in Tamil Nadu in 2002.

Applying the Concepts 71. Metalwork A wire whose length is given as x inches is bent into a square. Express the length of a side of the square in terms of x. x

69. Tax Refunds A recent survey conducted by Turbotax.com asked, “If you receive a tax refund, what will you do?” Forty-three percent of respondents said they would pay down their debt. (Source: USA Today, March 27, 2008) Express the number of people who would pay down their debt in terms of the number of people surveyed.

In the News Endangered: Indian Wild Tigers A recent survey of wild tiger populations in India shows that the number of wild tigers decreased by 2231 between 2002 and 2007. Only one state, in the southern part of the country, showed an increase in its number of tigers: the tiger population in Tamil Nadu rose by 16 tigers. Source: news.oneindia.in

?

72. Chemistry The chemical formula for glucose (sugar) is C6H12O6. This formula means that there are 12 hydrogen atoms for every 6 carbon atoms and 6 oxygen atoms in each molecule of glucose (see the figure at the right). If x represents the number of atoms of oxygen in a pound of sugar, express the number of hydrogen atoms in the pound of sugar in terms of x. 73. Translate the expressions 5x  8 and 51x  82 into phrases. 74. In your own words, explain how variables are used.

75. Explain the similarities and differences between the expressions “the difference between x and 5” and “5 less than x.”

H

O C

H

C

OH

HO

C

H

H

C

OH

H

C

OH

CH 2 OH

Focus on Problem Solving

101

FOCUS ON PROBLEM SOLVING From Concrete to Abstract

In your study of algebra, you will find that the problems are less concrete than those you studied in arithmetic. Problems that are concrete provide information pertaining to a specific instance. Algebra is more abstract. Abstract problems are theoretical; they are stated without reference to a specific instance. Let’s look at an example of an abstract problem. How many minutes are in h hours? A strategy that can be used to solve this problem is to solve the same problem after substituting a number for the variable. How many minutes are in 5 hours? You know that there are 60 minutes in 1 hour. To find the number of minutes in 5 hours, multiply 5 by 60. 60  5 苷 300

There are 300 minutes in 5 hours.

Use the same procedure to find the number of minutes in h hours: multiply h by 60. 60  h 苷 60h

There are 60h minutes in h hours.

This problem might be taken a step further: If you walk 1 mile in x minutes, how far can you walk in h hours? Consider the same problem using numbers in place of the variables. If you walk 1 mile in 20 minutes, how far can you walk in 3 hours? To solve this problem, you need to calculate the number of minutes in 3 hours (multiply 3 by 60) and divide the result by the number of minutes it takes to walk 1 mile (20 minutes). 60  3 180 苷 苷9 20 20

If you walk 1 mile in 20 minutes, you can walk 9 miles in 3 hours.

Use the same procedure to solve the related abstract problem. Calculate the number of minutes in h hours (multiply h by 60), and divide the result by the number of minutes it takes to walk 1 mile (x minutes). 60h 60  h  x x

If you walk 1 mile in x minutes, you can 60h walk miles in h hours. x

At the heart of the study of algebra is the use of variables. It is the variables in the problems above that make them abstract. But it is variables that enable us to generalize situations and state rules about mathematics. Try the following problems. 1.

How many hours are in d days?

2.

You earn d dollars an hour. What are your wages for working h hours?

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3. If p is the price of one share of stock, how many shares can you purchase with d dollars? 4. A company pays a television station d dollars to air a commercial lasting s seconds. What is the cost per second? Jeff Greenberg/Alamy

5. After every D DVD rentals, you are entitled to one free rental. You have rented R DVDs, where R  D. How many more DVDs do you need to rent before you are entitled to a free rental? 6. Your car gets g miles per gallon. How many gallons of gasoline does your car consume traveling t miles? 7. If you drink j ounces of juice each day, how many days will q quarts of the juice last? 8. A TV station airs m minutes of commercials each hour. How many ads lasting s seconds each can be sold for each hour of programming?

PROJECTS AND GROUP ACTIVITIES Prime and Composite Numbers

Recall that a prime number is a natural number greater than 1 whose only naturalnumber factors are itself and 1. The number 11 is a prime number because the only natural-number factors of 11 are 11 and 1. Eratosthenes, a Greek philosopher and astronomer who lived from 270 to 190 B.C., devised a method of identifying prime numbers. It is called the Sieve of Eratosthenes. The procedure is illustrated below. 1

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List all the natural numbers from 1 to 100. Cross out the number 1, because it is not a prime number. The number 2 is prime; circle it. Cross out all the other multiples of 2 14, 6, 8,...2 because they are not prime. The number 3 is prime; circle it. Cross out all the other multiples of 3 16, 9, 12,...2 that are not already crossed out. The number 4, the next consecutive number in the list, has already been crossed out. The

Chapter 2 Summary

103

number 5 is prime; circle it. Cross out all the other multiples of 5 that are not already crossed out. Continue in this manner until all the prime numbers less than 100 are circled. A composite number is a natural number greater than 1 that has a natural-number factor other than itself and 1. The number 21 is a composite number because it has factors of 3 and 7. All the numbers crossed out in the preceding table, except the number 1, are composite numbers. 1. Use the Sieve of Eratosthenes to find the prime numbers between 100 and 200. 2. How many prime numbers are even numbers? 3. Find the “twin primes” between 100 and 200. Twin primes are two prime numbers whose difference is 2. For instance, 3 and 5 are twin primes; 5 and 7 are also twin primes. 4. a. List two prime numbers that are consecutive natural numbers. b. Can there be any other pairs of prime numbers that are consecutive natural numbers? 5. a. 4! (which is read “4 factorial”) is equal to 4  3  2  1. Show that 4!  2, 4!  3, and 4!  4 are all composite numbers. b. 5! (which is read “5 factorial”) is equal to 5  4  3  2  1. Will 5!  2, 5!  3, 5!  4, and 5!  5 generate four consecutive composite numbers? c. Use the notation 6! to represent a list of five consecutive composite numbers.

CHAPTER 2

SUMMARY KEY WORDS

EXAMPLES

A variable is a letter that is used to represent a quantity that is unknown or that can change. A variable expression is an expression that contains one or more variables. [2.1A, p. 78]

4x  2y  6z is a variable expression. It contains the variables x, y, and z.

The terms of a variable expression are the addends of the expression. Each term is a variable term or a constant term. [2.1A, p. 78]

The expression 2a2  3b3  7 has three terms: 2a2, 3b3, and 7. 2a2 and 3b3 are variable terms. 7 is a constant term.

A variable term is composed of a numerical coefficient and a variable part. [2.1A, p. 78]

For the expression 7x3y2, 7 is the coefficient and x3y2 is the variable part.

In a variable expression, replacing each variable by its value and then simplifying the resulting numerical expression is called evaluating the variable expression. [2.1A, p. 79]

To evaluate 2ab  b2 when a 苷 3 and b 苷 2, replace a by 3 and b by 2. Then simplify the numerical expression. 2132122  1222 苷 16

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Variable Expressions

Like terms of a variable expression are terms with the same variable part. Constant terms are like terms. [2.2A, p. 82]

To simplify the sum of like variable terms, use the Distributive Property to add the numerical coefficients. This is called combining like terms. [2.2A, p. 82] The additive inverse of a number is the opposite of the number. [2.2A, p. 83]

For the expressions 3a2  2b  3 and 2a2  3a  4, 3a2 and 2a2 are like terms; 3 and 4 are like terms. 5y  3y 苷 15  32y 苷 8y

4 is the additive inverse of 4. 2 3

2 3

is the additive inverse of  .

0 is the additive inverse of 0. The multiplicative inverse of a number is the reciprocal of the number. [2.2B, p. 84]

3 4

is the multiplicative inverse of .

4 3



1 4

is the multiplicative inverse of 4.

ESSENTIAL RULES AND PROCEDURES

EXAMPLES

The Distributive Property [2.2A, p. 82] If a, b, and c are real numbers, then a1b  c2 苷 ab  ac.

514  72 苷 5  4  5  7 苷 20  35 苷 55

The Associative Property of Addition [2.2A, p. 82] If a, b, and c are real numbers, then 1a  b2  c 苷 a  1b  c2.

4  12  72 苷 4  9 苷 5 14  22  7 苷 2  7 苷 5

The Commutative Property of Addition [2.2A, p. 83] If a and b are real numbers, then a  b 苷 b  a.

25苷7

The Addition Property of Zero [2.2A, p. 83] If a is a real number, then a  0 苷 0  a 苷 a.

8  0 苷 8

and

0  182 苷 8

5  152 苷 0

and

152  5 苷 0

The Inverse Property of Addition [2.2A, p. 83] If a is a real number, then a  1a2 苷 1a2  a 苷 0. The Associative Property of Multiplication [2.2B, p. 84] If a, b, and c are real numbers, then 1ab2c 苷 a1bc2.

3172 苷 21

The Multiplication Property of One [2.2B, p. 84] If a is a real number, then a  1 苷 1  a 苷 a.

3112 苷 3

The Inverse Property of Multiplication [2.2B, p. 84] If a is a real number and a is not equal to zero, then

1 3   苷 1 3

1 a

1 a

 a 苷 1.

52苷7

3  15  42 苷 31202 苷 60 13  52  4 苷 15  4 苷 60

The Commutative Property of Multiplication [2.2B, p. 84] If a and b are real numbers, then ab 苷 ba.

a

and

and

and

and

7132 苷 21

1132 苷 3

1   3 苷 1 3

Chapter 2 Concept Review

CHAPTER 2

1. In a term, what is the difference between the variable part and the numerical coefficient?

2. When evaluating a variable expression, what agreement must be used to simplify the resulting numerical expression?

3. What must be the same for two terms to be like terms?

4. What are like terms of a variable expression?

5. What is the difference between the Commutative Property of Multiplication and the Associative Property of Multiplication?

6. When using the Inverse Property of Addition, what is the result?

1 6

7. Which property of multiplication is needed to evaluate 6  ?

8. What is a reciprocal?

9. Name some mathematical terms that translate into multiplication.

10. Name some mathematical terms that translate into subtraction.

105

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CHAPTER 2

Variable Expressions

CHAPTER 2

REVIEW EXERCISES 1. Simplify: 3共x2  8x  7兲

2. Simplify: 7x  4x兲

3. Simplify: 6a  4b  2a

4. Simplify: 共50n兲

5. Evaluate 共5c  4a兲2  b when a  1, b  2, and c  1.

6. Simplify: 5共2x  7兲

7. Simplify: 2共6y2  4y  5兲

8. Simplify:

9. Simplify: 6共7x2兲

1 共24a兲 4

10. Simplify: 9共7  4x兲

11. Simplify: 12y  17y

12. Evaluate 2bc  共a  7兲 when a  3, b  5, and c  4.

13. Simplify: 7  2共3x  4兲

14. Simplify: 6  2 3 2  5共4a  3兲4

15. Simplify: 6共8y  3兲  8共3y  6兲

16. Simplify: 5c  共2d兲  3d  共4c兲

17. Simplify: 5共4x兲

18. Simplify: 4共2x  9兲  5共3x  2兲

19. Evaluate 共b  a兲2  c when a  2, b  3, and c  4.

20. Simplify: 9r  2s  6s  12s

Chapter 2 Review Exercises

107

21. Evaluate 12x  y22  12x  y22 when x 苷 2 and y 苷 3.

22. Evaluate b2  4ac when b 苷 4, a 苷 1, and c 苷 3.

23. Simplify: 4x  3x2  2x  x2

24. Simplify: 532  316x  124

25. Simplify: 0.4x  0.61250  x2

26. Simplify:

27. Simplify: 17a2  2a  324

28. Simplify: 18  14x  22

29. Evaluate a2  b2 when a 苷 3 and b 苷 4.

30. Simplify: 3112y2

2 3 x x 3 4

31. Translate “two-thirds of the total of x and 10” into a variable expression.

32. Translate “the product of 4 and x” into a variable expression.

33. Translate “6 less than x” into a variable expression.

34. Translate “a number plus twice the number” into a variable expression. Then simplify.

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35. Translate “the difference between twice a number and one-half of the number” into a variable expression. Then simplify.

36. Translate “three times a number plus the product of five and one less than the number” into a variable expression. Then simplify.

37. Sports A baseball card collection contains five times as many National League players’ cards as American League players’ cards. Express the number of National League players’ cards in the collection in terms of the number of American League players’ cards.

38. Finance A club treasurer has some five-dollar bills and some ten-dollar bills. The treasurer has a total of 35 bills. Express the number of five-dollar bills in terms of the number of ten-dollar bills.

40. Architecture The length of the Parthenon is approximately 1.6 times the width. Express the length of the Parthenon in terms of the width.

41. Anatomy Leonardo DaVinci studied various proportions of human anatomy. One of his findings was that the standing height of a person is approximately 1.3 times the kneeling height of the same person. Represent the standing height of a person in terms of the person’s kneeling height.

39. Nutrition A candy bar contains eight more calories than twice the number of calories in an apple. Express the number of calories in the candy bar in terms of the number of calories in an apple.

Chapter 2 Test

109

CHAPTER 2

TEST 1. Simplify: 3x  5x  7x

2. Simplify: 3共2x2  7y2兲

3. Simplify: 2x  3共x  2兲

4. Simplify: 2x  3 34  共3x  7兲4

5. Simplify: 3x  7y  12x

6. Evaluate b2  3ab when a  3 and b  2.

7. Simplify:

1 共10x兲 5

9. Simplify: 5共2x2  3x  6兲

11. Evaluate

2ab when a  4 and b  6. 2b  a

13. Simplify: 7y2  6y2  共2y2兲

15. Simplify:

2 共15a兲 3

8. Simplify: 5共2x  4兲  3共x  6兲

10. Simplify: 3x  共12y兲  5x  共7y兲

12. Simplify: 共12x兲

1 4

14. Simplify: 2共2x  4兲

16. Simplify: 23 x  2共x  y兲4  5y

110

CHAPTER 2

Variable Expressions

17. Simplify: 132 112y2

18. Simplify: 513  7b2

19. Translate “the difference between the squares of a and b” into a variable expression.

20. Translate “ten times the difference between a number and three” into a variable expression. Then simplify.

21. Translate “the sum of a number and twice the square of the number” into a variable expression.

22. Translate “three less than the quotient of six and a number” into a variable expression.

24. Sports The speed of a pitcher’s fastball is twice the speed of the catcher’s return throw. Express the speed of the fastball in terms of the speed of the return throw.

25. Metalwork A wire is cut into two lengths. The length of the longer piece is 3 in. less than four times the length of the shorter piece. Express the length of the longer piece in terms of the length of the shorter piece.

23. Translate “b decreased by the product of b and 7” into a variable expression.

Cumulative Review Exercises

111

CUMULATIVE REVIEW EXERCISES 1. Add: 4  7  共10兲

2. Subtract: 16  共25兲  4

3. Multiply: 共2兲共3兲共4兲

4. Divide: 共60兲  12

5. Find the complement of a 37° angle.

6. Simplify:

7 11 1    12 16 3

5 5  12 2

8. Simplify:

7. Simplify: 

9. Write

3 as a percent. 4

11. Simplify:

3 4

2





9 16



8 27

 

3 2

10. Simplify: 25  共3  5兲2  共3兲

3 11  8 12

12. Evaluate a2  3b when a  2 and b  4.

13. Simplify: 2x2  共3x2兲  4x2

14. Simplify: 5a  10b  12a

15. Find the area of a circle whose radius is 7 cm. Use 3.14 for ␲.

16. Find the perimeter of a square whose side measures 24 ft.

17. Simplify: 3共8  2x兲

18. Simplify: 2共3y  9兲

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Variable Expressions

1 19. Write 37 % as a fraction. 2

20. Write 1.05% as a decimal.

21. Simplify: 412x2  3y22

22. Simplify: 313y2  3y  72

23. Simplify: 3x  212x  72

24. Simplify: 413x  22  71x  52

25. Simplify: 2x  33x  214  2x24

26. Simplify: 332x  31x  2y24  3y

27. Translate “the sum of one-half of b and b” into a variable expression.

28. Translate “10 divided by the difference between y and 2” into a variable expression.

29. Translate “the difference between eight and the quotient of a number and twelve” into a variable expression.

30. Translate “the sum of a number and two more than the number” into a variable expression. Then simplify.

32. Cost of Living A cost-of-living calculator at cgi.comey.cnn.com shows that a person living in New York City would need twice the salary of a person living in Las Vegas, Nevada, to maintain the same standard of living. Express the salary needed in New York City in terms of the salary needed in Las Vegas.

31. Sports A softball diamond is a square with each side measuring 60 ft. Find the area enclosed by the sides of the softball diamond.

New York City

CHAPTER

3

Solving Equations

Panoramic Images/Getty Images

OBJECTIVES SECTION 3.1 A To determine whether a given number is a solution of an equation B To solve an equation of the form xa苷b C To solve an equation of the form ax 苷 b D To solve application problems using the basic percent equation E To solve uniform motion problems SECTION 3.2 A To solve an equation of the form ax  b 苷 c B To solve application problems using formulas SECTION 3.3 A To solve an equation of the form ax  b 苷 cx  d B To solve an equation containing parentheses C To solve application problems using formulas SECTION 3.4 A To solve integer problems B To translate a sentence into an equation and solve SECTION 3.5 A To solve problems involving angles B To solve problems involving the angles of a triangle SECTION 3.6 A To solve value mixture problems B To solve percent mixture problems C To solve uniform motion problems

ARE YOU READY? Take the Chapter 3 Prep Test to find out if you are ready to learn to: • • • •

Solve equations Solve percent problems using the basic percent equation Solve problems using formulas Solve integer, geometry, mixture, and uniform motion problems PREP TEST

Do these exercises to prepare for Chapter 3. 1. Write

9 100

as a decimal.

3. Evaluate 3x2  4x  1 when x  4.

5. Simplify:

1 2 x x 2 3

2. Write

3 4

as a percent.

4. Simplify: R  0.35R

6. Simplify: 6x  3共6  x兲

7. Simplify: 0.22共3x  6兲  x

8. Translate into a variable expression: “The difference between five and twice a number.”

9. Computers A new graphics card for computer games is five times faster than a graphics card made two years ago. Express the speed of the new card in terms of the speed of the old card.

10. Carpentry A board 5 ft long is cut into two pieces. If x represents the length of the longer piece, write an expression for the length of the shorter piece in terms of x.

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Solving Equations

SECTION

3.1 OBJECTIVE A

Point of Interest One of the most famous equations ever stated is E 苷 mc 2. This equation, stated by Albert Einstein, shows that there is a relationship between mass m and energy E. As a side note, the chemical element einsteinium was named in honor of Einstein.

Introduction to Equations To determine whether a given number is a solution of an equation An equation expresses the equality of two mathematical expressions. The expressions can be either numerical or variable expressions.

9  3  12 3x  2  10 y 2  4  2y  1 z2

The equation at the right is true if the variable is replaced by 5.

x  8  13 5  8  13

A true equation

The equation is false if the variable is replaced by 7.

7  8  13

A false equation

⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

Equations

A solution of an equation is a number that, when substituted for the variable, results in a true equation. 5 is a solution of the equation x  8  13. 7 is not a solution of the equation x  8  13. Is 2 a solution of 2x  5  x2  3? 2x  5  x2  3 2共2兲  5  共2兲2  3 • Replace x by 2. 4  5  4  3 • Evaluate the numerical expressions. 11 • If the results are equal, 2 is a solution

HOW TO • 1

Take Note The Order of Operations Agreement applies to evaluating 2共2兲  5 and 共2兲2  3.

Yes, 2 is a solution of the equation.

EXAMPLE • 1

Is 4 a solution of 5x  2  6x  2? Solution 5x  2  6x  2 5共4兲  2  6共4兲  2 20  2  24  2 22  22

of the equation. If the results are not equal, 2 is not a solution of the equation.

YOU TRY IT • 1

Is

1 4

a solution of 5  4x  8x  2?

Yes, 4 is a solution. EXAMPLE • 2

YOU TRY IT • 2

Is 4 a solution of 4  5x  x2  2x?

Is 5 a solution of 10x  x2  3x  10?

Solution 4  5x  x2  2x 4  5共4兲  共4兲2  2共4兲 4  共20兲  16  共8兲 16 苷 24

(苷 means “is not equal to”) No, 4 is not a solution. Solutions on p. S5

SECTION 3.1

OBJECTIVE B

Tips for Success To learn mathematics, you must be an active participant. Listening and watching your professor do mathematics are not enough. Take notes in class, mentally think through every question your instructor asks, and try to answer it even if you are not called on to answer it verbally. Ask questions when you have them. See AIM for Success at the front of the book for other ways to be an active learner.

Introduction to Equations

115

To solve an equation of the form x  a  b To solve an equation means to find a solution of the equation. The simplest equation to solve is an equation of the form variable  constant, because the constant is the solution. The solution of the equation x  5 is 5 because 5  5 is a true equation. The solution of the equation at the right is 7 because 7  2  9 is a true equation.

x29

729

Note that if 4 is added to each side of the equation x  2  9, the solution is still 7.

x29 x2494 x  6  13

7  6  13

If 5 is added to each side of the equation x  2  9, the solution is still 7.

x29 x  2  152  9  152 x34

7  3  43

Equations that have the same solution are called equivalent equations. The equations x  2  9, x  6  13, and x  3  4 are equivalent equations; each equation has 7 as its solution. These examples suggest that adding the same number to each side of an equation produces an equivalent equation. This is called the Addition Property of Equations.

Addition Property of Equations The same number can be added to each side of an equation without changing its solution. In symbols, the equation a  b has the same solution as the equation a  c  b  c.

In solving an equation, the goal is to rewrite the given equation in the form variable  constant. The Addition Property of Equations is used to remove a term from one side of the equation by adding the opposite of that term to each side of the equation.

Take Note An equation has some properties that are similar to those of a balance scale. For instance, if a balance scale is in balance and equal weights are added to each side of the scale, then the balance scale remains in balance. If an equation is true, then adding the same number to each side of the equation produces another true equation.

4 x–4

4 2

Solve: x  4  2 x42 • The goal is to rewrite the equation in the form variable 

HOW TO • 2

x4424 x06 x6 Check: x  4  2 642 22

constant. • Add 4 to each side of the equation. • Simplify. • The equation is in the form variable  constant.

A true equation

The solution is 6. Because subtraction is defined in terms of addition, the Addition Property of Equations also makes it possible to subtract the same number from each side of an equation without changing the solution of the equation.

116

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Solving Equations

HOW TO • 3

Solve: y 

3 1  4 2 3 3 1 3 y    4 4 2 4 2 3 y0  4 4 1 y 4 y

1 3  4 2

• The goal is to rewrite the equation in the form variable  constant. • Subtract

3 from each side of the equation. 4

• Simplify. • The equation is in the form variable  constant.

1 4

The solution is  . You should check this solution. EXAMPLE • 3

Solve: x 

YOU TRY IT • 3

1 2  5 3

Solution 2 1 x  5 3 2 2 1 2 x    5 5 3 5 5 6 x0  15 15 1 x 15

Solve:

5 3 y 6 8

2 from each side. 5 2 1 • Rewrite and with a 3 5 common denominator.

• Subtract

1 15

The solution is  .

OBJECTIVE C

Solution on p. S5

To solve an equation of the form ax  b The solution of the equation at the right is 3 because 2  3  6 is a true equation. Note that if each side of 2x  6 is multiplied by 5, the solution is still 3. If each side of 2x  6 is multiplied by 4, the solution is still 3.

2x  6

236

2x  6 5共2x兲  5  6 10x  30

10  3  30

2x  6 共4兲共2x兲  共4兲6 8x  24

8  3  24

The equations 2x  6, 10x  30, and 8x  24 are equivalent equations; each equation has 3 as its solution. These examples suggest that multiplying each side of an equation by the same nonzero number produces an equivalent equation. Multiplication Property of Equations Each side of an equation can be multiplied by the same nonzero number without changing the solution of the equation. In symbols, if c 苷 0, then the equation a  b has the same solutions as the equation ac  bc.

SECTION 3.1

Introduction to Equations

117

The Multiplication Property of Equations is used to remove a coefficient by multiplying each side of the equation by the reciprocal of the coefficient. Solve:

HOW TO • 4

3 z9 4 4 3 4  z 9 3 4 3 1  z  12 z  12

3 z9 4

• The goal is to rewrite the equation in the form variable  constant. 4 • Multiply each side of the equation by . 3 • Simplify. • The equation is in the form variable  constant.

The solution is 12. You should check this solution. Because division is defined in terms of multiplication, each side of an equation can be divided by the same nonzero number without changing the solution of the equation. Solve: 6x  14

HOW TO • 5

6x  14 6x 14  6 6 7 x 3

Take Note Remember to check the solution. Check :

6x  14

7 6 3

14

• The goal is to rewrite the equation in the form variable  constant. • Divide each side of the equation by 6. • Simplify. The equation is in the form variable  constant. 7 3

The solution is .

14  14

When using the Multiplication Property of Equations, multiply each side of the equation by the reciprocal of the coefficient when the coefficient is a fraction. Divide each side of the equation by the coefficient when the coefficient is an integer or a decimal. EXAMPLE • 4

Solve:

YOU TRY IT • 4

3x  9 4

Solution 3x  9 4 4 3 4  x  共9兲 3 4 3 x  12

Solve: 

2x 6 5

3x 3  x 4 4

The solution is 12. EXAMPLE • 5

YOU TRY IT • 5

Solve: 5x  9x  12

Solve: 4x  8x  16

Solution 5x  9x  12 4x  12 • Combine like terms. 4x 12  4 4 x  3 The solution is 3.

Solutions on p. S5

118

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Solving Equations

OBJECTIVE D

To solve application problems using the basic percent equation An equation that is used frequently in mathematics applications is the basic percent equation.

Basic Percent Equation Percent  Base  Amount

P



B 

A

In many application problems involving percent, the base follows the word of. HOW TO • 6

20% of what number is 30?

PBA 0.20B  30 0.20B 30  0.20 0.20 B  150

• Use the basic percent equation. • P  20%  0.20, A  30, and B is unknown. • Solve for B.

The number is 150.

Take Note

HOW TO • 7

70 is what percent of 80?

PBA P共80兲  70 P共80兲 70  80 80 P  0.875 P  87.5%

We have written P(80)  70 because that is the form of the basic percent equation. We could have written 80P  70. The important point is that each side of the equation is divided by 80, the coefficient of P.

• Use the basic percent equation. • B  80, A  70, and P is unknown. • Solve for P. • The question asked for a percent. • Convert the decimal to a percent.

70 is 87.5% of 80. HOW TO • 8

© Philippe S. Giraud/Terres du Sud/Sygma/Corbis

The world’s production of cocoa for a recent year was 2928 metric tons. Of this, 1969 metric tons came from Africa. (Source: World Cocoa Foundation) What percent of the world’s cocoa production came from Africa? Round to the nearest tenth of a percent.

Strategy To find the percent, use the basic percent equation. B  2928, A  1969, and P is unknown. Solution PBA P共2928兲  1969 1969 ⬇ 0.672 P 2928 Approximately 67.2% of the world’s cocoa production came from Africa.

SECTION 3.1

Introduction to Equations

119

The simple interest that an investment earns is given by the simple interest equation I  Prt, where I is the simple interest, P is the principal, or amount invested, r is the simple interest rate, and t is the time.

A \$1500 investment has an annual simple interest rate of 7%. Find the simple interest earned on the investment after 18 months.

HOW TO • 9

The time is given in months but the interest rate is an annual rate. Therefore, we must convert 18 months to years. 18 months 

18 years  1.5 years 12

To find the interest, solve I  Prt for I. I  Prt I  1500共0.07兲共1.5兲 I  157.5

• P  1500, r  0.07, t  1.5

The investment earned \$157.50.

Point of Interest In the jewelry industry, the amount of gold in a piece of jewelry is measured by the karat. Pure gold is 24 karats. A necklace that is 18 karats 18 苷 0.75 苷 75% gold. is 24

The amount of a substance in a solution can be given as a percent of the total solution. For instance, if a certain fruit juice drink is advertised as containing 27% cranberry juice, then 27% of the contents of the bottle must be cranberry juice.

The method for solving problems involving mixtures is based on the percent mixture equation Q  Ar, where Q is the quantity of a substance in the solution, A is the amount of the solution, and r is the percent concentration of the substance.

Part of the formula for a perfume requires that the concentration of jasmine be 1.2% of the total amount of perfume. How many ounces of jasmine are in a 2-ounce bottle of this perfume?

HOW TO • 10

The amount of perfume is 2 oz. Therefore, A  2. The percent concentration is 1.2%, so r  0.012. To find the number of ounces of jasmine, solve Q  Ar for Q. Q  Ar Q  2共0.012兲 Q  0.024

• A  2, r  0.012

There is 0.024 oz of jasmine in the perfume.

In most cases, you should write the percent as a decimal before solving the basic percent equation. However, some percents are more easily written as a fraction. For example, 1 1 33 %  3 3

2 2 66 %  3 3

2 1 16 %  3 6

5 1 83 %  3 6

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CHAPTER 3

Solving Equations

EXAMPLE • 6

YOU TRY IT • 6

1 12 is 33 % of what number? 3

2 18 is 16 % of what number? 3

Solution PBA • Use the basic percent equation. 1 1 1 B  12 • 33 %  3 3 3 1 3  B  3  12 3 B  36

1 12 is 33 % of 36. 3

EXAMPLE • 7

YOU TRY IT • 7

The data in the table below show the number of households (in millions) that downloaded music files for a three-month period in a recent year. (Source: NPD Group) Month

April

May

June

14.5

12.7

10.4

According to AdAge.com, 97.5 million people watched Super Bowl XLII. What percent of the U.S. population watched Super Bowl XLII? Use a figure of 300 million for the U.S. population.

For the three-month period, what percent of the files were downloaded in May? Round to the nearest percent. Strategy To find the percent: • Find the total number of files downloaded for the three-month period. • Use the basic percent equation. B is the total number of files downloaded for the three-month period; A  12.7, the number of files downloaded in May; P is unknown.

Solution 14.5  12.7  10.4  37.6

PBA P共37.6兲  12.7 12.7 ⬇ 0.34 P 37.6

• Use the basic percent equation. • B  37.6, A  12.7

Approximately 34% of the files were downloaded in May. Solutions on p. S5

SECTION 3.1

EXAMPLE • 8

Introduction to Equations

121

YOU TRY IT • 8

In April, Marshall Wardell was charged an interest fee of \$8.72 on an unpaid credit card balance of \$545. Find the annual interest rate on this credit card.

Clarissa Adams purchased a municipal bond for \$1000 that earns an annual simple interest rate of 6.4%. How much must she deposit into an account that earns 8% annual simple interest so that the interest earned from each account after 1 year is the same?

Strategy The interest is \$8.72. Therefore, I  8.72. The unpaid balance is \$545. This is the principal on which interest is calculated. Therefore, P  545. The time is 1 month. Because the annual interest rate must be found and the time is given as 1 month, we

write 1 month as

1 12

year: t 

rate, solve I  Prt for r. Solution I  Prt

1 . 12

To find the interest

8.72  545r

1 12

• Use the simple interest equation. • I  8.72, P  545, t 

1 12

545 r 12 12 12 545 共8.72兲  r 545 545 12 0.192  r 8.72 

The annual interest rate is 19.2%. EXAMPLE • 9

YOU TRY IT • 9

To make a certain color of blue, 4 oz of cyan must be contained in 1 gal of paint. What is the percent concentration of cyan in the paint?

The concentration of sugar in a certain breakfast cereal is 25%. If there are 2 oz of sugar contained in a bowl of cereal, how many ounces of cereal are in the bowl?

Strategy The cyan is given in ounces and the amount of paint is given in gallons. We must convert ounces to gallons or gallons to ounces. For this problem, we will convert gallons to ounces: 1 gal  128 oz. Solve Q  Ar for r, with Q  4 and A  128.

Solution Q  Ar 4  128r 4 128r  128 128 0.03125  r

Your solution • Use the percent mixture equation. • Q  4, A  128

The percent concentration of cyan is 3.125%. Solutions on pp. S5–S6

122

CHAPTER 3

Solving Equations

OBJECTIVE E

To solve uniform motion problems

Take Note

Any object that travels at a constant speed in a straight line is said to be in uniform motion. Uniform motion means that the speed and direction of an object do not change. For instance, a car traveling at a constant speed of 45 mph on a straight road is in uniform motion.

A car traveling in a circle at a constant speed of 45 mph is not in uniform motion because the direction of the car is always changing.

The solution of a uniform motion problem is based on the uniform motion equation d  rt, where d is the distance traveled, r is the rate of travel, and t is the time spent traveling. For instance, suppose a car travels at 50 mph for 3 h. Because the rate (50 mph) and time (3 h) are known, we can find the distance traveled by solving the equation d  rt for d. d  rt d  50共3兲 d  150

• r  50, t  3

The car travels a distance of 150 mi. HOW TO • 11

A jogger runs 3 mi in 45 min. What is the rate of the jogger in

miles per hour? Strategy • Because the answer must be in miles per hour and the given time is in minutes, convert 45 min to hours. • To find the rate of the jogger, solve the equation d  rt for r. Solution 3 45 h h 60 4 d  rt 3 3 3r • d  3, t  4 4 3 3 r 4 4 4 3 • Multiply each side of the equation by 3 r 3 3 4 3

45 min 

the reciprocal of . 4

The rate of the jogger is 4 mph. If two objects are moving in opposite directions, then the rate at which the distance between them is increasing is the sum of the speeds of the two objects. For instance, in the diagram below, two cars start from the same point and travel in opposite directions. The distance between them is changing at 70 mph.

30 mph

40 mph

30 + 40 = 70 mph

SECTION 3.1

Similarly, if two objects are moving toward each other, the distance between them is decreasing at a rate that is equal to the sum of the speeds. The rate at which the two planes at the right are approaching one another is 800 mph.

Introduction to Equations

123

450 mph 350 mph

800 mph

Two cars start from the same point and move in opposite directions. The car moving west is traveling 45 mph, and the car moving east is traveling 60 mph. In how many hours will the cars be 210 mi apart?

HOW TO • 12

45 mph

60 mph

Strategy The distance is 210 mi. Therefore, d  210. The cars are moving in opposite directions, so the rate at which the distance between them is changing is the sum of the rates of each of the cars. The rate is 45 mph  60 mph  105 mph. Therefore, r  105. To find the time, solve the equation d  rt for t.

105 mph

Solution d  rt 210  105t 210 105t  105 105 2t

• d  210, r  105 • Solve for t.

In 2 h, the cars will be 210 mi apart.

If a motorboat is on a river that is flowing at a rate of 4 mph, then the boat will float down the river at a speed of 4 mph when the motor is not on. Now suppose the motor is turned on and the power adjusted so that the boat would travel 10 mph without the aid of the current. Then, if the boat is moving with the current, its effective speed is the speed of the boat using power plus the speed of the current: 10 mph  4 mph  14 mph. (See the figure below.)

4 mph

10 mph 14 mph

However, if the boat is moving against the current, the current slows the boat down. The effective speed of the boat is the speed of the boat using power minus the speed of the current: 10 mph  4 mph  6 mph. (See the figure below.)

4 mph

10 mph 6 mph

124

CHAPTER 3

Solving Equations

There are other situations in which the preceding concepts may be applied.

Take Note

HOW TO • 13

An airline passenger is walking between two airline terminals and decides to get on a moving sidewalk that is 150 ft long. If the passenger walks at a rate of 7 ft/s and the moving sidewalk moves at a rate of 9 ft/s, how long, in seconds, will it take for the passenger to walk from one end of the moving sidewalk to the other? Round to the nearest thousandth.

Peter Titmuss/Alamy

The term ft/s is an abbreviation for “feet per second.” Similarly, cm/s is “centimeters per second” and m/s is “meters per second.”

Strategy The distance is 150 ft. Therefore, d  150. The passenger is traveling at 7 ft/s and the moving sidewalk is traveling at 9 ft/s. The rate of the passenger is the sum of the two rates, or 16 ft/s. Therefore, r  16. To find the time, solve the equation d  rt for t. Solution d  rt 150  16t 150 16t  16 16 9.375  t

• d  150, r  16 • Solve for t.

It will take 9.375 s for the passenger to travel the length of the moving sidewalk.

EXAMPLE • 10

YOU TRY IT • 10

Two cyclists start at the same time at opposite ends of an 80-mile course. One cyclist is traveling 18 mph, and the second cyclist is traveling 14 mph. How long after they begin cycling will they meet?

A plane that can normally travel at 250 mph in calm air is flying into a headwind of 25 mph. How far can the plane fly in 3 h?

Strategy The distance is 80 mi. Therefore, d  80. The cyclists are moving toward each other, so the rate at which the distance between them is changing is the sum of the rates of each of the cyclists. The rate is 18 mph  14 mph  32 mph. Therefore, r  32. To find the time, solve the equation d  rt for t.

Solution d  rt 80  32t 80 32t  32 32 2.5  t

Your solution • d  80, r  32 • Solve for t.

The cyclists will meet in 2.5 h.

Solution on p. S6

SECTION 3.1

Introduction to Equations

125

3.1 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To determine whether a given number is a solution of an equation

1. Is 4 a solution of 2x  8?

2. Is 3 a solution of y  4  7?

3. Is 1 a solution of 2b  1  3?

4. Is 2 a solution of 3a  4  10?

5. Is 1 a solution of 4  2m  3?

6. Is 2 a solution of 7  3n  2?

7. Is 5 a solution of 2x  5  3x?

8. Is 4 a solution of 3y  4  2y?

9. Is 2 a solution of 3a  2  2  a?

10. Is 3 a solution of z2  1  4  3z?

11. Is 2 a solution of 2x2  1  4x  1?

12. Is 1 a solution of y2  1  4y  3?

13. Is 4 a solution of x共x  1兲  x2  5?

14. Is 3 a solution of 2a共a  1兲  3a  3?

15. Is  a solution of

16. Is

1 2

a solution of

17. Is

4y  1  3?

2 5

8t  1  1?

a solution of

18. Is

5m  1  10m  3?

19. If A is a fixed number such that A  0, is a solution of the equation 5x  A positive or negative?

OBJECTIVE B

1 4

3 4

a solution of

8x  1  12x  3?

20. Can a negative number be a solution of the equation 7x  2  x?

To solve an equation of the form x  a  b

21. Without solving the equation x 

11 16



19 , 24

determine whether x is less than or greater 19 than . Explain your answer. 24

22. Without solving the equation x 

13 15

21 43

 ,

determine whether x is less than or greater 21 than  . Explain your answer. 43

For Exercises 23 to 64, solve and check. 23. x  5  7

24. y  3  9

25. b  4  11

26. z  6  10

27. 2  a  8

28. 5  x  12

29. n  5  2

30. x  6  5

31. b  7  7

32. y  5  5

33. z  9  2

34. n  11  1

35. 10  m  3

36. 8  x  5

37. 9  x  3

38. 10  y  4

126

CHAPTER 3

Solving Equations

39. 2  x  7

40. 8  n  1

41. 4  m  11

42. 6  y  5

43. 12  3  w

44. 9  5  x

45. 4  10  b

46. 7  2  x

47. m 

51.

2 1  3 3

5 1 y 8 8

55. x 

3 1  4 4

49. x 

1 1  2 2

50. x 

2 3  5 5

4 2 a 9 9

53. m 

1 1  2 4

54. b 

1 1  6 3

48. c 

52.

2 3  3 4

56. n 

2 2  5 3

57. 

5 1 x 6 4

59. d  1.3619  2.0148

60. w  2.932  4.801

61. 0.813  x  1.096

62. 1.926  t  1.042

63. 6.149  3.108  z

64. 5.237  2.014  x

OBJECTIVE C

58. 

1 2 c 4 3

To solve an equation of the form ax  b

For Exercises 65 to 108, solve and check. 65. 5x  15

66. 4y  28

67. 3b  0

68. 2a  0

69. 3x  6

70. 5m  20

71. 3x  27

1 72.  n  30 6

74. 18  2t

75. 0  5x

76. 0  8a

73. 20 

1 c 4

SECTION 3.1

Introduction to Equations

127

77. 49  7t

78.

x 2 3

79.

x 3 4

y 80.   5 2

b 81.   6 3

82.

3 y9 4

83.

2 x6 5

2 84.  d  8 3

3 85.  m  12 5

86.

2n 0 3

87.

5x 0 6

88.

89.

3x 2 4

90.

3 3 c 4 5

91.

2 2  y 9 3

6 3 92.    b 7 4

93.

1 1 x 5 10

2 8 94.  y   3 9

2 6 97.  m   5 7

98. 5x  2x  14

100. 7d  4d  9

101. 10y  3y  21

103.

x  3.25 1.46

106. 2.31m  2.4255

104.

95. 1 

2n 3

3z 9 8

3 a 96.   4 8

99. 3n  2n  20

102. 2x  5x  9

z  7.88 2.95

105. 3.47a  7.1482

107. 3.7x  7.881

108.

n  9.08 2.65

For Exercises 109 to 112, suppose y is a positive integer. Determine whether x is positive or negative. 109. 15x  y

110. 6x  y

1 111.  x  y 4

112.

2 x  y 9

128

CHAPTER 3

Solving Equations

OBJECTIVE D

To solve application problems using the basic percent equation

113. Without solving an equation, determine whether 40% of 80 is less than, equal to, or greater than 80% of 40.

114. Without solving an equation, determine whether 1 % 4

of 80 is less than, equal to, or greater than

25% of 80.

115. What is 35% of 80?

116. What percent of 8 is 0.5?

117. Find 1.2% of 60.

118. 8 is what percent of 5?

119. 125% of what is 80?

120. What percent of 20 is 30?

121. 12 is what percent of 50?

122. What percent of 125 is 50?

123. Find 18% of 40.

124. What is 25% of 60?

125. 12% of what is 48?

126. 45% of what is 9?

127. What is 33 % of 27?

128. Find 16 % of 30.

2 3

129. What percent of 12 is 3?

130. 10 is what percent of 15?

131. 12 is what percent of 6?

132. 20 is what percent of 16?

1 3

1 4

1 2

133. 5 % of what is 21?

134. 37 % of what is 15?

135. Find 15.4% of 50.

136. What is 18.5% of 46?

137. 1 is 0.5% of what?

138. 3 is 1.5% of what?

139.

3 % 4

of what is 3?

140.

1 % 2

of what is 3?

141. What is 250% of 12?

SECTION 3.1

142. Government

Introduction to Equations

2 3

To override a presidential veto, at least 66 % of the Senate must

vote to override the veto. There are 100 senators in the Senate. What is the minimum number of votes needed to override a veto?

143. Boston Marathon See the news clipping at the right. What percent of the runners who started the course finished the race? Round to the nearest tenth of a percent.

144. Income According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the median income fell 1.1% between two successive years. If the median income before the decline was \$42,900, what was the median income the next year? Round to the nearest dollar.

145. School Enrollment The circle graph at the right represents the U.S. population over three years old that is enrolled in school. To answer the question “How many people are enrolled in college or graduate school?,” what additional piece of information is necessary?

129

In the News Thousands Complete Boston Marathon This year, there were 25,283 entrants in the Boston Marathon, the world’s oldest annual marathon. Of those registered, 22,377 people started the race, and 21,948 finished the 26.2-mile course. Source: www.bostonmarathon.org

Nursery school/ preschool 6.2% Kindergarten 5.4%

Elementary school 44.2% High school 21.7%

146. Fuel-Efficient Cars Lighter cars are more fuel-efficient than heavier cars. A report from the Energy Information Administration stated that “the average car weight in 2020 is projected to be 364 pounds lighter than the average car weight in model year 2000, a decrease of 11.8 percent.” Find the average weight of a car in model year 2000.

147. Teen Smoking Use the information in the news clipping at the right. a. Determine the approximate teen population of New York City in 2007. Round to the nearest ten thousand.

b. Suppose the smoking rate among New York City teens had not dropped from 2001 to 2007 but instead had remained unchanged. Using the 2007 teen population you found in part (a), determine how many New York City teens would have been smokers in 2007. Round to the nearest thousand.

148. Investment If Kachina Caron invested \$1200 in a simple interest account and earned \$72 in 8 months, what is the annual interest rate?

149. Investment How much money must Andrea invest for 2 years in an account that earns an annual interest rate of 8% if she wants to earn \$300 from the investment?

Source: U.S. Census Bureau

In the News Teen Smoking at Record Low Data released today show that 20,000 New York City teens smoke. The smoking rate among New York City teens dropped from 17.6% in 2001 to 8.5% in 2007. The mayor links the decline to the city’s efforts to reduce smoking among adults. Source: www.nyc.gov

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150. Investment Sal Boxer decided to divide a gift of \$3000 into two different accounts. He placed \$1000 in one account that earns an annual simple interest rate of 7.5%. The remaining money was placed in an account that earns an annual simple interest rate of 8.25%. How much interest will Sal earn from the two accounts after 1 year? 151. Investment If Americo invests \$2500 at an 8% annual simple interest rate and Octavia invests \$3000 at a 7% annual simple interest rate, which of the two will earn the greater amount of interest after 1 year? 152. Investment Makana invested \$900 in a simple interest account that had an interest rate that was 1% more than that of her friend Marlys. If Marlys earned \$51 after one year from an investment of \$850, how much would Makana earn in 1 year? 153. Investment A \$2000 investment at an annual simple interest rate of 6% earned as much interest after one year as another investment in an account that earns 8% simple interest. How much was invested at 8%?

155. Metallurgy The concentration of platinum in a necklace is 15%. If the necklace weighs 12 g, find the amount of platinum in the necklace. 156. Dye Mixtures A 250-milliliter solution of a fabric dye contains 5 ml of hydrogen peroxide. What is the percent concentration of the hydrogen peroxide?

Fox Martin/PhotoLibrary

154. Investment An investor placed \$1000 in an account that earns 9% annual simple interest and \$1000 in an account that earns 6% annual simple interest. If each investment is left in the account for the same period of time, is the interest rate on the combined investment less than 6%, between 6% and 9%, or greater than 9%?

158. Juice Mixtures Apple Dan’s 32-ounce apple-flavored fruit drink contains 8 oz of apple juice. A 40-ounce generic brand of an apple-flavored fruit drink contains 9 oz of apple juice. Which of the two brands has the greater concentration of apple juice? 159. Food Mixtures Bakers use simple syrup in many of their recipes. Simple syrup is made by combining 500 g of sugar with 500 g of water and mixing it well until the sugar dissolves. What is the percent concentration of sugar in the simple syrup? 160. Pharmacology A pharmacist has 50 g of a topical cream that contains 75% glycerine. How many grams of the cream are not glycerine?

157. Fabric Mixtures A carpet is made with a blend of wool and other fibers. If the concentration of wool in the carpet is 75% and the carpet weighs 175 lb, how much wool is in the carpet?

SECTION 3.1

Introduction to Equations

131

161. Chemistry A chemist has 100 ml of a solution that is 9% acetic acid. If the chemist adds 50 ml of pure water to this solution, what is the percent concentration of the resulting mixture?

162. Chemistry A 500-gram salt-and-water solution contains 50 g of salt. This mixture is left in the open air, and 100 g of water evaporates from the solution. What is the percent concentration of salt in the remaining solution?

OBJECTIVE E

To solve uniform motion problems

163. Joe and John live 2 mi apart. They leave their houses at the same time and walk toward each other until they meet. Joe walks faster than John does. a. Is the distance walked by Joe less than, equal to, or greater than the distance walked by John? b. Is the time spent walking by Joe less than, equal to, or greater than the time spent walking by John? c. What is the total distance traveled by both Joe and John?

165. As part of a training program for the Boston Marathon, a runner wants to build endurance by running at a rate of 9 mph for 20 min. How far will the runner travel in that time period?

Michael Dwyer/Alamy

164. Morgan and Emma ride their bikes from Morgan’s house to the store. Morgan begins biking 5 min before Emma begins. Emma bikes faster than Morgan and catches up with her just as they reach the store. a. Is the distance biked by Emma less than, equal to, or greater than the distance biked by Morgan? b. Is the time spent biking by Emma less than, equal to, or greater than the time spent biking by Morgan?

166. It takes a hospital dietician 40 min to drive from home to the hospital, a distance of 20 mi. What is the dietician’s average rate of speed?

168. The Ride for Health Bicycle Club has chosen a 36-mile course for this Saturday’s ride. If the riders plan on averaging 12 mph while they are riding, and they have a 1-hour lunch break planned, how long will it take them to complete the trip?

169. Palmer’s average running speed is 3 km/h faster than his walking speed. If Palmer can run around a 30-kilometer course in 2 h, how many hours would it take for Palmer to walk the same course?

167. Marcella leaves home at 9:00 A.M. and drives to school, arriving at 9:45 A.M. If the distance between home and school is 27 mi, what is Marcella’s average rate of speed?

132

CHAPTER 3

Solving Equations

170. A shopping mall has a moving sidewalk that takes shoppers from the shopping area to the parking garage, a distance of 250 ft. If your normal walking rate is 5 ft/s and the moving sidewalk is traveling at 3 ft/s, how many seconds would it take for you to walk from one end of the moving sidewalk to the other end?

171. Two joggers start at the same time from opposite ends of an 8-mile jogging trail and begin running toward each other. One jogger is running at a rate of 5 mph, and the other jogger is running at a rate of 7 mph. How long, in minutes, after they start will the two joggers meet?

172. Two cyclists start from the same point at the same time and move in opposite directions. One cyclist is traveling at 8 mph, and the other cyclist is traveling at 9 mph. After 30 min, how far apart are the two cyclists?

173. Petra and Celine can paddle their canoe at a rate of 10 mph in calm water. How long will it take them to travel 4 mi against the 2-mph current of the river?

174. At 8:00 A.M., a train leaves a station and travels at a rate of 45 mph. At 9:00 A.M., a second train leaves the same station on the same track and travels in the direction of the first train at a speed of 60 mph. At 10:00 A.M., how far apart are the two trains?

Applying the Concepts 175. Geometry

176. Geometry

Solve for x.

Solve for x. 5x

3x

2x

x

4x

177. Geometry

178. Geometry

Solve for x.

Solve for x.

9x x

6x 3x

179. a. Make up an equation of the form x  a  b that has 2 as a solution. b. Make up an equation of the form ax  b that has 1 as a solution.

180. Write out the steps for solving the equation

1 2

x  3. Identify each Property

of Real Numbers or Property of Equations as you use it.

181. If a quantity increases by 100%, how many times its original value is the new value?

2x

SECTION 3.2

General Equations—Part I

133

SECTION

3.2 OBJECTIVE A

General Equations—Part I To solve an equation of the form ax  b  c In solving an equation of the form ax  b  c, the goal is to rewrite the equation in the form variable  constant. This requires the application of both the Addition and the Multiplication Properties of Equations. 3 Solve: x  2  11 4 The goal is to write the equation in the form variable  constant.

HOW TO • 1

3 x  2  11 4

Take Note Check :

3 x  2  11 4 3 共12兲  2 11 4 9  2 11 11  11 A true equation

3 x  2  2  11  2 4 3 x  9 4 4 3 4  x  共9兲 3 4 3 x  12

• Add 2 to each side of the equation. • Simplify. 4 • Multiply each side of the equation by . 3 • The equation is in the form variable  constant.

The solution is 12. Here is an example of solving an equation that contains more than one fraction. HOW TO • 2

2 1 x  3 2 2 1 1 x   3 2 2 2 x 3 3 2 x  2 3

3 2 1 Solve: x   3 2 4 3 4 3 1 1  • Subtract from each side of the equation. 2 4 2 1 • Simplify. 4 3 • Multiply each side of the equation by , 3 1 2 2 2 4 the reciprocal of . 3 3 8

The solution is . It may be easier to solve an equation containing two or more fractions by multiplying each side of the equation by the least common multiple (LCM) of the denominators. For the equation above, the LCM of 3, 2, and 4 is 12. The LCM has the property that 3, 2, and 4 will divide evenly into it. Therefore, if both sides of the equation are multiplied by 12, the denominators will divide evenly into 12. The result is an equation that does not contain any fractions. Multiplying each side of an equation that contains fractions by the LCM of the denominators is called clearing denominators. It is an alternative method, as we show in the next example, of solving an equation that contains fractions.

134

CHAPTER 3

Solving Equations

Take Note This is the same example solved on the previous page, but this time we are using the method of clearing denominators. Observe that after we multiply both sides of the equation by the LCM of the denominators and then simplify, the equation no longer contains fractions.

HOW TO • 3

3 2 1 x  3 2 4 2 1 3 x  3 2 4 Solve:

 12

3 4

2 1 x  12 3 2

 12

3 4

12

12

8x  6  9 8x  6  6  9  6

• Multiply each side of the equation by 12, the LCM of 3, 2, and 4.

• Use the Distributive Property. • Simplify. • Subtract 6 from each side of the equation.

8x  3 8x 3  8 8 x

• Divide each side of the equation by 8.

3 8

3 8

The solution is . Note that both methods give exactly the same solution. You may use either method to solve an equation containing fractions. EXAMPLE • 1

YOU TRY IT • 1

Solve: 3x  7  5

Solve: 5x  7  10

Solution 3x  7  5 3x  7  7  5  7 3x  2 3x 2  3 3 2 x 3

• Divide each side by 3.

2 3

The solution is . EXAMPLE • 2

YOU TRY IT • 2

Solve: 5  9  2x

Solve: 2  11  3x

Solution 5  9  2x 5  9  9  9  2x 4  2x 4 2x  2 2 2x

Your solution • Subtract 9 from each side. • Divide each side by 2.

The solution is 2. Solutions on p. S6

SECTION 3.2

EXAMPLE • 3

General Equations—Part I

135

YOU TRY IT • 3

3 2 x   3 2 4

Solve:

5 2x 5   8 3 4

Solve:

Solution 2 x  3 2 2 2 x   3 3 2 x  2 x 2  2

3  4 3 2   4 3 1  12 1  2 12 1 x 6

• Subtract

2 from each side. 3

• Multiply each side by 2.

1 6

The solution is  .

EXAMPLE • 4 4 5

Solve x 

1 2



YOU TRY IT • 4 3 4

by first clearing denominators.

Solution The LCM of 5, 2, and 4 is 20. 4 1 3 x  5 2 4 4 1 3 20 x   20 5 2 4

20

4 1 x  20 5 2

 20

3 4

16x  10  15 16x  10  10  15  10 16x  25 16x 25  16 16 25 x 16

The solution is

2 3

Solve x  3 

7 2

by first clearing denominators.

• Multiply each side by 20. • Use the Distributive Property. • Add 10 to each side. • Divide each side by 16.

25 . 16

Solutions on p. S6

136

CHAPTER 3

Solving Equations

EXAMPLE • 5

YOU TRY IT • 5

Solve: 2x  4  5x  10

Solve: x  5  4x  25

Solution 2x  4  5x  10 3x  4  10 3x  4  4  10  4 3x  6 3x 6  3 3 x  2

Your solution • Combine like terms. • Subtract 4 from each side. • Divide each side by 3.

The solution is 2. Solution on p. S6

OBJECTIVE B

In this objective we will be solving application problems using formulas. Two of the formulas we will use are related to markup and discount.

Markup Selling price Cost

To solve application problems using formulas

Cost is the price a business pays for a product. Selling price is the price for which a business sells a product to a customer. The difference between selling price and cost is called markup. Markup is added to the cost to cover the expenses of operating a business. The diagram at the left illustrates these terms. The total length is the selling price. One part of the diagram is the cost, and the other part is the markup. When the markup is expressed as a percent of the retailer’s cost, it is called the markup rate. The basic markup equations used by a business are Selling price  cost  markup S

 C 

Markup  markup rate  cost

M

M



r

 C

Substituting r  C for M in the first equation results in S  C  1r  C2, or S  C  rC. HOW TO • 4

The manager of a clothing store buys a jacket for \$80 and sells the jacket for \$116. Find the markup rate. S  C  rC 116  80  80r

• Use the equation S  C  rC. • Given: C  80 and S  116

36  80r

• Subtract 80 from each side of the equation.

36 80r  80 80

• Divide both sides of the equation by 80.

0.45  r The markup rate is 45%.

SECTION 3.2

Discount or markdown Sale price

General Equations—Part I

137

A retailer may reduce the regular price of a product because the product is damaged, an odd size, or a discontinued item. The discount, or markdown, is the amount by which a retailer reduces the regular price of a product. The percent discount is called the discount rate and is usually expressed as a percent of the original selling price (the regular price).

Regular price

The basic discount equations used by a business are Sale regular   discount price price S 

R



Discount 

D

D

discount regular  rate price



r



R

Substituting r  R for D in the first equation results in S  R  1r  R2, or S  R  rR. HOW TO • 5

A laptop computer that regularly sells for \$1850 is on sale for \$1480. Find the discount rate. S  R  rR 1480  1850  1850r 370  1850r 370 1850r  1850 1850

• Use the equation S  R  rR. • Given: S  1480 and R  1850 • Subtract 1850 from each side of the equation. • Divide each side of the equation by 1850.

0.2  r The discount rate on the laptop computer is 20%.

EXAMPLE • 6

YOU TRY IT • 6

A markup rate of 40% was used on a mountain bike that has a selling price of \$749. Find the cost of the mountain bike. Use the formula S  C  rC.

A markup rate of 45% was used on an outboard motor that has a selling price of \$986. Find the cost of the outboard motor. Use the formula S  C  rC.

Strategy Given: S  \$749 r  40%  0.40 Unknown: C

Solution S  C  rC 749  C  0.40C 749  1.40C 749 1.40C  1.40 1.40 535  C

Your solution • C  0.40C  1C  0.40C • Combine like terms.

The cost of the mountain bike is \$535.

Solution on p. S6

138

CHAPTER 3

Solving Equations

EXAMPLE • 7

YOU TRY IT • 7

A necklace that is marked down 35% has a sale price of \$292.50. Find the regular price of the necklace. Use the formula S  R  rR.

An MP3 player, marked down 25%, is on sale for \$159. Find the regular price of the MP3 player. Use the formula S  R  rR.

Strategy Given: S  292.50 r  35%  0.35 Unknown: R

Solution S  R  rR 292.50  R  0.35R 292.50  0.65R 292.50 0.65R  0.65 0.65 450  R

Your solution • R  0.35R  1R  0.35R • Combine like terms.

The regular price of the necklace is \$450.

EXAMPLE • 8

YOU TRY IT • 8

To determine the total cost of production, an economist uses the equation T  U  N  F, where T is the total cost, U is the unit cost, N is the number of units made, and F is the fixed cost. Use this equation to find the number of units made during a month in which the total cost was \$9000, the unit cost was \$25, and the fixed cost was \$3000.

The pressure at a certain depth in the ocean can be approximated by the equation 1 P  15  D, where P is the pressure in 2 pounds per square inch and D is the depth in feet. Use this equation to find the depth when the pressure is 45 pounds per square inch.

Strategy Given: T  9000 U  25 F  3000 Unknown: N

Solution TUNF 9000  25N  3000 6000  25N 6000 25N  25 25 240  N

Solutions on p. S7

SECTION 3.2

General Equations—Part I

139

3.2 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To solve an equation of the form ax  b  c

For Exercises 1 to 80, solve and check. 1. 3x  1  10

2. 4y  3  11

3. 2a  5  7

4. 5m  6  9

5. 5  4x  9

6. 2  5b  12

7. 2x  5  11

8. 3n  7  19

9. 4  3w  2

10. 5  6x  13

11. 8  3t  2

12. 12  5x  7

13. 4a  20  0

14. 3y  9  0

15. 6  2b  0

16. 10  5m  0

17. 2x  5  7

18. 5d  3  12

19. 1.2x  3  0.6

20. 1.3  1.1y  0.9

21. 2  7  5a

22. 3  11  4n

23. 35  6b  1

24. 8x  3  29

25. 3m  21  0

26. 5x  30  0

27. 4y  15  15

28. 3x  19  19

29. 9  4x  6

30. 3t  2  0

31. 9x  4  0

32. 7  8z  0

33. 1  3x  0

34. 9d  10  7

35. 12w  11  5

36. 6y  5  7

37. 8b  3  9

38. 5  6m  2

39. 7  9a  4

40. 9  12c  5

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CHAPTER 3

Solving Equations

41. 10  18x  7

45. 3x 

5 13  6 6

42. 2y 

1 7  3 3

43. 4a 

3 19  4 4

44. 2n 

3 13  4 4

46. 5y 

3 3  7 7

47. 9x 

4 4  5 5

48. 0.8  7d  0.1

49. 0.9  10x  0.6

50. 4  7  2w

51. 7  9  5a

52. 8t  13  3

53. 12x  19  3

54. 6y  5  13

55. 4x  3  9

56.

1 a31 2

1 m15 3

58.

2 y46 5

59.

3 n  7  13 4

2 60.  x  1  7 3

3 61.  b  4  10 8

62.

x 61 4

63.

y 23 5

64.

2x 15 3

5 2 1 x  4 3 4

67.

1 2 1  x 2 3 4

68.

3 3 19  x 4 5 20

71.

11 4 2x   27 9 3

72.

37 7 5x   24 8 6

57.

65.

2 5 1 x  3 6 3

66.

69.

3 5 3x   2 6 8

70. 

73. 7 

2x 4 5

77. 5y  9  2y  23

1 5 5x   4 12 6

74. 5 

4c 8 7

78. 7x  4  2x  6

75. 7 

5 y9 9

79. 11z  3  7z  9

76. 6a  3  2a  11

80. 2x  6x  1  9

For Exercises 81 to 84, without solving the equation, determine whether the solution is positive or negative. 81. 15x  73  347

82. 17  25  40a

83. 290  51n  187

84. 72  86y  49

SECTION 3.2

General Equations—Part I

85. Solve 3x  4y  13 when y  2.

86. Solve 2x  3y  8 when y  0.

87. Solve 4x  3y  9 when x  0.

88. Solve 5x  2y  3 when x  3.

89. If 2x  3  7, evaluate 3x  4.

90. If 3x  5  4, evaluate 2x  5.

91. If 4  5x  1, evaluate x2  3x  1.

92. If 2  3x  11, evaluate x2  2x  3.

OBJECTIVE B

141

To solve application problems using formulas

Business For Exercises 93 to 102, solve. Use the markup equation S  C  rC, where S is the selling price, C is the cost, and r is the markup rate. 93. A watch costing \$98 is sold for \$156.80. Find the markup rate on the watch.

94. A set of golf clubs costing \$360 is sold for \$630. Find the markup rate on the set of golf clubs.

96. A pair of jeans with a selling price of \$57 has a markup rate of 50%. Find the cost of the pair of jeans.

97. A camera costing \$360 is sold for \$520. Find the markup rate. Round to the nearest tenth of a percent.

98. A car navigation system costing \$320 is sold for \$479. Find the markup rate. Round to the nearest tenth of a percent.

99. A digitally recorded compact disc has a selling price of \$11.90. The markup rate is 40%. Find the cost of the CD.

100. A markup rate of 25% is used on a laptop computer that has a selling price of \$2187.50. Find the cost of the computer.

95. A markup rate of 40% was used on a basketball with a selling price of \$82.60. Find the cost of the basketball.

142

CHAPTER 3

Solving Equations

101. Bill of Materials Use the information in the article at the right to find the markup rate for the 4 GB iPod nano. Round your answer to the nearest percent.

102. Bill of Materials Use the information in the article at the right to find the markup rate for the 8 GB iPod nano. Round your answer to the nearest percent.

103. True or false? If a store uses a markup rate of 35%, you can find the store’s cost for an item by dividing the selling price of the item by 1  0.35, or 1.35.

104. If the markup rate on an item is 100%, what is the relationship between the selling price of the item and the cost of the item?

Business For Exercises 105 to 112, solve. Use the discount equation S  R  rR, where S is the sale price, R is the regular price, and r is the discount rate.

In the News Not a Nano-Sized Markup When you buy your latest technology gadget, do you ever wonder how much of a markup you are paying? A product’s bill of materials (BOM) is the total cost to the manufacturer for the materials used to make the product. The rest of the price you pay is the markup. For example, the 4 GB Apple iPod nano, with a BOM of \$58.85, sells for \$149; and the 8 GB nano, with a BOM of \$82.85, sells for \$199. Source: www.digitimes.com

105. A tent with a regular price of \$1295 is on sale for \$995. Find the discount rate. Round to the nearest tenth of a percent.

106. A toy train set with a regular price of \$495 is on sale for \$395. Find the markdown rate. Round to the nearest tenth of a percent.

107. A mechanic’s tool set is on sale for \$180 after a markdown of 40% off the regular price. Find the regular price.

108. A battery with a discount price of \$65 is on sale for 22% off the regular price. Find the regular price. Round to the nearest cent.

109. A DVD player with a regular price of \$325 is on sale for \$201.50. Find the markdown rate.

111. A telescope is on sale for \$165 after a markdown of 40% off the regular price. Find the regular price.

112. An exercise bike is on sale for \$390, having been marked down 25% off the regular price. Find the regular price.

110. A luggage set with a regular price of \$178 is on sale for \$103.24. Find the discount rate.

SECTION 3.2

General Equations—Part I

143

113. True or false? If a store uses a discount rate of 15%, you can find the sale price of an item by multiplying the regular price of the item by 1  0.15, or 0.85.

114. If the discount rate on an item is 50%, which of the following is true? (S is the sale price, and R is the regular price.) (i) S  2R (ii) R  2S (iii) S  R (iv) 0.50S  R

Champion Trees American Forests is an organization that maintains the National Register of Big Trees, a listing of the largest trees in the United States. The formula used 1 to award points to a tree is P  c  h  s, where P is the point total for a tree with a 4 circumference of c inches, a height of h feet, and an average crown spread of s feet. Use this formula for Exercises 115 and 116. (Source: www.amfor.org) 115. Find the average crown spread of the baldcypress described in the article at the right.

116. One of the smallest trees in the United States is a Florida Crossopetalum in the Key Largo Hammocks State Botanical Site. This tree stands 11 ft tall, has a circumference of just 4.8 in., and scores 16.55 points using American Forests’ formula. Find the tree’s average crown spread. (Source: www.championtrees.org)

Nutrition The formula C  9f  4p  4c gives the number of calories C in a serving of food that contains f grams of fat, p grams of protein, and c grams of carbohydrate. Use this formula for Exercises 117 and 118. (Source: www.nutristrategy.com)

In the News The Senator Is a Champion Baldcypress trees are among the most ancient of North American trees. The 3500-year-old baldcypress known as the Senator, located in Big Tree Park, Longwood, is the Florida Champion specimen of the species. With a circumference of 425 in. and a height of 118 ft, this king of the swamp forest earned a 1 total of 557 points under 4 the point system used for the National Register of Big Trees. Source: www.championtrees.org

117. Find the number of grams of protein in an 8-ounce serving of vanilla yogurt that contains 174 calories, 2 g of fat, and 30 g of carbohydrate.

118. Find the number of grams of fat in a serving of granola that contains 215 calories, 42 g of carbohydrate, and 5 g of protein.

Physics The distance s, in feet, that an object will fall in t seconds is given by s  16t2  vt, where v is the initial velocity of the object in feet per second. Use this equation for Exercises 119 and 120.

Seminole County Government

119. Find the initial velocity of an object that falls 80 ft in 2 s.

120. Find the initial velocity of an object that falls 144 ft in 3 s.

Depreciation A company uses the equation V  C  6000t to determine the depreciated value V, after t years, of a milling machine that originally cost C dollars. Equations like this are used in accounting for straight-line depreciation. Use this equation for Exercises 121 and 122.

The Senator at Big Tree Park

144

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Solving Equations

121. A milling machine originally cost \$50,000. In how many years will the depreciated value of the machine be \$38,000?

122. A milling machine originally cost \$78,000. In how many years will the depreciated value of the machine be \$48,000?

Anthropology Anthropologists approximate the height of a primate by the size of its humerus (the bone from the elbow to the shoulder) using the equation H  1.2L  27.8, where L is the length of the humerus and H is the height, in inches, of the primate. Use this equation for Exercises 123 and 124. 123. An anthropologist estimates the height of a primate to be 66 in. What is the approximate length of the humerus of this primate? Round to the nearest tenth of an inch.

124. An anthropologist estimates the height of a primate to be 62 in. What is the approximate length of the humerus of this primate?

Car Safety Black ice is an ice covering on roads that is especially difficult to see and therefore extremely dangerous for motorists. The distance that a car traveling 30 mph will slide after its brakes are applied is related to the outside temperature by the formula 1 C  D  45, where C is the Celsius temperature and D is the distance in feet that the 4 car will slide. Use this equation for Exercises 125 and 126. 125. Determine the distance a car will slide on black ice when the outside temperature is 3C.

126. Determine the distance a car will slide on black ice when the outside temperature is 11C.

Applying the Concepts 127. Business A customer buys four tires, three at the regular price and one for 20% off the regular price. The four tires cost \$323. What is the regular price of a tire? x+2 10 m

128. Geometry The area of the triangle at the right is 40 m 2. Find x. 2x + 1

129. Geometry The area of the parallelogram at the right is 364 m 2. Find the height.

26 m

SECTION 3.3

General Equations—Part II

145

SECTION

3.3 OBJECTIVE A

Tips for Success Have you considered joining a study group? Getting together regularly with other students in the class to go over material and quiz each other can be very beneficial. See AIM for Success at the front of the book.

General Equations—Part II To solve an equation of the form ax  b  cx  d In solving an equation of the form ax  b  cx  d, the goal is to rewrite the equation in the form variable  constant. Begin by rewriting the equation so that there is only one variable term in the equation. Then rewrite the equation so that there is only one constant term. Solve: 2x  3  5x  9 2x  3  5x  9

HOW TO • 1

2x  5x  3  5x  5x  9

• Subtract 5x from each side of the equation.

3x  3  9

• Simplify. There is only one variable term.

3x  3  3  9  3

• Subtract 3 from each side of the equation.

3x  12

• Simplify. There is only one constant term.

3x 12  3 3

• Divide each side of the equation by 3.

x4

• The equation is in the form variable  constant.

The solution is 4. You should verify this by checking this solution.

EXAMPLE • 1

YOU TRY IT • 1

Solve: 4x  5  8x  7

Solve: 5x  4  6  10x

Solution 4x  5  8x  7

4x  8x  5  8x  8x  7 4x  5  7 4x  5  5  7  5

• Subtract 8x from each side. • Add 5 to each side.

4x  2 4x 2  4 4 x

• Divide each side by 4.

1 2

1 2

The solution is .

Solution on p. S7

146

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Solving Equations

EXAMPLE • 2

YOU TRY IT • 2

Solve: 3x  4  5x  2  4x

Solve: 5x  10  3x  6  4x

Solution 3x  4  5x  2  4x

2x  4  2  4x

• Combine like terms.

2x  4x  4  2  4x  4x

• Add 4x to each side.

2x  4  2 2x  4  4  2  4

• Subtract 4 from each side.

2x  2 2 2x  2 2

• Divide each side by 2.

x  1 The solution is 1.

Solution on p. S7

OBJECTIVE B

To solve an equation containing parentheses When an equation contains parentheses, one of the steps in solving the equation requires the use of the Distributive Property. The Distributive Property is used to remove parentheses from a variable expression. HOW TO • 2

Solve: 4  5共2x  3兲  3共4x  1兲

4  5共2x  3兲  3共4x  1兲 4  10x  15  12x  3

• Use the Distributive Property. Then simplify.

10x  11  12x  3 10x  12x  11  12x  12x  3 2x  11  3 2x  11  11  3  11

• Subtract 12x from each side of the equation. • Simplify. • Add 11 to each side of the equation.

2x  8

• Simplify.

2x 8  2 2

• Divide each side of the equation by 2.

x  4

• The equation is in the form variable  constant.

The solution is 4. You should verify this by checking this solution. In the next example, we solve an equation with parentheses and decimals.

SECTION 3.3

General Equations—Part II

147

Solve: 16  0.55x  0.75共x  20兲

HOW TO • 3

16  0.55x  0.75共x  20兲 16  0.55x  0.75x  15 16  0.55x  0.75x  0.75x  0.75x  15 16  0.20x  15 16  16  0.20x  15  16 0.20x  1 1 0.20x  0.20 0.20 x5

• Use the Distributive Property. • Subtract 0.75x from each side of the equation. • Simplify. • Subtract 16 from each side of the equation. • Simplify. • Divide each side of the equation by 0.20. • The equation is in the form variable  constant.

The solution is 5. EXAMPLE • 3

YOU TRY IT • 3

Solve: 3x  4共2  x兲  3共x  2兲  4

Solve: 5x  4共3  2x兲  2共3x  2兲  6

Solution 3x  4共2  x兲  3共x  2兲  4 3x  8  4x  3x  6  4 7x  8  3x  10 7x  3x  8  3x  3x  10 4x  8  10 4x  8  8  10  8 4x  2 4x 2  4 4 1 x 2

• Divide by 4.

1 2

The solution is  . EXAMPLE • 4

YOU TRY IT • 4

Solve: 332  4共2x  1兲4  4x  10

Solve: 233x  5共2x  3兲4  3x  8

Solution 33 2  4共2x  1兲4  4x  10 332  8x  44  4x  10 3 3 6  8x4  4x  10 18  24x  4x  10 18  24x  4x  4x  4x  10 18  28x  10 18  18  28x  10  18 28x  28 28x 28  28 28 x1

Your solution • Distributive Property • Distributive Property • Subtract 4x. • Subtract 18. • Divide by 28.

The solution is 1. Solutions on p. S7

148

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Solving Equations

OBJECTIVE C

To solve application problems using formulas

Take Note

A lever system is shown at the right. It consists of a lever, or bar; a fulcrum; and two forces, F1 and F2. The distance d represents the length of the lever, x represents the distance from F1 to the fulcrum, and d  x represents the distance from F2 to the fulcrum.

90 lb

60 lb 4

6

10 ft This system balances because

F1

F2 d−x

x

Lever Fulcrum d

A principle of physics states that when the lever system balances, F1 x  F2 1d  x2.

F1 x  F2 共d  x兲 60共6兲  90共10  6兲 60共6兲  90共4兲 360  360

EXAMPLE • 5

YOU TRY IT • 5

A lever is 15 ft long. A force of 50 lb is applied to one end of the lever, and a force of 100 lb is applied to the other end. Where is the fulcrum located when the system balances?

A lever is 25 ft long. A force of 45 lb is applied to one end of the lever, and a force of 80 lb is applied to the other end. Where is the location of the fulcrum when the system balances?

Strategy Make a drawing.

100 lb 50 lb

x

d–x d

Given: F1  50 F2  100 d  15 Unknown: x Solution F1 x  F2 共d  x兲 50x  100共15  x兲 50x  1500  100x 50x  100x  1500  100x  100x 150x  1500 150x 1500  150 150 x  10

• Divide by 150.

The fulcrum is 10 ft from the 50-pound force. Solution on p. S7

SECTION 3.3

General Equations—Part II

149

3.3 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To solve an equation of the form ax  b  cx  d

1. Describe the step that will enable you to rewrite the equation 2x  3  7x  12 so that it has one variable term with a positive coefficient.

For Exercises 2 to 28, solve and check. 2. 8x  5  4x  13

3. 6y  2  y  17

4. 5x  4  2x  5

5. 13b  1  4b  19

6. 15x  2  4x  13

7. 7a  5  2a  20

8. 3x  1  11  2x

9. n  2  6  3n

10. 2x  3  11  2x

11. 4y  2  16  3y

12. 0.2b  3  0.5b  12

13. m  0.4  3m  0.8

14. 4y  8  y  8

15. 5a  7  2a  7

16. 6  5x  8  3x

17. 10  4n  16  n

18. 5  7x  11  9x

19. 3  2y  15  4y

20. 2x  4  6x

21. 2b  10  7b

22. 8m  3m  20

23. 9y  5y  16

24. 8b  5  5b  7

25. 6y  1  2y  2

26. 7x  8  x  3

27. 2y  7  1  2y

28. 2m  1  6m  5

29. If 5x  3x  8, evaluate 4x  2.

30. If 7x  3  5x  7, evaluate 3x  2.

31. If 2  6a  5  3a, evaluate 4a2  2a  1.

32. If 1  5c  4  4c, evaluate 3c2  4c  2.

150

CHAPTER 3

Solving Equations

OBJECTIVE B

To solve an equation containing parentheses

33. Without solving any of the equations, determine which of the following equations has the same solution as the equation 5  2(x  1)  8. (i) 3(x  1)  8 (ii) 5  2x  2  8 (iii) 5  2x  1  8

For Exercises 34 to 54, solve and check. 34. 5x  2共x  1兲  23

35. 6y  2共2y  3兲  16

36. 9n  3共2n  1兲  15

37. 12x  2共4x  6兲  28

38. 7a  共3a  4兲  12

39. 9m  4共2m  3兲  11

40. 5共3  2y兲  4y  3

41. 4共1  3x兲  7x  9

42. 5y  3  7  4共y  2兲

43. 0.22共x  6兲  0.2x  1.8

44. 0.05共4  x兲  0.1x  0.32

45. 0.3x  0.3共x  10兲  300

46. 2a  5  4共3a  1兲  2

47. 5  共9  6x兲  2x  2

48. 7  共5  8x兲  4x  3

49. 3 3 2  4共y  1兲4  3共2y  8兲

50. 5 3 2  共2x  4兲4  2共5  3x兲

51. 3a  2 3 2  3共a  1兲4  2共3a  4兲

52. 5  3 3 1  2共2x  3兲4  6共x  5兲

53. 2 34  共3b  2兲4  5  2共3b  6兲

54. 4 3 x  2共2x  3兲4  1  2x  3

55. If 4  3a  7  2共2a  5兲 , evaluate a2  7a .

56. If 9  5x  12  共6x  7兲, evaluate x2  3x  2.

SECTION 3.3

OBJECTIVE C

151

General Equations—Part II

To solve application problems using formulas

Diving Scores In a diving competition, a diver’s total score for a dive is calculated using the formula P  D(x  y  z), where P is the total points awarded, D is the degree of difficulty of the dive, and x, y, and z are the scores from three judges. Use this formula and the information in the article at the right for Exercises 57 to 60. 57. Two judges gave Kinzbach’s platform dive scores of 8.5. Find the score given by the third judge.

58. Two judges gave Ross’s 1-meter dive scores of 8 and 8.5. Find the score given by the third judge.

59. Two judges gave Viola’s platform dive scores of 8. Find the score given by the third judge.

60. Two judges gave Viola’s 1-meter dive scores of 8 and 8.5. Find the score given by the third judge.

In the News Hurricane Divers Make a Splash University of Miami divers JJ Kinzbach and Rueben Ross took the top two spots in Men’s Platform diving at the 2008 NCAA Zone B Championships. Ross also placed second in the Men’s 3-meter and 1-meter events. Brittany Viola won the Women’s Platform diving event and placed third in the 3-meter and 1-meter events. Statistics from some of the best dives follow. Degree of Difficulty

Total Points

Inward 31⁄2 somersault tuck

3.2

81.60

1-meter

Inward 21⁄2 somersault tuck

3.1

77.50

Viola

Platform

Forward 31⁄2 somersault pike

3.0

72.0

Viola

1-meter

Inward 11⁄2 somersault pike

2.4

57.60

Diver

Event

Dive

Kinzbach

Platform

Ross

Source: divemeets.com

61. Physics Two people sit on a seesaw that is 8 ft long. The seesaw balances when the fulcrum is 3 ft from one of the people. a. How far is the fulcrum from the other person? b. Which person is heavier, the person who is 3 ft from the fulcrum or the other person? c. If the two people switch places, will the seesaw still balance? Physics For Exercises 62 to 67, solve. Use the lever system equation F1x  F21d  x2.

F2 100 lb 2 ft

62. A lever 10 ft long is used to move a 100-pound rock. The fulcrum is placed 2 ft from the rock. What force must be applied to the other end of the lever to move the rock?

63. An adult and a child are on a seesaw 14 ft long. The adult weighs 175 lb and the child weighs 70 lb. How many feet from the child must the fulcrum be placed so that the seesaw balances? 120 lb

64. Two people are sitting 15 ft apart on a seesaw. One person weighs 180 lb. The second person weighs 120 lb. How far from the 180-pound person should the fulcrum be placed so that the seesaw balances?

180 lb 15 − x

15 ft

65. Two children are sitting on a seesaw that is 12 ft long. One child weighs 60 lb. The other child weighs 90 lb. How far from the 90-pound child should the fulcrum be placed so that the seesaw balances?

x

152

CHAPTER 3

Solving Equations

30

66. In preparation for a stunt, two acrobats are standing on a plank 18 ft long. One acrobat weighs 128 lb and the second acrobat weighs 160 lb. How far from the 128-pound acrobat must the fulcrum be placed so that the acrobats are balanced on the plank?

lb

0.15 in.

F1

9i

n.

67. A screwdriver 9 in. long is used as a lever to open a can of paint. The tip of the screwdriver is placed under the lip of the can with the fulcrum 0.15 in. from the lip. A force of 30 lb is applied to the other end of the screwdriver. Find the force on the lip of the can.

Business To determine the break-even point, or the number of units that must be sold so that no profit or loss occurs, an economist uses the formula Px  Cx  F, where P is the selling price per unit, x is the number of units that must be sold to break even, C is the cost to make each unit, and F is the fixed cost. Use this equation for Exercises 68 to 71. 68. A business analyst has determined that the selling price per unit for a laser printer is \$1600. The cost to make one laser printer is \$950, and the fixed cost is \$211,250. Find the break-even point.

69. A business analyst has determined that the selling price per unit for a gas barbecue is \$325. The cost to make one gas barbecue is \$175, and the fixed cost is \$39,000. Find the break-even point. 70. A manufacturer of headphones determines that the cost per unit for a pair of headphones is \$38 and that the fixed cost is \$24,400. The selling price for the headphones is \$99. Find the break-even point.

Physiology The oxygen consumption C, in millimeters per minute, of a small mammal 1 6

at rest is related to the animal’s weight m, in kilograms, by the equation m  (C  5). Use this equation for Exercises 72 and 73. 72. What is the oxygen consumption of a mammal that weighs 10.4 kg?

73. What is the oxygen consumption of a mammal that weighs 8.3 kg?

Applying the Concepts 74. The equation x  x  1 has no solution, whereas the solution of the equation 2x  3  3 is zero. Is there a difference between no solution and a solution of zero? Explain your answer.

Charles Mistral/Alamy

71. A manufacturing engineer determines that the cost per unit for a soprano recorder is \$12 and that the fixed cost is \$19,240. The selling price for the recorder is \$49. Find the break-even point.

SECTION 3.4

Translating Sentences into Equations

153

SECTION

3.4 OBJECTIVE A

Translating Sentences into Equations To solve integer problems An equation states that two mathematical expressions are equal. Therefore, to translate a sentence into an equation requires recognition of the words or phrases that mean “equals.” Some of these phrases are listed below. equals is is equal to amounts to represents

⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ translate to  ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

Once the sentence is translated into an equation, the equation can be solved by rewriting the equation in the form variable  constant.

Take Note You can check the solution to a translation problem. Check : 5 less than 18 is 13 18  5 13 13  13

HOW TO • 1

Translate “five less than a number is thirteen” into an equation

and solve. The unknown number: n Five less than a number

is

thirteen

n5



13

n  5  5  13  5

• Assign a variable to the unknown number. • Find two verbal expressions for the same value. • Write a mathematical expression for each verbal expression. Write the equals sign. • Solve the equation.

n  18 The number is 18.

Recall that the integers are the numbers {..., 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, ...}. An even integer is an integer that is divisible by 2. Examples of even integers are 8, 0, and 22. An odd integer is an integer that is not divisible by 2. Examples of odd integers are 17, 1, and 39.

Take Note Both consecutive even and consecutive odd integers are represented using n, n  2, n  4, ....

Consecutive integers are integers that follow one another in order. Examples of consecutive integers are shown at the right. (Assume that the variable n represents an integer.)

11, 12, 13 8, 7, 6 n, n  1, n  2

Examples of consecutive even integers are shown at the right. (Assume that the variable n represents an even integer.)

24, 26, 28 10, 8, 6 n, n  2, n  4

Examples of consecutive odd integers are shown at the right. (Assume that the variable n represents an odd integer.)

19, 21, 23 1, 1, 3 n, n  2, n  4

154

CHAPTER 3

Solving Equations

HOW TO • 2

The sum of three consecutive odd integers is forty-five. Find

the integers. Strategy • First odd integer: n Second odd integer: n  2 Third odd integer: n  4 • The sum of the three odd integers is 45. Solution n  1n  22  1n  42  45 3n  6  45 3n  39 n  13 n  2  13  2  15 n  4  13  4  17

• Represent three consecutive odd integers.

• Write an equation. • Solve the equation. • The first odd integer is 13. • Find the second odd integer. • Find the third odd integer.

The three consecutive odd integers are 13, 15, and 17.

EXAMPLE • 1

YOU TRY IT • 1

The sum of two numbers is sixteen. The difference between four times the smaller number and two is two more than twice the larger number. Find the two numbers.

The sum of two numbers is twelve. The total of three times the smaller number and six amounts to seven less than the product of four and the larger number. Find the two numbers.

Strategy The smaller number: n The larger number: 16  n

The difference between four times the smaller and two

two more

is than twice the larger

Solution 4n  2  2共16  n兲  2 4n  2  32  2n  2 4n  2  34  2n 4n  2n  2  34  2n  2n 6n  2  34 6n  2  2  34  2 6n  36 6n 36  6 6 n6

16  n 苷 16  6 苷 10 The smaller number is 6. The larger number is 10. Solution on pp. S7–S8

SECTION 3.4

EXAMPLE • 2

Translating Sentences into Equations

155

YOU TRY IT • 2

Find three consecutive even integers such that three times the second equals four more than the sum of the first and third.

Find three consecutive integers whose sum is negative six.

Strategy • First even integer: n Second even integer: n  2 Third even integer: n  4 • Three times the second equals four more than the sum of the first and third.

Solution 3共n  2兲  n  共n  4兲  4 3n  6  2n  8 3n  2n  6  2n  2n  8 n68 n2 n2224 n4246

The three integers are 2, 4, and 6. Solution on p. S8

OBJECTIVE B

To translate a sentence into an equation and solve

EXAMPLE • 3

YOU TRY IT • 3

A wallpaper hanger charges a fee of \$25 plus \$12 for each roll of wallpaper used in a room. If the total charge for hanging wallpaper is \$97, how many rolls of wallpaper were used?

The fee charged by a ticketing agency for a concert is \$3.50 plus \$17.50 for each ticket purchased. If your total charge for tickets is \$161, how many tickets are you purchasing?

Strategy To find the number of rolls of wallpaper used, write and solve an equation using n to represent the number of rolls of wallpaper used.

Solution

\$25 plus \$12 for each roll of wallpaper

is

\$97

25  12n  97 12n  72 12n 72  12 12 n6 6 rolls of wallpaper were used. Solution on p. S8

156

CHAPTER 3

Solving Equations

EXAMPLE • 4

YOU TRY IT • 4

A board 20 ft long is cut into two pieces. Five times the length of the shorter piece is 2 ft more than twice the length of the longer piece. Find the length of each piece.

A wire 22 in. long is cut into two pieces. The length of the longer piece is 4 in. more than twice the length of the shorter piece. Find the length of each piece.

Strategy Let x represent the length of the shorter piece. Then 20  x represents the length of the longer piece.

x

20

ft

20

–x

Make a drawing.

To find the lengths, write and solve an equation using x to represent the length of the shorter piece and 20  x to represent the length of the longer piece.

Solution

Five times the length of the shorter piece

ft more than twice the is 2length of the longer piece

5x  2120  x2  2 5x  40  2x  2 5x  42  2x 5x  2x  42  2x  2x 7x  42 7x 42  7 7 x6 20  x  20  6  14 The length of the shorter piece is 6 ft. The length of the longer piece is 14 ft.

Solution on p. S8

SECTION 3.4

Translating Sentences into Equations

157

3.4 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To solve integer problems

For Exercises 1 to 16, translate into an equation and solve. 1. The difference between a number and fifteen is seven. Find the number.

2. The sum of five and a number is three. Find the number.

3. The difference between nine and a number is seven. Find the number.

4. Three-fifths of a number is negative thirty. Find the number.

5. The difference between five and twice a number is one. Find the number.

6. Four more than three times a number is thirteen. Find the number.

7. The sum of twice a number and five is fifteen. Find the number.

8. The difference between nine times a number and six is twelve. Find the number.

9. Six less than four times a number is twenty-two. Find the number.

10. Four times the sum of twice a number and three is twelve. Find the number.

11. Three times the difference between four times a number and seven is fifteen. Find the number.

12. Twice the difference between a number and twentyfive is three times the number. Find the number.

13. The sum of two numbers is twenty. Three times the smaller is equal to two times the larger. Find the two numbers.

14. The sum of two numbers is fifteen. One less than three times the smaller is equal to the larger. Find the two numbers.

15. The sum of two numbers is fourteen. The difference between two times the smaller and the larger is one. Find the two numbers.

16. The sum of two numbers is eighteen. The total of three times the smaller and twice the larger is fortyfour. Find the two numbers.

17. The sum of three consecutive odd integers is fiftyone. Find the integers.

18. Find three consecutive even integers whose sum is negative eighteen.

19. Find three consecutive odd integers such that three times the middle integer is one more than the sum of the first and third.

20. Twice the smallest of three consecutive odd integers is seven more than the largest. Find the integers.

21. Find two consecutive even integers such that three times the first equals twice the second.

22. Find two consecutive even integers such that four times the first is three times the second.

23. The sum of two numbers is seven. Twice one number is four less than the other number. Which of the following equations does not represent this situation? (i) 2(7  x)  x  4 (ii) 2x  (7  x)  4 (iii) 2n  4  7  n

158

CHAPTER 3

OBJECTIVE B

Solving Equations

To translate a sentence into an equation and solve

24. Recycling Use the information in the article at the right to find how many tons of plastic drink bottles were stocked for sale in U.S. stores.

25. Robots Kiva Systems, Inc., builds robots that companies can use to streamline order fulfillment operations in their warehouses. Salary and other benefits for one human warehouse worker can cost a company about \$64,000 a year, an amount that is 103 times the company’s yearly maintenance and operation costs for one robot. Find the yearly costs for a robot. Round to the nearest hundred. (Source: The Boston Globe)

26. Geometry An isosceles triangle has two sides of equal length. The length of the third side is 1 ft less than twice the length of an equal side. Find the length of each side when the perimeter is 23 ft.

27. Geometry An isosceles triangle has two sides of equal length. The length of one of the equal sides is 2 more than three times the length of the third side. If the perimeter is 46 m, find the length of each side.

In the News Americans’ Unquenchable Thirst Despite efforts to increase recycling, the 2.16 million tons of plastic drink bottles that ended up in landfills this year represent fourfifths of the plastic drink bottles stocked for sale in U.S. stores. And Americans can’t seem to get enough of bottled water. Last year, stores stocked 7.5 billion gallons of bottled water, an amount that is approximately the same as the volume of water that goes over Niagara Falls every three hours. Source: scienceline.org

28. Union Dues A union charges monthly dues of \$4.00 plus \$.15 for each hour worked during the month. A union member’s dues for March were \$29.20. How many hours did the union member work during the month of March?

29. Technical Support A technical information hotline charges a customer \$15.00 plus \$2.00 per minute to answer questions about software. How many minutes did a customer who received a bill for \$37 use this service?

30. Construction The total cost to paint the inside of a house was \$1346. This cost included \$125 for materials and \$33 per hour for labor. How many hours of labor were required to paint the inside of the house?

32. Energy The cost of electricity in a certain city is \$.08 for each of the first 300 kWh (kilowatt-hours) and \$.13 for each kilowatt-hour over 300 kWh. Find the number of kilowatt-hours used by a family with a \$51.95 electric bill.

31. Telecommunications The cellular phone service for a business executive is \$35 per month plus \$.40 per minute of phone use. For a month in which the executive’s cellular phone bill was \$99.80, how many minutes did the executive use the phone?

SECTION 3.4

Translating Sentences into Equations

159

Text Messaging For Exercises 33 and 34, use the expression 2.99  0.15n, which represents the total monthly text-messaging bill for n text messages over 300 in 1 month. 33. How much does the customer pay per text message over 300 messages?

35. Geometry The perimeter of a rectangle is 42 m. The length of the rectangle is 3 m less than twice the width. Find the length and width of the rectangle.

36. Geometry A rectangular vegetable garden has a perimeter of 64 ft. The length of the garden is 20 ft. Find the width of the garden.

37. Carpentry A 12-foot board is cut into two pieces. Twice the length of the shorter piece is 3 ft less than the length of the longer piece. Find the length of each piece.

38. Sports A 14-yard fishing line is cut into two pieces. Three times the length of the longer piece is four times the length of the shorter piece. Find the length of each piece.

39. Education Seven thousand dollars is divided into two scholarships. Twice the amount of the smaller scholarship is \$1000 less than the larger scholarship. What is the amount of the larger scholarship?

40. Investing An investment of \$10,000 is divided into two accounts, one for stocks and one for mutual funds. The value of the stock account is \$2000 less than twice the value of the mutual fund account. Find the amount in each account.

Applying the Concepts 41. Make up two word problems: one that requires solving the equation 6x  123, and one that requires solving the equation 8x  100  300, to find the answer to the problem.

42. It is always important to check the answer to an application problem to be sure that the answer makes sense. Consider the following problem. A 4-quart juice mixture is made from apple juice and cranberry juice. There are 6 more quarts of apple juice than cranberry juice. Write and solve an equation for the number of quarts of each juice in the mixture. Does the answer to this question make sense? Explain.

34. What is the fixed charge per month for the text-messaging service?

160

CHAPTER 3

Solving Equations

SECTION

3.5

Geometry Problems

OBJECTIVE A

To solve problems involving angles In Section 1.8, we discussed some basic properties of angles. Recall that a ray that is rotated one complete revolution about its starting point creates an angle of 360°. Recall also that a 90° angle is called a right angle and a 180° angle is called a straight angle.

Ray

360°

Point of Interest The word degree first appeared in Chaucer’s Canterbu ry Tales, which was written in 1386.

An acute angle is an angle whose measure is between 0° and 90°. A at the right is an acute angle. An obtuse angle is an angle whose measure is between 90° and 180°. B at the right is an obtuse angle.

125°

57° A

B

Given the diagram at the left, find x. 3x  4x  5x  360 • The sum of the measures of the 12x  360 three angles is 360°. x  30

HOW TO • 1

3x

4x

The measure of x is 30°. 5x

Four angles are formed by the intersection of two lines. If the two lines are not perpendicular, then two of the angles formed are acute angles and two of the angles are obtuse angles. The two acute angles are always opposite each other, and the two obtuse angles are always opposite each other. In the figure at the right, w and y are acute angles, and x and z are obtuse angles.

x y

w z

Take Note Recall that two angles are supplementary angles if the sum of their measures is 180°. For instance, angles whose measures are 48° and 132° are supplementary angles because 48  132  180.

p

q

Two angles that are on opposite sides of the intersection of two lines are called vertical angles. In the figure above, w and y are vertical angles. x and z are vertical angles.

Vertical angles have the same measure. mw  my mx  mz

Two angles that share a common side are called adjacent angles. In the figure above, x and y are adjacent angles, as are y and z, z and w, and w and x.

Adjacent angles of intersecting lines are supplementary. mx  my  180 mz  mw  180 my  mz  180 mw  mx  180

In the diagram at the left, mb  115. Find ma and md. ma  mb  180 • a is supplementary to b because a and b ma  115  180 are adjacent angles of intersecting lines. ma  65

HOW TO • 2 k b a

c d

md  115

• md  mb because d and b are vertical angles.

SECTION 3.5

Take Note Recall that parallel lines never meet—the distance between them is always the same. Perpendicular lines are intersecting lines that form right angles.

A line that intersects two other lines at different points is called a transversal. If the lines cut by a transversal t are parallel lines and the transversal is not perpendicular to the parallel lines, then all four acute angles have the same measure and all four obtuse angles have the same measure.

161

Geometry Problems

t a d w z

b 1

c x

2

y

mb  md  mx  mz ma  mc  mw  my

Alternate interior angles are two nonadjacent angles that are on opposite sides of the transversal and between the parallel lines. In the figure above, c and w are alternate interior angles, and d and x are alternate interior angles.

Alternate interior angles have the same measure.

Alternate exterior angles are two nonadjacent angles that are on opposite sides of the transversal and outside the parallel lines. In the figure above, a and y are alternate exterior angles, and b and z are alternate exterior angles.

Alternate exterior angles have the same measure.

Corresponding angles are two angles that are on the same side of the transversal and are both acute angles or are both obtuse angles. In the figure above, there are four pairs of corresponding angles: a and w, d and z, b and x, and c and y.

Corresponding angles have the same measure.

mc  mw md  mx

ma  my mb  mz

ma  mw md  mz mb  mx mc  my

In the diagram at the left, ᐉ1 储 ᐉ2 and mf  58. Find ma, mc, and md. ma  mf  58 • a and f are corresponding angles.

HOW TO • 3 t b

a d

c f e

1

g h

2

mc  mf  58

• c and f are alternate interior angles.

md  ma  180 md  58  180 md  122

• d is supplementary to a.

EXAMPLE • 1

Find x.

YOU TRY IT • 1

Find x.

x + 70°

3x + 20° x

x

Strategy The angles labeled are adjacent angles of intersecting lines and are therefore supplementary angles. To find x, write an equation and solve for x.

Solution x  共x  70兲  180 2x  70  180 2x  110 x  55

Solution on p. S8

162

CHAPTER 3

Solving Equations

EXAMPLE • 2

YOU TRY IT • 2

Given ᐉ1 储 ᐉ2, find x.

t

Given ᐉ1 储 ᐉ2, find x.

t

y

x + 15° 1

1

3x y

x + 40°

2

2

2x

Strategy 3x  y because corresponding angles have the same measure. y  1x  402  180 because adjacent angles of intersecting lines are supplementary angles. Substitute 3x for y and solve for x.

Solution y  共x  40°兲  180° 3x  共x  40兲  180 4x  40  180 4x  140 x  35

Solution on p. S8

OBJECTIVE B

To solve problems involving the angles of a triangle If the lines cut by a transversal are not parallel lines, then the three lines will intersect at three points, forming a triangle. The angles within the region enclosed by the triangle are called interior angles. In the figure at the right, angles a, b, and c are interior angles. The sum of the measures of the interior angles of a triangle is 180°. An angle adjacent to an interior angle is an exterior angle. In the figure at the right, angles m and n are exterior angles for angle a. The sum of the measures of an interior angle of a triangle and an adjacent exterior angle is 180°.

t

b

c

a

q

ma  mb  mc  180

m a n

ma  mm  180 ma  mn  180 Given that mc  40 and me  60, find md. ma  me  60 • a and e are vertical angles.

HOW TO • 4 t p c

b

d

a e

q

p

mc  ma  mb  180 40  60  mb  180 100  mb  180 mb  80

• The sum of the interior angles is 180°.

mb  md  180 80  md  180 md  100

• b and d are supplementary angles.

SECTION 3.5

EXAMPLE • 3

Geometry Problems

163

YOU TRY IT • 3

Given that ma  45 and mx  100, find the measures of angles b, c, and y. x

Given that my  55, find the measures of angles a, b, and d. m

y

b c

m

d

k

b a

a

y k

Strategy • To find the measure of b, use the fact that b and x are supplementary angles. • To find the measure of c, use the fact that the sum of the measures of the interior angles of a triangle is 180°. • To find the measure of y, use the fact that c and y are vertical angles.

Solution mb  mx  180 mb  100  180 mb  80

ma  mb  mc  180 45  80  mc  180 125  mc  180 mc  55 my  mc  55

EXAMPLE • 4

YOU TRY IT • 4

Two angles of a triangle measure 43° and 86°. Find the measure of the third angle.

One angle in a triangle is a right angle, and one angle measures 27°. Find the measure of the third angle.

Strategy To find the measure of the third angle, use the fact that the sum of the measures of the interior angles of a triangle is 180°. Write an equation using x to represent the measure of the third angle. Solve the equation for x.

Solution x  43  86  180 x  129  180 x  51

The measure of the third angle is 51°. Solutions on pp. S8–S9

164

CHAPTER 3

Solving Equations

3.5 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To solve problems involving angles

For Exercises 1 and 2, find the measure of a. 1.

2. a

76°

a

67°

172°

168°

For Exercises 3 to 12, find x. 3.

4. 4x

6x

3x

5.

4x

2x

6.

x + 20° 5x

7.

3x

2x

x + 36°

3x

2x

4x

8. 4x

2x

5x

x 2x

6x

3x

9.

10.

p

m

131°

x x

74°

n

q

11.

j 5x

12.

m

3x + 22° 7x

4x + 36°

k n

SECTION 3.5

Geometry Problems

For Exercises 13 to 16, given that ᐉ1 储 ᐉ2, find the measures of angles a and b. 13.

14.

t

t

38° 122°

1

a

1

a

2

b

2

b

15.

16.

t

t

1

47°

136°

b

a

b

1

a

2

2

For Exercises 17 and 18, use the diagram for Exercise 15. State whether the given relationship is true even if ᐉ1 and ᐉ2 are not parallel. 17. 47°  mb  180°

18. ma  mb  180°

For Exercises 19 to 22, given that ᐉ1 储 ᐉ2, find x. 19.

20.

t 5x

t 1

3x

1

6x

4x

2

2

21.

22. x + 39°

3x 1

2x 2

1

x + 20° 2

t

t

23. Given that ma  51, find mb.

24. Given that ma  38, find mb.

b a

b

a

165

166

CHAPTER 3

OBJECTIVE B

Solving Equations

To solve problems involving the angles of a triangle

25. Given that ma  95 and mb  70, find mx and my.

26. Given that ma  35 and mb  55, find mx and my.

a b

x

a

y

b

x

27. Given that my  45, find ma and mb.

y

28. Given that my  130, find ma and mb.

y

b

a b

a

y

29. A triangle has a 30 angle and a right angle. What is the measure of the third angle?

30. A triangle has a 45 angle and a right angle. Find the measure of the third angle.

31. Two angles of a triangle measure 42 and 103. Find the measure of the third angle.

32. Two angles of a triangle measure 62 and 45. Find the measure of the third angle.

33. A triangle has a 13 angle and a 65 angle. What is the measure of the third angle?

34. A triangle has a 105 angle and a 32 angle. What is the measure of the third angle?

35. True or false? If one angle of a triangle is a right angle, then the other two angles of the triangle are complementary angles.

Applying the Concepts 36. Geometry For the figure at the right, find the sum of the measures of angles x, y, and z. y

37. Geometry For the figure at the right, explain why ma  mb  mx. Write a rule that describes the relationship between an exterior angle of a triangle and the opposite interior angles. Use the rule to write an equation involving the measures of angles a, c, and z.

a c x

z b

SECTION 3.6

Mixture and Uniform Motion Problems

167

SECTION

3.6 OBJECTIVE A

Mixture and Uniform Motion Problems To solve value mixture problems A value mixture problem involves combining two ingredients that have different prices into a single blend. For example, a coffee merchant may blend two types of coffee into a single blend, or a candy manufacturer may combine two types of candy to sell as a variety pack.

Take Note The equation AC  V is used to find the value of an ingredient. For example, the value of 4 lb of cashews costing \$6 per pound is AC 苷 V 4  \$6 苷 V \$24 苷 V

The solution of a value mixture problem is based on the value mixture equation AC  V, where A is the amount of an ingredient, C is the cost per unit of the ingredient, and V is the value of the ingredient. HOW TO • 1

A coffee merchant wants to make 6 lb of a blend of coffee costing \$5 per pound. The blend is made using a \$6-per-pound grade and a \$3-per-pound grade of coffee. How many pounds of each of these grades should be used?

Strategy for Solving a Value Mixture Problem 1. For each ingredient in the mixture, write a numerical or variable expression for the amount of the ingredient used, the unit cost of the ingredient, and the value of the amount used. For the blend, write a numerical or variable expression for the amount, the unit cost of the blend, and the value of the amount. The results can be recorded in a table.

The sum of the amounts is 6 lb.

Take Note Use the information given in the problem to fill in the amount and unit cost columns of the table. Fill in the value column by multiplying the two expressions you wrote in each row. Use the expressions in the last column to write the equation.

Amount of \$6 coffee: x Amount of \$3 coffee: 6  x

Amount, A



Unit Cost, C



Value, V

x



6



6x

6x



3



316  x2

\$5 blend

6



5



5共6兲

2. Determine how the values of the ingredients are related. Use the fact that the sum of the values of all the ingredients is equal to the value of the blend.

The sum of the values of the \$6 grade and the \$3 grade is equal to the value of the \$5 blend. 6x  3共6  x兲  5共6兲 6x  18  3x  30 3x  18  30 3x  12 x4 6x642

• Find the amount of the \$3 grade coffee.

The merchant must use 4 lb of the \$6 coffee and 2 lb of the \$3 coffee.

168

CHAPTER 3

Solving Equations

EXAMPLE • 1

YOU TRY IT • 1

How many ounces of a silver alloy that costs \$4 an ounce must be mixed with 10 oz of an alloy that costs \$6 an ounce to make a mixture that costs \$4.32 an ounce?

A gardener has 20 lb of a lawn fertilizer that costs \$.80 per pound. How many pounds of a fertilizer that costs \$.55 per pound should be mixed with this 20 lb of lawn fertilizer to produce a mixture that costs \$.75 per pound?

Strategy

x oz \$4/oz

10 oz \$6/oz

• Ounces of \$4 alloy: x Amount

Cost

\$4 alloy

x

4

4x

\$6 alloy

10

6

6共10兲

10  x

4.32

4.32共10  x兲

\$4.32 mixture

Value

• The sum of the values before mixing equals the value after mixing.

Solution 4x  6共10兲  4.32共10  x兲

4x  60  43.2  4.32x 0.32x  60  43.2 0.32x  16.8 x  52.5 52.5 oz of the \$4 silver alloy must be used.

Solution on p. S9

SECTION 3.6

OBJECTIVE B

Mixture and Uniform Motion Problems

169

To solve percent mixture problems Recall from Section 3.1 that a percent mixture problem can be solved using the equation Ar  Q, where A is the amount of a solution, r is the percent concentration of a substance in the solution, and Q is the quantity of the substance in the solution. Ar  Q 500共0.04兲  Q 20  Q

For example, a 500-milliliter bottle is filled with a 4% solution of hydrogen peroxide. The bottle contains 20 ml of hydrogen peroxide.

How many gallons of a 20% salt solution must be mixed with 6 gal of a 30% salt solution to make a 22% salt solution?

HOW TO • 2

Strategy for Solving a Percent Mixture Problem 1. For each solution, write a numerical or variable expression for the amount of solution, the percent concentration, and the quantity of the substance in the solution. The results can be recorded in a table.

The unknown quantity of 20% solution: x

Amount of Solution, A



Percent Concentration, r



20% solution

x



0.20



0.20x

30% solution

6



0.30



0.30 共6兲

22% solution

x6



0.22



0.22 共x  6兲

Take Note Use the information given in the problem to fill in the amount and percent columns of the table. Fill in the quantity column by multiplying the two expressions you wrote in each row. Use the expressions in the last column to write the equation.

Quantity of Substance, Q

2. Determine how the quantities of the substances in the solutions are related. Use the fact that the sum of the quantities of the substances being mixed is equal to the quantity of the substance after mixing.

The sum of the quantities of the substances in the 20% solution and the 30% solution is equal to the quantity of the substance in the 22% solution.

24 gal of the 20% solution are required.

0.20x  0.30共6兲  0.22共x  6兲 0.20x  1.80  0.22x  1.32 0.02x  1.80  1.32 0.02x  0.48 x  24

170

CHAPTER 3

Solving Equations

EXAMPLE • 2

YOU TRY IT • 2

A chemist wishes to make 2 L of an 8% acid solution by mixing a 10% acid solution and a 5% acid solution. How many liters of each solution should the chemist use?

A pharmacist dilutes 5 L of a 12% solution with a 6% solution. How many liters of the 6% solution are added to make an 8% solution?

Strategy

x L of 10% acid

+

(2 – x) L of 5% acid

=

2 L of 8% acid

• Liters of 10% solution: x Liters of 5% solution: 2  x Amount 10% solution

Percent

Quantity

x

0.10

0.10x

5% solution

2x

0.05

0.05共2  x兲

8% solution

2

0.08

0.08共2兲

• The sum of the quantities before mixing is equal to the quantity after mixing.

Solution 0.10x  0.05共2  x兲  0.08共2兲

0.10x  0.10  0.05x  0.16 0.05x  0.10  0.16 0.05x  0.06 x  1.2 2  x  2  1.2  0.8 The chemist needs 1.2 L of the 10% solution and 0.8 L of the 5% solution.

Solution on p. S9

SECTION 3.6

OBJECTIVE C

Mixture and Uniform Motion Problems

171

To solve uniform motion problems Recall from Section 3.1 that an object traveling at a constant speed in a straight line is in uniform motion. The solution of a uniform motion problem is based on the equation rt  d, where r is the rate of travel, t is the time spent traveling, and d is the distance traveled.

A car leaves a town traveling at 40 mph. Two hours later, a second car leaves the same town, on the same road, traveling at 60 mph. In how many hours will the second car pass the first car?

HOW TO • 3

Strategy for Solving a Uniform Motion Problem 1. For each object, write a numerical or variable expression for the rate, time, and distance. The results can be recorded in a table.

The first car traveled 2 h longer than the second car. Unknown time for the second car: t Time for the first car: t  2

Take Note Use the information given in the problem to fill in the rate and time columns of the table. Find the expression in the distance column by multiplying the two expressions you wrote in each row.

Rate, r



Time, t



Distance, d

First car

40



t2



40(t  2)

Second car

60



t



60t

First car

d = 40(t + 2)

Second car d = 60t

2. Determine how the distances traveled by the two objects are related. For example, the total distance traveled by both objects may be known, or it may be known that the two objects traveled the same distance.

The two cars travel the same distance.

The second car will pass the first car in 4 h.

40共t  2兲  60t 40t  80  60t 80  20t 4t

172

CHAPTER 3

Solving Equations

EXAMPLE • 3

YOU TRY IT • 3

Two cars, one traveling 10 mph faster than the other, start at the same time from the same point and travel in opposite directions. In 3 h they are 300 mi apart. Find the rate of each car.

Two trains, one traveling at twice the speed of the other, start at the same time on parallel tracks from stations that are 288 mi apart and travel toward each other. In 3 h, the trains pass each other. Find the rate of each train.

Strategy • Rate of 1st car: r Rate of 2nd car: r  10

Rate

Time

Distance

1st car

r

3

3r

2nd car

r  10

3

31r  102

• The total distance traveled by the two cars is 300 mi. Solution 3r  3共r  10兲  300 3r  3r  30  300 6r  30  300 6r  270 r  45

r  10  45  10  55 The first car is traveling 45 mph. The second car is traveling 55 mph. EXAMPLE • 4

YOU TRY IT • 4

How far can the members of a bicycling club ride out into the country at a speed of 12 mph and return over the same road at 8 mph if they travel a total of 10 h?

A pilot flew out to a parcel of land and back in 5 h. The rate out was 150 mph, and the rate returning was 100 mph. How far away was the parcel of land?

Strategy • Time spent riding out: t Time spent riding back: 10  t

Out

Back

Rate

Time

Distance

12

t

12t

8

10  t

8共10  t兲

• The distance out equals the distance back. Solution 12t  8共10  t兲 12t  80  8t 20t  80 t  4 (The time is 4 h.)

The distance out  12t  12共4兲  48 mi. The club can ride 48 mi into the country. Solutions on p. S9

SECTION 3.6

Mixture and Uniform Motion Problems

3.6 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To solve value mixture problems

1. A grocer mixes peanuts that cost \$3 per pound with almonds that cost \$7 per pound. Which of the following statements could be true about the cost per pound, C, of the mixture? There may be more than one correct answer. (i) C  \$10 (ii) C  \$7 (iii) C  \$7 (iv) C  \$3 (v) C  \$3 (vi) C  \$3 2. An herbalist has 30 oz of herbs costing \$2 per ounce. How many ounces of herbs costing \$1 per ounce should be mixed with the 30 oz to produce a mixture costing \$1.60 per ounce?

3. The manager of a farmer’s market has 500 lb of grain that costs \$1.20 per pound. How many pounds of meal costing \$.80 per pound should be mixed with the 500 lb of grain to produce a mixture that costs \$1.05 per pound?

4. Find the cost per pound of a meatloaf mixture made from 3 lb of ground beef costing \$1.99 per pound and 1 lb of ground turkey costing \$1.39 per pound.

5. Find the cost per ounce of a sunscreen made from 100 oz of a lotion that costs \$2.50 per ounce and 50 oz of a lotion that costs \$4.00 per ounce.

6. A snack food is made by mixing 5 lb of popcorn that costs \$.80 per pound with caramel that costs \$2.40 per pound. How much caramel is needed to make a mixture that costs \$1.40 per pound?

7. A wild birdseed mix is made by combining 100 lb of millet seed costing \$.60 per pound with sunflower seeds costing \$1.10 per pound. How many pounds of sunflower seeds are needed to make a mixture that costs \$.70 per pound?

200 oz

8. Ten cups of a restaurant’s house Italian dressing are made by blending olive oil costing \$1.50 per cup with vinegar that costs \$.25 per cup. How many cups of each are used if the cost of the blend is \$.50 per cup?

9. A high-protein diet supplement that costs \$6.75 per pound is mixed with a vitamin supplement that costs \$3.25 per pound. How many pounds of each should be used to make 5 lb of a mixture that costs \$4.65 per pound? 500 oz

10. Find the cost per ounce of a mixture of 200 oz of a cologne that costs \$5.50 per ounce and 500 oz of a cologne that costs \$2.00 per ounce.

173

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11. Find the cost per pound of a trail mix made from 40 lb of raisins that cost \$4.40 per pound and 100 lb of granola that costs \$2.30 per pound.

12. The manager of a specialty food store combined almonds that cost \$4.50 per pound with walnuts that cost \$2.50 per pound. How many pounds of each were used to make a 100-pound mixture that costs \$3.24 per pound?

15. Find the cost per pound of a coffee mixture made from 8 lb of coffee that costs \$9.20 per pound and 12 lb of coffee that costs \$5.50 per pound.

16. Adult tickets for a play cost \$6.00, and children’s tickets cost \$2.50. For one performance, 370 tickets were sold. Receipts for the performance totaled \$1723. Find the number of adult tickets sold.

17. Tickets for a piano concert sold for \$4.50 for each adult ticket. Student tickets sold for \$2.00 each. The total receipts for 1720 tickets were \$5980. Find the number of adult tickets sold.

18. Tree Conservation A town’s parks department buys trees from the tree conservation program described in the news clipping at the right. The department spends \$406 on 14 bundles of trees. How many bundles of seedlings and how many bundles of container-grown plants did the parks department buy?

\$9.20 per pound

14. Find the cost per pound of sugar-coated breakfast cereal made from 40 lb of sugar that costs \$1.00 per pound and 120 lb of corn flakes that cost \$.60 per pound.

0 \$5.5 per d poun

13. A goldsmith combined an alloy that cost \$4.30 per ounce with an alloy that cost \$1.80 per ounce. How many ounces of each were used to make a mixture of 200 oz costing \$2.50 per ounce?

20 s nd

pou

In the News Conservation Tree Planting Program Underway The Kansas Forest Service is again offering its Conservation Tree Planting Program. Trees are sold in bundles of 25, in two sizes—seedlings cost \$17 a bundle and larger container-grown plants cost \$45 a bundle. Source: Kansas Canopy

OBJECTIVE B

To solve percent mixture problems

19. True or false? A 10% salt solution can be combined with some amount of a 20% salt solution to create a 30% salt solution.

20. Forty ounces of a 30% gold alloy are mixed with 60 oz of a 20% gold alloy. Find the percent concentration of the resulting gold alloy.

SECTION 3.6

Mixture and Uniform Motion Problems

175

21. One hundred ounces of juice that is 50% tomato juice is added to 200 oz of a vegetable juice that is 25% tomato juice. What is the percent concentration of tomato juice in the resulting mixture?

22. How many gallons of a 15% acid solution must be mixed with 5 gal of a 20% acid solution to make a 16% acid solution?

23. How many pounds of a chicken feed that is 50% corn must be mixed with 400 lb of a feed that is 80% corn to make a chicken feed that is 75% corn?

24. A rug is made by weaving 20 lb of yarn that is 50% wool with a yarn that is 25% wool. How many pounds of the yarn that is 25% wool are used if the finished rug is 35% wool?

25. Five gallons of a light green latex paint that is 20% yellow paint are combined with a darker green latex paint that is 40% yellow paint. How many gallons of the darker green paint must be used to create a green paint that is 25% yellow paint?

26. How many gallons of a plant food that is 9% nitrogen must be combined with another plant food that is 25% nitrogen to make 10 gal of a solution that is 15% nitrogen?

27. A chemist wants to make 50 ml of a 16% acid solution by mixing a 13% acid solution and an 18% acid solution. How many milliliters of each solution should the chemist use?

x ml of 13% acid

+

(50 – x) ml of 18% acid

=

50 ml of 16% acid

28. Five grams of sugar are added to a 45-gram serving of a breakfast cereal that is 10% sugar. What is the percent concentration of sugar in the resulting mixture?

30. How many pounds of coffee that is 40% java beans must be mixed with 80 lb of coffee that is 30% java beans to make a coffee blend that is 32% java beans?

31. The manager of a garden shop mixes grass seed that is 60% rye grass with 70 lb of grass seed that is 80% rye grass to make a mixture that is 74% rye grass. How much of the 60% rye grass is used?

29. A goldsmith mixes 8 oz of a 30% gold alloy with 12 oz of a 25% gold alloy. What is the percent concentration of the resulting alloy?

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Solving Equations

32. A hair dye is made by blending a 7% hydrogen peroxide solution and a 4% hydrogen peroxide solution. How many milliliters of each are used to make a 300-milliliter solution that is 5% hydrogen peroxide?

Steve Mason/Getty Images

33. A tea that is 20% jasmine is blended with a tea that is 15% jasmine. How many pounds of each tea are used to make 5 lb of tea that is 18% jasmine?

34. How many ounces of pure chocolate must be added to 150 oz of chocolate topping that is 50% chocolate to make a topping that is 75% chocolate?

35. How many ounces of pure bran flakes must be added to 50 oz of cereal that is 40% bran flakes to produce a mixture that is 50% bran flakes?

36. A clothing manufacturer has some pure silk thread and some thread that is 85% silk. How many kilograms of each must be woven together to make 75 kg of cloth that is 96% silk?

OBJECTIVE C

To solve uniform motion problems

For Exercises 37 and 38, read the problem and state which of the following types of equations you would write to solve the problem. (i) An equation showing two distances set equal to each other (ii) An equation showing two distances added together and set equal to a total distance 37. Sam hiked up a mountain at a rate of 2.5 mph and returned along the same trail at a rate of 3 mph. His total hiking time was 11 h. How long was the hiking trail?

38. Sam hiked 16 mi. He hiked at one rate for the first 2 h of his hike, and then decreased his speed by 0.5 mph for the last 3 h of his hike. What was Sam’s speed for the first 2 h?

39. Two small planes start from the same point and fly in opposite directions. The first plane is flying 25 mph slower than the second plane. In 2 h, the planes are 470 mi apart. Find the rate of each plane.

40. Two cyclists start from the same point and ride in opposite directions. One cyclist rides twice as fast as the other. In 3 h, they are 81 mi apart. Find the rate of each cyclist.

41. Two planes leave an airport at 8 A.M., one flying north at 480 km兾h and the other flying south at 520 km兾h. At what time will they be 3000 km apart?

470 mi

SECTION 3.6

Mixture and Uniform Motion Problems

177

42. A long-distance runner started on a course running at an average speed of 6 mph. One-half hour later, a second runner began the same course at an average speed of 7 mph. How long after the second runner started did the second runner overtake the first runner?

43. A motorboat leaves a harbor and travels at an average speed of 9 mph toward a small island. Two hours later a cabin cruiser leaves the same harbor and travels at an average speed of 18 mph toward the same island. In how many hours after the cabin cruiser leaves the harbor will it be alongside the motorboat?

44. A 555-mile, 5-hour plane trip was flown at two speeds. For the first part of the trip, the average speed was 105 mph. For the remainder of the trip, the average speed was 115 mph. How long did the plane fly at each speed?

105 mph

115 mph

555 mi

45. An executive drove from home at an average speed of 30 mph to an airport where a helicopter was waiting. The executive boarded the helicopter and flew to the corporate offices at an average speed of 60 mph. The entire distance was 150 mi. The entire trip took 3 h. Find the distance from the airport to the corporate offices.

46. After a sailboat had been on the water for 3 h, a change in the wind direction reduced the average speed of the boat by 5 mph. The entire distance sailed was 57 mi. The total time spent sailing was 6 h. How far did the sailboat travel in the first 3 h?

47. A car and a bus set out at 3 P.M. from the same point headed in the same direction. The average speed of the car is twice the average speed of the bus. In 2 h the car is 68 mi ahead of the bus. Find the rate of the car.

48. A passenger train leaves a train depot 2 h after a freight train leaves the same depot. The freight train is traveling 20 mph slower than the passenger train. Find the rate of each train if the passenger train overtakes the freight train in 3 h. 100 mph

49. As part of flight training, a student pilot was required to fly to an airport and then return. The average speed on the way to the airport was 100 mph, and the average speed returning was 150 mph. Find the distance between the two airports if the total flying time was 5 h. 150 mph

50. A ship traveling east at 25 mph is 10 mi from a harbor when another ship leaves the harbor traveling east at 35 mph. How long does it take the second ship to catch up to the first ship?

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Solving Equations

51. At 10 A.M. a plane leaves Boston, Massachusetts, for Seattle, Washington, a distance of 3000 mi. One hour later a plane leaves Seattle for Boston. Both planes are traveling at a speed of 500 mph. How many hours after the plane leaves Seattle will the planes pass each other?

52. At noon a train leaves Washington, D.C., headed for Charleston, South Carolina, a distance of 500 mi. The train travels at a speed of 60 mph. At 1 P.M. a second train leaves Charleston headed for Washington, D.C., traveling at 50 mph. How long after the train leaves Charleston will the two trains pass each other?

53. Two cyclists start at the same time from opposite ends of a course that is 51 mi long. One cyclist is riding at a rate of 16 mph, and the second cyclist is riding at a rate of 18 mph. How long after they begin will they meet?

51 mi

0 mi

54. A bus traveling at a rate of 60 mph overtakes a car traveling at a rate of 45 mph. If the car had a 1-hour head start, how far from the starting point does the bus overtake the car?

56. sQuba See the news clipping at the right. Two sQubas are on opposite sides of a lake 1.6 mi wide. They start toward each other at the same time, one traveling on the surface of the water and the other traveling underwater. In how many minutes after they start will the sQuba on the surface of the water be directly above the sQuba that is underwater? Assume they are traveling at top speed.

Applying the Concepts 57. Chemistry How many ounces of water must be evaporated from 50 oz of a 12% salt solution to produce a 15% salt solution?

58. Transportation A bicyclist rides for 2 h at a speed of 10 mph and then returns at a speed of 20 mph. Find the cyclist’s average speed for the trip.

59. Travel A car travels a 1-mile track at an average speed of 30 mph. At what average speed must the car travel the next mile so that the average speed for the 2 mi is 60 mph?

In the News Underwater Driving—Not So Fast! Swiss company Rinspeed, Inc., presented its new car, the sQuba, at the Geneva Auto Show. The sQuba can travel on land, on water, and underwater. With a new sQuba, you can expect top speeds of 77 mph when driving on land, 3 mph when driving on the surface of the water, and 1.8 mph when driving underwater! Source: Seattle Times

55. A car traveling at 48 mph overtakes a cyclist who, riding at 12 mph, had a 3-hour head start. How far from the starting point does the car overtake the cyclist?

Focus on Problem Solving

179

FOCUS ON PROBLEM SOLVING Trial-and-Error Approach to Problem Solving

The questions below require an answer of always true, sometimes true, or never true. These problems are best solved by the trial-and-error method. The trial-and-error method of arriving at a solution to a problem involves repeated tests or experiments. For example, consider the following statement. Both sides of an equation can be divided by the same number without changing the solution of the equation. The solution of the equation 6x  18 is 3. If we divide both sides of the equation by 2, the result is 3x  9, and the solution is still 3. So the answer “never true” has been eliminated. We still need to determine whether there is a case for which the statement is not true. Is there a number that we could divide both sides of the equation by and the result would be an equation for which the solution is not 3? If we divide both sides of the equation by 0, the result is

6x 0



18 . 0

The solution of this

equation is not 3 because the expressions on either side of the equals sign are undefined. Thus the statement is true for some numbers and not true for 0. The statement is sometimes true. For Exercises 1 to 18, determine whether the statement is always true, sometimes true, or never true. 1. Both sides of an equation can be multiplied by the same number without changing the solution of the equation. 2. For an equation of the form ax  b, a 苷 0, multiplying both sides of the equation by the reciprocal of a will result in an equation of the form x  constant. 3. The Multiplication Property of Equations is used to remove a term from one side of an equation. 4. Adding 3 to each side of an equation yields the same result as subtracting 3 from each side of the equation. 5. An equation contains an equals sign. 6. The same variable term can be added to both sides of an equation without changing the solution of the equation. 7. An equation of the form ax  b  c cannot be solved if a is a negative number. t

8. The solution of the equation

x 0

 0 is 0.

b

a d

c f e

1

g h

2

9. Given that ᐍ1 储 ᐍ2 in the diagram at the left, b  d  e  g. 10. In solving an equation of the form ax  b  cx  d, subtracting cx from each side of the equation results in an equation with only one variable term.

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Solving Equations

11. If a rope 8 m long is cut into two pieces and one of the pieces has length x meters, then the length of the other piece can be represented as 共x  8兲 meters. 12. An even integer is a multiple of 2. 13. If the first of three consecutive odd integers is n, then the second and third consecutive odd integers are represented by n  1 and n  3. 14. Suppose we are mixing two salt solutions. Then the variable Q in the percent mixture equation Q  Ar represents the amount of salt in a solution. 15. If 100 oz of a silver alloy is 25% silver, then the alloy contains 25 oz of silver. 16. If we combine an alloy that costs \$8 an ounce with an alloy that costs \$5 an ounce, the cost of the resulting mixture will be greater than \$8 an ounce. 17. If we combine a 9% acid solution with a solution that is 4% acid, the resulting solution will be less than 4% acid. 18. If the speed of one train is 20 mph slower than that of a second train, then the speeds of the two trains can be represented as r and 20  r.

PROJECTS AND GROUP ACTIVITIES Nielsen Ratings

Point of Interest The five top-ranked programs in prime time for the week of October 6, 2008, as ranked by Nielsen Media Research, were CSI Dancing with the Stars Criminal Minds CSI: NY NCIS

Nielsen Media Research surveys television viewers to determine the numbers of people watching particular shows. There are an estimated 112,800,000 U.S. households with televisions. Each rating point represents 1% of that number, or 1,128,000 households. Therefore, for instance, if CSI: Miami received a rating of 9.2, then 9.2%, or 10.09221112,800,0002  10,377,600 households, watched that program. A rating point does not mean that 1,128,000 people are watching a program. A rating point refers to the number of TV sets tuned to that program; there may be more than one person watching a television set in the household. Nielsen Media Research also describes a program’s share of the market. Share is the percent of television sets in use that are tuned to a program. Suppose the same week that CSI: Miami received 9.2 rating points, the show received a share of 25. This would mean that 25% of all households with a television turned on were tuned to CSI: Miami, whereas 9.2% of all households with a television were tuned to the program. 1. If Desperate Housewives received a Nielsen rating of 8.8 and a share of 15, how many TV households watched the program that week? How many TV households were watching television during that hour? Round to the nearest hundred thousand. 2. Suppose The OT received a rating of 9.7 and a share of 15. How many TV households watched the program that week? How many TV households were watching television during that hour? Round to the nearest hundred thousand. 3. Suppose NFL Monday Night Football received a rating of 12.9 during a week in which 34,750,000 people were watching the show. Find the average number of people per TV household who watched the program. Round to the nearest tenth.

Chapter 3 Summary

181

CHAPTER 3

SUMMARY KEY WORDS

EXAMPLES

An equation expresses the equality of two mathematical expressions. [3.1A, p. 114]

3  214x  52  x  4 is an equation.

A solution of an equation is a number that, when substituted for the variable, results in a true equation. [3.1A, p. 114]

2 is a solution of 2  3x  8 because 2  3122  8 is a true equation.

To solve an equation means to find a solution of the equation. The goal is to rewrite the equation in the form variable  constant, because the constant is the solution. [3.1B, p. 115]

The equation x  3 is in the form variable  constant. The constant, 3, is the solution of the equation.

Cost is the price that a business pays for a product. Selling price is the price for which a business sells a product to a customer. Markup is the difference between selling price and cost. Markup rate is the markup expressed as a percent of the retailer’s cost. [3.2B, p. 136]

If a business pays \$50 for a product and sells that product for \$70, then the cost of the product is \$50, the selling price is \$70, the markup is \$70  \$50  \$20, and 20 the markup rate is  40%. 50

Discount is the amount by which a retailer reduces the regular price of a product. Discount rate is the discount expressed as a percent of the regular price. [3.2B, p. 137]

The regular price of a product is \$25. The product is now on sale for \$20. The discount is \$25  \$20  \$5. The 5 discount rate is  20%. 25

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Solving Equations

Consecutive integers follow one another in order. [3.4A, p. 153]

An acute angle is an angle whose measure is between 0° and 90°. An obtuse angle is an angle whose measure is between 90° and 180°. [3.5A, p. 160]

5, 6, 7 are consecutive integers. 9, 8, 7 are consecutive integers.

123°

57° Acute angle

Two angles that are on the opposite sides of the intersection of two lines are vertical angles. Vertical angles have the same measure. Two angles that share a common side are adjacent angles. [3.5A, p. 160]

Obtuse angle x

p y

w

q z

mw  my mx  mz A line that intersects two other lines at two different points is a transversal. If the lines cut by a transversal are parallel lines, pairs of equal angles are formed: alternate exterior angles, alternate interior angles, and corresponding angles. [3.5A, p. 161]

t a

b

d w z

c

1

x 2

y

mb  md  mx  mz ma  mc  mw  my

ESSENTIAL RULES AND PROCEDURES

EXAMPLES

Addition Property of Equations [3.1B, p. 115] The same number can be added to each side of an equation without changing the solution of the equation.

If a  b, then a  c  b  c.

Multiplication Property of Equations [3.1C, p. 116] Each side of an equation can be multiplied by the same nonzero number without changing the solution of the equation.

If a  b and c 苷 0, then ac  bc.

Basic Percent Equation [3.1D, p. 118] Percent  Base  Amount PBA

Simple Interest Equation [3.1D, p. 119] Interest  Principal  Rate  Time I  Prt

30% of what number is 24? PB  A 0.30B  24 24 0.30B  0.30 0.30 B  80 A credit card company charges an annual interest rate of 21% on the monthly unpaid balance on a card. Find the amount of interest charged on an unpaid balance of \$232 for April. I  Prt 1 I  23210.212  4.06 12

Chapter 3 Summary

Basic Markup Equation [3.2B, p. 136] Selling Price  Cost  Markup Rate  Cost S  C  rC

Basic Discount Equation [3.2B, p. 137] Sale Price  Regular Price  Discount Rate  Regular Price S  R  rR

Consecutive Integers [3.4A, p. 153] n, n  1, n  2, . . .

Consecutive Even or Consecutive Odd Integers [3.4A, p. 153] n, n  2, n  4, . . .

Sum of the Angles of a Triangle [3.5B, p. 162] The sum of the measures of the angles of a triangle is 180°. ma  mb  mc  180

Value Mixture Equation [3.6A, p. 167] Amount  Unit Cost  Value AC  V

Percent Mixture Equation [3.1D, p. 119; 3.6B, p. 169] Quantity  Amount  Percent Concentration Q  Ar

Uniform Motion Equation [3.1E, p. 122; 3.6C, p. 171] Distance  Rate  Time d  rt

183

The manager of an electronics store buys an MP3 player for \$200 and sells the player for \$250. Find the markup rate. 250  200  200r The sale price for a camera phone is \$56.25. This price is 25% off the regular price. Find the regular price. 56.25  R  0.25R The sum of three consecutive integers is 33. n  共n  1兲  共n  2兲  33 The sum of three consecutive odd integers is 33. n  共n  2兲  共n  4兲  33 If the measure of one acute angle in a right triangle is twice the measure of the other acute angle, what is the measure of the smaller acute angle? 90  x  2x  180 An herbalist has 30 oz of herbs costing \$4 per ounce. How many ounces of herbs costing \$2 per ounce should be mixed with the 30 oz to produce a mixture costing \$3.20 per ounce? 30共4兲  2x  3.20共30  x兲 Forty ounces of a 30% gold alloy are mixed with 60 oz of a 20% gold alloy. Find the percent concentration of the resulting gold alloy. 0.30共40兲  0.20共60兲  x共100兲 A boat traveled from a harbor to an island at an average speed of 20 mph. The average speed on the return trip was 15 mph. The total trip took 3.5 h. How long did it take for the boat to travel to the island? 20t  15共3.5  t兲

184

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Solving Equations

CHAPTER 3

1. How do you know when a number is not a solution of an equation?

2. How do you solve 14x  28?

1 3

3. What steps do you need to take to solve x 

2 9

1 3

 ?

4. What formula is used to solve a uniform motion problem?

5. What is the difference between the markup and the markup rate?

6. What steps do you take to solve 2(4x  5)  1  2  3(3x  4)?

7. What formula is used to solve a lever system problem?

8. What is the difference between a consecutive integer and a consecutive even integer?

9. If angle x is 57°, what must be the measure of angle y for the angles to be supplementary?

11. If one angle of a triangle measures 63°, what must be the sum of the measures of the other two angles?

12. In a percent mixture problem, when mixing a 15% solution with a 20% solution, what percent concentration should the resulting solution be: (1) greater than 20%, (2) between 15% and 20%, or (3) less than 15%?

Chapter 3 Review Exercises

CHAPTER 3

REVIEW EXERCISES 1. Solve: x  3  24

2. Solve: x  513x  202  101x  42

3. Solve: 5x  6  29

4. Is 3 a solution of 5x  2  4x  5?

5. Solve:

3 a  12 5

6. Solve: 6x  312x  12  27

7. 30 is what percent of 12?

9. Solve: 7  34  21x  324  111x  22

11.

8. Solve: 5x  3  10x  17

10. Solve: 6x  16  2x

Business A music store uses a markup rate of 60%. The store sells a digital music pad for \$1074. Find the cost of the digital music pad. Use the formula S  C  rC, where S is the selling price, C is the cost, and r is the markup rate.

12. Geometry

Find the measure of x.

13. Geometry

Find the measure of x. 4x + 7

3x + 6 2x − 1 2x + 59

14.

Physics A lever is 12 ft long. At a distance of 2 ft from the fulcrum, a force of 120 lb is applied. How large a force must be applied to the other end so that the system will balance? Use the lever system equation F1 x  F21d  x2.

15.

Travel A bus traveled on a level road for 2 h at an average speed that was 20 mph faster than its average speed on a winding road. The time spent on the winding road was 3 h. Find the average speed on the winding road if the total trip was 200 mi.

185

186

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Solving Equations

16. Business Motorcycle goggles that regularly sell for \$60 are on sale for \$40. Find the discount rate. Use the formula S  R  rR, where S is the sale price, R is the regular price, and r is the discount rate.

17. Geometry Given that ma  74 and mb  52, find the measures of angles x and y.

a b

x y

18. Mixtures A health food store combined cranberry juice that cost \$1.79 per quart with apple juice that cost \$1.19 per quart. How many quarts of each were used to make 10 qt of cranapple juice costing \$1.61 per quart?

19. Four times the second of three consecutive integers equals the sum of the first and third integers. Find the integers.

20. Geometry One angle of a triangle is 15° more than the measure of the second angle. The third angle is 15° less than the measure of the second angle. Find the measure of each angle.

Pete Seaward/Getty Images

21. Translate “four less than the product of five and a number is sixteen” into an equation and solve.

22. Building Height The Empire State Building is 1472 ft tall. This is 654 ft less than twice the height of the Eiffel Tower. Find the height of the Eiffel Tower.

23. Geometry

Given my  115, find mx.

24. Geometry Given OA  OB and mx  30, find my. A

y x

B

y

x O

25. Travel A jet plane traveling at 600 mph overtakes a propeller-driven plane that had a 2-hour head start. The propeller-driven plane is traveling at 200 mph. How far from the starting point does the jet overtake the propeller-driven plane?

26. The sum of two numbers is twenty-one. Three times the smaller number is two less than twice the larger number. Find the two numbers.

27. Mixtures A dairy owner mixed 5 gal of cream containing 30% butterfat with 8 gal of milk containing 4% butterfat. What is the percent of butterfat in the resulting mixture?

Chapter 3 Test

CHAPTER 3

TEST 1.

Solve: 3x  2  5x  8

2.

Solve: x  3  8

3.

Solve: 3x  5  14

4.

Solve: 4  213  2x2  215  x2

5.

Is 2 a solution of x2  3x  2x  6?

6.

Solve: 7  4x  13

7.

What is 0.5% of 8?

8.

Solve: 5x  214x  32  6x  9

9.

Solve: 5x  3  7x  2x  5

10.

Solve:

3 x  9 4

11.

Mixtures A baker wants to make a 15-pound blend of flour that costs \$.60 per pound. The blend is made using a rye flour that costs \$.70 per pound and a wheat flour that costs \$.40 per pound. How many pounds of each flour should be used?

12.

Geometry

Find x.

4x

3x

x + 28°

13.

Business A television that regularly sells for \$450 is on sale for \$360. Find the discount rate. Use the formula S  R  rR, where S is the sale price, R is the regular price, and r is the discount rate.

14.

Finance A financial manager has determined that the cost per unit for a calculator is \$15 and that the fixed cost per month is \$2000. Find the number of calculators produced during a month in which the total cost was \$5000. Use the equation T  U  N  F, where T is the total cost, U is the cost per unit, N is the number of units produced, and F is the fixed cost.

187

188

CHAPTER 3

Solving Equations

15.

Geometry In an isosceles triangle, two angles are equal. The third angle of the triangle is 30 less than one of the equal angles. Find the measure of one of the equal angles.

16.

Consecutive Integers

17.

Chemistry How many gallons of water must be mixed with 5 gal of a 20% salt solution to make a 16% salt solution?

18.

Geometry Given that ᐉ1 储 ᐉ2, find the measures of angles a and b.

Find three consecutive even integers whose sum is 36.

138°

1

a

2

b

19.

Translate “The difference between three times a number and fifteen is twentyseven” into an equation and solve.

20.

Sports A cross-country skier leaves a camp to explore a wilderness area. Two hours later a friend leaves the camp in a snowmobile, traveling 4 mph faster than the skier. This friend meets the skier 1 h later. Find the rate of the snowmobile.

21.

Business A company makes 140 televisions per day. Three times the number of LCD TVs made equals 20 less than the number of plasma TVs made. Find the number of plasma TVs made each day.

22.

The sum of two numbers is eighteen. The difference between four times the smaller number and seven is equal to the sum of two times the larger number and five. Find the two numbers.

23.

Aviation As part of flight training, a student pilot was required to fly to an airport and then return. The average speed to the airport was 90 mph, and the average speed returning was 120 mph. Find the distance between the two airports if the total flying time was 7 h.

24.

Geometry Given that ma  50 and mb  92, find the measures of angles x and y.

b a x

25.

y

Chemistry A chemist mixes 100 g of water at 80C with 50 g of water at 20C. Find the final temperature of the water after mixing. Use the equation m11T1  T2  m21T  T2 2, where m1 is the quantity of water at the hotter temperature, T1 is the temperature of the hotter water, m2 is the quantity of water at the cooler temperature, T2 is the temperature of the cooler water, and T is the final temperature of the water after mixing.

t

Cumulative Review Exercises

CUMULATIVE REVIEW EXERCISES 1.

Subtract: 6  1202  8

2.

Multiply: 122162142

3.

5 7 Subtract:    6 16

4.

1 1 Divide: 2 1 3 6

5.

Simplify: 42  

6.

Simplify: 25  3

7.

Evaluate 31a  c2  2ab when a  2, b  3, and c  4.

8.

Simplify: 3x  8x  112x2

3 2

3

15  222 23  1

 122

Simplify: 2a  13b2  7a  5b

10.

Simplify: 116x2

11.

Simplify: 419y2

12.

Simplify: 21x2  3x  22

13.

Simplify: 21x  32  214  x2

14.

Simplify: 332x  41x  324  2

15.

Is 3 a solution of x2  6x  9  x  3?

16.

Is

17.

Find 32% of 60.

18.

Solve:

19.

Solve: 7x  8  29

20.

Solve: 13  9x  14

9.

1 2

1 8

a solution of 3  8x  12x  2?

3 x  15 5

189

CHAPTER 3

Solving Equations

21.

Solve: 8x  3共4x  5兲  2x  11

22.

Solve: 6  2共5x  8兲  3x  4

23.

Solve: 5x  8  12x  13

24.

Solve: 11  4x  2x  8

25.

Chemistry A chemist mixes 300 g of water at 75C with 100 g of water at 15C. Find the final temperature of the water after mixing. Use the equation m1 共T1  T兲  m2 共T  T2兲, where m1 is the quantity of water at the hotter temperature, T1 is the temperature of the hotter water, m2 is the quantity of water at the cooler temperature, T2 is the temperature of the cooler water, and T is the final temperature of the water after mixing.

26.

Translate “The difference between twelve and the product of five and a number is negative eighteen” into an equation and solve.

27.

Construction The area of a cement foundation of a house is 2000 ft2. This is 200 ft 2 more than three times the area of the garage. Find the area of the garage.

28.

Mixtures How many pounds of an oat flour that costs \$.80 per pound must be mixed with 40 lb of a wheat flour that costs \$.50 per pound to make a blend that costs \$.60 per pound?

29.

Metallurgy How many grams of pure gold must be added to 100 g of a 20% gold alloy to make an alloy that is 36% gold?

30.

Geometry The perimeter of a rectangular office is 44 ft. The length of the office is 2 ft more than the width. Find the dimensions of the office.

31.

Geometry of x.

Find the measure

p

x 49°

q

32.

Geometry In an equilateral triangle, all three angles are equal. Find the measure of one of the angles of an equilateral triangle.

33.

Sports A sprinter ran to the end of a track at an average rate of 8 m兾s and then jogged back to the starting point at an average rate of 3 m兾s. The sprinter took 55 s to run to the end of the track and jog back. Find the length of the track.

190

CHAPTER

4

Polynomials

Tim Fitzharris/Minden Pictures/First Light

OBJECTIVES

SECTION 4.1 A To add polynomials B To subtract polynomials

Take the Chapter 4 Prep Test to find out if you are ready to learn to:

SECTION 4.2 A To multiply monomials B To simplify powers of monomials

• Multiply and divide monomials • Add, subtract, multiply, and divide polynomials • Write a number in scientific notation

SECTION 4.3 A To multiply a polynomial by a monomial B To multiply two polynomials C To multiply two binomials using the FOIL method D To multiply binomials that have special products E To solve application problems SECTION 4.4 A To divide monomials B To write a number in scientific notation

PREP TEST Do these exercises to prepare for Chapter 4. 1. Subtract: ⫺2 ⫺ 1⫺32

2. Multiply: ⫺3162

SECTION 4.5 A To divide a polynomial by a monomial B To divide polynomials

3. Simplify: ⫺

24 ⫺36

a is a fraction in simplest b form, what number is not a possible value of b?

4. Evaluate 3n4 when n ⫽ ⫺2.

5. If

6. Are 2x2 and 2x like terms?

7. Simplify: 3x2 ⫺ 4x ⫹ 1 ⫹ 2x2 ⫺ 5x ⫺ 7

8. Simplify: ⫺4y ⫹ 4y

9. Simplify: ⫺312x ⫺ 82

10. Simplify: 3xy ⫺ 4y ⫺ 2(5xy ⫺ 7y)

191

192

CHAPTER 4

Polynomials

SECTION

4.1

OBJECTIVE A

Take Note

A monomial is a number, a variable, or a product of numbers and variables. For instance,

The expression 3兹x is not a monomial because 兹x cannot be written as a product of variables. 2x is not a y monomial because it is a quotient of variables. The expression

7

b

A number

A variable

2 a 3

12xy2

A product of a number and a variable

A product of a number and variables

A polynomial is a variable expression in which the terms are monomials. A polynomial of one term is a monomial. A polynomial of two terms is a binomial. A polynomial of three terms is a trinomial.

⫺7x2 is a monomial. 4x ⫹ 2 is a binomial. 7x2 ⫹ 5x ⫺ 7 is a trinomial.

The degree of a polynomial in one variable is the greatest exponent on a variable. The degree of 4x3 ⫺ 5x2 ⫹ 7x ⫺ 8 is 3; the degree of 2y4 ⫹ y2 ⫺ 1 is 4. The degree of a nonzero constant is zero. For instance, the degree of 7 is zero. The terms of a polynomial in one variable are usually arranged so that the exponents on the variable decrease from left to right. This is called descending order.

5x3 ⫺ 4x2 ⫹ 6x ⫺ 1 7z4 ⫹ 4z3 ⫹ z ⫺ 6 2y4 ⫹ y3 ⫺ 2y2 ⫹ 4y ⫺ 1

Polynomials can be added, using either a horizontal or a vertical format, by combining like terms. Add 13x3 ⫺ 7x ⫹ 22 ⫹ 17x2 ⫹ 2x ⫺ 72. Use a horizontal format. 13x3 ⫺ 7x ⫹ 22 ⫹ 17x2 ⫹ 2x ⫺ 72 • Use the Commutative and ⫽ 3x3 ⫹ 7x2 ⫹ 1⫺7x ⫹ 2x2 ⫹ 12 ⫺ 72 Associative Properties of Addition

HOW TO • 1

to rearrange and group like terms.

⫽ 3x3 ⫹ 7x2 ⫺ 5x ⫺ 5

• Then combine like terms.

Add 1⫺4x2 ⫹ 6x ⫺ 92 ⫹ 112 ⫺ 8x ⫹ 2x32. Use a vertical format. 2x ⫺4x ⫹ 6x ⫺ 19 • Arrange the terms of each polynomial in descending 2x3 ⫺ 8x ⫹ 12 order, with like terms in the same column. 3 2 2x ⫺ 4x ⫺ 2x ⫹ 13 • Combine the terms in each column.

HOW TO • 2 3

2

EXAMPLE • 1

YOU TRY IT • 1

Use a horizontal format to add 18x2 ⫺ 4x ⫺ 92 ⫹ 12x2 ⫹ 9x ⫺ 92.

Use a horizontal format to add 1⫺4x3 ⫹ 2x2 ⫺ 82 ⫹ 14x3 ⫹ 6x2 ⫺ 7x ⫹ 52.

Solution 18x2 ⫺ 4x ⫺ 92 ⫹ 12x2 ⫹ 9x ⫺ 92 ⫽ 18x2 ⫹ 2x22 ⫹ 1⫺4x ⫹ 9x2 ⫹ 1⫺9 ⫺ 92 ⫽ 10x2 ⫹ 5x ⫺ 18

Solution on p. S10

SECTION 4.1

EXAMPLE • 2

193

YOU TRY IT • 2

Use a vertical format to add 1⫺5x3 ⫹ 4x2 ⫺ 7x ⫹ 92 ⫹ 12x3 ⫹ 5x ⫺ 112.

Use a vertical format to add 16x3 ⫹ 2x ⫹ 82 ⫹ 1⫺9x3 ⫹ 2x2 ⫺ 12x ⫺ 82.

Solution ⫺5x3 ⫹ 4x2 ⫺ 7x ⫹ 9 2x3 ⫹ 5x ⫺ 11

⫺3x3 ⫹ 4x2 ⫺ 2x ⫺ 2 Solution on p. S10

OBJECTIVE B

To subtract polynomials The opposite of the polynomial 13x2 ⫺ 7x ⫹ 82 is ⫺13x2 ⫺ 7x ⫹ 82. To simplify the opposite of a polynomial, change the sign of each term to its opposite.

Take Note This is the same definition used for subtraction of integers: Subtraction is addition of the opposite.

⫺13x2 ⫺ 7x ⫹ 82 ⫽ ⫺3x2 ⫹ 7x ⫺ 8

Polynomials can be subtracted using either a horizontal or a vertical format. To subtract, add the opposite of the second polynomial to the first. Subtract 14y2 ⫺ 6y ⫹ 72 ⫺ 12y3 ⫺ 5y ⫺ 42. Use a horizontal format. 14y2 ⫺ 6y ⫹ 72 ⫺ 12y3 ⫺ 5y ⫺ 42 • Add the opposite of the second ⫽ 14y2 ⫺ 6y ⫹ 72 ⫹ 1⫺2y3 ⫹ 5y ⫹ 42 polynomial to the first. ⫽ ⫺2y3 ⫹ 4y2 ⫹ 1⫺6y ⫹ 5y2 ⫹ 17 ⫹ 42 • Combine like terms. ⫽ ⫺2y3 ⫹ 4y2 ⫺ y ⫹ 11

HOW TO • 3

Subtract 19 ⫹ 4y ⫹ 3y32 ⫺ 12y2 ⫹ 4y ⫺ 212. Use a vertical format. The opposite of 2y2 ⫹ 4y ⫺ 21 is ⫺2y2 ⫺ 4y ⫹ 21.

HOW TO • 4

⫹ 4y ⫹ 9 ⫺ 2y2 ⫺ 4y ⫹ 21 ⫹ 30 3y3 ⫺ 2y2 3y3

EXAMPLE • 3

• Arrange the terms of each polynomial in descending order, with like terms in the same column. • Note that 4y  4y  0, but 0 is not written.

YOU TRY IT • 3

Use a horizontal format to subtract 17c2 ⫺ 9c ⫺ 122 ⫺ 19c2 ⫹ 5c ⫺ 82.

Use a horizontal format to subtract 1⫺4w3 ⫹ 8w ⫺ 82 ⫺ 13w3 ⫺ 4w2 ⫺ 2w ⫺ 12.

Solution 17c2 ⫺ 9c ⫺ 122 ⫺ 19c2 ⫹ 5c ⫺ 82 ⫽ 17c2 ⫺ 9c ⫺ 122 ⫹ 1⫺9c2 ⫺ 5c ⫹ 82 ⫽ ⫺2c2 ⫺ 14c ⫺ 4

EXAMPLE • 4

YOU TRY IT • 4

Use a vertical format to subtract 13k2 ⫺ 4k ⫹ 12 ⫺ 1k3 ⫹ 3k2 ⫺ 6k ⫺ 82.

Use a vertical format to subtract 113y3 ⫺ 6y ⫺ 72 ⫺ 14y2 ⫺ 6y ⫺ 92.

Solution ⫺k3 ⫺ 3k2 ⫺ 4k ⫹ 1 ⫺k3 ⫺ 3k2 ⫹ 6k ⫹ 8 ⫺k3 ⫹ 2k ⫹ 9

Your solution • Add the opposite of 共k 3  3k 2  6k  8兲 to the first polynomial. Solutions on p. S10

194

CHAPTER 4

Polynomials

4.1 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

For Exercises 1 to 8, state whether the expression is a monomial. 1. 17

5.

2 y 3

2. 3x4

6.

xy z

3.

17

4. xyz

7. 兹5 x

8. ␲ x

For Exercises 9 to 16, state whether the expression is a monomial, a binomial, a trinomial, or none of these. 9. 3x ⫹ 5

13.

2 ⫺3 x

10. 2y ⫺ 3兹y

14.

ab 4

11. 9x2 ⫺ x ⫺ 1

12. x2 ⫹ y2

15. 6x2 ⫹ 7x

16. 12a4 ⫺ 3a ⫹ 2

For Exercises 17 to 26, add. Use a horizontal format. 17. 14x2 ⫹ 2x2 ⫹ 1x2 ⫹ 6x2

18. 1⫺3y2 ⫹ y2 ⫹ 14y2 ⫹ 6y2

19. 14x2 ⫺ 5xy2 ⫹ 13x2 ⫹ 6xy ⫺ 4y22

20. 12x2 ⫺ 4y22 ⫹ 16x2 ⫺ 2xy ⫹ 4y22

21. 12a2 ⫺ 7a ⫹ 102 ⫹ 1a2 ⫹ 4a ⫹ 72

22. 1⫺6x2 ⫹ 7x ⫹ 32 ⫹ 13x2 ⫹ x ⫹ 32

23. 17x ⫹ 5x3 ⫺ 72 ⫹ 110x2 ⫺ 8x ⫹ 32

24. 14y ⫹ 3y3 ⫹ 92 ⫹ 12y2 ⫹ 4y ⫺ 212

25. 17 ⫺ 5r ⫹ 2r 2 2 ⫹ 13r 3 ⫺ 6r2

26. 114 ⫹ 4y ⫹ 3y3 2 ⫹ 1⫺4y2 ⫹ 212

For Exercises 27 to 36, add. Use a vertical format. 27. 1x2 ⫹ 7x2 ⫹ 1⫺3x2 ⫺ 4x2

28. 13y2 ⫺ 2y2 ⫹ 15y2 ⫹ 6y2

29. 1y2 ⫹ 4y2 ⫹ 1⫺4y ⫺ 82

30. 13x2 ⫹ 9x2 ⫹ 16x ⫺ 242

31. 12x2 ⫹ 6x ⫹ 122 ⫹ 13x2 ⫹ x ⫹ 82

32. 1x2 ⫹ x ⫹ 52 ⫹ 13x2 ⫺ 10x ⫹ 42

33. 1⫺7x ⫹ x3 ⫹ 42 ⫹ 12x2 ⫹ x ⫺ 102

34. 1y2 ⫹ 3y3 ⫹ 12 ⫹ 1⫺4y3 ⫺ 6y ⫺ 32

35. 12a3 ⫺ 7a ⫹ 12 ⫹ 11 ⫺ 4a ⫺ 3a2 2

36. 15r 3 ⫺ 6r 2 ⫹ 3r2 ⫹ 1⫺3 ⫺ 2r ⫹ r 22

SECTION 4.1

For Exercises 37 and 38, use the polynomials shown at the right. Assume that a, b, c, and d are all positive numbers. Choose the correct answer from this list: (i) P ⫹ Q (ii) Q ⫹ R (iii) P ⫹ R (iv) None of the above 37. Which sum will be a trinomial?

OBJECTIVE B

195

P ⫽ ax3 ⫹ bx2 ⫺ cx ⫹ d Q ⫽ ⫺ax3 ⫺ bx2 ⫹ cx ⫺ d R ⫽ ⫺ax3 ⫹ bx2 ⫹ cx ⫹ d

38. Which sum will be zero?

To subtract polynomials

For Exercises 39 to 48, subtract. Use a horizontal format. 39. 1y2 ⫺ 10xy2 ⫺ 12y2 ⫹ 3xy2

40. 1x2 ⫺ 3xy2 ⫺ 1⫺2x2 ⫹ xy2

41. 13x2 ⫹ x ⫺ 32 ⫺ 14x ⫹ x2 ⫺ 22

42. 15y2 ⫺ 2y ⫹ 12 ⫺ 1⫺y ⫺ 2 ⫺ 3y2 2

43. 1⫺2x3 ⫹ x ⫺ 12 ⫺ 1⫺x2 ⫹ x ⫺ 32

44. 12x2 ⫹ 5x ⫺ 32 ⫺ 13x3 ⫹ 2x ⫺ 52

45. 11 ⫺ 2a ⫹ 4a3 2 ⫺ 1a3 ⫺ 2a ⫹ 32

46. 17 ⫺ 8b ⫹ b2 2 ⫺ 14b3 ⫺ 7b ⫺ 82

47. 1⫺1 ⫺ y ⫹ 4y3 2 ⫺ 13 ⫺ 3y ⫺ 2y2 2

48. 1⫺3 ⫺ 2x ⫹ 3x2 2 ⫺ 14 ⫺ 2x2 ⫹ 2x3 2

For Exercises 49 to 58, subtract. Use a vertical format. 49. 1x2 ⫺ 6x2 ⫺ 1x2 ⫺ 10x2

50. 1y2 ⫹ 4y2 ⫺ 1y2 ⫹ 10y2

51. 12y2 ⫺ 4y2 ⫺ 1⫺y2 ⫹ 22

52. 1⫺3a2 ⫺ 2a2 ⫺ 14a2 ⫺ 42

53. 1x2 ⫺ 2x ⫹ 12 ⫺ 1x2 ⫹ 5x ⫹ 82

54. 13x2 ⫹ 2x ⫺ 22 ⫺ 15x2 ⫺ 5x ⫹ 62

55. 14x3 ⫹ 5x ⫹ 22 ⫺ 11 ⫹ 2x ⫺ 3x2 2

56. 15y2 ⫺ y ⫹ 22 ⫺ 1⫺3 ⫹ 3y ⫺ 2y3 2

57. 1⫺2y ⫹ 6y2 ⫹ 2y3 2 ⫺ 14 ⫹ y2 ⫹ y3 2

58. 14 ⫺ x ⫺ 2x2 2 ⫺ 1⫺2 ⫹ 3x ⫺ x3 2

59. What polynomial must be added to 3x2 ⫺ 6x ⫹ 9 so that the sum is 4x2 ⫹ 3x ⫺ 2?

Applying the Concepts 60. Is it possible to subtract two polynomials, each of degree 3, and have the difference be a polynomial of degree 2? If so, give an example. If not, explain why not. 61. Is it possible to add two polynomials, each of degree 3, and have the sum be a polynomial of degree 2? If so, give an example. If not, explain why not.

196

CHAPTER 4

Polynomials

SECTION

4.2

Multiplication of Monomials

OBJECTIVE A

To multiply monomials

Note that adding the exponents results in the same product.

3 factors

2 factors ⎫ ⎬ ⎭

x ⭈ x ⫽ 1 x ⭈ x ⭈ x2 ⭈ 1 x ⭈ x2 3

2

⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

The product of exponential expressions with the same base can be simplified by writing each expression in factored form and then writing the result with an exponent.

⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭

Recall that in an exponential expression such as x6, x is the base and 6 is the exponent. The exponent indicates the number of times the base occurs as a factor.

5 factors

⫽x

5

x3 ⭈ x2 ⫽ x3 ⫹2 ⫽ x5

Rule for Multiplying Exponential Expressions If m and n are positive integers, then x m ⭈ x n ⫽ x m ⫹ n.

HOW TO • 1

Simplify: y4 ⭈ y ⭈ y3

y4 ⭈ y ⭈ y3 ⫽ y4 ⫹1 ⫹3 ⫽ y8

• The bases are the same. Add the exponents. Recall that y  y1.

Simplify: 1⫺3a4b3212ab42 1⫺3a4b3212ab42 ⫽ 1⫺3 ⭈ 221a4 ⭈ a21b3 ⭈ b42

HOW TO • 2

Take Note The Rule for Multiplying Exponential Expressions requires that the bases be the same. The expression a 5b 7 cannot be simplified.

⫽ ⫺61a4⫹121b3 ⫹42 ⫽ ⫺6a5b7

EXAMPLE • 1

• Use the Commutative and Associative Properties of Multiplication to rearrange and group factors. • To multiply expressions with the same base, add the exponents. • Simplify.

YOU TRY IT • 1

Simplify: 1⫺5ab 214a 2

Simplify: 18m3n21⫺3n52

Solution 1⫺5ab3214a52 ⫽ 1⫺5 ⭈ 421a ⭈ a52b3 ⫽ ⫺20a6b3

3

5

• Multiply coefficients. Add exponents with same base.

EXAMPLE • 2

YOU TRY IT • 2

Simplify: 16x y 214x y 2

Simplify: 112p4q321⫺3p5q22

Solution 16x3y2214x4y52 ⫽ 16 ⭈ 421x3 ⭈ x421y2 ⭈ y52 ⫽ 24x7y7

3 2

4 5

• Multiply coefficients. Add exponents with same base.

Solutions on p. S10

SECTION 4.2

OBJECTIVE B

Point of Interest One of the first symbolic representations of powers was given by Diophantus (c. 250 A.D.) in his book Arithmetica. He used ⌬Y for x 2 and ␬Y for x 3. The symbol ⌬Y was the first two letters of the Greek word dunamis, which means “power”; ␬Y was from the Greek word kubos, which means “cube.” He also combined these symbols to denote higher powers. For instance, ⌬␬Y was the symbol for x 5.

Multiplication of Monomials

197

To simplify powers of monomials The power of a monomial can be simplified by writing the power in factored form and then using the Rule for Multiplying Exponential Expressions. 1x423 ⫽ x4 ⭈ x4 ⭈ x4

1a2b322 ⫽ 1a2b321a2b32

4 ⫹4 ⫹4

2 ⫹2 3⫹3

⫽x

⫽a

⫽ x12

b

⫽ a4b6

• Write in factored form. • Use the Rule for Multiplying Exponential Expressions.

Note that multiplying each exponent inside the parentheses by the exponent outside the parentheses results in the same product. 1x423 ⫽ x4⭈3 ⫽ x12

1a2b322 ⫽ a2⭈2b3 ⭈2 ⫽ a4b6

• Multiply each exponent inside the parentheses by the exponent outside the parentheses.

Rule for Simplifying the Power of an Exponential Expression If m and n are positive integers, then 1 x m2n ⫽ x mn.

Rule for Simplifying the Power of a Product

If m, n, and p are positive integers, then 1 x my n2 p ⫽ x mpy np.

Simplify: 15x2y323 • Use the Rule for Simplifying the 15x2y323 ⫽ 51 ⭈3x2⭈3y3 ⭈3 3 6 9 Power of a Product. Note that 5  51. ⫽5xy ⫽ 125x6y9 • Evaluate 53.

HOW TO • 3

EXAMPLE • 3

YOU TRY IT • 3

Simplify: 1⫺2p3r24

Simplify: 1⫺3a4bc223

Solution • Use the Rule for 1⫺2p3r24 ⫽ 1⫺221 ⭈4p3⭈4r1⭈4 Simplifying the ⫽ 1⫺224p12r4 ⫽ 16p12r4

Power of a Product.

EXAMPLE • 4

YOU TRY IT • 4

Simplify: 12a b212a b 2

Simplify: 1⫺xy421⫺2x3y222

Solution 12a2b212a3b223 ⫽ 12a2b2121⭈3a3⭈3b2⭈32 ⫽ 12a2b2123a9b62 ⫽ 12a2b218a9b62 ⫽ 16a11b7

2

3 2 3

• Use the Rule for Simplifying the Power of a Product. Solutions on p. S10

198

CHAPTER 4

Polynomials

4.2 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To multiply monomials

For Exercises 1 and 2, state whether the expression can be simplified using the Rule for Multiplying Exponential Expressions. 1. a. x 4 ⫹ x5

b. x 4x5

2. a. x 4y 4

b. x 4 ⫹ x 4

For Exercises 3 to 35, simplify. 3. 16x2 215x2

4. 1⫺4y3 212y2

5. 17c2 21⫺6c4 2

7. 1⫺3a3 21⫺3a4 2

8. 1⫺5a6 21⫺2a5 2

9. 1x2 21xy4 2

6. 1⫺8z5 215z8 2 10. 1x2 y4 21xy7 2

11. 1⫺2x4 215x5y2

12. 1⫺3a3 212a2b4 2

13. 1⫺4x2y4 21⫺3x5y4 2

14. 1⫺6a2b4 21⫺4ab3 2

15. 12xy21⫺3x2y4 2

16. 1⫺3a2b21⫺2ab3 2

17. 1x2yz21x2y4 2

18. 1⫺ab2c21a2b5 2

19. 1⫺a2b3 21⫺ab2c4 2

20. 1⫺x2 y3z21⫺x3y4 2

21. 1⫺5a2b2 216a3b6 2

22. 17xy4 21⫺2xy3 2

23. 1⫺6a3 21⫺a2b2

24. 1⫺2a2b3 21⫺4ab2 2

25. 1⫺5y4z21⫺8y6z5 2

26. 13x2y21⫺4xy2 2

27. 1x2y21yz21xyz2

28. 1xy2z21x2y21z2y2 2

29. 13ab2 21⫺2abc214ac2 2

30. 1⫺2x3y2 21⫺3x2z2 21⫺5y3z3 2

31. 14x4z21⫺yz3 21⫺2x3z2 2

32. 1⫺a3b4 21⫺3a4c2 214b3c4 2

33. 1⫺2x2y3 213xy21⫺5x3y4 2

34. 14a2b21⫺3a3b4 21a5b2 2

35. 13a2b21⫺6bc212ac22

OBJECTIVE B

To simplify powers of monomials

For Exercises 36 and 37, state whether the expression can be simplified using the Rule for Simplifying the Power of a Product. 36. a. (xy)3

b. (x ⫹ y)3

37. a. (a3 ⫹ b4)2

b. (a3b4)2

SECTION 4.2

Multiplication of Monomials

199

For Exercises 38 to 68, simplify. 38. 1z4 23

39. 1x3 25

40. 1y4 22

41. 1x7 22

42. 1⫺y523

43. 1⫺x2 24

44. 1⫺x2 23

45. 1⫺y3 24

46. 1⫺3y23

47. 1⫺2x2 23

48. 1a3b4 23

49. 1x2y322

50. 12x3y425

51. 13x2y22

52. 1⫺2ab324

53. 1⫺3x3y2 25

54. 13b2 212a3 24

55. 1⫺2x212x3 22

56. 12y21⫺3y4 23

57. 13x2y212x2y2 23

58. 1a3b22 1ab23

59. 1ab2 22 1ab22

60. 1⫺x2 y3 22 1⫺2x3 y23

61. 1⫺2x23 1⫺2x3y23

62. 1⫺3y21⫺4x2y3 23

63. 1⫺2x21⫺3xy2 22

64. 1⫺3y21⫺2x2y23

65. 1ab2 21⫺2a2b23

66. 1a2b2 21⫺3ab4 22

67. 1⫺2a3 213a2b23

68. 1⫺3b2 212ab2 23

Applying the Concepts For Exercises 69 to 76, simplify. 69. 3x2 ⫹ 13x22

70. 4x2 ⫺ 14x22

71. 2x6y2 ⫹ 13x2y22

72. 1x2 y2 23 ⫹ 1x3 y3 22

73. 12a3b2 23 ⫺ 8a9b6

74. 4y2z4 ⫺ 12yz2 22

75. 1x2 y4 22 ⫹ 12xy2 24

76. 13a3 22 ⫺ 4a6 ⫹ 12a2 23

77. Evaluate 123 22 and 2(3 ). Are the results the same? If not, which expression has the larger value? 2

78. If n is a positive integer and xn ⫽ yn, does x ⫽ y? Explain your answer.

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SECTION

4.3 OBJECTIVE A

Multiplication of Polynomials To multiply a polynomial by a monomial To multiply a polynomial by a monomial, use the Distributive Property and the Rule for Multiplying Exponential Expressions. Multiply: ⫺3a14a2 ⫺ 5a ⫹ 62 ⫺3a14a2 ⫺ 5a ⫹ 62 ⫽ ⫺3a14a22 ⫺ 1⫺3a215a2 ⫹ 1⫺3a2162 ⫽ ⫺12a3 ⫹ 15a2 ⫺ 18a

HOW TO • 1

EXAMPLE • 1

YOU TRY IT • 1

Multiply: 15x ⫹ 421⫺2x2

Multiply: 1⫺2y ⫹ 321⫺4y2

Solution 15x ⫹ 421⫺2x2 ⫽ 5x(⫺2x) ⫹ 4(⫺2x) ⫽ ⫺10x 2 ⫺ 8x

EXAMPLE • 2

YOU TRY IT • 2

Multiply: 2a b14a ⫺ 2ab ⫹ b 2

Multiply: ⫺a213a2 ⫹ 2a ⫺ 72

Solution 2a2b14a2 ⫺ 2ab ⫹ b22 ⫽ 2a 2b(4a2) ⫺ 2a 2b(2ab) ⫹ 2a 2b(b2) ⫽ 8a4b ⫺ 4a 3b2 ⫹ 2a 2b3

2

2

• Use the Distributive Property.

2

Solutions on p. S10

OBJECTIVE B

To multiply two polynomials Multiplication of two polynomials requires the repeated application of the Distributive Property. 1y2 ⫺ 4y ⫺ 621y ⫹ 22 ⫽ 1y2 ⫺ 4y ⫺ 62y ⫹ 1y2 ⫺ 4y ⫺ 622 ⫽ (y3 ⫺ 4y 2 ⫺ 6y) ⫹ (2y 2 ⫺ 8y ⫺ 12) ⫽ y3 ⫺ 2y 2 ⫺ 14y ⫺ 12

A convenient method for multiplying two polynomials is to use a vertical format similar to that used for multiplication of whole numbers. y2 ⫺ 4y ⫺ 6 y⫹2 2 2y ⫺ 8y ⫺ 12 ⫽ 1 y2 ⫺ 4y ⫺ 622 3 y ⫺ 4y2 ⫺ 6y ⫽ 1 y2 ⫺ 4y ⫺ 62y y3 ⫺ 2y2 ⫺ 14y ⫺ 12

• Multiply by 2. • Multiply by y. • Add the terms in each column.

SECTION 4.3

Multiplication of Polynomials

201

Multiply: 12a3 ⫹ a ⫺ 321a ⫹ 52 2a4 ⫹ 12a3 ⫹ a2 ⫹ 3a ⫺ 13 2a4 ⫹ 10a3 ⫹ a2 ⫺ a ⫹ 15 • Note that spaces are provided in each product so that like terms are in the 2a4 ⫹ 10a3 ⫹ a2 ⫹ 5a ⫺ 15 same column. 2a4 ⫹ 10a3 ⫹ a2 ⫺ 3a ⫺ 15 4 3 2 2a ⫹ 10a ⫹ a ⫹ 2a ⫺ 15 • Add the terms in each column.

HOW TO • 2

EXAMPLE • 3

YOU TRY IT • 3

Multiply: 12b ⫺ b ⫹ 1212b ⫹ 32

Multiply: 12y3 ⫹ 2y2 ⫺ 3213y ⫺ 12

Solution 2b3

3

⫺ b⫹1 2b ⫹ 3 3 6b ⫺ 3b ⫹ 3 4b4 ⫹ ⫺ 2b2 ⫹ 2b 4b4 ⫹ 6b3 ⫺ 2b2 ⫺ b ⫹ 3

 3(2b3  b  1)  2b(2b3  b  1)

Solution on p. S10

OBJECTIVE C

To multiply two binomials using the FOIL method

Take Note

It is frequently necessary to find the product of two binomials. The product can be found using a method called FOIL, which is based on the Distributive Property. The letters of FOIL stand for First, Outer, Inner, and Last. To find the product of two binomials, add the products of the First terms, the Outer terms, the Inner terms, and the Last terms.

FOIL is not really a different way of multiplying. It is based on the Distributive Property. 共2x ⫹ 3兲 共x ⫹ 5兲 ⫽ 2x共 x ⫹ 5兲 ⫹ 3共 x ⫹ 5兲 F O I L ⫽ 2x 2 ⫹ 10x ⫹ 3x ⫹ 15 ⫽ 2x 2 ⫹ 13x ⫹ 15

Multiply: 12x ⫹ 321x ⫹ 52 12x ⫹ 321x ⫹ 52 Multiply the First terms. 12x ⫹ 321x ⫹ 52 Multiply the Outer terms. 12x ⫹ 321x ⫹ 52 Multiply the Inner terms. 12x ⫹ 321x ⫹ 52 Multiply the Last terms.

HOW TO • 3

Add the products. Combine like terms.

12x ⫹ 321x ⫹ 52

2x ⭈ x ⫽ 2x2 2x ⭈ 5 ⫽ 10x 3 ⭈ x ⫽ 3x 3 ⭈ 5 ⫽ 15 F O I L ⫽ 2x2 ⫹ 10x ⫹ 3x ⫹ 15 ⫽ 2x2 ⫹ 13x ⫹ 15

Multiply: 14x ⫺ 3213x ⫺ 22 14x ⫺ 3213x ⫺ 22 ⫽ 4x13x2 ⫹ 4x1⫺22 ⫹ 1⫺3213x2 ⫹ 1⫺321⫺22 ⫽ 12x2 ⫺ 8x ⫺ 9x ⫹ 6 ⫽ 12x2 ⫺ 17x ⫹ 6

HOW TO • 4

Multiply: 13x ⫺ 2y21x ⫹ 4y2 13x ⫺ 2y21x ⫹ 4y2 ⫽ 3x1x2 ⫹ 3x14y2 ⫹ 1⫺2y21x2 ⫹ 1⫺2y214y2 ⫽ 3x2 ⫹ 12xy ⫺ 2xy ⫺ 8y2 ⫽ 3x2 ⫹ 10xy ⫺ 8y2

HOW TO • 5

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EXAMPLE • 4

YOU TRY IT • 4

Multiply: 12a ⫺ 1213a ⫺ 22

Multiply: 14y ⫺ 5212y ⫺ 32

Solution 12a ⫺ 1213a ⫺ 22 ⫽ 6a2 ⫺ 4a ⫺ 3a ⫹ 2 ⫽ 6a2 ⫺ 7a ⫹ 2

EXAMPLE • 5

YOU TRY IT • 5

Multiply: 13x ⫺ 2214x ⫹ 32

Multiply: 13b ⫹ 2213b ⫺ 52

Solution 13x ⫺ 2214x ⫹ 32 ⫽ 12x2 ⫹ 9x ⫺ 8x ⫺ 6 ⫽ 12x2 ⫹ x ⫺ 6

OBJECTIVE D

Solutions on p. S10

To multiply binomials that have special products

Using FOIL, it is possible to find a pattern for the product of the sum and difference of two terms and for the square of a binomial. Product of the Sum and Difference of the Same Terms 1a ⫹ b2 1a ⫺ b2 ⫽ a 2 ⫺ ab ⫹ ab ⫺ b 2 ⫽ a2 ⫺ b2

Square of the first term Square of the second term

Square of a Binomial

1a ⫹ b22 ⫽ 1a ⫹ b2 1a ⫹ b2 ⫽ a 2 ⫹ ab ⫹ ab ⫹ b 2 ⫽ a 2 ⫹ 2ab ⫹ b 2

Square of the first term Twice the product of the two terms Square of the last term

Multiply: 12x ⫹ 3212x ⫺ 32 • This is the product of the sum and 12x ⫹ 3212x ⫺ 32 ⫽ 12x22 ⫺ 32 difference of the same terms. ⫽ 4x2 ⫺ 9

HOW TO • 6

Take Note The word expand is used frequently to mean “multiply out a power.”

Expand: 13x ⫺ 222 13x ⫺ 22 ⫽ 13x2 ⫹ 213x21⫺22 ⫹ 1⫺222 ⫽ 9x2 ⫺ 12x ⫹ 4

HOW TO • 7 2

2

• This is the square of a binomial.

SECTION 4.3

EXAMPLE • 6

Multiplication of Polynomials

YOU TRY IT • 6

Multiply: 14z ⫺ 2w214z ⫹ 2w2

Multiply: 12a ⫹ 5c212a ⫺ 5c2

Solution 14z ⫺ 2w214z ⫹ 2w2 ⫽ 16z2 ⫺ 4w2

EXAMPLE • 7

203

YOU TRY IT • 7

Expand: 12r ⫺ 3s22

Expand: 13x ⫹ 2y22

Solution 12r ⫺ 3s22 ⫽ 4r 2 ⫺ 12rs ⫹ 9s2

Solutions on p. S10

OBJECTIVE E

To solve application problems

EXAMPLE • 8

The length of a rectangle is 1x ⫹ 72 m. The width is 1 x ⫺ 42 m. Find the area of the rectangle in terms of the variable x.

YOU TRY IT • 8

The radius of a circle is 1x ⫺ 42 ft. Use the equation A ⫽ ␲ r 2, where r is the radius, to find the area of the circle in terms of x. Leave the answer in terms of ␲.

x+7 x−4

x−4

Strategy To find the area, replace the variables L and W in the equation A ⫽ L ⭈ W by the given values and solve for A.

Solution A⫽L⭈W A ⫽ 1x ⫹ 721x ⫺ 42 A ⫽ x2 ⫺ 4x ⫹ 7x ⫺ 28 A ⫽ x2 ⫹ 3x ⫺ 28

The area is 1x2 ⫹ 3x ⫺ 282 m2.

Solution on p. S10

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Polynomials

4.3 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To multiply a polynomial by a monomial

For Exercises 1 to 32, multiply. 1. x 1x ⫺ 22

2. y13 ⫺ y2

3. ⫺x1x ⫹ 72

4. ⫺y17 ⫺ y2

5. 3a2 1a ⫺ 22

6. 4b2 1b ⫹ 82

7. ⫺5x2 1x2 ⫺ x2

8. ⫺6y2 1y ⫹ 2y2 2

9. ⫺x3 13x2 ⫺ 72

10. ⫺y4 12y2 ⫺ y6 2

13. 12x ⫺ 423x

14.

17. ⫺xy1x2 ⫺ y2 2

18. ⫺x2 y12xy ⫺ y2 2

11. 2x16x2 ⫺ 3x2

13y ⫺ 22y

15.

13x ⫹ 42x

19. x12x3 ⫺ 3x ⫹ 22

12. 3y14y ⫺ y2 2

16.

12x ⫹ 122x

20. y1⫺3y2 ⫺ 2y ⫹ 62

21. ⫺a1⫺2a2 ⫺ 3a ⫺ 22

22. ⫺b15b2 ⫹ 7b ⫺ 352

23. x2 13x4 ⫺ 3x2 ⫺ 22

24. y3 1⫺4y3 ⫺ 6y ⫹ 72

25. 2y2 1⫺3y2 ⫺ 6y ⫹ 72

26. 4x2 13x2 ⫺ 2x ⫹ 62

27. 1a2 ⫹ 3a ⫺ 42 1⫺2a2

28.

30. ⫺5x2 13x2 ⫺ 3x ⫺ 72

31. xy1x2 ⫺ 3xy ⫹ y2 2

1b3 ⫺ 2b ⫹ 22 1⫺5b2

33. Which of the following expressions are equivalent to 4x ⫺ x(3x ⫺ 1)? (ii) ⫺3x 2 ⫹ 5x (iii) 4x ⫺ 3x 2 ⫹ x (iv) 9x 2 ⫺ 3x (i) 4x ⫺ 3x 2 ⫺ x

OBJECTIVE B

29. ⫺3y2 1⫺2y2 ⫹ y ⫺ 22 32. ab12a2 ⫺ 4ab ⫺ 6b2 2

(v) 3x(3x ⫺ 1)

To multiply two polynomials

For Exercises 34 to 51, multiply. 34. 1x2 ⫹ 3x ⫹ 221x ⫹ 12

35. 1x2 ⫺ 2x ⫹ 721x ⫺ 22

36. 1a2 ⫺ 3a ⫹ 421a ⫺ 32

SECTION 4.3

Multiplication of Polynomials

205

37. 1x2 ⫺ 3x ⫹ 5212x ⫺ 32

38. 1⫺2b2 ⫺ 3b ⫹ 421b ⫺ 52

39. 1⫺a2 ⫹ 3a ⫺ 2212a ⫺ 12

40. 1⫺2x2 ⫹ 7x ⫺ 2213x ⫺ 52

41. 1⫺a2 ⫺ 2a ⫹ 3212a ⫺ 12

42. 1x2 ⫹ 521x ⫺ 32

43. 1y2 ⫺ 2y212y ⫹ 52

44. 1x3 ⫺ 3x ⫹ 221x ⫺ 42

45. 1y3 ⫹ 4y2 ⫺ 8212y ⫺ 12

46. 15y2 ⫹ 8y ⫺ 2213y ⫺ 82

47. 13y2 ⫹ 3y ⫺ 5214y ⫺ 32

48. 15a3 ⫺ 5a ⫹ 221a ⫺ 42

49. 13b3 ⫺ 5b2 ⫹ 7216b ⫺ 12

50. 1y3 ⫹ 2y2 ⫺ 3y ⫹ 121y ⫹ 22

51. 12a3 ⫺ 3a2 ⫹ 2a ⫺ 1212a ⫺ 32

52. If a polynomial of degree 3 is multiplied by a polynomial of degree 2, what is the degree of the resulting polynomial?

OBJECTIVE C

To multiply two binomials using the FOIL method

For Exercises 53 to 84, multiply. 53. 1x ⫹ 121x ⫹ 32

54. 1y ⫹ 221y ⫹ 52

55. 1a ⫺ 321a ⫹ 42

56. 1b ⫺ 621b ⫹ 32

57. 1y ⫹ 321y ⫺ 82

58. 1x ⫹ 1021x ⫺ 52

59. 1y ⫺ 721y ⫺ 32

60. 1a ⫺ 821a ⫺ 92

61. 12x ⫹ 121x ⫹ 72

62. 1y ⫹ 2215y ⫹ 12

63. 13x ⫺ 121x ⫹ 42

64. 17x ⫺ 221x ⫹ 42

65. 14x ⫺ 321x ⫺ 72

66. 12x ⫺ 3214x ⫺ 72

67. 13y ⫺ 821y ⫹ 22

68. 15y ⫺ 921y ⫹ 52

69. 13x ⫹ 7213x ⫹ 112

70. 15a ⫹ 6216a ⫹ 52

71. 17a ⫺ 16213a ⫺ 52

72. 15a ⫺ 12213a ⫺ 72

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73. 13a ⫺ 2b212a ⫺ 7b2

74. 15a ⫺ b217a ⫺ b2

75. 1a ⫺ 9b212a ⫹ 7b2

76. 12a ⫹ 5b217a ⫺ 2b2

77. 110a ⫺ 3b2110a ⫺ 7b2

78. 112a ⫺ 5b213a ⫺ 4b2

79. 15x ⫹ 12y213x ⫹ 4y2

80. 111x ⫹ 2y213x ⫹ 7y2

81. 12x ⫺ 15y217x ⫹ 4y2

82. 15x ⫹ 2y212x ⫺ 5y2

83. 18x ⫺ 3y217x ⫺ 5y2

84. 12x ⫺ 9y218x ⫺ 3y2

85. What polynomial has quotient 3x ⫺ 4 when divided by 4x ⫹ 5?

OBJECTIVE D

To multiply binomials that have special products

For Exercises 86 to 93, multiply. 86. 1y ⫺ 521y ⫹ 52

87. 1y ⫹ 621y ⫺ 62

88. 12x ⫹ 3212x ⫺ 32

89. 14x ⫺ 7214x ⫹ 72

90. 13x ⫺ 7213x ⫹ 72

91. 19x ⫺ 2219x ⫹ 22

92. 14 ⫺ 3y214 ⫹ 3y2

93. 14x ⫺ 9y214x ⫹ 9y2

For Exercises 94 to 101, expand. 94. 1x ⫹ 122

95. 1y ⫺ 322

96. 13a ⫺ 522

97. 16x ⫺ 522

98. 1x ⫹ 3y22

99. 1x ⫺ 2y22

100. 15x ⫹ 2y22

101. 12a ⫺ 9b22

102. Simplify: 共a ⫹ b兲2 ⫺ 共a ⫺ b兲2

OBJECTIVE E

103. Expand: 共a ⫹ 3兲3

To solve application problems

104. Geometry The length of a rectangle is 15x2 ft. The width is 12x ⫺ 72 ft. Find the area of the rectangle in terms of the variable x.

5x 2x − 7

SECTION 4.3

Multiplication of Polynomials

207

105. Geometry The width of a rectangle is 13x ⫹ 12 in. The length of the rectangle is twice the width. Find the area of the rectangle in terms of the variable x.

106. Geometry The length of a side of a square is 12x ⫹ 12 km. Find the area of the square in terms of the variable x.

2x + 1

107. Geometry The radius of a circle is 1x ⫹ 42 cm. Find the area of the circle in terms of the variable x. Leave the answer in terms of ␲. 2x + 5

108. Geometry The base of a triangle is 14x2 m and the height is 12x ⫹ 52 m. Find the area of the triangle in terms of the variable x. 4x

109. Sports A softball diamond has dimensions 45 ft by 45 ft. A base-path border x feet wide lies on both the first-base side and the third-base side of the diamond. Express the total area of the softball diamond and the base paths in terms of the variable x.

45

45

x

x

w

111. The Olympics See the news clipping at the right. The Water Cube is not actually a cube because its height is not equal to its length and width. The width of a wall of the Water Cube is 22 ft more than five times the height. (Source: Structurae) a. Express the width of a wall of the Water Cube in terms of the height h. b. Express the area of one wall of the Water Cube in terms of the height h.

In the News Olympic Water Cube Completed

Christian Kober/Robert Harding World Imagery/Getty Images

110. Sports An athletic field has dimensions 30 yd by 100 yd. An end zone that is w yards wide borders each end of the field. Express the total area of the field and the end zones in terms of the variable w.

The Water Cube

112. The expression w(3w ⫺ 1) cm2 represents the area of a rectangle of width w. Describe in words the relationship between the length and width of the rectangle.

Applying the Concepts 113. Add x2 ⫹ 2x ⫺ 3 to the product of 2x ⫺ 5 and 3x ⫹ 1.

114. Subtract 4x2 ⫺ x ⫺ 5 from the product of x2 ⫹ x ⫹ 3 and x ⫺ 4.

100

w 30

The National Aquatics Center, also known as the Water Cube, was completed on the morning of December 26, 2006. Built in Beijing, China, for the 2008 Olympics, the Water Cube is designed to look like a “cube” of water molecules. Source: Structurae

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Polynomials

SECTION

4.4 OBJECTIVE A

Integer Exponents and Scientific Notation To divide monomials The quotient of two exponential expressions with the same base can be simplified by writing each expression in factored form, dividing by the common factors, and then writing the result with an exponent.

x5 x⭈x⭈x⭈x⭈x ⫽ ⫽ x3 2 x⭈x x 1 1

Note that subtracting the exponents gives the same result.

x5 ⫽ x5⫺2 ⫽ x3 x2

1

1

To divide two monomials with the same base, subtract the exponents of the like bases. Simplify:

HOW TO • 1

a7 ⫽ a7 ⫺3 a3 ⫽ a4

a7 a3

• The bases are the same. Subtract the exponents.

HOW TO • 2

r8t6 ⫽ r 8⫺7t6 ⫺1 r7t ⫽ rt5

HOW TO • 3

Simplify:

r8t6 r7t

• Subtract the exponents of the like bases.

Simplify:

p7 z4

Because the bases are not the same,

p7 is already in simplest form. z4

x4 , x 苷 0. This expression can be simplified, as shown below, by x4 subtracting exponents or by dividing by common factors. Consider the expression

x4 ⫽ x4⫺4 ⫽ x0 x4

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

x4 x⭈x⭈x⭈x ⫽ ⫽1 4 x ⭈x⭈x⭈x x

x4 x4 The equations 4 ⫽ x0 and 4 ⫽ 1 suggest the following definition of x0. x x Definition of Zero as an Exponent If x 苷 0, then x 0 ⫽ 1. The expression 00 is not defined.

SECTION 4.4

Take Note In the example at the right, we indicate that a 苷 0. If we try to evaluate 冢12a3冣0 when a 苷 0, we have 冤12冢0冣3冥0 苷 冤12冢0冣冥0 苷 00 However, 00 is not defined. Therefore, we must assume that a 苷 0. To avoid stating this for every example or exercise, we will assume that variables do not take on values that result in the expression 00.

209

Simplify: 112a320, a 苷 0

HOW TO • 4

112a 2 ⫽ 1 3 0

• Any nonzero expression to the zero power is 1.

Simplify: ⫺14x3y720 ⫺14x y 2 ⫽ ⫺112 ⫽ ⫺1

HOW TO • 5 3 7 0

x4 , x 苷 0. This expression can be simplified, as shown below, by x6 subtracting exponents or by dividing by common factors. Consider the expression

x4 ⫽ x4 ⫺6 ⫽ x⫺2 x6

Point of Interest In the 15th century, the expression 122 m was used to mean 12x ⫺2. The use of m reflected an Italian influence. In Italy, m was used for minus and p was used for plus. It was understood that 2m referred to an unnamed variable. Issac Newton, in the 17th century, advocated the negative exponent notation that we currently use.

Integer Exponents and Scientific Notation

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 x4 x⭈x⭈x⭈x ⫽ 2 ⫽ 6 x⭈x⭈x⭈x⭈x⭈x x x 1

x4 x4 1 1 ⫽ x⫺2 and 6 ⫽ 2 suggest that x⫺2 ⫽ 2 . 6 x x x x

The equations

Definition of a Negative Exponent If x 苷 0 and n is a positive integer, then

x⫺n ⫽

1 xn

and

1 ⫽ xn x⫺n

An exponential expression is in simplest form when it is written with only positive exponents.

Take Note Note from the example at the right that 2⫺4 is a positive number. A negative exponent does not change the sign of a number.

HOW TO • 6

1 24 1 ⫽ 16

2⫺4 ⫽

Evaluate 2⫺4. • Use the Definition of a Negative Exponent. • Evaluate the expression.

Take Note For the expression 3n ⫺5, the exponent on n is ⫺5 (negat ive 5). The n ⫺5 is written in the denominator as n 5. The exponent on 3 is 1 (positive 1). The 3 remains in the numerator. Also, we indicated that n 苷 0. This is done because division by zero is not defined. In this textbook, we will assume that values of the variables are chosen so that division by zero does not occur.

Simplify: 3n⫺5, n 苷 0 1 3 • Use the Definition of a Negative Exponent to ⫽3⭈ 5⫽ 5 rewrite the expression with a positive exponent. n n

HOW TO • 7

3n⫺5

2 5a⫺4 2 1 2 4 2a4 2 ⭈ ⭈a ⫽ ⫽ ⫽ 5 a⫺4 5 5 5a⫺4

HOW TO • 8

Simplify:

• Use the Definition of a Negative Exponent to rewrite the expression with a positive exponent.

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Polynomials

The expression

x4 3

y

x4 y3

or by multiplying each

exponent in the quotient by the exponent outside the parentheses.

2

x4 y3

x4 y3

x4 ⭈ x4 x4⫹4 x8 ⫽ 3 3 ⫽ 3⫹3 ⫽ 6 y ⭈y y y

2

x4 ⭈2 x8 ⫽ y3 ⭈2 y6

Rule for Simplifying the Power of a Quotient If m, n, and p are integers and y 苷 0, then

Take Note As a reminder, although it is not stated, we are assuming that a 苷 0 and b 苷 0. This assumption is made to ensure that we do not have division by zero.

HOW TO • 9

⫺2

Simplify:

a3(⫺2) b2(⫺2) a⫺6 b4 ⫽ ⫺4 ⫽ 6 b a

p

x mp . y np

⫺2

a3 b2

• Use the Rule for Simplifying the Power of a Quotient. • Use the Definition of a Negative Exponent to write the expression with positive exponents.

The example above suggests the following rule.

Rule for Negative Exponents on Fractional Expressions If a 苷 0, b 苷 0, and n is a positive integer, then

⫺n

b a

n

Now that zero as an exponent and negative exponents have been defined, a rule for dividing exponential expressions can be stated.

Rule for Dividing Exponential Expressions If m and n are integers and x 苷 0, then

HOW TO • 10

Evaluate

5⫺2 ⫽ 5⫺2 ⫺1 ⫽ 5⫺3 5 1 1 ⫽ 3⫽ 125 5

xm ⫽ x m ⫺ n. xn

5⫺2 . 5 • Use the Rule for Dividing Exponential Expressions. • Use the Definition of a Negative Exponent to rewrite the expression with a positive exponent. Then evaluate.

SECTION 4.4

Simplify:

HOW TO • 11

x4 ⫽ x4 ⫺9 x9

Integer Exponents and Scientific Notation

211

x4 x9

• Use the Rule for Dividing Exponential Expressions.

⫽ x⫺5 ⫽

• Subtract the exponents.

1 x5

• Use the Definition of a Negative Exponent to rewrite the expression with a positive exponent.

The rules for simplifying exponential expressions and powers of exponential expressions are true for all integers. These rules are restated here, along with the rules for dividing exponential expressions.

Rules of Exponents If m, n, and p are integers, then 1x m2n ⫽ x mn

x m ⭈ x n ⫽ x m⫹n

xm ⫽ x m ⫺ n, x 苷 0 xn

xm yn

p

x mp ,y苷0 y np

1 x my n2p ⫽ x mpy np

x⫺n ⫽

1 ,x苷0 xn

x 0 ⫽ 1, x 苷 0

Simplify: 13ab⫺421⫺2a⫺3b72 共3ab⫺4兲共⫺2a⫺3b7兲 ⫽ 33 ⭈ 共⫺2兲4 共a1 ⫹(⫺3)b⫺4⫹7兲

HOW TO • 12

⫽ ⫺6a⫺2b3 ⫽⫺

c

6b3 a2

Simplify: c

HOW TO • 13

6m2n3 ⫺3 3m2⫺7n3⫺2 ⫺3 ⫽ d c d 4 8m7n2 ⫽c

• When multiplying exponential expressions, add the exponents on like bases.

3m⫺5n ⫺3 d 4

6m2n3 ⫺3 d 8m7n2 • Simplify inside the brackets.

• Subtract the exponents.

3⫺3m15n⫺3 4⫺3

• Use the Rule for Simplifying the Power of a Quotient.

64m15 43m15 ⫽ 3 3 3n 27n3

• Use the Definition of a Negative Exponent to rewrite the expression with positive exponents. Then simplify.

212

CHAPTER 4

Polynomials

HOW TO • 14

Simplify:

2a⫺2b5 4a⫺2b5 ⫽ 6a5b2 3a5b2 2a⫺2⫺5b5⫺2 ⫽ 3 2b3 2a⫺7b3 ⫽ 7 ⫽ 3 3a

EXAMPLE • 1

Simplify: 1⫺2x213x 2

YOU TRY IT • 2

Simplify:

1r⫺3t422

• Rule for Dividing Exponential Expressions

• Write the answer in simplest form.

YOU TRY IT • 3

4a⫺2b3 ⫺3 d 6a4b⫺2

Solution 4a⫺2b3 ⫺3 2a⫺6b5 ⫺3 c 4 ⫺2 d ⫽ c d 3 6a b 2⫺3a18b⫺15 3⫺3 27a18 ⫽ 8b15 ⫽

(6a⫺2b3)⫺1 (4a3b⫺2)⫺2

• Rule for Simplifying the Power of a Product

EXAMPLE • 3

Simplify: c

• Use the Definition of a Negative Exponent to rewrite the expression with positive exponents.

• Rule for Simplifying the Power of a Product

12r2t⫺12⫺3

Solution 12r2t⫺12⫺3 2⫺3r⫺6t3 ⫽ 1r⫺3t422 r⫺6t8 ⫽ 2⫺3r⫺6 ⫺(⫺6)t3⫺8 ⫽ 2⫺3r0t⫺5 1 ⫽ 35 2t 1 ⫽ 5 8t

• Use the Rule for Dividing Exponential Expressions.

Simplify: 1⫺2x221x⫺3y⫺42⫺2

EXAMPLE • 2

Simplify:

• Divide the coefficients by their common factor.

YOU TRY IT • 1

⫺2 ⫺3

Solution 1⫺2x213x⫺22⫺3 ⫽ 1⫺2x213⫺3x62 ⫺2x1 ⫹6 ⫽ 33 2x7 ⫽⫺ 27

4a⫺2b5 6a5b2

Simplify: c

6r3s⫺3 ⫺2 d 9r3s⫺1

Your solution • Simplify inside brackets. • Rule for Simplifying the Power of a Quotient • Write answer in simplest form.

Solutions on p. S10

SECTION 4.4

OBJECTIVE B

Integer Exponents and Scientific Notation

213

To write a number in scientific notation Very large and very small numbers abound in the natural sciences. For example, the mass of an electron is 0.000000000000000000000000000000911 kg. Numbers such as this are difficult to read, so a more convenient system called scientific notation is used. In scientific notation, a number is expressed as the product of two factors, one a number between 1 and 10, and the other a power of 10.

Integrating Technology See the Keystroke Guide: Scientific Notation for instructions on entering a number written in scientific notation into a calculator.

To express a number in scientific notation, write it in the form a ⫻ 10n, where a is a number between 1 and 10, and n is an integer.

Point of Interest An electron microscope uses wavelengths that are approximately 4 ⫻ 10⫺12 meter to make images of viruses. The human eye can detect wavelengths between 4.3 ⫻ 10⫺7 meter and 6.9 ⫻ 10⫺7 meter. Although these wavelengths are very short, they are approximately 105 times longer than the wavelengths used in an electron microscope.

For numbers greater than or equal to 10, move the decimal point to the right of the first digit. The exponent n is positive and equal to the number of places the decimal point has been moved.

240,000 ⫽ 2.4 ⫻ 105

For numbers less than 1, move the decimal point to the right of the first nonzero digit. The exponent n is negative. The absolute value of the exponent is equal to the number of places the decimal point has been moved.

0.0003 ⫽ 3 ⫻ 10⫺4

93,000,000 ⫽ 9.3 ⫻ 107

0.0000832 ⫽ 8.32 ⫻ 10⫺5

Changing a number written in scientific notation to decimal notation also requires moving the decimal point. When the exponent is positive, move the decimal point to the right the same number of places as the exponent. When the exponent is negative, move the decimal point to the left the same number of places as the absolute value of the exponent.

EXAMPLE • 4

3.45 ⫻ 106 ⫽ 3,450,000 2.3 ⫻ 108 ⫽ 230,000,000 8.1 ⫻ 10⫺3 ⫽ 0.0081 6.34 ⫻ 10⫺7 ⫽ 0.000000634

YOU TRY IT • 4

Write the number 824,300,000 in scientific notation.

Write the number 0.000000961 in scientific notation.

Solution 824,300,000 ⫽ 8.243 ⫻ 108

EXAMPLE • 5

YOU TRY IT • 5 ⫺10

Write the number 6.8 ⫻ 10

in decimal notation.

Solution 6.8 ⫻ 10⫺10 ⫽ 0.00000000068

Write the number 7.329 ⫻ 106 in decimal notation. Your solution

Solutions on p. S10

214

CHAPTER 4

Polynomials

4.4 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To divide monomials

For Exercises 1 to 36, simplify. 1.

y7 y3

2.

z9 z2

3.

a8 a5

4.

c12 c5

5.

p5 p

6.

w9 w

7.

4x8 2x5

8.

12z7 4z3

9.

22k5 11k4

10.

14m11 7m10

11.

m9n7 m4n5

12.

y5z6 yz3

13.

6r4 4r2

14.

8x9 12x6

15.

⫺16a7 24a6

16.

⫺18b5 27b4

17.

y3 y8

18.

z4 z6

19.

a5 a11

20.

m m7

21.

4x2 12x5

22.

6y8 8y9

23.

⫺12x ⫺18x6

24.

⫺24c2 ⫺36c11

25.

x6y5 x8y

26.

a3b2 a2b3

27.

2m6n2 5m9n10

28.

5r3t7 6r5t7

29.

pq3 p4q4

30.

a4b5 a5b6

31.

3x4y5 6x4y8

32.

14a3b6 21a5b6

33.

14x4y6z2 16x3y9z

34.

24a2b7c9 36a7b5c

35.

15mn9p3 30m4n9p

36.

25x4y7z2 20x5y9z11

39.

1 8⫺2

40.

1 12⫺1

For Exercises 37 to 44, evaluate. 37. 5⫺2

38. 3⫺3

SECTION 4.4

215

Integer Exponents and Scientific Notation

5⫺3 5

43.

2⫺2 2⫺3

44.

32 32

45. x⫺2

46. y⫺10

47.

1 a⫺6

48.

1 b⫺4

49. 4x⫺7

50. ⫺6y⫺1

51.

2 ⫺2 z 3

52.

4 ⫺4 a 5

55.

1 3x⫺2

56.

2 5c⫺6

41.

3⫺2 3

42.

For Exercises 45 to 92, simplify.

53.

5 b⫺8

57. 1ab5 20

54.

⫺3 v⫺3

58. 132x3 y4 20

59. ⫺13p2q5 20

60. ⫺

61. 1⫺2xy⫺2 23

62. 1⫺3x⫺1y2 22

63. 13x⫺1y⫺2 22

64. 15xy⫺3 2⫺2

65. 12x⫺121x⫺3 2

66. 1⫺2x⫺5 2x7

67. 1⫺5a2 21a⫺5 22

68. 12a⫺3 21a7b⫺123

69. 1⫺2ab⫺2 214a⫺2b2⫺2

70. 13ab⫺2 212a⫺1b2⫺3

71. 1⫺5x⫺2 y21⫺2x⫺2 y2 2

72.

73.

3x⫺2 y2 6xy2

74.

77.

2x⫺1y⫺4 4xy2

78.

2x⫺2 y 8xy

1x⫺1y22 xy2

75.

79.

3x⫺2 y xy

1x⫺2y22 x2y3

a⫺3b⫺4 a2b2

76.

80.

2x⫺1y4 x2 y3

1x⫺3y⫺2 22 x6y8

0

216

81.

85.

89.

CHAPTER 4

1a⫺2 y32⫺3 a2y

22a2b4 ⫺132b3c2

13⫺1r4s⫺3 2⫺2 16r 2s⫺1t⫺222

Polynomials

82.

86.

90.

12a2b3 ⫺27a2b2

83.

⫺18a2b4 23

87.

64a3b8

6x⫺4yz⫺1 14xy⫺4z2

⫺3

91.

⫺16xy4 96x4y4

84.

⫺114ab4 22

88.

28a4b2

15m3n⫺2p⫺1 25m⫺2n⫺4

⫺8x2y4 44y2z5

12a⫺2b3 2⫺2 14a2b⫺4 2⫺1

92.

96.

an ⫽ bm

⫺3

18a4b⫺2c4 12ab⫺3d 2

For Exercises 93 to 96, state whether the equation is true or false for all a ⬆ 0 and b ⬆ 0. 93.

a4n ⫽ a4 an

OBJECTIVE B

94. an⫺m ⫽

1 am⫺n

95. a⫺nan ⫽ 1

⫺2

m⫺n

To write a number in scientific notation

For Exercises 97 to 105, write in scientific notation. 97. 0.00000000324

98. 0.00000012

99. 0.000000000000000003

100. 1,800,000,000

101. 32,000,000,000,000,000

102. 76,700,000,000,000

103. 0.000000000000000000122

104. 0.00137

105. 547,000,000

For Exercises 106 to 114, write in decimal notation. 106. 2.3 ⫻ 10⫺12

107. 1.67 ⫻ 10⫺4

108. 2 ⫻ 1015

109. 6.8 ⫻ 107

110. 9 ⫻ 10⫺21

111. 3.05 ⫻ 10⫺5

112. 9.05 ⫻ 1011

113. 1.02 ⫻ 10⫺9

114. 7.2 ⫻ 10⫺3

115. If n is a negative integer, how many zeros appear after the decimal point when 1.35 ⫻ 10 n is written in decimal notation?

SECTION 4.4

Integer Exponents and Scientific Notation

116. If n is a positive integer greater than 1, how many zeros appear before the decimal point when 1.35 ⫻ 10 n is written in decimal notation?

117.

Technology See the news clipping at the right. Express in scientific notation the thickness, in meters, of the memristor.

118. Geology The approximate mass of the planet Earth is 5,980,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg. Write the mass of Earth in scientific notation.

217

In the News HP Introduces the Memristor Hewlett Packard has announced the design of the memristor, a new memory technology with the potential to be much smaller than the memory chips used in today’s computers. HP has made a memristor with a thickness of 0.000000015 m (15 nanometers).

119.

Physics The length of an infrared light wave is approximately 0.0000037 m. Write this number in scientific notation.

120.

Electricity The electric charge on an electron is 0.00000000000000000016 coulomb. Write this number in scientific notation.

AP Images

Source: The New York Times

HP Researchers View Image of Memristor

121. Physics Light travels approximately 16,000,000,000 mi in 1 day. Write this number in scientific notation.

122.

123.

Astronomy One light-year is the distance traveled by light in 1 year. One lightyear is 5,880,000,000,000 mi. Write this number in scientific notation.

Astronomy See the news clipping at the right. WASP-12b orbits a star that is 5.1156 ⫻ 1015 mi from Earth. (Source: news.yahoo.com) Write this number in decimal notation.

In the News Hottest Planet Ever Discovered A planet called WASP12b is the hottest planet ever discovered, at about 4000°F. It orbits its star faster than any other known planet, completing a revolution once a day. Source: news.yahoo.com

124. Chemistry Approximately 35 teragrams 13.5 ⫻ 1013 g2 of sulfur in the atmosphere are converted to sulfate each year. Write this number in decimal notation.

Applying the Concepts 125.

Evaluate 2x when x ⫽ ⫺2, ⫺1, 0, 1, and 2.

126.

Evaluate 2⫺x when x ⫽ ⫺2, ⫺1, 0, 1, and 2.

218

CHAPTER 4

Polynomials

SECTION

4.5

Division of Polynomials

OBJECTIVE A

To divide a polynomial by a monomial To divide a polynomial by a monomial, divide each term in the numerator by the denominator and write the sum of the quotients. 6x3 ⫺ 3x2 ⫹ 9x 3x 3 2 3 2 • Divide each term of the polynomial 6x ⫺ 3x ⫹ 9x 6x 3x 9x ⫽ ⫺ ⫹ by the monomial. 3x 3x 3x 3x

HOW TO • 1

Divide:

⫽ 2x2 ⫺ x ⫹ 3 EXAMPLE • 1

Divide:

• Simplify each term.

YOU TRY IT • 1

12x2y ⫺ 6xy ⫹ 4x2 2xy

Divide:

Solution

24x2y2 ⫺ 18xy ⫹ 6y 6xy

12x2y 6xy 12x2y ⫺ 6xy ⫹ 4x2 4x2 2x ⫽ ⫺ ⫹ ⫽ 6x ⫺ 3 ⫹ 2xy 2xy 2xy 2xy y Solution on p. S11

OBJECTIVE B

Tips for Success An important element of success is practice. We cannot do anything well if we do not practice it repeatedly. Practice is crucial to success in mathematics. In this objective you are learning a new skill, how to divide polynomials. You will need to practice this skill over and over again in order to be successful at it.

To divide polynomials The procedure for dividing two polynomials is similar to the one for dividing whole numbers. The same equation used to check division of whole numbers is used to check polynomial division. (Quotient  divisor)  remainder  dividend Divide: 1x2 ⫺ 5x ⫹ 82 ⫼ 1x ⫺ 32 x x2 • Think: x兲x 2  x x ⫺ 3兲x2 ⫺ 5x ⫹ 8

HOW TO • 2

Step 1

x2 ⫺ 3x ⫺2x ⫹ 8 Step 2

x⫺2 x ⫺ 3兲x2 ⫺ 5x ⫹ 8 x2 ⫺ 3x00 ⫺2x ⫹ 8 ⫺2x ⫹ 6 x⫹2

x • Multiply: x1 x  32  x 2  3x

• Subtract: 1 x 2  5x2  1 x 2  3x2  ⴚ2x Bring down the 8.

ⴚ2x  ⴚ2 x • Multiply: ⴚ21 x  32  ⴚ2x  6 • Think: x兲ⴚ2x 

• Subtract: 1ⴚ2x  82  1ⴚ2x  62  2 • The remainder is 2.

Check: 1x ⫺ 221x ⫺ 32 ⫹ 2 ⫽ x2 ⫺ 5x ⫹ 6 ⫹ 2 ⫽ x2 ⫺ 5x ⫹ 8 2 1x2 ⫺ 5x ⫹ 82 ⫼ 1x ⫺ 32 ⫽ x ⫺ 2 ⫹ x⫺3

SECTION 4.5

Division of Polynomials

219

If a term is missing from the dividend, a zero can be inserted for that term. This helps keep like terms in the same column.

Take Note

HOW TO • 3

Recall that a fraction bar means “divided by.” Therefore, 6 ⫼ 2 can be 6 written , and a ⫼ b can 2 a be written . b

Divide:

6x ⫹ 26 ⫹ 2x3 2⫹x

2x3 ⫹ 6x ⫹ 26 x⫹2 2x2 x ⫹ 2兲2x ⫹ 0 2x3 ⫹ 4x2 ⫺ 4x2 ⫺ 4x2 3

• Arrange the terms of each polynomial in descending order.

⫺ 4x ⫹ 14 ⫹ 6x ⫹ 26

• There is no x 2 term in 2x 3  6x  26. Insert a zero for the missing term.

⫹ 6x ⫺ 8x 14x ⫹ 26 14x ⫹ 28 ⫺2

Check: 12x2 ⫺ 4x ⫹ 1421x ⫹ 22 ⫹ 1⫺22 ⫽ 12x3 ⫹ 6x ⫹ 282 ⫹ 1⫺22 ⫽ 2x3 ⫹ 6x ⫹ 26 12x3 ⫹ 6x ⫹ 262 ⫼ 1x ⫹ 22 ⫽ 2x2 ⫺ 4x ⫹ 14 ⫺ EXAMPLE • 2

2 x⫹2

YOU TRY IT • 2

Divide: 18x2 ⫹ 4x3 ⫹ x ⫺ 42 ⫼ 12x ⫹ 32

Divide: 12x3 ⫹ x2 ⫺ 8x ⫺ 32 ⫼ 12x ⫺ 32

Solution

2x2 3 2x ⫹ 3兲4x ⫹ 8x2 4x3 ⫹ 6x2 2x2 2x2

⫹ 3x ⫺ 1 ⫹ 3x ⫺ 4 ⫹ 6x ⫹ 3x ⫹ 3x ⫺ 2x ⫺ 4 ⫺ 2x ⫺ 3 ⫺1

• Write the dividend in descending powers of x.

14x3 ⫹ 8x2 ⫹ x ⫺ 42 ⫼ 12x ⫹ 32 1 ⫽ 2x2 ⫹ x ⫺ 1 ⫺ 2x ⫹ 3 EXAMPLE • 3

Divide:

YOU TRY IT • 3

x2 ⫺ 1 x⫹1

Divide:

Solution x⫺1 x ⫹ 1兲x2 ⫹ 0 ⫺ 1 x2 ⫹ x ⫺ 1 ⫺x⫺1 ⫺x⫺1 0

x3 ⫺ 2x ⫹ 1 x⫺1

Your solution • Insert a zero for the missing term.

1x2 ⫺ 12 ⫼ 1x ⫹ 12 ⫽ x ⫺ 1

Solutions on p. S11

220

CHAPTER 4

Polynomials

4.5 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To divide a polynomial by a monomial

1. Every division problem has a related multiplication problem. What is the related 15x 2 ⫹ 12x multiplication problem for the division problem ⫽ 5x ⫹ 4? 3x For Exercises 2 to 22, divide. 2.

10a ⫺ 25 5

3.

16b ⫺ 40 8

4.

6y2 ⫹ 4y y

5.

4b3 ⫺ 3b b

6.

3x2 ⫺ 6x 3x

7.

10y2 ⫺ 6y 2y

8.

5x2 ⫺ 10x ⫺5x

9.

3y2 ⫺ 27y ⫺3y

10.

x3 ⫹ 3x2 ⫺ 5x x

11.

a3 ⫺ 5a2 ⫹ 7a a

12.

x6 ⫺ 3x4 ⫺ x2 x2

13.

a8 ⫺ 5a5 ⫺ 3a3 a2

14.

5x2y2 ⫹ 10xy 5xy

15.

8x2y2 ⫺ 24xy 8xy

16.

9y6 ⫺ 15y3 ⫺3y3

17.

4x4 ⫺ 6x2 ⫺2x2

18.

3x2 ⫺ 2x ⫹ 1 x

19.

8y2 ⫹ 2y ⫺ 3 y

20.

16a2b ⫺ 20ab ⫹ 24ab2 4ab

21.

22a2b ⫺ 11ab ⫺ 33ab2 11ab

22.

5a2b ⫺ 15ab ⫹ 30ab2 5ab

OBJECTIVE B

To divide polynomials

For Exercises 23 to 49, divide. 23. 1b2 ⫺ 14b ⫹ 492 ⫼ 1b ⫺ 72

24. 1x2 ⫺ x ⫺ 62 ⫼ 1x ⫺ 32

25. 1y2 ⫹ 2y ⫺ 352 ⫼ 1y ⫹ 72

26. 12x2 ⫹ 5x ⫹ 22 ⫼ 1x ⫹ 22

27. 12y2 ⫺ 13y ⫹ 212 ⫼ 1y ⫺ 32

28. 14x2 ⫺ 162 ⫼ 12x ⫹ 42

SECTION 4.5

Division of Polynomials

29.

2y2 ⫹ 7 y⫺3

30.

x2 ⫹ 1 x⫺1

31.

x2 ⫹ 4 x⫹2

32.

6x2 ⫺ 7x 3x ⫺ 2

33.

6y2 ⫹ 2y 2y ⫹ 4

34.

5x2 ⫹ 7x x⫺1

35. 16x2 ⫺ 52 ⫼ 1x ⫹ 22

38.

2y2 ⫺ 9y ⫹ 8 2y ⫹ 3

40. 18x ⫹ 3 ⫹ 4x2 2 ⫼ 12x ⫺ 12

42.

15a2 ⫺ 8a ⫺ 8 3a ⫹ 2

44. 15 ⫺ 23x ⫹ 12x2 2 ⫼ 14x ⫺ 12

46.

5x ⫹ 3x2 ⫹ x3 ⫹ 3 x⫹1

48. 1x4 ⫺ x2 ⫺ 62 ⫼ 1x2 ⫹ 22

36. 1a2 ⫹ 5a ⫹ 102 ⫼ 1a ⫹ 22

39.

37. 1b2 ⫺ 8b ⫺ 92 ⫼ 1b ⫺ 32

3x2 ⫹ 5x ⫺ 4 x⫺4

41. 110 ⫹ 21y ⫹ 10y2 2 ⫼ 12y ⫹ 32

43.

12a2 ⫺ 25a ⫺ 7 3a ⫺ 7

45. 124 ⫹ 6a2 ⫹ 25a2 ⫼ 13a ⫺ 12

47.

7x ⫹ x3 ⫺ 6x2 ⫺ 2 x⫺1

49. 1x4 ⫹ 3x2 ⫺ 102 ⫼ 1x2 ⫺ 22

50. True or false? When a sixth-degree polynomial is divided by a third-degree polynomial, the quotient is a second-degree polynomial.

Applying the Concepts 51. The product of a monomial and 4b is 12ab2. Find the monomial. 52. In your own words, explain how to divide exponential expressions.

221

222

CHAPTER 4

Polynomials

FOCUS ON PROBLEM SOLVING Dimensional Analysis

In solving application problems, it may be useful to include the units in order to organize the problem so that the answer is in the proper units. Using units to organize and check the correctness of an application is called dimensional analysis. We use the operations of multiplying units and dividing units in applying dimensional analysis to application problems. The Rule for Multiplying Exponential Expressions states that we multiply two expressions with the same base by adding the exponents. x4 ⭈ x6 ⫽ x4 ⫹6 ⫽ x10 In calculations that involve quantities, the units are operated on algebraically. HOW TO • 1

A rectangle measures 3 m by 5 m. Find the area of the rectangle.

A ⫽ LW ⫽ 13 m215 m2 ⫽ 13 ⭈ 521m ⭈ m2 ⫽ 15 m2

5m 3m

The area of the rectangle is 15 m2 (square meters). HOW TO • 2

3 cm 5 cm

10 cm

A box measures 10 cm by 5 cm by 3 cm. Find the volume of

the box.

V ⫽ LWH ⫽ 110 cm215 cm213 cm2 ⫽ 110 ⭈ 5 ⭈ 321cm ⭈ cm ⭈ cm2 ⫽ 150 cm3 The volume of the box is 150 cm3 (cubic centimeters). HOW TO • 3

(3x + 5) in.

Find the area of a square whose side measures 13x ⫹ 52 in.

A ⫽ s2 ⫽ 313x ⫹ 52 in. 4 2 ⫽ 13x ⫹ 522 in2 ⫽ 19x2 ⫹ 30x ⫹ 252 in2 The area of the square is 19x2 ⫹ 30x ⫹ 252 in2 (square inches).

Dimensional analysis is used in the conversion of units. The following example converts the unit miles to feet. The equivalent measures 1 mi ⫽ 5280 ft are used to form the following rates, which are called conversion 1 mi 5280 ft

5280 ft 1 mi and . Because 5280 ft 1 mi 5280 ft 1 mi and are equal to 1. 5280 ft 1 mi

factors:

1 mi ⫽ 5280 ft, both of the conversion factors

To convert 3 mi to feet, multiply 3 mi by the conversion factor 3 mi 15,840 ft

3 mi ⫽ 3 mi ⭈ 1 ⫽

5280 ft . 1 mi

3 mi 5280 ft 3 mi ⭈ 5280 ft ⭈ ⫽ ⫽ 3 ⭈ 5280 ft ⫽ 15,840 ft 1 1 mi 1 mi

There are two important points in the above illustration. First, you can think of dividing the numerator and denominator by the common unit “mile” just as you would divide the numerator and denominator of a fraction by a common factor. Second, the conversion factor

5280 ft 1 mi

is equal to 1, and multiplying an expression by

1 does not change the value of the expression.

Focus on Problem Solving

223

In the application problem that follows, the units are kept in the problem while the problem is worked. In 2008, a horse named Big Brown ran a 1.25-mile race in 2.02 min. Find Big Brown’s average speed for that race in miles per hour. Round to the nearest tenth. Strategy

d t

To find the average speed, use the formula r ⫽ , where r is the speed, d is the distance, and t is the time. Use the conversion factor

Solution

r⫽

60 min . 1h

1.25 mi d 1.25 mi 60 min ⫽ ⫽ ⭈ t 2.02 min 2.02 min 1h ⫽

75 mi ⬇ 37.1 mph 2.02 h

AP Images

Big Brown’s average speed was 37.1 mph.

“Big Brown”

Try each of the following problems. Round to the nearest tenth or nearest cent. 1. Convert 88 ft兾s to miles per hour. 2. Convert 8 m兾s to kilometers per hour (1 km ⫽ 1000 m). 3. A carpet is to be placed in a meeting hall that is 36 ft wide and 80 ft long. At \$21.50 per square yard, how much will it cost to carpet the meeting hall? 4. A carpet is to be placed in a room that is 20 ft wide and 30 ft long. At \$22.25 per square yard, how much will it cost to carpet the area? 5. Find the number of gallons of water in a fish tank that is 36 in. long and 24 in. wide and is filled to a depth of 16 in. (1 gal ⫽ 231 in3). 6. Find the number of gallons of water in a fish tank that is 24 in. long and 18 in. wide and is filled to a depth of 12 in. (1 gal ⫽ 231 in3). 1 4

7. A -acre commercial lot is on sale for \$2.15 per square foot. Find the sale price of the commercial lot (1 acre ⫽ 43,560 ft2). 8. A 0.75-acre industrial parcel was sold for \$98,010. Find the parcel’s price per square foot (1 acre ⫽ 43,560 ft2).

9. A new driveway will require 800 ft3 of concrete. Concrete is ordered by the cubic yard. How much concrete should be ordered? 10. A piston-engined dragster traveled 440 yd in 4.936 s at Ennis, Texas, on October 9, 1988. Find the average speed of the dragster in miles per hour. 11. The Marianas Trench in the Pacific Ocean is the deepest part of the ocean. Its depth is 6.85 mi. The speed of sound under water is 4700 ft兾s. Find the time it takes sound to travel from the surface of the ocean to the bottom of the Marianas Trench and back.

224

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Polynomials

PROJECTS AND GROUP ACTIVITIES Diagramming the Square of a Binomial

1. Explain why the diagram at the right represents 1a ⫹ b22 ⫽ a2 ⫹ 2ab ⫹ b2. 2. Draw similar diagrams representing each of the following.

a

b

a2

ab

b ab

b2

a

1x ⫹ 222

1x ⫹ 422

Pascal’s Triangle

Simplifying the power of a binomial is called expanding the binomial. The expansions of the first three powers of a binomial are shown below. 1a ⫹ b21 ⫽ a ⫹ b

Point of Interest Pascal did not invent the triangle of numbers known as Pascal’s Triangle. It was known to mathematicians in China probably as early as 1050 A.D. But Pascal’s Traite du triangle arithmetique (Treatise Concerning the Arithmetical Triangle) brought together all the different aspects of the triangle of numbers for the first time.

1a ⫹ b22 ⫽ 1a ⫹ b21a ⫹ b2 ⫽ a2 ⫹ 2ab ⫹ b2

1a ⫹ b23 ⫽ 1a ⫹ b221a ⫹ b2 ⫽ 1a2 ⫹ 2ab ⫹ b221a ⫹ b2 ⫽ a3 ⫹ 3a2b ⫹ 3ab2 ⫹ b3 Find 1a ⫹ b24. [Hint: 1a ⫹ b24 ⫽ 1a ⫹ b231a ⫹ b2] Find 1a ⫹ b25. [Hint: 1a ⫹ b25 ⫽ 1a ⫹ b241a ⫹ b2] If we continue in this way, the results for 1a ⫹ b26 are

1a ⫹ b26 ⫽ a6 ⫹ 6a5b ⫹ 15a4b2 ⫹ 20a3b3 ⫹ 15a2b4 ⫹ 6ab5 ⫹ b6

Now expand 1a ⫹ b28. Before you begin, see whether you can find a pattern that will help you write the expansion of 1a ⫹ b28 without having to multiply it out. Here are some hints. 1. Write out the variable terms of each binomial expansion from 1a ⫹ b21 through 1a ⫹ b26. Observe how the exponents on the variables change. 2

1 1 1 1

5 6

1

3

3

4

1

1

6 10

15

2. Write out the coefficients of all the terms without the variable parts. It will be helpful if you make a triangular arrangement as shown at the left. Note that each row begins and ends with a 1. Also note (in the two shaded regions, for example) that any number in a row is the sum of the two closest numbers above it. For instance, 1 ⫹ 5 ⫽ 6 and 6 ⫹ 4 ⫽ 10.

1

1

1

4 10

20

15

5

1 6

1

The triangle of numbers shown at the left is called Pascal’s Triangle. To find the expansion of 1a ⫹ b28, you need to find the eighth row of Pascal’s Triangle. First find row seven. Then find row eight and use the patterns you have observed to write the expansion 1a ⫹ b28. Pascal’s Triangle has been the subject of extensive analysis, and many patterns have been found. See whether you can find some of them.

Chapter 4 Summary

225

CHAPTER 4

SUMMARY KEY WORDS

EXAMPLES

A monomial is a number, a variable, or a product of numbers and variables. [4.1A, p. 192]

5 is a number; y is a variable. 2a3b2 is a product of numbers and variables. 5, y, and 2a3b2 are monomials.

A polynomial is a variable expression in which the terms are monomials. [4.1A, p. 192]

5x2y ⫺ 3xy2 ⫹ 2 is a polynomial. Each term of this expression is a monomial.

A polynomial of two terms is a binomial. [4.1A, p. 192]

x ⫹ 2, y2 ⫺ 3, and 6a ⫹ 5b are binomials.

A polynomial of three terms is a trinomial. [4.1A, p. 192]

x2 ⫺ 6x ⫹ 7 is a trinomial.

The degree of a polynomial in one variable is the greatest exponent on a variable. [4.1A, p. 192]

The degree of 3x ⫺ 4x3 ⫹ 17x2 ⫹ 25 is 3.

A polynomial in one variable is usually written in descending order, where the exponents on the variable terms decrease from left to right. [4.1A, p. 192]

The polynomial 2x4 ⫹ 3x2 ⫺ 4x ⫺ 7 is written in descending order.

The opposite of a polynomial is the polynomial with the sign of every term changed to its opposite. [4.1B, p. 193]

The opposite of the polynomial x2 ⫺ 3x ⫹ 4 is ⫺x2 ⫹ 3x ⫺ 4.

ESSENTIAL RULES AND PROCEDURES

EXAMPLES

12x2 ⫹ 3x ⫺ 42 ⫹ 13x3 ⫺ 4x2 ⫹ 2x ⫺ 52 ⫽ 3x3 ⫹ 12x2 ⫺ 4x22 ⫹ 13x ⫹ 2x2 ⫹ 1⫺4 ⫺ 52 ⫽ 3x3 ⫺ 2x2 ⫹ 5x ⫺ 9

Subtraction of Polynomials [4.1B, p. 193]

To subtract polynomials, add the opposite of the second polynomial to the first.

Rule for Multiplying Exponential Expressions [4.2A, p. 196]

If m and n are integers, then x ⭈ x ⫽ x m

n

m⫹n

.

13y2 ⫺ 8y ⫺ 92 ⫺ 15y2 ⫺ 10y ⫹ 32 ⫽ 13y2 ⫺ 8y ⫺ 92 ⫹ 1⫺5y2 ⫹ 10y ⫺ 32 ⫽ 13y2 ⫺ 5y22 ⫹ 1⫺8y ⫹ 10y2 ⫹ 1⫺9 ⫺ 32 ⫽ ⫺2y2 ⫹ 2y ⫺ 12 a3 ⭈ a6 ⫽ a3 ⫹6 ⫽ a9

226

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Polynomials

Rule for Simplifying the Power of an Exponential Expression [4.2B, p. 197]

If m and n are integers, then 1xm2n ⫽ xmn.

1c324 ⫽ c3⭈4 ⫽ c12

Rule for Simplifying the Power of a Product [4.2B, p. 197]

If m, n, and p are integers, then 1xmyn2 p ⫽ xmpynp.

1a3b224 ⫽ a3 ⭈4b2 ⭈4 ⫽ a12b8

To multiply a polynomial by a monomial, use the Distributive Property and the Rule for Multiplying Exponential Expressions. [4.3A, p. 200]

1⫺4y215y2 ⫹ 3y ⫺ 82 ⫽ 1⫺4y215y22 ⫹ 1⫺4y213y2 ⫺ 1⫺4y2182 ⫽ ⫺20y3 ⫺ 12y2 ⫹ 32y x2 ⫺ 5x ⫹ 6 x⫹ 4

To multiply two polynomials, multiply each term of one

polynomial by each term of the other polynomial. [4.3B, p. 200]

4x2 ⫺ 20x ⫹ 24 x ⫺ 5x2 ⫹ 6x 3

x3 ⫺ x2 ⫺ 14x ⫹ 24 FOIL Method [4.3C, p. 201]

To find the product of two binomials, add the products of the First terms, the Outer terms, the Inner terms, and the Last terms.

Product of the Sum and Difference of the Same Terms

[4.3D, p. 202] 1a ⫹ b21a ⫺ b2 ⫽ a2 ⫺ b2 Square of a Binomial [4.3D, p. 202]

1a ⫹ b22 ⫽ a2 ⫹ 2ab ⫹ b2 共a ⫺ b兲2 ⫽ a2 ⫺ 2ab ⫹ b2

12x ⫺ 5213x ⫹ 42 ⫽ 12x213x2 ⫹ 12x2142 ⫹ 1⫺5213x2 ⫹ 1⫺52142 ⫽ 6x2 ⫹ 8x ⫺ 15x ⫺ 20 ⫽ 6x2 ⫺ 7x ⫺ 20

13x ⫹ 4213x ⫺ 42 ⫽ 13x22 ⫺ 42 ⫽ 9x2 ⫺ 16

12x ⫹ 522 ⫽ 12x22 ⫹ 212x2152 ⫹ 52 ⫽ 4x2 ⫹ 20x ⫹ 25 2 13x ⫺ 42 ⫽ 13x22 ⫺ 213x2142 ⫹ 1⫺422 ⫽ 9x2 ⫺ 24x ⫹ 16

Definition of Zero as an Exponent [4.4A, p. 208]

If x 苷 0, then x0 ⫽ 1.

170 ⫽ 1; 1⫺6c20 ⫽ 1, c 苷 0

Definition of a Negative Exponent [4.4A, p. 209]

If x 苷 0 and n is a positive integer, then x⫺n ⫽

1 1 n n and ⫺n ⫽ x . x x

x⫺6 ⫽

1 1 and ⫺6 ⫽ x6 6 x x

Chapter 4 Summary

Rule for Simplifying the Power of a Quotient [4.4A, p. 210]

If m, n, and p are integers and y 苷 0, then

p

Rule for Negative Exponents on Fractional Expressions

[4.4A, p. 210] If a 苷 0, b 苷 0, and n is a positive integer, then

⫺n

x mp . y np

b a

n

2

227

c3 ⭈2 c6 ⫽ 10 5 ⭈2 a a

⫺3

y x

3

Rule for Dividing Exponential Expressions [4.4A, p. 210]

If m and n are integers and x 苷 0, then

xm xn

⫽ xm⫺n.

a7 ⫽ a7⫺2 ⫽ a5 a2

To Express a Number in Scientific Notation [4.4B, p. 213]

To express a number in scientific notation, write it in the form a ⫻ 10n, where 1 ⱕ a ⬍ 10 and n is an integer. If the number is greater than 10, then n is a positive integer. If the number is between 0 and 1, then n is a negative integer.

367,000,000 ⫽ 3.67 ⫻ 108 0.0000078 ⫽ 7.8 ⫻ 10⫺6

To Change a Number in Scientific Notation to Decimal Notation [4.4B, p. 213]

To change a number in scientific notation to decimal notation, move the decimal point to the right if n is positive and to the left if n is negative. Move the decimal point the same number of places as the absolute value of the exponent on 10.

2.418 ⫻ 107 ⫽ 24,180,000 9.06 ⫻ 10⫺5 ⫽ 0.0000906

To divide a polynomial by a monomial, divide each term in

8xy3 ⫺ 4y2 ⫹ 12y 4y 8xy3 4y2 12y ⫽ ⫺ ⫹ 4y 4y 4y 2 ⫽ 2xy ⫺ y ⫹ 3

the numerator by the denominator and write the sum of the quotients. [4.5A, p. 218]

To check polynomial division, use the same equation used to check division of whole numbers:

x⫺ 4 x ⫹ 3兲x2 ⫺ x ⫺ 10 x2 ⫹ 3x

(Quotient ⫻ divisor) ⫹ remainder ⫽ dividend

⫺4x ⫺ 10 ⫺4x ⫺ 12

[4.5B, p. 218]

2 Check: 1x ⫺ 421x ⫹ 32 ⫹ 2 ⫽ x2 ⫺ x ⫺ 12 ⫹ 2 ⫽ x2 ⫺ x ⫺ 10 1x2 ⫺ x ⫺ 102 ⫼ 1x ⫹ 32 ⫽ x ⫺ 4 ⫹

2 x⫹3

228

CHAPTER 4

Polynomials

CHAPTER 4

1. Why is it important to write the terms of a polynomial in descending order before adding in a vertical format?

2. What is the opposite of ⫺7x3 ⫹ 3x2 ⫺ 4x ⫺ 2?

3. When multiplying the terms 4p3 and 7p6, what happens to the exponents?

4. Why is the simplification of the expression ⫺4b(2b2 ⫺ 3b ⫺ 5) ⫽ ⫺8b3 ⫹ 12b ⫹ 20 not true?

5. How do you multiply two binomials?

6. Simplify

w2x4yz6 . w3xy4z0

7. Simplify

⫺2

.

8. How do you write a very large number in scientific notation?

9. What is wrong with this simplification?

14x3 ⫺ 8x2 ⫺ 6x 2x

10. How do you check polynomial division?

⫽ 7x2 ⫺ 8x2 ⫺ 6x

Chapter 4 Review Exercises

229

CHAPTER 4

REVIEW EXERCISES 1. Multiply: 12b ⫺ 3214b ⫹ 52

2. Add: 112y2 ⫹ 17y ⫺ 42 ⫹ 19y2 ⫺ 13y ⫹ 32

3. Simplify: 1xy5z321x3y3z2

4. Simplify:

8x12 12x9

5. Multiply: ⫺2x14x2 ⫹ 7x ⫺ 92

6. Simplify:

3ab4 ⫺6a2b4

7. Simplify: 1⫺2u3v424

8. Evaluate: 12322

9. Subtract: 15x2 ⫺ 2x ⫺ 12 ⫺ 13x2 ⫺ 5x ⫹ 72

10. Simplify:

a⫺1b3 a3b⫺3

11. Simplify: 1⫺2x3221⫺3x423

12. Expand: 15y ⫺ 722

13. Simplify: 15a7b62214ab2

14. Divide:

15. Evaluate: ⫺4⫺2

16. Subtract: 113y3 ⫺ 7y ⫺ 22 ⫺ 112y2 ⫺ 2y ⫺ 12

17. Divide:

7 ⫺ x ⫺ x2 x⫹3

19. Multiply: 13y2 ⫹ 4y ⫺ 7212y ⫹ 32

12b7 ⫹ 36b5 ⫺ 3b3 3b3

18. Multiply: 12a ⫺ b21x ⫺ 2y2

20. Divide: 1b3 ⫺ 2b2 ⫺ 33b ⫺ 72 ⫼ 1b ⫺ 72

230

CHAPTER 4

Polynomials

21. Multiply: 2ab314a2 ⫺ 2ab ⫹ 3b22

22. Multiply: 12a ⫺ 5b212a ⫹ 5b2

23. Multiply: 16b3 ⫺ 2b2 ⫺ 5212b2 ⫺ 12

24. Add: 12x3 ⫹ 7x2 ⫹ x2 ⫹ 12x2 ⫺ 4x ⫺ 122

25. Divide:

16y2 ⫺ 32y ⫺4y

26. Multiply: 1a ⫹ 721a ⫺ 72

27. Write 37,560,000,000 in scientific notation.

28. Write 1.46 ⫻ 107 in decimal notation.

29. Simplify: 12a12b321⫺9b2c6213ac2

30. Divide: 16y2 ⫺ 35y ⫹ 362 ⫼ 13y ⫺ 42

31. Simplify: 1⫺3x⫺2y⫺32⫺2

32. Multiply: 15a ⫺ 7212a ⫹ 92

33. Write 0.000000127 in scientific notation.

34. Write 3.2 ⫻ 10⫺12 in decimal notation.

36. Geometry The side of a checkerboard is 13x ⫺ 22 in. Express the area of the checkerboard in terms of the variable x.

35. Geometry The length of a table-tennis table is 1 ft less than twice the width of the table. Let w represent the width of the table-tennis table. Express the area of the table in terms of the variable w.

Chapter 4 Test

CHAPTER 4

TEST 1.

Multiply: 2x12x2 ⫺ 3x2

3.

Simplify:

12x3 ⫺ 3x2 ⫹ 9 3x2

2.

Divide:

12x2 ⫺3x8

4.

Simplify: 1⫺2xy2213x2y42

5.

Divide: 1x2 ⫹ 12 ⫼ 1x ⫹ 12

6.

Multiply: 1x ⫺ 321x2 ⫺ 4x ⫹ 52

7.

Simplify: 1⫺2a2b23

8.

Simplify:

9.

Multiply: 1a ⫺ 2b21a ⫹ 5b2

10.

Divide:

11.

Divide: 1x2 ⫹ 6x ⫺ 72 ⫼ 1x ⫺ 12

12.

Multiply: ⫺3y21⫺2y2 ⫹ 3y ⫺ 62

13.

Multiply: 1⫺2x3 ⫹ x2 ⫺ 7212x ⫺ 32

14.

Multiply: 14y ⫺ 3214y ⫹ 32

(3x⫺2y3)3 3x4y⫺1

16x5 ⫺ 8x3 ⫹ 20x 4x

231

232

CHAPTER 4

Polynomials

15.

Simplify: 1ab221a3b52

17.

Divide:

2a⫺1b 2⫺2a⫺2b⫺3

16.

Simplify:

20a ⫺ 35 5

18.

Subtract: 13a2 ⫺ 2a ⫺ 72 ⫺ 15a3 ⫹ 2a ⫺ 102

19.

Expand: 12x ⫺ 522

20.

Divide: 14x2 ⫺ 72 ⫼ 12x ⫺ 32

21.

Simplify:

22.

Multiply: 12x ⫺ 7y215x ⫺ 4y2

23.

Add: 13x3 ⫺ 2x2 ⫺ 42 ⫹ 18x2 ⫺ 8x ⫹ 72

24.

Write 0.00000000302 in scientific notation.

25.

⫺(2x2y)3 4x3y3

Geometry The radius of a circle is 1x ⫺ 52 m. Use the equation A ⫽ ␲ r 2, where r is the radius, to find the area of the circle in terms of the variable x. Leave the answer in terms of ␲.

x−5

Cumulative Review Exercises

CUMULATIVE REVIEW EXERCISES

1. Simplify:

3 5 ⫺ ⫺ 16 8

3. Simplify:

3

7 9

3 5 ⫺ 8 6

2. Evaluate ⫺32 ⭈

⫹2

4. Evaluate

⭈ ⫺

b ⫺ 1a ⫺ b22

and b ⫽ 3.

b2

5 . 8

when a ⫽ ⫺2

5. Simplify: ⫺2x ⫺ 1⫺xy2 ⫹ 7x ⫺ 4xy

6. Simplify: 112x2 ⫺

7. Simplify: ⫺2 33x ⫺ 214 ⫺ 3x2 ⫹ 24

3 8. Solve: 12 ⫽ ⫺ x 4

9. Solve: 2x ⫺ 9 ⫽ 3x ⫹ 7

3

3 4

10. Solve: 2 ⫺ 314 ⫺ x2 ⫽ 2x ⫹ 5

11. 35.2 is what percent of 160?

12. Add: 14b3 ⫺ 7b2 ⫺ 72 ⫹ 13b2 ⫺ 8b ⫹ 32

13. Subtract: 13y3 ⫺ 5y ⫹ 82 ⫺ 1⫺2y2 ⫹ 5y ⫹ 82

14. Simplify: 1a3b523

15. Simplify: 14xy321⫺2x2y32

16. Multiply: ⫺2y21⫺3y2 ⫺ 4y ⫹ 82

233

234

17.

CHAPTER 4

Polynomials

Multiply: 12a ⫺ 7215a2 ⫺ 2a ⫹ 32

(⫺2a2b322

18.

Multiply: 13b ⫺ 2215b ⫺ 722

20.

Divide: 1a2 ⫺ 4a ⫺ 212 ⫼ 1a ⫹ 32

19.

Simplify:

21.

Write 6.09 ⫻ 10⫺5 in decimal notation.

22.

Translate “the difference between eight times a number and twice the number is eighteen” into an equation and solve.

23.

Mixtures Fifty ounces of orange juice are added to 200 oz of a fruit punch that is 10% orange juice. What is the percent concentration of orange juice in the resulting mixture?

24.

Transportation A car traveling at 50 mph overtakes a cyclist who, riding at 10 mph, has had a 2-hour head start. How far from the starting point does the car overtake the cyclist?

25.

Geometry The width of a rectangle is 40% of the length. The perimeter of the rectangle is 42 m. Find the length and width of the rectangle.

8a4b8

CHAPTER

5

Factoring

VisionsofAmerica/Joe Sohm/Digital Vision/Getty Images

OBJECTIVES SECTION 5.1 A To factor a monomial from a polynomial B To factor by grouping SECTION 5.2 A To factor a trinomial of the form x 2 ⫹ bx ⫹ c B To factor completely SECTION 5.3 A To factor a trinomial of the form ax 2 ⫹ bx ⫹ c by using trial factors B To factor a trinomial of the form ax 2 ⫹ bx ⫹ c by grouping SECTION 5.4 A To factor the difference of two squares and perfect-square trinomials B To factor completely SECTION 5.5 A To solve equations by factoring B To solve application problems

ARE YOU READY? Take the Chapter 5 Prep Test to find out if you are ready to learn to: • • • •

Factor a monomial from a polynomial Factor by grouping Factor trinomials Factor the difference of two squares and perfect-square trinomials • Solve equations by factoring PREP TEST Do these exercises to prepare for Chapter 5. 1.

Write 30 as a product of prime numbers.

2.

Simplify: ⫺3共4y ⫺ 5兲

3.

Simplify: ⫺共a ⫺ b兲

4.

Simplify: 2共a ⫺ b兲 ⫺ 5共a ⫺ b兲

5.

Solve: 4x ⫽ 0

6.

Solve: 2x ⫹ 1 ⫽ 0

7.

Multiply: 共x ⫹ 4兲共x ⫺ 6兲

8.

Multiply: 共2x ⫺ 5兲共3x ⫹ 2兲

9.

Simplify:

x5 x2

10.

Simplify:

6x4y3 2xy2

235

236

CHAPTER 5

Factoring

SECTION

5.1 OBJECTIVE A

Common Factors To factor a monomial from a polynomial In Section 1.5C we discussed how to find the greatest common factor (GCF) of two or more integers. The greatest common factor (GCF) of two or more monomials is the product of the GCF of the coefficients and the common variable factors.

6x3y ⫽ 2 ⭈ 3 ⭈ x ⭈ x ⭈ x ⭈ y 8x2y2 ⫽ 2 ⭈ 2 ⭈ 2 ⭈ x ⭈ x ⭈ y ⭈ y GCF ⫽ 2 ⭈ x ⭈ x ⭈ y ⫽ 2x2y

Note that the exponent on each variable in the GCF is the same as the smallest exponent on that variable in either of the monomials.

The GCF of 6x3y and 8x2y2 is 2x2y.

HOW TO • 1

Find the GCF of 12a4b and 18a2b2c. 12a4b ⫽ 2 ⭈ 2 ⭈ 3 ⭈ a4 ⭈ b 18a2b2c ⫽ 2 ⭈ 3 ⭈ 3 ⭈ a2 ⭈ b2 ⭈ c GCF ⫽ 2 ⭈ 3 ⭈ a2 ⭈ b ⫽ 6a2b

The common variable factors are a2 and b; c is not a common variable factor.

To factor a polynomial means to write the polynomial as a product of other polynomials. In the example at the right, 2x is the GCF of the terms 2x2 and 10x.

Multiply

Polynomial 2x2 ⫹ 10x

Factors 2x冢 x ⫹ 5冣

Factor

HOW TO • 2

Factor: 5x3 ⫺ 35x2 ⫹ 10x

Find the GCF of the terms of the polynomial. 5x3 ⫽ 5 ⭈ x3 35x2 ⫽ 5 ⭈ 7 ⭈ x2 10x ⫽ 2 ⭈ 5 ⭈ x The GCF is 5x.

Take Note At the right, the factors in parentheses are determined by dividing each term of the trinomial by the GCF, 5x. 5x 3 ⫺35x 2 ⫽ x 2, ⫽ ⫺7x , and 5x 5x 10x ⫽2 5x

Rewrite the polynomial, expressing each term as a product with the GCF as one of the factors. 5x3 ⫺ 35x2 ⫹ 10x ⫽ 5x共x2兲 ⫹ 5x共⫺7x兲 ⫹ 5x共2兲 ⫽ 5x共x2 ⫺ 7x ⫹ 2兲

• Use the Distributive Property to write the polynomial as a product of factors.

SECTION 5.1

Common Factors

237

Factor: 21x2y3 ⫺ 6xy5 ⫹ 15x4y2 Find the GCF of the terms of the polynomial. 21x2y3 ⫽ 3 ⭈ 7 ⭈ x2 ⭈ y3 6xy5 ⫽ 2 ⭈ 3 ⭈ x ⭈ y5 15x4y2 ⫽ 3 ⭈ 5 ⭈ x4 ⭈ y2

HOW TO • 3

The GCF is 3xy2. Rewrite the polynomial, expressing each term as a product with the GCF as one of the factors. 21x2y3 ⫺ 6xy5 ⫹ 15x4y2 ⫽ 3xy2共7xy兲 ⫹ 3xy2共⫺2y3兲 ⫹ 3xy2共5x3兲 ⫽ 3xy2共7xy ⫺ 2y3 ⫹ 5x3兲

EXAMPLE • 1

• Use the Distributive Property to write the polynomial as a product of factors.

YOU TRY IT • 1

Factor: 8x ⫹ 2xy

Factor: 14a2 ⫺ 21a4b

Solution The GCF is 2x.

2

8x2 ⫹ 2xy ⫽ 2x共4x兲 ⫹ 2x共y兲 ⫽ 2x共4x ⫹ y兲

EXAMPLE • 2

YOU TRY IT • 2

Factor: n3 ⫺ 5n2 ⫹ 2n

Factor: 27b2 ⫹ 18b ⫹ 9

Solution The GCF is n.

n3 ⫺ 5n2 ⫹ 2n ⫽ n共n2兲 ⫹ n共⫺5n兲 ⫹ n共2兲 ⫽ n共n2 ⫺ 5n ⫹ 2兲

EXAMPLE • 3

YOU TRY IT • 3

Factor: 16x2y ⫹ 8x4y2 ⫺ 12x4y5

Factor: 6x4y2 ⫺ 9x3y2 ⫹ 12x2y4

Solution The GCF is 4x2y.

16x2y ⫹ 8x4y2 ⫺ 12x4y5 ⫽ 4x2y共4兲 ⫹ 4x2y共2x2y兲 ⫹ 4x2y共⫺3x2y4兲 ⫽ 4x2y共4 ⫹ 2x2y ⫺ 3x2y4兲

Solutions on p. S11

238

CHAPTER 5

OBJECTIVE B

Factoring

To factor by grouping A factor that has two terms is called a binomial factor. In the examples at the right, the binomials a ⫹ b and x ⫺ y are binomial factors.

2a共a ⫹ b兲2 3xy共x ⫺ y兲

The Distributive Property is used to factor a common binomial factor from an expression. The common binomial factor of the expression 6共x ⫺ 3兲 ⫹ y共x ⫺ 3兲 is 共x ⫺ 3兲. To factor the expression, use the Distributive Property to write the expression as a product of factors.

6共x ⫺ 3兲 ⫹ y共x ⫺ 3兲 ⫽ 共x ⫺ 3兲共6 ⫹ y兲

Consider the following simplification of ⫺共a ⫺ b兲. ⫺共a ⫺ b兲 ⫽ ⫺1共a ⫺ b兲 ⫽ ⫺a ⫹ b ⫽ b ⫺ a Thus

b ⫺ a ⫽ ⫺共a ⫺ b兲

This equation is sometimes used to factor a common binomial from an expression. HOW TO • 4

Factor: 2x共x ⫺ y兲 ⫹ 5共 y ⫺ x兲

2x共x ⫺ y兲 ⫹ 5共 y ⫺ x兲 ⫽ 2x共x ⫺ y兲 ⫺ 5共x ⫺ y兲 ⫽ 共x ⫺ y兲共2x ⫺ 5兲

• 5(y  x)  5[(1)( x  y )]  5( x  y )

A polynomial can be factored by grouping if its terms can be grouped and factored in such a way that a common binomial factor is found. HOW TO • 5

Factor: ax ⫹ bx ⫺ ay ⫺ by

ax ⫹ bx ⫺ ay ⫺ by ⫽ 共ax ⫹ bx兲 ⫺ 共ay ⫹ by兲 ⫽ x共a ⫹ b兲 ⫺ y共a ⫹ b兲 ⫽ 共a ⫹ b兲共x ⫺ y兲

• Group the first two terms and the last two terms. Note that ay  by  (ay  by). • Factor each group. • Factor the GCF, (a ⫹ b), from each group.

Check: (a ⫹ b)(x ⫺ y) ⫽ ax ⫺ ay ⫹ bx ⫺ by ⫽ ax ⫹ bx ⫺ ay ⫺ by

HOW TO • 6

Factor: 6x2 ⫺ 9x ⫺ 4xy ⫹ 6y

6x2 ⫺ 9x ⫺ 4xy ⫹ 6y ⫽ 共6x2 ⫺ 9x兲 ⫺ 共4xy ⫺ 6y兲 ⫽ 3x共2x ⫺ 3兲 ⫺ 2y共2x ⫺ 3兲 ⫽ 共2x ⫺ 3兲共3x ⫺ 2y兲

• Group the first two terms and the last two terms. Note that 4xy  6y  (4xy  6y ). • Factor each group. • Factor the GCF, (2x  3), from each group.

SECTION 5.1

EXAMPLE • 4

Common Factors

YOU TRY IT • 4

Factor: 4x共3x ⫺ 2兲 ⫺ 7共3x ⫺ 2兲

Factor: 2y共5x ⫺ 2兲 ⫺ 3共2 ⫺ 5x兲

Solution 4x共3x ⫺ 2兲 ⫺ 7共3x ⫺ 2兲

⫽ 共3x ⫺ 2兲共4x ⫺ 7兲

239

• 3x  2 is the common binomial factor.

EXAMPLE • 5

YOU TRY IT • 5

Factor: 9x2 ⫺ 15x ⫺ 6xy ⫹ 10y

Factor: a2 ⫺ 3a ⫹ 2ab ⫺ 6b

Solution 9x2 ⫺ 15x ⫺ 6xy ⫹ 10y

⫽ 共9x2 ⫺ 15x兲 ⫺ 共6xy ⫺ 10y兲

• 6xy  10y  (6xy  10y)

⫽ 3x共3x ⫺ 5兲 ⫺ 2y共3x ⫺ 5兲

• 3x  5 is the common factor.

⫽ 共3x ⫺ 5兲共3x ⫺ 2y兲

EXAMPLE • 6

YOU TRY IT • 6

Factor: 3x y ⫺ 4x ⫺ 15xy ⫹ 20

Factor: 2mn2 ⫺ n ⫹ 8mn ⫺ 4

Solution 3x2y ⫺ 4x ⫺ 15xy ⫹ 20

2

⫽ 共3x2y ⫺ 4x兲 ⫺ 共15xy ⫺ 20兲

• 15xy  20  (15xy  20)

⫽ x共3xy ⫺ 4兲 ⫺ 5共3xy ⫺ 4兲

• 3xy  4 is the common factor.

⫽ 共3xy ⫺ 4兲共x ⫺ 5兲

EXAMPLE • 7

YOU TRY IT • 7

Factor: 4ab ⫺ 6 ⫹ 3b ⫺ 2ab2

Factor: 3xy ⫺ 9y ⫺ 12 ⫹ 4x

Solution 4ab ⫺ 6 ⫹ 3b ⫺ 2ab2

⫽ 共4ab ⫺ 6兲 ⫹ 共3b ⫺ 2ab2兲 ⫽ 2共2ab ⫺ 3兲 ⫹ b共3 ⫺ 2ab兲 ⫽ 2共2ab ⫺ 3兲 ⫺ b共2ab ⫺ 3兲

• 3  2ab  (2ab  3)

⫽ 共2ab ⫺ 3兲共2 ⫺ b兲

• 2ab  3 is the common factor. Solutions on p. S11

240

CHAPTER 5

Factoring

5.1 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A 1.

To factor a monomial from a polynomial

Explain the meaning of “a common monomial factor of a polynomial.”

2.

Explain the meaning of “a factor” and the meaning of “to factor.”

For Exercises 3 to 41, factor. 3. 5a ⫹ 5

4. 7b ⫺ 7

8. 16a ⫺ 24

9. 30a ⫺ 6

13. 3a2 ⫹ 5a5

5. 16 ⫺ 8a2

6. 12 ⫹ 12y2

7. 8x ⫹ 12

10. 20b ⫹ 5

11. 7x2 ⫺ 3x

12. 12y2 ⫺ 5y

14. 9x ⫺ 5x2

15. 14y2 ⫹ 11y

16. 6b3 ⫺ 5b2

17. 2x4 ⫺ 4x

18. 3y4 ⫺ 9y

19. 10x4 ⫺ 12x2

20. 12a5 ⫺ 32a2

21. 8a8 ⫺ 4a5

22. 16y4 ⫺ 8y7

23. x2y2 ⫺ xy

24. a2b2 ⫹ ab

25. 3x2y4 ⫺ 6xy

26. 12a2b5 ⫺ 9ab

27. x2y ⫺ xy3

28. 3x3 ⫹ 6x2 ⫹ 9x

29. 5y3 ⫺ 20y2 ⫹ 5y

30. 2x4 ⫺ 4x3 ⫹ 6x2

31. 3y4 ⫺ 9y3 ⫺ 6y2

32. 2x3 ⫹ 6x2 ⫺ 14x

33. 3y3 ⫺ 9y2 ⫹ 24y

34. 2y5 ⫺ 3y4 ⫹ 7y3

35. 6a5 ⫺ 3a3 ⫺ 2a2

36. x3y ⫺ 3x2y2 ⫹ 7xy3

37. 2a2b ⫺ 5a2b2 ⫹ 7ab2

38. 5y3 ⫹ 10y2 ⫺ 25y

39. 4b5 ⫹ 6b3 ⫺ 12b

40. 3a2b2 ⫺ 9ab2 ⫹ 15b2

41. 8x2y2 ⫺ 4x2y ⫹ x2

42. What is the GCF of the terms of the polynomial xa ⫹ xb ⫹ xc given that a, b, and c are all positive integers, and a ⬎ b ⬎ c?

OBJECTIVE B

To factor by grouping

43. Use the three expressions at the right. a. Which expressions are equivalent to x 2 ⫺ 5x ⫹ 6? b. Which expression can be factored by grouping?

(i) x 2 ⫺ 15x ⫹ 10x ⫹ 6 (ii) x 2 ⫺ x ⫺ 4x ⫹ 6 (iii) x 2 ⫺ 2x ⫺ 3x ⫹ 6

SECTION 5.1

Common Factors

241

For Exercises 44 to 70, factor. 44.

x共b ⫹ 4兲 ⫹ 3共b ⫹ 4兲

45. y共a ⫹ z兲 ⫹ 7共a ⫹ z兲

46. a共y ⫺ x兲 ⫺ b共y ⫺ x兲

47.

3r共a ⫺ b兲 ⫹ s共a ⫺ b兲

48. x共x ⫺ 2兲 ⫹ y共2 ⫺ x兲

49. t共m ⫺ 7兲 ⫹ 7共7 ⫺ m兲

50.

8c共2m ⫺ 3n兲 ⫹ 共3n ⫺ 2m兲

51. 2y共4a ⫹ b兲 ⫺ 共b ⫹ 4a兲

52. 2x共7 ⫹ b兲 ⫺ y共b ⫹ 7兲

53.

x2 ⫹ 2x ⫹ 2xy ⫹ 4y

54. x2 ⫺ 3x ⫹ 4ax ⫺ 12a

55. p2 ⫺ 2p ⫺ 3rp ⫹ 6r

56.

t2 ⫹ 4t ⫺ st ⫺ 4s

57. ab ⫹ 6b ⫺ 4a ⫺ 24

58. xy ⫺ 5y ⫺ 2x ⫹ 10

59.

2z2 ⫺ z ⫹ 2yz ⫺ y

60. 2y2 ⫺ 10y ⫹ 7xy ⫺ 35x

61. 8v2 ⫺ 12vy ⫹ 14v ⫺ 21y

62.

21x2 ⫹ 6xy ⫺ 49x ⫺ 14y

63. 2x2 ⫺ 5x ⫺ 6xy ⫹ 15y

64. 4a2 ⫹ 5ab ⫺ 10b ⫺ 8a

65.

3y2 ⫺ 6y ⫺ ay ⫹ 2a

66. 2ra ⫹ a2 ⫺ 2r ⫺ a

67. 3xy ⫺ y2 ⫺ y ⫹ 3x

68.

2ab ⫺ 3b2 ⫺ 3b ⫹ 2a

69. 3st ⫹ t2 ⫺ 2t ⫺ 6s

70. 4x2 ⫹ 3xy ⫺ 12y ⫺ 16x

Applying the Concepts 71. Geometry In the equation P ⫽ 2L ⫹ 2W, what is the effect on P when the quantity L ⫹ W doubles?

72. Geometry Write an expression in factored form for the shaded portion in each of the following diagrams. Use the equation for the area of a rectangle 1A ⫽ LW2 and the equation for the area of a circle 1A ⫽ ␲ r 22. a.

b.

c. r 2r

r

r

2r

r 2r

242

CHAPTER 5

Factoring

SECTION

5.2

Factoring Polynomials of the Form x 2 ⫹ bx ⫹ c

OBJECTIVE A

To factor a trinomial of the form x 2  bx  c Trinomials of the form x2 ⫹ bx ⫹ c, where b and c are integers, are shown at the right.

x2 ⫹ 8x ⫹ 12; b ⫽ 8, c ⫽ 12 x2 ⫺ 7x ⫹ 12; b ⫽ ⫺7, c ⫽ 12 x2 ⫺ 2x ⫺ 15; b ⫽ ⫺2, c ⫽ ⫺15

To factor a trinomial of this form means to express the trinomial as the product of two binomials. Trinomials expressed as the product of binomials are shown at the right.

x2 ⫹ 8x ⫹ 12 ⫽ 共x ⫹ 6兲共x ⫹ 2兲 x2 ⫺ 7x ⫹ 12 ⫽ 共x ⫺ 3兲共x ⫺ 4兲 x2 ⫺ 2x ⫺ 15 ⫽ 共x ⫹ 3兲共x ⫺ 5兲

The method by which factors of a trinomial are found is based on FOIL. Consider the following binomial products, noting the relationship between the constant terms of the binomials and the terms of the trinomials.

⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

The signs in the binomial factors are opposites.

⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

The signs in the binomial factors are the same.

Factoring x 2  bx  c: IMPORTANT RELATIONSHIPS 1. When the constant term of the trinomial is positive, the constant terms of the binomials have the same sign. They are both positive when the coefficient of the x term in the trinomial is positive. They are both negative when the coefficient of the x term in the trinomial is negative. 2. When the constant term of the trinomial is negative, the constant terms of the binomials have opposite signs. 3. In the trinomial, the coefficient of x is the sum of the constant terms of the binomials. 4. In the trinomial, the constant term is the product of the constant terms of the binomials.

SECTION 5.2

Factoring Polynomials of the Form x 2 ⫹ b x ⫹ c

243

Factor: x2 ⫺ 7x ⫹ 10 Because the constant term is positive and the coefficient of x is negative, the binomial constants will be negative. Find two negative factors of 10 whose sum is ⫺7. The results can be recorded in a table.

HOW TO • 1

Negative Factors of 10

Sum

⫺1, ⫺10

⫺11

⫺2, ⫺5

⫺7

x2 ⫺ 7x ⫹ 10 ⫽ 共x ⫺ 2兲共x ⫺ 5兲

Take Note Always check your proposed factorization to ensure accuracy.

• These are the correct factors.

• Write the trinomial as a product of its factors.

You can check the proposed factorization by multiplying the two binomials. Check: 共x ⫺ 2兲共x ⫺ 5兲 ⫽ x2 ⫺ 5x ⫺ 2x ⫹ 10 ⫽ x2 ⫺ 7x ⫹ 10 Factor: x2 ⫺ 9x ⫺ 36 The constant term is negative. The binomial constants will have opposite signs. Find two factors of ⫺36 whose sum is ⫺9.

HOW TO • 2

Factors of 36

Sum

⫹1, ⫺36

⫺35

⫺1, ⫹36

35

⫹2, ⫺18

⫺16

⫺2, ⫹18

16

⫹3, ⫺12

⫺9

• Once the correct factors are found, it is not necessary to try the remaining factors.

x2 ⫺ 9x ⫺ 36 ⫽ 共x ⫹ 3兲共x ⫺ 12兲

• Write the trinomial as a product of its factors.

For some trinomials it is not possible to find integer factors of the constant term whose sum is the coefficient of the middle term. A polynomial that does not factor using only integers is nonfactorable over the integers. Factor: x2 ⫹ 7x ⫹ 8 The constant term is positive and the coefficient of x is positive. The binomial constants will be positive. Find two positive factors of 8 whose sum is 7.

HOW TO • 3

Take Note Just as 17 is a prime number, x 2 ⫹ 7x ⫹ 8 is a prime polynomial. Binomials of the form x ⫺ a and x ⫹ a are also prime polynomials.

Positive Factors of 8

Sum

1, 8

9

2, 4

6

x2 ⫹ 7x ⫹ 8 is nonfactorable over the integers.

EXAMPLE • 1

YOU TRY IT • 1

Factor: x2 ⫺ 8x ⫹ 15 Solution Find two negative factors of 15 whose sum is ⫺8.

• There are no positive integer factors of 8 whose sum is 7.

Factor: x2 ⫹ 9x ⫹ 20 Factors

Sum

⫺1, ⫺15

⫺16

⫺3, ⫺5

⫺8

x2 ⫺ 8x ⫹ 15 ⫽ 共x ⫺ 3兲共x ⫺ 5兲

Solution on p. S11

244

CHAPTER 5

Factoring

EXAMPLE • 2

YOU TRY IT • 2

Factor: x2 ⫹ 6x ⫺ 27 Solution Find two factors of ⫺27 whose sum is 6.

Factor: x2 ⫹ 7x ⫺ 18 Factors

Sum

⫹1, ⫺27

⫺26

⫺1, ⫹27

26

⫹3, ⫺9

⫺6

⫺3, ⫹9

6

x2 ⫹ 6x ⫺ 27 ⫽ 共x ⫺ 3兲共x ⫹ 9兲 Solution on p. S11

OBJECTIVE B

To factor completely A polynomial is factored completely when it is written as a product of factors that are nonfactorable over the integers.

Take Note The first step in any factoring problem is to determine whether the terms of the polynomial have a common factor. If they do, factor it out first.

HOW TO • 4

Factor: 4y3 ⫺ 4y2 ⫺ 24y

4y3 ⫺ 4y2 ⫺ 24y ⫽ 4y共 y2兲 ⫺ 4y共 y兲 ⫺ 4y共6兲 ⫽ 4y共 y2 ⫺ y ⫺ 6兲 ⫽ 4y共 y ⫹ 2兲共y ⫺ 3兲

• The GCF is 4y. • Use the Distributive Property to factor out the GCF. • Factor y2  y  6. The two factors of 6 whose sum is 1 are 2 and 3.

It is always possible to check a proposed factorization by multiplying the polynomials. Here is the check for the last example. Check: 4y共 y ⫹ 2兲共 y ⫺ 3兲 ⫽ 4y共y2 ⫺ 3y ⫹ 2y ⫺ 6兲 ⫽ 4y共 y2 ⫺ y ⫺ 6兲 ⫽ 4y3 ⫺ 4y2 ⫺ 24y

• This is the original polynomial.

Factor: x2 ⫹ 12xy ⫹ 20y2 There is no common factor. Note that the variable part of the middle term is xy, and the variable part of the last term is y 2.

HOW TO • 5

x2 ⫹ 12xy ⫹ 20y2 ⫽ (x ⫹ 2y)(x ⫹ 10y)

• The two factors of 20 whose sum is 12 are 2 and 10.

Take Note The terms 2y and 10y are placed in the binomials. This is necessary so that the middle term of the trinomial contains xy and the last term contains y 2.

Note that the terms 2y and 10y are placed in the binomials. The following check shows why this is necessary. Check: 共x ⫹ 2y兲共x ⫹ 10y兲 ⫽ x2 ⫹ 10xy ⫹ 2xy ⫹ 20y2 ⫽ x2 ⫹ 12xy ⫹ 20y2 • This is the original polynomial.

SECTION 5.2

Factoring Polynomials of the Form x 2 ⫹ b x ⫹ c

245

Factor: 15 ⫺ 2x ⫺ x2 Because the coefficient of x2 is ⫺1, factor ⫺1 from the trinomial and then write the resulting trinomial in descending order.

HOW TO • 6

Take Note When the coefficient of the highest power in a polynomial is negative, consider factoring out a negative GCF. Example 3 is another example of this technique.

15 ⫺ 2x ⫺ x2 ⫽ ⫺共x2 ⫹ 2x ⫺ 15兲 ⫽ ⫺共x ⫹ 5兲共x ⫺ 3兲

• 15  2x  x 2  1(15  2x  x 2)   ( x 2  2x  15) 2 • Factor x  2x  15. The two factors of 15 whose sum is 2 are 5 and 3.

Check: ⫺共x ⫹ 5兲共x ⫺ 3兲 ⫽ ⫺共x2 ⫹ 2x ⫺ 15兲 ⫽ ⫺x2 ⫺ 2x ⫹ 15 ⫽ 15 ⫺ 2x ⫺ x2

EXAMPLE • 3

• This is the original polynomial.

YOU TRY IT • 3

Factor: ⫺3x ⫹ 9x ⫹ 12x

Factor: ⫺2x3 ⫹ 14x2 ⫺ 12x

Solution The GCF is ⫺3x. ⫺3x3 ⫹ 9x2 ⫹ 12x ⫽ ⫺3x共x2 ⫺ 3x ⫺ 4兲 Factor the trinomial x2 ⫺ 3x ⫺ 4. Find two factors of ⫺4 whose sum is ⫺3.

3

Factors ⫹1, ⫺4

2

Sum ⫺3

⫺3x3 ⫹ 9x2 ⫹ 12x ⫽ ⫺3x共x ⫹ 1兲共x ⫺ 4兲

EXAMPLE • 4

YOU TRY IT • 4

Factor: 4x2 ⫺ 40xy ⫹ 84y2

Factor: 3x2 ⫺ 9xy ⫺ 12y2

Solution The GCF is 4. 4x2 ⫺ 40xy ⫹ 84y2 ⫽ 4共x2 ⫺ 10xy ⫹ 21y2兲 Factor the trinomial x2 ⫺ 10xy ⫹ 21y2. Find two negative factors of 21 whose sum is ⫺10.

Factors

Sum

⫺1, ⫺21

⫺22

⫺3, ⫺7

⫺10

4x2 ⫺ 40xy ⫹ 84y2 ⫽ 4共x ⫺ 3y兲共x ⫺ 7y兲

Solutions on pp. S11–S12

246

CHAPTER 5

Factoring

5.2 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To factor a trinomial of the form x 2  bx  c

For Exercises 1 to 73, factor. 1. x2 ⫹ 3x ⫹ 2

2. x2 ⫹ 5x ⫹ 6

3. x2 ⫺ x ⫺ 2

4. x2 ⫹ x ⫺ 6

5. a2 ⫹ a ⫺ 12

6. a2 ⫺ 2a ⫺ 35

7. a2 ⫺ 3a ⫹ 2

8. a2 ⫺ 5a ⫹ 4

9. a2 ⫹ a ⫺ 2

10. a2 ⫺ 2a ⫺ 3

11. b2 ⫺ 6b ⫹ 9

12. b2 ⫹ 8b ⫹ 16

13. b2 ⫹ 7b ⫺ 8

14. y2 ⫺ y ⫺ 6

15. y2 ⫹ 6y ⫺ 55

16. z2 ⫺ 4z ⫺ 45

17. y2 ⫺ 5y ⫹ 6

18. y2 ⫺ 8y ⫹ 15

19. z2 ⫺ 14z ⫹ 45

20. z2 ⫺ 14z ⫹ 49

21. z2 ⫺ 12z ⫺ 160

22. p2 ⫹ 2p ⫺ 35

23. p2 ⫹ 12p ⫹ 27

24. p2 ⫺ 6p ⫹ 8

25. x2 ⫹ 20x ⫹ 100

26. x2 ⫹ 18x ⫹ 81

27. b2 ⫹ 9b ⫹ 20

28. b2 ⫹ 13b ⫹ 40

29. x2 ⫺ 11x ⫺ 42

30. x2 ⫹ 9x ⫺ 70

31. b2 ⫺ b ⫺ 20

32. b2 ⫹ 3b ⫺ 40

33. y2 ⫺ 14y ⫺ 51

34. y2 ⫺ y ⫺ 72

35. p2 ⫺ 4p ⫺ 21

36. p2 ⫹ 16p ⫹ 39

37. y2 ⫺ 8y ⫹ 32

38. y2 ⫺ 9y ⫹ 81

39. x2 ⫺ 20x ⫹ 75

40. x2 ⫺ 12x ⫹ 11

SECTION 5.2

Factoring Polynomials of the Form x 2 ⫹ b x ⫹ c

247

41. p2 ⫹ 24p ⫹ 63

42. x2 ⫺ 15x ⫹ 56

43. x2 ⫹ 21x ⫹ 38

44. x2 ⫹ x ⫺ 56

45. x2 ⫹ 5x ⫺ 36

46. a2 ⫺ 21a ⫺ 72

47. a2 ⫺ 7a ⫺ 44

48. a2 ⫺ 15a ⫹ 36

49. a2 ⫺ 21a ⫹ 54

50. z2 ⫺ 9z ⫺ 136

51. z2 ⫹ 14z ⫺ 147

52. c2 ⫺ c ⫺ 90

53. c2 ⫺ 3c ⫺ 180

54. z2 ⫹ 15z ⫹ 44

55. p2 ⫹ 24p ⫹ 135

56. c2 ⫹ 19c ⫹ 34

57. c2 ⫹ 11c ⫹ 18

58. x2 ⫺ 4x ⫺ 96

59. x2 ⫹ 10x ⫺ 75

60. x2 ⫺ 22x ⫹ 112

61. x2 ⫹ 21x ⫺ 100

62. b2 ⫹ 8b ⫺ 105

63. b2 ⫺ 22b ⫹ 72

64. a2 ⫺ 9a ⫺ 36

65. a2 ⫹ 42a ⫺ 135

66. b2 ⫺ 23b ⫹ 102

67. b2 ⫺ 25b ⫹ 126

68. a2 ⫹ 27a ⫹ 72

69. z2 ⫹ 24z ⫹ 144

70. x2 ⫹ 25x ⫹ 156

71. x2 ⫺ 29x ⫹ 100

72. x2 ⫺ 10x ⫺ 96

73. x2 ⫹ 9x ⫺ 112

For Exercises 74 and 75, x 2 ⫹ bx ⫹ c = (x ⫹ n)(x ⫹ m), where b and c are nonzero and n and m are positive integers. 74. Is c positive or negative?

75. Is b positive or negative?

248

CHAPTER 5

Factoring

OBJECTIVE B

To factor completely

For Exercises 76 to 129, factor. 76. 2x2 ⫹ 6x ⫹ 4

77. 3x2 ⫹ 15x ⫹ 18

78. 18 ⫹ 7x ⫺ x2

79. 12 ⫺ 4x ⫺ x2

80. ab2 ⫹ 2ab ⫺ 15a

81. ab2 ⫹ 7ab ⫺ 8a

82. xy2 ⫺ 5xy ⫹ 6x

83. xy2 ⫹ 8xy ⫹ 15x

84. z3 ⫺ 7z2 ⫹ 12z

85. ⫺2a3 ⫺ 6a2 ⫺ 4a

86. ⫺3y3 ⫹ 15y2 ⫺ 18y

87. 4y3 ⫹ 12y2 ⫺ 72y

88. 3x2 ⫹ 3x ⫺ 36

89. 2x3 ⫺ 2x2 ⫹ 4x

90. 5z2 ⫺ 15z ⫺ 140

91. 6z2 ⫹ 12z ⫺ 90

92. 2a3 ⫹ 8a2 ⫺ 64a

93. 3a3 ⫺ 9a2 ⫺ 54a

94. x2 ⫺ 5xy ⫹ 6y2

95. x2 ⫹ 4xy ⫺ 21y2

96. a2 ⫺ 9ab ⫹ 20b2

97. a2 ⫺ 15ab ⫹ 50b2

98. x2 ⫺ 3xy ⫺ 28y2

99. s2 ⫹ 2st ⫺ 48t2

100. y2 ⫺ 15yz ⫺ 41z2

101. x2 ⫹ 85xy ⫹ 36y2

102. z4 ⫺ 12z3 ⫹ 35z2

103. z4 ⫹ 2z3 ⫺ 80z2

104. b4 ⫺ 22b3 ⫹ 120b2

105. b4 ⫺ 3b3 ⫺ 10b2

106. 2y4 ⫺ 26y3 ⫺ 96y2

107. 3y4 ⫹ 54y3 ⫹ 135y2

108. ⫺x4 ⫺ 7x3 ⫹ 8x2

109. ⫺x4 ⫹ 11x3 ⫹ 12x2

110. 4x2y ⫹ 20xy ⫺ 56y

111. 3x2y ⫺ 6xy ⫺ 45y

SECTION 5.2

Factoring Polynomials of the Form x 2 ⫹ b x ⫹ c

249

112. c3 ⫹ 18c2 ⫺ 40c

113. ⫺3x3 ⫹ 36x2 ⫺ 81x

114. ⫺4x3 ⫺ 4x2 ⫹ 24x

115. x2 ⫺ 8xy ⫹ 15y2

116. y2 ⫺ 7xy ⫺ 8x2

117. a2 ⫺ 13ab ⫹ 42b2

118. y2 ⫹ 4yz ⫺ 21z2

119. y2 ⫹ 8yz ⫹ 7z2

120. y2 ⫺ 16yz ⫹ 15z2

121. 3x2y ⫹ 60xy ⫺ 63y

122. 4x2y ⫺ 68xy ⫺ 72y

123. 3x3 ⫹ 3x2 ⫺ 36x

124. 4x3 ⫹ 12x2 ⫺ 160x

125. 2t 2 ⫺ 24ts ⫹ 70s 2

126. 4a 2 ⫺ 40ab ⫹ 100b 2

127. 3a 2 ⫺ 24ab ⫺ 99b2

128. 4x 3 ⫹ 8x 2y ⫺ 12xy 2

129. 5x 3 ⫹ 30x 2y ⫹ 40xy 2

130. State whether the trinomial has a factor of x ⫹ 3. a. 3x 2 ⫺ 3x ⫺ 36 b. x 2y ⫺ xy ⫺ 12y

131. State whether the trinomial has a factor of x ⫹ y. b. 2x 2y ⫺ 4xy ⫺ 4y a. 2x 2 ⫺ 2xy ⫺ 4y 2

Applying the Concepts For Exercises 132 to 134, find all integers k such that the trinomial can be factored over the integers. 132. x2 ⫹ kx ⫹ 35

133. x2 ⫹ kx ⫹ 18

134. x2 ⫹ kx ⫹ 21

For Exercises 135 to 140, determine the positive integer values of k for which the polynomial is factorable over the integers. 135. y2 ⫹ 4y ⫹ k

136. z2 ⫹ 7z ⫹ k

137. a2 ⫺ 6a ⫹ k

138. c2 ⫺ 7c ⫹ k

139. x2 ⫺ 3x ⫹ k

140. y2 ⫹ 5y ⫹ k

141. In Exercises 135 to 140, there was the stated requirement that k ⬎ 0. If k is allowed to be any integer, how many different values of k are possible for each polynomial?

250

CHAPTER 5

Factoring

SECTION

5.3 OBJECTIVE A

Factoring Polynomials of the Form ax 2 ⫹ bx ⫹ c To factor a trinomial of the form ax 2  bx  c by using trial factors Trinomials of the form ax2 ⫹ bx ⫹ c, where a, b, and c are integers, are shown at the right.

3x2 ⫺ 2x ⫹ 4; a ⫽ 3, b ⫽ ⫺1, c ⫽ ⫺4 6x2 ⫹ 2x ⫺ 3; a ⫽ 6, b ⫽ ⫺2, c ⫽ ⫺3

These trinomials differ from those in the preceding section in that the coefficient of x 2 is not 1. There are various methods of factoring these trinomials. The method described in this objective is factoring polynomials using trial factors. To reduce the number of trial factors that must be considered, remember the following: 1. Use the signs of the constant term and the coefficient of x in the trinomial to determine the signs of the binomial factors. If the constant term is positive, the signs of the binomial factors will be the same as the sign of the coefficient of x in the trinomial. If the sign of the constant term is negative, the constant terms in the binomials have opposite signs. 2. If the terms of the trinomial do not have a common factor, then the terms of each binomial factor will not have a common factor. Factor: 2x2 ⫺ 7x ⫹ 3 The terms have no common factor. The constant term is positive. The coefficient of x is negative. The binomial constants will be negative.

HOW TO • 1

Write trial factors. Use the Outer and Inner products of FOIL to determine the middle term, ⫺7x, of the trinomial. Write the factors of the trinomial. Factor: 3x2 ⫹ 14x ⫹ 15 The terms have no common factor. The constant term is positive. The coefficient of x is positive. The binomial constants will be positive.

Positive Factors of 2 (coefficient of x 2)

Negative Factors of 3 (constant term)

1, 2

⫺1, ⫺3

Trial Factors

Middle Term

⫺3x ⫺ 2x ⫽ ⫺5x

⫺x ⫺ 6x ⫽ ⫺7x

2x2 ⫺ 7x ⫹ 3 ⫽ 共x ⫺ 3兲共2x ⫺ 1兲

HOW TO • 2

Positive Factors of 3 (coefficient of x 2)

Positive Factors of 15 (constant term)

1, 3

1, 15 3, 5

Write trial factors. Use the Outer and Inner products of FOIL to determine the middle term, 14x, of the trinomial.

Write the factors of the trinomial.

Trial Factors

Middle Term

Common factor

x ⫹ 45x ⫽ 46x

5x ⫹ 9x ⫽ 14x

Common factor

3x2 ⫹ 14x ⫹ 15 ⫽ 共x ⫹ 3兲共3x ⫹ 5兲

SECTION 5.3

Factoring Polynomials of the Form ax 2 ⫹ b x ⫹ c

251

Factor: 6x3 ⫹ 14x2 ⫺ 12x 6x3 ⫹ 14x2 ⫺ 12x ⫽ 2x共3x2 ⫹ 7x ⫺ 6兲 Factor the GCF, 2x, from the terms.

HOW TO • 3

Positive Factors of 3

Factor the trinomial. The constant term is negative. The binomial constants will have opposite signs.

1, 3

Factors of 6 1, ⫺6 ⫺1,

6

2, ⫺3 ⫺2,

Take Note For this example, all the trial factors were listed. Once the correct factors have been found, however, the remaining trial factors can be omitted. For the examples and solutions in this text, all trial factors except those that have a common factor will be listed.

Write trial factors. Use the Outer and Inner products of FOIL to determine the middle term, 7x, of the trinomial. It is not necessary to test trial factors that have a common factor.

Write the factors of the trinomial. EXAMPLE • 1

Trial Factors

3

Middle Term

Common factor

x ⫺ 18x ⫽ ⫺17x

Common factor

⫺x ⫹ 18x ⫽ 17x

Common factor

2x ⫺ 9x ⫽ ⫺7x

Common factor

⫺2x ⫹ 9x ⫽ 7x

6x3 ⫹ 14x2 ⫺ 12x ⫽ 2x共x ⫹ 3兲共3x ⫺ 2兲

YOU TRY IT • 1

Factor: 3x2 ⫹ x ⫺ 2

Factor: 2x2 ⫺ x ⫺ 3

Solution Positive factors of 3: 1, 3

Your solution Factors of ⫺2: 1, ⫺2 ⫺1, 2

Trial Factors

Middle Term

⫺2x ⫹ 3x ⫽ x

x ⫺ 6x ⫽ ⫺5x

2x ⫺ 3x ⫽ ⫺x

⫺x ⫹ 6x ⫽ 5x

3x2 ⫹ x ⫺ 2 ⫽ 共x ⫹ 1兲共3x ⫺ 2兲 EXAMPLE • 2

YOU TRY IT • 2

Factor: ⫺12x3 ⫺ 32x2 ⫹ 12x

Factor: ⫺45y3 ⫹ 12y2 ⫹ 12y

Solution ⫺12x3 ⫺ 32x2 ⫹ 12x ⫽ ⫺4x共3x2 ⫹ 8x ⫺ 3兲 Factor the trinomial. Positive Factors of ⫺3: 1, ⫺3 ⫺1, 3 factors of 3: 1, 3 Trial Factors

Middle Term

x ⫺ 9x ⫽ ⫺8x

⫺x ⫹ 9x ⫽ 8x

⫺12x3 ⫺ 32x2 ⫹ 12x ⫽ ⫺4x共x ⫹ 3兲共3x ⫺ 1兲

Solutions on p. S12

252

CHAPTER 5

OBJECTIVE B

Factoring

To factor a trinomial of the form ax 2  bx  c by grouping In the preceding objective, trinomials of the form ax2 ⫹ bx ⫹ c were factored by using trial factors. In this objective, these trinomials will be factored by grouping. To factor ax2 ⫹ bx ⫹ c, first find two factors of a ⭈ c whose sum is b. Then use factoring by grouping to write the factorization of the trinomial. Factor: 2x2 ⫹ 13x ⫹ 15 Find two positive factors of 30 共a ⭈ c ⫽ 2 ⭈ 15 ⫽ 30兲 whose sum is 13.

HOW TO • 4

Positive Factors of 30

Sum

1, 30

31

2, 15

17

3, 10

13

• Once the required sum has been found, the remaining factors need not be checked.

2x2 ⫹ 13x ⫹ 15 ⫽ 2x2 ⫹ 3x ⫹ 10x ⫹ 15 ⫽ 共2x2 ⫹ 3x兲 ⫹ 共10x ⫹ 15兲 ⫽ x共2x ⫹ 3兲 ⫹ 5共2x ⫹ 3兲 ⫽ 共2x ⫹ 3兲共x ⫹ 5兲

• Use the factors of 30 whose sum is 13 to write 13x as 3x  10x. • Factor by grouping.

Check: 共2x ⫹ 3兲共x ⫹ 5兲 ⫽ 2x2 ⫹ 10x ⫹ 3x ⫹ 15 ⫽ 2x2 ⫹ 13x ⫹ 15

Factor: 6x2 ⫺ 11x ⫺ 10 Find two factors of ⫺60 3a ⭈ c ⫽ 6(⫺10兲 ⫽ ⫺60 4 whose sum is ⫺11.

HOW TO • 5

Factors of 60 1, ⫺60 ⫺1,

Sum ⫺59

60

59

2, ⫺30

⫺28

⫺2,

30

28

3, ⫺20

⫺17

⫺3,

20

17

4, ⫺15

⫺11

6x2 ⫺ 11x ⫺ 10 ⫽ 6x2 ⫹ 4x ⫺ 15x ⫺ 10 ⫽ 共6x2 ⫹ 4x兲 ⫺ 共15x ⫹ 10兲 ⫽ 2x共3x ⫹ 2兲 ⫺ 5共3x ⫹ 2兲 ⫽ 共3x ⫹ 2兲共2x ⫺ 5兲 Check: 共3x ⫹ 2兲共2x ⫺ 5兲 ⫽ 6x2 ⫺ 15x ⫹ 4x ⫺ 10 ⫽ 6x2 ⫺ 11x ⫺ 10

• Use the factors of 60 whose sum is 11 to write 11x as 4x  15x. • Factor by grouping. Recall that 15x  10  (15x  10).

SECTION 5.3

Factoring Polynomials of the Form ax 2 ⫹ b x ⫹ c

253

Factor: 3x2 ⫺ 2x ⫺ 4 Find two factors of ⫺12 3a ⭈ c ⫽ 3共⫺4兲 ⫽ ⫺12 4 whose sum is ⫺2.

HOW TO • 6

Factors of 12 1, ⫺12 ⫺1,

⫺11

12

11

2, ⫺6

⫺4

⫺2,

6

4

3, ⫺4

⫺1

⫺3,

Take Note

Sum

4

1

Because no integer factors of ⫺12 have a sum of ⫺2, 3x2 ⫺ 2x ⫺ 4 is nonfactorable over the integers.

3x 2 ⫺ 2x ⫺ 4 is a prime polynomial.

EXAMPLE • 3

YOU TRY IT • 3

Factor: 2x ⫹ 19x ⫺ 10

Factor: 2a2 ⫹ 13a ⫺ 7

Solution

2

Factors of 20 [2(10)]

Sum

⫺1, 20

19

2x2 ⫹ 19x ⫺ 10 ⫽ 2x2 ⫺ x ⫹ 20x ⫺ 10 ⫽ 共2x2 ⫺ x兲 ⫹ 共20x ⫺ 10兲 ⫽ x共2x ⫺ 1兲 ⫹ 10共2x ⫺ 1兲 ⫽ 共2x ⫺ 1兲共x ⫹ 10兲 EXAMPLE • 4

YOU TRY IT • 4

Factor: 24x y ⫺ 76xy ⫹ 40y

Factor: 15x3 ⫹ 40x2 ⫺ 80x

Solution The GCF is 4y. 24x2y ⫺ 76xy ⫹ 40y ⫽ 4y共6x2 ⫺ 19x ⫹ 10兲

2

Negative Factors of 60 [6(10)]

Sum

⫺1, ⫺60

⫺61

⫺2, ⫺30

⫺32

⫺3, ⫺20

⫺23

⫺4, ⫺15

⫺19

6x2 ⫺ 19x ⫹ 10 ⫽ 6x2 ⫺ 4x ⫺ 15x ⫹ 10 ⫽ 共6x2 ⫺ 4x兲 ⫺ 共15x ⫺ 10兲 ⫽ 2x共3x ⫺ 2兲 ⫺ 5共3x ⫺ 2兲 ⫽ 共3x ⫺ 2兲共2x ⫺ 5兲 24x2y ⫺ 76xy ⫹ 40y ⫽ 4y共6x2 ⫺ 19x ⫹ 10兲 ⫽ 4y共3x ⫺ 2兲共2x ⫺ 5兲 Solutions on p. S12

254

CHAPTER 5

Factoring

5.3 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To factor a trinomial of the form ax 2  bx  c by using trial factors

For Exercises 1 to 70, factor by using trial factors. 1. 2x2 ⫹ 3x ⫹ 1

2. 5x2 ⫹ 6x ⫹ 1

3. 2y2 ⫹ 7y ⫹ 3

4. 3y2 ⫹ 7y ⫹ 2

5. 2a2 ⫺ 3a ⫹ 1

6. 3a2 ⫺ 4a ⫹ 1

7. 2b2 ⫺ 11b ⫹ 5

8. 3b2 ⫺ 13b ⫹ 4

9. 2x2 ⫹ x ⫺ 1

10. 4x2 ⫺ 3x ⫺ 1

11. 2x2 ⫺ 5x ⫺ 3

12. 3x2 ⫹ 5x ⫺ 2

13. 2t2 ⫺ t ⫺ 10

14. 2t2 ⫹ 5t ⫺ 12

15. 3p2 ⫺ 16p ⫹ 5

16. 6p2 ⫹ 5p ⫹ 1

17. 12y2 ⫺ 7y ⫹ 1

18. 6y2 ⫺ 5y ⫹ 1

19. 6z2 ⫺ 7z ⫹ 3

20. 9z2 ⫹ 3z ⫹ 2

21. 6t2 ⫺ 11t ⫹ 4

22. 10t2 ⫹ 11t ⫹ 3

23. 8x2 ⫹ 33x ⫹ 4

24. 7x2 ⫹ 50x ⫹ 7

25. 5x2 ⫺ 62x ⫺ 7

26. 9x2 ⫺ 13x ⫺ 4

27. 12y2 ⫹ 19y ⫹ 5

28. 5y2 ⫺ 22y ⫹ 8

29. 7a2 ⫹ 47a ⫺ 14

30. 11a2 ⫺ 54a ⫺ 5

31. 3b2 ⫺ 16b ⫹ 16

32. 6b2 ⫺ 19b ⫹ 15

33. 2z2 ⫺ 27z ⫺ 14

34. 4z2 ⫹ 5z ⫺ 6

35. 3p2 ⫹ 22p ⫺ 16

36. 7p2 ⫹ 19p ⫹ 10

37. 4x2 ⫹ 6x ⫹ 2

38. 12x2 ⫹ 33x ⫺ 9

39. 15y2 ⫺ 50y ⫹ 35

40. 30y2 ⫹ 10y ⫺ 20

SECTION 5.3

Factoring Polynomials of the Form ax 2 ⫹ b x ⫹ c

255

41. 2x3 ⫺ 11x2 ⫹ 5x

42. 2x3 ⫺ 3x2 ⫺ 5x

43. 3a2b ⫺ 16ab ⫹ 16b

44. 2a2b ⫺ ab ⫺ 21b

45. 3z2 ⫹ 95z ⫹ 10

46. 8z2 ⫺ 36z ⫹ 1

47. 36x ⫺ 3x2 ⫺ 3x3

48. ⫺2x3 ⫹ 2x2 ⫹ 4x

49. 80y2 ⫺ 36y ⫹ 4

50. 24y2 ⫺ 24y ⫺ 18

51. 8z3 ⫹ 14z2 ⫹ 3z

52. 6z3 ⫺ 23z2 ⫹ 20z

53. 6x2y ⫺ 11xy ⫺ 10y

54. 8x2y ⫺ 27xy ⫹ 9y

55. 10t2 ⫺ 5t ⫺ 50

56. 16t2 ⫹ 40t ⫺ 96

57. 3p3 ⫺ 16p2 ⫹ 5p

58. 6p3 ⫹ 5p2 ⫹ p

59. 26z2 ⫹ 98z ⫺ 24

60. 30z2 ⫺ 87z ⫹ 30

61. 10y3 ⫺ 44y2 ⫹ 16y

62. 14y3 ⫹ 94y2 ⫺ 28y

63. 4yz3 ⫹ 5yz2 ⫺ 6yz

64. 12a3 ⫹ 14a2 ⫺ 48a

65. 42a3 ⫹ 45a2 ⫺ 27a

66. 36p2 ⫺ 9p3 ⫺ p4

67. 9x2y ⫺ 30xy2 ⫹ 25y3

68. 8x2y ⫺ 38xy2 ⫹ 35y3

69. 9x3y ⫺ 24x2y2 ⫹ 16xy3

70. 9x3y ⫹ 12x2y ⫹ 4xy

For Exercises 71 and 72, let (nx ⫹ p) and (mx ⫹ q) be prime factors of the trinomial ax 2 ⫹ bx ⫹ c. 71. If n is even, must p be even or odd?

72. If p is even, must n be even or odd?

256

CHAPTER 5

Factoring

OBJECTIVE B

To factor a trinomial of the form ax 2  bx  c by grouping

For Exercises 73 to 132, factor by grouping. 73. 6x2 ⫺ 17x ⫹ 12

74. 15x2 ⫺ 19x ⫹ 6

75. 5b2 ⫹ 33b ⫺ 14

76. 8x2 ⫺ 30x ⫹ 25

77. 6a2 ⫹ 7a ⫺ 24

78. 14a2 ⫹ 15a ⫺ 9

79. 4z2 ⫹ 11z ⫹ 6

80. 6z2 ⫺ 25z ⫹ 14

81. 22p2 ⫹ 51p ⫺ 10

82. 14p2 ⫺ 41p ⫹ 15

83. 8y2 ⫹ 17y ⫹ 9

84. 12y2 ⫺ 145y ⫹ 12

85. 18t2 ⫺ 9t ⫺ 5

86. 12t2 ⫹ 28t ⫺ 5

87. 6b2 ⫹ 71b ⫺ 12

88. 8b2 ⫹ 65b ⫹ 8

89. 9x2 ⫹ 12x ⫹ 4

90. 25x2 ⫺ 30x ⫹ 9

91. 6b2 ⫺ 13b ⫹ 6

92. 20b2 ⫹ 37b ⫹ 15

93. 33b2 ⫹ 34b ⫺ 35

94. 15b2 ⫺ 43b ⫹ 22

95. 18y2 ⫺ 39y ⫹ 20

96. 24y2 ⫹ 41y ⫹ 12

97. 15a2 ⫹ 26a ⫺ 21

98. 6a2 ⫹ 23a ⫹ 21

99. 8y2 ⫺ 26y ⫹ 15

100. 18y2 ⫺ 27y ⫹ 4

101. 8z2 ⫹ 2z ⫺ 15

102. 10z2 ⫹ 3z ⫺ 4

103. 15x2 ⫺ 82x ⫹ 24

104. 13z2 ⫹ 49z ⫺ 8

105. 10z2 ⫺ 29z ⫹ 10

106. 15z2 ⫺ 44z ⫹ 32

107. 36z2 ⫹ 72z ⫹ 35

108. 16z2 ⫹ 8z ⫺ 35

109. 3x2 ⫹ xy ⫺ 2y2

110. 6x2 ⫹ 10xy ⫹ 4y2

111. 3a2 ⫹ 5ab ⫺ 2b2

112. 2a2 ⫺ 9ab ⫹ 9b2

SECTION 5.3

Factoring Polynomials of the Form ax 2 ⫹ b x ⫹ c

257

113. 4y2 ⫺ 11yz ⫹ 6z2

114. 2y2 ⫹ 7yz ⫹ 5z2

115.

28 ⫹ 3z ⫺ z2

116. 15 ⫺ 2z ⫺ z2

117. 8 ⫺ 7x ⫺ x2

118. 12 ⫹ 11x ⫺ x2

119.

9x2 ⫹ 33x ⫺ 60

120. 16x2 ⫺ 16x ⫺ 12

121. 24x2 ⫺ 52x ⫹ 24

122. 60x2 ⫹ 95x ⫹ 20

123. 35a4 ⫹ 9a3 ⫺ 2a2

124. 15a4 ⫹ 26a3 ⫹ 7a2

125. 15b2 ⫺ 115b ⫹ 70

126. 25b2 ⫹ 35b ⫺ 30

127. 3x2 ⫺ 26xy ⫹ 35y2

128. 4x2 ⫹ 16xy ⫹ 15y2

129. 216y2 ⫺ 3y ⫺ 3

130. 360y2 ⫹ 4y ⫺ 4

131. 21 ⫺ 20x ⫺ x2

132. 18 ⫹ 17x ⫺ x2

For Exercises 133 to 136, information is given about the signs of b and c in the trinomial ax 2 ⫹ bx ⫹ c, where a ⬎ 0. If you want to factor ax 2 ⫹ bx ⫹ c by grouping, you look for factors of ac whose sum is b. In each case, state whether the factors of ac should be two positive numbers, two negative numbers, or one positive and one negative number. 133. b ⬎ 0 and c ⬎ 0

134. b ⬍ 0 and c ⬍ 0

135.

b ⬍ 0 and c ⬎ 0

136. b ⬎ 0 and c ⬍ 0

Applying the Concepts 137. In your own words, explain how the signs of the last terms of the two binomial factors of a trinomial are determined.

For Exercises 138 to 143, factor. 138. 共x ⫹ 1兲2 ⫺ 共x ⫹ 1兲 ⫺ 6

139. 共x ⫺ 2兲2 ⫹ 3共x ⫺ 2兲 ⫹ 2

140. 共y ⫹ 3兲2 ⫺ 5共y ⫹ 3兲 ⫹ 6

141. 2共y ⫹ 2兲2 ⫺ 共y ⫹ 2兲 ⫺ 3

142. 3共a ⫹ 2兲2 ⫺ 共a ⫹ 2兲 ⫺ 4

143. 4共y ⫺ 1兲2 ⫺ 7共y ⫺ 1兲 ⫺ 2

258

CHAPTER 5

Factoring

SECTION

5.4 OBJECTIVE A

Special Factoring To factor the difference of two squares and perfect-square trinomials A polynomial of the form a2 ⫺ b2 is called a difference of two squares. Recall the following relationship from Objective 4.3D. Sum and difference of the same terms

Take Note Note that the polynomial x 2 ⫹ y 2 is the sum of two squares. The sum of two squares is nonfactorable over the integers.

Difference of two squares

a2 ⫺ b2

Factoring the Difference of Two Squares The difference of two squares factors as the sum and difference of the same terms.

a 2 ⫺ b 2 ⫽ 共a ⫹ b兲共a ⫺ b兲

Factor: x2 ⫺ 16 x ⫺ 16 ⫽ 共x兲 ⫺ 共4兲2 • x2  16 is the difference of two squares.

HOW TO • 1 2

2

⫽ 共x ⫹ 4兲共x ⫺ 4兲

• Factor the difference of squares.

Check: 共x ⫹ 4兲 共x ⫺ 4兲 ⫽ x2 ⫺ 4x ⫹ 4x ⫺ 16 ⫽ x2 ⫺ 16

Factor: 8x3 ⫺ 18x 8x3 ⫺ 18x ⫽ 2x共4x2 ⫺ 9兲

HOW TO • 2

⫽ 2x3共2x兲 ⫺ 3 4 2

• The GCF is 2x. • 4x2  9 is the difference of two squares.

2

⫽ 2x共2x ⫹ 3兲共2x ⫺ 3兲

• Factor the difference of squares.

You should check the factorization.

Factor: x2 ⫺ 10 Because 10 cannot be written as the square of an integer, x2 ⫺ 10 is nonfactorable over the integers.

HOW TO • 3

A trinomial that can be written as the square of a binomial is called a perfect-square trinomial. Recall the pattern for finding the square of a binomial. 共a ⫹ b兲2 ⫽ a2 ⫹ 2ab ⫹ b2 Square of the first term

Square of the last term Twice the product of the two terms

SECTION 5.4

Special Factoring

259

Factoring a Perfect-Square Trinomial A perfect-square trinomial factors as the square of a binomial.

a 2 ⫹ 2ab ⫹ b 2 ⫽ 共a ⫹ b兲2 a 2 ⫺ 2ab ⫹ b 2 ⫽ 共a ⫺ b兲2

Factor: 4x2 ⫺ 20x ⫹ 25 Because the first and last terms are squares 3 共2x兲2 ⫽ 4x2; 52 ⫽ 254 , try to factor this as the square of a binomial. Check the factorization.

HOW TO • 4

4x2 ⫺ 20x ⫹ 25 ⫽ 共2x ⫺ 5兲2 Check: 共2x ⫺ 5兲2 ⫽ 共2x兲2 ⫹ 2共2x兲共⫺5兲 ⫹ 52 ⫽ 4x2 ⫺ 20x ⫹ 25

• The factorization is correct.

4x2 ⫺ 20x ⫹ 25 ⫽ 共2x ⫺ 5兲2 Factor: 4x2 ⫹ 37x ⫹ 9 Because the first and last terms are squares 3 共2x兲2 ⫽ 4x2; 32 ⫽ 94 , try to factor this as the square of a binomial. Check the proposed factorization.

HOW TO • 5

4x2 ⫹ 37x ⫹ 9 ⫽ 共2x ⫹ 3兲2 Check: 共2x ⫹ 3兲2 ⫽ 共2x兲2 ⫹ 2共2x兲共3兲 ⫹ 32 ⫽ 4x2 ⫹ 12x ⫹ 9 Because 4x2 ⫹ 12x ⫹ 9 苷 4x2 ⫹ 37x ⫹ 9, the proposed factorization is not correct. In this case, the polynomial is not a perfect-square trinomial. It may, however, still factor. In fact, 4x2 ⫹ 37x ⫹ 9 ⫽ 共4x ⫹ 1兲共x ⫹ 9兲.

EXAMPLE • 1

YOU TRY IT • 1

Factor: 16x2 ⫺ y2

Factor: 25a2 ⫺ b2

Solution 16x2 ⫺ y2 ⫽ 共4x兲2 ⫺ y2 ⫽ 共4x ⫹ y兲共4x ⫺ y兲

Your solution • The difference of two squares • Factor.

EXAMPLE • 2

YOU TRY IT • 2

Factor: z ⫺ 16

Factor: n4 ⫺ 81

4

Solution z4 ⫺ 16 ⫽ 共z2兲2 ⫺ 42 ⫽ 共z2 ⫹ 4兲共z2 ⫺ 4兲 ⫽ 共z2 ⫹ 4兲共z2 ⫺ 22兲 ⫽ 共z2 ⫹ 4兲共z ⫹ 2兲共z ⫺ 2兲

Your solution • The difference of two squares • The difference of two squares • Factor. Solutions on p. S12

260

CHAPTER 5

Factoring

EXAMPLE • 3

YOU TRY IT • 3

Factor: 9x2 ⫺ 30x ⫹ 25

Factor: 16y2 ⫹ 8y ⫹ 1

Solution 9x2 ⫽ 共3x兲2, 25 ⫽ 共5兲2 9x2 ⫺ 30x ⫹ 25 ⫽ 共3x ⫺ 5兲2

Check: 共3x ⫺ 5兲2 ⫽ 共3x兲2 ⫹ 2共3x兲共⫺5兲 ⫹ 52 ⫽ 9x2 ⫺ 30x ⫹ 25

EXAMPLE • 4

YOU TRY IT • 4

Factor: 9x ⫹ 40x ⫹ 16

Factor: x2 ⫹ 15x ⫹ 36

Solution Because 9x2 ⫽ 共3x兲2, 16 ⫽ 42, and 40x 苷 2共3x兲共4兲, the trinomial is not a perfect-square trinomial.

2

Try to factor by another method. 9x2 ⫹ 40x ⫹ 16 ⫽ 共9x ⫹ 4兲共x ⫹ 4兲

Solutions on pp. S12–S13

OBJECTIVE B

To factor completely

General Factoring Strategy

Tips for Success

1. Is there a common factor? If so, factor out the common factor.

You now have learned to factor many different types of polynomials. You will need to be able to recognize each of the situations described in the box at the right. To test yourself, try the exercises in the Chapter Review.

2. Is the polynomial the difference of two perfect squares? If so, factor. 3. Is the polynomial a perfect-square trinomial? If so, factor. 4. Is the polynomial a trinomial that is the product of two binomials? If so, factor. 5. Does the polynomial contain four terms? If so, try factoring by grouping. 6. Is each binomial factor nonfactorable over the integers? If not, factor the binomial.

HOW TO • 6

Factor: z3 ⫹ 4z2 ⫺ 9z ⫺ 36

z3 ⫹ 4z2 ⫺ 9z ⫺ 36 ⫽ 共z3 ⫹ 4z2兲 ⫺ 共9z ⫹ 36兲 ⫽ z2共z ⫹ 4兲 ⫺ 9共z ⫹ 4兲 ⫽ 共z ⫹ 4兲共z2 ⫺ 9兲 ⫽ 共z ⫹ 4兲共z ⫹ 3兲共z ⫺ 3兲

• Factor by grouping. Recall that 9z  36  (9z  36). • z3  4z2  z2( z  4); 9z  36  9( z  4) • Factor out the common binomial factor ( z  4). • Factor the difference of squares.

SECTION 5.4

EXAMPLE • 5

Special Factoring

YOU TRY IT • 5

Factor: 3x2 ⫺ 48

Factor: 12x3 ⫺ 75x

Solution The GCF is 3. 3x2 ⫺ 48 ⫽ 3共x2 ⫺ 16兲 ⫽ 3共x ⫹ 4兲共x ⫺ 4兲

• Factor the difference of two squares.

EXAMPLE • 6

YOU TRY IT • 6

Factor: x ⫺ 3x ⫺ 4x ⫹ 12

Factor: a2b ⫺ 7a2 ⫺ b ⫹ 7

Solution Factor by grouping.

3

2

x3 ⫺ 3x2 ⫺ 4x ⫹ 12 ⫽ 共x3 ⫺ 3x2兲 ⫺ 共4x ⫺ 12兲 ⫽ x2共x ⫺ 3兲 ⫺ 4共x ⫺ 3兲 ⫽ 共x ⫺ 3兲共x2 ⫺ 4兲 ⫽ 共x ⫺ 3兲共x ⫹ 2兲共x ⫺ 2兲

• Factor by grouping. • x  3 is the common factor. • x2  4 is the difference of two squares. • Factor.

EXAMPLE • 7

YOU TRY IT • 7

Factor: 4x y ⫹ 12xy ⫹ 9y

Factor: 4x3 ⫹ 28x2 ⫺ 120x

Solution The GCF is y2.

2 2

261

2

4x2y2 ⫹ 12xy2 ⫹ 9y2 ⫽ y2共4x2 ⫹ 12x ⫹ 9兲 ⫽ y2共2x ⫹ 3兲2

2

• Factor the GCF, y2. • Factor the perfectsquare trinomial.

Solutions on p. S13

262

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Factoring

5.4 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To factor the difference of two squares and perfect-square trinomials

1. a. Provide an example of a binomial that is the difference of two squares. b. Provide an example of a perfect-square trinomial. 2. Explain why a binomial that is the sum of two squares is nonfactorable over the integers. For Exercises 3 to 44, factor. 3. x2 ⫺ 4

4. x2 ⫺ 9

5. a2 ⫺ 81

7. y2 ⫹ 2y ⫹ 1

8. y2 ⫹ 14y ⫹ 49

9. a2 ⫺ 2a ⫹ 1

6. a2 ⫺ 49

10. x2 ⫺ 12x ⫹ 36

11. 4x2 ⫺ 1

12. 9x2 ⫺ 16

13. x6 ⫺ 9

14. y12 ⫺ 4

15. x2 ⫹ 8x ⫺ 16

16. z2 ⫺ 18z ⫺ 81

17. x2 ⫹ 2xy ⫹ y2

18. x2 ⫹ 6xy ⫹ 9y2

19. 4a2 ⫹ 4a ⫹ 1

20. 25x2 ⫹ 10x ⫹ 1

21. 9x2 ⫺ 1

22. 1 ⫺ 49x2

23. 1 ⫺ 64x2

24. t2 ⫹ 36

25. x2 ⫹ 64

26. 64a2 ⫺ 16a ⫹ 1

27. 9a2 ⫹ 6a ⫹ 1

28. x4 ⫺ y2

29. b4 ⫺ 16a2

30. 16b2 ⫹ 8b ⫹ 1

31. 4a2 ⫺ 20a ⫹ 25

32. 4b2 ⫹ 28b ⫹ 49

33. 9a2 ⫺ 42a ⫹ 49

34. 9x2 ⫺ 16y2

35. 25z2 ⫺ y2

36. x2y2 ⫺ 4

37. a2b2 ⫺ 25

38. 16 ⫺ x2y2

SECTION 5.4

Special Factoring

263

39. 25x2 ⫺ 1

40. 25a2 ⫹ 30ab ⫹ 9b2

41. 4a2 ⫺ 12ab ⫹ 9b2

42. 49x2 ⫹ 28xy ⫹ 4y2

43. 4y2 ⫺ 36yz ⫹ 81z2

44. 64y2 ⫺ 48yz ⫹ 9z2

45. Which of the following expressions can be factored as the square of a binomial, given that a and b are positive numbers? (ii) a 2x 2 ⫺ 2abx ⫺ b 2 (i) a 2x 2 ⫺ 2abx ⫹ b 2 2 2 2 (iii) a x ⫹ 2abx ⫹ b (iv) a 2x 2 ⫹ 2abx ⫺ b 2

OBJECTIVE B

To factor completely

For Exercises 46 to 123, factor. 46. 8y2 ⫺ 2

47. 12n2 ⫺ 48

48. 3a3 ⫹ 6a2 ⫹ 3a

49. 4rs2 ⫺ 4rs ⫹ r

50. m4 ⫺ 256

51. 81 ⫺ t4

52. 9x2 ⫹ 13x ⫹ 4

53. x2 ⫹ 10x ⫹ 16

54. 16y4 ⫹ 48y3 ⫹ 36y2

55. 36c4 ⫺ 48c3 ⫹ 16c2

56. y8 ⫺ 81

57. 32s4 ⫺ 2

58. 25 ⫺ 20p ⫹ 4p2

59. 9 ⫹ 24a ⫹ 16a2

60. 共4x ⫺ 3兲2 ⫺ y2

61. 共2x ⫹ 5兲2 ⫺ 25

62. 共x2 ⫺ 4x ⫹ 4兲 ⫺ y2

63. 共4x2 ⫹ 12x ⫹ 9兲 ⫺ 4y2

64. 5x2 ⫺ 5

65. 2x2 ⫺ 18

66. x3 ⫹ 4x2 ⫹ 4x

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67. y3 ⫺ 10y2 ⫹ 25y

68. x4 ⫹ 2x3 ⫺ 35x2

69. a4 ⫺ 11a3 ⫹ 24a2

70. 5b2 ⫹ 75b ⫹ 180

71. 6y2 ⫺ 48y ⫹ 72

72. 3a2 ⫹ 36a ⫹ 10

73. 5a2 ⫺ 30a ⫹ 4

74. 2x2y ⫹ 16xy ⫺ 66y

75. 3a2b ⫹ 21ab ⫺ 54b

76. x3 ⫺ 6x2 ⫺ 5x

77. b3 ⫺ 8b2 ⫺ 7b

78. 3y2 ⫺ 36

79. 3y2 ⫺ 147

80. 20a2 ⫹ 12a ⫹ 1

81. 12a2 ⫺ 36a ⫹ 27

82. x2y2 ⫺ 7xy2 ⫺ 8y2

83. a2b2 ⫹ 3a2b ⫺ 88a2

84. 10a2 ⫺ 5ab ⫺ 15b2

85. 16x2 ⫺ 32xy ⫹ 12y2

86. 50 ⫺ 2x2

87. 72 ⫺ 2x2

88. a2b2 ⫺ 10ab2 ⫹ 25b2

89. a2b2 ⫹ 6ab2 ⫹ 9b2

90. 12a3b ⫺ a2b2 ⫺ ab3

91. 2x3y ⫺ 7x2y2 ⫹ 6xy3

92. 12a3 ⫺ 12a2 ⫹ 3a

93. 18a3 ⫹ 24a2 ⫹ 8a

94. 243 ⫹ 3a2

95. 75 ⫹ 27y2

96. 12a3 ⫺ 46a2 ⫹ 40a

97. 24x3 ⫺ 66x2 ⫹ 15x

98. 4a3 ⫹ 20a2 ⫹ 25a

99. 2a3 ⫺ 8a2b ⫹ 8ab2

SECTION 5.4

Special Factoring

265

100. 27a2b ⫺ 18ab ⫹ 3b

101. a2b2 ⫺ 6ab2 ⫹ 9b2

102. 48 ⫺ 12x ⫺ 6x2

103. 21x2 ⫺ 11x3 ⫺ 2x4

104. x4 ⫺ x2y2

105. b4 ⫺ a2b2

106. 18a3 ⫹ 24a2 ⫹ 8a

107. 32xy2 ⫺ 48xy ⫹ 18x

108. 2b ⫹ ab ⫺ 6a2b

109. 15y2 ⫺ 2xy2 ⫺ x2y2

110. 4x4 ⫺ 38x3 ⫹ 48x2

111. 3x2 ⫺ 27y2

112. x4 ⫺ 25x2

113. y3 ⫺ 9y

114. a4 ⫺ 16

115. 15x4y2 ⫺ 13x3y3 ⫺ 20x2y4

116. 45y2 ⫺ 42y3 ⫺ 24y4

117. a共2x ⫺ 2兲 ⫹ b共2x ⫺ 2兲

118. 4a共x ⫺ 3兲 ⫺ 2b共x ⫺ 3兲

119. x2共x ⫺ 2兲 ⫺ 共x ⫺ 2兲

120. y2共a ⫺ b兲 ⫺ 共a ⫺ b兲

121. a共x2 ⫺ 4兲 ⫹ b共x2 ⫺ 4兲

122. x共a2 ⫺ b2 兲 ⫺ y共a2 ⫺ b2 兲

123. 4共x ⫺ 5兲 ⫺ x2共x ⫺ 5兲

124. The expression x 2(x ⫺ a)(x ⫹ b), where a and b are positive integers, is the factored form of a polynomial P. What is the degree of the polynomial P?

Applying the Concepts For Exercises 125 to 130, find all integers k such that the trinomial is a perfect-square trinomial. 125. 4x2 ⫺ kx ⫹ 9

126. x2 ⫹ 6x ⫹ k

127. 64x2 ⫹ kxy ⫹ y2

128. x2 ⫺ 2x ⫹ k

129. 25x2 ⫺ kx ⫹ 1

130. x2 ⫹ 10x ⫹ k

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SECTION

5.5 OBJECTIVE A

Solving Equations To solve equations by factoring The Multiplication Property of Zero states that the product of a number and zero is zero. This property is stated below.

If a is a real number, then a ⭈ 0 ⫽ 0 ⭈ a ⫽ 0.

Now consider a ⭈ b ⫽ 0. For this to be a true equation, then either a ⫽ 0 or b ⫽ 0.

Principle of Zero Products If the product of two factors is zero, then at least one of the factors must be zero. If a ⭈ b ⫽ 0, then a ⫽ 0 or b ⫽ 0.

The Principle of Zero Products is used to solve some equations.

HOW TO • 1

Solve: 共x ⫺ 2兲共x ⫺ 3兲 ⫽ 0

x⫺3⫽0

x⫽2

x⫺x⫽3

• Let each factor equal zero (the Principle of Zero Products). • Solve each equation for x.

Check: 共x ⫺ 2兲共x ⫺ 3兲 ⫽ 0 共2 ⫺ 2兲共2 ⫺ 3兲 ⫽ 0 0共⫺1兲 ⫽ 0 0⫽0

• A true equation

• A true equation

The solutions are 2 and 3.

An equation that can be written in the form ax2 ⫹ bx ⫹ c ⫽ 0, a 苷 0, is a quadratic equation. A quadratic equation is in standard form when the polynomial is in descending order and equal to zero. The quadratic equations at the right are in standard form.

3x2 ⫹ 2x ⫹ 1 ⫽ 0 a ⫽ 3, b ⫽ 2, c ⫽ 1 4x2 ⫺ 3x ⫹ 2 ⫽ 0 a ⫽ 4, b ⫽ ⫺3, c ⫽ 2

SECTION 5.5

Solving Equations

267

Solve: 2x2 ⫹ x ⫽ 6 2x2 ⫹ x ⫽ 6 2x2 ⫹ x ⫺ 6 ⫽ 0 • Write the equation in standard form. • Factor. 共2x ⫺ 3兲共x ⫹ 2兲 ⫽ 0 • Use the Principle of Zero Products. 2x ⫺ 3 ⫽ 0 x⫹2⫽0 2x ⫽ 3x x ⫹ x ⫽ ⫺2 • Solve each equation for x. 3 x⫽ 2

HOW TO • 2

Check:

3 2

and ⫺2 check as solutions.

The solutions are

3 2

and ⫺2.

EXAMPLE • 1

YOU TRY IT • 1

Solve: x共x ⫺ 3兲 ⫽ 0

Solve: 2x共x ⫹ 7兲 ⫽ 0

Solution x共x ⫺ 3兲 ⫽ 0

x⫽0 x⫺3⫽0 x⫽3

• Use the Principle of Zero Products.

The solutions are 0 and 3. EXAMPLE • 2

YOU TRY IT • 2

Solve: 2x2 ⫺ 50 ⫽ 0

Solve: 4x2 ⫺ 9 ⫽ 0

Solution 2x2 ⫺ 50 ⫽ 0 2共x2 ⫺ 25兲 ⫽ 0 2共x ⫹ 5兲共x ⫺ 5兲 ⫽ 0

x⫹5⫽0 x ⫽ ⫺5

• Factor out the GCF, 2. • Factor the difference of two squares. • Use the Principle x⫺5⫽0 of Zero Products. x⫽5

The solutions are ⫺5 and 5. EXAMPLE • 3

YOU TRY IT • 3

Solve: 共x ⫺ 3兲共x ⫺ 10兲 ⫽ ⫺10

Solve: 共x ⫹ 2兲共x ⫺ 7兲 ⫽ 52

Solution 共x ⫺ 3兲共x ⫺ 10兲 ⫽ ⫺10 x2 ⫺ 13x ⫹ 30 ⫽ ⫺10 x2 ⫺ 13x ⫹ 40 ⫽ 0 共x ⫺ 8兲共x ⫺ 5兲 ⫽ 0

x⫺8⫽0 x⫽8

x⫺5⫽0 x⫽5

• Multiply (x  3)( x  10). • Add 10 to each side of the equation. The equation is now in standard form.

The solutions are 8 and 5. Solutions on p. S13

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Factoring

OBJECTIVE B

To solve application problems

EXAMPLE • 4

YOU TRY IT • 4

The sum of the squares of two consecutive positive even integers is equal to 100. Find the two integers.

The sum of the squares of two consecutive positive integers is 61. Find the two integers.

Strategy First positive even integer: n Second positive even integer: n ⫹ 2

The sum of the square of the first positive even integer and the square of the second positive even integer is 100.

Solution n2 ⫹ 共n ⫹ 2兲2 ⫽ 100 2 n ⫹ n2 ⫹ 4n ⫹ 4 ⫽ 100 2n2 ⫹ 4n ⫹ 4 ⫽ 100 2n2 ⫹ 4n ⫺ 96 ⫽ 0 2共n2 ⫹ 2n ⫺ 48兲 ⫽ 0 2共n ⫺ 6兲共n ⫹ 8兲 ⫽ 0

• Quadratic equation in standard form

n⫺6⫽0 n⫽6

• Principle of Zero Products

n⫹8⫽0 n ⫽ ⫺8

Because ⫺8 is not a positive even integer, it is not a solution. n⫽6 n⫹2⫽6⫹2⫽8 The two integers are 6 and 8.

Solution on p. S13

SECTION 5.5

EXAMPLE • 5

Solving Equations

269

YOU TRY IT • 5

A stone is thrown into a well with an initial speed of 4 ft/s. The well is 420 ft deep. How many seconds later will the stone hit the bottom of the well? Use the equation d ⫽ vt ⫹ 16t 2, where d is the distance in feet that the stone travels in t seconds when its initial speed is v feet per second.

The length of a rectangle is 4 in. longer than twice the width. The area of the rectangle is 96 in2. Find the length and width of the rectangle.

Strategy To find the time for the stone to drop to the bottom of the well, replace the variables d and √ by their given values and solve for t.

Solution d ⫽ vt ⫹ 16t2 420 ⫽ 4t ⫹ 16t2 0 ⫽ ⫺420 ⫹ 4t ⫹ 16t2 0 ⫽ 16t2 ⫹ 4t ⫺ 420 0 ⫽ 4共4t2 ⫹ t ⫺ 105兲 0 ⫽ 4共4t ⫹ 21兲共t ⫺ 5兲

4t ⫹ 21 ⫽ 0 4t ⫽ ⫺21 21 t⫽⫺ 4

t⫺5⫽0 t⫽5

• Quadratic equation in standard form

• Principle of Zero Products

21

Because the time cannot be a negative number, ⫺ 4 is not a solution. The stone will hit the bottom of the well 5 s later.

Solution on p. S13

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CHAPTER 5

Factoring

5.5 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To solve equations by factoring

1. In your own words, explain the Principle of Zero Products.

2. Fill in the blanks. If 共x ⫹ 5兲共2x ⫺ 7兲 ⫽ 0, then ________ ⫽ 0 or ________ ⫽ 0. For Exercises 3 to 60, solve. 3. 共y ⫹ 3兲共y ⫹ 2兲 ⫽ 0

4. 共y ⫺ 3兲共y ⫺ 5兲 ⫽ 0

5. 共z ⫺ 7兲共z ⫺ 3兲 ⫽ 0

6. 共z ⫹ 8兲共z ⫺ 9兲 ⫽ 0

7. x共x ⫺ 5兲 ⫽ 0

8. x共x ⫹ 2兲 ⫽ 0

9. a共a ⫺ 9兲 ⫽ 0

10. a共a ⫹ 12兲 ⫽ 0

11. y共2y ⫹ 3兲 ⫽ 0

12. t共4t ⫺ 7兲 ⫽ 0

13. 2a共3a ⫺ 2兲 ⫽ 0

14. 4b共2b ⫹ 5兲 ⫽ 0

15. 共b ⫹ 2兲共b ⫺ 5兲 ⫽ 0

16. 共b ⫺ 8兲共b ⫹ 3兲 ⫽ 0

17. x2 ⫺ 81 ⫽ 0

18. x2 ⫺ 121 ⫽ 0

19. 4x2 ⫺ 49 ⫽ 0

20. 16x2 ⫺ 1 ⫽ 0

21. 9x2 ⫺ 1 ⫽ 0

22. 16x2 ⫺ 49 ⫽ 0

23. x2 ⫹ 6x ⫹ 8 ⫽ 0

24. x2 ⫺ 8x ⫹ 15 ⫽ 0

25. z2 ⫹ 5z ⫺ 14 ⫽ 0

26. z2 ⫹ z ⫺ 72 ⫽ 0

27. 2a2 ⫺ 9a ⫺ 5 ⫽ 0

28. 3a2 ⫹ 14a ⫹ 8 ⫽ 0

29. 6z2 ⫹ 5z ⫹ 1 ⫽ 0

30. 6y2 ⫺ 19y ⫹ 15 ⫽ 0

31. x2 ⫺ 3x ⫽ 0

32. a2 ⫺ 5a ⫽ 0

33. x2 ⫺ 7x ⫽ 0

34. 2a2 ⫺ 8a ⫽ 0

35. a2 ⫹ 5a ⫽ ⫺4

36. a2 ⫺ 5a ⫽ 24

37. y2 ⫺ 5y ⫽ ⫺6

38. y2 ⫺ 7y ⫽ 8

SECTION 5.5

Solving Equations

271

39. 2t2 ⫹ 7t ⫽ 4

40. 3t2 ⫹ t ⫽ 10

41. 3t2 ⫺ 13t ⫽ ⫺4

42. 5t2 ⫺ 16t ⫽ ⫺12

43. x共x ⫺ 12兲 ⫽ ⫺27

44. x共x ⫺ 11兲 ⫽ 12

45. y共y ⫺ 7兲 ⫽ 18

46. y共y ⫹ 8兲 ⫽ ⫺15

47. p共p ⫹ 3兲 ⫽ ⫺2

48. p共p ⫺ 1兲 ⫽ 20

49. y共y ⫹ 4兲 ⫽ 45

50. y共y ⫺ 8兲 ⫽ ⫺15

51. x共x ⫹ 3兲 ⫽ 28

52. p共p ⫺ 14兲 ⫽ 15

53. 共x ⫹ 8兲共x ⫺ 3兲 ⫽ ⫺30

54. 共x ⫹ 4兲共x ⫺ 1兲 ⫽ 14

55. 共z ⫺ 5兲共z ⫹ 4兲 ⫽ 52

56.

57. 共z ⫺ 6兲共z ⫹ 1兲 ⫽ ⫺10

58. 共a ⫹ 3兲共a ⫹ 4兲 ⫽ 72

59.

60. 共2x ⫹ 5兲共x ⫹ 1兲 ⫽ ⫺1

For Exercises 61 and 62, the equation ax 2 ⫹ bx ⫹ c ⫽ 0, a ⬎ 0, is a quadratic equation that can be solved by factoring and then using the Principle of Zero Products. 61. If ax 2 ⫹ bx ⫹ c = 0 has one positive solution and one negative solution, is c greater than, less than, or equal to zero?

62. If zero is one solution of ax 2 ⫹ bx ⫹ c ⫽ 0, is c greater than, less than, or equal to zero?

OBJECTIVE B

To solve application problems

63. Number Sense The square of a positive number is six more than five times the positive number. Find the number.

64. Number Sense The square of a negative number is fifteen more than twice the negative number. Find the number.

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65. Number Sense The sum of two numbers is six. The sum of the squares of the two numbers is twenty. Find the two numbers.

66. Number Sense The sum of two numbers is eight. The sum of the squares of the two numbers is thirty-four. Find the two numbers.

For Exercises 67 and 68, use the following problem situation: The sum of the squares of two consecutive positive integers is 113. Find the two integers. 67. Which equation could be used to solve this problem? (ii) x 2 ⫹ (x ⫹ 1)2 ⫽ 113 (i) x 2 ⫹ x 2 ⫹ 1 ⫽ 113

(iii) (x ⫹ x ⫹ 1)2 ⫽ 113

68. Suppose the solutions of the correct equation in Exercise 67 are ⫺8 and 7. Which solution should be eliminated, and why?

69. Number Sense The sum of the squares of two consecutive positive integers is forty-one. Find the two integers.

70. Number Sense The sum of the squares of two consecutive positive even integers is one hundred. Find the two integers.

71. Number Sense The sum of two numbers is ten. The product of the two numbers is twenty-one. Find the two numbers.

72. Number Sense The sum of two numbers is thirteen. The product of the two numbers is forty. Find the two numbers.

Sum of Natural Numbers

The formula S ⫽

n2 ⫹ n 2

gives the sum S of the first n natural

numbers. Use this formula for Exercises 73 and 74. 73. How many consecutive natural numbers beginning with 1 will give a sum of 78?

74. How many consecutive natural numbers beginning with 1 will give a sum of 171?

SECTION 5.5

Sports The formula N ⫽

t2 ⫺ t 2

Solving Equations

273

gives the number N of football games that must be

scheduled in a league with t teams if each team is to play every other team once. Use this formula for Exercises 75 and 76.

76. How many teams are in a league that schedules 45 games in such a way that each team plays every other team once?

75. How many teams are in a league that schedules 15 games in such a way that each team plays every other team once?

Physics The distance s, in feet, that an object will fall (neglecting air resistance) in t seconds is given by s ⫽ vt ⫹ 16t2, where v is the initial velocity of the object in feet per second. Use this formula for Exercises 77 and 78. 77. An object is released from the top of a building 192 ft high. The initial velocity is 16 ft兾s, and air resistance is neglected. How many seconds later will the object hit the ground?

AP Images

78. Taipei 101 in Taipei, Taiwan, is the world’s tallest inhabited building. The top of the spire is 1667 ft above ground. If an object is released from this building at a point 640 ft above the ground at an initial velocity of 48 ft兾s, assuming no air resistance, how many seconds later will the object reach the ground?

Sports The height h, in feet, an object will attain (neglecting air resistance) in t seconds is given by h ⫽ vt ⫺ 16t2, where v is the initial velocity of the object in feet per second. Use this formula for Exercises 79 and 80. 79. A golf ball is thrown onto a cement surface and rebounds straight up. The initial velocity of the rebound is 60 ft兾s. How many seconds later will the golf ball return to the ground?

80. A foul ball leaves a bat, hits home plate, and travels straight up with an initial velocity of 64 ft兾s. How many seconds later will the ball be 64 ft above the ground?

81. Geometry The length of a rectangle is 5 in. more than twice its width. Its area is 75 in2. Find the length and width of the rectangle.

82. Geometry The width of a rectangle is 5 ft less than the length. The area of the rectangle is 176 ft2. Find the length and width of the rectangle.

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Factoring

83. Geometry The height of a triangle is 4 m more than twice the length of the base. The area of the triangle is 35 m2. Find the height of the triangle.

84. Geometry The length of each side of a square is extended 5 in. The area of the resulting square is 64 in2. Find the length of a side of the original square.

85. Basketball See the news clipping at the right. If the area of the rectangular 3-second lane is 304 ft2, find the width of the lane.

86. Gardening A small garden measures 8 ft by 10 ft. A uniform border around the garden increases the total area to 143 ft2. What is the width of the border?

In the News New Lane for Basketball Court The International Basketball Federation announced changes to the basketball court used in international competition. The 3-second lane, currently a trapezoid, will be a rectangle 3 ft longer than it is wide, similar to the one used in NBA games. Source: The New York Times

A

Anatomy The pupil is the opening in the iris that lets light into the eye. In bright light, the iris expands so that the pupil is smaller; in low light, the iris contracts so that the pupil is larger. If x is the width, in millimeters, of the iris, then the area of the iris is given by A ⫽ (12␲x ⫺ ␲x 2) mm2. Use this formula for Exercises 88 and 89. 88. Find the width of the iris if the area of the iris is 20␲ mm2. 89. Find the width of the iris if the area of the iris is 27␲ mm2.

Applying the Concepts 90. Find 3n2 if n共n ⫹ 5兲 ⫽ ⫺4.

91. Find 2n2 if n共n ⫹ 3兲 ⫽ 4.

For Exercises 92 to 95, solve. 92. 2y共y ⫹ 4兲 ⫽ ⫺5共y ⫹ 3兲

93. 共b ⫹ 5兲2 ⫽ 16

94. p3 ⫽ 9p2

95. 共x ⫹ 3兲共2x ⫺ 1兲 ⫽ 共3 ⫺ x兲共5 ⫺ 3x兲

96. Explain the error made in solving the equation at the right. Solve the equation correctly.

97. Explain the error made in solving the equation at the right. Solve the equation correctly.

x2 ⫽ x x2 x ⫽ x x x⫽1

Nucleus Medical Art, Inc./Alamy

go this babe and judgement of Timedious Retch, and not Lord Whal. If the Easelves and do, and make, and baseGathem, I ay! Beatellous we play means Holy Fool! Mour work from inmost bed. Be confould, have many judgement. Was it you? Massure’s to lady. Would hat prime? That’s our thrown, and did wife’s father’st livength sleep. Tith I ambition to thin him, and force, and law’s may but smell so, and spursely. Signor gent much, Chief Mixturn Be.

87. Publishing The page of a book measures 6 in. by 9 in. A uniform border around the page leaves 28 in2 for type. What are the dimensions of the type area?

Focus on Problem Solving

275

FOCUS ON PROBLEM SOLVING There are six students using a gym. The wall on the gym has six lockers that are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. After a practice, the first student goes by and opens all the lockers. The second student shuts every second locker, the third student changes every third locker (opens a locker if it is shut and shuts a locker if it is open), the fourth student changes every fourth locker, the fifth student changes every fifth locker, and the sixth student changes every sixth locker. After the sixth student makes changes, which lockers are open?

Making a Table

One method of solving this problem would be to create a table, as shown below.

Student Locker

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

O

O

O

O

O

O

2

O

C

C

C

C

C

3

O

O

C

C

C

C

4

O

C

C

O

O

O

5

O

O

O

O

C

C

6

O

C

O

O

O

C

From this table, lockers 1 and 4 are open after the sixth student passes through. Now extend this scenario to more lockers and students. In each case, the nth student changes multiples of the nth locker. For instance, the 8th student would change the 8th, 16th, 24th, . . . 1. Suppose there are 10 lockers and 10 students. Which lockers will remain open? 2. Suppose there are 16 lockers and 16 students. Which lockers will remain open? 3. Suppose there are 25 lockers and 25 students. Which lockers will remain open? 4. Suppose there are 40 lockers and 40 students. Which lockers will remain open? 5. Suppose there are 50 lockers and 50 students. Which lockers will remain open? 6. Make a conjecture as to which lockers would be open if there were 100 lockers and 100 students. 7. Give a reason why your conjecture should be true. [Hint: Consider how many factors there are for the door numbers that remain open and for those that remain closed. For instance, with 40 lockers and 40 students, locker 36 (which remains open) has factors 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 36—an odd number of factors. Locker 28, a closed locker, has factors 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, and 28—an even number of factors.]

276

CHAPTER 5

Factoring

PROJECTS AND GROUP ACTIVITIES Evaluating Polynomials Using a Graphing Calculator

A graphing calculator can be used to evaluate a polynomial. To illustrate the method, consider the polynomial 2x3 ⫺ 3x2 ⫹ 4x ⫺ 7. The keystrokes below are for a TI-84 Plus calculator, but the keystrokes for other calculators will closely follow these keystrokes. Press the Y = key. You will see a screen similar to the one below. Press CLEAR to erase any expression next to Y1. Plot1 Plot2 Plot3

\Y1 \Y2 \Y3 \Y4 \Y5 \Y6 \Y7

Take Note Once the polynomial has been entered in Y1, there are several methods that can be used to evaluate it. We will show just one option.

Enter the polynomial as follows. The ^ key is used to enter an exponent. X,T,θ X,T, X,T,θ, θ ,n X,T,θ X,T, θ,n x ^ 3 ⫺ 3 X,T,θ, ⫹4 2 X,T,θ X,T, X,T,θ, θ ,n ⫺7 2

Plot1 Plot2 Plot3

= = = = = = =

\Y1 \Y2 \Y3 \Y4 \Y5 \Y6 \Y7

= 2X^3–3X2+4X–7 = = = = = =

To evaluate the polynomial when x ⫽ 3, first return to what is called the HOME screen by pressing 2ND QUIT. 3→X

Enter the following keystrokes. Sample screens are shown at the right. X,T,θ X,T, θ ,n (1) 3 STO X,T,θ, VARS (2) (3) (4) ENTER

ENTER

3 VARS Y–VARS 1 : Function… 2: Pa r a m e t r i c … 3: Po l a r … 4: On / Of f …

ENTER

ENTER

The value of the polynomial when x ⫽ 3 is 32.

FUNCTION 1 : Y1 3→X 2: Y2 3: Y3 4: Y4 Y1 5: Y5 6: Y6 7↓ Y7

3 32

To evaluate the polynomial at a different value of x, repeat Steps 1 through 4. For instance, to evaluate the polynomial when x ⫽ ⫺4, we would have X,T,θ X,T, θ ,n 4 STO X,T,θ, (1) -4→X (2) VARS -4 (3) VARS Y–VARS 1 : Function… (4) 2: Pa r a m e t r i c … ENTER

ENTER

ENTER

ENTER

The value of the polynomial when x ⫽ ⫺4 is ⫺199.

Here are some practice exercises. Evaluate the polynomial for the given value. 1. 2x2 ⫺ 3x ⫹ 7; x ⫽ 4 3. 3x3 ⫺ 2x2 ⫹ 6x ⫺ 8; x ⫽ 3 5. x4 ⫺ 3x3 ⫹ 6x2 ⫹ 5x ⫺ 1; x ⫽ 2

3: Po l a r … 4: On / Of f … FUNCTION 1 : Y1 -4→X 2: Y2 3: Y3 4: Y4 Y1 5: Y5 6: Y6 7↓ Y7

2. 3x2 ⫹ 7x ⫺ 12; x ⫽ ⫺3 4. 2x3 ⫹ 4x2 ⫺ x ⫺ 2; x ⫽ 2 6. x5 ⫺ x3 ⫹ 2x ⫺ 7; x ⫽ ⫺4

-4 -199

Chapter 5 Summary

277

Number theory is a branch of mathematics that focuses on integers and the relationships that exist among the integers. Some of the results from this field of study have important, practical applications for sending sensitive information such as credit card numbers over the Internet. In this project you will be asked to discover some of those relationships.

Exploring Integers

1. If n is an integer, explain why the product n共n ⫹ 1兲 is always an even integer. 2. If n is an integer, explain why 2n is always an even integer. 3. If n is an integer, explain why 2n ⫹ 1 is always an odd integer.

Mary Evans Picture Library/Alamy

4. Select any odd integer greater than 1, square it, and then subtract 1. Try this for various odd integers greater than 1. Is the result always evenly divisible by 8?

Marin Mersenne (1588–1648) was a French mathematician, scientist, and philosopher known for his development of the Mersenne primes.

Using the World Wide Web

5. Prove the assertion in Exercise 4. [Suggestion: From Exercise 3, an odd integer can be represented as 2n ⫹ 1. Therefore, the assertion in Exercise 4 can be stated “共2n ⫹ 1兲2 ⫺ 1 is evenly divisible by 8.” Expand this expression and explain why the result must be divisible by 8. You will need to use the result from Exercise 1.] 6. The integers 2 and 3 are consecutive prime numbers. Are there any other consecutive prime numbers? Why? 7. If n is a positive integer, for what values of n is n2 ⫺ 1 a prime number? 8. A Mersenne prime number is a prime number that can be written in the form 2n ⫺ 1, where n is also a prime number. For instance, 25 ⫺ 1 ⫽ 32 ⫺ 1 ⫽ 31. Because 5 and 31 are prime numbers, 31 is a Mersenne prime number. On the other hand, 211 ⫺ 1 ⫽ 2048 ⫺ 1 ⫽ 2047. In this case, although 11 is a prime number, 2047 ⫽ 23 ⭈ 89 and so is not a prime number. Find two Mersenne prime numbers other than 31.

At the address http://www.utm.edu/research/primes/mersenne/, you can find more information on Mersenne prime numbers. By searching other websites, you can also find information about various topics in math.

The website http://mathforum.org/dr.math/ is an especially rich source of information. You can even submit math questions to this site and get an answer from Dr. Math. One student posed the question, “What is the purpose of the number zero?” You can find Dr. Math’s reply by typing “purpose of zero” into the Search the Archive box.

CHAPTER 5

SUMMARY KEY WORDS

EXAMPLES

The greatest common factor (GCF) of two or more monomials is the product of the GCF of the coefficients and the common variable factors. [5.1A, p. 236]

The GCF of 8x 2y and 12xyz is 4xy.

278

CHAPTER 5

Factoring

To factor a polynomial means to write the polynomial as a product of other polynomials. [5.1A, p. 236]

To factor x2 ⫹ 3x ⫹ 2 means to write it as the product 共x ⫹ 1兲共x ⫹ 2兲.

A factor that has two terms is called a binomial factor. [5.1B, p. 238]

A polynomial that does not factor using only integers is nonfactorable over the integers. [5.2A, p. 243]

The trinomial x2 ⫹ x ⫹ 4 is nonfactorable over the integers. There are no integers whose product is 4 and whose sum is 1.

A polynomial is factored completely if it is written as a product of factors that are nonfactorable over the integers. [5.2B, p. 244]

The polynomial 3y3 ⫹ 9y2 ⫺ 12y is factored completely as 3y共 y ⫹ 4兲共 y ⫺ 1兲.

An equation that can be written in the form ax2 ⫹ bx ⫹ c ⫽ 0, a 苷 0, is a quadratic equation. A quadratic equation is in standard form when the polynomial is written in descending order and equal to zero. [5.5A, p. 266]

The equation 2x2 ⫺ 3x ⫹ 7 ⫽ 0 is a quadratic equation in standard form.

ESSENTIAL RULES AND PROCEDURES

EXAMPLES

Factoring by Grouping [5.1B, p. 238] A polynomial can be factored by grouping if its terms can be grouped and factored in such a way that a common binomial factor is found.

Factoring x 2  bx  c : IMPORTANT RELATIONSHIPS [5.2A, p. 242] 1. When the constant term of the trinomial is positive, the constant terms of the binomials have the same sign. They are both positive when the coefficient of the x term in the trinomial is positive. They are both negative when the coefficient of the x term in the trinomial is negative.

3a2 ⫺ a ⫺ 15ab ⫹ 5b ⫽ 共3a2 ⫺ a兲 ⫺ 共15ab ⫺ 5b兲 ⫽ a共3a ⫺ 1兲 ⫺ 5b共3a ⫺ 1兲 ⫽ 共3a ⫺ 1兲共a ⫺ 5b兲

x2 ⫹ 6x ⫹ 8 ⫽ 共x ⫹ 4兲共x ⫹ 2兲 x2 ⫺ 6x ⫹ 5 ⫽ 共x ⫺ 5兲共x ⫺ 1兲

2. When the constant term of the trinomial is negative, the constant terms of the binomials have opposite signs.

x2 ⫺ 4x ⫺ 21 ⫽ 共x ⫹ 3兲共x ⫺ 7兲

3. In the trinomial, the coefficient of x is the sum of the constant terms of the binomials.

In the three examples above, note that 6 ⫽ 4 ⫹ 2, ⫺6 ⫽ ⫺5 ⫹ 共⫺1兲, and ⫺4 ⫽ 3 ⫹ 共⫺7兲.

4. In the trinomial, the constant term is the product of the constant terms of the binomials.

In the three examples above, note that 8 ⫽ 4 ⭈ 2, 5 ⫽ ⫺5共⫺1兲, and ⫺21 ⫽ 3共⫺7兲.

Chapter 5 Summary

To factor ax 2  bx  c : by grouping [5.3B, p. 252] First find two factors of a ⭈ c whose sum is b. Then use factoring by grouping to write the factorization of the trinomial.

Factoring the Difference of Two Squares [5.4A, p. 258] The difference of two squares factors as the sum and difference of the same terms. a2 ⫺ b2 ⫽ 共a ⫹ b兲共a ⫺ b兲

Factoring a Perfect-Square Trinomial [5.4A, p. 259] A perfect-square trinomial is the square of a binomial. a2 ⫹ 2ab ⫹ b2 ⫽ 共a ⫹ b兲2 a2 ⫺ 2ab ⫹ b2 ⫽ 共a ⫺ b兲2

3x2 ⫺ 11x ⫺ 20 a ⭈ c ⫽ 3共⫺20兲 ⫽ ⫺60 The product of 4 and ⫺15 is ⫺60. The sum of 4 and ⫺15 is ⫺11. 3x2 ⫹ 4x ⫺ 15x ⫺ 20 ⫽ 共3x2 ⫹ 4x兲 ⫺ 共15x ⫹ 20兲 ⫽ x共3x ⫹ 4兲 ⫺ 5共3x ⫹ 4兲 ⫽ 共3x ⫹ 4兲共x ⫺ 5兲

x2 ⫺ 64 ⫽ 共x ⫹ 8兲共x ⫺ 8兲 4x2 ⫺ 81 ⫽ 共2x兲2 ⫺ 92 ⫽ 共2x ⫹ 9兲共2x ⫺ 9兲

x2 ⫹ 14x ⫹ 49 ⫽ 共x ⫹ 7兲2 x2 ⫺ 10x ⫹ 25 ⫽ 共x ⫺ 5兲2

General Factoring Strategy [5.4B, p. 260] 1. Is there a common factor? If so, factor out the common factor.

6x2 ⫺ 8x ⫽ 2x共3x ⫺ 4兲

2. Is the polynomial the difference of two perfect squares? If so, factor.

9x2 ⫺ 25 ⫽ 共3x ⫹ 5兲共3x ⫺ 5兲

3. Is the polynomial a perfect-square trinomial? If so, factor.

9x2 ⫹ 6x ⫹ 1 ⫽ 共3x ⫹ 1兲2

4. Is the polynomial a trinomial that is the product of two binomials? If so, factor.

6x2 ⫹ 5x ⫺ 6 ⫽ 共3x ⫺ 2兲共2x ⫹ 3兲

5. Does the polynomial contain four terms? If so, try factoring by grouping.

x3 ⫺ 3x2 ⫹ 2x ⫺ 6 ⫽ 共x3 ⫺ 3x2兲 ⫹ 共2x ⫺ 6兲 ⫽ x2共x ⫺ 3兲 ⫹ 2共x ⫺ 3兲 ⫽ 共x ⫺ 3兲共x2 ⫹ 2兲

6. Is each binomial factor nonfactorable over the integers? If not, factor the binomial.

x4 ⫺ 16 ⫽ 共x2 ⫹ 4兲共x2 ⫺ 4兲

Principle of Zero Products [5.5A, p. 266] If the product of two factors is zero, then at least one of the factors must be zero.

⫽ 共x2 ⫹ 4兲共x ⫹ 2兲共x ⫺ 2兲

If a ⭈ b ⫽ 0, then a ⫽ 0 or b ⫽ 0.

x2 ⫹ x ⫽ 12 x2 ⫹ x ⫺ 12 ⫽ 0 共x ⫺ 3兲共x ⫹ 4兲 ⫽ 0

The Principle of Zero Products is used to solve a quadratic equation by factoring.

x⫺3⫽0 x⫹4⫽0 x⫽3 x ⫽ ⫺4

279

280

CHAPTER 5

Factoring

CHAPTER 5

1. What does the GCF have to do with factoring?

2. When factoring a polynomial, do the terms of the polynomial have to be like terms?

4. How is the GCF used in factoring by grouping?

5. When is a polynomial nonfactorable over the integers?

6. What does it mean to factor a polynomial completely?

7. When factoring a trinomial of the form x 2 ⫹ bx ⫹ c, why do we begin by finding the possible factors of c?

8. What are trial factors?

9. What is the middle term of a trinomial?

10. What are the binomial factors of the difference of two perfect squares?

11. What is an example of a perfect-square trinomial?

12. To solve an equation using factoring, why must the equation be set equal to zero?

Chapter 5 Review Exercises

CHAPTER 5

REVIEW EXERCISES 1. Factor: b2 ⫺ 13b ⫹ 30

2. Factor: 4x共x ⫺ 3兲 ⫺ 5共3 ⫺ x兲2

3. Factor 2x2 ⫺ 5x ⫹ 6 by using trial factors.

4. Factor: 5x3 ⫹ 10x2 ⫹ 35x

5. Factor: 14y9 ⫺ 49y6 ⫹ 7y3

6. Factor: y2 ⫹ 5y ⫺ 36

7. Factor 6x2 ⫺ 29x ⫹ 28 by using trial factors.

8. Factor: 12a2b ⫹ 3ab2

9. Factor: a6 ⫺ 100

10. Factor: n4 ⫺ 2n3 ⫺ 3n2

11. Factor 12y2 ⫹ 16y ⫺ 3 by using trial factors.

12. Factor: 12b3 ⫺ 58b2 ⫹ 56b

13. Factor: 9y4 ⫺ 25z2

14. Factor: c2 ⫹ 8c ⫹ 12

15. Factor 18a2 ⫺ 3a ⫺ 10 by grouping.

16. Solve: 4x2 ⫹ 27x ⫽ 7

17. Factor: 4x3 ⫺ 20x2 ⫺ 24x

18. Factor: 3a2 ⫺ 15a ⫺ 42

281

282

CHAPTER 5

Factoring

19. Factor 2a2 ⫺ 19a ⫺ 60 by grouping.

20. Solve: 共x ⫹ 1兲共x ⫺ 5兲 ⫽ 162

21. Factor: 21ax ⫺ 35bx ⫺ 10by ⫹ 6ay

22. Factor: a2b2 ⫺ 1

23. Factor: 10x2 ⫹ 25x ⫹ 4xy ⫹ 10y

24. Factor: 5x2 ⫺ 5x ⫺ 30

25. Factor: 3x2 ⫹ 36x ⫹ 108

26. Factor 3x2 ⫺ 17x ⫹ 10 by grouping.

28. Image Projection The size S of an image from a projector depends on the distance d of the screen from the projector and is given by S ⫽ d 2. Find the distance between the projector and the screen when the size of the picture is 400 ft 2.

29. Photography A rectangular photograph has dimensions 15 in. by 12 in. A picture frame around the photograph increases the total area to 270 in 2. What is the width of the frame?

30. Gardening The length of each side of a square garden plot is extended 4 ft. The area of the resulting square is 576 ft2. Find the length of a side of the original garden plot.

Tony Cordoza/Alamy

27. Sports The length of the field in field hockey is 20 yd less than twice the width of the field. The area of the field in field hockey is 6000 yd2. Find the length and width of the field.

Chapter 5 Test

CHAPTER 5

TEST 1.

Factor: ab ⫹ 6a ⫺ 3b ⫺ 18

2.

Factor: 2y4 ⫺ 14y3 ⫺ 16y2

2

3.

Factor 8x2 ⫹ 20x ⫺ 48 by grouping.

4.

Factor 6x2 ⫹ 19x ⫹ 8 by using trial factors.

5.

Factor: a2 ⫺ 19a ⫹ 48

6.

Factor: 6x3 ⫺ 8x2 ⫹ 10x

7.

Factor: x2 ⫹ 2x ⫺ 15

8.

Solve: 4x2 ⫺ 1 ⫽ 0

9.

Factor: 5x2 ⫺ 45x ⫺ 15

10.

Factor: p2 ⫹ 12p ⫹ 36

11.

Solve: x共x ⫺ 8兲 ⫽ ⫺15

12.

Factor: 3x2 ⫹ 12xy ⫹ 12y2

13.

Factor: b2 ⫺ 16

14.

Factor 6x2y2 ⫹ 9xy2 ⫹ 3y2 by grouping.

283

284

CHAPTER 5

Factoring

15. Factor: p2 ⫹ 5p ⫹ 6

16. Factor: a共x ⫺ 2兲 ⫹ b共x ⫺ 2兲

17. Factor: x共p ⫹ 1兲 ⫺ 共p ⫹ 1兲

18. Factor: 3a2 ⫺ 75

19. Factor: 2x2 ⫹ 4x ⫺ 5

20. Factor: x2 ⫺ 9x ⫺ 36

21. Factor: 4a2 ⫺ 12ab ⫹ 9b2

22. Factor: 4x2 ⫺ 49y2

23. Solve: 共2a ⫺ 3兲共a ⫹ 7兲 ⫽ 0

24. Number Sense The sum of two numbers is ten. The sum of the squares of the two numbers is fifty-eight. Find the two numbers.

2W ⫹ 3

25. Geometry The length of a rectangle is 3 cm longer than twice the width. The area of the rectangle is 90 cm2. Find the length and width of the rectangle.

W

Cumulative Review Exercises

285

CUMULATIVE REVIEW EXERCISES 1.

Subtract: ⫺2 ⫺ 共⫺3兲 ⫺ 5 ⫺ 共⫺11兲

2.

Simplify: 共3 ⫺ 7兲2 ⫼ 共⫺2兲 ⫺ 3 ⭈ 共⫺4兲

3.

Evaluate ⫺2a2 ⫼ 共2b兲 ⫺ c when a ⫽ ⫺4, b ⫽ 2, and c ⫽ ⫺1.

4.

3 Simplify: ⫺ 共⫺20x2兲 4

5.

Simplify: ⫺23 4x ⫺ 2共3 ⫺ 2x兲 ⫺ 8x4

6.

5 10 Solve: ⫺ x ⫽ ⫺ 7 21

7.

Solve: 3x ⫺ 2 ⫽ 12 ⫺ 5x

8.

Solve: ⫺2 ⫹ 4 33x ⫺ 2共4 ⫺ x兲 ⫺ 3 4 ⫽ 4x ⫹ 2

9.

120% of what number is 54?

10.

Simplify: 共⫺3a3b2兲2

11.

Multiply: 共x ⫹ 2兲共x2 ⫺ 5x ⫹ 4兲

12.

Divide: 共8x2 ⫹ 4x ⫺ 3兲 ⫼ 共2x ⫺ 3兲

13.

Simplify: 共x⫺4y3兲2

14.

Factor: 3a ⫺ 3b ⫺ ax ⫹ bx

15.

Factor: 15xy2 ⫺ 20xy4

16.

Factor: x2 ⫺ 5xy ⫺ 14y2

17.

Factor: p2 ⫺ 9p ⫺ 10

18.

Factor: 18a3 ⫹ 57a2 ⫹ 30a

286

CHAPTER 5

Factoring

19. Factor: 36a2 ⫺ 49b2

20. Factor: 4x2 ⫹ 28xy ⫹ 49y2

21. Factor: 9x2 ⫹ 15x ⫺ 14

22. Factor: 18x2 ⫺ 48xy ⫹ 32y2

23. Factor: 3y共x ⫺ 3兲 ⫺ 2共x ⫺ 3兲

24. Solve: 3x2 ⫹ 19x ⫺ 14 ⫽ 0

25. Carpentry A board 10 ft long is cut into two pieces. Four times the length of the shorter piece is 2 ft less than three times the length of the longer piece. Find the length of each piece.

26. Business A portable MP3 player that regularly sells for \$165 is on sale for \$99. Find the discount rate. Use the formula S ⫽ R ⫺ rR.

27. Geometry Given that lines ᐉ1 and ᐉ2 are parallel, find the measures of angles a and b.

72°

1

a 2

b

28.

Travel A family drove to a resort at an average speed of 42 mph and later returned over the same road at an average speed of 56 mph. Find the distance to the resort if the total driving time was 7 h.

29.

Consecutive Integers Find three consecutive even integers such that five times the middle integer is twelve more than twice the sum of the first and third integers.

30.

Geometry The length of the base of a triangle is three times the height. The area of the triangle is 24 in2. Find the length of the base of the triangle.

CHAPTER

6

Rational Expressions A.G.E. Foto Stock/First Light

OBJECTIVES SECTION 6.1 A To simplify a rational expression B To multiply rational expressions C To divide rational expressions SECTION 6.2 A To find the least common multiple (LCM) of two or more polynomials B To express two fractions in terms of the LCM of their denominators SECTION 6.3 A To add or subtract rational expressions with the same denominators B To add or subtract rational expressions with different denominators

ARE YOU READY? Take the Chapter 6 Prep Test to find out if you are ready to learn to: • • • •

Simplify a rational expression Add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational expressions Solve an equation containing fractions Solve a proportion and use proportions to solve problems involving similar triangles • Solve a literal equation for one of the variables • Use rational expressions to solve work problems and uniform motion problems

SECTION 6.4 A To simplify a complex fraction SECTION 6.5 A To solve an equation containing fractions SECTION 6.6 A To solve a proportion B To solve application problems C To solve problems involving similar triangles SECTION 6.7 A To solve a literal equation for one of the variables SECTION 6.8 A To solve work problems B To use rational expressions to solve uniform motion problems

PREP TEST Do these exercises to prepare for Chapter 6. 1. Find the least common multiple (LCM) of 12 and 18.

3. Subtract:

3 8 ⫺ 4 9

5. If a is a nonzero number, are the following two quantities a 0 equal: and ? a

2. Simplify:

4. Divide:

6. Solve:

9x3y4 3x2y7

8 11

4 5

2 3 5 x⫺ ⫽ 3 4 6

0

7. Line l1 is parallel to line l2 . Find the measure of angle a.

50° 1

a 2

8. Factor: x2 ⫺ 4x ⫺ 12

9. Factor: 2x2 ⫺ x ⫺ 3

10. At 9:00 A.M., Anthony begins walking on a park trail at a rate of 9 m兾min. Ten minutes later his sister Jean begins walking the same trail in pursuit of her brother at a rate of 12 m兾min. At what time will Jean catch up to Anthony?

287

288

CHAPTER 6

Rational Expressions

SECTION

6.1 OBJECTIVE A

Multiplication and Division of Rational Expressions To simplify a rational expression A fraction in which the numerator and denominator are polynomials is called a rational expression. Examples of rational expressions are shown at the right. Care must be exercised with a rational expression to ensure that when the variables are replaced with numbers, the resulting denominator is not zero. Consider the rational expression at the right. The value of x cannot be 3 because the denominator would then be zero.

5 , z

x2 ⫹ 1 , 2x ⫺ 1

y2 ⫹ y ⫺ 1 4y2 ⫹ 1

4x2 ⫺ 9 2x ⫺ 6 4共3兲2 ⫺ 9 27 ⫽ 2共3兲 ⫺ 6 0

Not a real number

In the simplest form of a rational expression, the numerator and denominator have no common factors. The Multiplication Property of One is used to write a rational expression in simplest form. x2 ⫺ 4 x2 ⫺ 2x ⫺ 8 2 共x ⫺ 2兲共x ⫹ 2兲 x ⫺4 ⫽ 2 共x ⫺ 4兲共x ⫹ 2兲 x ⫺ 2x ⫺ 8 x⫺2 x⫹2 x⫺2 ⫽ ⭈ ⫽ ⭈1 x⫺4 x⫹2 x⫺4 x⫺2 ⫽ , x 苷 ⫺2, 4 x⫺4

HOW TO • 1

Simplify:

• Factor the numerator and denominator.

• The restrictions, x 苷 2 or 4, are necessary to prevent division by zero.

This simplification is usually shown with slashes through the common factors: 1

• Factor the numerator and denominator.

1

x⫺2 , x 苷 ⫺2, 4 x⫺4

• Divide by the common factors. The restrictions, x 苷 2 or 4, are necessary to prevent division by zero.

In summary, to simplify a rational expression, factor the numerator and denominator. Then divide the numerator and denominator by the common factors. 10 ⫹ 3x ⫺ x2 x2 ⫺ 4x ⫺ 5 • Because the coefficient of x 2 in the numerator ⫺共x2 ⫺ 3x ⫺ 10兲 10 ⫹ 3x ⫺ x2 ⫽ is 1, factor 1 from the numerator. x2 ⫺ 4x ⫺ 5 x2 ⫺ 4x ⫺ 5

HOW TO • 2

Simplify:

1

⫺共x ⫺ 5兲共x ⫹ 2兲 ⫽ 共x ⫺ 5兲共x ⫹ 1兲 1

x⫹2 , x 苷 ⫺1, 5 ⫽⫺ x⫹1

• Factor the numerator and denominator. Divide by the common factors.

SECTION 6.1

Multiplication and Division of Rational Expressions

289

For the remaining examples, we will omit the restrictions on the variables that prevent division by zero and assume the values of the variables are such that division by zero is not possible. EXAMPLE • 1

Simplify:

YOU TRY IT • 1

4x3 y4 6x4 y

Solution 2y3 4x3 y4 ⫽ 3x 6x4 y

Simplify:

Your solution • Use the rules of exponents.

EXAMPLE • 2

Simplify:

6x5 y 12x2 y3

YOU TRY IT • 2

x2 ⫹ 2x ⫺ 15 x2 ⫺ 7x ⫹ 12

Simplify:

Solution

x2 ⫹ 4x ⫺ 12 x2 ⫺ 3x ⫹ 2

EXAMPLE • 3

YOU TRY IT • 3

9⫺x 2 x ⫹ x ⫺ 12 2

Simplify:

Simplify:

Solution

x2 ⫹ 2x ⫺ 24 16 ⫺ x2

⫽⫺

x⫹3 x⫹4

3  x 1(x  3)  x3 x3  1

Solutions on p. S13

OBJECTIVE B

To multiply rational expressions The product of two fractions is a fraction whose numerator is the product of the numerators of the two fractions and whose denominator is the product of the denominators of the two fractions. Multiplying Rational Expressions Multiply the numerators. Multiply the denominators.

2 4 8 ⭈ ⫽ 3 5 15

a c ac ⭈ ⫽ b d bd

3x 2 6x ⭈ ⫽ y z yz

3 3x ⫹ 6 x⫹2 ⭈ ⫽ 2 x x⫺2 x ⫺ 2x

290

CHAPTER 6

Rational Expressions

x2 ⫺ 5x ⫹ 4 x2 ⫹ 3x ⭈ 2 x ⫺ 3x ⫺ 4 x ⫹ 2x ⫺ 3 2 2 x ⫺ 5x ⫹ 4 x ⫹ 3x ⭈ 2 2 x ⫺ 3x ⫺ 4 x ⫹ 2x ⫺ 3

HOW TO • 3

Multiply:

2

x共x ⫹ 3兲 共x ⫺ 4兲共x ⫺ 1兲 ⭈ 共x ⫺ 4兲共x ⫹ 1兲 共x ⫹ 3兲共x ⫺ 1兲 1

1

1

x共x ⫹ 3兲共x ⫺ 4兲共x ⫺ 1兲 ⫽ 共x ⫺ 4兲共x ⫹ 1兲共x ⫹ 3兲共x ⫺ 1兲 1

1

• Write the answer in simplest form.

YOU TRY IT • 4

3x ⫺ 2 10x2 ⫺ 15x ⭈ 12x ⫺ 8 20x ⫺ 25

Solution 10x2 ⫺ 15x 3x ⫺ 2 ⭈ 12x ⫺ 8 20x ⫺ 25 5x共2x ⫺ 3兲 共3x ⫺ 2兲 ⭈ ⫽ 4共3x ⫺ 2兲 5共4x ⫺ 5兲 1

Multiply:

12x2 ⫹ 3x 8x ⫺ 12 ⭈ 10x ⫺ 15 9x ⫹ 18

• Factor.

1

5x共2x ⫺ 3兲共3x ⫺ 2兲 ⫽ 4共3x ⫺ 2兲5共4x ⫺ 5兲 1

• Multiply. Then divide by the common factors.

1

x x⫹1

EXAMPLE • 4

Multiply:

• Factor the numerator and denominator of each fraction.

• Divide by the common factors.

1

x共2x ⫺ 3兲 4共4x ⫺ 5兲

EXAMPLE • 5

YOU TRY IT • 5

x2 ⫹ 3x ⫺ 4 x2 ⫹ x ⫺ 6 ⭈ x ⫹ 7x ⫹ 12 4 ⫺ x2

Multiply:

Solution x2 ⫹ 3x ⫺ 4 x2 ⫹ x ⫺ 6 ⭈ x2 ⫹ 7x ⫹ 12 4 ⫺ x2 共x ⫹ 3兲共x ⫺ 2兲 共x ⫹ 4兲共x ⫺ 1兲 ⭈ ⫽ 共x ⫹ 3兲共x ⫹ 4兲 共2 ⫺ x兲共2 ⫹ x兲 1

⫺1

1

1

x2 ⫹ 2x ⫺ 15 x2 ⫺ 3x ⫺ 18 ⭈ 2 9 ⫺ x2 x ⫺ 7x ⫹ 6

• Factor.

1

Multiply:

2

• Divide by the common factors.

1

x⫺1 x⫹2 Solutions on p. S14

SECTION 6.1

Multiplication and Division of Rational Expressions

291

To divide rational expressions The reciprocal of a rational expression is the rational expression with the numerator and denominator interchanged.

Fraction

⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

OBJECTIVE C

a b x2 1 x⫹2 x

x2 ⫽

⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ Reciprocal ⎪ ⎪ x ⎪ x⫹2 ⎭

b a 1 x2

Dividing Rational Expressions Multiply the dividend by the reciprocal of the divisor.

y 20 4 5 4 ⫼ ⫽ ⭈ ⫽ x x y xy 5

4共x ⫹ 4兲 x⫺2 4 x⫹4 x⫹4 ⫼ ⭈ ⫽ ⫽ x x 4 x⫺2 x共x ⫺ 2兲

The basis for the division rule is shown at the right.

a d a d a ⭈ c a c b b b c a d ⫼ ⫽ ⫽ ⭈ ⫽ ⫽ ⭈ c c d b d 1 b c d d c

EXAMPLE • 6

Divide:

a c a d ad ⫼ ⫽ ⭈ ⫽ b d b c bc

YOU TRY IT • 6

xy2 ⫺ 3x2 y 6x2 ⫺ 2xy ⫼ z2 z3

Solution xy2 ⫺ 3x2 y 6x2 ⫺ 2xy ⫼ z2 z3 2 2 xy ⫺ 3x y z3 ⫽ ⭈ z2 6x2 ⫺ 2xy

Divide:

a a2 ⫼ 2 2 4bc ⫺ 2b c 6bc ⫺ 3b2

• Multiply by the reciprocal.

⫺1

xy共 y ⫺ 3x兲 ⭈ z3 yz ⫽⫺ ⫽ 2 2 z ⭈ 2x共3x ⫺ y兲 1

EXAMPLE • 7

Divide:

YOU TRY IT • 7

3x2 ⫹ 13x ⫹ 4 2x2 ⫹ 5x ⫹ 2 ⫼ 2x2 ⫹ 3x ⫺ 2 2x2 ⫹ 7x ⫺ 4

Divide:

Solution 2x2 ⫹ 5x ⫹ 2 3x2 ⫹ 13x ⫹ 4 ⫼ 2x2 ⫹ 3x ⫺ 2 2x2 ⫹ 7x ⫺ 4 ⫽

2x2 ⫹ 5x ⫹ 2 2x2 ⫹ 7x ⫺ 4 ⭈ 2x2 ⫹ 3x ⫺ 2 3x2 ⫹ 13x ⫹ 4 1

1

• Multiply by the reciprocal.

1

1

2x2 ⫹ 9x ⫺ 5 3x2 ⫹ 26x ⫹ 16 ⫼ 3x2 ⫺ 7x ⫺ 6 x2 ⫹ 2x ⫺ 15

1

Solutions on p. S14

292

CHAPTER 6

Rational Expressions

6.1 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To simplify a rational expression

1. Explain the procedure for writing a rational expression in simplest form.

1

2. Why is the simplification at the right incorrect?

x⫹3 x⫹3 ⫽ ⫽4 x x 1

For Exercises 3 to 30, simplify. 3.

9x3 12x4

4.

16x2y 24xy3

5.

7.

3n ⫺ 4 4 ⫺ 3n

8.

5 ⫺ 2x 2x ⫺ 5

9.

6y共y ⫹ 2兲 9y2共y ⫹ 2兲

10.

12x2共3 ⫺ x兲 18x共3 ⫺ x兲

6.

11.

6x共x ⫺ 5兲 8x2共5 ⫺ x兲

12.

14x3共7 ⫺ 3x兲 21x共3x ⫺ 7兲

13.

a2 ⫹ 4a ab ⫹ 4b

14.

x2 ⫺ 3x 2x ⫺ 6

15.

4 ⫺ 6x 3x2 ⫺ 2x

16.

5xy ⫺ 3y 9 ⫺ 15x

17.

y2 ⫺ 3y ⫹ 2 y2 ⫺ 4y ⫹ 3

18.

x2 ⫹ 5x ⫹ 6 x2 ⫹ 8x ⫹ 15

19.

x2 ⫹ 3x ⫺ 10 x2 ⫹ 2x ⫺ 8

20.

a2 ⫹ 7a ⫺ 8 a2 ⫹ 6a ⫺ 7

21.

x2 ⫹ x ⫺ 12 x2 ⫺ 6x ⫹ 9

22.

x2 ⫹ 8x ⫹ 16 x2 ⫺ 2x ⫺ 24

23.

x2 ⫺ 3x ⫺ 10 25 ⫺ x2

24.

4 ⫺ y2 y2 ⫺ 3y ⫺ 10

25.

2x3 ⫹ 2x2 ⫺ 4x x3 ⫹ 2x2 ⫺ 3x

26.

3x3 ⫺ 12x 6x3 ⫺ 24x2 ⫹ 24x

27.

6x2 ⫺ 7x ⫹ 2 6x2 ⫹ 5x ⫺ 6

28.

2n2 ⫺ 9n ⫹ 4 2n2 ⫺ 5n ⫺ 12

29.

x2 ⫹ 3x ⫺ 28 24 ⫺ 2x ⫺ x2

30.

x2 ⫹ 7x ⫺ 8 1 ⫹ x ⫺ 2x2

SECTION 6.1

OBJECTIVE B

Multiplication and Division of Rational Expressions

To multiply rational expressions

For Exercises 31 to 54, multiply. 31.

8x2 3y2 ⭈ 9y3 4x3

32.

14a2b3 25x3y ⭈ 15x5y2 16ab

33.

12x3y4 14a3b4 ⭈ 7a2b3 9x2y2

34.

18a4b2 50x5y6 ⭈ 25x2y3 27a6b2

35.

3x ⫺ 6 10x ⫺ 40 ⭈ 5x ⫺ 20 27x ⫺ 54

36.

8x ⫺ 12 42x ⫹ 21 ⭈ 14x ⫹ 7 32x ⫺ 48

37.

3x2 ⫹ 2x 2xy3 ⫺ 3y3 ⭈ 2xy ⫺ 3y 3x3 ⫹ 2x2

38.

4a2x ⫺ 3a2 2b3y ⫹ 5b3 ⭈ 2by ⫹ 5b 4ax ⫺ 3a

39.

x2y3 x2 ⫹ 5x ⫹ 4 ⭈ x3y2 x2 ⫹ 2x ⫹ 1

40.

x3y x2 ⫹ x ⫺ 2 ⭈ xy2 x2 ⫹ 5x ⫹ 6

41.

x4y2 x2 ⫺ 49 ⭈ x2 ⫹ 3x ⫺ 28 xy4

42.

x5y3 x2 ⫹ 2x ⫺ 3 ⭈ x2 ⫹ 13x ⫹ 30 x7y2

43.

2x2 ⫺ 5x 2xy2 ⫹ y2 ⭈ 2xy ⫹ y 5x2 ⫺ 2x3

44.

3a3 ⫹ 4a2 3b3 ⫺ 5ab3 ⭈ 5ab ⫺ 3b 3a2 ⫹ 4a

45.

x2 ⫺ 2x ⫺ 24 x2 ⫹ 5x ⫹ 6 ⭈ x2 ⫺ 5x ⫺ 6 x2 ⫹ 6x ⫹ 8

46.

x2 ⫺ 8x ⫹ 7 x2 ⫹ 3x ⫺ 10 ⭈ x2 ⫹ 3x ⫺ 4 x2 ⫺ 9x ⫹ 14

47.

x2 ⫹ 2x ⫺ 35 x2 ⫹ 3x ⫺ 18 ⭈ x2 ⫹ 4x ⫺ 21 x2 ⫹ 9x ⫹ 18

48.

y2 ⫹ y ⫺ 20 y2 ⫹ 4y ⫺ 21 ⭈ y2 ⫹ 2y ⫺ 15 y2 ⫹ 3y ⫺ 28

293

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CHAPTER 6

Rational Expressions

49.

x2 ⫺ 3x ⫺ 4 x2 ⫹ 5x ⫹ 6 ⭈ x2 ⫹ 6x ⫹ 5 8 ⫹ 2x ⫺ x2

50.

n2 ⫺ 8n ⫺ 20 25 ⫺ n2 ⭈ n2 ⫺ 2n ⫺ 35 n2 ⫺ 3n ⫺ 10

51.

x2 ⫺ 6x ⫺ 27 16 ⫹ 6x ⫺ x2 ⭈ x2 ⫺ 10x ⫺ 24 x2 ⫺ 17x ⫹ 72

52.

x2 ⫺ 11x ⫹ 28 x2 ⫹ 7x ⫹ 10 ⭈ x2 ⫺ 13x ⫹ 42 20 ⫺ x ⫺ x2

53.

2x 2 ⫹ 5x ⫹ 2 x 2 ⫺ 7x ⫺ 30 ⭈ 2x 2 ⫹ 7x ⫹ 3 x2 ⫺ 6x ⫺ 40

54.

x 2 ⫺ 4x ⫺ 32 3x 2 ⫹ 17x ⫹ 10 ⭈ x 2 ⫺ 8x ⫺ 48 3x 2 ⫺ 22x ⫺ 16

For Exercises 55 to 57, use the product

xa yc ⭈ , where a, b, c, and d are all positive yb xd

integers. 55. If a ⬎ d and c ⬎ b, what is the denominator of the simplified product? 56. If a ⬎ d and b ⬎ c, which variable appears in the denominator of the simplified product? 57. If a ⬍ d and b ⫽ c, what is the numerator of the simplified product?

OBJECTIVE C

To divide rational expressions

58. What is the reciprocal of a rational expression? 59. Explain how to divide rational expressions. For Exercises 60 to 79, divide. 60.

6xy 4x2y3 ⫼ 3 5 2 3 15a b 5a b

61.

45x4y2 9x3y4 ⫼ 16a4b2 14a7b

62.

6x ⫺ 12 18x ⫺ 36 ⫼ 8x ⫹ 32 10x ⫹ 40

63.

28x ⫹ 14 14x ⫹ 7 ⫼ 45x ⫺ 30 30x ⫺ 20

64.

6x3 ⫹ 7x2 6x2 ⫹ 7x ⫼ 12x ⫺ 3 36x ⫺ 9

65.

10ay ⫹ 6a 5a2y ⫹ 3a2 ⫼ 3 3 2 2x ⫹ 5x 6x ⫹ 15x2

66.

x2 ⫹ 4x ⫹ 3 x2 ⫹ 2x ⫹ 1 ⫼ x2y xy2

67.

x3y2 xy4 ⫼ x2 ⫺ 3x ⫺ 10 x2 ⫺ x ⫺ 20

SECTION 6.1

Multiplication and Division of Rational Expressions

68.

x2 ⫺ 49 x2 ⫺ 14x ⫹ 49 ⫼ x4y3 x4y3

69.

xy6 x2y5 ⫼ x2 ⫺ 11x ⫹ 30 x2 ⫺ 7x ⫹ 10

70.

2y ⫺ xy 4ax ⫺ 8a ⫼ 2 c c3

71.

3x2 y ⫺ 9xy 3x2 ⫺ x3 ⫼ a2b ab2

72.

x2 ⫺ 5x ⫹ 6 x2 ⫺ 6x ⫹ 8 ⫼ x2 ⫺ 9x ⫹ 18 x2 ⫺ 9x ⫹ 20

73.

x2 ⫹ 2x ⫺ 48 x2 ⫹ 3x ⫺ 40 ⫼ x2 ⫹ 2x ⫺ 35 x2 ⫹ 3x ⫺ 18

74.

x2 ⫹ 2x ⫺ 15 x2 ⫹ x ⫺ 12 ⫼ x2 ⫺ 4x ⫺ 45 x2 ⫺ 5x ⫺ 36

75.

y2 ⫺ 13y ⫹ 40 y2 ⫺ y ⫺ 56 ⫼ y2 ⫹ 8y ⫹ 7 y2 ⫺ 4y ⫺ 5

76.

x2 ⫺ 11x ⫹ 28 8 ⫹ 2x ⫺ x2 ⫼ x2 ⫹ 7x ⫹ 10 x2 ⫺ x ⫺ 42

77.

x2 ⫺ 3x ⫺ 4 x2 ⫺ x ⫺ 2 ⫼ x2 ⫺ 7x ⫹ 10 40 ⫺ 3x ⫺ x2

78.

2x2 ⫺ 3x ⫺ 20 2x2 ⫺ 5x ⫺ 12 ⫼ 2x2 ⫺ 7x ⫺ 30 4x2 ⫹ 12x ⫹ 9

79.

6n2 ⫹ n ⫺ 2 6n2 ⫹ 13n ⫹ 6 ⫼ 4n2 ⫺ 9 4n2 ⫺ 1

For Exercises 80 to 83, state whether the given division is equivalent to 80.

x⫺4 x⫺1 ⫼ x⫹6 x⫹1

81.

x⫹1 x⫺1 ⫼ x⫹6 x⫺4

82.

x2 ⫺ 3x ⫺ 4 x2 ⫹ 5x ⫺ 6

x⫹1 x⫹6 ⫼ x⫺1 x⫺4

. 83.

Applying the Concepts 84. Given the expression

9 x2 ⫹ 1

, choose some values of x and evaluate the expression

for those values. Is it possible to choose a value of x for which the value of the expression is greater than 10? If so, what is that value of x? If not, explain why it is not possible.

Geometry For Exercises 85 and 86, write in simplest form the ratio of the shaded area of the figure to the total area of the figure. 85.

86. 5x 2x

2x x+4 x+8

x+4

x⫺1 x⫺4 ⫼ x⫹1 x⫹6

295

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CHAPTER 6

Rational Expressions

SECTION

6.2 OBJECTIVE A

Expressing Fractions in Terms of the Least Common Multiple (LCM) To find the least common multiple (LCM) of two or more polynomials Recall that the least common multiple (LCM) of two or more numbers is the smallest number that contains the prime factorization of each number. 12 ⫽ 2 ⭈ 2 ⭈ 3 18 ⫽ 2 ⭈ 3 ⭈ 3 Factors of 12 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭

The LCM of 12 and 18 is 36 because 36 contains the prime factors of 12 and the prime factors of 18.

⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭

LCM ⫽ 36 ⫽ 2 ⭈ 2 ⭈ 3 ⭈ 3

Factors of 18

The least common multiple (LCM) of two or more polynomials is the polynomial of least degree that contains all the factors of each polynomial. To find the LCM of two or more polynomials, first factor each polynomial completely. The LCM is the product of each factor the greatest number of times it occurs in any one factorization. Find the LCM of 4x2 ⫹ 4x and x2 ⫹ 2x ⫹ 1. 4x2 ⫹ 4x ⫽ 4x共x ⫹ 1兲 ⫽ 2 ⭈ 2 ⭈ x共x ⫹ 1兲 The LCM of the x2 ⫹ 2x ⫹ 1 ⫽ 共x ⫹ 1兲共x ⫹ 1兲 polynomials is the product of the LCM Factors of 4x2 ⫹ 4x of the numerical LCM ⫽ 2 ⭈ 2 ⭈ x共x ⫹ 1兲共x ⫹ 1兲 ⫽ 4x共x ⫹ 1兲共x ⫹ 1兲 coefficients and each Factors of x2 ⫹ 2x ⫹ 1 variable factor the greatest number of times it occurs in any one factorization.

Take Note

⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

The LCM must contain the factors of each polynomial. As shown with the braces at the right, the LCM contains the factors of 4x 2 ⫹ 4x and the factors of x 2 ⫹ 2x ⫹ 1.

⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

HOW TO • 1

EXAMPLE • 1

YOU TRY IT • 1

Find the LCM of 4x2 y and 6xy2.

Find the LCM of 8uv2 and 12uw.

Solution 4x2 y ⫽ 2 ⭈ 2 ⭈ x ⭈ x ⭈ y 6xy2 ⫽ 2 ⭈ 3 ⭈ x ⭈ y ⭈ y LCM ⫽ 2 ⭈ 2 ⭈ 3 ⭈ x ⭈ x ⭈ y ⭈ y ⫽ 12x2 y2

EXAMPLE • 2

YOU TRY IT • 2

Find the LCM of x ⫺ x ⫺ 6 and 9 ⫺ x .

Find the LCM of m2 ⫺ 6m ⫹ 9 and m2 ⫺ 2m ⫺ 3.

Solution x2 ⫺ x ⫺ 6 ⫽ 共x ⫺ 3兲共x ⫹ 2兲 9 ⫺ x2 ⫽ ⫺共x2 ⫺ 9兲 ⫽ ⫺共x ⫹ 3兲共x ⫺ 3兲 LCM ⫽ 共x ⫺ 3兲共x ⫹ 2兲共x ⫹ 3兲

2

2

Solutions on p. S14

SECTION 6.2

OBJECTIVE B

Expressing Fractions in Terms of the Least Common Multiple (LCM)

297

To express two fractions in terms of the LCM of their denominators When adding and subtracting fractions, it is frequently necessary to express two or more fractions in terms of a common denominator. This common denominator is the LCM of the denominators of the fractions. HOW TO • 2

Write the fractions

denominators. Find the LCM of the denominators. For each fraction, multiply the numerator and the denominator by the factors whose product with the denominator is the LCM.

EXAMPLE • 3

Write the fractions

x⫹1 4x2

and

x⫺3 2x2 ⫺ 4x

in terms of the LCM of the

The LCM is 4x2共x ⫺ 2兲. x2 ⫺ x ⫺ 2 x ⫹ 1 共x ⫺ 2兲 x⫹1 ⫽ ⭈ ⫽ 共x ⫺ 2兲 4x2 4x2 4x2共x ⫺ 2兲 x⫺3 x⫺3 2x2 ⫺ 6x 2x ⫽ ⭈ ⫽ 2x共x ⫺ 2兲 2x 2x2 ⫺ 4x 4x2共x ⫺ 2兲

LCM

YOU TRY IT • 3 x⫹2 3x2

and

x⫺1 8xy

in

Write the fractions

x⫺3 4xy2

and

2x ⫹ 1 9y2z

terms of the LCM of the denominators.

of the LCM of the denominators.

Solution The LCM is 24x2 y.

in terms

8xy ⫹ 16y x ⫹ 2 8y x⫹2 ⫽ ⭈ ⫽ 2 2 8y 3x 3x 24x2 y 2 x⫺1 x ⫺ 1 3x 3x ⫺ 3x ⫽ ⭈ ⫽ 8xy 8xy 3x 24x2 y

EXAMPLE • 4

Write the fractions

YOU TRY IT • 4 2x ⫺ 1 2x ⫺ x2

and

x x2 ⫹ x ⫺ 6

in

Write the fractions

x⫹4 x2 ⫺ 3x ⫺ 10

and

2x 25 ⫺ x2

terms of the LCM of the denominators.

in terms of the LCM of the denominators.

Solution 2x ⫺ 1 2x ⫺ 1 2x ⫺ 1 ⫽⫺ 2 ⫽ 2 2 2x ⫺ x ⫺共x ⫺ 2x兲 x ⫺ 2x

The LCM is x共x ⫺ 2兲共x ⫹ 3兲. 2x ⫺ 1 2x ⫺ 1 x ⫹ 3 2x2 ⫹ 5x ⫺ 3 ⫽ ⫺ ⭈ ⫽ ⫺ x共x ⫺ 2兲 x ⫹ 3 x共x ⫺ 2兲共x ⫹ 3兲 2x ⫺ x2 x x2 x x ⫽ ⭈ ⫽ 2 共x ⫺ 2兲共x ⫹ 3兲 x x共x ⫺ 2兲共x ⫹ 3兲 x ⫹x⫺6 Solutions on p. S14

298

CHAPTER 6

Rational Expressions

6.2 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To find the least common multiple (LCM) of two or more polynomials

For Exercises 1 to 30, find the LCM of the polynomials. 1. 8x3y 12xy2

2. 6ab2 18ab3

3. 10x4y2 15x3y

4. 12a2b 18ab3

5. 8x2 4x2 ⫹ 8x

6. 6y2 4y ⫹ 12

7. 2x2y 3x2 ⫹ 12x

8. 4xy2 6xy2 ⫹ 12y2

9. 9x共x ⫹ 2兲 12共x ⫹ 2兲2

10. 8x2共x ⫺ 1兲2 10x3共x ⫺ 1兲

11. 3x ⫹ 3 2x2 ⫹ 4x ⫹ 2

12. 4x ⫺ 12 2x2 ⫺ 12x ⫹ 18

15. 共2x ⫹ 3兲2 共2x ⫹ 3兲共x ⫺ 5兲

13. 共x ⫺ 1兲共x ⫹ 2兲 共x ⫺ 1兲共x ⫹ 3兲

14. 共2x ⫺ 1兲共x ⫹ 4兲 共2x ⫹ 1兲共x ⫹ 4兲

16. 共x ⫺ 7兲共x ⫹ 2兲 共x ⫺ 7兲2

17.

19. x2 ⫺ x ⫺ 6 x2 ⫹ x ⫺ 12

20. x2 ⫹ 3x ⫺ 10 x2 ⫹ 5x ⫺ 14

21. x2 ⫹ 5x ⫹ 4 x2 ⫺ 3x ⫺ 28

22. x2 ⫺ 10x ⫹ 21 x2 ⫺ 8x ⫹ 15

23. x2 ⫺ 2x ⫺ 24 x2 ⫺ 36

24. x2 ⫹ 7x ⫹ 10 x2 ⫺ 25

25. 2x2 ⫺ 7x ⫹ 3 2x2 ⫹ x ⫺ 1

26. 3x2 ⫺ 11x ⫹ 6 3x2 ⫹ 4x ⫺ 4

27. 6 ⫹ x ⫺ x2 x⫹2 x⫺3

28. 15 ⫹ 2x ⫺ x2 x⫺5 x⫹3

29. x2 ⫹ 3x ⫺ 18 3⫺x x⫹6

30. x2 ⫺ 5x ⫹ 6 1⫺x x⫺6

x⫺1 x⫺2 共x ⫺ 1兲共x ⫺ 2兲

18. 共x ⫹ 4兲共x ⫺ 3兲 x⫹4 x⫺3

31. How many factors of x ⫺ 3 are in the LCM of each pair of expressions? b. x 2 ⫺ x ⫺ 12 and x 2 ⫹ 6x ⫹ 9 c. x 2 ⫹ x ⫺ 12 and x 2 ⫺ 6x ⫹ 9 a. x 2 ⫹ x ⫺ 12 and x 2 ⫺ 9

SECTION 6.2

OBJECTIVE B

Expressing Fractions in Terms of the Least Common Multiple (LCM)

To express two fractions in terms of the LCM of their denominators

32. True or false? To write the fractions

x2 y 共 y ⫺ 3兲

and

x 共 y ⫺ 3兲2

with a common denom-

inator, you need only multiply the numerator and denominator of the second fraction by y.

For Exercises 33 to 52, write the fractions in terms of the LCM of the denominators. 33.

4 3 , x x2

34.

5 6 , ab2 ab

35.

x z , 3y2 4y

36.

5y 7 , 6x2 9xy

37.

y 6 , 2 x共x ⫺ 3兲 x

38.

a 6 , 2 y y共y ⫹ 5兲

39.

9 6 , 共x ⫺ 1兲2 x共x ⫺ 1兲

40.

a2 a , y共y ⫹ 7兲 共y ⫹ 7兲2

41.

3 5 , x ⫺ 3 x共3 ⫺ x兲

42.

b b2 , y共y ⫺ 4兲 4 ⫺ y

43.

3 2 , 2 5 ⫺ x 共x ⫺ 5兲

44.

3 2 , 7 ⫺ y 共y ⫺ 7兲2

45.

4 3 , 2 x ⫹ 2x x

46.

2 3 , 3 y ⫺ 3 y ⫺ 3y2

47.

x⫺2 x , x⫹3 x⫺4

48.

x2 x⫹1 , 2x ⫺ 1 x ⫹ 4

49.

3 x , x ⫹x⫺2 x⫹2

50.

4 3x , 2 x ⫺ 5 x ⫺ 25

51.

x 2x , 2 x ⫹x⫺6 x ⫺9

2

2

2

52.

Applying the Concepts 53. When is the LCM of two polynomials equal to their product?

x x⫺1 , 2 x ⫹ 2x ⫺ 15 x ⫹ 6x ⫹ 5 2

299

300

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Rational Expressions

SECTION

Addition and Subtraction of Rational Expressions

6.3 OBJECTIVE A

To add or subtract rational expressions with the same denominators When adding rational expressions in which the denominators are the same, add the numerators. The denominator of the sum is the common denominator. 7x 5x ⫹ 7x 12x 2x 5x ⫹ ⫽ ⫽ ⫽ 18 18 18 18 3 1

Note that the sum is written in simplest form.

When subtracting rational expressions with like denominators, subtract the numerators. The denominator of the difference is the common denominator. Write the answer in simplest form. 1

2共x ⫺ 2兲 2x 4 2x ⫺ 4 ⫺ ⫽ ⫽ ⫽2 x⫺2 x⫺2 x⫺2 x⫺ 2 1 共3x ⫺ 1兲 ⫺ 共2x ⫹ 3兲 2x ⫹ 3 3x ⫺ 1 ⫺ 2x ⫺ 3 3x ⫺ 1 ⫺ 2 ⫽ ⫽ x2 ⫺ 5x ⫹ 4 x ⫺ 5x ⫹ 4 x2 ⫺ 5x ⫹ 4 x2 ⫺ 5x ⫹ 4 1

Adding and Subtracting Rational Expressions with the Same Denominator Add or subtract the numerators. Place the result over the common denominator.

EXAMPLE • 1

a c a⫺c ⫺ ⫽ b b b

YOU TRY IT • 1

x⫹4 3x ⫺ 2 2 x ⫺1 x ⫺1 2

Subtract:

a c a⫹c ⫹ ⫽ b b b

Subtract:

Solution 3x2 ⫺ 共x ⫹ 4兲 x⫹4 3x2 ⫺ ⫽ x2 ⫺ 1 x2 ⫺ 1 x2 ⫺ 1 ⫽

7x ⫹ 4 2x2 ⫺ 2 2 x ⫺ x ⫺ 12 x ⫺ x ⫺ 12

3x2 ⫺ x ⫺ 4 x2 ⫺ 1 1

Solution on p. S14

SECTION 6.3

EXAMPLE • 2

Addition and Subtraction of Rational Expressions

301

YOU TRY IT • 2

Simplify: x2 ⫺ 3x x⫺2 2x2 ⫹ 5 ⫺ ⫹ 2 2 2 x ⫹ 2x ⫺ 3 x ⫹ 2x ⫺ 3 x ⫹ 2x ⫺ 3

Simplify: 2x ⫹ 1 x x2 ⫺ 1 ⫺ 2 ⫹ 2 2 x ⫺ 8x ⫹ 12 x ⫺ 8x ⫹ 12 x ⫺ 8x ⫹ 12

Solution 2x2 ⫹ 5 x2 ⫺ 3x x⫺2 ⫺ ⫹ 2 2 2 x ⫹ 2x ⫺ 3 x ⫹ 2x ⫺ 3 x ⫹ 2x ⫺ 3

1

Solution on p. S14

OBJECTIVE B

To add or subtract rational expressions with different denominators Before two fractions with unlike denominators can be added or subtracted, each fraction must be expressed in terms of a common denominator. This common denominator is the LCM of the denominators of the fractions. 6 x⫺3 ⫹ 2 2 x ⫺ 2x x ⫺4 The LCM is x1x ⫺ 221x ⫹ 22.

HOW TO • 1

• Find the LCM of the denominators.

x⫺3 6 ⫹ 2 2 x ⫺ 2x x ⫺4 ⫽

x⫺3 x⫹2 6 x ⭈ ⫹ ⭈ x共x ⫺ 2兲 x ⫹ 2 共x ⫺ 2兲共x ⫹ 2兲 x

• Write each fraction in terms of the LCM.

x2 ⫺ x ⫺ 6 6x ⫹ x共x ⫺ 2兲共x ⫹ 2兲 x共x ⫺ 2兲共x ⫹ 2兲

• Multiply the factors in the numerators.

x2 ⫹ 5x ⫺ 6 x共x ⫺ 2兲共x ⫹ 2兲

• Simplify.

• Factor.

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Rational Expressions

After combining the numerators over the common denominator, the last step is to factor the numerator to determine whether there are common factors in the numerator and denominator. For the previous example, there are no common factors, so the answer is in simplest form. The process of adding and subtracting rational expressions is summarized below.

Adding and Subtracting Rational Expressions 1. Find the LCM of the denominators. 2. Write each fraction as an equivalent fraction using the LCM as the denominator. 3. Add or subtract the numerators and place the result over the common denominator. 4. Write the answer in simplest form.

EXAMPLE • 3

Simplify:

YOU TRY IT • 3

y 4y 3y ⫺ ⫹ x 3x 4x

Simplify:

Solution The LCM of the denominators is 12x.

z 4z 5z ⫺ ⫹ 8y 3y 4y

4y y 3y ⫺ ⫹ x 3x 4x ⫽

y 12 4y 4 3y 3 • Write each fraction ⭈ ⫺ ⭈ ⫹ ⭈ using the LCM. x 12 3x 4 4x 3

12y 16y 9y ⫺ ⫹ 12x 12x 12x

5y 12y ⫺ 16y ⫹ 9y ⫽ 12x 12x

• Combine the numerators.

Solution on p. S14

SECTION 6.3

EXAMPLE • 4

Subtract:

Solution Remember that 3 ⫺ x ⫽ ⫺共x ⫺ 3兲. 5 ⫺5 5 ⫽ ⫽ . Therefore, 3⫺x ⫺共x ⫺ 3兲 x⫺3

5x 3 ⫹ x⫺2 2⫺x

• Combine the numerators.

1 2x ⫺ 2x ⫺ 3 x⫹1

Solution The LCM is 共2x ⫺ 3兲共x ⫹ 1兲. 2x 1 ⫺ 2x ⫺ 3 x⫹1 2x x⫹1 1 2x ⫺ 3 ⫽ ⭈ ⫺ ⭈ 2x ⫺ 3 x ⫹ 1 x ⫹ 1 2x ⫺ 3 2x2 ⫹ 2x 2x ⫺ 3 ⫽ ⫺ 共2x ⫺ 3兲共x ⫹ 1兲 共2x ⫺ 3兲共x ⫹ 1兲 2 共2x ⫹ 2x兲 ⫺ 共2x ⫺ 3兲 ⫽ 共2x ⫺ 3兲共x ⫹ 1兲 2x2 ⫹ 3 2x2 ⫹ 2x ⫺ 2x ⫹ 3 ⫽ ⫽ 共2x ⫺ 3兲共x ⫹ 1兲 共2x ⫺ 3兲共x ⫹ 1兲

EXAMPLE • 6

303

• The LCM is x  3.

EXAMPLE • 5

Subtract:

Addition and Subtraction of Rational Expressions

YOU TRY IT • 4

5 2x ⫺ x⫺3 3⫺x

2x 5 ⫺ x⫺3 3⫺x 2x ⫺5 ⫽ ⫺ x⫺3 x⫺3 2x ⫺ 共⫺5兲 2x ⫹ 5 ⫽ ⫽ x⫺3 x⫺3

3 x2

Solution The LCM is x2. x2 ⫹ 3 3 3 3 x2 x2 1⫹ 2⫽1⭈ 2⫹ 2⫽ 2⫹ 2⫽ x x x x x x2

YOU TRY IT • 5

4x 9 ⫹ 3x ⫺ 1 x⫹4

YOU TRY IT • 6

Subtract: 2 ⫺

1 x⫺3

Solutions on pp. S14–S15

304

CHAPTER 6

Rational Expressions

EXAMPLE • 7

3 x⫹3 ⫹ 4⫺x x ⫺ 2x ⫺ 8 2

Solution

YOU TRY IT • 7

2x ⫺ 1 2 ⫹ 2 5⫺x x ⫺ 25

⫺3 3 Recall: ⫽ 4⫺x x⫺4 The LCM is 共x ⫺ 4兲共x ⫹ 2兲. 3 x⫹3 ⫹ 4⫺x x2 ⫺ 2x ⫺ 8 ⫽

x ⫹ 3 ⫺ 3x ⫺ 6 共x ⫺ 4兲共x ⫹ 2兲

⫺2x ⫺ 3 共x ⫺ 4兲共x ⫹ 2兲

EXAMPLE • 8

Simplify:

4 3x ⫹ 2 3 ⫺ ⫹ 2x ⫹ 1 x⫺1 2x ⫺ x ⫺ 1 2

Solution The LCM is 共2x ⫹ 1兲共x ⫺ 1兲.

YOU TRY IT • 8

Simplify:

2x ⫺ 3 5 1 ⫹ ⫺ 3x ⫹ 2 x⫺1 3x ⫺ x ⫺ 2 2

4 3x ⫹ 2 3 ⫺ ⫹ 2x ⫹ 1 x⫺1 2x ⫺ x ⫺ 1 2

3x ⫹ 2 3 x⫺1 4 2x ⫹ 1 ⫺ ⭈ ⫹ ⭈ 2x ⫹ 1 x ⫺ 1 x ⫺ 1 2x ⫹ 1 共2x ⫹ 1兲共x ⫺ 1兲

8x ⫹ 4 3x ⫹ 2 3x ⫺ 3 ⫺ ⫹ 共2x ⫹ 1兲共x ⫺ 1兲 共2x ⫹ 1兲共x ⫺ 1兲 共2x ⫹ 1兲共x ⫺ 1兲

3x ⫹ 2 ⫺ 3x ⫹ 3 ⫹ 8x ⫹ 4 共2x ⫹ 1兲共x ⫺ 1兲

8x ⫹ 9 共2x ⫹ 1兲共x ⫺ 1兲 Solutions on p. S15

SECTION 6.3

Addition and Subtraction of Rational Expressions

305

6.3 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To add or subtract rational expressions with the same denominators

For Exercises 1 to 20, simplify. 1.

3 8 ⫹ 2 2 y y

2.

6 2 ⫺ ab ab

3.

3 10 ⫺ x⫹4 x⫹4

4.

x 2 ⫺ x⫹6 x⫹6

5.

3x 5x ⫹ 2x ⫹ 3 2x ⫹ 3

6.

11y 6y ⫺ 4y ⫹ 1 4y ⫹ 1

7.

2x ⫹ 1 3x ⫹ 6 ⫹ x⫺3 x⫺3

8.

4x ⫹ 3 3x ⫺ 8 ⫹ 2x ⫺ 7 2x ⫺ 7

9.

5x ⫺ 1 3x ⫹ 4 ⫺ x⫹9 x⫹9

10.

6x ⫺ 5 3x ⫺ 4 ⫺ x ⫺ 10 x ⫺ 10

11.

x⫺7 4x ⫺ 3 ⫺ 2x ⫹ 7 2x ⫹ 7

12.

2n 5n ⫺ 3 ⫺ 3n ⫹ 4 3n ⫹ 4

13.

x 3 ⫺ 2 x ⫹ 2x ⫺ 15 x ⫹ 2x ⫺ 15

14.

6 3x ⫺ 2 x ⫹ 3x ⫺ 10 x ⫹ 3x ⫺ 10

15.

2x ⫹ 3 x⫺2 ⫺ 2 x2 ⫺ x ⫺ 30 x ⫺ x ⫺ 30

16.

2x ⫺ 7 3x ⫺ 1 ⫺ 2 x2 ⫹ 5x ⫺ 6 x ⫹ 5x ⫺ 6

17.

4y ⫹ 7 y⫺5 ⫺ 2 2y ⫹ 7y ⫺ 4 2y ⫹ 7y ⫺ 4

18.

x⫹2 x⫹1 ⫹ 2 2x ⫺ 5x ⫺ 12 2x ⫺ 5x ⫺ 12

19.

2x2 ⫺ 3 4x2 ⫹ 2x ⫹ 1 2x2 ⫹ 3x ⫹ ⫺ x2 ⫺ 9x ⫹ 20 x2 ⫺ 9x ⫹ 20 x2 ⫺ 9x ⫹ 20

20.

x2 ⫺ 3x ⫹ 21 x⫺7 2x2 ⫹ 3x ⫺ ⫺ 2 2 2 x ⫺ 2x ⫺ 63 x ⫺ 2x ⫺ 63 x ⫺ 2x ⫺ 63

2

2

2

2

306

CHAPTER 6

Rational Expressions

21. Which expressions are equivalent to (i)

5⫺y y⫺5

(ii)

1⫺y y⫺5

OBJECTIVE B

22. True or false?

3 x⫺8

(iii)

3 y⫺5

y⫺2 y⫺5

5⫺y 2y ⫺ 10

?

(iv) ⫺1

(v)

1⫺y ⫺10

To add or subtract rational expressions with different denominators ⫹

3 8⫺x

⫽0

For Exercises 23 to 80, simplify. 23.

5 4 ⫹ x y

24.

5 7 ⫹ a b

25.

5 12 ⫺ x 2x

26.

5 3 ⫺ 3a 4a

27.

1 5 7 ⫺ ⫹ 2x 4x 6x

28.

7 11 8 ⫹ ⫺ 4y 6y 3y

29.

5 2 3 ⫺ 2⫹ 3x 2x x

30.

6 3 2 ⫹ ⫺ 2 4y 5y y

31.

3 2 3 1 ⫺ ⫹ ⫺ x 2y 5x 4y

32.

5 7 2 3 ⫹ ⫺ ⫺ 2a 3b b 4a

33.

2x ⫹ 1 x⫺1 ⫹ 3x 5x

34.

4x ⫺ 3 2x ⫹ 3 ⫹ 6x 4x

35.

x⫺3 x⫹4 ⫹ 6x 8x

36.

2x ⫺ 3 x⫹3 ⫹ 2x 3x

37.

2x ⫹ 9 x⫺5 ⫺ 9x 5x

38.

y⫺3 3y ⫺ 2 ⫺ 12y 18y

39.

x⫹4 x⫺1 ⫺ 2x x2

40.

x⫺2 x⫹4 ⫺ 2 x 3x

41.

x ⫺ 10 x⫹1 ⫹ 2x 4x2

42.

x⫹5 2x ⫹ 1 ⫹ 2x 3x2

43.

4 ⫺x x⫹4

SECTION 6.3

44. 2x ⫹

1 x

45. 5 ⫺

Addition and Subtraction of Rational Expressions

x⫺2 x⫹1

46. 3 ⫹

307

x⫺1 x⫹1

47.

x⫹3 x⫺3 ⫺ 6x 8x2

48.

x⫹2 3x ⫺ 2 ⫺ xy x2y

49.

3x ⫺ 1 2x ⫹ 3 ⫺ 2 xy xy

50.

4x ⫺ 3 2x ⫹ 1 ⫹ 2 3x y 4xy2

51.

5x ⫹ 7 4x ⫺ 3 ⫺ 2 6xy 8x2y

52.

x⫺2 x⫹7 ⫺ 2 12xy 8x

53.

3x ⫺ 1 x⫹5 ⫺ 9xy 6y2

54.

4 5 ⫹ x⫺2 x⫹3

55.

2 5 ⫹ x⫺3 x⫺4

56.

6 4 ⫺ x⫺7 x⫹3

57.

3 4 ⫺ y⫹6 y⫺3

58.

2x 1 ⫹ x⫹1 x⫺3

59.

3x 2 ⫹ x⫺4 x⫹6

60.

4x 5 ⫺ 2x ⫺ 1 x⫺6

61.

6x 3 ⫺ x⫹5 2x ⫹ 3

62.

2a 5 ⫹ a⫺7 7⫺a

63.

4x 5 ⫹ 6⫺x x⫺6

64.

3 x ⫹ x⫺3 x2 ⫺ 9

65.

y 1 ⫹ 2 y⫺4 y ⫺ 16

66.

3 2x ⫺ 2 x⫹2 x ⫺x⫺6

67.

308

CHAPTER 6

68. 1 ⫺

Rational Expressions

69.

x x ⫺1⫹ 2 1⫹x 1⫺x

70.

y x ⫹2⫺ x⫺y y⫺x

71.

3 3x ⫺ 1 ⫺ x⫺5 x ⫺ 10x ⫹ 25

72.

2 2a ⫹ 3 ⫺ a⫺3 a ⫺ 7a ⫹ 12

73.

3 x⫹4 ⫹ 7 ⫺ x x ⫺ x ⫺ 42

74.

2 x⫹3 ⫹ 5 ⫺ x x ⫺ 3x ⫺ 10

75.

1 x 5x ⫺ 2 ⫹ ⫺ 2 x⫹1 x⫺6 x ⫺ 5x ⫺ 6

76.

x 5 11x ⫺ 8 ⫹ ⫺ 2 x⫺4 x⫹5 x ⫹ x ⫺ 20

77.

3x ⫹ 1 x⫺1 x⫹1 ⫺ ⫹ 2 x⫺1 x⫺3 x ⫺ 4x ⫹ 3

78.

4x ⫹ 1 3x ⫹ 2 49x ⫹ 4 ⫺ ⫺ 2 x⫺8 x⫹4 x ⫺ 4x ⫺ 32

79.

2x ⫹ 9 x⫹5 2x2 ⫹ 3x ⫺ 3 ⫹ ⫺ 2 3⫺x x⫹7 x ⫹ 4x ⫺ 21

80.

3x ⫹ 5 x⫹1 4x2 ⫺ 3x ⫺ 1 ⫺ ⫺ 2 x⫹5 2⫺x x ⫹ 3x ⫺ 10

2

2

2

2

Applying the Concepts 81. Transportation Suppose that you drive about 12,000 mi per year and that the cost of gasoline averages \$3.70 per gallon. a. Let x represent the number of miles per gallon your car gets. Write a variable expression for the amount you spend on gasoline in 1 year. b. Write and simplify a variable expression for the amount of money you will save each year if you can increase your gas mileage by 5 miles per gallon. c. If you currently get 25 miles per gallon and you increase your gas mileage by 5 miles per gallon, how much will you save in 1 year?

82. Explain the process of adding rational expressions with different denominators.

SECTION 6.4

Complex Fractions

309

SECTION

6.4 OBJECTIVE A

Point of Interest There are many instances of complex fractions in application problems. The 1 fraction is used to 1 1 ⫹ r1 r2

Complex Fractions To simplify a complex fraction A complex fraction is a fraction in which the numerator or denominator contains one or more fractions. Examples of complex fractions are shown at the right.

3 1 2⫺ 2

1 x , 2 3⫹ x 4⫹

,

1 ⫹x⫹3 x⫺1 1 x⫺3⫹ x⫹4

To simplify a complex fraction, use one of the following methods.

determine the total resistance in certain electric circuits.

Simplifying Complex Fractions

Take Note You may use either method to simplify a complex fraction. The result will be the same.

Method 1: Multiply by 1 in the form

LCM . LCM

1. Determine the LCM of the denominators of the fractions in the numerator and denominator of the complex fraction. 2. Multiply the numerator and denominator of the complex fraction by the LCM. 3. Simplify. Method 2: Multiply the numerator by the reciprocal of the denominator. 1. Simplify the numerator to a single fraction and simplify the denominator to a single fraction. 2. Using the definition for dividing fractions, multiply the numerator by the reciprocal of the denominator. 3. Simplify.

Here is an example using Method 1. 4 x2 HOW TO • 1 Simplify: 2 3⫹ x 2 2 The LCM of x and x is x . 4 4 9⫺ 2 9⫺ 2 x x x2 ⫽ ⭈ 2 2 x2 3⫹ 3⫹ x x 4 9 ⭈ x2 ⫺ 2 ⭈ x2 9x2 ⫺ 4 x ⫽ ⫽ 2 2 3x ⫹ 2x 3 ⭈ x2 ⫹ ⭈ x2 x 9⫺

• Find the LCM of the denominators of the fractions in the numerator and the denominator. • Multiply the numerator and denominator by the LCM.

• Use the Distributive Property.

1

• Simplify.

310

CHAPTER 6

Rational Expressions

Here is the same example using Method 2. 4 x2 Simplify: 2 3⫹ x 9⫺

HOW TO • 2

9x2 9x2 ⫺ 4 4 4 ⫺ 2 2 2 x x x x2 ⫽ ⫽ 2 2 3x 3x ⫹ 2 ⫹ 3⫹ x x x x

9⫺

9x2 ⫺ 4 x ⭈ 2 3x ⫹ 2 x

• Simplify the numerator to a single fraction and simplify the denominator to a single fraction. • Multiply the numerator by the reciprocal of the denominator.

1

x共3x ⫺ 2兲共3x ⫹ 2兲 ⫽ x2共3x ⫹ 2兲 3x ⫺ 2 ⫽ x

• Simplify.

1

For the examples below, we will use the first method. EXAMPLE • 1

YOU TRY IT • 1

1 1 ⫹ x 2 Simplify: 1 1 ⫺ 2 4 x

1 1 ⫺ x 3 Simplify: 1 1 ⫺ 2 9 x

Solution The LCM of x, 2, x2, and 4 is 4x2.

1 1 1 1 ⫹ ⫹ x x 2 2 4x2 ⫽ ⭈ 1 1 1 1 4x2 ⫺ ⫺ 4 4 x2 x2 1 1 ⭈ 4x2 ⫹ ⭈ 4x2 x 2 ⫽ 1 1 ⭈ 4x2 ⫺ ⭈ 4x2 2 4 x ⫽

4x ⫹ 2x2 4 ⫺ x2

• Multiply by the LCM.

• Distributive Property

• Simplify.

1

2x共2 ⫹ x兲 ⫽ 共2 ⫺ x兲共2 ⫹ x兲 1

2x ⫽ 2⫺x Solution on p. S15

SECTION 6.4

EXAMPLE • 2

Complex Fractions

311

YOU TRY IT • 2

15 2 ⫺ 2 x x Simplify: 30 11 ⫹ 2 1⫺ x x 1⫺

Solution The LCM of x and x2 is x2. 15 15 2 2 1⫺ ⫺ 2 1⫺ ⫺ 2 x x x2 x x ⫽ ⭈ 2 30 30 x 11 11 ⫹ 2 ⫹ 2 1⫺ 1⫺ x x x x 2 15 1 ⭈ x2 ⫺ ⭈ x2 ⫺ 2 ⭈ x2 x x ⫽ 11 30 ⭈ x2 ⫹ 2 ⭈ x2 1 ⭈ x2 ⫺ x x 2 x ⫺ 2x ⫺ 15 ⫽ 2 x ⫺ 11x ⫹ 30

1 Simplify: 1

4 x 10 x

3 x2 21 ⫹ 2 x

⫹ ⫹

• Multiply by the LCM.

• Distributive Property

1

• Simplify.

1

EXAMPLE • 3

YOU TRY IT • 3

20 x⫹4 Simplify: 24 x ⫺ 10 ⫹ x⫹4 x⫺8⫹

Solution The LCM is x ⫹ 4. 20 x⫺8⫹ x⫹4 24 x ⫺ 10 ⫹ x⫹4 20 x⫺8⫹ x⫹4 x⫹4 ⫽ ⭈ 24 x⫹4 x ⫺ 10 ⫹ x⫹4 20 ⭈ 共x ⫹ 4兲 共x ⫺ 8兲 共x ⫹ 4兲 ⫹ x⫹4 ⫽ 24 共x ⫺ 10兲 共x ⫹ 4兲 ⫹ ⭈ 共x ⫹ 4兲 x⫹4 x2 ⫺ 4x ⫺ 32 ⫹ 20 x2 ⫺ 4x ⫺ 12 ⫽ 2 ⫽ 2 x ⫺ 6x ⫺ 40 ⫹ 24 x ⫺ 6x ⫺ 16

Simplify:

x⫹3

x⫹8

20 x⫺5 30 x⫺5

• Multiply by the LCM.

• Distributive Property

• Simplify.

1

Solutions on pp. S15–S16

312

CHAPTER 6

Rational Expressions

6.4 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To simplify a complex fraction

For Exercises 1 to 30, simplify. 3 x 1. 9 1⫺ 2 x 1⫹

25 x⫹5 4. 3 1⫺ x⫹5

2.

5.

4⫺

4 4 ⫹ 2 x x 10. 8 2 1⫺ ⫺ 2 x x

8.

3 x⫺8 1 2⫺ x⫺8

6 5 ⫺ 2 x x 5 6 1⫹ ⫹ 2 x x

11.

18 3 ⫺ 2 x x 21 4 ⫺ ⫺1 x x2

6.

y⫹

x 2x ⫹ 1 1 x⫺ 2x ⫹ 1

9.

12.

12 7 ⫹ 2 a a 20 1 1⫹ ⫺ 2 a a

15.

4 x⫹3 1 1⫹ x⫹3

1⫺

x⫺

1⫺ 17.

6 1 ⫺ 2 x x 9 1⫺ 2 x

1⫺

1⫹ 14.

11 2x ⫺ 1 17 3⫺ 2x ⫺ 1 2⫺

1⫺

1⫺

1 y⫺2 16. 1 1⫹ y⫺2

3.

5⫹

1⫹

6 8 ⫹ 2 x x 13. 4 3 ⫹ ⫺1 x x2

5 y⫺2 2 1⫺ y⫺2

8 x⫹4 12 3⫺ x⫹4 2⫺

1⫹

5⫺

2 x⫹7 7. 1 5⫹ x⫹7

4 x 16 1⫺ 2 x 1⫹

2x ⫺ 2 3x ⫺ 1 4 x⫺ 3x ⫺ 1

1⫺ 18.

SECTION 6.4

14 x⫹4 19. 2 x⫹3⫺ x⫹4

20.

5 a⫺2 15 a⫹6⫹ a⫺2

23.

22 2y ⫹ 3 11 y⫺5⫹ 2y ⫹ 3

x⫺5⫹

5 x⫺1 22. 1 x⫺3⫹ x⫺1

18 2x ⫹ 1 6 x⫺ 2x ⫹ 1

21.

29.

3 1 ⫺ x 2x ⫺ 1 2 4 ⫹ x 2x ⫺ 1

10 x⫺6 20 x⫹2⫺ x⫺6

24.

12 2x ⫺ 1 9 x⫹1⫺ 2x ⫺ 1

27.

2 1 ⫺ x x⫺1 3 1 ⫹ x x⫺1

30.

4 3 ⫹ x 3x ⫹ 1 6 2 ⫺ x 3x ⫹ 1

x⫹2⫺

x⫹3⫺ 26.

313

x⫹3⫺

y⫺6⫹

x⫺

3 1 ⫹ n n⫹1 28. 2 3 ⫹ n n⫹1

Complex Fractions

a⫹4⫹

x⫺7⫹

2 2x ⫺ 3 25. 8 2x ⫺ 1 ⫺ 2x ⫺ 3

31. True or false? If the denominator of a complex fraction is the reciprocal of the numerator, then the complex fraction is equal to the square of its numerator.

Applying the Concepts For Exercises 32 to 37, simplify. 32. 1 ⫹

1 1⫹

35.

1 ⫹ x⫺1 1 ⫺ x⫺1

1 2

1

33. 1 ⫹ 1⫹

1 1⫹

36.

x ⫹ x⫺1 x ⫺ x⫺1

34.

a⫺1 ⫺ b⫺1 a⫺2 ⫺ b⫺2

37.

x⫺1 x ⫹ y y⫺1

1 2

314

CHAPTER 6

Rational Expressions

SECTION

6.5 OBJECTIVE A

Solving Equations Containing Fractions To solve an equation containing fractions Recall that to solve an equation containing fractions, clear denominators by multiplying each side of the equation by the LCM of the denominators. Then solve for the variable. 7 3x ⫺ 1 2 ⫹ ⫽ 4 3 6 2 7 3x ⫺ 1 ⫹ ⫽ 4 3 6

HOW TO • 1

12

3x ⫺ 1 2 ⫹ 4 3

12 3

Solve:

12 3x ⫺ 1 1 4 1

⫹ 12 ⭈

⫽ 12 ⭈

• The LCM is 12. To clear denominators, multiply each side of the equation by the LCM.

7 6

2 7 ⫽ 12 ⭈ 3 6

4

• Simplify using the Distributive Property and the Properties of Fractions.

2

12 2 12 7 ⫹ ⭈ ⫽ ⭈ 1 3 1 6 1

1

9x ⫺ 3 ⫹ 8 ⫽ 14 9x ⫹ 5 ⫽ 14 9x ⫽ 9 x⫽1

• Solve for x.

1 checks as a solution. The solution is 1. Occasionally, a value of the variable that appears to be a solution of an equation will make one of the denominators zero. In such a case, that value is not a solution of the equation. 4 2x ⫽1⫹ x⫺2 x⫺2 2x 4 ⫽1⫹ x⫺2 x⫺2 2x 4 共x ⫺ 2兲 ⫽ 共x ⫺ 2兲 1 ⫹ x⫺2 x⫺2 2x 4 共x ⫺ 2兲 ⫽ 共x ⫺ 2兲 ⭈ 1 ⫹ 共x ⫺ 2兲 x⫺2 x⫺2

HOW TO • 2

Take Note The example at the right illustrates the importance of checking a solution of a rational equation when each side is multiplied by a variable expression. As shown in this example, a proposed solution may not check when it is substituted into the original equation.

Solve:

1

1

• The LCM is x  2. Multiply each side of the equation by the LCM. • Simplify using the Distributive Property and the Properties of Fractions.

1

2x ⫽ x ⫺ 2 ⫹ 4 2x ⫽ x ⫹ 2 x⫽2 When x is replaced by 2, the denominators of equation has no solution.

• Solve for x.

2x x⫺2

and

4 x⫺2

are zero. Therefore, the

SECTION 6.5

EXAMPLE • 1

Solve:

x 2 ⫽ x x⫹4

Solve:

1

x共x ⫹ 4兲 x共x ⫹ 4兲 2 x ⭈ ⫽ ⭈ x 1 x⫹4 1 1

Solving Equations Containing Fractions

315

YOU TRY IT • 1

Solution The LCM is x 1x ⫹ 42. x 2 ⫽ x x⫹4 x 2 x 1x ⫹ 42 ⫽ x 1x ⫹ 42 x x⫹4 1

x2 ⫽ 共x ⫹ 4兲2 x2 ⫽ 2x ⫹ 8

x x⫹6

3 x

• Multiply by the LCM. • Divide by the common factors.

1

• Simplify.

Solve the quadratic equation by factoring. x2 ⫺ 2x ⫺ 8 ⫽ 0 共x ⫺ 4兲共x ⫹ 2兲 ⫽ 0 x⫺4⫽0 x⫹2⫽0 x⫽4 x ⫽ ⫺2

• Write in standard form. • Factor. • Principle of Zero Products

Both 4 and ⫺2 check as solutions. The solutions are 4 and ⫺2.

EXAMPLE • 2

Solve:

YOU TRY IT • 2

12 3x ⫽5⫹ x⫺4 x⫺4

Solve:

Solution The LCM is x ⫺ 4.

3x 12 ⫽5⫹ x⫺4 x⫺4 3x 12 1x ⫺ 42 ⫽ 1x ⫺ 42 5 ⫹ x⫺4 x⫺4

5x 10 ⫽3⫺ x⫹2 x⫹2

1

• Clear denominators.

1

3x ⫽ 共x ⫺ 4兲5 ⫹ 12 3x ⫽ 5x ⫺ 20 ⫹ 12 3x ⫽ 5x ⫺ 8 ⫺2x ⫽ ⫺8 x⫽4

1

• Solve for x.

4 does not check as a solution. The equation has no solution. Solutions on p. S16

316

CHAPTER 6

Rational Expressions

6.5 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To solve an equation containing fractions

When a proposed solution of a rational equation does not check in the original equation, it is because the proposed solution results in an expression that involves division by zero. For Exercises 1 to 3, state the values of x that would result in division by zero when substituted into the original equation. 1.

6x x ⫺ ⫽4 x⫹1 x⫺2

2.

1 x 2 ⫽ ⫹ 2 x⫹5 x⫺3 x ⫹ 2x ⫺ 15

3.

3 1 ⫹2 ⫽ 2 x⫺9 x ⫺ 9x

For Exercises 4 to 36, solve. 4.

2x 5 1 ⫺ ⫽⫺ 3 2 2

5.

x 1 1 ⫺ ⫽ 3 4 12

6.

x 1 x 1 ⫺ ⫽ ⫺ 3 4 4 6

7.

2y y 1 1 ⫺ ⫽ ⫹ 9 6 9 6

8.

2x ⫺ 5 1 x 3 ⫹ ⫽ ⫹ 8 4 8 4

9.

3x ⫹ 4 1 5x ⫹ 2 1 ⫺ ⫽ ⫺ 12 3 12 2

10.

6 ⫽2 2a ⫹ 1

11.

13.

6 ⫽3 4 ⫺ 3x

14. 2 ⫹

5 ⫽7 x

15. 3 ⫹

17. 3 ⫺

12 ⫽7 x

18.

2 ⫹5⫽9 y

16. 1 ⫺

9 ⫽4 x

12 ⫽3 3x ⫺ 2

12.

9 ⫽ ⫺2 2x ⫺ 5

8 ⫽5 n

19.

6 ⫹ 3 ⫽ 11 x

20.

3 4 ⫽ x x⫺2

21.

5 3 ⫽ x⫹3 x⫺1

22.

2 3 ⫽ 3x ⫺ 1 4x ⫹ 1

23.

5 ⫺3 ⫽ 3x ⫺ 4 1 ⫺ 2x

24.

⫺3 2 ⫽ 2x ⫹ 5 x⫺1

SECTION 6.5

25.

4 2 ⫽ 5y ⫺ 1 2y ⫺ 1

28. 2 ⫹

3 a ⫽ a⫺3 a⫺3

Solving Equations Containing Fractions

317

26.

4x 5x ⫹5⫽ x⫺4 x⫺4

27.

2x 7x ⫺5⫽ x⫹2 x⫹2

29.

x 4 ⫽3⫺ x⫹4 x⫹4

30.

x 8 ⫽ x⫺1 x⫹2

2x 3 ⫽ x⫹4 x⫺1

33.

5 n ⫽ 3n ⫺ 8 n⫹2

36.

3 8 ⫹ ⫽3 r r⫺1

31.

x 1 ⫽ x ⫹ 12 x⫹5

32.

34.

x 11 ⫹2 ⫽ 2 x⫹4 x ⫺ 16

35. x ⫺

6 2x ⫽ x⫺3 x⫺3

Applying the Concepts 37. Explain the procedure for solving an equation containing fractions. Include in your discussion an explanation of how the LCM of the denominators is used to eliminate fractions in the equation.

For Exercises 38 to 43, solve. 38.

2y ⫺ 5 3 1 y ⫺ 共1 ⫺ y兲 ⫽ 5 3 15

39.

3 1 a⫺2 a ⫽ 共3 ⫺ a兲 ⫹ 4 2 4

40.

b⫹2 1 3 ⫽ b⫺ 共b ⫺ 1兲 5 4 10

41.

3 3 x ⫽ 2 ⫹ 2x ⫹ 1 2x ⫺ x ⫺ 1 x ⫺1

42.

x⫹2 3 x⫹1 ⫽ 2 ⫹ x⫹2 x ⫹x⫺2 x ⫺1

43.

y⫹2 y⫹1 1 ⫹ 2 ⫽ y⫹1 y ⫺y⫺2 y ⫺4

2

2

2

318

CHAPTER 6

Rational Expressions

SECTION

6.6 OBJECTIVE A

Point of Interest The Women’s Restroom Equity Bill was signed by New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg and approved unanimously by the NYC Council. This bill requires that women’s and men’s bathroom stalls in bars, sports arenas, theaters, and highway service areas be in a ratio of 2 to 1. Nicknamed “potty parity,” this legislation attempts to shorten the long lines at ladies rooms throughout the city.

Ratio and Proportion To solve a proportion Quantities such as 4 meters, 15 seconds, and 8 gallons are number quantities written with units. In these examples the units are meters, seconds, and gallons. A ratio is the quotient of two quantities that have the same unit. The length of a living room is 16 ft and the width is 12 ft. The ratio of the length to the width is written 16 4 16 ft ⫽ ⫽ 12 ft 12 3

A ratio is in simplest form when the two numbers do not have a common factor. Note that the units are not written.

A rate is the quotient of two quantities that have different units. There are 2 lb of salt in 8 gal of water. The salt-to-water rate is 1 lb 2 lb ⫽ 8 gal 4 gal

A rate is in simplest form when the two numbers do not have a common factor. The units are written as part of the rate.

A proportion is an equation that states the equality of two ratios or rates. Examples of proportions are shown at the right. HOW TO • 1

Solve the proportion

4 x

30 mi 15 mi ⫽ 4h 2h

4 8 ⫽ 6 12

x 3 ⫽ 4 8

2 . 3

2 4 ⫽ x 3

4 2 ⫽ 3x x 3 12 ⫽ 2x 6⫽x The solution is 6. 3x

EXAMPLE • 1

Solve:

8 x⫹3

• The LCM of the denominators is 3x. To clear denominators, multiply each side of the proportion by the LCM. • Solve the equation.

YOU TRY IT • 1

4 x

Solve:

Solution

2 x⫹3

6 5x ⫹ 5

8 4 ⫽ x⫹3 x

8 4 ⫽ x共x ⫹ 3兲 x x⫹3 8x ⫽ 4共x ⫹ 3兲 8x ⫽ 4x ⫹ 12 4x ⫽ 12 x⫽3 The solution is 3. x共x ⫹ 3兲

• Clear denominators. • Solve for x.

Solution on p. S16

SECTION 6.6

OBJECTIVE B

Ratio and Proportion

319

To solve application problems

EXAMPLE • 2

YOU TRY IT • 2

The monthly loan payment for a car is \$28.35 for each \$1000 borrowed. At this rate, find the monthly payment for a \$6000 car loan.

Sixteen ceramic tiles are needed to tile a 9-square-foot area. At this rate, how many square feet can be tiled using 256 ceramic tiles?

Strategy

To find the monthly payment, write and solve a proportion, using P to represent the monthly car payment. Solution 28.35 P ⫽ 1000 6000 28.35 P 6000 ⫽ 6000 1000 6000 170.10 ⫽ P

• Write a proportion. • Clear denominators.

The monthly payment is \$170.10. Solution on p. S16

OBJECTIVE C

To solve problems involving similar triangles Similar objects have the same shape but not necessarily the same size. A tennis ball is similar to a basketball. A model ship is similar to an actual ship. Similar objects have corresponding parts; for example, the rudder on the model ship corresponds to the rudder on the actual ship. The relationship between the sizes of each of the corresponding parts can be written as a ratio, and each ratio will be the same. If the rudder on the model ship is model wheelhouse is

1 100

1 100

the size of the rudder on the actual ship, then the

the size of the actual wheelhouse, the width of the model is

1 100

the width of the actual ship, and so on. The two triangles ABC and DEF shown at the right are similar. Side AB corresponds to DE, side BC corresponds to EF, and side AC corresponds to DF. The height CH corresponds to the height FK. The ratios of corresponding parts of similar triangles are equal. AB 4 1 ⫽ ⫽ , DE 8 2

AC 3 1 ⫽ ⫽ , DF 6 2

F 1.5 C 3 A 4

6

H

BC 2 1 ⫽ ⫽ , EF 4 2

B

D 8

and

4

3

2

K

E

1.5 1 CH ⫽ ⫽ FK 3 2

Because the ratios of corresponding parts are equal, three proportions can be formed using the sides of the triangles. AB AC ⫽ , DE DF

AB BC ⫽ , DE EF

and

BC AC ⫽ DF EF

320

CHAPTER 6

Rational Expressions

Three proportions can also be formed by using the sides and heights of the triangles. AB CH ⫽ , DE FK

AC CH ⫽ , DF FK

BC CH ⫽ EF FK

and

The measures of the corresponding angles in similar triangles are equal. Therefore, mA ⫽ mD,

mB ⫽ mE,

mC ⫽ mF

and

It is also true that if the measures of the three angles of one triangle are equal, respectively, to the measures of the three angles of another triangle, then the two triangles are similar.

Take Note Vertical angles of intersecting lines, corresponding angles of parallel lines, and angles of a triangle are discussed in Section 3.5.

A line DE is drawn parallel to the base AB in the triangle at the right. mx ⫽ mm and my ⫽ mn because corresponding angles are equal. mC ⫽ mC; thus the measures of the three angles of triangle DEC are equal, respectively, to the measures of the three angles of triangle ABC. Triangle DEC is similar to triangle ABC.

C

m

D A

n

E

x

y

B

The sum of the measures of the three angles of a triangle is 180⬚. If two angles of one triangle are equal in measure to two angles of another triangle, then the third angles must be equal in measure. Thus we can say that if two angles of one triangle are equal in measure to two angles of another triangle, then the two triangles are similar.

The line segments AB and CD intersect at point O in the figure at the right. Angles C and D are right angles. Find the length of DO.

HOW TO • 2

A 4 cm C

First we must determine whether triangle AOC is similar to triangle BOD. mC ⫽ mD because they are right angles.

x 3 cm O

D

y

7 cm

B

mx ⫽ my because they are vertical angles. Triangle AOC is similar to triangle BOD because two angles of one triangle are equal in measure to two angles of the other triangle. AC CO ⫽ DB DO 4 3 ⫽ 7 DO 3 4 7共DO兲 ⫽ 7共DO兲 7 DO 4共DO兲 ⫽ 7共3兲 4共DO兲 ⫽ 21

• Use a proportion to find the length of the unknown side. • AC  4, CO  3, and DB  7. • To clear denominators, multiply each side of the proportion by 7(DO). • Solve for DO.

DO ⫽ 5.25 The length of DO is 5.25 cm.

SECTION 6.6

Ratio and Proportion

321 F

Triangles ABC and DEF at the right are similar. Find the area of triangle ABC.

HOW TO • 3

C A

AB CH ⫽ DE FG 5 CH ⫽ 12 3 CH 5 ⫽ 12 ⭈ 12 ⭈ 12 3 5 ⫽ 4共CH兲 1.25 ⫽ CH

5 in.

3 in.

HB D

12 in.

G

E

• Solve a proportion to find the height of triangle ABC. • AB  5, DE  12, and FG  3. • To clear denominators, multiply each side of the proportion by 12. • Solve for CH. • The height is 1.25 in. The base is 5 in.

1 1 A ⫽ bh ⫽ 共5兲共1.25兲 ⫽ 3.125 2 2

• Use the formula for the area of a triangle.

The area of triangle ABC is 3.125 in2.

EXAMPLE • 3

YOU TRY IT • 3

In the figure below, AB is parallel to DC, and angles B and D are right angles. AB ⫽ 12 m, DC ⫽ 4 m, and AC ⫽ 18 m. Find the length of CO. D

In the figure below, AB is parallel to DC, and angles A and D are right angles. AB ⫽ 10 cm, CD ⫽ 4 cm, and DO ⫽ 3 cm. Find the area of triangle AOB.

C

A

B

O O A

B

C

D

Strategy Triangle AOB is similar to triangle COD. Solve a proportion to find the length of CO. Let x represent the length of CO and 18 ⫺ x represent the length of AO.

Solution

DC CO ⫽ AB AO 4 x ⫽ 12 18 ⫺ x 4 x 12共18 ⫺ x兲 ⭈ ⫽ 12共18 ⫺ x兲 ⭈ 12 18 ⫺ x 4共18 ⫺ x兲 ⫽ 12x 72 ⫺ 4x ⫽ 12x 72 ⫽ 16x 4.5 ⫽ x

• Write a proportion. • Substitute. • Clear denominators. • Solve for x.

The length of CO is 4.5 m. Solution on p. S16

322

CHAPTER 6

Rational Expressions

6.6 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To solve a proportion

For Exercises 1 to 15, solve. 1.

x 3 ⫽ 12 4

2.

2 6 ⫽ x 3

3.

4 x ⫽ 9 27

4.

16 64 ⫽ x 9

5.

x⫹3 5 ⫽ 12 6

6.

3 x⫺4 ⫽ 5 10

7.

18 9 ⫽ x⫹4 5

8.

2 20 ⫽ 11 x⫺3

9.

4 2 ⫽ x x⫹1

10.

16 8 ⫽ x x⫺2

11.

x⫹3 x ⫽ 4 8

12.

x⫺6 x ⫽ 3 5

13.

2 6 ⫽ x⫺1 2x ⫹ 1

14.

9 3 ⫽ x⫹2 x⫺2

15.

2x x⫺2 ⫽ 7 14

16. True or false? (Assume that a, b, c, and d do not equal zero.) a a d c d c c b b. If ⫽ , then ⫽ . a. If ⫽ , then ⫽ . a a c b d b b d

OBJECTIVE B

To solve application problems

17. Health Insurance See the news clipping at the right. How many Americans do not have health insurance? Use a figure of 300 million for the population of the United States. 18. Poverty See the news clipping at the right. How many American children live in poverty? Use a figure of 75 million for the number of children living in the United States. 19. Surveys An exit poll survey showed that 4 out of every 7 voters cast a ballot in favor of an amendment to a city charter. At this rate, how many voters voted in favor of the amendment if 35,000 people voted?

In the News Room for Improvement According to U.N. publications, the United States ranks 12th in the world in the area of human development. With regard to health, 1 in 6 Americans does not have health insurance. With respect to standard of living, 1 in 5 American children lives in poverty.

Source: Time, July 28, 2008

20. Business A company decides to accept a large shipment of 10,000 computer chips if there are 2 or fewer defects in a sample of 100 randomly chosen chips. Assuming that there are 300 defective chips in the shipment and that the rate of defective chips in the sample is the same as the rate in the shipment, will the shipment be accepted?

SECTION 6.6

21. Cooking Simple syrup used in making some desserts requires 2 c of sugar for 2 every c of boiling water. At this rate, how many cups of sugar are required 3 for 2 c boiling water?

5

323

Ratio and Proportion

2

2

1

1 2 3

3

22. Cartography On a map, two cities are 2 in. apart. If in. on the map 8 8 represents 25 mi, find the number of miles between the two cities.

23. Conservation As part of a conservation effort for a lake, 40 fish are caught, tagged, and then released. Later 80 fish are caught. Four of the 80 fish are found to have tags. Estimate the number of fish in the lake.

24. Conservation In a wildlife preserve, 10 elk are captured, tagged, and then released. Later 15 elk are captured and 2 are found to have tags. Estimate the number of elk in the preserve.

25. Art Leonardo da Vinci measured various distances on the human body in order to make accurate drawings. He determined that generally the ratio of the kneeling height of a person to the standing height of that 3 4

person was . Using this ratio, determine how tall a person is who has a kneeling height of 48 in.

27. Taxes In February 2008, USA Today reported that if a person who uses his or her vehicle for business drives 1000 mi this year, that person will be allowed to deduct \$505 on his or her 2008 tax return. At this rate, how much will a person who drives her car 2200 mi for business in 2008 be able to deduct on her tax return?

Fossils For Exercises 28 and 29, use the information in the article at the right. Assume that all scorpions have approximately the same ratio of claw length to body length. 28. Estimate the length, in feet, of the longest previously known prehistoric sea scorpion’s claw. Round to the nearest hundredth.

29. Today, scorpions range in length from about 0.5 in. to about 8 in. Estimate the length of a claw of a 7-inch scorpion. Round to the nearest hundredth. (Hint: Convert 8.2 ft to inches.)

26. Art In one of Leonardo da Vinci’s notebooks, he wrote that “. . . from the top to the bottom of the chin is the sixth part of a face, and it is the fifty-fourth part of the man.” Suppose the distance from the top to the bottom of the chin of a person is 1.25 in. Using da Vinci’s measurements, find the height of this person.

In the News 390-Million-YearOld Scorpion Fossil Found Scientists have announced the unearthing of the largest fossil sea scorpion claw ever discovered. Based on the 18-inch claw length, scientists estimate that the scorpion would have measured 8.2 ft in length. The longest previously known prehistoric sea scorpion was estimated to be 6.7 ft long. Source: news.nationalgeographic .com

324

CHAPTER 6

Rational Expressions

30. The scale on a map shows that a distance of 3 cm on the map represents an actual distance of 10 mi. Would a distance of 8 cm on the map represent an actual distance that is greater than 30 mi or less than 30 mi?

OBJECTIVE C

To solve problems involving similar triangles

Triangles ABC and DEF in Exercises 31 to 38 are similar. Round answers to the nearest tenth. 31. Find side AC.

32. Find side DE. F

F C 5 in.

15 cm

C

A A 4 cm B

D

8 in.

9 cm

8 in.

B

D

E

E

33. Find the height of triangle ABC.

34. Find the height of triangle DEF. F

F C A

B

12 m

7m

5m

C 3 ft

D

14 ft

9 ft

E

A

35. Find the perimeter of triangle DEF.

B

D

E

36. Find the perimeter of triangle ABC. F

F C C

7.5 m

9 ft 5 ft A

10 m

6 ft 4 ft

B

D

6 ft

A

E

37. Find the area of triangle ABC.

4m

B

D

5m

E

38. Find the area of triangle ABC. F

F C C

15 cm

12 m A

12 m

B

D

18 m

E

39. True or false? The ratio of the perimeters of two similar triangles is the same as the ratio of their corresponding sides.

A

12 cm

B

D

22.5 cm

40. True or false? The ratio of the areas of two similar triangles is the same as the ratio of their corresponding sides.

E

SECTION 6.6

41. Given BD 储 AE, BD measures 5 cm, AE measures 8 cm, and AC measures 10 cm, find the length of BC.

B D

A

43.

E

D A

E

Given MP and NQ intersect at O, NO measures 25 ft, MO measures 20 ft, and PO measures 8 ft, find the length of QO. Q M

325

42. Given AC 储 DE, BD measures 8 m, AD measures 12 m, and BE measures 6 m, find the length of BC.

C

B

Ratio and Proportion

O

C

44. Given MP and NQ intersect at O, NO measures 24 cm, MP measures 39 cm, and QO measures 12 cm, find the length of OP. M

P N

Q

O

P N

45. Indirect Measurement Similar triangles can be used as an indirect way of measuring inaccessible distances. The diagram at the right represents a river of width DC. The triangles AOB and DOC are similar. The distances AB, BO, and OC can be measured. Find the width of the river.

A 14 m B

O

20 m

C

8m

D

46. Indirect Measurement The sun’s rays cast a shadow as shown in the diagram at the right. Find the height of the flagpole. Write the answer in terms of feet.

C

E

h 5 ft 9 in.

A

12 ft

B

D 30 ft

Applying the Concepts 47. Lottery Tickets Three people put their money together to buy lottery tickets. The first person put in \$25, the second person put in \$30, and the third person put in \$35. One of their tickets was a winning ticket. If they won \$4.5 million, what was the first person’s share of the winnings?

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SECTION

6.7 OBJECTIVE A

Literal Equations To solve a literal equation for one of the variables A literal equation is an equation that contains more than one variable. Examples of literal equations are shown at the right. Formulas are used to express a relationship among physical quantities. A formula is a literal equation that states a rule about measurements. Examples of formulas are shown at the right.

2x ⫹ 3y ⫽ 6 4w ⫺ 2x ⫹ z ⫽ 0

1 1 1 ⫹ ⫽ R1 R2 R s ⫽ a ⫹ 共n ⫺ 1兲d A ⫽ P ⫹ Prt

The Addition and Multiplication Properties can be used to solve a literal equation for one of the variables. The goal is to rewrite the equation so that the variable being solved for is alone on one side of the equation and all the other numbers and variables are on the other side. Solve A ⫽ P共1 ⫹ i兲 for i. The goal is to rewrite the equation so that i is on one side of the equation and all other variables are on the other side.

HOW TO • 1

A ⫽ P共1 ⫹ i兲 A ⫽ P ⫹ Pi A ⫺ P ⫽ P ⫺ P ⫹ Pi A ⫺ P ⫽ Pi A⫺P Pi ⫽ P P A⫺P ⫽i P

EXAMPLE • 1

• Use the Distributive Property to remove parentheses. • Subtract P from each side of the equation.

• Divide each side of the equation by P.

YOU TRY IT • 1

Solve 3x ⫺ 4y ⫽ 12 for y.

Solve 5x ⫺ 2y ⫽ 10 for y.

Solution 3x ⫺ 4y ⫽ 12 3x ⫺ 3x ⫺ 4y ⫽ ⫺3x ⫹ 12 ⫺4y ⫽ ⫺3x ⫹ 12 ⫺4y ⫺3x ⫹ 12 ⫽ ⫺4 ⫺4 3 y⫽ x⫺3 4

• Divide by 4.

Solution on p. S17

SECTION 6.7

EXAMPLE • 2

Solve I ⫽

Literal Equations

327

YOU TRY IT • 2

E for R. R⫹r

Solve s ⫽

Solution

A⫹L for L. 2

E R⫹r

RI ⫹ rI ⫽ E RI ⫹ rI ⫺ rI ⫽ E ⫺ rI RI ⫽ E ⫺ rI RI E ⫺ rI ⫽ I I E ⫺ rI R⫽ I

• Multiply by (R  r).

• Subtract rI.

• Divide by I.

EXAMPLE • 3

YOU TRY IT • 3

Solve L ⫽ a共1 ⫹ ct兲 for c.

Solve S ⫽ a ⫹ 共n ⫺ 1兲d for n.

Solution L ⫽ a共1 ⫹ ct兲 L ⫽ a ⫹ act L ⫺ a ⫽ a ⫺ a ⫹ act L ⫺ a ⫽ act L⫺a act ⫽ at at L⫺a ⫽c at

Your solution • Distributive Property • Subtract a.

• Divide by at.

EXAMPLE • 4

YOU TRY IT • 4

Solve S ⫽ C ⫺ rC for C.

Solve S ⫽ rS ⫹ C for S.

Solution S ⫽ C ⫺ rC S ⫽ 共1 ⫺ r兲C

• Factor. • Divide by (1  r).

Solutions on p. S17

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Rational Expressions

6.7 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To solve a literal equation for one of the variables

For Exercises 1 to 15, solve for y. 1. 3x ⫹ y ⫽ 10

2. 2x ⫹ y ⫽ 5

3. 4x ⫺ y ⫽ 3

4. 5x ⫺ y ⫽ 7

5. 3x ⫹ 2y ⫽ 6

6. 2x ⫹ 3y ⫽ 9

7. 2x ⫺ 5y ⫽ 10

8. 5x ⫺ 2y ⫽ 4

9. 2x ⫹ 7y ⫽ 14

10. 6x ⫺ 5y ⫽ 10

13. y ⫺ 2 ⫽ 3共x ⫹ 2兲

11. x ⫹ 3y ⫽ 6

12. x ⫹ 2y ⫽ 8

2 15. y ⫺ 1 ⫽ ⫺ 共x ⫹ 6兲 3

14. y ⫹ 4 ⫽ ⫺2共x ⫺ 3兲

For Exercises 16 to 23, solve for x. 16. x ⫹ 3y ⫽ 6

17. x ⫹ 6y ⫽ 10

18. 3x ⫺ y ⫽ 3

19. 2x ⫺ y ⫽ 6

20. 2x ⫹ 5y ⫽ 10

21. 4x ⫹ 3y ⫽ 12

22. x ⫺ 2y ⫹ 1 ⫽ 0

23. x ⫺ 4y ⫺ 3 ⫽ 0

24. Two students are working with the equation A ⫽ P(1 ⫹ i). State whether the two students’ answers are equivalent. a. When asked to solve the equation for i, one student answered i ⫽ other student answered i ⫽

A⫺P . P

b. When asked to solve the equation for i, one student answered i ⫽ ⫺ other student answered i ⫽

A⫺P . P

A ⫺1 P

and the

P⫺A P

and the

For Exercises 25 to 40, solve the formula for the given variable. 25. d ⫽ rt; t

(Physics)

26. E ⫽ IR; R

(Physics)

27. PV ⫽ nRT; T

(Chemistry)

28. A ⫽ bh; h

(Geometry)

SECTION 6.7

29. P ⫽ 2l ⫹ 2w; l

(Geometry)

30. F ⫽

9 C ⫹ 32; C 5

Literal Equations

(Temperature conversion)

31. A ⫽

1 h共b1 ⫹ b2兲; b1 2

(Geometry)

32. s ⫽ a共x ⫺ √t兲; t

(Physics)

33. V ⫽

1 Ah; h 3

(Geometry)

34. P ⫽ R ⫺ C; C

35. R ⫽

C⫺S ;S t

36. P ⫽

R⫺C ;R n

37. A ⫽ P ⫹ Prt; P

38. T ⫽ fm ⫺ gm; m

(Engineering)

39. A ⫽ Sw ⫹ w; w

(Physics)

40. a ⫽ S ⫺ Sr; S

(Mathematics)

Applying the Concepts Business Break-even analysis is a method used to determine the sales volume required for a company to break even, or experience neither a profit nor a loss on the sale of a product. The break-even point represents the number of units that must be made and sold for income from sales to equal the cost of the product. The break-even point can be calculated using the formula B ⫽

F , S⫺V

where F is the fixed costs, S is the selling price

per unit, and V is the variable costs per unit. Use this information for Exercise 41. 41. a. Solve the formula B ⫽

F S⫺V

for S.

b. Use your answer to part (a) to find the selling price per unit required for a company to break even. The fixed costs are \$20,000, the variable costs per unit are \$80, and the company plans to make and sell 200 underwater cameras. c. Use your answer to part (a) to find the selling price per unit required for a company to break even. The fixed costs are \$15,000, the variable costs per unit are \$50, and the company plans to make and sell 600 pen scanners.

329

330

CHAPTER 6

Rational Expressions

SECTION

6.8 OBJECTIVE A

Application Problems To solve work problems 1

If a painter can paint a room in 4 h, then in 1 h the painter can paint 4 of the room. The 1 painter’s rate of work is 4 of the room each hour. The rate of work is the part of a task that is completed in 1 unit of time. 1

A pipe can fill a tank in 30 min. This pipe can fill 30 of the tank in 1 min. The rate of work 1 is 30 of the tank each minute. If a second pipe can fill the tank in x min, the rate of work 1 for the second pipe is x of the tank each minute. In solving a work problem, the goal is to determine the time it takes to complete a task. The basic equation that is used to solve work problems is Rate of work  time worked  part of task completed 1 For example, if a faucet can fill a sink in 6 min, then in 5 min the faucet will fill 6 ⫻ 5 ⫽ 6 5 of the sink. In 5 min the faucet completes 6 of the task. 5

Tips for Success Note in the examples in this section that solving a word problem includes stating a strategy and using the strategy to find a solution. If you have difficulty with a word problem, write down the known information. Be very specific. Write out a phrase or sentence that states what you are trying to find. See AIM fo r Success at the front of the book.

HOW TO • 1

A painter can paint a wall in 20 min. The painter’s apprentice can paint the same wall in 30 min. How long will it take them to paint the wall when they work together? Strategy for Solving a Work Problem 1. For each person or machine, write a numerical or variable expression for the rate of work, the time worked, and the part of the task completed. The results can be recorded in a table.

Unknown time to paint the wall working together: t

Take Note Use the information given in the problem to fill in the “Rate” and “Time” columns of the table. Fill in the “Part Completed” column by multiplying the two expressions you wrote in each row.

Rate of Work



Time Worked



Painter

1 20

t

t 20

Apprentice

1 30

t

t 30

2. Determine how the parts of the task completed are related. Use the fact that the sum of the parts of the task completed must equal 1, the complete task.

t t ⫹ ⫽1 20 30 t t 60 ⫹ ⫽ 60 ⭈ 1 20 30 3t ⫹ 2t ⫽ 60 5t ⫽ 60 t ⫽ 12

• The sum of the part of the task completed by the painter and the part of the task completed by the apprentice is 1. • Multiply by the LCM of 20 and 30. • Distributive Property

Working together, they will paint the wall in 12 min.

SECTION 6.8

EXAMPLE • 1

Application Problems

331

YOU TRY IT • 1

A small water pipe takes three times longer to fill a tank than does a large water pipe. With both pipes open it takes 4 h to fill the tank. Find the time it would take the small pipe, working alone, to fill the tank.

Two computer printers that work at the same rate are working together to print the payroll checks for a large corporation. After they work together for 2 h, one of the printers quits. The second printer requires 3 h more to complete the payroll checks. Find the time it would take one printer, working alone, to print the payroll.

Strategy • Time for large pipe to fill the tank: t Time for small pipe to fill the tank: 3t

Fills tank in 3t hours

4

Fills 3t of the tank in 4 hours

Fills tank in t hours

4

Fills t of the tank in 4 hours

Rate

Time

Part

Small pipe

1 3t

4

4 3t

Large pipe

1 t

4

4 t

• The sum of the parts of the task completed by each pipe must equal 1.

Solution 4 4 ⫹ ⫽1 3t t 4 4 3t ⫹ ⫽ 3t ⭈ 1 3t t 4 ⫹ 12 ⫽ 3t 16 ⫽ 3t 16 ⫽t 3 16 3t ⫽ 3 ⫽ 16 3

• Multiply by the LCM of 3t and t. • Distributive Property

The small pipe, working alone, takes 16 h to fill the tank.

Solution on p. S17

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Rational Expressions

OBJECTIVE B

To use rational expressions to solve uniform motion problems A car that travels constantly in a straight line at 30 mph is in uniform motion. Uniform motion means that the speed or direction of an object does not change. The basic equation used to solve uniform motion problems is Distance  rate  time An alternative form of this equation can be written by solving the equation for time. Distance  time Rate This form of the equation is useful when the total time of travel for two objects or the time of travel between two points is known. The speed of a boat in still water is 20 mph. The boat traveled 75 mi down a river in the same amount of time it took to travel 45 mi up the river. Find the rate of the river’s current.

HOW TO • 2

Strategy for Solving a Uniform Motion Problem 1. For each object, write a numerical or variable expression for the distance, rate, and time. The results can be recorded in a table.

The unknown rate of the river’s current: r

Take Note Use the information given in the problem to fill in the “Distance” and “Rate” columns of the table. Fill in the “Time” column by dividing the two expressions you wrote in each row.

Distance



Rate



Time

Down river

75

20 ⫹ r

75 20 ⫹ r

Up river

45

20 ⫺ r

45 20 ⫺ r

2. Determine how the times traveled by each object are related. For example, it may be known that the times are equal, or the total time may be known.

45 75 • The time down the river ⫽ is equal to the time up 20 ⫹ r 20 ⫺ r the river. 75 45 共20 ⫹ r兲共20 ⫺ r兲 • Multiply by the LCM. ⫽ 共20 ⫹ r兲共20 ⫺ r兲 20 ⫹ r 20 ⫺ r 共20 ⫺ r兲75 ⫽ 共20 ⫹ r兲45 1500 ⫺ 75r ⫽ 900 ⫹ 45r • Distributive Property ⫺120r ⫽ ⫺600 r⫽5 The rate of the river’s current is 5 mph.

SECTION 6.8

EXAMPLE • 2

Application Problems

333

YOU TRY IT • 2

A cyclist rode the first 20 mi of a trip at a constant rate. For the next 16 mi, the cyclist reduced the speed by 2 mph. The total time for the 36 mi was 4 h. Find the rate of the cyclist for each leg of the trip.

The total time it took for a sailboat to sail back and forth across a lake 6 km wide was 2 h. The rate sailing back was three times the rate sailing across. Find the rate sailing out across the lake.

Strategy • Rate for the first 20 mi: r Rate for the next 16 mi: r ⫺ 2

r−2

r 20 mi

16 mi

Distance

Rate

Time

First 20 mi

20

r

20 r

Next 16 mi

16

r⫺2

16 r⫺2

• The total time for the trip was 4 h.

Solution

20 16 ⫹ ⫽4 r r⫺2 16 20 r共r ⫺ 2兲 c ⫹ d ⫽ r共r ⫺ 2兲 ⭈ 4 r r⫺2 共r ⫺ 2兲20 ⫹ 16r ⫽ 4r 2 ⫺ 8r

• The total time was 4 h. • Multiply by the LCM. • Distributive Property

20r ⫺ 40 ⫹ 16r ⫽ 4r ⫺ 8r 36r ⫺ 40 ⫽ 4r 2 ⫺ 8r 2

Solve the quadratic equation by factoring. 0 ⫽ 4r 2 ⫺ 44r ⫹ 40 0 ⫽ 4共r 2 ⫺ 11r ⫹ 10兲 0 ⫽ 4共r ⫺ 10兲共r ⫺ 1兲 r ⫺ 10 ⫽ 0 r ⫽ 10

r⫺1⫽0 r⫽1

• Standard form • Factor. • Principle of Zero Products

The solution r ⫽ 1 mph is not possible, because the rate on the last 16 mi would then be ⫺1 mph. 10 mph was the rate for the first 20 mi. 8 mph was the rate for the next 16 mi.

Solution on p. S17

334

CHAPTER 6

Rational Expressions

6.8 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To solve work problems

1. Explain the meaning of the phrase “rate of work.” 2 5

2. If of a room can be painted in 1 h, what is the rate of work? At the same rate, how long will it take to paint the entire room? 3. It takes Sam h hours to rake the yard, and it takes Emma k hours to rake the yard, where h ⬎ k. Let t be the amount of time it takes Sam and Emma to rake the yard working together. Is t less than k, between k and h, or greater than k?

5. One person with a skiploader requires 12 h to remove a large quantity of earth. A second, larger skiploader can remove the same amount of earth in 4 h. How long would it take to remove the earth with both skiploaders working together?

6. An experienced painter can paint a fence twice as fast as an inexperienced painter. Working together, the painters require 4 h to paint the fence. How long would it take the experienced painter, working alone, to paint the fence?

4. One grocery clerk can stock a shelf in 20 min, whereas a second clerk requires 30 min to stock the same shelf. How long would it take to stock the shelf if the two clerks worked together?

7. A new machine can make 10,000 aluminum cans three times faster than an older machine. With both machines working, 10,000 cans can be made in 9 h. How long would it take the new machine, working alone, to make the 10,000 cans?

8. A small air conditioner can cool a room 5⬚ in 75 min. A larger air conditioner can cool the room 5⬚ in 50 min. How long would it take to cool the room 5⬚ with both air conditioners working?

9. One printing press can print the first edition of a book in 55 min, whereas a second printing press requires 66 min to print the same number of copies. How long would it take to print the first edition with both presses operating?

11. A mason can construct a retaining wall in 10 h. With the mason’s apprentice assisting, the task takes 6 h. How long would it take the apprentice, working alone, to construct the wall?

10. Two oil pipelines can fill a small tank in 30 min. One of the pipelines would require 45 min to fill the tank. How long would it take the second pipeline, working alone, to fill the tank?

SECTION 6.8

Application Problems

335

12. A mechanic requires 2 h to repair a transmission, whereas an apprentice requires 6 h to make the same repairs. The mechanic worked alone for 1 h and then stopped. How long will it take the apprentice, working alone, to complete the repairs?

14. A wallpaper hanger requires 2 h to hang the wallpaper on one wall of a room. A second wallpaper hanger requires 4 h to hang the same amount of paper. The first wallpaper hanger worked alone for 1 h and then quit. How long will it take the second wallpaper hanger, working alone, to complete the wall?

13. One technician can wire a security alarm in 4 h, whereas it takes 6 h for a second technician to do the same job. After working alone for 2 h, the first technician quit. How long will it take the second technician to complete the wiring?

16. A large and a small heating unit are being used to heat the water of a pool. The large unit, working alone, requires 8 h to heat the pool. After both units have been operating for 2 h, the large unit is turned off. The small unit requires 9 h more to heat the pool. How long would it take the small unit, working alone, to heat the pool?

17. Two machines that fill cereal boxes work at the same rate. After they work together for 7 h, one machine breaks down. The second machine requires 14 h more to finish filling the boxes. How long would it have taken one of the machines, working alone, to fill the boxes?

18. A large and a small drain are opened to drain a pool. The large drain can empty the pool in 6 h. After both drains have been open for 1 h, the large drain becomes clogged and is closed. The smaller drain remains open and requires 9 h more to empty the pool. How long would it have taken the small drain, working alone, to empty the pool?

19. Zachary and Eli picked a row of peas together in m minutes. It would have taken Zachary n minutes to pick the row of peas by himself. What fraction of the row of peas did Zachary pick? What fraction of the row of peas did Eli pick?

OBJECTIVE B

To use rational expressions to solve uniform motion problems

20. Running at a constant speed, a jogger ran 24 mi in 3 h. How far did the jogger run in 2 h?

15. Two welders who work at the same rate are welding the girders of a building. After they work together for 10 h, one of the welders quits. The second welder requires 20 more hours to complete the welds. Find the time it would have taken one of the welders, working alone, to complete the welds.

336

CHAPTER 6

Rational Expressions

21. For uniform motion, distance ⫽ rate ⭈ time. How is time related to distance and rate? How is rate related to distance and time?

22. Commuting from work to home, a lab technician traveled 10 mi at a constant rate through congested traffic. On reaching the expressway, the technician increased the speed by 20 mph. An additional 20 mi was traveled at the increased speed. The total time for the trip was 1 h. Find the rate of travel through the congested traffic.

10 mi

20 mi

r

r + 20

23. The president of a company traveled 1800 mi by jet and 300 mi on a prop plane. The rate of the jet was four times the rate of the prop plane. The entire trip took a total of 5 h. Find the rate of the jet plane.

8 mi

24. As part of a conditioning program, a jogger ran 8 mi in the same amount of time a cyclist rode 20 mi. The rate of the cyclist was 12 mph faster than the rate of the jogger. Find the rate of the jogger and that of the cyclist.

r 20 mi r + 12

25. An express train travels 600 mi in the same amount of time it takes a freight train to travel 360 mi. The rate of the express train is 20 mph faster than that of the freight train. Find the rate of each train.

26. To assess the damage done by a fire, a forest ranger traveled 1080 mi by jet and then an additional 180 mi by helicopter. The rate of the jet was four times the rate of the helicopter. The entire trip took a total of 5 h. Find the rate of the jet.

27. As part of an exercise plan, Camille Ellison walked for 40 min and then ran for 20 min. If Camille runs 3 mph faster than she walks and covered 5 mi during the 1-hour exercise period, what is her walking speed?

28. A car and a bus leave a town at 1 P.M. and head for a town 300 mi away. The rate of the car is twice the rate of the bus. The car arrives 5 h ahead of the bus. Find the rate of the car.

29. A car is traveling at a rate that is 36 mph faster than the rate of a cyclist. The car travels 384 mi in the same amount of time it takes the cyclist to travel 96 mi. Find the rate of the car.

384 mi r + 36 96 mi r

30. On a recent trip, a trucker traveled 330 mi at a constant rate. Because of road construction, the trucker then had to reduce the speed by 25 mph. An additional 30 mi was traveled at the reduced rate. The total time for the entire trip was 7 h. Find the rate of the trucker for the first 330 mi.

SECTION 6.8

Application Problems

337

31. A backpacker hiking into a wilderness area walked 9 mi at a constant rate and then reduced this rate by 1 mph. Another 4 mi was hiked at the reduced rate. The time required to hike the 4 mi was 1 h less than the time required to walk the 9 mi. Find the rate at which the hiker walked the first 9 mi.

33. A commercial jet can fly 550 mph in calm air. Traveling with the jet stream, the plane flew 2400 mi in the same amount of time it takes to fly 2000 mi against the jet stream. Find the rate of the jet stream.

32. A plane can fly 180 mph in calm air. Flying with the wind, the plane can fly 600 mi in the same amount of time it takes to fly 480 mi against the wind. Find the rate of the wind.

2400 mi 550 + r 2000 mi 550 − r

35. Rowing with the current of a river, a rowing team can row 25 mi in the same amount of time it takes to row 15 mi against the current. The rate of the rowing team in calm water is 20 mph. Find the rate of the current.

For Exercises 36 and 37, use the following problem situation: A plane can fly 380 mph in calm air. In the time it takes the plane to fly 1440 mi against a headwind, it could fly 1600 mi with the wind. Use the equation

1440 380 ⫺ r

1600 380 ⫹ r

to find the rate r of the wind.

36. Explain the meaning of 380 ⫺ r and 380 ⫹ r in terms of the problem situation.

37. Explain the meaning of

1440 380 ⫺ r

and

1600 380 ⫹ r

in terms of the problem situation.

Applying the Concepts 38. Work One pipe can fill a tank in 2 h, a second pipe can fill the tank in 4 h, and a third pipe can fill the tank in 5 h. How long will it take to fill the tank with all three pipes working?

39. Transportation Because of bad weather, a bus driver reduced the usual speed along a 150-mile bus route by 10 mph. The bus arrived only 30 min later than its usual arrival time. How fast does the bus usually travel?

34. A cruise ship can sail at 28 mph in calm water. Sailing with the gulf current, the ship can sail 170 mi in the same amount of time that it can sail 110 mi against the gulf current. Find the rate of the gulf current.

338

CHAPTER 6

Rational Expressions

FOCUS ON PROBLEM SOLVING The sentence “George Washington was the first president of the United States” is a true sentence. The negation of that sentence is “George Washington was not the first president of the United States.” That sentence is false. In general, the negation of a true sentence is a false sentence.

Negations and If ... then Sentences

The negation of a false sentence is a true sentence. For instance, the sentence “The moon is made of green cheese” is a false sentence. The negation of that sentence, “The moon is not made of green cheese,” is true. The words all, no (or none), and some are called quantifiers. Writing the negation of a sentence that contains these words requires special attention. Consider the sentence “All pets are dogs.” This sentence is not true because there are pets that are not dogs; cats, for example, are pets. Because the sentence is false, its negation must be true. You might be tempted to write “All pets are not dogs,” but that sentence is not true because some pets are dogs. The correct negation of “All pets are dogs” is “Some pets are not dogs.” Note the use of the word some in the negation. Now consider the sentence “Some computers are portable.” Because that sentence is true, its negation must be false. Writing “Some computers are not portable” as the negation is not correct, because that sentence is true. The negation of “Some computers are portable” is “No computers are portable.” The sentence “No flowers have red blooms” is false, because there is at least one flower (some roses, for example) that has red blooms. Because the sentence is false, its negation must be true. The negation is “Some flowers have red blooms.” Sentence All A are B. No A are B. Some A are B. Some A are not B.

Negation Some A are not B. Some A are B. No A are B. All A are B.

Write the negation of the sentence. 1. All cats like milk.

2. All computers need people.

3. Some trees are tall.

4. No politicians are honest.

5. No houses have kitchens.

6. All police officers are tall.

7. All lakes are not polluted.

8. Some drivers are unsafe.

9. Some speeches are interesting.

10. All laws are good.

11. All businesses are not profitable.

12. All motorcycles are not large.

13. Some vegetables are good for you to eat.

14. Some banks are not open on Sunday.

Projects and Group Activities

339

A premise is a known or assumed fact. A premise can be stated using one of the quantifiers (all, no, none, or some) or using an If ... then sentence. For instance, the sentence “All triangles have three sides” can be written “If a figure is a triangle, then it has three sides.” We can write the sentence “No whole numbers are negative numbers” as an If . . . then sentence: If a number is a whole number, then it is not a negative number. Write the sentence as an If ... then sentence. 15. All students at Barlock College must take a life science course.

16. All baseballs are round.

17. All computers need people.

18. All cats like milk.

19. No odd number is evenly divisible by 2.

20. No prime number greater than 2 is an even number.

21. No rectangles have five sides.

23. All dogs have fleas.

24. No triangle has four angles.

PROJECTS AND GROUP ACTIVITIES Intensity of Illumination

You are already aware that the standard unit of length in the metric system is the meter (m) and that the standard unit of mass in the metric system is the gram (g). You may not know that the standard unit of light intensity is the candela (cd). The rate at which light falls on a 1-square-unit area of surface is called the intensity of illumination. Intensity of illumination is measured in lumens (lm). A lumen is defined in the following illustration.

1 candela

Area 1 m2

Picture a source of light equal to 1 cd positioned at the center of a hollow sphere that has a radius of 1 m. The rate at which light falls on 1 m2 of the inner surface of the sphere is equal to 1 lm. If a light source equal to 4 cd is positioned at the center of the sphere, each square meter of the inner surface receives four times as much illumination, or 4 lm.

1m

Light rays diverge as they leave a light source. The light that falls on an area of 1 m2 at a distance of 1 m from the source of light spreads out over an area of 4 m2 when it is 2 m from the source. The same light spreads out over an area of 9 m2 when it is 3 m from the light source and over an area of 16 m2 when it is 4 m from the light source. Therefore, as a surface moves farther away from the source of light, the intensity of illumination on the surface decreases from its value at 1 m to value at 3 m; and to

2

1 , 16

2

that value at 4 m.

1 , 4

that value at 2 m; to

2

1 , 9

that

340

CHAPTER 6

Rational Expressions

Point source of light

1 m2

4 m2

9 m2

1m 2m 3m

The formula for the intensity of illumination is I⫽

s r2

where I is the intensity of illumination in lumens, s is the strength of the light source in candelas, and r is the distance in meters between the light source and the illuminated surface. A 30-candela lamp is 0.5 m above a desk. Find the illumination on the desk. s r2 30 ⫽ 120 I⫽ 共0.5兲2 I⫽

The illumination on the desk is 120 lm. 1. A 100-candela light is hanging 5 m above a floor. What is the intensity of the illumination on the floor beneath it? 2. A 25-candela source of light is 2 m above a desk. Find the intensity of illumination on the desk. 3. How strong a light source is needed to cast 20 lm of light on a surface 4 m from the source? 4. How strong a light source is needed to cast 80 lm of light on a surface 5 m from the source? 5. How far from the desk surface must a 40-candela light source be positioned if the desired intensity of illumination is 10 lm? 6. Find the distance between a 36-candela light source and a surface if the intensity of illumination on the surface is 0.01 lm. 7. Two lights cast the same intensity of illumination on a wall. One light is 6 m from the wall and has a rating of 36 cd. The second light is 8 m from the wall. Find the candela rating of the second light. 8. A 40-candela light source and a 10-candela light source both throw the same intensity of illumination on a wall. The 10-candela light is 6 m from the wall. Find the distance from the 40-candela light to the wall.

Chapter 6 Summary

341

CHAPTER 6

SUMMARY KEY WORDS

EXAMPLES

A rational expression is a fraction in which the numerator and denominator are polynomials. A rational expression is in simplest form when the numerator and denominator have no common factors. [6.1A, p. 288]

2x ⫹ 1

The reciprocal of a rational expression is the rational expression with the numerator and denominator interchanged. [6.1C, p. 291]

x2 ⫹ 4

is a rational expression in

simplest form.

The reciprocal of

3x ⫺ y x⫹4

is

x⫹4 . 3x ⫺ y

The least common multiple (LCM) of two or more polynomials is the polynomial of least degree that contains all the factors of each polynomial. [6.2A, p. 296]

The LCM of 3x2 ⫺ 6x and x2 ⫺ 4 is 3x共x ⫺ 2兲共x ⫹ 2兲, because it contains the factors of 3x2 ⫺ 6x ⫽ 3x共x ⫺ 2兲 and the factors of x2 ⫺ 4 ⫽ 共x ⫺ 2兲共x ⫹ 2兲.

A complex fraction is a fraction in which the numerator or denominator contains one or more fractions. [6.4A, p. 309]

x⫺

A ratio is the quotient of two quantities that have the same unit. A rate is the quotient of two quantities that have different units. [6.6A, p. 318]

9 4

is a ratio.

A proportion is an equation that states the equality of two ratios or rates. [6.6A, p. 318]

3 8

A literal equation is an equation that contains more than one variable. A formula is a literal equation that states a rule about measurements. [6.7A, p. 326]

3x ⫺ 4y ⫽ 12 is a literal equation. A ⫽ LW is a literal equation that is also the formula for the area of a rectangle.

ESSENTIAL RULES AND PROCEDURES

EXAMPLES

Simplifying Rational Expressions [6.1A, p. 288] Factor the numerator and denominator. Divide the numerator and denominator by the common factors.

Multiplying Rational Expressions [6.1B, p. 289] Multiply the numerators. Multiply the denominators. Write the answer in simplest form. ac a c ⭈ ⫽ b d bd

2 x⫹1 4 1⫺ x

12 32

is a complex fraction.

and

60 m 12 s

x ft 12 s

is a rate.

15 ft 160 s

are proportions.

342

CHAPTER 6

Rational Expressions

Dividing Rational Expressions [6.1C, p. 291] Multiply the dividend by the reciprocal of the divisor. Write the answer in simplest form. ad c a d a ⫼ ⫽ ⭈ ⫽ b d b c bc

4x ⫹ 16 x2 ⫹ 6x ⫹ 8 ⫼ 3x ⫺ 6 x2 ⫺ 4 ⫽

4x ⫹ 16 x2 ⫺ 4 ⭈ 2 3x ⫺ 6 x ⫹ 6x ⫹ 8

4共x ⫹ 4兲 共x ⫺ 2兲共x ⫹ 2兲 ⭈ 3共x ⫺ 2兲 共x ⫹ 4兲共x ⫹ 2兲

4 3

Adding and Subtracting Rational Expressions [6.3B, p. 302] 1. Find the LCM of the denominators. 2. Write each fraction as an equivalent fraction using the LCM as the denominator. 3. Add or subtract the numerators and place the result over the common denominator.

x x⫹3 ⫺ x⫹1 x⫺2 ⫽

x x⫺2 x⫹3 x⫹1 ⭈ ⫺ ⭈ x⫹1 x⫺2 x⫺2 x⫹1

x共x ⫺ 2兲 共x ⫹ 3兲共x ⫹ 1兲 ⫺ 共x ⫹ 1兲共x ⫺ 2兲 共x ⫹ 1兲共x ⫺ 2兲

x共x ⫺ 2兲 ⫺ 共x ⫹ 3兲共x ⫹ 1兲 共x ⫹ 1兲共x ⫺ 2兲

⫺6x ⫺ 3 共x ⫹ 1兲共x ⫺ 2兲

4. Write the answer in simplest form. a c a⫹c ⫹ ⫽ b b b

a c a⫺c ⫺ ⫽ b b b

Simplifying Complex Fractions [6.4A, p. 309] LCM Method 1: Multiply by 1 in the form . LCM 1. Determine the LCM of the denominators of the fractions in the numerator and denominator of the complex fraction. 2. Multiply the numerator and denominator of the complex fraction by the LCM. 3. Simplify.

1 1 1 1 ⫹ ⫹ x y x y xy ⫽ ⭈ Method 1: 1 1 xy 1 1 ⫺ ⫺ x y x y 1 ⭈ xy ⫹ x ⫽ 1 ⭈ xy ⫺ x ⫽

Method 2: Multiply the numerator by the reciprocal of the denominator.

1 ⭈ xy y 1 ⭈ xy y

y⫹x y⫺x

y⫹x 1 1 ⫹ x y xy ⫽ Method 2: y⫺x 1 1 ⫺ x y xy

1. Simplify the numerator to a single fraction and simplify the denominator to a single fraction.

y⫹x xy ⭈ xy y⫺x

2. Using the definition for dividing fractions, multiply the numerator by the reciprocal of the denominator.

y⫹x y⫺x

3. Simplify.

Chapter 6 Summary

Solving Equations Containing Fractions [6.5A, p. 314] Clear denominators by multiplying each side of the equation by the LCM of the denominators. Then solve for the variable.

Similar Triangles [6.6C, pp. 319–320] Similar triangles have the same shape but not necessarily the same size. The ratios of corresponding parts of similar triangles are equal. The measures of the corresponding angles of similar triangles are equal.

343

3 1 2 ⫽ ⫺ a 2a 8 1 2 3 ⫽ 8a ⫺ 8a 8a a 2a 8 4 ⫽ 16 ⫺ 3a ⫺12 ⫽ ⫺3a 4⫽a

Triangles ABC and DFE are similar triangles. The ratios of corresponding 2 3

parts are equal to .

F

B 6 cm 4 cm

6 cm

A

If two angles of one triangle are equal in measure to two angles of another triangle, then the two triangles are similar.

8 cm

C

D

9 cm 12 cm

Triangles AOB and COD are similar because mAOB ⫽ mCOD and mB ⫽ mD. D

E

C

O

A

Solving Literal Equations [6.7A, p. 326] Rewrite the equation so that the letter being solved for is alone on one side of the equation and all numbers and other variables are on the other side.

Work Problems [6.8A, p. 330] Rate of work ⫻ time worked ⫽ part of task completed

Uniform Motion Problems with Rational Expressions [6.8B, p. 332] Distance ⫽ time Rate

B

Solve 2x ⫹ ax ⫽ 5 for x. 2x ⫹ ax ⫽ 5 x共2 ⫹ a兲 ⫽ 5 x共2 ⫹ a兲 5 ⫽ 2⫹a 2⫹a 5 x⫽ 2⫹a Pat can do a certain job in 3 h. Chris can do the same job in 5 h. How long would it take them, working together, to get the job done? t t ⫹ ⫽1 3 5 Train A’s speed is 15 mph faster than train B’s speed. Train A travels 150 mi in the same amount of time it takes train B to travel 120 mi. Find the rate of train B. 150 120 ⫽ r r ⫹ 15

344

CHAPTER 6

Rational Expressions

CHAPTER 6

1. When is a rational expression in simplest form?

2. How is the reciprocal useful when dividing rational expressions?

3. How do you find the LCM of two polynomials?

4. When subtracting two rational expressions, what must be the same about both expressions before subtraction can take place?

5. What are the steps for adding rational expressions?

6. What are the steps used to simplify a complex fraction? Use either method.

7. When solving an equation that contains fractions, why do we first clear the denominators?

8. If the units in a comparison are different, is it a ratio or a rate?

9. How can you use a proportion to solve similar triangles?

10. What is the goal when you solve a literal equation for a particular variable?

11. What is the rate of work if the job is completed in x hours?

Chapter 6 Review Exercises

345

CHAPTER 6

REVIEW EXERCISES 1. Divide:

6a2b7 25x3y

3. Multiply:

12a3b4 5x2 y2

4xy3 ⫺ 12y3 3x3 ⫹ 9x2 ⭈ 6xy2 ⫺ 18y2 5x2 ⫹ 15x

16 5x ⫺ 2 5. Simplify: 88 3x ⫺ 4 ⫺ 5x ⫺ 2

x⫹7 15x

4. Divide:

9. Divide:

11. Solve:

6. Simplify:

16x5 y3 24xy10

8. Solve:

10 ⫺ 23y ⫹ 12y2 6y2 ⫺ y ⫺ 5

4y2 ⫺ 13y ⫹ 10 18y2 ⫹ 3y ⫺ 10

2 3 ⫹ ⫽1 x 4

1 x 15. Simplify: 8x ⫺ 7 1⫺ x2

x2 ⫹ x ⫺ 30 15 ⫹ 2x ⫺ x2

20 x⫹2

5 16

10. Solve 3ax ⫺ x ⫽ 5 for x.

13. Solve 5x ⫹ 4y ⫽ 20 for y.

x⫺2 20x

3共x ⫺ y兲 2x共x ⫺ y兲 ⫼ 2 x y共x ⫹ y兲 x2y2

x⫺

7. Simplify:

3 x ⫹ y x

14. Multiply:

8ab2 15x3 y

5xy4 16a2b

1⫺

16. Write each fraction in terms of the LCM of the denominators. x 4x2 , 12x2 ⫹ 16x ⫺ 3 6x2 ⫹ 7x ⫺ 3 5 x ⫹ ⫽ 2 7 2

17. Solve T ⫽ 2共ab ⫹ bc ⫹ ca兲 for a.

18. Solve:

1 x 19. Simplify: 2 3⫺ x

20. Subtract:

2⫹

21. Solve i ⫽

23. Divide:

100m for c. c

20x2 ⫺ 45x 6x3 ⫹ 4x2

40x3 ⫺ 90x2 12x2 ⫹ 8x

x 7

2x x⫹1 ⫺ x⫺5 x⫺2

22. Solve:

x⫹8 x⫹4

2y 5y ⫺ 7

⫽1⫹ ⫹

3

7

5 x⫹4

⫺ 5y

346

CHAPTER 6

25. Subtract:

Rational Expressions

5x ⫹ 3 3x ⫹ 4 ⫺ 2 2x2 ⫹ 5x ⫺ 3 2x ⫹ 5x ⫺ 3

27. Solve 4x ⫹ 9y ⫽ 18 for y.

17x ⫺5 2x ⫹ 3

29. Solve:

20 2x ⫹ 3

31. Solve:

6 8 ⫽ x⫺7 x⫺6

33. Geometry Given that MP and NQ intersect at O, NQ measures 25 cm, MO measures 6 cm, and PO measures 9 cm, find the length of QO.

26.

Find the LCM of 10x2 ⫺ 11x ⫹ 3 and 20x2 ⫺ 17x ⫹ 3.

28.

Multiply:

30.

32.

Solve:

34.

Geometry Triangles ABC and DEF are similar triangles. Find the area of triangle DEF.

2x2 ⫺ 5x ⫺ 3 3x2 ⫹ 8x ⫹ 4 ⭈ 3x2 ⫺ 7x ⫺ 6 x2 ⫹ 4x ⫹ 4

x⫺1 5x2 ⫹ 15x ⫺ 11 3x ⫺ 2 ⫹ ⫹ 2 x⫹2 5⫺x x ⫺ 3x ⫺ 10

3 x ⫽ 20 80

E Q

B 9 in.

M

O

P

A

12 in. 8 in. 12 in.

C

D

F

N

35. Work One hose can fill a pool in 15 h. A second hose can fill the pool in 10 h. How long would it take to fill the pool using both hoses?

36. Travel A car travels 315 mi in the same amount of time in which a bus travels 245 mi. The rate of the car is 10 mph faster than that of the bus. Find the rate of the car.

38. Sports A pitcher’s earned run average (ERA) is the average number of runs allowed in 9 innings of pitching. If a pitcher allows 15 runs in 100 innings, find the pitcher’s ERA.

37. Travel The rate of a jet is 400 mph in calm air. Traveling with the wind, the jet can fly 2100 mi in the same amount of time it takes to fly 1900 mi against the wind. Find the rate of the wind.

Chapter 6 Test

347

CHAPTER 6

TEST 1.

Subtract:

2x ⫺ 5 x ⫺ 2 x⫹3 x ⫹x⫺6

2.

Solve:

3.

Multiply:

x2 ⫹ 2x ⫺ 3 2x2 ⫺ 11x ⫹ 5 ⭈ x2 ⫹ 6x ⫹ 9 2x2 ⫹ 3x ⫺ 5

4.

Simplify:

5.

Solve d ⫽ s ⫹ rt for t.

6.

Solve:

7.

Simplify:

x2 ⫹ 4x ⫺ 5 1 ⫺ x2

8.

Find the LCM of 6x ⫺ 3 and 2x2 ⫹ x ⫺ 1.

9.

Subtract:

2 3 ⫺ 2x ⫺ 1 3x ⫹ 1

12 1 ⫺ 2 x x Simplify: 8 2 1⫹ ⫺ 2 x x

3 5 ⫽ x⫹4 x⫹6

16x5 y 24x2 y4

6 ⫺2⫽1 x

x2 ⫺ x ⫺ 6 x2 ⫹ 3x ⫹ 2 ⫼ x2 ⫹ 5x ⫹ 4 x2 ⫹ 2x ⫺ 15

10.

Divide:

12.

Write each fraction in terms of the LCM of the denominators. 3 x , x2 ⫺ 2x x2 ⫺ 4

1⫹

11.

CHAPTER 6

Rational Expressions

2x 4 ⫺ 2 x ⫹ 3x ⫺ 10 x ⫹ 3x ⫺ 10

13.

Subtract:

15.

Solve:

17.

Geometry Given AE 储 BD, AB measures 5 ft, ED measures 8 ft, and BC measures 3 ft, find the length of CE.

2

⫺2 2x ⫺3⫽ x⫹1 x⫹1

14.

Solve 3x ⫺ 8y ⫽ 16 for y.

16.

Multiply:

x3 y4 x2 ⫺ x ⫺ 2 ⭈ x2 ⫺ 4x ⫹ 4 x6 y4

C B

D

A

E

18.

Chemistry A saltwater solution is formed by mixing 4 lb of salt with 10 gal of water. At this rate, how many additional pounds of salt are required for 15 gal of water?

19.

Work A pool can be filled with one pipe in 6 h, whereas a second pipe requires 12 h to fill the pool. How long would it take to fill the pool with both pipes turned on?

20.

Travel A small plane can fly at 110 mph in calm air. Flying with the wind, the plane can fly 260 mi in the same amount of time it takes to fly 180 mi against the wind. Find the rate of the wind.

21.

Landscaping A landscape architect uses three sprinklers for each 200 ft2 of lawn. At this rate, how many sprinklers are needed for a 3600square-foot lawn?

348

Cumulative Review Exercises

349

CUMULATIVE REVIEW EXERCISES

2

3 2 ⫺ 2 3

1 2

2.

Evaluate ⫺a2 ⫹ 共a ⫺ b兲2 when a ⫽ ⫺2 and b ⫽ 3.

1.

Evaluate:

3.

Simplify: ⫺2x ⫺ 共⫺3y兲 ⫹ 7x ⫺ 5y

4.

Simplify: 23 3x ⫺ 7共x ⫺ 3兲 ⫺ 8 4

5.

2 Solve: 4 ⫺ x ⫽ 7 3

6.

Solve: 33x ⫺ 2共x ⫺ 3兲4 ⫽ 2共3 ⫺ 2x兲

7.

Find 16 % of 60.

8.

Simplify: 共a2 b5兲共ab2 兲

9.

Multiply: 共a ⫺ 3b兲共a ⫹ 4b兲

10.

Divide:

11.

Divide: 共x3 ⫺ 8兲 ⫼ 共x ⫺ 2兲

12.

Factor: 12x2 ⫺ x ⫺ 1

13.

Factor: y2 ⫺ 7y ⫹ 6

14.

Factor: 2a3 ⫹ 7a2 ⫺ 15a

15.

Factor: 4b2 ⫺ 100

16.

Solve: 共x ⫹ 3兲共2x ⫺ 5兲 ⫽ 0

17.

Simplify:

18.

Simplify:

2 3

12x4 y2 18xy7

15b4 ⫺ 5b2 ⫹ 10b 5b

x2 ⫺ 7x ⫹ 10 25 ⫺ x2

350

CHAPTER 6

19. Divide:

Rational Expressions

x2 ⫺ 13x ⫹ 40 x2 ⫺ x ⫺ 56 ⫼ x2 ⫹ 8x ⫹ 7 x2 ⫺ 4x ⫺ 5

15 2 ⫺ 2 x x 25 1⫺ 2 x

20. Subtract:

1⫺ 21. Simplify:

23. Solve:

2 12 ⫽ x⫺2 x⫹3

22. Solve:

2 1 ⫺ 2x ⫺ 1 x⫹1

3x 10 ⫺2⫽ x⫺3 x⫺3

24. Solve f ⫽ v ⫹ at for t.

25. Number Sense Translate “the difference between five times a number and thirteen is the opposite of eight” into an equation and solve.

26. Metallurgy A silversmith mixes 60 g of an alloy that is 40% silver with 120 g of another silver alloy. The resulting alloy is 60% silver. Find the percent of silver in the 120-gram alloy.

27. Geometry The length of the base of a triangle is 2 in. less than twice the height. The area of the triangle is 30 in2. Find the base and height of the triangle.

28. Insurance A life insurance policy costs \$16 for every \$1000 of coverage. At this rate, how much money would a policy of \$5000 cost?

30. Travel The rower of a boat can row at a rate of 5 mph in calm water. Rowing with the current, the boat travels 14 mi in the same amount of time it takes to travel 6 mi against the current. Find the rate of the current.

29. Work One water pipe can fill a tank in 9 min, whereas a second pipe requires 18 min to fill the tank. How long would it take both pipes, working together, to fill the tank?

CHAPTER

7

Linear Equations in Two Variables Vito Palmisano/Photographer’s Choice/Getty Images

OBJECTIVES SECTION 7.1 A To graph points in a rectangular coordinate system B To determine ordered-pair solutions of an equation in two variables C To determine whether a set of ordered pairs is a function D To evaluate a function SECTION 7.2 A To graph an equation of the form y  mx  b B To graph an equation of the form Ax  By  C C To solve application problems SECTION 7.3 A To find the x- and y-intercepts of a straight line B To find the slope of a straight line C To graph a line using the slope and the y-intercept SECTION 7.4 A To find the equation of a line given a point and the slope B To find the equation of a line given two points C To solve application problems

ARE YOU READY? Take the Chapter 7 Prep Test to find out if you are ready to learn to: • Evaluate a function • Graph equations of the form y  mx  b and of the form Ax  By  C • Find the x- and y-intercepts of a straight line • Find the slope of a straight line • Find the equation of a line given a point and the slope or given two points PREP TEST Do these exercises to prepare for Chapter 7. 1. Simplify: 

5  (7) 48

2. Evaluate

ab cd

when a  3,

b  2, c  3, and d  2.

3. Simplify: 3(x  4)

4. Solve: 3x  6  0

5. Solve 4x  5y  20 when y  0.

6. Solve 3x  7y  11 when x  1.

7. Divide:

12x  15 3

9. Solve 3x  5y  15 for y.

8. Solve:

2x  1 3x  3 4

1

10. Solve y  3   2 (x  4) for y.

351

352

CHAPTER 7

Linear Equations in Two Variables

SECTION

To graph points in a rectangular coordinate system Before the 15th century, geometry and algebra were considered separate branches of mathematics. That all changed when René Descartes, a French mathematician who lived from 1596 to 1650, founded analytic geometry. In this geometry, a coordinate system is used to study relationships between variables. Quadrant II 5

A rectangular coordinate system is formed by two number lines, one horizontal and one vertical, that intersect at the zero point of each line. The point of intersection is called the origin. The two lines are called coordinate axes, or simply axes. The axes determine a plane, which can be thought of as a large, flat sheet of paper. The two axes divide the plane into four regions called quadrants, which are numbered counterclockwise from I to IV.

4 horizontal 3 2 axis 1 − 5 −4 −3 − 2 −1 0 −2 −3 −4 −5

vertical axis 1 2 3 4 5

origin

Each point in the plane can be identified by a pair of numbers called an ordered pair. The first number of the pair measures a horizontal distance and is called the abscissa. The second number of the pair measures a vertical distance and is called the ordinate. The coordinates of a point are the numbers in the ordered pair associated with the point. The abscissa is also called the first coordinate of the ordered pair, and the ordinate is also called the second coordinate of the ordered pair. Horizontal distance

← ⎯ ← ⎯

OBJECTIVE A

The Rectangular Coordinate System

Ordered pair Abscissa

Vertical distance

(2, 3)

← ⎯ ← ⎯

← ⎯

7.1

Ordinate

When drawing a rectangular coordinate system, we often label the horizontal axis x and the vertical axis y. In this case, the coordinate system is called an xy-coordinate system. The coordinates of the points are given by ordered pairs (x, y), where the abscissa is called the x-coordinate and the ordinate is called the y-coordinate. To graph or plot a point in the plane, place a dot at the location given by the ordered pair. The graph of an ordered pair (x, y) is the dot drawn at the coordinates of the point in the plane. The points whose coordinates are (3, 4) and (2.5, 3) are graphed in the figures below. y 4 2 −4

−2

0 −2 −4

y 4

(3, 4)

2

4 up 2 4 3 right

x

2.5 left −4 −2 3 down (−2.5, −3)

0 −2 −4

2

4

x

SECTION 7.1

Take Note This concept is very important. An ordered pair is a pair of coordinates, and the o rder in which the coordinates appear is crucial.

The Rectangular Coordinate System

353

y

The points whose coordinates are (3, 1) and (1, 3) are graphed at the right. Note that the graphed points are in different locations. The order of the coordinates of an ordered pair is important.

4

(−1, 3)

2 −4

−2

0

2 4 (3, −1)

−2

x

−4

Each point in the plane is associated with an ordered pair, and each ordered pair is associated with a point in the plane. Although only the labels for integers are given on a coordinate grid, the graph of any ordered pair can be approximated. For example, the points whose coordinates are (2.3, 4.1) and (, 1) are shown on the graph at the right.

y (−2.3, 4.1)

4 2

−4

−2

(π, 1)

0

2

4

x

−2 −4

EXAMPLE • 1

YOU TRY IT • 1

Graph the ordered pairs (2, 3), (3, 2), (0, 2), and (3, 0).

Graph the ordered pairs (4, 1), (3, 3), (0, 4), and (3, 0).

Solution

y

4

4

2

2 (3, 0)

−4

−2

0 −2

2

4

x

−4

−2

0

2

4

x

−2

(0, –2) (3, –2)

(–2, –3) − 4

−4

EXAMPLE • 2

YOU TRY IT • 2

Give the coordinates of the points labeled A and B. Give the abscissa of point C and the ordinate of point D.

Give the coordinates of the points labeled A and B. Give the abscissa of point D and the ordinate of point C.

y C A

−4

4

B

2 −2

0

D 2

4

x

B

4 2

−4

−2

C −2

0

2

−2

−4

Solution The coordinates of A are (4, 2). The coordinates of B are (4, 4). The abscissa of C is 1. The ordinate of D is 1.

y

−4

4

x

A D

Solutions on p. S18

354

CHAPTER 7

OBJECTIVE B

Linear Equations in Two Variables

To determine ordered-pair solutions of an equation in two variables An xy-coordinate system is used to study the relationship between two variables. Frequently this relationship is given by an equation. Examples of equations in two variables include y  2x  3

3x  2y  6

x2  y  0

A solution of an equation in two variables is an ordered pair (x, y) whose coordinates make the equation a true statement. Is (3, 7) a solution of y  2x  1?

HOW TO • 1

y  2x  1 7 2(3)  1 61 77

• Replace x by ⴚ3; replace y by 7. • The results are equal.

(3, 7) is a solution of the equation y  2x  1. Besides (3, 7), there are many other ordered-pair solutions of y  2x  1. For

3

example, (0, 1),  , 4 , and (4, 7) are also solutions. In general, an equation in two 2 variables has an infinite number of solutions. By choosing any value of x and substituting that value into the equation, we can calculate a corresponding value of y. HOW TO • 2

to x  6. 2 x3 3 2  (6)  3 3 431

2 3

Find the ordered-pair solution of y  x  3 that corresponds

y

• Replace x by 6. • Simplify.

The ordered-pair solution is (6, 1). The solutions of an equation in two variables can be graphed in an xy-coordinate system. Graph the ordered-pair solutions of y  2x  1 when x  2, 1, 0, 1, and 2.

HOW TO • 3

Use the values of x to determine ordered-pair solutions of the equation. It is convenient to record these in a table. x

y ⴝ ⴚ2x ⴙ 1

y

(x, y)

2

2(2)  1

5

(2, 5)

1

2(1)  1

3

(1, 3)

0

2(0)  1

1

(0, 1)

1

2(1)  1

1

(1, 1)

2

2(2)  1

3

(2, 3)

y

(–2, 5) 4 (–1, 3) 2

(0, 1) −4

−2

0

2 −2 (1, –1) −4

(2, –3)

4

x

SECTION 7.1

EXAMPLE • 3

The Rectangular Coordinate System

355

YOU TRY IT • 3

Is (3, 2) a solution of 3x  4y  15?

Is (2, 4) a solution of x  3y  14?

Solution 3x  4y  15 3(3)  4(2)  15 98 17 苷 15

Your solution • Replace x by 3 and y by ⴚ2.

No. (3, 2) is not a solution of 3x  4y  15.

EXAMPLE • 4

YOU TRY IT • 4

Graph the ordered-pair solutions of 2x  3y  6 when x  3, 0, 3, and 6.

Graph the ordered-pair solutions of x  2y  4 when x  4, 2, 0, and 2.

Solution 2x  3y  6 3y  2x  6 2 y x2 3

Your solution • Solve 2x ⴚ 3y ⴝ 6 for y.

y 4 2

2

Replace x in y  x  2 by 3, 0, 3, and 6. For each 3 value of x, determine the value of y.

–4

–2

0

2

4

x

–2 –4

2 y ⴝ x ⴚ 2 3 2 (3)  2 3 2 (0)  2 3 2 (3)  2 3 2 (6)  2 3

x 3 0 3 6

y

(x, y)

4

(3, 4)

2

(0, 2)

0

(3, 0)

2

(6, 2)

y 4 (6, 2)

2

(3, 0) −2

0 −2

2 (0, −2)

4

x

(−3, −4) −4

Solutions on p. S18

CHAPTER 7

Linear Equations in Two Variables

OBJECTIVE C

To determine whether a set of ordered pairs is a function Discovering a relationship between two variables is an important task in the application of mathematics. Here are some examples.

• Botanists study the relationship between the number of bushels of wheat yielded per acre and the amount of watering per acre. • Environmental scientists study the relationship between the incidents of skin cancer and the amount of ozone in the atmosphere. • Business analysts study the relationship between the price of a product and the number of products that are sold at that price. Each of these relationships can be described by a set of ordered pairs. Definition of a Relation A relation is any set of ordered pairs.

The following table shows the number of hours that each of nine students spent studying for a midterm exam and the grade that each of these nine students received. Hours

3

3.5

2.75

2

4

4.5

3

2.5

5

78

75

70

65

85

85

80

75

90

This information can be written as the relation 冦(3, 78), (3.5, 75), (2.75, 70), (2, 65), (4, 85), (4.5, 85), (3, 80), (2.5, 75), (5, 90)冧 where the first coordinate of the ordered pair is the hours spent studying and the second coordinate is the score on the midterm. The domain of a relation is the set of first coordinates of the ordered pairs; the range is the set of second coordinates. For the relation above, Domain  冦2, 2.5, 2.75, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5冧

Range  冦65, 70, 75, 78, 80, 85, 90冧

The graph of a relation is the graph of the ordered pairs that belong to the relation. The graph of the relation given above is shown at the right. The horizontal axis represents the hours spent studying (the domain); the vertical axis represents the test score (the range). The axes could be labeled H for hours studied and S for test score.

S 80 Score

356

60 40 20 1

2

3

4

5

H

Hours

A function is a special type of relation in which no two ordered pairs have the same first coordinate. Definition of a Function A function is a relation in which no two ordered pairs have the same first coordinate.

SECTION 7.1

357

The Rectangular Coordinate System

The table at the right is the grading scale for a 100-point test. This table defines a relationship between the score on the test and a letter grade. Some of the ordered pairs of this function are (78, C), (97, A), (84, B), and (82, B).

Score

90–100

A

80–89

B

70–79

C

60–69

D

0–59

F

The grading-scale table defines a function because no two ordered pairs can have the same first coordinate and different second coordinates. For instance, it is not possible to have the ordered pairs (72, C), and (72, B)—same first coordinate (test score) but different second coordinates (test grade). The domain of this function is 冦0, 1, 2,..., 99, 100冧. The range is 冦A, B, C, D, F 冧. The example of hours spent studying and test score given earlier is not a function, because (3, 78) and (3, 80) are ordered pairs of the relation that have the same first coordinate but different second coordinates. Consider, again, the grading-scale example. Note that (84, B) and (82, B) are ordered pairs of the function. Ordered pairs of a function may have the same second coordinates but not the same first coordinates. Although relations and functions can be given by tables, they are frequently given by an equation in two variables. The equation y  2x expresses the relationship between a number, x, and twice the number, y. For instance, if x  3, then y  6, which is twice 3. To indicate exactly which ordered pairs are determined by the equation, the domain (values of x) is specified. If x 僆 冦2, 1, 0, 1, 2冧, then the ordered pairs determined by the equation are 冦(2, 4), (1, 2), (0, 0), (1, 2), (2, 4)冧. This relation is a function because no two ordered pairs have the same first coordinate. y

The graph of the function y  2x with domain 冦2, 1, 0, 1, 2冧 is shown at the right. The horizontal axis (domain) is labeled x; the vertical axis (range) is labeled y.

4 2

(1, 2)

(0, 0) –4

The domain 冦2, 1, 0, 1, 2冧 was chosen arbitrarily. Other domains could have been selected. The type of application usually influences the choice of the domain.

(2, 4)

–2

0

2

4

x

(–1, –2) (–2, –4)

–4

For the equation y  2x, we say that “y is a function of x” because the set of ordered pairs is a function. Not all equations, however, define a function. For instance, the equation 兩y兩  x  2 does not define y as a function of x. The ordered pairs (2, 4) and (2, 4) both satisfy the equation. Thus there are two ordered pairs with the same first coordinate but different second coordinates.

358

CHAPTER 7

Linear Equations in Two Variables

EXAMPLE • 5

YOU TRY IT • 5

The table below shows the amount of money invested in college savings plans and the amount invested in prepaid college tuition plans over a six-year period. (Sources: Investment Company Institute and College Savings Plan Network)

Six students decided to go on a diet and fitness program over the summer. Their weights (in pounds) at the beginning and end of the program are given in the table below. Beginning

Year

Assets in College Savings Plans (in billions of dollars)

Assets in Prepaid Tuition Plans (in billions of dollars)

1

9

2

19

End

145

140

140

125

7

150

130

8

165

150

140

130

3

35

11

4

52

13

5

69

14

Write a relation in which the first coordinate is the amount of money in college savings plans and the second coordinate is the amount of money in prepaid tution plans (both in billions of dollars). Is the relation a function? Solution The relation is {(9, 7), (19,8), (35, 11), (52, 13), (69, 14), (90, 16)}

Write a relation wherein the first coordinate is the weight at the beginning of the summer and the second coordinate is the weight at the end of the summer. Is the relation a function?

There are no two ordered pairs with the same first coordinate. The relation is a function.

EXAMPLE • 6

YOU TRY IT • 6

Does y  x2  3, where x 僆 冦2, 1, 1, 3冧, define y as a function of x?

Does y  x  1, where x 僆 冦4, 0, 2冧, define y as a 2 function of x?

Solution Determine the ordered pairs defined by the equation. Replace x in y  x2  3 by the given values and solve for y.

1

Solutions on p. S18

SECTION 7.1

OBJECTIVE D

The Rectangular Coordinate System

359

To evaluate a function When an equation defines y as a function of x, function notation is frequently used to emphasize that the relation is a function. In this case, it is common to replace y in the function’s equation with the symbol f(x), where f(x) is read “f of x” or “the value of f at x.” For instance, the equation y  x2  3 from Example 6 defined y as a function of x. The equation can also be written f (x)  x2  3 where y has been replaced by f(x). The symbol f(x) is called the value of a function at x because it is the result of evaluating a variable expression. For instance, f(4) means to replace x by 4 and then simplify the resulting numerical expression. f (x)  x2  3 f (4)  42  3  16  3  19

Replace x by 4.

This process is called evaluating a function. HOW TO • 4

Given f (x)  x2  x  3, find f (2).

f (x)  x2  x  3 f (2)  (2)2  (2)  3  4  2  3  1 f (2)  1

• Replace x by ⴚ2.

In this example, f (2) is the second coordinate of an ordered pair of the function; the first coordinate is 2. Therefore, an ordered pair of this function is (2, f (2)), or, because f (2)  1, (2, 1). For the function given by y  f (x)  x2  x  3, y is called the dependent variable because its value depends on the value of x. The independent variable is x. Functions can be written using other letters or even combinations of letters. For instance, some calculators use ABS(x) for the absolute-value function. Thus the equation y  兩x兩 would be written ABS(x)  兩x兩, where ABS(x) replaces y. EXAMPLE • 7

Given G(t) 

3t , t4

YOU TRY IT • 7

find G(1).

Solution

Given H(x) 

x , x4

find H(8).

3t G(t)  t4 3(1) 14 3 G(1)  5

G(1) 

• Replace t by 1. Then simplify.

Solution on p. S18

360

CHAPTER 7

Linear Equations in Two Variables

7.1 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To graph points in a rectangular coordinate system

1. Graph (2, 1), (3, 5), (2, 4), and (0, 3).

2. Graph (5, 1), (3, 3), (1, 0), and (1, 1).

y

–4

–2

3. Graph (0, 0), (0, 5), (3, 0), and (0, 2).

y

y

4

4

4

2

2

2

0

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

2

4

x

–4

–2

2

0

4

x

–2

–2

–2

–4

–4

–4

4. Graph (4, 5), (3, 1), (3, 4), and (5, 0).

5. Graph (1, 4), (2, 3), (0, 2), and (4, 0).

6. Graph (5, 2), (4, 1), (0, 0), and (0, 3).

y

–4

–2

y

4

4

4

2

2

2

0

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

–4

8. Find the coordinates of each of the points.

0

2

4

–2

B

0

–4

x

–2

0

2

D

4

–2

0 –2 –4

x

12. a. Name the abscissas of points A and C. b. Name the ordinates of points B and D. y C

4

A

2

C –4

4

–4

2 B

x

2

–2

D

4

A

B C

–4

D

11. a. Name the abscissas of points A and C. b. Name the ordinates of points B and D.

2

–2

4

y

C 0

4

–2

y

x

2 2

–4

10. Find the coordinates of each of the points.

–2

A C

x

–2

4

A

2

4

y

4

A

2

9. Find the coordinates of each of the points.

y

–4

–4

0

–4

B

B

–2

–4

2

D

x

–2

4

–2

4

–2

y

–4

2

–2

7. Find the coordinates of each of the points.

C

y

2

D

4

x

B

A –4

D

–2

0 –2 –4

2

4

x

SECTION 7.1

The Rectangular Coordinate System

13. a. On an xy-coordinate system, what is the name of the axis for which all the x-coordinates are zero? b. On an xy-coordinate system, what is the name of the axis for which all the y-coordinates are zero? 14. Let a and b be positive numbers such that a  b. In which quadrant is each point located? b. (a, b) c. (a, b) d. (b  a, b) a. (a, b)

OBJECTIVE B

To determine ordered-pair solutions of an equation in two variables

15. Is (3, 4) a solution of y  x  7?

16. Is (2, 3) a solution of y  x  5?

1 2

17. Is (1, 2) a solution of y  x  1?

18. Is (1, 3) a solution of y  2x  1?

19. Is (4, 1) a solution of 2x  5y  4?

20. Is (5, 3) a solution of 3x  2y  9?

21. Suppose (x, y) is a solution of the equation y  3x  6, where x  2. Is y positive or negative?

22. Suppose (x, y) is a solution of the equation y  4x  8, where y  0. Is x less than or greater than 2?

For Exercises 23 to 28, graph the ordered-pair solutions of the equation for the given values of x. 23. y  2x; x  2, 1, 0, 2

24. y  2x; x  2, 1, 0, 2

y

–4

–2

y

4

4

4

2

2

2

0

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

–2

–2

–2

–4

–4

–4

27. 2x  3y  6; x  3, 0, 3

y

–2

2 x  1; x  3, 0, 3 3

y

1 26. y   x  2; x  3, 0, 3 3

–4

25. y 

y 4

2

2

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

x

y

4

2

4

28. x  2y  4; x  2, 0, 2

4

0

2

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

–2

–2

–2

–4

–4

–4

2

4

x

361

362

CHAPTER 7

OBJECTIVE C

Linear Equations in Two Variables

To determine whether a set of ordered pairs is a function

For Exercises 29 and 30, D is the set of all dates of the year {January 1, January 2, January 3, …}, and P is the set of all the people in the world. 29. A relation has domain D and range P. Ordered pairs in the relation are of the form (date, person born on that date). Is the relation a function?

30. A relation has domain P and range D. Ordered pairs in the relation are of the form (person, birth date of that person). Is this relation a function?

Humerus (in centimeters)

24

32

22

15

4.4

17

15

4.4

Wingspan (in centimeters)

600

750

430

300

68

370

310

55

© The Natural History Museum/The Image Works

31. Biology The table below shows the length, in centimeters, of the humerus (the long bone of the forelimb, from shoulder to elbow) and the total wingspan, in centimeters, of several pterosaurs, which are extinct flying reptiles of the order Pterosauria. Write a relation in which the first coordinate is the length of the humerus and the second is the wingspan. Is the relation a function?

Pterosaur

32. Nielsen Ratings The ratings (each rating point is equivalent to 1,145,000 households) and the numbers of viewers for selected television shows for a week in October 2008 are shown in the table at the right. Write a relation in which the first coordinate is the rating and the second coordinate is the number of viewers in millions. Is the relation a function?

Rating

Number of Viewers (in millions)

12

18

CSI

11.7

19

Desperate Housewives

10.1

16

Criminal Minds

9.5

15

Grey’s Anatomy

9.5

14

Television Show Dancing with the Stars

Source: www.nielsenmedia.com

33. Environmental Science The table below, based in part on data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, shows the average annual concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (in parts per million) and the average sea surface temperature (in degrees Celsius) for eight consecutive years. Write a relation wherein the first coordinate is the carbon dioxide concentration and the second coordinate is the average sea surface temperature. Is the relation a function? Carbon dioxide concentration (in parts per million) 352 353 354 355 356 358 360 361 Surface sea temperature (in degrees Celsius)

15.4 15.4 15.1 15.1 15.2 15.4 15.3 15.5

34. Sports The table at the right shows the number of at-bats and the number of home runs for the top five home run leaders in major league baseball for the 2008 season. Write a relation in which the first coordinate is the number of at-bats and the second coordinate is the number of home runs per at-bat rounded to the nearest thousandth. Is the relation a function?

Player

At-bats

Home runs

Ryan Howard

610

48

517

40

598

38

Miguel Cabrera

616

37

Manny Ramirez

548

37

SECTION 7.1

The Rectangular Coordinate System

35. Marathons See the news clipping at the right. The table below shows the ages and finishing times of the top eight finishers in the Manhattan Island Marathon Swim. Write a relation in which the first coordinate is the age of a swimmer and the second coordinate is the swimmer’s finishing time. Is the relation a function? Age (in years) Time (in hours)

35

45

38

24

47

51

35

48

7.50

7.58

7.63

7.78

7.80

7.86

7.89

7.92

In the News Swimmers Go the Distance Twenty-three swimmers competed in this year’s Manhattan Island Marathon Swim. The race started at Battery Park City–South Cove at 9:05 A.M., with the first swimmer finishing the 28.5-mile swim around Manhattan Island 7 hours, 30 minutes, and 15 seconds later.

36. Does y  2x  3, where x 僆 冦2, 1, 0, 3冧, define y as a function of x? 37. Does y  2x  3, where x 僆 冦2, 1, 1, 4冧, define y as a function of x? 38. Does | y |  x  1, where x 僆 冦1, 2, 3, 4冧, define y as a function of x?

Source: www.nycswim.org

39. Does y  x2, where x 僆 冦2, 1, 0, 1, 2冧, define y as a function of x?

OBJECTIVE D

To evaluate a function

40. Given f (x)  3x  4, find f (4).

41. Given f (x)  5x  1, find f (2).

42. Given f (x)  x2, find f (3).

43. Given f (x)  x2  1, find f (1).

44. Given G (x)  x2  x, find G (2).

45. Given H(x)  x2  x, find H (2).

46. Given s (t) 

3 , t1

find s (2).

48. Given h (x)  3x2  2x  1, find h (3). 50. Given f (x) 

x , x5

find f (3).

47. Given P(x) 

4 , 2x  1

find P (2).

49. Given Q(r)  4r2  r  3, find Q (2). 51. Given v(t) 

2t , 2t  1

find v (3).

For Exercises 52 to 55, use the function f (x)  x2  4. For the given condition on a, determine whether f (a) must be positive, must be negative, or could be either positive or negative. 52. a  2

53. a  0

363

54. a  2

Applying the Concepts 56. Write a few sentences that describe the similarities and differences between relations and functions.

55. a  2

364

CHAPTER 7

Linear Equations in Two Variables

SECTION

7.2 OBJECTIVE A

Linear Equations in Two Variables To graph an equation of the form y ⴝ mx ⴙ b The graph of an equation in two variables is a graph of the ordered-pair solutions of the equation. Consider y  2x  1. Choosing x  2, 1, 0, 1, and 2 and determining the corresponding values of y produces some of the ordered pairs of the equation. These are recorded in the table at the right. See the graph of the ordered pairs in Figure 1.

y ⴝ 2x ⴙ 1

x

y

(x, y)

2

2(2)  1

3

(2, 3)

1

2(1)  1

1

(1, 1)

0

2(0)  1

1

(0, 1)

1

2(1)  1

3

(1, 3)

2

2(2)  1

5

(2, 5)

Choosing values of x that are not integers produces more ordered pairs to graph, such as



5 , 2

4 and

in more and more ordered pairs being graphed. The result would be so many dots that the graph would appear as the straight line shown in Figure 3, which is the graph of y  2x  1. y 4 2

(1, 3) (0, 1)

–4

–2

0

2

4

x

–4

–2

(–1, –1) – 2 (–2,–3)

–4

Figure 1

y

y (2, 5)

4

4

2

2

0

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

–2

–2

–4

–4

Figure 2

2

x

4

Figure 3

Equations in two variables have characteristic graphs. The equation y  2x  1 is an example of a linear equation, or linear function, because its graph is a straight line. It is also called a first-degree equation in two variables because the exponent on each variable is 1. Linear Equation in Two Variables Any equation of the form y  mx  b, where m is the coefficient of x and b is a constant, is a linear equation in two variables, or a first-degree equation in two variables, or a linear function. The graph of a linear equation in two variables is a straight line.

Examples of linear equations are shown at the right. These equations represent linear functions because there is only one possible y for each x. Note that for y  3  2x, m is the coefficient of x and b is the constant.

y  2x  1 yx4 3 y x 4 y  3  2x

(m  2, b  1) (m  1, b  4)

3 m ,b0 4 (m  2, b  3)

The equation y  x2  4x  3 is not a linear equation in two variables because there is a term with a variable squared. The equation 3 y is not a linear equation because a variable occurs in the denominator of a fraction. x4

SECTION 7.2

Integrating Technology The Projects and Group Activities feature at the end of this chapter contains information on using calculators to graph an equation.

Linear Equations in Two Variables

365

To graph a linear equation, choose some values of x and then find the corresponding values of y. Because a straight line is determined by two points, it is sufficient to find only two ordered-pair solutions. However, it is recommended that at least three ordered-pair solutions be found to ensure accuracy. 3 2

Graph y   x  2.

HOW TO • 1

3

This is a linear equation with m   and b  2. Find at least three solutions. 2 Because m is a fraction, choose values of x that will simplify the calculations. We have chosen 2, 0, and 4 for x. (Any values of x could have been selected.) 3 y ⴝ ⴚ x ⴙ 2 2 3  (2)  2 2 3  (0)  2 2 3  (4)  2 2

x 2 0 4

y

(x, y)

5

(2, 5)

2

(0, 2)

y (−2, 5)

4 2

4

(4, 4)

(0, 2)

–4 –2 0 –2

2

–4

3 2

The graph of y   x  2 is shown at the right.

x

4

(4, −4)

Remember that a graph is a drawing of the ordered-pair solutions of an equation. Therefore, every point on the graph is a solution of the equation, and every solution of the equation is a point on the graph. y

The graph at the right is the graph of y  x  2. Note that (4, 2) and (1, 3) are points on the graph and that these points are solutions of y  x  2. The point whose coordinates are (4, 1) is not a point on the graph and is not a solution of the equation.

4 (1, 3)

2

(4, 1) –4

–2

0

2

4

x

–2 (−4, −2) –4

EXAMPLE • 1

YOU TRY IT • 1

Graph y  3x  2.

Graph y  3x  1.

Solution

y

x

y

4

0

2

2

1

5

2

4

–4 –2 0 –2 –4

y 4 2

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

2

4

x

–2 –4

Solution on p. S18

366

CHAPTER 7

Linear Equations in Two Variables

EXAMPLE • 2

YOU TRY IT • 2

Graph y  2x.

Graph y  2x.

y

4

4

Solution

y

2

x

y

0

0

2

4

2

4

–4

–2

0

2

4

x

–4

–2

–2

–2

–4

–4

EXAMPLE • 3 1 2

1 3

Graph y  x  3.

y

1

2

0

2

2

2

4

x

y

2

0

4

4

4

Solution y

2

YOU TRY IT • 3

Graph y  x  1.

x

0

–4

–2

0

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

–2

–2

–4

–4

x

Solutions on p. S18

OBJECTIVE B

Tips for Success Remember that a How To example indicates a workedout example. Using paper and pencil, work through the example. See AIM fo r Success at the front of the book.

To graph an equation of the form Ax ⴙ By ⴝ C The equation Ax  By  C, where A and B are coefficients and C is a constant, is called the standard form of a linear equation in two variables. Examples are shown at the right.

2x  3y  6 x  2y  4 2x  y  0 4x  5y  2

(A  2, B  3, C  6) (A  1, B  2, C  4) (A  2, B  1, C  0) (A  4, B  5, C  2)

To graph an equation of the form Ax  By  C, first solve the equation for y. Then follow the same procedure used for graphing y  mx  b. Graph 3x  4y  12.

HOW TO • 2

3x  4y  12 4y  3x  12 3 y x3 4 x

y

0

3

4

0

4

• Solve for y. • Subtract 3x from each side of the equation. • Divide each side of the equation by 4. • Find three ordered-pair solutions of the equation.

y (−4,6)

6 4

(0,3)

• Graph the ordered pairs and then draw a line through the points.

2

6

(4,0) –4

–2

0 –2

2

4

x

SECTION 7.2

367

Linear Equations in Two Variables

The graph of a linear equation with one of the variables missing is either a horizontal or a vertical line. The equation y  2 could be written 0  x  y  2. Because 0  x  0 for any value of x, the value of y is always 2 no matter what value of x is chosen. For instance, replace x by 4, by 1, by 0, and by 3. In each case, y  2. y

0x  y  2 0(4)  y  2 0(1)  y  2 0(0)  y  2 0(3)  y  2

4

(4, 2) is a solution. (1, 2) is a solution. (0, 2) is a solution. (3, 2) is a solution.

y=2

–4

–2

0

2

4

x

–2 –4

The solutions are plotted in the graph at the right, and a line is drawn through the plotted points. Note that the line is horizontal.

Graph of a Horizontal Line The graph of y  b is a horizontal line passing through (0, b).

The equation x  2 could be written x  0  y  2. Because 0  y  0 for any value of y, the value of x is always 2 no matter what value of y is chosen. For instance, replace y by 2, by 0, by 2, and by 3. In each case, x  2. x  0y  2 x  0(2)  2 x  0(0)  2 x  0(2)  2 x  0(3)  2

y

(2, 2) is a solution. (2, 0) is a solution. (2, 2) is a solution. (2, 3) is a solution.

The solutions are plotted in the graph at the right, and a line is drawn through the plotted points. Note that the line is vertical.

x = −2

4 2

–4

0

2

4

x

–2 –4

Graph of a Vertical Line The graph of x  a is a vertical line passing through (a, 0).

Graph x  3 and y  1 on the same coordinate grid.

HOW TO • 3 y 4 x = −3

–4

–2

2

y=1

0

2

–2 –4

• The graph of x ⴝ ⴚ3 is a vertical line passing through (ⴚ3, 0). 4

x

• The graph of y ⴝ 1 is a horizontal line passing through (0, 1).

368

CHAPTER 7

Linear Equations in Two Variables

EXAMPLE • 4

YOU TRY IT • 4

Graph 2x  5y  10.

Graph 5x  2y  10.

Solution Solve 2x  5y  10 for y. 2x  5y  10 y 5y  2x  10 4 2 y x2 2 5

x

y

0

2

5

0

5

4

–4 –2 0 –2

2

4 2 –4 –2 0 –2

x

4

Graph x  2y  6.

Graph x  3y  9.

Solution Solve x  2y  6 for y. x  2y  6 y 2y  x  6 4 1 y x3 2 2

0

3

2

4

4

1

–4 –2 0 –2

4

y

2

2

–4 –2 0 –2

x

4

x

–4

–4

YOU TRY IT • 6

Graph y  2.

Graph y  3.

y

y 4

4

2 –4

–2

0

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

2

4

2

4

x

–2 –4

–4

EXAMPLE • 7

YOU TRY IT • 7

Graph x  3. Solution The graph of an equation of the form x  a is a vertical line passing through the point (a, 0).

2

x

4

EXAMPLE • 6

Solution The graph of an equation of the form y  b is a horizontal line passing through the point (0, b).

4

–4

YOU TRY IT • 5

y

2

–4

EXAMPLE • 5

x

y

Graph x  4.

y

y 4

4

2 –4

–2

0

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

–2

–2

–4

–4

x

Solutions on pp. S18 –S19

SECTION 7.2

OBJECTIVE C

Linear Equations in Two Variables

369

To solve application problems There are a variety of applications of linear functions. HOW TO • 4

The temperature of a cup of water that has been placed in a microwave oven to be heated can be approximated by the equation T  0.7s  65, where T is the temperature (in degrees Fahrenheit) of the water s seconds after the microwave oven is turned on. a. Graph this equation for values of s from 0 to 200. (Note: In many applications, the domain of the variable is given so that the equation makes sense. For instance, it would not be sensible to have values of s that are less than 0. This would correspond to negative time. The choice of 200 is somewhat arbitrary and was chosen so that the water would not boil over.) b. The point whose coordinates are (120, 149) is on the graph of this equation. Write a sentence that describes the meaning of this ordered pair.

Temperature (in °F)

Solution a. T

• By choosing s ⴝ 50, 100, and 150, you can find the corresponding ordered pairs (50, 100), (100, 135), and (150, 170). Plot these points and draw a line through the points.

200 (150, 170) 160 120

(100, 135)

(120, 149)

(50, 100)

80 40 40

0

80

120

160

200

s

Time (in seconds)

b. The point whose coordinates are (120, 149) means that 120 s (2 min) after the oven is turned on, the water temperature is 149°F. EXAMPLE • 8

YOU TRY IT • 8

The number of kilobytes K of an MP3 file that remain to be downloaded t seconds after starting the download is given by K  935  5.5t. Graph this equation for values of t from 0 to 170. The point whose coordinates are (50, 660) is on this graph. Write a sentence that describes the meaning of this ordered pair.

A car is traveling at a uniform speed of 40 mph. The distance d the car travels in t hours is given by d  40t. Graph this equation for values of t from 0 to 5. The point whose coordinates are (3, 120) is on the graph. Write a sentence that describes the meaning of this ordered pair.

Solution

K Distance (in miles)

d

Kilobytes

1000 800

(50, 660)

600 400 200 0

400 300 200 100 0

20

40

60

80 100 120 140 160 180

t

1

2

3

4

5

t

Time (in hours)

Time (in seconds)

The ordered pair (50, 660) means that after 50 s, there are 660 K remaining to be downloaded.

Solution on p. S19

370

CHAPTER 7

Linear Equations in Two Variables

7.2 EXERCISES To graph an equation of the form y ⴝ mx ⴙ b

OBJECTIVE A

For Exercises 1 to 18, graph. 1. y  2x  3

2. y  2x  2

y

–4

–2

y 4

2

2

2

0

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

–4

–2

0

–4

–4

–4

5. y 

2 x1 3

6. y 

4

4

2

2

2

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

–2

–2

–2

–4

–4

–4

1 8. y   x  1 3 y

4

2

2

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

–2

–2

–2

–4

–4

–4

11. y  2x  4

12. y  3x  4

y

y

4

4

4

2

2

2

0

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

4

x

y

4

2

2

x

2 9. y   x  1 5

4

0

4

y

4

0

2

3 x2 4

y

y

–2

x

–2

1 10. y   x  3 2

–4

4

–2

y

–2

2

–2

1 7. y   x  2 4

–4

y

4

y

–2

1 x 3

4

4. y  3x

–4

3. y 

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

–2

–2

–2

–4

–4

–4

2

4

2

4

x

x

SECTION 7.2

13. y  x  3

14. y  x  2

y

–4

–2

15. y  x  2 y

4

4

4

2

2

2

0

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

–2

–2

–2

–4

–4

–4

2 17. y   x  1 3

y

–2

Linear Equations in Two Variables

y

16. y  x  1

–4

y 4

2

2

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

2

4

2

4

2

4

x

y

4

2

4

18. y  5x  4

4

0

2

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

–2

–2

–2

–4

–4

–4

x

19. If the graph of y  mx  b passes through the origin, (0, 0), what is the value of b?

To graph an equation of the form Ax ⴙ By ⴝ C

OBJECTIVE B

For Exercises 20 to 37, graph. 20. 3x  y  3

21. 2x  y  4

y

y

–4

–2

4

4

2

2

2

0

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

–2

–2

–2

–4

–4

–4

24. x  2y  4

25. x  3y  6

y

y

y

–2

y

4

23. 3x  2y  4

–4

22. 2x  3y  6

4

4

4

2

2

2

0

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

–2

–2

–2

–4

–4

–4

x

x

371

372

CHAPTER 7

Linear Equations in Two Variables

26. 2x  3y  6

27. 3x  2y  8

y

–4

–2

4

4

2

2

2

2

0

4

x

–4

–2

0

–2

0

–4

–4

30. x  3 4

4

2

2

2

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

–2

–2

–2

–4

–4

–4

33. 4x  3y  12

4

2

2

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

–2

–2

–2

–4

–4

–4

36.

y x  1 5 4

37.

y 4

2

2

2

4

x

–4

–2

4

0

2

4

x

y

4

2

2

x

y x  1 4 3

4

0

4

y

4

2

2

x

34. y  4

y

4

0

4

y

4

0

2

31. y  4 y

y

–2

–4

–4

35. x  2

–4

x

–2

y

–2

4

–2

32. x  4y  4

–4

2

–2

y

–2

y

4

29. 3x  4y  12

–4

28. 2x  5y  10

y

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

–2

–2

–2

–4

–4

–4

38. Which number, A, B, or C, must be zero if the graph of Ax  By  C is a horizontal line?

x

SECTION 7.2

OBJECTIVE C

Linear Equations in Two Variables

373

To solve application problems

39. Use the oven temperature graph on page 369 to determine whether the statement is true or false. Sixty seconds after the oven is turned on, the temperature is still below 100°F.

y

Cost (in dollars)

40. Business A custom-illustrated sign or banner can be commissioned for a cost of \$25 for the material and \$10.50 per square foot for the artwork. The equation that represents this cost is given by y  10.50x  25, where y is the cost and x is the number of square feet in the sign. Graph this equation for values of x from 0 to 20. The point (15, 182.5) is on the graph. Write a sentence that describes the meaning of this ordered pair.

(15, 182.5)

200 100

0

x 10 20 Area (in square feet)

20 Fare (in dollars)

43. Taxi Fares See the news clipping at the right. You can use the equation F  2.80M  2.20 to calculate the fare F, in dollars, for a ride of M miles. Graph this equation for values of M from 1 to 5. The point (3, 10.6) is on the graph. Write a sentence that describes the meaning of this ordered pair.

(3, 10.6)

1 2 3 4 5 Distance (in miles)

M

Applying the Concepts 44. Graph y  2x  2, y  2x, and y  2x  3. What observation can you make about the graphs? 1

6 4

(3, 3.5)

2

1 2 3 4 Time (in minutes)

t

H

100 50 (6, 40) 0

10 20 Dog’s age (in years)

x

In the News Rate Hike for Boston Cab Rides

5 0

8

F

15 10

10

0

Human age (in years)

42. Veterinary Science According to some veterinarians, the age x of a dog can be translated to “human years” by using the equation H  4x  16, where H is the human equivalent age for the dog. Graph this equation for values of x from 2 to 21. The point whose coordinates are (6, 40) is on this graph. Write a sentence that explains the meaning of this ordered pair.

Distance (in miles)

D

41. Emergency Response A rescue helicopter is rushing at a constant speed of 150 mph to reach several people stranded in the ocean 11 mi away after their boat sank. The rescuers can determine how far they are from the victims by using the equation D  11  2.5t, where D is the distance in miles and t is the time elapsed in minutes. Graph this equation for values of t from 0 to 4. The point (3, 3.5) is on the graph. Write a sentence that describes the meaning of this ordered pair.

45. Graph y  x  3, y  2x  3, and y   x  3. What observation can you 2 make about the graphs?

Taxi drivers soon will be raising their rates, perhaps in an effort to help pay for their required switch to hybrid vehicles by 2015. In the near future, a passenger will have to pay \$5.00 for the first mile of a taxi ride and \$2.80 for each additional mile. Source: The Boston Globe

374

CHAPTER 7

Linear Equations in Two Variables

SECTION

7.3 OBJECTIVE A

Intercepts and Slopes of Straight Lines To find the x- and y-intercepts of a straight line The graph of the equation 2x  3y  6 is shown at the right. The graph crosses the x-axis at the point (3, 0) and crosses the y-axis at the point (0, 2). The point at which a graph crosses the x-axis is called the x-intercept. At the x-intercept, the y-coordinate is 0. The point at which a graph crosses the y-axis is called the y-intercept. At the y-intercept, the x-coordinate is 0.

y 4 2

(0, 2) (3, 0)

y -intercept –4

–2

4 2 – 2 x-intercept 0

x

–4

HOW TO • 1

2x  3y  12.

Take Note

Find the x- and y-intercepts of the graph of the equation

To find the x-intercept, let y  0. (Any point on the x-axis has y-coordinate 0.) 2x  3y  12 2x  3(0)  12 2x  12 x6

To find the x-intercept, let y  0 and solve for x. To find the y-intercept, let x  0 and solve for y.

To find the y-intercept, let x  0. (Any point on the y-axis has x-coordinate 0.) 2x  3y  12 2(0)  3y  12 3y  12 y  4

The x-intercept is (6, 0).

The y-intercept is (0, 4).

Some linear equations can be graphed by finding the x- and y-intercepts and then drawing a line through these two points. EXAMPLE • 1

YOU TRY IT • 1

Find the x- and y-intercepts for x  2y  4. Graph the line.

Find the x- and y-intercepts for 2x  y  4. Graph the line.

Solution To find the x-intercept, let y  0 and solve for x. x  2y  4 x  2(0)  4 x4 (4, 0)

To find the y-intercept, let x  0 and solve for y. x  2y  4 0  2y  4 2y  4 y  2

y

y

4

4

2

2 –4

–2

0 –2

(4, 0) 2 4 (0, –2)

x

–4

–2

0

2

4

x

–2 –4

–4

(0, 2)

Solution on p. S19

SECTION 7.3

OBJECTIVE B

Intercepts and Slopes of Straight Lines

375

To find the slope of a straight line 2

y

The graphs of y  x  1 and y  2x  1 are shown in 3 Figure 1. Each graph crosses the y-axis at the point (0, 1), but the graphs have different slants. The slope of a line is a measure of the slant of the line. The symbol for slope is m.

4 y = 2x + 1 2 2 y= x+1 (0, 1) 3 –4

–2

2

0

4

x

–2 –4

Take Note The change in the y values can be thought of as the rise of the line, and the change in the x values can be thought of as the run. Then rise Slope  m  run y

The slope of a line containing two points is the ratio of the change in the y values of the two points to the change in the x values. The line containing the points (2, 3) and (6, 1) is graphed in Figure 2. The change in the y values is the difference between the two ordinates.

Figure 1 y 4 2 –2

(6, 1)

0

2

4

6

x 4

–2

Change in y  1  (3)  4

(−2, −3)

rise

The change in the x values is the difference between the two abscissas (Figure 3).

run

Figure 2 y 4

x m=

rise run

Slope  m 

y 4 2 (x 1, y1) –2

0

change in y 4 1   change in x 8 2

(x 2, y2)

–2

(6, 1)

0

2

Slope Formula

x 2 − x1 4

6

x

–2 –4

Figure 4

x

8

If P1( x1, y1) and P2( x 2, y2) are two points on a line and x1 苷 x 2, y2  y1 then m  (Figure 4). If x1  x 2, the slope is undefined. x 2  x1

Find the slope of the line containing the points (1, 1) and (2, 3).

HOW TO • 2

y 4

y2  y1 31 2 m   x2  x1 2  (1) 3

Positive slope means that the value of y increases as the value of x increases.

6

Figure 3

Let P1 be (1, 1) and P2 be (2, 3). Then x1  1, y1  1, x2  2, and y2  3.

Take Note

4

–2 (−2, −3)

y2 − y 1

2

2

Change in x  6  (2)  8

(−1, 1) –4

2 3

The slope is .

–2

2 0

(2, 3)

2

4

x

–2

A line that slants upward to the right always has a positive slope.

–4 Positive slope

Note that you obtain the same results if the points are named oppositely. Let P1 be (2, 3) and P2 be (1, 1). Then x1  2, y1  3, x2  1, and y2  1. m 2

y2  y1 13 2 2    x2  x1 1  2 3 3

The slope is . Therefore, it does not matter which point is named P1 and which is named 3 P2; the slope remains the same.

376

CHAPTER 7

Take Note Negative slope means that the value of y decreases as x increases. Compare this to positive slope.

Linear Equations in Two Variables

Find the slope of the line containing the points (3, 4) and (2, 2).

HOW TO • 3

Let P1 be (3, 4) and P2 be (2, 2). m

y

y2  y1 2  4 6 6    x2  x1 2  (3) 5 5

The slope is

6 5.

4 (−3, 4) 2 –4

–2

0

2

–2

A line that slants downward to the right always has a negative slope.

HOW TO • 4

x

–4 Negative slope

Find the slope of the line containing the points (1, 3) and (4, 3).

Let P1 be (1, 3) and P2 be (4, 3). m

4 (2, −2)

y

y2  y1 33 0   0 x2  x1 4  (1) 5

4 (−1, 3) 2

(4, 3)

The slope is 0. –4

–2

0

2

4

x

–2

A horizontal line has zero slope.

–4 Zero slope

HOW TO • 5

Find the slope of the line containing the points (2, 2) and (2, 4).

Let P1 be (2, 2) and P2 be (2, 4). m

y2  y1 4  (2) 6   x2  x1 22 0

y 4

Division by zero is not defined.

A vertical line has undefined slope.

(2, 4)

2 –4

–2

0

2

–2

4

x

(2, −2)

–4 Undefined slope

y

Two lines in the plane that never intersect are called parallel lines. The lines l1 and l2 in the figure at the right are parallel. Calculating the slope of each line, we have y2 Slope of l1 : m1  x2 y2 Slope of l2 : m2  x2

 y1 51 4 2     x1 3  (3) 6 3  y1 1  (5) 4 2     x1 3  (3) 6 3

4 (−3, 1)

2

–4 –2 0 –2 (−3, −5)

(3, 5) l1

2 l2

4 (3, −1)

x

–4

Note that these parallel lines have the same slope. This is always true for parallel lines.

Take Note We must separate the description of parallel lines at the right into two parts because vertical lines in the plane are parallel, but their slopes are undefined.

Parallel Lines Two nonvertical lines in the plane are parallel if and only if they have the same slope. Vertical lines in the plane are parallel.

SECTION 7.3

y

Intercepts and Slopes of Straight Lines

377

Two lines that intersect at a 90° angle (right angle) are perpendicular lines. The lines at the left are perpendicular.

6 P1(−4, 4) 4

Q2(4, 5)

2

Perpendicular Lines

P2(4, 0) –4 –2 0 –2

2 4 Q1(1, −1)

x

Two nonvertical lines in the plane are perpendicular if and only if the product of their slopes is 1. A vertical and a horizontal line are perpendicular.

–4

The slope of the line between P1 and P2 is m1  the line between Q1 and Q2 is m2 

5  (1) 41



6 3

04 4  (4)

4

1

  8   2 . The slope of

 2. The product of the slopes is

Distance (in meters)

d

There are many applications of the concept of slope. Here is an example.

100

50

0

(6, 57) (4, 38)

5 10 Time (in seconds)

t

When Florence Griffith-Joyner set the world record for the 100-meter dash, her average rate of speed was approximately 9.5 m/s. The graph at the left shows the distance she ran during her record-setting run. From the graph, note that after 4 s she had traveled 38 m and that after 6 s she had traveled 57 m. The slope of the line between these two points is 19 57  38   9.5 m 64 2 Note that the slope of the line is the same as the rate at which she was running, 9.5 m/s. The average speed of an object is related to slope.

EXAMPLE • 2

YOU TRY IT • 2

Find the slope of the line containing the points (2, 3) and (3, 4).

Find the slope of the line containing the points (1, 4) and (3, 8).

Solution Let P1  (2, 3) and P2  (3, 4). y2  y1 4  (3) • y2 ⴝ 4, y1 ⴝ ⴚ3 m  • x2 ⴝ 3, x1 ⴝ ⴚ2 x2  x1 3  (2) 7  5

7 5

The slope is . EXAMPLE • 3

YOU TRY IT • 3

Find the slope of the line containing the points (1, 4) and (1, 0).

Find the slope of the line containing the points (1, 2) and (4, 2).

Solution Let P1  (1, 4) and P2  (1, 0). y2  y1 04 • y2 ⴝ 0, y1 ⴝ 4 m  • x2 ⴝ ⴚ1, x1 ⴝ ⴚ1 x2  x1 1  (1) 4  0

The slope is undefined.

Solutions on p. S19

378

CHAPTER 7

Linear Equations in Two Variables

EXAMPLE • 4

YOU TRY IT • 4

The graph below shows the height of a plane above an airport during its 30-minute descent from cruising altitude to landing. Find the slope of the line. Write a sentence that explains the meaning of the slope.

The graph below shows the approximate decline in the value of a used car over a 5-year period. Find the slope of the line. Write a sentence that states the meaning of the slope.

Solution

30 20

5000  20,000 25  10



15,000 15

 1000

(10, 20,000)

10

(25, 5000) 0

10 20 30 Time (in minutes)

t

Value of car (in dollars)

Distance (in thousands of feet)

d

y (1, 8650) 8000 6000

(4, 6100)

4000 2000 0

1

2

3

4

5

x

Age (in years)

A slope of 1000 means that the height of the plane is decreasing at the rate of 1000 ft/min. Solution on p. S19

OBJECTIVE C

To graph a line using the slope and the y-intercept HOW TO • 6

Find the y-intercept of y  3x  4.

y  3x  4  3(0)  4  4

• Let x ⴝ 0.

The y-intercept is (0, 4). For any equation of the form y  mx  b, the y-intercept is (0, b). y

2 3

The graph of the equation y  x  1 is shown at the right.

4

The points (3, 1) and (3, 3) are on the graph. The slope of the line between the two points is

Take Note Here are some equations in slope-intercept form. y  2x  3: Slope is 2; y-intercept is (0, 3). y  x  2: Slope is 1 (recall that x  1x ); y-intercept is (0, 2). x x 1 : Because  x, 2 2 2 1 slope is ; y-intercept is (0, 0). 2 y

m

3  (1) 4 2   3  (3) 6 3

Observe that the slope of the line is the coefficient of x in 2 the equation y  x  1. Also recall that the y-intercept is 3 (0, 1), where 1 is the constant term of the equation.

2 –4

–2 0 (−3, −1)

(3, 3) y=

2 x +1 3

2

4

x

–4

Slope-Intercept Form of a Linear Equation An equation of the form y  mx  b is called the slope-intercept form of a straight line. The slope of the line is m, the coefficient of x. The y-intercept is (0, b), where b is the constant term of the equation.

When an equation of a line is in slope-intercept form, the graph can be drawn using the slope and the y-intercept. First locate the y-intercept. Use the slope to find a second point on the line. Then draw a line through the two points.

SECTION 7.3

HOW TO • 7

Intercepts and Slopes of Straight Lines

Graph y  2x  3.

379

y 4

(1, –1)

y-intercept  (0, b)  (0, 3) change in y 2 m2  1 change in x Beginning at the y-intercept, move right 1 unit (change in x) and then up 2 units (change in y).

2 –4

–2

0 –2

2

4

x

up 2

(0, –3)

– 4 right 1

(1, 1) is a second point on the graph. Draw a line through the two points (0, 3) and (1, 1). EXAMPLE • 5

YOU TRY IT • 5

2

1

Graph y   x  1 by using the slope and 3 y-intercept.

Graph y   4 x  1 by using the slope and y-intercept.

Solution y-intercept  (0, b)  (0, 1)

change in y 2 2 m   3 3 change in x

4 2

y –4

4 2

0

2

4

x

–2

right 3 down 2

–2

–2

0

2

4

–4

x

–2 –4

EXAMPLE • 6

YOU TRY IT • 6

Graph 2x  3y  6 by using the slope and y-intercept.

Graph x  2y  4 by using the slope and y-intercept.

Solution The equation is in the form Ax  By  C. Rewrite it in slope-intercept form by solving it for y.

2x  3y  6 3y  2x  6 2 y x2 3

y 4 2 –4

–2

0

2

4

x

–2

2 y-intercept  (0, 2); m  3

–4

y 4 2 –4

–2

0 –2

2

4

x

up 2 right 3

–4

Solutions on p. S19

380

CHAPTER 7

Linear Equations in Two Variables

7.3 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To find the x- and y-intercepts of a straight line

For Exercises 1 to 12, find the x- and y-intercepts. 1. x  y  3

2. 3x  4y  12

3. 3x  y  6

4. 2x  y  10

5. x  5y  10

6. 3x  2y  12

7. 3x  y  12

8. 5x  y  10

9. 2x  3y  0

10. 3x  4y  0

11. x  2y  6

12. 2x  3y  12

For Exercises 13 to 18, find the x- and y-intercepts, and then graph. 13. 5x  2y  10

14. x  3y  6

y

15. 3x  4y  12

y

y

6

6

6

4

4

4

2

2 –4 –2 0 –2

2

4

6

x

–4 –2 0 –2

2 2

6

4

–4 –2 0 –2

–4

–4

16. 2x  5y  10

2

17. 5y  3x  15

4

y

4

4

2

2

2 2

4

6

x

–4

–4

19. If A  0, B  0, and C  0, is the y-intercept of the graph of Ax  By  C above or below the x-axis?

OBJECTIVE B

–2

x

18. 9y  4x  18

y

6

6

4

–4

y

–4 –2 0 –2

x

0

2

x

–4

–2

0

–2

–2

–4

–4

2

x

20. If A  0, B  0, and C  0, is the x-intercept of the graph of Ax  By  C to the left or to the right of the y-axis?

To find the slope of a straight line

21. What is the difference between a line that has zero slope and one that has undefined slope?

SECTION 7.3

Intercepts and Slopes of Straight Lines

381

For Exercises 22 to 33, find the slope of the line containing the given points. 22. P1(4, 2), P2(3, 4)

23. P1(2, 1), P2(3, 4)

24. P1(1, 3), P2(2, 4)

25. P1(2, 1), P2(2, 2)

26. P1(2, 4), P2(4, 1)

27. P1(1, 3), P2(5, 3)

28. P1(3, 4), P2(3, 5)

29. P1(1, 2), P2(1, 3)

30. P1(4, 2), P2(3, 2)

31. P1(5, 1), P2(2, 1)

32. P1(0, 1), P2(3, 2)

33. P1(3, 0), P2(2, 1)

For Exercises 34 and 35, l is a line passing through two distinct points (a, b) and (c, d ). 34. Describe any relationships that must exist among a, b, c, and d in order for the slope of l to be undefined.

35. Describe any relationships that must exist among a, b, c, and d in order for the slope of l to be zero.

For Exercises 36 to 43, determine whether the line through P1 and P2 is parallel, perpendicular, or neither parallel nor perpendicular to the line through Q1 and Q2. 36. P1(3, 4), P2 (2, 5); Q1(3, 6), Q2 (2, 3)

37. P1(4, 5), P2 (6, 9); Q1(5, 4), Q2(1, 4)

38. P1(0, 1), P2 (2, 4); Q1(4, 7), Q2(2, 5)

39. P1(5, 1), P2 (3, 2); Q1(0, 2), Q2(3, 4)

40. P1(2, 4), P2 (2, 4); Q1(3, 6), Q2(4, 6)

41. P1(1, 1), P2 (3, 2); Q1(4, 1), Q2(2, 5)

42. P1(7, 1), P2 (4, 6); Q1(3, 0), Q2(5, 3)

43. P1(5, 2), P2 (1, 3); Q1(3, 4), Q2(2, 2) Pressure (in pounds per square inch)

P

45. Panama Canal Ships in the Panama Canal are lowered through a series of locks. A ship is lowered as the water in a lock is discharged. The graph at the right shows the number of gallons of water N remaining in a lock t minutes after the valves are opened to discharge the water. Find the slope of the line. Write a sentence that explains the meaning of the slope.

Gallons of Water (in millions)

44. Deep-Sea Diving The pressure, in pounds per square inch, on a diver is shown in the graph at the right. Find the slope of the line. Write a sentence that explains the meaning of the slope.

N

0

4 (2, 3.7) (5, 1.8)

2 1 0

(50, 40)

(30, 30)

20

40

60

Depth (in feet)

5

3

70 60 50 40 30 20 10

1

2

3

4

5

6

Time (in minutes)

7

8

t

80

d

382

CHAPTER 7

Linear Equations in Two Variables

Traffic Safety See the news clipping below. Use the information in the clipping for Exercises 46 and 47.

Seat Belt Use

Annual surveys conducted by the National Highway Safety Administration show that Americans’ steady increase in seat belt use has been accompanied by a steady decrease in deaths due to motor vehicle accidents.

100

Passenger Deaths

S Deaths per 10 Billion Miles Traveled

Seat Belt Use (in percent)

In the News Buckling Up Saves Lives

(2005, 82)

75 (2001, 73) 50 25 0

‘01

‘03

‘05

t

200

D

150 (2001, 127) 100

(2005, 115)

50 0

Year

‘01

‘03

‘05

t

Year

Source: National Highway Traffic Safety Association

46. Find the slope of the line in the Seat Belt Use graph. Write a sentence that states the meaning of the slope in the context of the article.

47. Find the slope of the line in the Passenger Deaths graph. Write a sentence that states the meaning of the slope in the context of the article.

OBJECTIVE C

To graph a line using the slope and the y-intercept

For Exercises 48 to 55, find the slope and y-intercept of the graph of the equation. 3 48. y   x  5 8

49. y  x  7

50. 2x  3y  6

51. 4x  3y  12

52. 2x  5y  10

53. 2x  y  0

54. x  4y  0

55. 2x  3y  8

For Exercises 56 to 70, graph by using the slope and y-intercept. 56. y  3x  1 y

y

4

–4

y

4

2 –4 –2 0 –2

2 58. y  x  2 5

57. y  2x  1

4

2 2

4

x

–4 –2 0 –2 –4

2 2

4

x

–4 –2 0 –2 –4

2

4

x

SECTION 7.3

59. y 

3 x1 4

61. 3x  y  1

y

y

4

2

4

2

–4 –2 0 –2

2

4

x

–4

2

–4 –2 0 –2

2

4

x

–4 –2 0 –2

–4

63. x  3y  6

y

y

4

64. y 

2

–4 –2 0 –2

4

–4

2

4

x

–4 –2 0 –2

2

4

–4

2

–4 –2 0 –2

2

4

x

–4 –2 0 –2

69. 5x  2y  10

y

70. y  4x  2

y

y

4

4

4

2

2

2

–4 –2 0 –2

2

4

x

–4

–4 –2 0 –2

2

4

x

–4 –2 0 –2

–4

–4

For Exercises 71 and 72, use the given conditions on A, B, and C to determine whether the graph of Ax  By  C slants upward to the right or downward to the right. 71. A  0, B  0, and C  0

x

–4

–4

68. 3x  4y  12

4

4

2

–4 –2 0 –2

2

y

4

x

4

67. y  x  3

y

2

x

–4

66. y  x  1

4

2

2

–4 –2 0 –2

y

4

4

–4

1 x 2

2

x

y

2

x

4

2 x 3

4

2

2

–4

62. x  2y  4

65. y 

Intercepts and Slopes of Straight Lines

60. 2x  y  3

y 4

72. A  0, B  0, and C  0

Applying the Concepts 73. Do all straight lines have a y-intercept? If not, give an example of a line that does not. 74. If two lines have the same slope and the same y-intercept, must the graphs of the lines be the same? If not, give an example.

x

383

384

CHAPTER 7

Linear Equations in Two Variables

SECTION

7.4 OBJECTIVE A

Equations of Straight Lines To find the equation of a line given a point and the slope In earlier sections, the equation of a line was given and you were asked to determine some properties of the line, such as its intercepts and slope. Here, the process is reversed. Given properties of a line, you will determine its equation. If the slope and y-intercept of a line are known, the equation of the line can be determined by using the slope-intercept form of a straight line. HOW TO • 1

1 2

Find the equation of the line with slope  and y-intercept (0, 3).

y  mx  b

• Use the slope-intercept form.

1 y x3 2

1 • m ⴝ ⴚ ; (0, b) ⴝ (0, 3), so b ⴝ 3. 2 1

The equation of the line is y   2 x  3. When the slope and the coordinates of a point other than the y-intercept are known, the equation of the line can be found by using the formula for slope. y

Suppose a line passes through the point (3, 1) and has a 2 slope of . The equation of the line with these properties 3 is determined by letting (x, y) be the coordinates of an unknown point on the line. Because the slope of the line is known, use the slope formula to write an equation. Then solve for y.

4 2 –2

0

(x, y) (3, 1) 2

4

6

x

–2 –4

y1 2  x3 3 y1 2 (x  3)  (x  3) x3 3 2 y1 x2 3 2 y x1 3 The equation of the line is y 

y2 ⴚ y1 2 ⴝ m; m ⴝ ; (x 2 , y2) ⴝ (x, y); (x1, y1) ⴝ (3, 1) x2 ⴚ x1 3

• Multiply each side by (x ⴚ 3). • Simplify. • Solve for y. 2 x 3

 1.

The same procedure that was used above is used to derive the point-slope formula. We use this formula to determine the equation of a line when we are given the coordinates of a point on the line and the slope of the line. Let (x1, y1) be the given coordinates of a point on a line, m the given slope of the line, and (x, y) the coordinates of an unknown point on the line. Then y  y1 • Formula for slope. m x  x1 y  y1 • Multiply each side by x ⴚ x 1. (x  x1)  m(x  x1) x  x1 y  y1  m(x  x1)

• Simplify.

SECTION 7.4

Equations of Straight Lines

385

Point-Slope Formula If ( x1, y1) is a point on a line with slope m, then y  y1  m( x  x1).

Find the equation of the line that passes through the point (2, 3) 2 and has slope .

HOW TO • 2

y  y1  m(x  x1) y  3  2(x  2) y  3  2x  4 y  2x  7

• Use the point-slope formula. • m ⴝ ⴚ2 ; (x1, y1) ⴝ (2, 3) • Solve for y.

The equation of the line is y  2x  7. EXAMPLE • 1

YOU TRY IT • 1

Find the equation of the line that contains the point 2 (0, 1) and has slope  .

Find the equation of the line that contains the point 5 (0, 2) and has slope .

Solution Because the slope and y-intercept are known, use the slope-intercept formula, y  mx  b. 2 2 • m ⴝ ⴚ ; b ⴝ ⴚ1 y x1 3 3

3

EXAMPLE • 2

3

YOU TRY IT • 2

Use the point-slope formula to find the equation of the line that passes through the point (2, 1) 3 and has slope .

Use the point-slope formula to find the equation of the line that passes through the point (4, 2) and 3 has slope .

Solution y  y1  m(x  x1) 3 y  (1)  冤 x  (2)冥 2 3 y  1  (x  2) 2 3 y1 x3 2 3 y x2 2

2

OBJECTIVE B

4

3 ; 2 (x1, y1) ⴝ (2, 1)

• mⴝ

Solutions on p. S19

To find the equation of a line given two points The point-slope formula is used to find the equation of a line when a point on the line and the slope of the line are known. But this formula can also be used to find the equation of a line given two points on the line. In this case, 1. Use the slope formula to determine the slope of the line between the points. 2. Use the point-slope formula, the slope you just calculated, and one of the given points to find the equation of the line.

386

CHAPTER 7

Linear Equations in Two Variables

HOW TO • 3

Find the equation of the line that passes through the points (3, 1) and (3, 3).

Use the slope formula to determine the slope of the line between the points. m

y2  y1 3  (1) 4 2    x2  x1 3  (3) 6 3

• (x1, y1) ⴝ (3, 1); (x 2 , y2) ⴝ (3, 3)

Use the point-slope formula, the slope you just calculated, and one of the given points to find the equation of the line. y  y1  m(x  x1) 2 y  (1)  冤 x  (3)冥 3 2 y  1  (x  3) 3 2 y1 x2 3 2 y x1 3

Take Note You can verify that the 2 equation y  x  1 3 passes through the points (3, 1) and (3, 3) by substituting the coordinates of these points into the equation.

• Point-slope formula • mⴝ

2 ; (x1, y1) ⴝ (ⴚ ⴚ3, ⴚ1) 3

Check: 2 3

2 3

y x1 1

2 (3) 3

1

y x1 • (x, y) ⴝ (ⴚ3, ⴚ1)

1 2  1 1  1

3

2 (3) 3

1

• (x, y) ⴝ (3, 3)

3 21 33 2 3

The equation of the line that passes through the two points is y  x  1. EXAMPLE • 3

YOU TRY IT • 3

Find the equation of the line that passes through the points (4, 0) and (2, 3).

Find the equation of the line that passes through the points (6, 2) and (3, 1).

Solution Find the slope of the line between the two points. y2  y1 3 1 3  0 m    x2  x1 2  (4) 6 2 Use the point-slope formula. y  y1  m(x  x1) • Point-slope formula

1 2 1  (x  4) 2 1  x2 2

y  0   冤 x  (4)冥 y y

1 • m ⴝ ⴚ ; (x1, y1) ⴝ (ⴚ4, 0) 2

1

The equation of the line is y   2 x  2.

Solution on p. S19

SECTION 7.4

OBJECTIVE C

Consider an experiment to determine the weight required to stretch a spring a certain distance. Data from such an experiment are shown in the table below.

104.00

y

Distance (in inches)

2.5

4

2

3.5

1

4.5

Weight (in pounds)

63

104

47

85

27

115

The accompanying graph shows the scatter diagram, which is the plotted points, and the line of best fit, which is the line that approximately goes through the plotted points. The equation of the line of best fit is y  25.6x  1.3, where x is the number of inches the spring is stretched and y is the weight in pounds.

100

50

1 2 3 4 5 Distance (in inches)

The table below shows the values that the model would predict to the nearest tenth. Good linear models should predict values that are close to the actual values. A more thorough analysis of lines of best fit is undertaken in statistics courses.

x

Distance, x

2.5

4

2

3.5

1

4.5

Weight predicted using y ⴝ 25.6x ⴚ 1.3

62.7

101.1

49.9

88.3

24.3

113.9

EXAMPLE • 4

YOU TRY IT • 4

The data in the table below show the growth in defense spending by the U.S. government. (Source: Office of Management and Budget) The line of best fit is y  49x  220.3, where x is the year (with 2005 corresponding to x  5) and y is the defense spending in billions of dollars. Year Defense Spending (in billions of dollars)

5

6

7

8

475

490

530

625

Graph the data and the line of best fit in the coordinate system below. Write a sentence that describes the meaning of the slope of the line.

The data in the table below show a reading test grade and the final exam grade in a history class. The line of best fit is y  8.3x  7.8, where x is the reading test score and y is the history test score.

8.5

9.4

10.0

11.4

12.0

History

64

68

76

87

92

Graph the data and the line of best fit in the coordinate system below. Write a sentence that describes the meaning of the slope of the line of best fit. Your solution

Solution y

650 550 450 5

6 7 8 Year (x = 5 corresponds to 2005)

x

The slope of the line means that the amount spent on defense increased by \$49 billion per year.

y History score

Weight (in pounds)

387

A linear model is a first-degree equation that is used to describe a relationship between quantities. In many cases, a linear model is used to approximate collected data. The data are graphed as points in a coordinate system, and then a line is drawn that approximates the data. The graph of the points is called a scatter diagram; the line is called the line of best fit.

4 in.

Defense Spending (in billions of dollars)

Equations of Straight Lines

To solve application problems

104.00

0

80 60 40 20 0

4

8

12

x

Solution on p. S20

388

CHAPTER 7

Linear Equations in Two Variables

7.4 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To find the equation of a line given a point and the slope

1. What is the point-slope formula and how is it used?

2. Can the point-slope formula be used to find the equation of any line? If not, equations for which types of lines cannot be found using this formula?

For Exercises 3 to 6, sketch the line described in the indicated exercise. Use your graph to determine whether the b-value of the equation of the line is positive or negative. 3. Exercise 8

4. Exercise 10

5. Exercise 12

6. Exercise 14

7. Find the equation of the line that contains the point (0, 2) and has slope 2.

8. Find the equation of the line that contains the point (0, 1) and has slope 2.

9. Find the equation of the line that contains the point (1, 2) and has slope 3.

10. Find the equation of the line that contains the point (2, 3) and has slope 3.

11. Find the equation of the line that contains the point 1 (3, 1) and has slope .

12. Find the equation of the line that contains the point 1 (2, 3) and has slope .

13. Find the equation of the line that contains the point 3 (4, 2) and has slope .

14. Find the equation of the line that contains the point 1 (2, 3) and has slope  .

15. Find the equation of the line that contains the point 3 (5, 3) and has slope  .

16. Find the equation of the line that contains the point 1 (5, 1) and has slope .

17. Find the equation of the line that contains the point 1 (2, 3) and has slope .

18. Find the equation of the line that contains the point 1 (1, 2) and has slope  .

19. Find the equation of the line that contains the point (2, 2) and has slope 0.

20. Find the equation of the line that contains the point (4, 5) and has slope 0.

21. Find the equation of the line that contains the point (3, 1) and has undefined slope.

22. Find the equation of the line that contains the point (6, 8) and has undefined slope.

3

4

5

4

2

2

5

2

SECTION 7.4

Equations of Straight Lines

389

23. Use the point-slope formula to write the equation of the line with slope m and y-intercept (0, b). Does your answer simplify to the slope-intercept form of a straight line with slope m and y-intercept (0, b)?

24. Use the point-slope formula to write the equation of the line that goes through the point (0, b) and has slope 0. Does your answer simplify to the equation of a horizontal line through (0, b)?

OBJECTIVE B

To find the equation of a line given two points

For Exercises 25 to 28, sketch the line described in the indicated exercise. Use your graph to determine whether the m-value of the equation of the line is positive or negative. 25. Exercise 31

26. Exercise 32

27. Exercise 35

28. Exercise 36

29. Find the equation of the line that passes through the points (1, 1) and (2, 7).

30. Find the equation of the line that passes through the points (2, 3) and (3, 2).

31. Find the equation of the line that passes through the points (2, 1) and (1, 5).

32. Find the equation of the line that passes through the points (1, 3) and (2, 12).

33. Find the equation of the line that passes through the points (0, 0) and (3, 2).

34. Find the equation of the line that passes through the points (0, 0) and (5, 1).

35. Find the equation of the line that passes through the points (2, 3) and (4, 0).

36. Find the equation of the line that passes through the points (3, 1) and (0, 3).

37. Find the equation of the line that passes through the points (4, 1) and (4, 5).

38. Find the equation of the line that passes through the points (5, 0) and (10, 3).

39. Find the equation of the line that passes through the points (2, 1) and (2, 4).

40. Find the equation of the line that passes through the points (3, 2) and (3, 3).

41. Find the equation of the line that passes through the points (4, 3) and (1, 3).

42. Find the equation of the line that passes through the points (1, 4) and (2, 4).

43. Find the equation of the line that passes through the points (2, 6) and (2, 7).

44. Find the equation of the line that passes through the points (5, 1) and (5, 3).

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45. If (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) are the coordinates of two points on the graph of y  2x  3, y y what is the value of 2 1 ? x2  x1

OBJECTIVE C

To solve application problems

46. Refer to Example 4 on page 387. Use the points for Year 5 and Year 6. Is the slope of the line between these two points greater than or less than the slope of the line of best fit?

Time of workout, x (in minutes)

5

10

20

30

60

Carbohydrates used, y (in grams)

10

15

33

49

94

y Carbohydrates (in grams)

47. Sports The data in the table below show the number of carbohydrates used for various amounts of time during a strenuous tennis workout. The line of best fit is y  1.55x  1.45, where x is the time of the workout in minutes and y is the number of carbohydrates used in grams.

100 80 60 40 20 0

10 20 30 40 50 60 Time (in minutes)

Graph the data and the line of best fit in the coordinate system at the right. Write a sentence that describes the meaning of the slope of the line of best fit in the context of this problem.

Time of workout, x (in minutes)

10

20

30

40

50

60

Water lost, y (in milliliters)

600

900

1200

1500

2000

2300

y 3000 Water lost (in milliliters)

48. Sports The data in the table below show the amount of water a professional tennis player loses for various times during a tennis match. The line of best fit is y  34.6x  207, where x is the time of the workout in minutes and y is the milliliters of water lost during the match.

100

200

300

400

600

1000

Water evaporated, y (in gallons)

25

30

45

60

100

170

2000 1500 1000

0

y 200 160 120 80 40 0

Graph the data and the line of best fit in the coordinate system at the right. Write a sentence that describes the meaning of the slope of the line of best fit in the context of this problem.

10 20 30 40 50 60 Time (in minutes)

Water evaporated (in gallons)

Surface area, x (in square feet)

2500

500

Graph the data and the line of best fit in the coordinate system at the right. Write a sentence that describes the meaning of the slope of the line of best fit in the context of this problem.

49. Evaporation The data in the table below show the amount of water that evaporates from swimming pools of various surface areas. The line of best fit is y  0.17x  1, where x is the surface area of the swimming pool in square feet and y is the number of gallons of water that evaporate in one day.

x

200

600

1000

Surface area (in square feet)

x

x

SECTION 7.4

391

Equations of Straight Lines

50. Alternative Energy Read the following news clipping. In the News GWEC Issues Annual Global Wind Report

Year Capacity (in gW)

1

2

3

4

5

6

19.9

23.1

26.0

28.9

32.3

36.1

In its recently released Global Wind Report, the Global Wind Energy Council predicts continued worldwide growth of new installations of wind turbines. The Council’s predictions for the energy-producing capacity, in gigawatts, of new installations for the years 2007 to 2012 are shown in the table.

Source: Global Wind Energy Council, Global Wind 2007 Report

y Capacity (in gigawatts)

The line of best fit for the data in the article is y  3.19x  16.57, where x is the year (with x  0 corresponding to 2006) and y is the energy producing capacity, in gigawatts (gW), of the new installations. Graph the data and the line of best fit in the coordinate system at the right. Write a sentence that describes the meaning of the slope of the line of best fit in the context of this problem.

50 40 30 20 10 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

x

Year (x = 0 corresponds to 2006)

Applying the Concepts 51. For the equation y  3x  2, when the value of x changes from 1 to 2, does the value of y increase or decrease? What is the change in y? Suppose that the value of x changes from 13 to 14. What is the change in y?

52. For the equation y  2x  1, when the value of x changes from 1 to 2, does the value of y increase or decrease? What is the change in y? Suppose that the value of x changes from 13 to 14. What is the change in y?

In Exercises 53 to 56, the first two given points are on a line. Determine whether the third point is on the line. 53. (3, 2), (4, 1); (1, 0)

54. (2, 2), (3, 4); (1, 5)

55. (3, 5), (1, 3); (4, 9)

56. (3, 7), (0, 2); (1, 5)

57. If (2, 4) are the coordinates of a point on the line whose equation is y  mx  1, what is the slope of the line?

58. If (3, 1) are the coordinates of a point on the line whose equation is y  mx  3, what is the slope of the line?

59. If (0, 3), (6, 7), and (3, n) are coordinates of points on the same line, determine n.

60. If (4, 11), (2, 4), and (6, n) are coordinates of points on the same line, determine n.

392

CHAPTER 7

Linear Equations in Two Variables

FOCUS ON PROBLEM SOLVING Counterexamples

Some of the exercises in this text ask you to determine whether a statement is true or false. For instance, the statement “Every real number has a reciprocal” is false because 0 is a real number and 0 does not have a reciprocal. Finding an example, such as “0 has no reciprocal,” to show that a statement is not always true is called finding a counterexample. A counterexample is an example that shows that a statement is not always true. Here are some counterexamples to the statement “The square of a number is always larger than the number.”

2



1 4

but

1 1  4 2

12  1

but

11

For Exercises 1 to 7, answer true if the statement is always true. If there is an instance when the statement is false, give a counterexample. 1. The product of two integers is always a positive number. 2. The sum of two prime numbers is never a prime number. 3. For all real numbers, 兩x  y兩  兩x兩  兩y兩. 4. If x and y are nonzero real numbers and x  y, then x2  y2. 5. The quotient of any two nonzero real numbers is less than either one of the numbers. 6. The reciprocal of a positive number is always smaller than the number. 7. If x  0, then 兩x兩  x.

PROJECTS AND GROUP ACTIVITIES Graphing Linear Equations with a Graphing Utility

The graphing utilities that are used by computers or calculators to graph an equation do basically what we have shown in the text: They choose values of x and, for each, calculate the corresponding value of y. The pixel corresponding to the ordered pair is then turned on. The graph is jagged because pixels are much larger than the dots we draw on paper.

y 1

0

x 0

A computer or graphing calculator screen is divided into pixels. There are approximately 6000 to 790,000 pixels available on the screen (depending on the computer or calculator). The greater the number of pixels, the smoother a graph will appear. A portion of a screen is shown at the left. Each little rectangle represents one pixel.

1

The graph of y  0.45x is shown at the left as the calculator drew it (jagged). The x- and 1 y-axes have been chosen so that each pixel represents of a unit. Consider the region of 10 the graph where x  1, 1.1, and 1.2.

Chapter 7 Summary

Take Note Xmin and Xmax are the smallest and largest values of x that will be shown on the screen. Ymin and Ymax are the smallest and largest values of y that will be shown on the screen.

The corresponding values of y are 0.45, 0.495, and 0.54. Because the y-axis is in tenths, the numbers 0.45, 0.495, and 0.54 are rounded to the nearest tenth before plotting. Rounding 0.45, 0.495, and 0.54 to the nearest tenth results in 0.5 for each number. Thus the ordered pairs (1, 0.45), (1.1, 0.495), and (1.2, 0.54) are graphed as (1, 0.5), (1.1, 0.5), and (1.2, 0.5). These points appear as three illuminated horizontal pixels. However, if you use the TRACE feature of the calculator (see the Appendix), the actual y-coordinate for each value of x is displayed. 2

Here are the keystrokes to graph y  x  1 on a TI-84 calculator. First the equation is 3 entered. Then the domain (Xmin to Xmax) and the range (Ymin to Ymax) are entered. This is called the viewing window. Y=

10

Integrating Technology See the Keystroke Guide: Y=

and WINDOW for

assistance.

393

ENTER

CLEAR

1

ENTER

2

X,T,θ X,T, X,T,θ, θ, n

3

1

10

WINDOW

10

ENTER

ENTER

1

10

ENTER

ENTER

GRAPH

By changing the keystrokes 2 equations.

X,T,θ X,T, X,T,θ, θ ,n

3

1, you can graph different

For Exercises 1 to 4, graph on a graphing calculator. 1 1. y  2x  1 2. y   x  2 3. 3x  2y  6 2

4. 4x  3y  75

CHAPTER 7

SUMMARY KEY WORDS A rectangular coordinate system is formed by two number lines, one horizontal and one vertical, that intersect at the zero point of each line. The number lines that make up a rectangular coordinate system are called the coordinate axes, or simply axes. The origin is the point of intersection of the two coordinate axes. Generally, the horizontal axis is labeled the x-axis and the vertical axis is labeled the y-axis. The coordinate system divides the plane into four regions called quadrants. The coordinates of a point in the plane are given by an ordered pair (x, y). The first number in the ordered pair is called the abscissa or x-coordinate. The second number in the ordered pair is the ordinate or y-coordinate. The graph of an ordered pair (x, y) is the dot drawn at the coordinates of the point in the plane. [7.1A, p. 352]

5 Vertical 4 3 axis 2 Horizontal 1 axis –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5

Quadrant I x-coordinate y-coordinate (2, 3) Ordered pair 1 2 3 4 5

x

Origin

A solution of an equation in two variables is an ordered pair (x, y) that makes the equation a true statement. [7.1B, p. 354]

The ordered pair (1, 1) is a solution of the equation y  2x  3 because when 1 is substituted for x and 1 is substituted for y, the result is a true equation.

A relation is any set of ordered pairs. The domain of a relation is the set of first coordinates of the ordered pairs. The range is the set of second coordinates of the ordered pairs. [7.1C, p. 356]

For the relation {(1, 2), (2, 4), (3, 5), (3, 7)}, the domain is {1, 2, 3}; the range is {2, 4, 5, 7}.

394

CHAPTER 7

Linear Equations in Two Variables

A function is a relation in which no two ordered pairs have the same first coordinate. [7.1C, p. 356]

The relation {(2, 3), (0, 4), (1, 5)} is a function. No two ordered pairs have the same first coordinate.

The graph of an equation in two variables is a graph of the ordered-pair solutions of the equation. An equation of the form y  mx  b is a linear equation in two variables. [7.2A, p. 364]

y  2x  3 is a linear equation in two variables. Its graph is shown at the right.

y 4

y ⴝ 2x ⴙ 3

2 –4

–2

0

2

4

x

–2 –4

An equation written in the form Ax  By  C is the standard form of a linear equation in two variables. [7.2B, p. 366] The point at which a graph crosses the x-axis is called the x-intercept. At the x-intercept, the y-coordinate is 0. The point at which a graph crosses the y-axis is called the y-intercept. At the y-intercept, the x-coordinate is 0. [7.3A, p. 374]

2x  7y  10 is an example of a linear equation in two variables written in standard form. y 4 2

(0, 2) (3, 0)

y -intercept –4

–2

4 2 – 2 x-intercept 0

x

–4

When data are graphed as points in a coordinate system, the graph is called a scatter diagram. A line drawn to approximate the data is called the line of best fit. [7.4C, p. 387]

y m is zero. 5 4 3 2 1 m is negative.

m is undefined.

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 m is positive. –3 –4 –5

1 2 3 4 5

The graph shown at the right is the scatter diagram and line of best fit for the spring data on page 387.

y Weight (in pounds)

The slope of a line is a measure of the slant of the line. The symbol for slope is m. A line with positive slope slants upward to the right. A line with negative slope slants downward to the right. A horizontal line has zero slope. A vertical line has an undefined slope. [7.3A, pp. 375–376]

x

100

50

0

1 2 3 4 5 Distance (in inches)

x

ESSENTIAL RULES AND PROCEDURES

EXAMPLES

Function Notation [7.1D, p. 359] The equation of a function is written in function notation when y is replaced by the symbol f (x), where f (x) is read “f of x” or “the value of f at x.” To evaluate a function at a given value of x, replace x by the given value and then simplify the resulting numerical expression to find the value of f (x).

y  x2  2x  1 is written in function notation as f (x)  x2  2x  1. To evaluate f (x)  x2  2x  1 at x  3, find f (3). f (3)  (3)2  2(3)  1 9612

395

Chapter 7 Summary

Horizontal and Vertical Lines [7.2B, p. 367] The graph of y  b is a horizontal line passing through (0, b). The graph of x  a is a vertical line passing through (a, 0).

The graph of y  2 is a horizontal line passing through (0, 2). The graph of x  3 is a vertical line passing through (3, 0).

To find the x-intercept, let y  0 and solve for x. To find the y-intercept, let x  0 and solve for y. [7.3A, p. 374]

To find the x-intercept of 4x  5y  20, let y  0 and solve for x. To find the y-intercept, let x  0 and solve for y. 4x  5y  20 4x  5y  20 4x  5(0)  20 4(0)  5y  20 4x  20 5y  20 x5 y  4 The x-intercept The y-intercept is (5, 0). is (0, 4).

Slope Formula [7.3B, p. 375] If P1(x1, y1) and P2(x2, y2) are two points on a line and x1 苷 x2, then y2  y1 m x2  x1

To find the slope of the line between the points (1, 2) and (3, 1), let P1  (1, 2) and P2  (3, 1). Then

Parallel Lines [7.3B, p. 376] Two nonvertical lines in the plane are parallel if and only if they have the same slope. Vertical lines in the plane are parallel.

m

y2  y1 x2  x1



1  (2) 3  1



1 4

1 4

 .

The slope of the line through P1(3, 6) and P2(5, 10) is m1 

10  (6) 53

 2.

The slope of the line through Q1(4, 5) and Q2(0, 3) is m2 

3  (5) 04

 2.

Because m1  m2, the lines are parallel. Perpendicular Lines [7.3B, p. 377] Two nonvertical lines in the plane are perpendicular if and only if the product of their slopes is 1. A vertical and a horizontal line are perpendicular.

The slope of the line through P1(5, 3) and P2(2, 1) is m1 

1  (3) 25

2 3

 .

The slope of the line through Q1(1, 4) and Q2(3, 1) is m2 

1  (4) 31

Because m1m2  

2 3

3 2

3 2

 .

 1, the

lines are perpendicular. Slope-Intercept Form of a Linear Equation [7.3C, p. 378] An equation of the form y  mx  b is called the slope-intercept form of a straight line. The slope of the line is m, the coefficient of x. The y-intercept is (0, b), where b is the constant term of the equation.

For the line with equation y  3x  2, the slope is 3 and the y-intercept is (0, 2).

Point-Slope Formula [7.4A, p. 385] If (x1, y1) is a point on a line with slope m, then y  y1  m(x  x1)

The equation of the line that passes through the point (5, 3) and has slope 2 is: y  y1  m(x  x1) y  (3)  2(x  5) y  3  2x  10 y  2x  7

396

CHAPTER 7

Linear Equations in Two Variables

CHAPTER 7

1. How is the ordinate different from the abscissa?

2. How many ordered-pair solutions are there for a linear equation in two variables?

3. When is a relation a function?

4. What is the difference between an independent variable and a dependent variable?

5. In the general equation y  mx  b, what do m and b represent?

6. How many ordered-pair solutions of a linear function should be found to ensure the accuracy of a graph?

7. How is the equation of a vertical line different from the equation of a horizontal line?

8. How are the ordered pairs different for an x-intercept and a y-intercept?

9. What does it mean for a line to have an undefined slope?

10. Given two ordered pairs on a line, how do you find the slope of the line?

11. What is the difference between parallel and perpendicular lines?

12. What is the point-slope formula?

397

Chapter 7 Review Exercises

CHAPTER 7

REVIEW EXERCISES 1. a. Graph the ordered pairs (2, 4) and (3, 2). b. Name the abscissa of point A. c. Name the ordinate of point B.

1

2. Graph the ordered-pair solutions of y   x  2 2 when x 僆 冦4, 2, 0, 2冧. y

y 4

4

2

2 –4

–2 A

0

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

1 4

5. Graph y  x  3.

4. Determine the equation of the line that passes 5 through the point (6, 1) and has slope  . 2

6. Graph 5x  3y  15. y

y 4

4

2

2

0

x

–4

B

3. Determine the equation of the line that passes through the points (1, 3) and (2, 5).

–2

4

–2

–2 –4

–4

2

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

–2

–2

–4

–4

7. Is the line that passes through (7, 5) and (6, 1) parallel, perpendicular, or neither parallel nor perpendicular to the line that passes through (4, 5) and (2, 3)?

9. Does y  x  3, where x 僆 冦2, 0, 3, 5冧, define y as a function of x?

11. Find the x- and y-intercepts of 3x  2y  24.

2

4

x

8. Given f (x)  x2  2, find f (1).

10. Find the slope of the line containing the points (9, 8) and (2, 1).

12. Find the slope of the line containing the points (2, 3) and (4, 3).

398

CHAPTER 7

Linear Equations in Two Variables

14. Graph x  3 .

13. Graph the line that has 1 slope and y-intercept

15. Graph the line that has 2 slope  and y-intercept

2

3

(0, 1).

(0, 2). y

–4

–2

y 4

4

2

2

2

0

2

4

x –4

–2

0

x

4

–4

–2

0

–2

–2

–4

–4

–4

y 4

4

2

2

2

2

4

x

y

4

0

4

2

17. Graph the line that has 18. Graph 3x  2y  6. slope 2 and y-intercept (0, 4).

y

–2

2

–2

16. Graph y  2x  1 .

–4

y

4

x

–4

–2

0

2

x

4

–4

–2

0

–2

–2

–2

–4

–4

–4

2

4

x

19. Health The height and weight of 8 seventh-grade students are shown in the following table. Write a relation in which the first coordinate is height in inches and the second coordinate is weight in pounds. Is the relation a function? 55

57

53

57

60

61

58

54

Weight (in pounds)

95

101

94

98

100

105

97

95

C Cost (in dollars)

Height (in inches)

20. Business An online research service charges a monthly access fee of \$75 plus \$.45 per minute to use the service. An equation that represents the monthly cost to use this service is C  0.45x  75, where C is the monthly cost and x is the number of minutes of access used. Graph this equation for values of x from 0 to 100. The point (50, 97.5) is on the graph. Write a sentence that describes the meaning of this ordered pair.

Year, x Cost of telephone bills, y (in dollars)

1

2

3

4

5

6

690

708

772

809

830

849

Graph the data and the line of best fit in the coordinate system at the right. Write a sentence that describes the meaning of the slope of the line of best fit.

(50, 97.5) 50

0

50 100 Time (in minutes)

1

2

x

y

Annual telephone bills (in dollars)

21. Telecommunications The data in the table below show the annual costs of telephone bills for a family for 6 years. The line of best fit is y  34x  657, where x is the year and y is the annual cost, in dollars, of telephone bills.

100

850 800 750 700 650 0

3 4 Year

5

6

x

Chapter 7 Test

399

CHAPTER 7

TEST y

2. Graph the orderedpair solutions of

1. Find the ordered-pair solution of 2x  3y  15 corresponding to x  3.

4

3

y   2 x  1 when

2

x  2, 0, and 4.

–4

–2

0

2

4

x

–2 –4

1 2

4. Given f (t)  t2  t, find f (2).

3. Does y  x  3 define y as a function of x for x 僆 冦2, 0, 4冧?

5. Given f (x)  x2  2x, find f (1). 6. Emergency Response The distance a house is from a fire station and the amount of damage that the house sustained in a fire are given in the following table. Write a relation wherein the first coordinate of the ordered pair is the distance, in miles, from the fire station and the second coordinate is the amount of damage in thousands of dollars. Is the relation a function? Distance (in miles)

3.5

4.0

5.2

5.0

4.0

6.3

5.4

Damage (in thousands of dollars)

25

30

45

38

42

12

34

3

7. Graph y  3x  1 .

8. Graph y   4 x  3 .

y

–4

–2

y 4

4

2

2

2

0

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

–2

–2

–2

–4

–4

–4

11. Graph the line that has 2 slope 3 and y-intercept (0, 4).

y

–2

y

4

10. Graph x  3  0 .

–4

9. Graph 3x  2y  6.

y 4

2

2

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

x

y

4

2

4

12. Graph the line that has slope 2 and y-intercept 2.

4

0

2

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

–2

–2

–2

–4

–4

–4

2

4

x

Linear Equations in Two Variables

13. Sports The equation for the speed of a ball that is thrown straight up with an initial speed of 128 ft/s is v  128  32t, where v is the speed of the ball after t seconds. Graph this equation for values of t from 0 to 4. The point whose coordinates are (1, 96) is on the graph. Write a sentence that describes the meaning of this ordered pair.

14. Health The graph at the right shows the relationship between distance walked and calories burned. Find the slope of the line. Write a sentence that explains the meaning of the slope.

v Speed (in feet per second)

CHAPTER 7

120 (1, 96)

100 80 60 40 20 0

2

1

3

t

4

Time (in seconds)

y Calories burned

400

400

(4, 280)

300 200

(2, 140)

100 0

2

1

3

4

x

5

Distance walked (in miles)

Year, x Tuition Costs, y (in dollars)

1

2

3

4

5

6

12,400

12,800

13,700

14,700

15,400

16,300

Graph the data and the line of best fit in the coordinate system at the right. Write a sentence that describes the meaning of the slope of the line of best fit.

y

16,000 Tuition costs (in dollars)

15. Tuition The data in the table below show the annual tuition costs at a 4-year college over a 6-year period. The line of best fit is y  809x  11,390, where x is the year and y is the annual tuition cost in dollars.

15,000 14,000 13,000 12,000 0

1

2

3 4 Year

5

6

x

1 2

16. Find the x- and y-intercepts for 6x  4y  12.

17. Find the x- and y-intercepts for y  x  1.

18. Find the slope of the line containing the points (2, 3) and (4, 1).

19. Is the line that passes through (2, 5) and (1, 1) parallel, perpendicular, or neither parallel nor perpendicular to the line that passes through (2, 3) and (4, 11)?

20. Find the slope of the line containing the points (5, 2) and (5, 7).

21. Find the slope of the line whose equation is 2x  3y  6.

22. Find the equation of the line that contains the point (0, 1) and has slope 3.

23. Find the equation of the line that contains the point 2 (3, 1) and has slope .

24. Find the equation of the line that passes through the points (5, 4) and (3, 1).

25. Find the equation of the line that passes through the points (2, 0) and (5, 2).

3

Cumulative Review Exercises

401

CUMULATIVE REVIEW EXERCISES 1. Simplify: 12  18 3  (2)2

3. Given f (x) 

2 , x1

find f (2).

2. Evaluate

ab a2  c

4. Solve: 2x 

when a  2, b  3, and c  4.

2 7  3 3

2 3

5. Solve: 3x  2冤 x  3(2  3x)冥  x  7

6. Write 6 % as a fraction.

7. Simplify: (2x 2y) 3(2xy 2)2

8. Simplify:

9. Divide: (x2  4x  21) (x  7)

11. Factor: x(a  2)  y(a  2)

13. Multiply:

x5y3 x2  9  x2  x  6 x2y4

15. Solve: 3 

1 5  x x

15x7 5x5

10. Factor: 5x2  15x  10

12. Solve: x(x  2)  8

14. Subtract:

9 3x  2 x  5x  24 x  5x  24 2

16. Solve 4x  5y  15 for y.

402

CHAPTER 7

Linear Equations in Two Variables

17. Find the ordered-pair solution of y  2x  1 corresponding to x  2.

18. Find the slope of the line that contains the points (2, 3) and (2, 3).

19. Find the equation of the line that contains the point 1 (2, 1) and has slope .

20. Find the equation of the line that contains the point (0, 2) and has slope 3.

21. Find the equation of the line that contains the point (1, 0) and has slope 2.

22. Find the equation of the line that contains the point 2 (6, 1) and has slope .

2

3

23. Business A suit that regularly sells for \$89 is on sale for 30% off the regular price. Find the sale price.

24. Geometry The measure of the first angle of a triangle is 3 more than the measure of the second angle. The measure of the third angle is 5 more than twice the measure of the second angle. Find the measure of each angle.

25. Taxes The real estate tax for a home that costs \$500,000 is \$6250. At this rate, what is the value of a home for which the real estate tax is \$13,750?

26. Business An electrician requires 6 h to wire a garage. An apprentice can do the same job in 10 h. How long would it take to wire the garage if both the electrician and the apprentice worked together?

2

1 2

28. Graph the line that has slope  3 y-intercept 2.

27. Graph y  x  1. y

y

4

4

2 –4

–2

0 –2 –4

2 2

4

x –4

–2

0 –2 –4

2

4

x

and

CHAPTER

8

Systems of Linear Equations Vito Palmisano/Photographer’s Choice/Getty Images

OBJECTIVES

SECTION 8.1 A To solve a system of linear equations by graphing

Take the Chapter 8 Prep Test to find out if you are ready to learn to:

SECTION 8.2 A To solve a system of linear equations by the substitution method B To solve investment problems

• Solve a system of linear equations by graphing, by the substitution method, or by the addition method • Solve investment problems and rate-of-wind or rate-of-current problems

SECTION 8.3 A To solve a system of linear equations by the addition method SECTION 8.4 A To solve rate-of-wind or rate-ofcurrent problems B To solve application problems using two variables

PREP TEST Do these exercises to prepare for Chapter 8. 1. Solve 3x  4y  24 for y.

2. Solve: 50  0.07x  0.05(x  1400)

3. Simplify: 3(2x  7y)  3(2x  4y)

4. Simplify: 4x  2(3x  5)

5. Is (4, 2) a solution of 3x  5y  22?

6. Find the x- and y-intercepts for 3x  4y  12. y

7. Are the graphs of 3x  y  6 and y  3x  4 parallel?

4

8. Graph: 5 y x2 4

2 –4

–2

0

2

–2 –4

9. Pharmacology A pharmacist has 20 ml of an 80% acetic acid solution. How many milliliters of a 55% acetic acid solution should be mixed with the 20-milliliter solution to produce a solution that is 75% acetic acid? 10. Hiking One hiker starts along a trail walking at 3 mph. One-half hour later, another hiker starts on the same walking trail at a speed of 4 mph. How long after the second hiker starts will the two hikers be side-by-side?

403

4

x

404

CHAPTER 8

Systems of Linear Equations

SECTION

Solving Systems of Linear Equations by Graphing

8.1 OBJECTIVE A

To solve a system of linear equations by graphing Two or more equations considered together are called a system of equations. Three examples of linear systems of equations in two variables are shown below, along with the graphs of the equations of each system.

System I x  2y  8 2x  5y  11

System II 4x  2y  6 y  2x  3

y

y

2x + 5y = 11

5 4 3 (−2, 3) 2 1

− 5 −4 − 3 − 2 − 1 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5

Take Note The systems of equations above are linear systems o f equations because each of the equations in the system has a graph that is a line. Also, each equation has two variables. In future math courses, you will study equations that contain more than two variables.

y = −2x + 3

x − 2y = −8

1 2 3 4 5

System III 4x  6y  12 6x  9y  9

x

5 4 3 2 1

−5 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5

y

5 4 3 2 1

4x + 2y = 6

1 2 3 4 5

x

4x + 6y = 12

− 5 −4 −3 − 2 −1 1 2 3 4 5 −1 −2 −3 −4 6x + 9y = −9 −5

x

For system I, the two lines intersect at a single point, (2, 3). Because this point lies on both lines, it is a solution of each equation of the system of equations. We can check this by replacing x by 2 and y by 3. The check is shown below. x  2y  8 2  2(3) 8 2  6 8 8  8 ⻫

2x  5y  11 2(2)  5(3) 11 4  15 11 11  11 ⻫

• Replace x by ⴚ2 and replace y by 3.

A solution of a system of equations in two variables is an ordered pair that is a solution of each equation of the system. The ordered pair (2, 3) is a solution of system I. HOW TO • 1

7x  3y  5 3x  2y  12

Is (1, 4) a solution of the system of equations?

7x  3y  5 7(1)  3(4) 5 7  12 5 55⻫

3x  2y  12 3(1)  2(4) 12 3  8 12 11  12

• Replace x by ⴚ1 and replace y by 4.

• Does not check

Because (1, 4) is not a solution of both equations, (1, 4) is not a solution of the system of equations. Using the system of equations above and the graph at the right, note that the graph of the ordered pair (1, 4) lies on the graph of 7x  3y  5 but not on both lines. The ordered pair (1, 4) is not a solution of the system of equations. The graph of the ordered pair (2, 3) does lie on both lines and therefore the ordered pair (2, 3) is a solution of the system of equations.

y 5 4 3 2 7x + 3y = 5 1

(−1, 4)

−5 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5

3x − 2y = 12

1 2 3 4 5

(2, −3)

x

SECTION 8.1

Take Note The fact that there is an infinite number of ordered pairs that are solutions of the system at the right does not mean every ordered pair is a solution. For instance, (0, 3), (2, 7), and (2, 1) are solutions. However, (3, 1), (1, 4), and (1, 6) are not solutions. You should verify these statements.

System II from the preceding page and the graph of the equations of that system are shown again at the right. Note that the graph of y  2x  3 lies directly on top of the graph of 4x  2y  6. Thus the two lines intersect at an infinite number of points. The graphs intersect at an infinite number of points, so there are an infinite number of solutions of this system of equations. Because each equation represents the same set of points, the solutions of the system of equations can be stated by using the ordered pairs of either one of the equations. Therefore, we can say, “The solutions are the ordered pairs that satisfy 4x  2y  6,” or we can say “The solutions are the ordered pairs that satisfy y  2x  3.”

4x  2y  6 y  2x  3

System III from the preceding page and the graph of the equations of that system are shown again at the right. Note that in this case, the graphs of the lines are parallel and do not intersect. Because the graphs do not intersect, there is no point that is on both lines. Therefore, the system of equations has no solution.

4x  6y  12 6x  9y  9

y

y = −2x + 3

4x + 2y = 6

1 2 3 4 5

x

y 5 4 3 2 1

4x + 6y = 12

− 5 −4 −3 − 2 −1 1 2 3 4 5 −1 −2 −3 −4 6x + 9y = −9 −5

y

x

y

x

x

Independent: one solution

5 4 3 2 1

−5 −4 −3 −2 − 1 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5

The preceding examples illustrate three types of systems of linear equations. An independent system has exactly one solution—the graphs intersect at one point. A dependent system has an infinite number of solutions—the graphs are the same line. An inconsistent system has no solution—the graphs are parallel lines. y

405

Solving Systems of Linear Equations by Graphing

Dependent: infinitely many solutions

x

Inconsistent: no solution

y

HOW TO • 2

The graphs of the equations in the system of equations below are shown at the right. What is the solution of the system of equations? 2x  3y  6 2x  y  2 The graphs intersect at (3, 4). This is an independent system of equations. The solution of the system of equations is (3, 4).

(–3, 4)

4 2

−4 −2 0 2x + y = −2 −2 −4

2x + 3y = 6 2

4

x

406

CHAPTER 8

Systems of Linear Equations

Take Note Because both equations represent the same ordered pairs, we can also say that the solutions of the system of equations are the ordered pairs that satisfy 1 x  y  1. 2 Either answer is correct.

y  2x  2 1 x y1 2

HOW TO • 3

The graphs of the equations in the system of equations at the right are shown below. What is the solution of the system of equations? y 4 2 −4 −2 y = 2x − 2

0 −2

2 4 x = 12 y + 1

x

−4

The two graphs lie directly on top of one another. Thus the two lines intersect at an infinite number of points, and the system of equations has an infinite number of solutions. This is a dependent system of equations. The solutions of the system of equations are the ordered pairs that satisfy y  2x  2.

Integrating Technology The Projects and Group Activities at the end of this chapter discusses using a calculator to approximate the solution of an independent system of equations. Also see the Keystroke Guide: Intersect.

Solving a system of equations means finding the ordered-pair solutions of the system. One way to do this is to draw the graphs of the equations in the system of equations and determine where the graphs intersect.

To solve a system of linear equations in two variables by graphing, graph each equation on the same coordinate system, and then determine the points of intersection.

HOW TO • 4

Solve by graphing: 2x  y  1 x  2y  7

y x + 2y = 7

Graph each line.

4

(1, 3)

2

The point of intersection of the two graphs lies on both lines and is therefore the solution of the system of equations.

−4 −2 0 2x − y = −1 −2

2

4

2

4

x

−4

The system of equations is independent. (1, 3) is a solution of each equation. The solution is (1, 3).

HOW TO • 5

Solve by graphing:

y  2x  2 4x  2y  4

Graph each line. The graphs do not intersect. The system of equations is inconsistent. The system of equations has no solution.

y 4 y = 2x + 2

2

−4 −2 0 −2 −4

4x − 2y = 4

x

SECTION 8.1

EXAMPLE • 1

Solving Systems of Linear Equations by Graphing

407

YOU TRY IT • 1

Is (1, 3) a solution of the following system? 3x  2y  3 x  3y  6

Is (1, 2) a solution of the following system? 2x  5y  8 x  3y  5

Solution Replace x by 1 and y by 3.

3x  2y  3 3  1  2(3)  3 3  (6)  3 3  3

x  3y  6 1  3(3)  6 1  (9)  6 10  6

No, (1, 3) is not a solution of the system of equations. EXAMPLE • 2

YOU TRY IT • 2

Solve by graphing: x  2y  2 xy5

Solve by graphing: x  3y  3 x  y  5

Solution

y x+y=5

4

4

(4, 1)

2 –4 –2 0 –2

2

4

2

x

–4 –2 0 –2

2

x

4

–4

x − 2y = 2 – 4

The solution is (4, 1). EXAMPLE • 3

YOU TRY IT • 3

Solve by graphing: 4x  2y  6 y  2x  3

Solve by graphing: y  3x  1 6x  2y  6

Solution

y 4

4 2 −2

0 −2

2

y = 2x − 3 2

4

6

x

4x − 2y = 6

−4

–4 –2 0 –2

2

4

x

–4

The solutions are the ordered pairs that satisfy the equation y  2x  3. Solutions on p. S20

408

CHAPTER 8

Systems of Linear Equations

8.1 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To solve a system of linear equations by graphing

1. Is (2, 3) a solution of

3x  4y  18 ? 2x  y  1

2. Is (2, 1) a solution of

3. Is (4, 3) a solution of

5x  2y  14 ? xy8

4. Is (2, 5) a solution of

5. Is (2, 3) a solution of 7. Is (0, 0) a solution of

y  2x  7 ? 3x  y  9

x  2y  4 ? 2x  y  3

3x  2y  16 ? 2x  3y  4

6. Is (1, 2) a solution of

3x  4y  0 ? yx

8. Is (3, 4) a solution of

3x  4y  5 ? yx1

5x  2y  23 ? 2x  5y  25

For Exercises 9 and 10, label each system of equations (systems I, II, and III) as (a) independent, (b) dependent, or (c) inconsistent. 9. I

II

y

III

y

y

4

4

4

2

2

2

−4 −2 0 −2

2

4

x

−4 −2 0 −2

−4

10. I

2

4

x

−4 −2 0 −2

−4

II

y

III

y 4

4

2

2

4

x

−4

2

4

x

y

2 2

4

−4

4

−4 −2 0 −2

2

−4 −2 0 −2

2

4

x

−4 −2 0 −2

x

−4

−4

For Exercises 11 to 19, use the graphs of the equations of the system of equations to find the solution of the system of equations. y

11.

x+y=1

12.

y

4

4

2

2

−4 −2 0 x − 2y = 4 − 2 −4

2

4

x

−4 −2 0 −2 −4

y

13.

4

4x − 5y = 10

2

4

y = −2

x

y = − 32 x + 1

2 3x + 2y = 2

−4 −2 0 −2 −4

2

4

x

SECTION 8.1

14.

15.

y

2 −4 −2

2x − 3y = −3

y = 3x − 1

0 −2

2

x

4

−4

17.

4 3x + 4y = 12

2

2

−4

18.

y

y

4

−4 −2 0 −2

3x − y = 1

16.

y

4

2

4

x

−4 −2 0 −2

2x − 3y = 6

−4

19.

y 4

3x + 8y = 26

4

−4 −2 0 −2

2

−2 0 −2

x

4

−4

2

4

6

x

−4 −2 0 −2 −4

y = − 43 x + 4

y

y

4

4

2

2 2

4

x

–4 –2 0 –2

–4

2

4

2

4

2

4

x

–4

22. x  2y  6 xy3

23. 3x  y  3 2x  y  2 y

y

4

4

2

2

–4 –2 0 –2

2

4

x

–4 –2 0 –2

–4

25.

x2 3x  2y  4

y

y

4

4

2

2

–4 –2 0 –2 –4

x

–4

24. 3x  2y  6 y3

2

4

x

6x + 8y = 0

2

21. 2x  y  4 xy5

–4 –2 0 –2

x

4

4x + 3y = 12

For Exercises 20 to 39, solve by graphing. 20. x  y  3 xy5

4

y = 12 x + 2

2

2

2

y

x − 3y = −14 6

409

Solving Systems of Linear Equations by Graphing

–4 –2 0 –2 –4

x

2

4

y = 12 x − 4

x

410

CHAPTER 8

Systems of Linear Equations

26. x  3 y  2

27. x  1  0 y30

y 4 2 2

4

x

–4 –2 0 –2

–4

y  2x  6 xy0

29. 5x  2y  11 y  2x  5

y 4

2

4

x

31.

4

xy5 3x  3y  6

2 2

4

x

33.

y 4

1 y x1 3 2x  6y  6

2

4

x

2

4

y 4

–4 –2 0 –2

–4

x

–4

35. 5x  2y  10 3x  2y  6

y 4 2

–4

4

x

2

–4 –2 0 –2

–4 –2 0 –2

2

4

–4

2

xy5 2x  y  6

4

y

–4 –2 0 –2

–4

34.

2

x

2

–4 –2 0 –2

4x  2y  4

4

4

–4

y

y  2x  2

2

x

y

–4 –2 0 –2

–4

32.

4

2

–4 –2 0 –2

2x  y  2 6x  3y  6

2

–4

2

30.

4 2

–4 –2 0 –2

28.

y

y 4 2

2

4

x

–4 –2 0 –2 –4

x

SECTION 8.1

36. 3x  4y  0

Solving Systems of Linear Equations by Graphing

37. 2x  3y  0

1 y x 3

2x  5y  0 y

y

4

4

2

2

–4 –2 0 –2

2

4

x

–4 –2 0 –2

–4

38.

4

x

–4

x  3y  3 2x  6y  12

39. 4x  6y  12 6x  9y  18

y

y

4

4 2

2 –4 –2 0 –2

2

2

4

x

–4 –2 0 –2

–4

2

4

x

–4

In Exercises 40 and 41, A, B, C, and D are nonzero real numbers. State whether the system of equations is independent, inconsistent, or dependent. 40. y  Ax  B y  Ax  C, B  C

41. x  C yD

Applying the Concepts 42. Determine whether the statement is always true, sometimes true, or never true. a. A solution of a system of two equations in two variables is a point in the plane. b. Two parallel lines have the same slope. c. Two different lines with the same y-intercept are parallel. d. Two different lines with the same slope are parallel.

43. Write a system of equations that has (2, 4) as its only solution.

44. Write a system of equations for which there is no solution.

45. Write a system of equations that is a dependent system of equations.

411

412

CHAPTER 8

Systems of Linear Equations

SECTION

8.2 OBJECTIVE A

Solving Systems of Linear Equations by the Substitution Method To solve a system of linear equations by the substitution method A graphical solution of a system of equations is found by approximating the coordinates of a point of intersection. Algebraic methods can be used to find an exact solution of a system of equations. The substitution method can be used to eliminate one of the variables in one of the equations so that we have one equation in one unknown. HOW TO • 1

Solve by the substitution method: (1) (2)

2x  5y  11 y  3x  9

Equation (2) states that y  3x  9. Substitute 3x  9 for y in Equation (1). Then solve for x. 2x  5y  11 2x  5(3x  9)  11 2x  15x  45  11 17x  45  11 17x  34 x2

• This is Equation (1). • From Equation (2), substitute 3x ⴚ 9 for y. • Solve for x.

Now substitute the value of x into Equation (2) and solve for y. y  3x  9 y  3(2)  9 y  6  9  3

• This is Equation (2). • Substitute 2 for x. y

The solution is the ordered pair (2, 3).

4

y = 3x − 9

2

The graph of the equations in this system of equations is shown at the right. Note that the lines intersect at the point whose coordinates are (2, 3), which is the algebraic solution we determined by the substitution method.

−4

−2

0

−2 2x + 5y = −11

2

4

x

(2, −3)

−4

To solve a system of equations by the substitution method, we may need to solve one of the equations in the system of equations for one of its variables. For instance, the first step in solving the system of equations (1) (2)

x  2y  3 2x  3y  5

is to solve an equation of the system for one of its variables. Either equation can be used. Solving Equation (1) for x: x  2y  3 x  2y  3

Solving Equation (2) for x: 2x  3y  5 2x  3y  5 3y  5 3 5  y x 2 2 2

Because solving Equation (1) for x does not result in fractions, it is the easier of the two equations to use.

SECTION 8.2

Solving Systems of Linear Equations by the Substitution Method

413

Here is the solution of the system of equations given on the preceding page.

HOW TO • 2

Solve by the substitution method: (1) (2)

x  2y  3 2x  3y  5

To use the substitution method, we must solve one equation of the system for one of its variables. We used Equation (1) because solving it for x does not result in fractions. (3)

x  2y  3 x  2y  3

• Solve for x. This is Equation (3).

Now substitute 2y  3 for x in Equation (2) and solve for y. 2x  3y  5 2(2y  3)  3y  5 4y  6  3y  5 7y  6  5 7y  11 11 y 7

• This is Equation (2). • From Equation (3), substitute ⴚ2y ⴚ 3 for x. • Solve for y.

Substitute the value of y into Equation (3) and solve for x. x  2y  3

 2  

11 7

• This is Equation (3).

3

• Substitute ⴚ

11 for y. 7

22 22 21 1 3   7 7 7 7

The solution is

11 7

y 4

The graph of the system of equations given above is shown at the right. It would be difficult to determine the exact solution of this system of equations from the graphs of the equations.

HOW TO • 3

Solve by the substitution method: (1) (2)

−4

−2

2

2x − 3y = 5

0

2

4

x

−2 −4 x + 2y = −3

y  3x  1 y  2x  6

y  2x  6 3x  1  2x  6 • Substitute 3x ⴚ 1 for y in Equation (2). 5x  5 • Solve for x. x  1 Substitute this value of x into Equation (1) or Equation (2) and solve for y. Equation (1) is used here. y  3x  1 y  3(1)  1  4 The solution is (1, 4).

• Substitute ⴚ1 for x.

414

CHAPTER 8

Systems of Linear Equations

The substitution method can be used to analyze inconsistent and dependent systems of equations. If, when solving a system of equations algebraically, the variable is eliminated and the result is a false equation, such as 0  4, the system of equations is inconsistent. If the variable is eliminated and the result is a true equation, such as 12  12, the system of equations is dependent. HOW TO • 4

Solve by the substitution method: (1)

2x  3y  3

2 y x3 3

(2)

2x  3y  3

• This is Equation (1).

2 2x  3  x  3  3 3 2x  2x  9  3 93

2 • From Equation (2), replace y with ⴚ x ⴙ 3. 3 • Solve for x. • This is a false equation.

Because 9  3 is a false equation, the system of equations has no solution. The system is inconsistent. y

2

Solving Equation (1) above for y, we have y   3 x  1. Comparing this with Equation (2) reveals that the slopes are equal and the y-intercepts are different. The graphs of the equations that make up this system of equations are parallel and thus never intersect. Because the graphs do not intersect, there are no solutions of the system of equations. The system of equations is inconsistent. HOW TO • 5

Take Note As we mentioned in the previous section, when a system of equations is dependent, either equation can be used to write the ordered-pair solutions. Thus we could have said, “The solutions are the ordered pairs (x, y) that are solutions of 4x  8y  12.” Also note that, as we show at the right, if we solve each equation for y, the equations have the same slope-intercept form. This means we could also say, “The solutions are the ordered pairs (x, y) that are solutions of y 

1 3 x  .” 2 2

When a system of equations is dependent, there are many ways in which the solutions can be stated.

Solve by the substitution method: (1) (2)

4x  8y  12 4(2y  3)  8y  12 8y  12  8y  12 12  12

• • • •

4 2x + 3y = 3 −4

2 0

2

4

x

−2 −4

x  2y  3 4x  8y  12

This is Equation (2). From Equation (1), replace x by 2y ⴙ 3. Solve for y. This is a true equation.

The true equation 12  12 indicates that any ordered pair (x, y) that satisfies one equation of the system satisfies the other equation. Therefore, the system of equations has an infinite number of solutions. The system is dependent. The solutions are the ordered pairs (x, y) that are solutions of x  2y  3.

−2

y = − 23 x + 3

y 4 2

−4 −2 0 x = 2y + 3 −2

2 4 4x − 8y = 12

x

−4

If we write Equation (1) and Equation (2) in slope-intercept form, we have x  2y  3 2y  x  3 1 3 y x 2 2

4x  8y  12 8y  4x  12 3 1 y x 2 2

The slope-intercept forms of the equations are the same, and therefore the graphs are the same. If we graph these two equations, we essentially graph one over the other, so the graphs intersect at an infinite number of points.

SECTION 8.2

Solving Systems of Linear Equations by the Substitution Method

EXAMPLE • 1

415

YOU TRY IT • 1

Solve by substitution: 3x  4y  2 (1) (2) x  2y  4

Solve by substitution: 7x  y  4 (1) (2) 3x  2y  9

Solution x  2y  4 • Solve Equation (2) for x. x  2y  4 x  2y  4

Substitute in Equation (1). 3x  4y  2 (1) 3(2y  4)  4y  2 6y  12  4y  2 10y  12  2 10y  10 y1

• x ⴝ 2y ⴚ 4 • Solve for y.

Substitute in x  2y  4. x  2y  4 x  2(1)  4 • y ⴝ 1 x24 x  2 The solution is (2, 1). EXAMPLE • 2

YOU TRY IT • 2

Solve by substitution: 4x  2y  5 y  2x  1

Solve by substitution: 3x  y  4 y  3x  2

Solution 4x  2y  5 4x  2(2x  1)  5 4x  4x  2  5 25

Your solution • y ⴝ ⴚ2x ⴙ 1 • Solve for x. • A false equation

The system of equations is inconsistent and therefore does not have a solution. EXAMPLE • 3

YOU TRY IT • 3

Solve by substitution: y  3x  2 6x  2y  4

Solve by substitution: y  2x  1 6x  3y  3

Solution 6x  2y  4 6x  2(3x  2)  4 6x  6x  4  4 44

Your solution • y ⴝ 3x ⴚ 2 • Solve for x. • A true equation

The system of equations is dependent. The solutions are the ordered pairs that satisfy the equation y  3x  2. Solutions on p. S20

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OBJECTIVE B

To solve investment problems The annual simple interest that an investment earns is given by the equation Pr  I, where P is the principal, or the amount invested, r is the simple interest rate, and I is the simple interest. For instance, if you invest \$750 at a simple interest rate of 6%, then the interest earned after 1 year is calculated as follows: Pr  I 750(0.06)  I 45  I

• Replace P by 750 and r by 0.06 (6%). • Simplify.

The amount of interest earned is \$45.

Tips for Success Word problems are difficult because we must read the problem, determine the quantity we must find, think of a method to find it, actually solve the problem, and then check the answer. In short, we must devise a strategy and then use that strategy to find the solution. See AIM for Success at the front of the book.

HOW TO • 6

A medical lab technician decides to open an Individual Retirement Account (IRA) by placing \$2000 in two simple interest accounts. On one account, a corporate bond fund, the annual simple interest rate is 7.5%. On the second account, a real estate investment trust, the annual simple interest rate is 9%. If the technician wants to have annual earnings of \$168 from these two investments, how much must be invested in each account? Strategy for Solving Simple-Interest Investment Problems 1. For each amount invested, use the equation Pr  I. Write a numerical or variable expression for the principal, the interest rate, and the interest earned.

Amount invested at 7.5%: x Amount invested at 9%: y Principal, P

Interest rate, r

Amount at 7.5%

x



0.075x

y

 

0.075

Amount at 9%

0.090



0.09y0

Interest earned, I

2. Write a system of equations. One equation will express the relationship between the amounts invested. The second equation will express the relationship between the amounts of interest earned by the investments.

The total amount invested is \$2000: x  y  2000 The total annual interest earned is \$168: 0.075x  0.09y  168 Solve the system of equations. x  y  2000 (1) (2) 0.075x  0.09y  168 Solve Equation (1) for y and substitute into Equation (2). (3) y  x  2000 0.075x  0.09(x  2000)  168 • Substitute ⴚx ⴙ 2000 for y. 0.075x  0.09x  180  168 0.015x  12 x  800 Substitute the value of x into Equation (3) and solve for y. y  x  2000 y  800  2000  1200 • Substitute 800 for x. The amount invested at 7.5% is \$800. The amount invested at 9% is \$1200.

SECTION 8.2

Solving Systems of Linear Equations by the Substitution Method

EXAMPLE • 4

417

YOU TRY IT • 4

A hair stylist invested some money at an annual simple interest rate of 5.2%. A second investment, \$1000 more than the first, was invested at an annual simple interest rate of 7.2% The total annual interest earned was \$320. How much was invested in each account?

The manager of a city’s investment income wishes to place \$330,000 in two simple interest accounts. The first account earns 6.5% annual interest, and the second account earns 4.5%. How much should be invested in each account so that both accounts earn the same annual interest?

Strategy • Amount invested at 5.2%: x Amount invested at 7.2%: y

Principal

Rate

Interest

Amount at 5.2%

x

0.052

0.052x

Amount at 7.2%

y

0.072

0.072y

• The second investment is \$1000 more than the first investment: y  x  1000 The sum of the interest earned at 5.2% and the interest earned at 7.2% equals \$320. 0.052x  0.072y  320

Solution y  x  1000 (1) (2) 0.052x  0.072y  320 Replace y in Equation (2) by x  1000 from Equation (1). Then solve for x. 0.052x  0.072y  320 0.052x  0.072(x  1000)  320 0.052x  0.072x  72  320 0.124x  72  320 0.124x  248 x  2000 y  x  1000  2000  1000  3000

• y ⴝ x ⴙ 1000 • Solve for x.

• x ⴝ 2000

\$2000 was invested at an annual simple interest rate of 5.2%; \$3000 was invested at 7.2%.

Solution on pp. S20 –S21

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8.2 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To solve a system of linear equations by the substitution method

1. When you solve a system of equations by the substitution method, how do you determine whether the system of equations is inconsistent?

2. When you solve a system of equations by the substitution method, how do you determine whether the system of equations is dependent?

For Exercises 3 to 32, solve by substitution. 3. 2x  3y  7 x2

4.

y3 3x  2y  6

5.

yx3 xy5

7.

xy2 x  3y  2

8.

xy1 x  2y  7

6.

yx2 xy6

9.

y  4  3x 3x  y  5

10.

y  2  3x 6x  2y  7

11.

x  3y  3 2x  6y  12

12.

x2y 3x  3y  6

13. 3x  5y  6 x  5y  3

14.

y  2x  3 4x  3y  1

15.

3x  y  4 4x  3y  1

16.

x  4y  9 2x  3y  11

17. 3x  y  6 x  3y  2

18.

4x  y  5 2x  5y  13

19.

3x  y  5 2x  5y  8

20. 3x  4y  18 2x  y  1

21. 4x  3y  0 2x  y  0

22. 5x  2y  0 x  3y  0

23.

2x  y  2 6x  3y  6

SECTION 8.2

Solving Systems of Linear Equations by the Substitution Method

25. x  3y  2 y  2x  6

26. x  4  2y y  2x  13

27. y  2x  11 y  5x  19

28. y  2x  8 y  3x  13

29. y  4x  2 y  3x  1

30. x  3y  7 x  2y  1

31. x  4y  2 x  6y  8

32. x  3  2y x  5y  10

24.

3x  y  4 9x  3y  12

419

For Exercises 33 and 34, assume that A, B, and C are nonzero real numbers. State whether the system of equations is independent, inconsistent, or dependent. 33. x  y  A xAy

OBJECTIVE B

34. x  y  B y  –x  C, C  B

To solve investment problems

For Exercises 35 and 36, use the system of equations at the right, which represents the following situation. Owen Marshall places \$10,000 in two simple interest accounts. One account earns 8% annual simple interest, and the second account earns 6.5% annual simple interest. 35. What do the variables x and y represent? Explain the meaning of each equation in terms of the problem situation.

36. Write a question that could be answered by solving the system of equations.

37. An investment of \$3500 is divided between two simple interest accounts. On one account, the annual simple interest rate is 5%, and on the second account, the annual simple interest rate is 7.5%. How much should be invested in each account so that the total interest earned from the two accounts is \$215?

38. A mortgage broker purchased two trust deeds for a total of \$250,000. One trust deed earns 7% simple annual interest, and the second one earns 8% simple annual interest. If the total annual interest earned from the two trust deeds is \$18,500, what was the purchase price of each trust deed?

x  y  10,000 0.08x  0.065y  710

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CHAPTER 8

Systems of Linear Equations

39. When Sara Whitehorse changed jobs, she rolled over the \$6000 in her retirement account into two simple interest accounts. On one account, the annual simple interest rate is 9%; on the second account, the annual simple interest rate is 6%. How much must be invested in each account if the accounts earn the same amount of annual interest?

40. An animal trainer decided to take the \$15,000 won on a game show and deposit it in two simple interest accounts. Part of the winnings were placed in an account paying 7% annual simple interest, and the remainder was used to purchase a government bond that earns 6.5% annual simple interest. The amount of interest earned for 1 year was \$1020. How much was invested in each account?

41. A police officer has chosen a high-yield stock fund that earns 8% annual simple interest for part of a \$6000 investment. The remaining portion is used to purchase a preferred stock that earns 11% annual simple interest. How much should be invested in each account so that the amount earned on the 8% account is twice the amount earned on the 11% account?

42. To plan for the purchase of a new car, a deposit was made into an account that earns 7% annual simple interest. Another deposit, \$1500 less than the first deposit, was placed in a certificate of deposit earning 9% annual simple interest. The total interest earned on both accounts for 1 year was \$505. How much money was deposited in the certificate of deposit?

43. The Pacific Investment Group invested some money in a certificate of deposit (CD) that earns 6.5% annual simple interest. Twice the amount invested at 6.5% was invested in a second CD that earns 8.5% annual simple interest. If the total annual interest earned from the two investments was \$4935, how much was invested at 6.5%?

44. A corporation gave a university \$300,000 to support product safety research. The university deposited some of the money in a 10% simple interest account and the remainder in an 8.5% simple interest account. How much should be deposited in each account so that the annual interest earned is \$28,500?

45. Ten co-workers formed an investment club, and each deposited \$2000 in the club’s account. They decided to take the total amount and invest some of it in preferred stock that pays 8% annual simple interest and the remainder in a municipal bond that pays 7% annual simple interest. The amount of interest earned each year from the investments was \$1520. How much was invested in each?

46. A financial consultant advises a client to invest part of \$30,000 in municipal bonds that earn 6.5% annual simple interest and the remainder of the money in 8.5% corporate bonds. How much should be invested in each so that the total interest earned each year is \$2190?

SECTION 8.2

Solving Systems of Linear Equations by the Substitution Method

47. Alisa Rhodes placed some money in a real estate investment trust that earns 7.5% annual simple interest. A second investment, which was one-half the amount placed in the real estate investment trust, was used to purchase a trust deed that earns 9% annual simple interest. If the total annual interest earned from the two investments was \$900, how much was invested in the trust deed?

Applying the Concepts For Exercises 48 to 50, find the value of k for which the system of equations has no solution. 48. 2x  3y  7 kx  3y  4

49. 8x  4y  1 2x  ky  3

50.

x  4y  4 kx  8y  4

51. The following was offered as a solution of the system of equations. 1 (1) y x2 2 (2) 2x  5y  10

2x  5y  10

1 x  2  10 2 5 2x  x  10  10 2 9 x0 2 x0

2x  5

• Equation (2) • Substitute

1 x ⴙ 2 for y. 2

• Solve for x.

At this point the student stated that because x  0, the system of equations has no solution. If this assertion is correct, is the system of equations independent, dependent, or inconsistent? If the assertion is not correct, what is the correct solution? 52. Investments A plant manager invested \$3000 more in stocks than in bonds. The stocks paid 8% annual simple interest, and the bonds paid 9.5% annual simple interest. Both investments yielded the same income. Find the total annual interest received on both investments. 53. Compound Interest The exercises in this objective were based on annual simple interest, r, which means that the amount of interest earned after 1 year is given by I  Pr. For compound interest, the interest earned for a certain period of time (usually daily or monthly) is added to the principal before the interest for the next period is calculated. The compound interest earned in 1 year is given by the formula

r n  1 , where n is the number of times per year the interest is n compounded. For instance, if interest is compounded daily, then n  365; if interest is compounded monthly, then n  12. Suppose an investment of \$5000 is made into three different accounts. The first account earns 8% annual simple interest, the second earns 8% compounded monthly (n  12), and the third earns 8% compounded daily (n  365). Find the amount of interest earned from each account. IP 1

421

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Systems of Linear Equations

SECTION

8.3 OBJECTIVE A

Solving Systems of Linear Equations by the Addition Method To solve a system of linear equations by the addition method Another method of solving a system of equations is called the addition method. This method is based on the Addition Property of Equations. Note, for the system of equations at the right, the effect of adding Equation (2) to Equation (1). Because 2y and 2y are opposites, adding the equations results in an equation with only one variable.

5x  2y  11 3x  2y  13 8x  0y  24 8x  24

(1) (2)

8x 24  8 8 x3

Solving 8x  24 for x gives the first coordinate of the ordered-pair solution of the system of equations. The second coordinate is found by substituting the value of x into Equation (1) or Equation (2) and then solving for y. Equation (1) is used here.

(1)

The solution is (3, 2).

5x  2y  11 5(3)  2y  11 15  2y  11 2y  4 y  2

Sometimes adding the two equations does not eliminate one of the variables. In this case, use the Multiplication Property of Equations to rewrite one or both of the equations so that the coefficients of one variable are opposites. Then add the equations and solve for the variables. HOW TO • 1

Solve by the addition method: (1) (2)

4x  y  5 2x  5y  19

Multiply Equation (2) by 2. The coefficients of x will then be opposites. (3)

2(2x  5y)  2  19 4x  10y  38

• Multiply Equation (2) by ⴚ2. • Simplify. This is Equation (3).

Add Equation (1) to Equation (3). Then solve for y. 4x  y  5 (1) (3) 4x  10y  38 11y  33 y  3

• Note that the coefficients of x are opposites. • Add the two equations. • Solve for y.

Substitute the value of y into Equation (1) or Equation (2) and solve for x. Equation (1) is used here. (1)

4x  y  5 4x  (3)  5 4x  3  5 4x  8 x2

The solution is (2, 3).

• Substitute ⴚ3 for y. • Solve for x.

SECTION 8.3

Solving Systems of Linear Equations by the Addition Method

423

Sometimes each equation of a system of equations must be multiplied by a constant so that the coefficients of one variable are opposites. 3x  7y  2 5x  3y  26

Solve by the addition method: (1) (2)

3(5x  3y)  3(26)

15x  35y  10 15x  9y  78 44y  88 y2

5(3x  7y)  5  2 ⎯ ←

To eliminate x, multiply Equation (1) by 5 and Equation (2) by 3. Note at the right how the constants are chosen.

← ⎯

HOW TO • 2

• The negative is used so that the coefficients will be opposites.

• 5 times Equation (1) • ⴚ3 times Equation (2) • Add the equations. • Solve for y.

Substitute the value of y into Equation (1) or Equation (2) and solve for x. Equation (1) is used here. (1)

3x  7y  2 3x  7(2)  2 3x  14  2 3x  12 x  4

• Substitute 2 for y. • Solve for x.

The solution is (4, 2).

For the above system of equations, the value of x was determined by substitution. This value can also be determined by eliminating y from the system. 9x  21y  6 35x  21y  182 44x  176 x  4

• 3 times Equation (1) • 7 times Equation (2) • Add the equations. • Solve for x.

Note that this is the same value of x as was determined by using substitution. HOW TO • 3

Take Note When you use the addition method to solve a system of equations and the result is an equation that is always true (like the one at the right), the system of equations is dependent. Compare this result with the following example. y 4

4x − 10y = 8

2 −2 0 −2 −4

2

4

6

x

Solve by the addition method: (1) (2)

2x  5y  4 4x  10y  8

Eliminate x. Multiply Equation (1) by 2. (3)

2(2x  5y)  2(4) 4x  10y  8

• ⴚ2 times Equation (1) • This is Equation (3).

Add Equation (3) to Equation (2) and solve for y. (2) 4x  10y  8 (3) 4x  10y  8 0x  0y  0 00 The equation 0  0 means that the system of equations is dependent. Therefore, the solutions of the system of equations are the ordered pairs that satisfy 2x  5y  4.

2x − 5y = 4

The graphs of the two equations in the system of equations above are shown at the left. One line is on top of the other; therefore, the lines intersect infinitely often.

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CHAPTER 8

Systems of Linear Equations

HOW TO • 4

Solve by the addition method: (1) (2)

2x  y  2 4x  2y  5

Eliminate y. Multiply Equation (1) by 2. (1) 2(2x  y)  2  2 (3) 4x  2y  4

• ⴚ2 times Equation (1) • This is Equation (3).

Add Equation (2) to Equation (3) and solve for x. (3) 4x  2y  4 (2) 4x  2y  5 0x  0y  9 0  9

y 4 2

The system of equations is inconsistent and therefore does not have a solution.

2x + y = 2

–4 –2 0 4x + 2y = −5 –2

2

4

• Add Equation (2) to Equation (3). • This is a false equation.

x

–4

The graphs of the two equations in the system of equations above are shown at the left. Note that the graphs are parallel and therefore do not intersect. Thus the system of equations has no solution.

EXAMPLE • 1

YOU TRY IT • 1

Solve by the addition method: (1) 2x  4y  7 (2) 5x  3y  2

Solve by the addition method: 2x  3y  1 (1) (2) 3x  4y  6

Solution Eliminate x. 5(2x  4y)  5  7 2(5x  3y)  2(2)

10x  20y  35 10x  26y  45 26y  39 39 3 y  26 2 Substitute (1)

3 2

• 5 times Equation (1) • ⴚ2 times Equation (2)

• Add the equations. • Solve for y.

for y in Equation (1). 2x  4y  7

2x  4

3 2

7

2x  6  7 2x  1 1 x 2 The solution is

3 • Replace y by . 2 • Solve for x.

1 3 , . 2 2

Solution on p. S21

SECTION 8.3

Solving Systems of Linear Equations by the Addition Method

EXAMPLE • 2

425

YOU TRY IT • 2

Solve by the addition method: (1) 6x  9y  15 (2) 4x  6y  10

Solve by the addition method: 2x  3y  4 4x  6y  8

Solution Eliminate x.

4(6x  9y)  4  15

• 4 times Equation (1)

6(4x  6y)  6  10 24x  36y  60 24x  36y  60 0x  0y  0 00

• ⴚ6 times Equation (2)

The system of equations is dependent. The solutions are the ordered pairs that satisfy the equation 6x  9y  15.

EXAMPLE • 3

YOU TRY IT • 3

Solve by the addition method: 2x  y  8 (1) (2) 3x  2y  5

Solve by the addition method: 4x  5y  11 3y  x  10

Solution Write Equation (1) in the form Ax  By  C.

(3)

2x  y  8 2x  y  8 • This is Equation (3).

Eliminate y. 2(2x  y)  2  8 3x  2y  5 4x  2y  16 3x  2y  56 7x  21 x3

• 2 times Equation (3) • This is Equation (2).

Replace x in Equation (1). 2x  y  8 23y8 • Replace x by 3. 6y8 2  y The solution is (3, 2). (1)

Solutions on p. S21

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8.3 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To solve a system of linear equations by the addition method

For Exercises 1 to 36, solve by the addition method. 1. x  y  4 xy6

2. 2x  y  3 xy3

3.

xy4 2x  y  5

4. x  3y  2 x  2y  3

5. 2x  y  1 x  3y  4

6.

x  2y  4 3x  4y  2

7. 4x  5y  22 x  2y  1

8.

9.

2x  y  1 4x  2y  2

10.

x  3y  2 3x  9y  6

13. 2x  3y  1 4x  6y  2

16.

5x  2y  3 3x  10y  1

3x  y  11 2x  5y  13

11. 4x  3y  15 2x  5y  1

12. 3x  7y  13 6x  5y  7

14. 2x  4y  6 3x  6y  9

15. 3x  6y  1 6x  4y  2

17.

5x  7y  10 3x  14y  6

18. 7x  10y  13 4x  5y  6

19. 3x  2y  0 6x  5y  0

20. 5x  2y  0 3x  5y  0

21. 2x  3y  16 3x  4y  7

22. 3x  4y  10 4x  3y  11

23. 5x  3y  7 2x  5y  1

24. 2x  7y  9 3x  2y  1

SECTION 8.3

25.

3x  4y  4 5x  12y  5

28. 4x  8y  36 3x  6y  15

Solving Systems of Linear Equations by the Addition Method

26. 2x  5y  2 3x  3y  1

27. 8x  3y  11 6x  5y  11

29. 5x  15y  20 2x  6y  12

30.

31.

3x  2y  7 5x  2y  13

32.

2y  4  9x 9x  y  25

34.

3x  4  y  18 4x  5y  21

35. 2x  3y  7  2x 7x  2y  9

y  2x  3 3x  4y  1

33. 2x  9y  16 5x  1  3y

36. 5x  3y  3y  4 4x  3y  11

In Exercises 37 to 39, assume that A, B, and C are nonzero real numbers, where A  B  C. State whether the system of equations is independent, inconsistent, or dependent. 37.

Ax  By  C 2Ax  2By  2C

38.

x  Ay  B 3x  3Ay  3C

39.

Ax  By  C Bx  Ay  2C

Applying the Concepts 40. The point of intersection of the graphs of the equations Ax  2y  2 and 2x  By  10 is (2, 2). Find A and B.

41. The point of intersection of the graphs of the equations Ax  4y  9 and 4x  By  1 is (1, 3). Find A and B.

42. For what value of k is the system of equations dependent? 2 a. 2x  3y  7 b. y  x  3 c. x  ky  1 3 4x  6y  k y  kx  3 y  2x  2

43. For what value of k is the system of equations inconsistent? a. x  y  7 b. x  2y  4 c. 2x  ky  1 kx  y  3 kx  3y  2 x  2y  2

427

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Systems of Linear Equations

SECTION

To solve rate-of-wind or rate-of-current problems We normally need two variables to solve motion problems that involve an object moving with or against a wind or current. HOW TO • 1

Flying with the wind, a small plane can fly 600 mi in 3 h. Against the wind, the plane can fly the same distance in 4 h. Find the rate of the plane in calm air and the rate of the wind.

Strategy for Solving Rate-of-Wind or Rate-of-Current Problems 1. Choose one variable to represent the rate of the object in calm conditions and a second variable to represent the rate of the wind or current. Using these variables, express the rate of the object traveling with and against the wind or current. Use the equation rt  d to write expressions for the distance traveled by the object. The results can be recorded in a table.

Rate of plane in calm air: p Rate of wind: w Rate

Time

Distance

With the wind

pw



3



3冢 p  w冣

Against the wind

pw



4



4冢 p  w冣

2. Determine how the expressions for distance are related.

The distance traveled with the wind is 600 mi. The distance traveled against the wind is 600 mi.

3( p  w)  600 4( p  w)  600

Solve the system of equations. 3( p  w)  600 ←⎯

OBJECTIVE A

Application Problems in Two Variables

4( p  w)  600

1  3( p  w)  3 1  4( p  w)  4

1  600 3 1  600 4

p  w  200 ←⎯

8.4

p  w  150 2p  350 p  175

p  w  200 175  w  200 w  25

• p ⴝ 175

The rate of the plane in calm air is 175 mph. The rate of the wind is 25 mph.

SECTION 8.4

EXAMPLE • 1

Application Problems in Two Variables

429

YOU TRY IT • 1

A 450-mile trip from one city to another takes 3 h when a plane is flying with the wind. The return trip, against the wind, takes 5 h. Find the rate of the plane in still air and the rate of the wind.

A canoeist paddling with the current can travel 15 mi in 3 h. Against the current, it takes the canoeist 5 h to travel the same distance. Find the rate of the current and the rate of the canoeist in calm water.

Strategy • Rate of the plane in still air: p Rate of the wind: w

Rate

Time

Distance

With wind

pw

3

3冢 p  w冣

Against wind

pw

5

5冢 p  w冣

• The distance traveled with the wind is 450 mi. The distance traveled against the wind is 450 mi.

Solution 3( p  w)  450 5( p  w)  450

1 1  3( p  w)   450 3 3 1 1  5( p  w)   450 5 5 p  w  150 p  w  90 2p  240 p  120

p  w  150 120  w  150 w  30

• p ⴝ 120

The rate of the plane in still air is 120 mph. The rate of the wind is 30 mph.

Solution on p. S21

OBJECTIVE B

To solve application problems using two variables The application problems in this section are varieties of those problems solved earlier in the text. Each of the strategies for the problems in this section will result in a system of equations.

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HOW TO • 2

A jeweler purchased 5 oz of a gold alloy and 20 oz of a silver alloy for a total cost of \$540. The next day, at the same prices per ounce, the jeweler purchased 4 oz of the gold alloy and 25 oz of the silver alloy for a total cost of \$450. Find the cost per ounce of the gold and silver alloys.

Strategy for Solving an Application Problem in Two Variables 1. Choose one variable to represent one of the unknown quantities and a second variable to represent the other unknown quantity. Write numerical or variable expressions for all of the remaining quantities. These results can be recorded in two tables, one for each of the conditions.

Cost per ounce of gold: g Cost per ounce of silver: s First day:

Unit Cost

Value

5



g



5g

20



s



20s

Amount

Unit Cost

Value

4



g



4g

25



s



25s

Amount Gold

Silver

Point of Interest The Babylonians had a method for solving systems of equations. Here is an adaptation of a problem from an ancient (around 1500 B.C.) Babylonian text. “There are two silver blocks. The sum of 1 1 of the first block and of 7 11 the second block is one sheqel (a weight). The first 1 block diminished by of its 7 weight equals the second 1 diminished by of its weight. 11 What are the weights of the two blocks?”

Second day: Gold

Silver

2. Determine a system of equations. Each table will give one equation of the system.

The total value of the purchase on the first day was \$540.

5g  20s  540

The total value of the purchase on the second day was \$450.

4g  25s  450

Solve the system of equations. 5g  20s  540 4g  25s  450

4(5g  20s)  4  540 5(4g  25s)  5  450

20g  80s  2160 20g  125s  2250 45s  90 s2

5g  20s  540 5g  20(2)  540

• sⴝ2

5g  40  540 5g  500 g  100 The cost per ounce of the gold alloy was \$100. The cost per ounce of the silver alloy was \$2.

SECTION 8.4

EXAMPLE • 2

Application Problems in Two Variables

431

YOU TRY IT • 2

A store owner purchased 20 halogen light bulbs and 30 fluorescent bulbs for a total cost of \$630. A second purchase, at the same prices, included 30 halogen bulbs and 10 fluorescent bulbs for a total cost of \$560. Find the cost of a halogen bulb and of a fluorescent bulb.

A citrus grower purchased 25 orange trees and 20 grapefruit trees for \$2900. The next week, at the same prices, the grower bought 20 orange trees and 30 grapefruit trees for \$3300. Find the cost of an orange tree and the cost of a grapefruit tree.

Strategy Cost of a halogen bulb: h Cost of a fluorescent bulb: f

First purchase: Amount

Unit Cost

Value

Halogen

20

h

20h

Fluorescent

30

f

30f

Amount

Unit Cost

Value

Halogen

30

h

30h

Fluorescent

10

f

10f

Second purchase:

The total cost of the first purchase was \$630. The total cost of the second purchase was \$560.

Solution 20h  30f  630 30h  10f  560

Your solution 20h  30f  630 3(30h  10f)  3(560) 20h  30f  630 90h  30f  1680 70h  1050 h  15

20h  30f  630 20(15)  30f  630 300  30f  630 30f  330 f  11

• h ⴝ 15

The cost of an halogen light bulb is \$15. The cost of a fluorescent light bulb is \$11.

Solution on pp. S21–S22

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Systems of Linear Equations

8.4 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To solve rate-of-wind or rate-of-current problems

1. Traveling with the wind, a plane flies m miles in h hours. Traveling against the wind, the plane flies n miles in h hours. Is m less than, equal to, or greater than n?

2. Traveling against the current, it takes a boat h hours to go m miles. Traveling with the current, the boat takes k hours to go m miles. Is k less than, equal to, or greater than h?

3. A rowing team rowing with the current traveled 40 km in 2 h. Rowing against the current, the team could travel only 16 km in 2 h. Find the rowing rate in calm water and the rate of the current.

With the current 2(x + y) = 40

4. A plane flying with the jet stream flew from Los Angeles to Chicago, a distance of 2250 mi, in 5 h. Flying against the jet stream, the plane could fly only 1750 mi in the same amount of time. Find the rate of the plane in calm air and the rate of the wind.

Against the current 2(x − y) = 16

6. The bird capable of the fastest flying speed is the swift. A swift flying with the wind to a favorite feeding spot traveled 26 mi in 0.2 h. On returning, now against the wind, the swift was able to travel only 16 mi in the same amount of time. What is the rate of the swift in calm air, and what was the rate of the wind?

7. A private Learjet 31A was flying with a tailwind and traveled 1120 mi in 2 h. Flying against the wind on the return trip, the jet was able to travel only 980 mi in 2 h. Find the speed of the jet in calm air and the rate of the wind.

8. A plane flying with a tailwind flew 300 mi in 2 h. Against the wind, it took 3 h to travel the same distance. Find the rate of the plane in calm air and the rate of the wind.

9. A Boeing Apache Longbow military helicopter traveling directly into a strong headwind was able to travel 450 mi in 2.5 h. The return trip, now with a tailwind, took 1 h 40 min. Find the speed of the helicopter in calm air and the rate of the wind.

10. Rowing with the current, a canoeist paddled 14 mi in 2 h. Against the current, the canoeist could paddle only 10 mi in the same amount of time. Find the rate of the canoeist in calm water and the rate of the current.

WILDLIFE/Peter Arnold Inc.

5. A whale swimming against an ocean current traveled 60 mi in 2 h. Swimming in the opposite direction, with the current, the whale was able to travel the same distance in 1.5 h. Find the speed of the whale in calm water and the rate of the ocean current.

SECTION 8.4

Application Problems in Two Variables

433

11. A motorboat traveling with the current went 35 mi in 3.5 h. Traveling against the current, the boat went 12 mi in 3 h. Find the rate of the boat in calm water and the rate of the current.

12. With the wind, a quarterback passes a football 140 ft in 2 s. Against the wind, the same pass would have traveled 80 ft in 2 s. Find the rate of the pass and the rate of the wind.

OBJECTIVE B

To solve application problems using two variables

For Exercises 13 and 14, use the system of equations at the right, which represents the following situation. You spent \$320 on theater tickets for 4 adults and 2 children. For the same performance, your neighbor spent \$240 on tickets for 2 adults and 3 children.

4x  2y  320 2x  3y  240

13. What do the variables x and y represent? Explain the meaning of each equation in terms of the problem situation.

15. Flour Mixtures A baker purchased 12 lb of wheat flour and 15 lb of rye flour for a total cost of \$18.30. A second purchase, at the same prices, included 15 lb of wheat flour and 10 lb of rye flour. The cost of the second purchase was \$16.75. Find the cost per pound of the wheat flour and of the rye flour. 16. Consumerism For using a computerized financial news network for 50 min during prime time and 70 min during non-prime time, a customer was charged \$10.75. A second customer was charged \$13.35 for using the network for 60 min of prime time and 90 min of non-prime time. Find the cost per minute for using the financial news network during prime time. 17. Consumerism The employees of a hardware store ordered lunch from a local delicatessen. The lunch consisted of 4 turkey sandwiches and 7 orders of french fries, for a total cost of \$38.30. The next day, the employees ordered 5 turkey sandwiches and 5 orders of french fries totaling \$40.75. What does the delicatessen charge for a turkey sandwich? What is the charge for an order of french fries? 18. Fuel Mixtures An octane number of 87 on gasoline means that it will fight engine “knock” as effectively as a reference fuel that is 87% isooctane, a type of gas. Suppose you want to fill an empty 18-gallon tank with some 87-octane gasoline and some 93-octane fuel to produce a mixture that is 89-octane. How much of each type of gasoline must you use?

Sandra Baker/Alamy

14. Write a question that could be answered by solving the system of equations.

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19. Food Mixtures A pastry chef created a 50-ounce sugar solution that was 34% sugar from a 20% sugar solution and a 40% sugar solution. How much of the 20% sugar solution and how much of the 40% sugar solution were used?

Ideal Body Weight There are various formulas for calculating ideal body weight. In each of the formulas in Exercises 20 and 21, W is ideal body weight in kilograms, and x is height in inches above 60 in. 20. J. D. Robinson gave the following formula for men: W  52  1.9x. D. R. Miller published a slightly different formula for men: W  56.2  1.41x. At what height do both formulas give the same ideal body weight? Round to the nearest whole number.

21. J. D. Robinson gave the following formula for women: W  49  1.7x. D. R. Miller published a slightly different formula for women: W  53.1  1.36x. At what height do both formulas give the same ideal body weight? Round to the nearest whole number.

22.

Fuel Economy Read the article at the right. Suppose you use 10 gal of gas to drive a 2007 Ford Taurus 208 mi. Using the new miles-per-gallon estimates given in the article, find the number of city miles and the number of highway miles you drove.

23. Stamps Stolen in 1967, the famous “Ice House” envelope (named for the address shown on the envelope) was recovered in 2006. The envelope displays a Lincoln stamp, a Thomas Jefferson stamp, and a Henry Clay stamp. a. The original postage value of three Lincoln stamps and five Jefferson stamps was \$3.20. The original postage value of two Lincoln stamps and three Jefferson stamps was \$2.10. Find the original value of the Lincoln stamp and the Jefferson stamp. b. The total postage on the Ice House envelope was \$1.12. What was the original postage value of the Henry Clay stamp?

Applying the Concepts 24. Geometry Two angles are supplementary. The measure of the larger angle is 15 more than twice the measure of the smaller angle. Find the measures of the two angles. (Supplementary angles are two angles whose sum is 180.)

25. Investments An investor has \$5000 to invest in two accounts. The first account earns 8% annual simple interest, and the second account earns 10% annual simple interest. How much money should be invested in each account so that the total annual simple interest earned is \$600?

In the News New Miles-perGallon Estimates Beginning with model year 2008, the Environmental Protection Agency is using a new method to estimate milesper-gallon ratings for motor vehicles. In general, estimates will be lower than before. For example, under the new method, ratings for a 2007 Ford Taurus would be lowered to 18 mpg in the city and 25 mpg on the highway. Source: www.fueleconomy.gov

Projects and Group Activities

435

FOCUS ON PROBLEM SOLVING A calculator is an important tool for problem solving. It can be used as an aide in guessing or estimating a solution to a problem. Here are a few problems to solve with a calculator. Ghislain & Marie David De Lossy/Getty Images

Calculators

PROJECTS AND GROUP ACTIVITIES Solving a System of Equations with a Graphing Calculator

A graphing calculator can be used to approximate the solution of a system of equations in two variables. Graph each equation of the system of equations, and then approximate the coordinates of the point of intersection. The process by which you approximate the solution depends on what model of calculator you have. In all cases, however, you must first solve each equation in the system of equations for y.

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Systems of Linear Equations

Solve: 2x  5y  9 4x  3y  2 2x  5y  9 4x  3y  2 • Solve each equation for y. 5y  2x  9 3y  4x  2 2 9 4 2 y x y x 5 5 3 3

Take Note The graphing calculator screens shown here are taken from a TI-84. Similar screens would display if we used a different model of graphing calculator.

For the TI-84, press Y = . Enter one equation as Y1 and the other as Y2. The result should be similar to the screen at the left below. Press GRAPH . The graphs of the two equations should appear on the screen, as shown at the right below. If the point of intersection is not on the screen, adjust the viewing window by pressing the WINDOW key. 10 Plot1 Plot2 Plot3 \Y1 = 2X/5–9/5 \Y2 = -4X/3+2/3 \Y3 = \Y4 = \Y5 = \Y6 = \Y7 =

− 10

10

−10 10

Integrating Technology See the Keystroke Guide: Intersect for instructions on using a graphing calculator to solve systems of equations.

2ND Press CALC 5 . After a few seconds, the point of intersection will show on the bottom of the screen as X  1.4230769, Y  1.230769. ENTER

ENTER

ENTER

−10

10

Intersection X=1.4230769

Y=-1.230769

−10

For Exercises 1 to 4, solve by using a graphing calculator. 1. 4x  5y  8 5x  7y  7

2. 3x  2y  11 7x  6y  13

3. x  3y  2 y  4x  2

4. x  2y  5 x  3y  2

CHAPTER 8

SUMMARY KEY WORDS

EXAMPLES

Two or more equations considered together are called a system of equations. [8.1A, p. 404]

An example of a system of equations is 2x  3y  9 3x  4y  5

A solution of a system of equations in two variables is an ordered pair that is a solution of each equation of the system. [8.1A, p. 404]

The solution of the system of equations shown above is the ordered pair (3, 1) because it is a solution of each equation of the system of equations.

An independent system of linear equations has exactly one solution. The graphs of the equations in an independent system of linear equations intersect at one point. [8.1A, p. 405]

y

P(x, y) x

Chapter 8 Summary

A dependent system of linear equations has an infinite number of solutions. The graphs of the equations in a dependent system of linear equations are the same line. [8.1A, p. 405] If, when solving a system of equations algebraically, the variable is eliminated and the result is a true equation, such as 5  5, the system of equations is dependent. [8.2A, p. 414]

y

An inconsistent system of linear equations has no solution. The graphs of the equations of an inconsistent system of linear equations are parallel lines. [8.1A, p. 405] If, when solving a system of equations algebraically, the variable is eliminated and the result is a false equation, such as 0  4, the system of equations is inconsistent. [8.2A, p. 414]

y

437

x

x

ESSENTIAL RULES AND PROCEDURES

EXAMPLES

To solve a system of linear equations in two variables by graphing, graph each equation on the same coordinate system, and then determine the points of intersection. [8.1A, p. 406]

Solve by graphing: x  2y  4 2x  y  1 y 4

(−2, 3)

2

–4 –2 0 –2

2

4

x

–4

The solution is (2, 3). To solve a system of linear equations by the substitution method, one variable must be written in terms of the other variable. [8.2A, p. 412]

Solve by substitution:

2x  y  5 y  2x  5 • Solve Equation (1) for y. 3x  2y  11 3x  2(2x  5)  11 • Substitute for y in 3x  4x  10  11 Equation (2). 7x  10  11 7x  21 x3 y  2x  5 y  2(3)  5 y  1

To solve a system of linear equations by the addition method, use the Multiplication Property of Equations to rewrite one or both of the equations so that the coefficients of one variable are opposites. Then add the equations and solve for the variables. [8.3A, p. 422]

2x  y  5 (1) 3x  2y  11 (2)

The solution is (3, 1).

Solve by the addition method: 2x  5y  8 (1) 3x  4y  11 (2) 6x  15y  24 • 3 times Equation (1) 6x  8y  22 • ⴚ2 times Equation (2) 23y  46 • Add the equations. y  2 • Solve for y. 2x  5y  8 2x  5(2)  8 • Replace y by 2 in Equation (1). 2x  10  8 • Solve for x. 2x  2 x  1 The solution is (1, 2).

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CHAPTER 8

Systems of Linear Equations

CHAPTER 8

1. After graphing a system of linear equations, how is the solution determined?

2. What is the difference between an independent system and a dependent system of equations?

3. What does the graph of an inconsistent system of equations look like?

4. What does the graph of a dependent system of equations look like?

5. What steps are used to solve a system of linear equations by the substitution method?

6. What formula is used to solve a simple interest problem?

7. What steps are used to solve a system of linear equations by the addition method?

8. When using the addition method, after adding the two equations in a system of equations, what type of resulting equation tells you that the system of equations is dependent?

9. In a rate-of-wind problem, what do the expressions p  w and p  w represent?

10. In application problems in two variables, why are two equations written?

439

Chapter 8 Review Exercises

CHAPTER 8

REVIEW EXERCISES 1. Is (1, 3) a solution of this system of equations? 5x  4y  17 2x  y  1

3. Solve by graphing: 3x  y  6 y  3

4. Solve by graphing: 4x  2y  8 y  2x  4

y

–4

–2

2. Is (2, 0) a solution of this system of equations? x  9y  2 6x  4y  12

5. Solve by graphing: x  2y  3 1 y x1 2 y

y

4

4

4

2

2

2

0

2

4

x –4

–2

0

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

–2

–2

–2

–4

–4

–4

6. Solve by substitution: 4x  7y  3 xy2

7. Solve by substitution: 6x  y  0 7x  y  1

9. Solve by the addition method: 6x  4y  3 12x  10y  15

12. Solve by the addition method: 4x  y  9 2x  3y  13

2

4

x

8. Solve by the addition method: 3x  8y  1 x  2y  5

10. Solve by substitution: 12x  9y  18 4 y x3 3

11. Solve by substitution: 8x  y  2 y  5x  1

13. Solve by the addition method: 5x  7y  21 20x  28y  63

14. Solve by substitution: 4x  3y  12 4 y   x  4. 3

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Systems of Linear Equations

15. Solve by substitution: 7x  3y  16 x  2y  5

16. Solve by the addition method: 3x  y  2 9x  3y  6

17. Solve by the addition method: 6x  18y  7 9x  24y  2

19. Investments An investor bought 1500 shares of stock, some at \$6 per share and the rest at \$25 per share. If \$12,800 worth of stock was purchased, how many shares of each kind did the investor buy?

20. Travel A flight crew flew 420 km in 3 h with a tailwind. Flying against the wind, the flight crew flew 440 km in 4 h. Find the rate of the flight crew in calm air and the rate of the wind.

21. Travel A small plane flying with the wind flew 360 mi in 3 h. Against a headwind, the plane took 4 h to fly the same distance. Find the rate of the plane in calm air and the rate of the wind.

22. Consumerism A computer online service charges one hourly rate for regular use and a higher hourly rate for designated “premium” services. A customer was charged \$14.00 for 9 h of basic use and 2 h of premium use. Another customer was charged \$13.50 for 6 h of regular use and 3 h of premium use. What is the service charge per hour for regular and premium services?

23. Investments Terra Cotta Art Center receives an annual income of \$915 from two simple interest investments. One investment, in a corporate bond fund, earns 8.5% annual simple interest. The second investment, in a real estate investment trust, earns 7% annual simple interest. If the total amount invested in the two accounts is \$12,000, how much is invested in each account?

24. Grain Mixtures A silo contains a mixture of lentils and corn. If 50 bushels of lentils were added, there would be twice as many bushels of lentils as of corn. If 150 bushels of corn were added instead, there would be the same amount of corn as of lentils. How many bushels of each were originally in the silo?

25. Investments Mosher Children’s Hospital received a \$300,000 donation that it invested in two simple interest accounts, one earning 5.4% and the other earning 6.6%. If each account earned the same amount of annual interest, how much was invested in each account?

18. Sculling A sculling team rowing with the current went 24 mi in 2 h. Rowing against the current, the sculling team went 18 mi in 3 h. Find the rate of the sculling team in calm water and the rate of the current.

Chapter 8 Test

CHAPTER 8

TEST 1. Is (2, 3) a solution of this system? 2x  5y  11 x  3y  7

2. Is (1, 3) a solution of this system? 3x  2y  9 4x  y  1

3. Solve by graphing: 3x  2y  6 5x  2y  2

4. Solve by substitution: 4x  y  11 y  2x  5

y 6 4 2 –4

–2

0

2

4

x

–2 –4

5. Solve by substitution: x  2y  3 3x  2y  5

6. Solve by substitution: 3x  5y  1 2x  y  5

7. Solve by substitution: 3x  5y  13

8. Solve by substitution: 2x  4y  1 1 y x3 2

x  3y  1

9. Solve by the addition method: 4x  3y  11 5x  3y  7

10. Solve by the addition method: 2x  5y  6 4x  3y  1

441

442

CHAPTER 8

Systems of Linear Equations

11. Solve by the addition method: x  2y  8 3x  6y  24

12. Solve by the addition method: 7x  3y  11 2x  5y  9

13. Solve by the addition method: 5x  6y  7 3x  4y  5

14. Travel With the wind, a plane flies 240 mi in 2 h. Against the wind, the plane requires 3 h to fly the same distance. Find the rate of the plane in calm air and the rate of the wind.

15. Entertainment For the first performance of a play in a community theater, 50 reserved-seat tickets and 80 general-admission tickets were sold. The total receipts were \$980. For the second performance, 60 reserved-seat tickets and 90 general-admission tickets were sold. The total receipts were \$1140. Find the price of a reserved-seat ticket and the price of a general-admission ticket.

16. Investments Bernardo Community Library received a \$28,000 donation that it invested in two accounts, one earning 7.6% simple interest and the other earning 6.4% simple interest. If both accounts earned the same amount of annual interest, how much was invested in each account?

Cumulative Review Exercises

443

CUMULATIVE REVIEW EXERCISES 1. Evaluate

a2  b2 2a

when a  4 and b  2.

3. Given f (x)  x2  2x  1, find f (2).

3

2. Solve:  x  4

9 8

4. Multiply: (2a2  3a  1)(2  3a)

5. Simplify:

(2x2y)4 8x3y2

6. Divide: (4b2  8b  4)  (2b  3)

7. Simplify:

8x2 y5 2xy4

8. Factor: 4x2y4  64y2

9. Solve: (x  5)(x  2)  6

10. Divide:

2x  1 x1 11. Add:  2 x2 x x2

13. Solve:

2x  8 x2  6x  8  3 3 2 2x  6x 4x  12x2

12. Simplify:

x4 x8

x 7 2 2x  3 2x  3

7 x2 21 x2

14. Solve A  P  Prt for r.

15. Find the x- and y-intercepts for 2x  3y  12.

16. Find the slope of the line that passes through the points (2, 3) and (3, 4).

17. Find the equation of the line that passes through 3 the point (2, 3) and has slope  .

18. Is (2, 0) a solution of this system? 5x  3y  10 4x  7y  8

2

444

CHAPTER 8

Systems of Linear Equations

19. Solve by substitution: 3x  5y  23 x  2y  4

20. Solve by the addition method: 5x  3y  29 4x  7y  5

21. Investments A total of \$8750 is invested in two accounts. On one account, the annual simple interest rate is 9.6%; on the second account, the annual simple interest rate is 7.2%. How much should be invested in each account so that both accounts earn the same interest?

1

22. Travel A passenger train leaves a train depot h after a freight train leaves the same 2 depot. The freight train is traveling 8 mph slower than the passenger train. Find the rate of each train if the passenger train overtakes the freight train in 3 h.

23. Geometry The length of each side of a square is extended 4 in. The area of the resulting square is 144 in2. Find the length of a side of the original square.

24. Travel A plane can travel 160 mph in calm air. Flying with the wind, the plane can fly 570 mi in the same amount of time as it takes to fly 390 mi against the wind. Find the rate of the wind.

25. Graph 2x  3y  6.

26. Solve by graphing: 3x  2y  6 3x  2y  6

y

y

4

4

2 –4 –2 0 –2 –4

2 2

4

x

–4 –2 0 –2

2

4

x

–4

27. Travel With the current, a motorboat can travel 48 mi in 3 h. Against the current, the boat requires 4 h to travel the same distance. Find the rate of the boat in calm water.

28. Food Mixtures A child adds 8 g of sugar to a 50-gram serving of a breakfast cereal that is 25% sugar. What is the percent concentration of sugar in the resulting mixture? Round to the nearest tenth of a percent.

CHAPTER

9

Inequalities

Panoramic Images/Getty Images

OBJECTIVES SECTION 9.1 A To write a set using the roster method B To write and graph sets of real numbers SECTION 9.2 A To solve an inequality using the Addition Property of Inequalities B To solve an inequality using the Multiplication Property of Inequalities C To solve application problems

ARE YOU READY? Take the Chapter 9 Prep Test to find out if you are ready to learn to: • Write a set using the roster method, set-builder notation, and interval notation • Graph an inequality on the number line • Solve an inequality • Graph an inequality in two variables

SECTION 9.3 A To solve general inequalities B To solve application problems SECTION 9.4 A To graph an inequality in two variables

PREP TEST Do these exercises to prepare for Chapter 9. 1. Place the correct symbol,  or , between the two numbers. 45 27

2. Simplify: 3x  5共2x  3兲

3. State the Addition Property of Equations.

4. State the Multiplication Property of Equations. 5. Nutrition A certain grade of hamburger contains 15% fat. How many pounds of fat are in 3 lb of this hamburger? 7. Solve: 4  2 

6. Solve: 4x  5  7

3 x 4

8. Solve: 7  2共2x  3兲  3x  1 9. Graph: y 

2 x3 3

10. Graph: 3x  4y  12

y

–4

–2

y

4

4

2

2

0

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

–2

–2

–4

–4

2

4

x

445

446

CHAPTER 9

Inequalities

SECTION

9.1 OBJECTIVE A

Sets To write a set using the roster method Recall that a set is a collection of objects, which are called the elements of the set. The roster method of writing a set encloses a list of the elements in braces. The set of the positive integers less than 5 is written 51, 2, 3, 46.

Use the roster method to write the set of integers between 0 and 10. A  51, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 96 • A set can be designated by a capital letter. Note

HOW TO • 1

that 0 and 10 are not elements of the set.

Use the roster method to write the set of natural numbers. A  51, 2, 3, 4, ...6 • The three dots mean that the pattern of

HOW TO • 2

numbers continues without end.

The empty set, or null set, is the set that contains no elements. The symbol  or 586 is used to represent the empty set. The set of people who have run a 2-minute mile is an empty set. Union of Two Sets The union of two sets, written A  B, is the set of all elements that belong to either set A or set B.

Find A  B, given A  51, 2, 3, 46 and B  53, 4, 5, 66. A  B  51, 2, 3, 4, 5, 66 • The union of A and B contains all the elements of A and all

HOW TO • 3

the elements of B. Elements in both sets are listed only once.

Intersection of Two Sets The intersection of two sets, written A  B, is the set that contains the elements that are common to both A and B.

HOW TO • 4

A  B  53, 46

Find A  B, given A  51, 2, 3, 46 and B  53, 4, 5, 66.

EXAMPLE • 1

• The intersection of A and B contains the elements common to A and B.

YOU TRY IT • 1

Use the roster method to write the set of the odd positive integers less than 12.

Use the roster method to write the set of the odd negative integers greater than 10.

Solution A  51, 3, 5, 7, 9, 116

Your solution Solution on p. S22

SECTION 9.1

EXAMPLE • 2

Sets

447

YOU TRY IT • 2

Use the roster method to write the set of the even positive integers.

Use the roster method to write the set of the odd positive integers.

Solution A  52, 4, 6, ...6

EXAMPLE • 3

YOU TRY IT • 3

Find D  E, given D  56, 8, 10, 126 and E  58, 6, 10, 126.

Find A  B, given A  52, 1, 0, 1, 26 and B  50, 1, 2, 3, 46.

Solution D  E  58, 6, 6, 8, 10, 126

EXAMPLE • 4

YOU TRY IT • 4

Find A  B, given A  55, 6, 9, 116 and B  55, 9, 13, 156.

Find C  D, given C  510, 12, 14, 166 and D  510, 16, 20, 266.

Solution A  B  55, 96

EXAMPLE • 5

YOU TRY IT • 5

Find A  B, given A  51, 2, 3, 46 and B  58, 9, 10, 116.

Find A  B, given A  55, 4, 3, 26 and B  52, 3, 4, 56.

Solution AB

Your solution Solutions on p. S22

OBJECTIVE B

Point of Interest The symbol  was first used in the book Arithmeticae Principia, published in 1889. It is the first letter of the Greek word , which means “is.” The symbols for union and intersection were also introduced around the same time.

To write and graph sets of real numbers Another method of representing sets is called set-builder notation. This method of writing sets uses a rule to describe the elements of the set. Using set-builder notation, we represent the set of all positive integers less than 10 as 5x 兩 x  10, x  positive integers6, which is read “the set of all positive integers x that are less than 10.”

HOW TO • 5

Use set-builder notation to write the set of integers less than or equal to 12. • This is read “the set of all integers x that are 5x 兩 x  12, x  integers6 less than or equal to 12.”

Use set-builder notation to write the set of real numbers greater than 4. 5x 兩 x  4, x  real numbers6 • This is read “the set of all real numbers x that are

HOW TO • 6

greater than 4.”

448

CHAPTER 9

Inequalities

For the remainder of this section, all variables will represent real numbers. Given this convention, 5x 兩 x  4, x  real numbers6 is written 5x 兩 x  46. Some sets of real numbers written in set-builder notation can be written in interval notation. For instance, the interval notation [3, 2) represents the set of real numbers between 3 and 2. The bracket means that 3 is included in the set, and the parenthesis means that 2 is not included in the set. Using set-builder notation, the interval [3, 2) is written 5x 兩 3  x  26

• This is read “the set of all real numbers x between 3 and 2, including 3 but excluding 2.”

To indicate an interval that extends forever in the positive direction, we use the infinity symbol, ; to indicate an interval that extends forever in the negative direction, we use the negative infinity symbol, .

Take Note When writing a set in interval notation, note that we always use a parenthesis to the right of and to the left of  . Infinity is not a real number, so it cannot be represented as belonging to the set of real numbers by using a bracket.

Write 5x 兩 x  16 in interval notation. 5x 兩 x  16 is the set of real numbers greater than 1. This set extends forever in the positive direction. In interval notation, this set is written (1, ).

HOW TO • 7

Write 5x 兩 x  26 in interval notation. 5x 兩 x  26 is the set of real numbers less than or equal to 2. This set extends forever in the negative direction. In interval notation, this set is written ( , 2].

HOW TO • 8

Write 31, 3 4 in set-builder notation. This is the set of real numbers between 1 and 3, including 1 and 3. In set-builder notation, this set is written 5x 兩 1  x  36.

HOW TO • 9

We can graph sets of real numbers given in set-builder notation or in interval notation. Graph: ( , 1) This is the set of real numbers less than 1, excluding 1. The parenthesis at 1 indicates that 1 is excluded from the set.

HOW TO • 10

Graph: 5x 兩 x  16 This is the set of real numbers greater than or equal to 1. The bracket at 1 indicates that 1 is included in the set.

HOW TO • 11

EXAMPLE • 6

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

0

1

2

3

4

5

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

0

1

2

3

4

5

YOU TRY IT • 6

Write 5x 兩 x  26 in interval notation.

Write 5x 兩 x  36 in interval notation.

Solution 5x 兩 x  26 is the set of real numbers greater than or equal to 2. This set extends forever in the positive direction. In interval notation, this set is written [2, ).

Solution on p. S22

SECTION 9.1

EXAMPLE • 7

Sets

YOU TRY IT • 7

Write 5x 兩 0  x  16 in interval notation.

Write 5x 兩 5  x  36 in interval notation.

Solution 5x 兩 0  x  16 is the set of real numbers between 0 and 1, including 0 and 1. In interval notation, this set is written [0, 1].

EXAMPLE • 8

YOU TRY IT • 8

Write ( , 0] in set-builder notation.

Write (3, ) in set-builder notation.

Solution The interval ( , 0] is the set of real numbers less than or equal to 0. In set-builder notation, this set is written 5x 兩 x  06.

EXAMPLE • 9

YOU TRY IT • 9

Write (3, 3) in set-builder notation.

Write [0, 4) in set-builder notation.

Solution The interval (3, 3) is the set of real numbers between 3 and 3, excluding 3 and 3. In setbuilder notation, this set is written 5x 兩 3  x  36.

EXAMPLE • 10

YOU TRY IT • 10

Graph: 5x 兩 2  x  16

Graph: 5x 兩 4  x  46

Solution The graph is the set of real numbers between 2 and 1, excluding 2 and 1. Use parentheses at 2 and 1.

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

0

1

2

3

4

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

0

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

5

EXAMPLE • 11

YOU TRY IT • 11

Graph: 5x 兩 x  46

Graph: 5x 兩 x  36

Solution The graph is the set of real numbers less than 4. Use a parenthesis at 4.

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

0

1

2

3

4

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

YOU TRY IT • 12

Graph: ( , 5)

Graph: (2, )

Solution The graph is the set of real numbers less than 5. Use a parenthesis at 5.

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

0

5

EXAMPLE • 12

0

1

2

3

4

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

YOU TRY IT • 13

Graph: [4, 3)

Graph: [2, 5]

Solution The graph is the set of real numbers between 4 and 3, including 4 and excluding 3.

0

0

5

EXAMPLE • 13

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

449

1

2

3

4

5

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

0

Solutions on p. S22

450

CHAPTER 9

Inequalities

9.1 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To write a set using the roster method

1. Explain how to find the union of two sets. 2. Explain how to find the intersection of two sets. For Exercises 3 to 8, use the roster method to write the set. 3. The integers between 15 and 22

4. The integers between 10 and 4

5. The odd integers between 8 and 18

6. The even integers between 11 and 1

7. The letters of the alphabet between a and d

8. The letters of the alphabet between p and v

For Exercises 9 to 16, find A  B. 9. A  53, 4, 56

B  54, 5, 66

10. A  53, 2, 16

B  52, 1, 06

11. A  510, 9, 86

B  58, 9, 106

12. A  5a, b, c6

B  5x, y, z6

13. A  5a, b, d, e6

B  5c, d, e, f6

14. A  5m, n, p, q6

B  5m, n, o6

15. A  51, 3, 7, 96

B  57, 9, 11, 136

16. A  53, 2, 16

B  51, 1, 26

For Exercises 17 to 22, find A  B. 17. A  53, 4, 56

B  54, 5, 66

18. A  54, 3, 26

B  56, 5, 46

19. A  54, 3, 26

B  52, 3, 46

20. A  51, 2, 3, 46

B  51, 2, 3, 46

21. A  5a, b, c, d, e6

B  5c, d, e, f, g6

22. A  5m, n, o, p6

B  5k, l, m, n6

23. Make up sets A and B such that A  B has five elements and A  B has two elements. Write your sets using the roster method. 24. True or false? If A  B  A, then A  B  B.

SECTION 9.1

OBJECTIVE B

Sets

451

To write and graph sets of real numbers

For Exercises 25 to 30, use set-builder notation to write the set. 25. The negative integers greater than 5

26. The positive integers less than 5

27. The integers greater than 30

28. The integers less than 70

29. The real numbers greater than 8

30. The real numbers less than 57

For Exercises 31 to 39, write the set in interval notation. 31. 5x兩1  x  26

32. 5x 兩 2  x  46

33. 5x 兩 x  36

34. 5x 兩 x  06

35. 5x 兩 4  x  56

36. 5x 兩 3  x  06

37. 5x 兩 x  26

38. 5x 兩 x  36

39. 5x 兩 3  x  16

For Exercises 40 to 48, write the interval in set-builder notation. 40. [4, 5]

41. (5, 3)

42. (4, )

43. ( , 2]

44. (4, 9]

45. [3, 2]

46. [0, )

47. ( , 6]

48. ( , )

For Exercises 49 to 64, graph the set. 49. [5, 4] –5 –4 –3 –2 –1

50. (3, 5] 0

1

2

3

4

5

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

0

1

2

3

4

5

452

CHAPTER 9

Inequalities

51. 5x 兩 x  46 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1

52. 5x 兩 x  36 0

1

2

3

4

53. 5x 兩 x  46 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1

0

1

2

3

4

0

1

2

3

4

2

3

4

5

0

1

2

3

4

5

0

1

2

3

4

5

0

1

2

3

4

5

0

1

2

3

4

5

0

1

2

3

4

5

0

1

2

3

4

5

58. (3, 0] 0

1

2

3

4

5

0

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

60. 5x 兩 0  x  46 1

2

3

4

5

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

62. 5x 兩 4  x  16 0

1

2

3

4

0

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

5

63. 5x 兩   x  6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

5

61. 5x 兩 2  x  46 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1

1

56. (4, )

59. 5x 兩 3  x  36 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

5

57. [1, 3) –5 –4 –3 –2 –1

0

54. 5x 兩 x  06

55. ( , 3] –5 –4 –3 –2 –1

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

5

64. ( , ) 1

2

3

4

5

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

65. How many elements are in the set given in interval notation as (4, 4)?

66. How many elements are in the set given by 5x 兩 4  x  46?

Applying the Concepts For Exercises 67 and 68, write an inequality that describes the situation. 67. To avoid shipping charges, one must spend a minimum m of \$250.

68. The temperature t never got above freezing (32°F).

SECTION 9.2

453

The Addition and Multiplication Properties of Inequalities

SECTION

9.2 OBJECTIVE A

The Addition and Multiplication Properties of Inequalities To solve an inequality using the Addition Property of Inequalities The inequality at the right is true if the variable is replaced by 7, 9.3, or

15 . 2

The inequality x  5  8 is false if the variable is 1 2

replaced by 2, 1.5, or  .

x58 7  5  8⎫ 9.3  5  8 ⎪⎬ True inequalities 15 ⎪  5  8⎭ 2 2  5  8 ⎫⎪ 1.5  5  8 ⎬ False inequalities ⎪ 1   5  8⎭ 2

The solution set of an inequality is the set of numbers each element of which, when substituted for the variable, results in a true inequality. The values of x that will make the inequality x  5  8 true are the numbers greater than 3. The solution set of x  5  8 is 5x 兩 x  36. This set could also be written in interval notation as (3, ). At the right is the graph of the solution set of x  5  8.

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

0

1

2

3

4

5

In solving an inequality, the goal is to rewrite the given inequality in the form variable  constant or variable  constant. The Addition Property of Inequalities is used to rewrite an inequality in this form.

Addition Property of Inequalities The same term can be added to each side of an inequality without changing the solution set of the inequality. If a  b, then a  c  b  c. If a  b, then a  c  b  c.

The Addition Property of Inequalities also holds true for an inequality containing the symbol  or . The Addition Property of Inequalities is used when, in order to rewrite an inequality in the form variable  constant or variable  constant, we must remove a term from one side of the inequality. Add the opposite of that term to each side of the inequality. Solve and write the answer in set-builder notation: x  4  3 x  4  3 x  4  4  3  4 • Add 4 to each side of the inequality. x1 • Simplify. 5x 兩 x  16 • Write in set-builder notation.

HOW TO • 1

At the right is the graph of the solution set of x  4  3.

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

0

1

2

3

4

5

454

CHAPTER 9

Inequalities

Because subtraction is defined in terms of addition, the Addition Property of Inequalities allows the same term to be subtracted from each side of an inequality. Solve and write the answer in set-builder notation: 5x  6  4x  4 5x  6  4x  4 • Subtract 4x from each side of the inequality. 5x  4x  6  4x  4x  4 • Simplify. x  6  4 • Add 6 to each side of the inequality. x  6  6  4  6 • Simplify. x2 • Write in set-builder notation. 5x 兩 x  26

HOW TO • 2

EXAMPLE • 1

YOU TRY IT • 1

Solve 3  x  5 and write the answer in interval notation. Graph the solution set.

Solve x  2  2 and write the answer in interval notation. Graph the solution set.

Solution 3x5 35x55 2  x (2, )

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

0

1

• Subtract 5.

2

3

4

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

5

EXAMPLE • 2

0

1

2

3

4

5

YOU TRY IT • 2

Solve and write the answer in set-builder notation: 7x  14  6x  16

Solve and write the answer in set-builder notation: 5x  3  4x  5

Solution 7x  14  6x  16 7x  6x  14  6x  6x  16 x  14  16 x  14  14  16  14 x  2 5x 兩 x  26

Solutions on p. S22

OBJECTIVE B

To solve an inequality using the Multiplication Property of Inequalities Consider the two inequalities below and the effect of multiplying each inequality by 2, a positive number. 3  7 2(3)  2(7) 6  14

64 2(6)  2(4) 12  8

In each case, the inequality symbol remains the same. Multiplying each side of an inequality by a positive number does not change the inequality. Now consider the same inequalities and the effect of multiplying by 2, a negative number.

SECTION 9.2

The Addition and Multiplication Properties of Inequalities

3  7 2(3)  2(7) 6  14

Take Note Any time an inequality is multiplied or divided by a negative number, the inequality symbol must be reversed. Compare the next two examples. 2x  4 2x 4  2 2 x  2

2x  4 4 2x  2 2 x  2

Divide each side by positive 2.

455

64 2(6)  2(4) 12  8

In order for the inequality to be true, the inequality symbol must be reversed. If each side of an inequality is multiplied by a negative number, the inequality symbol must be reversed in order for the inequality to remain a true inequality. Multiplication Property of Inequalities—Part 1 Each side of an inequality can be multiplied by the same positive number without changing the solution set of the inequality. In symbols, this is stated as follows. If a  b and c  0, then ac  bc.

If a  b and c  0, then ac  bc.

Inequality is not reversed.

Multiplication Property of Inequalities—Part 2

Divide each side by negat ive 2.

Multiplying each side of an inequality by the same negative number and reversing the inequality symbol does not change the solution set of the inequality. In symbols, this is stated as follows. If a  b and c  0, then ac  bc.

Inequality i s reversed.

If a  b and c  0, then ac  bc.

In solving an inequality, the goal is to rewrite the given inequality in the form variable  constant or variable  constant. The Multiplication Property of Inequalities is used when, in order to rewrite an inequality in this form, we must remove a coefficient from one side of the inequality. The Multiplication Property of Inequalities also holds true for an inequality containing the symbol  or . 3 2

Solve  x  6 and write the answer in set-builder notation. Graph

HOW TO • 3

the solution set.

2 • Multiply each side of the inequality by  . 3 2 Because  is a negative number, the 3 inequality symbol must be reversed.

3  x6 2



3 2 2  x   共6兲 3 2 3 x  4

5x 兩 x  46 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1

0

1

• Write in set-builder notation. 2

3

4

5

• Graph {x 兩 x  4}.

Because division is defined in terms of multiplication, the Multiplication Property of Inequalities allows each side of an inequality to be divided by a nonzero constant. HOW TO • 4

Take Note As shown in the example at the right, the goal in solving an inequality can be constant  variable or constant  variable. We could have written the third line of this example as 2 x . 3

4  6x 6x 4  6 6 2  x 3 2 x兩x   3

Solve and write the answer in set-builder notation: 4  6x • Divide each side of the inequality by 6. • Simplify:

4 2  . 6 3

• Write in set-builder notation.

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CHAPTER 9

Inequalities

EXAMPLE • 3

YOU TRY IT • 3

Solve 7x  14 and write the answer in interval notation. Graph the solution set.

Solve 3x  9 and write the answer in interval notation. Graph the solution set.

Solution 7x  14 7x 14  7 7 x  2 ( , 2)

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

• Divide by 7.

0

1

2

3

4

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

5

EXAMPLE • 4

0

1

2

3

4

5

YOU TRY IT • 4

Solve and write the answer in set-builder notation: 5 5  x

Solve and write the answer in set-builder notation: 3  x  18

Solution 5 5  x 8 12 8 5 8 5   x  5 8 5 12 2 x 3 2 x兩x   3

8

12

4

• Multiply 8 by  . 5

OBJECTIVE C

Solutions on p. S22

To solve application problems

EXAMPLE • 5

YOU TRY IT • 5

A student must have at least 450 points out of 500 points on five tests to receive an A in a course. One student’s results on the first four tests were 94, 87, 77, and 95. What scores on the last test will enable this student to receive an A in the course?

A consumer electronics dealer will make a profit on the sale of an LCD HDTV if the cost of the TV is less than 70% of the selling price. What selling prices will enable the dealer to make a profit on a TV that costs the dealer \$942?

Strategy To find the scores, write and solve an inequality using N to represent the possible scores on the last test.

Solution Total number of points on the five tests

Your solution is greater than or equal to

450

94  87  77  95  N  450 353  N  450 353  353  N  450  353 N  97

• Simplify. • Subtract 353.

The student’s score on the last test must be greater than or equal to 97.

Solutions on p. S23

SECTION 9.2

The Addition and Multiplication Properties of Inequalities

457

9.2 EXERCISES OBJECTIVE A

To solve an inequality using the Addition Property of Inequalities

For Exercises 1 to 8, solve the inequality and write the answer in set-builder notation. Graph the solution set. 1. x  1  3

2. y  2  2

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

0

1

2

3

4

5

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

3. x  5  2 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1

1

2

3

4

5

0

1

2

3

4

5

0

1

2

3

4

5

0

1

2

3

4

5

4. x  3  2 0

1

2

3

4

5

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

5. 7  n  4 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1

0

6. 3  5  x 0

1

2

3

4

5

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

7. x  6  10 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1

8. y  8  11 0

1

2

3

4

5

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

For Exercises 9 to 20, solve and write the answer in interval notation. 10. x  8  14

11. 3x  5  2x  7

12. 5x  4  4x  10

13. 8x  7  7x  2

14. 3n  9  2n  8

15. 2x  4  x  7

16. 9x  7  8x  7

17. 4x  8  2  3x

18. 5b  9  3  4b

19. 6x  4  5x  2

20. 7x  3  6x  2

9. y  3  12

For Exercises 21 to 38, solve and write the answer in set-builder notation. 21. 2x  12  x  10

22. 3x  9  2x  7

23. d 

1 1  2 3

5 3  12 4

24. x 

3 5  8 6

25. x 

5 2  8 3

26. y 

27. x 

3 1  8 4

28. y 

5 5  9 6

29. 2x 

1 3 x 2 4

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CHAPTER 9

30. 6x 

Inequalities

1 1  5x  3 2

31. 3x 

5 5  2x  8 6

32. 4b 

7 9  3b  12 16

33. 3.8x  2.8x  3.8

34. 1.2x  0.2x  7.3

35. x  5.8  4.6

36. n  3.82  3.95

37. x  3.5  2.1

38. x  0.23  0.47

For Exercises 39 to 42, assume that n and a are both positive numbers. State whether the solution set of an inequality in the given form contains only negative numbers, only positive numbers, or both negative and positive numbers. 39. x  n  a, where n  a

40. x  n  a, where n  a

41. x  n  a, where n  a

42. x  n  a, where n  a

OBJECTIVE B

To solve an inequality using the Multiplication Property of Inequalities

For Exercises 43 to 52, solve and write the answer in set-builder notation. Graph the solution set. 43. 3x  12 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1

44. 8x  24 0

1

2

3

4

5

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

45. 15  5y –5 –4 –3 –2 –1

0

1

2

3

4

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

5

0

1

2

3

4

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1

5

3

4

5

0

1

2

3

4

5