Modern Iraqi Arabic, A Textbook

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Modern Iraqi Arabic, A Textbook

modern iraqi arabic with mp files Caspian Sea TURKEY Mosul Nineveh ASSYRIA Kirkuk SYRIA ri s Tig Euphrates IR

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modern iraqi arabic with mp files

Caspian Sea






SYRIA ri s Tig





Baghdad De Facto Boundary


IRAQ Al Hillah

Babylon akkad Al Amarah

Euphra tes

s gri Ti


Ur Basra


IRAQ 0 0


100 Kilometers 50

100 Miles

Persian Gulf

ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ Modern Iraqi Arabic ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ with MP3 Files ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ A Textbook ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ Second Edition ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ Yasin M. Alkalesi

georgetown university press wa s h i n g t o n , d. c .

to the pe opl e of ir aq and to the memory of my fat her


As of January , , -digit ISBN numbers will replace the current -digit system. Paperback: ---- Georgetown University Press, Washington, D.C. ©  by Georgetown University Press. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Al-Khalesi, Yasin M. Modern Iraqi Arabic with MP files / d edition / Yasin M. Alkalesi. p. cm. ISBN --- (alk. paper) . Arabic language—Dialects—Iraq—Grammar. . Arabic language— Textbooks for foreign speakers—English. I. Title. PJ.A  .—dc  This book is printed on acid-free paper meeting the requirements of the American National Standard for Permanence in Paper for Printed Library Materials.        


First printing Printed in the United States of America

ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ contents ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ Preface Acknowledgments Introduction Arrangement of the Book List of Abbreviations and Symbols

lesson 

xi xiii xv xvii xxi

Arabic Alphabet and Vowels


The Iraqi Alphabet The Iraqi Vowels Phonetics of Iraqi Arabic: Pronunciation Exercises Drills lesson  DARIS ITHNEEN

Greetings and Courtesy Expressions tahiyyaat wa mujaamalaat Basic Dialogue Additional Expressions Some Basic Greetings Vocabulary Grammar and Remarks Independent Pronouns Word Stress: Stress Syllable Idioms and Common Phrases Drills Creative Dialogues


1 3 5 9

11 12 12 13 14 14 15 15 16 18

Asking for Directions ittijaahaat Basic Dialogue Vocabulary Grammar and Remarks Attached Pronouns (Pronoun Suffixes) The Article il-: the Idioms and Common Phrases Drills Creative Dialogues

21 22 23 23 24 26 27 30

vi | Contents lesson  DARIS ARBAA

Arrival at Baghdad Airport, Part I b-mataar Baghdaad Basic Dialogue Vocabulary Grammar and Remarks The Helping Vowels: i, u The Negation Idioms and Common Phrases Drills Creative Dialogues


Arrival at Baghdad Airport, Part II b-mataar Baghdaad Basic Dialogue Additional Expressions Vocabulary Grammar and Remarks The Preposition maa: have, with The Preposition Prefix b- / bi-: in, by, at, with The Noun: il-isim The Cardinal Numerals 1–10 arqaam Idioms and Common Phrases Drills Creative Dialogues

lesson  DARIS SITTA


43 44 44 45 45 45 45 46 47 50 54

Taking a Taxi ta·jiir taksi Basic Dialogue Vocabulary Grammar and Remarks The Adjective: is-sifa The Relative Adjective Noun-Adjective Agreement The Word aku: there is/are The Cardinal Numerals 11–20 Idioms and Common Phrases Drills Creative Dialogues

lesson 

33 34 35 35 35 37 38 41

57 58 59 59 60 60 61 61 62 63 68

At the Rashid Hotel b-findiq ir-Rashiid Basic Dialogue Vocabulary Grammar and Remarks Nouns of Occupations with Suffixes -chi and -chiyya The Word abu: father (of )

71 72 73 73 74

Contents | vii

The Imperative Verb: fiil il-amur The Cardinal Numerals 20–100 Idioms and Common Phrases Drills Creative Dialogues lesson  DARIS THMAANYA

Introductions ta9aaruf Basic Dialogue Vocabulary Grammar and Remarks The Verb: il-fiil The Past Tense Verb: il-fiil il-maadi The Regular Verb The Hollow Verb Idioms and Common Phrases Drills Creative Dialogues

lesson  DARIS TISA


85 86 87 87 88 88 89 89 90 95

Speaking Arabic il-lugha l-9arabiyya Basic Dialogue Additional Expressions Vocabulary Grammar and Remarks The Past Tense Verb The Double Verb The Weak Verb The Past Tense Verb with Attached Pronoun Idioms and Common Phrases Drills Creative Dialogues

lesson 

74 75 76 77 83

97 98 98 99 99 100 100 100 101 102 106

Telling Time is-saa9a Basic Dialogue Additional Expressions Vocabulary Grammar and Remarks Time Expressions: il-waqit Days of the Week: ayyaam lis-buu Months of the Year: ashhur is-sana The Four Seasons: is-fusuul il-arbaa The Preposition wiyya: with Idioms and Common Phrases Drills Creative Dialogues

109 110 111 112 112 113 113 114 114 115 115 120

viii | Contents lesson  DARIS DAASH

Visiting the Iraqi Museum ziyaara lil-mathaf il-9iraaq Basic Dialogue Additional Expressions Vocabulary Grammar and Remarks The Present/Imperfect Tense Verb: il-fiil il-mudaari The Present Tense Verb Paradigm Idioms and Common Phrases Drills Creative Dialogues

lesson  DARIS THNAASH

Trip to Babylon safra l-Baabil Basic Dialogue Additional Expressions Vocabulary Grammar and Remarks The Present Progressive Prefix da- -ing The Future Verb Prefixes rah-, ha- will, shall, going to Idioms and Common Phrases Drills Creative Dialogues

lesson  DARIS TLAT TAASH


137 139 139 140 140 141 141 142 147

At the Bank bil-bank Basic Dialogue Additional Expressions of Money Matters Vocabulary Grammar and Remarks The Participle raayih: going, having gone The Demonstrative Words: asmaa¢ il-ishaara Idioms and Common Phrases Drills Creative Dialogues

lesson 

123 124 125 126 126 126 128 129 134

151 152 153 154 154 155 156 157 165

At the Post Office bil-bariid Basic Dialogue Additional Expressions Vocabulary Grammar and Remarks The Verb chaan / ykuun: was, were/will The Words il, ind, maal: have, to Idioms and Common Phrases Drills Creative Dialogues

169 170 171 171 171 173 176 177 182

Contents | ix lesson  DARIS KHMUSTASH

In the Restaurant bil-mat9am Basic Dialogue Additional Expressions Vocabulary Additional Vocabulary Related to Food Grammar and Remarks The Preposition ala / a-: on, upon, about The Interrogative Words: adawaat lis-tifhaam Idioms and Common Phrases Drills Creative Dialogues

lesson  DARIS SITTAASH

Family and Relatives ahal wa garaayib Basic Dialogue Additional Kin Names Vocabulary Grammar and Remarks The Participle yyaaThe Feminine “t” Ending The idaafa Construction Idioms and Common Phrases Drills Creative Dialogues

lesson  DARIS SBAATAAS


203 204 205 206 206 206 207 208 209 215

Medical Care 9inaaya tibbiyya Basic Dialogue Additional Medical Expressions Vocabulary Some Additional Body Parts Grammar and Remarks Ordinal Numbers First to Tenth Cardinal Numbers Higher than 100 Counting: hsaab Idioms and Common Phrases Drills Creative Dialogues

lesson 

185 186 187 188 189 189 190 191 192 199

217 218 219 220 221 221 221 223 225 226 231

Media: Radio, Television, and Journalism i9laam: raadyo, talfizyoon w sahaafa Basic Dialogue Vocabulary Additional Vocabulary on Media Grammar and Remarks Comparative and Superlative The Colors

235 237 238 238 238 240

x | Contents

Idioms and Common Phrases Drills Creative Dialogues lesson  TSAATAASH

Telephone Conversations mukhaabaraat Basic Dialogue Vocabulary Additional Vocabulary and Phrases on Telephone Grammar and Remarks Conditional Sentences (if ) The Relative Pronoun (i)lli Idioms and Common Phrases Drills Creative Dialogues

lesson  DARIS ISHRIIN


241 241 248

251 253 253 254 254 255 255 256 262

Cultural and Folkloric Tales qusas hadaariyya wa sha9biyya The Story of the Caliph Harun ir-Rashid and Abu Nuwas Vocabulary The Story of the Lion and the Wolf Vocabulary Grammar and Remarks Conjunctions Idioms and Common Phrases Drills

266 268 270 272 273 273 276 277

Arabic–English English–Arabic

283 320

ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ preface ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ Since the publication of a series of valuable books on Iraqi Arabic by Georgetown University’s School of Language and Linguistics more than three decades ago, very little has been written on the spoken Arabic of Iraq. Iraqi Arabic constitutes an extremely important linguistic and socioeconomic region of the Arab world. Hence, there is an urgent need for publications on this dialect that are more current and easy to read, such as the one I present here. The urgency of such works has increased tenfold because of the current political and economic events in Iraq. This book sums up more than thirty years of experience in teaching Arabic at Yale University; University of California, Los Angeles; California State University, Fullerton; and at the Berlitz Language Centers, and in teaching business people working with Arab countries. During those years, I have been fortunate to have the opportunity of sharing with my students, colleagues, and laymen the knowledge and beauty of Arabic. This book is designed for people who have no previous knowledge of Arabic or who have already studied Arabic but wish to learn the Iraqi dialect. It is organized in a method suitable for either classroom use or self-study with the help of the audio. The dialect that is offered in the book is spoken by the average, middle-class Baghdadi. The first edition of the book consisted of sixteen lessons, then four more lessons and Arabic script were added to this second edition. The lessons are based on everyday situation and arranged in a story-like format that follows a woman’s activities as she travels from the United States of America to Iraq.

ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ acknowledgments ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ My thanks go first to several hundred students over the years, whose curiosity, enthusiasm, and dedication to learning Arabic were a great motivation in writing this book. Special thanks go to my student John Spillman Jones for reading the first draft of the text and this revised edition. My deep appreciation goes to Professor Robert Biggs of the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago for his valuable comments. Special thanks and gratitude are owed to Dr. Kristen Brustad of the University of Texas, Austin, for reading the manuscript and for her insightful suggestions. I am indeed grateful to my friend Thamir Aladhami (London) and delighted that he thoroughly read the manuscript and made important corrections. To Laila Darwish (Frankfurt) who made the drawings for the book, I am indebted and thankful. For this revised edition I owe special thanks to Michael Cooperson, Professor of Arabic at the University of California, Los Angeles, for his great effort in reading this text and for his helpful comments. To Dr. Richard Brown, director, and Gail Grella, associate director, and to the entire staff of Georgetown University Press, I would like to express my appreciation for their help and enthusiasm.

ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ introduction ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ The Arabic language is characterized by the so-called “diglossia.” This means the existence of two forms of the language, classical and colloquial, side-by-side with varying levels of differences. Several European and non-European languages share such characteristics. Classical Arabic, the language of reading and writing, is also called “literary,” “written,” “formal,” and “Modern Standard Arabic” (MSA). It is the same language in all Arab countries. It is used in formal situations: newspapers, magazines, books, schools and universities, radio and TV, conference discussions, lectures, and in most written materials. Arabs have to go to school to learn the MSA form, and, therefore, not every Arab can read and write. Colloquial Arabic, on the other hand, is the spoken language of everyday activities at home, at work, on the street, and in social occasions. It varies not only from one Arab country to another but also within the same country depending on education, socioeconomic level, and religion. However, there is in each Arab country one standard and predominant colloquial vernacular based on the dialect spoken in the capital city or a major commercial city. The differences between MSA and colloquial Arabic are basically phonological and morphological, whereas the differences between the dialects are in pronunciation, everyday expressions, and idiomatic phrases. The problem of the Arabic “diglossia” has always raised the question of which forms of Arabic—modern standard, colloquial, or which dialect of the colloquial—is to be learned or to be taught by educational institutions. It is not an easy choice, but there are criteria and ways that help the learner of Arabic to make that choice. We advise the beginning student and traveler to concentrate on studying and stick with a single form or dialect until it is learned fairly well. The learner will then be able to use that knowledge of Arabic in adapting himself or herself (tongue and ears) to another dialect. It is safe to state here that an average person with firm control of one dialect should be able to communicate with another person who speaks a different dialect. The communication level would be the same between a person speaking American English and another speaking British English. There are three major geographical groups of dialects in modern Iraq that can be identified in general terms as northern, southern, and central. The northern dialect is centered around the city of Mosul (the largest city in the north), and the southern dialect is centered around the city of Basra (the largest city in the south). The central dialect is spoken in the capital city of Baghdad and its surroundings.

xvi | Introduction

Although this book is titled Modern Iraqi Arabic, the text presented is the dialect spoken by Iraqis who live in Baghdad. Baghdad, as a great capital and metropolitan center, offers a dialect that is the most widely used and understood throughout Iraq. The modern Iraqi Arabic introduced in this book is spoken by an average, middle-class Baghdadi.

ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ arrangement of the book ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ This text is written to serve the communication needs of students, travelers, and business people whose objective is to speak rather than read or write the language. To achieve that objective, a transliteration system of phonetic writing is used to express the sounds of Iraqi Arabic. The selection of the transcription symbols is based on the system used in the Encyclopedia of Islam, p. , by C. Glasse. The learner should master these transcriptions before proceeding to learn the structure of the language. In this revised edition Arabic script has been added, so those who can read and write Arabic may be able to learn the dialect of Iraq without abandoning the Arabic writing. Those who are familiar with the writing convention of Modern Standard Arabic will notice certain modifications to the script made for the purpose of expressing certain sounds or combinations of sounds that are found only in colloquial Arabic. Lesson  offers the reader a detailed discussion of consonants, vowels, and other characteristics of Iraqi phonetics, including a comprehensive list of pronunciation exercises on the audio. Make sure to listen to the audio frequently and practice by repeating the sounds. The text is designed for people who have no previous knowledge of Arabic as well as those who have already studied some Arabic but wish to learn the Iraqi dialect. It is organized in a method suitable either for use in the classroom or for self-study with the help of the audio. The best way to learn a spoken language is to hear it spoken and to practice speaking it. The essential factors of learning spoken Arabic are repetition, mechanical exercises, and memorization, in addition to practicing with a partner. This book contains twenty lessons based on everyday situations. The lessons are arranged in a story-like format that follows a woman named Basma traveling from the United States to Iraq and her activities within the country. Beginning with lesson , each lesson is divided into the following main parts: • Basic Dialogue • Vocabulary • Additional Expressions (as needed) • Grammar and Remarks • Idioms and Common Phrases • Drills • Creative Dialogues

xviii | Arrangement of the Book

Basic Dialogue The basic dialogue is preceded by a very brief description explaining the lesson subject matter, which always involves a female (Basma), a male, and sometimes more people. The basic dialogue is a conversation module usually between two people (male and female) about day-to-day matters. The dialogue is designed to be simple and practical, introducing the subject matter of the lesson and its grammatical structure. The student should memorize the vocabulary and the expressions in the dialogue. The same or similar sentences and expressions will recur in subsequent dialogues and drills to reinforce the learning process.

Vocabulary This section contains the new words that occur in the lesson listed in the order in which they appear in the basic dialogue. Some vocabulary items may be listed in more than one lesson because of their importance to the learning reinforcement process. In addition to the meaning of the vocabulary, other forms of the words (with variation based on gender, number, and types of verb stems) are also included with a cultural explanation whenever it is appropriate. Cross-references are also made to the relevant discussions or expressions.

Additional Expressions This is a list of additional vocabulary or expressions related to the subject of the lesson. Most of the vocabulary items will recur in subsequent drills and lessons.

Grammar and Remarks The explanations of new grammatical structures are given in a simple and systematic way. The structure points are always illustrated with examples from the present lesson or the previous ones. The student needs only to grasp the basic knowledge of the structure. His or her effort will more wisely be spent on memorizing new vocabulary and drill examples. An attempt has been made to include no more than two main grammatical structures in each lesson.

Idioms and Common Phrases Arabic is rich in idiomatic phrases, proverbs, sayings, and religious and cultural expressions. They constitute an important element of everyday spoken Arabic. There are two to three idioms in each lesson with cultural explanations and relevant drills. These idiomatic phrases and their drills will recur in later lessons. The learner should memorize the idioms and their drills, thus enriching his or her communication skills.

Drills The purpose of the drills is to help the student develop a facility for recombining the vocabulary items he learned in the dialogue as well as to reinforce the grammatical structures of

Arrangement of the Book | xix

each lesson. All the drills, with the exception of the translation, are in Arabic in order to make the student use Arabic more often and to learn to think in the language. The most frequently used drills are replying, substitution, transformation, changing, repeating, translation, and formation of sentences with certain wordings. Most of the drill compositions are taken with little changes from the basic dialogues or the grammar sections. There are also many more formed by combining new and previous vocabulary items.

Creative Dialogues These are open-ended creative activities that students can do with a partner. The objectives are to invite learners to be creative within a given lesson, to introduce new vocabulary, new sentences, and to enforce oral memorization.

Glossary Much effort and attention have been given to this list of Arabic–English and English– Arabic vocabulary and other items that occur in this book in order to help the user maximize its use and obtain good results. For more information on the arrangement and the use of the glossary, please refer to the glossary.

Audio The audio material included with the book is closely integrated with the text. The student should use the audio together with the book in order to get full use of them. It is also important to the process of learning to read the relevant explanations that accompany each segment on the audio. The recorded segments are designated as “Audio” or “Examples, Audio.” Each word, idiom, and sentence is recorded twice. The student is asked to repeat each time in a loud voice. However, the student should play the audio as many times as he or she feels necessary to memorize the sentences and their meanings. A person learning on his or her own can conduct a recording test to see if the pronunciation is correct by comparing it with the audio.

ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ list of abbreviations and symbols ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ adj. adv. col. D DV F FP HV imp. lit. M MP MS N P part. prep. RV S V WV >

adjective adverb collective dual double verb feminine feminine plural hollow verb imperative literally masculine masculine plural masculine singular noun plural participle preposition regular verb singular verb weak verb derived from

Iraqi popular handicrafts

ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ lesson ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ NjȮŲȚȶ Ⱦ ȦȾȤȼȢ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ Arabic Alphabet and Vowels ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ǀƸŮǍƯŽȚ ǀdžȮƴƯȾ ɀȮŽȚ ȯȶǍŲȶ Ƚ ȔƾƃƱȮŽLjȚ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ DARIS WAAHID


The Iraqi Alphabet

Iraqi Arabic has thirty-one consonant sounds. About fifteen of them have equivalent sounds in English. The other sounds will require more attention and practice by students from the beginning. Students of Arabic in general must keep in mind that their ability to communicate with Iraqis will depend entirely on the ability to produce those sounds or to write them. The best way to learn any foreign language is to hear it spoken by a native and imitate it as closely as possible. It is important for the student to imitate very closely the pronunciation of his/her instructor, or the audio when a native speaker is not available. Since this book is designed to teach students how to speak Iraqi Arabic, the transcription system is used in addition to the Arabic script. The following list of Iraqi Arabic alphabet sounds and their equivalents in English, and in some cases other languages, are approximate. The emphasis should, therefore, be on imitating the pronunciation of the instructor and the audio.




Ȕ ț Ɂ ȝ Ȟ

hamza bee pa tee thee

¢ b p t th

The Iraqi Alphabet (Audio) Example Equivalent la¢la¢ beet parda tiin thalij

uh-oh! (a glottal stop sound) boy pencil (used only in borrowed words) take third

 | lesson 



The Iraqi Alphabet (continued) Transcription Example Equivalent

ȟ Ƀ Ƞ

jiim cha hee

j ch h

jaab cham haal

ȡ Ȣ ȣ Ȥ ȥ Ȧ ȧ Ȩ

khee daal dhaal ree zee siin shiin saad

kh d dh r z s sh s

khaaf dall dhill naar zeet samm shaal saff




















Ɇ ȯ Ȱ

ga fee qaaf

g f q

gaal fariid qaas

ȱ Ȳ Ȳ

kaaf laam laam

k l l

kilma leela walla

job chair / (strongly whispered deep in the throat, similar to the sound produced by someone who has just burned his mouth on hot coffee) auch (German) dip this hurry (approx.) zinc sit ship / (emphatic “s,” similar to the “s” in “sum” with the central part of tongue depressed and the back part slightly raised) / (this sound is not produced in Iraqi Arabic; the sound z ȫ is used instead, see below) / (sound is made with the front part of the tongue touching the upper palate behind the teeth) / (sound is produced with the tip of the tongue slightly touching the back of the teeth) / (almost silent “ah,” pronounced deep in the back of the throat) Parisian (French) (similar to the sound of gargling and as deep) go fit / (like the “c” in “cool” but made further back in the throat) kitchen like bell (emphatic “l” appears mostly with certain emphatic consonants or words that invoke the name of “alla, God”)

Arabic Alphabet and Vowels | 



The Iraqi Alphabet (continued) Transcription Example Equivalent

ȳ ȴ Ȯƀ ȶ ȸ

miim nuun hee waa yee

m n h w y

maal nahar hilaal walad yoom

mother never hot well yet

Notes on the Iraqi Arabic Consonants . The hamza ȜǎƵɀ Ȯƀȼ (¢), glottal stop, is a consonant and as such it appears in the beginning (initial), middle (medial), or end (final) of the word. However, in this textbook, the hamza is not rendered in the initial position. This is done for two reasons: to make the transcription writing system more practical, and also because English words beginning with vowels are pronounced with glottal stop, although it is not written. In Arabic, there is no word that begins with a vowel. The reader, therefore, must always assume that there is a hamza with every initial vowel. Words with initial vowels are listed under the heading (¢) in the glossary. . The consonant “p, Ɂ” is a sound particular to Iraqi Arabic. It seems to occur mostly in loanwords “soopa, poskaart” (heating stove and post card, respectively). . The consonants “ch, Ƀ” and “k, ȱ”: The sound “ch” is a nonclassical–Arabic consonant. In many examples this sound replaces the sound “k” as in chibiir for kabiir (big), and chalib for kalb (dog). See these two headings in the glossary. . The consonants “g, Ɇ ” and “q, Ȱ”: The classical sound “q” is often used in Iraqi Arabic, although it is usually replaced by the sound “g,” such as giriib for qariib (close), and gaal for qaal (to say). The “g” also occurs in some loanwords as geemar (cream) and glaas ( glass). . The consonants “d, ȩ” and “z, ȫ”: The classical sound “d” has almost completely disappeared and has fallen together with the sound “z” in Iraqi Arabic, abyaz for abyad (white), and khazz for khadd (to shake). However, we have retained the consonant “d” in the book for practical reasons connected with the Arabic script. . The emphatic “l, Ȳ”: This sound is limited in number and use mainly in the words that invoke the name of God, “alla.” It also occurs in examples that contain some neighboring emphatic consonants such as t, s, and z, (sultaan, tall, zall ) (see exercise ).

The Iraqi Vowels


Arabic vowels are of two types, long and short. The Iraqi dialect has five long vowels “aa,” “ee,” “ii,” “oo,” and “uu,” and four short vowels “a,” “i,” “o,” and “u.” In the examples given below the English equivalents are only approximate. The long vowels are simply the lengthened counterpart of the short vowels. For example, the long vowel “aa” is pronounced as in the word “had” and not as in the word “bat.” In other words, the vowel “aa” is longer in duration than the vowel “a.”

 | lesson 

The pronunciation length of the Arabic vowels is very important because there are many words of quite different meanings that are distinguished only by the length of their vowels, as in the words alam (flag) and aalam (world); shimal (to include) and shimaal (north) (see exercise ). Another difference between the two types in Arabic script is that the long vowels are written within the body of the script, whereas the short vowels appear as symbols above or below the consonants (see below).

1. The Long Vowels (Audio) Vowel



Ț ȸ ȸ ȶ ȶ

ham bait beet dog root

naam beet jiib zooj kuub



bet hit put radio

jamal sinn kunt raadyo

aa ee ii oo uu

2. The Short Vowels (Audio) Vowel –ȼ –Ⱦ –Ƚ


a i u o

(to sleep) (house) (bring) (husband ) (cup)

ȳƾȮſ ǁȮƸȮŮ ƿȮƸȮű ȟȶȥ țǞȮż

(camel ) (tooth) (I was) (radio)

ǚȮƵȼ Ȯűȼ ǜȮŴ Ⱦ ǁƶȮż Ƚ ǞƁȢȚȤ

Notes on the Vowels . The sound quality of the short vowels are affected by the surrounding emphatic consonants such as “s,” “t,” “z,” and “l” (see exercises , , , , , and ). They have more sound variations than those of the long vowels, depending on the surrounding consonants and their position in the word. They also have less sonority than the long vowels. . The short vowel “a” has a range of sound qualities depending on the surrounding consonants (whether emphatic or simple). For example, in the middle of the word it may have the sound “e” as in “get,” “a” as in “car,” or “u” as in “but.” However, its precise quality rarely affects the meaning of the word. . The vowels “i” and “u” at the end of the word have a sound like that of their long vowel counterparts “ii” and “uu” as in shuufi (look, F) and shuufu (look, P). Thus, in Arabic script the final vowels “i” and “u” are written with their long vowel counterparts “ii, ȸ” and “uu, ȶ.” . The vowel “o” sounds like the long vowel “oo” but shorter. The vowel seems to appear mostly in loanwords at the end of the words, as in raadyo, byaano, and maayo (radio,

Arabic Alphabet and Vowels | 

piano, and bathing suit, respectively). But it also occurs in the medial position as in paasbort and poskaart (passport and postcard, respectively). Although “o” is a short vowel it is traditionally written with “ȶ” in Arabic script (MSA), since it appears mostly in the end of loanwords, such as “maayo” ǞƁƾž. . The long vowels “ee” and “oo” are, in most cases, regarded as reflexes of the classical Arabic diphthongs “ay” and “aw” as in zooj for zawj (husband) and heel for hayl (strength). They appear also in loanwords: sooda (soda), maatoor (motor), meez (table), and heel (cardamom). The long vowel “oo” occurs in some types of the weak verb as in yoogaf (to stand) and yoosal (to arrive). . The two vowels “ee” and “ii” are both expressed in Arabic script by the vowel “ȸ.” Similarly, the two vowels “uu” and “oo” are written with the vowel “ȶ.” This is because the “ee” and “oo” are vowels peculiar to the colloquial Arabic only. To differentiate between sounds of “ee” and “ii,” and sounds “uu” and “oo,” readers are advised to consult the phonetic transcription.

Phonetics of Iraqi Arabic: Pronunciation Exercises (Audio) ǀȮƸȮ ȼ ǜƁȤƾƵȼȮů :ǀƸŻȚǍȾȮƯɀȮŽȚ ǀȮƆȼ Ʒɀ ȼȮƴɀȮŽȚ ȝȚǞǧȖ ɀ dž Ⱦ ůǞɀ Ȯǧ

The following are a comprehensive list of exercises intended to cover certain sounds of Iraqi Arabic, especially those sounds that are new for nonnative speakers of Arabic. The words in the exercises are arranged in pairs based on the similarity of sounds with the exception of one different sound, either a consonant or a vowel. But notice the different meanings of those otherwise close sounds. The reader needs only to notice the different meanings of the horizontally paired words without memorizing them. The exercises are for the reader to practice aloud with the help of the audio. The instructor may find it useful to go over them in the classroom in repetition technique, especially using the new sounds. On the audio we shall read horizontally each word of these exercises twice. Please repeat after the voice. . Contrast between h Ȯƀ and h Ƞ: ǚƵƀ to neglect hamal ǍƆƀ to abandon hajar ǚƷƴƀ to rejoice halhal ƿƀ to blow habb ȿ ǝdžȮƶȮƀȼ to congratulate hanna ǍȮƷſ river nahar ǛƷŽ to swallow up laham ȳǍƀ pyramid haram ǝƃŵ resemblance shabah ȧǞƀ cattle hoosh

hamal hajar halhal habb hanna nahar laham haram shabah hoosh

ǚƵŲ ǍƆŲ ǚƇƴŲ ƿŲ ȿ ǝdžȮƶȮŲȼ ǍƇȮſ ǛƇŽ ȳǍŲ ljƃŵ ȧǞŲ

to carry stone to loosen to like to dye with henna to slaughter meat forbidden ghost house

 | lesson 

. Contrast between kh ȡ and gh ȭ: ǠŽƾų empty khaali țƾų to fail khaab ǀƵƸų tent kheema ǍƸų goodness kheer Ǔƴų to mix khalat ȯǾų difference khilaaf Ǎƈŵ to snore shakhar

ghaali ghaab gheema gheer ghalat ghilaaf shaghar

. Contrast between s Ȧ and s Ȩ: ȢƾŴ to dominate saad ȤƾŴ to walk saar ȳƾŴ poisonous saam ƿŴ to curse sabb ȿ Ǐų lettuce khass ȿ ǗƸŴ sword seef ƿƸƉſ relative-in-law nasiib NjƯŴ to be happy siad

saad saar saam sabb khass seef nasiib siad

Ȣƾǧ Ȥƾǧ ȳƾǧ ƿǧ ȿ Ǒų ȿ ǗƸǧ ƿƸƫſ NjƯǧ

. Contrast between t ȝ and t Ȫ: to decide ǁŮ batt ȿ ȿ ǚů hill tall țƾů to repent taab ƞů figs tiin țǞů repent tuub ǍƢ palm dates tamur ǀŮǞů repentance tooba ƿůȤ ranks rutab ǍƄź to abate fatar

batt tall taab tiin tuub tamur tooba rutab fatar

ȿ ǓŮ ȿ ǚŶ țƾŶ ƞŶ țǞŶ ǍƵŶ ǀŮǞŶ ƿŶȤ Ǎƭź

geese to look to become good clay bricks to cover with earth ball fresh dates to break fasting

. Contrast between ¢ Ȕ and  Ȭ: ȲƺŴ to ask sa¢al ȲȚƻŴ question su¢aal LjLj to shine la¢la¢ ƺƃſ news naba¢ ȳȖ or ¢amm NjǣƾŮ perished baa¢id ȜȤƾžȘ emirate ¢imaara ǛŽȖ pain ¢alam NjƁȿ Ȗ to support ¢ayyad

saal suaal lala naba amm baaid imaara alam ayyad


to cough coughing to roar to flow uncle to cause separation multistory building flag to celebrate


expensive absent cloud other wrong cover to be vacant

to hunt to become to fast to pour to specify summer lot to go up

Arabic Alphabet and Vowels | 

maa shaa aali

Ȭƾž to melt Ȭƾŵ to spread ǠŽƾŸ high

. Contrast between k ȱ and q Ȱ: Ȧƾż cup kaas Ȣƾż to work hard kaad ǏƸż bag kiis ȿ Ǚŵ doubt shakk ǙƴŴ to follow salak ǍƳſ to deny nakar ǙƴȮź orbit falak ǍƁǍƳů repetition takriir

qaas qaad qiis shaqq salaq naqar falaq taqriir

ȦƾŻ ȢƾŻ ǏƸŻ ȿǘŵ ǘƴŴ ǍƲſ ǘƴȮź ǍƁǍƲů

. Contrast between d Ȣ and d ȩ: NjȮŸ to count add ȿ Njų cheek khadd ȿ țȤȢ road darb ȤȚȢ house daar ȳNjƀ to destroy hadam ȢƾȮź to benefit faad ȢȶȢǍž rejected marduud ȔȚȢȤ dress ridaa¢

add khadd darb daar hadam faad marduud ridaa¢

ǒŸ ǒų țǍǤ ȤƾǤ ǛƬƀ ȩƾź ȩǞǤǍž ȔƾǤȤ

to bite to shake hitting harmful to digest to overflow bruised satisfaction

. Contrast between dh ȣ and z ȫ: ȿ Ȳȣ to humiliate dhall ǀŽȿ njž humiliation madhalla Ȥnjſ to dedicate nadhar njƁnjŽ delicious ladhiidh ȣȚnjźȚ alone afdhaadh ǚƸŽȣ lowly dhaliil mudhaakara ȜǍżȚnjž memorizing

zall mazalla nazar laziiz afzaaz zaliil muzaahara

ȿ ǚŷ ǀƴȿ Ʈž ǍƮſ ǔƸƮŽ ȫƾƮźȚ ǚƸƴŷ ȜǍƀƾƮž

to get lost umbrella to see burning rude shaded demonstration

. Contrast between gh ȭ and g Ɇ: ȲǞŹ demon ghuul to choke ǑŹ ghass ȿ ȿ ǐŹ to cheat ghashsh ȤNjŹ to deceive ghidar ǠưƴƁ to cancel yilghi ȭNjŹȢ to tickle daghdagh

guul gass gashsh gidar yilgi dagdag

maa¢ shaa¢ ¢aali

Ȕƾž water Ȕƾŵ to want ǠŽȕ mechanical


to measure to lead measure cut to cook in water to dig to split report

say to cut to sweep to be able to find to pound

 | lesson 

garram gisab

ȳǍǬ to cripple ȿ ƿƫǬ reeds

. Contrast between j ȟ and ch Ƀ: ǚȮƵ Jammal ȿ űȼ make beautiful ȜȤƾű neighbor jaara ȱȤƾű your neighbor jaarak Ȳƾű to tour jaal țǞű travel juub ȸƾű coming jaay ǏƸű touch jiis ǃȮź way fajj ȿ ǝűȤ to request rija

chammal chaara chaarak chaal chuub chaay chiis fachch richa

ǚȮƵ ȿ ǩȼ ȜȤƾǩ ȱȤƾǩ Ȳƾǩ țǞǩ ȸƾǩ ǏƸǩ ǶȮź ȿ ǝǩȤ

to add remedy one-fourth to measure rubber tube tea bag jaw to support

. Contrast between h Ƞ and kh ȡ: ȧǞŲ house hoosh ȲƾŲ condition haal ǚƸŲ strength heel ǓŲ to put hatt ǁƎ under tahat ȜȥǍŲ amulet hirza NjƵŲ to thank himad ȿ ǚŲ solution hall ǛƸŲȤ kind rahiim ǍŲƾŴ magician saahir ȤǞƇŮ seas buhuur

khoosh khaal kheel khatt takhat khirza khimad khall rakhiim saakhir bukhuur

ȧǞų Ȳƾų ǚƸų Ǔų ǁƈů ȜȥǍų NjƵų ȿ ǚų ǛƸųȤ ǍųƾŴ ȤǞƈŮ

good uncle horses line bed bead to subdue vinegar soft (voice) mocker incense

walla galla balla alla khaali dakhla dakhal khalli gilab galub inshaalla

ʇȶ ǝdžȮƴȮǬ ȿ ǝdžȮƴȮŮ ʇȚ ǠŽƾų ǀƴųȢ ǚųȢ ǠƦȮƴų ƿƴȮǬȾ ƿƴȼȮǬ ʇƾƪſȘ

gharram ghisab

ȳǍŹ to fine ȿ ƿƫŹ to force

. Contrast between l Ȳ and l Ȳ: ǝdžȮŽȶ to leave walla ǝdžȮƴ galla ȿ ȼȮǬ to tell ǝdžȮƴȮŮ to make wet balla ǾɀȮŽȘ except illa ǠŽƾų empty khaali ǀƴųȢ entering dakhla ǚųȢ to enter dakhal ǠƦȮƴų leave khalli

by God to fry by God God my uncle wedding income my vinegar to turn over heart God willing


Arabic Alphabet and Vowels | 

. Contrast between single and double consonants: ǛƴŸ flag allam alam ǕƵű to add jamma jama ȯǍŵ honor sharraf sharaf ȦȤȢ to study darras daras Ǎƃų news khabbar khabar ǚƵű camel jammal jamal ȯǍŸ to know arraf araf ǛƴŴ to be safe sallam salam ǝƶȮŮ to build banna bana ǚƅž proverb maththal mathal

Ǜƴȿ Ÿ ǕȮƵű ȿ ȯǍŵ ȿ ȦȤȢ ȿ Ǎƃų ȿ ǚȮƵű ȿ ȯǍŸ ȿ ǛdžȮƴŴ ǝdžȮƶȮŮ ǚdžȮƅȮžȼ

to teach to collect to honor to teach to tell to decorate to introduce to greet builder to act

. Contrast between short and long vowels: Ǎƃų news khabar ǛƴŸ flag alam ƿƄż to write katab ǏƱſ breath nafas NjȮŸȾ count id Njȿ ȾȮű grandfather jidd Njȿ Ŵ sadd ȼ to shut NjƀȾ ƾŵ witness shaahid ǚȾȮƃȮſ arrows nabil ǍȮ jurr ȿ űȽ pull ǍȮ jarr ȿ űȼ to pull

ǍŮƾų ǛŽƾŸ ƿůƾż Ǐźƾſ NjƸȮŸ NjƸȮű ȢƾŴ NjƸƷŵ ǚƸȮƃſ ȤǞȮű Ȥƾű

to telephone world to correspond to compete festival neck to dominate martyr noble oppression neighbor




khaabar aalam kaatab naafas iid jiid saad shahiid nabiil juur jaar

. Listen to the audio and identify the different consonants. . Listen to the audio and identify the short and the long vowels. . Listen to the audio and identify the single and double consonants.

ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ

Sheik’s guest house built of reeds in the marshes of southern Iraq

ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ lesson ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ǜȮƸȮƶɀȮŰ ȦȾȤȼȢ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ Greetings and Courtesy Expressions ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ tahiyyaat wa mujaamalaat ȝǾžȼ ƾƆžȽ ȶ ȝƾȮƸȮ ȿ ƇȾ ȼȮů ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ DARIS ITHNEEN

Basma, an American-born Iraqi woman, meets Kamaal (a man), and exchanges the following greetings. Notice that in context of a greeting one can almost always use the same expression in reply.

Basic Dialogue (Audio) . Basma: marhaba. Hello. . Kamaal: marhaba. Hello. . Basma: shloonak? How are you? . Kamaal: aani zeen, ilhamdu lillaah. w-inti shloonich? I am well, praise God. And how are you? . Basma: aani zeena, ilhamdu lillaah. tfaddal istariih. I am well, praise God. Please sit down. . Kamaal: shukran. Thank you. . Basma: allaa bil-kheer. God bless (idiom).

.ǀƃŲ ȼ ɀǍžȼ .ǀƃŲ ȼ ɀǍžȼ

ɀ ȒǙȮſǞƴŵ ɀ ǠƄɀȮſȚȾȶ .ʇ NjȽ ƵȼƑȘ ȆǜƁȥ Ǡſȕ ȒǶȮſǞƴŵ .ljƁǍȼȮƄŴȘ dž ȼȮƱɀȮů .ʇ NjȽ ƵȼƑȘ ȆǀƶƁȥ Ǡſȕ ɀ ǚƬ .ȚǍɀȮƳȮŵ Ƚ .ǍƸƈɀȮŽƾŮ ʇȚ

 | l e s s o n 

. Kamaal: allaa bil-kheer. God bless (in reply). . Basma: shloon l-ahal? How is the family? . Kamaal: zeeniin, ilhamdu lillaah. shloon wildich? Well, praise God. How are your children? . Basma: b-kheer, nushkur alla. Well, thank God. . Kamaal: an idhnich. Excuse me. . Basma: tfaddal. Please (in this context meaning: you are excused). . Kamaal: maa s-salaama. Goodbye. . Basma: maa s-salaama. Goodbye.

.ǍƸƈɀȮŽƾŮ ʇȚ

ɀ Ȓǚƀȼ LjȚ ȴǞƴŵ ɀ .ʇ NjƵƑȘ ȆƞƶƁȥ ȒɃNjȾ ɀȮŽȾȶ ȴǞƴŵ .ʇȚ ǍȮƳ Ƚ ɀȮƪȽſ ǍƸƈɀŮ .ǶȮȾſȣȘ ǜŸȼ .ǚƬƱ ȿ ɀȮů .ǀžǾƉŽȚ ȿ Ǖȼ žȼ .ǀžǾƉŽȚ ȿ Ǖȼ žȼ

Additional Expressions (Audio) Feminine Form shloonich? inti shloonich? tfaddali stariihi.

How are you? How are you yourself? Please sit down.


How are you? How are you yourselves? Please sit down. How are your children? Excuse me. Please (P)

ɀ ȒǛȮƳ Ƚ ɀȮſǞƴŵ ɀ ǞƄſȘ ȒǛƳɀȮſǞƴŵ ǞƇƁǍȼȮƄŴ dž ȼȮƱɀȮů. ɀ ǞƴƬ ȒǛȮż Ƚ Njɀ ȾȮŽȾȶ ȴǞƴŵ ȒǛȮƳ Ƚ ɀȮſȾȣȘ ǜŸȼ ǞƴƬ ȿ ȼȮƱɀȮů.

Plural Form shloonkum? intu shloonkum? tfaddalu stariihu. shloon wilidkum? an idhinkum. tfaddalu

Some Basic Greetings (Audio) marhaba marhaba (in reply) as-salaamu alaykum. wa alaykum is-salaam (reply)

Hello (informal, used any time of the day). Hello. Peace be upon you. And peace be upon you (formal, used any time of the day).

ǀƃŲǍž ǀƃŲǍž ǛȮƳ ȿ Ƚ Ƹɀ ȼȮƴȮŸȼ ȳǾƉŽȚ ȳǾƉŽȚ ǛƳƸƴŸȶ ȿ

Greetings and Courtesy Expressions | 

sabaah il-kheer sabaah in-nuur (reply) masaa¢ il-kheer. masaa¢ in-nuur (reply) maa s-salaama maa s-salaama (reply) tisbah ala kheer tisbah ala kheer (reply) tisbahiin ala kheer tisbahiin ala kheer (reply) tisbahuun ala kheer tisbahuun ala kheer (reply) ahlan wa sahlan ahlan wa sahlan (reply) allaa bil-kheer allaa bil-kheer (reply) tsharrafna w-ilna sh-sharaf (reply)

Good morning. Good morning. Good afternoon/evening. Good afternoon/evening. Goodbye. Goodbye. Goodnight (to a man). Goodnight. Goodnight (to a woman). Goodnight. Goodnight (to a group). Goodnight. Welcome. Welcome. God bless (see below). God bless. Pleased to meet you. Pleased to meet you.

ǍƸƈɀȮŽȚ Ƞƾƃǧ ȤǞȮƶŽȚ ȿ Ƞƾƃǧ ǍƸƈɀȮŽȚ ȔƾƉž ȤǞȮƶȮŽȚ ȔƾƉž ȿ ǀžǾƉŽȚ ȿ Ǖȼ žȼ ǀžǾƉŽȚ ȿ Ǖȼ žȼ ǍƸų ǟƴŸ ljƃƫ ɀ Ⱦů ǍƸų ǟƴŸ ljƃƫ ɀ Ⱦů ǍƸų ǟƴŸ ƞƇƃȼ ƫ ɀ Ⱦů ǍƸų ǟƴŸ ƞƇƃȼ ƫ ɀ Ⱦů ǍƸų ǟƴŸ ȴǞƇƃȼ ƫ ɀ Ⱦů ǍƸų ǟƴŸ ȴǞƇƃȼ ƫ ɀ Ⱦů ȹǾƷŴȶ ȹǾƀȚ ȹǾƷŴȶ ȹǾƀȚ ǍƸƈɀȮŽƾŮ ʇȚ ǍƸƈɀȮŽƾŮ ʇȚ ƾƶɀȮźdžǍȼȮƪɀȮů ȯȼǍȮdžȮƪŽȚ ƾƶɀȮŽȾȶ

Vocabulary (Audio) tahiyya / tahiyyaat (S/P) marhaba shloon? shloonak / shloonich / shloonkum?(M/F/P) zeen / zeena / zeeniin (M/F/P) ilhamdu lillaah

w/wa aani inta / inti / intu (M/F/P) tfaddal / tfaddali / tfaddalu (M/F/P)

stariih / stariihi / stariihu (M/F/P)

greeting/s Hello. how? How are you? well, fine, good (adj.) praise be to God (invariable standard expression to a question about how one is doing, see lesson ). and I (M and F) you Please (used when someone offers something to another, varies depending on the context). Sit down (imp. verb).

ȝƾƸȿ ƇȾ ȼȮů / ǀƸȿ ƇȾ ȼȮů ǀȼȮƃŲȼ ɀǍžȼ ȒȴǞƴɀȮŵ ȒǶȾſǞƴɀȮŵ ȒǙſǞƴɀȮŵ ȒǛƳɀȮſǞƴɀȮŵ ƞƶƁȥ / ǀƶƁȥ / ǜƁȥ ʇ NjȽ ȮƵɀ ȮƇȼ ɀȮŽȘ

ȶ Ǡſȕ ǞƄſȘ / ǠƄſȘ / ǁſȘ / ǠƴƬ dž ȼȮƱů /ǚƬ dž ȼȮƱɀȮů ǞƴƬ dž ȼȮƱů /ǠƇƁǍƄŴ ɀ / ljƁǍȼȮƄŴ ɀ ǞƇƁǍȼȮƄŴ ɀ

 | l e s s o n 

shukran allaa bil-kheer ahal / l-ahal walad / wilid (S/P) b-kheer nushkur alla an idhnak / an idhnich / an idhinkum (M/F/P) maa salaama maa s-salaama tamriin / tamaariin (S/P) tabaan / tabaana / tabaaniin (M/F/P)

thanks, thank you (invariable). God bless (idiom, see below). family/the family child/children, boy/s. well, good, fine. Thank God. Excuse me, with your permission. with (prep.) safety goodbye drill/s, exercise/s tired (adj.)

ȹ ȚǍƳŵ ǍƸƈɀȮŽƾŮ ʇȚ ǚƀLjȚ/ ǚƀȼ Ȗ NjȾȮŽȾȶ / NjȼȮŽȼȶ ǍƸȮƈɀŮ ʇȚ ǍȮƳ Ƚ ɀȮƪȮſ Ƚ / ǶȮȾſȣȘ ǜȮŸȼ / ǙȼȮſȣȘ ǜȮŸȼ ǛȮƳ Ƚ ɀȮſȾȣȘ ǜȮŸȼ Ǖȼ žȼ ǀžǾŴ ȼ ǀžǾƉŽȚ Ǖ žȼ ȼ dž ǜƁȤƾƵȼȮů / ǜƁǍƵɀ ȼȮů / ǀſƾƃȮƯɀ ȼȮů / ȴƾƃȮƯɀ ȼȮů ƞſƾƃȮƯɀ ȼȮů

Grammar and Remarks English Arabic I

aani (M/F)

you you he she we

inta (M) inti (F) huwwa hiyya ihna (M/F)


intu (M/F)


humma (M/F)

Independent Pronouns (Audio) Examples Meaning aani zeen (M) aani zeena (F) inta zeen inti zeena huwwa zeen hiyya zeena ihna zeeniin (M) ihna zeenaat (F) intu zeeniin (M) intu zeenaat (F) humma zeeniin (M) humma zeenaat (F)

I am well. I am well. You are well. You are well. He is well. She is well. We are well. We are well. You are well. You are well They are well. They are well.

ǜƁȥ Ǡſȕ ǀƶƁȥ Ǡſȕ ǜƁȥ ǁſȘ ǀƶƁȥ ǠƄſȘ ǜƁȥ Ǟƀ ǀƶƁȥ Ǡƀ ƞȮƶȮƁȥ ƾƶȮŲȘ ɀ ȝƾƶƁȥ ƾƶȮŲȘ ɀ ƞȮƶȮƁȥ ǞȮƄɀȮſȘ ȝƾƶƁȥ ǞȮƄɀȮſȘ ƞȮƶȮƁȥ ǝȮƵdž ƀȽ ȝƾƶƁȥ ǝdžȮƵƀȽ

Ǡſȕ ǁſȘ ǠƄſȘ Ǟƀ Ǡƀ ƾƶȮŲȘ ɀ ǞȮƄɀȮſȘ ǝdžȮƵ ȿ ƀȽ

There is no pronoun corresponding to the English pronoun “it” in the Arabic language. The pronoun “it” is expressed in Arabic by the pronoun for “he, huwwa,” or “she, hiyya,” depending on whether the “it” is referring to something feminine or masculine. “hiyya” can also be used to refer to groups of things (see below). The Iraqi independent pronouns are used much less often than their counterparts in English. They are used in sentences without verbs. They are mainly used with adjectives and adverbs, to add emphasis, or when changing

Greetings and Courtesy Expressions | 

the direction of the speech. The independent pronoun is always the subject of the sentence or the statement. The chair (M) is new; it is new. The newspaper (F) is new; it is new. The newspapers (P) are new; they are new.

il-kursi jidiid; huwwa jidiid


ij-jariida jidiida; hiyya jidiida ij-jaraayid jidiida; humma jidiida


Note: Arabic statements have no words equivalent to the verb “to be” in English (am, is, are). Words for “was,” “ were,” “will,” and “shall” will be discussed in lesson . I am well. (lit., I well.) We are well. (lit., We well.) They are hungry. (lit., They hungry.)

aani zeen ihna zeeniin humma juuaaniin

ǜƁȥ Ǡſȕ ƞƶƁȥ ƾƶŲȘ ƞſƾŸǞű ǝƵdž ƀȽ

Word Stress: Stress Syllable Arabic words have one stress sound that stands out above the others, whether the words have one or more syllables. We call this a “stress syllable.” The stress syllable is automatic and predictable according to certain rules. There are exceptions, however. The Arabic stress syllable is the syllable that contains a long vowel followed by a consonant (VVC) as, in the word “raah,” or a short vowel followed by two consonants or more (VCC) as in the word “sadd.” In words with two stress syllables, the stress is on the second syllable toward the end of the word; in words with three stress syllables, the stress is on the third syllable, and so on. Listen for the shift in the stress and emphasis in the following words on the audio. mirtaah zeen raayih juuaan

mirtaahiin zeeniin raayhiin juuaaniin

ƞŲƾůɀǍžȾ ƞȮƶȮƁȥ ƞƇɀȮƁȚȤ ƞſƾŸǞű

ȠƾůɀǍžȾ ǜƁȥ ljȾȮƁȚȤ ȴƾŸǞű

If there is no stress syllable of the types mentioned above, the stress falls on the first syllable in the word, as in kitab, inta, ihna ƾƶŲȘ ȆǁſȘ ȆƿȼȮƄż Ⱦ .

Idioms and Common Phrases (Audio) 1. allaa bil-kheer

ǍƸƈɀȮŽƾŮ ʇȚ God bless (lit., God has brought goodness.)

It is one of the most common idiomatic expressions used by Iraqis. Iraqis use it when someone (male, female, or a group) comes in. As soon as the person sits down, he is greeted with allaa bil-kheer. The reply is the same, allaa bil-kheer. This is an invariable idiom.


 | l e s s o n 

2. shaku maaku? ȒǞżƾž ǞƳȼȮŵ What’s happening? What’s going on? What’s new? (lit., What’s there and what’s not there?) This is a very common idiomatic expression used among friends. Basma: shaku maaku il-yoom? Kamaal: maaku shii l-yoom. shaku maaku ar-raadyo? shaku maaku bis-suug?



Basma: What’s new today? Kamaal: Nothing’s new today. What is the news on the radio? What is happening in the market?

ȼ :ǀƵƉŮ ȒȳǞƸŽȘ Ǟżƾž ǞƳŵ ȳǞƸŽȘ Ǡŵ Ⱦ Ǟżƾž :ȲƾƵż ȒǞƁȢȚǍŽȚ ȿ Ȭȼ Ǟżƾž ǞƳŵ ȒɆǞƉŽƾŮ ȿ Ǟżƾž ǞƳŵ


ɷʄ 1. Give appropriate oral repliesȼ to the following expressions: ǀƃŲǍžȼ ǛƳſȾȣȘ ǜȮŸȼ ʞʏ ȒȳǞƸŽȘ ǙſǞƴɀȮŵ ȒǛƳſǞƴɀȮŵ ǞƄſȘ ljƁǍȼȮƄŴ ȒɃNjȾ ɀȮŽȾȶ ȴǞƴɀȮŵ ȿ ɀ ǚƬƱů ʄɷ ǍƸƈɀȮŽƾŮ ʇȚ ǙȮſȣȘ ǜȮŸȼ ǀžǾƉŽȚ ȒǚƀLjȚ ȴǞƴɀȮŵ ȿ Ǖžȼ ʏʞ ɷʄ 2. Change orally the following masculine forms to feminine and plural forms: ȒȳǞƸŽȘ ǙſǞƴŵɀ ljƁǍȼȮƄŴ dž ȼȮƱɀȮů ɀ ǚƬ ʏʞ ʇ NjƵƑȘ ȆǜƁȥ Ǡſȕ ȴƾŸǞű ǁſȘ ɷʄ ǙƴƬ ɀ ȼȮź ǜžȾ ǜƁȥ ǁſȘ ʏʞ ȴƾƃƯɀ ȼȮů Ǟƀ ɷʄ ɀ ȒȱNjȼ ɀȮŽȾȶ ȴǞƴŵ ʏʞ 3. Decline orally the independent pronouns with the following adjectives or participles: ɷʄ ʏʞ ȠƾůɀǍžȾ ȴƾŲɀǍȼȮź ȴƾŸǞű ȴƾƃȮƯɀ ȼȮů ɷʄ ȴƾƪɀȮƭŸȼ ȴǾƉ ɀ ȼȮż ǍȮ ź ƾƉ ž lj Ⱦ ɀ ȾȮƁȚȤ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ marhaba shloonak il-yoom? tfaddal istariih allaa bil-kheer maa s-salaama

an idhinkum intu shloonkum? shloon wildich? an idhnak shloon l-ahal?

shloonak il-yoom? tfaddal istariih aani zeen, ilhamdu lillaah inta juuaan min fadlak inta zeen huwwa tabaan shloon wildak?

Example: aani zeen, aani zeena, inta zeen, inti zeena, huwwa zeen, hiyya zeena, ihna zeeniin (MP), ihna zeenaat (FP), intu zeeniin (MP), intu zeenaat (FP), humma zeeniin (MP), humma zeenaat (FP). farhaan happy mirtaah content, fine juuaan hungry tabaan tired at shaan thirsty kaslaan lazy msaafir traveling raayih going


Greetings and Courtesy Expressions | 

4. Read the following statements aloud: shloon ahal Basma il-yoom? shloon ahal Kamaal il-yoom? shloon ahal Samiir il-yoom? shloon ahal Jamiila il-yoom? shloon ahal Mahmuud il-yoom? shloon ahlak il-yoom? shloon ahlich il-yoom? shloon ahalkum il-yoom?

5. Complete and read aloud: a. Kamaal tabaan il-yoom

Samiir juuaan il-yoom

ȳǞƸŽȘ ȴƾƃƯů ȲƾƵż





ǝȮƵ ȿ ƀȽ

humma (M)

Basma hiyya huwwa



humma (F)










ȲƾƵżȶ ǀƵƉŮ

Basma wa Kamaal

ǟƴƸŽȶ ǀƵƉŮ

Basma wa Layla b. allaa bil-kheer Basma

Kaamil Mahmuud Jamiila Jamiil

ɷʄ ɀ ʞʏ ȒȳǞƸŽȘ ǀƵƉŮ ǚƀȼ Ȗ ȴǞƴŵ ɀ ȒȳǞƸŽȘ ȲƾƵż ǚƀȼ Ȗ ȴǞƴŵ ɀ ʄɷ ȒȳǞƸŽȘ ǍƸƵŴ ǚƀȼ Ȗ ȴǞƴŵ ɀ ȒȳǞƸŽȘ ǀƴƸƵű ǚƀȼ Ȗ ȴǞƴŵ ɀ ʏʞ ȒȳǞƸŽȘ ȢǞƵƇž ǚƀȼ Ȗ ȴǞƴŵ ɀ ȒȳǞƸŽȘ ǙƴȮƀɀ Ȗ ȴǞƴŵ ȒȳǞƸŽȘ ǶȮȾƴȮƀɀ Ȗ ȴǞƴŵ ɷʄ ȒȳǞƸŽȘ ǛƳɀȮƴȼȮƀȖ ȴǞƴŵ ʞʏ ʄɷ ȳǞƸŽȘ ȴƾŸǞű ǍƸƵŴ ʏʞ ǀƵƉŮ ɷʄ Ǡƀ ʞʏ Ǟƀ ʄɷ ǝdžȮƵƀȽ ʏʞ ǁſȘ ɷʄ ǞƄſȘ ʏʞ ƾƶŲȘ ɷʄ ʏʞ ǍƸƵŴȶ ȢǞƵƇž ɷʄ ȜǍƸƵŴȶ ǀƴƸƵű ǀƵƉŮ ǍƸƒƾŮ ʇȚ ʏʞ ǚžƾż ɷʄ ʏʞ ȢǞƵƇž ɷʄ ǀƴƸƵű ʏʞ ǚƸƵű ɷʄ ʏʞ

Mahmuud wa Samiir Jamiila wa Samiira



 | l e s s o n 

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ Creative Dialogues ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ





c. shaku maaku il-yoom?

Student : Student : Student : Student : Student : Student : Student : Student : Student : Student :








ȒȢȚNjưŮ țɀ




masaa¢ il-kheer Jamiila masaa¢ in-nuur Kamaal shloona Mahmuud? huwwa zeen, il-hamdu lilaah wi-shloonha Basma? hiyya tabaana ween hiyya? hiyya bil-beet maa s-salaama maa s-salaama


ǀƴƸƵű ǍƸƒȚ ȔƾƉžȼ ȲƾƵż ǍƸƒȚ ȔƾƉžȼ ȒȢǞƵƇž ǝȼȮſǞƴŵ ʇ NjƵƑȘ ȆǜƁȥ Ǟƀ ɀ Ⱦȶ ȒǀƵƉŮ ƾƷɀȮſǞƴŵ ǀſƾƃƯů Ǡƀ ȒǠƀ ǜƁȶ ǁƸƃɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ Ǡƀ ǀžǾƉŽȚ ȿ Ǖž ǀžǾƉŽȚ ȿ Ǖž

A holy shrine in Baghdad

ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ lesson ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ǀŰǾɀȮů ȦȾȤȼȢ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ Asking for Directions ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ittijaahaat ȝƾƀƾƆƦȮůȘ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ


Basma is looking for some places. She meets Samiir (a man) and asks him for directions.

Basic Dialogue: (Audio) . Basma: sabaah il-kheer. Good morning. . Samiir: sabaah in-nuur. Good morning. . Basma: min fadlak, ween is-safaara l-Amriikiyya? Please, where is the American Embassy? . Samiir: hiyya bil-Karrada. It is in Karrada. . Basma: min fadlak, ween il-bariid? Please, where is the post office? . Samiir: il-bariid qariib mnis-suug. The post office is near the market. . Basma: turuf ween findiq ir-Rashiid? Do you know where is the Rashid Hotel? . Samiir: naam, findiq ir-Rashiid yamm il-bariid. Yes, the Rashid Hotel is near the post office.


Ƞƾƃǧ :ǀƵƉŮ

.ȤǞƶȿ ŽȚ

Ƞƾƃǧ :ǍƸƵŴ

ȜȤƾƱƉŽȚ ɀ ȼȮź ǜžȾ :ǀƵƉŮ ȿ ǜƁȶ ȆǙƴƬ ȒǀƸƳƁǍžǽȚ .ȜȢȚǍƳ ȿ ɀȮŽƾŮ


ȒNjƁǍƃŽȚ ǜƁȶ ȆǙƴƬ ɀ ȼȮź ǜžȾ :ǀƵƉŮ .ɆǞƉŽȚ ȿ


ȒNjƸŵǍŽȘ ȿ ȰNjƶȮźȾ ǜƁȶ ȯǍƯů :ǀƵƉŮ .NjƁǍƃȼ ɀȮŽȘ

ǛȮ ȿ ȼ Ɓ NjƸŵǍŽȘ ȿ ȰNjƶźȾ .ǛƯſ :ǍƸƵŴ

 | l e s s o n 

. Basma: shukran. Thanks. . Samiir: afwan. Welcome. . Basma: ween suug is-Safaafiir? Where is the Safaafir market? . Samiir: fii shaari ir-Rashiid. On Rashid Street. . Basma: biiid loo qariib? Is it far or near? . Samiir: laa, muu biiid. mneen hadirtich? No, it is not far. Where are you from? . Basma: aani min Los Angeles. I am from Los Angeles. . Samiir: ahlan wa sahlan fii Baghdad Welcome to Baghdad. . Basma: shukran. maa s-salaama. Thank you. Goodbye. . Samiir: maa s-salaama. Goodbye.





ȦǞŽ ǜž Ǡſȕ :ǀƵƉŮ

Ǡź ȹǾƷɀ Ŵȶ ȼ ȹǾƀɀ Ȗ :ǍƸƵŴ

.ǀžǾƉŽȚ ȿ

Ǖžȼ .ȹ ȚǍƳŵ :ǀƵƉŮ

.ǀžǾƉŽȚ ȿ


Vocabulary (Audio) sabaah il-kheer sabaah il-kheer. in-nuur sabaah in-nuur. min min fadlak / min fadlich (M/F)

ween? is-safaara l-Amriikiyya Karraada il-bariid

morning the good good morning the light good morning (in reply) from (prep.) please (expression used to direct a request toward a male and female, respectively) where? the embassy the American (adj.) an affluent district in Baghdad the post office

Ƞƾƃǧ ǍƸƈɀȮŽȘ ǍƸƒȘ Ƞƾƃǧ ȤǞȮƶŽȘ ȿ ȤǞȮƶŽȘ Ƞƾƃǧ ȿ ǜž ǶȾƴƬ ɀ ȼȮź ǜžȾ / ǙƴƬ ɀ ȼȮź ǜžȾ


Asking for Directions | 

qariib, giriib biiid loo is-suug suug is-Safaafiir

turuf / tuurfiin / tuurfuun (M/F/P) findiq naam yamm afwan (invariable) mneen, immeen? min ween? hadra hadirtak / hadirtich / hadratkum (M/F/P) shunu? shukran (invariable) ahlan wa sahlan isim ismi tsharrafna (invariable)

w-ilna sh-sharaf (in reply to above)

near, close by far or the market one of the oldest markets in Baghdad for metal craftsmanship you know hotel, motel yes next to, adjacent to, near welcome, don’t mention it, sorry where from? (see lesson ) from where? presence your presence (a polite way of addressing someone) what? thanks, thank you welcome name my name (see attached pronouns below) Pleased to meet you (lit. we are honored, always plural form). Pleased to meet you too (lit. the honor is ours).

ƿƁǍȾȮǬ ȆƿƁǍȼȮŻ NjƸȮƯȾȮŮ ǞŽ ɆǞƉŽȘ ȿ ǍƸȮźƾƱƫŽȘ dž ɆǞŴ ȴǞźɀǍƯȽ Ȯů Ƚ / ƞźɀǍƯȽ Ȯů Ƚ / ȯǍƯɀ Ȯů Ƚ ȰNjȾ ɀȮƶȮźȾ ǛȮƯȼ ȼȮſ ǛȮ ȿ ȼƁ ȹ ȚǞɀȮƱȮŸȼ ȒǜȮƸȮžȘ ȿ ȆƞȮƶȮžɀ ȒǜƁȶ ǜžȾ ȜȼǍƬ ɀ Ųȼ / ǶȮȾůɀǍƬ Ⱦ Ųȼ / ǙȼȮůɀǍƬ Ⱦ Ųȼ ǛȮƳ Ȯů Ǎ Ƭ Ƚ ɀ ȼ ɀ Ųȼ ǞƶȮŵ Ƚ ȹ ȚǍƳŵ ȹǾƷŴȶ ȹǾƀȖ ǛȮŴȘ Ⱦ ǠƵŴȘ ɀ ƾȮƶɀȮźdžǍȿ ȼȮƪɀȮů dž ƾƶɀȮŽȾȶ ȯȼǍȮƪŽȘ

Grammar and Remarks Attached Pronouns (Pronoun Suffixes) 1. Pronouns Attached to Nouns: ktaab -i* -na -ak -ich -kum

my (M/F) our (M/F) your (M) your (F) your (P)

țƾƄɀȮż book (Audio)

ktaabi ktaabna ktaabak ktaabich ktaabkum

my book our book your book your book your book

ǠŮƾƄɀȮż ƾƶŮƾƄɀȮż ǙȼȮŮƾƄɀȮż ǶȾȮŮƾƄɀȮż ǛȮƳȮ Ƚ ɀ ŮƾƄɀȮż

ȸ ȮȮ ƾſ ȮȮ ȱ ȼȮȮ Ƀ ȾȮȮ ǛȮż Ƚ ȮȮ

 | l e s s o n 

-a -ha -hum

his her their (M/F)

his book her book their book

ktaaba ktaabha ktaabhum

*With nouns only.

2. Pronouns Attached to Verbs: ygaabul -ni* -na -ak -ich -kum -a -ha -hum

me (M/F) us (M/F) you (M) you (F) you (P) him her them (M/F)

ǚȮȽŮƾȮǦɀƁ he meets (Audio)

ygaabulni ygaabulna ygaablak ygaablich ygaabulkum ygaabla ygaabulha ygaabulhum

he meets me he meets us he meets you he meets you he meets you he meets him he meets her he meets them

*With verbs only.

ǝȼȮŮƾƄɀȮż ƾƷȮɀŮƾƄɀȮż ǛȮƷȮ Ƚ ɀ ŮƾƄɀȮż

ȵ ȼȮȮ ƾƀ ȮȮ ǛȮƀ Ƚ ȮȮ


Ǡſ ȮȮ ƾſ ȮȮ ȱ ȼȮȮ Ƀ ȾȮȮ ǛȮż Ƚ ȮȮ ȵ ȼȮȮ ƾƀ ȮȮ ǛȮƀ Ƚ ȮȮ

Iraqi Arabic has a set of attached pronouns (also called pronoun suffixes) that appear as suffixes at the end of nouns, verbs, and some other words such as prepositions and interrogatives. When they are attached to nouns they have the meaning of possession (see group , above). When they are attached to verbs, they are the objects of the verbs (see group , above). Notice the differences in the meaning between the two groups. Also notice that the verb of the first person singular takes the pronoun “ni” instead of “i” as is the case with the noun. Pronouns attached to prepositions and interrogative words are the subjects (I, you, he, etc.). Attached pronouns occur much more often than the independent pronouns.

ǙdžȮƶžȾ minnich


ǙƸƴȮŸȼ aleech

aleek shloonak?

ǶƦȮƶžȾ minnkum ǶȮƸƴȮŸȼ aleekum

ǛȮƳ Ƚ ɀȮƶžȾ from you

ɀ shloonich? ȒǶȮȾſǞƴŵ ɀ shloonkum? ȒǛƳɀȮſǞƴŵ ɀ ȒǙȼȮſǞƴŵ

The Article il-

Ȯ ɀȮŽȘ the


ǛȮƳƸƴ Ƚ Ÿȼ on you

(M/F/P) how are you? (M/F/P)

The definite article “the” in English is expressed in Iraqi Arabic by the prefix “il-.” This invariable prefix is used with nouns and adjectives. A word preceded by the article “il-” is definite and that is how you make definite words in Arabic, by adding this prefix. (Audio)

Asking for Directions | 

walad baab beet qalam

a boy a door a house a pen/pencil

NjȼȮŽȼȶ țƾŮ ǁƸŮ ǛȼȮƴȼȮŻ

il-walad il-baab il-beet il-qalam

the boy the door the house the pen/pencil


Proper nouns and nouns with attached pronouns are also definite, as in beetak beethum qalamha

your house their house her pen


If the prefix “il-” is used in a word that begins with one of the consonants, the socalled sun letters: “t,” “t,” “th,” “j,” “ch,” “d,” “dh,” “d,” “r,” “z,” “s,” “sh,” “s,” and “n,” the “l” of the article is assimilated, resulting in double consonants in the beginning of the word. (Audio) taalib nuur saaa jariida daar

a student a light a watch a newspaper a house


[il-taalib] [il-nuur] [il-saaa] [il-jariida] [il-daar]

> > > > >

it-taalib in-nuur is-saaa ij-jariida id-daar

the student the light the watch the newspaper the house


If a word begins with a cluster of any two consonants, then the “il-” becomes “li-.” This is done for easier pronunciation. (Audio) fluus hmaar ktaab stiikaan qmaash

money a donkey a book a tea glass textile

ȦǞƴɀȮź ȤƾƵŲɀ țƾƄɀȮż ȴƾƳƸƄŴ ɀ ȧƾƵɀȮŻ

[il-fluus] > [il-hmaar] > [il-ktaab] > [is-stiikaan] > [il-qmaash] >

li-fluus li-hmaar li-ktaab li-stiikaan li-qmaash

the money the donkey the book the tea glass the textile


When the prefix “il-” occurs in a word proceeded by a word ending in a vowel, the vowel “i” of the prefix drops out. (Audio) maa il-bint wara il-baab haadha il-qalam haadhi is-sayyaara

> > > >

maa l-bint wara l-baab haadha l-qalam haadhi s-sayyaara

with the girl behind the door this pen/pencil this car

ǁƶƃɀȮŽȚ Ǖȼ žȼ țƾƃɀȮŽȚ ȷȼȤȼȶ ǛƴȼȮƲɀȮŽȚ Țȣƾƀ ȜȤƾƸƉŽȚ dž ȸȣƾƀ

 | l e s s o n 

Idioms and Common Phrases (Audio) 1. 9ala keef + attached pronoun careful with, slow down ala keefi ala keefna ala keefa ala keefha ala keefhum ala keefak ala keefich ala keefkum ala keefak bis-siyaaqa. ala keefkum bil-akil. Also: ala keef Basma ala keef Samiir

2. haay ween + pronoun? haay ween inta / haay weenak? haay ween inti / haay weenich? haay ween intu / haay weenkum? haay ween huwwa / haay weena? haay ween hiyya / haay weenha? haay ween humma / haay weenhum? Also: haay weenha Basma? haay weena Kamaal? haay weena Samiir? haay weenha Jamiila?

+ ǗƸż ǟƴŸ

as someone likes; take it easy with, be

ǠƱƸż ǟƴŸ ƾƶɀȮƱƸż ǟƴŸ ǝȼȮƱƸż ǟƴŸ ƾƷɀȮƱƸż ǟƴŸ ǛƷȽ ɀȮƱƸż ǟƴŸ ǙȼȮƱƸż ǟƴŸ ǶȾȮƱƸż ǟƴŸ ǛȮƳ Ƚ ɀȮƱƸż ǟƴŸ ȜȤƾƸƉŽƾŮ ȿ ǙȼȮƱƸż ǟƴŸ

as I like as we like as he likes as she likes as they like as you (M) like as you (F) like as you (P) like Take it (you, M) easy with the driving (be careful). Take it (you, P) easy with the food (don’t eat too much).

ǚżLjƾ Ⱦ ȾȮŮ ǙȼȮƱƸż ǟƴŸ ǀƵƉŮ ǗƸż ǟƴŸ ǍƸƵŴ ǗƸż ǟƴŸ

as Basma likes as Samiir likes

Ȓ + ǜƁȶ ȸƾƀ Where have (you) been? Where have you (M) been?

ȒǙȼȮƶƁȶ ȸƾƀ / ǁſȘ ǜƁȶ ȸƾƀ

Where have you (F) been?

ȒǶȮƶȾ Ɓȶ ȸƾƀ / ǠƄſȘ ǜƁȶ ȸƾƀ

Where have you (P) been?

ȒǛƳɀȮƶƁȶ ȸƾƀ / ǞƄſȘ ǜƁȶ ȸƾƀ

Where has he been?

ȒǝȼȮƶƁȶ ȸƾƀ / Ǟƀ ǜƁȶ ȸƾƀ

Where has she been?

ȒƾƷɀȮƶƁȶ ȸƾƀ / Ǡƀ ǜƁȶ ȸƾƀ

Where have they been?

Where has Basma been? Where has Kamaal been? Where has Samiir been? Where has Jamiila been?

ȒǛƷɀȮƶƁȶ ȸƾƀ / ǝdžȮƵƀȽ ǜƁȶ ȸȚ ȒǀƵƉŮ ƾƷɀȮƶƁȶ ȸƾƀ ȒȲƾƵż ǝȼȮƶƁȶ ȸƾƀ ȒǍƸƵŴ ǝȼȮƶƁȶ ȸƾƀ ȒǀƴƸƵű ƾƷɀȮƶƁȶ ȸƾƀ


Asking for Directions | 

ɷʄ Drills tamaariin ǜƁȤƾƵȼȮů ʞʏ 1. Give appropriate oral replies to the following expressions: ǍƸƒȘ Ƞƾƃǧ Ƚ ʄɷ ȒǶȾůɀǍƬ Ų Ⱦ ȼ ǛŴȘ Ǟƶŵ ȒNjƁǍƃŽȘ ǜƁȶ ƞźǍƯȽ Ƚů ʏʞ ȒǀƸƳƁǍžǽȚ ȜȤƾƱƉŽȘ ȿ ǜƁȶ ȒɆǞƉŽȘ ȿ ǜƁȶ ɷʄ ǾƷŴȶ ǾƀȚ ǍƸƒƾŮ ʇȚ ʞʏ ȒǀƵƉŮ ǜƁȶ ǜž ȒǛƳɀȮůȼǍƬ ɀ Ųȼ ƞƶžɀ ʄɷ ȒƿƁǍȼȮŻ ǞŽ NjƸƯȾȮŮǍƸźƾƱƫŽȘ ȿ ȱǞŴ ȒǞƁɀȢȚǍŽȚ ȿ Ȭȼ Ǟżƾž ǞƳŵ ʏʞ ȒȳǞƸɀȮŽȚ Ǟżƾž ǞƳŵ ǀžǾƉŽȚ ȿ Ǖž ɷʄ ȹ ȚǍƳŵ ʞʏ 2. Change orally the following masculine form to feminine and plural forms: ʄɷ ǙƴƬ ȴƾƳƸƄȮƉ ɀ ȼȮź ǜžȾ ɀ ȾŽ ǚdžȮƬȼȮƱɀȮů ǙůɀǍƬ ȒǞƀ ǜƁȶ ǜžȾ Ⱦ Ųȼ ƞƶžɀ ʏʞ ȒǁſȚ ǜƁȶ ǜžȾ ȒǁſȚ ǜƁȶ ȸƾƀ ljƁǍƄȮŴ ǝȼȮƱƸż ǟƴŸ ɷʄ dž ȼȮƱɀȮů ɀ ǚƬ ǙȼȮƱƸż ǟƴŸ ƿƁǍŻ ǞŽ NjƸƯȾȮŮ Ǟƀ ʏʞ 3. Complete and read the following aloud: ƾƳƁǍžȖ ǜž ǀƵƉŮ Ǡſȕ ȒǙƶƁȶ ȸƾƀ ɷʄ ȲƾƵż Ǟƀ Ȓ ȸƾƀ ʏʞ ǀƴƸƵű ǠƄſȘ Ȓ ȸƾƀ ɷʄ NjƸŽȶ ǁſȘ Ȓ ȸƾƀ ʏʞ ǟƴƸŽ Ǡƀ Ȓ ȸƾƀ ɷʄ ʏʞ ǝȮƵƀ Ȓ ȸƾƀ ȿ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ sabaah il-kheer shunu isim hadirtich? tuurfiin ween il-bariid? ween is-safaara l-Amriikiyya? ween is-suug? ahlan wa sahlan allaa bil-kheer min ween Basma? mneen hadratkum? suug is-Safaafiir biiid loo qariib shaku maaku ar-raadyo? shaku maaku il-yoom? maa s-salaama shukran

min fadlak mneen hadirtak? min ween inta? tfaddal istariih ala keefak

tfaddal lis-tiikaan min ween huwwa? haay ween inta? ala keefa huwwa biiid loo qariib?

aani Basma min Amriika

haay weenak?

huwwa Kamaal


(you F)?

inti Jamiila


(you P)?

inta Waliid



hiyya Layla






 | l e s s o n 

ɷʄ 4. Make the following nouns definite with the article il-: ʞʏ țƾŮ ʄɷ ǀŸƾŴ ʏʞ NjȼȮŽȼȶ ɷʄ ǁƶŮ ʞʏ ȤƾƵŲɀ ʄɷ ɆǞŴ ʏʞ ǜƁǍƢ ɷʄ ʞʏ ȜNjƁǍű ʄɷ ȦȤȢ ʏʞ 5. Conjugate orally the following nouns with the attached pronouns: ǛƴŻ ǁƸŮ ɷʄ țƾƄż ɆǞŴ NjƁǍŮ ȦǞƴź ʏʞ ɷʄ 6. Complete and read the following aloud: ʏʞ ȒȜȤƾƱƉŽȘ ȿ ǜƁȶ ɷʄ ȒǍƸƵŴ ǁƸŮ ǜƁȶ ʏʞ ȒɆǞƉŽȘ ɷʄ ȿ ǜƁȶ ʏʞ ȒǟƴƸŽ ǁƸŮ ǜƁȶ ɷʄ ȒǀƵƉŮ ǜƁȶ ʏʞ ȒȲƾƵż ǜƁȶ ɷʄ ʏʞ




























qalam ktaab bariid

beet suug fluus

a. turuf ween il-barrid? tuurfiin ween il-bariid?

ween is-safaara?

ween beet Samiir? ween is-suug?

ween beet Laylaa? ween Basma?

ween Kamaal?

stikaan hmaar nuur


ȴƾƳƸƄŴ ɀ ȤƾƵŲɀ ȤǞȮſ ȒNjƁǍƃŽȚ ǜƁȶ ȯǍƯů ȒNjƁǍƃŽȚ ǜƁȶ ƞźǍƯů


Asking for Directions | 

ala keefich ala keefkum ala keefa ala keefha ala keefhum ala keefi ala keefna haay weena il-yoom? haay weenha



haay weenhum



haay weenak



haay weenich



haay weenkum

7. Translate the following into Arabic: Good morning. Good morning (in reply). Thanks. Hello. Goodbye Samiir.

ɷʄ ʞʏ ǶȮƱȾ Ƹż ǟƴŸ ʄɷ ǛƳɀȮƱƸż ǟƴŸ ʏʞ ǝȼȮƱƸż ǟƴŸ ɷʄ ƾƷɀȮƱƸż ǟƴŸ ʞʏ ǛƷɀȮƱƸż ǟƴŸ ʄɷ ǠƱƸż ǟƴŸ ʏʞ ƾƶɀȮƱƸż ǟƴŸ ɷʄ ȒȳǞƸŽȚ ǝȼȮƶƁȶ ȸƾƀ ʞʏ ƾƷɀȮƶƁȶ ȸƾƀ ʄɷ ǛƷɀȮƶƁȶ ȸƾƀ ʏʞ ǙȼȮƶȮƁȶ ȸƾƀ ɷʄ ǶȮƶȾ Ɓȶ ȸƾƀ ʏʞ ǛƳɀȮƶƁȶ ȸƾƀ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ


b. ala keefak bis-siyaaqa



 | l e s s o n 

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ Creative Dialogues ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ


As he likes.

Where is the post office? How is the family?

How are you (P) today? Please, sit down (P).

Where have they been? Where have you (M) been? Welcome to Baghdad. Please sit (P) down.

Take it easy with the driving. What is happening today?

a. taalib :

aani min Baghdaad. mneen inti? taaliba : aani min Los Angeles taalib : shunu ismich? taaliba : ismi Kariima, shunu ismak? taalib : ismi Kariim. taaliba : tsharrafna. taalib : w-ilna sh-sharaf

b. taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba :

haadha ktaabich loo ktaabi? haadha ktaabi. ween ktaabi? ktaabak bil-beet. il-beet biiid loo qariib? il-beet biiid.

ȒǠƄɀȮſȘ ƞƶžɀ .ȢȚNjưŮ ǜž Ǡſȕ

: ƿŽƾŶ

ȦǞƴƍȚ ȦǞŽ ǜž Ǡſȕ : ǀƃŽƾŶ Ƚ ȒǶȮƵȾ ŴȘ : ƿŽƾŶ ɀ Ǟƶŵ Ƚ .ǀƚǍż ǠƵŴȘ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ȒǙƵŴȘ ɀ Ǟƶŵ ƗǍż ǠƵŴȘ : ƿŽƾŶ ɀ ȼ ƾƶȮɀȮźdžǍƪɀȮů : ǀƃŽƾŶ ȯȼǍdžȮƪŽȚ ƾȮƶɀȮŽȾȶ : ƿŽƾŶ ȒǠŮƾƄɀȮż ǞŽ ǶȾȮŮƾƄż Țȣƾƀ ǠŮƾƄɀȮż Țȣƾƀ ȒǠŮƾƄɀȮż ǜƁȶ ǁƸƃɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ǙŮƾƄɀȮż ȒƿƁǍȼȮŻ ǞŽ NjƸȮƯȾȮŮ ǁƸƃɀȮŽȘ NjƸȮƯȾȮŮ ǁƸƃɀȮŽȘ

: ƿŽƾŶ : ǀƃŽƾŶ : ƿŽƾŶ : ǀƃŽƾŶ : ƿŽƾŶ : ǀƃŽƾŶ

The Unknown Soldier monument, Baghdad

ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ lesson ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ǀƯȼȮŮɀȤȖ ȦȾȤȼȢ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ Arrival at Baghdad Airport, Part I ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ b-mataar Baghdaad ȢȚNjɀȮưȼȮŮ Ȥƾƭžȼ țɀ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ


Basma just landed at Baghdad Airport and must go through the passport official (muwazzaf ) and customs inspector (mufattish).

Basic Dialogue (Audio) . Basma: masaa¢ il-kheer. Good afternoon. . muwazzaf: masaa¢ in-nuur. mneen hadirtich? Good afternoon. Where are you from? . Basma: aani Amriikiyya jaayya min Los Angeles. I am an American coming from Los Angeles. . muwazzaf: il-baasbort, min fadlich. The passport, please. . Basma: tfaddal haadha il-bassbort. Here is the passport. . muwazzaf: shukran. shgadd baaqya hnaa? Thanks. How long are you staying here?


ȔƾƉž :ǀƵƉŮ

ȒǶȮȾůɀǍƬ Ⱦ Ųȼ ƞƶžɀ .ȤǞȮƶŽȘ ȿ ȔƾƉž :ǗdžȮŷǞȼ žȽ ȦǞƴƍȚ ȦǞŽ ǜž ǀƸƳƁǍžȖ Ǡſȕ :ǀƵƉŮ

.ǶȮȾƴƬ ɀ ȼȮź ǜžȾ

ȝɀȤǞƃŴƾƃŽȘ :ǗdžȮŷǞȼ žȽ ɀ

.ȝȤǞƃŴƾƃŽȚ ɀ

ǚƬƱ ȿ ɀȮů :ǀƵƉŮ

ɀ .ȹ ȚǍƳȮŵ ȒƾƶȮƀɀ ǀƸȼ ɀȮŻƾŮ NjȮȼȮǦŵ Ƚ :ǗdžȮŷǞȼ žȽ

 | l e s s o n 

. Basma: usbuueen, inshaalla Two weeks, God willing. . muwazzaf: shunu sabab iz-ziyaara? What is the reason for the visit? . Basma: li-ziyaarat il-aathaar. To visit antiquities. . muwazzaf: tayyib, tfaddali l-baasport. Fine, here is the passport. . Basma: shukran, fiimaanilla. Thanks, goodbye. . muwazzaf: safra saiida. (Have) a good trip.


ȆƞŸǞƃŴ ɀ Ƚ Ț :ǀƵƉŮ

ȒȜȤƾƁƦǎȮŽȚ ƿȮƃȮ ȼ ǞƶȮŵ ȼ Ŵ Ƚ :ǗdžȮŷǞȼ žȽ .ȤƾȮŰȃȘ .ȝȤǞƃŴƾƃŽȚ ɀ


ǠƴƬƱů ȿ ȆƿȮȿ ƸȾ ȼȮŶ :ǗdžȮŷǞȼ žȽ

.ǾɀȮƴƸȮſƾƵƸź .ȜNjƸƯŴ ȼ


ȜǍɀȮƱŴ ȼ :ǗdžȮŷǞȼ žȽ

(Airport customs inspection continues in lesson .)

Vocabulary (Audio) muwazzaf / muwazzafa / muwazzafiin (M/F/P) masaa¢ masaa¢ il-kheer masaa¢ in-nuur mneen? Amriiki /Amriikiyya / Amriikaan (M/F/P) baasbort, paasbort jaay / jaayya / jaayyiin (M/F/P) haadha / haadhi / hadhoola (M/F/P) shgadd? baaqi / baaqya / baaqiin (M/F/P) hnaa usbuu / usbuueen / asaabii (S/D/P) sabab / asbaab (S/P) ziyaara / ziyaaraat (S/P) li-

official/s, employee/s afternoon, evening Good afternoon/evening. Good afternoon/evening (in reply). Where? Where from? American/s passport coming (participle) this, that/these (see lesson ) How long? how much? (depending on context) staying (part.) here week/two weeks/weeks reason/s visit/s to, for, in order to (see lesson )

/ ǀƱȮŷǞž / ǗȮŷǞž ȿ ȿ ƞƱȮŷǞž ȿ ȔƾƉžȼ ǍƸƈɀȮŽȘ ȔƾƉžȼ ȤǞȮƶŽȘ ȿ ȔƾƉž ȒƞȮƶȮžɀ ȴƾƳƁǍžɀ Ȗ / ǀƸƳƁǍžɀ Ȗ /ǠƳƁǍžɀ Ȗ ȝɀȤǞƃŴƾŮ ɀ ǜȮƸƦȮƁƾű / ǀȮdžƁƾű /ȸƾű ǝȼȮŽȶnjƀȼ / ȸȣƾƀ / Țȣƾƀ NjȼȮǦɀȮŵ ǜȮƸȮŻȾ ƾŮ / ǀƸȼ ɀȮŻƾŮ /ǠŻƾŮ ƾƶɀȮƀ Ƚɀ Ț/ ȬǞƃŴ ǕƸŮƾŴȖ /ƞŸǞƃŴ ɀ ȽȚ țƾƃŴȖ ɀ / ƿȮƃȼ Ŵ ȼ ȝȚȤƾƁȾȥ / ȜȤƾƁȾȥ ȾȮŽ

Arrival at Baghdad Airport, Part I | 


to visit antiquity/antiquities, ruins okay, all right, good, delicious (depending on context) goodbye (lit., in God’s safety, see lesson ) trip/s happy (adj.) (Have) a good trip

li-ziyaarat athar / aathaar (S/P) tayyib fiimaanillaa safra / safraat (S/P) saiida safra saiida


Grammar and Remarks

The Helping Vowels: i, u -Ƚ -Ⱦ The helping vowel in the Iraqi Arabic is the short vowel “i” and in some rare cases the vowel “u.” The vowel “i” appears within one word or across words to help pronounce a sequence of three or more consonants. Within one word the presence of the helping vowel “i” is completely predictable. In a cluster of three consonants in a row, the helping vowel “i” is added automatically between the first and the second consonants and in between the second and the third of a cluster of four consonants. (Audio) min fadlkum isim hadrtak? ariid stiikaan shgadd saarlkum? qariib min il-bariid

> > > > >


min fadilkum isim hadirtak? ariid istiikaan shgadd saarilkum? qariib mnil-bariid

The helping vowel “i” may also occur in utterance of a word that has initial two consonants, as in: hnaa hwaaya mneen?

ƾƶɀȮƀ ǀƁȚǞɀȮƀ ȒƞƶɀȮž

or or or

ihnaa ihwaaya imneen?

ƾƶɀȮƀȘ ǀƁȚǞɀȮƀȘ ȒƞƶɀȮžȘ

here much where from?

The presence and the absence of the initial helping vowel “i” with two consonants is random and has no effect on the meaning. It is a matter of a speaker’s habit. We prefer to leave it to the students to decide for themselves the easier way of pronouncing such forms. In this book, the helping vowel “i” will not be indicated in transcription with the twoconsonant cluster, with the exception of some very common examples.

The Negation There are four basic negation words in Iraqi Arabic. They are usually more stressed than the words they negate. They are the following:

 | l e s s o n 

1. muu

ǞȮž not Ƚ

The negative word muu is used to negate adjectives and adverbs only. (Audio)

2. maa / ma-


You are not an Iraqi. She is not here. The post office is not near the embassy. I am not hungry.

inta muu iraaqi hiyya muu hnaa il-bariid muu yamm is-safaara aani muu juuaan

ȴƾŸǞű ǞžȽ Ǡſȕ

ȳȼ / ƾž not

The word maa and its short form ma- are used to negate verbs (except imperative verbs) and a few verb-like words. It more occurs as a prefix, ma-, than as an independent maa. With Verbs (Audio) ma-yuruf ma-turuf ma-yriid ma-triid

ȯǍȮ Ƚ Ưɀ ȮȽƁ ȳȼ ȯǍȮ Ƚ Ưɀ Ȯů Ƚ ȳȼ NjƁǍȮȮɀƁ ȳȼ NjƁǍɀȮů ȳȼ

He does not know. She does not know. He does not want. She does not want.

With Verb-Like Words (indicating the meaning of possession or there is/are) (Audio) ȸNjƶŸȾ maa indi I don’t have ȸNjƶŸȾ ƾž indi I have aku there is/are ǞżȖ ma-aku there isn’t/aren’t Ǟżƾž maak with you (M) ǙƯž maa maak not with you ǙƯž ƾž

3. laa / la- ȼȮŽ / ǽ

no, not

The negative word laa and its short form la- are used in three contexts: a. It precedes imperative verbs in the form of the prefix la- expressing the meaning “not” (see lesson ). (Audio) saafir saafri saafru

Travel! (M) Travel! (F) Travel! (P)

ǍźȾ ƾŴ ȸǍɀȮźƾŴ ȶǍɀȮźƾŴ

la-tsaafir la-tsaafriin la-tsaafruun

Do not travel! Do not travel! Do not travel!


b. It is used with a question that requires a “ yes” or “no” answer, and it conveys the meaning “no.” (Audio) triid chaay? laa, shukran zeena, inshaalla? laa, tabaana shwayya

Do you (M) want tea? No, thank you. Well, God willing? No, a little tired.

Ȓȸƾǩ NjƁǍů ȚǍƳŵ Ȇǽ ȒʇƾƪſȘ ȆǜƁȥ ɀ ȴƾƃƯů Ȇǽ ǀƁȿ Ǟȼ Ȯŵ

Arrival at Baghdad Airport, Part I | 

c. It is used with the negative word “wala” (see below).

4. wala

ǽȶ and not, nor, or

The negative word wala consists of two elements: wa (and) and la (not). Therefore, it literally means “and not.” The word wala does not appear by itself, but with one of the abovementioned negative words when two or more items are to be negated. The first item is negated by one of the proceeding negatives (maa, muu, laa) and the second and any subsequent items may be negated by wala. The English equivalent of such a construction may be “neither . . . nor,” “not . . . and not,” or “not . . . or.” (Audio) maa aji wala aruuh muu zeen wala mirtaah laa ahmar wala asfar wala aswad laa ghaali wala rikhiis laa juuaan wala at shaan

I do not come or go. I am neither well nor content. not red, yellow, or black neither expensive nor cheap neither hungry nor thirsty

ȠȶȤȖ ǽȶ ǠűȖ ƾž ȠƾůɀǍžȾ ǽȶ ǜƁȥ Ǟž ȢǞȼ ŴȖ ɀ ǽȶ ǍƵȼ ŲȖ ɀ ǽȶ ǍƱǧȖ ɀ ǽ ǑƸųȾȤ ǽȶ ǠŽƾŹ ǽ ȴƾƪƭŸȼ ǽȶ ȴƾŸǞű ǽ

Idioms and Common Phrases (Audio) 1. laa ghaali wala rikhiis il-matam laa ghaali wala rikhiis is-sayyaara laa ghaalya wala rikhiisa il-beet laa ghaali wala rikhiis il-akil laa ghaali wala rikhiis

ǑƸųȾȤ ǽȶ ǠŽƾŹ ǽ neither expensive nor cheap The restaurant is neither expensive nor cheap. The car is neither expensive nor cheap. The house is neither expensive nor cheap. The food is neither expensive nor cheap.

ǑƸųȤ ǽȶ ǠŽƾŹ ǽ ǛƯƭȼƓȘ

ǀƫƸųȤ ǽȶ ǀƸŽƾŹ ǽ ȜȤƾƸƉŽȘ ȿ ǑƸųȤ ǽȶ ǠŽƾŹ ǽ ǁƸƃŽȘ ǑƸųȤ ǽȶ ǠŽƾŹ ǽ ǚżLjȘ

2. laa shiish wala kabaab țƾƃż ǽȶ ǐƸŵ ǽ not bad, okay, so-so (lit., neither the skewer nor the meat, referring to the shish kebab food) il-akil laa shiish wala kabaab The food is okay. țƾƃż ǽȶ ǐƸŵ ǽ ǚżLjȘ il-matam laa shiish wala kabaab The restaurant is not bad. țƾƃż ǽȶ ǐƸŵ ǽ ǛƯƭȼƓȘ LJ ish-shughul laa shiish wala kabaab The work is okay. țƾƃż ǽȶ ǐƸŵ ǽ ǚưƪŽȘ id-dinya laa shiish wala kabaab Life is so-so. țƾƃż ǽȶ ǐƸŵ ǽ ƾƸȮſNjƦ ȿ ŽȘ 3. shmadrii + attached pronoun? shmadriik aani juuaan? shmadriich huwwa iraaqi?

Ȓ+ ȸȤNjɀ ȮƵȼ ɀȮŵ How does (he) know?

How do you (M) know that I am hungry? How do you (F) know that he is an Iraqi?

ȒȴƾŸǞű Ǡſȕ ǙƁȤNjɀ ȮƵȼ ɀȮŵ ȒǠŻȚǍŸ Ǟƀ ǶƁȤNjɀ ȮƵȼ ɀȮŵ


 | l e s s o n 

shmadriikum il-matam ghaali? shmadriihum inta msaafir? shmadriini intu Amriikaan? shmadrii il-akil tayyib?

How do you (P) know that the restaurant is expensive? How do they know that you are traveling? How do I know that you are Americans? How does he know the food is good?

ȒǠŽƾŹ ǛƯƭƓȘ ǛƳƁȤNjɀ Ƶȼ ɀȮŵ ȒǍźƾƉžɀ ǁſȘ ǛƷƁȤNjɀ ȮƵȼ ɀȮŵ ȒȴƾƳƁǍžȚ ǞƄſȘ ǠƶƁȤNjɀ ȮƵȼ ɀȮŵ ȒƿƸȿ ȼȮŶ ǚżLjȚ ȸȤNjɀ ȮƵȼ ɀȮŵ

ʞʏ Drills tamaariin ǜƁȤƾƵȼȮů ʄɷ 1. Give appropriate oral replies to the following expressions: ǍƸƒȚ ȔƾƉž ȝȤǞƃŴƾƃŽȚ ǠƴƬƱů ȿ ʏʞ ǾɀȮƴƸſƾƵƸź ȒǙů Ǎ Ⱦ Ųȼ ƞƶžɀ ɀƬ ɷʄ ɀ ȒǛƯƭƓƾŮ ǚżǽȚ ȴǞƴŵ ȒȜȤƾƁǎȿ ŽȚ ƿƃŴ Ǟƶŵ ʞʏ LJ ȴǞƴŵ ɀ ȒǚȮưȮ Ƚ ƪŽȘ ʄɷ ȒǠŻȚǍŸ ǞŽ ǠƳƁǍžȖ ǁſȘ ȒǙƵŴȘ ɀ Ǟƶŵ ʏʞ ȒǀƸƳƁǍžLjȚ ȜȤƾƱƉŽȚ ȿ ǜƁȶ ɷʄ 2. Negate orally the following expressions using the correct negative word: ǠƳƁǍžȚ Ǡſȕ ʏʞ ǀƸŻȚǍŸ ǠƄſȘ ɆǞƉŽȘ ȿ ȿƗȼ NjƁǍƃŽȘ ɷʄ ǀƸƳƁǍžȖ ȜȤƾƱŴ ǞżȖ ƞſƾŸǞű ǞƄſȚ ʏʞ ȤƾƄƪȮŸȾ ȰNjƶź ȯǍƯů ʇ NjƵƑȘ ȆǀƶƁȥ Ǡƀ ɷʄ ȢȚNjưŮ ǜž ǝdžȮƵƀȽ ƿŽƾŶ Ǟƀ ʏʞ ȒǑƸųȤ ǞŽ ǠŽƾŹ ǛƯƭƓȘ ɷʄ words by adding the attached pronouns: ʏʞ 3. Decline orally the following ǛŴȘ ȜǍƬŲ ȤƾƵŲɀ țƾƄż țƾŮ NjȮȾŽȾȶ ɷʄ ǀŸƾŴ ȜȤƾƸȿ ȼȮŶ Ȥƾƭž ǛƴȮŻ ȜȤƾƸȮ Ŵ Ȱ Nj Ⱦ ɀȮƶȮźȾ ȿ ȼ ʏʞ ȜȤƾƱŴ ȝȤǞƃŴƾŮ ȴƾƳƸƄŴȘ ɀ ɷʄ ʏʞ masaa¢ il-kheer tfaddali il-baasbort fiimaanillaa mneen hadirtak? shloon il-akil bil-matam? shunu sabab iz-ziyaara? shloon ish-shughul? inta Amriiki loo iraaqi? shunu ismak? ween is-safaara l-Amriikiyya?

aani Amriiki inti iraaqiyya il-bariid yamm is-suug aku safaara Amriikiyya intu juuaaniin turuf findiq ishtaar hiyya zeena, ilhamdu lillaah humma min Baghdaad huwwa taalib il-matam ghaali loo rikhiis?

isim ktaab saaa qalam safaara

hadra baab tayyaara sayyaara baasbort

hmaar wilid mataar findiq stiikaan


Arrival at Baghdad Airport, Part I | 

4. Make the words between the parentheses plural: (huwwa baaqi) usbuu (muwazzaf ) bil-mataar (anni) muu (juuaan) (inti) muu (iraaqiyya) mneen (hadirtich)? mneen (huwwa)? ween (is-sayyaara)? hiyya (jaayya) mnil-beet (turuf ) ween is-suug? (tfaddal istariih)

5. Complete and read the following aloud: a. il-matam laa ghaali wala rikhiis. li-ktaab is-sayyaara is-suug il-akil is-safar Baghdaad il-iraaq b. shmadrii aani nasaan? shmadriiha shmadriihum



shmadriik shmadriich shmadriikum


? ?


? ?


ɷʄ ȬǞƃŴȽȚ (ǠŻƾŮ Ǟƀ) ʞʏ ȿ ȤƾƭƓƾŮ (ǗŷǞž) (ȴƾŸǞű) Ǟž (Ǡſȕ) ʄɷ (ǀƸŻȚǍŸ) Ǟž (ǠƄſȘ) Ȓ(ǶȮůǍƬŲ) ƞƶž ʏʞ Ȓ(Ǟƀ) ƞƶž Ȓ(ȜȤƾƸƉŽȘ) ǜƁȶ ɷʄ ȿ ǁƸƃŽȚ ǜžɀ (ǀƁȿ ƾű) Ǡƀ ʞʏ ȒɆǞƉŽȘ ȿ ǜƁȶ (ȯǍƯů) (ljƁǍƄŴ ǚƬƱů) ȿ ʄɷ ʏʞ ǑƸųȾȤ ǽȶ ǠŽƾŹ ǽ ǛƯƭƓȘ ɷʄ țƾƄɀȮƳȮȾŽ ʞʏ ȜȤƾƸȮƉŽȘ dž ʄɷ ɆǞƉŽȘ ȿ ʏʞ ǚżLjȘ ɷʄ ǍȼȮƱȮƉŽȘ dž ʏʞ ȢȚNjưȮŮ ɷʄ ȰȚǍƯŽȘ ʏʞ ɀ ȒȴƾƉƯɀ ȼȮſ Ǡſȕ ȸȤNjɀ ȮƵȼ ŵ ɷʄ ɀ ƾƷƁȤNjɀ ȮƵȼ ŵ ʏʞ ɀ ǛƷƁȤNjɀ Ƶȼ ŵ ɷʄ ɀ ǙƁȤNjɀ Ƶȼ ŵ ʏʞ ɀ ǶȮƁȤNjɀ Ƶȼ ŵ ɷʄ ɀ ǛƳƁȤNjɀ Ƶȼ ŵ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ

 | l e s s o n 

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ 6. Translate the following into Arabic: ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ

c. ish-shughul laa shiish wala kabaab. il-matam il-akil


LJ țƾƃż ǽȶ ǐƸŵ ǽ ǚưȮƪŽȘ ǛƯƭƓȘ ǚżLjȘ




ȸƾȮǰŽȘ ȿ


She is an American.

The restaurant is okay.

We are not well today. Please sit down (P). He is an Iraqi.

They are in the airport.

neither expensive nor cheap the reason for the visit

the post office near the embassy What is your (F) name?

The car is not next to the hotel. No, we are not hungry.

You (F) are in the Rashid Hotel.



Arrival at Baghdad Airport, Part I | 

There is no post office here. neither from Basra nor Baghdad. What is happening?

Creative Dialogues: a. taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba :

ween Saad? Saad msaafir ween msaafir? huwwa msaafir l-Lubnaan. shgadd baaqi b-Lubnaan? huwwa baaqi usbuu. shunu sabab iz-ziyaara? li-ziyaarat ahla b-Beerut.

ȒNjƯŴ ǜƁȶ ǍźȾ ƾƉžɀ NjƯŴ ȒǍźȾ ƾƉžɀ ǜƁȶ ȴƾƶƃŽ Ȳɀ ǍźȾ ƾƉžɀ Ǟƀ ȴƾƶƃŽ țɀ ǠŻƾŮ NjǦŵ ȬǞƃŴȽȚ ǠŻƾŮ Ǟƀ ȒȜȤƾƁǎȿ ŽȘ ƿƃŴ Ǟƶŵ ȝȶǍƸŮ țɀ ǝȼȮƴȮƀɀ Ȗ ȜȤƾƁǎȾȮŽ

b. taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba :

aani raayha azuur Samiira. ween hiyya? hiyya b- beetha. beetha qariib loo biiid? beetha laa qariib wala biiid. hiyya shloonha? laa shiish wala kabaab.

ȜǍƸƵŴ ȤȶȥȖ ǀƇɀƁȚȤ Ǡſȕ : ȒǠƀ ǜƁȶ : ƾƷƄƸŮ țɀ Ǡƀ : ȒNjƸƯȾŮ ǞŽ ƿƁǍŻ ƾƷƄƸŮ : NjƸƯȾŮ ǽȶ ƿƁǍŻ ǽ ƾƷƄƸŮ : ȒƾƷſǞƴŵ Ǡƀ : țƾƃż ǽȶ ǐƸŵ ǽ :

For new words, see Glossary.

: : : : : : : :

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ƿŽƾŶ ɷʄ ǀƃŽƾŶ ƿŽƾŶ ʞʏ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʄɷ ƿŽƾŶ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʏʞ ƿŽƾŶ ǀƃŽƾŶ ɷʄ ƿŽƾŶ ʞʏ ǀƃŽƾŶ ƿŽƾŶ ʄɷ ǀƃŽƾŶ ƿŽƾŶ ʏʞ ǀƃŽƾŶ ƿŽƾŶ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ

Ishtar Gate in the ancient city of Babylon

ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ lesson ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ǀƉ ȼ Ƶɀ ųȼ ȦȾȤȼȢ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ Arrival at Baghdad Airport, Part II ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ b-mataar Baghdaad ȢȚNjɀȮưȼŮ Ȥƾƭžȼ țɀ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ DARIS KHAMSA

Basma moves on to the customs inspector “mufattish.”

Basic Dialogue (Audio) . mufattish: min fadlich, iftahi j-junta. Please, open the luggage. . Basma: bi-kull suruur. With pleasure. . mufattish: maich ashyaa¢ mamnuua? Do you have with you any illegal items? . Basma: laa walla, kullha malaabis shakhsiyya. No, all are personal clothes. . mufattish: shgadd maich fluus? How much money is with you? . Basma: mai hawaali alif duulaar. With me are about one thousand dollars. . mufattish: maich kaamira aw jigaayir? Do you have with you a camera or cigarettes? . Basma: indi kaamira bass. I have a camera only. . mufattish: tayyib. Fine.


ǠƇƄɀȮźȘ ǶƴƬ ɀ ȼȮź ǜž :ǐƦȮƄȼȮƱžȽ ȤȶǍŴ Ƚ ǚȮƳ Ƚ ȾȮŮ :ǀƵƉŮ

ɀ ǶȮƯȾ žȼ :ǐƦȮƄȼȮƱžȽ ȒǀŸǞƶɀƛȼ ȔƾƸȮŵȖ ǏȾȮŮǾžȼ ƾƷɀȮƴȮżȽ Ȇʇȶ ǽ :ǀƵƉŮ .ǀȮƸdž ƫ Ⱦ ɀȮƈȼȮŵ ȼ :ǐƦȮƄȼȮƱžɀ ȒȦǞƴɀȮź ǶȮƯȾ žȼ NjȮǦŵ .ȤǽȶȢ


ȒǍƁƾǦȾȮű ȶȖ ȜǍƸžƾż ǶȮƯȾ žȼ :ǐƦȮƄȼȮƱžȽ .Ǐ ȿ ȼŮ


 | l e s s o n 

. Basma: min fadlak, ween it-taksi? Please, where is the taxi? . mufattish: it-taksi hnaak giddaam il-mataar. The taxi is over there in front of the airport. . Basma: shukran, maa s-salaama. Thanks, goodbye. . mufattish: safra saiida, inshaalla. Have a good trip, God willing.

ȒǠƉɀȮƳdžȮƄŽȘ ǜƁȶ ȆǙƴƬź ǜž :ǀƵƉŮ .ȤƾƭƓȚ

ȳȚNjȮ ȿ ǬȾ ȱƾƶƀɀ ǠƉȮƳdžȮƄŽȘ :ǐƦȮƄȼȮƱžȽ

.ǀžǾƉŽȚ ȿ .ʇƾƪſȘ



Additional Expressions (Audio) aku talifoon bil-mataar? hadiyya / hadaaya (S/P) filim / aflaam (S/P) filim kaamira mai aflaam kaamira majalla / majallaat (S/P) maa indi majallaat mufattish gamaarig daabut jawaazaat

Is there a telephone in the airport? gift/s film/s camera film I have camera films. magazine/s I do not have magazines. customs inspector passport officer

ȒȤƾƭƓƾŮ ȴǞƱȮȾƴȼȮů ǞżȖ ƾƁȚNjƀȼ / ǀȮƁȿ Njƀȼ ȳǾźȖ / ǛȾƴȮźȾ ȜǍƸžƾż ǛȾƴȮźȾ ȜǍƸžƾż ȳǾźȚ ǠƯž ȝǾƆȼ žȼ / ǀȮƴ ȿ Ɔȼ žȼ ȝǾƆž ȸNjƶŸ ƾž ɆȤƾƵǬ ǐȮȮȿ ƄȾ ȼȮƱžȽ ȝȚȥȚǞűȼ ǓȽŮƾǤ

you open (imp. verb) luggage/s, suitcase/s, purse/s with all (see below) pleasure with (all) pleasure have, with (see below) have (see lesson ), I have thing/s, something/s illegal, forbidden (adj.) everything, all clothes personal, private (adj.) How much? How long? money about, approximately one thousand dollar/s camera/s

ǞƇƄɀȮźȘ / ǠƇƄɀȮźȘ / ljƄɀȮźȘ ǓȼȮƶűȽ / ǀƭɀȮƶűȽ ǚȮƳ Ƚ ȾȮŮ ȤȶǍŴ Ƚ ȤȶǍŴ ǚƳŮ Ǖȼ žȼ ȸNjƶȮŸȾ ȆNjƶȮŸȾ ɀ / Ǡŵ ȔƾƸŵȖ Ⱦ ǀŸǞƶɀƛȼ / ȬǞƶɀƛȼ ƾƷɀȮƴȮż Ƚ ǏȾȮŮǾž ȼ / Ǡƫƈɀ ŵ ȼ ǀƸƫ ȿ ƈɀ ŵ ɀ ȒNjȮǦŵ ȦǞƴɀȮź ǠŽȚǞŲȼ ǗȾȮȾŽȖ ȝȚȤǽȶȢ / ȤǽȶȢ ȝȚǍƸžƾż / ȜǍƸžƾż

Vocabulary (Audio) iftah / iftahi / iftahu (M/F/P) junta / junat (S/P) bi-kull suruur bikull suruur maa + attached pronoun ind + attached pronoun, indi shii / ashyaa¢ (S/P) mamnuu / mamnuua (M/F) kullha malaabis shakh si / shakh siyya (M/F) shgadd? fluus hawaali alif duulaar / duulaaraat (S/P) kaamira / kaamiraat (S/P)

Arrival at Baghdad Airport, Part II | 

or cigarette/s only, enough, but taxi in front, before, ahead behind, in the back God willing (see below) number/s, numeral/s

aw jigaara / jigaayir (S/P) bass taksi giddaam wara inshaalla raqam / arqaam (S/P)

ȶȖ ǍƁƾǦȾȮű / ȜȤƾǦȾȮű ǏȮ ȿ ȼŮ ǠƉɀȮƳȼȮů ȳȚNjȮ ȿ ǬȾ ȚȤȶ ʇƾƪɀȮſȘ ȳƾŻɀȤȖ / ǛȼȮŻȼȤ

Grammar and Remarks The Preposition ma9a

Ǖȼ žȼ have, with (see also lessons 10 and 14)

The proposition maa is conjugated with the attached pronouns as follows: I have (with me) we have (with us) you (M) have (with you) you (F) have (with you) you (P) have (with you) he has (with him) she has (with her) they have (with them)

mai maaana maak maich maaakum maaa maaaha maaahum

The Preposition Prefix b- / bi-

ǠƯžȼ ƾſƾƯžȼ ǙƯžȼ ǶƯžȼ ǛżƾƯžȼ ƾƯžȼ ƾƀƾƯžȼ ǛƀƾƯžȼ

ȾȮȮŮ / țɀ in, by, at, with

The preposition prefix “b-” mostly corresponds to the English meanings “in” or “by,” though in some contexts it also means “at” or “with.” It occurs as a prefix with definite or indefinite nouns. When the prefix “b-” precedes a definite noun with the article “ il-” (the), it takes the form “bi-” and the “i” of “il” drops. (Audio) She is in an airport. She is in the airport. He is in a hotel. He is in the hotel. He went by a car. He went by the car. Help me with the luggage.

hiyya b-mataar hiyya bil-mataar huwwa b-findiq huwwa bil-findiq misha b-sayyaara misha bis-sayyaara saaidni bij-junta

The Noun: il-isim

ȤƾƭȮžȼ țɀ Ǡƀ ȤƾƭƵɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ Ǡƀ ȰNjȾ ɀȮƶȮźȾ țɀ Ǟƀ ȰNjȾ ɀȮƶȾȮƱɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ Ǟƀ ȜȤƾƸȮ ȼ țɀ ƾȼȮƪžȾ ȿ Ŵ ȜȤƾƸȮ dž ȾȮŮ ƾȼȮƪžȾ ȿ ƉŽƾ ǀƭɀȮƶȮLJƐƾȾȮŮ ǠſNjɀ ȾȮŸƾŴ


Arabic nouns have two grammatical genders, masculine (M) and feminine (F). In other words, things to Arabs are either masculine or feminine. There is no “it” as in English. These terms usually denote a natural gender, although inanimate (nonhuman) ones (book, library, etc.) must also be either masculine or feminine. (Audio)

 | l e s s o n 

student uncle book

taalib (M) khaal (M) ktaab (M)

ƿŽƾŶ Ȳƾų țƾƄż

taaliba (F) khaala (F) maktaba (F)

student aunt library

ǀƃŽƾŶ ǀŽƾų ǀƃƄƳž

As you can see from the above examples, the two genders are usually differentiated by the occurrence or the absence of the suffix “a, Ȝ” at the end of the noun or the adjective. Almost all masculine words end in a consonant, and most feminine ones end with the suffix “a Ȝ.” The student, therefore, can change the gender of most words that refer to people by simply adding or omitting the feminine ending “a Ȝ.” Most nouns have three numbers, singular (S); dual (D) for two persons or objects; and plural (P). (Audio) diinaar (S) (one dinar) taalib (S) (one student M) taaliba (S) (one student F)

ȤƾƶƁȢ ƿŽƾŶ ǀƃŽƾŶ


diinaareen (D) (two dinars) taalbeen (D) (two students M) taalibteen (D) (two students F)

ƞƃɀȮŽƾŶ ƞƄƃȮ ɀ ȾŽƾŶ

danaaniir (P) (dinars) tullaab (P) (students M) taalibaat (P) (students F)

ǍƸȮſƾſȼȢ țǾȮŶ Ƚ ȝƾƃȮȾŽƾŶ

All nouns are either definite or indefinite. A noun is definite if it is preceded by the definite article “il- ɀȮŽȘ” (the), has an attached pronoun, or is a proper name. Otherwise, it is indefinite. (Audio) beet sayyaara beetna

a house a car our house


The Cardinal Numerals 1–10: arqaam           

il-beet is-sayyaara sayyaaratna

the house the car our car

ǁƸƃɀȮŽȘ ȜȤƾƸƉŽȘ dž ƾƶɀȮůȼȤƾƸȿ Ŵ ȼ

ȳƾȮŻɀȤȖ (Audio)

waahid / wihda (M/F) thneen / thinteen (M/F) tlaatha arbaa khamsa sitta saba thmaanya tisa ashra sifir

ȜNjȮŲȶ ɀ / NjȾȮŲȚȶ ƞƄȮɀȮƶȾȮŰ / ƞȮƶɀȮŰ ǀŰǾɀȮů ǀƯȮȼŮɀȤȖ ǀƉƵɀ ųȼ ǀdžȮƄȮŴ Ⱦ ǀƯȮƃɀ Ŵ ȼ ǀȮƸȼ ɀȮſƾƵɀȮŰ ǀƯƉ ɀ ȾȮů ȜǍɀȮƪŸȼ ǍȾȮƱǧ Ⱦ

Arrival at Baghdad Airport, Part II | 

Idioms and Common Phrases (Audio) The Arab people invoke alla ʇȚ (God) in their daily communication very often. The word alla is used in different contexts that do not necessarily reflect a religious significance but rather a cultural expression. Idiomatic phrases containing the word alla are used by secular and religious people alike, including non-Muslims. These invocations reflect the idea that health, sickness, success, failure, and other occurrences are the will of God. Below are some of the most common of these expressions. Notice that the word alla is almost always pronounced with emphatic “l.”

1. inshaalla

ʇƾƪɀȮſȘ God willing, by the will of God, I hope.

This idiomatic expression is one of the most commonly used in the Arabic language. It is used by speakers to express the hope that something has turned out or will turn out favorably. Nonnative speakers of Arabic must be very careful not to use this expression sarcastically. People who travel to the Middle East may see inshaalla done in beautiful Arabic calligraphy in homes, stores, cars, etc. (Audio). safra saiida, inshaalla ashuufak baachir, inshaalla aani raayih l-Baghdaad baad usbuu, inshaalla shloon shughlich? inshaalla zeen? shloonkum il-yoom? ishaalla zeniin?

2. ilhamdu lillaah

Have a happy trip, God willing. I will see you tomorrow, God willing. I am going to Baghdad in one week, God willing. How is your (F) work? Good, God willing? How are you (M) today? Well, God willing?

ʇƾƪſȘ ȆȜNjƸƯŴ ȼ ȜǍɀȮƱŴ ȼ ʇƾƪſȘ ȆǍȾȮǩƾŮ ǙźǞŵȖ NjȮƯȼ ȼ Ů ȢȚNjưŮ Ȳɀ ljƁȚȤ Ǡſȕ ʇƾƪſȘ ȆȬǞƃŴ ɀ ȽȚ ɀ Ƚ ȴǞƴŵ ʇƾƪſȘ ȒǙƴɀȮưŵ ȒǜƁȥ ɀ ʇƾƪſȘ ȒȳǞƸɀȮŽȘ ǛƳɀȮſǞƴŵ ȒƞƶƁȥ

ʇ NjȽ ȮƵɀ Ƈȼ ɀȮŽȘ Thanks be to God.

This is one of the standard replies to a question about how a person is doing or how things are going (Audio). ɀ ȒȱNjȼ ɀȮŽȾȶ ȴǞƴŵ shloon wildak? How are your (M) children? zeeniin, ilhamdu lillaah. Well, praise be to God. ʇ NjƵƑȘ ȆƞƶƁȥ ɀ shloonak ilyoom ? How are you (M) today? ȒȳǞƸŽȘ ǙſǞƴŵ zeen, ilhamdu lillaah; or just Well, praise be to God. ʇ NjƵƑȘ ȆǜƁȥ ilhamdu lillaah Praise be to God. ʇ NjƵƑȘ

3. alla ykhallii + attached pronoun

ǠȮƴ ȿ ȼȮƈɀƁ ʇȚ May God preserve.

Sometimes this phrase is used to request something from another person like min fadlak ǙƴƬ ɀ ȼȮź ǜžȾ (please). It may also be used as a response to a compliment (Audio).

 | l e s s o n 

min fadlak, ween it-taksi? or alla ykhalliik, ween it-taksi ? min fadlich, iftahi ij-junta or alla ykhalliich, iftahi j-junta min fadlich, ween il-bariid? or alla ykhalliich, ween il-bariid? min fadlak, saaidni bij-junta or alla ykhalliik, saaidni bij-junta

4. yaa alla

Please, where is the taxi?


Please, where is the taxi?


Please, open the luggage.


Please, open the luggage.


Please, where is the post office?

ȒNjƁǍƃŽȚ ǜƁȶ ȆǶƴƬź ǜž

Please, where is the post office?


Please, help me with the luggage.

ǠſNjŸȾ ƾŴ ȆǙƴƬź ǜž ǀƭɀȮƶLJƐƾŮ

Please, help me with the luggage.


ʇȚ ƾƁ Oh God.

An exclamation said by someone who is about to begin something such as work, a trip, eating, sitting down, etc. (Audio).

5. yalla

ǝȼȮƴɀȮƴȼȮƁ Hurry up.

Idioms four and five are basically the same words, but notice the difference in pronunciation between them (Audio). yalla, khalliina nruuh Hurry up, let us go to the ǁƸƃƴŽ ȠȶǍſ ƾƶƸȮƴų ȿ ȆǝƴɀȮƴȼȮƁ lil-beet house. yalla, jiibi l-kursi Hurry up, bring (F) the ǠŴǍƳŽȚ ǠƃƸű ȆǝƴɀȮƴȼȮƁ chair. yalla, rah-yimshi l-qitaar Hurry up, the train will be ȤƾƭƲŽȚ Ǡƪƚ ȠȼȤ ȆǝƴɀȮƴȼȮƁ leaving. yalla, khalliina naakul Hurry up, let’s eat. ǚżƾſ ƾƶƸȮƴų ȿ ȆǝƴɀȮƴȼȮƁ

6. walla

ʇȚȶ Really, definitely (lit., I swear by God, emphatic oath) (Audio).

mufattish: maich ashyaa¢ mmanuua? Basma: laa, walla walla, ma-shifit Baabil

Do you have with you illegal items? No, definitely not. Really, I did not see Babylon.

ȒǀŸǞƶƛ ȔƾƸŵȖ ǶƯȾ žȼ :ǐƄƱž ʇȚȶ Ȇǽ :ǀƵƉŮ ǚŮƾŮ ǁƱŵ ȳȼ ȆʇȚȶ

Arrival at Baghdad Airport, Part II | 

7. balla?

ǙƯž ȠȶȤ ƾž ȆʇȚȶ

Definitely not, I will not go with you (M).

walla, ma-aruuh maak

ǝȼȮƴɀȮƴȼȮŮ Ȓ Is it so? Is it true? Please (with request) (lit., in the name of God).

il-findiq daraja uulaa balla? ujrat it-taxi hwaaya balla? balla, fad jigaara

The hotel is first class. Is it true? Taxi fare is expensive. Is it so? A cigarette please (would you give me...).

ȒǝȼȮƴɀȮƴȼȮŮ Ǟž Isn’t it so? Isn’t it?

8. muu balla?

il-iraaq balad qadiim, muu balla? Amriika balad chibiir, muu balla? Basma Amriikiyya, muu balla?

Iraq is an ancient country. Isn’t it? America is a large country. Isn’t it? Basma is an American. Isn’t it so?



ǾɀȮƴƸȮȾſƾƵƸź goodbye (lit., in God’s safety)

9. fiimaanillaa

Basma: fiimaanillaa Mufattish: fiimaanillaa

10. maashaalla

ǾɀȮƴƸſƾƵƸź :ǀƵƉŮ ǾɀȮƴƸſƾƵƸź :ǐƄƱž

Basma: Goodbye Inspector: Goodbye

ʇƾŵƾž Praise be to God (lit., whatever God wills).

Idiom of admiration used along with or instead of a direct compliment to avert the evil eye. ȤƾƃɀȮż ȱNjȼ ɀȮŽȾȶ Ȇʇƾŵƾž maashaalla, wildak kbaar Praise be to God, your children are big. maashaalla, eeltak chibiira Praise God, your family is ȜǍƸƃȾȮǩ ǙƄɀȮƴƸŸ Ȇʇƾŵƾž large Ƚ Ȇʇƾŵƾž maashaalla, shughulkum Praise be to God, your work ǜƁȥ ǛƳɀȮƴȮư Ƚ ŵ zeen is good.

11. allaa(h)! word “olé.”)

!ȵǾɀȮŽȖ How nice! (Expression of admiration and the origin of the Spanish

allaah! shgadd hilu shaari Abu Nuwaas bil-leel? allaah! shgadd hilu nahar Dijla bil-leel? allaah ismich hilu!

How nice is Abu Nuwas Street at night! How nice is the view of Tigris River at night! How nice your (F) name is!


 | l e s s o n 


ɷʄ tamaariin ǜƁȤƾƵȼȮů ʞʏ Drills 1. Give appropriate oral replies to the following expressions: ǀƭƶȮƐȚ ȿ ǠƇƄźȘ ȆǶƴƬź ǜž ʄɷ ȒǙƸȮƴƈƁ ʇȚ ȆǠƉƳȮƄŽȘ ȿ ȿ ǜƁȶ ȒȦǞƴź ǶȮƯȾ ž NjȮǦŵ ʏʞ ʇƾƪſȚ ȆȜNjƸƯŴ ȜǍƱŴ ȒȤƾƭƓƾŮ ȴǞƱƴů ǞżȖ ɷʄ Ⱦ Ȓȴƾƶƃɀ ȮŽ Ƚ ɀ ț ǠŻƾŮ NjȮǦŵ ȒǀŸǞƶƛ ȔƾƸŵȖ ǛƳƯž ʞʏ ȒȳǾźȖȶ ȜǍƸžƾż ǛżNjƶŸ ȒǠƳƁǍžȖ ǞŽ ǠŻȚǍŸ ǐȮƄȮƱƓȘ ʄɷ ȒʇƾƪſȚ ƞƶƁȥ ȒǛƳſǞƴŵ ʏʞ ɷʄ 2. Change the following masculine forms to feminine (F) and pluralǙƴ(P)Ƭɀ forms: ȼȮź ǜž ȆǀƭɀȮƶLJƐȘ ljƄɀȮźȘ ʞʏ ʄɷ ȒǛȮȾƴȾȮźȶ ȜǍƸžƾż ǙȮƯȼ žȼ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ȤƾƭƵȼ ɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ǐƦȮƄȼȮƱžȽ Ǟƀ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ɀ Ȓƾƶƀ ǠŻƾŮ ǁſȘ NjȮȼȮǦŵ ʏʞ ɷʄ ɆǞƉŽȘ ȿ ǛȼȮƁ ǙƄȮƸȮŮ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ min fadlich iftahi j-junta ween it-taksi, alla ykhalliik? shgadd maich fluus? safra saiida, inshaalla aku talifoon bil-mataar? shgadd baaqi b-Lubnaan? maakum ashyaa¢ mamnuua? indkum kaamira wa aflaam? il-mufattish iraaqi loo Amriiki? shloonkum? zeeniin inshaalla?

iftah ij-junta, min fadlak F:

P: maak kaamira wa filim F:

P: huwwa mufattish bil-mataar F:

P: shgadd inta baaqi hnaa? F:

P: beetak yamm is-suug F:



inta muu tabaan F: P: aani muu zeen il-yoom F: P: huwwa muu juuaan F: P:

3. Read the following aloud: a. it-taksi giddaam il-mataar ij-junta giddaami it-taksi giddaam il-findiq ij-junta giddaamna it-taksi giddaam il-bariid ij-junta giddaamak it-taksi giddaam is-safaara ij-junta giddaamich it-taksi giddaam il-beet ij-junta giddaamkum it-taksi giddaam il-bank ij-junta giddaama it-taksi giddaam beethum ij-janta giddaamha it-taksi giddaam beetna ij-junta giddaamhum b. is-sayyaara wara is-safaara it-tayyaara waraaya is-sayyaara wara il-bank it-tayyaara waraana is-sayyaara wara il-beet it-tayyaara waraak is-sayyaara wara il-bariid

Arrival at Baghdad Airport, Part II | 

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ȳǞƸŽȚ ǜƁȥ Ǟž Ǡſȕ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ȴƾŸǞű Ǟž Ǟƀ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ȤƾƭƓȚ ȳȚNjȮ ȿ ǬȾ ǠƉƳdžȮƄŽȘ ǠžȚNjȮ ȿ ǬȾ ǀƭƶȮLJƐȘ ʄɷ ȰNjƶƱŽȘ ȳȚNjȮ ȿ ǬȾ ǠƉƳdžȮƄŽȘ ƾƶžȚNjȮ ȿ ǬȾ ǀƭƶȮLJƐȘ ʏʞ NjƁǍƃŽȘ ȳȚNjȮ ȿ ǬȾ ǠƉƳdžȮƄŽȘ ǙžȚNjȮ ȿ ǬȾ ǀƭƶȮLJƐȘ ɷʄ ȜȤƾƱƉŽȘ ȿ ǬȾ ǠƉƳdžȮƄŽȘ ȿ ȳȚNjȮ ʏʞ ǶžȾ ȚNjȮ ȿ ǬȾ ǀƭƶȮLJƐȘ ǁƸƃŽȘ ȳȚNjȮ ȿ ǬȾ ǠƉƳdžȮƄŽȘ ɷʄ ǛƳžɀ ȚNjȮ ȿ ǬȾ ǀƭƶȮLJƐȘ ǙȮƶƃŽȘ ȳȚNjȮ ȿ ǬȾ ǠƉƳdžȮƄŽȘ ʏʞ ǝžȼ ȚNjȮ ȿ ǬȾ ǀƭƶȮLJƐȘ ǛƷƄƸŮ ȳȚNjȮ ȿ ǬȾ ǠƉƳdžȮƄŽȘ ɷʄ ƾƷžɀ ȚNjȮ ȿ ǬȾ ǀƭƶȮLJƐȘ ƾƶȮƄƸȮŮ ȳȚNjȮ ȿ ǬȾ ǠƉƳdžȮƄŽȘ ʏʞ ǛƷžɀ ȚNjȮ ȿ ǬȾ ǀƭƶȮLJƐȘ ȜȤƾƱƉŽȚ ȿ ȚȤȶ ȜȤƾƸƉŽȘ ȿ ɷʄ ǝȼƁȚȤȶ ȜȤƾƸdžȮƭŽȘ ǙƶƃŽȚ ȚȤȶ ȜȤƾƸƉŽȘ ȿ ʏʞ ƾſȚȤȶ ȜȤƾƸdžȮƭŽȘ ɷʄ ǁƸƃŽȚ ȚȤȶ ȜȤƾƸƉŽȘ ȿ ȱȚȤȶ ȜȤƾƸdžȮƭŽȘ ʏʞ NjƁǍƃŽȚ ȚȤȶ ȜȤƾƸƉŽȘ ȿ ɷʄ ʏʞ ȴƾƃȮƯɀ ȼȮů Ǟž ǁſȘ


 | l e s s o n 

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ 4. Say the following in Arabic: aruuh ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ


it-tayyaara waraach is-sayyaara wara beetkum it-tayyaara waraakum is-sayyaara wara beeta it-tayyaara waraa is-sayyaara wara beetha it-tayyaara waraaha is-sayyaara wara beethum it-tayyaara waraahum c. mai malaabis wi-fluus maaa jigaayir hwaaya maaana malabis wi-fluus maaaha jigaayir hwayya maich junta chibiira maaakum junta chibiira maak junta chibiira maaahum jigaayir hwaaya

ȠȶȤȖ I go

I go to your (M) home by car. I go home by train. I go to the market today. I go to Lebanon by an airplane, God willing. I go to Babylon from the hotel. Definitely, she is in the airport. Definitely, they are in the American embassy in Baghdad. Definitely, you (P) are in the Iraqi embassy in Washington. Definitely, we are in the Saudi embassy in Jeddah. Definitely, they are not from Jeddah. Definitely they are neither Iraqis nor Americans. Hurry up, open (M) the book. Hurry up, open (M) the luggage. Hurry up, open (F) the camera. Hurry up, open (F) the film. Hurry up, open (P) the door. Hurry up, open (P) the embassy.


Arrival at Baghdad Airport, Part II | 

5. Complete and read the following aloud: a. alla ykhalliik, ween it-taksi? alla ykhalliich,



alla ykhalliikum,



alla ykhalliik, ween findiq ir-Rashiid? alla ykhalliich,



alla ykhalliikum,


b. yalla, khalliina nruuh lis-safaara lis-suug lil-findiq lil-bariid il-Baghdaad lil-iraaq lil-mataar lil-beet c. maashaalla shughlak zeen shughlich shughulkum shughli shughulna shughla shughulhum


ɷʄ ȒǠƉƳȮƄŽȚ ȿ ǜƁȶ ȆǙƸȮƴ ȿ ȼȮƈɀƁ ʇȚ ʞʏ ȆǶƸȮƴ ȿ ȼȮƈɀƁ ʇȚ ʄɷ ǛƳƸȮƴ ȿ ȼȮƈɀƁ ʇȚ ʏʞ ȒNjƸŵǍŽȘ ȿ ȰNjƶź ǜƁȶ ȆǙƸȮƴ ȿ ȼȮƈɀƁ ʇȚ ɷʄ ȆǶƸȮƴ ȿ ȼȮƈɀƁ ʇȚ ʞʏ ʄɷ ȆǛƳƸȮƴ ȿ ȼȮƈɀƁ ʇȚ ȜȤƾƱƉƴȮ ȿ ȾŽ ȠȶǍſ ƾƶƸȮƴ ȿ ȼȮų ȆǝƴɀȮƴȼȮƁ ʏʞ ɆǞƉƴ ȿ ȾȮŽ ɷʄ ȰNjƶȮƱȾ ɀȮƴȾȮŽ ʞʏ NjƁǍƃɀȮƴȾȮŽ ʄɷ ȢȚNjȮưŮ Ȳɀ Ș ʏʞ ɷʄ ȰȚǍƯɀȮƴȾȮŽ ʏʞ ȤƾƭƵɀȮƴȾȮŽ ɷʄ ǁƸƃɀȮƴȾȮŽ Ƚ ʇƾŵƾž ʏʞ ǜƁȥ ǙȮƴɀȮưŵ Ƚ ǶȮȾƴɀȮưŵ ɷʄ Ƚ ǛƳɀȮƴȮư ʏʞ Ƚ ŵ Ƚ ǠƴɀȮưȮŵ ɷʄ ʏʞ ƾƷɀȮƴȮư Ƚ Ȯŵ Ƚ ɷʄ ǝȼȮƴưȮŵ Ƚ ʏʞ ǛƷɀȮƴȮư Ƚ Ȯŵ Ƚ ɷʄ ʏʞ

 | l e s s o n 


humma bil-findiq


ɷʄ 6. Translate the following into English: ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ Creative Dialogues ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ intu Amriikaan min Los Angeles


aani aruuh il-Baabil bis-sayyaara

ȜȤƾƸƉŽƾŮ ȿ ǚŮƾŮ Ȳɀ Ș ȠȶȤȖ Ǡſȕ

aani maa ruuh il-Baabil bil-qitaar

ȤƾƭƲŽƾŮ ǚŮƾŮ Ȳɀ Ș ȠȶȤ ƾž Ǡſȕ

aani hnaa li-ziyaarat il-aathaar

ȤƾŰȃȘ ȝȤƾƁǎȾȮŽ ƾƶƀɀ Ǡſȕ

maich ashyaa¢ mamnuua?

ȒǀŸǞƶƛ ȔƾƸŵȖ ǶƯž

walla, maa mai aflaam bij-junta yalla, iftahu ij-junat

ȿ ƾŮ ȳǾźȖ ǠƯž ƾž ȆʇȚȶ ǀƭƶƐ ǓƶȮƐȚ ȿ ǞƇƄźȘ ȆǝƴɀȮƴȼƁ

is-sayyaara giddaam is-safaara


il-qitaar muu giddaam il-beet

ǁƸƃŽȘ ȳȚNjȮ ȿ ǬȾ Ǟž ȤƾƭƲŽȘ

il-akil laa ghaali wala rkhiis

ǑƸųȤ ǽȶ ǠŽƾŹ ǽ ǚżLjȘ

il-matam laa shiish wala kabaab

țƾƃż ǽȶ ǐƸŵ ǽ ǛƯƭƓȘ

shloon shughlak? zeen inshaalla?

ȒʇƾƪſȘ ǜƁȥ ȒǙƴưȮŵ Ƚ ȴǞƴŵ

yalla, rah-yimshi l-qitaar

a. taalib : ween sayyaartich? taaliba : haadhi sayyaarti taalib : allaah, sayyaartich hilwa hwaaya taaliba : shukran taalib : yalla, khalliina nruuh lil-matam. taaliba : ween il-matam? taalib : yamm findiq ir-Rashiid

ȤƾƭƲŽȚ Ǡƪƚ Ƞɀ ȼ Ȥ ȆǝƴɀȮƴȮȼƁ ȒǶȮȾůɀȤƾȮƸŴ ǜƁȶ : ƿŽƾŶ ȿ ǠůɀȤƾȮƸ Ŵ ȸȣƾƀ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ȿ ȼ ǀƁȚǞƀɀ ȜǞȼ ɀȮƴŲȾ ǶȮȾůȤƾȮƸ ȼ ȵǾɀȮŽȖ : ƿŽƾŶ ȿ Ŵ ȚǍȮƳȮŵ : ǀƃŽƾŶ Ƚ ǛƯƭƵȼ ɀȮƴȾŽ ȠȶǍɀȮſ ƾƶƸȮƦȮƴȼȮų ȆǝƴɀȮƴȼƁ : ƿŽƾŶ ȒǛƯƭƵȼ ɀȮŽȚ ǜƁȶ : ǀƃŽƾŶ NjƸȮŵǍȮŽȘ ȿ ȰNjȾ ɀȮƶźȾ ǛȼȮƁ : ƿŽƾŶ


b. taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba :

Arrival at Baghdad Airport, Part II | 

shloona ibnich, yaa Samiira? zeen, ilhamdu lillaah beetich biiid, muu balla? laa, muu biiid hwaaya shughlich zeen, inshaalla? laa shiish wala kabaab fiimaanillaa fiimaanillaa

For new words, see Glossary.

ȒȜǍƸƵŴ ƾƁ ȆǶȮƶȾ ɀ ŮȘ ǝȼȮſǞƴŵ ʇ NjƵɀ Ƈȼ ɀȮŽȘ ȆǜƁȥ ȒǝƴɀȮƴȼȮŮ Ǟž ȆNjƸƯȾȮŮ ǶȮƄƸȮŮ ǝƁȚǞƀɀ NjƸƯȾȮŮ Ǟž Ȇǽ ȒʇƾƪſȘ ȆǜƁȥ ǶȾȮƴưȮŵ Ƚ țƾƃż ǽȶ ǐƸŵ ǽ ǾɀȮƴƸſƾƵƸȮź ǾɀȮƴƸſƾƵƸȮź

: : : : : : : :

ɷʄ ƿŽƾŶ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʞʏ ƿŽƾŶ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʄɷ ƿŽƾŶ ʏʞ ǀƃŽƾŶ ƿŽƾŶ ɷʄ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʞʏ ʄɷ

Two bull men guard the gate of the ancient Assyrian city of Nimrud in northern Iraq

ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ lesson ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ǀdžȮƄȮŴ Ⱦ ȦȾȤȼȢ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ Taking a Taxi ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ta¢jiir taksi ǠƉɀȮƳȼȮů ǍƸȮűƺȼȮů ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ


Basma walks to the front of the airport to take a taxi to the Rashid Hotel; she approaches a driver (saayiq) and says to him:

Basic Dialogue (Audio) . Basma: marhaba. Hello. . saayiq: marhaba. Hello. . Basma: ariid aruuh il-findiq ir-Rashiid. I want to go to the Rashid Hotel. . saayiq: ala eeni, tfaddali isadi bis-sayyaara. With pleasure, please get in the car. . Basma: aku addaad bis-sayyaara? Is there a meter in the car? . saayiq: laa, maaku addaad. No, there is no meter. . Basma: shgadd il-ujra? How much is the fare? . saayiq: ashir danaaniir. Ten dinars.

.ǀƃŲǍžȼ :ǀƵƉŮ .ǀƃŲǍžȼ :ǘƁƾŴ .NjƸŵdžǍŽȘ


ȸNjƯȼ ǧȘ ɀ ǠƴdžȮƬȼȮƱɀȮů ȆǠƶƸŸ ǟƴŸ :ǘƁƾŴ .ȜȤƾƸƉŽƾŮ ȿ ȒȜȤƾƸƉŽƾŮ ȢȚNjȿ Ÿȼ ǞżȖ :ǀƵƉŮ ȿ .ȢȚNjȮ ȿ Ÿȼ

Ǟżƾž Ȇǽ :ǘƁƾŴ

ɀ :ǀƵƉŮ ȒȜȼǍűLjȘ ɀ NjȼȮǦŵ .ǍƸſƾȮſȼȢ

ǍȾȮƪŸȼ :ǘƁƾŴ

 | l e s s o n 

. Basma: haadhi hwaaya, antiik sitt danaaniir. This is too much, I give you six dinars. . saayiq: maykhaalif, tfaddali. Fine, please (get in.) . Basma: il-findiq giriib loo biiid mnil-mataar? Is the hotel near or far from the airport? . saayiq: laa giriib wala biiid. Neither near nor far. . Basma: shloona l-findiq? How is the hotel? . saayiq: daraja uulaa. wisalna, haadha huwwa l-findiq. First class. We’ve arrived, this is the hotel. . Basma: shukran, haak il-ujra. Thanks, take the fare.


ǁŴ Ⱦ ǙƸƭɀȮſȖ .ǝȼƁȚǞƀɀ ȸȣƾƀ :ǀƵƉŮ .ǠƴƬƱů ȿ

ǗȾŽƾƈƸȮ ɀ žȼ :ǘƁƾŴ



Ǟƀ Țȣƾƀ ƾƶɀȮƴǧ ȼ Ⱦȶ .ǟŽȶȖ ǀűȼ ȼ ȤȼȢ :ǘƁƾŴ .ȜǍűLjȘ

ȱƾƀ ȆȚǍƳŵ :ǀƵƉŮ

Vocabulary (Audio) saayiq / saayqa (M/F) ariid aruuh ala / aeeni ala eeni aku maaku isad / isadi / isadu (M/F/P) addaad ujra dinaar / danaaniir (S/P) haadha / haadhi / hadhoola (M/F/P) hwaaya antiik / antiich / antiikum

driver I want (see verbs, lesson ) I go (see verbs, lesson ) on, upon, about (see lesson ) my eye with pleasure (see below) there is/are (semi verb word) there isn’t/aren’t (see below) get in, go up (imp. verb) meter (car), gauge fare, fee, rate dinar/s (Iraqi currency) this, that (demonstratives, see lesson ) much, many, a lot (invariable) I give you (M/F/P)

ǀƲȮɀƁƾŴ / ǘȾȮƁƾŴ NjƁȤȖ ȠȶȤȖ Ȭȼ / ǟƴȮŸȼ ǠƶƸȮŸ ǠƶƸȮŸ ǟƴŸ ǞȮżȖ Ƚ ǞȮżƾž Ƚ ȶNjƯȼ ǧȘ ɀ / ȸNjƯȼ ǧȘ ɀ / NjƯȼ ǧȘ ɀ ȢȚNjȮ ȿ Ÿȼ ȜȼǍȮűɀ Ƚ Ț ǍƸſƾȮſȼȢ / ȤƾƶȮƁȾȢ ǀȼȮŽȶnjƀȼ / ȸȣƾƀ / Țȣƾƀ ǝȼȮƁȚǞƀɀ / ǶƸƭɀȮſȖ / ǙƸƭɀȮſȖ ǛƳƸƭ ɀ ɀȮſȖ

Taking a Taxi | 

maykhaalif giriib, qariib biiid, baiid loo mni- < min

daraja / darajaat (S/P) uulaa / awwal (F/M) wisalna haak / haach / haakum (M/F/P)

fine, okay, it doesn’t matter (see lesson ) near, close by (adj.) far away (adj.) or from (preposition. min becomes mni for phonetic reasons when it precedes the article il-) level/s, degree/s first (ordinal numeral) we arrived, we have arrived. take (imp. verb)


ȝƾűȼȤȼȢ / ǀűȼ ȼ ȤȼȢ Ȳȶȿ Ȗ / ǟŽȶȽȚ ƾƶȮɀȮƴǧ ȼ Ⱦȶ ǛȮżƾƀ / Ƀƾƀ / ȱƾƀ Ƚ

Grammar and Remarks The Adjective: is-sifa


Arabic has three adjective forms: masculine, feminine, and plural. The masculine adjective is the simplest form with no added ending. The feminine has the ending “a, Ȝ” like the feminine noun, sometimes with some changes in the underlying word, specifically the dropping of the stem vowel, “i” or “u,” that precedes the last consonant in the word. There are two main forms of plural adjectives, a masculine plural formed by adding the suffix “-iin” and feminine plural formed by adding the suffix “-aat.” A less common adjective form of the pattern CVCVVC (kabiir, large) is usually made plural in the pattern CCVVC (kbaar). For both noun and adjective agreement, see the section below. To decide the adjective form, the student must recognize the direction of the speech and determine whether the adjective is describing/modifying a male, a female, or a plural, and then select the appropriate form. Below is the declension of the adjective zeen (well) with the independent pronouns (Audio). I you you he she we you they

aani zeen / aani zeena (M/F) inta zeen (M) inti zeena (F) huwwa zeen hiyya zeena ihna zeeniin / ihna zeenaat M/F) intu zeeniin / intu zeenaat (M/F) humma zeeniin / humma zeenaat (M/F)

I am well you are well you are well he is well she is well we are well you are well they are well

ǀƶƁȥ Ǡſȕ / ǜƁȥ Ǡſȕ ǜƁȥ ǁſȘ ǀƶƁȥ ǠƄſȘ ǜƁȥ Ǟƀ ǀƶƁȥ Ǡƀ ȝƾƶƁȥ ƾƶŲȘ / ƞƶƁȥ ƾƶŲȘ ɀ ȝƾƶƁȥ ǞƄɀȮſȘ / ƞƶƁȥ ǞƄɀȮſȘ ȝƾƶƁȥ ǝƵȿ ƀȽ / ƞƶƁȥ ǝƵȿ ƀȽ

 | l e s s o n 

The Relative Adjective This is a special form of adjective that reflects the meaning “of,” “pertaining to,” or “related to” the noun from which it is usually derived. It is an important and common construction in Arabic. It has three forms: masculine, feminine, and plural, just like the regular adjectives.

1. Masculine Singular and Plural: The masculine relative adjective is formed by adding the

suffix “-i, ȸ Ȯ” (singular) and the suffix “-iyyiin, ƞȮƦƁ Ȯ” (plural) to the noun (Audio). ȴƾƶȮƃɀ ȮŽ iraaq Iraq ȰȚǍȮŸȾ Lubnaan Lebanon Ƚ Lubnaani Lebanese ǠſƾƶȮƃɀ ȮŽ iraaqi Iraqi ǠŻȚǍȮ ŸȾ Ƚ Lubnaaniyyiin Lebanese ƞƦȮƸſƾƶƃɀ ȮŽ iraaqiyyiin Iraqis ƞƦȮƸȮŻȚǍŸȾ Ƚ Tuunis Tunis ǏȮȾſǞů Baghdaad Baghdad ȢȚNjɀȮưȮȼŮ Tuunisi Tunisian ǠƉȾſǞů Baghdaadi Baghdadi ȸȢȚNjɀưȮȼŮ Tuunisiyyiin Tunisians ƞƦȮƸƉȾſǞů Baghdaadiyyiin Baghdadis ƞƦȮƁȢȚNjɀȮưȼŮ also: Bghaada Baghdadis ȜȼȢƾȮưɀȮŮ

2. Feminine Singular and Plural: The feminine relative adjective is formed by adding the suffix “-iyya, ǀȮdžƁ Ȯ” (singular) and the suffix “-iyyaat, ȝƾȮƁ ȿ Ȯ” (plural) (Audio). ȴƾƶȮƃɀ ȮŽ iraaq Iraq ȰȚǍȮŸȾ Lubnaan Lebanon Ƚ Lubnaaniyya Lebanese ǀƸȮſƾƶ iraaqiyya Iraqi ǀdžȮƸȮŻȾ ȚǍȮŸȾ dž ƃɀ ȮŽ Ƚ Lubnaaniyyaat Lebanese ȝƾƸȮ iraaqiyyaat Iraqis ȝƾȮƸȮ ȿ Ⱦ ſƾƶƃɀ ȮŽ ȿ ŻȾ ȚǍŸ Ƚ gharb west țɀǍȮȼŹ sharq east ȰɀǍȼȮŵ gharbiyya westerner ǀȮƸȮŮ sharqiyya eastern ǀȮƸȮ ȿ ɀǍȮȼŹ ȿ ŻȾ ɀǍȼȮŵ gharbiyyaat westerners ȝƾȮƸ sharqiyyaat easterners ȝƾȮƸȮ ȿ ȾȮŮɀǍȮȼŹ ȿ ŻȾ ɀǍȼȮŵ There are some exceptions to the general rules outlined above.

Noun–Adjective Agreement The adjective agrees with the noun it modifies in gender, number, and definiteness. If the noun is indefinite or definite, the adjective must also be indefinite or definite, respectively. (Audio) beet jidiid a new house

findiq rikhiis a cheap hotel



il-beet li-jdiid the new house beetna li-jdiid our new house il-findiq li-rkhiis the cheap hotel


After a masculine or a feminine noun the adjective must be masculine or feminine, respectively. (Audio)

Taking a Taxi | 

NjƁNjȾȮű ƿƄƳžȼ

maktab jidiid a new office walad chibiir a big boy


maktaba jidiida a new library bint chibiira a big girl


With a masculine or feminine plural animate noun the adjective is also plural. With a nonhuman (inanimate) plural noun the adjective is usually feminine singular. (Audio) Iraqi students Iraqi students a large college large colleges a new key new keys

tullaab iraaqiyyiin (M) taalibaat iraaqiyyaat (F) kulliyya chibiira kulliyyaat chibiira miftaah jidiid mafaatiih jidiida

The Word aku


ǞȮżȖ there is / are

The word aku (there is/are) is not a verb in Iraqi Arabic in spite of its meaning. It is made negative with the prefix “ma-.”

The Cardinal Numerals 11–20          

ȜȤƾƸȮ ȼ ǞȮżȖ ȿ Ŵ ȜȤƾƸȮ ȼ ǞȮżƾž ȿ Ŵ ȤƾŲ Ǡȿ žȼ ǞȮżȖ ȤƾŲ Ǡȿ žȼ ǞȮżƾž ȝȚȤƾƸȮ ȼ ǞȮżȖ ȿ Ŵ ȝȚȤƾƸȮ ȼ Ǟżƾž ȿ Ŵ

There is a car There isn’t a car There is hot water There isn’t hot water There are cars There aren’t cars

aku sayyaara maaku sayyaara aku mayy haar maaku mayy haar? aku sayyaaraat maaku sayyaaraat


daash thnaash tlat-taash arbaa-taash khmus-taash sit-taash sbaa-taash thmun-taash tsaa-taash ishriin

ɀ ŸȾ Ȯ ǐȮŸȼ ȼȢ (Audio) ǜƁǍƪȮ ǐȮŸȼ ȼȢ ǐȮŸƾƶ ȿ ɀȮŰ ǐȼȮƯdžȮŶǾ ȿ ȼȮů ǐȼȮƯȼȮŶƾŮɀȤȖ ǐȼȮƯȼȮƭƫ ɀ ƵȽ ɀȮų ǐȼȮŸƾȮƭȮ Ⱦ ȿ Ŵ ǐȼȮƯȼȮŶƾƃȮŴ ɀ ǐȼȮƯȼȮƭɀȮƶƵȽ ɀȮŰ ǐȼȮƯȼȮŶƾƉɀȮů ǜƁǍƪȮŸȾ

 | l e s s o n 

Idioms and Common Phrases (Audio)

1. 9ala 9eeni, 9ala raasi ǠŴȚȤ ǟƴȮŸȼ ȆǠƶƸŸ ǟƴȮŸȼ with pleasure (lit., on my eye, on my head) Idiomatic expressions used to indicate the speaker’s readiness and acceptance of what being is said or requested. min fadlak, iftah il-baab Please open the door. Reply: ala eeni With pleasure. alla ykhalliik, saaidni Please, help me with the bij-junta suitcase. Reply: ala raasi With pleasure. ariid aruuh il-findiq irI want to go to the Rashid Rashiid Hotel. Reply: ala eeni, isad With pleasure, get in the car. bis-sayyaara min fadlich iftahi Please open the window. ish-shubbaach Reply: ala raasi With pleasure.

2. 9ala fikra

ȜȼǍɀȮƳźȾ ǟƴȮŸȼ by the way

ala fikra, shloona il-matam? ala fikra, ween raayih?

ala fikra, ween sayyaartak? ala fikra, shunu ismich?

3. 9ala kull haal

By the way, how is the restaurant? By the way, where are you going? By the way, where is your car? By the way, what is your name?

ȲƾŲ ǚȮż Ƚ ǟƴȮŸȼ in any case, anyway

ala kull haal, huwwa raayih lil-iraq ala kull haal, huwwa ma-raayih lil-iraq Basma raayha lil-Basra, ala kull haal ala kull haal, il-bariid muu biiid ala kull haal, Laylaa muu iraaqiyya

Anyway, he is going to Iraq. Anyway, he is not going to Iraq. Basma is going to Basra, anyway. Anyway, the post office is not far. In any case, Laylaa is not an Iraqi.

țƾƃɀȮŽȚ ljȼȮƄɀȮźȘ ǙƴƬ ɀ ȼȮź ǜžȾ ǠƶƸŸ ǟƴȮŸȼ ǠſNjŸȾ ƾŴ ȆǙƸȮƴƈ ȿ ɀ Ɓ ʇȚ ǀƭƶȮƐƾŮ ȿ ǠŴȚȤ ǟƴȮŸȼ NjƸȮŵdžǍŽȚ ȰNjɀȮƶȮźȾ Ȳɀ Ș ȠȶȤȖ NjƁȤȖ ȜȤƾƸƉŽƾŮ ɀ ȆǠƶƸŸ ǟƴȮŸȼ ȿ NjȮƯȼ ǧȘ ǠƇȼȮƄɀȮźȘ ǶȮȾƴƬ ɀ ȼȮź ǜȮžȾ ɃƾȮƃ ȿ ȮƪŽȚ ȿ ǠŴȚȤ ǟƴȮŸȼ ȒǛƯƭƓȚ ǝȼſǞƴŵ ȆȜǍƳźȾ ǟƴŸ ȒljƁȚȤ ǜƁȶ ȆȜǍƳźȾ ǟƴŸ ȒǙůȤƾȮƸŴ ǜƁȶ ȆȜǍƳźȾ ǟƴŸ ȿ Ƚ ȆȜǍƳźȾ ǟƴŸ ȒǶȮƵȾ ŴȘ ɀ ǞƶȮŵ

ljȾȮƁȚȤ Ǟƀ ȆȲƾŲ ǚż ǟƴŸ ȰȚǍƯɀȮƴȮȾŽ ljȾȮƁȚȤ ȳȼ Ǟƀ ȆȲƾŲ ǚż ǟƴŸ ȰȚǍƯɀȮƴȮȾŽ ǟƴŸ ȆȜǍƫ ɀ ƃȼ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ ǀƇȼ ɀ ƁȚȤ ǀƵƉŮ ȲƾŲ ǚż ǞžȽ NjƁǍƃɀȮŽȘ ȆȲƾŲ ǚż ǟƴŸ NjƸƯȾȮŮ ǞžȽ ǟƴƸŽ ȆȲƾŲ ǚż ǟƴŸ ǀdžȮƸȾȮŻȚǍŸȾ


Taking a Taxi | 

ɷʄ Drills tamaariin ǜƁȤƾƵȼȮů ʞʏ 1. Give appropriate oral replies to the following statements: NjƸȮŵǍŽȚ ȿ ȰNjɀȮƶȮźȾ Ȳɀ Ș ȠȶȤȖ NjȮƁȤȖ ȒǶȮȾƴƬ ɀ ȼȮź ǜžȾ ȆȰNjɀȮƶȮƱȾ ɀȮŽȘ ǜƁȶ ʄɷ ȼ ȒȰNjɀȮƶȮƱȾ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȤƾƭƵȼ ɀȮŽ ǜȮžɀ ȜǍűLjȘ NjȼȮǦŵ ʏʞ ȒȜȤƾƸƉŽƾŮ ȿ Ÿȼ ǞżȖ dž ȢȚNjȮ ȒNjƸƯȾȮŮ ǞŽ ƿƁǍȮǬȾ ȰNjɀȮƶȮƱȾ ɀȮŽȘ ɷʄ ȜȼǍȮűLjȘ ɀ ȱƾƀ ɀ ʞʏ ȒȢȚNjưȮŮ ȰNjȾ ɀȮƶȮźȾ ǝȼȮſǞƴȮŵ ǾɀȮƴƸſƾƵƸź ȒǠƳƁǍžɀ Ȗ ǞŽ ǠŻȚǍŸȾ ǠƉɀȮƳȮƄŽȘ ȿ ǘƁƾŴ ʄɷ ȒǑƸųȾȤ ǞŽ ǠŽƾŹ ȰNjɀȮƶȮƱȾ ɀȮŽȘ ʏʞ 2. Make the following indefinite masculine noun–adjective phrases definite: NjƁNjȾȮű Ȥƾƭžȼ ȸȢȚNjưŮ ǘƁƾŴ ɷʄ ǠƳƁǍžɀ Ȗ ȝɀȤǞƃŴƾŮ ȜǍƸƃȼȮż ǀƃȮȾŽƾŶ ɀ NjƸȮƯȾȮŮ ȰNjɀȮƶȮźȾ ǠŻȚǍŸȾ ǐƦȮƄȼȮƱžȽ ʞʏ ǀƸſƾƶȮƃɀ ȮŽ ȜǍƸȮƃȾȮǩ ǀƭƶű Ƚ ǀȼȮƱdžȮŷǞȼ žȽ ǜƁȥ ǛƯȼ ɀȮƭžȼ ǑƸųȾȤ ȰNjƶȮźȾ ʄɷ ǠŽƾŹ ǠƉɀȮƳȼȮů ǕƁǍŴ ȼ ȤƾƭȮŻȾ ʏʞ 3. Make feminine and plural the following masculine statements and read aloud: ɷʄ ǠƳƁǍžȖ Ǡſȕ ǠƳƁǍžȖ ǁſȘ ʏʞ ɷʄ ǠŻȚǍŸ Ǟƀ ȚǍƸžƾż ǙƯž ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ǛȾƴȮźȾ ǙƯž ȜǍűLjȘ ȱƾƀ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ariid aruuh il-findiq ir-Rashiid ween il-findiq, min fadlich? shgadd il-ujra mnil-mataar lil-findiq? aku addaad bis-sayyaara? il-findiq giriib loo biiid? haak il-ujra shloona findiq Baghdaad? fiimaanillaa saayiq it-taksi iraaqi loo Amriiki? il-findiq ghaali loo rikhiis?

mataar jidiid baasbort Amriiki findiq biiid muwazzafa Lubnaaniyya matam zeen taksi ghaali

saayiq Baghdaadi taaliba kabiira mufattish iraaqi junta chibiira findiq rikhiis qitaar sarii

aani Amriiki

inta Almaani



P: huwwa iraaqi

P: maak kaamira



P: maak filim

P: haak il-ujra






 | l e s s o n 

ɷʄ ǗŴƺƄ ǀƭɀȮƶȮLJƐȘ ljȼȮƄɀȮźȘ ɀ žȾ Ǡſȕ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ǜƁȥ Ǟž Ǟƀ ǠſƾƶƃȮŽ Ƚ Ǟž Ǡſȕ ɷʄ ʞʏ ȒȸȤǞŴ ǞŽ ȸǍƫž ǁſȘ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ȴƾƪƭŸ ǽȶ ȴƾŸǞű ǽ ǁſȘ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ 4. Negate the following: ȢȚNjưŮ țɀ Ȥƾƭž ǞżȖ ȦǞƴƍȚ ȦǞŽ ǜž Ǡƀ ʏʞ ȒȸȢǞƯŴ Ƚ ǞŽ ǠƉſǞů ǁſȘ ƞȮƸȮƄȮƁǞż ǝȮƵ Ʀ ȿ ƀȽ ɷʄ ȜNjȮŲɀ Ⱦȶ ǀƭɀȮƶűɀ ǠƯž ȒȝȤǞƃŴƾŮ ɀ ǶȮƯȾ žȼ ʏʞ ȤƾƭƵȼ ɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ȝȚȤƾƸȿ ȼȮŶ ǞżȖ ǜƭƶŵȚȶ ǜžȾ ȴƾƳƁǍžȖ ƾƶŲȘ ɷʄ ɆǞƉȮƴȮ ȿ ȾŽ ǀƇȼ ɀ ƁȚȤ Ǡƀ ʏʞ ȰNjɀȮƶȮƱȾ ɀȮŽȚ ȳȚNjȮ ȿ ǬȾ ǠƉɀȮƳȮƄŽȘ ȿ ȼ ȒȳǞƸȮŽȚ ǞƳȮŵ ɷʄ ȒǞƁȢȚǍȮŽȚ ȿ Ȭȼ Ǟżƾž ǞƳŵ ʏʞ 5. Make the following statements relative adjectives and read aloud: ȝȶǍƸȮŮ ǜžȾ Ǡƀ ɷʄ ǀƸƦȮƸȮȾůȶǍƸȮŮ Ǡƀ ȰȚǍƯɀȮŽȾ ǜɀȮž Ǟƀ ƾƳƁǍžȖ ǜž ǀƵƉŮ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ aani mit¢assif

iftah ij-junta



P: huwwa muu zeen

P: aani muu Lubnaani



P: inta Masri loo Suuri



P: inta laa juuaan wala at shaan F:


aku mataar b-Baghdaad hiyya min Los Angeles inta Tuunisi loo Suuudi? humma Kuweetiyyiin mai junta wihda maich baasbort? aku tayyaaraat bil-mataar ihna Amriikaan min Washington hiyya raayha lis-suug it-taksi giddaam il-findiq shaku il-yoom? shaku maaku ar-radio?

Example: hiyya min Beeruut hiyya beeruutiyya huwwa mnil-iraaq

She is from Beirut. She is Beiruti. Basma min Amriika


Taking a Taxi | 

ɷʄ ʞʏ ǀƁȤǞŴ ǜž ǞƄſȘ ƾƸȮƃƸȮŽ ǜž ǠƄſȘ ʄɷ ʏʞ ƾŮȶȤȶȽ Ț ǜž ǞƄſȘ ȴƾƶƃŽ ǜž ǀƵȮ ȿ ƀȽ ɷʄ ȴȚǍƁȚ ǜž ǝȮƵ Ǎƫž ǜž ǟƴƸŽ ʞʏ ȿ ƀȽ ʄɷ ʏʞ 6. Say the following in Arabic: ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ 7. Repeat the above statements in the plural forms, masculine and feminine: ɷʄ ȴƾƳƁǍžɀ Ȗ ƾƶȮŲȘ ɀ ȝƾȮƸȮ Ⱦ žɀ Ȗ ƾƶȮŲȘ ɀ ʏʞ ȿ ƳƁǍ 8. Count the following in Arabic: ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ Samiir min Baghdaad


inta mnil-Kuweet

intu (M) min Suurya

inti min Liibya

intu (F) min Urubbaa

humma min Lubnaan

humma (F) min Iraan

laylaa min Masir

I am (M) an American. I am (M) a Canadian. I am (M) an Iranian. I am (M) a Sudanese. I am (M) a Mexican. I am (M) a Turk. I am (M) a Swede. I am (M) an African. I am (M) an easterner. I am (M) a westerner.

Example: ihna Amriikaan ihna Amriikiyyaat

one boy one girl one passport one suitcase one dinar one dollar one hotel one door

ǁƁǞƳɀȮŽ ǜȮžɀ ǁſȚ

I am (F) an American. I am (F) a Canadian. I am (F) an Iranian. I am (F) a Sudanese. I am (F) a Mexican. I am (F) Turk. I am (F) a Swede. I am (F) an African. I am (F) an easterner. I am (F) a westerner.

We are (M) Americans. We are (F) Americans.

two boys two girls two passports two suitcases two dinars two dollars two hotels two doors

ten boys nine girls six passports four suitcases seven dinars five dollars three hotels eight doors


 | l e s s o n 

ɷʄ 9. Translate the following into English: ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ aloud: ʏʞ 10. Complete and read the following ȜǍűLjȚ ȱƾƀ Ƀƾƀ ɷʄ ʏʞ Ǜżƾƀ ɷʄ ǛƴƲŽȚ ȱƾƀ ʏʞ Ƀƾƀ ɷʄ Ǜżƾƀ ʏʞ


maakum kaamira bij-junta?


Basma bil-findiq

shgadd fluus maich?

ɀ ȒǶƯž ȦǞƴź NjȼȮǦŵ

it-tayyaara bil-mataar


il-findiq daraja uulaa

ǟŽȶȽȚ ǀűȼȤȼȢ ȰNjƶƱɀȮŽȘ

muu baasbort iraaqi


ala eeni w raasi


ala fikra, ween Basma?

ǁƸƃɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȠȶǍſ ƾƶƸȮƴų ȿ ǝȼȮƴɀȮƴȼƁ

yalla, khalliina nruuh lil-beet

ȒʇƾƪſȘ ȆƞƶƁȥ ǚƀLjȘ

il-ahal zeeniin, inshaalla?

ȜȤƾƸƉŽȚ ȿ ljƄźȘ ȆǙƸȮƴ ȿ ȼȮƈɀƁ ʇȚ

alla ykhalliik, iftah is-sayyaara


ala fikra, ween Ahmad?

ȢȚNjưŮ țɀ ǜƁȤƾƭž ǞżȖ

aku mataareen ib-Baghdaad

ȴƾŸǞű Ǡſȕ ȆȲƾŲ ǚż ǟƴŸ

ala kull haal, aani juuaan

a. haak il-ujra

haak il-baasbort





haak il-qalam

haak ij-junta





ȝȤǞƃŴƾƃŽȚ ȱƾƀ Ƀƾƀ Ǜżƾƀ ǀƭƶȮLJƐȚ ȱƾƀ Ƀƾƀ Ǜżƾƀ


Taking a Taxi | 

ɷʄ ʞʏ Ǡƀ ʄɷ ǀƵȿ ƀȽ ʏʞ ǀƵȿ ƀȽ ɷʄ Ǡſȕ ʞʏ Ǡſȕ ʄɷ ƾƶŲȘ ʏʞ ƾƶŲȘ ɷʄ ǁſȘ ʞʏ ǠƄſȘ ʄɷ ǞƄſȘ ʏʞ ȰȚǍƯŽƾŮ ǠŽƾŹ Ǟž ǠƉƳȮƄŽȘ ȿ ȆȲƾŲ ǚż ǟƴŸ ɷʄ ȢȚNjưŮ țɀ ʏʞ ȴƾƶƃŽ țɀ ɷʄ ȝȶǍƸŮ țɀ ʏʞ Ǎƫ Ⱦ žȼ țɀ ɷʄ ȴȽȢɀȤLjƾȾȮŮ ʏʞ ȴƾƵȿ Ÿȼ țɀ ɷʄ ǀƁȢǞƯƉŽƾ ʏʞ LJ ȾȮŮ ɷʄ ȩƾƁƦǍȮŽƾȾȮŮ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ǠŽƾƭƁȘ Ǟƀ ȆȜǍɀȮƳźȾ ǟƴŸ

b. ala fikra, huwwa Itaali , hiyya , humma (M) , humma (F) , aani (M) , aani (F) , ihna (M) , ihna (F) , inta , inti , intu c. ala kull haal, it-taksi muu ghaali bil-iraaq b-Baghdaad b-Lubnaan b-Beeruut b-Masir bil-Urdun b-ammaan bis-Suuudiyya bir-Riyaad

 | l e s s o n 

ɷʄ Creative Dialogues ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ a. taalib :

taaliba :

taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba :

tuurfiin findiq zeen ibBaghdaad? naam, aruf fanaadiq hwaaya. ariid findiq rikhiis. findiq ishtaar muu ghaali hwaaya. ween haadha l-findiq? il-findiq ib-shaari isSaduun. huwwa biiid loo giriib? biiid ishwayya.

b. taalib : inti iraaqiyya loo Itaaliyya? taaliba : aani laa iraaqiyya wala Itaaliyya. aani Isbaaniyya. taalib : min ayy madiina? taaliba : aani min madiinat Madriid. taalib : alla(h), haadhi madiina hilwa. taaliba : shukran jaziilan. For new words, see Glossary.


ȒȢȚNjưŮ țɀ ǜƁȥ ȰNjƶźȾ ƞźɀǍƯȽ Ȯů Ƚ

: ƿŽƾŶ

ǝƁȚǞƀɀ ȰȢƾƶź ȯǍŸȖ ȆǛƯſ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ǑƸųȾȤ ȰNjƶȮźȾ NjƁȤȖ : ƿŽƾŶ ǝƁȚǞƀɀ ǠŽƾŹ Ǟž ȤƾƄƪŸȾ ȰNjƶȾȮź : ǀƃŽƾŶ ȒȰNjƶƱŽȚ Țȣƾƀ ǜƁȶ : ƿŽƾŶ ȴȶNjƯɀ ƉŽȚ dž ȬȤƾŵ țɀ ȰNjƶƱŽȘ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ȒƿƁǍȮǬȾ ǞŽ NjƸƯȾȮŮ Ǟƀ : ƿŽƾŶ ɀ NjƸƯȾȮŮ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ǝȮdžƁǞȼ Ȯŵ ȒǀȮƸŽƾƭƁȘ ǞŽ ǀȮƸŻȚǍȮ ŸȾ ǠƄſȘ : ƿŽƾŶ ȿ ȿ Ǡſȕ ǀȮƸŽƾƭƁȘ ǽȶ ǀƸŻȚǍȮ ȿ ŸȾ ǽ Ǡſȕ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ȿ ǀȮƸſƾƃ ɀ ȿ ŴȘ ȒǀƶƁNjžȼ ȸȖ ǜȮžȾ : ƿŽƾŶ NjƁȤNjɀ Ȯžȼ ǀƶƁNjȮžȼ ǜȮžȾ Ǡſȕ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ȜǞȼ ɀȮƴŲȾ ǀƶƁNjȮžȼ ȸȣƾƀ ȆȵǾɀȮŽȖ : ƿŽƾŶ Ƚ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ȹǾƁǎȮűȼ ȹ ȚǍƳŵ

As-Safafier, an old market well-known for its copper and brass craftsmanship, in Baghdad

ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ lesson ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ǀȮƯƃȮ ȼ ȦȾȤȼȢ ɀ Ŵ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ At the Rashid Hotel ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ b-findiq ir-Rashiid NjƸȮŵdžǍȮŽȚ ȰNjȾ ɀȮƶȮźȾ țɀ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ


Basma gets out of the taxi at the Rashid Hotel and walks toward the reception desk to inquire about her room reservation. The receptionist (mudayyif ) welcomes her saying:

Basic Dialogue (Audio) . mudayyif: ahlan wa sahlan. ayy khidma? Welcome. How can I serve you? . Basma: shukran, indi hajiz bil-findiq. Thanks, I have a hotel reservation. . mudayyif: shunu isim hadirtich? What is your name, please? . Basma: ismi Basma Adams. My name is Basma Adams. . mudayyif: lahza min fadlich. naam ghuruftich haadra, raqam ishriin. One moment, please. Yes, your room is ready, number twenty. . Basma: shukran jaziilan. Thank you very much. . mudayyif: il-baasbort, min fadlich. The passport, please.

ȒǀžNjɀ ųȾ ȸȖ ȼ žȽ ȿ .ǾƷɀ Ŵȶ ȼ Ǿƀɀ Ȗ :ǗƦȮƸƬ .ȰNjƶȮƱȾ ɀȮŽƾŮ


Ƚ :ǗƦȮƸƬ ȒǶȾȮůɀǍƬ ȼ žȽ Ⱦ Ųȼ ǛŴȘ Ⱦ Ǟƶŵ .ǎžȢȕ


ǛƯſ .ǶƴƬ ɀ ȼȮź ǜžȾ ǀȼȮƮƇɀ ȼȮŽ :ǗƦȮƸ ȼ žȽ ȿ Ƭ ɀ .ǜƁǍƪȮŸȾ ǛȼȮŻȼȤ ȜȼǍǤƾŲ ɀ ǶȮƄȾ ɀȮźǍȽ ȮŹ Ƚ .ǾƁǎű ȼ .ǶȮȾƴƬ ɀ ȼȮź


ǜž ȆȝȤǞƃŴƾƃŽȘ :ǗƦȮƸƬ ȼ žȼ ɀ

 | l e s s o n 

. Basma: tfaddal, il-baasbort. Here is the passport. . mudayyif: shukran. kam yoom baaqya? Thanks. How many days are you staying? . Basma: baaqya usbuu. I am staying for one week. . mudayyif: amrich. tfaddali l-miftaah. Certainly. Here is the key. . Basma: gulli alla ykhalliik, il-ghurfa biiha hammaam wa mayy haarr? Tell me please, does the room have a bathroom and hot water? . mudayyif: naam, kullshi biiha, w-inshaalla tiijbich. Yes, it has everything, and you will like it, hopefully. . Basma: min fadlak, saaidni bij-junta. Please, help me with the luggage. . mudayyif: ala eeni. haadha il-booy ysaadich. With pleasure. That bellboy will assist you. . Basma: shukran, maa s-salaama. Thanks, goodbye.

.ȝȤǞƃŴƾƃŽȚ ɀ

ǚdžȮƬȼȮƱɀȮů :ǀƵƉŮ


ǀƸȼ ɀȮŻƾŮ :ǀƵƉŮ

ǠƴdžȮƬ ȼ žȽ ȿ ȼȮƱɀȮů .ɃȾǍžɀ Ȗ :ǗƦȮƸƬ

ƾƷƸŮ ǀźɀǍȮưŽȚ ȆǙƸȮƴ ȿ ƈȼ ɀȮƁ ʇȚ ǠȮƴ ȿ ǬȽ :ǀƵƉŮ Ƚ ȒȤƾŲ Ǡȿ žȼ ȶ ȳƾȮƵ ȿ Ųȼ ʇƾƪſȚȶ ȆƾƷƸŮ ǠƪɀȮƴȮż ȼ žȽ Ƚ ȆǛƯſ :ǗƦȮƸȾ Ƭ .ǶƃȮƆ ɀ ƯȾ Ⱦ ů .ǀƭɀȮƶȮLJƐƾŮ

ǠſNjɀ ŸȾ ƾŴ ȆǙƴƬź ǜž :ǀƵƉŮ

ȸɀ ǞƃȽ ɀȮŽȚ Țȣƾƀ ȆǠƶƸŸ ǟƴŸ :ǗƦȮƸ ȼ žȽ ȿ Ƭ .ɃNjȾ ȮŸɀ ƾƉɀƁ .ǀžǾƉŽȚ ȿ


Vocabulary (Audio) mudayyif / mudayyifa (M/F) ahlan wa sahlan ayy khidma / khidmaat (S/P) indi hajiz lahza ghurfa / ghuraf (S/P) haadir / haadriin (M/P) haadra / haadraat (F/P) raqam / arqaam (S/P) jaziilan kam, cham? yoom / ayyaam (S/P)

host, hostess, stewardess welcome which? service/s I have (see lesson ) reservation a moment room/s ready ready number/s, numeral/s very, much (invariable) how many? (see lesson ) day/s

ǀȮƱƦȮƸ ȼ žȽ / ǗƦȮƸ ȼ žȽ ȿ Ƭ ȿ Ƭ ǾƷŴȶ ǾƀȖ ȸȖ ȿ ȝƾžNjɀ ųȾ / ǀžNjɀ ȮųȾ ȸNjɀȮƶȮŸȾ ǎȾȮƆȮŲȼ ǀȼȮƮƇɀ ȼȮŽ ȯȼǍȮȽŹ / ǀźɀǍȮȽŹ ǜƁǍǤƾŲ ɀ / ǍǤƾŲ Ⱦ ȝȚǍǤƾŲ ɀ / ȜȼǍǤƾŲ ɀ ȳƾȮŻȤȖ / ǛȼȮŻȼȤ ȹǾƁǎȮűȼ ȒǛȮǩȼ ȆǛȼȮż ȳƾȮƁȖ ȿ / ȳǞȮƁ

At the Rashid Hotel | 

baaqi / baaqya (M/F) usbuu / asaabii (S/P) amrich miftaah / mafaatiih (S/P) gulli / gulliili / gulluuli (M/F/P) biiha

hammaam mayy haarr baarid kullshi tiijbich / tiijbak / tijibkum (F/M/P) ysaaidni booy

ysaadich / ysaadak (F/M) aku nafis / nufuus (S/P)


staying week/s certainly, whatever you say (lit. your order) key/s tell me (imp. verb, see below) in it, it has (consists of preposition bi and attached pronoun -ha) bathroom, Turkish bath water hot cold everything you like, it pleases you he helps me, he assists me bellboy (borrowed from the English word “boy,” one who does manual service in hotels, restaurants, etc.) he helps you

ljƸůƾƱȮžȼ / ȠƾƄɀȮƱžȾ / ǠƴƸƴɀȮƴȮǬ Ƚ / ǠƴɀȮƴȮǬ Ƚ ǠŽǞƴɀȮƴȮǬ Ƚ

ȳƾȮƵ ȿ Ųȼ Ǡȿ žȼ ȤƾŲ ȢȾȤƾŮ / ǙƃȮ ȼ Ɔɀ ƯȾ Ⱦ ů / ǶƃȮ Ⱦ Ɔɀ ȾȮƯȾů ǛƳƃɀ ȾȮƆƯɀ Ⱦ ů ǠſNjŸȾ ƾƉɀȮƁ ȸɀ ǞȮŮ Ƚ

ȱNjȼ ȮŸɀ ƾȮƉɀƁ /ɃNjȾ ȮŸɀ ƾƉɀȮƁ

there is/are (see lesson ) self/s

Grammar and Remarks Nouns of Occupations with Suffixes -chi and -chiyya


ǀȮƸdž ȾȮǩ ȮȮ / ǠȾȮǩ ȮȮ

Iraqi Arabic has many nouns that refer to occupations or professions. These occupational nouns are derived from other nouns by adding the suffix “-chi” (singular) and the suffix “-chiyya” (plural). Adding these suffixes cause changes sometimes (shifting or omitting vowels) in the words (see below). This type of noun seems to occur in masculine form only. (Audio) Noun chaay

Meaning tea

Occupational Noun (S/P) chaaychi chaaychiyya

Meaning tea vendor


post office




ǀƭŴǞŮ ɀ


ǠǰȼȮƭŴǞŮ ɀ

ǀȮƸ ȿ ȾȮǰɀȮƁƾǩ


ǀȮƸ ɀ ȿ ȾȮǰȼȮƭŴǞŮ

 | l e s s o n 





sweet seller















bath keeper





soap vendor





orchard keeper





shoe repairman


coffee, cafe



cafe keeper

ȼ ǍȼȮƳŵ

ƩƃȽ ɀȮžȽȢ ǙȼȮƶȼȮů

ȳƾȮƵ ȿ Ųȼ ȴǞŮƾǧ

ȴƾƄȮƉ ɀ ȾȮŮ ȜȼȤNjȼ ɀȮƶȮŻ Ƚ

ȜǞȼ ȮƷɀ ȼȮǬ The Word abu

ȼ ǠǩɀǍȼȮƳŵ

ǠǰɀȮǦƃȼ ɀȮžȽȢ ǠǰɀȮƳȼȮƶȼȮů ǠǰƵɀ džȮƵ ȿ Ųȼ

ǠǰɀȮſǞŮƾǧ ǠǰɀȮƶȼȮƄȮƉ ɀ ȾȮŮ ǠǩɀȤNjȼ ɀȮƶȮŻ Ƚ

ǠǩǞɀ ȮƷȼ ȼȮǬ

ȼ ǀȮƸ ȿ ȾȮǩɀǍȼȮƳŵ

ǀȮƸ ȿ ȾȮǰɀȮǦƃȼ ɀȮžȽȢ ǀȮƸ ȿ ȾȮǰɀȮƳȼȮƶȼȮů ǀȮƸ ȿ ȾȮǰƵɀ džȮƵŲȼ

ǀȮƸ ȿ ȾȮǰɀȮſǞŮƾǧ

ǀȮƸ ɀ ȾȮŮ ȿ ȾȮǰɀȮƶȼȮƄƉ ǀȮƸ ȿ ȾȮǩɀȤNjȼ ɀȮƶȮŻ Ƚ

ǀȮƸ ȿ ȾȮǩǞɀ ȮƷȼ ȼȮǬ

ǞȮŮȖ father (of )

The word abu (father) and to a lesser extent the word umm (mother) are widely used with definite nouns by Iraqis to create an occupational noun. One can add abu to almost any of the above-mentioned definite nouns to indicate the related occupation or profession. (Audio) Noun il-bariid it-taksi il-gahwa is-saabuun il-haliib

Meaning the post office the taxi the coffee the soap the milk


The Imperative Verb: fi9il il-amur

abu + Noun abu l-bariid abu t-taksi abu l-gahwa abu s-saabuun umm il-haliib



Meaning mailman taxi driver café keeper soap vendor milk vendor (F)

The imperative verb in Arabic is used in the same manner and it conveys the same meaning as the English counterpart, giving a command to a person who is present. It has three forms: masculine, feminine, and plural, all in the second person (you). The Arabic masculine form usually has no vowel ending, for example jiib (bring). It can be considered as the base form. The feminine form is obtained by adding the suffix vowel “-i ȸȮ” to the masculine form, jiibi (bring), and the plural is formed by adding “-u ȶȮ” jiibu (bring). The addition of these suffixes often causes vowel changes in the underlying form, especially the dropping of the stem vowel. (Audio)

At the Rashid Hotel | 

jiib (M) is¢al (M) saafir (M) ruuh (M) oogaf (M) sidd (M)


jiibi (F) is¢ali (F) saafri (F) ruuhi (F) oogfi (F) siddi (F)


jiibu (P) is¢alu (P) saafru ruuhu (P) oogfu (P) siddu (P)


bring ask travel go stand up close

The negative imperative is expressed by adding the negative prefix “la-” to the second person indicative verb form and not to the command form. (Audio) Imperative ruuh (M) go ruuhi (F) go ruuhu (P) go sidd (M) shut siddi (F) shut siddu (P) shut

ȠȶȤ ǠŲȶȤ ǞŲȶȤ Njȿ ȾȮŴ ȸNjȮ Ⱦ ȿ Ŵ ȶNjȿ ȾȮŴ

The Cardinal Numerals 20–100

Indicative truuh you go truuhiin you go truuhuun you go tsidd you shut tsiddiin you shut tsidduun you shut


ȠȶǍɀȮů ƞŲȶǍů ȴǞŲȶǍů NjȮ ȿ ȾȮƉů ǜƁNjȿ ȾȮƉů ȴȶNjȿ ȾȮƉů

Negative Imperative la-truuh ȶǍƄȼȮŽ don’t go la-truuhiin ƞŲȶǍƄȼȮŽ don’t go la-truuhuun ȴǞŲȶǍƄȼȮŽ don’t go Njȿ ȾȮƉƄ la-tsidd Ⱦ ȼȮŽ don’t shut la-tsiddiin ǜƁNjȿ ƉƄ Ⱦ ȼȮŽ don’t shut la-tsidduun ȴȶNjȮ Ⱦ ȼȮŽ ȿ ƉƄ don’t shut

ɀ ŸȾ ǀȮƸȮ dž žȾ ȮȮ ǜƁǍȮƪ

In Arabic the numbers three through nine can be increased incrementally in tens by adding the suffix “-iin ǜƁ” after dropping out the final suffix “a Ȝ” from the number. (Audio)        

thneen tlaatha arbaa khamsa sitta saba thmaany tisa

ǜȮƸƶɀȮŰ ǀŰǾɀȮů ǀƯŮȤȖ ǀƉƵųȼ ǀȮƄȮ Ⱦ ȿ Ŵ ǀƯƃȮŴ ȼ ǀƸſƾƵɀȮŰ ǀƯȮƉȾů

        

ishriin tlaathiin arbaiin khamsiin sittiin sabiin thmaaniin tisiin miyya

ǜƁǍƪŸȾ (special number) ƞŰǾɀȮů ƞƯŮȤȖ ƞƉƵųȼ ƞȮƄȮ Ⱦ ȿ Ŵ ƞƯƃȮŴ ȼ ƞſƾƵɀȮŰ ƞƯȮƉȾů ǀƸȮ ȿ žȾ

 | l e s s o n 

Numbers between twenty-one and twenty-nine or thirty-one and thirty-nine, etc., are read from right to left. For example, twenty-one is read as one-and-twenty. (Audio)           

waahid - wa - ishriin thneen - wa - ishriin tlaatha - wa - ishriin arbaa - wa - ishriin xamsa - wa - ishriin sitta - wa - ishriin saba - wa - ishriin thmanya - wa - ishriin tisa - wa -ishriin tlaathiin waahid- wi - tlaathiin

ɀ ŸȾ ȶ NjŲȚȶ ǜƁǍƪ Ⱦ ɀ ŸȾ ȶ ƞƶɀȮŰ ǜƁǍƪ ɀ ǜƁǍƪŸȾ ȶ ǀŰǾɀȮů ǜƁǍƪŸȶ ǀƯŮȤȚ ǜƁǍƪŸȶ ǀƉƵų ǜƁǍƪŸȶ ǀȮƄȮ Ⱦ ȿ Ŵ ǜƁǍƪŸȶ ǀƯƃȮŴ ȼ ǜƁǍƪŸȶ ǀƸſƾƵŰ ǜƁǍƪŸȶ ǀƯƉȮȾů ƞȮŰǾɀȮů ƞŰǾɀȮůȾȶ NjȮŲȚȶ Ⱦ

And so on with other numbers.

Idioms and Common Phrases (Audio) 1. sh9abaal + attached pronoun? what was on someone’s mind) shabaalak, Baghdaad sghayyra? shabaalich, Basma iraaqiyya? shabaalkum, il-iraaq muu qadiim? shabaala, il-kabaab muu tayyib? shabaalha, is-suug muu biiid? shabaalhum, is-safaara giriiba?

2. maashi l-haal walking) Khaalid: Basma: Khaalid: Basma:

ɀ What did (one) think otherwise? (lit., Ȓ+ ȲƾƃȮƯȼ Ȯŵ

What did you (M) think, Baghdad was small? What did you (F) think, Basma was an Iraqi? What did you (P) think, Iraq was not ancient? What did he think, the kabab was not good? What did she think, the market was not far? What did they think, the embassy was close?


ȲƾƇɀȮŽȚ Ǡŵƾž (invariable) Okay, not bad (lit., the condition is

shloonich il-yoom? zeena ilhamdu lillaah shloon ish-shughul? mashi l-haal

See below for more examples.

How are you today? Good, praise God. How is the work? Okay

ȒȳǞƸŽȚ ǶȮȾſǞƴŵ :NjŽƾų ʇ NjȽ Ƶɀ Ƈȼ ɀȮŽȚ ȆǀƶƁȥ :ǀƵƉŮ ɀ :NjŽƾų ȒǚȮư ȴǞƴŵ LJ Ƚ ȮƪŽȚ ȲƾƇɀȮŽȚ Ǡŵƾž :ǀƵƉŮ


3. ya9ni

At the Rashid Hotel | 

ǠƶȾ ȮƯɀ ȮȼƁ (invariable) well, um, uh (lit., “it means, in other words”).

It is used to fill pauses in speech. Kariim: Laylaa: Kariim: Laylaa:

shloon ish-shughul? yani, maashi l-haal shloon l-ahal? yani, zeeniin il-hamdu lillaah

How is work? Well, okay. How is the family? Well, fine, praise God.

ȒǚưȮƪŽȚ ȴǞƴŵ :ƗǍż ȿ ȲƾƇɀȮŽȚ Ǡŵƾž ȆǠƶȮƯɀ ȼ Ɓ :ǟƴƸŽ ȒǚƀǽȚ ȴǞƴŵ :ƗǍż ʇ NjƵƑȚ ƞƶƁȥ ȆǠƶƯɀ ȼ Ɓ :ǟƴƸŽ

ʞʏ ǾƷŴȶ ǾƀȖ ʄɷ ȒǀźǍȮư ȿ Ųȼ ǞȮżȖ Ƚ ɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ȳƾȮƵȮ ȒȰNjƶƱɀȮŽƾŮ ǎȾȮƆŲȼ ɃNjɀȮƶȮŸȾ ʏʞ ȒȜȤƾƸȮƉŽȚ ȿ ȠƾƄɀȮƱžȾ ǜƁȶ ȒƾƶȮƀɀ ǀƸȼ ɀȮŻƾŮ ȳǞƁ Ǜż ɷʄ ȼ ȒǞżƾž ǞƳŵ ȒǀźɀǍȮư Ƚ ɀȮŽȚ ȠƾƄɀȮƱžȾ ǜƁȶ ʞʏ ȒȳƾȮƵ ȿ Ƈȼ ɀȮŽƾŮ ȤƾŲ Ǡȿ žȼ ǞżȚ ʄɷ ȒȰNjƶƱɀȮŽȚ ǛȮŴȘ Ⱦ Ǟƶŵ ǀƭɀȮƶȮLJƐƾŮ ǠſNjɀ ŸȾ ƾŴ ȆǙȮƴɀȮƬȼȮź ǜž ʏʞ ȒȜȼǍǤƾŲ ɀ Ǟž ǞŽ ȜȼǍǤƾŲ ɀ ǀźǍưŽȘ ǠƶƸŸ ǟƴŸ ɷʄ 2. Negate the following: ʏʞ ȰȚǍƯȾ ɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ǀƁȚǞƀɀ ǚȼȮƈȼȮſ ǞȮżȖ ɀ ɷʄ ȒǞƳȮŵ ȰNjƶƱɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ȸɀ ǞŮ ǞȮżȖ ǙƴɀȮƬȼȮź ǜžȾ ȆțƾƃɀȮŽȚ NjȮ Ⱦ ʏʞ ȿ Ŵ ǀźɀǍȮư ȿ Ųȼ ǞȮżȖ Ƚ ɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ȳƾȮƵ ȳǞƸŽȚ ȤƾƭƵȼ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ ǠŲȶȤ ɷʄ ȤƾƶȮƁȢ ǜƁǍƪŸȾ ȸNjƶȮŸȾ ȤƾƭƵȼ ɀȮŽȚ ȳȚNjȮ ȿ ǬȾ ǠƉɀȮƳdžȮƄŽȘ ʏʞ NjƁǍƃȼ ɀȮŽȚ ǜƁȶ ǟƴƸŽ ǠŽƺŴȘ ɀ ǀƭɀȮƶȮƐƾŮ ȚǍƸžƾż ǠƯžȼ ɷʄ LJ ʏʞ 3. Change the following masculine imperative verbs (and anything else that needs to be changed) to feminine and plural forms: ɷʄ ǁƸƃƴȮȾŽ ȠȶȤ ȆǙƴƬź ǜž ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ Drills



1. Give appropriate oral replies to the following expressions: ahlan wa sahlan aku hammaam bil-ghurfa? indich hajiz bil-findiq? ween miftaah is-sayyaara? kam yoom baaqya hnaa? shaku maaku? ween miftaah il-ghurfa? aku mayy haar bil-hammam? shunu isim il-findiq? min fadlak, saaidni bij-junta il-ghurfa haadra loo muu haadra? ala eeni

aku nakhal (palms) hwaaya bil-iraaq shaku? aku booy bil-findiq sidd il-baab, min fadlak aku hammaam bil-ghurfa ruuhi lil-mataar il-yoom indi ishriin diinaar it-taksi giddaam il-mataar is¢ali Laylaa ween il-bariid mai kaamira bij-junta

min fadlak ruuh lil-beet F:


ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ

 | l e s s o n 

saafir il-Baghdaad


ȢȚNjưŮ Ȳɀ Ș ǍźƾŴ

F: P: tfaddal istariih

ljƁǍƄȮŴȘ ɀ ǚȮƬ ȿ ȼȮƱɀȮů

F: P: la-tsaafir il-Suurya


F: P: gulli, shunu raqam il-ghurfa


F: P: iftah li-ktaab il-arabi


F: P: la-tjiib fluus


F: P: sidd li-ktaab li-Fransi


F: P: la-tis¢al il-mufattish F: P:



At the Rashid Hotel | 

F: P: la-toogaf giddaam il-qitaar F: P: shabaalak, huwwa kaslaan? F: P:

4. Say the following numbers in Arabic:    

   

   

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ȤƾƭƲŽȚ ȳȚNjȮ ȿ ǬȾ ǗǬǞƄȼȮŽ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ȒȴǾƉż Ǟƀ ȆǙȮŽƾƃƯȼ ɀȮŵ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ǍǤƾŲ Ⱦ Ǟž ǁſȘ ʏʞ ǠƄſȘ ɷʄ ǞƄſȘ ʏʞ ǞƄſȘ ɷʄ Ǡſȕ ʏʞ ƾƶŲȘ ɷʄ ȰNjƶƱŽƾŮ ǎƆŲ ȸNjƶŸȾ ȰNjƶƱŽƾŮ ǎƆŲ ȸNjƶŸ ƾž ʏʞ ɷʄ ȜȤƾƸȮƭŽƾŮ ȿ ʏʞ ȜȤƾƸȮƉŽƾŮ ȿ ɷʄ ʏʞ ȒǠŽƾƭƁȘ Ǟƀ ǙȮŽƾƃƯȼ ɀȮŵ

shabaalak, huwwa Itaali?

   

   

5. Complete and read the following aloud: a. Saami haadir ǍǤƾŲ Ⱦ ǠžƾŴ

   

inta muu haadir




ǝȮƵ ȿ ƀȽ



intu (F)

aani (M)


aani (F)

ihna (M)


ihna (F)

b. indi hajiz bil-findiq maa indi hajiz bil-findiq bit-tayyaara bis-sayyaara

inti intu (M)

   

   

   


 | l e s s o n 

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ǀƵƉŮ ȆǙȼȮŽƾƃƯȼ ɀȮŵ ȿ ɷʄ ȒǀȮƸŻȚǍŸ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ 6. Translate into Arabic: ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ



ƾƵƶƸƉŽƾŮ ȿ




c. shabaalak, Basma iraaqiyya?

shabaalak, il-findiq muu biiid?





, is-sayyaara muu jidiida?



, is-safaara muu giriiba?







, ich-chaay muu zeen?

a. Please help (M) me with the luggage.

help (F) me

help (P) me

ȆǝȼȮŽƾƃƯȼ ɀȮŵ


, il-iraaq muu qadiim?


ȆǛƳŽƾƃƯȼ ɀȮŵ



, it-taksi muu ghaali?



Ȓ ȒǜƁȥ Ǟž ȸƾȮǰŽȘ ȿ

ǛƷɀȮŽƾƃƯȼ ɀȮŵ


b. You are (M) staying one week.



c. He is staying two weeks.

She is staying two weeks.

They are (M) staying two weeks.

They are (F) staying two weeks.

We are (M) staying two weeks.

We are (F) staying two weeks.

d. He is going to Babylon.

She is going to Babylon.

They are (M and F) going to Babylon.

I am (M and F) going to Babylon.

At the Rashid Hotel | 

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ

 | l e s s o n 


ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ 7. Read the following aloud: ǍƸźƾƱƫŽȚ ȿ ɆǞŴ țɀ ǜƁȥ ǠǰɀȮƳȼȮƶȼȮů ǞżȖ ʏʞ ǍƸźƾƱƫŽȚ ȿ ȱǞŴ țɀ ǜƁȥ ǠǩǞɀ Ʒȼ ȼȮǬ ǞżȖ ǍƸźƾƱƫŽȚ ȿ ɆǞŴ țɀ ǜƁȥ ǠǰȮƃȮ ɀ ƃȼ ȼȮż ǞżȖ ɷʄ ǍƸźƾƱƫŽȚ ɆǞŴ ț ǜƁȥ ǠǰȮ ȿ ɀ ɀ Ɓƾǩ ǞżȖ ȼ ǞżȖ ǍƸźƾƱƫŽȚ ȿ ɆǞƉŮ ǜƁȥ ǠǩɀǍȼȮƳŵ ʏʞ ǍƸźƾƱƫŽȚ ȿ ɆǞŴ țɀ ǜƁȥ ǠǰɀȮƶȼȮƄƉ ɀ ȾȮŮ Ǟżƾž ǍƸźƾƱƫŽȚ ȿ ɆǞŴ țɀ ǜƁȥ ǠǰȮƵɀ džȮƵŲȼ Ǟżƾž ɷʄ ǍƸźƾƱƫŽȚ ȿ ɆǞŴ țɀ ǜƁȥ ǠǰȼȮƭŴǞŮ ɀ Ǟżƾž ǍƸźƾƱƫŽȚ ʏʞ ȿ ɆǞŴ țɀ ǜƁȥ ǠǩɀȤNjȼ ɀȮƶȮŻ Ƚ Ǟżƾž ɷʄ 8. Make plural the following singular occupational nouns in parentheses: ǍƸźƾƱƫŽȚ ȿ ȮǬǞŴ țɀ ƿȮƸŶ ɀ ƃȼ ȼȮż) ǞżȖ ȿ (ǠǰȮƃȮ ʏʞ ȳǞƸŽȚ ȴƾƃȮƯɀ ȼȮů (ǠǰɀȮƳȼȮƶȮȮƄŽȚ) ȿ (ǠǩɀȤNjȼ ɀȮƶȮŻ) ȧǞų Ǟƀ Ƚ ɷʄ (ǠǰɀȮƶȼȮƄƉ ɀ ȾȮŮ) ǽȶ (ǠǩǞɀ ȮƷȼ ȼȮǬ) ǽ ǁſȚ ȿ NjƸŵǍŽȚ ȰNjƶź ǜž NjƸƯȾȮŮ (ǠǩɀǍȼȮƳƪŽȚ) ȿ ʏʞ ȴǞŮƾǧ ȵNjȼ ɀȮƶŸȾ ƾž (ǠǰɀȮſǞŮƾƫŽȚ) ȿ ɷʄ ʏʞ We are (M and F) going to Babylon.

You are (M, F, and P) going to Babylon.

I am (M and F) ready.

We are (M and F) ready.

You are (M, F, and P) ready.

He is ready.

She is ready.

aku tanakchi zeen b-suug is-Safaafiir aku gahawchi zeen b-suug is-Safaafiir aku kababchi zeen b-suug is-Safaafiir aku chaaychi zeen b-suug is-Safaafiir aku shakarchi zeen b-suug is-Safaafiir maaku bistanchi zeen b-suug is-Safaafiir maaku hammamchi zeen b-suug is-Safaafiir maaku boostachi zeen b-suug is-Safaafiir maaku qundarchi zeen b-suug is-Safaafiir

aku (kababchi) tayyib b-suug is-Safaafiir (it-tanakchi) tabaan il-yoom huwwa khoosh (qundarchi) inta laa (gahawchi) wala (bistanchi)? (ish-shakarchi) biiid min findiq ir-Rashiid (is-saabunchi) maa inda saabuun


At the Rashid Hotel | 

(il-boostachi) Urduni min ammaan (il-bistanchi) Masri mnil-Qaahira (ich-chaaychi) iraaqi mnil-Basra

Creative Dialogues a. taalib : ween naazla? taaliba : aani naazla b-findiq Baghdaad taalib : shloona haadha il-findiq? taaliba : kullish zeen taalib : ghaali loo rikhiis? taaliba : laa ghaali wala rikhiis taalib : shukran taaliba : ahlan wa sahlan b. taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba :

abu it-taksi, ariid aruuh il-findiq Baghdaad ala eeni, tfaddal isad bis-sayyaara gulliili findiq Baghdaad zeen? maashi l-haal. findiq Filistiin kullish zeen biiid loo qariib? biiid shwayya laad, ruuh il-findiq Baghdaad, rajaa¢an iddallal

For new words, see Glossary.

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ƿŽƾŶ ʏʞ ǀƃŽƾŶ ɷʄ ƿŽƾŶ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʞʏ ƿŽƾŶ ʄɷ ǀƃŽƾŶ ƿŽƾŶ ʏʞ ǀƃŽƾŶ ɷʄ ƿŽƾŶ ʞʏ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʄɷ ƿŽƾŶ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʏʞ ƿŽƾŶ ɷʄ ǀƃŽƾŶ ƿŽƾŶ ʏʞ ɷʄ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʏʞ ɷʄ

ȴƾȮƵŸ ɀ ȿ ǜž ǠſȢȤȽȚ (ǠǰȼȮƭŴǞƃŽȚ) ȜǍƀƾƲɀȮŽ ǜɀȮž ȸǍƫ ɀ žȼ (ǠǰɀȮƶȼȮƄƉ ɀ ȾȮƃŽȚ) ȜǍƫ ƃ ȮŽ ǜ ž ǠŻȚǍŸ (ǠǰȮ Ɓ ƾ ɀ ȼɀ ɀ ɀ ȮǰŽȚ) ȿ ȒǀȼȮŽȥƾſ ǜƁȶ : ȢȚNjưŮ ȰNjɀȮƶȮźȾ țɀ ǀȼȮŽɀȥƾſ Ǡſȕ : ɀ ȒȰNjƶȮƱȾ ɀȮŽȚ Țȣƾƀ ǝȼȮſǞƴŵ : ǜƁȥ ǐƦȮƴȮż : Ƚ ȒǑƸųȾȤ ǞŽ ǠŽƾŹ : ǑƸųȾȤ ǽȶ ǠŽƾŹ ǽ : ȹ ȚǍƳŵ : ȹǾƷŴȶ ȹǾƀȖ : Ȳɀ Ș ȠȶȤȖ NjƁȤȖ ȆǠƉɀȮƳȮƄŽȚ ȿ ǞŮȚ : ȢȚNjưŮ ȰNjɀȮƶȾȮź NjƯȼ ǧȘ ȆǠƶƸŸ ǟƴŸ : ɀ ǚȮƬƱů ȿ ȜȤƾƸȮƉŽƾŮ ȿ ȒǜƁȥ ȢȚNjưŮ ȰNjƶȮźȾ ǠƴƸƴɀȮȮƴȮżȽ : ƞƭƉȾƴźȾ ȰNjƶź .ȲƾƑȚ Ǡŵƾž : ǜƁȥ ǐƦȮƴȮż Ƚ ȒƿƁǍȼȮŻ ǞŽ NjƸƯȾȮŮ : ɀ NjƸƯȾȮŮ : ǀdžȮƁǞȼ Ȯŵ Ȕȹ ƾűȤ ȢȚNjưŮ ȰNjƶźȾ Ȳɀ Ț ȠȶȤ ȆNjȮƯȼ ȼȮŽ : ǚȼȮȮƴɀȮŽȢȿ Ș :

The Abbaside Spiral Minaret in the city of Samarra, ninth century A.D.

ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ lesson ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ǀȮƸȼ ɀȮſƾƵɀȮŰ ȦȾȤȼȢ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ Introductions ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ taaaruf ȯȽȤƾƯȼȮů ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ


While Basma is strolling in the hotel lobby, she meets two people, Baasil (M) and Laylaa (F), and she greets them.

Basic Dialogue (Audio) . Basma: masaa¢ il-kheer. Good afternoon. . Laylaa: masaa¢ in-nuur. Good afternoon. . Basma: aani ismi Basma. shunu isimkum? My name is Basma. What are your names? . Laylaa: aani ismi Laylaa, wa huwwa isma Baasil. My name is Laylaa and his name is Baasil. . Basma: tsharrafna biikum. Pleased to meet you (using the formal plural form). . Laylaa and Baasil: w-ilna sh-sharaf. Pleased to meet you too.


ȔƾƉžȼ :ǀƵƉŮ


ȔƾƉžȼ :ǟƴƸŽ


ǝƵŴȘ ɀ Ǟƀȶ ȆǟƴƸŽ ǠƵŴȚ Ǡſȕ :ǟƴƸŽ


ƾƶźǍȿ ȼȮƪɀȮů :ǀƵƉŮ

.ȯȼǍȮƪŽȚ ȿ

ƾƶɀȮŽȾȶ :ǚŴƾŮȶ ǟƴƸŽ

 | l e s s o n 

. Basma: mneen intu? Where are you from? . Laylaa: aani min Lubnaan, wa haadha zawji Baasil iraqi I am from Lebanon, and this is my husband Baasil, an Iraqi. . Laylaa: w-inti mneen? And where are you from? . Basma: aani Amriikiyya min Los Angeles. I am an American from Los Angeles. . Laylaa: shgadd saarlich hnaa? How long have you been here? . Basma: saarli hnaa yoomen. I have been here for two days. . Laylaa: aani saarli sana b-baghdaad. I have been one year in Baghdad. . Baasil: aani wiladit hnaa. zirti Baabil? I was born here. Have you visited Babylon? . Basma: laa, baad maa zirit Baabil. No, I have not visited Babylon yet. . Baasil: aani shifit Baabil gabul sana. I saw Babylon a year ago. . Basma: fursa saiida. A happy occasion (meeting you). . Baasil and Laylaa: tsharrafna Pleased to meet you.

ȒǞƄſȚ ƞƶžɀ :ǀƵƉŮ ǚŴƾŮ Ⱦ Ǡűɀȶȼȥ Țȣƾƀȶ ȆȴƾƶƃŽ ǜž Ǡſȕ :ǟƴƸŽ .ǠŻȚǍŸ ȒƞƶɀȮž ǠƄɀȮſȾȶ :ǟƴƸŽ .ȦǞƴƍȚ

ȦǞŽ ǜž ǀƸƳƁǍžȖ Ǡſȕ :ǀƵƉŮ ȒƾƶɀȮƀ ǶȾȮŽɀȤƾǧ NjȮǦ ȿ ɀȮŵ :ǟƴƸŽ .ƞžǞƁ


ƾƶȮƀ ǠŽɀȤƾǧ :ǀƵƉŮ

țɀ ǀƶȮŴ ȼ ǠŽɀȤƾǧ Ǡſȕ :ǟƴƸŽ

ȒǚŮƾŮ ǠůɀȤȾȥ .ƾƶƀ ȝNjȾ ȮȼȮŽȾȶ Ǡſȕ :ǚŴƾŮ Ⱦ .ǚŮƾŮ .ǀƶȮŴ ȼ

ȝȾȤȾȥ ƾž NjƯȼ ȮȼŮ Ȇǽ :ǀƵƉŮ

ǚȮƃ Ⱦ Ǡſȕ :ǚŴƾŮ Ƚ ȼȮǬ ǚŮƾŮ ǁƱȾ Ȯŵ .ȜNjƸƯȮŴ ȼ

ǀǧ ȼ ɀǍȮź Ƚ :ǀƵƉŮ

.ƾƶȮɀȮźdžǍȼȮƪɀȮů :ǟƴƸŽȶ ǚŴƾŮ

Vocabulary (Audio) taaaruf shunu? ismak / ismich / isimkum (M/F/P) sharaf tsharrafna biikum

introduction what? your name honor pleased to meet you (lit., we are honored) in you (P) (word consists of “ bi-” prefix and suffix pronoun “-kum”)

ȯȽȤƾƯȼȮů ǛƳƵɀ ȮŴȘ Ⱦ / ǶȮƵȾ ŴȘ ɀ / ǙƵȼ ŴȘ ɀ ȯȼǍȼȮŵ ƾƶɀȮźdžǍȼȮƪɀȮů ǛȮƳȮƸŮ Ƚ

Introductions | 


w-ilna sh-sharaf mneen? or immeen? haadha zawji, zooji zawijti, zoojti Lubnaan iraaqi (M) Amriikiyya (F) shgadd? saarl saarlich saarli hnaa yoom / yoomeen / ayyaam (S/D/P) sana / santeen / sniin (S/D/P) wiladit zirti shifit fursa saiid / saiida (M/F) fursa saiida

our (“ il-” have and suffix pronoun “-na,” see lesson ) pleased to meet you too (lit., the honor is ours) from where/where from? this, that (demonstrative word, see lesson ) my husband my wife Lebanon an Iraqi (relative adj., see lesson ) an American (relative adj.) how long? how much? to become, to have been (consists of saar and -l) you have been I have been here one day/two days/days

ƾƶɀȮŽȘ ȯȼǍȼdžȮƪŽȚ ƾƶɀȮŽȾȶ ȒƞȮžȘ ȿ ȒƞƶɀȮž Țȣƾƀ ǠűȶȽȥ ȆǠűȶɀ ȼ ȥ ǠƄȮűȶȥ ɀ ȆǠƄɀȮűȾȶȼȥ ȴƾƶƃȮŽ Ƚ ǠŻȚǍȮŸȾ ǀȮƸƳƁǍžȖ ȿ ȼ ȒNjȮȼȮǦȮŵ ȲȤƾǧ ǶȮȾŽɀȤƾǧ ǠŽɀȤƾǧ ƾƶȮƀɀ ȳƾȮƁȖ ȿ / ƞžǞƁ / ȳǞƁ

One year/two years/years

ƞƶȮŴ ɀ / ǜȮƸƄɀȮƶŴ ȼ / ǀƶȮŴ

I was born (see verbs below) you (F) visited I saw occasion, opportunity happy (adj.) happy occasion (meeting you)

ȝNjȾ ȼȮŽȾȶ ǠůɀȤȾȥ ǁƱȾ Ȯŵ Ⱦ ǀǧ ȼ ɀǍȮź Ƚ ȜNjƸƯŴ ȼ / NjƸƯŴ ȼ ȜNjƸƯŴ ǀǧ Ǎ Ȯź ȼ ɀȽ

Grammar and Remarks The Verb: il-fi9il


The Arabic verb consists of two basic parts: a stem and prefix/suffix. The stem gives the lexical meaning of the verb and the prefix/suffix indicates grammatical meanings, that is the person, the gender, and the number of the subject. For example, the past tense verb kitbat (she wrote) consists of the stem kitb (wrote) and the suffix -at (she), and the present verb tiktib (she writes) consists of the stem ktib (to write) and the prefix t (she).

 | l e s s o n 

The verb can be divided into two tenses: perfect and imperfect. These two tenses generally correspond to the English past and present/future tenses, respectively. In addition to the two tenses, most verbs have an imperative form, which you have already learned in lesson . To distinguish between the perfect/past and the imperfect/present verbs, one must notice that the former always takes a suffix and never a prefix (kitbat, she wrote); therefore, it is sometimes called the “suffix tense verb.” The imperfect/present tense verb must always take a prefix and in some cases a suffix as well: tiktib, she writes, and tikitbuun, you write (P). Consequently, it is also called the “prefix tense verb.” Each of the verb tenses has eight inflectional forms corresponding to the persons: aani, ihna, inta, inti, intu, huwwa, hiyya, and humma. The verbs have four main types of roots: regular, double, hollow, and weak. The regular verb usually consists of three consonants that appear in all the words that are derived from that root as in daras (he studied). The double verb has also three consonants like the regular, except the last two consonants are identical as in habb (he liked). The hollow verb usually has two consonants, and its third person masculine singular past tense form has a long vowel, “aa,” between the two consonants as in saaq (he drove). The weak verb has also two consonants, and its third person masculine singular past tense ends in a final vowel as in nisa (he forgot). We shall begin with the past tense verb. Note: Each verb has a past stem and present stem. Once the student memorizes the two stems of each verb, it should be easy to conjugate verbs since the prefixes of present verbs and the suffixes of past verbs never change.

The Past Tense Verb: il-fi9il il-maadi


The base form for conjugating the past tense verb is the third person masculine singular because it is the simplest verb form, and the remaining forms are based on it. It is also the citation form used in most Arabic–English dictionaries. Here are conjugation tables of the regular and the hollow verbs. (Audio)

The Regular Verb kitab he wrote ƿȼȮƄȮżȾ Pronoun huwwa hiyya humma inta inti intu aani ihna

Suffix ——* -at -aw -it*** -ti -tu -it*** -na

Verb Form kitab kitbat** kitbaw** kitabit kitabti kitabtu kitabit kitabna

he wrote she wrote they wrote you wrote (M) you wrote (F) you wrote (P) I wrote we wrote

Remarks on the Regular Verb: *No suffix added. **The stem vowel “a” drops out in the she and they forms. ***Identical form.



ȝ ȼȮȮ ɀȶ ȼȮȮ ȝȾ ȮȮ Ǡů ȮȮ ǞȮů ȮȮ ȝ ȾȮȮ ƾȮſ ȮȮ

Ǟƀ Ǡƀ ǝdžȮƵȮƀȽ ǁſȘ ǠƄſȘ ǞƄſȘ Ǡſȕ ƾƶȮŲȘ

Introductions | 

The Hollow Verb shaaf he saw ȯƾŵ huwwa —— shaaf he saw hiyya -at shaafat she saw humma -aw shaafaw they saw ——————————————————— inta -it shifit* you saw inti -ti shifti you saw intu -tu shiftu you saw aani -it shifit* I saw ihna -na shifna we saw Remarks on the Hollow Verb:

ȯƾŵ ǁȼȮźƾŵ Ǟɀ ȼȮźƾŵ


ȝ ȼȮȮ ɀȶ ȼȮȮ

Ǟƀ Ǡƀ ǝȮƵȮ ȿ ƀȽ


ȝȾ ȮȮ Ǡů ȮȮ Ǟů ȮȮ ȝ ȾȮȮ ƾſ ȮȮ

ǁſȘ ǠƄſȘ ǞƄſȘ Ǡſȕ ƾƶȮŲȘ

*The long vowel “aa” of the third person changes to the short vowel “i” in the second and first persons.

Idioms and Common Phrases (Audio) 1. diir baal + attached pronoun (lit., turn around (your) mind) diir baalak mnis-sayyaara! diiri baalich ala bintich! diiru baalkum al-madrasa! Samiir, diir baalak ala nafsak!


take care, watch out, give attention to

Watch out for the car! Take care of your daughter! Give your (P) attention to school! Samiir, take care of yourself!

2. 9aash min shaaf + attached pronoun + ȯƾŵ ǜȮžȾ ȧƾŸ since I saw you (lit., lived he who saw you). haay ween inta? aash min shaafak haay ween inti? aash min shaafich haay ween intu? aash min shaafkum

3. il-khaatir

Where have you been? It has been a long time since I saw you (M). Where have you been? It has been a long time since I saw you (F). Where have you (P) been? It has been long time since I saw you (P).

ǍȾȮŶƾų Ȳɀ Ș for someone’s sake

il-khaatrak, rihit il-Baghdaad il-khaatirkum, shifit Basma

For your (M) sake, I went to Baghdad. For your (P) sake, I saw Basma.



ǟƴŸ ǙȮŽƾŮ ǍƁȢ ȆǍƸƵŴ !ǙƉɀȮƱȼȮſ It has been a long time

ǜžȾ ȧƾŸ ȒǝƄſȘ ǜƁȶ ȸɀ ƾƀ ǙȼȮźƾŵ ǜžȾ ȧƾŸ ȒǠƄſȘ ǜƁȶ ȸɀ ƾƀ ǶźȾ ƾŵ ǜžȾ ȧƾŸ ȒǞƄſȘ ǜƁȶ ȸɀ ƾƀ ǛƳȮɀȮźƾŵ

ɀ Ȳɀ Ș ȢȚNjưŮ Ȳɀ Ș ǁȮŲȾ Ⱦ Ȥ ȆȱȼǍȮŶƾų ǀƵƉŮ ǁƱȾ Ȯŵ Ⱦ ȆǛżɀǍȾȮŶƾų Ȳɀ Ș


 | l e s s o n 

il-khaatrich, il-ujra diinaareen il-khaatir alla, jiib li-ktaab il-khaatirhum, shifit il-mathaf il-khaatir Laylaa, ziritkum

For your (F) sake, the rate is two dinars. For God’s sake, bring the book. For their sake, I saw the museum. For Layla’s sake, I visited you (P).


ʞʏ Drills tamaariin ǜƁȤƾƵȼȮů ʄɷ 1. Give appropriate oral replies to the following: ȒǃȮƵȾ ŴȘ ɀ ǞƶȮŵ Ƚ ȒǀȮ ƸȮſƾƶƃ ȮŽ ǞŽ ǀ ȮƸŻȚǍŸ ǟƴƸŽ dž ȿ Ƚ ʏʞ ȼ ɀȮů ƾƶɀȮźdžǍȮƪ ȒǞƄȮſȘ ƞƶžɀ Ș ɷʄ ȼ ȒȢȚNjưŮ țɀ ǛƳɀȮŽȾȤƾǧ NjȼȮǦŵ ȒǁɀȮſȚȾȶ ǠŻȚǍŸ Ǡſȕ ʞʏ ȜNjƸƯȮŴ ȼ ǀǧɀǍȮź Ƚ ʄɷ ȒȝNjȾ ȼȮŽȾȶ ǜȮƁȶ ǾƷɀ Ŵȶ ȼ ǾƀȖ ʏʞ ȒǚŮƾŮ ǁƱȾ Ȯŵ Ⱦ ƾž ǞŽ ǁƱȾ Ȯŵ Ⱦ ǛƳɀȮźƾŵ ǜȾȮž ȧƾŸ ȒǜƁȶ ȸƾƀ ɷʄ ȒǗƇȼ ɀȮƄƵȼ ɀȮŽȚ ǜȮƁȶ ʏʞ 2. Conjugate orally the following past tense regular and hollow verbs: țƾŮ ljȼȮƄȮźȾ ɷʄ ǚŮƾŮ ȤȚȥ ǠȮ Ⱦ ȿ žȼ țȼǍȮŵ ʏʞ ȜȤƾƸȿ Ŵ ȰƾŴ ȼ țƾƄɀȮż ȦȼȤȾȢ ɷʄ ȠƾƄɀȮƱžȾ țƾű ǛƴȼȮŻ ǍƉȮ ʏʞ ȼ żȾ ǟƴƸŽ ȯƾŵ ɷʄ ǀŽƾŴȾȤ ƿȼȮƄȮżȾ ƿƄɀȮƳȼȮƵɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȠȚȤ ʏʞ ǶȼȮƵȮŴ Ⱦ ǚȼȮżȖ ȜȤƾȮƸ ȿ ȼȮŶ țɀ ȤƾŶ ɷʄ ǀźɀǍȮŹ ȼ ŲȾ Ƚ ǎȮƆȮ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ shinu ismich? Laylaa iraaqiyya loo Lubnaaniyya? tsharrafna imneen intu? shgadd saarilkum ib-Baghdaad aani iraaqi. w-inti? fursa saiida ween wiladit? ahlan wa sahlan shifit loo maa shifit Baabil? haay wen? aash min shaafkum ween il-mathaf?

fitah baab zaar Baabil shirab mayy saaq sayyaara diras ktaab jaab miftaah kisar qalam shaaf Laylaa kitab risaala raah lil-maktab akal simach taar ib-tayyaara hijaz ghurfa

He opened a door. He visited Babylon. He drank water. He drove a car. He studied a book. He brought a key. He broke a pen. He saw Laylaa. He wrote a letter. He went to the office. He ate fish. He flew in an airplane. He reserved a room.



Introductions | 

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ǀȮƳ Ƚ ǁſȘ ʞʏ ȿ žȼ ǜȮžȾ ȸȢǞƯŴ ǠƄſȘ ʄɷ ǞƄſȘ ʏʞ ǞƄſȘ ɷʄ ǀƵȮ ȿ ƀȽ ʏʞ NjƸŵǍŽȚ ȿ ȰNjƶȮźȾ țɀ ȳǞȮƁ ǠŽɀȤƾǧ ɷʄ NjƸŵǍŽȚ ȿ ȰNjƶȮźȾ țɀ ƞžǞƁ ǠŽɀȤƾǧ ȼ ƾƶɀȮŽȾȤƾǧ ʏʞ ǍƷȼ ŵ ɷʄ ȼ ƾƶɀȮŽȾȤƾǧ ǜƁǍƷɀ ŵ ʏʞ Ƚɀ Ț ǝȼȮŽɀȤƾǧ ȬǞƃŴ ɷʄ Ƚ ƞŸǞƃŴ ɀ Ț ƾƷɀȮŽȾȤƾǧ ʏʞ ǀŸƾŴ ǛƷɀȮŽȾȤƾǧ ɷʄ ƞƄȮŸɀ ƾŴ ǛƷɀȮŽȾȤƾǧ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ

3. In the following sentences change orally the second person (M) singular past tense to second person (F) singular and plural forms; change anything else that must be changed: Example: fitahit il-baab You (M) opened the door. țƾƃŽȚ ǁȮƇȾ ȼȮƄȮźȾ fitahti il-baab You (F) opened the door. țƾƃŽȚ ǠƄȮƇɀ ȼȮƄźȾ fitahtu il-baab You (P) opened the door. țƾƃŽȚ ǞȮƄȮƇɀ ȼȮƄźȾ inta saafarit il-Lubnaan ȴƾƶƃȮŽ Ƚ Ȳɀ Ș ȝȾǍȼȮźƾŴ ǁſȘ inta wiladit ib-Baghdaad ȢȚNjưŮ țɀ ȝNjȾ ȼȮŽȾȶ ǁſȘ siqit syyaara lil-findiq ȰNjȾ ɀȮƶȮƱȾ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȜȤƾƸȿ Ŵ Ⱦ ȼ ǁƲȾ ȮŴ ween shifit Basma? ȒǀƵƉŮ ǁƱȾ Ȯŵ ǜƁȶ Ⱦ ȼ shgadd saarlak hnaa? Ȓƾƶƀ ǙȮŽɀȤƾǧ NjȼȮǦŵ hijazit ghurfa bil-findiq ȰNjɀȮƶƱȾ ɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ǀźɀǍȮŹ ȼ ŲȾ Ƚ ȝȾǎƆȮ inta iraaqi min ween? ȒǜƁȶ ǜȮžȾ ǠŻȚǍŸ ǁſȘ inta zirit Baabil? ȒǚŮƾŮ ȝȾȤȾȥ ǁſȘ 4. Complete and read the following aloud: a. aani iraaqi mnil-Basra

inta Suuudi min Makka

ȜǍƫ ɀ ƃȼ ɀȮŽ ǜȮžɀ ǠŻȚǍŸ Ǡſȕ ihna (M)



ihna (F)


intu (M)


intu (F)

hiyya humma (M) b. saarli yoom ib-findiq ir-Rashiid saarli yoomeen ib-findiq ir-Rashiid saarilna shahar saarilna shahreen saarla usbuu saarilha usbuueen saarilhum saaa saarilhum saateen

ǀƵȮ ȿ ƀȽ

humma (F)

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ


 | l e s s o n 

ǀƶŴ ȼ ǙȼȮŽɀȤƾǧ

saarlak sana saarlich santeen

ƞƄɀȮƶŴ ȼ ǶȮȾŽɀȤƾǧ

saarilkum daqiiqa

ǀƲƸŻȼȢ ǛƳɀȮŽȾȤƾǧ ƞȮƄɀȮƲƸŻȼȢ ǛƳɀȮŽȾȤƾǧ ǚŴƾŮ Ⱦ ȯƾŵ ǜžȾ ȧƾŸ ȒǜƁȶ ȸɀ ƾƀ

saarilkum daqiiqteen c. haay ween? aash min shaaf Baasil Khaalid




Laylaa wa Basma

ǀƵƉŮȶ ǟƴƸŽ

Baasil wa Khaalid

NjȮȾŽƾųȶ ǚŴƾŮ Ⱦ Ǡżȥ


ǀƚǍż ǜƁȤƾƶƁȢ ǠƉɀȮƳdžȮƄŽȚ ȝȼǍȮűɀ Ƚ Ț ȱȼǍɀȮŶƾų Ȳɀ Ș

Kariima d. il-khaatrak ujrat it-taksi diinaareen il-khaatrich



ǛȮż Ⱦ Ƚ ɀǍȮŶƾƒȘ ȵȼǍɀȮŶƾų Ȳɀ Ș

il-khaatra il-khaatirha

ƾƀɀǍȮŶƾų Ⱦ Ȳɀ Ș


ȸǍɀȮŶƾų Ȳɀ Ș ƾſɀǍȮŶƾų Ⱦ Ȳɀ Ș !ȜȤƾƸƉŽȚ dž Ȭȼ ǙȼȮŽƾŮ ǍȮƁȢ

il-khaatirna e. diir baalak as-sayyaara! diiri baalich diiru baalkum


! !




Introductions | 

ɷʄ ʞʏ ǶȮŽƾŮ ȸǍƁȢ ʄɷ ǛƳɀȮŽƾŮ ȶǍȮƁȢ ʏʞ 5. Read aloud the following imperative verbs/command sentences: ɷʄ ǁƸƃɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ƾſɀȤȶȥ ǚȮƬ ȮƱ Ȯů ȿ ȼ ɀ ǁƸƃɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ƾƶƁȤȶȥ ǠƴȮƬ ȿ ȼȮƱɀȮů ʞʏ ǁƸƃɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ƾſȶȤȶȥ ǞƴȮƬ ȿ ȼȮƱɀȮů ȰNjȮƶƱȾ ɀȮɀŽ ǜžɀ ǟƴƸŽ ƿƸű ȆǙƴƬ ɀ ȼȮź ǜžȾ ʄɷ ȰNjȮƶƱɀȮɀŽ ǜžɀ ǟƴƸŽ ǠƃƸű ȆǶƴƬ ɀ ȼȮź ǜžȾ ɀ ȰNjȮƶƱɀȮŽ ǜžɀ ǟƴƸŽ ǞƃƸű ȆǛƳɀȮƴƬź Ⱦ ǜžȾ ʏʞ ȤƾƭƵɀȮŽ ǜžɀ ǍƸƵŴ ƿƸƆɀȮƄȼȮŽ ȆǙƸȮƴ ȿ ȼȮƈɀȮƁ ʇȚ ɷʄ ȤƾƭƵɀȮŽ ǜžɀ ǍƸƵŴ ƞƃȮƸƆɀȮƄȼȮŽ ȆǶƸȮƴ ȿ ȼȮƈɀȮƁ ʇȚ ʞʏ ǜžɀ ǍƸƵŴ ȴǞƃȮƸƆɀȮƄȼȮŽ ȆǛƳƸȮƴ ȿ ȼȮƈɀȮƁ ʇȚ ȤƾƭƵɀȮŽ ʄɷ 6. Translate into Arabic: ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ !ȜȤƾƸƉŽ dž ǜžɀ ǙȼȮŽƾŮ ǍȮƁȢ

diir baalak mnis-sayyaara!

diiri baalich


diiru baalkum



tfaddal zuurna bil-beet. tfaddali zuuriina bil-beet. tfaddalu zuuruuna bil-beet. min fadlak, jiib Laylaa mnil-findiq. min fadlic, jiibi Laylaa mnil-findiq. min fadilkum, jiibu Laylaa mnil-findiq. alla ykhalliik, la-tjiib Samiir mnil-mataar. alla ykhalliich, la-tjiibiin Samiir mnil-mataar. alla ykhalliikum, la-tjiibuun Samiir mnil-mataar.

My name is Laylaa, what is your name?

We are honored; we are honored (in reply).

I am (F) a Lebanese from Beirut.

We are (F) Lebanese from Beirut.

My husband is an American from New York.

My wife is a German from Berlin.

Are there palm trees in Iraq?


ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ

 | l e s s o n 

Where have you (P) been?

Where have you (F) been? It has been a long time since I saw you.

For your (M) sake, the fee is ten dollars.

For your (P) sake, I am staying in Baghdad.

Please where is the room key?

There is hot and cold water in the bathroom.

I have a hotel reservation.

Please help me.

Take care of yourself.

Watch out for the car.

Take care of the car.

Yes, she is my wife.



Introductions | 

Creative Dialogues a. taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba :

aani zirit il-iraaq. inti zirti l-iraaq? naam, zirit il-iraaq. inta shwakit zirit l-iraaq? gabul shahar. w-inti? gabul shahreen. shunu shifit? shifit Baabil wa Naynawaa aani shifit il-mathaf il-iraaqi ween haadha l-mathaf? b-Baghdaad

b. taalib : aani iraaqi. imneen Laylaa? taaliba : hiyya Lubnaaniyya min Beeruut taalib : w-imneen Khaalid? taaliba : huwwa Suuuudi min Makka taalib : w-inti mneen? taaliba : aani min Beeruut taalib : yani, inti w Laylaa Lubnaaniyyaat taaliba : naam For new words, see Glossary.


: : : : : : : :

ȒǟƴƸŽ ƞƶȮžɀ Ș .ǠŻȚǍŸ Ǡſȕ : ȝȶǍƸŮ ǜž ǀȮƸſƾƶƃŽ Ǡƀ : ȿ ȒNjŽƾų ƞȮƶȮžɀ Ⱦȶ : ǀȮƳȮ Ƚ Ǟƀ : ȿ žȼ ǜž ȸȢǞƯŴ Ȓƞƶž ǠƄɀȮſȾȶ : ȝȶǍƸŮ ǜž Ǡſȕ : ȝƾƸȮſƾƶƃŽ ǟƴƸŽȶ ǠƄſȚ ȆǠƶƯȮȼƁ : ȿ ǛƯſ :

ɷʄ ƿŽƾŶ ʞʏ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʄɷ ƿŽƾŶ ʏʞ ǀƃŽƾŶ ƿŽƾŶ ɷʄ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʞʏ ƿŽƾŶ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʄɷ ƿŽƾŶ ʏʞ ǀƃŽƾŶ ɷʄ ƿŽƾŶ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʞʏ ƿŽƾŶ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʄɷ ƿŽƾŶ ʏʞ ǀƃŽƾŶ ɷʄ ʏʞ

Houses in the mountains of northern Iraq

ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ lesson ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ǀƯȼ ƉȮ ɀ Ⱦ ů ȦȾȤȼȢ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ Speaking Arabic ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ il-lugha l-arabiyya ǀȮƸȮŮ dž ȼǍȮƯȼ ɀȮŽȚ ǀȼȮưȮƴ Ƚ ɀȮŽȘ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ DARIS TISA

At the Rashid Hotel, Basma is sharing a dinner table with Mr. Maalik with whom she converses in Arabic.

Basic Dialogue (Audio) . Maalik: marhaba, shloon is-sihha? Hello, how are you? . Basma: zeena, ilhamdu lillaah. w-inta shloonak? Well, thank God. And how are you? . Maalik: maashaalla, titkalmiin lugha arabiyya zeena. Praise be to God, you speak Arabic well. . Basma: yani, shwayya. Well, a little. . Maalik: ween tallamti arabi? Where did you learn Arabic? . Basma: dirasit arabi b-jaamia Amriikiyya. I studied Arabic in an American university.

ȒǀƇȿ ƫŽȚ Ʀ ȴǞƴŵ ȆǀƃŲǍž :ǙȮȾŽƾž ȒǙſǞƴŵ ǁɀȮſȚȾȶ .ʇ NjƵƑȚ ȆǀƶƁȥ :ǀƵƉŮ ǀƸŮǍŸ ǀưȮŽ Ƚ ƞƵɀȮƴȼȮƳɀȮƄȮȾů Ȇʇƾŵƾž :ǙŽƾž .ǀƶƁȥ .ǀdžȮƁǞȼ ɀȮŵ

ȆǠƶƯɀ ȼ Ɓ :ǀƵƉŮ

ȒǠŮǍŸ ǠƄƵɀ džȮƴƯȼ ɀȮů ǜƁȶ :ǙŽƾž .ǀƸƳƁǍžɀ Ȗ

ǀƯȼ žȾ ƾű țɀ ǠŮǍŸȼ ǁŴ Ⱦ ȼ ȤȾȢ :ǀƵƉŮ

 | l e s s o n 

. Maalik: dirasti qraaya wi-ktaaba? Did you study reading and writing? . Basma: dirasit qraaya wi-ktaaba, bass nseetha shwayya I studied reading and writing, but I have forgotten it a little. . Maalik: minu allamich arabi? Who taught you Arabic? . Basma: ustaadh raaqi min Baghdaad. An Iraqi professor from Baghdad. . Maalik: kam sana dirasti arabi? How many years did you study Arabic? . Basma: hawaali santeen. About two years. . Maalik: dirasti fus ha loo aammiyya? Did you study the classical or the colloquial Arabic? . Basma: fus ha wa aammiyya. The classical and the colloquial. . Maalik: inti tih chiin iraaqi mumtaaz. You speak excellent Iraqi Arabic. . Basma: shukran sayyid Maalik. Thank you, Mr. Maalik.

ȒǀŮƾƄɀȮżȾȶ ǀƁȚǍɀȮŻ ǠƄŴ ɀ ȼ ȤȾȢ :ǙŽƾž Ǐ ȿ ȼ Ů .ǀŮƾƄɀȮżȾȶ ǀƁȚǍɀȮŻ ǁŴȼȤȾȢ :ǀƵƉŮ ɀ ƾƷɀȮƄƸƉɀȮſ .ǀdžƁǞȼ Ȯŵ ȒǠŮǍȮŸȼ ǶȮƵȾ ȼdžȮƴȮŸȼ ǞƶȮžȾ :ǙŽƾž .ȢȚNjưȮŮ


ȒǠŮǍȮŸȼ ǠƄȮŴ ɀ ȼ ȤȾȢ ǀƶŴ ȼ ǛȼȮż :ǙŽƾž .ƞȮƄɀȮƶȮŴ ȼ


ȒǀƸȮ ɀ Ȯź ɀ ȼ ȤȾȢ :ǙŽƾž dž žƦ ƾŸ ǞŽ ǟƇƫ Ƚ ǠƄŴ .ǀƸȮ dž žƦ ƾŸȶ .ȥƾƄȮƵɀ ȮžȽ

ǟƇƫ ɀ Ȯź Ƚ :ǀƵƉŮ


NjƸȮ ȼ ȚǍƳŵ :ǀƵƉŮ ȿ Ŵ

Additional Expressions (Audio) lugha Ingiliiziyya lugha Fransiyya lugha Almaaniyya lugha Itaaliyya lugha Isbaaniyya lugha Faarisiyya lugha Ruusiyya lugha Yaabaaniyya lugha Hindiyya lugha Turkiyya lugha Kurdiyya

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ǀƁȿ ǎƸƴȮǦȾ ɀȮſȘ ǀưȮŽ Ƚ ǀƸȮ Ⱦ ɀȮſȼǍɀȮź ǀưȮŽ ȿ Ɖ Ƚ ǀƸȮ Ⱦ žɀ Ȗ ǀưȮŽ ȿ ƳƁǍ Ƚ ǀƸȮ Ž ƾŶȘ ǀư ȮŽ Ⱦ ȿ Ƚ ǀƸȮ ɀ ǀưȮŽ ȿ Ⱦ ſƾƃȮŴȘ Ƚ ǀƸȮ Ⱦ Ⱦ Ȥƾź ǀưȮŽ dž Ŵ Ƚ ǀƸȮ Ⱦ ǀưȮŽ ȿ ŴȶȤ Ƚ ǀƸȮ ȿ Ⱦ ſƾŮƾƁ ǀưȮŽ Ƚ ǀȮƁȿ NjȾ ɀȮƶƀȾ ǀưȮŽ Ƚ ǀƸȮ ǀư ȮŽ ȿ żȾ ɀǍȮů Ƚ Ƚ ǀȮƁȿ ȾȢɀǍȮż Ƚ ǀưȮŽ Ƚ

Vocabulary (Audio) sihha shloon is-sihha?

health How are you? (lit., How is the health?)

ǀƇȮ Ⱦ ȿ ǧ ȒǀȮƇdž ƫŽȚ ȴǞƴŵ Ʀ

Speaking Arabic | 

maashaalla titkallam / titkallamiin / titkallamuun lugha arabi / arabiyya (M/F) yani shwayya tallamit / tallamti / tallamtu dirasit darras jaamia / jaamiaat (S/P) turuf / tuurfiin / tuurfuun qraaya kitaaba bass niseet (M/F) ustaadh / asaatidha (M/P) ustaadha / ustaadhaat (F/P) sana / santeen / sniin (S/D/P) hawaali fus ha aammiyya loo tihchi / tihchiin / tihchuun mumtaaz / mumtaaza (M/F) sayyid / sayyida (M/F)

Praise be to God (see lesson ) you speak (M/F/P)


reading writing but, only I forgot professor/s professor/s

/ƞƵȮƴ ȿ ȼȮƳɀȮƄȮȾů / ǛdžȮƴȼȮƳɀȮƄȮȾů ȴǞƵȮƴ ȿ ȼȮƳɀȮƄȮȾů ǀȼȮưȮŽ Ƚ ǀȮƸŮ ǍȮ Ÿ / ǠŮǍȮ Ÿȼ ȼ ȼ ȿ ǠƶɀȮƯȮȼƁ ǀȮƁ ȿ Ǟȼ ɀȮŵ / ǠƄƵɀ ȮdžɀȮƴ ȿ Ưȼ ɀȮů / ǁƵȾ džȮƴ ȿ Ưȼ ȼȮů ǞƄƵɀ džȮƴƯȼ ɀȮů ǁȮŴ Ⱦ ȼ ȤȾȢ ȦdžȤȼȢ ȝƾƯȮžȾ ƾű / ǀƯȮžȾ ƾű / ƞźɀǍȮƯȽ Ȯů Ƚ Ưɀ Ȯů Ƚ / ȯǍȮ Ƚ ȴǞźɀǍȮƯȽ Ȯů Ƚ ǀȼƁȚǍɀȮŻ ǀȮȼŮƾƄȮżȾ ǏȮ ȿ ȼŮ ǁƸȮƉȮȾſ ȜnjȮȾůƾŴȖ / ȣƾƄȮŴ ɀ ȽȚ ȝȚȣƾƄŴ ɀ Ƚ Ț / ȜȣƾƄȮŴ ɀ ȽȚ

one year/two years/years

ƞƶȮŴ ɀ / ƞȮƄɀȮƶŴ ȼ / ǀƶȮŴ ȼ

about, approximately classical, literary (Arabic) colloquial (Arabic), local or you speak (M/F/P) excellent

ǠŽȚǞŲȼ ǟƇƫ ɀ Ȯź Ƚ ǀȮƸȮ ȿ žƦ ƾŸ ǞŽ ȴǞȮǰȮɀƎȾ / ƞȮǰɀƎȾ / ǠǰɀƎȾ ȜȥƾƄȮɀƛȽ / ȥƾƄɀƛȽ

a language Arabic (adj.) well (see lesson ) a little (invariable) you learned (M/F/P) I studied (M and F) he taught university/ies you know (M/F/P)


ȜNjȼ ȮƸȮ ȼ / NjȮƸȮ ȼ Ʀ Ŵ Ʀ Ŵ

Grammar and Remarks The Past Tense Verb: The Double and the Weak Verbs As mentioned in lesson , the double verb is similar to the regular verb. It has three consonants but the last two are identical. The weak verb has two consonants and it ends in a final vowel in the third person masculine singular form. These two types are conjugated in the same way but both are conjugated differently from the regular and the hollow verbs (see below).

 | l e s s o n 

The Double Verb habb Pronoun huwwa hiyya humma inta (M) inti (F) intu (P) aani ihna

Suffix ——* -at -aw -eet** -eeti -eetu -eet** -eena

he liked/loved ƿȮ ȿ Ųȼ (Audio) Verb Form habb habbat habbaw habbeet habbeeti habbeetu habbeet habbeena

he liked she liked they liked you liked you liked you liked I liked we liked

Remarks on the Double Verb:

ƿȮ ȿ Ųȼ ǁdžȮƃȮŲȼ ǞdžȮƃȮŲȼ ǁȮƸȮƃȮ ȿ Ųȼ ǠƄȮƸȮƃȮ ȿ Ųȼ ǞȮƄȮƸȮƃȮ ȿ Ųȼ ǁȮƸȮƃȮ ȿ Ųȼ ƾƶȮƸȮƃȮ ȿ Ųȼ



Ǟƀ Ǡƀ ǝƵȿ Ȯƀ Ƚ ǁſȘ ǠƄſȘ ǞȮƄſȘ Ǡſȕ ƾƶŲȘ

Notice that suffixes added to the second and third persons are different from those added to the same persons of the regular and hollow verbs. *No suffix added. **Identical conjugation.

The Weak Verb misha Pronoun huwwa hiyya humma inta (M) inti (F) intu (P) aani ihna

ȼ žȾ (Audio) he walked/traveled ƾȮƪ

Suffix —— -at -aw -eet* -eeti -eetu -eet* -eena

Verb Form misha mishat mishaw misheet misheeti misheetu misheet misheena

he walked she walked they walked you walked you walked you walked I walked we walked

ȼ žȾ ƾȮƪ ǁȼȮƪȮžȾ Ǟɀ ȼȮƪȮžȾ ǁƸƪȮžȾ ǠƄƸȮƪȮžȾ ǞȮƄƸƪȮ žȾ Ƚ ǁƸƪȮžȾ ƾƶƸƪȮžȾ



Ǟƀ Ǡƀ ǝƵȮ ȿ ƀȽ ǁſȘ ǠƄſȘ ǞƄſȘ Ǡſȕ ƾƶŲȘ

Remarks on the Weak Verb: *Indicates identical conjugation.

The Past Tense Verb with Attached Pronoun As mentioned in lesson , when an attached pronoun is added to a verb, it is the object of the verb. A verb with such a pronoun may undergo some vowel changes, such as the assimilation of the pronoun -a (him), the lengthening of the final vowel of the verb, or the dropping out of the stem vowel. These changes are especially frequent with the weak verb. See the conjugation table of the weak verb nita (he gave), and nisaw (they forgot) with the attached pronouns below. (Audio) nita nitaani

he gave he gave me

ƾȼȮƭȮȾſ ǠſƾƭȮȾſ

Speaking Arabic | 

nitaana nitaak nitaach nitaakum nitaa nitaahum

he gave us he gave you (M) he gave you (F) he gave you (P) he gave him he gave them

ƾſƾƭȮȾſ ȱƾƭȮȾſ ɃƾƭȮȾſ ǛżƾƭȮȾſ ȵƾƭȮȾſ ǛƀƾƭȮȾſ

nisaw* nisooni nisoona nisook nisooch nisookum nisoo nisoohum

they forgot they forgot me they forgot us they forgot you (M) they forgot you (F) they forgot you (P) they forgot him they forgot them


*The suffix -aw changes to -oo with attached pronoun.

Idioms and Common Phrases (Audio) 1. lihusn il-hazz fortunately, luckily

ǔȮƇȼ ɀȮŽȚ ǜƉȮ ɀ ƇȮ Ƚ ȾŽ or min husn il-hazz ǔȮƇȼ ɀȮŽȚ ǜɀȮƉŲȽ ǜžȾ

lihusn il-hazz, il-qitaar bil-mahatta lihusn il-hazz, il-bariid yamm is-suuq lihusn il-hazz, Samiir bil-beet lihusn il-hazz, dirasit qraaya wi-ktaaba lihusn il-hazz, zirit Baabil

2. lisuu· il-hazz unfortunately

Fortunately, the train is in the station. Fortunately, the post office is near the market. Fortunately, Samiir is home. Fortunately, I studied reading and writing. Luckily, I visited Babylon.


ȿ Ƈȼ ɀȮŽȚ ȔǞƉȮ ǔȮ Ƚ ȾŽ or min suu· il-hazz ǔƇȼ ɀȮŽȚ ȔǞŴ ǜȮžȾ

lisuu¢ il-hazz, maa zirit Baabil lisuu¢ il-hazz, il-bariid biiid mnis-suug lisuu¢ il-hazz, maa shifit Basma bil-findiq lisuu¢ il-hazz, Laylaa tabaana

Unfortunately, I did not visit Babylon. Unfortunately, the post office is far from the market. Unfortunately, I did not see Basma in the hotel. Unfortunately, Laylaa is tired.



 | l e s s o n 

ɷʄ Drills tamaariin ǜƁȤƾƵȮů ʞʏ 1. Give appropriate oral repliesȼ to the following expressions: ȒǀƇȮƫŽȚ Ʀ ȴǞƴŵ ʄɷ ǜƁȥ ǠŮǍŸ ƞƵɀȮƴȼȮƳɀȮƄȮȾů Ȇʇƾŵƾž ȒǠŮǍŸ ǠƄƵɀ džȮƴƯȼ ɀȮů ǜƁȶ ʏʞ ȒǀȮƸȮ ž ƾŸ ǞŽ ǟƇƫ ɀ Ȯź ȿ Ʀ ȿ ȼȮƯɀȮů Ƚ ǁƵȾ džȮƴ ȒǠŮǍŸ ǛƳŴ ɀ dž ȤȼȢ ǞƶȮžȾ ɷʄ ȒǠŮǍŸ ǞƄȮŴ ɀ ȼ ȤȾȢ ǀƶȮŴ Ǜż ȒǀŮƾƄɀȮżȾȶ ǀƁȚǍɀȮŻ ȯǍȽ ɀȮƯȮů Ƚ ʞʏ ȒȯǍȮ Ƚ Ưɀ Ȯů Ƚ ǀưȮŽ Ƚ Ǜż ȒǠŮǍŸ ǶŴ Ⱦ Ʀ ȤȼȢ ǞƶȮžȾ ʄɷ ȒƞȮǰȮƇȮ ɀ Ⱦ ů ǀưȮŽ Ƚ Ǜż ʏʞ 2. Conjugate orally the following past tense double and weak verbs: ƾƶȼ ȾȮŮ ƾȮȼȮǦȮȾŽ ƾȮűȘ ɷʄ ȼ NjȮ ȥȿ ȼȢ ƾȼȮƭȮȾſ ȿ Ŵ ȼ ʞʏ ƾƉȮ ȚȼǍȮŻȾ Ǒ ȿ ȼȮǬ ȼ Ⱦſ ȿ ȿ Ʃ ǓȮ Ų ƾǰȮ Ų ȼ ȼȮŵ ʄɷ ƾȼȮƪȮȼ žȾȾ ȚǞdž ȮŴ ȚȼǍȮƄȾ ɀȮŵȘ ȼ ʏʞ 3. Change orally the singular pronoun and verb in parentheses to the equivalent plural forms: ǀƶƁȥ ǀƸŮǍŸ ǀưȮŽ ȿ ȼȮƳɀȮƄȮȾů ǠƄſȘ) Ƚ (ƞƵȮƴ ɷʄ ȿ ƾŮ ǀƸŮǍƯŽȚ ǀưƴȮŽȚ (ǁƵȾ džȮƴȮƯȼ ɀȮů) ǀƯžƾȮƐ ǀŮƾƄɀȮżȾȶ ǀȮƁȚǍɀȮŻ (ǁȮŴ Ⱦ ȼ ȤȾȢ) ʏʞ ǠŮǍƯŽƾŮ ǀŽƾŴȾȤ (ƿƄȮż) Ⱦ ȿ ǙƵȮ ŴȚ (ǁƸƉȮ ſ Ǡſȕ) ǔƑȚ ȔǞƉȮ Ⱦ ȾŽ ɀ ɷʄ ǝƁȚǞȮƀɀ ǀƸŮǍƯŽȚ ǀưƴȮŽȚ (ǁƸȮƃȮ ȼ ȿ Ų) ȳǞƸŽȚ ȸǎƸȮƴǦȾ ɀȮſȚ țƾƄżȾ (ȝȼǍȮŻȾ Ǡƀ) ʏʞ ȒȤƾƭƲȾ ɀȮŽƾŮ ǞŽ ȜȤƾƸȮƉŽƾ dž ȾȮŮ (ǁƸȮűȘ) ȿ Ųȼ Ǟƀ) ǀźǍưɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ȠƾƄɀȮƱƵȾ ɀȮŽȚ (ǓȮ ɷʄ ǠŮǍŸȶ ȸǎƸȮƴǦȮſȚ (ǁȮŴ Ⱦ ȼ ȤȾȢ) Ǡƀȶ Ǡſȕ ʏʞ ɷʄ 4. Conjugate the following sentences: ȿ Ųȼ ǍȼȮƄɀȮźNjdž ȮŽƾŮ ǛƴƲŽȚ ǓȮ ǀƴȮƇȾ ɀȮŽƾŮ ȬǞƃȮŴ ɀ Ƚ Ț ǙȼȮŽɀȤƾǧ ʏʞ ȿ ǁƸƉȮȾſ ȆǔƇȮŽȚ ȔǞƉȾŽ ɷʄ ƾƷȮƵɀ ŴȘ Ⱦ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ shloon is-sihha? maashaalla, titkalmiin arabi zeen ween tallamti arabi? tallamit fus ha loo aammiyya? minu darraskum arabi? kam sana dirastu arabi? turuf qraaya wi-ktaaba? kam lugha turuf? minu darrasich arabi? kam lugha tih chi?

bina sadd nisa hicha misha

he built he closed he forgot he talked he walked

liga nita qira hatt sawwa

he found he gave he read he put he made

(inti titkallmiin) lugha iraaqiyya zeena (tallamit) il-lugha il-arabiyya bij-jaamia (dirasat) qraaya wi-ktaaba (kitab) risaala bil-arabi lisuu¢ il-hazz (aani niseet) ismak (habbeet) il-lugha il-arabiyya hwaaya (hiyya qirat) ktaab Ingiliizi il-yoom (ijeet) bis-sayyaara loo bil-qitaar? (huwwa hatt) il-miftaah bil-ghurfa (aani w hiyya dirasit) Ingiliizi w aarabi

hatt il-qalam bid-daftar saarlak usbuu bil-Hilla (city name) lisuu¢ il-hazz, niseet isimha

(she, they, I, we) (you F, you P, he, she)

(you M, you F, you P)

ija dazz gass shagg ishtira

he came he sent he cut he tore he bought


Speaking Arabic | 

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ 5. Replace the nouns or the pronouns in parentheses by their equivalent Arabic attached pronouns and add them to the verbs in the following sentences: ȿ ƾŮ ǠŮǍŸ ȦȤȿ ȼȢ ʞʏ ǀƯžƾȮƐ ʄɷ ǁƸƃɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȝȥȿ ȼȢ ʏʞ ɷʄ ȰNjƶƱɀȮŽƾŮ ǁȮƱȾ Ȯŵ Ⱦ ǀŲɀȤƾƃɀȮŽȚ ʞʏ ȳǞƸŽȚ ȜȤƾƸȮƉŽƾŮ țƾű ʄɷ ȿ ʏʞ ǀŴȼȤNjɀ ȮƵȼ ɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ǁƁǍȮŻȾ ɷʄ ʏʞ ǛƯȼ ɀȮƭƵȼ ɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ Ǟɀ ȮȼŮǍȮŵ Ⱦ ɷʄ ǁƸƃɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ǁƸȮƭȮ ȿ Ųȼ ʏʞ ɷʄ ǝƁȚǞȮƀɀ ƿȮ ȿ Ųȼ ʏʞ ǍƷȼ ȼȮŵ ǚȮƃ Ƚ ȼȮǬ ȝȾȤȾȥ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ

ijeena bit-tayyaara min Paariis habb is-syyaara hwaaya darras il-lugha il-arabiyya bij-jaamia lihusn il-hazz, shifit Samiir ib-Baghdaad

(I, he, she, they) (she, they, you M) (I, we, he, she, they) (we, he, they)

ǏƁȤƾǨ ǜžȾ ȜȤƾƸdžȮƭŽƾŮ ƾƶƸȮűȘ ǝƁȚǞȮƀɀ ȜȤƾƸȮƉŽȚ dž ƿȮ ȿ Ųȼ ǀƸŮǍƯŽȚ ǀưȮƴ ȮŽȚ Ȧ dž ȤȼȢ Ƚ ɀ ȿ ƾŮ ǀƯžȾ ƾȮƐ ȿ ǜƉƇȮ ǁȮƱȾ Ȯŵ Ⱦ ȆǔƑȚ Ƚ ȾŽ ȢȚNjưŮ țɀ ǍƸƵŴ

darras . . . arabi bij-jaamia

(Basma, them)

. ..

dazzat . . . lil-beet

(Samiir, me, us)

. ..

shifit . . . bil-findiq il-baarha

(you M, you F, you P)

jaab . . . bis-sayyaara il-yoom

(him, them, me)

qireet . . . bil-madrasa

(risaala, jariida, kitaab)

shirbaw . . . bil-matam

(mayy, haliib, Pipsi)

hatteet . . . bil- beet

(sayyaara, baasbort, them)

habb . . . hwaaya

(Laylaa, muwazzaf, you P)

zirit . . . gabul shahar

(Baghdad, Babylon, Museum, all three)

. ..

. ..

. ..

. ..

. ..

. ..

. ..


 | l e s s o n 

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ 6. Complete and read the following aloud: ʞʏ ȠƾƄɀȮƱƵȾ ɀȮŽƾŮ ǀźɀǍȮưȽ ɀȮŽȚ țƾŮ NjȮȿ Ŵȼ ʄɷ ȝNjȮ ȿ Ŵ ȼ ʏʞ ȿ Ŵ ȼ ɀȶNjȮ ɷʄ ǁƁNjȮ ȿ Ŵ ȼ ʞʏ ǠƄƁNjȮ ȿ Ŵ ȼ ʄɷ ǞȮƄƁNjȮ ȿ Ŵ ȼ ʏʞ ǁƁNjȮ ȿ Ŵ ȼ ɷʄ ƾƶȮƁNjȮ ȿ Ŵ ȼ ʏʞ ɷʄ ȜȤƾƱȮƉŽȿ ǜȮžɀ ǁƸƃɀȮƴȮȾŽ ǁȮűȘ ȼ ʏʞ Ǟɀ ȮűȘ ȼ ɷʄ ǁƸȮűȘ ȼ ʏʞ ǠƄƸȮűȘ ȼ ɷʄ ǞȮƄƸȮűȘ ʏʞ ȼ ɷʄ ǁƸȮűȘ ȼ ʏʞ ƾƶƸȮűȘ ȼ ɷʄ ʏʞ jaabat . . . lil-madrasa

(walad, wilid, bint, banaat)

ǀŴȼȤNjɀ ȮƵȼ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ . . . ǁȮȼŮƾű

siqna . . . lil-mahatta

(sayyaara, qitaar, tayyaara)

ǀȮƭ Ⱦ ȼ Ƶȼ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ . . . ƾƶɀȮƲȮŴ ȿ ƇȮ

a. sadd baab il-ghurfa bil-miftaah

tallam arabi w Almaani




ǁȮƵɀȮƴȮƯȼ ɀȮů



Ǟɀ ȼȮƵɀȮƴȮƯȼ ɀȮů



ǁƵȾ džȮƴȮƯȼ ɀȮů



ǠƄȮƵɀ džȮƴȮƯȼ ɀȮů



ǞȮƄȮƵɀ džȮƴȮƯȼ ɀȮů



ǁȮƵȾ džȮƴȮƯȼ ɀȮů



ƾƶȮƵɀ džȮƴȮƯȼ ɀȮů

b. ija lil-beet mnis-safaara ƾȮűȘ ȼ

raah lil-findiq ib-sayyaara jdiida






















ƾƶȮŲɀ Ⱦ Ȥ


Speaking Arabic | 

c. lihusn il-hazz, dirasit qraaya wi-ktaaba , dirasti , dirastu , diras , dirsat , dirsaw , dirasit , dirasna d. lisuu¢ il-hazz, ma-zaarna bil-beet , ma-zaaratna , ma-zaaruuna , ma-ziritna , ma-zirtiina , ma-zirtuuna

7. Translate the following into Arabic: He is a Frenchman from Paris.

She is an Arab teacher from Lebanon.

They are Americans (M) from Boston.

They are (F) Americans and Canadians.

ɷʄ ʞʏ ǠƄȮŴ ɀ ȼ ȤȾȢ ʄɷ ǞƄȮŴ Ȥ Ȣ Ⱦ ɀ ȼ ʏʞ ȦȼȤȾȢ ɷʄ ǁȮŴ ȼ ɀ ȤȾȢ ʞʏ Ǟɀ Ŵ ȼ ɀ ȤȾȢ ʄɷ ǁȮŴ Ⱦ ȼ ȤȾȢ ʏʞ ƾƶŴ ɀ ȼ ȤȾȢ ɷʄ ǁƸƃɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ƾſɀȤȚȥ ȳȼ ȆǔȮƇȼ ɀȮŽȚ ȔǞƉȮȾŽ ʞʏ ƾƶɀȮůȼȤȚȥ ȳȼ ʄɷ ƾſȶȽȤȚȥ ȳȼ ʏʞ ƾƶȮɀȮůȼȾȤȾȥ ȳȼ ɷʄ ƾƶȮƸȮůɀȤȾȥ ȳȼ ʏʞ ƾſǞȮȮů Ƚ ɀ ȤȾȥ ȳȼ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ

ǀȼŮƾƄɀȮżȾȶ ǀȼƁȚǍɀȮŻ ǁȮŴ Ⱦ ȼ ȤȾȢ Ȇ ǔȼȮƇɀȮŽȚ ǜƉȮ ɀ ƇȮ Ƚ ȾŽ


 | l e s s o n 

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ Creative Dialogues ʏʞ ɷʄ ȜǍƸƵŴ Ⱦ ȼ ȤȾȢ ǁƸƃɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ǁȾȮƶȾȮǩ ǀŲȤƾƃŽȘ ƿŽƾŶ ȼ ȜǍƸƵŴ ȼ Ȳɀ ǀŽƾŴȾȤ ǁȾȮƃȼȮƄɀȮżȶ ȆǠŮǍŸ ǁȮŴ ʏʞ ǟƴƸŽȶ Ǡſȕ ǚŴƾŮ Ⱦ ƾƷȮűɀ Ⱦȶȼȥ ǁȮƱȾ Ȯŵ Ⱦ ȱƾƶȮƀɀ Ȇ ƾƷɀȮƄƸȮŮ țɀ ǟƴƸŽ ȝȾȤȾȥ ǜƁNjȮƯɀ ȮȼȾŮ ƞŽɀǍȼŮ Ȳɀ ȜȾǍɀȮźƾƉȮžɀ ȿ ƾŮ ǀŴȚȤNjƦ ȮŽȚ ǜŸȼ ǝƁȚǞȮƀɀ ƾƶƸȮǰȮŲȾ Ⱦ ɀ ȤȾȢ ǟƴƸŽ ǀƯžȾ ƾȮƐ ȼ žȾ ƾű țɀ ǁȮŴ ɷʄ ȰȚǍƯɀȮƴȮȾŽ ǁȮűȘȼ ȶ ȝȶǍƸŮ ǀƯǠƄƸȮŮ ǜȮžȾ NjƸƯȾȮŮ Ǟž ǟƴƸŽ ǁƸŮ ȆǔȮƇȼ ɀȮŽȚ ǜƉȮƇȮ ȼ ǚȮƃ Ƚ ȾŽ ǀƶȮŴ Ƚ ȼȮǬ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ You are (F) Japanese from Tokyo.

You are (M) an Italian from Rome.

They speak excellent Arabic, German, and English.

Basma is a student and Khaalid is a professor.

Khaalid is an Arabic professor at the university.

They speak three languages.

Maalik doesn’t speak English very well.

Unfortunately, I forgot the Arabic language a little.

a. taalib : il-baarha chinit bil-beet. dirasit arabi, w-iktabit risaala l-Samiira. Samiira msaafra l-Berliin. badeen zirit Laylaa b-beetha. hnaak shifit zawijha Baasil. aani w Laylaa hicheena hwaaya an id-diraasa bij-jaamia. Laylaa dirsat ib-jaamiat Beeruut wa ijat lil-iraaq gabul sana. lihusn il-hazz, beet Laylaa muu biiid min beeti. .









Speaking Arabic | 

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ț ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ

b. taaliba : aani chinit bil-iraaq. hnaak tallamit arabi l-lahcha l-iraaqiyya. aani dirasit b-jaamiat Baghdaad arba sniin. ustaadhi kaan iraaqi isma Jamaal Kaamil. huwwa kaan ustaadh mumtaaz. chinit aruuh lis-suug kull usbuu w-ashtiri ashyaa¢ iraaqiyya. zirit il-mathaf il-iraaqi w Baabil. Badeen rijait l- baladi Masir.

ǁȮŴ ǀƆȼ Ʒɀ ȼȮƴɀȮŽȚ ǠŮǍȮŸȼ ǁȮƵȾ džȮƴƯȼ ɀȮů ȱƾƶȮƀɀ .ȰȚǍƯɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ǁȮƶȾ ȾȮǩ Ǡſȕ : ǀƃŽƾŶ Ⱦ ȼ ȤȾȢ Ǡſȕ .ǀȮƸŻȚǍƯŽȚ ȿ Ƚ .ȥƾƄƵɀ ȮžȽ ȣƾƄȮŴ ɀ Ț ȴƾż Ǟƀ ,ǚžƾż ȲƾƵűȼ ǝƵȼ ȮŴȘ ɀ ȴƾż ȸȣƾƄȮŴ ɀ Ƚ Ȗ .ƞƶȮŴ ɀ ǕȼŮɀȤȖ ȢȚNjưŮ ǀȮƯȼ žȾ ƾű țɀ ɀ ȬǞƃȮŴ Ƚɀ Ț ǚȮż ǠŻȚǍƯŽȚ ǗƇɀȮƄƵȼ ɀȮŽȚ ȝȾȤȾȥ .ǀƸŻȚǍȮŸȾ ȔƾƸɀȮŵȖ ǁƁǍȮƄȾ ȮŵȚȶ ȿ ȾŽ ȠȶȤȖ ǁȾȮƶȾȮǩ Ƚ ɆǞȮƉƴȮ .ǍƫȮ Ⱦ žȼ ȸNjȼȮƴȮȼŮ Ȳɀ ǁȮƯȾ Ȯűȼ Ⱦ Ȥ ǜƁNjƯȮȼŮ .ǚŮƾŮȶ

The bronze head of Sargon, king of ancient Akkad, third millenium B.C., Iraqi Museum

ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ lesson ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ɀ Ÿȼ ȦȾȤȼȢ ȜȼǍȮƪȮ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ Telling Time ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ is-saaa ǀŸȼ ƾƉȮŽȘ ȿ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ DARIS ASHRA


Basma’s watch is not working. She goes to the hotel information desk for help.

Basic Dialogue (Audio) . Basma: beesh is-saaa, min fadlak? What is the time, please? . mudayyif: is-saaa tisa. It is nine o’clock. . Basma: bass saati thmaanya illa rubu. But my watch says a quarter to eight. . mudayyif: laazim saatich kharbaana. Your watch must be broken. . Basma: sahiih. gulli turuf musallih saaaat zeen? True. Tell me, do you know a good watch repairman? . mudayyif: ¢ii, aku mahal saaaat bil-findiq. Yes, there is a watch store in the hotel.

ȒǙȼȮƴƬ ɀ ȼȮź ǜžȾ ȆǀŸƾƉŽȚ ȿ ǐƸȮŮ :ǀƵƉŮ .ǀƯȼ ƉȮ ɀ Ⱦů

ǀŸƾƉŽȚ ȼ žȽ ȿ :ǗȮƸȮ Ʀ Ƭ

ǕȽŮȽȤ ǚȼ ɀȮŽȘ ǀƸȼ ɀȮſƾƵɀȮŰ ǠƄŸɀ ƾŴ ǏȮ ȿ ȼ Ů :ǀƵƉŮ .ǀſƾŮɀǍȼȮų

ǶƄȾ ȮŸɀ ƾŴ ȳȾȥǽ :ǗƦȮƸƬ ȼ žȽ

ljƦȮƴ ȼ žȽ ȯǍȮ ȼ :ǀƵƉŮ Ƚ Ưɀ Ȯů ȿ ƫȮ Ƚ ǠƴɀȮƴȮǬ Ƚ .ljƸƇǧ ȒǜƁȥ ȝƾŸƾŴ ȝƾŸƾŴ ǚƇȼ žȼ ǞżȖ ȆǠȾǣ :ǗƦȮƸƬ ȼ žȼȽ .ȰNjƶƱɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ

 | l e s s o n  

Basma is in the watch store speaking to a salesman (bayyaa). . Basma: saati kharbaana wa tihtaaj .ljƸƴƫ Ⱦ ǀſƾŮǍų ǠƄŸɀ ƾŴ :ǀƵƉŮ ɀ ȼȮů ȟƾƄȮɀƎȶ tasliih. My watch is not working and needs repairing. . bayyaa: bikull suruur. haadhi saaa ȜǞȼ ɀȮƴŲȾ ǀŸƾŴ ȸȣƾƀ .ȤȶǍŴ Ƚ ǚȮƳ ȿ Ƚ ȾȮŮ :ȬƾȮƸŮ .ǀƚNjȼȮŻ ǏȮ hilwa bass qadiima. ȿ ȼŮ With pleasure. This is a nice watch but an old one. . Basma: naam, haadhi hadiyya min .ȸNjȿ ȾȮű ǜž ǀdžȮƁNjȾ Ȯƀȼ ȸȣƾƀ ȆǛƯſ :ǀƵƉŮ jiddi. Yes, this is a gift from my grandfather. . bayyaa: idna saaaat swiisriyya kullish ǐƦȮƴȮż ɀ ǞȾ Ŵ ɀ ȝƾŸƾŴ ƾſNjɀ ȮŸȾ :ȬƾȮƸŮ ȿ Ƚ ǀƁȿ ǍƉȮƁ .ǀƫƸųȾȤȶ ǀƶƁȥ zeena wa rikhiisa. We have very good and inexpensive Swiss watches. . Basma: badeen ashuufha. shwakit ǁżȾ Ǟȼ ɀȮŵ .ƾƷɀȮźǞŵȖ ǜƁNjɀȮƯȼȾŮ :ǀƵƉŮ ȒǠƄŸɀ ƾŴ ǑƦȮƴƈȼ ɀȮů tkhallis saati? I will see them later. When will you finish my watch? . bayyaa: baachir, is-saaa tlaatha, .ʇƾƪſȘ ȆǀŰǾɀȮů ǀŸƾƉŽȚ ȿ ȆǍȾȮǩƾŮ :ȬƾȮƸŮ ȿ inshaalla. Tomorrow at three o’clock, God willing. . Basma: alla ykhalliik, diir baalak !ƾƷƸƴŸ ǙȼȮŽƾŮ ǍȮƁȢ ȆǙƸƦȮƴȼȮƈȮɀƁ ʇȚ :ǀƵƉŮ aleeha! Please, take care of it! . bayyaa: mamnuun, ala eeni. .ǠƶƸȮŸ ǟƴŸ ȆȴǞƶȮƵɀ Ȯžȼ :ȬƾȮƸŮ ȿ Gladly, with pleasure. (emphasis)

Additional Expressions (Audio) saaa saaat iid saaat jeeb saaat haayit saaat tanbiih daqiiqa / daqaayiq (S/P) thaanya / thawaani (S/P) rubu

watch, clock, time, hour (depending on context) wrist watch pocket watch wall clock alarm clock minute/s second/s one-quarter (fifteen minutes)


Telling Time | 

thilith nuss illa gabul gabul saaa gabul iz-zuhur baad baad saaa baad iz-zuhur zuhur zuhran, iz-zuhur sabaah sabaahan, is-subuh asir asran, il-asir masaa¢ masaa¢an, il-masaa¢ leel laylan, bil-leel

one-third (twenty minutes) one-half of, before, except before, ago one hour ago before noon (A.M.) after after one hour, in an hour afternoon (P.M.) noon (noun) afternoon (adv.) morning (noun) in the morning (adv.) afternoon in the afternoon (adv.) evening (noun) in the evening (adv.) night (noun) at night, nightly (adv.)

ǂȾȮƴȾȮŰ Ǒ ȿ Ȯſ Ƚ ǚȼ ɀȮŽȘ ǚȮƃ Ƚ ȼȮǬ ǀŸƾŴ ǚȮƃ Ƚ ȼȮǬ ǍȮƷȽ ȮƮŽȚ ǚȮƃ LJ Ƚ ȼȮǬ NjȮƯȼ ȮȼŮ ǀŸƾŴ NjȮƯȼ ȮȼŮ ǍƷȽ ȮƮŽȚ NjȮƯȼ ȮȼŮ ȿ ǍȮƷȽ Ȯŷ Ƚ ȹ ǍȮƷȽ ȮƮŽȘ Ȇ Ț ǍȮ Ʒɀ Ȯŷ LJ Ƚ ȠƾƃȮǧ ȼ ȹ ljȮƃȮ ƫŽȘ Ȇ ƾ ŲƾƃȮ ǧ LJ ȼ Ƚ ǍȮƫȮ Ⱦ Ÿȼ ȹ ǍȮƫȮ Ư ȮŽȘ Ȇ Ț ǍȮ ƫȮ Ⱦ ȼ ɀ Ÿȼ ȔƾȮƉȮžȼ ȔƾƉȮƵȼ ɀȮŽȘ ȆȔȹ ƾȮƉȮžȼ ǚȮƸȮȾŽ ǚȮƸȮƴɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ȆȹȀȮƸɀ ȼȮŽ

Vocabulary (Audio) beesh? saaa / saaaat (S/P) laazim (invairable) kharbaan / kharbaana (M/F) sahiih musallih / musalliha (M/F) tasliih ¢ii mahal / mahallaat (S/P) tihtaaj / yihtaaj (F/M) bayyaa / bayyaaiin (S/P) bayyaaa / bayyaaaat (S/P) qadiim / qadiima (M/F) hadiyya / hadaaya (S/P) jidd / jidda (M/F)

How much? watch/es must, ought (semi verb) not working, broken (adj.)

ȒǐƸȮț ȝƾŸƾŴ / ǀŸƾŴ ȳȥǽ ǀſƾŮɀǍȮųȼ / ȴƾŮɀǍȮųȼ

true, correct (adj.) repairman/ repairwoman

ljȮƸƇǧ ȼ ǀȮƇȼ ƦȮƴƫ ž / lj Ȯƴ ƫ ȼ Ƚ Ʀ ȼ žȽ

repairing, fixing yes place/s, store/s, shop/s she needs (referring to the watch as a she) he needs salesman/en (M) saleswoman/en (F) old, ancient (adj.) gift/s, present/s grandfather/grandmother

ljƸȮƴƫ ɀ ȼȮů ǠȮȾǣ ȝǾƇȼ žȼ / ǚȮƇȼ žȼ ȟƾƄɀȮƇȾȮƁ / ȟƾƄȮɀƎȾ ƞȮŸƾȮƸȮ ȿ ȼ Ů / ȬƾȮƸȮ ȿ ȼŮ ȝƾŸƾȮƸȮ ȿ ȼ Ů / ǀŸƾȮƸȮ ȿ ȼŮ ǀƚNjȮŻ / ƗNjȼȮŻ ƾƁȚNjȮƀȼ / ǀȮƁ ȿ NjȾ Ȯƀȼ ȜNjȿ ȾȮű / Njȿ ȾȮű

 | l e s s o n  

swiisri / swiisriyya (M/F) rikhiis / rikhiisa (M/F) badeen ashuufha shwakit? tkhallis baachir ayy? yoom / yoomeen / ayyaam (S/D/P) usbuu / usbuueen / asaabii (S/D/P) shahar / shahreen / ashhur (S/D/P) fasil / fusuul (S/P) sana / santeen / sniin (S/D/P) mamnuun diir baalak alla ykhalliik

Grammar and Remarks Time Expressions: il-waqit

ǀƁǍƉȮƁ ɀ ǞȾ Ŵ ɀ / ȸǍƉȮƁ ɀ ǞȾ Ŵ ɀ ǀƫƸųȾȤ / ǑƸųȾȤ ǜƁNjȮƯɀ ȮȼŮ ƾƷɀȮźǞŵȖ

Swiss inexpensive, cheap later on I see it (referring to watches). when? you (M) finish tomorrow which? day/two days/days

ȒǁȮżȾ Ǟȼ ɀȮŵ ǑƦȮƴȼȮƈɀȮů ǍȾȮǩƾŮ ȸȖ ȿ ȳƾȮƁȿ Ȗ / ƞžǞƁ / ȳǞƁ

week/two weeks/weeks

ǕƸŮƾŴȖ / ƞŸǞƃŴ ɀ Ƚ Ț / ȬǞƃȮŴ ɀ ȽȚ

month/two months/months

ǍƷȽ ɀȮŵȖ / ǜƁǍƷɀ ȼȮŵ / ǍƷȼ ȼȮŵ

season/s year/two years/years

ȲǞƫ Ⱦ źȼ Ƚ Ȯź Ƚ / ǚȮƫ ƞƶȮŴ ɀ / ƞƄɀȮƶȮŴ ȼ / ǀƶȮŴ ȼ

gladly (idiom, see below) take care (idiom, see lesson ) please (idiom, see lesson )



In Iraqi Arabic there are two ways of telling time: is-saaa wihda is-saaa arbaa

or or

is-saaa bil-wihda is-saaa bil-arba



In the first column only the word saaa takes the article “il- > is- (the),” whereas in the second column, the time number also takes the article “il-” as well as the prefix “b- (at)” as shown above. Both expressions are commonly used. Notice that the word saaa is almost always mentioned when telling time. Below is a list of time expressions, using the first column form. (Audio) is-saaa wihda is-saaa thinteen is-saaa tlaatha is-saaa arbaa

It is one o’clock. It is two o’clock. It is three o’clock. It is four o’clock.


Telling Time | 

It is five o’clock. It is six o’clock. It is seven o’clock. It is eight o’clock. It is nine o’clock. It is ten o’clock. It is eleven o’clock. It is twelve o’clock. It is six-fifteen. It is six-twenty. It is six-thirty. It is six-thirty five. It is six-twenty five. It is quarter to six. It is twenty to six. It is ten to six. It is five to six.

is-saaa khamsa is-saaa sitta is-saaa saba is-saaa thmaanya is-saaa tisa is-saaa ashra is-saaa daash is-saaa thnaash is-saaa sitta w rubu is-saaa sitta w thilith is-saaa sitta w nuss is-saaa sitta w nuss w khamsa is-saaa sitta w nuss illa khamsa is-saaa sitta illa rubu is-saaa sitta illa thilith is-saaa sitta illa ashra is-saaa sitta illa khamsa

Days of the Week: ayyaam lis-buu9

ǀƉȮƵɀ ȼȮų ǀŸƾȮƉŽȘ ȿ ǀȮƄȮ Ŵ ǀŸƾȮ ƉŽȘ Ⱦ ȿ ȿ ǀƯƃȮ Ŵ ǀŸƾȮ ƉŽȘ ȿ ɀ ȼ ǀȮƸɀȮſƾƵɀȮŰ ǀŸƾȮƉŽȘ ȿ ǀƯȮƉȮ ů ǀŸƾȮ ƉŽȘ ɀ Ⱦ ȿ ȜǍɀȮƪŸȼ ǀŸƾȮƉŽȘ ȿ ɀ Ÿȼ ȼȢ ǀŸƾȮƉŽȘ ǐȮȮ ȿ ǐȮŸȼ ƾƶɀȮŰ ǀŸƾȮƉŽȘ ȿ ǕȮȽŮȽȤȶ ǀȮƄȮ Ŵ ǀŸƾȮ ƉŽȘ ȿ ȿ Ⱦ ǂȾȮƴȮȾŰȶ ǀȮƄȮ Ŵ ǀŸƾȮ ƉŽȘ Ⱦ ȿ ȿ ǑȮſȶ ǀ ȮƄȮ Ŵ ǀŸƾȮ ƉŽȘ Ⱦ ȿ ȿ Ƚ ǀƉƵɀ ųȶ ȼ Ǒſȶ ǀȮƄȮ Ⱦ ǀŸƾȮƉŽȘ ȿ ȿ Ŵ ǀƉƵɀ ųȼ ǚȼ ɀȮŽȘ Ǒſȶ ǀȼȮƄŴ ǀŸƾȮ ƉŽȘ Ⱦ ȿ ǕȮȽŮȽȤ ǚȼ ɀȮŽȘ ǀȮƄȮ Ŵ ǀŸƾȮ ƉŽȘ Ⱦ ȿ ȿ ǂȾȮƴȮȾŰ ǚȼ ɀȮŽȘ ǀȮƄȮ Ŵ ǀŸƾȮ ƉŽȘ Ⱦ ȿ ȿ ɀ ȜǍƪȮŸȼ ǚȼ ɀȮŽȘ ǀȮƄȮ Ⱦ ǀŸƾȮƉŽȘ ȿ ȿ Ŵ ǀƉȮƵɀ ųȼ ǚȼ ɀȮŽȘ ǀȮƄȮ Ŵ ǀŸƾȮ ƉŽȘ ȿ ȿ Ⱦ

ȬǞȮƃȽ ƉȮ ɀ ȾŽ ȳƾȮƁȿ Ȗ (Audio)

Note: Except for Friday (ij-juma) and Saturday (is-sabit), the names of the weekdays are variant forms of the Arabic numerals. What day is today? Today is . . . Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday* Saturday

shunu il-yoom? il-yoom . . . yoom l-ahhad yoom li-thneen yoom ith-thalaathaa yoom il-arbaaa yoom il-khamiis yoom ij-juma yoom is-sabit

ȒȳǞƸɀȮŽȚ ǞƶȮŵ . . . ȳǞƸɀȮŽȘ NjȮŲLjȚ dž ȳǞƁ ƞȮƶɀȮƅȮȾŽ ȳǞƁ ƾŰǾdžȮƅŽȚ ȳǞƁ ƾƯȮȼŮɀȤLjȚ ȳǞƁ ǏȮƸƵȮƈȼ ɀȮŽȚ ȳǞƁ ȿ Ț ȳǞƁ ǀƯȼ ȮƵɀ ȮƐ ǁȾȮƃȮ dž ȳǞƁ Ⱦ ƉŽȚ

*The weekend day in the Arab and Islamic worlds.

Months of the Year: ashhur is-sana Western/Gregorian Calendar January February

Yanaayir Fabraayir

ɀ (Audio) ǀȼȮƶȮƉŽȚ Ƚ ŵȖ dž ǍȮƷȮ

Eastern Calendar


Kaanuun ith-Thaani Shbaat

ǠſƾȮƅŽȚ ȿ ȴǞſƾż ɀ ȪƾƃȮŵ

 | l e s s o n  

Western/Gregorian Calendar March April May June July August September October November December

Maaris Abriil Maayoo Yoonyoo Yoolyoo Ughustus Sibtambar Uktoobar Noovambar Diisambar

Eastern Calendar


ȤȚȣȕ ȴƾƉƸȮſ ǏȾȮƁƾž / ȤƾȮƁȿ Ȗ ȴȚǍȮɀƁȼǎȮŲȽ ȥǞȮƵȮ LJ ȼȮů țȕ ȲǞƴȮɀƁȖ ȲȶLjȚ ǜƁǍƪȮȾů ǠſƾȮƅŽȚ ȿ ǜƁǍƪȮȾů Ȳdžȶ LjȚ ȴǞſƾż

ǀȮƯȼ ȼȮŮɀȤLjȚ ȲǞƫȮƱ Ƚ ɀȮŽȘ (Audio)

The Four Seasons: il-fusuul il-arba9a Spring Summer Autumn/Fall Winter

The Preposition wiyya

Aadhaar Niisaan Ayyaar/Maayis Huzayraan Tammuuz Aab Ayluul Tishriin il-Awwal Tishriin ith-Thaani Kaanuun il-Awwal

ir-rabii is-seef il-khariif ish-shita


ǝȮdžƁȾȶ with

This preposition is used either with a proper name or a pronoun suffix (attached pronouns). It is negated with muu ǞȮžȽ . (Audio) wiyya wiyyaa wiyyaahum wiyyaak wiyyaach wiyyaakum wiyyaaya wiyyaana huwwa muu wiyyaana Samiir muu wiyya Samiira ruuhi wiyya Laylaa la-truuhiin wiyya Khaalid ruuh wiyyaahum la-truuh wiyyaahum

with with him with them with you (M) with you (F) with you (P) with me with us He is not with us. Samiir is not with Samiira. Go (F) with Laylaa. Don’t go with Khalid. Go (M) with them. Don’t go with them.

ǝȮdžƁȾȶ ƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ǛƀȽ ƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ȱƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ɃƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ǛȮżƾȮ Ƚ Ɓȿ Ⱦȶ ǝȮȼƁƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ƾſƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ƾſƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ Ǟž Ǟƀ ȜǍƸƵŴ ǝȮdžƁȾȶ ǞžȽ ǍƸƵŴ ǟƴƸŽ ǝȮdžƁȾȶ ǠŲȶȤ NjŽƾų ǝȮdžƁȾȶ ƞŲȶǍɀȮƄȼȮŽ ǛȮƀƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ȠȶȤ ǛƀƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ȠȶǍɀȮƄȼȮŽ


Telling Time | 

Idioms and Common Phrases (Audio)

ɀ džȮŽdžȢȘ as you wish, at 1. iddallal / iddallali / iddallalu (M/F/P) ǞƴdžȮȮŽdžȢȘ / ǠȮƴdžȮȮŽ ȿ džȢȘ / ǚȮ your service (an answer to a request, lit., be spoiled, imp. verb) min fadlak jiib is-sayyaara Please, bring the car. ȜȤƾƸƉŽȚ ɀ ȼȮź ǜžȾ dž ƿƸű ǙƴƬ ɀ džȮŽ iddallal (in reply) As you (M) wish. ǚȮ ȿ džȢȘ diir baalak as-saaa! Take care of the watch! ǀŸƾƉŽȚ Ȭ ǙŽƾŮ ǍƁȢ ȿ ȼ iddallali (in reply) As you (F) wish. ǠƴȮdžȮŽdžȢȘ diir baalak al-wilid! Take care of the children! NjȮȾŽǞȾ ɀȮŽȚ Ȭȼ ǙŽƾŮ ǍƁȢ iddallalu (in reply) As you (P) wish. ǞȮƴȮdžȮŽdžȢȘ alla ykhaliik, saaidni Please, help me with the ǠſNjɀ ŸȾ ƾŴ ȆǙƸȮƴ Ȯƈ ȿ ȼdž ɀ Ɓ ʇȚ ȿ ƾȾȮŮ ǀƭɀȮƶƐ bij-junta luggage. iddallali (in reply) At your service. ǠƴȮdžȮŽdžȢȘ 2. mamnuun / mamnuuna / mamnuuniin (M/F/P) ƞſǞƶɀȮƛȼ / ǀſǞƶɀȮƛȼ / ȴǞƶɀȮƛȼ to be indebted, grateful, thankful, pleased; gladly, with pleasure, you are welcome (as a reply to a request or to the word thank you, shukran). akuun mamnuun loo ijeet I will be grateful if you come ǁƸűȘ ǞŽ ȴǞƶɀȮƛȼ ȴǞżȖ ǁƸƃɀȮƴȮȾŽ lil-beet to the house. shukran al-hadiyya Thanks for the gift. ǀȮƁNjȼȮƷɀȮŽȚ Ȭȼ ȚǍƳŵ aani mamnuun (in reply) With pleasure. ȴǞƶɀȮƛȼ Ǡſȕ Maalik mamnuun minkum Maalik is indebted to you (P). ǛƳɀȮƶžȾ ȴǞƶɀȮƛȼ ǙȾŽƾž Basma mamnuuna min Basma is grateful to Maalik. ǙȾŽƾž ǜžȾ ǀſǞƶɀȮƛȼ ǀƵƉŮ Maalik min fadlak, saafir wiyya Laylaa mamnuun (in reply) ihna mamnuuniin min ustaadhna

Please, travel with Laylaa. Gladly. We are grateful to our professor.

ǟƴƸŽ ǝȮdžƁȾȶ ǍźȾ ƾŴ ȆǙƴƬź ǜžȾ ȴǞƶɀȮƛȼ ƾſȣƾƄȮŴ ɀ Ƚ Ț ǜž ƞſǞƶɀȮƛȼ ƾƶŲȘ

ɷʄ 1. Give appropriate oral replies to the following questions: ȒǀŸƾƉŽȚ ɀ ȼȮź ǜžȾ ʏʞ ȿ ǐƸȮŮ ȆǙƴƬ ȒȝƾŸƾƉŽȚ ȿ ǚƇȼ žȼ Ȳɀ Ș ǁȮŲȾ Ⱦ Ȥ ǁżȾ Ǟȼ Ȯŵ ȒȰNjƶƱɀȮŽƾŮ ȝƾŸƾŴ ljƦȮƴƫ ȼ žȽ ǞżȚ ɷʄ ȒȜNjƁNjȾȮű ǞŽ ǀƚNjȼȮŻ ǶȮƄȾ ȮŸɀ ƾŴ ȒȳǞƸŽƾŮ ǀŸƾŴ Ǜż ʏʞ ȒȬǞƃŴLjƾŮ ȳǞƁ ǛȼȮż ɷʄ ȒǍƷȮƪŽƾŮ ȬǞƃŴȖ Ǜż ȿ ȒǍƷȮƪŽƾŮ ȳǞƁ ǛȼȮż ʏʞ ȿ ɷʄ ʏʞ Drills



min fadlak, beesh is-saaa? shwakit rihit il-mahal is-saaaat? aku musallih saaaat bil-findiq? saatich qadiima loo jidiida? kam saaa bil-yoom? kam yoom bil-usbuu? kam usbuu bish-shahar? kam yoom bish-shahar?

 | l e s s o n  


ɷʄ ȒǀƶȮƉŽƾŮ ȿ ǍƷȮŵ Ǜż ȒǀƶȮƉŽƾŮ ʞʏ Ⱦ ȼȮź ǛȼȮż ȿ ǚƫ ȒȰȚǍƯŽƾŮ ȢȤƾŮ ǞŽ ȤƾŲ ǗƸƫŽȚ ȿ ʄɷ ȒƾƄȮƦȮƪŽƾŮ ȜȼȢɀȤƾŮ ǞŽ ȜȤƾŲ ȿ ȢȚNjưŮ ʏʞ 2. Make the singular verb in parentheses plural in the following sentences: ɆǞȮƉŽƾŮ ǜƁȥ ȝƾŸƾŴ ǚƇȼ žȼ Ȳɀ Ș (ǁŲȚȤ) ȿ ȼ ɷʄ ȰNjƶƱŽƾŮ ǟƴƸŽȶ ǚžƾż ǝȮƁ ȶ ǀƵƉŮ (ǁ Ʊ Ȯ ŵ) Ⱦ Ⱦ ȿ Ⱦ ʞʏ ǍƷȽ ȮƮŽȚ NjƯȼ ȮȼŮ ǀŸƾƉŽȚ ȼ Ǟƀ) ȿ (ljdžȮƴǧ ȿ ȿ Ț ȳǞƁ ȢȚNjưŮ Ȥƾƭžȼ (ǁȾȮƴǧ ǀƯȼ Ƶɀ Ɛ ȼ Ⱦȶ ǁſȘ) ʄɷ ǀŸƾƉŽȚ ȿ ǏƸƵƒȚɀ ȳǞƁ ȜȤƾƸdžȮƭŽƾŮ (ȝȼȤƾŶ Ǡƀ) ʏʞ Ǒ ȿ Ȯſȶ ȼ Ƚ ǀƯȼ ƃɀ Ŵ ljƃȽ ƫŽȚ ɷʄ ȿ ǀƯȮƉ ɀ Ⱦ ů ǀŸƾƉŽȚ ȿ ǗƇƄƵɀȮŽȚ (ȝȾȤȾȥ Ǡſȕ) ǁƸƃɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ǝȼȮƄȮŸɀ ƾŴ (ƾȼȮƉȾſ Ǟƀ) ʞʏ ȜǍɀȮƪŸȼ ǀŸƾƉŽȚ ȿ ǛƀƾȮȼƁȾȶ (ǁƸǰŲɀ ǁſȘ) ǀŴȤNjƓƾŮ ȸǎƸƴǦſȚȶ ǠŮǍŸ (ǁŴ ȼ ɀ ȤȾȢ Ǡƀ) ʄɷ ȿ ƾŮ ǀŮƾƄɀȮżȾȶ ǀƁȚǍɀȮŻ (ǠƄƵɀ džȮƴȮƯȼ ɀȮů ǠƄſȘ) ǀƯžƾƐ ʏʞ ɷʄ 3. Read the following aloud: ǀƉƵɀ ųȼ ǀŸƾƉŽȚ ȿ NjŲLjȚ ȳǞƁ ǁƸƃɀȮƴȾŽ ǁƸűȘ ǕȮȽŮȽȤȶ ʏʞ ǀƉƵɀ ųȼ ǀŸƾƉŽȚ ƞƶ ȮƅȮ Ž ȳǞƁ ǁƸƃ Ȯƴ Ž ǁƸűȘ ȿ ɀ Ⱦ ɀ Ⱦ ǕȮȽŮȽȤ ǚȼ ɀȮŽȘ ɷʄ ǀƉƵɀ ųȼ ǀŸƾƉŽȚ ȿ ƾŰǾȮƅŽȚ ȿ ȳǞƁ ǁƸƃɀȮƴȾŽ ǁƸűȘ Ǒ ȿ Ȯſȶ ʏʞ Ƚ ǀƯȼ ƉȮ ů ǀŸƾ ƉŽȚ ƾƯ Ů ȤLjȚ ȳǞƁ ǁƸƃ Ȯƴ Ž ƾƶƸűȘ ɀ Ⱦ ȿ ȼɀ ɀ Ⱦ ǚƸƴɀȮŽƾŮ ɷʄ ƞȮƄɀȮƶȾȮŰ ǀŸƾƉŽȚ ȿ ǏƸƵƒȚ ȳǞƁ ǁƸƃɀȮƴȾŽ ƾƶƸűȘ ʏʞ Ǎƫ Ⱦ Ưȼ ŽȚ ȿ ǀŰǾɀȮů ǀŸƾƉŽȚ ǀƯƵȮ Ɛ Ț ȳǞƁ ǁƸƃ Ȯƴ Ž ƾƶƸűȘ ȿ ɀ Ⱦ ɷʄ ǍƷȽ ȮƮŽȚ NjƯȼ ȼ Ů ȿ ȜȼǍɀȮƪŸȼ ǀŸƾƉŽȚ ȿ ǁƃȮƉŽȚ ȿ ȳǞƁ ǁƸƃɀȮƴȾŽ ƾƶƸűȘ ʏʞ ljȮƃ ȿ Ƚ ƫŽȚ ȰȚǍƯŽƾŮ ȢȤƾŮ ǍƁƾƶȼƁ ǍƷŵ ɷʄ ȰȚǍƯŽƾŮ ȢȤƾŮ ǍƁȚǍƃɀ ȼȮź ǍƷŵ ȰȚǍƯŽƾŮ ǝȮƁ ȿ Ǟȼ ɀȮŵ ȢȤƾŮ ȦȾȤƾž ǍƷŵ ʏʞ ȰȚǍƯŽƾŮ ȢȤƾŮ ǽȶ ȤƾŲ ǽ ǚƁǍŮȖ ǍƷŵ ɷʄ ʏʞ kam shahar bis-sana kam fasil bis-sana? is-seef haar loo baarid bil-iraaq? Baghdaad haara loo baarda bish-shita?

(raahat) il-mahal saaaat zeen bis-suug (shifit) Basma wiyya Kaamil wa Laylaa bil-findiq (huwwa sallah) is-saaa baad iz-zuhur (inta wisalit) mataar Baghdaad yoom ij-juma (hiyya taarat) bit-tayyaara yoom il-khamiis is-saaa saba w nuss (aani zirit) il-mathaf is-saaa tisa is-subuh (huwwa nisa) saata bil-beet inta (hicheet) wiyyaahum is-saaa ashra (hiyya dirsat) arabi w-Ingiliizi bil-madrasa (inti tallamti) qraaya wi-ktaaba bij-jaamia

a. ijeet lil-beet yoom l-ahhad is-saaa khamsa w rubu ijeet lil-beet yoom li-thneen is-saaa khamsa illa rubu ijeet lil-beet yoom ith-thalaathaa is-saaa khamsa w nuss ijeena lil-beet yoom il-arbaaa is-saaa tisa bil-leel ijeena lil-beet yoom il-khamiis is-saaa thinteen il-asir ijeena lil-beet yoom ij-juma is-saaa tlaatha baad iz-zuhur ijeena lil-beet yoom is-sabit is-saaa ashra is-subuh b. shahar Yanaayir baarid bil-iraaq shahar Fabraayir baarid bil-iraaq shahar Maaris baarid shwayya bil-iraaq shahar Abriil laa haar wala baarid bil-iraaq


Telling Time | 

shahar Maayoo laa haar wala baarid bil-iraaq shahar Yoonyoo haar shwayya bil-iraaq shahar Yoolyoo haar hwaaya bil-iraaq shahar Ughustus haar hwaaya bil-iraaq shahar Sibtambar laa haar wala baarid bil-iraaq shahar Uktoobar baarid shwayya bil-iraaq shahar Noovambar baarid bil-iraaq shahar Diisambar baarid hwaaya bil-iraaq

4. Say the following times in Arabic: : : : : : :

: : : : : :

5. Complete and read the following aloud: a. aani mamnuun min Basma aani mamnuuna ihna mamnuuniin ihna mamnuunaat inta mamnuun inti mamnuuna b. aani mamnuun mnil-mufattish intu mamnuunaat huwwa mamnuun hiyya mamnuuna humma mamnuuniin humma mamnuunaat

: : : : : :

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ǀƵƉŮ ǜžȾ ȴǞƶƵɀ Ȯžȼ Ǡſȕ ʄɷ ǀſǞƶƵɀ Ȯžȼ Ǡſȕ ʏʞ ƞſǞƶƵɀ Ȯžȼ ƾƶŲȘ ɷʄ ȝƾſǞƶƵɀ Ȯžȼ ƾƶŲȘ ʏʞ ȴǞƶƵɀ Ȯžȼ ǁſȘ ɷʄ ʏʞ ǀſǞƶƵɀ Ȯžȼ ǠƄſȘ ǐƦȮȮƄȼȮƱȮƵȽ ɀȮŽ ǜžɀ ȴǞƶƵɀ Ȯžȼ Ǡſȕ ɷʄ ȝƾſǞƶƵɀ Ȯžȼ ǞƄſȘ ʏʞ ȴǞƶƵɀ Ȯžȼ Ǟƀ ɷʄ ǀſǞƶƵɀ Ȯžȼ Ǡƀ ʏʞ ƞſǞƶƵɀ Ȯžȼ ǝȮƵȮ ȿ ƀȽ ɷʄ ȝƾſǞƶƵɀ Ȯžȼ ǝȮƵdž ƀȽ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ

ȰȚǍƯŽƾŮ ȢȤƾŮ ǽ ȶ ȤƾŲ ǽ ǞƁƾž ǍƷŵ ȰȚǍƯŽƾŮ ǝȮƁ ȿ Ǟȼ ɀȮŵ ȤƾŲ ǞƸȮſǞȮƁ ǍƷŵ ȰȚǍƯŽƾŮ ǝȼƁȚǞȮƀɀ ȤƾŲ ǞƸɀȮŽǞƁ ǍƷŵ ȰȚǍƯŽƾŮ ǝȼƁȚǞƀɀ ȤƾŲ Ǐƭ Ⱦ ƉȮ ɀ ŹȾ Ƚ Ț ǍƷŵ ȰȚǍƯŽƾŮ ȢȤƾŮ ǽȶ ȤƾŲ ǽ ǍƃƵɀ ƄȮƃȮ Ⱦ ǍƷŵ ɀ Ŵ ȰȚǍƯŽƾŮ ǝȮƁ ȿ Ǟȼ ɀȮŵ ȢȤƾŮ ǍŮǞƄɀȮżȽȚ ǍƷŵ ȰȚǍƯŽƾŮ ȢȤƾŮ ǍȼȮƃƵɀ ȼȮźǞſ ǍƷŵ ȰȚǍƯŽƾŮ ǝȼƁȚǞȮƀɀ ȢȤƾŮ ǍƃȮ ǍƷŵ ȼ ȼ Ƶɀ ƉȮƁȢ : : : : : :

: : : : : :


 | l e s s o n  

ɷʄ 6. Replace the nouns or the pronouns in parentheses by their equivalent Arabic attached ʞʏ pronouns and add them to the preposition “wiyya” in the following sentences: ǝȮƁ ȿ Ⱦȶ ǠŮǍŸ ȵȼǍɀȮŻȘ ʄɷ ǝȮƁ ȼ ǔƑȚ ǜƉȮȽƑȾ ȿ Ⱦȶ Ǟɀ ŲȚȤ ʏʞ ȰNjƶƱɀȮŽƾŮ ǝȮƁ ȿ Ⱦȶ ǁƵȼ ȮȾƴȼȮƳɀȮů ǀƵƉŮ ɷʄ ɆǞƉŽȚ ǝȮƁ ȿ ǜžɀ ȿ Ⱦȶ ǁƸűȘ ʞʏ ǝȮƁ ɀ ȼ ȤȾȢ ȿ Ⱦȶ ǀƸŮǍƯŽȚ ǀưƴȮŽȚ ǠƄŴ ʄɷ ǀŴȤNjɀ Ƶȼ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ ǝȮƁ ʏʞ ȿ Ⱦȶ ǝƶȮɀŮȘ ȥȿ ȼȢ ǁƸƃɀȮŽƾŮ ǝȮƁ ɷʄ ȿ Ⱦȶ ǀŽƾŴȾȤ ƿȼȮƄżȾ ʞʏ ʄɷ 7. Translate the following into English: ȢȚNjưŮ țɀ ȢȤƾŮ ǝȼȮƄƦȮƪȮŽȾȶ ȤƾŲ ǗƸƫŽȘ ȿ ʏʞ ȢȚNjưŮ țɀ ƿɀ Ƹȿ ȼȮŶ ǕƸŮǍȮŽȚ Ⱦ ȼȮź ȿ ǚƫ ɷʄ ʏʞ ȲǞƫȮź ȿ Ƚ ǕȼŮɀȤȖ ǀƶȮƉŽȘ ɷʄ ƾƀNjɀ ȾȮű ǜž ǀȮƁ ʏʞ ȿ NjȾ Ȯƀȼ ǀŸƾŴ ƾƀNjɀ ȮŸȾ ǀƵƉŮ ɷʄ ȜǞȼ ɀȮƴŲȾ ǏȮ ȿ ȼ Ů ǀƚNjŻ ǟƴƸŽ ǀŸƾŴ ʏʞ ɷʄ ǀƲȮƸŻȼȢ ƞȮƄȮ Ⱦ ǀŸƾƉŽȘ ȿ ȿ Ŵ ʏʞ ǀȮƸſƾŰ ƞȮƄȮ Ⱦ ǀƲƸŻNjȮŽȘ ȿ ȿ Ŵ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ iqra arabi wiyya . . . (Basma and Laylaa) lihusn ilhazz, raahaw wiyya . . . (you M, you P) Basma tkallimat wiyya . . .bil-findiq (her, abu it-taksi) ijeet wiyya . . . mnis-suug (him, them) dirasti il-lugha l-arabiyya wiyya . . . (me, us) dazz ibna wiyya . . . lil-madrasa (Samiira, you F) kitab risaala wiyya . . . bil-beet (us, them)

is-seef haar wish-shita baarid ib-Baghdaad

fasil ir-rabii tayyib ib-Baghdaad

is-sana arba fusuul

Basma idha saaa hadiyya min jidha

saaat Laylaa qadiima bass hilwa

is-saaa sittiin daqiiqa

id-daqiiqa sittiin thaaniya

. ..

. ..

. ..

. ..

. ..

. ..

. ..


il-yoom arbaa w ishriin saaa

is-sana thnaash shahar

ihna raayhiin, diiri baalich al-wilid!

¢ii, iddallalu

Samiir chaan mamnuun minkum il-baarha

Samiira chaanat mamnuuna minni qabul usbuu

Samiira muu mamnuuna min Jamaal

ihna muu mamnuuniin minhum

lisuu¢ ilhazz, Ahmad ma-raah wiyyaahum

hiyya muu wiyya Khaalid

gulli turuf mahal tasliih saaaat zeen?

aku musallih sayyaaraat yamm il-findiq?

bayyaa is-saaaat latiif

Telling Time | 

ɷʄ ʞʏ ǍƷȼ ȼȮŵ ǐŸȼ ƾƶɀȮŰ ǀƶȮƉŽȘ ȿ ʄɷ ʏʞ NjȾȮŽǞȾ ɀȮŽȚ Ȭȼ ǶȮȾŽƾŮ ȸǍƁȢ ȆƞƇȮɀƁȚȤ ƾƶȮŲȘ ɀ ɷʄ ʞʏ ǞƴȮdžȮŽȢȿ Ș Ȇ ǠȮȾǣ ʄɷ ǀŲɀȤƾƃɀȮŽȚ ǛƳɀȮƶžȾ ȴǞƶƵɀ Ȯžȼ ȴƾǩ ǍƸƵŴ ʏʞ ɷʄ ȬǞƃȮŴ ɀ Ƚ Ț ǚȮƃȽ ȼȮǬ ǠȼȮƶžȾ ǀſǞƶƵɀ Ȯžȼ ǁȼȮſƾǩ ȜǍƸƵŴ ʞʏ ȲƾƵű ǜžȾ ǀſǞƶƵɀ Ȯžȼ ǞžȽ ȜǍƸƵŴ ʄɷ ʏʞ ǛƷȽ ɀȮƶžȾ ƞſǞƶƵɀ Ȯžȼ Ǟž ƾƶŲȘ ɷʄ ʏʞ ǛƀƾȮƁ ɀ ȽƑȾ ȿ Ⱦȶ ȠȚȤ ȳȼ NjƵŲȖ ȆǔȼƑȚɀ ǜƉȮ ɷʄ NjŽƾų ǝȮdžƁȾȶ Ǟž Ǡƀ ʏʞ ɷʄ ȒǜƁȥ ȝƾŸƾŴ ǚȼȮƇžȼ ȯǍȮ Ƚ Ưɀ Ȯů Ƚ ǠƴɀȮƴȮǬ Ƚ ʏʞ ȒȰNjƶƱŽȚ Ɨȼ ȝȚȤƾƸȿ Ŵ ȼ žȽ ǞżȖ ɷʄ ȼ ljȮƴ ȿ ƫȮ ʏʞ ǗƸƭȼȮŽ ȝƾŸƾƉŽȚ ȿ ȬƾƸȮ ȿ ȼ Ů ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ǀŸƾŴ ǜƁǍƪŸȾ ȶ ǀƯȮȼŮɀȤȖ ȳǞƸŽȘ

 | l e s s o n  

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ Creative Dialogues ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ

shaafat Maalik badeen raahat lis-safaara

a. taalib : shwakit zirti l-iraaq? taaliba : zirit il-iraaq bis-seef gabul shahar taalib : laazim chanat haara hwaaya taaliba : kullish haarra, bass muu ratba taalib : shwakit ahsan waqit ibBaghdaad? taaliba : loo bir-rabii loo bil-khariif, taalib : leesh zirti il-iraaq bis-seef? taaliba : lisuu¢ ilhazz, ma-kaan indi waqit thaani b. taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib :

aani chinit bil-iraaq shunu sawweet hnaak? zirit ahli. sh-aku bil-iraaq? il-iraaq balad hilu wa ghani. w huwwa balad qadiim jiddan haadha sahiih. w bii aathaar hwaaya taaliba : ariid azuur il-iraaq wiyyaak

For new words, see Glossary.


ȜȤƾƱȮƉ ȿ ȾŽ ǁŲȚȤ ȼ ǜƁNjƯɀ ȮȼŮ ǙŽƾž ǁȼȮźƾŵ

ȒȰȚǍƯŽȚ ǠůɀȤȾȥ ǁżȾ Ǟȼ ɀȮŵ : ƿŽƾŶ ǍƷŵ ǚƃȮǬ ǗƸƫŽƾŮ ȿ ȰȚǍƯŽȚ ȝȾȤȾȥ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ǝȼƁȚǞƀɀ ȜȤƾŲ ȿ ǁȼȮſƾǩ ȳȾȥǽ : ƿŽƾŶ ǀƃɀȮŶȼȤ Ǟž ǏȼŮ ȆȜȤƾŲ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ȿ ǐȮƴ ȿ Ȯż Ƚ ɀ ȒȢȚNjưŮ țɀ ǁŻȾ ȼȶ ǜƉȮ : ƿŽƾŶ ȼ ŲȖ ɀ ǁżǞȼ Ȯŵ ǗƁǍƈȼ ɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ǞŽ ǕƸŮǍȮŽƾ ȿ ȾȮŮ ǞŽ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ȒǗƸƫŽƾŮ ȿ ȰȚǍƯŽȚ ǠůɀȤȾȥ ǐƸȮŽ : ƿŽƾŶ ȸNjƶȮŸȾ ȴƾż ƾž ȆǔƇȼ ɀȮŽȚ ȔǞƉȾŽ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ǠſƾŰ ǁȮŻȾ ȼȶ ȰȚǍƯŽƾŮ ǁȮƶȾ ȾȮǩ Ǡſȕ : ƿŽƾŶ ȒȱƾƶȮƀɀ ǁƁǞȿ ȮŴ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ȼ ǞƶȮŵ Ƚ Ǡƴƀɀ Ȗ ȝȾȤȾȥ : ƿŽƾŶ ȰȚǍƯɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ǞƳȼȮŵ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ǠƶȼȮŹȶ ǞȮƴ Ƚ ŲȾ NjȼȮƴȼȮŮ ȰȚǍƯɀȮŽȘ : ƿŽƾŶ ȹ ȚNjȾȮű ƗNjȼȮŻ NjȼȮƴȮȼŮ Ǟƀȶ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ǝȼƁȚǞȮƀɀ ȤƾŰȕ ǠŮȶ ȆljƸƇȮǧ ȼ Țȣƾƀ : ƿŽƾŶ ȱƾȮƁ ȿ Ⱦȶ ȰȚǍƯŽȚ ȤȶȥȖ NjƁȤȖ : ǀƃŽƾŶ

The Iraqi Museum, Baghdad

ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ lesson ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ǐȮŸȼ ȼȢ ȦȾȤȼȢ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ Visiting the Iraqi Museum ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ziyaara lil-mathaf il-iraaqi ǠŻȚǍȮƯȾ ɀȮŽȚ ǗȮƇȼ ɀȮƄȮƵȼ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȜȼȤƾȮƁȾȥ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ DARIS DAASH


Basma and Waliid (M) are on their way to the Iraqi Museum, which is located on the Karkh side of the Tigris River in Baghdad. The museum contains magnificent antiquities ranging from prehistoric to Islamic periods.

Basic Dialogue (Audio) . Basma: kam mathaf aku b-Baghdaad? How many museums are in Baghdad? . Waliid: aku mataahif hwaaya, bass ahsanha il-mathaf il-iraaqi. There are many museums, but the Iraqi Museum is the best. . Basma: ween il-mathaf il-iraaqi? Where is the Iraqi Museum? . Waliid: qariib mnil-mahatta l-aalamiyya. Near the International Train Station. . Basma: shunu haadhi l-binaaya l-kabiira? What is this large building? . Waliid: haadha huwwa l-mathaf. khalliina nishtiri tadhaakir. This is the museum. Let us buy tickets.


ǀȮƭ ȼ Ƶȼ ɀȮŽ ǜžɀ ƿƁǍŻ :NjƸŽȶ ȿ ƇȮ

ȒȜǍƸƃȼȮƳɀȮŽȚ ǀƁƾƶȾȮƃɀȮŽȚ ȸȣƾƀ ǞƶȮŵ Ƚ :ǀƵƉŮ ƾƶƸȮƴ ȿ ųȼ .ǠŻȚǍƯŽȚ ǗƇƄƓȚ Ǟƀ Țȣƾƀ :NjƸŽȶ .ǍżȚnjȼȮů ȸǍȾȮƄɀȮƪȮȾſ

 | l e s s o n  

. Basma: wa daliil il-mathaf, min fadlak. And the museum guide, please.

.ǙƴƬ ɀ ȼȮź


The two toured the museum and discussed the following on their way out. ȒǗƇȼ ɀȮƄƵȼ ɀȮŽȚ ǶȾȮƃȮƆȮ . Waliid: ijabich il-mathaf? ȼ ŸȾ :NjƸŽȶ Did you like the museum? ȹ ƾǧǞƫ . Basma: naam, ijabni hwaaya, wa Ƚ ȆǝȼƁȚǞȮƀɀ ǠƶȮƃȮ Ƚ ųȶ ɀ Ɔȼ ŸȾ ȆǛƯſ :ǀƵƉŮ .ǀȮƁǍ khusuusan il-qaaa s-Soomariyya. ȿ ǀŸƾƲɀȮŽȚ ȿ žȼ ǞƉŽȚ Yes, I liked it very much, and especially the Sumerian hall. . Waliid: aani ijbatni l-qaaa ǀŸƾƲɀȮŽȚ ǠƶɀȮƄƃȮ .ǀȮƁȤǞŵȃȚ ȼ Ɔɀ ŸȾ Ǡſȕ :NjƸŽȶ ȿ l-Aashuuriyya. I liked the Assyrian hall. . Basma: il-iraaq qadiim jiddan. .ȹ ȚNjȿ ȾȮű ƗNjȼȮŻ ȰȚǍƯŽȚ :ǀƵƉŮ Iraq is a very ancient (country). . Waliid: naam, huwwa aqdam min .ǍƫȮ Ⱦ žȼ ǜžȾ ȳNjȼ ɀȮŻȖ Ǟƀ ȆǛƯſ :NjƸŽȶ Masir. Yes, it is older than Egypt. . Basma: ariid azuur madiinat Baabil .ǀƚNjȼȮƲɀȮŽȚ ǚŮƾŮ ǀƶƁNjȮžȼ ȤȶȥȖ NjƁȤȖ :ǀƵƉŮ il-qadiima. I want to visit the city of ancient Babylon. . Waliid: khoosh fikra, khalliina nruuh ȠȶǍɀȮſ ƾƶƸȮƴ ȿ ȼȮų ȆȜȼǍɀȮƳȮźȾ ȧǞų :NjƸŽȶ .ǀȮƁ siwiyya. Ⱦ Ⱦ Ŵ ȿ ǞȮ A good idea, let us go together.

Additional Expressions (Audio) qaaat maa qabla t-taariikh il-qaaa l-Baabiliyya qaaat il-Hadar il-qaaa l-Islaamiyya il-Mathaf il-Qadiim

il-Mathaf il-Hadiith Mathaf il-Fann il-Hadiith il-Mathaf il-Harbi il-Mathaf il-abbaasi Mathaf Khaan Mirjaan

the prehistory hall the Babylonian hall the Hatrian hall the Islamic hall the Ancient Museum (capitalized because they are proper names) the Modern Museum the Museum of Modern Art the Military Museum the Abbasid Museum (Islamic antiquities) Khan Mirjan Museum (Islamic remains)

ȼ ƃɀ ȼȮŻ ƾž ǀȮŸȼ ƾŻ NJƁȤƾȮƄŽȚ ȿ ǚȮ ǀȮƸ ȿ ȾȮƴȾȮŮƾƃɀȮŽȚ ǀȮŸȼ ƾƲŽȚ ǍƬ ȼ Ƈȼ ɀȮŽȚ ǀȮŸȼ ƾŻ ǀƸȼ žȾ ǾŴLjȚ ɀ ǀȮŸȼ ƾƲɀȮŽȚ ƗNjȼȮƲɀȮŽȚ ǗƇȼ ɀȮƄƵȼ ɀȮŽȘ ǂƁNjƇȼ ɀȮŽȚ ǗƇȼ ɀȮƄƵȼ ɀȮŽȘ ǂƁNjƇȼ ɀȮŽȚ ǜȼȮƱɀȮŽȚ ǗȼȮƇɀȮƄžȼ ǠŮɀǍƇȼ ɀȮŽȚ ǗƇɀȮƄƵȼ ɀȮŽȚ ǠŴƾƃȿ Ưȼ ɀȮŽȚ ǗƇƄƵɀȮŽȚ ȴƾűɀǍžȾ ȴƾų ǗƇƄžȼ

Visiting the Iraqi Museum | 

Mathaf it-Taariikh it-Tabiii Mathaf al-Azyaa¢ il-Wataniyya

the Natural History Museum the Museum of National Costumes


Vocabulary (Audio) kam, cham? mathaf / mataahif (S/P) aku hwaaya ahsan, ahsanha qariib, giriib mni < min mahatta / mahattaat (S/P) aalam aalami / aalamiyya (M/F) binaaya / binaayaat (S/P) haadha / haadhi (M/F) khalliina nishtiri tadhkara / tadhaakir (S/P) daliil ijabich ijabni khusuusan qaaa / qaaaat (S/P) Soomar

Soomari / Soomariyyiin (M/P)


Aashuuri / Aashuuriyya / Aashuuriyyiin (M/F/P)

How many? (see lesson ) museum/s there is/are (see lesson ) many, much (invariable, adj.) better, the best near, close by from (see lesson ) station/s world, universe international (relative adj.) building/s this, that (see lesson ) let us (imp. verb) we buy ticket/s guide You liked it. I liked it. especially (adv.) hall/s Sumer (name of the ancient land of southern Iraq) Sumerian/s (name of probably the first ancient people who inhabited southern Iraq) Assur (name of the ancient land and main god of northern Iraq) Assyrian/s (name of the ancient people who inhabited northern Iraq)

ȒǛȮǩȼ ǛȼȮż ǗŲƾƄ Ⱦ žȼ / ǗȮƇȼ ɀȮƄžȼ ǞȮżȖ ǝƁȚǞƀɀ ƾƷƶȮƉŲȖ ɀ ȆǜȼȮƉŲȖ ɀ ƿƁǍȮǬȾ ȆƿƁǍȼȮŻ ǜɀ ȮžȾ > ǜȮ Ⱦ žɀ ȝƾȮƭ Ƈ ž / ǀ Ȯƭ ȿ ȼ ȼ ȿ Ƈȼ žȼ ǛȼȮŽƾŸ ǀƸƵ ȿ ȼȮŽƾŸ / ǠƵȼȮŽƾŸ ȝƾƁƾƶȾȮŮ / ǀƁƾƶȾȮȮŮ ȸȣƾƀ / Țȣƾƀ ƾƶȮƸȮƴ ȿ ȼȮų ȸǍȾȮƄɀȮƪȾſ ǍȮżȚnj Ȯů / Ⱦ ȼ ȜǍȼȮżnjȼȮů ǚƸȮŽȼȢ ǶȾȮƃƆȮ ȼ ŸȾ ǠƶƃȮ ɀ Ɔȼ ŸȾ ȹ ƾǧǞƫ Ƚ Ȯų Ƚ ȝƾŸƾŻ / ǀȮŸȼ ƾŻ Ǎžȼ ǞȮŴ Ƚ ǜȮƸȮƦƁȾǍžȼ ǞŴ / ȸǍžȼ ǞŴ

ȤǞȮŵȕ Ƚ Ƚ / ȸȤǞŵȕ Ƚ / ǀȮƁȿ ȤǞŵȕ ǜȮƸȮƦƁȤǞŵȕ

 | l e s s o n  

ariid azuur madiina / mudun (S/P) Baabil qadiim / qadiima (M/F) aqdam khoosh (M/F/P) fikra / afkaar (S/P) nruuh siwiyya

NjȮƁȤȖ ȤȶȥȖ ȴNjȽ ȮžȽ / ǀƶȮƁNjȼȮž ǚȾȮŮƾŮ ǀƵȮƁNjȼȮŻ / ƗNjȼȮŻ ȳNjȼ ȮɀȮŻȖ ȧǞȮųȽ

I want I visit city, town/s Babylon (ancient) old, ancient (adj.) older, more ancient good (invariable adj. precedes nouns) idea/s we go together

Grammar and Remarks The Present / Imperfect Tense Verb: il-fi9il il-mudaari9

ȤƾƳɀȮźȖ / ȜȼǍɀȮƳȮźȾ ȠȶǍɀȮſ ǀȮƁȿ ǞȮ Ⱦ Ⱦ Ŵ


The Arabic present tense verb differs from the past tense verb in one important feature. It must always have a prefix, as in yiktib ƿƄȮƳȮƁ (he writes) although it also takes a suffix with certain persons to indicate gender or number, as in yikitbuun ȴǞƃȮƄƳƁ (they write). Therefore, the present verb consists of two and sometimes three elements: a prefix which indicates the subject marker, a stem which gives the lexical meaning, and sometimes a suffix (see lesson ). The base form stem of the present tense verb is the same as that of the imperative verb stem preceded by the subject prefix, e.g. ruuh ȠȶȤ (go, M), truuh ȠȶǍȮů (you go, M). Adding the prefixes to the present tense verb may create some variants depending on the type of the verb (regular or weak) or whether the stem has one initial consonant or more. Below are conjugation tables for the various types of the Iraqi present tense verbs and their prefix variants. Notice that the third person feminine and the second person masculine of the present verbs have similar forms. Important Note: At this stage of learning Arabic, the student is advised to learn the stem of the past and the present of each verb together (memorize verbs like: raah, yruuh, kitab, yiktib). By doing so, the student should be able to conjugate each type more easily. In the glossary of this book, and in almost in all the books that teach Arabic, the reader will find the verbs listed in the same manner, namely, third person masculine singular past tense first and its equivalent present tense second. For the future tense verb, see lesson .

The Present Tense Verb Paradigm (Audio) Arabic Pronouns

Arabic Prefix/Suffix

Hollow Verb guul (to say)

Double Verb sadd (to close)

huwwa hiyya humma inta

y/yi/yut/ti/tu- * y/yi/yu . . . uun t/ti/tu- *

yguul tguul yguuluun tguul

ysidd tsidd ysidduun tsidd

Visiting the Iraqi Museum | 

Arabic Pronouns

Arabic Prefix/Suffix

Hollow Verb guul (to say)

Double Verb sadd (to close)

inti intu aani ihna

t/ti/tu . . . iin t/ti/tu . . . uun an/ni/nu-

tguuliin tguuluun aguul nguul

tsiddiin tsidduun asidd nsidd

NjȮ Ⱦ ɀƁ ȿ ƉȮ NjȮ Ⱦ ɀȮů ȿ Ɖ ȴȶNjȮ Ⱦ ɀƁ ȿ ƉȮ NjȮ Ⱦ ɀȮů ȿ Ɖ ǜȮƁNjȮ Ɖ ȿ Ⱦ ɀȮů ȴȶNjȮ Ⱦ ɀȮů ȿ Ɖ NjȮȮ Ⱦ ȿ ŴȖ NjȮ Ⱦ ɀȮſ ȿ Ɖ


ȮȮ ȮȽƁ / ȾȮƁ / ɀȮƁ *ȮȮ Ȯů Ƚ / ȮȾů / ɀȮů ȴȶȽ . . . ȮȽƁ / ȾȮƁ / ɀȮƁ *ȮȮ Ȯů Ƚ / ȮȾů / ɀȮů ǜȽ ȾȮƁ . . . Ȯů Ƚ / ȮȾů / ɀȮů ȴȶȽ . . . Ȯů Ƚ / ȮȾů / ɀȮů ȮȮ Ȗ ȮȮ Ȯſ Ƚ / ȾȮſ / ɀȮſ

Ǟƀ Ǡƀ ǝƵdž ȮƀȽ ǁſȘ ǠƄſȘ ǞƄſȘ Ǡſȕ ƾƶŲȘ

*Identical conjugations.

Arabic Pronouns

Arabic Prefix/Suffix

Regular Verb ktib (to write), g9ud (to sit)

Weak Verb qra (to read)

huwwa hiyya humma inta inti intu aani ihna

y/yi/yut/ti/tu-* y/yi/yu-. . .uun t/ti/tu-* t/ti/tu-. . .iin t/ti/tu-. . .uun an/ni/nu-

yiktib tiktib yikitbuun tiktib tikitbiin tikitbuun aktib niktib

yiqra tiqra yiqruun tiqra tiqriin tiqruun aqra niqra




yugud tugud yuguduun tugud tugudiin tuguduun agud nugud

ȮȮ ȮȽƁ / ȾȮƁ / ɀȮƁ *ȮȮ Ȯů Ƚ / ȮȾů / ɀȮů ȴȶȽ . . . ȮȽƁ / ȾȮƁ / ɀȮƁ *ȮȮ Ȯů Ƚ / ȮȾů / ɀȮů ǜȽ ȾȮƁ . . . Ȯů Ƚ / ȮȾů / ɀȮů ȴȶȽ . . . Ȯů Ƚ / ȮȾů / ɀȮů ȮȮ Ȗ ȮȮ Ȯſ Ƚ / ȾȮſ / ɀȮſ

Ǟƀ ȸ ǝƵȮ ȿ ƀȽ ǁſȘ ǠƄſȘ ǞƄſȘ Ǡſȕ ƾƶŲȘ

*Identical conjugations.

Notes on the Verb Paradigm: . There are only four prefixes (y-, t-, a-, n-) to which the helping vowel “i” or “u” is added (yi/yu, ti/tu, ni/nu) when the prefixed stem has more than one initial consonant, as in the verbs ktib, gud, and qra. The helping vowel “i” is much more common than “u.”

 | l e s s o n  

There is no established rule for adding “i” or “u” and the correct vowel is to be learned with each verb. However, there is a tendency toward vowel harmony; a verb with stem vowel “i” or “u” tends to take a similar helping vowel. The stem vowel is the vowel before the last consonant. . The hollow and the double verbs have one initial consonant. Therefore, its prefixes do not take a helping vowel. . The regular verbs ktib and gud have two initial consonants with “i” and “u” stem vowel, respectively. Therefore, their prefix takes similar helping vowels, namely “i” and “u.” There are two variants to be noted in this type of verb (regular) which occur in the third person plural and the second person feminine and plural. First, when the suffix “-uun” or “-iin” is added there is an option of dropping out the prefix helping vowel, and second, the helping vowel is shifted from third to second position, as shown above. . The weak verb, such as qra, has two initial consonants and its prefix almost always takes the helping vowel “i.” The final vowel in such a verb is always dropped out when a suffix beginning with a vowel is added, as in tiqriin.

Idioms and Common Phrases (Audio) 1. min waqit li-waqit

ǁȮŻȾ Ǟȼ ȮȾŽ ǁȮŻȾ ȼȶ ǜžȾ from time to time

azuur il-iraaq min waqit li-waqit ihna nzuur ammaan min waqit li-waqit huwwa yzuur Basma min waqit li-waqit inti tzuuriin Turkiya min waqit li-wqait intu tzuuruun il-mathaf il-iraaqi min waqit li-waqit

2. min hissa w jay

I visit Iraq from time to time. We visit Amman from time to time. He visits Basma from time to time. You visit Turkey from time to time. You visit the Iraqi Museum from time to time.

ȸɀ ƾűȶ ǝƉȮ dž ƀȾ ǜžȾ from now on

min hissa w jaay, aruuh lil-mathaf kull shahar min hissa w jaay, ashrab gahwa min hissa w jaay, maa ashrab chaay min hissa w jaay, nzuurkum bil-beet kull usbuu

From now on, I will go to the museum every month. From now on, I will drink coffee. From now on, I will not drink tea. From now on, we will visit you at (your) house every week.

ǁȮŻȾ Ǟȼ ȮȾŽ ǁȮŻȾ ȼȶ ǜžȾ ȰȚǍƯŽȚ ȤȶȥȖ ǁȮŻȾ ȼȶ ǜžȾ ȴƾȮƵȮ ȿ Ÿȼ ȤȶǎɀȮſ ƾƶŲȘ ǁȮŻȾ Ǟȼ ȮȾŽ ǁȮŻȾ ȼȶ ǜžȾ ǀƵƉŮ ȤȶǎɀȮƁ Ǟƀ ǁȮŻȾ Ǟȼ ȮȾŽ ǁȮŻȾ ȼȶ ǜžȾ ƾƸżȾ ɀǍȮů Ƚ ǜƁȤȶǎɀȮů ǠƄſȘ ǁȮŻȾ Ǟȼ ȮȾŽ ȰȚǍƯŽȚ ǗƇƄƓȚ ȴȶȤȶǎɀȮů ǞƄſȘ ǁȮŻȾ Ǟȼ ȮȾŽ ǁȮŻȾ ȼȶ ǜžȾ

ȠȶȤȖ Ȇȸƾűȶ ǝƉȮ dž ƀȾ ǜžȾ ǍƷŵ ǚȮż Ƚ ǗƇƄƵȼ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ țȼǍɀȮŵȖ Ȇȸƾűȶ ǝƉȮ dž ƀȾ ǜžȾ ȜǞȼ ȮƷɀ ȼȮǬ țȼǍɀȮŵȖ ƾž Ȇȸƾűȶ ǝƉȮ dž ƀȾ ǜžȾ ȸƾǩ ǛżȤȶǎɀȮſ Ȇȸƾűȶ ǝƉȮ dž ƀȾ ǜžȾ Ƚɀ Ț ǚȮż ȬǞƃŴ Ƚ ǁƸƃŽƾŮ


Visiting the Iraqi Museum | 

min hissa w jaay, naakul kabaab ib-matam isSalaam min hissa w jaay, adrus arabi kull yoom min hissa w jaay, laazim aqra taariikh il-iraaq

From now on, we will eat kebab in the Salaam restaurant. From now on, I will study Arabic every day. From now on, I must read the history of Iraq.

ǚȮżƾſ dž ƀȾ ǜžȾ Ƚ Ȇȸƾűȶ ǝƉȮ ȳǾƉŽȚ ȿ ǛȮƯȼ ɀȮƭžȼ țɀ țƾƃż ǠŮǍŸ ȦȽȤɀȢȖ Ȇȸƾűȶ ǝƉȮ dž ƀȾ ǜžȾ ȳǞƁ ǚȮż Ƚ ȵȼǍɀȮŻȖ ȳȾȥǽ Ȇȸƾűȶ ǝƉȮ dž ƀȾ ǜžȾ ȰȚǍƯŽȚ NJƁȤƾů


ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ 2. Change the second person masculine to the second person feminine and plural: ʏʞ ȒȠȶǍɀȮů ƿƇȾ ɀȮů ǜƁȶ ǍżȚnjȼȮů ȸǍƄŵȖ ǠƶƸȮƴ ȿ ȼȮų ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ȤƾȮŰȃȚȚ ȯǞƪɀȮů ǗƇƄƓȚ ǙȼȮƃƆȮ Ư Ȯ Ɓ ɀ ȾȾ ʏʞ ɷʄ ǍȾȮǩƾŮ ǚŮƾŮ ȤȶǎɀȮů ȸƾǩ țȼǍɀȮƪȮȾů ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ Drills


1. Give appropriate oral answers to the following questions: il-mathaf il-iraaqi chibiir loo saghiir? ȒǍƸưǧ ȼ ǞŽ ǍȮƸȮƃȾȮǩ ǠŻȚǍƯŽȚ ǗƇƄƓȚ ween aku mataahif hwaaya? ȒǝƁȚǞȮƀɀ ǗŲƾƄžȼ ǞżȖ ǜƁȶ ween il-mathaf il-iraaqi? ȒǠŻȚǍƯɀȮŽȚ ǗȮƇȼ ɀȮƄƵȼ ɀȮŽȚ ǜƁȶ minu zaar il-mathaf? ȒǗƇƄƵɀȮŽȚ ȤȚȥ ǞƶȮžȾ ayy qaaa ijbatich? ȒǶȮƄȾ ȮƃȮ ȿ ɀ ŸȾ ǀŸƾŻ ȸȖ ȼ ƆȮ triidiin tzuuriin madinat Baabil? ȒǚŮƾŮ ǀƶȮƁNjžȼ ǜƁȤȶǎɀȮů ǜƁNjƁǍɀȮů Baabil biiida loo qariiba min Baghdaad? ȒȢȚNjưŮ ǜȮžȾ ǀƃƁǍȼȮŻ ǞŽ ȜNjƸƯȾȮŮ ǚŮƾŮ Baabil qadiima loo hadiitha? ȒǀƅȮƁNjȮŲȼ ǞŽ ǀƚNjȼȮŻ ǚŮƾŮ shaku bil-mathaf il-iraaqi? ȒǠŻȚǍƯɀȮŽȚ ǗƇȼ ɀȮƄƵȼ ɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ǞƳȼȮŵ aathaar il-iraaq qadiima, muu balla? ȒǝȼȮƴɀȮƴȮȼȾŮ ǞȮžȽ ȆǀƚNjȼȮŻ ȰȚǍƯȮŽȚ ȤƾȮŰȕ minu aqdam il-iraaq loo Lubnaan? ȒȴƾƶȮƃɀ ȮŽ Ƚ ǞŽ ȰȚǍƯɀȮŽȚ ȳNjɀȮŻȖ ǞƶȮžȾ minu ahdath Masir loo Fransa? ȒƾƉɀȮſȼǍɀȮź ǞŽ ǍƫȮ Ⱦ žȼ ȞNjȼ ȮŲȖ ɀ ǞƶȮžȾ ween thibb truuh?

khalliini ashtri tadhaakir



P: tshuuf il-aathaar

P: yiijbak il-mathaf?



P: tzuur Baabil baachir

P: tishrab chaay






 | l e s s o n  

ɷʄ ȿ ƾŮ ǛȮƴ ǀƯžƾƐ ǍȾȮǩƾŮ ǁƸƃŽƾŮ ƾſȤȶǎɀȮů ȿ Ưȼ ɀȮƄȮȾů ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ǠŮǍŸ ƿƄȾ ɀȮƳȮȾůȶ ȚǍɀȮƲȮȾů ǜƁȥ ǠŻȚǍŸ ǛȮƴ ȿ ȼȮƳɀȮƄȮȾů ɷʄ ʞʏ ƾƵȼȮƶȮƸƉ ȒȰȚǍƯŽȚ NJƁȤƾů ƿƇȾ ɀȮů Ʀ ȾŽ ȠȶǍɀȮů ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ 3. Conjugate orally the following present tense verbs: ȠȶǍȮɀƁ ǠƆȾȮƁ ʄɷ ǚȮżƾƁ ȤȶǎȮɀƁ Ƚ țǍɀȮƪȾȮƁ ǓƇȮ Ƚ ɀƁ ʏʞ NjƁǍȮɀƁ ȦȽȤNjɀ ȮȽƁ ljȼȮƄɀȮƱȾȮƁ ǁȮƳ ɀ ȽƁ Ƚ Ɖ ɷʄ ȯǞƪɀƁ ƾȼȮƲɀȮƃȮȽƁ ȳƾƶȮɀƁ ǗȮƪ Ⱦ ƄȾ ɀȮƳȾȮƁ ʏʞ ȲǞǦȮɀƁ ǗȼȮǬǞƁ ǚȮų ǍƉ Ⱦ ɀȮƳȾȮƁ Ƚ Njɀ ȮȽƁ ɷʄ NjȮƯȽ ɀȮǦȮȽƁ NjȮƉȮ Ⱦ ɀƁ ʏʞ 4. Complete and read the following sentences aloud: ǀƯȼ Ȯƃɀ Ŵ ɷʄ ȿ ȳǞȮƶŽȚ ȼ ǀŸƾƉŽȚ ȿ ǜž NjƯȽ ɀȮżǞȽƁ Ǟƀ ǀƯƃŴ Ǡƀ ȿ ȳǞȮƶŽȚ ȼ ǀŸƾƉŽȚ ʏʞ ȿ ǜž ǀƯƃŴ ǝȮƵȿ ƀȽ ɷʄ ȿ ȳǞȮƶŽȚ ȼ ǀŸƾƉŽȚ ȿ ǜž ɀ Ÿȼ ǀŸƾƉŽȚ ʏʞ ȜȼǍƪ ǁſȘ ȿ ȳǞȮƶŽȚ ȿ ǜž ɷʄ ɀ Ÿȼ ǀŸƾƉŽȚ ȜȼǍƪ ǠƄſȘ ȿ ȳǞȮƶŽȚ ȿ ǜž ʏʞ ɀ Ÿȼ ǀŸƾƉŽȚ ȜȼǍƪ ǞƄſȘ ȿ ȳǞȮƶŽȚ ȿ ǜž ɷʄ ʏʞ titallam bij-jaamia

yzuurna bil-beet baachir



P: tiqra w tiktib arabi

P: titkallam iraaqi zeen



P: truuh lis-sinama hissa

P: thibb taariikh il-iraaq?





yruuh yaakul yishrab yriid yiftah yshuuf ynaam yguul yudkhul yugud

he goes he eats he drinks he wants he opens he sees he sleeps he says he enters he sits down

yiji yzuur yhutt yudrus yuskut yubqa yiktishif yoogaf yiksir ysidd

a. huwwa yugud min in-noom is-saaa saba hiyya

min in-noom is-saaa saba


min in-noom is-saaa saba


min in-noom is-saaa ashra


min in-noom is-saaa ashra


min in-noom is-saaa ashra

he comes he visits he puts he studies he doesn’t speak he stays he discovers he stands up he breaks he closes


Visiting the Iraqi Museum | 

ɷʄ ʞʏ ǑȽſȶ ǀƯƃŴ ǀŸƾ ƉŽȚ ȳǞ ȮƶŽȚ ǜž Ǡſȕ ȿ ȼ ȿ ʄɷ ʏʞ ǕȽŮȽȤȶ ǀƯƃŴ ƾƶŲȘ ȿ ȳǞȮƶŽȚ ȼ ǀŸƾƉŽȚ ȿ ǜž ɷʄ ljƃȮ ȸƾǩ țǍ Ȯƪ Ȯ Ɓ Ǟƀ Ⱦ LJ ȳǞƁ ǚɀ Ȯż Ƚ ƫŽȚ ɀ Ƚ Ǡƀ ʞʏ ʄɷ ǝȮƵȿ ƀȽ ʏʞ ǁſȘ ɷʄ ǠƄſȘ ʞʏ ǞƄſȘ ʄɷ Ǡſȕ ʏʞ ƾƶŲȘ ɷʄ ȳǞƁ ǚɀ Ȯż dž ƀȾ ǜžȾ ʏʞ Ƚ ǠŮǍŸ ȵȼǍƲȾȮƁ ǚžƾż Ȇȸɀ ƾűȶ ǝȮƉ ȜǍƸƵŴ ɷʄ ǙŽƾž ʏʞ ǁſȘ ɷʄ ǠƄſȘ ʏʞ ɷʄ ǞƄſȘ ʏʞ Ǡſȕ ɷʄ ƾƶŲȘ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ


min in-noom is-saaa saba w nuss


min in-noom is-saaa saba w rubu

b. huwwa yishrab chaay kull yoom is-subuh hiyya humma inta inti intu aani ihna

c. min hissa w jaay, Kaamil yiqra arabi kull yoom , Samiira , Maalik , inta , inti , intu , aani , ihna


 | l e s s o n  

ɷʄ ljȮƃ LJ ȳǞƁ ǚɀ Ȯż Ƚ ƫŽȚ Ƚ ȸǎȮƸƴǦȾ ɀȮſȘ ȦȽȤNjɀ ȮȽƁ Ǟƀ ʞʏ ǍƷȽ ȮƮŽȚ LJ ʄɷ Ǎƫ Ⱦ Ưȼ ɀȮŽȚ ʏʞ ȔƾƉƵȼ ɀȮŽƾŮ ɷʄ ǚƸƴȮɀȮŽƾŮ ʞʏ ǍƷȽ ȮƮŽȚ ǚȮƃȽ ȼȮǬ ȿ ʄɷ ǍƷȮƮŽȚ NjƯɀ ȮȼȾŮ LJ ʏʞ ȒǀdžȮƭƇȼ Ƶȼ ȮɀȮŽ ǜžɀ NjƸƯȾȮŮ ǞŽ ƿƁǍŻ ǠŻȚǍƯŽȚ ǗƇƄƓȚ ɷʄ ȒǚŮƾŮ ǜžȾ ʞʏ Ȓǀƴűɀ ȾȢ ǍƷȼ ȼ ſ ǜžȾ ʄɷ ȜȤƾȮƱƉȮŽ ʏʞ dž ǜžɀ ɷʄ ȰNjȾ ɀȮƶȮƱȾ ɀȮŽ ǜžɀ ʏʞ ɆǞƉȮŽ ȿ ǜžɀ ɷʄ NjƁǍȼȮƃɀȮŽ ǜžɀ ʏʞ ǍȾȮƉƆȮŽ Ʀ ǜžɀ ɷʄ ʏʞ 5. Read aloud the following sentences and translate them: ȢȚNjưŮ țɀ ǝƁȚǞƀɀ ǗŲƾƄžȼ ǞȮżȖ ȿ ǝƁȚǞƀɀ ȝȚȤƾƸȮ ȬȤƾȮƪŽƾŮ ȼ ǞȮżȖ ȿ Ŵ ɷʄ ȤƾƭƵȼ ɀȮŽƾŮ ǝƁȚǞƀɀ ȝȚȤƾȮƸŶ ȿ ǞȮżȖ ǀƃȼȮƄɀȮƳƵȼ ɀȮŽƾŮ ǝƁȚǞƀɀ ƿȮƄ Ƚ Ȯż Ƚ ǞȮżȖ ʏʞ ȼ ǀŴȼȤNjɀ ȮƓƾŮ ǝƁȚǞƀɀ ȝƾƶȮȼŮ ǞȮżȖ ȿ ƾŮ ǝƁȚǞƀɀ NjȮȾŽȾȶ ǞȮżȖ ǀƯžȾ ƾƐ ɷʄ ȰȚǍƯŽƾŮ ǝƁȚǞƀɀ ȤƾȮŰȕ ǞȮżȖ ǚŮƾŮ Ȳɀ ǝdžȮƁǞȮŴ Ⱦ ȴǞŲȶǍȮɀƁ ǙŽƾžȶ ǀƵƉŮ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ d. huwwa yudrus Ingiliizi kull usbuu is-subuh iz-zuhur il-asir

bil-masaa¢ bil-leel

gabul iz-zuhur bad iz-zuhur

e. il-mathaf il-iraaqi qariib loo biiid mnil-mahatta? min Baabil?

min nahar Dijla? mnis-safaara? mnil-findiq? mnis-suug?

mnil-bariid? mnij-jisir?

aku mataahif hwaaya b-Baghdaad aku sayyaaraat hwaaya bish-shaari aku tayyaaraat hwaaya bil-mataar aku kutub hwaaya bil-maktaba aku banaat hwaaya bil-madrasa aku wilid hwaaya bij-jaamia aku aathaar hwaaya bil-iraaq Basma w Maalik yruuhuun siwiyya l-Baabil


aani w-inta nruuh siwiyya lil-mathaf intu truuhuun siwiyya lis-siinama Laylaa w Samiir yshuufuun filim arabi siwiyya il-wilid yudursuun siwiyya bil-madrasa Basma tshuuf il-mathaf wiyya Waliid Kariima tiqra arabi wiyya Samiira

Visiting the Iraqi Museum | 


6. Translate the following into Arabic: The Iraqi Museum is near the International Station.

I like the Babylonian and the Assyrian halls.

Please buy (F) the museum guide.

There are many Islamic museums in Iraq.

The Sumerian language is old.

They visit the city of Babylon from time to time.

From now on, I will speak Arabic every day.

From now on, we will not drink coffee in the morning.

Laylaa is thankful to you for the gift.

I am indebted to my Arabic professor.

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ


 | l e s s o n  

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ Creative Dialogues ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ

You (M) say everything in English.

They like to visit London in the summer.

The summer is hot and the winter is cold in Baghdad.

I go to sleep at night at eleven o’clock from time to time.

Please take care (P) of my children.

For your sake, I will study Arabic every day.

Iraqi antiquities are very old.

a. taaliba : ariidak tiji wiyyaaya lil-mathaf taalib : ayy mathaf triidiin tzuuriin? taaliba : ala keefak, mumkin il-Mathaf il-Islami taalib : shaku bil-Mathaf il-Islaami? taaliba : aku aathaar Islaamiyya taalib : shwakit triidiin truuhiin? taaliba : il-yoom is-saaa tisa taalib : khoosh fikra b. taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib :

shgadd saarlich bil-iraaq? saarli shahar shwakit wisalti Baghdaad? wisalit gabul shahar b-ayy findiq naazla?

ǗƇƄƵɀȮƴȮȾŽ ǝȼƁƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ǠƏȾ ȱNjȼ ƁȤȖ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ȒǜƁȤȶǎɀȮů ǜƁNjƁǍɀȮů ǗƇȼ ɀȮƄžȼ ȸȖ ǗƇƄƓȚ ǜƳȾ ɀ ƛȽ ȆǙƱƸż ǟƴŸ ǠžǾŴȁȚ ɀ ȼ ȒǠžǾŴȁȚ ǗƇƄƵɀȮŽƾŮ ǞƳŵ ǀƸžǾŴȘ ɀ ȤƾȮŰȕ ǞȮżȖ ȒƞŲȶǍɀȮů ǜƁNjƁǍɀȮů ǁżȾ Ǟȼ ɀȮŵ ǀƯȼ ƉȮ ɀ Ⱦ ů ǀŸȼ ƾƉŽȚ ȿ ȳǞƸɀȮŽȚ ȜȼǍɀȮƳȮźȾ ȧǞųȽ

: ƿŽƾŶ : ǀƃŽƾŶ

ȼ ȒȰȚǍƯŽƾŮ ǶȮȾŽɀȤƾǧ NjȼȮǦȮŵ ȼ ǠŽɀȤƾǧ ǍȮƷȼ ŵ ȒȢȚNjưŮ ǠƄɀȮƴǧ ȼ Ⱦȶ ǁȮżȾ Ǟȼ ɀȮŵ ȼ ǍȮƷȼ ŵ ǚȮƃȽ ȼȮǬ ǁȮȾƴǧ ȼ Ⱦȶ ȒǀȼȮŽɀȥƾſ ȰNjɀȮƶȮźȾ ȸȖ țɀ

: ǀƃŽƾŶ : ƿŽƾŶ : ǀƃŽƾŶ : ƿŽƾŶ : ǀƃŽƾŶ

: ƿŽƾŶ : ǀƃŽƾŶ : ƿŽƾŶ : ǀƃŽƾŶ : ƿŽƾŶ


taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba :

Visiting the Iraqi Museum | 

naazla b-findiq ishtaar shloona haadha il-findiq? yani, maashi il-haal shunu zirti bil-iraaq? zirit Baabil wa Naynawa

For new words, see Glossary.

ɀ ŸȾ ȰNjɀȮƶȮźȼ țɀ ǀȼȮŽɀȥƾſ ȤƾƄȮƪ ȒȰNjɀȮƶƱȾ ɀȮŽȚ Țȣƾƀ ǀȼȮſǞȮƴŵ ȲƾƇɀȮŽȚ Ǡŵƾž ȆǠƶȮƯɀ ȮȼȾƁ ȒȰȚǍƯŽƾŮ ǠůɀȤȾȥ ǞƶȮŵ Ƚ ȷǞȼȮƶȮƸɀ ȼȮſȶ ǚŮƾŮ ȝȾȤȾȥ

: : : : :

ɷʄ ƿŽƾŶ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʞʏ ƿŽƾŶ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʄɷ ƿŽƾŶ ʏʞ ɷʄ

An artist’s reconstruction of ancient Babylon

ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ lesson ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ǐȮŸȼ ƾƶɀȮŰ ȦȾȤȼȢ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ Trip to Babylon ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ safra l-Baabil ǚȾȮŮƾȮŮ Ȳɀ ȜȼǍɀȮƱȮŴ ȼ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ DARIS THNAASH


Basma goes to see Waliid, who is getting ready to go on a trip to the ancient city of Babylon.

Basic Dialogue (Audio) . Basma: sh-da-ssawwi? What are you doing? . Waliid: da-ajma malaabsi. rah-azuur Baabil baachir. I am collecting my clothes. I will visit Babylon tomorrow. . Basma: rah-truuh bis-sayyaara loo bil-qitaar? Are you going by car or train? . Waliid: rah-aruuh bis-sayyaara. I will go by car. . Basma: mumkin aji wiyyaak? Can I come with you? . Waliid: ahlan wa sahlan. Welcome. . Basma: Baabil biiida min Baghdaad? Is Babylon far from Baghdad?

ɀ :ǀƵƉŮ ȒȸǞƦ ȮŴ dž Njȼ Ȯŵ .ǍȾȮǩƾŮ

ǚŮƾŮ ȤȶȥȖ Ƞɀ ȼ Ȥ .ǠƉɀŮǾžȼ ǕƵȼ űȖ ɀ ȼȢ :NjƸŽȶ

ȒȤƾƭƲȾ ɀȮŽƾŮ ǞŽ ȜȤƾƸȮƉŽƾŮ ȠȶǍɀȮů Ƞɀ ȼ Ȥ :ǀƵƉŮ dž .ȜȤƾƸȮƉŽƾŮ dž

ȠȶȤȖ Ƞɀ ȼ Ȥ :NjƸŽȶ

ȒȱƾȮȼƁȾȶ ǠűȖ ǜȮƳȾ Ƶɀ ȮžȽ :ǀƵƉŮ .ȹ ǾƷ ɀ Ŵȶ ȼ ȹǾƀɀ Ȗ :NjƸŽȶ


 | l e s s o n  

. Waliid: laa, w hiyya kullish giriiba min madinat il-Hilla No, and it is very close to the city of Hila.

ǀƶƁNjžȼ ǜžȾ ǀƃƁǍȮǬȾ ǐƦȮƴȮż Ƚ Ǡƀȶ .ǽ :NjƸŽȶ .ǀȮƴ ȿ ƇȾ ɀȮŽȚ

They reach the city outer wall of Babylon whose size impresses Basma. ǞƶȮŵ . Basma: walla, Baabil madiina dakhma! ȼ ǀƶƁNjžȼ ǚŮƾŮ ȆʇȚȶ :ǀƵƉŮ Ƚ !ǀƵɀȮƈǤ Ȓȸȣƾƀ shunu haadhi? Indeed, Babylon is a huge city! What is that? . Waliid: haadhi Bawwaabat ishtaar. .ȤƾƄƪŸȾ ǀȼŮȚǞȿ ȮȼŮ ȸȣƾƀ :NjƸŽȶ That is Ishtar Gate. . Basma: hal hiyya l-Bawwaaba l-asliyya? ȒǀȮƸȮƴ ɀ ǀȼŮȚǞȿ ƃȼ ɀȮŽȚ Ǡƀ ǚȮƀȼ :ǀƵƉŮ ȿ ǧLjȚ Is it the original gate? . Waliid: laa, il-Bawwaaba l-asliyya .ƞŽǍŮ ǗƇƄžȼ ț ɀ ǀŮȚǞȿ ƃŽȚ ɀ ǀȮƸȮƴ ȿ ǧLj ȼ Ȇǽ :NjƸŽȶ b-mathaf Barliin. No, the original gate is in the Berlin Museum. . Basma: allaah, haadha Shaari .ƿȮż Ⱦ Ǟɀ ȮȼƓȚ ȬȤƾŵ Țȣƾƀ ȆȵǾɀȮŽȖ :ǀƵƉŮ il-Mawkib. How nice, this is the Procession Street. ɀ ȼ ƓȚ ǚŮƾŮ NjȮŴȖ . Waliid: naam, w haadha Asad Baabil .ȤǞƷƪ ȼ Țȣƾƀȶ ȆǛƯſ :NjƸŽȶ il-mashhuur. Yes, and that is the famous Lion of Babylon. . Basma: laad, ween ij-Janaa¢in ȒǀƲȮdžȮƴȮƯȼ Ƚ ƓȚ ǜȮȾǣƾƶȮdžƐȚ ǜƁȶ ȆNjȮƯȼ ȼȮŽ :ǀƵƉŮ il-Muallaqa? So, where are the Hanging Gardens? . Waliid: b-qasir il-malik .Ǎƫ Ⱦ ȼȮŻ țɀ :NjƸŽȶ dž ȼȮſnjȼȮųǞƃȼȮſ ǙȮȾƴȮȼƓȚ Ǎƫ Nabukhadnesser. In King Nabuchadnezzer’s palace. . Basma: khalliina nruuh nshuuf Burij .ǚŮƾŮ ȟȾǍȽŮ ȯǞƪɀȮſ ȠȶǍɀȮſ ƾƶƸȮƴ ȿ ȼȮų :ǀƵƉŮ Baabil. Let us go to see the Tower of Babel. . Waliid: naam, huwwa hnaak. .ȱƾƶȮƀɀ Ǟƀ ȆǛƯſ :NjƸŽȶ Yes, it is over there. . Basma: tara, Baabil chaanat madiina !ǀƵƸƮŸȼ ǀƶȮƁNjžȼ ǁſƾǩ ǚŮƾŮ ȆȚȼǍȼȮů :ǀƵƉŮ aziima! You know, Babylon was a great city!

Trip to Babylon | 

Additional Expressions (Audio) tall / tuluul (S/P) athar / aathaar (S/P) athari / athariyya (M/F) tall athari / tuluul athariyya (S/P) aathaari / aathaariyya / aathaariyyiin (M/F/P) zaqquura / zaqquuraat (S/P) Mudiiriyyat il-Aathaar il-aamma

tell/s, mound/s antiquity/s, remains archaeological, ancient (relative adj.) archaeological mound/s archaeologist/s

ȲǞƴȮů Ƚ / ǚȼȮů ȤƾŰȕ / ǍȼȮŰȖ ǀȮƁȿ ǍȼȮŰȖ / ȸǍȼȮŰȖ ǀƁǍŰȖ ȲǞƴů / ȸǍŰȖ ǚů ƞȮƦƁȤƾŰȕ / ǀƁȤƾŰȕ / ȸȤƾŰȕ

ziggurat/s Directorate General of Antiquities (Iraq)

ȝȚȤǞȮŻ ȿ ȼ ȥ / ȜȤǞȮŻ ȿ ȼȥ ǀžƾƯŽȚ ȤƾȮŰȃȚ ǀȮƁȿ ǍƁNjȮžȽ

what? (see lesson ) -ing (see below) You (M) do (t- is assimilated for phonetic reasons) I collect, I put together will, shall, going to (see below) my clothes indeed, really (see also lesson ) very (invariable) far (adj.)

ȮȮ ɀȮŵ ȮȮ ȼȢ ȸǞȿ ȮƉ ȼ ɀȮů > ȸǞȿ ȮŴȿ

Vocabulary (Audio) sh-? dassawwi < tsawwi ajma rahmalaabsi walla kullish biiid / biiida / baad (M/F/P) madiina / mudun (S/P) il-Hilla haadha / haadhi (M/F) dakhum / dakhma (M/F) bawwaaba / bawwaabaat (S/P) Bawwaabat ishtaar hal? asli / asliyya (M/F) allaah shaari / shawaari (S/P) mawkib Shaari il-Mawkib asad / usuud (S/P) Asad Baabil

city/ies, town/s the city of Hilla (near Babylon) this, that (see lesson ) huge (adj.) gate/s Ishtar Gate What? Is it? (see lesson ) original, genuine How nice! (see lesson ) street/s, road/s procession Procession Street (in Babylon) lion/s the Lion of Babylon

ǕƵȼ ȮűȖ ɀ Ƞɀ ȼ Ȥ ǠƉ Ⱦ ɀȮŮǾžȼ ʇȚȶ ǐƦȮȮƴȮż Ƚ ȢƾƯȮɀŮ / ȜNjƸƯȾȮŮ / NjƸƯȾȮŮ ȴNjȽ ȮžȽ / ǀƶƁNjȮžȼ ǀȮƴ ȿ ƇȾ ɀȮŽȘ ȸȣƾƀ / Țȣƾƀ ǀƵȼ ɀȮƈȼȮǤ / ǛȮƈ Ƚ ȼȮǤ ȝƾŮȚǞȿ ȮȼŮ / ǀŮȚǞȿ ȮȼŮ ɀ ŸȾ ǀŮȚǞȿ ȮȼŮ ȤƾƄȮƪȮ ȒǚȮƀȼ ǀƸȮ ɀ / ǠƴǧȖ ɀ dž ȾƴǧȖ ȵǾɀȮŽȖ ȼ / ȬȾȤƾŵ ȬȾȤȚǞȮŵ ƿȮżȾ Ǟɀ Ȯžȼ ƿȮżȾ Ǟɀ ȮȼƓȚ ȬȤƾŵ ȢǞȮŴ ȼ Ƚ Ƚ Ț / NjȮŴȖ ǚŮƾŮ NjȮŴȖ ȼ

 | l e s s o n  

mashhuur / mashhuura (M/F) laad ij-Janaa¢in il-Muallaqa qasir / qusuur (S/P) malik / miluuk (S/P) Nabukhadnesser

burij / abraaj (S/P) Burij Baabil tara chaanat (F) aziim / aziima (M/F) gabul idhaa

famous, well known (adj.) in that case, so (invariable, see below) the Hanging Gardens (one of the Seven Wonders of the world) palace/s king/s Nabuchadnezzer (king of Babylon who built most of what we see in Babylon today) tower/s the biblical Tower of Babel you know, otherwise, or else (see below) was (see lesson ) great before, ago, previously if

Grammar and Remarks The Present Progressive Prefix da-

ȜȤǞƷɀȮƪžȼ / ȤǞƷɀȮƪȮžȼ NjȮƯȼ ȼȮŽ ȿ Ș ǀȮƲȮƴȮ ȿ Ưȼ Ƚ ƓȚ ǜȮȾǣƾƶƐ ȤǞƫ Ⱦ ȼȮŻ Ƚ ȮŻ Ƚ / Ǎƫ ȱǞȮƴȮ ž / ǙȮ ȾƴȮžȼ Ƚ Ⱦ Ǎƫ ȿ ȼȮſnjȼȮųǞƃȼȮſ ȟȚǍȮɀŮȖ / ȟɀǍȮȽŮ ȚȼǍȼȮů ǁȮſƾǩ ǀƵƸƮŸȼ / ǛƸƮȮŸȼ ǚȮƃȮ Ƚ ȼȮǬ ȚȣȘ

Ȯ ȼȢ -ing

In Iraqi Arabic, the prefix “da-” is used with the present tense verb to indicate a progressive condition happening at the time of the speech, or an action going on currently. The composition of “da-” + present tense corresponds to the English verb + “-ing,” as in da-yishrab (he is drinking). It is important to remember that the Iraqi present tense verb does not designate a progressive action but indicates a timeless habitual condition. (Audio) nishrab chaay da-nishrab chaay aakul khubuz da-aakul khubuz yijma fluus da-yijma fluss ween truuh kull yoom? ween da-truuh il-yoom? yilibuun tooba da-ylibuun tooba

We drink tea. We are drinking tea. I eat bread. I am eating bread. He collects money. He is collecting money. Where do you go everyday? Where are you going today? They play soccer (football). They are playing soccer.

ɀ Ⱦſ ȸƾǩ țȼǍȮƪ ɀ Ⱦ ſ ȼȢ ȸƾǩ țȼǍƪ ǎƃȽ Ȯų Ƚ ǚȮżȕ Ƚ ǎƃȽ Ȯų ǚ Ȯżȕ Ƚ Ƚ ȼȢ ȦǞƴȮź Ƚ ǕƵȼ Ɔɀ ȾȮƁ ȦǞƴȮź Ƚ ǕƵȼ Ɔɀ ȾȮƁ ȼȢ ȒȳǞƁ ǚż ȠȶǍɀȮů ǜƁȶ ȒȳǞƸŽȚ ȠȶǍɀȮů ȼȢ ǜƁȶ ǀȼŮǞŶ ȴǞƃƯɀ ȾȮƴȾȮƁ ǀȼŮǞŶ ȴǞƃƯɀ ȾȮƴɀƁ ȼȢ

Trip to Babylon | 

The Future Verb Prefixes rah-, ha-

Ȯ ȮŲȼ ȆȠɀ ȼ Ȥ will, shall, going to

The two prefixes “rah-” or “ha-” are added to the present tense verb to make a future tense verb equivalent to the English “will,” “shall,” or “going to.” The future prefix “rah- Ƞ ɀ ȼ Ȥ” has a variant form “raah- ȠȚȤ ɀ ,” however, we advise using the short form “rah-.” (Audio)


I study Arabic. I shall study Arabic. He reads a book. He will read a book.

adrus arabi rah-adrus arabi yiqra ktaab rah-yiqra ktaab

If the verb begins with two consonants, the helping vowel “i” is added to the beginning of the verb when it is preceded by “rah-.”

ǍȮźȾ ƾƉɀȮſ ǍźƾƉɀȮſȘ Ƞɀ ȼ Ȥ ƞȮźǞƪɀȮů ƞȮźǞƪɀȮůȘ Ƞɀ ȼ Ȥ

we travel we shall travel you (F) see you will see

nsaafir rah-insaafir tshuufiin rah-itshuufiin

The prefix “ha- Ȯ ȮŲ ȼ ” has the same meaning as “rah-” but sometimes connotes the immediate future, comparable to the difference between “I am going to go” and “I shall go” in English. When “ha-” precedes a first person singular verb, the prefix subject marker “a” of the verb is dropped out. adrus asaafir

I study. I travel.


ha-drus ha-saafir

I am going to study. I am going to travel.


Both prefixes “rah-” and “ha-” are negated with the word ma- (see lesson ). rah-adrus I shall study. ha-drus I am going to study.

ȦȽȤɀȢȖ Ƞɀ ȼ Ȥ ma rah-adrus I shall not study. ȦȽȤɀȢȖ Ƞɀ ȼ Ȥ ȳȼ ȦȽȤɀȢ Ƞȼ ma ha-drus I am not going to study. ȦȽȤɀȢ Ƞȼ ȳȼ

Idioms and Common Phrases (Audio) 1. la9ad

NjȮƯȼ ȼȮŽ then, so, in that case (an invariable transitional word)

laad, leesh rihtu l-Baabil?

Then why did you go to Babylon?

laad, minu bina madinat Baabil?

So, who built the city of Babylon?

laad, taaal zuurna baachir

In that case, come to visit us tomorrow.

Ȳɀ ǞƄȮŲɀ Ⱦ Ȥ ǐƸŽ ȆNjȮƯȼ ȼȮŽ ȒǚŮƾŮ ƾƶȼ ȾȮŮ ǞƶȮžȾ ȆNjȮƯȼ ȼȮŽ ȒǚŮƾŮ ǀƶȮƁNjȮžȼ ǍȾȮǩƾŮ ƾſɀȤȶȥ ȲƾƯȼȮů ȆNjȮƯȼ ȼȮŽ


 | l e s s o n  

laad, shgadd il-ujra?

So, how much is the rate?

laad, ween il-bawwaaba l-asliyya?

So, where is the original gate?

2. tara ȚȼǍȼȮů confirmation)

ǀȮȼŮȚǞȼ Ȯƃȼ ɀȮŽȚ ǜƁȶ ȆNjȮƯȼ ȼȮŽ ȒǀƸȮ ɀ ȿ ȾƴǧLjȚ

certainly, you know, otherwise (invariable transitional word used for

tara, Baabil muu biiida min Baghdaad tara, aku aathaar hwaaya bil-iraaq la-tzuur Pariis, tara hiyya ghaalya hwaaya has-sayyaara tara muu zeena tara, Basma turuf qraaya wi-ktaaba tara, azal idhaa maa ijeet

3. hal-ayyaam


Certainly, Babylon is not far from Baghdad. You know, there are many antiquities in Iraq. Don’t visit Paris because it is very expensive. You know, this car is not good! You know, Basma knows reading and writing. Otherwise, I will be upset if you don’t come.

ȳƾȮƁȀȮ ȿ ƀȼ these days, nowadays

id-dinya ghaalya, hal-ayyaam hal-ayyaam, id-dinya haarra hal-ayyaam, maaku safar lil-iraaq hal-ayyaam, siir il-akil ghaali hal-ayyaam, anaam is-saaa ashra hal-ayyaam, hiyya masghuula hwaaya

Life is expensive nowadays. These days, it is hot. These days, there is no traveling to Iraq. Nowadays, food prices are high. These days, I sleep at ten o’clock. Nowadays, she is very busy.

tamaariin ǜƁȤƾƵȼȮů ʏʞ Drills 1. Give appropriate oral replies to the following: ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ Baabil biiida loo qariiba min Baghdaad? Baabil madiina sagiira loo chibiira?

ǜžȾ ȜNjƸƯȾȮŮ ǞžȽ ǚŮƾŮ ȆȚȼǍȼȮů ȢȚNjưŮ ȰȚǍƯŽƾŮ ǝƁȚǞȮƀɀ ȤƾŰȕ ǞżȖ ȆȚȼǍȼȮů Ǡƀ ȚȼǍȼȮů ȆǏƁȤƾǨ ȤȶǎɀȮƄȼȮŽ ǝȼƁȚǞȮƀɀ ǀȼȮƸɀȮŽƾŹ ǀƶȮƁȥ Ǟž ȚȼǍȼȮů ȜȤƾƸȮƉŽƾ dž ƀȼ ǀȼƁȚǍɀȮŻ ȯǍȮ Ƚ Ưɀ Ȯů Ƚ ǀƵƉŮ ȆȚȼǍȼȮů ǀŮƾƄɀȮżȾȶ ǁȮƸȮűȘ ƾž ȚȣȘ ǚŸȼ ɀ ȥȖ ȆȚȼǍȼȮů

ȳƾȮƁȀȮ ȿ ƀȼ ȆǀȼȮƸɀȮŽƾŹ ƾȮƸɀȮſNjƦ ȮŽȘ ȜȤƾŲ ƾƸɀȮſNjƦ ȿ ȮŽȚ ȆȳƾȮƁȀȮ ȿ ƀȼ ǍȼȮƱȮŴ ȼ Ǟżƾž ȆȳƾȮƁȀȮ ȿ ƀȼ ȰȚǍƯɀȮƴȮȾŽ ǠŽƾŹ ǚȮżLjȚ Ⱦ ǍƯȾ ȮŴ Ⱦ ȆȳƾȮƁȀȮ ȿ ƀȼ ǀŸƾƉŽȚ ȿ ȳƾȮſȖ ȆȳƾȮƁȀȮ ȿ ƀȼ ȜǍɀȮƪŸȼ ǀŽǞưɀȮƪžȼ Ǡƀ ȆȳƾȮƁȀȮ ȿ ƀȼ ǝƁȚǞȮƀɀ



Trip to Babylon | 

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ 2. Make a progressive tense of the following sentences with “da-” (oral): ʞʏ ǀŴȼȤNjɀ Ƶȼ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȠȶǍȮɀƁ ǀŴȼȤNjɀ Ƶȼ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȠȶǍȮɀƁ ȼȢ ʄɷ ǀƸŮǍȮŸȼ ǀưȮŽ Ƚ ȦȽȤNjɀ Ȯů Ƚ ǗƇȼ ɀȮƄƵȼ ɀȮŽȚ ȤȶȥȖ ʏʞ ǚŮƾŮ ǀƶȮƁNjžȼ ȤƾȮŰȕ ȯǞƪɀȮſ ȿ ƾŮ ȴȶǍɀȮƲȮȽƁ ǞƶȮŵ ȒǀƯžȾ ƾȮƐ Ƚ ɷʄ ȳƾȮƁȀȮ ȿ ƀȼ ȢȚNjưȮŮ ǠƶȮƃɀ ȾȮƁ ǠŮǍŸȼ ƿȮƄȾ ɀȮżȶ ȚȼǍɀȮŻȖ Ǡſȕ ʞʏ ǝȼȮƁȚǞȮƀɀ ƾƵƶƸȮŴ ȴǞźǞƪȮɀƁ ȆȳƾȮƁȀȮ ȿ ƀȼ ǠŮǍƯȼ ɀȮŽƾŮ ǀŽƾŴȾȤ ƿȮƄȾ ɀȮƳȮȾů ʄɷ ȳƾȮƁȀȮ Ⱦ ɀƁ ȿ ƀȼ ȆȜǞȮƷɀ ȼȮǬȶ ȸƾȮǩ ȴǞŮɀǍȮƪȮ ǛƯȼ ɀȮƭƵɀȮŽƾŮ țƾƃȼȮż ƞȮƴɀȮżƾů ʏʞ ɷʄ 3. Make a future tense of the following sentences with “rah- Ȯ Ƞɀ ȼ Ȥ” or “ha- Ȯ ȮŲ ȼ ” (oral): ǀŽƾŴȾȤ ƿȮƄȾ ɀȮƳȾȮů ʏʞ ǀŽƾŴȾȤ ƿȮƄȾ ɀȮƳȾȮů Ƞɀ ȼ Ȥ ǀŽƾŴȾȤ ƿȮƄȾ ɀȮƳȾȮů Ƞȼ ɷʄ ȿ Ț ȳǞƁ ǚŮƾŮ ȤȶǎȮɀƁ ǀƯƵɀ ȮƐ ǀƯȼŮɀȤȖ ǀŸƾƉŽȚ ȿ ǗƇƄƵɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȠȶǍɀȮů ʏʞ ȳǞƁ ǚȮż ǀŮƾƄ ȿ Ưȼ ɀȮůȖ ɀȮżȾȶ ǀƁȚǍɀȮŻ ǛȮƴ Ƚ ǍƷŵ NjƯȼ ȼȮŮ ȰȚǍƯɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȴȶǍɀȮźƾƉȮɀƁ ɷʄ ȒǁƸƃɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ƾſȶȤȶǎɀȮů ȴǞƏȾ ǁżȾ Ǟȼ ɀȮŵ ȒǏȮȾſǞȮů țɀ ƾȼȮƲȮƃɀ Ȯů Ƚ NjȮǦɀȮŵ ʏʞ ȜȤƾƸdžȮƭŽƾŮ ȴȶǍɀȮźƾƉȮɀƁ ǟƴƸŽȶ NjƸŽȶ ǚƸȮƴɀȮŽƾŮ ǐȮŸȼ ȼȢ ǀŸƾƉŽȚ ȿ ȳƾȮſȖ ɷʄ ǍȾȮǩƾŮ ȤƾƭƵȼ ɀȮŽȚ ǜȮžɀ ǀƵƉŮ ȴǞƃȮƸƆȮɀƁ ʏʞ ȬȤƾȮƪŽƾŮ ȜȤƾƸȮƉŽȚ dž ȰǞƉɀȮů Ǡƀ ȿ ɷʄ 4. Negate the sentences of the drill 3 with the negation word ma- Ȯ ȳȼ : ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ Baabil madiina hadiitha loo qadiima? ween Baabil? minu bina madinat Baabil? ween Bawwaabat ishtaar il-asliyya? Asad Baabil mashhuur? shaku b-qasir Nabukhadnesser? shwakit rah-truuh l-Beeruut?

ȒǀƚNjȼȮŻ ǞŽ ǀƅƁNjȮŲȼ ǀƶƁNjžȼ ǚŮƾŮ ȒǚŮƾŮ ǜƁȶ ȒǚŮƾŮ ǀƶƁNjžȼ ƾƶȼ ȾȮŮ ǞƶȮžȾ ɀ ŸȾ ǀŮȚǞȿ ȮȼȾŮ ǜƁȶ ȒǀƸȮ ɀ ȤƾƄȮƪ ȿ ȾƴǧLjȚ ȒȤǞƷɀȮƪžȼ ǚŮƾŮ NjȮŴȖ ȼ ȼ ȒǍƫſNjȮųǞƃȮſ Ǎ ƫ ȮŻ ț ǞƳ ŵ Ⱦ ȼ ȼ ɀ ȒȝȶǍƸŮ Ȳɀ ȠȶǍɀȮů ȠȼȤ ǁȮżȾ Ǟȼ ɀȮŵ

Example: yruuh lil-madrasa He goes to the school. Answer: da-yruuh lil-madrasa He is going to the school. tudrus lugha arabiyya azuur il-mathaf nshuuf aathaar madinat Baabil shunu yuqruun bij-jaamia yibni Baabil hal-ayyaam aani aqra w aktib arabi hal-ayyaam, yshuufuun siinama hwaaya tiktib risaala bil-arabi yshirbuun chaay w gahwa, hal-ayyaam taakliin kabaab bil-matam

Example: tiktib risaala She writes a letter. Answer: rah-tiktib risaala She will write a letter. ha-tiktib risaala She is going to write a letter. yzuur Baabil yoom ij-juma truuh lil-mathaf is-saaa arbaa atallam qraaya wi-ktaaba kull yoom ysaafruun lil-iraq baad shahar shwakit tijuun tzuuruuna bil-beet? shgadd tubqa b-Tuunis? Waliid wa Layla ysaafruun bit-tayyaara anaam is-saaa daash bil-leel yjiibuun Basma mnil-mataar baachir hiyya tsuuq is-sayyaara bish-shaari

 | l e s s o n  


ɷʄ 5. Change the following sentences to the opposite tense: ǁƃȮƉŽȚ ʞʏ dž ȳǞƁ ǗƇƄƵɀȮŽȚ ȤȶǎȮɀƁ NjƁǍȮɀƁ ʄɷ ǀŴȼȤNjɀ Ƶȼ ɀȮŽƾŮ ǠŮǍŸȼ ǛȮƴȮ ȿ Ưȼ ɀȮƄȮȾů ʏʞ ɷʄ ǀƶȮŴ Ⱦ ȮƓȚ ȼ ǚȮƃ Ƚ ȼȮǬ ǚǧǞ Ƚ Ǟɀ ȼȮźƾŵ ʞʏ ȿ ƾŮ ǠžǾŴȁȚ ǀƯžƾȮƐ Ǟɀ ȮŴ ɀ NJƁȤƾȮƄȮŽȚ ȼ ɀ ȤȾȢ ȿ ʄɷ ʏʞ ȢȚNjưŮ țɀ ǗŲƾƄ Ⱦ Ƶȼ ɀȮŽȚ ȴȶȤȶǎȮɀƁ ɷʄ ʞʏ ȰNjȾ ɀȮƶȮƱȾ ɀȮŽƾŮ ȳƾƵȮ ȿ Ŵ ȼ ȿ ȼƑȚ țƾŮ NjȮ ʄɷ ȿ ƾŮ ȸǎƸȮƴǦȾ ɀȮſȘ ȦƦȤNjȼ ȮɀƁ ȣƾƄŴLjȘ ǀƯžƾƐ ɀ ʏʞ ɷʄ ȦǞƴƍȚ ȦǞŽ ǜžȾ ȝȼǍɀȮźƾŴ ǀƵƉŮ ʏʞ ǍȮƷȼ džȮƶŽȚ ɀ Ȯů ȿ ǛȮȼƁ ȢȚNjưŮ țɀ ǜȮƳ Ƚ Ɖ Ƚ ǟƴƸŽ ɷʄ ʏʞ ǁƸƃŽƾŮ ǝdžȮȾƁǞȮŴ Ⱦ ȴǞƴɀȮżƾƁ ǝƵȮƀȽ ɷʄ ʏʞ ǀƃȼ ȼȮƄɀȮƳƵȼ ɀȮŽƾŮ ǠŮǍȮŸȼ țƾƄż ǁƁǍɀȮŻ ɷʄ ǛƯȼ ɀȮƭƵȼ ɀȮŽƾŮ țƾƃȼȮż ƾƶɀȮƴȼȮżȖ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ yriid yzuur il-mathaf yoom is-sabit

titallam arabi bil-madrasa

shaafaw il-Muusil gabul sana

dirsaw it-taariikh il-Islaami bij-jaamia

yzuuruun il-mataahif ib-Baghdaad

sadd baab hammaam bil-findiq

il-ustaadh ydarris Ingiliizi bij-jaamia

Basma saafrat min Los Angeles

Laylaa tuskun ib-Baghdaad yamm in-nahar

humma yaakluun siwiyya bil-beet

qreet ktaab arabi bil-maktaba

akalna kabaab bil-matam


Trip to Babylon | 

6. Complete and read aloud: a. laad, leesh rihtu l-Baghdaad? lil-Basra? lil-Muusil? lil-mathaf? lil-Hilla? il-Baabil? lil-mataar? lil-findiq? lil-beet? b. id-dinya haarra hal-ayyaam baarda hal-ayyaam ratba bil-Basra laa haara wala baarda laa shiish wala kabaab saba hal-ayyaam muu saba hal-ayyaam c. hal-ayyaam, anaam is-saaa ashra tisa tisa w nuss daash illa rubu thnaash illa khamsa

ɷʄ ȒȢȚNjưȮŮ Ȳɀ ǞƄȮŲɀ Ⱦ Ȥ ǐƸȮŽ ȆNjȮƯȼ ȼȮŽ ʞʏ ȒȜǍƫ ɀ ȼȮƃɀȮƴȮȾŽ ʄɷ ȒǚǧǞƵ Ⱦ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ ʏʞ ɷʄ ȒǗƇȼ ɀȮƄƵȼ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ ʞʏ ȒǀȮƴ ȿ ƇȾ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ ʄɷ ȒǚȮŮƾŮ Ȳɀ ʏʞ ȒȤƾƭƵȼ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ ɷʄ ȒȰNjȾ ɀȮƶȮƱȾ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ ʞʏ ȒǁƸȮƃɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȳƾȮƁȀȮ ȿ ʄɷ ȿ ƾƸȮſNjȮŽȚ ȿ ƀȼ ȜȤƾŲ ȳƾȮƁȀȮ ʏʞ ȿ ƀȼ ȜȼȢɀȤƾŮ ɷʄ ȜǍƫƃŽƾŮ ǀƃɀȮŶȼȤ ʏʞ ȜȢȤƾŮ ǽȶ ȜȤƾŲ ȿ ǽ ɷʄ țƾƃż ǽȶ ǐƸŵ ǽ ʏʞ ȳƾȮƁȀȮ ȼ ȿ ƀȼ ǀƃɀȮƯǧ ɷʄ ȳƾȮƁȀȮ ƀ ǀƃ ȮƯ ǧ Ǟž ȼ ȼ ȿ ɀ ȜǍɀȮƪŸȼ ǀŸƾƉŽȚ ȿ ȳƾſȖ ȆȳƾȮƁȀȮ ȿ ƀȼ ʏʞ ǀƯȮƉȾů ɷʄ ʏʞ ǑȮſȶ ɀ Ⱦů Ƚ ǀƯȼ ȮƉ ɷʄ ǕȮȽŮȽȤ ǚȼ ɀȮŽȘ ǐȮŸȼ ȼȢ ʏʞ ǀƉȮ ȼ Ƶɀ ųȼ ǚȼ ɀȮŽȘ ǐȮŸȼ ƾƶɀȮŰ ɷʄ ʏʞ


 | l e s s o n  

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ 7. Translate the following into English: ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ daash sitta

d. tara, aku aathaar hwaaya bil-iraaq



Ǎƫ Ⱦ žȼ țɀ




ƾƸȮżȾ ɀǍȮů Ƚ țɀ


ƾȮƁɀȤǞŴ Ƚ țɀ


ȴƾƶȮƃɀ ȮŽ Ƚ ț


ǏȮȾſǞȮů țɀ


ƾƸȮƃȮƸȮŽ țɀ ɀ



humma zaaru Baabil bis-sayyaara gabul usbuu

humma rah-yzuuruun madiinat Baabil baad shahar

humma da-yzuuruun madinat Naynawa il-yoom

Bawwaabat ishtaar b-Baabil muu asliyya

Baabil binaaha l-malik Nabukhadnesser

ȴȚǍȮƁȘ țɀ ȴȚȢǞƉŽƾŮ ȿ ȬǞƃŴ ɀ Ƚ Ț ǚƃȽ ȼȮǬ ȜȤƾƸȮƉŽƾŮ ȿ ǚŮƾŮ ɀȶȼȤȚȥ ǝƵȮ ȿ ƀȽ ȼ NjƯȼ ȮȼŮ ǚŮƾŮ ȴȶȤȶǎɀƁ ȠȼȤ ǝƵȮ ǍƷȼ ŵ ȿ ƀȽ ȳǞƸɀȮŽȚ ȷǞƶȮƸɀ ȼȮſ ǀƶƁNjž ȴȶȤȶǎȮɀƁ ȼȢ ǝƵȮ ȿ ƀȽ ɀ ŸȾ ǀŮȚǞȿ ȮȼŮ ǀȮƸ ɀ Ǟž ǚŮƾŮ țɀ ȤƾƄȮƪ ȿ ȾƴǧȖ ǍƫſNjųǞƃſ ǙȾƴȮȼƓȚ ƾƀƾƶȾȮŮ ǚŮƾŮ ȿ


Trip to Babylon | 

Baabil biiha aathaar Baabiliyya kullish qadiima

hiyya ha-truuh il-madiinat il-Muusil bil-qitaar

inta tiktib risaala bil-arabi loo bil-Ingiliizi?

ɷʄ ʞʏ ȤƾƭƲȾ ɀȮŽƾŮ ǚǧǞ Ⱦ ȼ ƓȚ ǀƶƁNjžȼ Ȳɀ ȠȶǍɀȮů Ƞȼ Ǡƀ ʄɷ ʏʞ ȒȸǎƸȮƴǦſǽƾŮ ǞŽ ǠŮǍƯŽƾŮ ǀŽƾŴȾȤ ƿȾȮƄɀȮƳȮȾů ǁſȘ Ⱦ ɷʄ ʞʏ ǀƸƓƾƯŽȚ ǀƭƇȼ Ƶȼ ɀȮŽȚ ǛȮȼƁ ǠŻȚǍƯŽȚ ǗƇƄƓȘ ʄɷ ȿ ƾŮ ȤƾȮŰȕ ȣƾƄȮŴ ǀƯȮžȾ ƾƐ ɀ Ƚ Ȗ Ǟƀ ʏʞ ɷʄ ɀ ȒȤǞƷȮƪžȼ Ǟž ǞŽ ȤǞƷɀȮƪžȼ ǚŮƾŮ NjŴȖ ȼ ʞʏ ǀƴƇȾ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ ǝdžƁǞȮŴ Ⱦ ȴǞŲȶǍȮɀƁ ȠȼȤ ǀƵƉŮȶ ǙŽƾž ʄɷ ʏʞ ȒǠŻȚǍƯŽȚ ǗƇƄƓƾŮ ǀŸƾŻ Ǜż ɷʄ ʏʞ ȰȚǍƯŽƾŮ ǀȮƸƴ ȿ ȾȮŮƾŮȶ ǀƁȿ ǍȮžȼ ǞŴȤƾŰȕ ǞżȖ ɷʄ ȿ ƾŮ ǠžǾŴǽȚ NJƁȤƾȮƄŽȚ ǀƯžƾȮƐ ȿ ȴǞŴɀȤNjȾ ȮɀƁ ȼȢ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ȒȳǞƸŽȚ ǜƁǞȿ ȮŴ ƿŽƾŶ dž Njȼ ɀȮŵ ǠŮǍƯŽƾŮ ǀƫ ǀƃŽƾŶ ɷʄ ȿ ȮŻ Ƚ ȚȼǍŻȖ ȼȢ ɀ ȒǍȾȮǩƾŮ ǜƁǞȿ ȮŴȚ ƿŽƾŶ dž ȠȼȤ ȧ ǀŴȼȤNjɀ Ƶȼ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȠȶȤȖ ȠȼȤ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʏʞ ɀ ȒȱƾƶȮƀɀ ƞŴɀȤNjȽ Ȯů ƿŽƾŶ Ƚ ȠȼȤ ȧ ɷʄ ǠŮǍŸ ȦȽȤɀȢȖ ȠȼȤ ǀƃŽƾŶ ɀ ǜƁNjƯɀ Ⱦ Ůȶ ȒǜƁǞȿ ȮŴ ƿŽƾŶ ʏʞ dž Ƞȼ ȧ ɷʄ ʏʞ ǀƚNjȼȮŻ ǐƦȮȮƴ ȿ Ȯż Ƚ ǀȮƸȿ ȾȮƴȮŮƾŮ ȤƾŰȕ ƾƷƸŮ ǚŮƾŮ

il-mathaf il-iraaqi yamm il-mahatta l-aalamiyya

huwwa ustaadh aathaar bij-jaamia

Asad Baabil mashhuur loo muu mashhuur?

Maalik wa Basma rah-yruuhuun siwiyya lil-Hilla

kam qaaa bil-mathaf il-iraaqi?

aku aathaar Suumariyya wa Baabiliyya bil-iraaq

da-ydirsuun it-taariikh il-Islaami bij-jaamia

Creative Dialogues a. taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib :

sh-da-ssawwiin il-yoom? da-aqra qussa bil-arabi sh-rah-issawwiin baachir? rah-aruuh lil-madrasa sh-rah-tudursiin hnaak? rah-adrus arabi w badeen sh-ha-ssawwiin?

: : : : : : :

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ

 | l e s s o n  

taaliba : badeen ha-rja lil-beet is-saaa arbaa taalib : indich shughul bil-leel? taaliba : laa, ha-ruuh lis-siinama b. taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba :

ween chinti il-baarha? il-baarha chinit b-Baabil sh-sawwati hnaak? shifit aathaarha l-qadiima shifti Asad Baabil? taban, wa shifit Bawwaabat ishtaar taalib : shgadd buqeeti b-Baabil? taaliba : buqeet sitt saaaat taalib : inshaalla, ijbatich Baabil? taaliba : ijbatni hwaaya

For new words, see Glossary.


ǀŸȼ ƾƉŽȚ ȿ ǁƸȮƃɀȮƴȮȾŽ Ǖűȼ ɀ Ȥ Ƞȼ ǜƁNjƯŮ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ǀȼȮƯȼŮɀȤȚ ȒǁƸȮƃɀȮŽƾŮ ǚȮư Ȯŵ Ƀ NjȾ ɀȮƶȮŸȾ : ƿŽƾŶ Ƚ Ƚ ƾƵȼȮƶȮƸƉȮƴ Ʀ ȾŽ ȠȶȽȤ Ƞȼ Ȇǽ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ȒǀŲȼ ɀ ȤƾƃɀȮŽȚ ǠƄɀȮƶȾȮȮǩ ǜƁȶ : ƿŽƾŶ ǚŮƾŮ țɀ ǁȮƶȾ ȾȮȮǩ ǀŲȼ ɀ ȤƾƃɀȮŽȘ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ɀ ȒȱƾƶȮƀɀ ǠůǞdž ȮŴ : ƿŽƾŶ ȼ ȧ ǀƚNjȼȮƲɀȮŽȚ ƾƀɀȤƾŰȕ ǁƱȾ Ȯŵ Ⱦ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ȒǚŮƾŮ NjȮŴȖ : ƿŽƾŶ Ⱦ ȼ ǠƄɀȮƱȮŵ ȹ ȤƾƄƪȮŸȾ ǀȼŮȚǞȿ ȮȼŮ ǁƱȾ Ȯŵȶ Ȇ ƾ Ư ƃ ȮŶ : ǀƃŽƾŶ Ⱦ ɀȼ ȒǚŮƾŮ țɀ ǠƄƸȮƲȮȽŮ NjȮǦɀȮŵ : ƿŽƾŶ ȝƾŸƾŴ ǁȮŴ Ⱦ ǁƸȮƲȮȽŮ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ȒǚŮƾŮ ǃȮƄȾ ȮƃȮ ȮǰȮ Ÿ ȼ ɀ Ⱦ ȆʇƾƪſȘ : ƿŽƾŶ ǝȮȼƁȚǞƀɀ ǠƶɀȮƄȮƃȮ ȼ ɀȮǰȮŸȾ : ǀƃŽƾŶ

The lion of the ancient city of Babylon

ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ lesson ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ǐȮƯȼ džȮŶǾ ȿ ɀȮů ȦȾȤȼȢ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ At the Bank ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ bil-bank ǙȮɀȮƶȮƃȼ ɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ DARIS TLATTAASH


Basma goes to the Raafideen Bank to change some dollars to Iraqi dinars. After exchanging greetings with the teller/cashier (sarraaf ), she asks him,

Basic Dialogue (Audio) . Basma: raja¢an, ariid tasriif miit duulaar ila danaaniir iraaqiyya. Please, I want to change  dollars to Iraqi dinars. . sarraaf: bikull suruur. With pleasure. . Basma: agdar asarruf sheekaat siyaahiyya? Can I change travelers’ checks? . sarraaf: naam. ish-sheekaat bid-duulaar loo bil-istarliini? Yes. Are the checks in dollar or in sterling? . Basma: bid-duulaar. shgadd siir it-tasriif? In dollars. How much is the exchange rate? . sarraaf: id-diinaar ysawwi tlath duulaaraat w rubu. The dinar makes . dollars (old rate).

ǟŽȘ ȤǽȶȽȢ ǀƸž ǗƁǍȮƫů ɀ NjƁȤȖ ȆȔȹ ƾűȤ :ǀƵƉŮ .ǀƸŻȚǍŸ ǍƸſƾſȼȢ .ȤȶǍȮŴ Ƚ

ǚƳȾȮŮ :ȯȚǍȿ ǧ ȼ

ȒǀƸŲƾƸȮŴ Ⱦ ȝƾƳƸŵ ȯǍȿ ǧȖ ȼ ȤNjȼ ȮǬȖ :ǀƵƉŮ ǞŽ ȤǽȶNjȮŽƾŮ ȝƾƳƸȼȮƪŽȚ .ǛƯſ :ȯȚȼǍǧ ȿ ȼ ȒǠƶƸŽɀǍȼȮƄŴȁƾŮ ɀ ȼ .ȤǽȶNjȮŽƾŮ ǍƯȾ ȮŴ :ǀƵƉŮ Ⱦ NjȼȮǦŵ ȿ ȒǗƁǍƫȮƄŽȚ ȿ .ǕȮȽŮȽȤȶ

ȝȚȤǽȶȢ ȞǾů ȸǞȿ ƉȮ ȿ :ȯȚǍȿ ǧ ȼ ȼ ɀ Ɓ ȤƾƶƁNjȮŽȘ

 | l e s s o n  

. Basma: haadha s-siir ir-rasmi loo siir is-suug is-suuda? Is this the official rate or the black market rate? . sarraaf: taban, haadha s-siir ir-rasmi! maaku suug sooda bil-bank. Of course, this is the official rate! There is no black market in the bank. . Basma: laazim amli ha-lis-stimaara? Do I have to fill in this form? . sarraaf: naam. min fadlich maich baasbort? Yes. Please, do you have a passport with you? . Basma: naam, tfaddal. Yes, here it is. . sarraaf: shukran. raja¢an, waqqii hnaa. Thanks. Please sign here . Basma: turuf ween aku maktab tasriif? Do you know where is an exchange office? . sarraaf: fii shaari is-Saduun. In Saadun Street.

ǍƯȾ ȮŴ Ⱦ ǞŽ ǠƵŴ ɀ ǍȮŽȚ Ʀ Țȣƾƀ :ǀƵƉŮ ȿ ǍƯȾ ȮƉŽȚ ȒȜȼȢǞƉŽȚ ȿ ɆǞƉŽȚ ȿ Ǟżƾž !ǠƵŴ ȼ ɀ ǍŽȚ Ʀ Țȣƾƀ ȆȹƾƯƃŶ :ȯȚǍȿ ǧ ȿ ǍȮƯȾ ƉŽȚ .ǙƶƃȮŽƾŮ ȜȢǞŴ ɆǞŴ ȒȜȤƾƵȮƄȾ ȮŴȁȚ ɀ ǚɀ ƀȼ ǠƴȮžɀ Ȗ ȳȾȥǽ :ǀƵƉŮ ǶȮƯȾ Ȯžȼ ǶȮȾƴƬ ɀ ȼȮź ǜžȾ .ǛƯſ :ȯȚǍȿ ǧ ȼ ȒȝȤǞƃȮŴƾŮ ɀ .ǚȮƬ ȿ ȼȮƱɀȮů .ƾƶȮƀɀ


ǠƯȾ ƦȮŻȼȶ ȆȔȹ ƾűȼȤ .ȹ ȚǍƳŵ :ȯȚǍȿ ǧ ȼ

ƿƄɀȮƳȮžȼ ǞżȚ ǜƁȶ ȯǍȮ Ƚ Ưɀ Ȯů Ƚ :ǀƵƉŮ ȒǗƁǍƫ ɀ ȼȮů .ȴȶNjƯɀ ȮƉŽȚ ȼ ȿ ȬȤƾŵ Ǡź :ȯȚǍȿ ǧ

Additional Expressions of Money Matters (Audio) filis / fluus (S/P) fluus iraaqiyya fluus Amriikiyya miit filis diinaar / danaaniir (S/P)

rubu diinaar nuss diinaar khurda sheekaat siyaahiyya sakk / sukuuk, chakk / chukuuk (S/P) chak khaas / chukuuk khaasa (S/P)

ȦǞƴɀȮź / ǏȾȮƴźȾ ǀƸŻȚǍŸ ȦǞƴɀȮź ǀƸƳƁǍžɀ Ȗ ȦǞƴɀȮź ǏȾȮƴȮźȾ ǀƸž ǍƸſƾȮſȼȢ /ȤƾƶȮƁȢ

penny/nies, money Iraqi money/currency American money/currency hundred pennies (fils) dinar/s (the currency of Iraq and some other Arab countries such as Jordan, Kuwait, etc.) one-quarter of a dinar one-half a dinar small change traveler’s checks check/s

ȤƾƶȮƁȢ ǕȮȽŮȽȤ ȤƾƶȮƁȢ ǑȮſ Ƚ ȜȢȿ ɀǍȮų Ƚ ǀȮƸȮŲƾƸȮ Ŵ Ⱦ ȝƾƳƸŵ ȿ ȿ ǩȼ ȆȱǞƳǧ ȱǞƳȮǩȽ / ǙȮ ȼ Ƚ / Ǚȿ ǧ

personal check/s

ǀǧƾų ǙȮǩȼ ȿ dž ȱǞƳȮǩȽ / Ȩƾų

At the Bank | 

umla saba indi credit card ariid wasil, min fadlak maktab viiza maktab American Express deen / diyuun (S/P) qarid / quruud (S/P) hisaab / hisaabaat (S/P) hisaab jaari hisaab tawfiir

hard currency I have a credit card. I want a receipt, please. visa office American Express office debt/s loan/s account/s checking account savings account

ǀƃȮƯɀ ǧ ȼ ǀƴȮƵɀ ȮŸȽ ȢȤƾż ȝȢǍȮż ȸNjƶȮŸȾ ǙƴƬ ɀ ȼȮź ǜž ǚǧ Ⱦ ȼȶ NjƁȤȖ ȚǎƸȮź ƿƄɀȮƳžȼ ȦȼǍƃƉ ȼ ɀȮżȘ ȴƾƳƁǍžȼ Ȗ ƿƄƳž ȴǞȮƁɀȢ / ǜȮƁȢ ȩȶǍȮŻ Ƚ / ȩȾǍȼȮŻ ȝƾŮƾƉȮŲȾ / țƾƉȮŲȾ ȸȤƾű țƾƉȮŲȾ ǍȮƸȮźǞɀ ȼȮů țƾƉȮŲȾ

Vocabulary (Audio) bank / bunuuk (S/P) masraf / masaarif (S/P) sarraaf / sarraafa (M/F) tasriif asarruf, (sarraf, ysarruf ) raja¢an ariid, (raad, yriid) miit < miyya biduun (invariable) agdar (gidar, yigdar) siyaahi / siyaahiyya (M/F) istarliini / istarliiniyya (M/F) siir / asaar (S/P) ysawwi rasmi / rasmiyya (M/F) suug, suuq / aswaag (S/P) aswad / sooda (M/F) taban, bit-tabu laazim amli, (mila, yimli) istimaara / istimaaraat (S/P) waqqi / waqqii / waqqiu (M/F/P) turuf / tuurfiin / tuurfuun (M/F/P)

bank/s bank/s teller, cashier change, exchange (money) I change please (invariable) I want one hundred without I can, I am able tourism, traveler (relative adj.) sterling (British pound) rate/s, price/s it (he) makes official, formal (relative adj.) market/s black (adj.) of course, naturally must, ought to (invariable) I fill form/s, card/s sign (imp. verb) you know

ȱǞƶȮȽŮ / ǙɀȮƶȮȼŮ ȯȾȤƾƫžȼ / ȯȼǍƫ ɀ žȼ ǀȼȮźȚǍȿ ǧ / ȯȚ Ǎ ȼ ȼ ȿǧ ǗƁǍƫ Ȯů ɀ ȼ (ȯǍȿ ƫȮ ȼ ɀ Ɓ ȆȯǍȿ ǧ) ȼ ȯǍLJ ǧȖ ȼ Ȕȹ ƾűȤ (NjƁǍȮɀƁ ȆȢȚȤ) NjƁȤȖ ǀȮƸȮ dž žȾ > ǀȮƸȮžȾ ȴȶNjȾȮŮ (ȤNjȼ ɀȮǦȾȮƁ ȆȤNjȼ Ǭ) Ⱦ ȤNjȼ ɀȮǬȖ ǀȮƸȿ ŲƾƸ Ŵ / Ⱦ Ⱦ ǠŲƾƸŴ Ⱦ ǀdžȮƸƶȮƸŽɀǍȼȮƄȮŴȘ ɀ / ǠƶƸŽɀǍȼȮƄȮŴȘ ɀ ȤƾƯȮŴȖ Ⱦ ɀ / ǍƯȾ ȮŴ ȸǞȿ ƉȮ ȼ ɀƁ ǀƸȮƵ ɀ ȼ Ȥ / ǠƵŴ ɀ ȼȤ ȿ Ŵ ɆȚǞȮŴȖ ɀ / ȰǞŴ Ȇ ɆǞŴ ȜȢȿ ǞȮŴ ɀ Ƚ / ȢǞȼ ȮŴȖ ȹ ǕȮƃȽ ȮƭŽƾŮ Ȇ ƾ ƯȮ ƃ ȮŶ ɀȼ ȿ ȳȾȥǽ (ǠƴȮƵɀ ȾȮƁ ȆƾȼȮƴȮžȾ ) ȆǠƴȮžɀ Ȗ ȝȚȤƾƵȮƄȾ ȮŴȘ ɀ / ȜȤƾƵȮƄȾ ȮŴȘ ɀ ǞȮƯƦȮŻȼȶ / ǠƯƦȮŻȼȶ / ǕƦȮŻȼȶ / ƞȮźɀǍȮƯȽ Ȯů Ƚ Ưɀ Ȯů Ƚ / ȯǍȮ Ƚ ȴǞȮźɀǍȮƯȽ Ȯů Ƚ

 | l e s s o n  

maktab / makaatib (S/P) shaari is-Saduun

ƿȮȾůƾƳȮžȼ / ƿȮƄɀȮƳȮžȼ ȴȶNjȮƯɀ ƉŽȚ dž ȬȾȤƾŵ

office/s The name of one of the main streets in Baghdad.

Grammar and Remarks The Participle raayih

ljɀ ȾȮƁȚȤ going, having gone

A participle is a word that has the characteristics of both a verb and an adjective. It behaves like an adjective because it has only three forms for gender and number: masculine, feminine, and plural (see adjectives, lesson ). It functions like a verb in that it is usually negated by ma-, ma-jaalis ǏȮȾŽƾű ȳȼ (not sitting). (For negation, see lesson .) A participle can have an object, either a noun or an attached pronoun. The basic meaning of an active participle is “doing,” or “having done,” the English equivalent of an adjective or verb ending in “-ing.” Participle words have several variant patterns depending on the verb stem from which they are derived from (regular, double, hollow, or weak, see lessons  and ). Examples: Regular: Double: Hollow: Weak:

jilas dazz shaaf buqa

to sit to send to see to stay

ǏȼȮƴȾȮű ȥȿ ȼȢ ȯƾŵ ƾȼȮƲȽŮ

jaalis daazz shaayif baaqi

sitting, having sat sending, having sent seeing, having seen staying, having stayed


For the purpose of this book we shall discuss here only the participle word raayih lj ɀ ȾȮƁȚȤ (going), which is derived from the verb stem raah ȠȚȤ (to go), probably the most and commonly used participle in colloquial Arabic. Below is a conjugation table of raayih showing its three forms: masculine, feminine, and plural. (Audio) aani raayih aani raayha ihna raayhiin ihna raayhaat inta raayih inti raayha intu raayhiin intu raayhaat huwwa raayih hiyya raayha humma raayhiin humma raayhaat

I am going (M). I am going (F). We are going (M). We are going (F). You are going (M). You are going (F). You are going (MP). You are going (FP). He is going. She is going. They are going (M). They are going (F).


Notice that the stem vowel “i” in the masculine singular raayih drops out when a suffix beginning in a vowel is added in the feminine and plural forms. Occasionally, the forms

At the Bank | 

of raayih are used in place of the future prefixes “rah-” and “ha-” to give a future meaning (going to). (Audio) shwakit raayih tsaafir il-ammaan? humma raayhiin lil-bank raayha truuh lil-beet ween raayhaat baachir?

Ȳɀ ǍȾȮźƾƉɀȮů ljȾȮƁȚȤ ǁȮżȾ Ǟȼ ɀȮŵ ȒȴƾȮƵȮ ȿ Ÿȼ ǙƶȮƃȼ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ ƞƇɀȮƁȚȤ ǝƵȮ ȿ ƀȽ ǁƸƃɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȠȶǍɀȮů ǀƇɀȮƁȚȤ ȒǍȾȮǩƾŮ ȝƾƇȾɀƁȚȤ ǜƁȶ

When are you going to travel to Amman? They are going to the bank. She is going to go home. Where are you going tomorrow?

The Demonstrative Words: asmaa· il-ishaara


Iraqi Arabic has two groups of demonstrative words equivalent to the English demonstratives “this/these” and “that/those.” Each group has three forms: masculine, feminine, and plural. Some of the words may have variants, but only the more common ones will be considered here. The demonstrative words agree with the noun in gender and number. There is only one plural form for both genders of each group.

This / That Group (Audio) haadha

this (M)



this (F)



these (M/F/P)


haadha taalib haadhi taaliba hadhoola tullaab hadhoola taalibaat

This is a student.

ƿŽƾŶ Țȣƾƀ

This is a student.

ȸȣƾƀ ǀƃŽƾŶ ǀŽȶnjƀȼ țǾȮŶ Ƚ ǝŽȶnjƀȼ ȝƾƃŽƾŶ

hadhaak walad hadhiich binit hadhoolaak wilid hadhoolaak banaat

That is a boy.

NjȼȮŽȼȶ ȱȚnjȮƀȼ

That is a girl.


Those are boys.

NjȮȾŽȾȶ ȱǽȶnjƀȼ

Those are girls.

ȝƾƶȼŮ ȱǽȶnjƀȼ

These are students. These are students.

That / Those Group (Audio) hadhaak

that (M)



that (F)



those (M/F/P)


The demonstrative words of both groups may be reduced to the short prefix “ha- ȼȮƀ” if they precede a noun definite with the article “il- ɀȮŽȘ” (the) and that is the more common usage. (Audio)

 | l e s s o n  

hal-walad hal-beet has-sayyaara hat-taaliba

this/that boy this/that house this/that car this/that student

NjȮŽǞȼ ɀȮŽƾȮƀȼ ǁƸȮƃɀȮŽƾȮƀȼ ȜȤƾƸȮƉŽƾȮ dž ƀȼ ǀƃȮȾŽƾȮƭŽƾȮ ƀȼ ȿ

The demonstrative words are negated by placing the word “muu ǞȮžȽ ,” (not) before the demonstrative if the noun is definite and after the demonstrative if the noun is indefinite. Notice the structural difference between the two: The first is a demonstrative noun phrase, whereas the latter is an equational statement. (Audio) muu hal-beet muu hadhaak il-beet hadhaak muu beet hadhoola muu tullaab

not this house not that house That is not a house. These are not students.

ǁƸƃŽƾȮƀȼ ǞȮžȽ ǁƸȮƃɀȮŽȚ ȱȚnjȮƀȼ ǞȮžȽ ǁȮƸȮŮ ǞȮžȽ ȱȚnjȮƀȼ țǾŶ ǞȮžȽ ǀŽȶnjȮƀȼ

Idioms and Common Phrases (Audio)

1. maysiir ǍƸƫȮƸɀ žȼ impossible, it can’t be (invariable idiomatic word consists of “maȮžȼ ,” [not] and “ysiir ǍƸƫȮɀƁ ,” [to become]) maysiir tishrab biira You can’t drink beer in the ȜǍƸȮŮ țǍɀȮƪȾů ǍƸƫȮƸɀ žȼ ȬȤƾȮƪŽƾŮ bish-shaari street. ȿ maysiir laazim nshuuf Impossible, we must see ǚŮƾŮ ȯǞƪɀȮſ ȳȥǽ ǍƸƫȮƸɀ žȼ ǝȮƁȿ ǞȮŴ Baabil siwiyya Babylon together. Ⱦ maysiir tsaafir biduun viiza You can’t travel without a ȴȶNjȾȮŮ ǍȮźȾ ƾƉɀȮů ǍƸƫȮƸɀ žȼ ȜǎȮƸȮź visa. maysiir timshuun ib-nuss You can’t walk in the middle ǑȮƶȮ Ů ȴǞƪȮ Ƶ Ȯ ů ǍƸƫȮ Ƹɀ žȼ ɀ Ⱦ Ƚ ɀ ȬȤƾȮƪŽȚ ish-shaari of the street. ȿ maysiir tzuurhum bil-leel You can’t visit them at night. ǚƸȮƴɀȮŽƾŮ ǛƀɀȤȶǎɀȮů ǍƸƫȮƸɀ žȼ 2. maykhaalif ǗȮȾŽƾƈȮƸɀ žȼ It is okay, it is permitted, it doesn’t matter (invariable idiomatic word consists of “ma-,” [not] and “ykhaalif,” [to differ]; it is the opposite of maysiir) maykhaalif truuhiin wiyya It is okay for you (F) to go ǝȮdžƁȾȶ ƞŲȶǍɀȮů ǗȮȾŽƾƈȮƸɀ žȼ ǀƵƉŮ Basma with Basma. maykhaalif tzuurhum It is okay for you (M) to visit ǚƸȮƴɀȮŽƾŮ ǛƀɀȤȶǎɀȮů ǗȮȾŽƾƈȮƸɀ žȼ bil-leel maykhaalif asarruf fluus ib-maktab tasriif maykhaalif taakhudh kaamira wiyyaak lil-mathaf maykhaalif aji wiyyaak?

them at night. It is permitted to change money in an exchange office. It is permitted that you take a camera with you to the museum. Is it okay I come with you (M)?

ȦǞƴź ȯǍȿ ǧȖ ȼ ǗȮȾŽƾƈȮƸɀ žȼ ǗƁǍƫ ɀ ȼȮů ƿƄɀȮƳƵȼ ȮɀŮ ȚǍƸžƾż njȮųƾů ǗȮȾŽƾƈȮƸɀ žȼ Ƚ ǗƇƄƵɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȱƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ȒȱƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ǠűȖ ǗȮȾŽƾƈȮƸɀ žȼ


3. hissa

At the Bank | 

ǝƉȮ dž ƀȾ now, right this moment, at the present time (invariable)

hissa, laazim aruuh lil-beet hissa, wislat it-tayyaara hissa, toosal it-tayyaara hissa, il-mathaf masduud hissa, ariid fluusi

min hissa lis-saaa khamsa

Now, I must go home. Right this moment, the airplane arrived. Momentarily, the airplane will arrive. At the present time, the museum is closed. Right this moment, I want my money. From now until five o’clock.

ǁƸƃɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȠȶȤȖ ȳȥǽ ȆǝƉȮ dž ƀȾ ȜȤƾƸȮƭŽȚ ǁ Ȯƴ ǧ ȶ Ȇǝ ƉȮ ȿ ȼ ɀ Ⱦ dž ƀȾ ȜȤƾƸȮƭŽȚ ǚǧǞů ȼ ȆǝƉȮ dž ƀȾ ȿ

ȢȶNjȮƉ ɀ žȼ ǗƇƄƵɀȮŽȚ ȆǝƉȮ dž ƀȾ ǠŴǞƴɀȮź NjƁȤȖ ȆǝƉȮ ȿ ƀȾ ǀŸȼ ƾȮƉƴ ȿ ȾŽ ǝƉȮ ȿ ƀȾ ǜž ǀƉȮƵɀ ųȼ

ʏʞ Drills tamaariin ǜƁȤƾƵȼȮů ɷʄ 1. Give appropriate oral replies to the following: ȒǀƸƳƁǍžȚ ǞŽ ǀƸŻȚǍŸ ȦǞƴź ȸȣƾƀ ȒǀƸŲƾƸŴ Ⱦ ȝƾƳƸŵ ǞŽ ǀǧƾų ȿ ȱǞƳǧ Ƚ ȱNjɀȮƶȮŸȾ ʞʏ ȒȤƾƶƁNjȮŽƾ Ⱦ NjȼȮǦɀȮŵ ȿ ȾȮŮ ǗƁǍƫ ɀ ȮƄŽȚ ȿ ǍȮƯȾ ȮŴ ȒȤƾƶƁNjȮŽƾŮ Ǐ ȾƴȮźȾ ǛȼȮż ʄɷ ȿ ȒȝȤǞƃȮŴƾŮ ɀ ǠƯȮžȼ ȴǞƳȮɀƁ ȳȥǽ ʏʞ ȒǗƁǍƫ ɀ ȼȮů ƿȼȮƄɀȮƳžȼ ǞżȚ ǜƁȶ ȒǠŲƾƸȮŴ Ⱦ ƿƄɀȮƳžȼ ǞżȚ ǜƁȶ ɷʄ ȒƿȼȮƄɀȮƳžȼ ǞŽ ǙɀȮƶȼŮ ǜƁNjȮźȾ ȚǍȮŽȚ ȿ ȒǝƉȮ ƀ ȤƾƶƁ NjȮŽƾŮ ȤǽȶȢ Ǜ Ⱦ ȿ ȿ ȼȮż ʏʞ ȒǗƁǍƫ Ⱦ ȼȶ NjƁǍɀȮů ɀ ȼȮů ǚǧ ȒƞƇȮɀƁȚȤ ǜȮƁȶ ǝȮƵ ȿ ƀȽ ɷʄ 2. Change the past tense sentences to the equivalent future tense and read aloud: ʏʞ ǀƸŻȚǍŸ ȦǞƴź ȯdžǍǧ ȼ ɷʄ ǍƷȼ ȼȮŵ ǚƃȽ ȼȮǬ ȢȚNjưŮ Ȳɀ ȝȾǍȼȮźƾŴ ʏʞ ǀŲɀȤƾƃŽȚ ǙƶƃɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȠȚȤ ɷʄ ʏʞ ǍƸźƾƱƫŽȚ Ⱦ ȿ ɆǞŴ ǁƱȾ Ȯŵ ɷʄ NjƵŲȖ ǝȮdžƁȾȶ ǗƇƄƓȚ ȝȾȤȾȥ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ haadhi fluus iraaqiyya loo Amriikiyya? indak sukuuk khaasa loo sheekaat siyaahiyya? shgadd siir it-tasriif ir-rasmi bid-duulaar? kam filis bid-diinaar? laazim ykuun mai baasbort? ween aku maktab tasriif? ween aku maktab siyaahi? ir-Raafideen bank loo maktab? kam duulaar bid-diinaar hissa? triid wasil tasriif? humma ween raayhiin?

sarraf fluus iraaqiyya

saafarit l-Baghdaad gabul shahar raah lil-bank il-baarha shifit suug is-Safaafiir

zirit il-mathaf wiyya Ahmad

 | l e s s o n  


ɷʄ ǝƁȿ ǞȮ Ⱦ NjƁǍƃȼ ɀȮƴȾŽ ǞȮŲȚȤ ȼ Ⱦ Ŵ ʞʏ ƾƀƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ǀƵƉŮ ǁȮȼŮƾű ʄɷ ǜƁȥ ǛƯƭžȼ țɀ ƾƶɀȮƴȼȮżȖ ʏʞ ɷʄ 3. Make the following sentences plural and read aloud: ǍǩƾŮ ǀŴȼȤNjɀ Ƶȼ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȠȶȤȖ ǀƇȮɀƁȚȤ ʞʏ ȿ ƾŮ ǠŮǍŸ ȦȤȿ Njȼ ȮɀƁ ljȾȮƁȚȤ ǀƯžƾƐ ʄɷ ɀ ȒȝȶǍƸŮ Ȳɀ ǍźƾƉɀȮů Ƞɀ ȼ Ȥ ǁżȾ Ǟȼ ŵ ʏʞ ǀƸſƾƓȖ ȦǞƴź ȯǍȿ ǧȖ ɷʄ ȼ NjƁȤȖ ʞʏ ȜȤƾƵƄȾ ȮŴȘ ɀ ǠƴƵɀ ȾȮƁ ȳȥǽ ʄɷ ȱƾƁȿ Ⱦȶ ȝȤǞƃŴƾƃŽȚ ƿƸƆɀȮů ȳȥǽ ȆǍƸƫƸȮ ɀ ɀ žȼ ʏʞ ȝȤǞƃŴƾƃŽȚ ƞƃȮƸƆɀȮƄȼȮŽ ǗŽƾƈƸɀ žȼ ɀ ɷʄ ǚǧ Ⱦ ȼȶ NjƁȤȖ Ȕȹ ƾűȤ ʏʞ ǗƁǍƫů ǚǧ Ⱦ ȼȶ Țȣƾƀ ɷʄ ȒǍȮǩƾŮ ǀƇȮ ȼ ɀ ƁȚȤ ǜƁȶ ʏʞ ȒǙƶŮ ǞŽ ǗƁǍƫů ƿƄƳž Țȣƾƀ ɷʄ ȬȤƾȮƪŽƾŮ ȜǍƸŮ țǍɀȮƪȾů ǍƸƫƸɀ žȼ ȿ ʏʞ ȒȜȣƾƄȮŴ ɀ Ƚ Ț ǞŽ ǀƃŽƾŶ ȸȣƾƀ ɷʄ ʏʞ 4. Complete and read aloud: ǙɀȮƶȮƃȼ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ ǝȼƁƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ȠȶǍȮɀƁ ȆȹƾƯƃɀ ȼȮŶȼ ɷʄ ƾſƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ʏʞ ȱƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ɷʄ ʏʞ raahaw lil-bariid siwiyya jaabat Basma wiyyaaha akalna b-matam zeen

raayha aruuh lil-madrasa baachir raayih ydarris arabi bij-jaamia shwakit rah-tsaafir il-Beeruut? ariid asarruf fluus Almaaniyya laazim yimli istimaara

maysiir, laazin tjiib il-baasbort wiyyaak maykhaalif la-tjiibiin il-baasbort raja¢an ariid wasil

haadha wasil tasriif?

ween raayha baachir?

haadha maktab tasriif loo bank?

maysiir tishrab biira bish-shaari haadhi taaliba loo ustaadha?

a. taban, yruuh wiyyaaya lil-bank wiyyaana wiyyaak


At the Bank | 

wiyyaach wiyyaakum wiyyaa wiyyaaha wiyyaahum b. maysiir asaafir lil-iraq biduun viiza nsaafir tsaafir tsaafriin tsaafruun ysaafir tsaafir ysaafruun c. maykhaalif asarruf fluus iraaqiyya bil-bank nsarruf tsarruf tsarrufiin tsarrufuun ysarruf tsarruf ysarrufuun

ɷʄ ʞʏ ǛżƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ʄɷ ƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ʏʞ ƾƀƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ɷʄ ǛƀƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ʞʏ ȜǎƸȮź ȴȶNjȾȮŮ ȰȚǍƯɀȮƴȾȮŽ ǍȮźȾ ƾŴȖ ǍƸƫƸɀ žȼ ʄɷ ǍźƾƉɀȮſ ʏʞ ǍźƾƉɀȮů ɷʄ ǜƁǍɀȮźƾƉɀȮů ʞʏ ȴȶǍɀȮźƾƉɀȮů ʄɷ ǍȮźȾ ƾƉɀȮƁ ʏʞ ǍȮźȾ ƾƉɀȮů ɷʄ ȴȶǍɀȮźƾƉɀȮƁ ʏʞ ǙɀȮƶƃȼ ɀȮŽƾŮ ǀƸŻȚǍŸ ȦǞƴɀȮź ȯǍȿ ǧȖ ȼ ǗŽƾƈƸȮ ɀ žȼ ɷʄ ȯǍLJ ƫ ȼ ɀȮſ ʏʞ ȯǍLJ ƫ Ȯů ȼ ɀ ɷʄ ƞźǍȿ ƫ ȼ ɀȮů ʏʞ ȴǞźǍȿ ƫ ȼ ɀȮů ɷʄ ȯdžǍƫ ȼ ɀƁ ʏʞ ȯǍLJ ƫ ȼ ɀȮů ɷʄ ȴǞźǍȿ ƫ ȼ ɀƁ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɃƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ

 | l e s s o n  


ɷʄ ǙdžȮƶžȾ ȦǞƴɀȮź NjƁȤȖ ȆǝƉȮ dž ƀȾ ʞʏ NjƁǍɀȮſ ʄɷ NjƁǍɀȮů ʏʞ ǜƁNjƁǍɀȮů ɷʄ ȴȶNjƁǍɀȮů ʞʏ NjƁǍɀƁ ʄɷ NjƁǍɀȮů ʏʞ ȴȶNjƁǍȮɀƁ ɷʄ ʞʏ 5. Conjugate the following sentences with each of the demonstrative words, changing ʄɷ anything else that needs to be changed: ǠŮǍŸ ȦȽȤNjɀ ȮȽƁ ƿȾŽƾŶ Țȣƾƀ ǠŮǍŸ ȦȽȤNjɀ Ȯů Ƚ ǀƃɀȮŽƾŶ ȸȣƾƀ ʏʞ ǠŮǍŸ ȴǞŴɀȤNjȽ ȮȽƁ țǾȮŶ Ƚ ǝŽȶnjƀȼ ǠŮǍŸ ȴǞŴɀȤNjȽ ȮȽƁ ȝƾƃɀȮŽƾŶ ǝŽȶnjƀȼ ɷʄ ǠŮǍŸ ȦȽȤNjɀ ȮȽƁ ƿȮȾŽƾŶ ȱȚnjƀȼ ǠŮǍŸ ȦȽȤNjɀ Ȯů Ƚ ǀƃȮȾŽƾŶ ǶȮƁnjƀȼ ʏʞ ǠŮǍŸ ȴǞŴɀȤNjȽ ȮȽƁ țǾȮŶ Ƚ ȱǽȶnjƀȼ ǠŮǍŸ ȴǞŴɀȤNjȽ ȮȽƁ ȝƾƃȮȾŽƾŶ ȱǽȶnjƀȼ ɷʄ ǙƶƃŽƾŮ ȯȚǍȿ ǧ ȼ Țȣƾƀ ǁƸȮƃɀȮƴȮȾŽ ljȾȮƁȚȤ Țȣƾƀ ʏʞ ȰNjƶƱŽƾŮ ǗȮŷ ȿ Ǟȼ ȮžȽ Țȣƾƀ ȸǎƸƴȮǦſȘ ǛƦȮƴƯȼ ȮɀƁ ȦȤȿ Njȼ ȮžȽ Țȣƾƀ ɷʄ ɆǞƉŽƾŮ ȿ ȝƾŸƾŴ ȬƾƸȮ ȿ ȼ Ů Țȣƾƀ ʏʞ ǗƇƄƓƾŮ ǚȮư Ƚ ȮƄ Ƚ ɀȮƪȾȮƁ ȸȤƾŰȕ Țȣƾƀ ɷʄ 6. Replace the noun object in parentheses with the appropriate attached pronoun and read ʏʞ aloud: Ȓ(ȝƾƳȮƸŵ) ȯǍȿ ǧȖ ȼ ȤNjȼ ɀȮǬȖ ɷʄ (ȜȤƾƵȮƄȾ ŴȘ) ɀ Ǡƴžɀ Ȗ ȳȥǽ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ d. hissa, ariid fluus minnak , nriid , triid

, triidiin

, triiduun , yriid , triid

, yriiduun

Example: haadha taalib yudrus arabi haadhi taaliba tudrus arabi hadhoola tullaab yudursuun arabi hadhoola taalibaat yudursuun rabi hadhaak taalib yudrus arabi hadhiich taaliba tudrus arabi hadhoolaak tullaab yudursuun arabi hadhoolaak taalibaat yudursuun arabi haadha sarraaf bil-bank haadha raayih lil-beet haadha muwazzaf bil-findiq haadha mudarris yallim Ingiliizi haadha bayyaa saaaat bis-suug haadha aathaari yishtughul bil-mathaf

agdar asarruf (sheekaat)? laazim amli (istimaara)


At the Bank | 

ɷʄ ʞʏ ǠŮǍƯŽƾŮ (ǀŽƾŴȾȤ) ƿƄȾ ɀȮƳȮȾſ ȤNjȮǦȾſ ʄɷ (ȜȤƾƸƉŽȘ) ljƦȮƴƫȮ ȼ ɀ Ɓ ȼȢ Ǟƀ ȿ ʏʞ ȴƾȮƵ ɀȶȼǍɀȮźƾŴ ȿ Ÿȼ Ȳɀ Ș ȢȚNjưŮ ǜž (ȜȤƾƸȮƭŽƾŮ) ȿ ɷʄ ȝȶǍƸŮ Ȳɀ (ǀƵƉŮ) ǝƁȿ Ⱦȶ ƞŲȶǍɀȮů ǗŽƾƈƸɀ žȼ ʞʏ ǛżƾƁȿ Ⱦȶ (ȚǍƸžƾż) ȴȶnjųƾů ɀ ǍƸƫȮƸɀ žȼ ʄɷ ɃƾƁȿ Ⱦȶ (ȝȤǞƃŴƾƃŽȚ) ƞƃȮƸƆƄȼȮŽ ǗŽƾƈƸɀ žȼ ʏʞ ɀ ȬȤƾȮƪŽƾŮ (ȜǍƸŮ) țǍɀȮƪȾů ǍƸƫƸɀ žȼ ɷʄ ȿ ȿ Ț ȳǞƁ (ǗƇƄƓȚ) ɀȶȼȤȚȥ ǝȮƵ ǀƯȼ Ƶɀ ȮƐ ȿ ƀȽ ʞʏ (ǚŮƾŮ) ƾȼȮƶȾȮŮ ǍƫſnjųǞƃſ ǙƴƓȚ ʄɷ ǛƯƭƓƾŮ (țƾƃż) ǚżƾƁ ȼȢ ʏʞ ǀŸƾŴ NjƯȼ ȮȼŮ (ǀƵƉŮȶ ǙŽƾž) ȴǞƃȮƸƆɀƁ ȠȼȤ ɷʄ ʏʞ 7. Make the words between parentheses in the following sentences plural: ɷʄ (ȤƾƶƁȢ) ǟŽȘ (ȤǽȶȢ) ǗƁǍƫů NjƁȤȖ ȆȔȹ ƾűȤ ʏʞ (Ȩƾų Ǚǧ) ȸNjƶȮ Ÿ Ⱦ ȼ ɷʄ (ǠƵŴ Ⱦ ȵȣƾƀ) ȆȹƾƯƃɀ ȼȮŶ ɀ ȼ Ȥ ǍƯȾ Ŵ ʏʞ (ȜȤƾƵȮƄȾ ŴȘ) ɀ ǠƴžȖ ȳȥǽ ȳȼ ɷʄ ȒǗƁǍƫů (ƿƄɀȮƳžȼ ) ǞżȚ ǜƁȶ ȯǍȽ Ưɀ Ȯů Ƚ ʏʞ ȢȚNjưŮ țɀ (ǞƴŲȾ ȬȾȤƾŵ) ǞżȚ ɷʄ ȰȚǍƯŽƾŮ (ǗƇƄƓȚ) ȤȶǎɀȮſ ȠȼȤ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ǙƴƬ ɀ ȼȮź ǜžȾ Ȇ(ǚǧ Ⱦ ȼȶ) NjƁȤ Ȗ

ariid (wasil), min fadlak

nigdar niktib (risaala) bil-arabi huwwa da-ysallih (is-sayyaara)

saafraw (bit-tayyaara) min Baghdaad il-ammaan maykhaalif truuhiin wiyya (Basma) l-Beeruut maysiir taakh dhuun (kaamira) wiyyaakum!

maykhaalif la-tjiibiin (il-baasbort) wiyyaach maysiir tishrab (biira) bish-shaari

humma zaaraw (il-mathaf ) yoom ij-juma il-malik Nabukhadnesser bina (Baabil) da-yaakul (kabaab) bil-matam

rah-yjiibuun (Maalik w Basma) baad saaa

Rajaa¢an, ariid tasriif (duulaar) ila (diinaar) indi (sakk) khaas

taban, (haadha siir rasmi) ma laazim amli (istimaara)

turuf ween aku (maktab) tasriif? aku (shaari) hilu b-Baghdaad

rah-nzuur (il-mathaf ) bil-iraaq



 | l e s s o n  

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ 8. Translate into Arabic: ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ

chaanat indha (sayyaara) sooda maysiir tsaafruun biduun (baasbort)! huwwa musallih (saaa) zeen bil-findiq aku (bank) ib-shaari ir-Rashiid (haadha matam ghaali) il-mathaf il-iraaqi bii (qaaa) hwaaya

.ȜȢǞŴ (ȜȤƾȮȿ Ƹȿ Ŵ) ȼ ƾƀNjɀȮƶŸȾ ǁſƾǩ

(ȝȤǞƃŴƾŮ) ȴȶNjŮ ȴȶǍɀȮźƾƉɀȮů ǍƸƫƸɀ žȼ ɀ ȰNjƶƱŽƾŮ ǜƁȥ (ǀŸƾŴ) ljȮƴ ȼ žȽ Ǟƀ ȿ ƫ NjƸŵǍŽȚ ȿ ȬȤƾŵ țɀ (ǙƶŮ) ǞżȚ (ǠŽƾŹ ǛƯɀȮƭžȼ Țȣƾƀ) ǝƁȚǞƀɀ (ǀŸƾŻ) ǠŮ ǠŻȚǍƯŽȚ ǗƇƄƓȚ

I have opened an account in this bank yesterday. (two days ago, a week ago, five weeks ago, a month ago, two months ago, a year ago)

Did you have to fill in a form for this account? (money, amount, checks)


At the Bank | 

They want a loan from ir-Raafideen Bank. (a small loan, a big loan)

He has an account with this bank. (he had, he will have, he is having)

She wrote a letter in Arabic to the bank’s director. (they, you [M], you [F], you [P], I)

It is okay, don’t go with him. (her, them, me, us)

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ

 | l e s s o n  


These days, life is expensive in Baghdad. (food, restaurants, travel, museums)

Is Babylon a modern or an old city? (a large or small, an Iraqi or Jordanian, a Babylonian or Assyrian)

They will go from the city of Basra to Musil by car. (train, airplane)

We are drinking tea in a coffee shop. (coffee, water, Coca Cola)


At the Bank | 

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ƿŽƾŶ ǀƃŽƾŶ ɷʄ ƿŽƾŶ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʏʞ ƿŽƾŶ ǀƃŽƾŶ ɷʄ ƿŽƾŶ ʏʞ ǀƃŽƾŶ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ

From now on, I will study the Arabic language every hour. (every day, every week, every month)

From now until nine o’clock, we are going to read Arabic. (English, German, Italian, Spanish, history, archaeology)

Creative Dialogues a. taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba :

ween raayha? aani raayha lil-bank ayy bank? bank ir-Raafideen shaku indich bil-bank? ariid asarruf haadhi ish-sheekaat taalib: rah-aji wiyyaach taaliba : yalla, khalli nruuh siwiyya

ǀƇȮ ȼ ɀ ƁȚȤ ǜƁȶ : ǙƶƃɀȮƴȮȾŽ ǀƇȼ ɀ ƁȚȤ Ǡſȕ : ȒǙƶȮȼŮ ȸȖ : ǜƁNjźȚǍȮŽȚ ȿ ǙƶȮȼŮ : ȼ ȒǙƶƃɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ɃNjȾ ɀȮƶȮŸȾ ǞƳŵ : ȝƾƳƸȮƪŽȚ ȸȣƾƀ ȯǍȿ ǧȖ ȼ NjƁȤȖ : ȿ ɃƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ǠűȖ Ƞɀ ȼ Ȥ : ǝȮdžƁǞȼ ȮŴ Ⱦ ȠȶǍɀȮſ ǠȮƴ ȿ ųȼ ȆǝdžȮƴȮȼƁ :

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ

 | l e s s o n  

b. taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba :

min ween hadhoolaak il-banaat? humma min Baghdaad wa hadhoolaak il-wilid? humma min il-Muusil sh-da-ysawwuun hnaak? yzuuruun aathaar Baabil il-qadiima shgadd baaqiin b-Baabil? humma baaqiin yoom waahid wenn humma saakniin? humma saakniin b-madiinat il-Hilla

For new words, see Glossary.


ȒȝƾƶƃŽȚ ȱǽȶnjƀȼ ǜƁȶ ǜžȾ

: ƿŽƾŶ

ȢȚNjưŮ ǜžȾ ǝƵȮ ȿ ƀȽ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ȒNjȮȾŽǞȮŽȚ Ⱦ ȱǽȶnjƀȼ ȶ : ƿŽƾŶ ǚǧǞƓȚ ǜž ǝƵȮ Ⱦ ȿ ƀȽ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ȒȱƾƶȮƀɀ ȴȶǞȿ ȼȮƉȮɀƁNjȼ ɀȮŵ : ƿŽƾŶ ǀƚNjƲŽȚ ǚŮƾŮ ȤƾŰȕ ȴȶȤȶǎȮɀƁ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ȒǚŮƾŮ țɀ ƞŻƾŮ NjȮƳɀȮŵ : ƿŽƾŶ NjŲȚȶ Ⱦ ȳǞƁ ƞȮŻƾŮ ǝƵȮ ȿ ƀȽ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ȒƞƶɀȮżƾŴ ǝƵȮ ƀ ȿ Ƚ ǜƁȶ : ƿŽƾŶ ǀȮƴƑȚ ǀƶƁNjžȼ țɀ ƞƶżƾŴ ǝƵȮ ȿ ƀȽ : ǀƃŽƾŶ

Abu Nuwas Street along the Tigris River, Baghdad

ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ lesson ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ǐȮƯȼ ȼȮŶƾŮɀȤȖ ȦȾȤȼȢ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ At the Post Office ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ bil-bariid NjȮƁǍȮƃȼ ɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ DARIS ARBAATAASH


Basma goes to the post office to buy stamps. She walks toward one window and asks the man behind it,

Basic Dialogue (Audio) . Basma: haadha shubbaach it-tawaabi? Is this the stamp window? . muwazzaf: naam, w haadha shubbaach il-hawaalaat il-maaliyya. Yes, and that is the window of money orders. . Basma: min fadlak, ariid tawaabi l-Amriika. Please, I want stamps to America. . muwazzaf: triidiin twaabi risaala loo bostkart? Do you want stamps for a letter or a postcard? . Basma: ariid twaabi risaala. I want stamps for a letter. . muwazzaf: risaala bil-bariid ij-jawwi loo il-aadi? Air or regular mail letter?

ȒǕŮȚǞȮƭŽȚ ɃƾȮƃȿ Ȯŵ ȿ Ƚ Țȣƾƀ :ǀƵƉŮ ȝǽȚǞƇȼ ɀȮŽȚ Ƀƾƃȿ Ȯŵ ȿ Ǟȼ žȽ Ƚ Țȣƾƀȶ ȆǛƯſ :ǗȮŷ .ǀƸŽƾƵɀȮŽȚ .ƾƳƁǍžɀ Ȗ



ȒȸȢƾƯŽȚ ǞŽ ȸǞȿ džƐȚ NjƁǍƃȼ ɀȮŽƾŮ ǀŽƾŴȾȤ :ǗȮŷ ȿ Ǟȼ žȽ

 | l e s s o n  

. Basma: kam yoom bil-bariid ij-jawwi? How many days by airmail? . muwazzaf: usbuu bil-bariid ij-jawwwi, w-usbuueen bil-aadi. One week by air and two weeks by regular. . Basma: bil-bariid ij-jawwi, alla ykhalliik. shgadd siir it-tawaabi? Airmail, please. How much are the stamps? . muwazzaf: nuss diinaar. One-half of a dinar. . Basma: ween aku sanduuq bariid? Where is a mail box? . muwazzaf: hnaak. Over there. . Basma: shukran jaziilan. Many thanks. . muwazzaf: fwan. Don’t mention it.

ȒȸǞȿ ȮdžƐȚ NjƁǍƃȼ ɀȮŽƾŮ ȳǞƁ ǛȼȮż :ǀƵƉŮ ƞŸǞƃŴ ɀ Ƚ Țȶ ȸǞȿ džƐȚ NjƁǍƃŽƾŮ ȬǞƃŴ ɀ Ƚ Ț :ǗȮŷ ȿ Ǟȼ žȽ .ȸȢƾƯŽƾŮ .ǙƸȮƴ ȿ ȼȮƈɀƁ

ȿ Ț NjƁǍƃŽƾŮ :ǀƵƉŮ ʇȚ ȆȸǞȿ Ɛ ȼ ȒǕŮȚǞȮƭŽȚ ǍƯȾ Ŵ Ⱦ NjȼȮƳŵ ȿ .ȤƾƶƁȢ

ǑȮſ ȿ Ǟȼ žȽ Ƚ :ǗȮŷ

ȒNjƁǍȮȼŮ ȰȶNjɀȮƶǧ ȼ ǞżȖ ǜƁȶ :ǀƵƉŮ .ȱƾƶƀɀ :ǗȮŷ ȿ Ǟȼ žȽ .ǾƁǎű ȹ ȚǍƳŵ :ǀƵƉŮ .ȹ ȚǞɀȮƱȮŸȼ :ǗȮŷ ȿ Ǟȼ žȽ

Additional Expressions (Audio) risaala musajjala bariid sarii zaruf / zuruuf (S/P) zuruuf tayyaara zuruuf aadiyya unwaan / anaawiin (S/P) unwaan il-mursil / il-mursila (M/F)

registered letter express mail envelope/s airmail envelopes regular envelopes address/es address of the sender

unwaan il-mustalim / il-mustalima (M/F) abu l-bariid

address of the addressee

poostachi hawaala bariidiyya hawaala maaliyya ariid irsaal ruzma talifoon / talifoonaat (S/P) mukhaabara / mukhaabaraat (S/P) mukhaabara daakhiliyya mukhaabara khaarijiyya

mailman (lit., father of the post office, see lesson ) mailman money/postal orders money orders I want to send a package. telephone/s telephone call/s local telephone call long-distance telephone call

ǀƴȮƆdž Ɖ ȼ žȽ ǀŽƾŴȤ ǕƁǍŴ ȼ NjƁǍȼŮ ȯȶǍȮŷ / ȯǍȽ ȼȮŷ Ƚ ȜȤƾƸȿ ȼȮŶ ȯȶǍȼȮŷ ǀƁȢƾŸ ȯȶǍȮŷ Ƚ ǜƁȶƾƶŸȼ / ȴȚǞɀȮƶŸȽ / ǚŴ Ⱦ ɀǍȽƓȚ ȴȚǞɀȮƶŸȽ ǀƴŴ Ⱦ ɀǍȽƓȚ / ǛȮȾƴȼȮƄƉ ɀ Ƚ ƓȚ ȴȚǞƶŸȽ ǀƵȾƴȼȮƄȮƉ ɀ Ƚ ƓȘ NjƁǍƃɀȮŽȚ ǞŮȖ ǠȮǰȼȮƭǧǞǨ ɀ ǀȮƁNjȮƁǍȮȼŮ ǀŽȚǞȮŲȼ ǀƸȮȾŽƾž ǀŽȚǞȮŲȼ ǀžȼ ȥȽȤ ȲƾŴȤȘ NjƁȤȖ ȝƾſǞƱȮȾƴȼȮů / ȴǞƱȮȾƴȼȮů ȝȚǍȼŮƾƈžȽ / ȜǍȼŮƾƈžȽ ǀƸȮƴųȚȢ Ⱦ ȜǍȼŮƾƈžȽ ǀƸȮűȾȤƾų ȜǍȼŮƾƈžȽ

At the Post Office | 

Is there a fax in the post office? How much is the cost of one minute?

aku faaks bil-bariid? shgadd tkallif id-daqiiqa?


Vocabulary (Audio) bariid maktab bariid / makaatib bariid (S/P) shubbaach / shabaabiich (S/P) taabi / tawaabi (S/P) hawaala / hawaalaat (S/P) maal maali / maaliyya (S/F) risaala / rasaa¢il (S/P) bostkart / bostkartaat (S/P) irsaal jaww jawwi / jawwiyya (M/F) aadi / aadiyya (M/F) usbuu / asaabii (S/P) nuss sanduuq / sanaadiiq (S/P) hnaak

Grammar and Remarks The Verb chaan / ykuun

post office, mail post office/s window/s stamp/s money order/s, note/s money, wealth, have (see below) money, financial letter/s postcard/s sending, mailing air, atmosphere airmail, atmospheric regular, usual week/s one-half box/es over there

NjƁǍȼŮ ƿȾůƾƳžȼ / NjƁǍŮ ƿƄƳž NjƁǍȼŮ ǶƸŮƾƃȼȮŵ / ɃƾȮƃȿ Ȯŵ Ƚ ǕȾȮŮȚǞŶ / ǕȾȮŮƾŶ ȝǽȚǞŲȼ / ǀŽȚǞŲȼ Ȳƾž ǀƸŽƾž / ǠŽƾž ǚȮȾǣƾŴȼȤ / ǀŽƾŴȾȤ ȝƾůɀǍȼȮƳŴǞŮ ɀ / ȝȤƾƳŴǞŮ ɀ ȲƾŴɀȤȘ Ǟȿ Ȯűȼ ǀƁȿ ǞƦ Ȯűȼ / ȸǞȿ Ȯűȼ ǀƁȿ ȢƾŸ / ȸȢƾŸ ǕƸȮŮƾŴȖ / ȬǞƃŴ ɀ ȽȚ Ǒ ȿ Ȯſ Ƚ ǘƁȢƾƶǧ ȼ / ȰȶNjɀȮƶǧ ȼ ȱƾƶȮƀɀ

ȴǞƳȮɀƁ / ȴƾǩ was, were/will

The Iraqi chaan is a hollow verb and its use corresponds to the verb “to be” in English in the past tense, “was/were,” but not in the present tense “is/are/am.” The present form ykuun is used to convey future tense and usually comes with the future tense prefix “rah-.” Notice that the Iraqis do not use the consonant “ch” of the past tense chaan with the present form kuun. Below is a conjugation table of the two forms. (Audio)

Past Tense: chaan chaan naayim chaanat naayma chaanaw naaymiin chaanaw naaymaat chinit naayim chinti naayma

ȴƾȮǩ He was sleeping. She was sleeping. They were sleeping (M). They were sleeping (F). You were sleeping (M). You were sleeping (F).

ǛȾȮƁƾſ ȴƾȮǩ ǀƵȼ ȮɀƁƾſ ǁȼȮſƾȮǩ ƞȮƵȮɀƁƾſ Ǟɀ ȼȮſƾȮǩ ȝƾƚƾſ ɀ Ǟɀ ȼȮſƾȮǩ ǛȮȾȮƁƾſ ǁȾȮƶȾȮǩ ǀƵȼ ȮɀƁƾſ ǠƄɀȮƶȾȮǩ

 | l e s s o n  

chintu naaymiin chintu naaymaat chinit naayim chinit naayma chinna naaymiin chinna naaymaat

Present / Future Tense: ykuun ykuun naayim tkuun naayma ykuunuun naaymiin ykuunuun naaymaat tkuun naayim tkuuniin naayma tkuunuun naaymiin tkuunuun naaymaat akuun naayim akuun naayma nkuun naaymiin nkuun naaymaat

ƞȮƵȮɀƁƾſ ǞƄɀȮȮƶȾȮǩ ȝƾƵȮɀƁƾſ ǞƄȮɀȮƶȾȮǩ ǛȾȮƁƾſ ǁȾȮƶȾȮǩ ǀƵȼ ȮɀƁƾſ ǁȾȮƶȾȮǩ ƞƵȮɀƁƾſ ƾȮƶ ȿ ȾȮǩ ȝƾƵȮɀƁƾſ ƾȮƶ ȿ ȾȮǩ

You were sleeping (MP). You were sleeping (FP). I was sleeping (M). I was sleeping (F). We were sleeping (M). We were sleeping (F).


ǛȾȮƁƾſ ȴǞƳȮɀƁ ǀƵȮɀƁƾſ ȴǞƳȮɀȮů ƞȮƵȮɀƁƾſ ȴǞſǞƳȮɀƁ ȝƾƵȮɀƁƾſ ȴǞſǞƳȮɀƁ ǛȾȮƁƾſ ȴǞƳɀȮů ǀƵȮɀƁƾſ ƞſǞƳɀȮů ƞȮƵȮɀƁƾſ ȴǞſǞƳȮɀȮů ȝƾƵȮɀƁƾſ ȴǞſǞƳȮɀȮů ǛȾȮƁƾſ ȴǞżȖ ǀƵȮɀƁƾſ ȴǞżȖ ƞƵȮɀƁƾſ ȴǞƳɀȮſ ȝƾƵȮɀƁƾſ ȴǞƳɀȮſ

He will be sleeping. She will be sleeping. They will be sleeping (M). They will be sleeping (F). You will be sleeping (M). You will be sleeping (F). You will be sleeping (MP). You will be sleeping (FP). I will be sleeping (M). I will be sleeping (F). We will be sleeping (M). We will be sleeping (F).

The form chaan is also used as an auxiliary followed by a present verb or by a participle and in this case it modifies the time of the verb. (Audio) chaanaw saakniin biiid chaanat tudrus arabi aani chinit juuaan chintu laazim tudursuun bil-maktaba chaanat idha sayyaara baachir tkuun ahsan, inshaalla huwwa rah-ykuun bil-beet humma ykuunuun msaafriin baachir

They were living far away. She was studying Arabic. I was hungry. You (P) had to study in the library. She used to have a car. Tomorrow you will be better, God willing. He will be home. They will be traveling tomorrow.

NjƸƯȾȮŮ ƞƶɀȮżƾŴ Ǟɀ ȼȮſƾȮǩ ǠŮǍŸ ȦȽȤNjɀ Ȯů Ƚ ǁȼȮſƾȮǩ ȴƾŸǞű ǁȾȮƶȾȮǩ Ǡſȕ ǀƃƄȮƳƓƾŮ ȴǞŴɀȤNjȽ Ȯů Ƚ ȳȥǽ ǞƄɀȮƶȾȮǩ ȜȤƾȮƸ ȼ ƾƀNjɀ ȮŸȾ ǁȼȮſƾȮǩ ȿ Ŵ ʇƾƪſȘ ȆǜƉ ȼ ŲȖ ɀ ȴǞƳɀȮů ǍȾȮǩƾŮ ǁƸȮƃɀȮŽƾŮ ȴǞƳɀƁ ȠȼȤ Ǟƀ ǍȾȮǩƾŮ ǜƁǍɀȮźƾƉžɀ ȴǞſǞƳɀƁ ǝƵȮ ȿ ƀȽ

The verb chaan / ykuun is negated with the word “ma- ȳȼ .” (Audio) ma chaanaw saakniin biiid aani ma chinit juuaan

They were not living far. I was not hungry.

NjƸƯȾȮŮ ƞƶɀȮżƾŴ Ǟɀ ȼȮſƾȮǩ ȳȼ ȴƾŸǞű ǁȾȮƶȾȮǩ ȳȼ Ǡſȕ

At the Post Office | 

They will not be traveling tomorrow. He will not be home.

humma ma-ykuunuun msaafriin baachir huwwa ma rah-ykuun bil-beet

ǜƁǍɀȮźƾƉžɀ ȴǞſǞƳɀƁ ȳȼ ǝƵȮ ȿ ƀȽ ǍȾȮǩƾŮ ǁƸȮƃɀȮŽƾŮ ȴǞƳɀƁ Ƞɀ ȼ Ȥ ȳȼ Ǟƀ

The Words il, 9ind, maal “have” and “to” Arabic has no verb equivalent to the verb “to have” in English. In Iraqi Arabic, the meaning of possession (to have) is expressed by one of the words below combined with a proper attached pronoun (pronoun suffix).

1. The Preposition Prefix l-

Ȳɀ “to”

The preposition takes form “ l-” or “ li- ȮȾŽ .” It precedes definite nouns and proper names, therefore it should not be confused with the definite article “il-” (the), which is discussed in lesson . (Audio) beetak

your (M) house


your (F) office


the airport


the hotel


the car

Basma Samiir


2. The Preposition il-


nita qalam l-Basma nita ktaab l-Samiir

misha l-beetak misha l-maktabich misha lil-mataaar misha lil-findiq misha lis-sayyaara

He went to your house. He went to your office. He went to the airport. He went to the hotel. He went to the car.

He gave a pencil to Basma. He gave a book to Samiir.

Ȳɀ ƾȼȮƪžȾ ǙƄȮƸŮ Ȳɀ ƾȼȮƪžȾ ǶȮƃƄɀȮƳžȼ ƾȼȮƪžȾ ȤƾƭƵȼ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ ƾȼȮƪžȾ ȰNjȾ ɀȮƶȮƱȾ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ ƾȼȮƪžȾ ȜȤƾƸƉȮƴȮ dž ȾŽ

ǀƵƉŮ Ȳɀ ǛƴŻ ƾȼȮƭȾſ ǍƸƵŴ Ȳɀ țƾƄż ƾȼȮƭȾſ

Ȳɀ Ș “for, belonging to/have”

It takes the form “il-” and is used with an attached pronoun or a proper name to express the meaning of possession (to have). This proposition prefix is negated with muu Ǟž (not). Students should not confuse the “il-” (have) with the article “il-” (the) because the former must always take an attached pronoun, whereas the latter precedes nouns or adjectives and never takes attached pronouns. (Audio) haadha ilich haadha ili w ilak ilkum haqq

This is yours/belongs to you (F). This is mine and yours/ belongs to me and you (M). You (P) are right (lit., you have right).


 | l e s s o n  

haadha li-ktaab il-Samiira haadha muu ilich haadha muu ili wala ilak haadha li-ktaab muu il-Samiira

3. The Preposition 9ind


This book belongs to Samiira. This isn’t yours (F). This is neither mine nor yours (M). This book doesn’t belong to Samiira.


NjɀȮƶŸȾ “have, at the place of”

It has two meanings or usages. One usage expresses the meaning “in the possession of,” in other words “to have” in English, when it is combined with an attached pronoun. Notice that with the pronouns for “she,” “we,” “you” (P), and “they” the consonant “n” of ind drops out for phonetic reasons. (Audio) indi indak indich inda idha

I have (MF) you (M) have you (F) have he has she has

ȸNjɀȮƶŸȾ ȱNjȼ ɀȮƶŸȾ ɃNjȾ ɀȮƶŸȾ ȵNjȼ ɀȮƶȮŸȾ ƾƀNjɀ ȮŸȾ

idna idkum idkum idhum idhum

we have (MF) you (PM) have you (PF) have they (M) have they (F) have


The second usage conveys the meaning “at the place of,” or “at the house of.” (Audio) il-walad ind Saami ijeet min ind Saami gabul saaa ali ind il-hallaaq Basma ind musallih is-saaaat

The boy is at Saami’s house. I came from Saami’s house an hour ago. Ali is at the barber’s (place). Basma is at the watch repairman’s (place).

ǠžƾŴ NjɀȮƶȮŸȾ NjŽǞŽȘ ǠžƾŴ NjɀȮƶȮŸȾ ǜžȾ ǁƸű ǀŸƾŴ ǚȮƃ Ƚ ȼȮǬ ȰǾȮdžƑȚ NjɀȮƶȮŸȾ ǠƴŸ ljƦȮƴƫ ȼ žȽ NjɀȮƶȮŸȾ ǀƵƉŮ ȝƾŸƾƉŽȚ ȿ

The preposition ind that conveys the meaning “have” is made negative with maa ƾž and the one that has the meaning “at the house/place of ” is negated with muu Ǟž. (Audio) maa indi sayyaara il-walad muu ind Saami

I don’t have a car. The boy is not at Saami’s house.

ȜȤƾƸȮ ȼ ȸNjƶȮŸȾ ƾž ȿ Ŵ ǠžƾŴ NjƶȮŸȾ Ǟž NjŽǞŽȘ

4. The particle maal Ȳɀ ƾž “of, belonging to/have” It is widely used in the Iraqi dialect. The particle is used in two basic phrases. One uses the invariable form maal in a construction consisting of two nouns or noun phrases, usually definite, and separated by maal. The meaning of such a phrase is expressed in the English language with the “of ” construction or the possessive “s.” (Audio)

At the Post Office | 

il-maktaba maal ij-jaamia il-baab maal il-beet is-sayyaara maal ali dihin maal akil kulliyya maal banaat

the library of the university the door of the house Ali’s car cooking oil a girls’ college

ȿ Ț Ȳƾž ǀƃƄƳƓȘ ǀƯžƾƐ ǁƸƃŽȚ Ȳƾž țƾƃŽȚ ǠƴŸ Ȳƾž ȜȤƾƸȮƉŽȚ ȿ ǚżȖ Ȳƾž ǜȮƀȾ ȾȢ ȝƾƶŮ Ȳƾž ǀƸȮƴ ȿ Ȯż Ƚ

The second phrase of the particle consists of using maal with an attached pronoun (pronoun suffix). With this construction the particle has three forms, masculine maal Ȳƾž, feminine maalat ǁȼȮŽƾž, and plural maalaat ȝǽƾž. The gender and the number of the preceding word determines the form of maal and its attached pronoun. In other words, the form maal is used after a masculine singular word; the form maalat is used after a feminine singular, dual, or plural word/noun not referring to human beings (inanimate); and the form maalaat is used after plural word/noun referring to human beings (animate). Note: Although maal suffixed with an attached pronoun conveys the same general meaning as that of a noun with an attached pronoun (see lesson ), the construction of the two is different—an equational sentence in the former and phrase in the latter. (Audio) Noun with Suffixed maal ǠȾŽƾž ǛƴȼȮƲɀȮŽȘ il-qalam maali The pencil is mine. ǙȼȮƄɀȮŽƾž ȜȤƾƸȮƉŽȘ is-sayyaara maaltak ȿ The car is yours (M). is-saayyaaraat maalatna ƾƶɀȮƄȼȮŽƾž ȜȤƾƸȮƉŽȘ ȿ The cars are ours. ǛƳɀȮƄȼȮŽƾž ǀƃŽƾȮƭŽȘ it-taaliba maalatkum ȿ The student (F) is yours (P). . it-taalibaat maalaatkum ǛƳɀȮůǽƾž ȝƾƃŽƾȼȮƭŽȘ The students are yours. ǛƷɀȮɀŽƾž țƾƄɀȮƳȮȾŽ li-ktaab maalhum The book is theirs. ǶȮƄȾ ɀȮɀŽƾž ǀŸƾƉŽȘ is-saaa maaltich ȿ The watch is yours (F).

Suffixed Noun qalami my pen sayyaartak your (M) car sayyaaraatna our cars taalibatkum your (P) student (F) taalibaatkum your (P) students (F) ktaabhum their book saatich your (F) watch

ǠƵȼȮƴȼȮŻ ǙȼȮůɀȤƾƸȮ ȼ ȿ Ŵ ƾƶɀȮůȼȤƾƸȮ ȼ ȼ Ŵ ǛƳɀȮƄȮƃȮ ȼ ȾŽƾŶ ǛƳɀȮůƾƃȮȾŽƾŶ ǛƷȮɀŮƾƄɀȮż ǶȮƄȾ ȮŸɀ ƾŴ

Forms of maal are negated with muu Ǟž, which is placed directly before the particle. (Audio) kulliyya muu maal banaat li-ktaab muu maala il-qalam muu maali is-saaaat muu maaltich

A college is not for girls. The book is not his. The pen is not mine. The watches are not yours (F).

ȝƾƶŮ Ȳƾž Ǟž ǀƸȮƴ ȿ Ȯż Ƚ ǝȼȮŽƾž Ǟž țƾƄɀȮƳȮȾŽ ǠŽƾž Ǟž ǛƴƲɀȮŽȘ ǶȮƄȾ ɀȮŽƾž Ǟž ȝƾŸƾƉȮŽȘ ȿ

 | l e s s o n  

Idioms and Common Phrases (Audio) 1. b-suura 9aamma

ǀȮždž ƾŸ ȜȼȤǞƫȮ Ƚ ɀ Ů in general, generally

Basma thibb il-iraaq b-suura aamma ali ma-yhibb il-laham b-suura aamma il-ustaadh ydarris taariikh b-suura aamma b-suura aamma, aani ahibb is-safar b-suura aamma, Laylaa tiqra lughaat ajnabiyya

2. b-suura khaassa

Basma likes Iraq in general. Ali doesn’t like meat in general. The Professor teaches history in general. In general, I like traveling In general, Laylaa reads foreign languages.

ǀǧƾų dž ȜȼȤǞƫȮ Ƚ ɀ Ů in particular, specially

huwwa yhibb il-aathaar, b-suura aamma, wib-suura khaassa, Baabil mudun il-iraaq hilwa, wib-suura khaassa il-Basra tijibni il-aathaar, b-suura aamma, wis-Suumariyya, b-suura khaassa

He likes antiquities in general, especially Babylon.

Iraqi cities are pretty, especially Basra. I am interested in antiquities in general and the Sumerian in particular.

ȜȤǞƫɀȮŮ ȰȚǍƯŽȚ ƿƇȾ ɀȮů ǀƵƉŮ ǀȮžƾŸ ȿ ǛƇȼ ȼȮƴɀȮŽȚ ƿƇȮ Ⱦ ɀ Ɓ ȳȼ ǠƴŸ ǀȮžƾŸ ȿ ȜȤǞƫȮɀŮ NJƁȤƾů ȦȤȿ Njȼ ȮȮɀƁ ȣƾƄŴLjȘ ɀ ǀȮžƾŸ ȿ ȜȤǞƫȮɀŮ ƿŲȖ Ⱦ Ǡſȕ ǀȮžƾŸ ȿ ȜȤǞƫȮɀŮ ǍȼȮƱȮƉŽȚ dž ȚȼǍɀȮȮƲȾȮů ǟƴƸŽ Ȇ ǀȮžƾŸ ȜȤǞƫȮ ȿ ɀŮ ǀƸȮƃȼȮƶűȖ ɀ ȝƾưȮŽ Ƚ ȆǀžƾŸ ȜȤǞƫŮ ȤƾŰȃȚ ƿƇȾ ɀ Ɓ Ǟƀ ǚŮƾŮ Ȇǀǧƾų ȿ ȜȤǞƫȮɀŮȾȶ ȜȤǞƫȮɀŮȶ ȜǞɀȮƴŲȾ ȰȚǍƯŽȚ ȴNjȽ ȮžȽ ȜǍƫȮƃŽȚ ȿ ȼ ǀǧƾų ȆǀžƾŸ ȵȤǞƫŮ ȤƾŰȃȚ ǠƶƃƆȮ ɀ Ưɀ Ⱦ ů ǀǧƾų ȿ ȜȤǞƫȮɀŮ ȆǀƁǍžǞƉŽȚ ȿ Ⱦȶ

3. loo aani b-makaan or m-makaan + pronoun + chaan or verb ȴƾǩ + ȴƾƳžȼ ȳɀ Ǡſȕ ǞŽ ȆȴƾƳžȼ țɀ Ǡſȕ ǞŽ if I were you, if I were in your place loo aani m-makaanak, If I were you, I would have ȝȾȤȾȥ ȴƾȮǩ ȆǙſƾƳžȼ ȳɀ Ǡſȕ ǞŽ ȳǞƸŽȚ ǚŮƾŮ chaan zirit Baabil il-yoom visited Babylon today. loo aani m-makaanich, ȴƾȮǩ ȆǶȮſƾƳžȼ ȳɀ Ǡſȕ ǞŽ If I were you, I would have ȳǞƁ ǚż ǠŮǍŸ ǁȮŴ chaan dirasit arabi kull studied Arabic every day. Ⱦ ȼ ȤȾȢ yoom loo aani m-makaankum, aruuh baachir loo aani m-makaanha, akhaabur ahli loo aani m-makaanhum, maa aakul laham loo aani m-makaana, aktib risaala

If I were you, I would go tomorrow. If I were she, I would call my family. If I were they, I would not eat meat. If I were he, I would write a letter.

ȠȶȤȖ ȆǛƳɀȮſƾƳžȼ ȳɀ Ǡſȕ ǞŽ ǍȾȮǩƾŮ ǍȮȽŮƾųȚ ȆƾƷɀȮſƾƳžȼ ȳɀ Ǡſȕ ǞŽ Ǡƴƀɀ Ț ǚȮżȕ Ƚ ƾž ȆǛƷɀȮſƾƳžȼ ȳɀ Ǡſȕ ǞŽ ǛƇȼ ȼȮŽ ƿȮƄȾ ɀȮżȖ ȆǝȼȮſƾƳžȼ ȳɀ Ǡſȕ ǞŽ ǀŽƾŴȾȤ


At the Post Office | 

ɷʄ Drills tamaariin ǜƁȤƾƵȼȮů ʞʏ 1. Give appropriate oral replies to the following: ȒǕȾȮŮȚǞȮƭŽȚ Ƀƾƃȿ Ȯŵ ȿ Ƚ ǜƁȶ ʄɷ ȒǀȮƁȿ ȾȢƾŸ ǞŽ ǀȮƁ Ǟ ű ǀŽƾŴ Ⱦ Ȥ ȸȣƾƀ ȿ Ʀ ȼ ȒNjƁǍƃɀȮŽȚ ȰȶNjɀȮƶǧ ȼ ǜƁȶ ȼ ʏʞ ȒǏƁȤƾŮ Ȳɀ ǕȾȮŮȚǞȮƭŽȚ ǍȮƯȾ Ŵ Ⱦ NjȼȮƳŵ ȿ ȒNjƁǍȮƃȼ ɀȮŽƾŮ ǏɀȮżƾź ǞżȖ ɷʄ ȿ Ț ȳǞƁ NjƁǍȮȼŮ ǞżȖ ȒǀƯɀȮƵƐ ȒȬȤƾȮƪŽƾŮ ȴǞƱȮȾƴȮů ǞżȖ ʞʏ ȿ ȒǀŽƾŴƦǍŽȚ ȴȚǞɀȮƶŸȽ ƿȾȮƄɀȮżȖ ǜƁȶ ȒNjƁǍɀȮů ǀƸȮ ȿ ȾŽƾž ǀŽȚǞŲȼ Ǜż ʄɷ ȿ Ț NjƁǍƃŽȚ ȳǞƁ Ǜż ȒȰȚǍƯɀȮƴȮȾŽ ƾƳƁǍžɀ Ț ǜž ȸǞȿ Ɛ ʏʞ ȒǀžɀȥȽȤ ǞŽ ǀŽƾŴȾȤ ȲƾŴȤȘ ƿƇȾ ɀȮů ɷʄ 2. Conjugate the following sentences with each of the demonstrative words; change ʞʏ anything else that needs to be changed: ǠŮǍŸ ȦȽȤNjɀ Ƚ Ɓ ȼȢ ƿŽƾŶ Țȣƾƀ ʄɷ ǠŮǍŸ ȦȽȤNjɀ Ȯů Ƚ ȼȢ ǀƃŽƾŶ ȸȣƾƀ ǠŮǍŸ ȴǞŴɀȤNjȽ ȮɀƁ ȼȢ țǾŶ ǝŽȶnjƀȼ ʏʞ ǠŮǍŸ ȴǞŴɀȤNjȽ ȮɀƁ ȼȢ ȝƾƃŽƾŶ ǝŽȶnjƀȼ ǠŮǍŸ ȦȽȤNjɀ Ƚ Ɓ ȼȢ ƿŽƾŶ ȱȚnjƀȼ ɷʄ ǠŮǍŸ ȦȽȤNjɀ Ȯů Ƚ ȼȢ ǀƃŽƾŶ ǶȮƁnjƀȼ ǠŮǍŸ ȴǞŴɀȤNjȽ ȮɀƁ ȼȢ țǾŶ ȱǽȶnjƀȼ ʏʞ ǙƶƃŽƾŮ ǚ ȽưȮƄ ȼ Țȣƾƀ Ƚ ɀȮƪȽƁ ȼȢ ȯȚǍȿ ǧ ȸǎƸȮƴǦȾ ɀȮſȚ ǛƦȮƴƯȼ ɀ Ɓ ȼȢ ȦȤȿ Njȼ žȽ Țȣƾƀ ɷʄ ȢȚNjưŮ țɀ ǜżƾŴ ȴƾǩ Țȣƾƀ Ⱦ ǠžǞƳŲȽ ǗȮŷ ȿ Ǟȼ žȽ Țȣƾƀ ʏʞ ǜƁȥ ȝƾŸƾŴ ljȮƴ ȼ žȽ Țȣƾƀ ȿ ƫ ǠŻȚǍƯŽȚ ǗƇƄƵɀȮŽƾŮ ȸȤƾŰȕ Țȣƾƀ ɷʄ ʏʞ 3. Use the demonstrative short prefix “ha- Ȯƀȼ ” with the nouns in the following, oral: NjƸƯȾȮŮ NjƁǍȼŮ NjƸƯȾȮŮ NjƁǍƃȼ ɀȮŽƾƀȼ ɷʄ ǍƷȼ džȮƶŽȚ Ɨȼ ȜȤƾƱŴ ȼ ʏʞ ǍƷȼ džȮƶŽȚ Ɨȼ ȜȤƾƱƉŽƾ ȿ ƀȼ ǀƴƆȿ Ɖ ȼ žȽ ǀŽƾŴȾȤ ɷʄ ȸǞȿ Ȯűȼ ǕŮƾŶ ǙƶƃŽȚ ȳȚNjȮ ȿ ǬȾ ȰȶNjɀȮƶǧ ȼ ʏʞ ǀŴȤNjƓƾŮ ǠŮǍŸ ǛȮƴ Ư Ɓ Ȧ Ȥ Nj ȿ ȼ ɀ ȿ ȼ žȽ ɷʄ ʏʞ ween shubbaach it-tawaabi? haadhi risaala jawwiyya loo aadiyya? ween sanduuq il-bariid? shgadd siir it-tawaabi l-Paaris? aku faaks bil-bariid? aku bariid yoom ij-juma? aku talafoon bish-shaari? ween aktib unwaan is-risaala? kam hawaala maaliyya triid? kam yoom il-bariid ij-jawwi min Amriika lil-iraaq? thibb irsaal risaala loo ruzma

Example: haadha taalib da-yudrus arabi: haadhi taaliba da-tudrus arabi hadhoola tullaab da-ydursuun arabi hadhoola taalibaat da-ydursuun arabi hadhaak taalib da-yudrus arabi hadhiich taaliba da-tudrus arabi hadhoolaak tullaab da-ydursuun arabi haadha sarraaf da-yushtughul bil-bank haadha mudarris da-yallim Ingiliizi haadha chaan saakin ib-Baghdaad haadha muwazzaf hukuumi haadha musallih saaaat zeen haadha aathaari bil-mathaf il-iraaqi

Example: bariid biiid hal-bariid biiid safaara yamm in-nahar has-safaara yamm in-nahar risaala musajjala taabi jawwi sanduuq giddam il-bank mudarris yallim arabi bil-madrasa


 | l e s s o n  

ɷʄ ǀƯžƾƆȮƴȮ ȿ ȾŽ ȴǞŲȶǍɀƁ ȝƾƃŽƾŶȶ țǾŶ ȬȤƾȮƪŽƾŮ ǀƱɀȮǬȚȶ ȜǍƵɀ Ųȼ ȜȤƾƸȿ Ŵ ȼ ʞʏ ȿ ǠžǾŴǽȚ NJƁȤƾȮƄŽȚ Ȧ Ȥ Nj Ȯ Ɓ ȳ ȣƾƄ Ŵ ɀ ȽȚ ȿȼ ɀ ȼ ȿ ǀȮƭƤȚ ǜžɀ NjƸƯȾȮŮ NjƁǍŮ ʄɷ ȿ ǚǧǞƵɀȮƴȮȾŽ ǍȮǩƾŮ ȴȶǍɀȮźƾƉɀƁ ȠȼȤ ȝƾƶŮ ʏʞ ǀŴȤNjƵɀȮƴȮȾŽ ƞƇɀȮƁȚȤ ȳȼ NjȮȾŽȾȶ ǀŸƾŴ NjƯȼ ȼ Ů ǍƸȮŶȘ ȿ ȿ ȠȼȤ ȜȤƾƸŶ ɷʄ ǀƁȿ Ǟȼ ɀȮŵ NjƯȼ ȼ Ů ǀȮƭƤȚ ǜ ž Ǡƪ Ƶ Ȯ Ɓ Ȥƾƭ ŻȾ ɀ ɀ Ⱦ ȿ ǀƸƳƁǍžɀ Ț ȝȚȤǽȶȢ ȯǍȿ ƫ ȼ ɀ Ɓ ƿƄɀȮƳžȼ ʞʏ ǚȮư ȿ ȼ Ů ȆȴƾŮɀǍų ȴǞƱȮȾƴȼȮů Ƚ ȮƄ Ƚ ɀȮƪȽƁ ȱȚnjƀȼ Ǐ ʄɷ 4. Make plural the following masculine or feminine words of “have”: ǙȮŽȘȶ ǠŽȘ Țȣƾƀ ȜǍɀȮƳźȾ ȧǞų ɃNjɀȮƶŸȾ ʏʞ ɷʄ ǘŲȼ ƾƷɀȮŽȘ ǝƁȚǞƀɀ ǚȮư Ƚ Ȯŵ Ƚ ƾƀNjɀ ŸȾ ʞʏ ʄɷ ȤƾƶƁȢ ǗȮȾŽȖ ȸNjƶŸ ǝȼȮŽȘ ȜNjƁNjȾȮű ȜȤƾƸȿ Ŵ ȼ ȸNjɀȮƶŸȾ ʏʞ ǙƶƃɀȮŽƾŮ ȦǞƴɀȮź ȵNjȼ ɀȮƶȮŸȾ ƾž ɷʄ ʏʞ ǙȼȮŽƾž ǠŴɀǍȮƳŽȘ Ƚ ɷʄ ǀſƾŮɀǍȼȮų ǶƄȾ ɀȮŽƾž ǀŸƾƉŽȘ ȿ ʏʞ ɷʄ ǠŽƾž Ǟž țƾƄɀȮƳȮȾŽ ʏʞ ɷʄ ǀƯžȾ ƾƆȮƴ ɀ ȿ ȾŽ ȠȚȤ ǙȼȮŽƾž ȣƾƄŴLjȘ ʏʞ ȜǞȼ ɀȮƴŲȾ ƾƷɀȮƄȼȮŽƾž ƾƁȚNjȮƷŽȘ ȼ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ tullaab wa taalibaat yruuhuun lij-jaamia sayyaara hamra waagfa bish-shaari ustaadh ma-ydarris it-taariikh il-Islaami barrid biiid mnil-mahatta banaat rah-ysaafruun baachir lil-Muusil wilid ma raayhiin lil-madrasa tayyaara rah-ittiir baad saaa qitaar yimshi mnil-mahatta baad shwayya maktab ysarruf duulaaraat Amriikiyya talafoon kharbaan, bass hadhaak yushtughul

haadha ili w ilak

indich khoosh fikra

ilha haqq

idha shughul hwaaya

ila indi alif diinaar

indi sayyaara jidiida

maa inda fluus bil-bank

il-kursi maalak

is-saaa maaltich kharbaana

li-ktaab muu maali

il-ustaadh maalak raah lij-jaamia

il-hadaaya maalatha hilwa


At the Post Office | 

ɷʄ 5. Replace the possessive noun-pronoun construction with the maal Ȳƾž construction: NjƁNjȾȮű ƾƷɀŮƾƄɀȮż ʞʏ ʄɷ ȬȤƾȮƪŽƾŮ ǛƷɀȮůȼȤƾƸȿ Ŵ ȼ ȿ ʏʞ ɷʄ ǀƴƁǞŶȾ Ǟž ǙȼȮƄɀȮŽƾŴȾȤ ʞʏ ǀžƾŸ ȿ ȜȤǞƫ Ƚ ɀ Ů ȆǀƶȮƁȥ ǶȮƄȾ Ŵ ɀ ȼ ȤNjɀ žȼ ʄɷ ʏʞ ƗNjȼȮŻ Ǟž ǝȼȮůɀȤǞƃŴƾŮ ɀ ɷʄ ǀƁǞȼ Ȯűȼ ǛƳƯɀ ȾȮŮȚǞȼȮŶ ʞʏ ʄɷ ȜȤƾƱƉŽȚ ȿ ǜžɀ ƿƁǍȼȮŻ ǙƄȮƸȮŮ ʏʞ ɷʄ ǜƁNjźȾ ȚǍŽȚ ȿ ǙƶȮȼŮ țɀ ǛƷɀŮƾƉŲɀ ʏʞ ǀŴȤNjƵɀȮŽƾŮ ǜȮƁȥ ƿŽƾŶ ǙƶŮȘ ɷʄ ʏʞ ǙƶȮƃȼ ɀȮŽƾŮ ȝƾƱȮŷ ȿ Ǟȼ ȮžȽ ǛƳɀȮůƾƶŮ ɷʄ ʏʞ 6. Complete and read the following aloud: ǚŮƾŮ ȝȾȤȾȥ ȴƾǩ ȆǙſƾƳžȼ ȳ Ǡſȕ ǞŽ ɷʄ ʏʞ ȆǶȮȾſƾƳžȼ ȳ ɷʄ ȆǛƳɀȮſƾƳžȼ ȳ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ktaabha jidiid

sayyaarathum bish-shaari

risaaltak muu tiwiila

madrastich zeena, b-suura aamma

baasborta muu qadiim

tawaabikum jawwiyya

beetak qariib mnis-safaara

hsaabhum ib-bank ir-Raafideen

ibnak taalib zeen bil-madrasa

banaatkum muwazzafaat bil-bank

a. loo aani m-makaanak, chaan zirit Baabil m-makaanich,


ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ


 | l e s s o n  


ȆǝȼȮſƾƳžȼ ȳ


ȆƾƷɀȮſƾƳžȼ ȳ ȆǛƷɀȮſƾƳžȼ ȳ ȒȸǞȿ ȮƉ Ⱦ ȆǠȮſƾƳžȼ ȳ ǁſȘ ǞŽ dž ŵ

makaanhum, b. loo inta m-maakaani, shi-ssawwi? inti






huwwa hiyya humma


Ǟƀ Ǡƀ

? ?

ǝƵȿ ƀȽ

c. aani ahibb il-aathaar b-suura aamma, wil-Baabiliyya, b-suura khaassa

ǀǧƾų Ⱦ Ǡſȕ ȿ ȜȤǞƫɀŮ ȤƾŰȃȘ ƿŲȖ ȿ ȜȤǞƫɀŮ ǀƸȮ ȼ ȾƴȾȮŮƾƃŽȚȾȶ ȆǀžƾŸ












ǝƵȮ ȿ ƀȽ

d. il-akil il-arabi tayyib, b-suura aamma, wil-Lubnaani b-suura khaassa

ǀǧƾų ȿ ȜȤǞƫŮ ƿƸȿ ȼȮŶ ǠŮǍƯŽȚ ǚżLjȘ ȿ ȜȤǞƫŮ ǠſƾƶƃȮƴ Ƚ ɀȮŽȚȶ ȆǀžƾŸ





zeen muu ghaali

ǜƁȥ ǠŽƾŹ Ǟž


At the Post Office | 

mumtaaz taaza e. yalla, khalliina nruuh l-Baabil bil-qitaar lil-mathaf bis-sayyaara lis-safaara bil-baas lil-bank bit-taksi lil-iraaq bil-baakhira l-beet Khaalid mishi

7. Translate the following into English: alla ykhalliik, ariid tawaabi jawwiyya

indi risaala mustajala li-Fransa

yishtiri hawaala maaliyya mnil-bariid

il-mukhaabaraat il-khaarijiyya ghaalya

tsarruf sheekaat siyaahiyya bil-bank

hiyya sarliha saaa ind il-hallaaqa

maaku talafoonaat ib-shawaari Baghdaad

haadhi tadhaakir maal il-mathaf il-iraaqi

ɷʄ ʞʏ Ȝȥƾů ʄɷ ȤƾƭƲȾ ɀȮŽƾŮ ǚŮƾŮ Ȳɀ ȠȶǍɀȮſ ƾƶƸȮƴ ȿ ȼȮų ȆǝdžȮƴȼƁ ʏʞ ȜȤƾƸƉŽƾŮ ȿ ǗƇƄƵɀȮƴȮȾŽ ɷʄ ȨƾƃɀȮŽƾŮ ȜȤƾƱƉƴȮ ȿ ȾŽ ʞʏ ǠƉɀȮƳȮƄŽƾŮ ǙƶƃɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȿ ʄɷ ȜǍųƾƃŽƾŮ ȰȚǍƯɀȮƴȮȾŽ Ⱦ ʏʞ ǠƪžȾ NjŽƾų ǁƸŮ Ȳɀ ɷʄ ʞʏ ǀȮƁ ȿ ǞƦ űȼ ǕŮȚǞŶ NjƁȤȖ ȆǙƸȮƴ ȿ ȼȮƈɀƁ ʇȖ ʄɷ ƾƉɀȮſȼǍɀȮƱȾŽ ǀƴƆȼ Ưɀ ȼȮƄƉ ɀ žȽ ǀŽƾŴȾȤ ȸNjɀȮƶŸȾ ʏʞ ɷʄ NjƁǍƃŽȚ ǜžɀ ǀƸȮȾŽƾž ǀŽȚǞŲȼ ȸǍƄȾ ɀȮƪȾȮƁ ʏʞ Ƚ ɷʄ ǀƸɀȮŽƾŹ ǀƸȮűȾȤƾƒȚ ȝȚǍȼŮƾƥȘ ʏʞ ǙɀȮƶƃȼ ɀȮŽƾŮ ǀƸŲƾƸŴ Ⱦ ȝƾƳƸŵ ȯǍȿ ƫ ȼ ɀȮů ɷʄ ǀŻǾƇȼ ɀȮŽȚ NjɀȮƶȮŸȾ ǀŸƾŴ ƾƷȾŽɀȤƾǧ Ǡƀ ʏʞ ɷʄ ȢȚNjưŮ ȬȾȤȚǞȼȮŵ țɀ ȝƾſǞƱȾƴȼȮů Ǟżƾž ʏʞ ɷʄ ǠŻȚǍƯŽȚ ǗƇƄƓȚ Ȳƾž ǍżȚnj Ȯů ȸȣƾƀ Ⱦ ȼ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ȥƾƄɀƛȽ

 | l e s s o n  

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ Creative Dialogues ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ

humma ma-yruuhuun lis-safaara bis-sayyaara

hiyya raayha l-beet Kamaal

a. taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib :

ween ir-risaala maalti? ayy risaala? ir-risaala maal Ahmad maa adri, yimkin almeez ayy meez, meez il-ghurfa loo il-matbakh? taaliba : yimkin meez il-ghurfa taalib : hiyya maakuu bil-ghurfa taaliba : hissa tdhakkarit, hiyya bij-junta is-sooda

b. taaliba : shifit il-qaamuus il-arabi maali ? taalib : laa. inti ween khalleetii? taaliba : maa atdhakkar, loo bij-jaamia loo bil-beet taalib : triidiin asaadich? taaliba : ii, shukran taalib : khalliina ndawwir bil-ghuraf taaliba : inta dawwir il-ghurfa maaltak w aani adawwir b-ghurufti taalib : ligeet il-qaamuus hnaa al-kursi

For new words, see Glossary.


ȜȤƾƸƉŽƾŮ dž ȜȤƾƱƉƴ dž ȾŽ ȴǞŲȶǍɀƁ ȳȼ ǀƵȿ ƀȽ ǚžȾ ƾż ǁȮƸȮŮ Ȳɀ ǀƇȮ ȼ ɀ ƁȚȤ Ǡƀ

ȒǠƄɀȮŽƾž ǀŽƾŴǍŽȚ ȿ ǜƁȶ : ƿŽƾŶ ȒǀŽƾŴȤ ȸȖ : ǀƃŽƾŶ NjƵŲȖ Ȳƾž ǀŽƾŴǍŽȚ : ƿŽƾŶ ȿ ǎƸƵɀȮŽȚ Ȭȼ ǜƳƵɀ ȾȮƁ ȆȸȤȢȖ ƾž : ǀƃŽƾŶ ȒNJƃɀȮƭȼƓȚ ǞŽ ǀźǍưŽȚ ǎƸž ȆǎƸž ȸȖ : ƿŽƾŶ ǀźǍưŽȚ ǎƸž ǜƳƵɀ ȾȮƁ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ǀźǍưŽƾŮ Ǟżƾž Ǡƀ : ƿŽƾŶ ȿ ƾŮ Ǡƀ ȆȝȾǍȮżȼ ǀƭɀȮƶȮƐ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ȿ njɀȮů ǝȮƉ ȿ ƀȾ ȜȢǞƉŽȚ ȿ ȒǠŽƾž ǠŮǍƯŽȚ ȦǞžƾƲŽȚ ǁƱȾ ŵ Ⱦ

: ƿŽƾŶ

ǠƄƸȮƴ ȿ ȼȮų ǜƁȶ ǠƄſȚ .ǽ ȿ ƾŮ ǞŽ ȆǍȮżnj ǞŽ ǀƯžƾƐ ȿ ɀȮůȖ ƾž ǁƸƃɀȮŽƾŮ ȒɃNjȾ ȮŸɀ ƾŴȖ ǜƁNjƁǍɀȮů ȹ ȚǍƳŵ ȆǠȮȾǣ ǀźǍȮưŽƾŮ Ȥ ȶ Nj ȿ ȼ ɀȮſ ƾƶƸȮƴ ȿ ȼȮų Ƚ Ǡſȕȶ ǙȼȮƄɀȮŽƾž ǀźǍưŽƾȾȮŮ Ȥȶȿ ȼȢ ǁſȚ ǠƄɀȮźǍȽ ȮŹ Ƚ țɀ ȤƦȶȼȢȖ ǠŴɀǍȮƳ Ƚ ɀȮŽȚ Ȭȼ ȦǞžƾƲŽȚ ǁƸǦȮȾŽ

: ǀƃŽƾŶ : ƿŽƾŶ : ǀƃŽƾŶ : ƿŽƾŶ : ǀƃŽƾŶ : ƿŽƾŶ : ǀƃŽƾŶ

Barbecuing the popular Masguf fish, Baghdad

ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ lesson ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ǐȮƯȼ ȼȮƭƫ ɀ ƵȽ ɀȮų ȦȾȤȼȢ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ In the Restaurant ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ bil-matam ǛȮƯȼ ɀȮƭƵȼ ɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ DARIS KHMUSTAASH


Waliid invites Basma to a special dinner of fish called Masguuf, one of the most popular Iraqi dishes, at a restaurant on Abu Nuwaas Street, long considered the center of Baghdad night life along the Tigris River.

Basic Dialogue (Audio) . Waliid: ahibb aizmich ala aklat simach Masguuf. I would like to invite you to a dish of Masguuf fish. . Basma: shukran. shunu simach Masguuf? Thank you. What is a Masguuf fish? . Waliid: hiyya atyab akla b-Baghdaad. It is the most delicious dish in Baghdad. . Basma: laad, khalli nruuh. ween il-matam? So let us go. Where is the restaurant? . Waliid: aku mataaum hwaaya ala shaari Abu Nuwaas. There are many restaurants on Abu Nuwaas Street.

ǶƵȼ Ŵ Ⱦ ǀȼȮƴɀȮżȖ ǟƴŸ ǶȮžȾ ǎŸȾ Ȗ ƿŲȖ Ⱦ :NjƸŽȶ .ȯǞǦȮƉ ɀ žȼ ȒȯǞǦƉ Ⱦ ǞƶȮŵ ɀ žȼ ǶƵȼ Ŵ Ƚ .ȹ ȚǍƳŵ :ǀƵƉŮ .ȢȚNjưŮ

țɀ ǀȼȮƴɀȮżȖ ƿƸȼ ɀȮŶȖ Ǡƀ :NjƸŽȶ

ǜƁȶ .ȠȶǍɀȮſ ǠȮƴ ȿ ȼȮų ȆNjȮƯȼ ȼȮŽ :ǀƵƉŮ ȒǛƯƭƵɀȮŽȚ ǞŮȖ ȬȤƾŵ ǟƴŸ ǝƁȚǞƀɀ ǛŸȽ ƾƭžȼ ǞżȖ :NjƸŽȶ .ȦȚǞȮſ Ƚ

 | l e s s o n  

The two are sitting in a restaurant along “Nahar Dijla ǀƴȮű ɀ ȾȢ ǍȮƷȼ ȼȮſ,” the Tigris River, and a waiter (booy ȸɀ ǞŮ) is approaching them. ǍȼȮƮɀȮƶžȼ ǞȮƴ . Basma: allaah! shgadd hilu manzar Ƚ ŲȾ NjȼȮǦȼȮŵ !ȵǾɀȮŽȖ :ǀƵƉŮ .ǚƸƴɀȮŽƾŮ ǍƷ in-nahar bil-leel! ȼ ȮƶŽȚ ȿ Oh my God! How pretty the view of the river is at night! . booy: shi-thibuun taakluun? ȒȴǞƴɀȮżƾů ȴǞȮƃȮ Ⱦ :ȸɀ ǞŮ ȿ ƇȾ ɀȮƄŵ What do you like to eat? . Basma: simach Masguuf, taban! .ȹ ƾȮƯƃɀ ȼȮŶ ȆȯǞǦƉ Ⱦ :ǀƵƉŮ ɀ žȼ ǃƵȼ ȮŴ Masguuf fish, of course! . booy: triiduun shii wiyya s-simach? ȒǶƵȼ ȮƉŽȚ Ⱦ ǝȮdžƁȾȶ Ǡŵ Ⱦ ȴȶNjƁǍɀȮů :ȸɀ ǞŮ Do you want something with the fish? . Basma: zalaata, min fadlak. .ǙȮƴƬ ɀ ȼȮź ǜžȾ ȆǀŶǽȼȥ :ǀƵƉŮ Salad, please. . booy: thibbuun tishirbuun shii? ȒǠȮŵ Ⱦ ȴǞŮɀǍȮƪȮ Ⱦ Ⱦ ů ȴǞȮƃȮ ȿ ƇȾ ɀȮů :ȸɀ ǞŮ Do you like to drink something? . Basma: idkum mashruubaat mithil ȜǍƸȮŮ ǚȾȮƅžȾ ȝƾŮȶǍɀȮƪžȼ ǛżNjɀ ȮŸȾ :ǀƵƉŮ Ȓ ɆȼǍȮŸȼ ȶ biira wa arag? Do you have alcoholic beverages, such as beer and Arak? . booy: kullshi idna. bass il-arag zeen ǜƁȥ ɆȼǍȮƯȼ ɀȮŽȚ ǏȮ ɀ ȼ Ů .ƾſNjɀ ȮŸȾ ǠƪɀȮƴȮż Ƚ :ȸɀ ǞŮ .ǶƵȼ ȮƉŽȚ wiyya s-simach. Ʀ ǝȮdžƁȾȶ We have everything. But Arak is good with the fish. . Basma: min fadhlak, jiibilna arag ǝȮdžƁȾȶ ɆȼǍŸȼ ƾƶɀȮƴȾȮƃȮƸű ȆǙȮƴƬź ǜžȾ :ǀƵƉŮ .ȜdžǎȮžȼ wiyya mazza. Please, bring us Arak with appetizers. . booy: iddallalu. .ǞȮƴdžȮŽdžȢȘ :ȸɀ ǞŮ Whatever you wish.

Additional Expressions (Audio) aani juuaan / juuaana (M/F) aani at shaan / at shaana (M/F) idkum fawaakih? akil sharqi akil gharbi shunu aklat il-yoom? raja¢an intiina li-hsaab

I am hungry. I am thirsty Do you have fruits? Eastern food Western food What is today’s dish? Please, give us the bill.

ǀſƾŸǞű / ȴƾŸǞű Ǡſȕ ǀſƾƪɀȮƭŸȼ / ȴƾƪɀȮƭŸȼ Ǡſȕ ȒǝżȚǞ Ⱦ ȼȮź ǛżNjɀ ȮŸȾ ǠŻɀǍȼȮŵ ǚżȖ Ⱦ ǠŮɀǍȼȮŹ ǚżȖ Ⱦ ȒȳǞƸŽȚ ǀȮƴ ȮżȖ Ǟƶ Ȯŵ ȿ ɀ Ƚ țƾƉƇȮ Ž ƾƶƸȮ ƭ Ⱦ ɀȮſȘ Ȕȹ ƾűȤ ɀ Ⱦ

In the Restaurant | 

il-akil tayyib, bass ghaali il-akil laa ghaali wala rikhiis

The food is good, but expensive. The food is neither expensive nor cheap. (see lesson )

ǠŽƾŹ ǏȼŮ ƿƸȮ Ⱦ Ʀ Ŷȼ ǚżLjȘ ǑƸųȾȤ ǽȶ ǠŽƾŹ ǽ ǚżLjȘ

Vocabulary (Audio) ahibb habb, yhibb aizmich izam, yizim aziima / azaayim (S/P) akla / aklaat (S/P) akil simcha / simach (S/P) Masguuf matam / mataaum (S/P) Abu Nuwaas

allaah! shgadd? hilu / hilwa (M/F) manzar / manaazir (S/P) nahar / anhaar (S/P) nahar Dijla nahar il-Furaat booy / booyaat (S/P) taakul / taakliin / taakluun (M/F/P) taban, bit-tabu zalaata / zalaataat (S/P) yijbak / yijbich / yijibkum (M/F/P) tishrab / tishirbiin / tishirbuun (M/F/P) mashruub / mashruubaat (S/P)

I like to like, to love I invite you (F) to invite (to a dinner) dinner invitation/s, banquet/s dish/es (of food) food (collective word) fish (collective word) a popular Iraqi fish dish restaurant/s A street in Baghdad named after the famous Arab poet (eighth century) Oh my God! (expression of appreciation) How much? How long? pretty, nice, sweet (adj.) view, sight, scene/s river/s Tigris River Euphrates River waiter, bellboy/s (the English “boy”) you eat of course salad/s you like, it interests you you drink drink/s

ƿȮŲȖ Ⱦ ƿȮ Ƈ ȮƁ Ȇ ƿȮ ȿ Ⱦ ɀ ȿ Ųȼ ǶžȾ ɀǎȮŸȾ Ȗ ȳȾǎȮɀȮƯȾȮƁ ȆȳȼǎȮŸȾ ǛȾȮƁȚǎŸȼ / ǀȼƚǎȮŸȼ ȝǾɀȮżȖ / ǀȼȮƴɀȮżȖ ǚȮżȖ Ⱦ ǶȮƵȼ Ŵ / ǀȮ ǰ Ƶ Ŵ Ⱦ ȼ ɀ Ⱦ ȯǞǦȮƉ ɀ žȼ ǛŸȽ ƾƭžȼ / ǛƯȼ ɀȮƭžȼ ȦȚǞȮſ Ƚ ǞŮȖ ȵǾɀȮŽȖ ȒNjȼȮȮǦɀȮŵ ȜǞɀȮƴŲȾ / ǞȮƴ Ƚ ŲȾ ǍŷƾȮƶ Ⱦ žȼ / ǍȼȮƮɀȮƶžȼ ȤƾƷɀȮſȖ / ǍƷȼ ȼȮſ ǀƴȮűɀ ȾȢ ǍȮƷȼ ȼȮſ ȝȚǍȮƱ Ƚ ɀȮŽȚ ǍƷȼ ȼȮſ ȝƾƁǞȮŮ Ƚ / ȸɀ ǞȮȽŮ ȴǞȮƴɀȮżƾů / ƞȮƴɀȮżƾů / ǚȮżƾů Ƚ ǕȮƃȽ džȮƭŽƾŮ ȆȹƾȮƯƃɀ ȼȮŶ ȝƾŶǽȼȥ / ǀŶǽȼȥ / ǶƃƆȮ Ư ɀ Ⱦ ȮɀƁ / ǙƃƆȮ ɀ ƯȾ ȮɀƁ ǛƳƃɀ ȾȮƆƯɀ ȾȮƁ / ƞȮŮɀǍȮƪ Ⱦ Ⱦ ů / țȼǍɀȮƪȾů ȴǞŮɀǍȮƪ Ⱦ Ⱦů ȝƾŮȶǍɀȮƪžȼ / țȶǍɀȮƪžȼ

 | l e s s o n  

mithil biira arag kullshi mazza / mazzaat (S/P) iddallal intiina nita, yinti hsaab / hisaabaat (S/P) bass tayyib / tayyba (M/F) ghaali / ghaalya (M/F) rikhiis / rikhiisa (M/F) hatta

like, such as, similar beer Arak (popular Iraqi alcoholic drink) everything hors d’oeuvres, appetizer/s whatever you wish (see lesson ) give us (imp. verb) to give (WV) bill, account/s but, enough delicious, good, well (adj.) expensive (adj.) cheap, inexpensive (adj.) in order to, until, till, as far as

ǚȮƅȾ ȮžȾ ȜǍȮƸȮŮ ɆȼǍȮŸȼ ǠƪɀȮƴȮż Ƚ ȝȚǎȿ Ȯžȼ / Ȝǎȿ Ȯžȼ ǚȮȮŽ ȿ Ȣȿ Ș ƾƶȮƸȮƭɀȮſȘ ǠƭɀȮƶȾȮƁ ȆƾȼȮƭȮȾſ ȝƾŮƾƉŲȾ / țƾƉŲɀ ǏȮ ɀ ȼȾ Ů ǀȮƃȮ ȼ Ƹɀ ȼȮŶ / ƿȮƸƦ ȼȮŶ ǀƸȮ ȼ ɀȮŽƾŹ / ǠŽƾŹ ǀƫƸų ȼ Ⱦ Ȥ / ǑƸųȾȤ ǟȮƄȮ ȿ Ųȼ

Additional Vocabulary Related to Food (Audio) rayyuug / ftuur ghada asha khubuz sammuun shoorba doolma baamya gass jibin hummus bi-t hiina baaba ghannuuj tabbuula kabaab tikka kubba khudrawaat busal tamaata tamur halawiyyaat liban

breakfast lunch dinner bread (French) bread soup stuffed vegetable okra grilled meat cheese chickpeas dip eggplant dip chopped salad kebab (minced meat) chunks of meat meat with cracked wheat vegetable onion tomato palm date sweets yogurt

ȤǞƭɀȮź / ɆǞȮƁȿ ȼ Ȥ ȵNjȼ ȼȮŹ ƾȼȮƪȮŸȼ ǎȮƃ Ƚ Ȯų Ƚ ȴǞƵȿ ǧ ȼ ǀȼŮɀȤǞŵ ǀƵȼ ɀȮŽȶȢ ǀƸȮ ȼ žɀ ƾŮ ǑȼȮǬ ǜȾȮƃȾȮű ǀƶƸȮƇɀȮƭȾȮŮ ǑȮƵȿ ŲȽ ȟǞȮƶȮȼ ȿ Ź ǝȮȼŮƾŮ ǀŽǞƃȮ ȿ ȼȮů țƾƃȼȮż ǀdžȮƳȾů ǀȮƃ ȿ ȮȮż Ƚ ȝȚȶȼǍƬ ɀ ųȽ ǚƫ ȼ ȽŮ ǀŶƾƵȼȮŶ ǍȮƵȽ ȼȮů ȝƾȮƁȿ ǞȾ ȼȮƴȮŲȼ ǜȮƃȼ ȾȮŽ

In the Restaurant | 

NjȾȮŮȾȥ ǝżȚǞ Ⱦ ȼȮź ǒȮƸȮŮ ǛƇȼ ȼȮŽ ȟƾűȾȢ /ȟƾű ȥȽȤ /ǜȼȮƵȮ ȿ Ⱦů ljȮȾƴȮžȾ ǚȾȮƱɀȮƴȮźȾ ǠȮ ȿ žȼ ǠŵɀǍȮŶ Ƚ ǍƸƫȮŸȼ ɆǞȮƴƉȮ ɀ žȼ ǠȮƴɀȮǦžȼ ȸǞɀȮƪȼȮž ǃȮȾƴȼȮŰ ǞȮƸɀȮƶȼȮž ȴƾƳȮƄȾ ȮŴȘ ɀ ȴǞȮŸƾž Ƚ ȨǾɀȮǬ ǀȮƸȮ ȿ ƶȾ ȮƸǧ ǀȼȮżǞȮŵ Ƚ ƞȮǰȮ Ⱦ Ʀ Ŵ ǀȼȮǬǞŵƾų

butter fruit eggs meat chicken rice salt pepper water pickles juice boiled fried broiled ice menu tea glass plate, dish glass tray fork knife spoon

zibid fawaakih beed laham jaaj / dijaaj timman / ruzz miliih filfil mayy turshi asiir masluug magli mashwi thalij manyoo istikaan maauun glass siiniyya shooka sichchiin khaashuuga

Grammar and Remarks The Preposition 9ala / 9a-

ȼȮŸ / ǟƴŸȼ on, upon, about

ala is a common preposition in Arabic in general. In the Iraqi dialect it basically means “on” but also has variant meanings of “upon” and “about,” depending on the context. The preposition is used with nouns or attached pronouns. If the noun is indefinite the complete form of ala is used, whereas the shortened form “a-” is used with the definite noun in conjunction with the article “il-” (the). (Audio) ala kursi ala meez ala jariida ala siiniyya

on a chair on a table on a newspaper on a tray

ǠŴɀǍȮż Ƚ ǟƴŸ ǎƸž ǟƴŸ ȜNjƁǍűȼ ǟƴŸ

al-kursi al-meez aj-jariida

ǀƸȮƶȮƸǧ ǟƴŸ ȿ


on the chair on the table on the newspaper on the tray


When ala is suffixed with an attached pronoun, it has the variant form alee- plus the pronoun, except with the first person, which takes the form alayya. (Audio)

 | l e s s o n  

alee aleeha aleehum aleek aleech aleekum alayya aleena li-hsaab alayya Basma tsallim aleekum aleena shughul hwaaya

on him on her on them on you (M) on you (F) on you (P) on me on us The bill is on me. Basma says hello to you. We have much work.

The Interrogative Words: adawaat lis-tifhaam

ǝƸȮƴȮŸȼ ƾƷƸȮƴȮŸȼ ǛƷƸȮƴȮ Ÿȼ Ƚ ǙƸȮƴȮŸȼ ǶƸȮƴȮŸȼ ǛƳƸȮƴȮŸȼ ǝȮƸdž ȼȮƴȮŸȼ ƾƶƸȮƴȮŸȼ ǝƸdž ȼȮƴȮŸȼ țƾƉƇȮ ɀ ȾŽ ǛƳƸȮƴŸ ǛȮƴ ȼ ɀȮů ǀƵƉŮ ȿ Ɖ ǝȼƁȚǞȮƀɀ ǚȮư Ƚ Ȯŵ Ƚ ƾƶƸȮƴŸ


Below is a list of most of the Iraqi interrogative words grouped together with examples for references. (Audio) . ween? ween il-matam? . shwakit? shwakit zirtu Baabil? . shloon? shloonkum? shloon madrasa? . shgadd?

shgadd il-ujra bis-sayyaara? shgadd saarlich hnaa? shgadd tibid Baabil? . beesh, ibbeesh? ibbeesh is-simach? beesh is-saaa? . shunu, sh- ? shunu ismak? shi-smak? sh-da-taakul sh-aku maaku il-yoom?

Where? Where is the restaurant? When? When did you (P) visit Babylon? How? What kind of? How are you (P)? What kind of school? How much? How long? How far? (depending on context) How much is the car rate? How long have you been here? How far is Babylon? How much? What time? How much is the fish? What time is it? What? What is your name? What are you eating? What is happening today?

ȒǜƁȶ ȒǛƯƭƓȚ ǜƁȶ ȒǁżȾ Ǟȼ ɀȮŵ ȒǚŮƾŮ ǞůɀȤȾȥ ǁżȾ Ǟȼ ɀȮŵ ȒȴǞƴɀȮŵ ȒǛȮƳ Ƚ ɀȮſǞƴɀȮŵ ȒǀŴȼȤNjɀ žȼ ȴǞƴɀȮŵ ȒNjȼȮƳɀȮŵ ȒȜȤƾƸƉŽƾŮ ȿ ȜǍűLjȘ NjȼȮƳɀȮŵ ȒƾƶȮƀɀ ǶȮȾŽɀȤƾǧ NjȼȮƳɀȮŵ ȒǚŮƾŮ NjȮƯȾ ƃȮ ɀ Ⱦ ů NjȼȮƳɀȮŵ ȒǐƸȮŮȿ Ș ȆǐƸŮ ȒǃƵȼ ȮƉŽȘ Ʀ ǐƸȮŮȿ Ș ȒǀŸƾȮƉŽȚ ȼ ǐƸŮ ȒȮŵ ȆǞƶȮŵ Ƚ ȒǙƵȼ Ɖ ŵ ȒǙ Ƶȼ ŴȘ ɀ Ⱦ ɀ ǞƶȮŵ Ƚ ȒǚȮżƾů Ƚ Njȼ ɀȮŵ ȒȳǞƸŽȚ Ǟżƾž ǞƳȼȮŵ

In the Restaurant | 

. ay, yaa, yaahu? yaa bariid qariib? yaahu ktaabak? . kam, cham? kam walad indich? cham miil min Baghdaad il-Baabil? . leesh, ilweesh, luweesh? leesh zaaraw l-iraaq? ilweesh ma zaaraw ilBasra? luweesh tudrus arabi? . mneen, immeen? immeen hadirtak? . minu? ilman? maalman? minu huwwa? ilman shiftu bil-findiq? maalman haadha l-baasbort? . hal? (not used very much) hal hiyya iraaqiyya? hal humma Lubnaaniyyiin?

Which? Which one? Which post office is near? Which one is your book? How many? How many boys do you (F) have? How many miles from Baghdad to Babylon? Why? Why did they visit Iraq? Why didn’t they visit Basra? Why does she study Arabic? Where . . . from? Where are you from? Who? Whom? Whose? Who is he? Whom did you (P) see in the hotel? Whose is this passport? is /are? Is she an Iraqi? Are they Lebanese?

ȒǞƀȽ ƾƁ ȆƾƁ ȆȸȖ ȒƿƁǍŻ NjƁǍŮ ƾƁ ȒǙŮƾƄɀȮż ǞƀȽ ƾƁ ȒǛȮǩȼ ȆǛȼȮż ȒɃNjȾ ɀȮƶȮŸȾ NjȼȮŽȼȶ ǛȼȮż ȒǚŮƾŮ Ȳɀ ȢȚNjưŮ ǜž ǚƸž ǛȮǩȼ ȒǐƁǞȾ ȮŽ Ƚ ȆǐƁǞɀȮŽȘ ȆǐƸŽ ȒȰȚǍƯŽȚ ɀȶȼȤȚȥ ǐƸŽ ȒȜǍƫƃŽȚ ɀȶȼȤȚȥ ȳȼ ǐƁǞɀȮŽȘ ȒǠŮǍŸ ȦȽȤNjɀ Ȯů Ƚ ǐƁǞȮŽ Ƚ ȒƞƛȘɀ ȆƞȮƶžɀ ȒǙůɀǍƬ Ⱦ Ųȼ ƞƛȘɀ ȒǜȮƵȼ ɀȮŽƾž ȆǜƵȼ ɀȮŽȘ ȆǞƶȮžȾ ȒǞƀ ǞƶȮžȾ ȒȰNjƶƱŽƾŮ ǞƄɀȮƱȮŵ Ⱦ ǜȮƵȼ ɀȮŽȘ ȒȝȤǞƃŴƾƃŽȚ Țȣƾƀ ǜƵȼ ɀȮŽƾž ɀ ȒǚȮƀȼ ȒǀƸŻȚǍŸ Ǡƀ ǚȮƀȼ ȒƞȮƸſƾƶƃŽ ǝƵȼ ƀȽ ǚȮƀȼ Ʀ

Idioms and Common Phrases (Audio) 1. 9eeb 9alee + Pronoun eeb aleek, ma-rihit lil-madrasa eeb aleech, ma-ddursiin arabi eeb aleekum, taakluun hwaaya eeb alee, ykuun kaslaan eeb aleeha, tudrub ibinha eeb alayya, ma-zirit Baabil

ǝƸƴŸȼ ƿƸȮŸȾ Shame on (him) Shame on you, you didn’t go to school. Shame on you, you don’t study Arabic. Shame on you, you eat too much. Shame on him, he is lazy. Shame on her, she hits her son. Shame on me, I didn’t visit Babylon.

ǁŲȾ Ⱦ Ȥ ȳȼ ȆǙƸƴȮŸȼ ƿƸŸ ǀŴȼȤNjɀ Ƶȼ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ ǠŮǍŸ ƞŴɀȤLJȢ ȳȼ ȆǶȮƸƴŸȼ ƿƸŸ ǝȼƁȚǞȮƀɀ ȴǞƴɀȮżƾů ȆǛƳƸƴŸȼ ƿƸŸ ȴǾƉ ɀ ȼȮż ȴǞƳȮɀƁ ȆǝƸƴŸȼ ƿƸŸ ƾƷƶɀ ȾȮŮȘ țǍȽ Ƭ ɀ Ȯů Ƚ ȆƾƷƸƴŸȼ ƿƸŸ ǚŮƾŮ ȝȾȤȾȥ ȳȼ ȆǝȮƸȿ ȼȮƴŸȼ ƿƸŸ


 | l e s s o n  

2. shloon-ma thibb / ma-triid NjƁǍɀȮů ȳȼ / ƿƇ Ⱦ ɀȮů ȳȼ ȴǞƴɀȮŵ as you like, whatever you want (conjunction, see lesson 20) idrus shloon-ma thibb Study as you (M) like. ƿƇȾ ɀȮů ȳȼ ȴǞƴɀȮŵ ȦȽȤɀȢȘ idursuu shloon-ma Study as you (P) like. ȴǞȮƃȿ ƇȾ ɀȮů ȳȼ ȴǞƴɀȮŵ ǞŴ Ƚ ɀ ȤȽȢȘ thibbuun hiyya taakul shloon-ma thibb huwwa ysallih is-sayyaara shloon ma-yhibb ysaafruun shloon ma-yhibbuun nsaafir shloon ma-nriid

She eats whatever she likes.

ƿȮƇȾ ɀȮů ȳȼ ȴǞƴɀȮŵ ǚȮżƾů Ƚ Ǡƀ

He repairs the car as he likes.

ȴǞƴɀȮŵ ȜȤƾƸƉŽȚ ȼ ɀ Ɓ Ǟƀ ȿ ljƦȮƴƫȮ ƿȮƇȾ ɀȮƁ ȳȼ ȳȼ ȴǞƴɀȮŵ ȴȶǍɀȮźƾƉȮɀƁ ȴǞȮƃȮ ȿ ƇȾ ɀȮƁ NjƁǍɀȮſ ȳȼ ȴǞƴŵ ǍźȾ ƾƉɀȮſ

They travel as they like. We travel as we wish/want.

3. sh-madrii + attached pronoun? sh-madriik aani iraaqiyya? sh-madriich Basma raahat? sh-madriikum huwwa bil-beet? sh-madriiha l-Masguuf tayyib? sh-madrii li-bnayya ind Khaalid?

Ȓ + ȸȤNjɀ Ƶȼ ɀȮŵ How does (he) know?

How do you know I am an Iraqi? How do you know that Basma has gone? How do you know they are home? How does she know that Masguuf is delicious? How does he know that the girl is at Khalid’s house?

tamaariin ǜƁȤƾƵȼȮů ɷʄ Drills 1. Give appropriate oral replies to the following: ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ween shaari Abu Nuwaas? minu izam Basma? li-hsaab layya loo aleech? il-Masguuf akla sharqiyya loo gharbiyya? sh-tishirbuun wiyya is-simach? ween raah Waliid wa Basma? il-Masguuf ghaali loo rikhiis? shunu shirbaw wiyya il-Masguuf? Baghdaad ala ayy nahar? il-Msguuf aklat asha loo rayyoog? Baabil ala ayy nahar? kam nahar chibiir bil-iraaq?


ȒǁŲȚȤ ȼ ǀƵƉŮ ǶȮƁȤNjɀ Ƶȼ ɀȮŵ ȒǁƸƃŽƾŮ Ǟƀ ǛƳƁȤNjɀ Ƶȼ ɀȮŵ ȯǞǦȮƉ ɀ ȼ ƓȚ ƾƷƁȤNjɀ Ƶȼ ɀȮŵ ȒƿȮƸƦ ȼȮŶ NjƶȮŸȾ ǀdžȮƸȼȮƶȮƃȮ Ž ȸȤ ɀ Ⱦ Njɀ Ƶȼ ɀȮŵ ȒNjŽƾų

ȒȦȚǞſ ǞŮȚ ȬȤƾŵ ǜƁȶ ȒǀƵƉŮ ȳȼǎȮŸȾ ǞƶȮžȾ ȒǶƸƴŸȼ ǞŽ ǝȮƸȿ ȼȮƴŸȼ țƾƉƇȮ ɀ ȾŽ ȼ ǀƴɀȮżȖ ȯǞǦȮƉ ȒǀƸŮǍȼȮŹ ǞŽ ǀƸŻǍŵ ɀ ȼ ƓȚ ɀ ȒǶƵȮƉŽȚ Ⱦ Ⱦů ȧ ȿ ǝȼȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ȴǞŮɀǍƪȮ ȒǀƵƉŮȶ NjƸŽȶ ȠȚȤ ǜƁȶ ȒǑƸųȾȤ ǞŽ ǠŽƾŹ ȯǞǦȮƉ ɀ ȼ ƓȘ ȒȯǞǦƉ Ⱦ ǞƶȮŵ ɀ ȼ ƓȚ ǝȮdžƁȾȶ Ǟɀ ȮȼŮɀǍŵ Ƚ ȒǍƷȼ ȼȮſ ȸȖ ǟƴŸ ȢȚNjưŮ ȒɆǞȮLJƁȼȤ ǞŽ ƾȼȮƪŸȼ ǀȼȮƴɀȮżȖ ȯǞǦƉ ɀ ȼ ƓȘ ȒǍƷȼ ȼȮſ ȸȖ ǟƴŸ ǚŮƾŮ ȒȰȚǍƯɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ǍȮƸȮƃȾȮǩ ǍƷȼ ȼȮſ Ǜż


In the Restaurant | 

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ 2. Make questions of the following sentences: ȢȚNjưŮ țɀ NjƸŵǍŽȚ ȿ ȰNjƶź ǀdžȮƴƇȾ ɀȮŽȚ ǜžɀ ǀƃƁǍȮŻ ǚŮƾŮ ɷʄ ǀƶŴ ǚȮƃȽ ȼȮǬ ƾƁɀȤǞŴ ƾſɀȤȾȥ ǍƷŵ NjƯȼ ȼ Ů ȴƾƶƃŽ ȤȶǎɀȮſ ȠȼȤ ʞʏ ƞȮƶƁȥ ƗǍżȶ ǀƵƉŮ ʄɷ ȦȚǞſ ǞŮȚ ȬȤƾŵ ǟƴŸ ǶƵȼ Ŵ Ⱦ ǞżȚ ǀƫƸųȾȤ Ǟž ȰNjƶƱŽȚ ȝȼǍȮűɀ Ƚ Ț ʏʞ ȢȚNjưŮ țɀ ƞŸǞƃŴ ɀ Ƚ Ț ǛƷɀȮŽȾȤƾǧ ǀƯƉ ů ǀŸƾ ƉŽȚ ɀ Ⱦ ȿ ȆǝƉ ȿ ƀȾ ɷʄ ǍƸȮſƾȮſȢ ǕȼŮɀȤȚ ț ǀƸȮ ȼ žɀ ƾŮ ǞƴƸż ǛƯƭƓƾŮ ǀƵɀȮŽȶȢ ǚżƾſ ȼȢ ʞʏ ǗƇƄƓƾŮ ǀƁȚǞƀɀ ȤƾŰȕ ǞżȚ ǀƃƁǍȼȮŻ ǀƸƳƁǍžLjȚ ȜȤƾƱƉŽȘ ȿ ʄɷ ǠŽƾž ǠŮǍƯŽȚ țƾƄɀȮƳȮȾŽ ȒȢȚNjưŮ Ȳɀ Ș ǚŮƾŮ ǜž ǚƸž ƞȮƄȮ Ⱦ ʏʞ ȿ Ŵ ȰNjƶƱŽƾŮ ǀȮźɀǍȮŹ Ƚ ƞƯȼŮɀȤȖ ɷʄ ȰȚǍƯŽȚ ȤȶǎɀȮů ǟȼȮƄŲȼ ǠŮǍŸ ǁŴ ȼ ɀ ȤȾȢ ǀƵƉŮ ǶȮƵȼ Ŵ Ⱦ ȴǞƴɀȮżƾƁ ǟȼȮƄŲȼ ǛƯƭƵɀȮƴȮȾŽ Ǟɀ ȮŲȚȤ ȼ ʏʞ ȝȶǍƸŮ ǜž ȜǍƵɀ ȼƑȚ ǠƉɀȮƳȮƄŽȚ ȿ ǞŮȖ NjƁǍƃŽȚ ǞŮȖ Ǟƀ ɷʄ ǀŴȼȤNjɀ Ƶȼ ɀȮŽȚ Ȳƾž ȜȤƾƸƉŽȚ ȿ ƞŽǍŮ ǜž ǀȮƸſƾƓȖ ǀƴƸƵű ȿ ʏʞ ȜNjȿ ȾȮű ǜžȾ ǜȮƸȮƦƁȾȢǞȮƯŴ ǝ ƵȮ ƀ Ƚ Ƚ ȿ ǶȮƵȼ Ŵ Ⱦ ȯǞǦƉ ɀ ȼ ƓȘ ɷʄ ȰNjƶƱŽƾŮ ǟƴƸŽȶ ǙŽƾž ǁȼȮźƾŵ ǀƵƉŮ ʏʞ 3. Change the following past tense sentences to the present tense: ɷʄ ǀƸŻȚǍƯŽȚ ǀƸȼ žɀ ƾƃŽȚ ǁƸƃȿ Ųȼ ʏʞ ȯǞƳƉž ǶƵȼ Ŵ Ⱦ ǁȾƴȼȮżȖ ɷʄ ǚŮƾŮ ȤȶǎɀȮů ǁſƾǩ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ il-matam bii mashruubaat? humma aklaw simich loo kabaab? shwakit raahaw lil-matam? shunu shirbaw wiyya il-akil?

findiq ir-Rashiid ib-Baghdaad. Baabil qariiba mnil-Hilla. zirna Suurya gabul sana. rah-nzuur Lubnaan baad shahar. Basma wa Kariim zeeniin. aku simach ala shaari Abu Nuwaas. ujrat il-findiq muu rikhiisa. sarilhum usbuueen ib-Baghdaad. hissa, is-saaa tisa. keelu baamya b-arba danaaniir. da-naakul doolma bil-matam. aku aathaar hwaaya bil-mathaf. is-safaara l-Amriikiyya qariiba. li-ktaab il-arabi maali. sittiin miil min Baabil il-Baghdaad. arbaiin ghurfa bil-findiq. Basma dirsat arabi hatta tzuur il-iraaq. raahaw lil-matam hatta yaakluun simach. Abu it-taksi l-hamra min Beeruut. huwwa Abu il-bariid. is-sayyaara maal il-madrasa. Jamiila Almaaniyya min Berliin. humma Suuudiyyiin min Jidda. il-masguuf simach. Basma shaafat Maalik wa Laylaa bil-findiq.

habbeet il-baamya l-iraaqiya akalit simach Masguuf chaanat tzuur Baabil

ȒȝƾŮȶǍɀȮƪžȼ ǠŮ ǛƯƭƓȚ Ȓțƾƃż ǞŽ ǶƵȼ ȮŴ Ⱦ Ǟɀ ȼȮƴɀȮżȖ ǝƵdž ȮƀȽ ȒǛƯƭƵɀȮƴȮȾŽ Ǟɀ ȮŲȚȤ ȼ ǁżȾ Ǟȼ ɀȮŵ ȒǚȮżLjȚ Ⱦ ǝȮdžƁȾȶ Ǟɀ ȮȼŮɀǍȮŵ Ⱦ ǞƶȮŵ Ƚ


 | l e s s o n  

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ 4. Fill in the blanks of the following: ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ

humma raahaw lil-mataar bis-sayyaara

ȜȤƾƸƉŽƾŮ ȿ ȤƾƭƵɀȮƴȮȾŽ Ǟɀ ŲȚȤ ȼ ǝƵȿ ƀȽ ǀƸŮǍƯŽȚ ǀưƴŽȚ ƾƶŴ ɀ ȼ ȤȾȢ

dirasna il-lugha il-arabiyya inta saafarit il-Lubnaan

ȴƾƶƃŽ Ȳɀ Ș ȝȾǍȼȮźƾŴ ǁſȚ

shwakit zirit il-mathaf

ȒǗƇƄƓȚ ȝȾȤȾȥ ǁżȾ Ǟȼ ɀȮŵ Ȓǀƃżȶ ȿ țƾƃż ǞƄɀȮƴȼȮżȖ ǜƁȶ

ween akaltu kabaab wa kubba leesh chintu tabaaniin?

ȒƞſƾƃƯů ǞƄɀȮƶȾȮǩ ǐƸŽ

chaan indi sayyaarteen

ƞȮůɀȤƾƸȿ Ŵ ȼ ȸNjɀȮƶŸȾ ȴƾǩ

is-sayyaara maalti chaanat hamra

loo aani m-makaanak, chaan zirit Baabil

ȜǍƵɀ Ųȼ ǁſƾǩ ǠƄɀȮŽƾž ȜȤƾƸƉŽȘ ȿ ǚŮƾŮ ȝȾȤȾȥ ȴƾǩ ȆǙſƾƳžȼ ȳ Ǡſȕ ǞŽ ȬȤƾȮƪŽƾŮ ȴǞƱƴů ǞżȚ ȴƾǩ ȿ

chaan aku talafoon bish-shaari

hadhoola il-wilid chaanaw tullaab

țǾŶ Ǟɀ ȼȮſƾǩ NjȮȾŽǞŽȚ Ⱦ ǝŽȶnjƀȼ

chinit tishrab arag bil-baar

ȤƾƃŽƾŮ ɆȼǍŸȼ țǍɀȮƪȾů ǁƶȾ ȾȮǩ

chinna naakul kubba kull usbuu

ȬǞƃŴ ɀ Ƚ Ț ǚȮż ȿ ȾȮǩ Ƚ țƾƃż ǚżƾſ ƾȮƶ

Basma chaanat ind Samiir

ǍƸƵŴ NjɀȮƶŸȾ ǁſƾǩ ǀƵƉŮ

akalna baamya ind Saad

NjƯȼ Ŵ ȼ NjƶŸ ǀƸȼ žɀ ƾŮ ƾƶɀȮƴȼȮżȖ

Basma wa Waliid Waliid izam aku

simach Masguuf

ala asha

hwaaya ala shaari

aku bil-matam


ȯǞƳƉ Ⱦ ɀ žȼ ǃƵȼ Ŵ ȼ Ÿȼ ǟƴŸ ƾȮƪȮ ȬȤƾŵ ǟƴŸ ǝƁȚǞƀɀ ȶ

NjƸŽȶȶ ǀƵƉŮ ȳȼǎŸȾ NjƸŽȶ ǞżȚ ǛƯƭƓƾŮ ǞżȚ


In the Restaurant | 

rajaa¢n intiina Baghdaad

nahar Dijla wa Baabil

ǍȮƷȼ ȼȮſ il-mazza l-Lubnaaniyya id-doolma akla il-walad

ɷʄ ʞʏ ƾȮƶƸƭɀȮſȘ Ȕȹ ƾűȤ ʄɷ ʏʞ ǚŮƾŮȶ ǀƴűɀ ȾȢ ǍȮƷȼ ȼȮſ ȢȚNjưŮ ɷʄ ǀƸſƾƶƃɀȮƴȮŽȚ Ƚ Ȝǎȿ ȮƵȼ ɀȮŽȘ ʞʏ ǞŽ ǀƴɀȮżȖ ǀƵɀȮŽȶNjȿ Žȿ Ș ʄɷ ǍƸƵŴ NjŽǞŽȘ ʏʞ ǞŽ ǝƸdž ȼȮƴŸȼ țƾƉƇȮ ɀ ȾŽ ɷʄ ǞŽ ǀƶƁNjž ǚŮƾŮ ʞʏ ʄɷ NjƁǍƃŽƾŮ ƞŸǞƃŴȚȶ NjƁǍƃŽƾŮ ȬǞƃŴ ɀ ɀ Ƚ Ț ʏʞ ɷʄ ǙƶƃŽƾŮ ǟŽȚ ȝȚȤǽȶȢ ȯǍȿ ƫ ȼ ɀƁ ʏʞ ǍźƾŴȖ ȳȥǽ ȆǝƉ ȿ ƀȾ ɷʄ ǜƁNjźȾ ȚǍȮŽȚ țƾƉ Ų Ǜƀ Nj Ȯ Ÿ Ⱦ ɀ ɀ ȿ ʏʞ ǗƇƄƵɀȮƴȮȾŽ njȮųƾů ǗŽƾƈ Ƹ ž ɀȼ Ƚ ɷʄ ȴȶNjȾȮŮ ȰȚǍƯɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȴǞŲȶǍɀȮů ǍƸƫƸɀ žȼ ʏʞ ȤƾŰȃȚ ƿƇȾ ɀȮů ǀƵƉŮ ɷʄ ȜǍȮ Ⱦ țƾƉŲɀ ʏʞ ȿ Ƶȼ ɀȮŽƾƀȼ ǝdžȮƸȼȮƴŸȼ ǚȮżLjȚ ɷʄ ƾƶƸȮƴŸȼ ʏʞ ǙƸȮƴŸȼ ɷʄ ʏʞ ǀƴɀȮżȖ ȯǞƳƉ ɀ ȼ ƓȘ

il-Masguuf akla

loo Samiir

li-hsaab alayya loo Baabil madiina


usbuu bil-bariid

w-usbuueen bil-bariid

ysarruf duulaaraat ila


hissa, laazim asaafir idhum hsaab


maykhaalif taakhudh


maysiir truuhuun lil-iraaq biduun Basma thibb il-aathaar

5. Complete and read the following aloud: a. hsaab il-akil alayya hal-marra aleena aleek


ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ


 | l e s s o n  




aleekum alee



ƾƷƸȮƴŸȼ ǛƷƸȮƴŸȼ ǛŴƾű ǝȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ǚŸȼ ɀǎȾů ȆǙƸȮƴŸȼ ƿƸŸ Ⱦ

aleehum b. eeb aleek, tizal wiyya Jaasim


eeb aleech,


eeb aleekum,


eeb alee,


eeb aleeha,


eeb aleehum, eeb alayya,

ȆǝdžȮƸȼȮƴŸȼ ƿƸŸ

eeb aleena,

ȆƾƶƸȮƴŸȼ ƿƸŸ ȒǀƸƳƁǍžɀ Ȗ ǀƵƉŮ ǙƁȤNjɀ Ƶȼ ɀȮŵ

c. sh-madriik Basma Amriikiyya? sh-madriich sh-madriikum sh-madrii sh-madriiha


? ?

ǶȮƁȤNjɀ Ƶȼ ɀȮŵ












ȸȤNjɀ Ƶȼ ɀȮŵ ƾƷȮƁȤNjɀ Ƶȼ ɀȮŵ




ǠƶȮƁȤNjɀ Ƶȼ ɀȮŵ Ȓ

ƾƶȮƁȤNjɀ Ƶȼ ɀȮŵ


In the Restaurant | 

d. asawwi ish-shughul shloon ma-triid ma-triidiin ma-triiduun ma-yriid ma-triid ma-yriiduun ma-ariid ma-nriid e. shloon saafarit il-Baghdaad? saafarti lil-Hilla? saafartu lil-Muusil? saafar lil-Basra? saafrat l-Beeruut? saafraw l-mmaan? saafarit lil-Qaahira? saafarna l-Tuunis?

6. Translate the following into Arabic: Where did you (P) go?

How is the food?

ɷʄ ʞʏ ǜƁNjƁǍɀȮů ȳȼ ʄɷ ȴȶNjƁǍɀȮů ȳȼ ʏʞ NjƁǍɀȮƁ ȳȼ ɷʄ NjƁǍɀȮů ȳȼ ʞʏ ȴȶNjƁǍɀȮƁ ȳȼ ʄɷ NjƁȤ ƾž ʏʞ NjƁǍɀȮſ ȳȼ ɷʄ ɀ ȒȢȚNjưŮ ȲȘ ȝȾǍȼȮźƾŴ ȴǞƴɀȮŵ ʞʏ ȒǀȮƴ Ƈ ȮƴȮ Ž Ǡů Ǎ ȮźƾŴ Ⱦ Ⱦ ɀȼ ȿ ɀ ʄɷ ȒǚǧǞƵ ȮƴȮ Ž Ǟů Ǎ ȮźƾŴ Ⱦ ɀ Ⱦ ɀȼ ʏʞ ȒȜǍƫ ɀ ƃȼ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ ɀǍȼȮźƾŴ ɷʄ ȒȝȶǍƸŮ Ȳɀ ȝȼǍȼɀȮźƾŴ ʏʞ ȒȴƾƵȮ ȿ Ÿȼ Ȳɀ ɀȶȼǍɀȮźƾŴ ɷʄ ȒȜǍƀȾ ƾƲɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȝȾǍȼȮźƾŴ ʏʞ ȒǏȾſǞů Ȳɀ ƾſɀǍȼȮźƾŴ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ NjƁǍɀȮů ȳȼ ȴǞƴɀȮŵ ǚȮư ȸǞȿ ȮŴȖ ȼ ȿ Ƚ ȮƪŽȚ

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ

 | l e s s o n  

When did you leave for Iraq?

How long have you been in Baghdad?

What is the name of the restaurant?

Why do you study Arabic?

Where are you from?

What do you (F) like to eat?

Is this the girls’ college?

I want airmail stamps.

Please give me regular envelopes.

I like the Iraqi okra and kubba.

Who will pay the bill?

Is the Masguuf a Syrian or Lebanese dish?

I put everything in its place.



In the Restaurant | 

Are there western restaurants in Baghdad?

These cars are mine.

Waliid sends his regards to you (P).

These are boys and those are girls.

We are eating and drinking in the restaurant.

Creative Dialogues a. taalib: sh-ithibiin taakliin? taaliba : aani ahibb aakul simach. w-inta sh-ithibb? taalib : ahibb aakul dijaaj wa kabaab taaliba : bass haadha akil muu sihhi taalib : leesh haadha akil muu sihhi? taaliba : li¢ann ysammin taalib : kull il-akil ysammin? taaliba : laa. loo aani m-makaanak aakul khudrawaat bass taalib : triidiini amuut mnij-juu! b. taalib :

il-yoom laazim nruuh il-beet Abu Jwaad taaliba : shaku b-beet Abu Jwaad? taalib : Aku ziima b-zawaaj Jwaad taaliba : leesh maa gilitli hatta ashtiri hadiyya taalib : aani gilitlich, bass inti niseeti taaliba : eeb aleena, nruuh biduun hadiyya

ȒƞƴɀȮżƾů ƞȮƃȮ Ⱦ Ʀ ƇȾ ɀȮƄȮŵ ǁɀȮſȚȾȶ .ǶƵȼ Ŵ ǚ Ȯżȕ ƿ ŲȖ Ǡſȕ Ⱦ Ƚ Ⱦ ȒƿƇȾ ɀȮƄŵ Ⱦ țƾƃȼȮżȶ ȟƾűȾȢ ǚȮżȕ ƿ ŲȖ Ⱦ Ƚ ǠƇȿ ǧ Ⱦ Ǟž ǚżȖ Ⱦ Țȣƾƀ ǏȼŮ ȒǠƇȿ ǧ Ⱦ Ǟž ǚȮżȖ Ⱦ Țȣƾƀ ǐƸŽ ǜƦȮƵƉ ȼ ɀ Ɓ ȿȴLj ȒǜȮƵƦ ȮƉ Ⱦ ǚȮż ȼ ɀ Ɓ ǚȮżLjȚ Ƚ ǚȮżȕ ǙſƾƳ ž ȳ Ǡſȕ ǞŽ .ǽ ȼ Ƚ Ǐ ȮŮ ȝȚȶ Ǎ Ƭ Ȯų ȿ ȼ ȼ ɀ Ƚ ȿ Ț ǜžɀ ȝǞžȖ ǠƶƁNjƁǍɀȮů !ȬǞƐ

: : : : : : : : :

ǞŮȖ ǁƸŮ Ȳɀ ȠȶǍɀȮſ ȳȾȥǽ ȳǞƸɀȮŽȘ : ȢȚǞȮűɀ ȒȢȚǞȮűɀ ǞŮȖ ǁƸȮŮ țɀ ǞƳȼȮŵ : ȢȚǞȮűɀ ȟȚȶȼȥ țɀ ǀƚǎŸȼ ǞżȖ : ǟȮƄ ȿ Ųȼ ǠƴɀȮƄȮȾƴȮǬȾ ƾž ǐƸŽ : ǀdžȮƁNjȾ Ȯƀȼ ȸǍȮƄȾ ɀȮŵȖ ǠƄſȘ ǏȮȼŮ ȆǶȮȾƴɀȮƄȮȾƴȮȮǬȾ Ǡſȕ : ǠƄȮƸȮƉȾſ ǀdžȮƁNjȾ ƀȼ ȴȶNjȾȮŮ ȠȶǍɀȮſ ȆƾƶƸƴŸȼ ƿƸŸ :

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ƿŽƾŶ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʄɷ ƿŽƾŶ ʏʞ ǀƃŽƾŶ ƿŽƾŶ ɷʄ ǀƃŽƾŶ ƿŽƾŶ ʏʞ ǀƃŽƾŶ ɷʄ ƿŽƾŶ ʏʞ ƿŽƾŶ ɷʄ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʏʞ ƿŽƾŶ ǀƃŽƾŶ ɷʄ ƿŽƾŶ ʏʞ ǀƃŽƾŶ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ

 | l e s s o n  

taalib : laad shi-nsawwi? taaliba : inta ruuh ishtiri hadiyya bil-ajal taalib : hadiyya ghaalya loo rikhiisa? taaliba : laa ghaalya wala rikhiisa, wasat For new words, see Glossary.


ȒȸǞȿ Ɖ Ⱦ NjƯȼ ȼȮŽ : ƿŽƾŶ ȼ ɀȮƶŵ ǀƁȿ NjȾ Ȯƀȼ ȸǍƄȾ ɀȮŵȘ ȠȶȤ ǁſȘ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ǚƆȼ Ưȼ ɀȮŽƾŮ ȒǀƫƸųȾȤ ǞŽ ǀƸȼ ɀȮŽƾŹ ǀȮƁȿ NjȾ Ȯƀȼ : ƿŽƾŶ ǓŴ ȼ ȼȶ ȆǀƫƸųȾȤ ǽȶ ǀƸȼ ɀȮŽƾŹ ǽ : ǀƃŽƾŶ

An Iraqi peasant woman selling daily yogurt

ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ lesson ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ǐȮƯȼ ȼȮƭɀȮƭŴ Ⱦ ȦȾȤȼȢ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ Family and Relatives ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ahal wa garaayib ƿȾȮƁȚǍȼȮǬȶ ǚȮƀȼ Ȗ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ



Basma inquires about Waliid’s family and relatives.

Basic Dialogue (Audio) . Basma: ween tuskun? Where do you live? . Waliid: aani askun wiyya ahli b-Baghdaad. I live with my family in Baghdad. . Basma: gulli shii an ahlak. Tell me something about your family. . Waliid: aani mizzawwij wa indi walad wi-bnayya I am married and have a boy and girl. . Basma: alla ykhalliilak yyaahum. May God keep them for you. . Waliid: shukran. waaldi w waalitti saakniin wiyyaana. Thank you. My father and mother are living with us. . Basma: indak ikhwaan wa khawaat? Do you have brothers and sisters?

ȒǜȮƳ ɀ Ȯů Ƚ Ɖ Ƚ ǜƁȶ :ǀƵƉŮ .ȢȚNjưŮ

țɀ Ǡƴƀɀ Ȗ ǝȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ǜȮƳ ɀ Ǡſȕ :NjƸŽȶ Ƚ ŴȖ

.ǙȼȮƴƀɀ Ȗ .ǀƸȿ ȼȮƶɀȮŮȾȶ

ǜŸȼ Ǡŵ Ⱦ ǠƴɀȮƴȮǬ Ƚ :ǀƵƉŮ

NjȼȮŽȼȶ ȸNjɀȮƶŸȾ ȶ ȟƦȶdžǎȮžȾ Ǡſȕ :NjƸŽȶ

.ǛƀȽ ƾƁ

ǙȼȮƴȮƸƦȮƴȮƈȮ ȼ ɀ Ɓ ʇȚ :ǀƵƉŮ

ƞƶɀȮżƾŴ ǠůNjɀ ȮȾŽȚȶȶ ȸNjɀȮŽȚȶ .ȹ ȚǍƳŵ :NjƸŽȶ .ƾſƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ȒȝȚǞȼȮųȶ ȴȚǞɀȮųȘ ȱNjȼ ɀȮƶŸȾ :ǀƵƉŮ

 | l e s s o n  

. Waliid: ii, indi akheen wa ukhut. Yes, I have two brothers and one sister. . Basma: idhum atfaal? Do they have children? . Waliid: ii, idhum hwaaya atfaal. Yes, they have many children. . Basma: yani, inta amm wa khaal. Well, you are an uncle (paternal and maternal). . Waliid: wa indi amma wa khaala. And I have aunts (paternal and maternal). . Basma: ammtak wa khaaltak, kam tifil idhum? Your aunts, how many children do they have? . Waliid: idhum wilid wa banaat kbaar. They have grown boys and girls. . Basma: maashaalla, eeltak chibiira. Praise God, your family is large. . Waliid: naam, ilhamdu lillaa. inti laazim tzuuriin ahli. Yes, thank God. You must visit my family. . Basma: shukran, yimkin yoom ij-juma ij-jaayya. Thanks, perhaps next Friday. . Waliid: ahlan wa sahlan. You are welcome.

.ǁȮų Ƚ Ƚ Țȶ





ǛȮ ȿ Ÿȼ ǁſȘ ȆǠƶƯɀ ȮȼƁ :ǀƵƉŮ


ǀƵȮ ȿ Ÿȼ ȸNjɀȮƶŸȾ ȶ :NjƸŽȶ


ȝƾƶȼŮȶ NjȾȮŽȾȶ ǛƀNjɀ ŸȾ :NjƸŽȶ

ǙȼȮƄȮɀȮƴƸȮŸ Ȇʇƾŵƾž :ǀƵƉŮ

ǜƁȤȶǎɀȮů ȳȥǽ ǠƄſȘ .ʇ NjȽ ɀȮƵȼƑȘ ȆǛƯſ :NjƸŽȶ .Ǡƴƀɀ Ȗ ǀƯȼ ȮƵɀ ȮLJƐȚ ȳǞƁ ǜƳƵɀ ȾȮƁ ȆȹȚǍƳŵ :ǀƵƉŮ .ǀdžƁƾƆȮŽȚ ȿ .ǾƷ ɀ Ŵȶ ȼ

ǾƀȖ :NjƸŽȶ

Additional Kin Names (Audio) jidd / jidda (M/F) ab / aabaa¢ (S/P) umm / ummahaat (S/P) hafiid / ahfaad (S/P) nasiib / nasiiba (M/F) ibin khaal / khaala ibin amm / amma binit ukhut binit akh ibin ukhut

grandfather/grandmother father/s mother/s grandchild/ren relative (in-law) cousin (maternal) cousin (paternal) niece (sister’s side) niece (brother’s side) nephew (sister’s side)

ȜNjȿ ȾȮű / Njȿ ȾȮű ȔƾŮȕ / țȖ ȝƾƷȼȮžȿ Ƚ Ț / ȳȿ Ƚ Ț ȢƾƱȮŲȖ ɀ / NjƸƱȮŲȼ ǀƃƸƉȼȮſ / ƿƸƉȼȮſ ǀŽƾų / Ȳƾų ǜȾȮŮȘ ǀƵdž Ÿȼ / ǛȮ ȿ Ÿȼ ǜȾȮŮȘ ǁȮų Ƚ Ƚ Ț ǁȮƶȾ ȾȮŮ ȡȖ ǁȮƶȾ ȾȮŮ ǁȮų Ƚ Ƚ Ț ǜȾȮŮȘ

Family and Relatives | 

nephew (brother’s side) brother-in law sister-in-law single, unmarried

ibin akh zooj ukhut zoojat akh azab / izba (M/F)

ȡȖ ǜȾȮŮȘ ǁȮų Ƚ Ƚ Ț ȟȶȥ ȡȖ ǀȮűȶȥ ȼ ǀŮɀǎȮŸȾ / țȼǎȮŸɀ Ȗ

Vocabulary (Audio) ahal gariib / garaayib (S/P) tuskun / tusukniin / tusuknuun askun wiyya wiyyaana gulli shii an mizzawwij / mizzawwija (M/F) walad / wilid (S/P) binit / banaat (S/P) bnayya / bnayyaat, banaat (S/P) alla ykhalliilak yyaahum waalid, ab waalda, umm waalitti < waalidti sikan, yuskun (RV) saakin / saakna / saakniin (M/F/P) akh / ikhwaan (S/P) ukhut / khawaat (S/P) tifil / atfaal (S/P) hwaaya yani amm / amma (M/F) khaal / khaala (M/F)

family, relatives relative/s you live (M/F/P) I live with with us tell me (imp. verb) thing, something about married boy/s girl/s girl/s may God keep for you (see below) them (particle yyaa, see below) father mother my mother (“d” assimilated with feminine “t,” see below) to live, to dwell living, staying (participle) brother/s sister/s child/ren many, much well, oh, so (lit., it means) uncle/aunt (paternal) uncle aunt (maternal)

ǚȮƀȼ Ȗ ƿȾȮƁȚǍȼȮǬ / ƿƁǍȼȮǬ / ƞƶɀȮƳƉ ɀ Ȯů Ƚ Ȯů Ƚ / ǜȮƳ Ƚ Ɖ Ƚ ȴǞƶɀȮƳƉ Ȯů Ƚ Ƚ ǜȮƳ ɀ Ƚ ŴȖ ǝdžȮƁȾȶ ƾſƾȼȮƁȾȶ ǠƴɀȮƴȮǬ Ƚ ǠȮŵ Ⱦ ǜȮŸȼ ǀűȼ ɀȶdžǎȮžȾ / ȟƦȶdžǎȮžȾ NjȾȮŽȾȶ / NjȼȮŽȼȶ ȝƾƶȮȼŮ / ǁȮƶȾ ȾȮŮ ȝƾƶȮȼŮ ȆȝƾƸȮ ȿ ƶȼ ɀ Ů / ǀȮƸ ȿ ȼȮƶɀŮ ǙȼȮƴƸƦȮƴȼȮƈɀƁ ʇȚ ǛȮƀȽ ƾȮƁȿ țȖ ȆNjȮȾŽȚȶ ȳȿ Ƚ Ț ȆȜNjȼ ɀȮŽȚȶ ǠůNjɀ ȾŽȚȶ ǜȮƳ Ⱦ ɀ ȆǜȼȮƳŴ Ƚ ƉȮƁ ƞƶɀȮżƾŴ / ǀƶɀȮżƾŴ / ǜżƾŴ Ⱦ ȴȚǞɀȮųȘ / ȡȖ ȝȚǞȼȮų / ǁȮų Ƚ ȽȚ ȲƾƱɀȮŶȖ / ǚȾȮƱŶȾ ǝȼƁȚǞȮƀɀ ǠƶȮƯɀ ȮȼƁ ȿǀƵdž ȮŸȼ / ǛȮŸȼ ǀȼȮŽƾų Ȇ Ȳƾų

 | l e s s o n  

kabiir / kabiira / kbaar (S/F/P) chibiir / chibiira (M/F) maashaalla ii jaay / jaayya / jaayyiin (M/F/P)

big, large big, large (used only in singular form) Praise God (see lesson ) yes coming (participle)

ȤƾƃɀȮż / ȜǍƸƃȼȮż / ǍƸƃȼȮż ȜǍƸƃȾȮǩ / ǍƸƃȾȮǩ ʇƾŵƾž ǠȮȾǣ ǜȮƸȮƦƁƾű / ǀȮdžƁƾű / ȸɀ ƾű

Grammar and Remarks The Particle yyaa-

ƾȮƁ ȿ

The particle yyaa has no meaning by itself. It serves as a stem to support an attached pronoun. In Iraqi Arabic there are verbs that may take two objects, the so-called direct and indirect objects in English. The direct object is usually in the form of an attached pronoun and the indirect object is a noun. But often the indirect object may be a pronoun also. Because two pronoun endings cannot be added to one verb in Arabic, the particle yyaa ƾȮƁȿ or iyyaa ƾȮƁȿ Ș is used as a stem to take the attached pronoun of the direct object while the verb takes the attached pronoun of the indirect object. (Audio) alla ykhalliilak il-ahal alla ykhalliilak yyaahum alla ykhalliilak il-binit alla ykhalliilak yyaaha ajiiblich li-ktaab ajiiblich iyyaa aktiblak risaala aktiblak iyyaaha yintiini fluus yintiini yyaaha intiini s-sayyaara intiini yyaaha

The Feminine “t ǀȼȮ” Ending

May God keep the family for you. May God keep them for you. May God keep the girl for you. May God keep her for you. I bring you the book. I bring it (him) to you. I write you a letter. I write it (her) to you. He gives me money. He gives it (her) to me. Give me the car! Give it (her) to me!

ǚƀȼ LjȚ ǙȼȮƴƸȮƴ ȿ ȼȮƈɀƁ ʇȚ ǛƀȽ ƾƁ ǙȼȮƴƸȮƴ ȿ ȼȮƈɀƁ ʇȚ ǁȾȮƶȾȮƃɀȮŽȚ ǙȼȮƴƸȮƴ ȿ ȼȮƈɀƁ ʇȚ ƾƀƾƁ ǙȼȮƴƸȮƴ ȿ ȼȮƈɀƁ ʇȚ țƾƄɀȮƳȮȾŽ ǶȾƴƃƸűȖ ȵƾȮƁȿ Ș ǶȮȾƴƃƸűȖ ɀ ǀŽƾŴȾȤ ǙȼȮƴȮƃȮ ɀ ƄȾ ɀȮżȖ ƾƀƾȮƁȿ Ș ǙȼȮƴȮƃɀ ȾȮƄɀȮżȖ ȦǞƴɀȮź ǠƶƸƭɀȮƶȾȮƁ ƾƀƾȮƁ ȿ ǠƶƸƭɀȮƶȾȮƁ ȜȤƾƸȮ ȼ ǠƶƸƭɀȮſȘ ȿ Ŵ ƾƀƾȮƁȿ ǠƶƸƭɀȮſȘ

As we discussed in lesson , nouns/things in Arabic are either masculine or feminine. There is no “it” as in English. Feminine nouns are usually marked by “a” in colloquial Arabic, the equivalent of the so-called feminine “t ǀȼȮ”(taa¢ marbuuta ǀŶǞŮɀǍžȼ Ȕƾů) ending in classical Arabic. When a feminine word is followed by another noun in a possession construction, the ending -a is pronounced -at. When an attached pronoun or other suffix is added, the -at ending is written as “ȝ.” Note: The feminine “t ǀȼȮ” is always preceded by the short vowel “a ȼȮ.” (Audio)

Family and Relatives | 

Masculine Nouns chalib a dog chalbi my dog chalbeen two dogs khaal an uncle khaalha her uncle khaaleen two uncles taalib a student taalibna our student sayyaara a car taalibat school student madrasa

ƿȮȾƴǩȼ ǠƃɀȮƴǩȼ ƞƃɀȮƴǩȼ ȲƾȮų ƾƷɀȮŽƾų ƞȮŽƾų ƿȾŽƾŶ ƾƶƃȮ ɀ ȾŽƾŶ ȜȼȤƾƸȮ ȼ ȿ Ŵ ǀƃȮ Ž ƾŶ ȼ Ⱦ ǀŴ ȼ ȼ ȤNjɀ žȼ

Feminine Nouns chalba chalibti chalibteen khaala khaalatha khaalteen taaliba taalbatna sayyaarat Kariim

a dog my dog two dogs an aunt her aunt two aunts a student our student Kariim’s car

ǀƃȼ ɀȮƴǩȼ ǠƄȮƃȮ ɀ Ⱦƴǩȼ ƞȮƄɀȮƃȮȾƴǩȼ ǀȼȮŽƾų ƾƷɀȮƄȼȮŽƾų ƞȮƄɀȮŽƾų ǀƃȮ ȼ ȾŽƾŶ ƾƶɀȮƄȮƃȼ ɀȮŽƾŶ ƗǍż ȜȼȤƾƸȮ ȼ ȼ Ŵ

The idaafa ǀȼȮźƾǤȘ Construction

The idaafa construction in Arabic is an arrangement when two or more nouns join together (without interruption) to form an equivalent in English to a phrase with “of, “ the possessive “s” phrase, or two (or more) nouns used as attributives. (Audio) taalib madrasa taalibat madrasa maktab Kaamil maktabat Kaamil sayyaarat mathaf mufattish mataar muwazzaf maktab bank muwazzafat maktab bank miftaah baab beet kursi maktab chibiir sayyaarat mathaf chibiira

a school student (M) a school student (F) Kamil’s office Kamil’s library a museum car an airport inspector a bank office employee a bank office employee (F) a house door key a large office chair a large museum car

ǀŴ ȼ ȼ ȤNjɀ Ȯžȼ ƿŽƾŶ ǀŴ ȼ ȼ ȤNjɀ žȼ ǀƃȮȾŽƾŶ ǚžƾż ƿƄɀȮƳžȼ ǚžƾż ǀƃƄɀȮƳžȼ ǗƇɀȮƄžȼ ȜȼȤƾƸȿ Ŵ ȼ Ȥƾƭž ǐƦȮƄȼȮƱžȽ ǙƶȮȼŮ ƿƄɀȮƳžȼ ǗȮŷ ȿ Ǟȼ žȽ ǙƶȮȼŮ ƿƄƳžȼ ǀƱȮŷ ȿ Ǟȼ žȽ ǁƸŮ țƾŮ ȠƾƄɀȮƱžȾ ǍƸȮƃȾȮǩ ƿƄɀȮƳžȼ ǠŴɀǍȮż Ƚ ȜǍƸȮƃȾȮǩ ǗƇɀȮƄžȼ ȜȼȤƾƸȿ Ŵ ȼ

In definite idaafa only the last noun in the chain takes the definite article “ il- ɀȮŽȘ,” which makes the whole phrase definite. Alternatively, the last noun can be a proper name, which is definite without il-. (Audio) muwazzaf il-bank miftaah baab il-beet taalibat jaamiat Baghdaad kursi l-maktab ij-jibiir sayyaarat il-mathaf ij-jibiira

the employee of the bank the house door key the Baghdad University student the large office chair the large museum car

ǙƶƃŽȚ ǗȮŷ ȿ Ǟȼ ȮžȽ ǁƸƃŽȚ țƾŮ ȠƾƄɀȮƱȮžȾ ȢȚNjưŮ ǀƯȼ ȮžȾ ƾű ǀƃȮ ȼ ȾŽƾŶ ǍƸȮƃȮǰŽȚ ȿ ƿƄɀȮƳȼƓȚ ǠŴǍȮż Ƚ ȜǍƸȮƃȮǰŽȚ ȼ ȿ ǗƇƄƓȚ ȜȼȤƾƸȮ ȿ Ŵ

 | l e s s o n  

Note: Sometimes there are inner vowel variations depending on whether the added suffix is a vowel or begins in a vowel or consonant.

Idioms and Common Phrases (Audio) 1. maaku luzuum

ȳȶǎȮŽ Ƚ Ǟżƾž no need for (invariable)

2. bala adab

NjƁǍȮƃȼ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȠȶǍɀȮů ȳȶǎȮŽ Ƚ Ǟżƾž

You (M) don’t need to go to the post office. You (P) don’t need to see Laylaa. They don’t need to come here.

maaku luzuum truuh lil-bariid maaku luzuum tshuufuun Laylaa maaku luzuum yjuun li-hnaa maaku luzuum adrus kull yoom maaku luzuum tzuuriin it-tabiib maaku luzuum tijiin wiyyaahum

I don’t need to study every day. You (F) don’t need to visit the doctor. You (F) don’t need to come with them.

ǟƴƸŽ ȴǞźǞƪɀȮů ȳȶǎȮŽ Ƚ Ǟżƾž ƾƶȮƷȮ ɀ ȾŽ ȴǞƆȮɀƁ ȳȶǎȮŽ Ƚ Ǟżƾž ȳǞƁ ǚȮż Ƚ ȦȽȤɀȢȖ ȳȶǎȮŽ Ƚ Ǟżƾž ƿƸƃȮƭŽȚ ǜƁȤȶǎɀȮů ȳȶǎȮŽ ȿ Ƚ Ǟżƾž ǛƀƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ƞƆȮȾů ȳȶǎȮŽ Ƚ Ǟżƾž

țȼȢȖ ǾȮȼŮ impolite, with bad manners (invariable)

huwwa bala adab humma bala adab Kariima taakul bala adab il-wilid yilibuun bala adab huwwa yimshi b-nuss ish-shaari bala adab

3. kullshi b-makaana (invariable)

He is impolite. They are impolite. Kariima eats with bad manners. The boys play rudely.

He walks rudely in the middle of the street.


ǝȼȮſƾƳžȼ țɀ Ǡƪ all right, exactly, everything in its place Ⱦ ɀȮƴȮż Ƚ

kullshi b-makaana, mithil-ma triid rah-akhalli kullshi b-makaana la-tiqlaq kullshi b-makaana khalleet il-kutub kullshi b-makaana

țȼȢȖ ǾŮ Ǟƀ țȼȢȖ ǾŮ ǝƵȮ ȿ ƀȽ țȼȢȖ ǾŮ ǚȮżƾů Ƚ ǀƚǍż

It is exactly as you (M) want. I will put everything in its place. Don’t worry, everything is all right. I put the books in their places.

ȆǝȼȮſƾƳžȼ țɀ Ǡƪ Ⱦ ɀȮƴȮż Ƚ NjƁǍɀȮů ȳȼ ǚȮƅȾ ȮžȾ țɀ Ǡƪ Ⱦ ɀȮƴȮż Ƚ ǠƦȮƴȼȮųȖ Ƞɀ ȼ Ȥ ǝȼȮſƾƳžȼ țɀ Ǡƪ Ȯƴ Ȯż ǘƴ Ⱦ ɀ Ƚ ɀȮƲȮƄȾ ȼȮŽ ǝȼȮſƾƳžȼ Ǡƪ Ⱦ ɀȮƴȮż Ƚ ƿƄȮƳ Ƚ ɀȮŽȚ ǁƸȼȮƴȼȮų ǝȼȮſƾƳžȼ țɀ




Family and Relatives | 


1. Give appropriate oral replies to the following: ween saakna? ahlak saakniin wiyyaak? kam walad indich? alla ykhalliilich yyaahum inta mizzawwij loo azab? eeltak chibiira loo saghiira? shgadd umur ibnak? indich ikhwaan wa khawaat? ibnak saghiir loo chibiir? shgadd sarlich mizzawja? maashaalla, eelatkum chibiira kam ukhut indak? ahibb aizmich idna bil-beet thibbiin tzuuriin ahli?

2. Make the following singular sentences plural: aani saakin wiyya ahli alla ykhallilak yyaaha inda akh wa ukhut indich walad wa binit kbaar inta mizzawwij? shi-thibbiin tishurbiin wiyya is-simach? taalib jaamii triid taabi jawwi loo aadi? taaliba jaamiiyya arrid aizmak ala simach

ɷʄ ʞʏ ȒǀƶɀȮżƾŴ ǜƁȶ ȒȱƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ƞƶɀȮżƾŴ ǙȮƴȮƀɀ Ȗ ʄɷ ȒɃNjȾ ɀȮƶȮŸȾ NjȼȮŽȼȶ Ǜż ʏʞ ǛƀȽ ƾƁ ǶƴȮƸȮƴ ȿ ȼȮƈȮɀƁ ʇȚ ȒțȼǎŸɀ Ȗ ǞŽ ȟƦȶdžǎȮžȾ ǁſȘ ɷʄ ȒȜǍƸưǧ ȼ ǞŽ ȜǍƸƃȾȮǩ ǙƄɀȮƴƸȮŸȾ ɀ ʞʏ ȒǙƶȮŮȘ ǍƵȮ Ƚ Ÿȼ NjȼȮǦȮŵ ȒȝȚǞȼȮųȶ ȴȚǞɀȮųȘ ɃNjɀȮƶȮŸȾ ȒǍƸȮȮƃȾȮǩ ǞŽ ǍƸưǧ ȼ ǙƶŮȘ ʄɷ ɀ Ȓǀűȼ ɀȶdžǎȮžȾ ǶȮȾŽɀȤƾǧ NjȼȮǦȮŵ ȜǍƸȮƃȾȮǩ ǛƳɀȮƄȼȮƴƸŸ Ȇʇƾŵƾž ʏʞ ȒȱNjɀȮƶȮŸȾ ǁȮų Ƚ Ƚ Ț Ǜż ǁƸƃŽƾŮ ƾſNjɀ ȮŸȾ ǶȮžȾ ɀǎȮŸȾ Ȗ ƿŲȖ Ⱦ ɷʄ ȒǠƴȮƀɀ Ȗ ǜƁȤȶǎɀȮů ƞȮƃȮ ȿ ƇȾ ɀȮů ʞʏ ʄɷ Ǡƴƀɀ Ȗ ǝȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ǜżƾŴ Ǡſȕ Ⱦ ʏʞ ƾƀƾƁ ǙȼȮƴƸƦȮƴƈȼ ɀ Ɓ ʇȚ ɷʄ ǁȮų Ƚ Ƚ Țȶ ȡȖ ȵNjȼ ɀȮƶȮŸȾ ʏʞ ȤƾƃɀȮż ǁȾȮƶȾȮŮ ȶ NjȼȮŽȼȶ ɃNjȾ ɀȮƶŸȾ ɷʄ ȒȟƦȶdžǎȮžȾ ǁſȘ ʏʞ ȒǶƵȼ ƉŽȚ Ⱦ ɷʄ Ʀ ǝƁȿ Ⱦȶ ƞŮɀǍȮƪ Ƚ Ⱦ ů ƞȮƃƦ ƇȾ ɀȮƄŵ ǠƯȮžȾ ƾű ƿȮȾŽƾŶ ʏʞ ȒȸȢƾŸ ǞŽ ȸǞȿ Ȯűȼ ǕȾȮŮƾŶ NjƁǍɀȮů ɷʄ ʏʞ ǀƸȮ ȿ ƯȾ žȾ ƾű ǀƃȮȾŽƾŶ ɷʄ ǶȮƵȼ ȮŴ Ⱦ ǟƴŸ Ǚžȼ ɀǎȮŸȾ Ȗ NjƁȤȖ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ


 | l e s s o n  

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ 3. Fill in the blanks of the following: ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ 4. Complete and read aloud: ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ maaku luzuum tijiin

ƞȮƏȾ ȳȶǎȮŽ Ƚ Ǟżƾž

huwwa yaakul bala adab

țȼȢȖ ǾŮ ǚȮżƾƁ Ƚ Ǟƀ ȱƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ



aani ahibb il-akil il-arabi


wiyya ahalha

ƾƷɀȮƴȮƀȼ Ȗ ǝȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ



sayyaarat ihna

ȜȤƾƸȿ Ŵ ȼ

ǝȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ




ƾƶŲȘ ɀ



ǀŸƾƉŽȚ ȿ Ȳƾž ǀƃȼȮƄɀȮƳƵȼ ɀȮŽȘ

il-maktaba maal

Ǡſȕ ȆȟƦȶdžǎȮžȾ Ǟž Ǡſȕ

aani muu mizzawwij, aani taabi

loo taabi




min Baghdaad

ween aku sanduug


ǚŮƾŮ ȱȶNjɀȮƶǧ ȼ ǞżȚ ǜƁȶ


ȸNjɀȮƶŸȼ ǚżLjȚ Ⱦ țƾƉŲɀ

hsaab il-akil

ȵƾȮƁȿ ǙȼȮƴƸȮȼƦȮƴȼȮƈȮȾɀ Ɓ ʇȚ

a. alla ykhalliilak yyaa


ȢȚNjưŮ ǜžȾ






tifil indich?



ƾƀƾƁȿ ǛƀƾƁȿ


Family and Relatives | 

yyaaha yyaahum alla ykhalliilkum yyaa yyaaha yyaahum alla ykhallilak il-wilid il-banaat l-atfaal l-ahal il-eela b. huwwa yih chi bala adab hiyya humma inta inti intu aani ihna c. sawweet ish-shughul kullshi m-makaana sawweena sawwa

ɷʄ ʞʏ ƾƀƾƁȿ ʄɷ ǛƀƾƁȿ ʏʞ ƾȮƁȿ ǛƳɀȮƴƸƦȮƴƈȼ ɀ Ɓ ʇȚ ɷʄ ƾƀƾƁȿ ʞʏ ǛƀƾƁȿ ʄɷ NjȾȮŽǞȾ ɀȮŽȚ ǙȼȮƴȮƸƦȮƴȼȮƈȮȾƁ ʇȚ ʏʞ ȝƾƶƃɀȮŽȚ ɷʄ ʞʏ ȲƾƱɀȮŶLjȚ ʄɷ ǚƀȼ LjȚ ʏʞ ǀƴƸȮƯɀȮŽȚ țȼȢȖ ǾȼŮ ǠƆƇɀ ȾȮƁ Ǟƀ ɷʄ Ǡƀ ʏʞ ǝƵdž ȮƀȽ ɷʄ ǁſȘ ʏʞ ǠƄſȘ ɷʄ ǞƄſȘ ʏʞ Ǡſȕ ɷʄ ƾƶŲȘ ʏʞ ǀȼȮſƾƳžȼ ȳɀ ǠƪɀȮƴȮż ǁƁǞȿ ȮŴ ȼ ɷʄ Ƚ ǚȮư Ƚ ȼȮƪŽȚ Ƚ ƾƶȮƁǞȿ ȮŴ ȼ ʏʞ ȚǞdž ȮŴ ȼ ɷʄ ʏʞ ȵƾȮƁȿ ǶȾȮƴƸƦȮƴƈȼ ɀ Ɓ ʇȚ

alla ykhalliilich yyaa


 | l e s s o n  

ɷʄ ȝǞdž ȮŴ ȼ ʞʏ ȼ ɀȶǞdž ȮŴ ʄɷ ǁȮƁǞȿ ȮŴ ȼ ʏʞ ǠƄȮƁǞȿ ȮŴ ȼ ɷʄ ǞƄȮƁǞȿ ȮŴ ȼ ʞʏ ȵƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ǜȮƸȾȮƏȾ ȳȶǎȮŽ Ƚ Ǟżƾž ʄɷ ƾƀƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ʏʞ ǛƀƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ɷʄ ǝȼƁƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ʞʏ ƾſƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ʄɷ ȱƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ǠűȖ ȳȶǎȮŽ Ƚ Ǟżƾž ʏʞ ɃƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ɷʄ ǛżƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ʏʞ Orally make the words in parentheses dual in the following sentences and change ɷʄ 5.anything else that needs to be changed: ʏʞ (ǁȾȮƶȮŮ) ȶ (NjȼȮŽȼȶ) ȸNjɀȮƶȮŸȾ (ǝŽƾų) ȶ (Ȳƾų) ȵNjȼ ɀȮƶȮŸȾ ɷʄ ȤƾƃɀȮż (ǀƵȮ ȿ Ÿȼ ) ȶ (ǛȮ ȿ Ÿȼ ) ƾƀNjɀ ȮŸȾ ǜƁȥ (ǀŴȤNjɀ ȼ ƓȚ ƿȮȾŽƾŶ) ʏʞ ȜȼǍȮƵɀ Ųȼ ƿƄƳƓȚ (ȜȤƾƸȿ Ŵ) ȼ ǀƯȼ žȾ ƾű Ȳƾž (ȣƾƄŴ ɀ Ƚ Ț) ɷʄ ǁƸƃɀȮŽƾŮ ȜȢǞŴ (ǀƃɀȮƴȮǩ) ȼ ǛƀNjɀ ȮŸȾ (ǚȾȮƱȮŶ) Ⱦ ȵNjȼ ɀȮƶȮŸȾ ǙȾȮŽƾž ʏʞ ǀdžȮƁNjƁǍȼŮ (ǀŽȚǞŲ) ȼ NjƁȤȖ ȼ ȯǍLJ ǧȖ NjƁNjȾȮű ǠŮǍŸ (ȦǞžƾŻ) ɷʄ NjƸŵȼǍȮŽȚ ȬȤƾŵ țɀ (ǙƶȮȼŮ) ǞżȚ ǀƃȮ ȼ ȾȢ) ʏʞ ȼ Ƹɀ ȼȮŶ (ǀȮűƾű ɷʄ ʏʞ sawwat





d. maaku luzuum tijiin wiyyaa


wiyyaahum wiyyaaya


maaku luzuum aji wiyyaak



indi (walad) wa (binit) inda (khaal) wa (khaala) idha (mm) wa (amma) kbaar (taalib il-madrasa) zeen (sayyaara) il-maktab hamra (ustaadh) maal jaamia idhum (chalba) sooda bil-beet Maalik inda (tifil) ariid asarruf (hawaala) bariidiyya (qaamuus) arabi jidiid aku (bank) ib-shaari ir-Rashiid (dijaaja) tayba


Family and Relatives | 

ɷʄ 6. Replace the words in parentheses with the right form of yyaa ƾȮƁȿ : ǀŴ ȼ ȼ ȤNjɀ Ƶȼ ɀȮŽȚ ǜžɀ (ǁȾȮƶȾȮƃŽȚ) ǠƴȮƃƸű ɀ ʞʏ ǀŴ ȼ ȼ ȤNjɀ Ƶȼ ɀȮŽȚ ǜžɀ ƾƀƾȮƁȿ ǠƴȮƃƸű ɀ ʄɷ ǙȮƴƬź ǜžȾ Ȇ(Ƀƾƃȿ ȮƪŽȚ) ǠŽNjɀ ȮŴ Ⱦ LJ ʏʞ ǙƸȮƴ ȿ ȼȮƈȮɀƁ ʇȚ Ȇ(NjƁǍƃŽȚ) ǠƶƸȮŽ ȿ ȼȢ ɷʄ ȝƾƶƃŽȚȶ NjŽǞŽȚ) ǛƳɀȮƴƸȼȮƴȼȮƈȾƁ ʇȚ) ʞʏ ǙƴƬź ǜžȾ Ȇ(ȜȤƾƸƉŽȚ) ǠƴƇɀ ƦȮƴǧ ȼ ʄɷ ȿ ǍȾȮǩƾŮ (ȝƾŸƾƉŽȚ) ǠƴƸƇȾ ƦȮƴǧ ȼ ʏʞ ȿ ǠŮǍƯŽƾŮ (ǀŽƾŴƦǍȮŽȚ) ǠŽȚǍɀȮŻȘ ɷʄ ȸǎƸƴǦſLjƾŮ (ȴȚǞɀȮƶƯŽȚ) Ƚ ǠƴɀȮƃȮƄȾ ɀȮżȘ ʞʏ ǀȮƁȢƾŸ (ǕȾȮŮȚǞȼȮŶ) ǠƴȮƁǍȮƄȾ ɀȮŵȘ ʄɷ ȿ ʏʞ ȯǞǦƉȮ ɀ žȼ ǀȮƴɀȮżȖ ǟƴŸ (ǍƸƵŴ) ǠƴȮžɀ ȾǎŸɀ Ș ɷʄ ȿ Ț) ǠƴƸȮƴ ǁƸƃŽƾŮ (ǀƭɀȮƶȮƐ ȿ ȼȮų ʏʞ 7. Translate the following into Arabic: ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ Example: jiibli (il-binit) mnil-madrasa jiibli yyaaha mnil-madrasa siddli (ish-shubbaach), min fadlak dalliini (il-bariid), alla ykhalliik

alla ykhalliilkum (il-wilid wil-banaat) sallihli (is-sayyaara), min fadlak sallihiili (is-saaaat) baachir iqraali (ir-risaala) bil-arabi

iktibli (il-unwaan) bil-Ingiliizi ishtiriili (tawaabi) aadiyya

izimli (Samiir) ala aklat Masguuf khalliili (ij-junta) bil-beet

May God keep them for you.

May God keep the children for you (F).

Let me bring you the car.

I am bringing your (M) car.

My nephew and my sister live in Basra.

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ

 | l e s s o n  

My family is large.

I am living with my family.

a college student (F)

the employee (F) of the museum

a wrist watch

the American University of Beirut

Basma’s trip to Iraq is in one month.

My aunt lives with us in the house.

today’s dish in the restaurant

Our dog (F) has a bad manner.

a car of a university student

the university student’s car

I don’t have today’s newspaper.



Family and Relatives | 

Creative Dialogues a. taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba :

Basma taaali wiyyaaya lil-beet leesh shaku idkum? idna aziima il-yoom, w ahibb tkuuniin wiyyaana bikull suruur, aani ahibb atarraf ala ahlak rah-aji aleech is-saaa saba laa, taaal alayya is-saaa thmaanya, raja¢an luweesh? laazim aruuh ashtiri hadiyya maaku luzuum lil-hadiyya eeb alayya maa jiib hadiyya wiyyaaya

b. taalib : Basma haadhi zoojti Laylaa taaliba : tsharrafna, Laylaa taalib : wilna ish-sharaf. tfaddali stariihi hnaa taaliba : shukran. shloon l-atfaal, inshaalla zeeniin? taalib : zeeniin ilhamdu lillaah. bass ibni wakiih taaliba : luweesh huwwa wakiih? taalib: yhibb yilab hwaaya. taaali aarrfich ala ummi taaliba : tsharrafna umm Laylaa taalib : ahlan wa sahlan Basma taaliba : shukran. maashaalla eelatkum chibiira For new words, see Glossary.

ǁƸƃɀȮƴȮȾŽ ǝȼƁƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ǠŽƾƯȼȮů ǀƵƉŮ


ȒǛżNjɀ ȮŸȾ ǞƳȼȮŵ ǐƸŽ ƿŲȖȶ Ⱦ ȆȳǞƸŽȚ ǀƚǎȮŸȼ ƾſNjɀ ŸȾ ƾſƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ƞſǞƳɀȮů ȯdžǍȮƯȼ ɀȮůȖ ƿŲȖ Ƚ ǚȮƳ ȼ Ǡſȕ ȆȤȶǍŴ Ƚ ȾȮŮ ǙȼȮƴƀɀ Ȗ ǟƴŸ ǀƯƃɀ Ŵ ȿ ǶȮƸƴŸ ǠűȖ ȠȼȤ ȼ ǀŸƾƉŽȚ ǀŸƾƉŽȚ ȿ ǝȮƸ ȿ ȼȮƴŸȼ ȲƾƯȼȮů Ȇǽ Ȕȹ ƾűȤ ȆǀƸɀȮſƾƵɀȮŰ ȒǐȮƁǞȾ ȮŽ Ƚ ǀdžȮƁNjȾ Ȯƀȼ ȸǍȮƄȾ ɀȮŵȖ ȠȶȤȖ ȳȥǽ ǀdžȮƁNjȾ ȮƷȼ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȳȶǎȮŽ Ƚ Ǟżƾž ǀȮƁ ȿ NjȾ Ȯƀȼ ƿƸű ƾž ǝȮƸ ȿ ȼȮƴŸȼ ƿƸŸ ǝȼƁƾȮƁ ȿ Ⱦȶ

: :

ǟƴƸŽ ǠƄȮűȶ ɀ Ƚȥ ȸȣƾƀ ǀƵƉŮ ǟƴƸŽ ȆƾȮƶɀȮźdžǍȼȮƪɀȮů ǠƴƬ dž ȼȮƱɀȮů ȆȯȼǍdžȮƪŽȚ ƾƶɀȮŽȾȶ ƾƶȮƀɀ ǠƇƁǍȮƄȾ ŴȘ ɀ ȆȲƾƱɀȮƭȼȮŽ ȴǞƴɀȮŵ .ȹ ȚǍƳŵ ȒƞȮƶȮƁȥ ʇƾƪɀȮſȘ ǠƶɀŮȘ ǏȮȼŮ .ʇ NjȽ Ƶɀ ȼƑȚ ƞȮƶƁȥ ljƸżȼȶ ȒljƸżȼȶ Ǟƀ ǐƁǞȮȾŽ ǠŽƾƯȼȮů .ǝȮȼƁȚǞȮƀɀ ƿƯȼ ɀȮƴȾȮƁ ƿƇȮ ȼ ɀƁ ǠȮžȿ Ƚ Ț ǟƴŸ ǶȮźȾ ɀǍȮŸȼ Ȗ ǟƴƸȮŽ ȳȽȚ ƾƶȮɀȮźdžǍȼȮƪɀȮů ǀƵƉŮ ǾƷŴȶ ǾƀȖ ǛƳɀȮƄȼȮƴƸŸ ʇƾŵƾž .ȹ ȚǍƳŵ ȜǍƸȮƃȾȮǩ

: : :

: : : : : : :

: : : : : : :

ɷʄ ƿŽƾŶ ʞʏ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʄɷ ƿŽƾŶ ʏʞ ǀƃŽƾŶ ɷʄ ƿŽƾŶ ʞʏ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʄɷ ƿŽƾŶ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʏʞ ƿŽƾŶ ǀƃŽƾŶ ɷʄ ʞʏ ƿŽƾŶ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʄɷ ƿŽƾŶ ʏʞ ǀƃŽƾŶ ɷʄ ƿŽƾŶ ʏʞ ǀƃŽƾŶ ɷʄ ƿŽƾŶ ʏʞ ǀƃŽƾŶ ƿŽƾŶ ɷʄ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞ

The Al-Hadba (tiled) Minaret in the city of Musil, twelfth century A.D.

ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ lesson ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ǐȮƯȼ ȼȮŶƾƃȮŴ ɀ ȦȾȤȼȢ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ Medical Care ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ inaaya tibbiyya ǀdžȮƸȮƃȮ Ʀ ŶȾ ǀȮȼƁƾƶȮŸȾ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ DARIS SBAATAASH


Basma is not feeling well. She is at the doctor’s office describing her condition to him.

Basic Dialogue (Audio) ɀ :ƿƸƃŶ ȒǶƸȮƃȮŵ


tabiib: sh-biich? What is wrong with you?


Basma: ahiss tabaana w indi wija raas. I feel tired, I have a headache. tabiib: shwakit bidat indich haadhi l-araad? When did you begin to feel these symptoms? Basma: gabul yoomeen. Two days ago.

ǕȾȮűȾȶ ȸNjɀȮƶȮŸȾ ȶ ǀſƾƃƯɀ ȼȮů ǏȮ Ⱦ :ǀƵƉŮ ȿ ŲȖ .ȦȚȤ


tabiib: iftahi halgich, w tali lsaanich. Open your mouth and put your tongue out.


Basma: aani mariida, jismi kulla yoojani. I am sick, my whole body hurts.

ǠƯɀȮƴȼȮŶȶ ǶȮǦȾ ɀȮƴŲȼ ǠƇȼȮƄɀȮźȘ :ƿƸƃŶ .ǶȮȾſƾƉɀȮŽ ǝdžȮƴȮż ɀ ȾȮű ȆǀƬƁǍžȼ Ǡſȕ :ǀƵƉŮ Ƚ ǠƵƉ .ǠƶƯɀ űǞƁ ȼ



ȸȣƾƀ ɃNjɀȮƶŸȾ ȝNjȼ ȾȮŮ ǁȮżȾ Ǟȼ ɀȮŵ :ƿƸƃŶ ȒȩȚǍŸɀ LjȚ ƞžǞƁ ǚƃȽ ȼȮǬ :ǀƵƉŮ

 | l e s s o n  


. .


tabiib: indich haraara aalya. ukhdhi nafas amiiq, min fadlich. You have a high temperature. Take a deep breath, please. Basma: tayyib. Fine.

ȸnjɀȮųȽȚ .ǀƸɀȮŽƾŸ ȜȤȚǍŲȼ ɃNjɀȮƶŸȾ :ƿƸƃŶ .ǶȮȾƴƬ ɀ źȼ ǜžȾ ȆǘƸƵŸȼ ǏȼȮȮƱȼȮſ

tabiib: naami as-siriir, raja¢an. ween il-alam? Lay down on the bed, please. Where is the pain? Basma: batni toojani hwaaya. My abdomen hurts a lot.

ȒǛȼȮŽLjȚ ǜƁȶ .Ȕȹ ƾűȤ ȆǍƁǍƉŽȚ Ʀ Ȭȼ Ǡžƾſ :ƿƸƃŶ


tabiib: indich iltihaab mida. You have a stomach infection.


Basma: rah-tintiini diwa? Are you going to give me medicine?


tabiib: naam. haadhi wasfat hubuub antibaayootiks Yes. This is a prescription for antibiotic tablets. Basma: kam habbaaya aakhudh bil-yoom? How many tablets should I take every day? tabiib: tlath hubuub bil-yoom, il-muddat usbuu. Three tablets a day, for a period of one week. Basma: shukran jaziilan diktoor. Thank you very much, doctor.






ǠƶƯɀ ȮűǞů ȼ ǠƶɀȮƭȼŮ :ǀƵƉŮ

.ȜNjȼ ȮƯɀ ȮžȾ


ǠƄɀȮſȖ țǞƃȽ ŲȽ ǀȼȮƱǧ ɀ ȼȶ ȸȣƾƀ .ǛƯſ :ƿƸƃŶ .ǏȮƳƸȮůǞƁƾŮ Ⱦ ȒȳǞƸɀȮŽƾŮ njȮųȕ ȿ Ųȼ Ǜż :ǀƵƉŮ Ƚ ǀƁƾƃȮ .ȬǞƃŴ ɀ ȽȚ


.ȤǞȮƄ Ƚ ɀȮżȾȢ ȹǾƁǎű ȹ ȚǍƳŵ :ǀƵƉŮ

Additional Medical Expressions (Audio) iyaada / iyaadaat ahtaaj tabiib. haala mistajila / idtiraariyya isaaf sayyaarat isaaf haaditha iltihaab een iltihaab idhin

clinic/s I need a doctor. It is an emergency. emergency ambulance accident eye infection ear infection

ȝȚȢƾƸȮŸȾ / ȜȢƾƸȮŸȾ ƿƸƃŶ ȟƾƄȮŲȖ ɀ ǀȮƁȿ Ⱦ ȤȚǍƭ ȮǤȘ / ǀƴ Ȯ Ɔ Ư ȮƄȮ Ɖ ž ǀ ȮŽƾŲ Ⱦ ɀ Ⱦ ɀȼ ɀ Ⱦ ȼ ȯƾƯŴȘ ɀ ȯƾƯŴȘ Ȝ Ȥƾ ƸȮ Ŵ ɀ ȼ ȿ ȼ ǀȼȮŰȾȢƾŲ ƞȮŸ țƾƷȮƄȾ ɀȮŽȘ ȴȾȣȘ țƾƷƄȾ ɀȮŽȘ

Medical Care | 

s khuuna indi s khuuna indi nashla indi gahha gatra gatrat idhin gatrat een hubuub musakkina hubuub munawwima sinn / asnaan sihha amaliyya / amaliyyaat fahis fihas, yifhas (RV) tabiib asnaan wija asnaan wija zahar wija galub saydaliyya saydali mustashfa / mustashfayaat

fever I have a fever. I have a cold. I have a cough. drops ear drops eye drops pain killers sleeping pills tooth / teeth health operation/s, surgery/s check up, examination to check up, to examine dentist toothache back pain chest (heart) pain pharmacy pharmacist hospital/s

ǀȼȮſǞƈǧ ɀ ǀſǞƈǧ ɀ ȸNjɀȮƶŸȾ ǀȼȮƴɀȮƪȼȮſ ȸNjɀȮƶŸȾ ǀƇdž ȼȮǬ ȸNjƶŸȾ ȜȼǍɀȮƭȼȮǬ ȴȾȣȘ ȜǍɀȮƭǬ ƞȮŸ ȜǍɀȮƭȼȮǬ ǀƶƦȮƳȮƉ ȼ žȽ țǞƃŲȽ ǀžȼ ǞƦ ƶȼ ȮžȽ țǞƃŲȽ ȴƾƶȮŴȖ Ⱦ ȿ Ŵ ɀ / ǜȮ ǀƇdž ǧ Ⱦ ȝƾƸȮ ƴ Ƶ Ȯ Ÿ / ǀ ƸȮ ƴ Ƶ Ȯ ȿ Ⱦȼ ȼ dž Ⱦ ȼ Ÿȼ ǑƇȾ ȼȮź ǑƇȼ ɀȮƱȾȮƁ ȆǑƇȮ ȼ źȾ ȴƾƶȮŴȖ ƿƸȮƃ ɀ ȼȮŶ ȴƾƶȮŴȖ ɀ ǕȮűȼ Ⱦȶ ǍƷȼ ȼȮŷ ǕȮűȼ Ⱦȶ ƿȮƴ Ƚ ȼȮǬ ǕȮűȼ Ⱦȶ ǀƸȮ ȼ ȿ ȾŽNjȼ ȮƸɀ ǧ ǠŽNjȼ ȮƸɀ ǧ ȼ ȝƾƸȼȮƱɀȮƪȼȮƄȮƉ ž / ǟƱ Ȯƪ ȮƄȮ Ɖ Ƚ ɀ ɀ ȼ ɀ žȽ

Vocabulary (Audio) inaaya tibb tibbi / tibbiyya (M/F adj.) tabiib / atibbaa¢ (S/P) diktoor / dakaatra (S/P) sh-biich? ahiss wija / awjaa (S/P) wija raas raas / ruus araad gabul halig halgich

treatment medical science medical doctor/s (refers to physician only) doctor/s (refers to any type of doctor) What is wrong? (lit. What’s in you?) I feel pain/s headache head/s symptoms before, ago mouth your mouth

ǀȮȼƁƾƶȮŸȾ ƿȮ ȿ ŶȾ ǀƸȮ Ʀ ŶȾ / ǠƃȮ Ʀ ŶȾ dž ƃȮ ȔƾȮƃȮ ŶȖ / ƿƸƃ ȼ Ⱦ ȼȮŶ ȜȼǍɀȮůƾżȼȢ / ȤǞƄɀȮżȾȢ ɀ ȒǶƸȮƃȮŵ ǏȮ Ⱦ ȿ ŲȖ ȬƾűɀȶȖ Ȇ ǕȮűȼ Ⱦȶ ȦȚȤ ǕȮűȼ Ⱦȶ ȦȶȤ / ȦȚȤ ȩȚǍŸɀ Ȗ ǚȮƃȽ ȼȮǬ ƩȮȾƴŲȼ ǶȾȮǦɀȮƴŲȼ

 | l e s s o n  

tali (imp. v. F) lisaan / alsina (S/P) mariid / mariida / mardaa (M/F/P) jisim / ajsaam (S/P) kull kulla yooja yoojani haraara aalya haraara aalya s khuuna ukhdhi (imp. v. F) nafas amiiq naami (imp. v. F) alam / aalaam batin iltihaab / iltihaabaat (S/P) mida / miad tintiini duwa / adwiya (S/P) wasfa wasfat tabiib habbaaya / hubuub (F/P), habb (col.) aakhudh. mudda

bring out tongue/s sick/s, ill/s (adj.) body/s all, whole all of it (referring to the body) It causes pain, it hurts. It hurts me. heat, temperature high high temperature fever take breath deep lie down, sleep pain/s abdomen, stomach infection/s stomach/s you (M) give me medicine/s prescription doctor’s prescription tablet/s, pill/s I take period of time, while

ǠƯɀȮƴȼȮŶ ǀƶƉ Ⱦ ɀȮŽȖ / ȴƾƉȮȾŽ ǟǤɀǍžȼ / ǀƬƁǍžȼ / ǒƁǍžȼ ȳƾƉűȖ Ⱦ ȾȮű ɀ / ǛƉ ǚɀ Ȯż Ƚ ǝdžȮƴɀȮż ǕȮűǞƁ ȼ ǠƶȮƯɀ űǞƁ ȼ ȜȤȚǍŲȼ ǀƸȼ ɀȮŽƾŸ ǀƸɀȮŽƾŸ ȜȤȚǍŲȼ ǀȼȮſǞƈǧ ɀ ȸnjɀȮųȽȚ ǏȼȮƱȼȮſ ǘȮƸȮƵȮŸȼ Ǡžƾſ ȳǽȕ / ǛȼȮŽȖ ǜȮƭȮ Ⱦ ȼŮ ȝƾŮƾƷƄȾ ɀȮŽȘ / țƾƷƄȾ ɀȮŽȘ NjȮƯȼ ȮžȾ / ȜNjȼ ȮƯɀ žȾ ǠƶȮƸƭɀȮƶȮȾů ǀȼƁȾȶɀȢȖ / ȚȼȶȽȢ ǀȼȮƱǧ ɀ ȼȶ ƿƸȮƃȼȮŶ ǀȼȮƱǧ ɀ ȼȶ ƿȿ Ųȼ ȆțǞƃŲȽ / ǀƁƾƃȮ ȿ Ųȼ njȮųȕ Ƚ ȜNjdž ȮžȽ

Some Additional Body Parts: (Audio) Note that any part of the body which consists of two (e.g. two eyes, two hands, etc.) is generally feminine in Arabic. ȬȚȤȾȣ hair shaar ǍƯȼ ȼȮŵ arm dhiraa ȳȿ ȼȢ blood damm hand iid NjȮƁȘ bone azum ǛȮƮ knee rukba ǀȼȮƃɀȮżȽȤ Ƚ Ÿȼ chest sadir ȤNjȾ ǧ leg rijil ǚȾȮűȾȤ ȼ face wajih ǝȾȮűȼȶ lip shiffa ǀdžȮƱȮŵ Ⱦ finger isbi ǕȾȮƃǧȘ neck rugba ǀ Ȯƃ ȮǬ ɀ ȼ ɀ ȽȤ foot qadam ȳNjȼ ȼȮŻ nose khashim ǛȮƪ Ⱦ ȼȮų

Medical Care | 

Grammar and Remarks 1. Ordinal Numbers First to Tenth: The ordinal numbers in Iraqi Arabic are of two genders, masculine and feminine. Except for “first” the ordinal numbers have consistent forms. There are no ordinal numbers higher than tenth; the cardinal numbers are used instead. (Audio)




first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth

awwal thaani thaalith raabi khaamis saadis saabi thaamin taasi aashir

uulaa thaanya thaaltha raaba khaamsa saadsa saaba thaamna taasa aashra

ǟŽȶȽȚ ǀȮƸȼ ɀȮſƾȮŰ ǀȼȮƅɀȮŽƾȮŰ ǀȮƯȼ ɀȮŮȚȤ ǀƉȮ ȼ žɀ ƾų ǀȮŴ ȼ ɀȢƾŴ ǀȮƯȼ ȮɀŮƾŴ ǀȼȮƶȮžɀ ƾȮŰ ǀƯȼ ȮŴƾȮů ɀ ȜȼǍɀȮŵƾŸ


Ordinal numbers may come either after or before nouns. After the noun they are regular adjectives and must agree with the noun in gender and in definiteness. Before the noun they must always be masculine singular and the noun indefinite although such phrases are definite in meaning. (Audio) Masculine taalib thaalith it-taalib ith-thaalith maktab awwal aashir taalib awwal maktab

a third student the third student a first office the tenth student the first office


Feminine taaliba thaaltha

ƿȾŽƾȮƭŽȘ ȿ ǂȾȮŽƾȮƅŽȚ ȿ ȲdžȶȖ ƿƄɀȮƳȮžȼ

it-taaliba ith-thaaltha maktaba uulaa

ǍȮŵƾŸ Ⱦ ƿȮȾŽƾŶ ƿƄɀȮƳȮžȼ ȲdžȶȖ

aashir taaliba awwal maktaba

a third student the third student a first library the tenth student the first library

ǀƃȮȾŽƾŶ ǀƅɀȮȮŽƾŰ ǀƃȾŽƾȮƭŽȘ ȿ ǀƅɀȮŽƾȮƅŽȚ ȿ ǀƃƄɀȮƳȮžȼ ǟŽȶȽȚ ǍȮŵƾŸ Ⱦ ǀƃȮȾŽƾŶ ȲdžȶȖ ǀƃƄɀȮƳȮžȼ

2. Cardinal Numbers Higher than 100 The words for “hundred, thousand, and million” are nouns and have three number forms: singular, dual, and plural (see lessons –). (Audio)

 | l e s s o n  

miyya / miteen / miyyaat alif / alfeen / aalaaf malyoon / malyooneen / malaayiin

ȝƾȮƸȮ ȿ žȾ / ƞȮƄȮžȾ / ǀȮƸȮ dž ȿ žȾ

one hundred/two hundred/ hundreds one thousand/two thousand/ thousands one million/two million/ millions

ȯǽȕ / ƞȮƱɀȮŽȖ / ǗȮȾŽȖ / ƞſǞƸɀȮƴȮžȼ / ȴǞƸɀȮƴȮžȼ ǜȮƸȮȾȮƁǾȮžȼ

Below are some examples with different numbers.                  

miyya miyya w waahid miiteen miiteen wi-thneen tlath miyya tlath miyya w ashra arba miyya arba miyya w ishriin khamis miyya khamis miyya w saba w tisiin sitt miyya sitt miyya w khamsa w arbaiin sabi miyya sabi miyya w saba w sabiin thman miyya thman miyya w tisa w sittiin tisi miyya tisi miyya w tisa

ǀȮƸȮ dž žȾ NjŲȚȶ ȶ ǀȮ ƸȮ Ⱦ ɀ dž žȾ ƞƄȮƸȮžȾ ƞƶɀȮŰȾȶ ǜȮƸƄȮƸȮžȾ ǀȮƸȮ dž žȾ ǂȼȮƴɀȮů ȜǍɀȮƪŸȼ ȶ ǀȮƸȮ dž žȾ ǂȼȮƴɀȮů ǀȮƸȮ dž žȾ ǕȮȼŮɀȤȖ ǜƁǍɀȮƪŸȾ ȶ ǀȮƸȮ dž žȾ ǕȮȼŮɀȤȖ ǀȮƸȮ dž žȾ ǏȮƵȾ ȼȮų ƞƯƉȮ ů ȶ ǀƯ ƃȮ Ŵȶ ǀȮ ƸȮ ɀ Ⱦ ɀ ȼ dž žȾ ǏȮƵȾ ȼȮų ǀȮƸȮ Ⱦ dž žȾ ǁȿ Ŵ ƞƯȮȼŮɀȤȚȶ ǀƉȮƵɀ ȼȮųȶ ǀȮƸȮ ž ǁ Ŵ Ⱦ ȿ Ⱦ dž ǀȮƸȮ ȼ dž žȾ ǕȾȮƃȮŴ ƞƯƃɀ Ŵȶ ǀƯȮ ƃ Ŵȶ ǀȮ ƸȮ ž Ǖ Ȯ ƃ Ŵ ȼ ɀ ȼ dž Ⱦ Ⱦ ȼ ǀȮƸȮ dž žȾ ǜȮƵȼ ɀȮŰ ǜȮƸȼȮƄŴȶ Ⱦ ǀƯȮƉ ɀ Ⱦ ůȶ ǀȮƸȮ dž žȾ ǜȮƵȼ ɀȮŰ ǀȮƸȮ Ⱦ Ⱦů dž žȾ ǕƉȮ ǀƯȮƉ ů ȶ ǀȮ ƸȮ ž Ǖ Ⱦ Ⱦů ɀ Ⱦ dž Ⱦ Ɖ

Note that the plural noun “taalaaf ȯǽƾů, thousands” is used only when the word is preceded by one of the numbers –.






tlat taalaaf arba taalaaf

ǁȼȮƴɀȮů ȯǽƾů ȯǽƾů ǕȼŮɀȤȖ




  


alif w tisi miyya w tisa w sabiin alfeen w miyya w khamsa tlat taalaaf w thnaash arba taalaaf w khamis miyya w ishriin

ǀȮƸȮ Ⱦ Ⱦ ůȶ ǗȮȾŽȖ dž žȾ ǕƉ ƞƯƃɀ Ŵȶ ɀ Ⱦ ůȶ ȼ ǀƯƉ ǀȮƸȮ dž žȾ ȶ ƞȮƱɀȮŽȖ ǀƉ ȼ Ƶɀ ȼȮųȶ ȯǽƾů ǁȼȮƴɀȮů ǐȮƯȼ ȼȮƶɀȮŰȶ ǏƵȾ ȼȮųȶ ȯǽƾů ǕȼŮɀȤȖ ǜƁǍɀȮƪŸȾ ȶ ǀȮƸȮ dž žȾ

Medical Care | 

   


hkamis taalaaf sitt taalaaf sabi taalaaf thman taalaaf tisi taalaaf

ǏƵȾ ȼȮų ȯǽƾů ȯǽƾů ǁȿ Ŵ Ⱦ


ȯǽƾů ǕȾȮƃŴ ȼ


ȯǽƾů ǜƵȼ ɀȮŰ


ȯǽƾů ǕȮƉ Ⱦ Ⱦů


, , ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, one billion/two billions/ billions

3. Counting: hsaab


khamis taalaaf w sitta w sittiin sitt taalaaf w arbaa

ȯǽƾů ǏƵȾ ȼȮų ƞȮƄȮ Ⱦ ǀȮƄȮ Ⱦ ȿ Ŵȶ ȿ Ŵȶ ǀƯȮȼŮɀȤȚȶ ȯǽƾů ǁȿ Ŵ Ⱦ

sabi taalaaf w tisi miyya thman taalaaf w sabi miyya w waahid w khamsiin tisi taalaaf w miteen w khamsa w ishriin

ǕƉ Ⱦ Ⱦ ůȶ ȯǽƾů ǕȾȮƃŴ ȼ ǀȮƸȮ dž žȾ ǕȾȮƃŴȶ ȼ ȯǽƾů ǜȮƵȼ ɀȮŰ NjŲȚȶȶ Ⱦ ǀȮƸȮ dž žȾ ƞƉƵɀ ȼȮųȶ ǜȮƸƄȮƸȮžȾ ȶ ȯǽƾů ǕƉ Ⱦ Ⱦů ǜƁǍɀȮƪȮŸȾ ȶ ǀƉ Ƶ Ȯųȶ ȼ ɀ ȼ

ashir taalaaf daash alf malyoon malyooneen tlath malaayiin arba malaayiin khamis malaayiin sitt malaayiin sabi malaayiin thman malaayiin tisi malaayiin ashir malaayiin milyaar / milyaareen / milyaaraat



The Arabic system of counting (objects/nouns) requires attention from the student because of its number forms (S/D/P). Below are counting tables for two nouns (M and F). (Audio) boy/s watch/s

walad/wilid (M) saaa/saaat (F) Number  waahid  thneen  tlaatha

NjȮŲȚȶ Ⱦ ƞƶɀȮŰ ǀŰǾɀȮů

Counting Masculine Nouns walad (waahid) waladeen tlath wilid

NjȾȮŽȾȶ / NjȼȮŽȼȶ ȝƾŸƾŴ / ǀŸȼ ƾŴ (NjŲȚȶ) NjȼȮŽȼȶ ǜƁNjȼȮŽȼȶ NjȾȮŽȾȶ ǂȼȮƴɀȮů

 | l e s s o n  

          

arbaa khamsa sitta saba thmaanya tisa ashra daash thnaash tlat-taash arbaa-taash

 miyya  miiteen  tlath miyya  arba miyya

ǀƯȼŮɀȤȖ ǀƉƵɀ ųȼ ǀdžȮƄȮŴ Ⱦ ǀƯƃɀ Ŵ ȼ ǀƸɀȮſƾƵɀȮŰ ǀȮƯȼ ȮƉ ɀ Ⱦů ȜȼǍɀȮƪŸȼ ǐȮŸȼ ȼȢ ǐŸȼ ƾƶɀȮŰ ǐȮƯȼ džȮŶǾɀȮů ǐȮƯȼ ȼȮŶƾŮȤȖ

ǀȮƸȮ dž žȾ ƞȮƄƸȮžȾ ǀȮƸȮ dž žȾ ǂȼȮƴɀȮů ǀȮƸȮ dž žȾ ǕȼŮɀȤȖ

 miyya w waahid

NjŲȚȶȶ Ⱦ ǀȮƸȮ dž žȾ

 miyya wi-thneen

ƞƶɀȮŰȾȶ ǀȮƸȮ dž žȾ

 miyya wi-tlaatha

ǀŰǾɀȮůȾȶ ǀȮƸȮ dž žȾ

arba wilid khamis wilid sitt wilid sabi wilid thman wilid tisi wilid ashir wilid daash walad thnaash walad tlat-taash walad arbaa-taash walad

NjȾȮŽȾȶ ǕŮȤȖ NjȾȮŽȾȶ ǏƵȾ ųȼ NjȾȮŽȾȶ ǁȿ Ŵ Ⱦ NjȾȮŽȾȶ ǕȾȮƃŴ ȼ NjȾȮŽȾȶ ǜƵȼ ɀȮŰ NjȾȮŽȾȶ ǕƉ Ⱦ Ⱦů NjȾȮŽȾȶ Ǎƪ Ⱦ Ÿȼ NjȼȮŽȼȶ ǐŸȼ ȼȢ NjȼȮŽȼȶ ǐŸȼ ƾƶɀȮŰ NjȼȮŽȼȶ ǐȮƯȼ džȮŶǾɀȮů NjȼȮŽȼȶ ǐȮƯȼ ȼȮŶƾŮȤȖ

Counting Feminine Nouns (ȜNjȼ Ųɀ Ⱦȶ) ǀŸƾŴ saaa (wihda) saateen ƞƄȮŸɀ ƾŴ tlath saaaat ȝƾŸƾŴ ǂȼȮƴɀȮů arba saaaat ȝƾŸƾŴ ǕŮɀȤȖ khamis saaaat ȝƾŸƾŴ ǏƵȾ ųȼ sitt saaaat ȝƾŸƾŴ ǁȿ Ŵ Ⱦ sabi saaaat ȝƾŸƾŴ ǕƃȾ Ŵ ȼ thman saaaat ȝƾŸƾŴ ǜƵȼ ɀȮŰ tisi saaaat ȝƾŸƾŴ ǕƉ Ⱦ Ⱦů ashir saaaat ȝƾŸƾŴ Ǎƪ Ⱦ Ÿȼ daash saaa ǀŸƾŴ ǐŸȼ ȼȢ thnaash saaa ǀŸƾŴ ǐŸȼ ƾƶɀȮŰ tlat-taash saaa ǀŸƾŴ ǐƯȼ ȼȮŶǾɀȮů arbaa-taash saaa ǀŸƾŴ ǐƯȼ ȼȮŶƾŮȤȖ miit walad NjȮŽȼȶ ǁƸȮžȾ miit saaa ǀŸƾŴ ǁƸȮžȾ miiteen walad NjȮŽȼȶ ƞƄƸȮžȾ miiteen saaa ǀŸƾŴ ƞƄƸȮžȾ tlath miit walad NjȮŽȼȶ ǁƸȮžȾ ǂȼȮƴɀȮů tlath miit saaa ǀŸƾŴ ǁƸȮžȾ ǂȼȮƴɀȮů arba miit walad NjȮŽȼȶ ǁƸȮžȾ ǕŮȤȖ arba miit saaa (to ) ǀŸƾŴ ǁƸȮžȾ ǕŮȤȖ miit walad w walad NjȮŽȶȶ NjȮŽȶ ǁƸȮžȾ miit saaa w saaa ǀŸƾŴȶ ǀŸƾŴ ǁƸȮžȾ miit walad w waladeen ǜƁNjȼȮŽȶȶ NjȮŽȶ ǁƸȮžȾ miit saaa w saateen ƞƄŸɀ ƾŴȶ ǀŸƾŴ ǁƸȮžȾ miyya w tlath wilid NjȮȾŽȾȶ ǂȼȮƴɀȮůȶ ǀƸȮ dž žȾ miyya w tlath saaaat (to ) ȝƾŸƾŴ ǂȼȮƴɀȮůȶ ǀƸȮ dž žȾ

Medical Care | 

Notes on Counting: . One (NjŲȚȶ Ⱦ ) and two (ƞȮƶɀȮŰ) have exceptional forms, which are different from the more consistent numbers three to ten. . To say “one boy,” only the word for boy needs to be uttered, although the number one “waahid NjŲȚȶ Ⱦ ” or “wihda ȜNjŲɀ Ⱦȶ ,” depending on the gender of the word, can be added after the noun. . Counting two of one kind, there is a special dual form in Arabic, which is made by adding the suffix “-een or -teen ƞů ȆǜƁ” to the singular noun, masculine and feminine, respectively (see Lesson ). . The counted noun is plural only from three to ten. Then from eleven and higher the noun must be singular again. . When counting from three to ten, the vowel ending “a” of the independent number must be omitted (see above). There are also other dropping, shifting and assimilation. . The independent number one hundred “miyya ǀƸȮ dž žȾ ” becomes “miit ǁƸžȾ ” in counting.

Idioms and Common Phrases (Audio) 1. sh-bii + attached pronoun? sh-bii Salmaan? sh-biiha Samiira il-yoom? sh-biihum it-tullaab? sh-biik? leesh inta bil-mustashfa?

+ ȒǠȾȮƃɀȮŵ

What’s wrong with (him)? (lit. What’s in him?) ɀ What’s wrong with Salman? ȒȴƾƵɀȮƴŴ ȼ ǝƸȾȮƃȮŵ ɀ What’s wrong with Samiira today? ȒȳǞƸŽȚ ȜǍƸƵŴ ȼ ƾƷƸȾȮƃȮŵ ɀ What’s wrong with the students? ȒțǾȮƭŽȚ ǛƷƸȾȮƃȮŵ LJ ɀ What’s wrong with you (M)? Why ǁɀȮſȘ ǐƸŽ ȒǙƸȾȮƃȮŵ ȒǟƱɀȮƪȼȮƄȮƉ are you in the hospital? ɀ ƵȽ ɀȮŽƾŮ

2. 9afya 9alee + attached pronoun afya aleek, tih chi arabi zeen afya aleech, tudursiin bij-jaamia afya alee, sihhta kullish zeena afya aleeha, faazat bis-sibaaq

3. balkat, balki


Good for (him), bravo Good for you (M), you speak ǠǰƇȮ ɀ Ⱦ ů ȆǙƸȮƴȮŸȼ ǝȼȮƸɀȮƱȮŸȼ ǜƁȥ ǠŮǍŸ good Arabic. Good for you (F), you are ƞŴɀȤNjȽ Ȯů Ƚ ȆǶƸȮƴȮŸȼ ǝȼȮƸɀȮƱȮŸȼ ȿ ƾŮ ǀƯžȾ ƾȮƐ studying at the university. Good for him, his health is ǝȼȮƄȮƇɀ ǧ Ⱦ ȆǝƸȮƴȮŸȼ ǝȼȮƸɀȮƱȮŸȼ ǀƶƁȥ ǐƦȮƴȮż very good. Ƚ Bravo, she won in the ȝȼȥƾź ȆƾƷƸȮƴȮŸȼ ǝȼȮƸɀȮƱȮŸȼ ȰƾƃȮƉŽƾŮ competition. Ʀ

ǠƳɀȮƴȮȼŮ Ȇǁɀ ȼȮƳɀȮƴȼŮ Perhaps, may (invariable)

balkat yiji baad shwayya balki yruuhuun ydursuun b-Baghdaad laazim ashuufa hissa, balkat ysaafir il-yoom balkat tshuufhum bil-iraaq

Perhaps he will come shortly. They may go to study in Baghdad. I must see him now, he may travel today. You may see them in Iraq.

ǀdžȮƁǞȼ ɀȮŵ NjȮƯȼ ȮȼŮ ǠƆȾȮƁ ǁɀ ȼȮƳɀȮƴȼŮ țɀ ȴǞŴɀȤNjȽ ȮɀƁ ȴǞŲȶǍȮɀƁ ǠȾȮƳɀȮƴȼŮ ȢȚNjưŮ ǁɀ ȼȮƳɀȮƴȼŮ ȆǝƉȮ ȿ ƀȾ ǝźǞŵȖ ȳȾȥǽ ȳǞƸŽȚ ǍźȾ ƾƉɀƁ ȰȚǍƯŽƾŮ ǛƷȽ ɀȮźǞƪɀȮů ǁɀ ȼȮƳɀȮƴȼŮ


 | l e s s o n  

ɷʄ Drill tamaariin ǜƁȤƾƵȮů ȼ to the following: ʞʏ 1. Give appropriate oral replies ȒǀƵƉŮ ƾƷƸƃɀȮŵ ʄɷ ȒǀƵƉŮ ǕűǞƁ ȼ ǞƶȮŵ Ƚ ȒȲƾȮűȿ Ⱦ Ȥ ǞŽ ȜȼǍȮžȼ ƿƸƃdžȮƭŽȘ ʏʞ ȒǀƵƉŮ Ȳɀ ƿƸƃdžȮƭŽȚ ȲƾǦɀȮŵ ȒǀƵƉŮ Ȳɀ ƿƸƃdžȮƭŽȚ ǝȼȮƭȮƶȾ ɀȮŵ ɷʄ ȒȳǞƸŽƾŮ ǀƵƉŮ njȮųƾů ǀƁƾȮƃ ȿ Ųȼ Ǜż Ƚ ȒȚȼȶNjƦ ȮŽȚ ȜNjdž ȮžȽ NjȼȮǦɀȮŵ ʞʏ ȒȴȾȣȘ ǞŽ ȜNjȮƯɀ žȾ țƾƷƄȾ ɀȮŽȘ ƾƀNjɀ ȮŸȾ ȴƾǩ ǀƵƉŮ ȒƿƸƃdžȮƭŽȚ ȝȤȚȥ ǀƵƉŮ ǜƁȶ ʄɷ ȒȴǞƸȮŸȾ ƿƸƃŶ ǞŽ ȴƾƶŴȖ ɀ ƿƸƃŶ Ǟƀ ƿƸƃdžȮƭŽȘ ȒƿƸƃdžȮƭȮƴȮȾŽ ǁŲȚȤ ȼ ǀƵƉŮ ȜdžǍȮžȼ Ǜż ʏʞ ɷʄ 2. Answer the following with true or false “sahh aw khata·”: ǍƁǍȮƉŽȚ Ʀ Ȭȼ Ǡžƾſ ǀƵƉŮ Ȳɀ ȲƾǬ ƿƸƃdžȮƭŽȘ ʞʏ ȴǞƸȮŸȾ ƿƸƃŶ ǁűƾƄȮ ɀ ǀƵƉŮ ȼ ŲȘ Ƚ ǟƱɀȮƪȼȮƄƉȮ Ɠ ƾŮ ƿƸƃ ȮƭŽȚ ȝ ȤȚȥ ɀ ȼ ǀƵƉŮ dž ʄɷ ǀžǞƦ ȼȮƶžȽ țǞƃŲȽ ǀƵƉŮ ƾȼȮƭȾſ ƿƸƃdžȮƭŽȘ ȴȾȣȘ țƾƷƄȾ ɀȮŽȚȶ ǀȮƇdž ȼȮǬ ƾƀNjɀ ȮŸȾ ȴƾǩ ǀƵƉŮ ʏʞ ǀƬƁǍžȼ ǐƦȮƴȮż Ƚ ǁſƾǩ ǀƵƉŮ ǀſƾƃƯɀ ȼȮůȶ ȦȚȤ ǕȾȮűȾȶ ƾƀNjɀ ȮŸȾ ȴƾǩ ǀƵƉŮ ɷʄ ƞůɀǍžȼ ƿƸƃdžȮƭŽȚ ȝȼȤȚȥ ǀƵƉŮ ȜdžǍȮžȼ ȲdžȶȖ ƿƸƃdžȮƭŽȚ ȝȼȤȚȥ ǀƵƉŮ ʏʞ ǟƱɀȮƪȼȮƄȮƉ ɀ ƵȽ ɀȮŽƾŮ ȬǞƃŴ ɀ Ƚ Ț ǁžƾſ ǀƵƉŮ ƿƸƃdžȮƭȮƴȮȾŽ ȯƾƯŴȘ ɀ ȜȤƾƸȮ ȼ țɀ ǁŲȚȤ ȼ ǀƵƉŮ ȿ Ŵ ɷʄ ʏʞ 3. Fill in the blanks of the following: ț ƿƸƃŶ ȤȚȥ ǠžƾŴ ɷʄ ʏʞ ǝdžȮƴȮż ɀ ȾȮűȶ ȆǒƁǍžȼ Ǡſȕ ȤǞƄɀȮżȾȢ Ƚ ǠƵƉ ɷʄ ȒȩȚǍŸɀ LjȚ ȸȣƾƀ ɃNjȾ ɀȮƶŸȾ ǁȮżȾ Ǟȼ ɀȮŵ ʏʞ țƾƷȮƄȾ ɀȮŽȚȾȶ Ǖűȼ Ⱦȶ ȸNjɀȮƶŸȾ Ǡſȕ ɷʄ ǕƦȮƴȼȮŶȶ ǙȼȮǦɀȮƴŲȼ ljȼȮƄɀȮźȘ ʏʞ ǟƱɀȮƪȼȮƄƉ ǀƃƸƃŶ Ɨȼ ɀǍȮžȼ ɀ žȽ ɷʄ ʏʞ sh-biiha Basma? shunu yooja Basma? it-tabiib mara loo rijjaal? sh-gaal it-tabiib il-Basma sh-nita it-tabiib il-Basma? kam habbaaya taakhudh Basma bil-yoom? shgadd muddat id-diwa? Basma chaan idha iltihaab mida loo idhin? ween Basma zaarat it-tabiib? it-tabiib huwwa tabiib asnaan loo tabiib iyuun? kam marra Basma raahat lit-tabiib?

it-tabiib gaal l-Basma, “naami as-siriir.” Basma ihtaajat tabiib iyuun. Basma zaarat it-tabiib bil-mustashfa. it-tabiib nita Basma hubuub munawwima. Basma chaan idha gahha w-iltihaab idhin. Basma chaanat kullish mariida. Basma chaan idha wija raas w tabaana. Basma zaarat it-tabiib marteen. Basma zaarat it-tabiib awwal marra. Basma naamat usbuu bil-mustashfa. Basma raahat b-sayyaarat isaaf lit-tabiib.

Saami zaar it-tabiib b-

diktoor aani mariid, w jismi kulla shwakit

indich haadhi l-araad?

aani indi wija


iftah halgak w talli Maryam tabiiba




. .









Medical Care | 

afya aleek, sihhtak



afya leekum,

ǀƸȮ dž ŻȾ ȚǍŸ ǀƆȼ Ʒɀ ȼȮŽ

lahja iraaqiyya


ǟƱɀȮƪȼȮƄƉ ɀ žȽ


Basma ma-shaafat

ȴƾƶŴȖ ɀ


4. Say the following numbers in Arabic:         

the first month the second year the fifth hospital on the right the fifth chair in the classroom the first, second, and third lessons the seventh house on the left the tenth visit the fourth season the third exam

5. Count the following in Arabic:  doctor  hospital  ambulance  pills  books  nights  months in the year , students  miles

 doctors  hospitals  ambulances  tablets  books  days in the year  years  students  +  = 

a. sh-bii il-yoom?




sh-biikum sh-bii



? ?

the first student (F) the tenth car ,, , ,,   ,, ,,

 doctors  hospitals  ambulances  tablets  books  seasons in the year , universities in America  students (F)  −  = 

6. Complete and read aloud: sh-biik

ɷʄ ʞʏ ȆǛƳƸƴŸȼ ǝƸȮ ȼ ɀȮƱŸȼ ʄɷ ȯƾƯŴȘ ɀ ʏʞ ǁźƾŵ ȳȼ ǀƵƉŮ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ȒȳǞƸɀȮŽȚ ǠȾȮƃɀȮŵ ʏʞ ǙƸȾȮƃɀȮŵ ɷʄ ǶƸȾȮƃɀȮŵ ʏʞ ǛƳƸȾȮƃɀȮŵ ɷʄ ǝƸȾȮƃɀȮŵ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ

ǙƄƇɀ ǧ Ⱦ ȆǙƸƴŸ ǝƸȼ ɀȮƱŸȼ



 | l e s s o n  

ɷʄ Ȓ ƾƷƸȾȮƃɀȮŵ ʞʏ Ȓ ǛƷƸȾȮƃɀȮŵ ʄɷ Ȓ ƾȮƸdž ȾȮƃɀȮŵ ʏʞ Ȓ ƾƶȮƸȾȮƃɀȮŵ ɷʄ ǠŮǍŸ ȚȼǍɀȮƲȾȮƁȶ ǛdžȮƴȼȮƳɀȮƄȾȮƁ ȆǝƸƴŸ ǝȼȮƸɀȮƱŸȼ ʞʏ ƾƷƸƴŸ ǝȼȮƸɀȮƱŸȼ ʄɷ ǛƷƸƴŸ ǝȼȮƸɀȮƱŸȼ ʏʞ ǙƸƴŸ ǝȼȮƸɀȮƱŸȼ ɷʄ ǶƸƴŸ ǝȼȮƸɀȮƱŸȼ ʞʏ ǛƳƸƴŸ ǝȼȮƸɀȮƱŸȼ ʄɷ ǀƁȿ Ǟȼ ɀȮŵ NjȮƯȼ ȼ Ů ȴǞƆɀƁ ǠƳɀȮƴȮȼŮ Ȇƾƶƀɀ ǠŻƾŮ Ǡſȕ ʏʞ ƾƶŲȘ ɷʄ ǁſȘ ʏʞ ǠƄſȘ ɷʄ ǞƄſȘ ʏʞ Ǟƀ ɷʄ Ǡƀ ʏʞ ǝƵdž ȮƀȽ ɷʄ questions of the following sentences, using the appropriate form of “sh-bii? ʏʞ 7.ȒǠȾȮMake ƃɀȮŵ”: ǀŲɀȤƾƃŽȚ ǒƁǍžȼ ȴƾǩ Ǟƀ ɷʄ ȒǀŲȼ ɀ ȤƾƃŽȚ Ǟƀ ȴƾǩ ǝƸȾȮƃɀȮŵ ǀŲȼ ɀ ȤƾƃŽȚ ǀƬƁǍžȼ ǁſƾǩ Ǡƀ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ sh-biiha


sh-biihum sh-biiyya sh-biina




b. afya alee, yitkallam w yiqra arabi afya aleeha,

afya aleehum, afya aleek,

afya aleech,

afya aleekum,

c. aani baaqi hnaa, balki yjuun baad shwayya ihna inta inti


huwwa hiyya


Example: huwwa chaan mariid il-baarha. sh-bii chaan huwwa il-baarha? hiyya chaanat mariida il-baarha.


Medical Care | 

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ 8. Put the following present tense sentences into past tense and translate them into English: ƿƸƃdžȮƭȮƴȮȾŽ ȠȶǍȮƁȶ ȴƾƃƯɀ ȼȮů ȲƾƵż ʞʏ ʄɷ ǟƱɀȮƪȼȮƄȮƉ ɀ ƵȽ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȠȶȤȖȶ ǒƁǍžȼ Ǡſȕ ʏʞ ɷʄ ȜȢƾƸȮƯȾ ɀȮŽƾŮ ƿƸƃȮƭŽȚ ȤȶǎȮ Ɓ Ȣ Ǟƀ ɀ ȼ ȿ ʞʏ ǠƄƸȮŮ ǜžȾ NjƸƯȾȮŮ ƿƸƃȮƭŽȚ ƿȼȮƄɀȮƳžȼ ʄɷ ȿ ʏʞ ȳǞƁ ǚȮż Ƚ ǠŮǍŸ ȴǞŴɀȤNjȽ Ȯů Ƚ ǛƳƸƴŸ ǝƸȼ ɀȮƱŸȼ ɷʄ ʏʞ ȒǟƱƪȼȮƄƉ ɀ ƵȽ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ ǀƇȮ ȼ ɀ ƁȚȤ Ǡƀ ǐƸŽ ȆƾƷƸƃɀȮŵ ɷʄ ȜNjȼ ȮƯɀ žȾ țƾƷƄȾ ɀȮŽȚȶ ǀƸȼ ɀȮŽƾŸ ȜȤȚǍŲȼ ȸNjɀȮƶŸȾ ʏʞ ɷʄ ǀƴȾȮƆƯɀ ȼȮƄƉȮ ž ǀŽƾŲ ȆǟƱƪ ȮƄ Ɖ Ƶ ȮƴȮ Ž ȠȶǍ Ȯſ ɀ Ⱦ ȼ ɀ Ƚɀ Ⱦ ɀ ʏʞ ȤǞƫɀȮƶƵȼ ɀȮŽƾŮ ǝȼȮƴƀɀ Ȗ ǝȮdžƁȾȶ ǜȮżƾŴ NjƸŽȶ ɷʄ Ⱦ ʏʞ ȿ Ț ȳǞƁ ǛȮż ʇƾƪɀȮſȘ ȆǀȮƯȼ Ƶɀ ȮȽ Ɛ Ƚ ɀ ȤȶȥȖ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ humma chaanaw mardaa il-baarha. inta chinit mariid il-baarha. inti chinti mariida il-baarha. intu chintu mardaa il-baarha. aani chinit mariid il-baarha. aani chinit mariida il-baarha. ihna chinna mardaa il-baarha.

Kamaal tabaan w yruuh lit-tabiib

aani mariid w aruuh lil-mustashfa

huwwa da-yzuur it-tabiib bil-iyaada

maktab it-tabiib biiid min beeti

afya aleekumm, tudursuun arab kull yoom

sh-biiha, leesh hiyya raayha lil-mustashfa?

indi haraara aalya w-iltihaab mida

nruuh lil-mustashfa, haala mistajila

Waliid saakin wiyya ahla bil-Mansuur

azuurkum yoom ij-juma, inshaalla

ǀŲȼ ɀ ȤƾƃŽȚ ǟǤɀǍžȼ Ǟɀ ȼȮſƾǩ ǝƵdž ȮƀȽ ǀŲȼ ɀ ȤƾƃŽȚ ǒƁǍžȼ ǁȾȮƶȾȮǩ ǁſȘ ǀŲȼ ɀ ȤƾƃŽȚ ǀƬƁǍžȼ ǠƄɀȮƶȾȮǩ ǠƄſȘ ǀŲȼ ɀ ȤƾƃŽȚ ǟǤɀǍžȼ ǞȮƄɀȮƶȾȮǩ ǞƄſȘ ǀŲȼ ɀ ȤƾƃŽȚ ǒƁǍžȼ ǁȮƶȾ ȾȮǩ Ǡſȕ ǀŲȼ ɀ ȤƾƃŽȚ ǀƬƁǍžȼ ǁȮƶȾ ȾȮǩ Ǡſȕ ǀŲȼ ɀ ȤƾƃŽȚ ǟǤɀǍžȼ ƾȮȮƶ ȿ ȾȮǩ ƾƶŲȘ

 | l e s s o n  

ɷʄ 9. Translate the following into Arabic: ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ Please lie down on the bed there.

Basma is buying medicine at the pharmacy.

You have a fever and stomach infection.

Take one tablet a day for one week.

I have a severe pain in my back.

The hospital is not very far; it’s near is-Safaafiir Market.

She was the third girl in the class.

Open (M) your mouth and put your tongue out.

,, students

There are about  doctors in the hospital

Samiira was sick and stayed in the hospital for  weeks.

The doctor gave me drops for my eyes and ears yesterday.

I take sleeping pills every night.



Medical Care | 

Last year was  and this year is .

The year has  seasons,  months,  weeks, and  days.

The doctor checks up on the patients in the hospital.

They have good health, praise God.

I am going to the doctor’s office at :.

Creative Dialogues a. taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba :

ahiss tabaan hwaaya sh-biik? kheer inshaalla ahtaaj tabiib yih chi Ingiliizi aani aruf tabiib kullish zeen, w iyaadta qariiba taalib : yalla, khalli nruuh bil-ajal, alla ykhalliich taaliba : ala eeni. inshaalla inta muu kullish mariid taalib : maa aruf, balkat it-tabiib yuruf taaliba : khalli asaadak, sihtak muu zeena taalib : sahih, shukran jaziilan taaliba : afwan

b. taalib : ariid waahid ysaaidni taaliba : aani asaadak. sh-biik? taalib : aani kullish mariid, ariid sayyaarat isaaf taaliba : hissa, akhaaburlak sayyaarat isaaf

ǝȼƁȚǞȮƀɀ ȴƾƃƯů ǏȮ Ⱦ ȼ ŲȖ ʇƾƪɀȮſȘ ǍƸų ȒǙƸƃɀȮŵ ȸǎƸƴȾȮǦɀȮſȘ ǠǰƇɀ ȾȮƁ ƿƸƃŶ ȟƾƄŲȖ ɀ ȆǜƁȥ ǐƦȮƴȮż ƿƸƃŶ ȯ Ǎ Ÿ Ȗ Ǡſȕ ɀ Ƚ Ƚ ǀƃƁǍȼȮŻ ǝȼȮůɀȢƾƸŸȾ ȶ ȆǚƆȼ Ưȼ ɀȮŽƾŮ ȠȶǍɀȮſ ǠȮƴ ȿ ȼȮų ȆǝdžȮƴȮȼƁ ǶƸȼȮƴȼȮƈȮɀƁ ʇȚ Ǟž ǁſȚ ʇƾƪɀȮſȘ .ǠƶƸŸ ǟƴŸ ǒƁǍžȼ ǐƦȮƴȮż Ƚ ƿƸƃȮƭŽȚ ǁ ȮƳ ȮƴȮ Ů Ȇȯ Ǎ Ÿ Ț ƾž ɀ ȼ Ƚ ȿ ȼ ɀ ȯǍȽ Ưɀ ȽƁ Ǟž ǙȼȮƄƇɀ ǧ Ⱦ ȆȱNjȼ Ÿɀ ƾŴȚ ǠȮƴ ȿ ȼȮų ǀƶƁȥ ȹǾƁǎű ȹ ȚǍƳŵ ȆljƸƇǧ ȼ ȹ ȚǞɀȮƱŸȼ

: : : : : : : : : :

ǠſNjɀ ŸȾ ƾƉȮɀƁ NjȮŲȚȶ Ⱦ NjƁȤȖ : ȒǙȮƸƃɀȮŵ .ȱNjȼ ȮŸɀ ƾŴȖ Ǡſȕ : ȜȤƾƸȮ ȼ NjƁȤȖ ȆǒƁǍž ǐƦȮƴȮż ȿ Ŵ Ƚ Ǡſȕ : ȯƾƯŴȘ ɀ ȜȤƾƸȿ Ŵ ȼ ǙȼȮŽɀǍȮȽŮƾųȖ ǝȮƉȮ dž ƀȾ : ȯƾƯŴȘ ɀ

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ƿŽƾŶ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʄɷ ƿŽƾŶ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʏʞ ƿŽƾŶ ɷʄ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʏʞ ɷʄ ƿŽƾŶ ʏʞ ǀƃŽƾŶ ɷʄ ƿŽƾŶ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʏʞ ƿŽƾŶ ɷʄ ǀƃŽƾŶ ƿŽƾŶ ʏʞ ǀƃŽƾŶ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ

 | l e s s o n  

taalib :

sayyaara durbatni. rijli maksuura taaliba : la-titharrak! ugud hnaa! taalib : shwakit toosal sayyaarat l-isaaf? taaliba : wislat is-sayyaara. laazim aakh dhak lil-mustashfa taalib : shukran hwaaya ala musaaadtich For new words, see Glossary.


ǠƴȮűɀ Ⱦ Ȥ .ǠƶɀȮƄȮȼŮɀǍȮǤ : ƿŽƾŶ ȼ ȿ Ŵ Ƚ ȜȤƾƸȮ ȜȤǞƉɀȮƳžȼ !ƾƶȮƀɀ NjȮƯȽ ɀȮżȽȚ !ȱdžǍƇ ȼ ɀȮƄȮƄȾ ȼȮȼŽ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ȜȤƾƸȮ ȼ ǁȮżȾ Ǟȼ ɀȮŵ : ƿŽƾŶ ȿ Ŵȿ ǚǧǞů ȒȯƾƯŴȁȚ ɀ ȱnjɀȮųȕ ȳȥǽ .ȜȤƾƸȮƉŽȚ ɀ Ⱦȶ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ȿ ǁȼȮƴǧ ǟƱɀȮƪȼȮƄƉ Ƶ ȮƴȮ ɀ Ƚ ɀ ȾŽ ǶȮȾůNjɀ ȮŸȼ ƾƉžȽ ǟƴŸ ǝȼƁȚǞȮƀɀ ȹ ȚǍƳŵ : ƿŽƾŶ

Ziggurat (staged monument) built by King Ur-Nammu ( B.C.), ancient Ur, the city of Abraham

ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ lesson ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ǐȮƯȼ ȼȮƭɀȮƶƵȽ ɀȮŰ ȦȾȤȼȢ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ Media: Radio, Television, and Journalism ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ilaam: raadyo, talfizyoon w sahaafa ȴǞƁɀǎȮƱȾ ɀȮƴȼȮůȶ ǞȮƁ Ƚ ɀȢȚȤ :ȳǾȮŸɀ Ș ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ǀȼȮźƾƇǧȶ ȼ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ DARIS THMUNTAASH


Basma is visiting a radio and TV station in Baghdad. She is being given a tour of the station by its director.

Basic Dialogue (Audio) . mudiir: ahlan w sahlan bil-mahatta il-iraaqiyya. Welcome to il-iraaqiyya station. . Basma: shukran jaziilan. Thank you very much. . mudiir: haadha qisim il-akhbaar bil-lugha il-arabiyya wil-Ingiliiziyya. This is the news section in Arabic and English. . Basma: kam nashra akhbaariyya tdhiiuun bil-yoom? How many news bulletins do you broadcast a day? . mudiir: arba nashraat akhbaariyya bil-yoom. Four news bulletins a day. . Basma: b-ayy waqit? At what time?


ǀdžȮƭȮƇȼ Ƶȼ ɀȮŽƾŮ ȹǾƷɀ Ŵȶ ȼ ȹǾȮƀɀ Ȗ :ǍƁNjžȽ .ȹ ǾƁǎȮű ȹ ȚǍƳȮŵ :ǀƵƉŮ

ǀƸŮǍƯŽȚ ǀưȮƴ Ⱦ ŻȾ Țȣƾƀ :ǍƁNjžȽ Ƚ ɀȮŽƾŮ ȤƾƃɀȮųLjȚ ǛƉ .ǀƁǎƸƴǦ Ⱦɀ ɀȮſȁȚȾȶ ȴǞƯƁnjɀȮů ǀƁȤƾƃɀȮųȖ ȜǍɀȮƪȼȮſ Ǜż :ǀƵƉŮ ȒȳǞƸɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ .ȳǞƸɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ

ǀƁȤƾƃɀȮųȖ ȝȚǍɀȮƪȼȮſ ǕŮȤȖ :ǍƁNjžȽ ȒǁȮŻȾ ȼȶ ȸƺɀŮ :ǀƵƉŮ

 | l e s s o n  

. mudiir: sabaahan w zuhran w asran w masaa¢an. In the morning, noon, afternoon, and evening. . Basma: idkum qisim tarjama? Do you have a translation section? . mudiir: taban, idna qisim kabiir lit-tarjama wit-tahriir. Of course, we have a large section for translation and editing. . Basma: idkum akhbaar b-lughaat ajnabiyya? Do you have news in foreign languages? . mudiir: naam. idna akhbaar b-iddat lughaat. Yes. We have news in a number of languages. . Basma: ayy noo baraamij tdhiiuun? What types of programs do you broadcast? . mudiir: baraamij mukhtalifa, siyaasiyya, w-iqtisaadiyya, w-ijtimaaiyya, w hadaariyya, w diniyya, w tathqifiyya, w fanniyya. Different programs, political, economical, social, cultural, religious, educational, and artistic. . Basma: maashaalla, idkum baraamij hwaaya. Praise be to God, you have many programs. . mudiir: w idna muqaabalaat kathiira maa mas¢uuliin bil-hukuuma. And we have many interviews with government authorities. . Basma: shukran jaziilan ala hal-maluumaat. Thank you for this information. . mudiir: ahlan w sahlan aanisa Basma. sharraftiina bi-zyaartich. Welcome Miss Basma. You honored us with your visit.

.Ȕȹ ƾƉžȼ ȶ ȹ ȚǍƫȮ ɀ Ÿȼ ȶ ȹ ȚǍƷɀ Ȯŷȶ Ƚ ȹ ƾŲƾƃǧ :ǍƁNjžȽ

ȒǀƵȼ űȼ ɀǍȼȮů ǛƉ Ⱦ ŻȾ ǛżNjɀ ȮŸȾ :ǀƵƉŮ ǍƸȮƃȼȮż ǛƉ Ⱦ ŻȾ ƾſNjɀ ȮŸȾ ȆȹƾƯƃɀ ȼȮŶ :ǍƁNjžȽ .ǍƁǍƇ ɀ džȮƄȮŽȚȾȶ ǀƵȼ űȼ ɀǍȼȮƄɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȒǀȮƸdž ȾȮƃȼȮƶűȖ ɀ ȝƾưȮƴȮ Ƚ ɀ Ů ȤƾƃųȖ ǛżNjɀ ȮŸȾ :ǀƵƉŮ .ȝƾưȮŽ Ƚ

ȜNjdž ȮƯȾ ȾȮŮ ȤƾƃųȖ ƾſNjɀ ȮŸȾ ȆǛƯſ :ǍƁNjžȽ

ȒȴǞƯƁnjɀȮů ǃžȾ ȚǍȮȼŮ ȬǞſ ȸȖ :ǀƵƉŮ ǀȮƸŴƾƸ Ŵ Ⱦ ǀȼȮƱȾƴȼȮƄɀȮƈžȽ ǃžȾ ȚǍȮȼŮ :ǍƁNjžȽ ȿ ǀƸȮƶȮƁȢȶ ǀȮƁȿ ȤƾƬŲȼ ȼȶ ǀdžƁȢƾƫƄȾ ɀȮŻȚȾȶ ȿ .ǀȮƸȮ dž ƦȮƶȼȮȮźȶ ǀȮƸƱƸȮƲ ȿ ɀȮƅȼȮůȶ


ǃžȾ ȚǍȮȼŮ ǛżNjɀ ȮŸȾ Ȇʇƾŵƾž :ǀƵƉŮ Ǖȼ žȼ ȜǍƸƅȼȮż ȝǾȼŮƾƲžȽ ƾſNjɀ ȮŸȾ ȶ :ǍƁNjžȽ .ǀžȼ ǞƳƇ ɀ žȼ Ƚ ɀȮŽƾŮ ƞŽȶƻȮƉ

.ȝƾžǞƴȮƯɀ žȼ

ǚɀ ƀȼ ǟƴŸ ȹǾƁǎűȼ ȹ ȚǍƳȮŵ :ǀƵƉŮ


ǀƉȮ ȼ Ⱦ ſȕ ȹǾƷɀ Ŵȶ ȼ ȹǾƀȖ :ǍƁNjžȽ .ǶȮȾůɀȤƾȮƁɀǎȾȮŮ ƾƶƸȮƄɀȮźdžǍȼȮŵ

Media: Radio, Television, and Journalism | 

Vocabulary (Audio) ilaam raadyo idhaaa / idhaaaat (S/P) talfizyoon / talfizyoonaat (S/P) sahaafa sahafi / sahafiyya (M/F) mudiir / mudaraa¢ (S/P) mahatta / mahattaat (S/P) qisim / aqsaam (S/P) qisim il-akhbaar nashra / nashraat (S/P) nashra akhbaariyya tdhiiuun (HV) b-ayy? waqit sabaahan (adv.) zuhran (adv.) asran (adv.) masaa¢an (adv.) tarjama / tarjamaat (S/P) qisim tarjama tahriir muharrir ra¢iis qisim it-tahriir lugha / lughaat ajnabiyya idda iddat lughaat noo / anwaa barnaamij / baraamij siyaasa siyaasi / siyaasiyya (M/F adj.) iqtisaad iqtisaadi / iqtisaadiyya (M/F adj.) ijtimaa ijtimaai / ijtimaaiyya (M/F adj.) hadaara hadaari / hadaariyya (M/F adj.)

media radio radio station/s televisions/s press, journalism journalist director/s, manager/s station/s (all kinds of stations) section/s, division/s, department/s news section bulletin/s news bulletin You (P) broadcast. at what? time in the morning at noon time in the afternoon at night translation/s translation section editing editor editor-in-chief foreign language/s a number of, several a number of languages type/s, kind/s program/s politics political economics economical meeting social culture cultural

ȳǾȮŸɀ Ș ǞƁɀȢȚȤ ȝƾŸȚȣȘ / ǀȮŸȼ ȚȣȘ ȝƾſǞƁǎȮƱȾ ɀȮƴȼȮů / ȴǞƁǎȮƱȾ ɀȮƴȼȮů ǀȼȮźƾƇǧ ȼ ǀƸȮ Ʊ Ȯ Ƈ ǧ / ǠȮƱ Ƈ ǧ Ⱦ ȼ ȼ ȼ ȼ dž ȔȚȤNjȼ ȮžȽ / ǍƁNjžȽ ȝƾȮƭ ȼ žȼ / ǀdžȮƭƇȮ ȼ žȼ ȿ ƇȮ ȳƾƉɀȮŻȖ / ǛƉ Ⱦ ŻȾ ȤƾƃɀȮųLjȚ ǛƉ Ⱦ ŻȾ ɀ ȼȮſ ȝȚǍɀȮƪȼȮſ / ȜǍȮƪ ǀƁȤƾƃɀȮųȖ ȜǍɀȮƪȼȮȮſ ȴǞƯȮƁnjɀȮů ȒȸƺȮɀŮ ǁȮŻȾ ȼȶ ȹ ƾȮŲƾƃǧ ȼ ȹ ȚǍȮƷɀ Ȯŷ Ƚ ȹ ȚǍƫȮ ɀ Ÿȼ Ȕȹ ƾƉȮžȼ ȝƾƵűȼ ɀǍȼȮů / ǀƵȼ Ȯűȼ ɀǍȼȮů ǀƵűȼ ɀǍȼȮů ǛƉ Ⱦ ŻȾ ǍƁǍƇɀ ȼȮů ȤƦǍȮƇȮ ȼ žȽ ǍƁǍƇɀ ȼȮƄŽȚ ǛƉ Ⱦ ŻȾ ǏƸȮǣȼȤ ǀƸȾȮƃȼȮƶȮűȖ ɀ ȝƾưȮŽ Ƚ / ǀȼȮưȮŽ Ƚ ȜNjdž ȮŸȾ ȝƾưȮŽ Ƚ ȜNjdž ȮŸȾ ȬȚǞɀȮſȖ / ȬǞſ ǃžȾ ȚǍȮȼŮ / ǃžȾ ƾſɀǍȮȼŮ ǀŴƾƸȮ Ⱦ ȼ Ŵ ǀƸȮ ŴƾƸȮ Ŵ / ǠŴƾƸ Ȯ Ŵ Ⱦ Ⱦ ȿ Ⱦ ȢƾƫȮƄȾ ɀȮŻȘ ǀƁȿ ȢƾƫƄȾ ɀȮŻȘ / ȸȢƾƫȮƄȾ ɀȮŻȘ ȬƾƵȮƄȾ ȮűȘ ɀ ǀƸȮ Ÿ ƾƵȮ Ƅ Ȯ űȘ / ǠŸƾƵȮ Ƅ Ȯ űȘ Ⱦ ɀ ȿ Ⱦ ȾȾ ɀ ȜȤƾƬȮŲȼ ǀȮdžƁȤƾƬŲȼ / ȸȤƾƬȮŲȼ

 | l e s s o n  

thaqaafa tathqiifi / tathqiifiyya (M/F adj.) diin / adyaan (S/P) diini / diiniyya (M/F adj.) fann / funuun (S/P) fanni / fanniyya (M/F adj.) muqaabala / muqaabalaat (S/P) mas¢uul / mas¢uuliin (S/P) mas¢uul hukuuma hukuuma / hukuumaat (S/P) maluumaat aanisa / aanisaat (S/P) sayyida / sayyidaat (S/P) sharraftiina bi-zyaartich

education educational religion/s religious art/s artistic meeting/s, interview/s authority/s, person/s in charge government official government/s information Miss/s Mrs. You (F) honored us. with your (F) visit

ǀȮźƾƲȼȮŰ ǀƸȮ dž źȾ ƾƲȼȮŰ / ǠȮźȾ ƾƲȼȮŰ ȴƾȮƁɀȢȖ / ǜȮƁȢ ǀƸȮ dž ƶȾ ȮƁȢ / ǠƶȮƁȢ ȴǞȮƶȮź Ƚ / ǜȿ ȼȮź ǀdžȮƸƦȮƶȼȮź / ǠȮƦȮƶȼȮź ȝǾȮȼŮƾƲȮžȽ / ǀƴȮȼŮƾƲȮžȽ ƞŽȶƻȮƉ ɀ žȼ / ȲȶƻȮƉ ɀ žȼ ǀžǞƳȮŲȽ ȲȶƻȮƉ ɀ žȼ ȝƾžǞƳȮŲȽ / ǀžǞƳȮŲȽ ȝƾžǞȮƴƯɀ Ȯžȼ ȝƾƉȾſȕ / ǀƉȮ ȼ Ⱦ ſȕ ȝȚNjȮƸȮ ȼ / ȜNjȼ ȮƸȮ ȼ Ʀ Ŵ Ʀ Ŵ ƾƶȮƸȮƄȾ ɀȮźdžǍȼȮŵ ǶȮȾůɀȤƾƁɀǎȾȮŮ

Additional Vocabulary on Media (Audio) akhbaar mahalliyya akhbaar aalamiyya mudhii / mudhiia (M/F) muraasil / muraasila (M/F) muraasil ajnabi majalla / majallaat (S/P) jariida / jaraayid (S/P) sahiifa / suhuf (S/P) barnaamij talfizyooni musalsala talfizyooniyya taqriir sahafi qanaat / qanawaat hurriyya / hurriyyaat

national news international news broadcaster reporter, correspondent foreign reporter/correspondent magazine/s newspaper/s newspaper/s television program television series journalistic report (TV) channel/s freedom/s

ǀdžȮƸȮƦȮƴȮƇȮ ȼ žȼ ȤƾƃɀȮųȖ ǀȮƸƵ dž ȼȮŽƾŸ ȤƾƃɀȮųȖ ǀƯȼ ȮƁnjȮžȽ / ǕƁnjȮžȽ ǀƴȮŴȚǍȮ Ⱦ žȽ / ǚŴȚǍȮ Ⱦ žȽ ǠƃȼȮƶȮűȖ ǚ ŴȚǍȮ Ⱦ žȽ ɀ ȝǾƆȮ ȼ žȼ / ǀdžȮƴƆȮ ȼ žȼ NjȾȮƁȚǍȮűȼ / ȜNjȼ ȮƁǍȮűȼ ǗȮƇȽ ǧ ȼ Ƚ / ǀƱƸƇǧ ǠſǞƁɀǎȮƱȾ ɀȮƴȼȮů ǃžȾ ƾſɀǍȮȼŮ ǀƸſǞƁ ȼ ɀȮƴƉȮ ȼ žȽ ȿ ɀǎȮƱȾ ɀȮƴȼȮů ǀȼȮƴȮƉ ǠȮƱƇȼ ǧ ȼ ǍƁǍɀȮƲȼȮů ȝȚǞȼȮƶȼȮŻ / ȜƾƶȼȮŻ ȝƾȮƁ ȿ ƦǍȮŲȽ / ǀȼȮƁƦǍȮŲȽ

Grammar and Remarks Comparative and Superlative: The comparatives and the superlatives such as “taller, tallest,” are predictable in Iraqi Arabic. They are usually derived from adjectives of associated meanings. They are invariable in form with no gender or number. The difference between the comparative and the superlative adjectives is in the structuring of the sentence. (Audio)

Media: Radio, Television, and Journalism | 

Adjectives kabiir big saghiir small biiid far tiwiil tall, long qasiir short tayyib tasty jidiid new qadiim old sarii fast batii¢ slow kathiir much qaliil little rikhiis cheap ghaali expensive

Comparatives/Superlatives ǍƸƃȼȮż akbar bigger, biggest ǍƸưǧ as ghar small, smallest ȼ NjƸȮƯȾȮŮ abad farther, farthest ǚƁǞŶȾ atwal taller, tallest, longer, longest ǍƸƫȼȮŻ aqsar shorter, shortest ƿƸƦ ȼȮŶ atyab tastier, tastiest NjƁNjȾȮű ajdad newer, newest ƗNjȼȮŻ aqdam older, oldest ǕƁǍŴ asra faster, fastest ȼ ȔǠƭȼŮ abta¢ slower, slowest ǍƸƅȼȮż akthar more, most ǚƸƴȼȮŻ aqall less, least ǑƸųȾȤ arkhas cheaper, cheapest ǠŽƾŹ aghla more expensive, most expensive

Ǎƃȼ ɀȮżȖ ǍưǧȖ ɀ NjȮƯȼ ɀ ŮȖ ȲǞȼ ɀȮŶȖ Ǎƫ ȼ ɀȮŻȖ ƿƸȼ ɀȮŶȖ ȢNjȼ ȮűȖ ɀ ȳNjȼ ɀȮŻȖ ȬȼǍŴȖ ɀ ȔǟȼȮƭɀŮȖ ǍȼȮƅɀȮżȖ ǚȼȮŻȖ ǑųɀȤȖ ǟƴɀȮŹȖ

1. Comparative: (Audio) sayyaarti arkhas barnaamij atwal Baabil aqdam

My car is cheaper. a longer program Babylon is older.

ǑȼȮųɀȤȖ ǠůȤƾƸȮ ȼ ȿ Ŵ ȲǞȼ ɀȮŶȖ ǃžȾ ƾȮſɀǍȮȼŮ ȳNjȼ ɀȮŻȖ ǚŮƾŮ

When two objects are compared, the preposition “min ǜȮžȾ ” is used, which is the equivalent of “than” in English in such constructions. Laylaa akbar min Basma beetna asghar min beetkum Baabil aqdam min Baghdaad

Laylaa is older than Basma Our house is smaller than your house. Babylon is older than Baghdad.

ǀƵƉŮ ǜžȾ ǍȼȮƃɀȮżȖ ǟƴƸŽ ǛƳƄƸŮ ǜžȾ ǍȼȮưǧȖ ɀ ƾƶȮƄƸŮ ȢȚNjưŮ ǜžȾ ȳNjȼ ɀȮŻȖ ǚŮƾŮ

2. Superlative: The superlative is usually constructed either with the comparative taking the definite article “il- ɀȮŽȘ, the,” or with the following noun as a definite plural, or with a pronoun suffix attached to the comparative, depending on the context. (Audio) Laylaa il-atwal Laylaa atwal il-banaat Laylaa atwalhum Baabil il-aqdam Baabil aqdam il-mudun Baabil agdamhum

Laylaa is the tallest. Laylaa is the tallest girl. Laylaa is the tallest. Babylon is the oldest. Babylon is the oldest city. Babylon is the oldest.

ȲǞȼ ɀȮŶLjȚ ǟƴƸŽ ȝƾƶȮƃȼ ɀȮŽȚ ȲǞȼ ɀȮŶȖ ǟƴƸŽ ǛƷȽ ɀȮŽǞȼ ɀȮŶȖ ǟƴƸŽ ȳNjȼ ȮɀȮŻLjȚ ǚŮƾŮ ȴNjȽ ȮƵȽ ɀȮŽȚ ȳNjȼ ȮɀȮŻȖ ǚŮƾŮ ǛƷȽ žɀ Njȼ ȮɀȮŻȖ ǚŮƾŮ

 | l e s s o n  

There are certain adjectives such as “mit¢assif ǗŴƺ Ʀ ɀȮƄžȾ (to be sorry), farhaan ȴƾŲɀǍȼȮź (happy), and juuaan ȴƾŸǞű (hungry),” that do not have associated comparative forms. In such cases the regular adjective is used with the comparative words “akthar ǍȼȮƅɀȮżȖ (more),” or “aqal ǚȼȮŻȖ (less)” as required. (Audio) aani mit¢assif akthar minnak hiyya farhaana akthar minhum intu juaaniin aqal min Basma

The Colors: alwaan

I am more sorry than you. She is happier than they. You are less hungry than Basma.

ǙdžȮƶžȾ ǍȼȮƅɀȮżȖ ǗŴƺ Ʀ ɀȮƄžȾ Ǡſȕ ǛƷɀȮƶžȾ ǍƅɀȮżȖ ǀſƾŲɀǍȼȮź Ǡƀ ǜžȾ ǚȼȮŻȖ ƞſƾŸǞű ǞƄſȘ ǀƵƉŮ


The color adjectives have three predictable forms: masculine, feminine, and plural. They must agree with the nouns in gender and number. (Audio)

Masculine abyad aswad ahmar akhdar asfar azrag asmar ashgar


ǒȮƸȼ ɀ ŮȖ ȢǞȼ ŴȖ ɀ ǍƵȼ ŲȖ ɀ ǍƬ ȼ ɀȮųȖ ǍȼȮƱǧȖ ɀ ɆȼȤɀȥȖ ǍȮƵȼ ŴȖ ɀ ǍǦɀȮŵȖ

beeda sooda hamra khadra safra zarga samra shagra


ǀƬƸŮ ȜȢǞŴ ȜȼǍȮƵɀ Ųȼ ȜȼǍƬ ɀ ųȼ ȜȼǍɀȮƱǧ ȼ ǀǬɀȤȼȥ ȜȼǍȮƵɀ Ŵ ȼ ȜȼǍɀȮǦȼȮŵ

biid sood humur khudur sufur zurug sumur shugur



white black red green yellow blue brown blond

Exceptional Colors: They have two genders, masculine and feminine only, with no plural. (Audio) ȸȢƾžȽȤ rumaadiyya ǀȮƁȿ ȾȢƾžȽȤ —— —— gray rumaadi ǠŽƾƲȮů ǀȮƸŽƾƲ —— orange burtuqaali ȿ Ȯů Ƚ ɀǍȽŮ burtuqaaliyya Ƚ ɀǍȽŮ —— ǠƆƉ ȮƱ Ȯƶ Ů banafsajiyya ǀ Ƹ Ȯ Ɔ Ɖ ȮƱ Ȯƶ Ů —— —— purple banafsaji ȼ ɀ ȼ ȼ ȿȾ ȼ ɀ ȼ ȼ ǠƦȮƶȮȽŮ bunniyya ǀdžȮƸƦȮƶȮȽŮ —— —— brown bunni binit shagra il-binit ish-shagra il-banat ish-shugur sayyaara hamra is-sayyaara il-hamra is-yayyaaraat il-hamra loon aswad alwaan sooda

a blond girl the blond girl the blond girls a red car the red car the red cars black color black colors



Media: Radio, Television, and Journalism | 

Idioms and Common Phrases (Audio) 1. 9ala jayya

ǀȮƸȮ dž űȼ ǟƴŸ On the way, coming, arriving soon (invariable)

Q: ween Samiir? A: huwwa bil-idhaaa, bass ala jayya il-muraasil ala jayya mnil-maktab huwwa muu hnaa, bass ala jayya ihna ala jayya mnil-mataar

2. maaku chaara

Where is Samir? He is in the radio station, but arriving soon. The reporter is coming from the office. His is not here, but arriving soon. We are coming from the airport.

ȒǍƸƵŴ ǜƁȶ ǀȮƸȮ dž űȼ ǟƴŸ ǏȼŮ ȆǀŸȼ ȚȣȁƾŮ Ǟƀ

ǜȮžɀ ǀȮƸȮ Ⱦ ƵȽ ɀȮŽȘ dž űȼ ǟƴŸ ǚȮŴȚǍ ƿȼȮƄɀȮƳƵȼ ɀȮŽȚ ǀȮƸȮ dž űȼ ǟƴŸ ǏŮ ȆƾƶȮƀɀ Ǟž Ǟƀ ǜȮžɀ ǝȮƸȮ ɀ dž űȼ ǟƴŸ ƾƶȮŲȘ ȤƾƭƵȼ ɀȮŽȚ

ȜȼȤƾȮǩ ǞȮżƾž No cure, hopeless, no way out (invariable) Ƚ

maaku chaara, laazim asaafir lil-iraaq maaku chaara, huwwa kullish mariid maaku chaara il-marad is-sarataan huwwa muu khoosh rijjaal, maaku chaara

No way out, I must travel to Iraq. There is no hope, he is very sick. There is no cure for the disease of cancer. He is a bad man, hopelessly.

ǍȮźȾ ƾŴȖ ȳȾȥǽ ȆȜȼȤƾȮǩ Ǟżƾž ȰȚǍƯɀȮƴȮȾŽ ǒƁǍžȼ ǐȮƦȮƴȮż Ƚ Ǟƀ ȆȜȼȤƾȮǩ Ǟżƾž ȩȼǍȮžȼ Ȳɀ Ș ȆȜȼȤƾȮǩ Ǟżƾž ȴƾŶȼǍȮƉŽȚ dž ȜȼȤƾȮǩ Ǟżƾž ȆȲƾȮűȿ Ⱦ Ȥ ȧǞų Ǟž Ǟƀ

ɷʄ 1. Give appropriate replies orally to the following: ʏʞ ȒǀƵƉŮ ȝȼȤȚȥ ǞƶȮŵ Ƚ ȒǀŸȚȣȁƾŮ ǀƵűȼ ɀǍȼȮů ǛƉ Ⱦ ŻȾ ǞżȖ ɷʄ ȒȤƾƃųLjȚ ȴǞƯƁnjȮɀƁ ǀȼȮưȮŽ Ƚ ǛƳȮɀŮ ȒǀƴŴȚǍȮ Ⱦ žȽ ǞŽ ǀƸȮ ȼ ǀƵƉŮ ʏʞ ȿ ƱȾ Ƈȼ ǧ ȒȤƾƃɀȮųLjȚ ȴǞƯƁnjȮɀƁ ȳǞƸŽƾŮ ȜdžǍȮžȼ Ǜż ȒǀƁȤƾƃųLjȚ ȝȚǍƪdžȮƶŽȚ ȴǞƯƁnjȮɀƁ ǁŻȾ ȼȶ ȸƺɀŮ ɷʄ ȒǀƸſǞƁɀǎȮƱȾ ɀȮƴdžȮƄŽȚ ǃžȾ ȚǍƃŽȚ ȬǞſ ǞƶȮŵ Ƚ ʏʞ ȒǀƉȮ Ŵ ǀƵƉŮ ȼ Ⱦ ſȕ ǞŽ ȜNjȮƸȮ ȼ Ʀ ȒǀŸȚȣȁȚ ȳƾƉŻȖ ǀƵƉŮ ȯǞdž ȼȮŵ ǞƶȮžȾ ɷʄ ȒǀŸȚȣȁȚ ǛŴȘ Ⱦ ǞƶȮŵ Ƚ ʏʞ 2. Fill in the blank with the appropriate form of comparative/superlative adjective: ɷʄ ʏʞ (ǑƸųȾȤ) ȝȶǍƸŮ ǜžȾ ȴƾȮƵ Ÿ ȶ ȴƾ ȮƵ Ÿ ǜ ž ȢȚNjưŮ ȼ ȼ Ⱦ ȿ ȿ ɷʄ ʏʞ Drill



shunu zaarat Basma? aku qisim tarjama bil-idhaaa? b-kam lugha ydhiiuun il-akhbaar? Basma sahafiyya loo muraasila? kam marra bil-yoom ydhiiuun il-akhbaar? b-ayy waqit ydhiiuun in-nashraat il-akhbaariyya? shunu noo il-baraamij it-talfizyooniyya? Basma sayyida loo aanisa? minu shawwaf Basma aqsaam il-idhaaa? shunu isim il-idhaaa?


min ammaan, w ammaan

min Beirut (rikhiis)

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ


 | l e s s o n  


il-mudun (ghaali)

(ǠŽƾŹ) ȴNjȽ ȮȽƓȚ aani

min ukhti, w ukhti

minni (kabiir, saghiir)


(ǍƸưǧ ȆǍƸƃż) ǠȮƶȮ ȿ žȾ hissa is-sayyaarat

ȝȚȤƾƸƉŽȚ dž ǝƉȮ dž ƀȾ

shahar bis-sana (qasiir)

(ǍƸƫŻ) ǀƶƉŽƾŮ ǍƷȼ ȼȮŵ dž shahar Yoolyoo

ǍȾȮƁȚǍȮƃɀ źȼ ǍƷȼ ȼȮŵ

shahar ib-Baghdaad (haar)

(ȤƾŲ) ȢȚNjưŮ țɀ ǍƷȼ ȼȮŵ shahar Diisambar

Lubnaan min


shahar biliraq (baarid)


ǍȼȮƃƵɀ ȮƉƁȢ ȼ ǍƷȼ ȼȮŵ

il-buldaan bish-Sharq il-Awsat. (hilu)

(ǞƴȮŲ) Ⱦ ǓŴ ȼ ɀȶLjȚ ȰɀǍdžȮƪŽƾŮ ȴȚNjɀȮƴȮƃŽȚ Ƚ it-tayyaara

ǜžȾ ȴƾƶƃȮŽ Ƚ

mnil-qitaar (sarii)

(ǕƁǍȮŴ) ȼ ȤƾƭƲȾ ŽȚ ǜžɀ in-nakhal (palms)

ȜȤƾȮƸ ȿ džȮƭŽȘ

il-ashjaar bil-iraaq (kathiir)

(ǍƸƅż) ȰȚǍƯŽƾŮ ȤƾƆɀȮŵLjȚ minu


min gabul (ghaali)

(ǠŽƾŹ) ǚƃȽ ȼȮǬ ǜžȾ shahar fabraayir



Baabil loo Naynawa? (qadiim)

(ƗNjŻ) ȒȷǞȼȮƶƸɀ ȼȮſ ǞŽ ǚŮƾŮ



Media: Radio, Television, and Journalism | 

ɷʄ ʞʏ (ǚƸƵű) ȒȜǍƸƵŴ ǞŽ ǀƵƉŮ ȆǟƴƸŽ ǞƶȮ ž Ⱦ ȼ ʄɷ ʏʞ (ǍƸƅż) ǶȮƦȮƶžȾ ǀƱȮŴƺ dž ɀȮƄžȾ Ǡƀ ǏȼŮ ȆǗȮŴƺ Ʀ ɀȮƄžȾ ǁſȘ ɷʄ ʞʏ ȿ Ț (ǍƸƷȼȮŵ) ƾƳƁǍžȚ țɀ ȝƾƯžȾ ƾȮƐ ǜž ȸȖ Ȳɀ Ș ǠŴ ǞƁ ǀƯȼ ȮžȾ ƾű ʄɷ 3. Match the words in column one with their appropriate sentences in column two and ʏʞ translate them. Place the correct number from the list on the left on the correct space in the list on the right. ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ minu

Laylaa, Basma loo Samiira? (jamiil)

inti mit¢assfa hwaaya, bass hiyya mit¢assfa

jaamiat UCLA min

minnich (kathiir)

ij-jaamiaat b-Amrica (shahiir)

. alwaan

il-akhbaar arba marraat bil-yoom

. il-iraaq

tlaathiin yoom

. is-sahafi

atwal nahar bil-aalam

. il-mudhii

asra il-qitaar, is-sayyara loo it-tayaara?

. il-mahatta it-talfizyooniyya

tihchi Fransi kullish zeen

. it-tabiib

yiji baad shwayya

. il-mariid

il-mariid rah-ymuut

. ydhiiuun

ala jayya mnil-idhaaa

. afya aleek

il-alam il-Amriiki, ahmar, w abyad, w aswad, w azrag

. ish-shahar

min aqdam il-buldaan bil-aalam

. nahar il-Amazoon

huwwa muraasil yiktib bil-suhuf wil-majallaat

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ


 | l e s s o n  

. yaahu

huwwa rijjaal yushtughul bil-idhaaa

. balki

tdhii baraamij siyaasiyya w thaqaafiyya

. il-mudiir

yaalij il-mardaa

. maaku chaara

inda wija ib-jisma

ȳǞƸŽƾŮ ȝȚǍȮ ȿ žȼ ǕŮȤȖ ȤƾƃųLjȚ

ȴȚǞɀȮŽȖ .

ȳǞƁ ƞŰǾɀȮů

ƿƸƃdžȮƭŽȘ .


ǠƱƇȼ ƫŽȘ dž .


ǕƁnjƵɀȮŽȘ .

ǜƁȥ ǐƦȮƴȮż ɀ Ⱦů Ƚ ǠƉɀȮſȼǍȼȮź ǠǰƇȮ

ǀƸſǞƁɀǎȮƱȾ ɀȮƴdžȮƄŽȚ ǀdžȮƭƇȼ ȼȮƓȘ .

ǀȮƁ ȿ Ǟȼ ɀȮŵ NjȮƯȼ ȮȼŮ ǠƆȾȮƁ



ǒƁǍƵȼ ɀȮŽȘ .

ǀȮƸȮ dž űȼ ǟƴŸ

ȴǞƯƁnjȮɀƁ .


ǙƸƴŸ ǀƸȼ ɀȮƱȮŸȼ .


ǍƷȼ džȮƪŽȘ .


ȴȶǎžȼ LjȚ ǍƷȼ ȼȮſ .

ǀŸȚȣȁƾŮ ǚȮư Ƚ ȮƄ Ƚ ɀȮƪȮȽƁ ȲƾȮűȿ Ⱦ Ȥ Ǟƀ

ǞƀƾƁ .

ǀȮƸȮźƾƲ Ŵ Ⱦ ǃžȾ ȚǍȼŮ ǕƁnjɀȮů ȿ ȿ ȼȮŰȶ ǀƸȮŴƾƸȮ

ǠƳɀȮƴȮȼŮ .



ǝƵȼ ȮƉ ɀ ȾȮű țɀ ǕȮűȼ Ⱦȶ ȵNjȼ ɀȮƶȮŸȾ

ȜȤƾǩ Ǟżƾž .


Media: Radio, Television, and Journalism | 

4. Complete and read the following aloud:

ɷʄ ʞʏ ȴǞƁɀǎȮƱȾ ɀȮƴdžȮƄŽȚ ǀdžȮƭƇȮ ȼ žȼ ǜžȾ ǀȮƸȮ dž űȼ ǟƴŸ ǠžƾŴ ʄɷ ʏʞ ȴǞƁɀǎȮƱȾ ɀȮƴdžȮƄŽȚ ǀdžȮƭƇȮ ȜǍƸƵŴ ȼ žȼ ǜžȾ ɷʄ ʞʏ ȴǞƁɀǎȮƱȾ ɀȮƴdžȮƄŽȚ ǀdžȮƭƇȮ ǝdžȮƵƀȽ ȼ žȼ ǜžȾ ʄɷ ȴǞƁɀǎȮƱȾ ɀȮƴdžȮƄŽȚ ǀdžȮƭƇȮ ƾȮƶŲȘ ɀ ʏʞ ȼ žȼ ǜžȾ ȴǞƁɀǎȮƱȾ ɀȮƴdžȮƄŽȚ ǀdžȮƭƇȮ ǞƄſȘ ȼ žȼ ǜžȾ ɷʄ ȴǞƁɀǎȮƱȾ ɀȮƴdžȮƄŽȚ ǀdžȮƭƇȮ ǁſȘ ʞʏ ȼ žȼ ǜžȾ ȴǞƁɀǎȮƱȾ ɀȮƴdžȮƄŽȚ ǀdžȮƭƇȮ ǠƄſȘ ʄɷ ȼ žȼ ǜžȾ ȴǞƁɀǎȮƱȾ ɀȮƴdžȮƄŽȚ ǀdžȮƭƇȮ Ǡſȕ ʏʞ ȼ žȼ ǜžȾ ǁƸƃŽƾŮ ǒƁǍžȼ ǐƦȮƴȮż Ƚ Ǟƀ Ȇ ȜȤƾǩ Ǟżƾž ɷʄ ǁƸƃŽƾŮ ǀƬƁǍžȼ ǐƦȮƴȮż Ƚ Ǡƀ Ȇ ʏʞ ǁƸƃŽƾŮ ǟǤɀǍžȼ ǐƦȮƴȮż Ƚ ǝdžȮƵƀȽ Ȇ ɷʄ ǁƸƃŽƾŮ ǒƁǍžȼ ǐƦȮƴȮż Ƚ ǁſȘ Ȇ ʏʞ ǁƸƃŽƾŮ ǀƬƁǍžȼ ǐƦȮƴȮż Ƚ ǠƄſȘ Ȇ ɷʄ ǁƸƃŽƾŮ ǟǤǍžȼ ǐƦȮƴȮż ʏʞ Ƚ ǞƄſȘ Ȇ ǁƸƃŽƾŮ ǒƁǍžȼ ǐƦȮƴȮż ɷʄ Ƚ Ǡſȕ Ȇ ʏʞ ǁƸƃŽƾŮ ǀƬƁǍžȼ ǐƦȮƴȮż Ƚ Ǡſȕ Ȇ ɷʄ ǁƸƃŽƾŮ ǟǤǍžȼ ǐƦȮƴȮż Ƚ ƾƶŲȘ Ȇ ʏʞ ǁƸƃŽƾŮ ȝƾƬƁǍžȼ ǐƦȮƴȮż Ƚ ƾƶŲȘ Ȇ ɷʄ ʏʞ

a. Saami ala jayya min mahattat it-talfizyoon Samiira

min mahattat it-talfizyoon


min mahattat it-talfizyoon


min mahattat it-talfizyoon


min mahattat it-talfizyoon


min mahattat it-talfizyoon


min mahattat it-talfizyoon


min mahattat it-talfizyoon

b. maaku chaara, huwwa kullish mariid bil-beet , hiyya kullish mariida bil-beet , humma kullish mardaa bil-beet , inta kullish mariida bil-beet , inti kullish mariida bil-beet , intu kullish mardaa bil-beet , aani kullish mariid bil-beet , aani kullish mariida bil-beet , ihna kullish mardaa bil-beet , ihna kullish mariidaat bil-beet


 | l e s s o n  


ɷʄ ǀȮƸȮ dž ɀ Ɓ ȳȥǽ Ǟƀ ȆȜȤƾǩ Ǟżƾž dž ȾƴȮƵȼ Ÿȼ ȸǞȿ ƉȮ ʞʏ Ǡƀ ȆȜȤƾǩ Ǟżƾž ʄɷ ǝdžȮƵƀȽ ȆȜȤƾǩ Ǟżƾž ʏʞ ǁſȘ ȆȜȤƾǩ Ǟżƾž ɷʄ ǠƄſȘ ȆȜȤƾǩ Ǟżƾž ʞʏ ǞƄſȘ ȆȜȤƾǩ Ǟżƾž ʄɷ Ǡſȕ ȆȜȤƾǩ Ǟżƾž ʏʞ ƾƶŲȘ ȆȜȤƾǩ Ǟżƾž ɷʄ ʞʏ 5. Translate the following into Arabic or English as required: ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ c. maaku chaara, huwwa laazim ysawwi amaliyya maaku chaara, hiyya

maaku chaara, humma maaku chaara, inta maaku chaara, inti

maaku chaara, intu

maaku chaara, aani

maaku chaara, ihna

Mr. Najim is the editor-in-chief of the Lebanese il-Nahar newspaper.

There are many newspapers and magazines in present-day Iraq.

There are more newspapers in present-day Iraq than before.

Radio stations broadcast interviews/discussions with government officials.

Iraqis like international political and cultural news very much.

The colors of the Iraqi flag are white, green, red, and black.

Which country is the oldest: Greece, Egypt, or Iraq?


Media: Radio, Television, and Journalism | 

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ȜȤǞƷɀȮƪžȼ ǀƸŻȚǍŸ ȜNjƁǍűȼ ǚƃȼ ɀȮƲȼȮƄȮƉ ɀ Ƚ ƓȘ ɷʄ ʞʏ ȝǞƵɀȮů ȠȼȤȶ ǀƬƁǍž ǐƦȮƴȮż Ƚ ȜȼǍȼƓȘ ȆȜȤƾǩ Ǟż ƾž ʄɷ ʏʞ ǝƸȮ dž űȼ ǟƴŸ ǠžǞƳȽƑȚ ǗdžȮŷǞȼ Ƚ ƓȚ ȆȠȶǍɀȮƄȼȮŽ ɷʄ ʏʞ ǠƦȮƶžȾ ǍƅɀȮżȖ ǍƱǧLjȚ Ⱦ Ǡſȕ ɷʄ ɀ ȴǞƴɀȮŽȚ ƿȮƇȾ ɀȮů ǟƴƸŽȶ ȆǙdžȮƶžȾ ǍƅɀȮżȖǍƬųLjȚ ȴǞƴɀȮŽȚ ƿŲȖ ʏʞ ȒȳǞƸɀȮŽȚ ȰȚǍƯŽƾŮ ǀȼȮƴƆȼ žȼ ȶ ȜNjƁǍȮűȼ ǜž ǍƅɀȮżȖ ǞżȖ ǐƸŽ ɷʄ ʏʞ ȒǛŽƾƯɀȮŽƾŮ ǍȮƷȼ ȼȮſ ȲǞȼ ɀȮŶȖ ǜƁȶ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ȒǀƶȮƉŽƾŮ ȼ ɀȮŻȖ ǞƀƾƁ dž ǍƷȼ ȼȮŵ Ǎƫ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ

At what times is the news broadcast in Baghdad?

Nowadays there are many foreign reporters in Iraq.

The year  was a good year but the year  was not a good year.

“Al-Ahram” is a well-known Egyptian newspaper.

il-Mustaqbal jariida raaqiyya mashhurra

maaku chaara, il-mara kullish mariida w rah tmuut

la-truuh, il-muwazzaf il-hukuumi ala jayya

aani ahibb il-loon il-akhdar akthar minnak, w Laylaa thibb il-loon il-asfar more than me

leesh aku akthar min  jariida w majalla bil-raq il-yoom?


ween atwal nahar bil-aalam?

yaahu aqsar shahar bis-sana?


 | l e s s o n  

ɷʄ ȩȚǍžɀ LjȚ ǍȼȮƭɀȮųȖ Ǟƀ ȴƾŶȼǍȮƉŽȚ dž ȩȼǍžȼ Ȳɀ Ș ȜȤƾȮǩ Ǟżƾž ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ Ȕȹ ƾƉž ǀdžȮȮƄȮŴ Ⱦ ǀŸƾƉŽȚȶ ȼ ǀƸȼ ɀȮſƾƵɀȮŰ ǀŸƾƉŽȚ ȿ ȹ ƾŲƾƃǧ ȿ ǀƸƓƾƯŽȚ ȤƾƃųLjȚ ȴǞƯƁnjȮɀƁ ɷʄ ʞʏ ȳǞƸɀȮŽȚ ȰȚǍƯŽƾŮ ǀźƾƇǧ ȼ ǀdžȮȮƁƦǍȮŲȽ ǞżȖ ʄɷ ʏʞ ǀdžȮƭƇȮƓȚ ȳƾƉŻȚ ǍȮƸƶȮžȽ NjƸȮƉŽȚ dž ȯǞƦ ȼȮƪȮɀƁ ȼȢ ǀŸȚȣȁȚ ǍƁNjžȽ ȼ ɷʄ ʞʏ ǀdžȮƁȢǞƯȮƉŽȚ LJ NjȾȮƁȚǍȮdžƐȚ ǍƷȼ ɀȮŵȖ ǜȮžȾ ǓŴ ȼ ɀȶLjȚ ȰɀǍdžȮƪŽȘ ʄɷ ʏʞ ǠŮǍƯŽȚ ǛŽƾƯŽƾŮ ǀƁǍƫž ǀŸȚȣȘ ǍȮƷȼ ɀȮŵȖ țǍƯŽȚ ȝǞɀ ǧ ȼ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ 6. Answer the following in Arabic: ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ Creative Dialogues ʏʞ muraasil ajnabi ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ maaku chaara il-marad is-sarataan. huwwa akhtar il-amraad


ydhiiuun il-akhbaar il-aalamiyya is-saaa thmaanya sabahan wis-saaa sitta masaa¢an

aku hurriyyat sahaafa bil-iraaq il-yoom.

mudiir il-idhaaa da-yshawwif is-sayyid Muniir aqsaam il-mahatta

ish-Sharq il-Awsat min ashhar il-jaraayid is-Suuudiyya

Sawt il-arab ashhar idhaaa Masriyya bil-aalam il-arabi

a. List names of some of the well-known Iraqi newspapers, radio, and TV channels. b. List names of some of the well-known newspapers and magazines which are published in some of the Arab countries. c. List names of some of the well-known international newspapers and magazines. d. List names of some of the well-known American newspapers, magazines, and TV channels.

Joon Dalas muraasil ajnabi min majallat il-Taaymz il-Amriikiyya. huwwa b-Baghdaad yhibb yiktib taqriir sahafi an il-hadaara il-iraaqiyya il-qadiima. huwwa yriid ysawwi muqaabla wiyya muwazzaf ib-wizaarat il-Ilaam ib-Baghdaad. hassal muqaabla maa sayyid Jamaal mas¢uul qisim il-ajaanib bil-wizaara. il-muqaabala rah tkuun yoom il-arbaaa is-saaa tisa sabahan. il-muraasil Joon wil-muwazzaf Jamaal tqablaw ib-maktab Jamaal. awwal


Media: Radio, Television, and Journalism | 

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ǠƃȼȮƶȮűȖ Ⱦ žȽ ɀ ǚȮŴȚǍȮ ƿȮƄȾ ɀȮƳȾȮƁ ƿȿ ƇȮ ǀȮƴ Ⱦ ɀ Ɓ ȢȚNjưŮ țɀ Ǟƀ ǀƸƳƁǍžLjȚ ǎƵȮɀƁƾȮƄŽȚ Ⱦ žȽ ȦǽȚȢ ȴǞű ɷʄ ɀ ǚŴȚǍ ȼ žȼ ǜžȾ ǠƃƶȮűȖ ȿ ȿ ƆȮ ȜȤȚȥȾȶ țɀ ǗȼȮŷǞȼ žȽ ǝȮdžƁȾȶ ǀƴȮȼŮƾƲžȽ ȸǞƦ ȮƉ ȼ ǍƁǍɀȮƲȼȮů ȼ ɀȮƁ NjƁǍɀȮƁ Ǟƀ ǀƚNjƲŽȚ ǀƸŻȚǍƯŽȚ ȜȤƾƬƑȚ ǜŸȼ ǠƱƇȼ ǧ ʞʏ ǀƴŮƾƲȽƓȚ ȜȼȤȚȥǞȾ ɀȮŽƾŮ ƿȮȾſƾűLjȚ ǛƉ Ⱦ ŻȾ ȲȶƻƉ dž Ųȼ ȢȚNjưŮ țɀ ȳǾŸɀ LjȚ ɀ žȼ ȲƾƵűȼ NjƸȮ ȼ Ǖȼ žȼ ǀƴȮȼŮƾƲžȽ ǚƫ Ʀ Ŵ țɀ Ǟɀ ȼȮƴȮɀŮƾƲɀȮů ȲƾƵűȼ ǗdžȮŷǞȼ Ƚ ƓȚȶ ȴǞű ǚŴȚǍ Ⱦ Ƚ ƓȚ ȹ ƾŲƾƃǧ ȼ ǀȮƯȮƉ ɀ Ⱦ ů ǀŸƾȮƉŽȚ ȿ ȔƾƯŮȤǽȚ ȳǞƁ ȴǞƳɀȮů ȠȼȤ ʄɷ ƿȼȮƴȮŶȾ ȴǞű ȜǞȼ Ʒɀ ȼȮǬ ǞŽ ȸƾǩ țȼǍɀȮƪȾȮƁ ƿƇȮ Ⱦ ɀ Ɓ ȴƾż ȚȣȘ ȴǞű ȲȼƺȮŴ Ⱦ ȲƾƵű Ǡŵ Ⱦ ȲdžȶȖ ȲƾƵű ƿȮƄɀȮȮƳžȼ ȼ ȴƾż ǗdžȮŷǞȼ Ƚ ƓȘ ƗNjƲɀȮŽȚ ȰȚǍƯŽȚ ȴǞƶȮźȶ ɀ ȲƾƵű ȲƺȮƉ ɀ ȾȮƁ ȚNjȼ ȾȮŮȶ ȜȢƾŴ ȸƾǩ ʏʞ Ƚ ȤƾŰȕ ǜŸȼ ǝƁȚǞƀɀ ǀƴȮƂȾ ȮŴȖ ȹ ȚNjȾȮű ȤȶǍƉ Ⱦ ɀ ƛȽ ȜNjȮŸȼ ƾƉžȽ ǍȼȮƅɀȮżȖ ȴǞű Ȳɀ ȳNjdž ȼȮŻȶ ȦƾȮƶŽȚ ɀ žȼ ȴƾż ȴǞű ǀȼȮƶȮƳȮ ȿ ǗȼȮƭɀȮŽȖ ǜȮžȾ ȲƾȮűȿ Ⱦ Ȥ Ǟƀ ȰȚǍƯŽȚ ǜƁNjȮƯɀ ȮȼŮ ȯȼǍȮŸȾ ȴǞű ȝƾžǞƴƯȮȼƓȚ ǜƉ ŲȖ ǟƴŸ ǝ Ɓ ȚǞȮ ƀ ȲƾƵű Ǎ Ⱦ ǀȼȮƴȼȮŮƾƲƵȽ ɀȮŽȚ ǜȮžɀ ɷʄ ȼ ɀ ȼ ɀ ȼȮƳŵȶ ǛŽƾƯɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ȴȚNjɀȮƴƃȽ ɀȮŽȚ ȳNjȼ ɀȮŻȖ ǜžȾ ʞʏ 7. Answer the following questions based on the previous passage: ȒȦǽȚȢ ȴǞű ǞƶȮžȾ ʄɷ ȒȢȚNjưŮ Ȳɀ ȠȚȤ ȴǞű ǐƸŽ ɀ ȾȽƁ ǀƴȮƆȼ žȼ ȸƺȮɀŮ ʏʞ ȒȴǞű ǚȮư Ƚ ȮƄ Ƚ ƪȮ ȒȴǞű ǚŴȚǍȮ Ⱦ Ƚ ƓȚ ǚȼȮŮƾŻ ǞƶȮžȾ ɷʄ ȒǀžǞƳƑȚ ǗdžȮŷǞȼ žȽ ǚȮư Ƚ ȮƄ Ƚ ɀȮƪȮȾȽƁ ǜƁȶ ȒǀƴŮƾƲƓȚ ǁſƾǩ ǁȮżȾ Ǟȼ ɀȮŵ ȒȲƾƵű ǀƴȼȮŮƾƲžȽ Ȳ ȴǞű ȠȚȤ ǜƁȶ ʏʞ ȒȴǞű Ȳɀ ȲƾƵű ȳNjdž ȼȮŻ ǞƶȮŵ Ƚ ɷʄ ȒȴǞű ǀȼȮƴȮƂȾ ȮŴȖ ɀ ǁſƾǩ ǞƶȮȮŵ Ƚ ǜŸȼ ȒȴǞű NjȮŸȼ ƾŴ ȳȼ ǞŽ NjŸȼ ƾŴ ȲƾƵű ʏʞ ȒȴǞű NjŸȼ ƾŴ ȲƾƵű ȴǞƴɀȮŵ ȒǀƴȮȼŮƾƲȽƓȚ NjȮƯȼ ȮȼŮ ȴǞű ȵǞdž ȮƉ ȼ ɀȮŵ ɷʄ Ƚ ȒǝȼƁȚǞȮƀɀ ǐƦȮƴȮż ȤȶǍ Ɖ ž ȴƾǩ ǚ ŴȚǍ Ɠ Ț ǐƸŽ Ⱦ ɀ ȼ Ƚ ȒȴǞű NjȼȮƴȮȼŮ ȸȖ ǜȮžȾ ʏʞ ȒȦƾȮƶŽȚ ȿ ǗȼȮƭɀȮŽȖ ǜȮžȾ ȴƾǩ ǞƶȮžȾ ɷʄ ʞ shii Jamaal si¢al Joon idhaa kaan yhibb yishrab chaay loo gahwa. Joon tilab chaay saada w bida yis¢al Jamaal as¢ila hwaaya an aathaar w funuun il-iraaq il-qadiim. il-muqazzaf kaan rijjaal min altaf in-naas w qaddam l-Joon akthar musaaada mumkina. Joon kaan masruur jiddan mnil-muqaabala w shikar Jamaal hwaaya ala ahsan il-maluumaat. Joon iraf badeen il-iraaq huwwa min aqdam il-buldaan bil-aalam.












minu Joon Dalas? leesh Joon raah il-Baghdaad? b-ayy majalla yushtughul Joon? minu qaabal il-muraasil Joon? ween yushtughul muwazzaf il-hukuuma? shwakit chaanat il-muqaabala? ween raah Joon l-muqaabalat Jamaal? shunu qaddam Jamaal l-Joon? an shunu chaanat as¢ilat Joon? Jamaal saaad loo ma-saaad Joon? shloon Jamaal saaad Joon? sh-sawwa Joon baad il-muqaabala? leesh il-muraasil chaan masruur kullish hwaaya? min ayy balad Joon? minu chaan min altaf in-naas?

Mausoleum of Sitt Zumurrud Khatun ( A.D.), Abbasid Dynasty, Baghdad

ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ lesson ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ǐȮƯȼ ȼȮŶƾƉɀȮů ȦȾȤȼȢ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ Telephone Conversations ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ mukhaabaraat ȝȚǍȼȮŮƾƈȮžȽ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ



Dialing telephone numbers in Iraq or in any other Arab country is similar to dialing in the western countries; numbers are read from left to right. Basma is making a telephone call to the home of a relative in Baghdad, and Kariim, her cousin, answers the phone.

Basic Dialogue (Audio) . Kariim: aloo, aloo. minu yitkallam? Hello, hello. Who is speaking? . Basma: masaa¢ il-kheer . . . aloo . . . Good afternoon . . . hello . . . . Kariim: ma-da-asma zeen. il-khatt mshawwash. I can’t hear you well. There is static on the line. . Basma: hissa, tismani ahsan? Now, do you hear me better? . Kariim: hwaaya ahsan. minu hadirtich? Much better. Who are you? . Basma: aani Basma min Los Angeles. I am Basma from Los Angeles.


ǞŽȖ . . . ǍƸƒȚ ȔƾƉž :ǀƵƉŮ

.ȧǞdž ȼȮƪȮžɀ

ǓȼȮƒȘ .ǜƁȥ ǕƵȼ ŴȖ ɀ ȼȢ ȳȼ :ƗǍż

ȒǜȮƉ ɀ Ⱦ ů ȆǝƉȮ ȼ ŲȖ dž ƀȾ :ǀƵƉŮ ɀ ǠƶƯɀ ȮƵȼ Ɖ ȒǶȮȾůɀǍƬ Ⱦ Ųȼ ǞƶȮžȾ .ǜƉ ȼ ŲȖ ɀ ǝȮȼƁȚǞƀɀ :ƗǍż .ȦǞƴƍȚ

ȦǞŽ ǜžȾ ǀƵƉŮ Ǡſȕ :ǀƵƉŮ

 | l e s s o n  

. Kariim: Basma! ahlan w sahlan. il-hamdilla as-salaama. Basma! Welcome. Praise be to God for your safe arrival. . Basma: shukran jaziilan. shloonkum? inshaalla zeeniin? Thank you very much. How are you? Well, God willing? . Kariim: ihna zeeniin il-hamdu lillaah. aash min sima sootich. We are well, thank God. Nice to hear your voice. . Basma: aani wsalit gabul yoomeen. haawalit akhaaburkum il-baarha, bass il-khatt chaan mashghuul. I arrived two days ago. I tried to call you yesterday but the line was busy. . Kariim: adri. binti Laylaa tih chi hwaaya at-talifoon. I know. My daughter Laylaa is always talking on the telephone. . Basma: aani mushtaaqatilkum w ahibb azuurkum. I miss you and would like to visit you. . Kariim: ihna mushtaaqiin akthar. inti ween naazla? We miss you more. Where are you staying? . Basma: aani naazla b-findiq ir-Rashiid, ghurfa raqam . I am staying at the Rashid Hotel, room number . . Kariim: shunu raqam talifoon il-findiq? What is the hotel telephone number? . Basma: raqam il-findiq: - The hotel number is -. . Kariim: aani hissa jaayy bis-sayyaara lil-findiq I am coming by car to the hotel right now.

Ȭȼ ʇNjȾ ȮƵɀ ȼƑȚ .ȹǾƷŴȶ ȹǾƀȖ !ǀƵƉŮ :ƗǍż .ǀžǾȮƉŽȚ dž ȒǛƳɀȮſǞƴɀȮŵ .ȹǾƁǎű ȹ ȚǍƳŵ :ǀƵƉŮ ȒǜȮƸƶȮƁȥ ʇƾƪɀȮſȘ ǜȮžȾ ȧƾŸ Ȇʇ NjȽ ƵƇȼ ɀȮŽȚ ǜȮƸƶȮƁȥ ƾƶŲȘ ɀ :ƗǍż ǶȮ Ⱦ Ƚ ǕƵȼ ȮŴ Ⱦ Ⱦ ůǞǧ .ƞžǞƁ

ǚȮƃȽ ȼȮż ǁȮȾƴǧ ȼ ɀȶ Ǡſȕ :ǀƵƉŮ ȴƾǩ ǓȼȮƒȚ ǏȼŮ ȆǀŲɀȤƾƃŽȚ ǛżȽ ɀǍȽŮƾųȖ ǁȾŽȼȶƾŲ ȲǞưɀȮƪžȼ Ȭȼ ǝȼƁȚǞȮƀɀ ǠǰƇȮ ɀ Ⱦ ů ǟƴƸŽ ǠƄɀȮƶȾȮŮ .ȸȤɀȢȖ :ƗǍż ȴǞƱȾȮƴdžȮƄȮŽȚ ƿȮŲȖȶ Ⱦ ǛȮƳ Ƚ ɀȮƴȮƄȾ ȼȮŻƾȮƄɀȮƪžȽ Ǡſȕ :ǀƵƉŮ ǛżɀȤȶȥȖ ǜƁȶ ǠƄſȘ .ǍȼȮƅɀȮżȖ ƞȮŻƾƄɀȮƪžȽ ƾƶŲȘ ɀ :ƗǍż ȒǀȼȮŽɀȥƾſ ȆNjƸȮŵdžǍȮŽȚ ȰNjȾ ɀȮƶȮźȾ țɀ ǀȼȮŽɀȥƾſ Ǡſȕ :ǀƵƉŮ  ǛȼȮŻȼȤ ǀźɀǍȮŹ Ƚ ȒȰNjȾ ɀȮƶȮƱȾ ɀȮŽȚ ȴǞƱȮȾƴȼȮů ǛȼȮŻȼȤ ǞƶȮŵ Ƚ :ƗǍż - :ȰNjȾ ɀȮƶȮƱȾ ɀȮŽȚ


ȜȤƾƸȮƉŽƾŮ ȸƾű ǝƉȮ dž dž ƀȾ Ǡſȕ :ƗǍż ȰNjɀȮƶƱȾ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ

Telephone Conversations | 

Vocabulary (Audio) talifoon / talifoonaat (S/P) talifoon moobaayal talifoon ardi mukhaabara / mukhaabaraat (S/P) mshawwash / mshawwasha (M/F)

telephone/s mobile/cell telephone ground telephone telephone call/s static, confused

ahsan (comparative adj. of zeen) il-hamdilla (another form of il-hamdu lillaah) aash (HV) sima (RV) soot aash min sima sootich (idiom, see below) khatt / khutuut (S/P) mash ghuul / mash ghuula (M/F adj.) khatt mash ghuul il-baarha adri (WV) mushtaaq / mushtaaqa/ mushtaaqiin (M/F/P) mushtaaqatilkum akthar (comparative of kathiir and hwaaya) ghurfa / ghuraf (S/P) raqam / arqaam (S/P) jaayy / jaayya (M/F part.)

better Praise be to God. He lived. He heard. voice, sound Nice to hear your voice. line/s busy busy line yesterday I know. to miss, to be lonesome I miss you (P). more room/s number/s coming

ȝƾſǞƱȮȾƴȼȮů / ȴǞƱȮȾƴȼȮů ǚȮȼƁƾŮǞž ȴǞƱȮȾƴȼȮů ǠǤɀȤȚ ȴǞƱȮȾƴȮů ȝȚǍȮȼȾŮƾƈžȽ / ȜǍȮȼȾŮƾƈžȽ / ȧǞdž ȼȮƪȮžɀ ǀȼȮŵǞdž ȼȮƪȮžɀ ǜȮƉ ȼ ŲȖ ɀ ȼ ʇNjȾ ȮƵɀ ƑȚ ȧƾŸ ǕƵȼ ȮŴ Ⱦ ȝǞǧ Ƚ ǶȮȾůǞǧ Ǖ Ƶ Ŵ ǜ ž ȧƾŸ Ƚ ȼ Ⱦ Ⱦ ȪǞƭȮų Ƚ / ǓȼȮų ǀŽǞưɀȮƪžȼ / ȲǞưɀȮƪžȼ ȲǞưɀȮƪžȼ ǓȼȮų ǀŲȼ ɀ ȤƾƃɀȮŽȘ ȸȤɀȢȖ ǀŻƾȮƄɀȮƪžȽ / ȰƾȮƄɀȮƪžȽ ƞŻƾȮƄɀȮƪžȽ / ǛȮƳ Ƚ ɀȮƴȮƄȾ ȼȮŻƾȮƄɀȮƪžȽ ǍȼȮƅɀȮżȖ ȯȼǍȮŹ Ƚ / ǀȼȮźɀǍȮŹ Ƚ ȳƾŻɀȤȖ / ǛȼȮŻȼȤ ǀȮdžƁƾű / ȸɀ ƾű

Additional Vocabulary and Phrases on Telephone (Audio) baddaala / baddaalaat (S/P) umm il-baddaala, abu il-baddaala ghalat raqam ghalat kharbaan / kharbaana (M/F) talifoon kharbaan mukhaabara daakhiliyya mukhaabara khaarijiyya

telephone operator/s female operator, male operator wrong wrong number broken, out of order broken telephone domestic/national call international call

ȝǽȚNjȮ ȿ ȼ Ů / ǀŽȚNjȮ ȿ ȼŮ ǀŽȚNjȮ ȿ ƃŽȚ ȿ ƃŽȚ ȼ ǞŮȖ ȆǀŽȚNjȮ ȼ ȳȽȚ ǓȼȮƴȼȮŹ ǓȼȮƴȼȮŹ ǛȼȮŻȼȤ ǀſƾŮɀǍȮųȼ / ȴƾŮɀǍȮųȼ ȴƾŮɀǍȮųȼ ȴǞƱȮȾƴȼȮů ǀƸȮ Ⱦ ȜǍȮȾŮƾƈžȽ dž ȾƴųȚȢ ǀƸdž ȾȮűȾȤƾų ȜǍȾŮƾƈžȽ

 | l e s s o n  

Grammar and Remarks Conditional Sentences (if): Iraqi Arabic has two words used for the conditional sentences “if.” The word “ idhaa ȚȣȘ, if ” is used to express real and possible conditions (If you come we will go together.) and the word “loo ǞŽ, if ” for unreal and impossible conditions (If you had come we would have gone together.).

1. Real Condition with idhaa ȚȣȘ


A sentence for a real and possible condition is expressed with the word “idhaa ȚȣȘ , if,” followed usually by a perfect (past) verb. However an imperfect (present) verb may also be used. Sentences with perfect or imperfect verbs have the same meaning in English. The verb in the second part of the sentence (the result clause) may be imperative or imperfect verb. (Audio) idhaa rihit l-Baghdaad, shuuf Baabil idhaa truuh l-Baghdaad, shuuf Baabil. idhaa ykhaaburni asi¢la idhaa khaabarni asi¢la

2. Unreal Condition with loo ǞŽ

If you go (lit. went) to Baghdad, see Babylon. If you go to Baghdad, see Babylon. If he calls me, I will ask him. If he calls (lit. called) me, I will ask him.

ǚŮƾŮ ȯǞŵ ȢȚNjưŮ Ȳɀ ǁŲȾ Ⱦ Ȥ ȚȣȘ ǚŮƾŮ ȯǞŵ ȢȚNjưŮ Ȳɀ ȠȶǍɀȮů ȚȣȘ ǝȼȮƴɀȮƂȮŴȖ Ⱦ ǠſɀǍȮȽŮƾƈɀƁ ȚȣȘ ǝȼȮƴɀȮƂȮŴȖ Ⱦ ǠſɀǍȮȼŮƾų ȚȣȘ


The word “loo ǞŽ, if,” is used for unreal and impossible conditions (contrary to the fact) followed usually by a participle or a perfect tense verb, although an imperfect verb may also be used. The verb in the second part of the sentence (the result clause) consists of “chaan ȴƾǩ” (invariable) followed by a perfect or imperfect verb conjugated to agree with the subject. (Audio) loo raayhiin lil-maktab, chaan shaafaw il-mudiir loo zaayir il-iraaq, chaan shaaf nahar Dijla loo jiit, chaan rihna siwiyya loo yuruf qraaya, chaan diras arabi loo indi waqit, chaan rihit wiyyaak

If they had gone to the office, they would have seen the director. If he had visited Iraq, he would have seen the Tigris River. If you had come we would have gone together. If he knew reading, he would have studied Arabic. If I had the time, I would have gone with you.

ȴƾǩ ȆƿȼȮƄɀȮƳƵȼ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ ƞƇɀƁȚȤ ǞŽ ǍƁNjȮȽƓȚ Ǟɀ ȼȮźƾŵ ȯƾŵ ȴƾǩ ȆȰȚǍƯŽȚ ǍȾȮƁȚȥ ǞŽ ǀȮƴȮűɀ ȾȢ ǍƷȼ ȼȮſ ǝȮdžƁǞȮ Ⱦ ƾƶȮŲɀ Ⱦ Ȥ ȴƾǩ ȆǁƸű ǞŽ Ⱦ Ŵ ȦȼȤȾȢ ȴƾǩ ȆǀȮȼƁȚǍɀȮŻ ȯǍȮ Ƚ Ưɀ Ƚ Ɓ ǞŽ ǠŮǍŸ ǁȮŲȾ Ⱦ Ȥ ȴƾǩ ȆǁȮŻȾ ȼȶ ȸNjɀȮƶŸȾ ǞŽ ȱƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ

Telephone Conversations | 

The Relative Pronoun (i)lli

ǠƦȮŽȘ Who(m), whose, that, which

The English relative pronouns “who, whom, whose, that, and which,” whether they are referring back to people or things, masculine, feminine, singular, or plural, are expressed in Iraqi Arabic by the word “(i)lli ǠƦȮŽȘ.” However, “(i)lli” is used only when the noun in the principal sentence is definite. There is no need for it if the noun is indefinite. “(i)lli” and the related word “min ǜžȾ , who” are also used in the beginning of phrases that correspond in English to “He who, whoever, anyone who, whatever, that which,” sentences that usually have proverbial meanings. (Audio) il-ustaadh illi ydarris arabi il-idhaaa lli tdhii il-akhbaar ween il-muraasiliin illi raayhiin lil-iraaq? aku rijjal yriid ysallim aleek indi sayyaara tihtaaj tasliih illi yiish yshuuf illi nkitab aj-jabiin laazim tshuufa il-een

the professor who teaches Arabic the radio station which broadcasts the news Where are the reporters who are going to Iraq? There is a man who wants to greet you. I have a car that needs repairing. He who lives will see (go through experience). That which is written on the forehead must be seen by the eye (proverb).


Idioms and Common Phrases (Audio)

1. 9aash min sima9 soot + attached pronoun + ȝǞǧ Ⱦ ǜȮžȾ ȧƾŸ Nice to hear Ƚ ǕƵȼ Ŵ your voice. (lit. He who hears [your] voice will live. A compliment one says to another after an absence, see also lesson 8). haay weenak? aash min sima sootak. aash min sima sootich. ween hal-gheeba? aani mushtaaqlak. aash min sima sootak aash min sima sootkum. safratkum tawlat

Where have you been? Nice to hear your voice. Nice to hear your voice. Where have you been? I missed you. Nice to hear your voice. Nice to hear your voice. Your trip was long.

ǜȮžȾ ȧƾŸ ȒǙȼȮƶȮƁȶ ȸɀ ƾƀ ǙůǞǧ Ⱦ Ƚ ǕƵȼ ȮŴ ǜƁȶ .ǶȾȮůǞǧ Ⱦ ǜȮžȾ ȧƾŸ Ƚ ǕƵȼ Ŵ ȒǀƃȮƸȮŹ ǚɀ ƀȼ ȼ ǜȮžȾ ȧƾŸ .ǙȼȮƴɀȮŻƾƄɀȮƪžȽ Ǡſȕ ǙůǞǧ ǕƵȼ Ŵ Ⱦ .ǛȮƳ Ⱦ ǜȮžȾ ȧƾŸ Ƚ ǕƵȼ Ŵ Ƚ ɀȮůǞǧ ǁȼȮŽǞɀ ȼȮŶ ǛȮƳ ȼ Ƚ ɀȮůȼǍɀȮƱŴ


 | l e s s o n  

2. minu abu baachir? ȒǍȾȮǩƾŮ ǞŮȖ ǞƶȮžȾ Who knows about tomorrow? Life is too short. (lit. Who is the father of tomorrow? Encourages one to enjoy life.) ishtireet sayyaara jidiida. I bought a new car. Life is ȜȤƾƸȮ ȼ ǁƁǍȮƄȾ ɀȮŵȘ ȿ Ŵ ȒǍȾȮǩƾŮ ǞŮȖ ǞƶȮžȾ .ȜNjƁNjȾȮű minu abu baachir? too short. saafar il-Awrubba yitwannas. He went to Europe for fun. .ǏdžȮſǞȼ ɀȮƄȾȮƁ ƾȮŮȿ ȼ ȤɀȶȖ Ȳɀ ǍȼȮźƾŴ ȒǍȾȮǩƾŮ ǞŮȖ ǞƶȮžȾ minu abu baachir? Life is too short. minu abu baachir? khalli Who knows about ǠƦȮƴȼȮų ȒǍȾȮǩƾŮ ǞŮȖ ǞƶȮžȾ ƾƸɀȮſNjƦ ȮŽȚ ȯǞƪɀȮſ nshuuf id-dinya tomorrow? Let us enjoy life. leesh inta ussi? minu abu Why are you cheap? Who ǞƶȮžȾ ȒǠƫȮ Ʀ ŸȽ ǁſȘ ǐƸŽ ȒǍȾȮǩƾŮ ǞŮȖ baachir? knows about tomorrow?

ʄɷ Drills tamaariin ǜȮƁȤƾƵȮů ʏʞ 1. Give appropriate replies orallyȼ to the following: ȒǀƵƉŮ ȝȼǍȮɀŮƾų ǜȮƵȼ ɀȮŽȘ ɷʄ ȒȴǞƱȮȾƴdžȮƄŽȚ țȼȶƾű ǞƶȮžȾ ȒȧǞdž ȼȮƪžɀ ǞŽ ȴƾŮɀǍȼȮų ȴƾǩ ȴǞƱȮȾƴdžȮƄŽȘ ʞʏ ȒǀƵƉŮ ȝȼǍȮɀŮƾų ǜƁȶ ǜžȾ ȒǝȼƁȚǞȮƀɀ ȴƾŲɀǍȼȮź ȴƾǩ ƗǍż ǐƸŽ ʄɷ ȒǁƸƃŽƾŮ ȴǞƱȮȾƴdžȮƄŽȚ Ȭȼ ǝƁȚǞȮƀɀ ǠǰƇɀ ȾȮƁ ǞƶžȾ ȒƗǍż ǁƸŮ ȝǍȮɀŮƾų ǀƵƉŮ ǐƸŽ ʏʞ ȒǀƸdž ȾȮűȾȤƾų ǞŽ ǀƸȮ Ⱦ ǁſƾǩ ȜǍȮȼŮƾƈƵȽ ɀȮŽȘ dž ȾƴųȚȢ ȒȢȚNjưŮ țɀ ǀȼȮŽɀȥƾſ ǀƵƉŮ ǜƁȶ ɷʄ ȒȜȤƾƸƉŽƾŮ dž ȰNjȾ ɀȮƶȾȮƱɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȠȚȤ ǞƶȮžȾ ȒȲǞưɀȮƪžȼ ȴƾǩ ǓȼȮƈɀȮŽȚ ǐƸŽ ʏʞ ȒȰNjȾ ɀȮƶȮƱȾ ɀȮŽƾŮ ǀƵƉŮ ǀźɀǍȮŹ Ƚ ǛȼȮŻȼȤ NjȼȮƳɀȮŵ ɷʄ 2. Fill in the blanks of the following sentences and translate them into English: ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ il-man khaabrat Basma? minu jaawab it-talifoon? it-talifoon chaan kharbaan loo mshawwash? min ween khaabrat Basma? leesh Kariim chaan farhaan hwaaya? minu yih chi hwaaya at-talifoon bil-beet? leesh Basma khaabrat beet Kariim? il-mukhaabara chaanat daakhiliyya loo khaarijiyya? ween Basma naazla b-Baghdaad? minu raah lil-findiq bis-sayyaara? leesh il-khatt chaan mash ghuul? shgadd raqam ghurfat Basma bil-findiq?

. ma-da-asimak, il-khatt

. khaabaritkum . raqam

. haadhi mukhaabara . mumking ah chi


bass talifoonkum chaan

bil-findiq 



Laylaa at-talifoon?

rihtu l-jinuub il-iraaq, zuru madiinat il-Basra


Telephone Conversations | 


indi fluus chaan ishtireet sayyaara

. haadha huwwa l-mudiir . hadhoola humma

shawwaf Samiira l-idhaaa illi yikitbuun b-jariidat il-Akhbaar il-Masriyya

. ween hal-gheeba? . Kariim mishtaaqlak

min Basma

 nahar il-Amazoon

il-anhaar bil-aalam

. il-matam

akalit bii kullish ghaali

. ruuh shuuf il-aalam,


. aloo, aloo, raja¢an sayyid


ǓƈɀȮŽȚ ȆǙƯȼ ȮƵɀ ŴȚȢ Ⱦ ȳȼ . ȴƾǩ ǛƳɀȮſǞƱȮȾƴȼȮů ǏȼŮ 



ǛƳɀȮůȾǍȼŮƾų . ǛȼȮŻȼȤ .


ȜȼǍȮȼŮƾƈžȽ ȸȣƾƀ .


ǠǰŲȖ ǜȾȮƳɀƛȽ .

ȜǍƫ ɀ ƃȼ ɀȮŽȚ ǀƶƁNjžȼ ȶȤȶȥ ȆȰȚǍƯŽȚ țǞƶȾȮű Ȳɀ ǞƄȮŲɀ Ⱦ Ȥ


ȜȤƾƸȮ ȼ ǁƁǍƄȾ ɀȮŵȚ ȴƾǩ ȦǞƴź ȸNjɀȮƶŸȾ ȿ Ŵ


ǀŸȚȣȁȚ ȜǍƸƵŴ ȯǞdž ȼȮŵ ǀdžƁǍƫ Ⱦ ɀ Ɓ ǠdžȮŽȘ ɀ Ƶȼ ɀȮŽȚ ȤƾƃɀȮųLjȚ ȜNjƁǍűȼ țɀ ȴǞƃɀȮƄȮƳȮ

ǍƁNjƓȚ Ǟƀ Țȣƾƀ . ǝdžȮƵƀȽ ǝȼȮŽȶnjƀȼ . ɀ ƀȼ ǜƁȶ . ȒǀƃƸȮŹ ǚȮ

ǀƵƉŮ ǜžȾ

ǙȼȮƴɀȮŻƾƄȮƪžȽ ƗǍż .

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ


 | l e s s o n  

ɷʄ ǛŽƾƯŽƾŮ ȤƾƷɀȮſLjȚ ȴȶǎžȼ LjȚ ǍƷȼ ȼȮſ ʞʏ ǠŽƾŹ ǐƦȮƴȮż ǛƯȼ ɀȮƭȮȼƓȘ Ƚ ǠŮ ǁȮȾƴȼȮżȖ ʄɷ ȆǛŽƾƯŽȚ ȯǞŵ ȠȶȽȤ ʏʞ ȒȢǞűǞɀ Ȯžȼ NjƸȮ ȼ Ȕȹ ƾűȤ ȆǞŽȖ ȆǞŽȖ Ʀ Ŵ ɷʄ Change the “idhaa ȚȣȘ” real conditional sentence to the “loo ǞŽ” unreal conditional ʞʏ 3.sentence and vice versa, changing anything else that needs to be changed in the sentence: ȢȚNjưŮ ǀƯȼ žȾ ƾű Ȥȶȥ ȰȚǍƯɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȠȶǍɀȮů ȚȣȘ ʄɷ ǝƸƴŸ ǠƴȮƵɀ ƦȮƴŴ Ⱦ ɀ ȚȣȘ ȼ NjƵŲȖ ǁȾȮƱŵ ʏʞ ƞȮƵȾ Ŵ Ⱦ ǍƸƫɀȮů ǝȼƁȚǞȮƀɀ ǚȮżƾů Ƚ ȚȣȘ ǝdžƁǞȮ Ŵ ȠȶǍ Ȯſ ȳǞƸŽȚ ǁƸű ȚȣȘ Ⱦ Ⱦ ɀ ɷʄ ȤȶǍȮƉ ɀ žȼ ȴǞƳɀȮƁ ɃǞŮȖ ǠŮǍŸ ǠƄŴ ɀ ȼ ȤȾȢ ȚȣȘ ǀƵƉŮ ǁȮƱȾ Ȯŵ Ⱦ ȴƾǩ ǁƸű ǞŽ ʞʏ ȴƾȮƵȮ ȿ Ÿȼ ȝȾȤȾȥ ȴƾǩ ǠŮǍŸ ȯǍȮ Ƚ Ÿɀ Ȗ ǞŽ ǜƉ ŲȖ ȝ Ȥƾǧ Ǚ ȮƄ Ƈ ǧ ȴƾǩ ƿƸƃ ȮƭŽȚ ǍȾȮƁȚȥ ǞŽ ȼ ɀ ȼ ȼ ɀ Ⱦ dž ʄɷ ȬǞƃŴȚ ɀ ǚȮż Ƚ ǛƳɀȮůȾȤȾȥ ȴƾǩ NjƸƯȾȮŮ Ǟž ǠƄƸŮ ǞŽ ʏʞ 4. Make plural the following relative pronoun phrases and sentences: ǠžǾŴȁȚ ɀ NJƁȤƾȮƄŽȚ ɀ ɷʄ ȿ ȦƦȤNjȼ ȮɀƁ ǠƦȮŽȘ ȣƾƄŴLjȘ ǀƸŮǍƯŽȚ ǀưƴŽȚ ǛdžȮƴƯȼ ɀȮƄȾů ǠƦȮŽȘ ǀƃȮȾŽƾȮƭŽȘ ȿ ȒȳǞƸŽȚ ȤƾƃųȖ ǕƁnjɀƁ ǠƦȮŽȘ ǕƁnjȮȽƓȚ ǜƁȶ ʏʞ ǙȼȮůǞǧ ǕƵȼ Ŵ Ⱦ ǜžȾ ȧƾŸ ɷʄ ǶȮźȾ ƾŵ ǜžȾ ȧƾŸ Ȓ ǶȮȮƶȾ Ɓȶ ȸƾƀ ȒǍƁǍɀȮƲdžȮƄŽȚ ƿȼȮƄżȾ ǠƦȮŽȘ ǠƱƇȼ ƫŽȚ dž ǞƶȮžȾ ʏʞ ȒǎƸƵɀȮŽȚ Ȭȼ ȴƾǩ ǠƦȮŽȘ ȴǞƱȮȾƴdžȮƄŽȚ ǜƁȶ ȒǀƴƸƵűȼ ǑƇȼ Ȯź Ƚ ǠƦȮŽȘ ƿƸƃdžȮƭŽȚ ȠȚȤ ǜƁȶ ɷʄ ǏƁȤƾȮǨ Ȳɀ ȠȶǍɀȮů ǠƦȮŽȘ ȜȤƾȮƸ ȿ džȮƭŽȚ ȸȣƾƀ ǚŴȚǍȮ Ⱦ Ƚ ƓȚ ƾƷƃɀ ȼȮȮƄȮżȾ ǠƦȮŽȘ ǀŽƾƲȮȼƓȚ ǁƁǍȮŻȾ ʏʞ ɷʄ 5. Complete and read aloud: ȒǍȾȮǩƾŮ ǞŮȖ ǞƶȮžȾ ȒǠƫ Ʀ ŸȽ ǁſȘ ǐƸŽ ʏʞ Ȓ ȒǀƸȮ Ʀ ŸȽ ǠƄſȘ ǐƸŽ ȿ ƫ ɷʄ Ȓ ȒƞȮƸȮ Ʀ ŸȽ ǞƄſȘ ǐƸŽ Ʀ ƫ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ . .

. .

idhaa truuh lil-iraaq zuur jaamiat Baghdaad idhaa shifit Ahmad sallimli alee idhaa taakul hwaaya tsiir simiin idhaa jiit il-yoom nruuh siwiyya idhaa dirasti arabi abuuch ykuun masruur loo jiit chaan shifit Basma loo aruf arabi chaan zirit ammaan loo zaayir it-tabiib chaan sihtak saarat ahsan loo beeti muu biiid chaan ziritkum kull usbuu

il-ustaadh illi ydarris it-taariikh il-Islaami it-taaliba lli titalaam il-lugha il-arabiyya ween il-mudhii illi ydhii akhbaar il-yoom? aash min sima sootak haay weenich? aash min shaafich minu is-sahafi lli kitab it-taqriir? ween it-talifoon illi chaan al-meez? ween raah it-tabiib illi fuhas Jamiila? haadhi t-tayyaara illi truuh l-Paariis qreet il-maqaala illi kitabha l-muraasil

a. leesh inta ussi? minu abu baachir? leesh inti ussiyya?

leesh intu ussiyyiin?




Telephone Conversations | 

leesh intu ussiyyaat? leesh huwwa ussi?


leesh hiyya ussiyya?


leesh humma ussiyyiin?


leesh humma ussiyyaat?


leesh aani ussi?


leesh aani ussiyya?


leesh ihna ussiyyiin?


leesh ihna ussiyyaat?


b. ween hal-gheeba? aash min sima sootak ? aash min sima sootich ? aash min sima sootkum ? aash min sima soota ? aash min sima sootha ? aash min sima soothum c. aani mushtaaqlak, ween hal-gheeba? aani mushtaaqlich,


aani mushtaaqilkum, aani mushtaaqla, aani mushtaaqilha, aani mushtaaqilhum,

? ? ? ?

ɷʄ ʞʏ Ȓ ȒǠƫ Ʀ ŸȽ Ǟƀ ǐƸŽ ʄɷ Ȓ ȒǀdžȮƸȮƫ Ʀ ŸȽ Ǡƀ ǐƸŽ ʏʞ Ȓ ȒƞȮƸȮ Ʀ ŸȽ ǝdžȮƵƀȽ ǐƸŽ Ʀ ƫ ɷʄ Ȓ ȒȝƾȮƸ Ʀ ŸȽ ǝdžȮƵƀȽ ǐƸŽ ʞʏ ȿ ƫ Ȓ ȒǠƫ Ʀ ŸȽ Ǡſȕ ǐƸŽ ʄɷ Ȓ ȒǀdžȮƸƫ Ʀ ŸȽ Ǡſȕ ǐƸŽ ʏʞ Ȓ Ȓ ƞȮƸȮ Ʀ ŸȽ ƾƶŲȘ ɀ ǐƸŽ ɷʄ Ʀ ƫ Ȓ ȒȝƾȮƸ Ʀ ŸȽ ƾƶŲȘ ɀ ǐƸŽ ʞʏ ȿ ƫ ɀ ƀȼ ǜƁȶ ǙȼȮůǞǧ Ⱦ ǜȮžȾ ȧƾŸ ȒǀƃȮƸŹ ǚȮ Ƚ ǕƵȼ Ŵ ʄɷ ǶȾȮůǞǧ Ⱦ ǜȮžȾ ȧƾŸ Ȓ Ƚ ǕƵȼ Ŵ ʏʞ ǛƳɀȮůǞǧ Ⱦ ǜȮžȾ ȧƾŸ Ȓ Ƚ ǕƵȼ Ŵ ɷʄ ǝȼȮůǞǧ Ⱦ ǜȮžȾ ȧƾŸ Ȓ Ƚ ǕƵȼ Ŵ ʏʞ ƾƷɀȮůǞǧ Ⱦ ǜȮžȾ ȧƾŸ Ȓ Ƚ ǕƵȼ Ŵ ɷʄ ǛƷȽ ɀȮůǞǧ Ⱦ ǜȮžȾ ȧƾŸ Ȓ Ƚ ǕƵȼ Ŵ ʏʞ ɀ ƀȼ ǜƁȶ ȆǙȼȮƴɀȮŻƾȮƄɀȮƪžȽ Ǡſȕ ȒǀƃȮƸŹ ǚȮ ȼ ɷʄ Ȓ ȆǶȾȮƴɀȮŻƾȮƄɀȮƪžȽ Ǡſȕ ʏʞ Ȓ ȆǛƳɀȮƴȾȮŻƾȮƄɀȮƪžȽ Ǡſȕ ɷʄ Ȓ ȆǝȼȮƴɀȮŻƾȮƄɀȮƪžȽ Ǡſȕ ʏʞ Ȓ ȆƾƷɀȮƴȾȮŻƾȮƄɀȮƪžȽ Ǡſȕ ɷʄ Ȓ ȆǛƷɀȮƴȾȮŻƾȮƄɀȮƪžȽ Ǡſȕ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ Ȓ


ȒȝƾȮƸȮ Ʀ ŸȽ ǞƄſȘ ǐƸŽ ȿ ƫ

 | l e s s o n  

ɷʄ 6. Translate the following into Arabic: ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ


The operator (F) who works in the office is not here.

International phone calls are more expensive than local calls.

The operator (M) gave me the wrong telephone number.

If you (F) had gone to the school you would have seen Professor Khaalid.

If you come to my home, we will study the French language together.

He misses his son who has been studying engineering in Germany since .

There are some visitors who want to see the director of the radio/TV station.

There are many newspapers and magazines in Iraq nowadays.

What are your room number and the hotel telephone number?

He who brought the magazines went to his home.

A Thousand and One Nights is an Arabic book.

I must go to my doctor’s clinic; I have a cold and high fever.

My home is the fifth yellow house on the right side of the street.


Telephone Conversations | 

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ 7. Make two meaningful sentences of each of the following idiomatic phrases: ȯƾŵ ǜȮžȾ ȧƾŸ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ȝǞǧ Ⱦ ǜȮžȾ ȧƾŸ Ƚ ǕƵȾ ȮŴ ɷʄ ʞʏ ȒǍȾȮǩƾŮ ǞŮȖ ǞƶȮžȾ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ȜȤƾǩ Ǟżƾž ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ǀdžȮƸȮűȼ ǟƴŸ ɷʄ ʏʞ ǠƳɀȮƴȮȼŮ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ Hello, hello! Can you hear better now?

Who is the teacher who taught them Arabic at the university?

aash min shaaf . . .

aash min sima soot . . .

minu abu baachir?

maaku chaara

ala jayya


. ..

. ..

 | l e s s o n  

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ Creative Dialogues ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ shbii . . . ?

a. taalib : aloo. taaliba : sabaah il-kheer. raja¢an mudiir il-idhaaa mawjuud? taalib : minu hadirtich? taaliba : anni ismi Juudi Kaartar, min sahiifat “it-Taaymz” il-Landaniyya. taalib  ahlan w sahlan. shi-triidiin min il-mudiir is-sayyid Kamaal? taaliba : ahibb asawwi muqaabal sahafiyya wiyyaa taalib : muqaabla sahafiyya, an shunu? taaliba : an baraamijkum il-idhaaiyya wit-talfizyooniyya? taalib : tayyib. bass sayyid Kamaal ma-mawjuud bil-maktab hissa taaliba : shwakit ykuun bil-maktab? taalib : huwwa ykuun hnaa baad nuss saaa taaliba : mumkin aji aqaabla baad saaa? taalib : aani agulla min yirja taaliba : shukran jaziilan, maa s-salaama b. taalib : aloo. taaliba : marhaba. min fadlak sayyid Hamiid mawjuud?


Ȓ . . . ǠȾȮƃɀȮŵ

ǞŽȖ : ƿŽƾŶ ǀŸȚȣȁȚ ǍƁNjȮžȽ Ȕȹ ƾűȤ .ǍƸȮƒȚ Ƞƾƃǧ ȼ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ȒȢǞűǞɀ Ȯžȼ ȒǶȮȾůɀǍȮƬ Ⱦ Ųȼ ǞƶȮžȾ : ƿŽƾŶ ȆǍȼȮůɀȤƾż ȸȢǞű ǠƵŴȘ Ǡſȕ : ǀƃŽƾŶ “ǎȮƵɀ ȮɀƁƾȮƄŽȚ ȼ ǜȮžȾ ȿ ” ǀȼȮƱƸƇǧ ǀƸȮ dž Ⱦ ſNjȼ ɀȮƶȼȮƴɀȮŽȚ ǜžȾ ǜƁNjƁǍɀȮƄȮŵ Ⱦ .ȽǾƷŴȶ ȹǾƀȖ : ƿŽƾŶ ȒȲƾƵż NjƦȮƸȮƉŽȚ dž ǍƁNjȽƓȚ ǀƸȮ Ⱦ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ȼ ǀƴȮȾŮƾƲžȽ ȸǞƦ ȮŴȖ ȼ ƿȿ ŲȖ dž ƱȾ ȮƇȼ ǧ ȵƾȮƁ ȿ Ⱦȶ ǜȮŸȼ ȆǀƸȮ ȼ ǀȮȼƴȮȼŮƾƲȮžȽ : ƿŽƾŶ dž ƱȾ Ƈȼ ǧ ȒǞƶȮŵ Ƚ ǀƸdž ȾȮŸȚȣȁȚ ǛƳȮƆɀ žȾ ȚǍȼŮ ǜȮŸȼ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ǀƸſǞƁɀǎȮƱȾ ɀȮƴdžȮƄŽȚȶ ȳȼ ȲƾƵż NjƸȮ ȿ ȼ Ů .ƿƸƦ ȼȮŶ ȼ Ǐ Ʀ Ŵ ǝƉȮ dž ƀȾ ƿƄɀȮƳȼƓƾȾȮŮ ȢǞűǞɀ žȼ

: ƿŽƾŶ

ȒƿƄɀȮƳȼƓƾȾȮŮ ȴǞƳȮɀƁ ǁȮżȾ Ǟȼ ɀȮŵ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ǀŸƾŴ Ǒ ȿ Ȯſ Ƚ NjƯȼ ȼ Ů ƾƶȮƀɀ ȴǞƳȮɀƁ Ǟƀ : ƿŽƾŶ NjƯȼ ȼ Ů ǝƴȮɀŮƾŻȖ ǠűȖ ǜȮƳȾ Ƶɀ ȮžȽ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ȒǀŸƾŴ Ǖűȼ ɀǍȾȮƁ ǜȮžȾ ǝdžȮŽǞȮǬȖ Ǡſȕ : ƿŽƾŶ ǀžǾȮƉŽȚ dž Ǖȼ žȼ ȆȹǾƁǎű ȹ ȚǍƳȮŵ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ǞŽȖ : ƿŽƾŶ NjƸȮ ȼ ǙȼȮƴɀȮƬȼȮź ǜžȾ .ǀƃȮ Ʀ Ŵ ȼ Ųȼ ɀǍȮžȼ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ȒȢǞűǞɀ žȼ NjƸƵȮŲȼ


taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba : taalib : taaliba :

Telephone Conversations | 

laa, ma-mawjuud. minu yitkallam rajaa¢an? aani Basma Adams. ween huwwa? raah yjiib binta mnil-madrasa mumking atrukla khabar wiyyaak? ii, tfaddali raja¢an, gulla Basma b-Baghdaad wi-thibb tshufak shgadd raqam talifoonich? raqam talifooni, - khalli aiid ir-raqam, - sahiih. la-tinsa raja¢an laa, maa ansa. ala eeni shukran

For new words, see Glossary.

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ƿŽƾŶ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʏʞ ƿŽƾŶ ɷʄ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʞʏ ƿŽƾŶ ʄɷ ǀƃŽƾŶ ƿŽƾŶ ʏʞ ǀƃŽƾŶ ɷʄ ƿŽƾŶ ǀƃŽƾŶ ʞʏ ʄɷ

ǛdžȮƴȼȮƳɀȮƄȾȮƁ ǞƶȮžȾ .ȢǞűǞɀ Ȯžȼ ȳȼ Ȇǽ : ƿŽƾŶ ȒȔȹ ƾűȤ ȒǞƀ ǜƁȶ .ǎȮžɀ ȼȢȕ ǀƵƉŮ Ǡſȕ : ǀƃŽƾŶ ǀŴ ȼ ȼ ȤNjɀ ȼ ƓȚ ǜȮžɀ ǝȼȮƄɀȮƶȾȮŮ ƿƸƆȮɀƁ ȠȚȤ : ȒȱƾȮƁ ȿ Ⱦȶ Ǎƃȼ ȼȮų ǝȼȮƴɀȮżǍȽ ɀȮůȖ ǜȮƳȾ Ƶɀ ȮžȽ : ǠƴdžȮƬȼȮƱɀȮů ȆǠǣ : ȢȚNjưŮ țɀ ǀƵƉŮ ǝdžȮƴȮȮǬ Ƚ ȆȔȹ ƾűȤ : ǙȼȮźǞƪɀȮů ƿȿ ƇȾ ɀȮȾůȶ ȒǶȾſǞƱȮȾƴȼȮů ǛȼȮŻȼȤ NjȼȮƳɀȮŵ : - ǠſǞƱȮȾƴȼȮů ǛȼȮŻȼȤ : ǛŻdžǍȮŽȚ NjƸȮŸȖ ǠƦȮƴȼȮų : - Ȕȹ ƾűȤ ǟƉɀȮƶȮƄȾ ȮȼȮŽ .ljƸƇǧ ȼ ǠƶƸŸ ǟƴŸ .ǟƉɀȮſȖ ƾž ǽ


: : :

Marble statue of a princess ( A.D.), ancient Hatra, Northern Iraq

ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ lesson ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ǜȮƁǍɀȮƪŸȾ ȦȾȤȼȢ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ Cultural and Folkloric Tales ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ qusas hadaariyya wa shabiyya ǀȮƸdž ȾȮƃȮƯɀ ȼȮŵȶ ǀdžȮƁȤƾƬŲȼ Ǒ ɀ ƫ ȼ ȮŻ Ƚ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ DARIS ISHRIIN


Modern Iraq was ancient Mesopotamia, the land between the two rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates. Most historians call ancient Iraq the cradle of civilization. Its archaeological remains date as far back as the Paleolithic Age, , years ago. Mesopotamia contributed many inventions and innovations to civilization: the first writing, school, law, map, math, irrigation, wheel, chariot, contract and court, the first kingdom and empire, metallurgy, astronomy, and literature. The “Epic of Gilgamesh,” about five thousand years old, is a magnificent literary work that preceded Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey by more than two thousand years. Ancient Mesopotamians were sophisticated builders who built great monuments and cities, among them Ur, Uruk, Nineveh, and Babylon. Babylon was the city where the “Hanging Gardens,” one of the world’s Seven Wonders, once stood. After a few centuries of foreign occupation, Iraq flourished again in the th century, when Baghdad became the capital of the Islamic empire. Baghdad’s scientists, scholars, philosophers, mathematicians, educators, physicians, writers, translators, poets, singers, musicians, artists, traders, and artisans are all to be found in the tales of A Thousand and One Nights, which speaks of the glorious city that was Baghdad. One can imagine that with such a long history Iraq must have had very rich traditions of legends and tales of fabled cities, caliphs, kings, princes, wise men, jinns, and animals. Basma is strolling in the book market “Suug is-Saraay,” one of oldest markets in Baghdad. She stops by a bookstore inquiring about some old books about Baghdad, when the owner of the shop begins to intrigue her with folk tales on the literary history of the city.

 | l e s s o n  

1. The Story of the Caliph Harun ir-Rashid and Abu Nuwas The Caliph Harun ir-Rashid, whose reign is considered to be the golden age of the Islamic empire, ruled from  to . Abu Nuwas was a famous poet whose life was full of intrigues.

Title: “il-9udhur aqbah mnidh-dhanib” (Audio) yoom mnil-ayyaam il-Khaliifa Haruun ir-Rashiid chaan da-yitmashsha b-hadiiqat qasra. w shaaf Abu Nuwaas da-yishrab nabiidh bil-hadiiqa. il-Khaliifa ghidab hwaaya li¢an il-Khalifa huwwa Amiir il-Mu¢miniin. lamman Abu Nuwaas shaaf il-Khaliifa khaaf w damm butil in-nabiidh waraa. il-Khaliifa si¢al abu Nuwaas “haay shunu daamm wara zahrak?” Abu Nuwaas gaal “ butil mayy, mawlaay.” il-Khaliifa galla “khalliini ashuufa.” Abu Nuwaas shawwaf il-butil lil-Khaliifa. il-Khaliifa shaaf il-butil bii nabiidh ahmar, w galla “shloon il-mayy ykuun ahmar?” Abu Nuwaas galla “mawlaay, il-mayy min shaafak khijal minnak w saar ahmar.” il-Khaliifa kullish ghidab ala Abu Nuwaas w haddada bil-qatil. bass Abu Nuwas twassal bil-Khaliifa hatta yifi anna. il-Khaliifa galla “afi annak bi-sharit waahid, huwwa tintiini udhur aqbah mnidh-dhanib.” Abu Nuwaas galla “mawlaay, shloon agdar antiik udhur aqbah mnidh-dhanb?” il-Khaliifa galla “maa aruf. loo tintiini udhur aqbah mnidh-dhanib loo aqutlak.” w raah. baad kam yoom, Abu Nuwaas shaaf il-Khaliffa da-yitmashsha bil-hadiiqa. raah wara il-Khaliifa w girasa min tiiza. il-Khaliifa gumaz wi-tajjab. minu yigdar yigrus Amiir il-Mu¢miniin b-qasra? il-Khaliifa indaar da-yshuuf minu girasa, shaaf abu Nuwaas. galla “haay shloon tijjarra¢ tugrus Amiir il-Mu¢miniin?!” Abu Nuwaas galla “il-afu mawlaay, aani fakkarit inta Zubayda.” il-Khaliifa ghidab akthar li¢ann Zubayda hiyya zawijta. w galla “shloon tijjarra¢ tugrus zawijti Zubayda, Umm il-Mu¢miniin?!” Abu Nuwaas galla “mawlaay, aani maa ajjara¢ agrus Zubayda, bass haadha udhri. inta tidhdhakkar tilabit minni antiik udhur aqbah mnidh-dhanib?” il-Khaliifa Harun ir-Rashiid dihak hwaaya, w ifa an Abu Nuwaas.

“ƿȾȮſdž njȮŽȚ ǜžɀ ljƃȼ ɀȮŻȖ ȤnjȮƯȽ ɀȮŽȘ” :ȴȚǞɀȮƶȮŸȽ .ȵȼǍƫ ɀ ȼȮŻ ǀȼȮƲƁNjŲȼ țɀ ƾdžȮƪƵȼ ɀȮƄȾȮƁȼ Ȣ ȴƾǩ NjƸȮŵdžǍȮŽȚ ȴȶȤƾƀ ǀƱƸƴƒȘ ȆȳƾƁLjȚ ǜȮžɀ ȳǞƁ .ǀƲƁNjȮȼƑƾŮ njƸȮƃȼȮſ țȼǍɀȮƪȾȮƁ ȼȢ ȦȚǞȮſ Ƚ ǞŮȚ ȯƾŵȶ .ƞƶžȾ ƻȮȽƓȚ ǍƸžȖ Ǟƀ ǀƱƸƴƒȚ ȴLj ǝȼƁȚǞȮƀɀ ƿȼȮƬȮŹȾ ǀƱƸƴƒȘ .ȵȚȤȼȶ njƸȮƃdžȮƶȮŽȚ ǚƭȮ ȼ ȯƾų ǀƱƸƴƒȚ ȯƾŵ ȦȚǞſ ǞŮȚ ǜȮƵdž ȼȮŽ Ⱦ Ƚ Ů Ǜȿ Ǥȶ

Cultural and Folkloric Tales | 

“ȒȱȼǍƷ ɀ ȼȮŷ ȚȼȤȼȶ ȳƾǤ ǞƶȮŵ Ⱦ ǀƱƸƴƒȘ ȿ Ŵ Ƚ ȸƾƀ” ȦȚǞſ ǞŮȚ ǚȮƂȮ “.ȸǽǞɀ Ȯžȼ ȆǠ Ⱦ Ƚ Ů” ȲƾǬ ȦȚǞſ ǞŮȚ ɀ žȼ ǚƭ “.ǝȼȮźǞȮŵȖ Ƚ ǠƶȮƸƦȮƴȼȮų” ǝȼȮƴɀȮƴȼȮǬ ǀƱƸƴƒȘ .ǀƱƸƴƈɀȮƴȮȾŽ ǚƭ Ⱦ ƃŽȚ Ƚ ȯǞdž ȼȮŵ ȦȚǞſ ǞŮȚ “ȒǍƵȼ ŲȖ ȴǞƳȮ Ɓ Ǡ Ƶ ȮŽȚ ȴǞƴ Ȯŵ ” ǝ Ȯƴ Ȯƴ ȮǬ ȶ ȆǍ Ƶ Ȯ ŲȖ njƸƃ Ȯſ ǠŮ ǚ ƭ Ⱦ ƃŽȚ ɀ ɀ ȼ ɀ ɀ ȼ ɀ Ƚ ȯƾŵ ǀƱƸƴƒȘ ɀ ȼ ɀ ȼ ȼ “.ǍƵȼ ŲȖ ɀ Ȥƾǧȶ ǙdžȮƶȮžȾ ǚȮƆȮ ȼ ųȾ ǙȼȮźƾŵ ǜȮžȾ ǠȮ ɀ ȼ ƓȚ ȆȸǽǞɀ Ȯžȼ ” ǝȼȮƴɀȮƴȼȮǬ ȦȚǞſ ǞŮȚ .ǚȮƄȾ ȼȮƲɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ȵȼȢNjdž Ȯƀȼ ȶ ȦȚǞſ ǞŮȚ ǟƴŸȼ ƿƬ ȼ ŹȾ ǐȮƦȮƴȮǬ Ƚ ǀƱƸƴƈȮŽȘ .ǝdžȮƶȮŸȼ ǠƱȮƯɀ ȾȮƁ ǟȮƄŲ dž Ǟȼ ɀȮů ȦȚǞſ ǞŮȚ ǏȮȼŮ ȿ ǀƱƸƴƒƾȾȮŮ ǚȮŴ .“ƿȾȮſdž njȮŽȚ ǜȮžɀ ljȮƃȼ ɀȮŻȖ ȤȽ njȮŸȽ ǠƶȮƸƭɀȮƶȮȾů Ǟƀ ȆNjȮŲȚȶ Ȫ Ǎ Ȯƪ Ȯ Ů Ǚ ȮƶȮ Ÿ ǠƱȮ Ÿ Ⱦ ɀ Ȗ” ǝȼȮƴɀȮƴȼȮǬ ǀƱƸƴƒȘ ɀȼ Ⱦ dž ȼ ɀ ȆȸǽǞɀ Ȯžȼ ” ǝȼȮƴɀȮƴȼȮǬ ȦȚǞſ ǞŮȚ “ȒƿɀȮſdž njȮŽȚ ǜȮžɀ ljƃȼ ɀȮŻȖ ȤȽ njȮŸȽ ǙƸƭɀȮſȖ ȤNjȼ ɀȮǬ Ȗ ȴǞƴȮŵ .ȠȚȤȶ .“ǙȼȮƴɀȮƄȮŻȖ Ƚ ǞŽ ƿȾȮſdž njȮŽȚ ǜȮžɀ ljƃȼ ɀȮŻȖ ȤȽ njȮŸȽ ǠƶȮƸƭɀȮƶȾů ǞŽ .ȸȤȢȖ ƾž” ǝȼȮƴɀȮƴȼȮǬ ǀƱƸƴƒȘ .ȵȼǎȮƸȮŶ Ⱦ ǜžȾ ǝǧ ȼ ȼǍȮǬȾ ȶ ǀƱƸƴƒȚ ȚȼȤȼȶ ȠȚȤ .ǀƲƁNjƑƾŮ ǝdžȮƪƵȼ ɀȮƄȾȮƁ ȼȢ ǀƱƸƴƒȚ ȯƾŵ ȦȚǞſ ǞŮȚ ȆȳǞƁ ǛȼȮż NjȮƯȼ ȮȼŮ ȒȵȼǍƫ ɀ ȼȮŻ țɀ ƞƶȮžȾ ƻȮȽƓȚ ǍƸžȖ ȨǍȽ ɀȮǦȮȽƁ ȤNjȼ ȮɀȮǦȾȮƁ ǞƶȮžȾ .ƿȮƆȮ dž Ưȼ ɀȮůȾȶ ǎȮƵȼ ȮǬ Ƚ ǀƱƸƴƒȘ ȨǍȽ ɀȮǦȮů ȼ ȼǍȮǬȾ ǞƶȮžȾ ȯǞƪȮɀƁ ȼȢ ȤȚNjɀȮſȘ ǀƱƸƴƒȘ dž Ⱦ ů ȴǞƴɀȮŵ ȸƾƀ” ǝȼȮƴɀȮƴȼȮǬ .ȦȚǞſ ǞŮȚ ȯƾŵ Ȇǝǧ Ƚ ȖdžǍȮƆȮ “!ȒƞƶžȾ ƻȮȽƓȚ ǍƸžȖ “.ȜNjȼ ƸȮ Ů ȥ ǁſȘ ȝ Ǎ ȮƳ Ȯź Ǡſȕ Ȇȸǽ Ǟ Ȯ ž ǞƱȮ Ư ȮŽȘ ȼ ɀ ” ǝȼȮƴɀȮƴȼȮǬ ȦȚǞſ ǞŮȚ ɀ ȼ ɀ ȼȽ Ⱦdž ȼ ǠƄȮűɀ Ⱦȶȼȥ ȨǍȽ ɀȮǦȮů ȼ ŹȾ ǀƱƸƴƒȘ dž Ⱦ ů ȴǞƴɀȮŵ” ǝȼȮƴɀȮƴȼȮǬ ȶ .ǝȼȮƄȮűɀ Ⱦȶȼȥ Ǡƀ ȜNjȼ ƸȮ ɀ ȼ ŮȽȥ ȴLj ǍȼȮƅɀȮżȖ ƿƬȮ Ƚ ȖdžǍȮƆȮ “!ȒƞƶžȾ ƻȮȽƓȚ ȳȽȚ Ȇ ȜNjȼ ƸȮ ɀ Ⱦ ŮȽȥ ǁȾȮƃȼȮƴŶȾ ǍdžȮżdž njȮȾů ǁſȘ .ȸȤnjȮŸȽ Țȣƾƀ ǏȮȼŮ ȆȜNjȼ ƸȮ dž ƾž Ǡſȕ ȆȸǽǞɀ Ȯžȼ ” ǝȼȮƴɀȮƴȼȮǬ ȦȚǞſ ǞŮȚ ɀ Ⱦ ŮȽȥ ȨǍȽ ɀȮǬȖ ȖdžǍȮűȖ “ȒƿȮȾſdž njȮŽȚ ǜȮžɀ ljƃȼ ɀȮŻȖ ȤȽ njȮŸȽ ǙƸƭɀȮſȖ ǠƦȮƶȮžȾ .ȦȚǞſ ǞŮȚ ǜȮŸȼ ƾȼȮƱȮŸȾ ȶ ȆǝȼƁȚǞȮƀɀ ǙȮƇ Ⱦ NjƸȮŵȼdžǍȮŽȚ ȴȶȤƾƀ ǀƱƸƴƒȘ ȼ Ǥ

Translation: “The excuse is worse than the misdeed.” Once upon a time, the Caliph Harun ir-Rashid was strolling in his palace garden. He saw Abu Nuwas in the garden drinking wine. The Caliph was very angry because he was the Prince of the Believers. When Abu Nuwas saw the Caliph he was afraid and hid the wine bottle behind his back. The Caliph asked Abu Nuwas, “What are you hiding behind your back?” Abu Nuwas said to him, “A bottle of water my lord.” The Caliph said to him, “Let me see it.” Abu Nuwas showed the bottle to the Caliph. The Caliph saw the bottle with red wine in it and said to him, “How come the water is red?” Abu Nuwas said to him, “My lord, when the water saw you it became abashed and turned red.” The Caliph was very angry with Abu Nuwas and threatened him with death. But Abu Nuwas begged the Caliph to forgive him. The Caliph said to him, “I would forgive you on one condition: that you give me an excuse that is worse than the misdeed.” Abu Nuwas said to him, “My lord, how could I give you an excuse that is worse than the misdeed?”

 | l e s s o n  

The Caliph said “I don’t know. Either you give me an excuse that is worse than the misdeed or I shall kill you.” A few days went by, Abu Nuwas saw the Caliph walking in the garden. He went behind him and pinched him on his buttocks. The Caliph jumped in surprise and wondered who would to do that to him in his palace. When the Caliph turned around to see who pinched him, he saw Abu Nuwas. He said to him, “How dare you pinch the Prince of the Believers?!” Abu Nuwas said to him, “Sorry my lord, I thought you were Zubayda.” The Caliph became even angrier because Zubayda was his wife, and said to him, “How dare you pinch my wife Zubayda, the Mother of the Believers?!” Abu Nuwas said, “My lord, I don’t dare pinch Zubayda, but this is my excuse. Do you remember your demand from me that I give you an excuse that is worse than the misdeed?” The Caliph Harun ir-Rashid laughed and forgave Abu Nuwas. (The well-known saying of this story, “The excuse is worse than the misdeed,” is cited when somebody makes a mistake, doesn’t perform his/her duty etc., then gives a stupid excuse for the misdeed.)

Vocabulary (Audio) adab / aadaab (S/P) qussa / qusas (S/P) hadaara / hadaaraat hadaari / hadaariyya (M/F adj.) shaab shabi / shabiyya (adj.) khaliifa / khulafaa¢ (S/P) udhur / adhaar (S/P) aqbah < qabiih (adj.) dhanib / dhunuub (S/P) yitmashsha hadiiqa / hadaayiq (S/P) qasir / qusuur (S/P) nabiidh ghidab, yigh dab amiir / umaraa¢ (S/P) mu¢min / mu¢miniin (S/P) Amiir il-Mu¢miniin lamman khaaf, ykhaaf

literature/s tale/s, story/s culture/s, civilization/s cultural people folkloric, popular caliph/s excuse/s worse < bad (lit. ugly) misdeed/s, sin/s He strolls/walks. garden/s palace/s wine to become angry prince/s believer/s Prince of Believers (Caliph’s title) when, at the time to be afraid

țȚȢȕ / țɀ ȼȢȖ Ǒ ɀ ƫ ȼ ȮŻ dž ȮŻ Ƚ / ǀƫ Ƚ ȝȚȤƾƬŲȼ / ȜȼȤƾƬŲȼ ǀȮdžƁȾȤƾƬŲȼ / ȸȤƾƬŲȼ ƿȮƯȼ ȼȮŵ ǀdžȮƸȾȮƃȮƯɀ ȼȮŵ / ǠƃƯɀ ȼȮŵ ȔƾƱȼȮƴȮų Ƚ / ǀƱƸȮƴȼȮų ȤȚnjȮŸɀ Ȗ / ȤnjȮŸȽ ljƸȮƃȼȮŻ > ljȮƃȼ ɀȮŻȖ țǞſȽ ȣ / ƿȾȮſȼ ȣ ǟdžȮƪȮƵȼ ɀȮƄȾȮƁ ǘȾȮƁȚNjȮŲȼ / ǀƲƁNjȮŲȼ ȤǞƫȮŻ Ⱦ ȼȮŻ Ƚ / Ǎƫ njƸȮƃȼȮſ ƿƬ Ȯư Ȯ Ɓ Ȇƿ ƬȮ ȼ ɀ Ⱦ ȼ ŹȾ ȔȚǍȮžȼ Ƚ Ț / ǍƸžȖ ǜȮƸƶȮžȾ ƻɀ ȮžȽ / ǜȮžȾ ƻɀ ȮžȽ ǜȮƸƶȮžȾ ƻɀ ȮȽƓȚ ǍƸȮžȖ ǜȮƵdž ȼȮŽ ȯƾƈȮɀƁ Ȇȯƾų

Cultural and Folkloric Tales | 

damm, ydumm (DV) daamm (part.) butil / btaala (S/P) haay (invariable) wara zahar gaal, yguul (HV) galla ashuuf shawwaf, yshawwif mawlaay khijal, yikhjal (RV) haddad, yhaddid qatil aqutlak twassal, yitwassal yifi shart / shuruut (S/P) tintiini antiik agdar aruf giras, yugrus (RV) tiiz / tyaaza (S/P) gumaz, yugmuz (RV) tajjab ndaar, yindaar ijjarra¢ < itjarra¢ tidhdhakkar (RV) fakkar, yfakkir (RV) fakkarit Zubayda li¢ann umm Umm il-Mu¢miniin tilabit minni antiik dihak, yid hak (RV) ifa, yifi (WV)

to hide hiding bottle/s his/that (see also lesson ) behind, in the back back to say He said to him. I see. to show my lord to become abashed/ashamed to threaten murder, killing I kill you (M). to beg He forgives. condition/s You give me. I give you. I can. I am able. I know. to pinch buttocks to jump He was surprised. to turn around He dared. You (M) remember. to think I thought. name of the Caliph’s wife because mother Mother of the Believers (title) You (M) demanded. You requested. from me I give you (M). to laugh to forgive

Ǜȿ ƬȮ ȼ Ƚ ɀ Ɓ ȆǛȮ ȿ Ǥ ȳȿ ƾǤ ǀȼȮŽƾƭȮɀŮ / ǚƭȮ Ⱦ ȽŮ ȸɀ ƾƀ ȚȼȤȼȶ ǍȮƷȼ ȼȮŷ ȲǞǦȮɀƁ ȆȲƾǬ ǝȼȮƴɀȮƴȼȮǬ ȯǞŵȖ ȯǞƦ ȼȮƪȮɀƁ ȆȯǞdž ȼȮŵ ȸǽǞɀ Ȯžȼ ǚƆȼ ɀȮƈȾȮƁ ȆǚȮƆȮ ȼ ųȾ ȢNjƦ ȮƷȮ ȼ ɀ Ɓ ȆȢNjdž Ȯƀȼ ǚȮƄȾ ȮȼȮŻ ǙȼȮƴɀȮƄȮŻȖ Ƚ ǚȮŴ dž Ǟȼ ɀȮƄȾȮƁ ȆǚȮŴ dž Ǟȼ ɀȮů ǠƱȮƯɀ ȾȮƁ ȪȶǍȽ Ȯŵ Ƚ / ȪɀǍȼȮŵ ǠƶȮƸƭ Ⱦ ɀȮƶȮȾů ǙȮƸƭɀȮſȖ ȤNjȼ ȮɀȮǬȖ ȯǍȮ Ƚ Ÿɀ Ȗ ȨǍȽ ɀȮǦȮȽƁ ȆȨȼǍȾȮǬ ȜȼȥƾƸɀȮŶ / ǎȮƸŶȾ ǎȮƵȽ ɀȮǦȮȽƁ ȆǎȮƵȼ ȮǬ Ƚ ƿȮƆdž Ưȼ ɀȮů ȤȚNjɀȮƶȾȮƁ ȆȤȚNjɀȮſ ȖdžǍȮƆȼ ɀȮůȘ > ȖdžǍȮűȘ dž Ǎɀ džȮżdž njȮȾů ǍƦȮƳȼȮƱȮɀƁ ȆǍdžȮƳȮźȼ ȝȾǍȮdžȮƳȼȮź ȜNjȼ ȮƸȮ ɀ Ⱦ ŮȽȥ ȴLj ȳȿ Ƚ Ț ǜȮƸȮƶžȾ ƻȮȽƓȚ ȳȿ Ƚ Ț ǁȾȮƃȼȮƴŶȾ ǠƦȮƶȮžȾ ǙȮƸƭɀȮſȖ ǙȮƇȼ Ƭ Ȯ Ɓ ɀ Ⱦ ȆǙȮƇȼ Ǥ Ⱦ ǠƱȮƯɀ ȾȮƁ ȆƾȼȮƱȮŸȾ

 | l e s s o n  

2. The Story of the Lion and the Wolf Title: “sh-saarat khoo muu farwat sabi9?” fad yoom is-sabi (Abu Khmuyyis) malik il-haywaanaat chaan kullish at shaan w da-ydawwir ala mayy. shaaf biir mayy. lamman baawa bil-biir shaaf dhiib waagi bil-biir. is-sabi sallam adh-dhiib. widh-dhiib jaawaba “ahlan w sahlan yaa Abu Khmuyyis.” is-sabi galla “sh-da-ssawwi jawwa bil-biir?” idh-dhiib jaawaba “aani da-asawwi farwa.” is-sabi galla “yaa dhiib, ij-jaw baarid bish-shita, aani ariid farwa hamm.” idh-dhiib galla “zeen, asawwilak farwa, bass rah ahtaaj jilid tili”. is-sabi raah w rija baad saaa saayid tiliyyeen smaan. w rima it-tiliyyeen lidh-dhiib bil-biir. idh-dhiib galla “bass haadha muu kaafi ahtaaj tilyaan hwaaya. tili waahid loo thneen bil-yoom.” is-sabi gaam kull yoom yjiib tili loo tiliyyeen lidh-dhiib. w kull marra yis¢al “khilsat il-farwa?” idh-dhiib yjaawba “ahtaaj baad jilid”. badeen is-sabi khilas sabra, li¢ann kull marra yjiib tili, idh-dhiib yintii udhur jidiid “chinit mariid, chaan aku iid.” bass Abu Khmuyyis zihag, w gaal lidh-dhiib “laazim tkhallis il-farwa!” idh-dhiib jaawaba “baad yoomeen”. is-sabi rija baad yoomeen, bass idh-dhiib galla “il-ubra inkisrat, taaal baachir w jiib habil wiyyaak.” is-sabi riji thaani yoom w nazzal il-habil bil-biir hatta yis hab il-farwa. is-sabi bidda yis hab il-farwa, w fakkar il-farwa laazim zeena li¢annha chaanat thigiila. bass huwwa ma-chaan yidri idh-dhiib mitallig bil-habil wi-mghatti raasa b-jilid tili. awwal-ma wisal idh-dhiib l-haaffat il-biir, rima ij-jilid ala wijih is-sabi wi-nhizam. lamman Abu Khmuyyis shaal ij-jilid min ala wijha, idh-dhiib saar biiid w nija b-nafsa.

ɀ ” :ȴȚǞɀȮƶȮŸȽ “ȒǕȾȮƃȮŴ ȼ ȝȼȶɀǍȼȮź ǞȮžȽ ǞȮųȽ ȝȼȤƾƫŵ .Ǡȿ žȼ ǟƴŸ ȤƦȶNjȼ ȮɀƁ Ȣȿ ȶ ȴƾƪɀȮƭŸȼ ǐƦȮƴȮż dž ȳǞƁ NjȼȮź Ʀ Ƶȼ Ȯų Ƚ ȴƾǩ ȝƾſȚǞƸɀ ȼƑȚ ǙȮȾƴžȼ (ǏƸȮ Ƚ ǞŮȚ) ǕȾȮƃȮƉŽȚ .ǍƸƃɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ǕȮǬȚȶ Ⱦ ƿȮƁȾȣ ȯƾŵ ǍȮƸƃɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ȬȼȶƾŮ ǜȮƵdž ȮȾŽ .Ǡȿ žȼ ǍƸŮ ȯƾŵ “.ǏƸȮ ȼ Ǿƀɀ Ȗ” ǝȼŮȼȶƾű ƿƁƦ njȮŽȚȶ .ƿƁƦ njȮŽȚ Ȭȼ ǛdžȮƴŴ ȼ ǕȾȮƃȮƉŽȘ dž Ʀ Ƶȼ Ȯų Ƚ ǞŮȖ ƾƁ ǾƷɀ Ŵȶ “ȒǍȮƸƃɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ȸǞȿ ȮŴ Nj Ȯŵ ” ǝ Ȯƴ Ȯƴ ȮǬ Ǖ Ȯ ƃȮ ƉŽȘ dž ȼɀ ȼ ɀ ȼ Ⱦ dž “.ȜȼȶɀǍȼȮź ȸǞƦ ȮŴȚȢ Ǡſȕ ” ǝȼŮȼȶƾű ƿƁƦ njȮŽȘ ȼ “.ǛȮ dž ɀ ƀȼ ȜȼȶɀǍȼȮź NjƁȤȖ Ǡſȕ ȆƾƄƦȮƪŽƾŮ ȢȤƾŮ Ǟȿ ȮdžƐȚ ȆƿȮƁȣ ƾƁ” ǝȼȮƴɀȮƴȼȮǬ ǕƃƉŽȘ “.ǠƴŶ Ⱦ NjȮȾƴȾȮű ȟƾƄȮŲȖ ɀ ȠȼȤ ǏȮȼŮ ȆǜƁȥ” ǝȼȮƴɀȮƴȼȮǬ ƿƁƦ njȮŽȚ .ǍƸƃŽƾŮ ƿƁdž njȮƴȮȾŽ ǜȮƸȮƸȮ ƴ ȮƭŽȚ ǟž Ȥȶ . ȴƾƵȮ Ŵ ƞȮ Ƹ Ȯ ƴ Ŷ ǝ ȮŽ Nj Ȯ Ɓƾǧ ǀŸƾŴ NjȮƯȼ ȮȼŮ Ǖűȼ Ⱦ Ȥ ȶ ȠȚȤ ǕȾȮƃȮƉŽȘ ɀ dž Ʀ ȾƦ ƦȾ Ⱦ ȼ ɀȾ Ⱦ “.ȳǞƸɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ǜȮƸȮƸƦ ȾȮƴŶ ȆǠźƾż Ǟ ž Țȣƾƀ Ǐ Ů ” ǝ Ȯƴ Ȯƴ ȮǬ ƿƁ njȮŽȘ Ⱦ ǞŽ NjŲȚȶ Ⱦ ǠƴŶȾ ȟƾƄŲȚ Ƚ ȼ ȼ ɀ ȼ ɀ Ʀ

Cultural and Folkloric Tales | 

ǁƫ ȼ ɀȮƴȮųȾ ” ȲȼƺȮƉ ɀ ȾȮƁ ȜdžǍȮžȼ ǚȮżȶ dž Ƚ ȳƾȮǬ ǕƃƉŽȘ Ƚ .ƿƁȿ njȮƴȮȾŽ ǜȮƸȮƸƦ ȾȮƴŶȾ ǞŽ ǠƴŶȾ ƿƸƆɀƁ ȳǞƁ ǚȮż “ȒȜȼȶɀǍȼȮƱŽȚ “.NjȾȮƴȾȮű NjȮƯȼ ȮȼŮ ȟƾƄŲȖ ɀ ” ǝȼȮŮɀȶƾƆɀƁ ƿƁȿ njȮŽȘ ǁȮƶȾ ȾȮǩ” NjƁNjȾȮű ȤȽ njȮŸȽ ǠƭɀȮƶȾȮƁ ƿƁȿ njȮŽȚ ȆǠƴŶȾ ƿƸƆɀƁ ȜdžǍȮžȼ ǚȮż ȼ ǑȼȮƴųȾ ǕȾȮƃƉŽȚ dž ǜƁNjȮƯɀ ȼ Ů Ƚ ȴLj ȆȵȼǍƃɀ ǧ “.NjƸȮŸȾ ǞżȖ ȴƾǩ ȆǒƁǍžȼ “!ȜȼȶɀǍȼȮƱŽȚ ǑƦȮƴȼȮƈɀȮů ȳȾȥǽ” ƿƁȼ njȮƴȮȾŽ ȲƾȮǬȶ ȆǙȮƀȼ Ⱦ ȥ ǏƸȮ Ʀ ƵȽ ɀȮų ǞŮȚ ǏȼŮ “.ƞžǞȮƁ NjƯȼ ȮȼŮ” ǝȮȼŮȼȶƾű ƿƁȿ njȮŽȘ ǚȾȮƃȮŲȼ ƿƸűȶ ǍȾȮǩƾŮ ȲƾƯȼȮů ȆȝȼǍƉȮ ɀ ƳȾ ɀȮſȘ ȜȼǍɀŮLjȚ” ǝȼȮƴɀȮƴȼȮǬ ƿƁȿ njȮŽȚ ǏȼŮ ȆƞžǞƁ NjƯŮ ǕűȤ ǕƃƉŽȚ dž “.ȱƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ .ȜȼȶɀǍȼȮƱŽȚ ƿƇ ɀ ȾȮƁ ǟȮƄ dž ȼ Ɖ ȿ Ųȼ ǍƸƃŽƾŮ ǚȾȮƃȼƑȚ ȲdžǎȼȮſȶ ȳǞƁ ǠſƾŰ Ǖűȼ Ⱦ Ȥ ǕƃƉŽȘ .ǀƴƸȮǦȮ Ⱦ Ⱦ Ű ǁſƾǩ ƾƷɀȮſLj ǀƶƁȥ ȳȾȥǽ ȜȼȶɀǍȼȮƱŽȚǍdžȮƳȼȮźȶ ȆȜȼȶɀǍȼȮƱŽȚ ƿƇȼ Ɖ ɀ ȾȮƁ ȚNjȼ ȾȮŮ ǕƃȮƉŽȘ dž .ǠƴŶ Ⱦ NjƴȾȮƆȾȮŮ ǝȮŴȚȤ ȼ ǠƦȮƭȼȮưȮžɀ Ⱦȶ ǚȾȮƃȮȼƑƾŮ ƩƦȮƴƯȼ ɀȮƄžȾ ƿƁƦ njȮŽȚ ȸȤNjɀ ȾȮƁ ȴƾǩ ȳȼ Ǟƀ ǏȼŮ .ȳȼǎȾȮƷɀȮſȾȶ ǕȾȮƃƉŽȚ ȼ Ⱦȶ ȳȼ ȲdžȶȖ dž ǝȾȮűȾȶ ǟƴŸ NjȮȾƴȾȮƐȚ ǟžȾȤ ȆǍȮƸƃɀȮŽȚ ǀdžȮźƾŲ ƿƁƦ njŽȚ ǚǧ .ǝƉ ȼ űɀ Ⱦȶ ǟƴŸ ǜžȾ NjȾȮƴȮƦƐȚ Ȳƾŵ ǏƸȮ ȼ ɀȮƱȼȮſ țɀ ǟƍȶ Ʀ ƵȽ ɀȮų ǞŮȚ ǜȮƵdž ȼȮŽ Ⱦ NjƸƯȾȮŮ Ȥƾǧ ƿƁƦ njȮŽȚ ȆǝȮƷȮ Translation: “What happened? It’s not the lion’s fur coat!” One day, the lion (Abu Khmuyyis), the king of the beasts, was very thirsty looking for water. He saw a well. When he looked down into the well he saw a wolf. The lion greeted the wolf and the wolf said to him, “Welcome Abu Khmuyyis.” Said the lion, “What are you doing down there?” The wolf replied, “I am making a fur coat.” The lion said, “O wolf, the winter is cold and I would like to have a fur coat, too.” Said the wolf, “Okay, but I will need sheepskins.” The lion went and came back after one hour having hunted two fat sheep and threw them down the well to the wolf. The wolf said, “But this is not enough. I shall need one or two sheep every day.” The lion began to bring one or two lambs every day to the wolf, and asked him each time, “Is the fur coat done?” The wolf would respond “I need more skin.” Then the lion ran out of patience because each time he brought a lamb, the wolf gave him new excuses for not finishing the coat, “I was ill, there was a feast,” etc. But the lion got fed up and said to the wolf, “ You must finish the coat!” Said the wolf, “In two days.” When the lion returned after two days, the wolf said to him, “The needle broke. Come tomorrow and bring a rope with you.” The lion came the next day and threw the rope down the well to pull up the fur coat. As he began to pull up the coat he thought it must be a fine one since it was heavy. But he did not realize that the wolf was hanging on the rope after covering his head with a sheepskin.

 | l e s s o n  

As soon as the wolf was drawn to top of the well, he threw the skins in the lion’s face and fled. By the time Abu Khmuyyis lifted the skins off his face the wolf was far away and saved himself. (The saying of this story: “What happened? It’s not the lion’s fur coat!” is cited when delivering a job, especially if a garment is postponed a few times—E.S. Stevens, Folk-Tales of Iraq, Oxford University Press, London .)

Vocabulary (Audio) sh-saarat? khoo farwa / farwaat (S/P) sabi / sbaa (S/P) Abu Khmuyyis haywaan / haywaanaat (S/P) ydawwir biir / byaara (S/P) lamman baawa, ybaawi dhiib / dhyaaba (S/P) waagi (part.) jaawab, yjaawib jawwa jaw hamm asawwi asawwilak da-asawwi ahtaaj jilid /jluud (S/P) saayid (part.) tili / tilyaan (S/P) tiliyyeen simiin / smaan (S/P M) rima, yirmi kaafi

What happened? (lit. What has become of it?) interjection implying apprehension or hope fur/s lion’s lion’s nick name (lit. father of five referring to the lion’s five claws) animal/s, beast/s He searches/looks for. well/s when, at the time to look/see wolf/s falling, fallen to answer inside, underneath weather, climate also, too I make I make for you. I am making I need skin/s, leather/s hunting, hunted sheep, lamb/s two sheep fat to throw enough

ɀ ȒȝȼȤƾƫȮŵ ǞȮų ȝȚȶɀǍȼȮź / ȜȼȶɀǍȼȮź ȬƾƃŴ ɀ / ǕȾȮƃȮŴ ȼ ǏƸȮ Ƶ Ȯų ǞŮȖ Ʀ ȼ ɀ ȝƾſȚǞƸȮ ɀ Ųȼ / ȴȚǞƸȮ ɀ Ųȼ ȤƦȶNjȼ ȮɀƁ ȜȼȤƾƸȮɀŮ / ǍƸȮŮ ǜȮƵdž ȼȮŽ ȬȾȶƾƃȮɀƁ ȆȬȼȶƾŮ ǀȼŮƾȮƁȣ / ƿȮƁȣ ǕȾȮǬ Țȶ țȾȶƾƆɀƁ Ȇțȼȶƾű ȵǞdž Ȯűȼ Ǟɀ Ȯűȼ ǛȮ ȿ ƀȼ ȸǞƦ ȮŴȖ ȼ ǙȼȮŽǞƦ ȮŴȖ ȼ ȸǞƦ ȮŴȚȢ ȼ ȟƾƄȮŲȖ ɀ ȢǞƴȮűɀ / NjȾȮƴȾȮű NjȾȮƁƾǧ ȴƾƸɀȮƴŶȾ / ǠȾƴȮŶȾ ǜȮƸȮƸȮ Ʀ ȾƴȮŶȾ ȴƾƵȮŴ Ⱦ ɀ / ƞƵȮŴ ǠžɀǍȾȮƁ Ȇƾžȼ Ⱦ Ȥ Ǡźƾż

Cultural and Folkloric Tales | 

gaam marra kull marra khilsat sabur sabra khilas sabra li¢ann iid / ayaad (S/P) zihag ubra / ubar (S/P) inkisar, yinkisir (RV) taaal habil / hbaal (S/P) nazzal yis hab fakkar thigiil / thigiila (M/F) mitallig mghatti awwal-ma wisal, yoosal haaffa / haaffaat (S/P) wijih nhizam, yinhizim (RV) shaal, yshiil (HV) nija, yinja (WV) nafis nafsa lizam, yilzam kidhab, yikdhib

He stood up. He began to . . . (in association with another verb). once, one time each time, every time It is finished/done. patience his patience He ran out of patience. because feast/s, festival/s He is fed up/disgusted. needle/s to be broken come (imp. v.) rope/s He lowered. He pulls. He thought. heavy hanging on covering as soon as (injunction) to reach/arrive edge/s face to run away, to flee to lift off, to carry to be saved self, being, soul himself to catch, to hold to lie

ȳƾȮǬ ȜdžǍȮžȼ ȜdžǍȮžȼ ǚȮż Ƚ ǁƫ ȼ ɀȮƴųȾ ǍȮƃȽ ǧ ȼ ȵȼǍȮƃɀ ǧ ȼ ȜȼǍȮƃɀ ǧ Ǒ Ȯƴ ų ȼ ȼ Ⱦ ȴLj ȢƾƸȮŸɀ Ȗ / NjƸȮŸȾ ƩȮƀȼ Ⱦ ȥ ǍȼȮŮȽȚ / ȜȼǍȮɀŮȽȚ ǍƉȮ Ⱦ ƳȾ ɀȮƶȾȮƁ ȆǍƉȮ ȼ ƳȾ ɀȮſȘ ȲƾƯȼȮů ȲƾƃŲɀ / ǚȾȮƃȮŲȼ ȲdžǎȼȮſ ƿƇȼ Ɖ ɀ ȾȮƁ ǍdžȮƳȼȮź ǀƴƸȮȮǦȾ ɀȮŰ / ǚƸȮȮǦȮȾŰ ƩƦȮƴƯȼ ɀȮƄžȾ ǠƦȮƭȼȮưžɀ ȳȼ ȲdžȶȖ ǚǧǞƁ Ȇǚ ǧ ȼ ȼ Ⱦȶ ȝƾȮźƾŲ / ǀdžȮźƾŲ ȿ ǝȾȮűȾȶ ȳȾǎȾȮƷɀȮƶȾȮƁ ȆȳȼǎȮƷȾ ɀȮſ ǚƸȮƪȮɀƁ ȆȲƾŵ ƾƆȼ ɀȮƶȾȮƁ ȆƾȮȼƍȾ ǏȮƱȾ ȼȮſ ǝƉ ȼ ɀȮƱȼȮſ ȳȼǎɀȮƴȾȮƁ ȆȳȼǎȾŽ țnjȾ ɀȮƳȾȮƁ ȆțnjȮżȾ

Grammar and Remarks Conjunctions: Conjunctions are used to connect words, phrases or clauses, e.g. and, or, if, etc. Several conjunctions have already appeared in the book. There are two types of conjunctions in Iraqi Arabic: simple conjunctions and those which are formed by adding the suffix “-ma” to certain prepositions, interrogatives, or nouns. Below is a list of the most common conjunctions of the two types with examples. (Audio)

 | l e s s o n  

1. Simple Conjunctions: w/wa ȶ and Kaamil w Samiira w Laylaa iraaqiyyiin

Kamil and Samira and Laylaa are Iraqis.

bass ǏȼŮ but, only, enough aani khaabartak, bass il-khat chaan mashghuul dirasna arabi bass haadha w bass

I called you, but the line was busy. We studied Arabic only. This is enough.

Ǔƈȼ ɀȮŽȚ ǏȼŮ ȆǙůɀǍȮȼŮƾų Ǡſȕ ȲǞưɀȮƪžȼ ȴƾǩ ǏȼŮ ǠŮǍŸ ƾƶȮŴ ɀ ȼ ȤȾȢ ǏȼŮȶ Țȣƾƀ

But you know I am tired!

!ȴƾƃȮƯɀ ȼȮů Ǡſȕ ǜƁȤNjɀ ȮȾů ǠƄſȘ ǜȮżǽ Ⱦ

Are you Iraqi or Egyptian?

ȒȸǍƫ ɀ žȼ ɀȶȖ ǠŻȚǍȮŸȾ ǁſȘ

Is she an Arab or a Turk?


laakin ǜȮżǽ but Ⱦ laakin inti tidriin aani tabaan! aw ɀȶȖ or inta iraaqi aw Masri? loo ǞŽ or hiyya arabiyya loo Turkiyya?

loo ǞŽ if (see also lesson ) loo jiit chaan rihna siwiyya If you had come we would have gone together. idhaa ȚȣȘ if (see also lesson ) idhaa truuh lil-iraq zuur If you go to Iraq, visit Baabil Babylon. li¢ann ȴLj because huwwa yudrus hwaaya li¢ann inda mtihaan

He is studying very much because he has an exam.

hatta ǟȮƄ ȿ Ųȼ in order to, so (that), until jiibli jilid hatta asawwilak Bring me skins so that I will farwa make you a fur coat.


ǝȮdžƁǞȮ Ⱦ ƾƶȮŲɀ Ⱦ Ȥ ȴƾȮǩ ǁƸű ǞŽ Ⱦ Ŵ


ȵNjȼ ɀȮƶȮŸȾ ȴLj ǝȼƁȚǞƀɀ ȦȽȤNjɀ ȮȽƁ Ǟƀ ȴƾƇȮƄȾ žɀ Ț ǟȮƄŲ ɀ ȿ NjȮȾƴȾȮű ǠƴȮƃȮƸű ȜȼȶɀǍȼȮź ǙȼȮŽǞƦ ŴȖ ȼ

laa . . . wala ǽȶ . . . ǽ neither . . . nor, not . . . and not (see also lesson ) ǑƸųȾȤ ǽȶ ǠŽƾŹ ǽ ǛȮƯȼ ɀȮƭȼƓȘ il-matam laa ghaali wala The restaurant is neither rikhiis expensive nor cheap.

Cultural and Folkloric Tales | 

min ǜžȾ when min yiji nruuh siwiyya

When he comes we will go together.

walaw Ǟɀ ȼȮŽȶ although, even though raahaw lil-iraaq walaw They went to Iraq although ma-yihchuun arabi they don’t speak Arabic.


2. Conjunctions with Suffix -ma ȳȼ : a. With Interrogatives: ween? (where?)

shwakit? (when?)

shloon? (how?)

shunu? sh- ? (what?)

shgadd? (how much?)

minu? (who?)

mneen? (from where?)

ween-ma (wherever) ween-ma truuh aruuh wiyyaak (Wherever you go, I go with you.) shwakit-ma (whenever) shwakit-ma triidiin (Whenever you [F] want.) shloon-ma (however, any way that) shloon-ma triidiin (Any way you [F] want.) shunu-ma, sh-ma (whatever) sh-ma triid antiik (I give you [M] whatever you want.) shgadd-ma (no matter how much) ariid is-sayyaara shgadd-ma ykuun siirha (I want the car, no matter how much its price.) minu-ma (whoever) minu-ma yiji yaakhudh li-ktaab (Whoever comes takes the book.) mneen-ma (from wherever) mneen-ma ijeet ahlan biik (Wherever you came from, you are welcome.)

ȳȼ ǜƁȶ ȼ ȮƁ ȱƾ ȿ Ⱦȶ ȠȶȤȖ ȠȶǍɀȮů ȳȼ ǜƁȶ ȳȼ ǁȮżȾ Ǟȼ ɀȮŵ ǜƁNjƁǍɀȮů ȳȼ ǁȮżȾ Ǟȼ ɀȮŵ ȳȼ ȴǞƴɀȮŵ ǜƁNjƁǍɀȮů ȳȼ ȴǞƴɀȮŵ ɀ ȳȼ ȧ ɀ ǙƸƭɀȮſȖ NjƁǍɀȮů ȳȼ ȧ ɀ ȳȼ NjȼȮȮǦŵ ȼ ȜȤƾƸȮƉŽȚ ȳȼ NjȼȮƳŵ dž NjƁȤȖ ƾƀɀǍȮƯȾ ȮŴ Ⱦ ȴǞƳɀȮƁ ȳȼ ǞƶȮžȾ țƾƄɀȮƳȮȾŽ njȮųƾƁ ǠƆ Ȯ Ɓ ȳ Ⱦ ȼ ǞƶȮžȾ Ƚ ȳȼ ƞȮƶȮžɀ ǙƸȮŮ ȹǾȮƀɀ Ȗ ǁȮƸȮűȘ ȳȼ ƞȮƶȮžɀ

 | l e s s o n  

b. With Prepositions: gabul (before)

baad (after)

been (between)

mithil (like, similar to)

gabul-ma (before) huwwa raah gabul-ma ijeetu (He left before you arrived.) baad-ma (after) ruuh baad-ma tshuuf Laylaa (Go, after you see Laylaa.) been-ma (while) hiyya wislat been-ma aani naayim (She arrived while I was asleep.) mithil-ma (as, the way that) sawweet ish-shughul mithil-ma triid (I did the work the way that you wanted.)

c. With Some Nouns: yoom (day) yoom-ma (the day when) akuun farhaan yoom-ma azuur Baghdad (I will be happy when I visit Baghdad.) saaa (hour) saaat-ma (the hour when) frahit hwaaya saaat-ma shiftich (I was very happy when I saw you.) mahall (place) mahall-ma (the place where) raahaw mahall-ma shiftak (They went to the place where I saw you.)

ȳȼ ǚȮƃ Ƚ ȼȮǬ ǞȮƄƸȮűȘ ȳȼ ǚȮƃ ȮǬ ȠȚȤ Ǟƀ Ƚ ȼ ȳȼ NjȮƯȼ ȮȼŮ ǟƴƸŽ ȯǞƪɀȮů ȳȼ NjȮƯȼ ȮȼŮ ȠȶȤ ȳȼ ǜȮƸȮŮ Ǡſȕ ȳȼ ǜȮƸȮŮ ǁȼȮƴǧ ɀ Ⱦȶ Ǡƀ ǛȾȮƁƾſ ȳȼ ǚȮƅȾ ȮžȾ ȳȼ ǚȮƅȾ ȮžȾ ǚȮư ǁƁǞƦ ȮŴ ȼ ȿ ȮƪŽȚ LJ NjƁǍɀȮů

ȳȼ ȳǞȮƁ ȢȚNjưŮ ȤȶȥȖ ȳȼ ȳǞƁ ȴƾŲɀǍȼȮź ȴǞżȖ ȳȼ ǀŸȼ ƾŴ ȳȼ ǀŸȼ ƾŴ ǝƁȚǞȮƀɀ ǁȮŲȾ ȼǍɀȮź ǶȮƄȾ ɀȮƱȮŵ Ⱦ ȳȼ ǚȮƇȼ žȼ ǙȼȮƄɀȮƱȮŵ Ⱦ ȳȼ ǚȮƇȼ žȼ Ǟɀ ȮŲȚȤ ȼ

Idioms and Common Phrases (Audio) 1. makaan (ak) khaali il-baarha zirna Baabil, makaanak khaali leesh ma-jiitu lil-hafla, makaankum khaali Laylaa makaanha khaali, hiyya muu hnaa yoom ij-juma akalit ib-matam zeen, makaanich khaali

ǠŽƾų ǙȼȮſƾƳžȼ (You) were missed. (lit. Your place was vacant.) Yesterday we visited Babylon. We missed you. Why didn’t you come to the party? We missed you. Laylaa is missed, she is not here. On Friday I ate in a good restaurant. I missed you there.

ǙȼȮſƾƳžȼ ȆǚŮƾŮ ƾſɀȤȾȥ ǀŲɀȤƾƃŽȘ ǠŽƾų ȒǀƴɀȮƱƇȼ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ ǞȮƄƸȮű ȳȼ ǐƸŽ ǠŽƾų ǛȮƳ Ƚ ɀȮſƾƳžȼ ǞžȽ Ǡƀ ȆǠŽƾų ƾƷɀȮſƾƳžȼ ǟƴƸŽ ƾƶȮƀɀ țɀ ǁȾȮƴȼȮżȖ ǀƯȼ Ƶɀ ȮLJƐȚ ȳǞƁ ǠŽƾų ǶȮȾſƾƳžȼ ȆǜƁȥ ǛƯȼ ɀȮƭžȼ


Cultural and Folkloric Tales | 

2. 9aashat iid + pronoun

+NjȮƁȘ ǁȼȮŵƾŸ

well done (lit. long live (your) hand.)

It is said to someone who has done a good job. aashat iidak haadha Well done, this is good work. khoosh shughul aashat iidkum akilkum Well done, your food is tasty. tayyib aashat iidich sallahti Well done, you fixed the is-saaa b-sura watch quickly.

ȧǞų Țȣƾƀ ȱNjȼ ȮƁȘ ǁȼȮŵƾŸ ǚȮư Ƚ Ȯŵ Ƚ ǛȮƳ ȮƴȮ żȖ Ǜ Ȯż Nj ȮƁȘ ǁ ȮŵƾŸ Ⱦ ɀ ȼ Ƚ ɀ Ƚ ƿȮƸƦ ȼȮŶ ǠƄƇɀ džȮƴǧ ȼ ɃNjȾ ȮƁȘ ǁȼȮŵƾŸ ǀŸȼ ɀǍȮŴ ȿ Ƚ țɀ ǀŸƾƉŽȚ

ʞʏ 1. Answer orally the following questions based on folktale number 1: ʄɷ ȒƾdžȮƪƵȼ ɀȮƄȾȮƁȼ Ȣ ȴƾǩ ǀƱƸƴƒȚ ǜƁȶ ȒǀƲƁNjȮƇȼ ɀȮŽƾŮ ǀƱƸƴƒȚ ȯƾŵ ǜȮƵȼ ɀȮŽȘ ʏʞ ɀ ȒǀƲƁNjƇȼ ɀȮŽƾŮ ȦȚǞſ ǞŮȚ ȸǞƦ ȮƉ ȼ ɀ Ɓ Njȼ Ȯŵ ɀ ɷʄ ȒǀƱƸƴƈɀȮŽȚ ȯƾŵ ǜžȾ ȦȚǞſ ǞŮȚ ȷǞȿ ȮŴ ȼ ȧ ȒnjƸȮƃſ ǞŽ Ǡžȼ țǍɀȮƪȾȮƁ Ȣȿ ȴƾǩ ȦȚǞſ ǞŮȚ ʞʏ ȒȜǍƫŻ țɀ țǍƪȾȮƁ NjŲȖ ȼ NjƁǍɀƁ ȳȼ ǀƱƸƴƒȚ ǐƸŽ ʄɷ ʏʞ ǞŮȚ ǜŸȼ ǠƱƯɀ ȾȮƁ ǟȮƄ ȿ Ųȼ ǀƱƸƴƒȚ ȪɀǍȼȮŵ ǞƶȮŵ Ƚ ȒȦȚǞſ ɷʄ ɀ ȒǀƱƸƴȼȮƈɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȦȚǞſ ǞŮȚ ȷǞȿ Ŵ ȧ ǜƁNj Ưɀ ȼ Ů ȼ ʏʞ ȒǀƱƸƴȼȮƈɀȮŽȚ ƿƆdž Ưȼ ɀȮů ǞƶȮŵ ǜ ž Ⱦ Ƚ ɀ ɷʄ Ȓǝǧ ȼ ȼǍȮǬȾ ȳȼ NjƯȼ ȼ Ů ǀƱƸƴƈɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȦȚǞſ ǞŮȚ ȲƾȮǦŵ ȒȦȚǞſ ǞŮȚ ǟƴŸ ǍȼȮƅɀȮżȖ ƿƬ ȼ ŹȾ ǀƱƸƴƒȚ ǐƸŽ ʏʞ ǀƱƸƴȼȮƈɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȦȚǞſ ǞŮȚ țȚǞűȼ ȴƾǩ ǞƶȮŵ Ƚ ɷʄ ʏʞ ȒǀƱƸƴȼȮƈɀȮŽȚ ǀűȼ ɀȶȼȥ ǛŴȖ Ⱦ ǞƶȮŵ Ƚ ȒȦȚǞſ ǞŮȚ ǜȮŸȼ ǀƱƸƴƈɀȮŽȚ ƾȼȮƱȮŸȾ ǐƸȮŽ ɷʄ 2. Answer orally the following questions based on folktale number 2: ʏʞ ȒȝƾſȚǞƸɀ ȼƑȚ ǙȮȾƴžȼ ǞƶȮžȾ ȒǠȿ žȼ ǟƴŸ ȤƦȶNjȼ ɀ Ɓ ȼȢ ȴƾǩ ǕȾȮƃȮƉŽȚ dž ǐƸŽ ɷʄ ɀ ȒǍƸƃɀȮŽƾŮ ǕȾȮƃȮƉŽȚ dž ȯƾŵ ȧ ɀ ʏʞ ȒƿƁƦ njȮŽȚ ǜȮžɀ ǕȾȮƃȮƉŽȚ dž ȢȚȤ ȧ ɷʄ ʏʞ Drill



ween il-Khaliifa chaan da-yitmashsha? ilman shaaf il-Khaliifa bil-hadiiqa? sh-da-ysawwi Abu Nuwaas bil-hadiiqa? sh-sawwa Abu Nuwaas min shaaf il-Khaliifa? Abu Nuwaas chaan da-yishrab mayy loo nabiidh? leesh il-Khaliifa ma-yriid ahad yishrab ib-qasra? shunu shart il-Khaliifa hatta yifi an Abu Nuwaas? badeen sh-sawwa Abu Nuwaas lil-Khaliifa? min shunu tajjab il-Khaliifa? sh-gaal Abu Nuwaas lil-Khaliifa baad-ma girasa? leesh il-Khaliifa ghidab akthar ala Abu Nuwaas? shunu chaan jawaab Abu Nuwaas lil-Khaliifa? shunu isim zawjat il-Khaliifa? leesh ifa il-Khaliifa an Abu Nuwaas?

minu malik il-haywaanaat? leesh is-sabi chaan da-ydawwir ala mayy? sh-shaaf is-sabi bil-biir? sh-raad is-sabi mnidh-dhiib?


 | l e s s o n  

ɷʄ ȒȜȼȶɀǍȼȮź ȸǞƦ Ɖ ȼ ȼ ɀ Ɓ Ȣȿ ȴƾǩ ƿƁƦ njȮŽȚ ljƸƇǧ ɀ ȒǕȾȮƃȮƉŽȚ ǜ ž ƿƁ njȮŽȚ ƿ Ȯƴ Ŷ ȧ ʞʏ Ⱦ ɀ Ʀ dž ȼ ȒȳǞƸɀȮŽƾŮ ƿƁƦ njȮŽȚ ȢȚȤ ǠȮȾƴŶȾ Ǜż ʄɷ ȒȵȼǍȮƃɀ ǧ ȼ ǑȼȮƴųȾ ǕȾȮƃȮƉŽȚ dž ǐƸŽ ȒǍȼȮƅɀȮżȖ ȴƾƸɀȮƴŶȾ ȢȚȤ ƿƁƦ njȮŽȚ ǐƸŽ ʏʞ ȒǍƸƃɀȮŽȚ ǜžɀ ȜȶǍƱŽȚ ƿƇȼ Ŵ Ⱦ ǕȾȮƃȮƉŽȚ dž ȴǞƴɀȮŵ ȒǀƴƸȮƳȮ Ⱦ Ⱦ Ű ǁȼȮſƾǩ ȜȶǍȮƱŽȚ ǐƸŽ ɷʄ ɀ ȒǍƸƃŽȚ ǀźƾŲ ǚǧ ȼ Ⱦȶ ǜžȾ ƿƁƦ njȮŽȚ ȷǞdž ȮŴ ȼ ȧ ȒƿƁƦ njȮŽȚ ȳȼǎɀȮƴȾȮƁ ȤNjȼ ȮżȾ ȳȼ ǏƸȮ Ƚ ǞŮȚ ǐƸŽ Ʀ Ƶų ʞʏ ȒǕȾȮƃȮƉŽȚ dž Ȭȼ țnjȮżȾ ƿƁƦ njȮŽȚ ǐƸŽ ʄɷ 3. Fill in the blanks using the conjunctions listed below: ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ sahiih idh-dhiib chaan da-ysawwi farwa? sh-tilab idh-dhiib mnis-sabi? kam tili raad idh-dhiib bil-yoom? leesh is-sabi khilas sabra? leesh idh-dhiib raad tilyaan akthar? shloon is-sabi sihab il-farwa mnil-biir? leesh il-farwa chaanat thigiila? sh-sawwa idh-dhiib min wisal haaffat il-biir? leesh Abu Khmuyyis ma-gidar yilzam idh-dhiib? leesh idh-dhiib kidhab as-sabi?

bass loo hatta idhaa

min ween-ma laakin shwakit-ma

gabul-ma baad-ma been-ma

inda fluus chaan ishtira sayyaara

raahat lil-madrasa

ma-dirsat arabi

laazim ykuun indak fiiza

truuh lil-iraaq

khaabartak il-khatt chaan mashghuul

Samiir habb Samiira


antiik fluus


ijiit azuurak

inta ma-chinit bil-beet

shifit Basma sallimli leeha

taaal lil-beet

aruuh wiyyaak

zaaraw il-iraaq

truuh lij-jaamia triid

zaaraw Lubnaan

yoom-ma shgadd-ma minu-ma


wisal Khaalid

Cultural and Folkloric Tales | 

ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ȳȼ ǚȮƃ ǜžȾ ǏȼȮŮ ʏʞ Ƚ ȼȮǬ ȳȼ NjƯȼ ȼ Ů ȳȼ ǜƁȶ ǞŽ ɷʄ ȳȼ ƞŮ ǜżǽ ǟȮƄ Ⱦ ȿ Ųȼ ȳȼ ǁżȾ Ǟȼ ɀȮŵ ȚȣȘ ʞʏ ʄɷ ȜȤƾƸȮ ȼ ȚȼǍƄȾ ɀȮŵȘ ȴƾǩ ȦǞƴź ȵNjȼ ɀȮƶŸȾ ȿ Ŵ ʏʞ ǠŮǍŸȼ ǁŴ ǀŴȤNjƵȼ ɀȮƴȮȾŽ ǁŲȚȤ ȼ ɀ ȤȾȢ ȳȼ ȼ ɷʄ ȰȚǍƯɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȠȶǍɀȮů ȜȼǎƸȮź ȱNjƶȮŸȼ ȴǞƳɀȮƁ ȳȥǽ ʞʏ ȲǞưɀȮƪžȼ ȴƾǩ Ǔƈȼ ɀȮŽȚ ǙůɀǍȮȼȾŮƾų ʄɷ ƾƷɀȮźƾŵ ȜǍƸƵŴ ƿŲȼ ǍƸƵŴ ʏʞ NjƁǍɀȮů ȦǞƴź ǙƸƭɀȮſȖ ɷʄ ǁƸƃɀȮŽƾŮ ǁȮƶȾ ȾȮȮǩ ȳȼ ǁſȘ ȱȼȤȶȥȖ ǁƸűȘ ʏʞ ƾƷƸƴȮŸȼ ǠƴȮƵɀ ƦȮƴȮŴ Ⱦ ȼ ǀƵƉŮ ǁȾȮƱŵ ɷʄ ǀƯȼ žȾ ƾƆƴȮ ǁƸƃɀȮƴȮȾŽ ȲƾƯȼȮů ʏʞ ȿ ȾŽ ȠȶǍɀȮů NjƁǍɀȮů ȱƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ȠȶȤȖ ɷʄ ȴƾƶƃȮŽ ȰȚǍƯŽȚ ɀȶȼȤȚȥ ʏʞ Ƚ ɀȶȼȤȚȥ ǀŴ NjŽƾų ǚǧ ȼ Ⱦȶ ɷʄ ȼ ȼ ȤNjɀ Ƶȼ ɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ǁȮƶȾ ȾȮȮǩ Ǡſȕ ʏʞ ɃƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ǚȮżȕ Ƚ ƞƴɀȮżƾů ɷʄ ȱƾȮƁȿ Ⱦȶ ȠȶȤȖ ȤȶǎɀȮů ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ aani chinit bil-madrasa

taakliin aakul wiyyaach

ȳȼ ȳǞƁ ȳȼ NjȼȮǦɀȮŵ ȳȼ ǞƶžȾ

tzuur aruuh wiyyaak

 | l e s s o n  

ɷʄ 4. Put the following in complete sentences: ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ



ȳȼ ǚƇȼ žȼ


ȳȼ ǀŸȼ ƾŴ


ȳȼ ǚȮƅȾ ȮžȾ


ǚȮƅȾ ȮžȾ



laa . . . wala



ǽȶ . . . ǽ ȒǞƶȮžȾ ȳȼ ǞƶȮžȾ

makaanak khaali

ǠŽƾų ǙſƾƳžȼ

aashat iidak

ȱNjȼ ȮƁȘ ǁŵƾŸ




ɀȶȖ ȒƞƶȮžɀ ȳȼ ƞƶȮžɀ


Cultural and Folkloric Tales | 

5. Complete and read the following aloud: a. il-filim chaan kullish zeen, makaanak khaali , makaanich khaali , makaankum khaali , makaana khaali , makaanha khaali , makaanhum khaali b. aashat iidak (M), sawweet ish-shughul ib-sura (inti) (intu) (huwwa) (hiyya) (humma)

6. Translate the following into Arabic:

ɷʄ ǠŽƾų ǙſƾƳžȼ ȆǜƁȥ ǐƦȮƴȮż Ƚ ȴƾǩ ǛȾƴȮƱȾ ɀȮŽȘ ʞʏ ǠŽƾų ǶȮȾſƾƳžȼ Ȇ ʄɷ ǠŽƾų ǛƳɀȮſƾƳžȼ Ȇ ʏʞ ɷʄ ǠŽƾų ǝȼȮſƾƳžȼ Ȇ ʞʏ ǠŽƾų ƾƷɀȮſƾƳžȼ Ȇ ʄɷ ǠŽƾų ǛƷȽ ɀȮſƾƳžȼ Ȇ ǀŸȼ ɀǍŴ ǁƁǞȿ ȮŴ ȼ ȆȱNjȼ ȮƁȘ ǁŵƾŸ ʏʞ Ƚ țɀ ǚȮư LJ Ƚ ȮƪŽȚ (ǠƄſȘ) ɷʄ (ǞƄſȘ) ʞʏ (Ǟƀ) ʄɷ (Ǡƀ) ʏʞ (ǝƵȼdž ȮƀȽ ) ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ

Whenever I go to the school garden I see Samar there.

Iraq is one of the most ancient countries in the world.

Mesopotamia means the land between the two rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates.

Harun ir-Rashid was the most famous caliph of the Islamic Empire.

 | l e s s o n  


ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʞʏ ʄɷ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ ʏʞ ɷʄ two short paragraphs: one telling about an experience you might have had similar ʏʞ theWritefolktale, “The excuse is worse than the misdeed,” and the second similar to the ɷʄ folktale, “What happened? It’s not the lion’s fur coat.” ʏʞ

The “Epic of Gilgamesh” is the oldest literary tale; it preceded Homer’s Iliad by more than two thousand years.

Harun ir-Rashid, Prince of the Believers, was married to Zubayda, Mother of the Believers.

Was Abu Nuwas a well-known poet or a musician in the caliph’s palace?

The lion is stronger than the wolf, but the wolf is smarter than he is.

The wolf had fallen in the well and he tricked the lion to take him out of the well.

The wolf lied to the lion because he wanted to save himself.

The lion ran out of patience after many excuses from the wolf.

Better to have a good brain than strength without a brain.

Whenever I go home I find my sister watching TV.

After I study Arabic here, I shall go to the University of Cairo in Egypt for two years.

I would have gone to Baghdad if I had spoken Iraqi Arabic better.

What have you learned from these two old folktales?

ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ glossary ɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷ ʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞ ʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄɷʄ ʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏʞʏ Please read the notes below. This glossary contains the words, expressions, phrases, and idioms that occur in this book. It is organized as follows: Both the Arabic–English and the English–Arabic sections are arranged alphabetically. The Arabic–English section is listed according to the Iraqi Arabic letters and symbols, which are shown in lesson  (¢ Ȕ, b ț, p Ɂ, t ȝ, th Ȟ, j ȟ, ch Ƀ, h Ƞ, kh ȡ, d Ȣ, dh ȣ, r Ȥ, z ȥ, s Ȧ, sh ȧ, s Ȩ, d ȩ, t Ȫ, z ȫ,  Ȭ, gh ȭ, g Ɇ, f ȯ, q Ȱ, k ȱ, l Ȳ, l Ȳ, m ȳ, n ȴ, h Ȯƀ, w ȶ, y ȸ). The English–Arabic section is listed in the English alphabetical order. . A cross-reference system is used in the glossary. References are made to the relevant discussion, structure, or grammar either in the text or to another heading in the glossary. A word that occurs or constitutes part of a common phrase/idiom is listed under that word. . Since the glottal stop sound, the so-called hamza (¢), is not rendered graphically in this text when it occurs in the beginning of the word, the reader will find the words that begin with one of the vowels, “a,” “i,” or “u” listed in that vowel order under the heading (¢) in the glossary. . Verbs are listed, as usual, under the third person masculine singular form (he) in the past tense followed by the present tense. . Nouns and adjectives (including relative adjectives) are listed without the definite article “il-” in their singular forms followed by the plural, masculine, and feminine forms.

 | Glossary




hamza (glottal stop)

A Aashuur

Aashuuri / Aashuuriyyiin (M) Aashuuriyya / Aashuuriyyaat (F) aani aanisa / aanisaat (S/P) sayyida / sayyidaat (S/P) ab / aabaa¢ (S/P) waalid abjadi / abjadiyya (M/F) il-huruuf il-abjadiyya Abu Nuwaas

athar / aathaar (S/P) athari / athariyya (M/F) aathaari / aathaariyya / aathaariyyiin (M/F/P) ajjar, y¢ajjir (RV) ahhad ahsan ahmar / hamra (M/F/) akh / ukhwaan (S/P) akhadh, yaakhudh (RV) akhbaar mahalliyya akhbaar aalamiyya adab / aadaab (S/P) bala adab


Ashur, name of ancient land and god of northern Iraq Assyrian/s, ancient people of northern Iraq Assyrian/s, Assyriology I (independent pronoun, see lesson ) Miss/s Mrs./s father/s father alphabetical, alphabetically the alphabet A proper name of the night-life street in Baghdad named after the famous Arab poet who lived in the eighth century. antique/s, antiquity/s, ruin/s archaeological, ancient archaeologist/s to rent, to lease one, someone better (for comparative see lesson ) red (for colors see lesson ) brother/s to take national news international news literature/s impolite, with no manner

ȤǞȮŵȕ ǜȮƸȮƦƁȤǞŵȕ / ȸȤǞŵȕ ȝƾƁȿ ȤǞŵȕ / ǀȮdžƁȤǞŵȕ Ǡſȕ ȝƾƉȾſȕ / ǀƉȮ ȼ Ⱦ ſȕ ȝȚNjȮƸȮ ȼ / ȜNjȼ ȮƸȮ ȼ Ʀ Ŵ Ʀ Ŵ ȔƾȮŮȕ / țȖ NjȮȾŽȚȶ ǀȮdžƁNjȾ Ƈȼ ȼ ŮȖ / ȸNjƆȼ ɀ ŮȖ ǀȮdžƁNjȾ ȮƆȼ ɀ ŮLjȚ ȯȶǍƇȽ ɀȮŽȘ ȦȚǞȮſ Ƚ ǞŮȖ

ȤƾȮŰȕ / ǍȼȮŰȖ ǀȮdžƁȾǍȼȮŰȖ / ȸǍȼȮŰȖ ƞȮƦƁȤƾŰȕ /ǀdžƁȤƾŰȕ / ȸȤƾŰȕ ǍȾȮűƺȮɀƁ / ǍȮűȖ dž NjȮŲȖ dž ǜƉ ȼ ŲȖ ɀ ȜȼǍƵɀ Ųȼ / ǍƵȼ ŲȖ ɀ ȴȚǞɀȮųȽȚ / ȡȖ njȮųƾƁ ȆnjȼȮųȖ Ƚ ǀdžȮƸȮƦȮƴȮƇȮ ž Ȥƾƃ ȼ ȼ ɀȮųȖ ǀȮƸƵ dž ȼȮŽƾŸ ȤƾƃɀȮųȖ țȚȢȕ / țɀ ȼȢȖ țɀ ȼȢȖ ǾȼŮ

Arabic–English | 

arbaa arbaa-taash arbaiin raabi / raaba (M/F) asaas / usus (S/P) asaasi / asaasyyiin (M) asaasiyya / asaasiyyaat (F) asad / usuud (S/P) Asad Baabil as-salaamu alaykum

wa alaykum is-salaam aswad / suud (M) sooda / soodaat (F) asfar / sufur (M) safra / safraat (F) asil asli / asliyyiin (M) asliyya / asliyyaat (F) araad azab / uzzaab (M) izba / izbaat (F) Akad Akadi / Akadiyya / Akadiyyiin (M/F/P) akal, yaakul (RV) akil akil sharqi akil gharbi akla / aklaat (S/P)

four fourteen forty (see lesson ) fourth (ordinal number see lesson ) basis, foundation/s basic basic lion/s the Lion of Babylon (in Babylon) Peace be upon you. (Always in plural form, it is the most common formal greeting that can be used any time of the day, see lesson .) And peace be upon you (in reply). black/s (colors, see lesson ) black/s yellow/s yellow/s origin original original symptoms single/s, unmarried single/s, unmarried Akkad (name of ancient land and city in Iraq) Akkadian/s (name of ancient people) to eat food (collective word) eastern food western food dish/es of food


ȳǾȮƉŽȘ dž ǛȮƳ Ƚ Ƹɀ ȼȮƴȮŸȼ ȶ ȢǞȮŴ / ȢǞȼ ŴȖ ɀ ȝȚȢǞŴ / ȜȼȢǞŴ ǍȮƱ ɀ Ƚ / ǍȼȮƱǧȖ Ƚ ǧ ȝȚǍɀȮƱǧ ȼ / ȜǍɀȮƱǧ ȼ ǚǧȖ Ⱦ ƞȮƸȮ ƴ ǧȖ / Ǡƴ ǧȖ ɀ Ʀ Ⱦ ɀ ȝƾƸȮ ƴ ǧȖ / ǀ ƸȮ ƴ ǧȖ ȿ Ⱦ ɀ dž Ⱦ ɀ ȩȚǍŸɀ Ȗ țȚǎȿ ŸȽ / țǎŸɀ Ȗ ȝƾŮɀǎȮŸȾ / ǀȼŮɀǎȮŸȾ NjȼȮżȖ ƞȮƦƁNjȾ ȼȮżȖ / ǀȮdžƁNjȾ ȼȮżȖ / ȸNjȼȮżȖ ǚȮżƾƁ Ƚ ȆǚȼȮżȖ ǚȮżȖ Ⱦ ǠŻɀǍȼȮŵ ǚȮżȖ Ⱦ ǠŮɀǍȼȮŹ ǚȮżȖ Ⱦ ȝǾɀȮżȖ / ǀȼȮƴɀȮżȖ

 | Glossary

aklat il-yoom aku maaku aqbah < qabiih (adj.) alam / aalaam alif / aalaaf (S/P) alla alla ykhalliik allaa(h) allaa bil-kheer Amriika Amriiki / Amriikaan (M) Amriikiyya / Amriikiyyaat (F) amiir / umaraa¢ (S/P) amur / awaamir (S/P) ahal, eela ahlan wa sahlan aw, loo Awrubba awwal / uulaa (M/F) awwal-ma ayy, yaa, yaahu?

today’s dish there is/are (see lesson ) there isn’t / aren’t worse < bad (lit. ugly) pain/s thousand/s (see lesson ) God May God preserve you (see lesson ). How nice (expression of admiration, see lesson ). God bless (see lesson ) America American/s American/s prince/s order/s, matter/s family welcome (very common phrase) or Europe first (see ordinal number lesson ) as soon as (see lesson ) which? (see lesson )

I ii, naam ibin / abnaa¢ (S/P) ibin akh ibin ukhut ibin khaal binit khaal ibin amm binit amm ithneen / thinteen (M/F) thaani / thaanya (M/F)


yes son/s (for more terms, see lesson ) nephew (brother’s side) nephew (sister’s side) male cousin (maternal) female cousin (maternal) male cousin (paternal) female cousin (paternal) two (cardinal) second (ordinal)

ȳǞƸɀȮŽȘ ǀȼȮƴɀȮżȖ ǞȮżȖ ǞȮżƾž ljƸȮƃȼȮŻ > ljȮƃȼ ɀȮŻȖ ȳǽȕ / ǛȼȮŽȖ ȯǽȕ / ǗȮȾŽȖ ʇȖ ǙȮƸƦȮƴȼȮƈɀƁ ʇȖ ȵǾɀȮŽȖ ǍƸƈɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ʇȖ ƾƳƁǍžɀ Ȗ ȴƾƳƁǍžɀ Ȗ / ǠƳƁǍžɀ Ȗ ȝƾȮƸȮ Ⱦ žɀ Ȗ / ǀƸȮ Ⱦ žɀ Ȗ ȿ ƳƁǍ dž ƳƁǍ ȔȚǍȮžȼ Ƚ Ț / ǍƸžȖ ǍȮžȾ ȚȶȖ / ǍȮžȽ Ȗ ǀȼȮƴƸȮŸ Ȇǚƀȼ Ȗ ȹǾƷɀ Ŵȶ ȼ ȹǾƀɀ Ȗ ǞȮŽ ȆɀȶȖ ƾȮŮȶȤɀȶȖ ǟŽȶȽȚ / ȲdžȶȖ ȳȼ ȲdžȶȖ ǞƀƾȮƁ ȆƾȮƁ ȆȸȖ ǛȮƯȼ ȼȮſ ȆǠǣ ȔƾƶȮɀŮȖ / ǜȾȮŮȘ ȡȖ ǜȾȮŮȘ ǁȮų Ƚ Ƚ Ț ǜȾȮŮȘ Ȳƾų ǜȾȮŮȘ Ȳƾų ǁȾȮƶȾȮŮ ǛȮŸȼ ǜȾȮŮȘ ǛȮŸȼ ǁȾȮƶȾȮŮ ƞƄɀȮƶȮȾŰ / ƞȮƶɀȮŰȘ ǀȮƸȼ ɀȮſƾŰ / ǠſƾŰ

Arabic–English | 

ija, yiji (irregular WV) ijtimaa ijtimaai / ijtimaaiyya (M/F adj.) ihna ijjarra¢ < itjarra¢ iddallal / iddallali / iddallalu (M/F/P) idhaa idhaaa / idhaaaat (S/P) idhin ir-Rashiid shaari ir-Rashiid

isim / asmaa¢ (S/P) asmaa¢ il-ishaara isaaf sayyaarat isaaf Islaam Islaami / Islaamiyyiin (M adj.) Islaamiyya / Islaamiyyaat (F adj.) istarliini / istarliiniyya (M/F) istikaan / istikaanaat (S/P) istimaara / istimaaraat (S/P) idaafi / idaafiyya (M/F) ilaam iqtisaad iqtisaadi / iqtisaadiyya (M/F adj.) ilil il-baarha iltihaab / iltihaabaat

to come meeting social we (independent pronoun, see lesson ) to dare whatever you wish, at your service (see lesson ) if (see lesson ) radio station/s ear proper name Name of one of the oldest main streets in Baghdad, named after the Caliph Harun ir-Rashid (–). name/s demonstrative words emergency ambulance Islam Islamic Islamic sterling (British pound) (tea) glass/es form/s, card/s additional media economy, economics economical the (see lesson ) have (see lesson ) yesterday infection/s

ǠƆȾȮƁ ȆƾȮűȘ ȼ ȬƾƵȮƄȾ ȮűȘ ɀ ǀƸȮ ɀ / ǠŸƾƵȮƄȾ ȮűȘ ɀ ȿ ŸȾ ƾƵȮƄȾ ȾȮűȘ ƾƶȮŲȘ ɀ ȖdžǍȮƆȼ ɀȮůȘ > ȖdžǍȮűȘ dž ɀ ǞƴdžȮȮŽdžȢȘ / ǠȮƴdžȮȮŽ Ȣ Ș / ǚȮ ȮŽ ȿ dž dž džȢȘ ȚȣȘ ȝƾŸȚȣȘ / ǀȮŸȼ ȚȣȘ ȴȾȣȘ NjƸȮŵdžǍȮŽȘ NjƸŵdžǍȮŽȚ ȬȾȤƾŵ

ȔƾƵŴȖ Ⱦ ɀ / ǛȮŴȘ ȜȼȤƾŵȁȘ ȔƾƵŴȖ ɀ ȯƾƯŴȘ ɀ ȯƾƯŴȘ ɀ ȜȼȤƾƸȮ ȼ ȿ Ŵ ȳǾȮŴȘ ɀ ƞȮƸƦ žȾ ǾȮŴȘ / ǠžǾȮ ŴȘ ɀ ɀ ȝƾȮƸȿ žȾ ǾȮŴȘ ɀ / ǀƸdž žȾ ǾȮŴȘ ɀ ǀƸȮ ɀ / ǠƶƸŽɀǍȼȮƄŴȘ ɀ dž ƶȾ ƸȮŽɀǍȼȮƄŴȘ ȝƾſƾƳȾȮƄŴȘ ɀ / ȴƾƳȾȮƄŴȘ ɀ ȝȚȤƾƵȮƄȾ ŴȘ / ȜȤƾƵȮ Ƅ ŴȘ Ⱦ ɀ ɀ ǀƸȮ dž źȾ ƾǤȘ / ǠźƾǤȘ ȳǾȮŸɀ Ș ȢƾƫȮƄȾ ɀȮŻȘ ǀƁȿ ȾȢƾƫƄȾ ɀȮŻȘ / ȸȢƾƫȮƄȾ ɀȮŻȘ -ɀȮŽȘ

Ȳɀ Ș ǀŲȼ ɀ ȤƾƃɀȮŽȘ ȝƾŮƾƷƄȾ ɀȮŽȘ / țƾƷƄȾ ɀȮŽȘ

 | Glossary

il-hamdu lillaah il-Hilla ij-Janaa¢in il-Muallaqa illa illi

ilman? ilweesh? immeen, mneen? inta indaar, yindaar (HV) inshaalla inkisar, yinkisir (RV)

Thanks be to God (see lesson ) Hilla (a city near Babylon) the Hanging Gardens of, before, less than (telling time) who, whom, which, that (depending on context, relative clause, see lesson ) whom? (see lesson ) why? (see lesson ) where from? (see lesson ) you (M) (independent pronoun, see lesson ) to turn around God willing (see lesson ) to be broken

U ubra / ubar (S/P) ujra / ujar (S/P) ukhut / khawaat (S/P) usbuu / asaabii (S/P) ustaadh / asaatidha (M) ustaadha / ustaadhaat (F) umm, waalda

needle/s fee/s, rate/s sister/s week/s professor/s professor/s mother

B b- / bibaab / bwaab (S/P) baaba ghannuuj Baabil Baabili / Baabiliyyiin (M) Baabiliyya / Baabiliyyaat (F) baachir il-yoom baarid / baarda (M/F)



in, by, at, with (preposition, see lesson ) door/s eggplant dip Babylon (ancient city) Babylonian/s Babylonian/s tomorrow today cold

ʇ NjȽ Ƶɀ ƇȮŽȘ ȼ ǀdžȮƴƇȾ ɀȮŽȘ ǀƲdžȮƴƯȼ ƵȽ ɀȮŽȚ ǜȮȾǣƾƶdžƐȘ ǚȼ ɀȮŽȘ ǠƴɀȮŽȘ ȒǜƵȼ ɀȮŽȘ ȒǐƁǞɀȮŽȘ ȒƞƶȮžɀ ȆƞƛȘɀ ǁſȘ ȤȚNjɀȮƶȾȮƁ ȆȤȚNjɀȮſȘ ʇƾƪɀȮſȘ ǍƉȮ Ⱦ ƳȾ ɀȮƶȾȮƁ ȆǍƉȮ ȼ ƳȾ ɀȮſȘ ǍȼȮŮȽȚ / ȜȼǍȮɀŮȽȚ ǍȮűȼ Ƚ Ț/ ȜǍȮűɀ Ƚ Ț ȝȚǞųȼ / ǁųȽ Ƚ Ț ǕƸŮƾŴȖ / ȬǞƃŴ ɀ ȽȚ ȜȼnjȮȾůƾŴȖ / ȣƾƄȮŴ ɀ ȽȚ ȝȚȣƾƄȮŴ ɀ Ƚ Ț / ȜȣƾƄȮŴ ɀ ȽȚ ȜNjȼ ɀȮŽȚȶ ȆȳȽȚ ȾȮŮ / țɀ țȚǞȮɀŮ / țƾȮŮ ȟǞȮƶȮȼ ȿ Ź ǀȼŮƾȮŮ ǚȾȮŮƾȮŮ ƞȮƸȮ Ʀ ȾƴȾȮŮƾŮ / ǠƴȾȮŮƾŮ ȝƾȮƸȮ ȿ ȾƴȾȮŮƾŮ / ǀƸȮ dž ȾƴȾȮŮƾŮ ǍȾȮǩƾȮŮ ȳǞƸɀȮŽȘ ȜȢɀȤƾŮ / ȢȻȤƾŮ

Arabic–English | 

baasbort / baasbortaat (S/P) Jawaaz / jawaazaat baas / baasaat (S/P) baa, ybii (HV) baaqi / baaqiin (M) baaqya / baaqyaat (F) baamya baawa, ybaawi baayi, bayyaa/ bayyaaiin (M) bayyaaa / bayyaaaat (F) baddaala / baddaalaat (S/P) bariid bariid jawwi bariid aadi bariid sarii maktab bariid / makaatib bariid abu l-bariid sanduuq bariid barnaamij / baraamij bass batin / butuun baad bad iz-zuhur baad-ma badeen bala adab balam balkat, balki balla? muu balla?

passport/s (borrowed from English) passport/s bus/es (borrowed from English) to sell (see lesson ) staying (participle, see lesson ) staying okra to look/see salesman/en saleswoman/en telephone operator/s post office, mail airmail regular mail express mail post office/s mailman (see lesson ) mail box program/s but, only, enough abdomen/s, stomach/s after afternoon, P.M. after (conjunction, see lesson ) later on (invariable) impolite, with bad manners boat perhaps, may be (invariable, see lesson ) is it so? is it true? (idiom, see lesson ) isn’t it so? isn’t it? (idiom, see lesson )

ȝƾůɀȤǞƃŴƾŮ ɀ / ȝɀȤǞƃŴƾŮ ɀ ǍȼȮƱȮŴ ȼ ȥȚǞȮűȼ ȝƾǧƾŮ / ȨƾŮ ǕƸƃȮɀƁ ȆȬƾȮŮ ƞɀȮŻƾŮ / ǠŻƾŮ ȝƾƸɀȮŻƾŮ / ǀƸȼ ɀȮŻƾŮ ǀƸȮ ȼ žɀ ƾȮŮ ȬȾȶƾƃȮɀƁ ȆȬȼȶƾŮ ƞȮŸȾ ƾƸȮ ȿ ȼ Ů / ȬƾƸȮ ȿ ȼ Ů ȆǕȾȮƁƾŮ ȝƾŸƾƸȮ ȿ ȼ Ů / ǀȮŸȼ ƾƸȮ ȿ ȼŮ ȝǽȚNjȮ Ů / ǀŽȚ NjȮ ȿ ȼ ȿ ȼŮ NjƁǍȮȼŮ ȸǞƦ Ȯűȼ NjƁǍȮȼŮ ȸȢƾȮŸ NjƁǍȮȼŮ ǕƁǍȮŴ ȼ NjƁǍȮȼŮ ƿůƾƳž / NjƁǍŮ ƿƄɀȮƳžȼ NjƁǍŮ NjƁǍƃɀȮŽȚ ǞŮȖ NjƁǍŮ ȰȶNjɀȮƶǧ ȼ ǃžȾ ȚǍȮȼŮ / ǃžȾ ƾſɀǍȮȼŮ ǏȮ ȿ ȼŮ ȴǞƭȽŮ / ǜƭ Ⱦ ȼŮ NjȮƯȼ ȮȼŮ ǍȮƷȽ ȮƮŽȚ NjƯȼ ȮȼŮ LJ ȳȼ NjȮƯȼ ȮȼŮ ǜƁNjȮƯɀ ȮȼŮ țȼȢȖ ǾŮ ǛȼȮƴȮȼŮ ǠƳɀȮƴȮȼŮ Ȇǁɀ ȼȮƳɀȮƴȼŮ ǝȼȮƴɀȮƴȮȼŮ ǝȼȮƴɀȮƴȮȼŮ ǞȮžȽ

 | Glossary

bank / bunuuk (S/P) bawwaaba / bawwaabaat (S/P) beet / buyuut (S/P) beesh, ibbeesh? beed beeda / beedaat (S/P) been-ma biir / byaara (S/P) biira bit-ta¢kiid biduun bistaan bistanchi / bistanchiyya (S/P) b-suura khaasa b-suura aamma bit-tabu, taban biiid / biiida / baad (M/F/P) bikull . . . bikull suruur bina, yibni (WV) binit, bnayya / banaat (S/P) binit akh binit ukhut binit khaal binit amm booy / booyaat (S/P) boskaart / boskaartaat (S/P) Burij Baabil busal raas busal butil / btaala (S/P)

bank/s gate/s

ȱǞƶȮȽŮ / ǙɀȮƶȼŮ ȝƾŮȚǞȿ ȮȼŮ / ǀȮȼŮȚǞȿ ȮȼŮ

house/s, home/s how much? (see lesson ) egg (collective) egg/s while (conjunction, see lesson ) well/s beer certainly without orchard orchard keeper/s (see lesson ) in particular, especially (see lesson ) in general, generally (see lesson ) of course far


with all . . . with pleasure to build (see lesson ) girl/s, daughter/s (see also ibin) niece (brother’s side) niece (sister’s side) cousin (maternal) cousin (paternal) bellboy/s, busboy/s (English) postcard/s (from English, also poskaart) the biblical Tower of Babel onion (collective) one onion (lit., a head of onion) bottle/s

ȜȼȤƾƸȮɀŮ / ǍƸȮŮ ȜȼǍȮƸȮŮ NjƸȮżƺdžȮƄȾȮŮ ȴȶNjȾȮŮ ȴƾƄȮƉ ɀ ȾȮŮ / ǠǰȮƶȼȮƄȮƉ ɀ ȾȮŮ ǀdžȮƸǰɀȮƶȼȮƄƉ ɀ ȾȮŮ ǀǧƾų dž ȜȤǞƫȮ Ƚ ɀŮ ǀȮždž ƾȮŸ ȜȤǞƫȮ Ƚ ɀŮ ȹ ƾȮƯȮƃɀ ȼȮŶ ȆǕƃȽ džȮƭŽƾȾȮŮ ȾȢƾƯȮɀŮ / ȜNjƸȮƯȾȮŮ / NjƸȮƯȮŮ ... ǚ Ⱦ ȮƳȮŮ Ƚ

ȤȶǍȮŴ Ƚ ǚȮƳ Ƚ ȾȮŮ ǠƶȮƃɀ ȾȮƁ ȆƾȼȮƶȾȮŮ ȝƾƶȮȼŮ / ǀƸdž ȼȮƶȮɀŮ ȆǁȾȮƶȾȮŮ ȡȖ ǁȾȮƶȾȮŮ ǁȮų Ƚ Ƚ Ț ǁȾȮƶȾȮŮ Ȳƾų ǁȾȮƶȾȮŮ ǛȮŸȼ ǁȾȮƶȾȮŮ ȝƾƁǞȮȽŮ / ȸɀ ǞȮȽŮ ȝƾůɀȤƾƳƉȮ ɀ Ƚ Ů / ȝɀȤƾƳƉȮ ɀ ȽŮ ǚŮƾŮ ȟȾǍȮȽŮ ǚƫȮ ȼ ȽŮ ǚƫ ȼ ȽŮ ȦȚȤ ǀȼȮŽƾƭȮɀŮ / ǚƭȮ Ⱦ ȽŮ

Arabic–English | 

buqa, yubqa (WV) bsaat / busut (S/P)

to stay (see lesson ) kilim/s



paasbort / paasbortaat (S/P) poskaart / poskaartaat (S/P)

passport/s (borrowed from English) postcard/s

taariikh / tawaariikh (S/P) taaza tabbuula tahiyya / tahiyyaat (S/P) tahriir muharrir ra¢iis qisim it-tahriir tadhkara / tadhaakir (S/P) tara

history/s, date/s fresh chopped salad greeting/s editing editor editor-in-chief ticket/s you know, otherwise, certainly (invariable, see lesson ) translation/s translation section change, exchange (also see sarraaf) repair/s, fixing/s come introduction tired tired taxi/s taxi driver (also see abu, lesson ) telephone/s mobile/cell telephone ground telephone televisions/s


tarjama / tarjamaat (S/P) qisim tarjama tasriif tasliih / tasliihaat (S/P) taaal taaaruf tabaan / tabaaniin (M) tabaana / tabaanaat (F) taksi / taksiyyaat (S/P) abu t-taksi talifoon / talifoonaat (S/P) talifoon moobaayal talifoon ardi talfizyoon / talfizyoonaat (S/P) tall / tuluul (S/P) tamur


tell/s, mound/s palm date (collective)

ƾȼȮƲȮƃȮ ɀ Ƚ Ɓ ȆƾȼȮƲȮȽŮ ǓƉȮ Ƚ ȽŮ / ȪƾƉɀŮ ȝƾůɀȤǞƃŴƾȮǨ ɀ / ȝɀȤǞƃŴƾȮǨ ɀ ȝƾůɀȤƾƳƉȮ ɀ Ƚ Ǩ / ȝɀȤƾƳƉȮ ɀ ȽǨ

NJƁȤȚǞȼȮů / NJƁȤƾů Ȝȥƾů ǀŽǞȮƃ LJ ȼȮů ȝƾƸȮ ȿ ƇȾ ȼȮů / ǀȮƸȮ dž ƇȾ ȼȮů ǍƁǍƇɀ ȼȮů ȤƦǍȮƇȮ ȼ žȽ ǍƁǍƇɀ ȼȮƄŽȚ ǛƉ Ⱦ ŻȾ ǏƸȮǣȼȤ ǍȮżȚnj Ⱦ ȼȮů / ȜȼǍȼȮżɀnjȼȮů ȵȼǍȼȮů ȝƾƵűȼ ɀǍȼȮů / ǀƵȼ Ȯűȼ ɀǍȼȮů ǀƵűȼ ɀǍȼȮů ǛƉ Ⱦ ŻȾ ǗƁǍƫ ɀ ȼȮů ȝƾƇƸƴƫȼȮů / ljƸƴƫ ɀ ȼȮů ȲƾƯȼȮů ȯȽȤƾƯȼȮů ƞȮſƾƃȮƯɀ ȼȮů / ȴƾƃȮƯɀ ȼȮů ȝƾſƾƃȮƯɀ ȼȮů / ǀȼȮſƾƃȮƯɀ ȼȮů ȝƾȮƸȮ Ⱦ ɀȮƳȼȮů / ǠƉɀȮƳȼȮů ȿ Ɖ ǠƉɀȮƳdžȮƄȮŽȚ ǞŮȖ ȝƾſǞƱȮȾƴȼȮů / ȴǞƱȮȾƴȼȮů ǚȮȼƁƾŮǞžȽ ȴǞƱȮȾƴȼȮů ǠǤɀȤȖ ȴǞƱȮȾƴȮů ȝƾſǞƁǎȮƱȾ ɀȮƴȼȮů / ȴǞƁǎȮƱȾ ɀȮƴȼȮů ȲǞƴȮů Ƚ / ǚȼȮů ǍȮƵȽ ȼȮů

 | Glossary

tfaddal istariih min fadlak / min fadlich / min fadilkum (M/F/P)

one date/s tin tinsmith/s (see lesson ) drill/s, exercise/s nine nineteen ninety (see lesson ) ninth (see lesson ) to get tired to be honored, to be pleased (meeting someone) rice to be surprised to learn please (common expression used when someone is offering something) please sit down please (used when someone is requesting something)

tkallam, yitkallam (RV) tlaatha tlat-taash tlaathiin thaalith twassal, yitwassal twannas, yitwannas

to speak, to talk three thirteen thirty third (see lesson ) to beg to have fun

tamra / tamraat (S/P) tanak tanakchi / tanakchiyya (S/P) tamriin / tamaariin (S/P) tisa tsaa-taash tisiin taasi tiab, yitab (RV) tsharraf, yitsharraf (RV) timman, ruzz tajjab, yitajjab tallam, yitallam (RV) tfaddal / tfaddali / tfaddalu (M/F/P)

TH thaanya / thawaani (S/P) thalij thigiil / thigiila (M/F) thilith thoob / thyaab (S/P) thmaanya thman-taash thmaaniin thaamin


second/s ice heavy one-third dress/es, shirt/s, clothes eight eighteen eighty eighth

ȝȚǍȮƵɀ ȼȮů / ȜȼǍȮƵɀ ȼȮů ǙȼȮƶȼȮů ǀdžȮƸǰɀȮƳȼȮƶȼȮů / ǠǰɀȮƳȼȮƶȼȮů ǜƁȤƾƵȼȮů / ǜƁǍȮƵɀ ȼȮů ǀȮƯȼ ƉȮ ɀ Ⱦů ǐȮƯȼ ȼȮŶƾƉɀȮů ƞƯƉȮ ɀ Ⱦů ǕȮŴƾȮů Ⱦ ƿȮƯȼ ɀȮƄȾȮƁ ȆƿȮƯȼ ȮȾů ȯdžǍȼȮƪɀȮƄȾȮƁ ȆȯdžǍȼȮƪɀȮů ɀ ȥȽȤ ȆǜȮƵdž ȮȾů ƿƆdž Ưȼ ɀȮƄȾȮƁ ȆƿȮƆdž Ưȼ ɀȮů ǛdžȮƴƯȼ ɀȮƄȾȮƁ ȆǛdžȮƴƯȼ ɀȮů / ǠƴƬ dž ȼȮƱɀȮů / ǚƬ dž ȼȮƱɀȮů ǞƴƬ dž ȼȮƱɀȮů ljƁǍȼȮƄŴȘ dž ȼȮƱɀȮů ɀ ǚƬ ǜžȾ / ǙȼȮƴƬ Ȯź ǜȮ žȾ ɀ ȼ ǛȼȮƳɀȮƴƬ ɀ ȼȮź Ⱦ ȼȮź ǜžȾ / ǶȮȾƴƬ ǛdžȮƴȮƳ ȿ ɀȮƄȾȮƁ ȆǛdžȮƴȼȮƳȼȮů ǀȼȮŰǾɀȮů ǐȮƯɀ džȮƭȼȮƴɀȮů ƞȮŰǾɀȮů ǂȮȾŽƾȮŰ ǚȮŴ dž Ǟȼ ɀȮƄȾȮƁ ȆǚȮŴ dž Ǟȼ ɀȮů ǏdžȮſǞȼ ɀȮƄȾȮƁ ȆǏdžȮſǞȼ ɀȮů ǠſȚǞȼȮŰ / ǀȮƸȼ ɀȮſƾȮŰ ǃȮȾƴȼȮŰ ǀƴƸȮȮǦȾ ȾȮŰ / ǚƸȮȮǦȮ Ⱦ ȾŰ ǂȮȾƴȮȾŰ țƾƸɀȮŰ / țǞŰ ǀȼȮƸɀȮſƾƵɀȮŰ ǐȮƯȼ ȼȮƭɀȮƶȮƵȼ ȼȮŰ ǜȮƸȮſƾƵɀȮŰ ǜȮžȾ ƾȮŰ

Arabic–English | 

thneen / thinteen (M/F) thnaash thaani

two twelve second (see lesson )

J jaab, yjiib (HV) jaaj jaaja / jaajaat (S/P) dijaaja / dijaaj (S/P) jaami / jawaami (S/P) jaamia / jaamiaat (S/P) jaawab, yjaawib jaay / jaayya / jaayyiin (M/F/P) jayya / jayyaat ala jayya

jadwal / jadaawil (S/P) jaziilan jaww jaww / ajwaa¢ (S/P) jawwi / jawwiyya (M/F) bariid jawwi jawwa jawaaz / jawaazaat (S/P) baasbort / baasbortaat (S/P) jibin jidd / jduud (M) jidda / jiddaat (F) jiddan jidiid / jidiida / jdaad (M/F/P) jisir / jisuur (S/P) jisim / ajsaasm (S/P) jigaara / jigaayir (S/P) jilid /jluud (S/P) juu


to bring chicken (collective) chicken/s chicken/s mosque/s university/s to answer coming (part.) arrival/s coming, arriving soon (invariable idiom, see lesson ) table/s, chart/s, small water canal/s much, very (invariable) weather, climate atmosphere/s, air air, aerial airmail inside, underneath passport/s, permit/s passport/s cheese grandfather/s grandmother/s very (invariable) new bridge/s body/s cigarette/s skin/s, leather/s hunger

ƞȮƄɀȮƶȮȾŰ / ǜȮƸȮƶɀȮŰ ǐȮŸȼ ƾƶɀȮŰ ǠſƾȮŰ ƿƸƆȮɀƁ ȆțƾȮű ȟƾȮű ȝƾűƾȮű / ǀȮűƾȮű ȼ ȟƾűȾȢ / ǀűƾű ȼ ȾȢ ǕȮžȾ ȚǞȮűȼ / ǕȮžȾ ƾű ȝƾƯȮžȾ ƾű / ǀƯȼ ȮžȾ ƾű țȾȶƾƆɀƁ Ȇțȼȶƾű ƞȮƦƁƾű / ǀȮdžƁƾű / ȸɀ ƾű ȝƾȮƸȿ űȼ / ǀȮƸȮ dž űȼ ǀȮƸȮ dž űȼ ǟƴŸ ȲȾȶȚNjȮűȼ / ȲȼȶNjɀ Ȯűȼ ȹǾƁǎȮűȼ Ǟȿ Ȯűȼ ȔȚǞȮűȖ / Ǟ ɀ ȿ Ȯűȼ ǀdžȮƁǞƦ Ȯűȼ / ȸǞȿ Ȯűȼ ȸǞƦ Ȯűȼ NjƁǍȮȾȼŮ ȵǞdž Ȯűȼ ȝȚȥȚǞȮűȼ / ȥȚǞȮűȼ ȝƾůɀȤǞƃŴƾŮ ɀ / ȝȤǞƃŴƾŮ ɀ ǜȾȮƃȾȮű ȢȶNjȮűɀ / Njȿ ȾȮű ȝȚNjȿ ȾȮű / ȜNjdž ȾȮű ȹ ȚNjȿ ȾȮű ȢȚNjȮűɀ / ȜNjȼ ȮƁNjȾȮű / NjȮƁNjȾȮű ȤǞƉȾȮű / ǍȮƉ Ⱦ ȾȮű ȳƾƉűȖ Ⱦ ȾȮű ɀ / ǛƉ ǍȾȮƁƾǦȾȮű / ȜȤƾǦȾȮű ȢǞƴȮűɀ / NjȾȮƴȾȮű ȬǞȮűȽ

 | Glossary

juuaan / juuaaniin (M) juuaana / juuaanaat (F) junta / junat (S/P)

hungry hungry suitcase/s, purse/s, briefcase/s

CH chaan (kaan), ykuun chaay / chaayaat (S/P) chaaychi / chaaychiyya (S/P) chalib / chlaab (M) chalba / chalbaat (F) cham, kam? chibiir / chibiira / kbaar (M/F/P) kabiir / kabiira / kbaar

was/were, will be/shall be (see lesson ) tea/s tea vendor/s (in coffee shop) dog/s dog/s How many? (see lesson ) big, large, old (person) big, large, old (person)

H hahaaditha haadir / haadriin (M) haadra / haadraat (F) haarr / haarra (M/F, adj.) haaffa / haaffaat (S/P) haal maashi il-haal habb, yhibb (DV) habbaaya / hubuub hubuub musakkina hubuub munawwima habil / hbaal (S/P) hatta hadra / hadraat (S/P)

hajiz hadiith / hadiitha / hdaath (M/F/P) ahdath



will, shall, going to (prefix see lesson ) accident ready, present ready, present hot, warm edge/s condition okay, not bad (see lesson ) to like, to love (see lesson ) pain killers sleeping pills rope/s in order to, until, till, as far as presence of a person (expression of addressing, see lesson ) reservation modern more recent (see lesson )

ƞſƾŸǞȮűȽ / ȴƾŸǞȮűȽ ȝƾſƾŸǞűȽ / ǀȼȮſƾŸǞȮűȽ ǓȼȮƶűȽ / ǀȼȮƭɀȮƶűȽ ȴǞƳȮɀƁ Ȇ(ȴƾż) ȴƾǩ ȝƾƁƾǩ / ȸɀ ƾǩ ǀȮƸdž ȾȮǰɀƁƾǩ / ǠȮǰȮɀƁƾǩ țǾȮǩɀ / ƿȮȾƴȮǩȼ ȝƾƃɀȮƴȮǩȼ / ǀƃȼ ɀȮƴȮǩȼ ȒǛȼȮż ȆǛȮǩȼ ȤƾƃɀȮż / ȜǍƸȮƃȾȮǩ / ǍƸȮƃȾȮǩ ȤƾƃɀȮż / ȜǍƸƃȼȮż / ǍƸƃȼȮż ȮŲȼ ǀȼȮŰȾȢƾŲ ǜƁǍǤƾŲ ɀ / ǍǤƾŲ Ⱦ ȝȚǍǤƾŲ / Ȝ Ǎ ǤƾŲ ɀ ȼ ɀ ȜdžȤƾŲ / ȤƾŲ ȿ ȝƾȮźƾŲ / ǀ ȮźƾŲ ȿ dž ȲƾȮŲ ȲƾƇɀȮŽȚ Ǡŵƾž ƿȿ ƇȮ Ⱦ ɀ Ɓ ȆƿȮ ȿ Ųȼ țǞƃŲȽ / ǀƁƾȮƃ ȿ Ųȼ ǀƶƦȮƳȮƉ ž țǞƃȮ Ų ȼ Ƚ Ƚ ǀžȼ ǞƦ ƶȼ ȮžȽ țǞƃȮŲȽ ȲƾƃŲɀ / ǚȾȮƃȮŲȼ ǟdžȮƄȮŲȼ ȝȚǍƬ Ų / ȜǍ ƬȮ ɀ ȼ ɀ Ųȼ ǎȾȮƆŲȼ ȞȚNjȮŲɀ / ǀƅƁNjȮŲȼ / ǂƁNjȮŲȼ ȞNjȼ ȮŲȖ ɀ

Arabic–English | 

hadiiqa / hadaayiq (S/P) haraara (Noun) harb / huruub (S/P) harbi / harbiyya / harbiyyiin (M/F/P) haruf / huruuf (S/P) huruuf abjadiyya huruuf illa hatt, yhutt (DV) hadaara / hadaaraat hadaari / hadaariyya (M/F adj.) hafiid / ahfaad (M) hafiida / hafiidaat (F) halawiyyaat halig hammaam / hammaamaat (S/P) hammamchi / hammamchiyya (S/P) mirhaad hawaala / hawaalaat (S/P) hawaala bariidiyya hawaala maaliyya hawaali hawwal, yhawwil (RV) haywaan / haywaanaat (S/P) hicha, yih chi (WV) hilu / hilwiin (M) hilwa / hilwaat (F) htaaj, yihtaaj (WV) hsaab / hisaabaat (S/P) hsaab tawfiir hsaab jaari hmaar / hamiir (S/P) hurriyya / hurriyyaat hukuuma / hukuumaat (S/P)

garden/s heat, temperature war/s military letter/s, consonant/s alphabet vowels to put (see lesson ) culture/s, civilization/s cultural grandchild/children grandchild/children sweets mouth bath/s, bathroom/s bathhouse keeper/s (see lesson ) toilet money order/s money order money order about, approximately to change, to exchange, to move animal/s, beast/s to speak (see lesson ) pretty, nice, sweet pretty, nice, sweet to need, to require account, bill, invoice, arithmetic (see lesson ) savings account checking account donkey/s freedom/s government/s

ǘȾȮƁȚNjȮŲȼ / ǀƲƁNjȮŲȼ ȜȤȚǍŲȼ țȶǍȮŲȼ / țɀǍȮŲȼ ƞȮƸƦ ȾȮŮɀǍŲȼ / ǀƸdž ȾȮŮɀǍŲȼ / ǠŮɀǍŲȼ ȯȶǍȮŲȽ / ȯǍȮ Ƚ Ųȼ ǀdžƁNjȾ ȮƆȼ ɀ ŮȖ ȯȶǍȮŲȽ ǀdžȮƴȮŸȾ ȯȶǍȮŲȽ ǓȮƇȽ ɀ Ɓ ȆǓŲȼ ȝȚȤƾƬŲȼ / ȜȼȤƾƬŲȼ ǀȮdžƁȾȤƾƬŲȼ / ȸȤƾƬŲȼ ȢƾƱȮŲȖ ɀ / NjƸƱȮŲȼ ȝȚNjƸȮƱȮŲȼ / ȜNjȼ ƸȮƱȮŲȼ ȝƾȮƁ ȿ ǞȾ ȼȮƴȮŲȼ ƩȮȾƴȮŲȼ ȝƾžƾƵȮ ȿ Ųȼ / ȳƾȮƵȮ ȿ Ųȼ ǀƸdž ȾȮȮǰƵɀ ȮƵdž Ųȼ / ǠȮǰƵɀ ȮƵdž Ųȼ ȩƾŲɀǍȮžȾ ȝǽȚǞŲȼ / ǀŽȚǞȮŲȼ ǀdžƁNjȾ ȮƁǍȾŮ ǀȼȮŽȚǞȮŲȼ ǀƸȮ dž ȾŽƾž ǀŽȚǞȮŲȼ ǠŽȚǞȮŲȼ ȲǞƦ ȮƇȮ ȼ ɀ Ɓ ȆȲǞdž ȮŲȼ ȝƾſȚǞƸȮ ɀ Ųȼ / ȴȚǞƸȮ ɀ Ųȼ ǠǰƇɀ ȾȮƁ ȆƾȮǰȮ ȼ ŲȾ ǜƁǞɀȮƴŲȾ / ǞƴȮŲȾ ȝȚǞɀȮƴŲȾ / ȜǞȿ ɀȮƴŲȾ ȟƾƄƇɀ ȾȮƁ ȆȟƾƄŲɀ ȝƾŮƾƉŲȾ / țƾƉŲɀ ǍƸȮźǞɀ ȼȮů țƾƉŲɀ ȸȤƾű țƾƉŲɀ ǍƸȮƵŲȼ / ȤƾƵŲɀ ȝƾȮƁ ȿ ƦǍȮŲȽ / ǀȼȮƁƦǍȮŲȽ ȝƾžǞƳȮŲȽ / ǀžǞƳȮŲȽ

 | Glossary

hummus hummus bi-t hiina

chickpeas chickpea dip (consists of chickpeas, sesame oil, garlic, lemon, and olive oil)

khaabar, ykhaabur (RV) mukhaabara khaashuuga / khwaashiig (S/P) milaqa / malaaiq (S/P) khaas khusuusan (adv.) khusuusi / khusuusiyya (M/F, adj.) kharbaan / kharbaaniin (M) kharbaana / kharbaanaat (F) khashsh, ykhushsh (DV) khatt / khutuut (S/P) khaaf, ykhaaf (HV) khaal / khwaal (M)

to telephone (see lesson ) telephone call spoon/s


khaala / khaalaat (F) khalla, ykhalli (WV) khaliifa / khulafaa¢ (S/P) khalliina khalliina nruuh khamsa khmus-taash khamsiin khaamis kheer / kheeraat (S/P) b-kheer alla bil-kheer khijal, yikhjal (RV)


spoon/s special, private especially private, privately


ǍȮȽŮƾƈɀƁ ȆǍȮȼŮƾų ȜȼǍȮȼŮƾƈžȽ ƩƸŵȚǞɀȮų / ǀȼȮǬǞŵƾų ǘȮŸȾ Ǿžȼ / ǀȼȮƲƯȼ ɀȮƴžȾ Ȩƾų ȹ ƾǧǞƫȮųȽ ǀȮƸdž ǧǞƫ Ȯų / ǠǧǞƫ Ȯų Ⱦ Ƚ Ƚ

broken, not working

ƞȮſƾŮɀǍȼȮų / ȴƾŮɀǍȼȮų

broken, not working

ȝƾſƾŮɀǍȼȮų / ǀȼȮſƾŮɀǍȼȮų

to enter (see lesson ) line/s to be afraid (see lesson ) uncle/s (maternal, also see amm) aunt/s (maternal) to let, to leave behind (see lesson ) caliph/s let us let us go five fifteen fifty fifth (ordinal see lesson ) good, goodness, blessing/s well, good, fine God bless (see lesson ) to become abashed/ashamed

ȿ Ȯƈ ȿ ųȼ ǐ Ƚ ɀ Ɓ ȆǐȮ ȪǞƭȮų Ƚ / ǓȼȮų ȯƾƈȮɀƁ Ȇȯƾų ȲȚǞɀȮų / Ȳƾų ȝǽƾų / ǀȼȮŽƾų ǠƦȮƴƈȮ ȼ ɀ Ɓ ȆƾdžȮƴȮųȼ ȔƾƱȼȮƴȮų Ƚ / ǀƱƸȮƴȼȮų ƾƶȮƸƦȮƴȮųȼ ȠȶǍɀȮſ ƾƶȮƸƦȮƴȮųȼ ǀƉ ȼ Ƶɀ ųȼ ǐȮƯȼ ȼȮƭƫ ɀ ƵȽ ɀȮų ƞƉƵɀ ųȼ ǏžȾ ƾų ȝȚǍȮƸų / ǍȮƸų ǍȮƸų țɀ ǍƸƈɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ʇȖ ǚƆȼ ɀȮƈȾȮƁ ȆǚȮƆȮ ȼ ųȾ

Arabic–English | 

khidma / khidmaat (S/P) khoo khoosh khoosh fikra khubuz sammuun khurda khudrawaat

service/s interjection implying apprehension or hope. good (invariable word that precedes nouns) a good idea bread (collective) bread (French style) small change vegetables

D da-

daraja / darajaat (S/P) daris / duruus (S/P) darras, ydarris (RV) dazz, ydizz (DV) daash daqiiqa / daqaayiq (S/P) dawwar, ydawwir (HV) deen / diyuun (S/P) dira, yidri (WV) diinaar / danaaniir (S/P)

nuss diinaar rubu diinaar diin / adyaan (S/P) diini / diiniyya (M/F adj.) dijaaja / dijaaj (S/P) Dijla nahar Dijla nahar il-Furaat diras, yudrus (RV) diktoor / dakaatira (S/P) diwa / adwiya (S/P)


A prefix that precedes the present tense verb to indicate present progressive tense (see lesson ). level/s, degree/s, mark/s lesson/s to teach to send (see lesson ) eleven minute/s to search, to look for debt/s I know. dinar/s (the currency of Iraq and some other Arab countries) one-half of a dinar one-quarter of a dinar religion/s religious chicken/s (also see jaaj) Tigris Tigris River Euphrates River to study (see lesson ) doctor/s (MD and Ph.D) medicine/s

ȝƾžNjɀ ȮųȾ / ǀžȼ Njɀ ȮųȾ ǞȮų ȧǞų ȜȼǍɀȮƳȮźȾ ȧǞų ǎȮƃȽ Ȯų Ƚ ȴǞȮƵLJ ǧ ȼ ȜȼȢɀǍȮų Ƚ ȝȚȶȼǍƬ ɀ Ȯų Ƚ ȼȢ

ȝƾűȼȤȼȢ / ǀȮűȼ ȼ ȤȼȢ ȦȶȤȽȢ / ȦȾȤȼȢ ȦƦȤNjȼ ȮɀƁ ȆȦdžȤȼȢ ȥȿ NjȾ ȮɀƁ Ȇȥȿ ȼȢ ǐȮŸȼ ȼȢ ǘȾȮƁƾŻȼȢ / ǀƲȮƸȮŻȾ ȼȢ ȤƦȶNjȼ ȮɀƁ ȆȤdžȶȼȢ ȴǞȮƁɀȢ / ǜȮƁȼȢ ȸȤNjɀ ȾȮƁ ȆȚȼȤȾȢ ǍƸȮſƾſȼȢ / ȤƾƶȮƁȢ ȤƾƶƁȢ ǑȮſ Ƚ ȤƾƶƁȢ Ǖɀ ȮȽŮȽȤ ȴƾȮƁɀȢȖ / ǜȮƁȢ ǀƸȮ dž ƶȾ ȮƁȢ / ǠƶȮƁȢ ȟƾűȾȢ / ǀűƾű ȼ ȾȢ ǀȼȮƴȮűɀ ȾȢ ǀȼȮƴȮűɀ ȾȢ ɀǍȮƷȼ ȼȮſ ȝȚǍȮƱ Ƚ ɀȮŽȚ ɀǍƷȼ ȼȮſ ȦȽȤNjɀ ȮȽƁ ȆȦȼȤȾȢ ȜȼǍȮȾůƾżȼȢ / ȤǞƄɀȮżȾȢ ǀȼƁȾȶɀȢȖ / ȚȼȶȾȢ

 | Glossary

doolma doomna duulaar / duulaaraat (S/P) dukkaan / dakaakiin (S/P) dumbug dumbagchi / dumbagchiyya (S/P)

stuffed vegetables (dish) domino dollar/s shop/s, store/s drum drummer/s (see lesson )

DH dhaa, ydhii (HV) dhahab fudda dhanib / dhunuub (S/P) dhiib / dhyaaba (S/P)

to broadcast gold silver misdeed/s, sin/s wolf/s

R raah, yruuh (HV) raad, yriid (HV) raadyo / raadyowaat (S/P) raas / ruus raayih / raayhiin (M, part.) raayha / raayhaat (F) rajaa¢an rahrasmi / rasmiyyiin (M) rasmiyya / rasmiyyaat (F) ratub / ratba (M/F) raqam / arqaam (S/P) rayyuug, futuur ghada asha rijjaal / ryaajiil (S/P) mara / niswaan (S/P) rikhiis / rikhiisa / rkhaas (M/F/P) ghaali / ghaalya / ghaaliin (M/F/P) risal, yirsil (RV)



to go (see lesson ) to want, to wish (see lesson ) radio/s head/s going, going to (see lesson ) going, going to please (invariable when requesting something) will, shall, going to (future tense prefix, see lesson ) official, formal official, formal moist, humid number/s numeral/s breakfast lunch dinner man/men woman/en cheap, inexpensive expensive to send

ǀȮƵȼ ɀȮŽȶȢ ǀȼȮƶȮžɀ ȶȢ ȝȚȤǽȶȢ / ȤǽȶȢ ƞȮżƾż Ⱦ ȼȢ / ȴƾȮżȶȢ ȿ ƩȮƃȮ Ƚ žɀ ȶȢ / ǠǰɀȮǦȮƃȼ žɀ ȶȢ ǀȮƸdž ȾȮǰɀȮǦȮƃȼ žɀ ȶȢ ǕȮƁnjȮɀƁ ȆȬȚȣ ƿȮƀȼ ȣ ǀƬ dž Ȯź Ƚ țǞſȽ ȣ / ƿȾȮſȼ ȣ ǀȼŮƾȮƁȣ / ƿȮƁȣ ȠȶǍȮɀƁ ȆȠȚȤ NjƁǍȮɀƁ ȆȢȚȤ ȝȚǞȮȮƁ Ȣ Ƚ ɀ ȚȤ ȆǞȮƁɀȢȚȤ ȦȶȤ / ȦȚȤ ƞȮƇɀƁȚȤ / ljȾȮƁȚȤ ȝƾƇȮɀƁȚȤ / ǀƇȮ ȼ ɀ ƁȚȤ Ȕȼ ƾȮűȼȤ ȠȼȤ ƞȮƸȮ ɀ ȼ Ȥ / ǠƵŴ ɀ ȼȤ Ʀ ƵȾ Ŵ ȝƾƸȮ ɀ / ǀȮƸȮ ɀ ȼȤ ȿ ƵȾ ŴȤ dž ƵȾ Ŵ ǀƃȼ ɀȮŶȼȤ / ƿȮŶ Ƚ ȼȤ ȳƾȮŻɀȤȖ / ǛȼȮŻȼȤ ȤǞƭȮź Ƚ ȆɆǞLJƁȼȤ ȚNjȼ ȼȮŹ ƾȼȮƪȮŸȼ ǚƸűƾȮƁɀȤ / ȲƾȮűȿ Ⱦ Ȥ ȴȚǞƉȮ ɀ Ⱦ ſ / ȜȼǍȮžȼ ȨƾųɀȤ / ǀƫƸų ȼ Ⱦ Ȥ / ǑƸȮųȾȤ ƞȮȾŽƾŹ / ǀƸȼ ɀȮŽƾŹ / ǠŽƾŹ ǚŴ Ⱦ ɀǍȾȮƁ ȆǚŴ ȼ ȾȤ

Arabic–English | 

risaala / rasaa¢il (S/P) risaala musajjala rima, yirmi ruzz, timman ruzma / ruzam (S/P)

Z zaar, yzuur (HV) zalaata / zalaataat (S/P) zawj / azwaaj (M) zawja / zawjaat (F) zeen / zeeniin (M, adj.) zeena / zeenaat (F) zibid zihag, yizhag zooj / azwaaj (M) zooj ukhut zoojat akh

saaad, ysaaid (RV) saafar, ysaafir (RV) saaq, ysuuq (HV) saakin / saakniin (M, part.) saakna / saaknaat (F) saayiq / saayqa / suwwaaq (M/F/P) saayiq taksi abu t-taksi sabab / asbaab (S/P) sabi / sbaa (S/P) asad / usuud


to visit (see lesson ) salad/s husband/s (also see zooj below) wife/s well, fine, good, okay well, fine, good, okay butter to be fed up/disgusted husband/s (see above) brother-in-law sister-in-law

S saaa / saaaat (S/P) saaat iid saaat jeeb saaat haayit saaat tanbiih saaat-ma

ǚȮȾǣƾŴȼȤ / ǀȼȮŽƾŴȾȤ ǀȼȮƴȮƆdž Ɖ ȼ žȽ ǀȼȮŽƾŴȾȤ ǠžɀǍȾȮƁ Ȇƾžȼ Ⱦ Ȥ ǜȮƵdž ȮȾů ȆȥȽȤ ȳȼȥȽȤ / ǀȮžȼ ɀ ȥȽȤ

letter/s registered letter to throw rice package/s


watch/es, clock/s, hour/s, time wrist watch pocket watch wall clock alarm clock the hour when (conjunction see lesson ) to help, to assist to travel (see lesson ) to drive living, residing living, residing driver/s taxi driver taxi driver (also see abu, lesson ) reason/s lion’s lion/s

ȤȶǎȮɀƁ ȆȤȚȥ ȝƾŶǽȼȥ / ǀȼȮŶǽȼȥ ȟȚȶɀȥȖ / ȟɀȶȼȥ ȝƾűɀȶȼȥ / ǀȮűȼ ɀȶȼȥ ƞȮƶȮƁȥ / ǜȮƁȥ ȝƾƶƁȥ / ǀȼȮƶȮƁȥ NjȾȮŮȾȥ ƩȮƀȼ ɀǎȾȮƁ ȆƩȮƀȼ Ⱦ ȥ ȟȚȶɀȥȖ / ȟȶȥ ǁȮųȽ Ƚ Ț ȟȶȥ ȡȖ ȟȶȥ ȝƾŸƾŴ / ǀŸȼ ƾŴ NjȮƁȘ ǀŸȼ ƾŴ ƿȮƸȮű ǀŸȼ ƾŴ ǓȾȮƁƾŲ ǀŸȼ ƾŴ ǝƸȮƃɀȮƶȼȮů ǀŸȼ ƾŴ ȳȼ ǀŸȼ ƾŴ NjŸȾ ƾƉȮɀƁ ȆNjȮŸȼ ƾŴ ǍȮźȾ ƾƉɀƁ ȆǍȼȮźƾŴ ȰǞƉɀƁ ȆȰƾŴ ƞȮƶɀȮżƾŴ / ǜȮżƾŴ Ⱦ ȝƾƶɀȮżƾŴ / ǀƶȼ ɀȮżƾŴ ȰȚǞȿ ȮŴ Ƚ / ǀȼȮƲȮɀƁƾŴ / ǘȾȮƁƾŴ ǠƉɀȮƳȼȮů ǘȾȮƁƾŴ ǠƉɀȮƳdžȮƄȮŽȚ ǞŮȖ țƾƃŴȖ ɀ / ƿȮƃȮ ȼ ȼ Ŵ ȬƾƃŴ / Ǖ Ȯ ƃȮ Ŵ Ⱦ ȼ ɀ ȢǞŴȽȚ / NjȮŴȖ ȼ

 | Glossary

saba sbaa-taash sabiin saabi sadd, ysidd (DV) sarii / sariia (M/F) saiid / saiida (M/F) Saduun shaari is-Saduun

safaara / safaaraat (S/P) qunsiliyya / qunsiliyyaat (S/P) safra / safraat (S/P) safra saiida salaama maa s-salaama samman, ysammin (RV) sana / sniin (S/P) sawwa, ysawwi (WV) sayyid / saada (M) sayyida / sayyidaat (F) sayyaara / sayyaaraat (S/P) sayyaarat isaaf si¢al, yis¢al (RV) sitta sit-taash sittiin saadis sihab, yis hab sichchiin / sichaachiin (S/P) siir / asaar (S/P) sikan, yuskun (RV) simcha / simach (S/P) simach Masguuf simiin / smaan (S/P M)

seven seventeen seventy seventh (ordinal see lesson ) to close, to shut fast, express happy (proper name) Name of one of the main streets in Baghdad. embassy/ies consulate/s trip/s, travel/s good trip, farewell safety goodbye to make (someone) fat year/s to make, to do Mr./Messrs. Mrs., lady/ies car/s ambulance to ask six sixteen sixty sixth (ordinal see lesson ) to pull knife/knives price/s, rate/s to live, to reside fish/es Masguuf fish fat

ǀȮƯȼ ƃȮ ȼ ɀ Ŵ ǐȮƯȼ ȼȮŶƾƃȮŴ ȼ ƞȮƯȮƃȮ ȼ ɀ Ŵ ǕȾȮŮƾŴ NjȮ Ⱦ ɀ Ɓ ȆNjȮ ȿ ƉȮ ȿ Ŵ ȼ ǀƯȼ ȮƁǍŴ / ǕƁǍ Ŵ ȼ ȼ ȜNjƸȮƯȮŴ/ NjƸƯȮ Ŵ ȼ ȼ ȴȶNjȮƯɀ ȮŴ ȼ ȴȶNjȮƯɀ ƉŽȚ dž ȬȾȤƾŵ ȝȚȤƾƱȮŴ ȼ / ȜȼȤƾƱȮŴ ȼ ȝƾƸȿ ȾȮƴƫ / ǀȮ Ƹ ƴ ƫ Ȯƶ ȮŻ Ⱦ ɀȮƶȮŻ Ⱦ Ⱦ dž ɀ Ƚ Ƚ ȝȚǍɀȮƱŴ ȼ / ȜȼǍɀȮƱŴ ȼ ȜNjƸȮƯŴ Ȝ Ǎ ȮƱ Ŵ ȼ ȼɀ ȼ ǀȮžȼ ǾŴ ȼ ǀžȼ ǾȮƉŽȚ Ǖ Ȯ ž dž ȼ ȼ ǜȮƵƦ Ɖ ȼ ɀ Ɓ ȆǜȮƵdž ȮŴ ȼ ƞȮƶȮŴ / ǀ ƶ Ȯ Ŵ ȼ ɀ ȼ ȸǞƦ ȮƉȮ ȼ ɀ Ɓ ȆȚǞdž ȮŴ ȼ ȜȼȢƾŴ / NjȮƸȮ Ŵ Ʀ ȼ ȝȚNjȮƸȮ Ŵ / Ȝ Nj Ȯ ƸȮ ȼ dž Ŵ ȼ dž ȼ ȝȚȤƾƸȮ Ŵ / ȜȤƾ ƸȮ Ŵ ȿ ȼ ȿ ȼ ȯƾƯȮŴȘ ɀ ȜȤƾƸȮ ȼ ȿ Ŵ ȲƺȮƉ Ȯ Ɓ ȆǚȮ Ƃ Ȯ Ŵ Ⱦ Ⱦ ɀ Ⱦ ǀdžȮƄȮŴ Ⱦ ǐȮƯȼ ȼȮƭɀȮƭȮŴ Ⱦ ǜȮƸdžȮƄȮŴ Ⱦ ȦȾȢƾŴ ƿƇȼ Ɖ Ⱦ ɀ ȾȮƁ ȆƿƇȮ ȼ Ŵ ƞȮǩƾǰŴ Ⱦ / ƞȮǰȮ Ⱦ dž Ŵ ȤƾƯŴȖ Ⱦ ɀ / ǍȮƯȾ Ŵ ǜȮƳ ƉȮ Ɓ Ȇǜ ȮƳ Ŵ Ⱦ Ƚ ɀ Ƚ ȼ ǶƵȼ ȮŴ Ⱦ / ǀǰȼ Ƶɀ ȮŴ Ⱦ ȯǞƳȮƉ ž Ƕ Ƶ Ȯ Ŵ ɀ ȼ ȼ Ⱦ ȴƾƵȮŴ Ⱦ ɀ / ƞƵȮŴ

Arabic–English | 

sinn / asnaan (S/P) siwiyya siyaaha / siyaahaat (S/P) siyaahi / siyaahiyyiin (M) siyaahiyya / siyaahiyyaat (F) siyaasa siyaasi / siyaasiyya (M/F adj.) sooda / soodaat (F) Soomar Soomari / Soomariyyiin (M) Soomariyya / Soomariyyaat (F) suug, suuq / swaag (S/P) suug sooda suug is-Safaafiir

tooth/s together (invariable) tour/s, tourism tourism, tourist/s tourism, tourist/s politics political black (also see aswad) Sumer (ancient land of southern Iraq) Sumerian/s (ancient people of Iraq) Sumerian/s

Swiisra Swiisri / Swiisriyyiin (M) Swiisriyya / Swiisriyyaat (F)

market/s black market Name of a famous, old market in Baghdad known for its brass, copper, and tin craftsmanship pleasure, happiness with pleasure rest, sit (imp. verb) Please sit down (also see lesson ) Switzerland Swiss Swiss



suruur bikull suruur (i)stariih tfaddal stariih

SH sh- / shunu? sh-madriik? shaaf, yshuuf (HV) shaal, yshiil (HV) shakhis / ash khaas (S/P) shakh si (M)


what? (see lesson ) how do you know? (idiom, see lesson ) to see, to look (see lesson ) to lift, to carry person/s personal, private

ȴƾƶŴȖ Ⱦ ɀ / ǜȮŴ ǝdžȮƁǞȮ Ⱦ Ⱦ Ŵ ȝƾŲƾƸȮŴ / ǀ ŲƾƸȮ Ŵ Ⱦ ȼ Ⱦ ƞȮƸȮ ŲƾƸȮ Ŵ / ǠŲƾƸȮ Ŵ Ⱦ Ʀ Ⱦ Ⱦ ȝƾƸȮ ŲƾƸȮ Ŵ / ǀ ƸȮ ŲƾƸȮ Ŵ Ⱦ Ⱦ Ⱦ Ⱦ ȿ dž ǀŴƾƸȮ Ⱦ ȼ Ŵ ǀƸȮ ŴƾƸȮ Ŵ / Ǡ ŴƾƸ Ȯ Ŵ Ⱦ Ⱦ Ⱦ dž Ⱦ ȝȚȢǞŴ / ȜȼȢǞȮŴ Ǎžȼ ǞȮŴ ƞȮƦƁȾǍȮžȼ ǞȮŴ / ȸǍžȼ ǞȮŴ ȝƾƁȿ ȾǍȮžȼ ǞŴ / ǀȮdžƁȾǍžȼ ǞȮŴ ȱȚǞȮŴ ɀ / ȰǞŴ ȆȱǞȮŴ ȜȼȢǞŴ ȱǞȮŴ ǍƸźƾƱƫŽȚ dž ȱǞŴ

ȤȶǍȮŴ Ƚ ȤȶǍȮŴ ǚ ȮƳ Ȯ Ů Ƚ Ƚ Ⱦ ljȮƁǍȼȮƄȮŴȘ ɀ ljƁǍȼȮƄȮŴȘ ǚ Ƭ ȮƱ Ȯů dž ɀ ȼ ɀ ȚǍƉȮƁ ɀ ǞȮ ɀ Ⱦ Ŵ ƞȮƦƁȾǍƉȮƁ ǞȮ Ŵ / ȸǍ ƉȮƁ ǞȮ Ŵ ɀ Ⱦ ɀ ɀ Ⱦ ɀ / ǀdžȮƁȾǍƉȮƁ ɀ ǞȮ ɀ Ⱦ Ŵ ȝƾȮƁ Ǎ ƉȮƁ ǞȮ Ŵ ɀ Ⱦ ɀ ȿ Ⱦ ǀȼȮŻƾƸȮŴ ɀ ȼ Ƚ / Ȯŵ ȒǞƶȮŵ ɀ ȒǙƁȤNjɀ ȮƵȼ Ȯŵ ȯǞƪȮɀƁ ȆȯƾȮŵ ǚƸȮƪȮɀƁ ȆȲƾŵ ȼ ȨƾƈɀȮŵȖ / ǑƈȾ ŵ ȼ Ǡƫ Ⱦ ɀȮƈȮŵ

 | Glossary

shakh siyya / shakh siyyaat (F/P) sharaf sharraf, ysharruf (RV) shart / shuruut (S/P) shaab shabi / shabiyya (M/F adj.) shakar shakarchi / shakarchiyya (S/P) shaku? shaku maaku? shahar / ashhur (S/P) shawwaf, yshawwif sh-bii? shtira, yishtiri (WV) sheekaat siyaahiyya shgadd? shgadd-ma shii / ashyaa¢ (S/P) shirab, yishrab (RV) shikar, yushkur (RV) shloon? shloon-ma shloon-ma thibb shloon-ma triid shoorba / shoorbaat (S/P) shooka / shookaat (S/P) shubbaach, / shabaabiich (S/P) shukran

personality/ies, identity/ies honor to honor, to arrive (see lesson ) condition/s people folkloric, popular sugar sweet seller/s (see lesson ) what is it? what is happening? (see lesson ) month/s to show what’s wrong? (see lesson ) to buy (see lesson ) traveler’s checks how much? how long? (see lesson ) no matter how much (see lesson ) thing/s, something/s to drink (see lesson ) to thank how? (see lesson ) however, any way that (conjunction, see lesson ) as you like (idiom, see lesson ) whatever you want (idiom) soup/s fork/s, thorn/s window/s thank you, thanks

ȼ / ǀdžȮƸƫ ȼ ȝƾȮƸ Ⱦ ɀȮƈȮŵ Ⱦ ɀȮƈȮŵ ȿ ƫ ȼ ȯȼǍȮŵ ȼ ȯǍLJ ȼȮƪȮɀƁ ȆȯdžǍȮŵ ȪȶǍȽ Ȯŵ Ƚ / Ȫɀ ɀǍȼȮŵ ƿƯȼ ȼȮŵ ǀƸdž ȾȮƃȮƯɀ ȼȮŵ / ǠƃȮƯɀ ȼȮŵ ȼ ǍȼȮƳȮŵ ȼ / ǠǩɀǍȼȮƳŵ ȼ ǀȮƸdž ȾȮǩɀǍȼȮƳŵ ȼ ȒǞƳȮŵ ȼ ȒǞȮżƾž ǞƳȮŵ ȼ ǍƷȽ ɀȮŵȖ / ǍƷȮ ȼ ŵ ȯǞƦ ȼȮƪȮɀƁ ȆȯǞdž ȼȮŵ ȒǠȾȮƃɀȮŵ ɀ ȾȮƁ ȆȚȼǍȮƄȾ ȮȮŵ ɀ ȸǍȮƄȾ ƪ ǀdžȮƸȮŲƾƸ Ⱦ Ŵ Ⱦ ȝƾƳƸŵ ȼ ŵ ɀ ȒNjǦȮ ɀ ȳȼ NjǦȼ ŵ ɀ / Ǡŵ ȔƾƸŵȖ Ⱦ ɀ ȾȮƁ ȆțȼǍȮŵ țȼǍȮƪ Ⱦ ɀ ǍȮƳȮ ƪȮ Ɓ ȆǍ ȮƳȮ ŵ Ƚ ȼ Ⱦ Ƚ ɀ ȒȴǞƴȮŵ ȳȼ ȴǞƴɀȮŵ ɀ ƿȮƇȾ ɀȮů ȳȼ ȴǞƴȮŵ ɀ NjƁǍɀȮů ȳȼ ȴǞƴȮŵ ȝƾŮɀȤǞŵ / ǀȼŮɀȤǞȮŵ ȝƾżǞȮŵ / ǀȼȮżǞȮŵ ȼ / ɃƾȮƃȮ Ƚ ǶƸȮŮƾȮƃȮŵ ȿ ŵ Ƚ ȹ ȚǍɀȮƳȮŵ

Arabic–English | 

shunu, shshunu-ma, sh-ma shwakit? shwakit-ma shwayya

what? (see lesson ) whatever (conjunction, see lesson ) when? (see lesson ) whenever (conjunction, see lesson ) little (invariable)

S saar, ysiir (HV) saayid (part.) sabaah sabaah il-kheer sabaah in-nuur (in reply) sabaahan, is-subuh sabur saabuun, saabuuna saabunchi / saabunchiyya (S/P) sahaafa sahafi / sahafiyya (M/F) sahiifa / suhuf (S/P) sahiih / sahiiha (M/F) sarraaf / sarraafiin (M) sarraafa / sarraafaat (F) tasriif sarraf, ysarruf (RV) sakk / sukuuk (S/P) sakk shakhsi saub / saba (M/F) saghiir / saghiira/ s ghaar (M/F/P) sammuun sammuuna / sammuunaat (F) khubuz


to become, to have been in place (see lesson ) hunting, having hunted morning good morning good morning in the morning (adv.) patience soap (collective), one piece of soap soap vender/s (see lesson ) press, journalism journalist newspaper/s true, correct (adj.) teller/s, cashier/s teller/s, cashier/s exchange, change (currency) exchange, to change check/s personal check difficult, hard (adj.) small, little (French) bread (collective) (French) bread/s bread

Ƚ Ȯŵ ȆǞƶȮŵ ɀ Ƚ ȳȼ Ȯŵ Ȇȳȼ ǞƶȮŵ ɀ ȒǁȮżȾ Ǟȼ Ȯŵ ȳȼ ǁȮżȾ Ǟȼ ɀȮŵ ɀ ǀdžȮƁǞȼ Ȯŵ ǍƸƫɀƁ ȆȤƾǧ NjȾȮƁƾǧ Ƞƾƃǧ ȼ ǍƸƈȮŽȚ Ƞƾƃǧ ȼ ȤǞȮƶȮŽȚ Ƞƾƃ ǧ ȼ LJ ȹ ljȮƃ ƫŽȚ Ȇ ƾ Ųƾƃ ǧ ȼ Ƚ LJ ǍȮƃȽ ǧ ȼ ǀȼȮſǞŮƾǧ ȆȴǞŮƾǧ ǀƸdž ȾȮǰɀȮſǞŮƾǧ / ǠǰɀȮſǞŮƾǧ ǀȼȮźƾƇǧ ȼ ǀdžȮƸȮƱȾ ȮƇȼ ǧ / ǠȮƱ Ƈ ǧ ȼ ȼ ȼ ǗȮƇȽ ǧ / ǀ ȮƱƸƇ ǧ ȼ Ƚ ȼ ǀƇƸƇ ǧ / ljƸƇ ǧ ȼ ȼ ȼ ƞȮźȚǍȿ ǧ ȼ / ȯȚǍȿ ǧ ȼ ȝƾźȚǍȿ ǧ / ǀ ȮźȚ Ǎ ǧ ȼ ȼ ȿ ȼ ǗƁǍƫ ɀ ȼȮů ȯǍLJ ƫ ȼ ɀ Ɓ ȆȯdžǍǧ ȼ ȱǞƳǧ / Ǚ ǧ ȼ Ƚ Ǡƫƈɀ ȼȮŵ Ǚǧ ȼ ǀƃȮ Ư ǧ / ƿȮ Ư ǧ ɀ Ƚ ȼ ȼ ȼ Ȥƾưǧ ɀ / ȜȼǍƸȮưǧ ȼ / ǍƸȮưǧ ȼ ȴǞȮƵLJ ǧ ȼ ȝƾſǞƵLJ ǧ ȼ / ǀȼȮſǞƵLJ ǧ ȼ ǎȮƃȽ Ȯų Ƚ

 | Glossary

sanduuq / sanaadiiq (S/P), also sanduug / sanaadiiq (S/P) sanduuq bariid saydali saydaliyya siiniyya / swaani (S/P) sihha shloon is-sihha? sihhi / sihhiya (M/F) siad, yisad (RV) sifa / sifaat (S/P) sifir / asfaar (S/P) skhuuna

ǘƁȢƾƶǧ ȼ / ȰȶNjɀȮƶǧ ȼ

box/es boxe/s mail box pharmacist pharmacy tray/s health how are you? (lit., how is the health?) healthy, hygienic to go up, to ascend attribute/s, adjective/s zero/s fever



daabut / dubbaat (S/P) daabut jawaazaat daamm (part.) dakhum / d khaam (M) dakhma / dakhmaat (F) damm, ydumm (DV) dihak, yid hak (RV)

officer/s (military) passport officer hiding huge, great huge, great to hide to laugh

taabi / tawaabi (S/P)

postal stamp/s (also see bariid) stamps, postage to fly (see lesson ) student/s student/s physician/s, doctor/s physician/s, doctor/s of course (adv.) tomatoes pilot/s airplane/s good, delicious, fine, okay (depending on context)

T tawaabi bariidiyya taar, ytiir (HV) taalib / tullaab (M) taaliba / taalibaat (F) tabiib / atibbaa¢ (M) tabiiba / tabiibaat (F) taban, bit-tabu tamaata tayyaar / tayyaariin (M) tayyaara / tayyaaraat (F) tayyib / tayyba (M/F)


ƩƁȢƾƶǧ ȼ / ɆȶNjɀȮƶǧ ȼ NjȮƁǍȮȼŮ ȰȶNjɀȮƶǧ ȼ ǠŽNjȼ ȮƸɀ ǧ ȼ ǀƸȮ ȼ dž ȾŽNjȼ ȮƸɀ ǧ ǠſȚǞǧ / ǀȮ ƸȮ ƶ ȮƸ ǧ ɀ dž Ⱦ Ⱦ ǀƇdž ǧ Ⱦ ɀ ǀȮƇdž ƫŽȚ Ʀ ȴǞƴȮŵ ǀƸȮ Ⱦ / ǠƇȿ ǧ Ⱦ dž ƇƦ ǧ NjƯȼ ƫ Ȯ Ɓ ȆNjȮ Ư ǧ ȼ Ⱦ ɀ Ⱦ ȝƾƱǧ Ⱦ / ǀȼȮƱǧ Ⱦ ȤƾƱǧȖ Ⱦ ɀ / ǍȮƱȾ ǧ ǀȼȮſǞƈǧ ɀ ȪƾȮƃȿ Ǥ Ƚ / ǓȽŮƾǤ ȝȚȥȚǞȮűȼ ǓȽŮƾǤ ȳȿ ƾǤ ȳƾƈǤ ɀ / ǛȮƈȽ Ǥ ȼ ȝƾƵƈɀ Ǥ ȼ / ǀƵȼ Ȯƈɀ Ǥ ȼ Ǜȿ ƬȮ Ɓ Ȇ ǛȮ Ǥ Ƚ ɀ ȿ ȼ ǙȮƇȼ Ƭ ɀ ȾȮƁ ȆǙȮƇȼ Ǥ Ⱦ ǕŮȚǞȼȮŶ / ǕȾȮŮƾŶ ǀdžȮƁNjȾ ȮƁǍȼŮ ǕȾȮŮȚǞȼȮŶ ǍƸƭȮɀƁ ȆȤƾŶ țǾȮŶ Ƚ / ƿȮȾŽƾŶ ȝƾƃȮȾŽƾŶ / ǀƃȮ ȼ ȾŽƾŶ ȔƾȮƃȼ ŶȖ Ⱦ / ƿƸȮƃȼȮŶ ȝƾƃȮƸȮƃȼȮŶ / ǀƃȮƸȮƃ ȼ ȼȮŶ ǕƃȽ džȮƭŽƾȾȮŮ ȆȹƾȮƯƃɀ ȼȮŶ ǀȼȮŶƾƵȼȮŶ ǜƁȤƾȮƸȿ ȼȮŶ / ȤƾȮƸȿ ȼȮŶ ȝȚȤƾȮƸȿ ȼȮŶ / ȜȤƾȮƸȿ ȼȮŶ ǀȼȮƃɀȮƸȼȮŶ / ƿȮƸƦ ȼȮŶ

Arabic–English | 

tiiz / tyaaza (S/P) tihiin tifil / atfaal (M) tifla / tiflaat (F) tili / tilyaan (S/P) tooba / toobaat (S/P)

Z zaruf / zuruuf (S/P) zaruf tayyaraan zaruf aadi zahar zuhur iz-zuhur

aashat iid . . . aamm aammiyya addaad / addaadaat (S/P) arabaana arag arraf, yarruf (RV) aziima / azaayim (S/P) asha ashra ussi / ussiyya (M/F adj.) at shaan / at shaaniin (M) at shaana / at shaanaat (F)


envelope/s airmail envelope regular envelope back noon (time) at noon

9 aada / aadaat (S/P) aalam aalami / aalamiyyiin (M) aalamiyya / aalamiyyaat (F) aash min sima sootich


buttocks flour boy child/children girl child/children sheep, lamb/s ball/s


custom/s, tradition/s world, universe international/s international/s nice to hear your voice (see lesson ) well done (see lesson ) public, general colloquial (also see lugha) meter/s, gauge/s wagon arak (the national Iraqi alcoholic drink) to introduce food invitation/s, banquet/s dinner ten stingy, to be cheap thirsty thirsty

ȯȶǍȮŷ Ƚ / ȯǍȽ ȼȮŷ ȴȚǍƸdž ȼȮŶ ȯǍȽ ȼȮŷ ȸȢƾŸ ȯǍȽ ȼȮŷ ǍȮƷȼ ȼȮŷ ǍƷȽ Ȯŷ Ƚ ǍƷȽ ȮƮȮŽȘ LJ ȝȚȢƾŸ / ȜȼȢƾŸ ǛȼȮŽƾŸ ƞȮƸȮ Ƶ ȮŽƾŸ / ǠƵ Ʀ Ⱦ ȼ ȼȮŽƾŸ ȝƾȮƸȮ ȿ ƵȾ ȼȮŽƾŸ / ǀȮƸȮ dž ƵȾ ȼȮŽƾŸ ǶȾȮůǞǧ Ⱦ ǜžȾ ȧƾŸ Ƚ ǕƵȼ Ŵ NjȮƁȘ ǁȼȮŵƾŸ ȳȿ ƾȮŸ ǀȮƸȮ dž žƦ ƾȮŸ ȝȚȢȚNjȮ Ÿ / ȿ ȼ ȢȚNjȮ ȿ Ÿȼ


ǀȼȮſƾŮȼǍȮŸȼ ɆȼǍȮŸȼ ȯǍȮ LJ Ưȼ ȮɀƁ ȆȯdžǍȮŸȼ ǛȾȮƁȚǎŸȼ / ǀƚǎŸȼ ƾȼȮƪȮŸȼ ȜȼǍɀȮƪŸȼ ǀƸȮ ȿ ŸȽ Ʀ ŸȽ / Ǡƫ dž ƫ ƞȮſƾƪɀȮƭŸȼ / ȴƾƪɀȮƭŸȼ ȝƾſƾƪɀȮƭŸȼ / ǀȼȮſƾƪɀȮƭŸȼ

 | Glossary

aziim / aziima (M/F) afwan, il-afu ajala bil-ajal afya alee . . . ala ala raasi ala eeni ala kull haal ala fikra ala keefak amm / amaam (M) amma / ammaat (F) amaliyya / amaliyyaat amiiq an an idhnak / an idhnich / an idhinkum (M/F/P) eeb / yuub (S/P) eeb aleek eela / eelaat (S/P) iid / yaad (S/P) ijab, yijib (RV) idda iraaq (il-iraaq) iraaqi/ iraaqiyyiin (M) iraaqiyya / iraaqiyyaat (F) iraf, yuruf (RV) izam, yizim (RV)

great excuse me, pardon me speed, quickness quickly Good for . . . , bravo (see lesson ) on, upon (preposition, see lesson ) with pleasure (idiom, see lesson ) with pleasure (idiom, see lesson ) in any case, anyway (idiom, see lesson ) by the way (idiom, see lesson ) as you like (idiom, see lesson ) uncle/s (paternal, also see khaal) aunt/s (paternal) operation/s, surgery/s deep about (preposition) excuse me, with your permission shame, defect/s shame on you (idiom, see lesson ) family/ies (also see ahal) feast/s, festival/s to interest, appeal to (special verb, see lesson ) a number of, several Iraq Iraqi/s Iraqi/s to know (see lesson ) to invite (see lesson )


Arabic–English | 

ishriin illa ifa, yifi ind iyaada / iyaadaat udhur / adhaar (S/P) umla / umlaat (S/P) umla saba unwaan / anaawiin (S/P) unwaan il-mursil unwaan il-mustalim

twenty illness (also see haruf) to forgive has, have, at the place of (see lesson ) clinic/s excuse/s currency/s hard currency address/es address of sender address of addressee

GH ghaali / ghaalyiin (M) ghaalya / ghaalyaat (F) rikhiis / rikhiisa / rkhaas (M/F/P) ghada ghalat gheer ghidab, yigh dab ghurfa / ghuraf (S/P)

lunch wrong other, different from, unlike, nonto become angry room/s

G gaabal, ygaabul (RV) gaal, yguul (HV) gaam, yguum gabul gabl iz-zuhur bad iz-zuhur gabul-ma gahha gariib / garaayib (S/P) gass, yguss (DV) gass, shaawirma gamaarig, gamaarik


expensive expensive cheap, inexpensive


to meet, to face (see lesson ) to say (see lesson ) he stood up. he began to before, ago before noon, A.M. afternoon, P.M. (also see baad) before (conjunction, see lesson ) a cough relative/s to cut (see lesson ) grilled chopped meat customs

ɀ ŸȾ ǜƁǍƪȮ ǀdžȮƴȮŸȾ ǠƱȮƯɀ ȾȮƁ ȆƾȼȮƱȮŸȾ NjɀȮƶȮŸȾ ȝȚȢƾƸȮŸȾ / ȜȢƾƸȮŸȾ ȤȚnjȮŸɀ Ȗ / ȤnjȮŸȽ ȝǾƵɀ ȮŸȽ / ǀȼȮƴƵɀ ȮŸȽ ǀƃȮ ȼ ǀȼȮƴƵɀ ȮŸȽ ȼ Ưɀ ǧ ǜƁȶƾƶȮŸȼ / ȴȚǞɀȮƶȮŸȽ ǚŴ Ⱦ ɀǍƵȽ ɀȮŽȚ ȴȚǞɀȮƶȮŸȽ ǛȮȾƴȼȮƄƉ ɀ ƵȽ ɀȮŽȚ ȴȚǞɀȮƶȮŸȽ ƞȮȾȮƸɀȮŽƾŹ / ǠŽƾȮŹ ȝƾƸɀȮŽƾŹ / ǀƸȼ ɀȮŽƾȮŹ / ǀƫƸų ȼ Ⱦ Ȥ / ǑƸȮųȾȤ ȨƾȮųɀȤ ȚNjȼ ȼȮŹ ǓȼȮƴȼȮŹ ǍȮƸȮŹȾ ƿƬ ȼ ɀȮưȾȮƁ ȆƿƬȮ ȼ ŹȾ ȯȼǍȮŹ Ƚ / ǀȼȮźɀǍȮŹ Ƚ ǚȽŮƾǦɀƁ ȆǚȮȼŮƾǬ ȲǞǦȮɀƁ ȆȲƾǬ ȳǞǦȮɀƁ ȆȳƾȮǬ ǚȮƃȮ Ƚ ȼȮǬ ǍƷȽ ȮƮŽȚ ǚȮ ƃɀ ȼȮǬ LJ ǍƷȽ ȮƮŽȚNjȮ Ưɀ ȮȼŮ LJ ȳȼ ǚȮƃ Ƚ ȼȮǬȼ ǀȮƇdž ȼȮǬ ƿȾȮƁȚǍȼȮǬ / ƿȮƁǍȼȮǬ Ǒ ȿ ȮǦȮ ȿ ȼȮǬ Ƚ ɀ Ɓ ȆǑ ǀȮžȼ ɀ ȤȾȶƾŵ ȆǑ ȿ ȼȮǬ ȱȾȤƾƵȼȮǬ ȆɆȾȤƾƵȼȮǬ

 | Glossary

gahwa / gahaawi (S/P) gahawchi / gahawchiyya (S/P) giddaam giras, yugrus (RV) giriib / giriiba (M/F) giad, yugud (RV) gidar, yigdar (RV) glaas / glaasaat (S/P) gumaz, yugmuz (RV)

coffee/s, cafe/s coffee vendor/s (see lesson )

ȸȶƾƷȼȮǬ / ȜǞȼ ȮƷɀ ȼȮǬ ǀȮƸdž ȾȮǩǞɀ ȮƷȼ ȼȮǬ / ǠǩǞɀ Ʒȼ ȼȮǬ

in front, before, ahead to pinch close, near by to sit down (see lesson ) to be able, can (see lesson ) glass/es to jump


F fahis farr, yfurr (DV) farwa / farwaat (S/P) farhaan / farhaaniin (M) farhaana / farhaanaat (F) fasil / fusuul (S/P) fakkar, yfakkir (RV) faqat bass fann / funuun (S/P) fanni / fanniyya (M/F adj.) fawaakih fihas, yifhas (RV) fiiza / fiizaat (S/P) fiimaanillaa fitah, yiftah (RV) fiil / afaal (S/P) fiil il-amur fiil il-haadir fiil il-maadi fiil il-mustaqbal fikra / afkaar (S/P) filis / fluus (S/P) fluus iraaqiyya fluus Amriikiyya


check up, examination to escape, run away fur/s happy happy season/s, segment/s, chapter/s to think only only, but, enough art/s artistic fruits to check up, to examine visa/s goodbye (lit., in God’s safety, idiom see lesson ) to open (see lesson ) verb/s, action/s, doing/s imperative verb (see lesson ) present tense verb (see lesson ) past tense verb (see lessons –) future tense verb (see lesson ) idea/s penny/money Iraqi money American money

ǑƇȾ ȼȮź Ǎȿ ȮƱȮ Ƚ ɀ Ɓ ȆǍȿ ȼȮź ȝȚȶɀǍȼȮź / ȜȼȶɀǍȼȮź ƞȮſƾŲɀǍȼȮź / ȴƾŲɀǍȼȮź ȝƾſƾŲɀǍȼȮź / ǀȼȮſƾŲɀǍȼȮź ȲǞƫȮź Ⱦ ȼȮź Ƚ / ǚƫ ǍƦȮƳȼȮƱȮɀƁ ȆǍdžȮƳȼȮź ǓȼȮƲȼȮź ǏȮ ȿ ȼŮ ȴǞȮƶȮź Ƚ / ǜȿ ȼȮź ǀdžȮƸƦȮƶȼȮź / ǠȮƦȮƶȼȮź ǝȮżȚǞ Ⱦ ȼȮź ǑƇȼ ɀȮƱȾȮƁ ȆǑƇȮ ȼ źȾ ȝȚǎȮƸȮźȾ / ȜǎȮƸȾȮź ǾɀȮƴƸȮȾſƾƵƸȮź ljȼȮƄɀȮƱȾȮƁ ȆljȼȮƄȮźȾ ȲƾƯɀȮźȖ / ǚȮƯȾ ȮźȾ ǍȮžȽ LjȚ ǚȮƯȾ ȮźȾ ǍǤƾƇ Ⱦ ɀȮŽȚ ǚȮƯȾ ȮźȾ ǠǤƾƵɀȮŽȚ ǚȮƯȾ ȮźȾ ǚȼȮƃɀȮƲȼȮƄƉ ɀ ƵȽ ɀȮŽȚ ǚȮƯȾ ȮźȾ ȤƾƳɀȮźȖ / ȜȼǍɀȮƳȮźȾ ȦǞȮƴɀȮź / ǏȮȾƴȮźȾ ǀƸȮ dž ŻȾ ȚǍȮȮŸȾ ȦǞȮƴɀȮź ǀƸȮƳƁǍȮ žɀ Ȗ ȦǞȮƴɀȮź dž

Arabic–English | 

filim / aflaam (S/P) filfil filfil akh dar filfil aswad findiq / fanaadiq (S/P) foliklore folikloori / foliklooriyya (adj.) fursa / furas (S/P) fus ha lugha fus ha

film/s pepper green pepper black pepper hotel/s, motel/s folklore folkloric occasion/s, opportunity/s classical (Arabic, also see lugha) classical language (Arabic)

Q qaabal, yqaabil (RV) gaabal, ygaabul (RV) qaaa / qaaaat (S/P) qaamuus / qawaamiis (S/P) qatil qital, yuqtul qadiim / qadiima / qudamaa¢ (M/F/P) qariib / qariiba (M/F) qarid / quruud (S/P) qasir / qusuur (S/P) qalam / qlaam (S/P) qanaat / qanawaat qira, yiqra (WV) qisim / aqsaam (S/P) qisim il-akhbaar qilaq, yiqlaq (RV) qussa / qusas (S/P) qundara / qanaadir (S/P) qundarchi / qundarchiyya (S/P) qunsiliyya / qunsiliyyaat (S/P) safaara / safaaraat (S/P)


to meet, to face, opposite to meet, to face, opposite hall/s dictionary/s murder, killing to kill old, ancient near, close by, relative loan/s palace/s pencil/s, pen/s (TV) channel/s to read (see lesson ) section/s, division/s, department/s news section to worry, anxious novel/s, story/s shoe/s shoe repairman/s consulate/s embassy/s

ȳǾɀȮźȖ / ǛȮȾƴȮźȾ ǚȮƱȾ ɀȮƴȮźȾ ǍƬ ȮųȖ ǚȮ ƱȾ ɀȮƴȮźȾ ȼ ɀ ȢǞȼ ȮŴȖ ɀ ǚȮƱȾ ɀȮƴȮźȾ ȰȾȢƾȮƶȼȮź / ȰNjȾ ɀȮƶȮźȾ ȤǞȮƴɀȮƳȮȾŽǞȮź / ȸȤǞȮƴɀȮƳȮȾŽǞȮź ǀȮdžƁȤǞȮƴɀȮƳȮȾŽǞȮź ȨȼǍȮź ȼ ɀǍȮź Ƚ / ǀǧ Ƚ ǟƇƫ ɀ Ȯź Ƚ ǟƇƫ ɀ Ȯź Ƚ ǀȮȼȮưȮŽ Ƚ

ǚȾȮŮƾȮƲɀƁ ȆǚȼŮƾŻ ǚȽŮƾǦɀƁ ȆǚȼŮƾǬ ȝƾŸƾŻ / ǀȮŸȼ ƾŻ ǏƸžȚǞȼȮŻ / ȦǞžƾŻ ǚȮƄȾ ȮȼȮŻ ǚȮƄ Ƚ ɀȮƲȮȽƁ ȆǚȼȮƄȮȮŻȾ ȔƾžNjȼ ȮŻ / Ƚ ǀȼƚNjȼȮŻ / ƗNjȼȮŻ ǀƃȮƁǍ ȼ ȼȮŻ / ƿƁǍȼȮŻ ȩȶǍȮŻ Ƚ / ȩȾǍȼȮŻ ȤǞƫȮŻ Ⱦ ȼȮŻ Ƚ / Ǎƫ ȳǾɀȮŻ / ǛȼȮƴȼȮŻ ȝȚǞȼȮƶȼȮŻ / ȜƾƶȼȮŻ ȚȼǍɀȮƲȾȮƁ ȆȚȼǍȮŻȾ ȳƾƉɀȮŻȖ / ǛƉ Ⱦ ŻȾ ȤƾƃɀȮųLjȚ ǛƉ Ⱦ ŻȾ ǘȼȮƴɀȮƲȾȮƁ ȆǘȼȮƴȮŻȾ Ǒƫ ȼ ȮŻ dž ȮŻ Ƚ / ǀƫ Ƚ ȤȾȢƾƶȼȮŻ / ȜȼȤNjȼ ɀȮƶȮŻ Ƚ ǀƸȮǩ dž ɀ ȤNjȼ ɀȮƶȮŻ Ƚ / ǠǩɀȤNjȼ ɀȮƶȮŻ Ƚ ȝƾƸȮƴ Ⱦ ɀȮƶȮŻ Ⱦ ɀȮƶȮŻ ȿ ƫ dž ƫ Ƚ / ǀƸȮƴ Ƚ ȝȚȤƾƱȮŴ ȼ / ȜȼȤƾƱȮŴ ȼ

 | Glossary

K kaamira / kaamiraat (S/P) kaan, ykuun kaafi kabaab kababchi / kababchiyya (S/P) kabiir / kabiira / kbaar (M/F/P) chibiir / chibiira / kbaar (M/F/P) kathiir / kathiira / kthaar (M/F/P) kaslaan / kaslaaniin (M) kaslaana / kaslaanaat (F) kalaam kalb / klaab, chalib / chlaab (S/P) chalba / chalbaat (F) kallaf, ykallif (RV) kam, cham? keef ala keefak keelomatir / keelomatraat (S/P) ktaab, kitaab / kutub (S/P) kitab, yiktib (RV) kidhab, yikdhib kisar, yiksir (RV) kilfa / kilfaat (S/P) kuub / kwaaba (S/P) kursi / karaasi (S/P) kull kullish kullshi kullshi b-makaana


camera/s was/were (see chaan, lesson ) enough skewered meat kabab maker/s, seller/s (see lesson ) big, large big, large many, much, plenty lazy lazy talk, speech dog/s dog/s to cost, to assign (see lesson ) How many? (see lesson ) mood as you like, as you wish kilometer/s book/s to write to lie to break cost/s cup/s chair/s every, all, whole very everything all right, everything in its place (idiom, see lesson )

ȝȚǍȮžȾ ƾż / ȜȼǍȮžȾ ƾż ȴǞƳɀȮƁ ȆȴƾȮż Ǡźƾż țƾȮƃȼȮż ǀƸȮǰ dž ɀ ŮƾƃȼȮż / ǠǰɀŮƾƃȼȮż ȤƾƃɀȮż / ȜǍƸƃȼȮż / ǍƸƃȼȮż ȤƾƃɀȮż / ȜǍƸȮƃȾȮǩ / ǍƸȮƃȾȮǩ ȤƾƅɀȮż / ȜǍƸƅȼȮż / ǍƸƅȼȮż ƞſǾƉ ɀ ȼȮż / ȴǾƉ ɀ ȼȮż ȝƾſǾƉ Ȯż / ǀ ȮſǾ Ɖ ɀ ȼ ȼ ɀ ȼȮż ȳǾȼȮż / ƿȮȾƴȮǩȼ ȆțǾɀȮż / ƿɀȮƴȼȮż țǾȮǩɀ ȝƾƃɀȮƴȮǩȼ / ǀƃȼ ɀȮƴȮǩȼ ǗƦȮƴȼȮƳɀƁ ȆǗdžȮƴȼȮż ȒǛȮǩȼ ȆǛȼȮż ǗƸȮż ǙƱȮƸȮż ǟƴŸ ȝȚǍɀȮƄȮžȼ ǞƴƸż / ǍȮƄȾ žȼ ǞƴƸż ƿȮƄ Ƚ Ȯż Ƚ / țƾƄȮżȾ ȆțƾƄɀȮż ƿȮƄȾ ɀȮƳȾȮƁ ȆƿȼȮƄȮżȾ țnjȾ ɀȮƳȾȮƁ ȆțnjȮżȾ ǍƉ Ⱦ ɀȮƳȾȮƁ ȆǍƉȮ ȼ żȾ ȝƾƱɀȮƴȮżȾ / ǀȼȮƱɀȮƴȮżȾ ǀȼŮȚǞɀȮż / țǞȮż ǠŴȚǍȼȮż / ǠŴɀǍȮż Ƚ ǚȮż Ƚ ǐƦȮƴȮż Ƚ ǠƪɀȮƴȮż Ƚ ǝȼȮſƾƳžȼ țɀ ǠƪɀȮƴȮż Ƚ

Arabic–English | 

L la- < laa laa ghaali wala rkhiis laa shiish wala kabaab laazim luzuum laakin laham latiif / latiifa / ltaaf (M/F/P) laad

lamman laylan, bil-leel leesh, ilweesh, luweesh? leel, leela / layaali (S/P) li-, lli¢ann liban / albaan (S/P) lihusn il-hazz, min husn il-hazz lizam, yilzam lisaan / alsina (S/P) lisuu¢ il-hazz, min suu¢ il-hazz liab, yilab (RV) loo, aw loo aani b-makaanak loon / alwaan lugha / lughaat (S/P) il-lugha l-arabiyya il-lugha l-fus ha il-lugha l-aamiyya liga, yilga (WV)


no, not (see lesson ) neither expensive nor cheap (idiom, see lesson ) not bad, so so, okay (idiom, see lesson ) must, ought to (semi verb) need, must (noun) but (conjunction, see lesson ) meat (collective) nice (adj.) then, so, in that case (invariable transitional word, see lesson ) when, at the time at night, nightly (adv.) why? (see lesson ) night/s to (preposition, see lesson ) because (conjunction, see lesson ) yogurt/dairy products fortunately, luckily (idiom, see lesson ) to catch, to hold tongue/s unfortunately (idiom, see lesson ) to play or, if (see lesson ) if I were you, if I were in your place (idiom, see lesson ) color/s (see lesson ) language/s the Arabic language the classical language the colloquial language to find

ǽ > ȼȮŽ ǑƸųȤ ǽȶ ǠŽƾŹ ǽ țƾƃȼȮż ǽȶ ǐƸŵ ǽ ȳȾȥǽ ȳȶǎȮŽ Ƚ ǜȮżǽ Ⱦ ǛȮƇȼ ȼȮŽ ȯƾƭɀȮŽ / ǀȼȮƱƸƭȼȮŽ / ǗƸƭȼȮŽ NjȮƯȼ ȼȮŽ ǜȮƵdž ȼȮŽ ǚƸȮƴɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ȆȹǾȮƸɀ ȼȮŽ ǐȮƁǞȾ ȮŽ Ƚ ȆǐȮƁǞȾ ɀȮŽȘ ȆǐƸȮŽ ǠŽƾƸȼȮŽ / ǀȼȮƴƸȮŽ ȆǚƸȮŽ Ȳɀ Ȇ ȾȮŽ ȴLj ȴƾƃɀȮŽȖ / ǜȮƃȮ ȼ ȾŽ ǜƉ ɀ ŲȽ ǜžȾ ȆǔƇȼ ɀȮŽȚ ǜƉ ɀ ƇȮ Ƚ ȾŽ ǔƇȼ ɀȮŽȚ ȳȼǎɀȮƴȾȮƁ ȆȳȼǎȾŽ ǀƶƉ ȮŽȖ Ⱦ ɀ / ȴƾƉȮȾŽ ȔǞŴ ǜžȾ ȆǔƇȼ ɀȮŽȚ ȔǞƉȾŽ ǔƇȼ ɀȮŽȚ ƿȮƯȼ ɀȮƴȾȮƁ ȆƿȮƯȼ ȮȾŽ ɀȶȖ ȆǞȮŽ ǙȼȮſƾƳžȼ țɀ Ǡſȕ ǞŽ ȴȚǞɀȮŽȖ ȝƾưȮŽ / ǀ ȼȮưȮŽ Ƚ Ƚ ǀƸȮŮ Ǎ Ư ȮŽȚ ǀ Ȯư Ȯƴ ȮŽȘ dž ȼȼɀ ȼ Ƚ ɀ ǟƇƫ ɀ ȮƱ Ƚ ɀȮŽȚ ǀȼȮưȮƴ Ƚ ɀȮŽȘ ǀƸȮ dž žȾ ƾƯɀȮŽȚ ǀȼȮưȮƴ Ƚ ɀȮŽȘ ǠǦɀȮƴȾȮƁ ȆƾȼȮǦȮȾŽ

 | Glossary

M ma- < maa maat, ymuut (HV) maashaalla maashi maauun / mwaaiin (S/P) maaku chaara maaku luzuum maal maali / maaliyya (M/F) maalman? maani mathaf / mataahif (S/P) mathaf aathaar il-mathaf il-iraaqi mahatta / mahattaat (S/P) mahattat qitaar mahall / mahallaat (S/P) dukkaan / dakaakiin (S/P) mahall-ma makhzan / makhaazin (S/P) madiina / mudun (S/P) madrasa / madaaris (S/P) mara / niswaan (S/P) mariid / mariida / mardaa (M/F/P) marhaba / maraahub (S/P) marr, ymurr (DV)


not (see lesson ) to die praise be to God (idiom, see lesson ) (part.) (see misha) plate/s, dish/s no cure, no hope, no way out (invariable, see lesson ) no need for . . . (idiom, see lesson ) wealth, money, have (see lesson ) financial (relative adj., see lesson ) whose? (see “minu?” lesson ) objection, obstacle museum/s antiquity museum the Iraqi Museum (see lesson ) station/s train station place/s, store/s, shop/s store/s, shop/s the place where (conjunction, see lesson ) store/s, shop/s city/ies, town/s school/s woman/en (notice the plural is another word) sick, ill (adj.) hello, greeting/s to go by, to pass

ƾž > ȳȼ ȝǞƵȮɀƁ Ȇȝƾž ʇƾŵƾž Ǡŵƾž ƞŸȚǞžɀ / ȴǞŸƾž ȜȼȤƾǩ Ǟżƾž ȳȶǎȮŽ Ƚ Ǟżƾž Ȳƾž ǀƸȮ dž ȾŽƾž / ǠŽƾž ǜƵȼ ɀȮŽƾž ǕȾſƾž ǗŲƾƄ Ⱦ žȼ / ǗƇȼ ɀȮƄžȼ ȤƾŰȕ ǗƇȼ ɀȮƄžȼ ǠŻȚǍƯȾ ɀȮŽȚ ǗƇȼ ɀȮƄƵȼ ɀȮŽȘ ȝƾȮƭ ȿ Ƈȼ žȼ / ǀdžȮƭƇȼ žȼ ȤƾƭȮŻȾ ǀdžȮƭƇȼ žȼ ȝǾƇȼ žȼ / ǚƇȼ žȼ ƞȮżƾżȼȢ / ȴƾȮż ȿ ȽȢ ȳȼ ǚȮƇȼ žȼ ȴȾȥƾƈžȼ / ȴȼǎȮƈɀ žȼ ȴNjȽ ȮžȽ / ǀƶȮƁNjȮžȼ ȦȾȤȚNjȮžȼ / ǀŴ ȼ ȼ ȤNjɀ Ȯžȼ ȴȚǞƉȮ ɀ Ⱦ ſ / ȜȼǍȮžȼ ǟǤɀǍžȼ / ǀƬƁǍ ȼ žȼ / ǒƁǍžȼ ƿŲȚǍȮ Ƚ žȼ / ǀȼȮƃŲȼ ɀǍȮžȼ Ǎȿ ƵȮ Ƚ ɀ Ɓ ȆǍȮ ȿ žȼ

Arabic–English | 

marra / marraat (S/P) kull marra mazza / mazzaat (S/P) masaa¢ masaa¢ il-kheer masaa¢ in-nuur (in reply) masaa¢an, bil-masaa¢ (adv.) mas¢uul / mas¢uuliin (S/P) mas¢uul hukuuma Masguuf simach Masguuf masluug beed masluug mashruub / mashruubaat (S/P) mash ghuul / mash ghuuliin (M) mash ghuula / mash ghuulaat (F) mashhuur / mashhuuriin (M) mashhuura / mashhuuraat (F) mashwi / mashwiyyaat (S/P) laham mashwi Masir Masri / Masriyyiin (M) Masriyya / Masriyyaat (F) mataar / mataaraat (S/P) matam / mataaum (S/P) maa maa s-salaama mabad / maaabid (S/P) maluumaat magli beed magli

once, one time, instance/s each time, every time appetizer/s, hors d’oeuvres afternoon, evening good afternoon/evening good afternoon/evening in the afternoon/evening authority/s, person/s in charge government official Masguuf (popular fish dish) Masguuf fish boiled boiled egg drink/s (soft and alcoholic)

ȝȚǍȮ ȿ žȼ / ȜdžǍȮžȼ ȜdžǍȮžȼ ǚȮż Ƚ ȝȚǎȿ Ȯžȼ / ȜdžǎȮžȼ ȔƾƉžȼ ǍƸƈɀȮŽȚ ȔƾƉžȼ ȤǞȮƶŽȚ LJ ȔƾƉžȼ ȔƾƉƵȼ ɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ȆȔȹ ƾƉžȼ ƞŽȶƻȮƉ ɀ žȼ / ȲȶƻȮƉ ɀ žȼ ǀžȼ ǞƳȮŲȽ ȲȶƻȮƉ ɀ žȼ ȯǞǦƉ ɀ žȼ ȯǞǦƉ Ⱦ ɀ žȼ ǶƵȼ ȮŴ ɆǞƴƉ ɀ žȼ ɆǞƴƉ ž ǒƸŮ ɀ ȼ ȝƾŮȶǍɀȮƪžȼ / țȶǍɀȮƪžȼ


ƞŽǞưɀȮƪžȼ / ȲǞưɀȮƪžȼ


ȝǽǞưɀȮƪžȼ / ǀŽǞưɀȮƪžȼ

famous, well known

ǜƁȤǞƷɀȮƪžȼ / ȤǞƷɀȮƪžȼ

famous, well known

ȝȚȤǞƷɀȮƪžȼ / ȜȼȤǞƷɀȮƪžȼ

broiled food

ȝƾȮƁ ȿ ǞȾ ɀȮƪžȼ / ȸǞȾ ɀȮƪžȼ

broiled meat Egypt Egyptian/s Egyptian/s airport/s restaurant/s with (preposition) goodbye (lit., with safety) temple/s information fried fried eggs

ȸǞɀȮƪžȼ ǛƇȼ ȼȮŽ ǍƫȮ Ⱦ žȼ ƞƦȮƁȾǍƫ ɀ žȼ ɀ žȼ / ȸǍƫ ž / ǀ ȮƁ Ǎ ƫ ȝƾƁȿ ȾǍƫ ɀ ȼ dž Ⱦ ɀ žȼ ȝȚȤƾƭȮžȼ / ȤƾƭȮžȼ ǛŸȽ ƾƭȮžȼ / ǛȮƯȼ ɀȮƭȮžȼ Ǖȼ Ȯžȼ ǀȮžȼ ǾƉŽȚ Ǖ dž ȼ Ȯžȼ NjȾȮŮƾƯžȼ / NjƃȮ ȼ Ưɀ Ȯžȼ ȝƾžǞȮƴȮƯɀ Ȯžȼ ǠƴɀȮǦžȼ ǠƴɀȮǦžȼ ǒƸŮ

 | Glossary

makaan (ak) khaali maktab / makaatib (S/P) maktaba / maktabaat (S/P) malaabis malik / miluuk (M) malika / malikaat (F) malyoon / malyooneen / malaayiin mamnuu / mamnuua (M/F) mamnuun

mandada / manaadid (S/P) manzar / manaazir (S/P) manyo mawjuud / mawjuudiin (M) mawjuuda / mawjuudaat (F) mawkib / mawaakib (S/P) Shaari il-Mawkib mawlaay mawwat, ymawwit (HV) maykhaalif

maysiir mayy / miyaah (S/P) meez / myuuza (S/P) mit¢assif / mit¢assfiin (M) mit¢assfa / mit¢assfaat (F) mitallig bmithil mithil-ma mirtaah / mirtaahiin (M) mirtaaha / mirtaahaat (F)

(You) were missed. (idiom, see, lesson ) office/s library/ies clothes, clothing king/s queen/s one million/two millions/ millions (see lesson ) illegal, forbidden to be indebted, grateful, pleased (idiom, see lesson ) table/s view/s, scene/s menu present, located, to be found present, located, to be found procession Procession Street (in ancient Babylon) my lord to kill it is okay, it is permitted, it doesn’t matter (idiom, see lesson ) impossible, it can’t be (idiom, see lesson ) water/s table/s to be sorry to be sorry hanging on to like, similar, such as as, the way that (conjunction, see lesson ) comfortable, rested comfortable, rested

ǠŽƾų ǙȼȮſƾƳȮžȼ ƿȮȾůƾƳžȼ / ƿȼȮƄɀȮƳȮžȼ ȝƾƃȼȮƄɀȮƳžȼ / ǀƃȼ ȼȮƄɀȮƳȮžȼ ǏȾȮŮǾȮžȼ ȱǞƴȮžȾ / ǙȮȾƴȮžȼ ȝƾƳȮȾƴȮžȼ / ǀȼȮƳȮȾƴȮžȼ / ƞſǞƸɀȮƴȮžȼ / ȴǞƸɀȮƴȮžȼ ǜȮƸȮȾȮȾƁǾȮžȼ ǀŸȼ ǞȮƶƵɀ Ȯžȼ / ȬǞƶƵɀ Ȯžȼ ȴǞƶȮƵɀ Ȯžȼ NjǤƾƶȮ ȼ ɀȮƶȮžȼ Ⱦ žȼ / ȜNjƬ ǍŷƾƶȮ Ⱦ žȼ / ǍȼȮƮɀȮƶȮžȼ ǞȮƸɀȮƶȮžȼ ǜƁȢǞűǞɀ žȼ / ȢǞűǞɀ žȼ ȝȚȢǞűǞɀ žȼ / ȜȢǞűǞɀ žȼ ƿȮżȚǞ Ⱦ žȼ / ƿȮżȾ Ǟɀ žȼ ƿȮżȾ Ǟɀ ȮƵȼ ɀȮŽȚ ȬȾȤƾŵ ȸǽǞɀ Ȯžȼ ȝǞƦ Ƶȼ ȮɀƁ ȆȝǞdž Ȯžȼ ǗȮȾŽƾƈƸȮ ɀ žȼ ǍƸƫƸȮ ɀ žȼ ȵƾƸȮžȾ / Ǡȿ žȼ ȜȼȥǞƸȮžɀ / ǎƸȮž ƞȮƱȮŴƺ ɀ ɀȮƄȮžȾ / ǗŴƺ Ʀ ɀȮƄȮžȾ ȝƾƱȮŴƺ ɀ ɀȮƄȮžȾ / ǀƱȮŴƺ ɀ ɀȮƄȮžȾ ț ƩƦȮƴȮƯȼ ɀȮƄžȾ ǚȮƅȾ ȮžȾ ȳȼ ǚȮƅȾ ȮžȾ ƞŲƾůɀǍȮžȾ / ȠƾůɀǍȮžȾ ȝƾŲƾůɀǍȮžȾ / ǀŲƾů ȼ ɀǍȮžȾ

Arabic–English | 

mizzawwij / mizzawwjiin (M) mizzawwja / mizzawwjaat (F) misha, yimshi (WV) maashi / maashya (M/F, part.) maashi l-haal mghatti mida / miad miftaah / mafaatiih (S/P) mila, yimli (WV) milih / amlaah (S/P) milaqa / malaaiq (S/P) min min > mni min fadlak / min fadlich (M/F) min husn il-hazz min suu¢ il-hazz min hissa w jaay min waqit li-waqit min ween? minu? minu-ma minu abu baachir?

miyya mudda mudiir / mudaraa¢ (S/P) mustashfa / mustashfayaat

married (man) married (woman) to walk, to travel (see lesson ) walking, traveling well, fine, okay (common phrase) covering (part.) stomach/s key/s to fill (in) salt/s spoon/s when (see lesson ) from (preposition) please (expression used when requesting something, also see tfaddal) fortunately, luckily (idiom, see lesson ) unfortunately (idiom, see lesson ) from now on (idiom, see lesson ) from time to time (idiom, see lesson ) Where from? (see lesson ) who? (see lesson ) whoever (see lesson ) who knows about tomorrow? life is too short. (see lesson ) one hundred (see lesson ) period of time, while director/s, manager/s hospital/s

ƞȮűȶɀ džǎȮžȾ / ȟƦȶdžǎȮžȾ ȝƾűɀȶdžǎȮžȾ / ǀȼȮűɀȶdžǎȮžȾ ǠƪƵɀ ȾȮƁ ȆƾȼȮƪȮžȾ ǀƸȼ ɀȮŵƾž / Ǡŵƾž ȲƾƇɀȮŽȚ Ǡŵƾž ǠƦȮƭȼȮưžɀ NjȮƯȼ ȮžȾ / ȜNjȼ ȮƯɀ žȾ ljƸȮůƾƱžȼ / ȠƾƄɀȮƱžȾ ǠƴƵɀ ȾȮƁ ȆƾȼȮƴȮžȾ ȠǾžɀ Ȗ / ljȮȾƴȮžȾ ǘȮŸȾ Ǿžȼ / ǀȼȮƲȮƯȼ ɀȮƴȮžȾ ǜȮžȾ ǜȮžɀ < ǜȮžȾ ǶȮȾƴƬ Ȯź ǜ ž / Ǚ ɀ ȼ Ⱦ ɀ ȼȮź ǜžȾ ȼȮƴƬ ǔƇȼ ɀȮŽȚ ǜƉ ɀ ŲȽ ǜžȾ ǔƇȼ ɀȮŽȚ ȔǞŴ ǜžȾ ȸɀ ƾűȶ ǀƉ dž ƀȾ ǜžȾ ǁȮŻȾ Ǟȼ ȮȾŽ ǁȮŻȾ ȼȶ ǜžȾ ȒǜƁȶ ǜžȾ ȒǞƶȮžȾ ȳȼ ǞƶȮžȾ ȒǍȾȮǩƾŮ ǞŮȖ ǞƶȮžȾ ǀƸȮ dž žȾ ȜNjdž ȮžȽ ȔȚȤNjȼ ȮžȽ / ǍƁNjžȽ / ǟƱɀȮƪȼȮƄȮƉ ɀ žȽ ȝƾƸȼȮƱɀȮƪȼȮƄȮƉ ɀ žȽ

 | Glossary

muqaabala / muqaabalaat (S/P) muu mu¢min / mu¢miniin (S/P) Amiir il-Mu¢miniin muhaawara / muhaawaraat (S/P) mukhaabara / mukhaabaraat (S/P) mukhaabara daakhiliyya mukhaabara khaarijiyya musajjal / musajjala (M/F) muallim / muallima (M/F) mufattish / mufattishiin (M) mufattish gamaarig mulaahaza / mulaahazaat (S/P) mumkin, yimkin mumtaaz / mumtaaziin (M) mumtaaza / mumtaazaat (F) muwazzaf / muwazzafiin (M) muwazzafa / muwazzafaat (F) msaafir / msaafriin (M) msaafra / msaafraat (F) mshawwash / mshawwasha (M/F) mneen, immeen? min ween? mneen-ma mudhii / mudhiia (M/F) muraasil / muraasila (M/F) muraasil ajnabi

meeting/s, interview/s

ȝǾȮȼŮƾƲȮžȽ / ǀƴȮȼŮƾƲȮžȽ

not (see lesson ) believer/s Prince of Believers (Caliph’s title) dialogue/s, discussion/s

ǞȮžȽ ǜȮƸƶȮžȾ ƻɀ ȮžȽ / ǜȮžȾ ƻɀ ȮžȽ ǜȮƸƶȮžȾ ƻɀ ȮȽƓȚ ǍƸȮžȖ

telephone call/s (also see khaabar) domestic/national call international call registered teacher/s

ȝȚǍȮȼŮƾƈžȽ / ȜȼǍȮȼŮƾƈžȽ ǀƸȮ Ⱦ ȜǍȮȾŮƾƈžȽ dž ȾƴųȚȢ ǀƸdž ȾȮűȾȤƾų ȜǍȾŮƾƈžȽ ǀȼȮƴȮƆdž Ɖ ȼ žȽ / ǚȮƆdž Ɖ ȼ žȽ ǀƵȼ ƦȮƴƯȼ žȼ / ǛƦȮƴȮƯȼ žȽ

inspector/s, reviewer/s


customs inspector note/s, remark/s

ɆȾȤƾƵȼȮȮǬ ǐƦȮƄȼȮƱžȽ ȝƾƮŲǾ ȼ žȽ / ǀȼȮƮŲǾ ȼ žȽ

possible, perhaps, may be excellent excellent

ȝȚȤȼȶƾƇžȼ / ȜȼȤȼȶƾƇžȽ

ǜȮƳȮ Ⱦ Ƶɀ ȾȮƁ ȆǜȮƳȾ Ƶɀ ȮžȽ ǜƁȥƾƄȮɀƛȽ / ȥƾƄȮɀƛȽ ȝȚȥƾƄȮɀƛȽ / ȜȼȥƾƄȮɀƛȽ

employee/s, official/s

ƞƱdžȮŷǞȼ ȮžȽ / ǗdžȮŷǞȼ ȮžȽ

employee/s, official/s

ȝƾƱdžȮŷǞȼ ȮžȽ / ǀȼȮƱdžȮŷǞȼ ȮžȽ

traveling, traveler/s traveling, traveler/s static, disrupted by

ǜƁǍɀȮźƾƉžɀ / ǍȮźȾ ƾƉȮžɀ ȝȚǍɀȮźƾƉžɀ / ȜȼǍɀȮźƾƉžɀ ǀȼȮŵǞdž ȼȮƪȮžɀ / ȧǞdž ȼȮƪȮžɀ

where from? (see lesson ) where from? from wherever (conjunction, see lesson ) broadcaster reporter, correspondent foreign reporter/ correspondent

ȒƞȮždž Ș ȆƞȮƶȮžɀ ȒǜƁȶ ǜȮžȾ ȳȼ ƞȮƶȮžɀ ǀƯȼ ȮƁnjȮžȽ / ǕƁnjȮžȽ ǀƴȮŴȚǍȮ Ⱦ žȽ / ǚŴȚǍȮ Ⱦ žȽ ǠƃȼȮƶȮűȖ ǚ ŴȚǍȮ Ⱦ žȽ ɀ

Arabic–English | 

mushtaaq / mushtaaqa/ mushtaaqiin (M/F/P)

missing (someone)

N naazil / naazliin (M, part.) naazla / naazlaat (F) naam, ynaam (HV) nabiidh nazzal, ynazzil nasiib / nasiiba (M/F) nashra / nashraat (S/P) nashra akhbaariyya nashla naam, ii nafas nafis nahar / anhaar (S/P) Naynawa nija, yinja (WV) nisa, yinsa (WV) nita, yinti (WV) nhizam, yinhizim (RV) nuur / anwaar (S/P) nushkur alla nuss noo / anwaa

staying staying to sleep (see lesson ) wine to lower relative-in-law bulletin/s news bulletin cold (illness) yes breath self, being, soul river/s Nineveh (the ancient Assyrian capital) to be saved to forget to give to run away, to flee light/s Thank God! one-half type/s, kind/s

H ha-

hal-ayyaam haadha / haadhi / hadhoola (M/F/P) hadhaak / hadhiich / hadhoolaak (M/F/P) haak / haach / haakum (M/F/P)


ƞȮŽɀȥƾſ / ȲȾȥƾſ ȝǽɀȥƾſ / ǀȼȮŽɀȥƾſ ȳƾƶȮɀƁ Ȇ ȳƾȮſ njƸȮƃȼȮſ ȲƦǎȼȮƶȮɀƁ ȆȲdžǎȼȮſ ǀȮƃƸȮƉ ȼ ſ / ƿƸƉȮȼſ ȼ ɀ ȼȮſ ȝȚǍɀȮƪȼȮſ / ȜǍȮƪ ǀƁȤƾƃɀȮųȖ ȜǍɀȮƪȼȮſ ǀȼȮƴɀȮƪȼȮſ ǠȮȾǣ ȆǛȮƯȼ ȼȮſ ǏȼȮƱȼȮſ ǏȮƱȾ ȼȮſ ȤƾƷɀȮſȖ / ǍƷȼ ȼȮſ ȷǞȼȮƶȮƸɀ ȼȮſ ƾƆȼ ɀȮƶȾȮƁ ȆƾȼƍȾ ƾƉ ȼ ɀȮƶȾȮƁ ȆƾȮƉȮ ȼ Ⱦſ ǠƭɀȮƶȾȮƁ ȆƾȼȮƭȮȾſ ȳȾǎȾȮƷɀȮƶȾȮƁ ȆȳȼǎȮƷȾ ɀȮſ ȤȚǞɀȮſȖ / ȤǞȮſ ʇȚ ǍȮƳ Ƚ ɀȮƪȮſ Ƚ Ǒ ȿ Ȯſ Ƚ ȬȚǞɀȮſȖ / ȬǞſ


this/these, that/those (demonstrative prefix, see lesson ) these/those days (phrase, see lesson ) this/these (see lesson ) that/those (see lesson ) take (imp. verb)

/ ǀȼȮŻƾȮƄɀȮƪžȽ / ȰƾȮƄɀȮƪžȽ ƞȮŻƾȮƄɀȮƪžȽ

Ȯƀȼ ȳƾȮƁȿ LjȚ ǚȮƀȼ ǀȼȮŽȶnjƀȼ / ȸȣƾƀ / Țȣƾƀ ȱǽȶnjȮƀȼ / ǶȮƁnjȮƀȿ / ȱȚnjȮƀȼ ǛȮżƾȮƀ / ɃƾȮƀ / ȱƾȮƀ Ƚ

 | Glossary

haay (invariable) haay ween . . . ? hadiyya / hadaayaa (S/P) haddad, yhaddid hal? ham hissa hiyya humma huwwa hnaa hnaak hwaaya

his/that (see also lesson ) where have . . . been? (idiom, see lesson ) gift/s, present/s to threaten is/are . . . ? (see lesson ) also, too now, right this moment she (see lesson ) they (see lesson ) he (see lesson ) here there, over there much, plenty, a lot

W w- < wa waahid / wihda (M/F) walad waahid binit wihda waagi (part.) wara wasat wasil / wusuulaat (S/P) wasfa watan / awtaan (S/P) watani / wataniyyiin (M) wataniyya / wataniyyaat (F) waqit / awqaat (S/P) waqqa, ywaqqi (RV) tawqii / tawaaqii (S/P) wakiih / wakiiha (M/F) wala walla



and one () one boy one girl falling, having fallen behind, at the back of middle, medium receipt/s prescription nation/s nationalist/s (relative adjective, see lesson ) nationalist/s time/s to sign, to put a signature signature/s trouble maker, bold and not, nor, or (see lesson ) by God, really, indeed, definitely (swearing expression used for confirmation, see lesson ) by God (variation form of the preceding word)

ȸɀ ƾƀ ȒǜȮƁȶ ȸɀ ƾȮƀ ƾȮƁȚNjȮƀȼ / ǀdžȮƁNjȾ Ȯƀȼ ȢNjƦ ȮƷȮ ȼ ɀ Ɓ ȆȢNjdž Ȯƀȼ ɀ ƀȼ ȒǚȮ ǛȮ ɀ ƀȼ ǝƉȮ dž ƀȾ ǠȮ dž ƀȾ ǝȮƵdž ȮƀȽ Ǟdž ȮƀȽ ƾƶȮƀɀ ȱƾƶȮƀɀ ǝȮȼƁȚǞȮƀɀ ȼȶ > ȶ ȜNjȼ ȮŲɀ Ⱦȶ / NjȮŲȚȶ Ⱦ NjȮŲȚȶ Nj ȮŽ ȶ Ⱦ ȼ ȼ ȜNjȼ ȮŲɀ Ⱦȶ ǁȾȮƶȾȮŮ ǕȾȮǬ Țȶ ȚȼȤȼȶ ǓȮŴ ȼ ȼȶ ȝǽǞǧȶȽ / ǚǧ Ⱦ ȼȶ ǀȼȮƱǧ ɀ ȼȶ ȴƾŶɀȶȖ / ǜȼȮŶȼȶ ƞȮƸȮ ƶ Ʀ Ⱦ ȼȮŶȼȶ / ǠƶȼȮŶȼȶ ȝƾȮƸȮ ȿ ƶȾ ȼȮŶȼȶ / ǀȮƸȮ dž ƶȾ ȼȮŶȼȶ ȝƾȮŻɀȶȖ / ǁȮŻȾ ȼȶ ǕƦȮŻǞȼ ȮɀƁ ȆǕȮdžȮŻȼȶ ǕƸȮŻȾ ȚǞȼȮů / ǕƸȮŻȾ Ǟɀ ȼȮů ǀƇƸȮ ȼ żȾ ȼȶ / ljƸȮżȾ ȼȶ ǽȼȶ ʇȚȼȶ


Arabic–English | 

walad / wilid (S/P) walaw ween? ween-ma wija / awjaa (S/P) wisal, yoosal (RV) wilad, yoolad (RV) wigaf, yoogaf (RV) wiyya maa

boy/s, children although, even though (see lesson ) where? wherever (see lesson ) pain/s to arrive, to reach a point to be born to stand up with (see lesson ) with

Y yaa alla yalla yani yamm yooja yoom / ayyaam (S/P) yoom-ma yyaa tmashsha, yitmashsha yimkin, mumkin


oh God (idiom, see lesson ) hurry up (idiom, see lesson ) well, oh next to, adjacent, near it causes pain, hurts day/s the day when (see lesson ) (particle, see lesson ) to stroll, to walk possible, perhaps

NjȾȮŽȾȶ / NjȼȮŽȼȶ Ǟɀ ȼȮŽȼȶ ǜȮƁȶ ȳȼ ǜƁȶ ȬƾűɀȶȖ Ȇ ǕȮűȼ Ⱦȶ ǚǧǞƁ ȼ Ȇǚǧ ȼ Ⱦȶ NjȼȮŽǞȮƁ ȆNjȼȮŽȾȶ ǗȼȮǬǞȮƁ ȆǗȼȮǬȾȶ ǝdžȮƁȾȶ Ǖȼ Ȯžȼ ʇȚ ƾȮƁ ǝȼȮƴɀȮƴȮȼƁ ǠƶȮƯɀ ȮȼƁ ǛȮ ȿ ȼƁ ǕȮűǞƁ ȼ ȳƾȮƁȿ Ȗ / ȳǞȮƁ ȳȼ ȳǞȮƁ ƾȮƁȿ ƾdžȮƪȮƵȼ ɀȮƄȾȮƁ ȆƾdžȮƪƵȼ ɀȮů ǜȮƳȾ Ƶɀ ȮžȽ ȆǜȮƳȮ Ⱦ Ƶɀ ȾȮƁ

 | Glossary

English–Arabic In this section, only the basic equivalents of words are given in Arabic. For more detailed information or derivatives (e.g., feminine or plural forms, etc.) please see the same word in the Arabic–English section or cross-references.

A abashed, ashamed, to be able, to be; can about accident additional address adjacent, next to, near adjective, attribute afraid, to be after afternoon, evening ago, before ahead, in front air, atmosphere air, aerial airmail airmail envelope regular envelope airplane airport Akkad Akkadian all, every, whole everything all right, okay, fine alphabet alphabetical also, too A.M. (before noon) ambulance America

khijal, yikhjal (RV) gidar, yigdar (RV) an (preposition) haaditha idhaafi unwaan yamm sifa khaaf, ykhaaf (HV) baad masaa¢ gabul giddaam jaww jawwi, tayyaraan bariid jawwi (also see bariid) zaruf tayyaraan zaruf aadi tayyaara mataar Akad (ancient land and city in Iraq) Akadiyyiin (ancient people) kull kullshi tayyib, kullshi m-makaana il-huruuf il-abjadiyya abjadi hamm gabl iz-zuhur sayyaarat isaaf Amriika

ǚƆȼ ɀȮƈȾȮƁ ȆǚȮƆȮ ȼ ųȾ ȤNjȼ ɀȮǦȾȮƁ ȆȤNjȼ ȮǬȾ ǜȮŸȼ ǀȼȮŰȾȢƾŲ ǠźƾǤȘ ȴȚǞɀȮƶȮŸȽ ǛȮ ȿ ȼƁ ǀȼȮƱǧ Ⱦ ȯƾƈɀȮƁ Ȇȯƾų NjȮƯȼ ȮȼŮ ȔƾƉžȼ ǚȮƃȽ ȼȮǬ ȳȚNjȮ ȿ ǬȾ Ǟȿ Ȯűȼ ȴȚǍȮƸdž ȼȮŶ ȆȸǞȿ Ȯűȼ ȸǞȿ Ȯűȼ NjƁǍȮȼŮ ȴȚǍȮƸɀ ȼȮŶ ȯǍȽ ȼȮŷ ȸȢƾȮŸ ȯǍȽ ȼȮŷ ȜȤƾȮƸȿ ȼȮŶ Ȥƾƭžȼ NjȼȮżȖ ƞȮƦƁNjȾ ȼȮżȖ ǚȮż Ƚ ǠƪȮƴȮż Ƚ ǀȼȮſƾƳȼƛȚɀ ǠƪɀȮƴȮż Ƚ ȆƿȮƸƦ ȼȮŶ ǀdžȮƁNjȾ Ɔȼ ɀ ŮLjȚ ȯȶǍƇȽ ɀȮŽȘ ȸNjȮƆȼ ɀ ŮȖ ǛȮ ɀ ƀȼ ǍƷȽ ȮƮŽȚ ǚ Ȯƃ LJ ɀ ȼȮǬ ȯƾƯŴȘ ȜȤƾƸȿ Ŵ ȼ ƾƳƁǍȮžɀ Ȗ

English–Arabic | 

American ancient, old and and not, nor, or angry, to become animal/s answer, to anyway, in any case appetizer, hors d’oeuvres approximately, about arak archaeological archaeologist archaeology, antiquities arrive, to art/s artistic as, the way that as soon as as you like as you wish ascend, to; to go up Ashur ask, to assign, to; to cost assist, to; to help Assyrian at night at noon attached pronouns independent pronouns aunt uncle

Amriiki qadiim, athari wa / wwala ghidab, yigh dab haywaan / haywaanaat jaawab, yjaawib ala kull haal (idiom, see lesson ) mazza hawaali arag (popular Iraqi alcoholic drink) athari aathaari aathaar wisal, yoosal (RV) fann / funuun fanni / fanniyya mithil-ma awwal-ma (see lesson ) shloon-ma thibb (idiom, see lessons  and ) iddallal (idiom, see lesson ) siad, yisad (RV) Aashuur, (ancient land and god in Iraq) si¢al, yis¢al (RV) kallaf, ykallif (RV) saaad, ysaaid (RV) Aashuuri (ancient people) laylan, bil-leel iz-zuhur id-damaa¢ir il-muttasila id-damaa¢ir il-munfasila khaala (maternal), amma (paternal) khaal (maternal), amm (paternal)

ǠƳƁǍȮžɀ Ȗ ȸǍȼȮŰȖ ȆǛȮƁNjȼȮŻ ȶ / ȼȶ ǽȼȶ ƿƬ ȼ ɀȮưȾȮƁ ȆƿƬȮ ȼ ŹȾ ȝƾſȚǞƸȮ ɀ Ųȼ / ȴȚǞƸȮ ɀ Ųȼ țȾȶƾƆɀƁ Ȇțȼȶƾű ȲƾŲ ǚȮż Ƚ ǟƴŸ ȜdžǎȮžȼ ǠŽȚǞȮŲȼ ɆȼǍȮŸȼ ȸǍȼȮŰȖ ȸȤƾȮŰȕ ȤƾȮŰȕ ǚǧǞƁ ȼ Ȇǚǧ ȼ Ⱦȶ ȴǞȮƶȮź Ƚ / ǜȿ ȼȮź ǀdžȮƸƦȮƶȼȮź / ǠȮƦȮƶȼȮź ȳȼ ǚȮƅȾ ȮžȾ ƾž ȲdžȶȖ ɀ ƿȮƇȾ ɀȮů ȳȼ ȴǞƴŵ ǚɀ džȮŽdžȢȘ NjȮƯȼ ƫ Ⱦ ɀ ȾȮƁ ȆNjȮƯȼ ǧ ȤǞȮŵȕ ȲƺƉ Ⱦ ɀ ȾȮƁ ȆȲƺȮŴ ǗƦȮƴȼȮƳȮɀƁ ȆǗdžȮƴȼȮż NjȮŸȾ ƾƉȮɀƁ ȆNjȮŸȼ ƾŴ ȸȤǞȮŵȕ ǚƸȮƴɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ȆȹǾȮƸɀ ȼȮŽ ǍƷȽ ȮƮŽȘ LJ ǀƴƫ ȮƄ Ƶ ȮŽȚ ǍȮ dž Ⱦ dž Ƚɀ Ⱦ ǣƾƵƬŽȘ ǀƴƫ ȮƱ Ȯƶ ƵȮŽȚǍȮ ǣ ƾƵ ƬŽȘ dž Ⱦ ȼ ɀ Ƚ Ⱦ ǀȮƵdž ȮŸȼ ȆǀȼȮŽƾų ǛȮ ȿ Ÿȼ ȆȲƾų

 | Glossary

authority/s, person/s in charge

mas¢uul / mas¢uuliin

ƞŽȶƻȮƉ ɀ žȼ / ȲȶƻȮƉ ɀ žȼ

B Babylon Babylonian back bad > worse ball bank banquet, dinner invitation base, grammar basic basis, foundation bath, bathroom bath-house keeper toilet because become, to beer before, ago before beg, to behind, at the back believer/s Prince of Believers (Caliph’s title) bellboy better big, large, old (person) bill, invoice, account black boat body/s boiled boiled eggs book bookstore library

Baabil (ancient city) Baabiliyyiin (ancient people) zahar qabiih > aqbah (lit. ugly) tooba bank aziima qaaida asaasi asaas hammaam hammamchi (see lesson ) mirhaad li¢ann saar, ysiir (HV) biira gabul gabul-ma (see lesson ) twassal, yitwassal wara mu¢min / mu¢miniin (S/P) Amiir il-Mu¢miniin booy (borrowed from English) ahsan chibiir, kabiir hsaab aswad balam jisim / ajsaasm (S/P) masluug beed masluug ktaab, kitaab makhzan kutub maktaba

ǚȾȮŮƾŮ ƞȮƸȮ Ʀ ȾƴȾȮŮƾŮ ǍȮƷȼ ȼȮŷ ljƃȼ ɀȮŻȖ < ljƸȮƃȼȮŻ ǀȼŮǞŶ ǙɀȮƶȮȼŮ ǀƵȼ ȮƁǎŸȼ ȜNjȼ ȮŸȾ ƾŻ ȸNjȮŸȾ ƾŻ ȦƾŴȖ ȳƾȮƵȿ Ųȼ ǠǰƵɀ ȮƵdž Ųȼ ȩƾŲɀǍȮžȾ ȴLj ǍƸƫȮɀƁ ȆȤƾǧ ȜȼǍȮƸȮŮ ǚȮƃ Ƚ ȼȮǬ ȳȼ ǚȮƃ Ƚ Ǭȼ ǚȮŴ dž Ǟȼ ɀȮƄȾȮƁ ȆǚȮŴ dž Ǟȼ ɀȮů ȚȼȤȼȶ ǜȮƸƶȮžȾ ƻɀ ȮžȽ / ǜȮžȾ ƻɀ ȮžȽ ǜȮƸƶȮžȾ ƻɀ ȮȽƓȚ ǍƸȮžȖ ȸɀ ǞȮȽŮ ǜƉȮ ȼ ŲȖ ɀ ǍƸȮȮƃȼȮż ȆǍƸȮƃȾȮǩ țƾƉȮŲɀ ȢǞȼ ȮŴȖ ɀ ǛȼȮƴȮȼŮ ȳƾƉűȖ Ⱦ ȾȮű ɀ / ǛƉ ɆǞƴƉ ɀ žȼ ɆǞƴƉ ɀ žȼ ǒƸŮ țƾƄȮżȾ ȆțƾƄɀȮż ƿȮƄ Ƚ Ȯż Ƚ ȴȼǎȮƈɀ žȼ ǀƃȼ ȼȮƄɀȮƳžȼ

English–Arabic | 

born, to be bottle/s box boy boy child girl child bravo, good for . . . bread (French) bread break, to breakfast breath bring, to broadcaster broiled broiled meat broken, not working brother brother-in-law build, to bulletin/s news bulletin busy butter but buttocks buy, to by by God by the way

wilad, yoolad (RV) butil / btaala (S/P) sanduug walad tifil tifla afya alee khubuz sammuun kisar, yiksir (RV) rayyuug, futuur nafas jaab, yjiib (HV) mudhii / mudhiia (M/F) mashwi laham mashwi kharbaan akh zooj ukhut bina, yibni (WV) nashra / nashraat (S/P) nashra akhbaariyya mash ghuul / mash ghuula zibid bass tiiz / tyaaza (S/P) shtira, yishtiri (WV) b- /bi (see lesson ) walla, wallaahi (see lesson ) ala fikra (idiom, see lesson )

NjȼȮŽǞƁ ȆNjȼȮŽȾȶ ǀȼȮŽƾƭȮɀŮ / ǚƭȮ Ⱦ ȽŮ ɆȶNjɀȮƶǧ ȼ NjȼȮŽȼȶ ǚȮƱȾ ȮŶȾ ǀȼȮƴɀȮƱȮŶȾ ǠȮƴȮŸȼ ǝȼȮƸɀȮƱȮŸȼ ǎȮƃȮ Ƚ ųȽ ȴǞȮƵLJ ǧ ȼ ǍƉ Ⱦ ɀȮƳȾȮƁ ȆǍƉȮ ȼ żȾ ȤǞƭȮź ȆɆǞȮ Ɓȿ ȼ Ȥ Ƚ ǏȼȮƱȼȮſ ƿƸȮƆȮɀƁ Ȇțƾű ǀƯȼ ȮƁnjȮžȽ / ǕƁnjȮžȽ ȸǞɀȮƪȮžȼ ȸǞɀȮƪȮžȼ ǛƇȼ ȼȮŽ ȴƾȮŮɀǍȼȮų ȡȖ Ƚ ǁȮų Ț ȟȶȥ Ƚ ǠƶȮƃɀ ȾȮƁ ȆƾȼȮƶȾȮŮ ɀ ȼȮſ ȝȚǍɀȮƪȼȮſ / ȜǍȮƪ ǀƁȤƾƃɀȮųȖ ȜǍɀȮƪȼȮȮſ ǀŽǞưɀȮƪžȼ / ȲǞưɀȮƪžȼ NjȾȮŮȾȥ ǏȮȼŮ ȜȼȥƾƸɀȮŶ / ǎȮƸŶȾ ȸǍƄȾ ɀȮƪȾȮƁ ȆȚȼǍȮƄȾ ɀȮŵ ȾȮŮ / țɀ ǠƀǾɀȮŽȶ ȆʇȚȶ ȜȼǍɀȮƳȮźȾ ǟƴŸ

C cafe, coffee cafe keeper caliph/s call, to telephone call/s domestic/national call international call

gahwa gahawchi (see lesson ) khaliifa / khulafaa¢ (S/P) khaabar, ykhaabur mukhaabara / mukhaabaraat mukhaabara daakhiliyya mukhaabara khaarijiyya

ȜǞȼ ȮƷɀ ȼȮǬ ǠǩǞɀ ȮƷȼ ȼȮǬ ȔƾƱȼȮƴȮų Ƚ / ǀƱƸȮƴȼȮų ǍȮȼŮƾƈɀȮƁ ȆǍȼŮƾȮų ȝȚǍȼŮƾƈžȽ / ȜȼǍȼŮƾƈžȽ ǀƸȮ Ⱦ ȜǍȮȾŮƾƈžȽ dž ȾƴųȚȢ ǀƸdž ȾȮűȾȤƾų ȜǍȾŮƾƈžȽ

 | Glossary

card catch, hold, to certain certainly change, exchange (money) change, to (money)

culture/s, civilization/s cultural

bitaaqa, istimaara lizam, yilzam akiid bit-ta¢ kiid tasriif (fluus) sarraf, ysarruf (RV) hawwaal, yhawwil (RV) qanaat / qanawaat jadwal chakk chakk khaas fahis fihas, yifhas (RV) jibin jaaj, dijaaj hummus hummus bi-t hiina tabbuula jigaara jaww iyaada / iyaadaat barid baarid nashla loon / alwaan taaal ija, yiji (WV) jayya, ala jayya (see lesson ) shart / shuruut (S/P) haruf qunsiliyya ibin khaal (maternal) ibin amm (paternal) hadaara / hadaaraat hadaari / hadaariyya

dare, to daughter, girl

ijjarra¢ < itjarra¢ binit, bnayya

channel/s (TV) chart, table check personal check check up, examination check up, to examine cheese chicken chickpeas chickpeas dip chopped salad cigarette climate, weather clinic/s cold (noun) cold (adj.) cold, to have a color/s come (imp. V) come, to coming, arriving soon condition/s consonant, letter consulate cousin

ȜȼȤƾƵȮƄȾ ŴȘ ɀ ȆǀȼȮŻƾƭȾȮŮ ȳȼǎɀȮƴȾȮƁ ȆȳȼǎȾŽ NjȮƸȮżȖ NjȮƸȮżƺdžȮƄŽƾȾȮŮ ǗƁǍƫ ɀ ȼȮů ȯǍLJ ƫȮ ȼ ɀ Ɓ ȆȯdžǍǧ ȼ ȲǞƦ ȮƇȮ Ɓ ȆȲ Ǟ Ȯ Ų ȼ ɀ dž ȼ ȝȚǞȼȮƶȼȮŻ / ȜƾƶȼȮŻ ȲȼȶNjɀ Ȯűȼ ǙȮǩȼ ȨƾȮų ǙȮǩȼ ǑƇȾ ȼȮź ǑƇȼ ɀȮƱȾȮƁ ȆǑƇȮ ȼ źȾ ǜȾȮƃȾȮű ȟƾȮűȾȢ ȆȟƾȮű ǑȮƵȮ LJ ŲȽ ǀƶƸƇɀȮƭȾȮŮ ǑȮƵȮ LJ ŲȽ ǀȼȮŽǞȮƃ ȿ ȼȮů ȜȼȤƾǦȾȮű Ǟɀ Ȯűȼ ȝȚȢƾƸȮŸȾ / ȜȢƾƸȮŸȾ ȢȾǍȮȼŮ ȢȾȤƾȮŮ ǀȼȮƴɀȮƪȼȮſ ȴȚǞɀȮŽȖ / ȴǞȮŽ Ƚ ȲƾƯȼȮů ǠƆȾȮƁ ȆƾȮűȘ ȼ ǀȮƸȮ ű ǟƴŸ ȆǀȮ ƸȮ dž ȼ dž űȼ ȪȶǍȽ Ȯŵ Ƚ / Ȫɀ ɀǍȼȮŵ ȯǍȮ Ƚ Ųȼ ǀƸdž ȾȮƴƫ Ⱦ ɀȮƶȮŻ Ƚ ȲƾȮų ǜȾȮŮȘ ǛȮ ɀ Ÿȼ ǜȾȮŮȘ ȝȚȤƾƬŲȼ / ȜȼȤƾƬŲȼ ǀȮdžƁȾȤƾƬŲȼ / ȸȤƾƬŲȼ

D ȖdžǍȮƆȼ ɀȮůȘ > ȖdžǍȮűȘ dž ǀdžȮƸȼȮƶȮɀŮ ȆǁȮƶȾ ȾȮŮ

English–Arabic | 

date (palm) day deep degree, level delicious demonstrative words dialogue, discussion dictionary difficult, hard dinar half-dinar quarter dinar dinner director/s, manager/s dish, plate doctor/s dog dollar domino door double, husband drill, exercise drink drink, to drive, to driver drum drummer

tamur yoom amiiq daraja tayyib, ladhiidh asmaa¢ il-ishaara muhaawara qaamuus saub diinaar (Iraqi currency) nuss diinaar rubu diinaar asha mudiir / mudaraa¢ (S/P) maauun diktoor / dakaatira (M.D. & Ph.D.) chalib, kalb duulaar doomna baab zooj, zawj tamriin mashruub shirab, yishrab (RV) saaq, ysuuq (HV) saayiq dumbug dumbagchi (see lesson )

ǍȮƵȽ ȼȮů ȳǞȮƁ ǘȮƸȮƵȮŸȼ ǀȮűȼ ȼ ȤȼȢ njȮƁnjȼȮŽ ȆƿȮƸƦ ȼȮŶ ȜȤƾŵȁȚ ȔƾƵŴȖ ɀ ȜȼȤȼȶƾƇžȽ ȦǞȮžƾȮŻ ƿȮƯȽ ǧ ȼ ȤƾƶȮƁȾȢ ȤƾƶȮƁȢ Ǒ ɀ Ȯſ Ƚ ȤƾƶȮƁȢ ǕȮȽŮȽȤ ƾȼȮƪȮŸȼ ȔȚȤNjȼ ȮžȽ / ǍƁNjžȽ ȴǞŸƾȮž ȜȼǍȮȾůƾżȼȢ / ȤǞƄɀȮżȾȢ ƿɀȮƴȼȮż ȆƿȮȾƴȮǩȼ ȤǽȶȢ ǀȮƶȼ Ȯžɀ ȶȢ țƾȮŮ ȟɀȶȼȥ ȆȟȶȽȥ ǜƁǍȮƵɀ ȼȮů țȶǍɀȮƪžȼ țȼǍɀȮƪȾȮƁ ȆțȼǍȮŵ Ⱦ ȰǞƉȮɀƁ ȆȰƾŴ ǘȾȮƁƾŴ ƩȮƃȮ Ƚ žɀ ȽȢ ǠǰɀȮǦȮƃȮ ȼ žɀ ȽȢ

E ear east eastern eat, to food dish economics economical edge/s editing

idhin sharq sharqi akal, yaakul (RV) akla iqtisaad iqtisaadi / iqtisaadiyya haaffa / haaffaat (S/P) tahriir

ȴȾȣȘ ȰɀǍȼȮŵ ǠŻɀǍȼȮŵ ǚȮżƾȮƁ ȆǚȼȮżȖ Ƚ ǀȼȮƴɀȮżȖ ȢƾƫȮƄȾ ɀȮŻȘ ǀƁȿ ȢƾƫƄȾ ɀȮŻȘ / ȸȢƾƫȮƄȾ ɀȮŻȘ ȝƾȮźƾŲ / ǀdžȮźƾŲ ȿ ǍƁǍƇɀ ȼȮů

 | Glossary

editor editor-in-chief egg eggplant eggplant dip Egypt Egyptian eight eleven embassy emergency employee, official enough enter, to envelope escape (to) especially Euphrates River (the) excellent exchange, change (money) excuse/s excuse me, pardon me expensive inexpensive, cheap express mail

muharrir ra¢iis qisim it-tahriir beed beetinjaan baaba ghannuuj Masir Masri thmaanya daash safaara isaaf muwazzaf kaafi khashsh, ykhushsh (DV) dikhal, yudkhul (RV) zaruf farr, yfurr (DV) khusuusan nahar il-Furaat mumtaaz tasriif (fluus) udhur / adhaar (S/P) an idhnak, afwan ghaali rikhiis bariid sarii

ȤƦǍȮƇȮ ȼ žȽ ǍƁǍƇɀ ȼȮƄŽȚ ǛƉ Ⱦ ŻȾ ǏƸȮǣȼȤ ǒȮƸȮŮ ȴƾƆɀȮƶȮƄȾ ȮƸȮŮ ȟǞȮƶ LJ ȼȮŹ ƾŮƾȮŮ ǍƫȮ Ⱦ žȼ ȸǍƫȮ ɀ žȼ ǀȮƸȼ ɀȮſƾƵɀȮŰ ǐȮŸȼ ȼȢ ȜȼȤƾȮƱȮŴ ȼ ȯƾƯȮŴȘ ɀ ǗdžȮŷǞȼ ȮžȽ ǠźƾȮż ȿǐȮƈȮ ȿ ȼȮų Ƚ ɀ Ɓ Ȇǐ ǚȮų Ƚ Njɀ ȮȽƁ ȆǚȼȮųȾȢ ȯǍȽ ȼȮŷ Ǎȿ ȮƱȮ Ƚ ɀ Ɓ ȆǍȿ ȼȮź ȹ ƾǧǞƫ Ƚ ųȽ ȝȚǍȮƱ ȮŽȚ ǍȮ Ʒȼ ȼȮſ Ƚ ɀ ȥƾƄȮƵɀ ȮžȽ (ȦǞȮƴɀȮź) ǗȮƁǍƫȼȮů ȤȚnjȮŸɀ Ȗ / ȤnjȮŸȽ ȹ ȚǞɀȮƱȮŸȼ ȆǙȼȮſȣȘ ǜȮŸȼ ǠŽƾȮŹ ǑƸȮųȾȤ ǕƁǍȮŴ ȼ NjƁǍȮȼŮ

F falling, fallen (part.) family famous, well-known far near, close by fat, to make fat (adj.) father father of feast/s, festival/s fed up, to be

waagi ahal, eela mashhuur biiid giriib, qariib samman, ysammin (RV) simiin/smaan ab, waalid abu (see Arabic–English section) iid / yaad (S/P) zihag


English–Arabic | 

fee, rate fever fifteen fifty fill in, to film financial find, to fine, okay fine, well, good first fish Masguuf fish five fixing, repairing flee, ran away, to flour fly, to folklore folkloric food eastern food western food food dish food invitation for, to for your sake forbidden, illegal forget, to forgive, to fork, thorn form formal, official fortunately, luckily

ujra skhuuna khmus-taash khamsiin mila, yimli (WV) filim maali liga, yilgi (WV) mykhaalif (see Arabic– English section) zeen awwal simach simach Masguuf (popular food) khamsa tasliih nhizam, yinhizim (RV) tihiin taar, ytiir (HV) foliklore folikloori / foliklooriyya, shabi / shabiyya akil akil sharqi akil gharbi akla aziima li / l- (see Arabic–English section) ilkhaatrak (idiom, see lesson ) mamnuu nisa, yinsa (WV) ifa, yifi shooka istimaara rasmi lihusn il-hazz (idiom, see lesson )

ȜȼǍȮűɀ Ƚ Ț ǀȼȮſǞƈǧ ɀ ɀ Ưȼ ȼȮƭƫ ǐȮ Ƶ Ȯų ɀ Ƚɀ ƞƉȮƵɀ ȼȮų ǠƴȮƵɀ ȾȮƁ ȆǾȮžȾ ǛȾȮƴȮźȾ ǠŽƾȮž ǠǦɀȮƴȾȮƁ ȆƾȼȮǦȮȾŽ ǗȮȾŽƾƈȮƸȮ ɀ žȼ ǜȮƁȥ ȲdžȶȖ ǶȮƵȼ ȮŴ Ⱦ ȯǞȮǦƉ Ⱦ ɀ žȼ ǶȮƵȼ ȮŴ ǀȮƉ ȼ Ƶɀ ȼȮų ljƸȮƴƫ ɀ ȼȮů ȳȾǎȾȮƷɀȮƶȾȮƁ ȆȳȼǎȮƷȾ ɀȮſ ƞȮƇŶȾ ǍƸƭȮɀƁ ȆȤƾŶ ȤǞƴɀȮƳȮȾŽǞź ǀȮdžƁȤǞƴɀȮƳȮȾŽǞź / ȸȤǞƴɀȮƳȮȾŽǞź ǀdžȮƸȾȮƃȮƯɀ ȼȮŵ / ǠƃƯɀ ȼȮŵ ǚȮżȖ Ⱦ ǠŻɀǍȼȮŵ ǚȮżȖ Ⱦ ǠŮɀǍȼȮŹ ǚȮżȖ Ⱦ ǀȼȮƴɀȮżȖ ǀƵȼ ȮƁǎȮŸȼ Ȳɀ / ȮȾŽ ȱȼǍɀȮŶƾƈɀȮŽȘ ȬǞƶȮɀƛȼ ƾƉ ȼ ɀȮƶȾȮƁ ȆƾȼȮƉȾſ ǠƱȮƯɀ ȾȮƁ ȆƾȼȮƱȮŸȾ ǀȼȮżǞȮŵ ȜȼȤƾƵȮƄȾ ȮŴȘ ɀ ǠƵŴ ɀ ȼȤ ǔȮƇȼ ɀȮŽȚ ǜȮƉ ɀ ƇȮ Ƚ ȾŽ

 | Glossary

forty foundation, basis four freedom/s fried fried eggs from from now on from time to time fruits fun, to have fur/s

arbaiin asaas arbaa hurriyya / hurriyyaat magli beed magli min < mni (preposition) min hissa w jaay (phrase, see lesson ) min waqit li-waqit (phrase, see lesson ) fawaakih twannas, yitwannas farwa / farwaat (S/P)

ƞȮƯȮȼŮɀȤȖ ȦƾŴȖ ǀȮƯȼ ȮȼŮɀȤȖ ȝƾȮƁ ȿ ƦǍȮŲȽ / ǀȼȮƁƦǍȮŲȽ ǠƴɀȮǦžȼ ǠƴɀȮǦžȼ ǒƸȮŮ ǜȮžɀ < ǜȮžȾ ȸɀ ƾűȶ ǝƉ dž ƀȾ ǜȮžȾ ǁȮŻȾ Ǟȼ ȮȾŽ ǁȮŻȾ ȼȶ ǜȮžȾ ǝȮżȚǞ Ⱦ ȼȮź ǏdžȮſǞȼ ɀȮƄȾȮƁ ȆǏdžȮſǞȼ ɀȮů ȝȚȶɀǍȼȮź / ȜȼȶɀǍȼȮź

G garden/s gate gauge, meter general, public gift, present girl, daughter girl child give, to glass go, to go up, to; to ascend God going, going to good good, well, fine goodbye good afternoon/evening good morning government/s government official grammars grandchild

hadiiqa / hadaayiq (S/P) bawaaba addaad aam hadiyya binit, bnayya tifla nita, yinti (WV) glaas raah, yruuh (HV) siad, yisad (RV) alla (see lesson ) raayih, rah- (see lesson ) khoosh (invariable) zeen, tayyib, b-kheer maa s-salaama, fiimaanillaa masaa¢ il-kheer sabaah il-kheer hukuuma / hukuumaat (S/P) muwwazzaf hukuuma qawaaid hafiid

ǘȾȮƁȚNjȮŲȼ / ǀƲƁNjȮŲȼ ǀȮȼŮȚǞȮȼŮ ȢȚNjȮ ȿ Ÿȼ ȳƾȮŸ ǀdžȮƁNjȾ Ȯƀȼ ǀƸdž ȼȮƶȮɀŮ ȆǁȮƶȾ ȾȮŮ ǀȼȮƴɀȮƱŶȾ ǠƭɀȮƶȾȮƁ ȆƾȼȮƭȮȾſ ȨǾɀȮǬ ȠȶǍȮɀƁ ȆȠȚȤ ɀ NjȮƯȼ ƫ Ȯ Ɓ ȆNjȮ Ư Ⱦ ȼ ǧ ɀ Ⱦ ʇȖ Ƞɀ ȼ Ȥ ȆljȾȮƁȚȤ ȧǞȮų ǍƸƈɀŮ ȆƿƸƦ ȼȮŶ ȆǜȮƁȥ ǾɀȮƴƸȮȾſƾƵƸȮźȾ Ȇǀžȼ ǾƉŽȚ dž Ǖȼ Ȯžȼ ǍƸƈɀȮŽȚ ȔƾƉȮžȼ ǍƸƈɀȮŽȚ ȠƾȮƃǧ ȼ ȝƾžǞƳȮŲȽ / ǀžǞƳȮŲȽ ǀžȼ ǞȮƳȮ Ƚ ŲȽ ǗdžȮŷǞȼ ȮžȽ NjȮŸȾ ȚǞȼȮŻ NjƸȮƱȮŲȼ

English–Arabic | 

grandfather grandmother great, huge greeting

jidd jidda dakhum, aziim tahiyya

half hall Hanging Gardens of happy hard, difficult has, have

nuss qaaa ij-Janaa¢in il-Muallaqa farhaan, saiid saub ind, maal, il- (see lesson ) saar, ysiir (HV) huwwa raas / ruus sihha haraara thigiil / thigiila (M/F) marhaba saaad, ysaaid (RV) hnaa damm, ydumm taariikh sharaf sharraf, ysharruf (RV) mazza haar findiq saaa beet shloon? shloonak?, shloon is-sihha? shmadriik? (idiom, see lesson ) shloon-ma shgadd? (see lesson ) shgadd-ma kam, cham? (see lesson ) beesh, ibbeesh?

Njȿ ȾȮű ȜNjdž ȾȮű ǛȮƸƮȮŸȼ ȆǛȮƈ Ƚ ȼȮǤ ǀȮƸȮ dž ƇȾ ȼȮů


have been, to; to become he head/s health heat, temperature heavy hello, hi help, to; to assist here hide, to history honor honor, to hors d’oeuvres, appetizer hot hotel, motel hour, watch house, home How? How are you? How do you know? however, any way that How long? no matter how much How many? How much?

Ǒ ȿ Ȯſ Ƚ ǀȮŸȼ ƾŴ ǀȼȮƲdžȮƴȮƯȼ ƵȽ ɀȮŽȚ ǜȮȾǣƾƶȮdžƐȘ NjƸȮƯȮŴ ȼ ȆȴƾŲɀǍȼȮź ƿȮƯȽ ǧ ȼ Ȳɀ Ș ȆȲƾž ȆNjɀȮƶȮŸȾ ǍƸƫȮɀƁ ȆȤƾǧ Ǟdž ȮƀȽ ȦȶȤ / ȦȚȤ ǀȮƇdž ǧ Ⱦ ȜȼȤȚǍȮŲȼ ǀƴƸȮȮǦȮ Ű / ǚƸȮȮ ǦȮ Ⱦ Ⱦ Ⱦ ȾŰ ǀƃȮ ȼ Ųȼ ɀǍȮžȼ NjȮŸȾ ƾƉȮɀƁ ȆNjȮŸȼ ƾŴ ƾȮƶȮƀɀ Ǜȿ ƬȮ Ɓ Ȇ ȼ Ƚ ɀ ǛȮ ȿ Ǥ NJȮƁȤƾů ȯȼǍȼȮŵ ȯǍLJ ȼȮƪȮɀƁ ȆȯdžǍȼȮŵ ȜdžǎȮžȼ ȤƾȮŲ ȰNjȾ ɀȮƶȮźȾ ǀȮŸȼ ƾȮŴ ǁȮƸȮŮ ȒȴǞȮƴɀȮŵ ǀƇȼ ƫŽȚ Ʀ ȴǞƴɀȮŵ ȆȒǙȼȮſǞƴɀȮŵ ȒǙƁȤNjɀ ȮƵȼ ɀȮŵ ȳȼ ȴǞƴɀȮŵ ȒNjȼȮƳȼȮŵ ȼ ȳȼ NjȼȮƳŵ ȒǛȮǩȼ ȆǛȼȮż ȒǐȮƸȮdžŮȘ ȆǐȮƸȮŮ

 | Glossary

How nice! huge, great hundred hungry hunting, hunted hurry up husband, double

allaah! (see lesson ) dakhum miyya juuaan saayid yalla (idiom, see lesson ) zooj, zawj


ǛȮƈ ȼ Ƚ Ǥ ǀȮƸȮ dž žȾ ȴƾȮŸǞȮű NjȾȮƁƾǧ ǝȼȮƴɀȮƴȮȼƁ ȟɀȶȼȥ ȆȟȶȽȥ

I I ice idea if if I were in your place illegal, forbidden ill, sick illness, sickness impolite, rude impossible, it can’t be it is permitted in in front, ahead in general, generally in particular, specially indebted, to be independent pronouns inexpensive, cheap information inside, underneath inspector, reviewer interest, to, to please international interview/s

aani (see lesson ) thalij fikra idhaa, loo (see lesson ) loo aani m-makaanak (idiom, see lesson ) mamnuu mariid marad bala adab (idiom, see lesson ) maysiir (idiom, see lesson ) maykhaalif (idiom, lesson ) b- /bi- (see lesson ) giddaam bisuura aamma (idiom, see lesson ) bisuura khaassa (idiom, see lesson ) mamnuun (idiom, see lesson ) id-damaa¢ir il-munfasila rikhiis maluumaat jawwa mufattish ijab, yijib (special verb) aalami muqaabala / muqaabalaat (S/P)

Ǡſȕ ǃȮȾƴȼȮŰ ȜȼǍɀȮƳȮźȾ ǞȮŽ ȆȚȣȘ ǙſƾƳȮžȼ ȳɀ Ǡſȕ ǞȮŽ ȬǞȮƶƵɀ Ȯžȼ ǒȮƁǍȮžȼ ȩȼǍȮžȼ țȼȢȖ ǾŮ ǍƸƫƸȮ ɀ žȼ ǗȮȾŽƾƈƸȮ ɀ žȼ ȾȮŮ / țɀ ȳȚNjȼ ȮǬȾ ǀȮždž ƾȮŸ ȜȼȤǞƫȾȮŮ ǀȮǧƾȮų ȜȼȤǞƫȾȮŮ dž ȴǞƶȮƵɀ Ȯžȼ ǀȼȮƴƫ dž ȼŽȘ Ⱦ ȼȮƱɀȮƶȮƵȽ ɀȮŽȚ ǍȮȾǣƾƵƬȮ ǑƸȮųȾ Ⱦ Ȥ ȝƾžǞȮƴƯɀ Ȯžȼ ȵǞdž Ȯűȼ ǐƦȮƄȼȮƱȮžȽ ƿȾȮƆȮƯɀ ȾȮƁ ȆƿȮƆȮ ȼ ŸȾ ǠƵȼȮŽƾȮŸ ȝǾȮȼŮƾƲȮžȽ / ǀƴȮȼŮƾƲȮžȽ

English–Arabic | 

introduce, to introduction invite, to invoice, bill, account Iraq Iraqi Islam Islamic Muslim

arraf, yarruf (RV) taaaruf izam, yizim (RV) hsaab il-iraaq iraaqi Islaam Islaami Muslim


J journalism, press journalist juice jump, to

sahaafa sahafi / sahafiyya (M/F) asiir gumaz, yugmuz (RV)

ǀȼȮźƾƇǧ ȼ ǀƸȮ Ʊ Ȯ Ƈ ǧ / ǠȮƱ Ƈ ǧ Ⱦ ȼ ȼ ȼ ȼ ȼ ǍȮƸƫȮŸȼ ǎȮƵȽ ɀȮǦȮȽƁ ȆǎȮƵȼ ȮǬ Ƚ

K key kill, to kilometer knife know, to know, to

miftaah qital, yuqtul keelomatir sich chiin iraf, yuruf (RV) dira, yidri


L lady, Mrs. language large, big, old later on laugh, to lazy learn, to leather/s, skin/s leave behind, to lesson let, to let us letter letter, consonant level, degree library

sayyida lugha chibiir, kabiir badeen dihak, yid hak (RV) kaslaan tallam, yitallam (RV) jilid /jluud (S/P) khalla, ykhalli (WV) daris khalla, ykhalli (WV) khaalliina risaala haruf daraja maktaba

ȜNjȼ ȮƸȮ ȼ Ʀ Ŵ ǀȮȼȮưȮŽ Ƚ ǍƸȮƃȼȮż ȆǍȮƸȮƃȾȮǩ ǜƁNjȮƯɀ ȮȼŮ ǙȮƇȼ Ƭ ɀ ȾȮƁ ȆǙȮƇȼ Ǥ Ⱦ ȴǾȮƉ Ȯż ɀ ȼ ǛdžȮƴȮƯȼ ɀȮƄȾȮƁ ȆǛdžȮƴƯȼ ɀȮů ȢǞƴȮűɀ / NjȾȮƴȾȮű ǠƦȮƴƈȮ ȼ ɀ Ɓ ȆƾdžȮƴȮųȼ ȦȾȤȼȢ ǠƦȮƴƈȮ ȼ ɀ Ɓ ȆƾdžȮƴȮųȼ ƾƶȮƸƦȮƴȮųȼ ǀȼȮŽƾȮŴȾȤ ȯǍȮ Ƚ Ųȼ ǀȮűȼ ȼ ȤȼȢ ǀȮƃȼ ȼȮƄɀȮƳȮžȼ

 | Glossary

lie, to light lift off, to; carry, to like, similar, such as like, to; to love line/s lion Lion of Babylon (ancient) literature/s little much, plenty live, to live in, to look, to; to see look, to love love, to; like, to lower, to lunch

kidhab, yikdhib nuur shaal, yshiil (HV) mithil habb, yhibb (DV) khatt / khutuut (S/P) asad, sabi Asad Baabil adab / aadaab (S/P) shwayya hwaaya aash, yiish (HV) sikan, yiskun shaaf, yshuuf (HV) baawa, ybaawi hubb habb, yhibb (DV) nazzal, ynazzil ghada

țnjȾ ɀȮƳȾȮƁ ȆțnjȮżȾ ȤǞȮſ ǚƸȮƪȮɀƁ ȆȲƾŵ ǚȮƅȾ ȮžȾ ƿȮ Ⱦ ɀ Ɓ ȆƿȮ ȿ ƇȮ ȿ Ųȼ ȪǞƭȮų Ƚ / ǓȼȮų ǕȾȮƃȮŴ ȼ ȆNjȮŴȖ ȼ ǚȮŮƾȮŮ NjȮŴȖ ȼ țȚȢȕ / țɀ ȼȢȖ ǀdžȮƁǞȼ ɀȮŵ ǝȮȼƁȚǞȮƀɀ ǐƸȮƯȮɀƁ ȆȧƾȮŸ ǜȮƳȮ Ⱦ ɀ ȾȮƁ ȆǜȼȮƳȮŴ Ƚ Ɖ ȯǞȮƪȮɀƁ ȆȯƾȮŵ ȬȾȶƾƃȮɀƁ ȆȬȼȶƾŮ ƿȮ ȿ ŲȽ ƿȮ Ⱦ ɀ Ɓ ȆƿȮ ȿ ƇȮ ȿ Ųȼ ȲƦǎȾȼȮƶȮɀƁ ȆȲdžǎȼȮſ ȚNjȼ ȼȮŹ

M mail mailbox mailman make, to man manager/s, director/s many, much market married meat media medicine/s meet, to meeting meeting/s, interview/s menu military million

bariid sanduuq bariid abu l-bariid (see abu) sawwa, ysawwi (WV) rijjaal, rajul mudiir / mudraa¢ hwaaya, kathiir suug, suuq mizzawwij laham ilaam diwa / adwiya (S/P) gaabal, ygaabul (RV) ijtimaa muqaabala / muqaabalaat (S/P) manyo harbi, askari malyoon (see lesson )


English–Arabic | 

minute/s misdeed/s, sin/s miss, to; lonesome, to be missed, you were modern money Iraqi money money orders month mosque mother morning in the morning Mr./s Mrs., lady Miss mouth much, very museum must, ought to

daqiiqa / daqaayiq dhanib / dhunuub (S/P) mushtaaq makaan (ak) khaali (see lesson ) hadiith fluus, maal fluus iraaqiyya hawaala maaliyya shahar jaami umm, waalda sabaah sabaahan, is-subuh sayyid /saada sayyida /sayyidaat aanisa / aanisaat halig hwaaya, kathiir, jaziilan mathaf laazim (invariable)

ǘȾȮƁƾȮŻȼȢ / ǀȼȮƲȮƸȮŻȾ ȼȢ țǞſȽ ȣ / ƿȾȮſȼ ȣ


ǠŽƾų ǙȼȮſƾƳžȼ

ǂȮƁNjȮŲȼ ȲƾȮž ȆȦǞȮƴɀȮź ǀdžȮƸȮŻȾ ȚǍȮŸȾ ȦǞȮƴɀȮź ǀȮƸȮ dž ȾŽƾž ǀȼȮŽȚǞȮŲȼ ǍȮƷȼ ȼȮŵ ǕžȾ ƾȮű ȜNjȼ ɀȮŽȚȶ Ȇȳȿ Ƚ Ț ȠƾȮƃǧ ȼ ljȮƃȽ ƫŽȘ ȼ dž ȆȹƾȮŲƾȮƃǧ ȜȼȢƾȮŴ / NjȮƸȮ ȼ Ʀ Ŵ ȝȚNjȮƸȮ Ŵ / Ȝ Nj Ȯ ƸȮ Ŵ ȼ Ʀ ȼ Ʀ ȼ ȝƾƉȾſȕ / ǀƉȮ ȼ Ⱦ ſȕ ƩȮȾƴŲȼ ǾƁǎȮ ű ȆǍƸƅ Ȯż Ȇǝ ȼ ƁȚǞȮƀɀ ȼ ȼ ȹ ǗȮƇȼ ɀȮƄȮžȼ ȳȾȥǽ

N name nation national, nationalist national news international news near, relative need, to needle/s neither expensive nor cheap nephew new newspaper/s next to, adjacent niece

isim watan watani akhbaar mahalliyya akhbaar aalamiyya qariib htaaj, yihtaaj (WV) ubra / ubar (S/P) laa ghaali wala rikhiis (idiom, see lesson ) ibin akh (brother’s side) ibin ukhut (sister’s side) jidiid sahiifa / suhuf (S/P) jariida / jaraayid yamm binit akh (brother’s side)

ǛȮŴȘ Ⱦ ǜȼȮŶȼȶ ǠƶȼȮŶȼȶ ǀdžȮƸȮƦȮƴȮƇȮ ž ȼ ȼ ȤƾƃɀȮųȖ ǀȮƸƵ dž ȼȮŽƾŸ ȤƾƃɀȮųȖ ƿȮƁǍȼȮŻ ȟƾƄȮƇɀ ȾȮƁ ȆȟƾƄȮŲɀ ǍȼȮŮȽȚ / ȜȼǍȮɀŮȽȚ ǑƸȮųȾȤ ǽȶ ǠŽƾȮŹ ǽ ȡȖ ǜȾȮŮȘ ǁȮų Ƚ Ƚ Ț ǜȾȮŮȘ NjȮƁNjȾȮȮű ǗȮƇȽ ǧ ȼ Ƚ / ǀƱƸƇǧ NjȾȮƁȚǍȮűȼ / ȜNjȼ ȮƁǍȮűȼ ǛȮ ȿ ȼƁ ȡȖ ǁȮƶȾ ȾȮŮ

 | Glossary

nice, pretty, sweet night at night nine Nineveh no no hope, no cure no need for noon at noon nor, and not normal, usual, regular not not bad, so-so note, remark now, right this moment number/s, numeral/s

binit ukhut (sister’s side) hilu leel bil-leel tisa Naynawa (the Assyrian capital) laa / la- (see lesson ) maaku chaara (see lesson ) maaku luzuum (idiom, see lesson ) zuhur iz-zuhur wala (see lesson ) aadi maa, muu (see lesson ) laa shiish wala kabaab (idiom, lesson ) mulaahaza hissa (invariable, see lesson ) raqam /arqaam

ǁȮų Ƚ Ƚ Ț ǁȮƶȾ ȾȮŮ ǞƴȮŲȾ ǚȮƸȮȾŽ ǚƸȮƴɀȮŽƾȾȮŮ ǀƯȼ ƉȮ ɀ Ⱦů ȷǞȼȮƶȮƸɀ ȼȮſ ȼȮŽ / ǽ ȜȼȤƾȮǩ ǞȮżƾž Ƚ ȳȶǎȮŽ Ƚ ǞżƾȮž ǍȮƷȽ Ȯŷ Ƚ ǍȮƷȽ ȮƮŽȘ LJ ǽȶ ȸȢƾȮŸ ǞȮž ȆƾȮž țƾȮƃȼȮż ǽȶ ǐȮƸȮŵ Ⱦ ǽ ǀȼȮƮȮŲǾȮ ȼ žȽ ǝȮƉȮ dž ƀȾ ȳƾȮŻɀȤȖ / ǛȼȮŻȼȤ

O occasion, opportunity of course off, short of five to ten (time)

fursa taban, bit-tabu illa (telling time) is-saaa sitta illa ashra

office officer official, employee okay, all right, fine okra old, ancient old (person), large, big on, upon once, one time one

maktab daabut muwazzaf tayiib, maykhaalif baamya qadiim, atiig chibiir, kabiir ala (see lesson ) marra waahid (number)

ǀǧ ȼ ɀǍȮź Ƚ ȹ ǕȮƃȮ ȮƭŽƾ Ȯ Ů Ȇ ƾ ȮƯȮ ƃɀ ȼȮŶ Ⱦ Ƚ dž ǚȼ ɀȮŽȘ ǚȼ ɀȮŽȘ ǀdžȮƄŴ Ⱦ ǀŸȼ ƾȮƉŽȘ ȿ ɀ ŸȾȼ ȜȼǍƪȮ ƿȼȮƄɀȮƳȮžȼ ǓȮȽŮƾǤ ǗdžȮŷǞȼ ȮžȽ ǗȮȾŽƾƈƸȮ ɀ žȼ ȆƿȮƸƦ ȼȮŶ ǀƸȮ ȼ žɀ ƾȮŮ ƩƸȮƄȮŸȼ ȆǛȮƁNjȼȮŻ ǍƸȮƃȼȮż ȆǍȮƸȮƃȾȮǩ ȜdžǍȮžȼ NjȮŲȚȶ Ⱦ

English–Arabic | 

one, someone onion one onion only open, to operation/s, surgery/s or orchard orchard keeper order origin original

ahhad busal raas busal faqat, bass fitah, yiftah (RV) amaliyya / amaliyyaat loo, aw bistaan bistanchi (see lesson ) amur asil asli

package pain/s

ruzma alam / aalaam wija / awjaa qasir baasbort, jawaaz sabur as-salaamu alaykum wa alaykum is-salaam

NjȮŲȖ dž ǚƫȮ ȼ ȽŮ ǚƫȮ ȼ Ƚ Ů ȦȚȤ ǏȮ ȿ ȼ Ů ȆǓȼȮƲȼȮź ljȼȮƄɀȮƱȾȮƁ ȆljȼȮƄȮźȾ ȝƾƸȮ ȿ ȾƴƵȼ ȮŸȼ / ǀƸȮ dž ȾƴƵȼ ȮŸȼ ɀȶȖ ȆǞȮŽ ȴƾȮƄȮƉ ɀ ȾȮŮ ǠǰɀȮƶȼȮƄƉ ɀ ȾȮŮ ǍȮžȽ Ȗ ǚǧȖ Ⱦ ǠƴǧȖ ɀ


palace passport patience Peace be upon you (greeting) And peace be upon you (in reply) pen, pencil penny people pepper perhaps, may period of time, while person person in charge personal, private personality pharmacist pharmacy pilot (of a plane) pinch, to place plate, dish play, to

qalam filis shaab filfil balkat, balki (see lesson ) mudda shakhis mas¢uul shakhsi shakhsiyya saydali saydaliyya tayyaar giras, yugrus (RV) mahall maauun liab, yilab (RV)

ǀȮžȼ ɀ ȥȽȤ ȳǽȕ / ǛȼȮŽȖ Ȭƾűȶɀ Ȗ Ȇ ǕȮűȼ Ⱦȶ Ǎƫ Ⱦ ȼȮŻ ȥȚǞȮűȼ ȆȝȤǞƃȮŴƾȮŮ ɀ ǍȮƃȮ ȼ Ƚ ǧ ǛȮƳ Ƹ ȮƴȮ Ÿ ȳ ǾȮ ƉȮŽȖ ȼ Ƚ dž Ƚ ɀȼ ȳǾȮƉȮŽȚ ǛȮƳȮ Ƹ ȮƴȮ Ÿ ȼ dž ɀ Ƚ ȼ ȶ ǛȼȮƴȼȮŻ ǏȾȮƴȮźȾ ƿƯȼ ȼȮŵ ǚȮƱȾ ɀȮƴȮźȾ ǠƳɀȮƴȮȼŮ Ȇǁɀ ȼȮƳɀȮƴȮȼŮ ȜNjdž ȮžȽ ǑȮƈȾ ȼȮŵ ȲǞƂȮƉȮžȼ ǠƫɀȮƈȼȮŵ ǀȮƸdž ƫ Ⱦ ɀȮƈȼȮŵ ǠŽNjȼ ȮƸɀ ǧ ȼ ǀƸȮ Ž Nj Ȯ Ƹ ǧ ȿ Ⱦȼ ɀ ȼ ȤƾȮƸ ȿ ȼȮŶ ȨǍȽ ɀȮǦȮȽƁ ȆȨȼǍȾȮǬ ǚȮƇȮ ȼ žȼ ȴǞȮŸƾȮž ƿȮƯȼ ɀȮƴȾȮƁ ȆƿȮƯȼ ȮȾŽ

 | Glossary

please pleasure with pleasure plenty, much P.M. (afternoon) pocket political politics postage postcard postman post office praise God prescription present (adj.) present, gift press, journalism journalist pretty, nice, sweet price, rate prince/s private privately procession Procession Street (in Babylon) professor program/s pronoun, conscience pull, to purse, suitcase, luggage put, to

rajaa¢an (also see tfaddal, lesson ) suruur bikull suruurp hwaaya bad iz-zuhur jeeb siyaasi / siyaasiyya siyaasa taabi bariid boskaart boostachi (see lesson) bariid, maktab bariid ilhamdu lillaa(h) (see lesson ) wasfa haadir, mawjuud hadiyya sahaafa sahafi / sahafiyya (M/F) hilu siir amiir / umaraa¢ (S/P) khaas khusuusi mawkib Shaari il-Mawkib ustaadh barnaamij / baraamij damiir sihab, yis hab junta hatt, yhutt (DV)

Ȕȹ ƾȮűȼȤ ȤȶǍȮŴ Ƚ ȤȶǍȮŴ ǚ ȮƳ ȼ Ƚ ȾȮŮ ǝȮȼƁȚǞȮƀɀ LJ NjȮƯɀ ȮȼŮ ǍƷȮ Ƚ ƮŽȚ ƿȮƸȮű ǀƸȮ Ⱦ Ŵ Ⱦ / ǠŴƾƸȾȮŴ ȿ ŴƾƸȮ ǀŴƾƸȮ Ⱦ ȼ Ŵ NjȮƁǍȮȼŮ ǕȾȮŮƾŶ ȝɀȤƾƳȮŴǞŮ ɀ ǠǰȼȮƭȮŴǞȮŮ ɀ NjȮƁǍȮȼŮ ƿȼȮƄɀȮƳžȼ ȆNjȮƁǍȮȾŮ ʇ NjȽ ȮƵɀ Ƈȼ ɀȮŽȘ ǀȼȮƱǧ ɀ ȼȶ ȢǞȮűǞɀ Ȯžȼ ȆǍȮǤƾŲ Ⱦ ǀdžȮƁNjȾ Ȯƀȼ ǀȼȮźƾƇǧ ȼ ǀƸȮ Ʊ Ȯ Ƈ ǧ / ǠȮƱ Ƈ ǧ ȼ ȼ ȼ Ⱦ ȼ ȼ ǞȮƴȮŲȾ ǍȮƯȾ ȮŴ Ⱦ ȔȚǍȮžȼ Ƚ Ț / ǍƸžȖ ȨƾȮų ǠǧǞƫ Ƚ Ȯų Ƚ ƿȮżȾ Ǟɀ Ȯžȼ ƿȮżȾ Ǟɀ Ƶȼ ɀȮŽȚ ȬȾȤƾȮŵ ȣƾȮƄȮŴ ɀ ȽȚ ǃžȾ ȚǍȮȼŮ / ǃžȾ ƾſɀǍȮȼŮ ǍȮƸȮƵǤ ȼ ƿȮƇȼ Ɖ Ȯ Ɓ ȆƿȮ ƇȮ Ŵ ɀ Ⱦ ȼ Ⱦ ǀȼȮƭɀȮƶȮűȽ ǓƇȮ Ƚ ɀ Ɓ ȆǓȮŲȼ




radio radio station/s

raadyo idhaaa / idhaaaat (S/P)


English–Arabic | 

rate, price read, to ready, present really, definitely reason/s receipt red registered registered letter regular, usual regular letter relative, near relative (in-law) religion/s religious remark, note rent, to; to lease repair, to repairing, fixing reporter, correspondent reserve, to reservation reside, to; to live residing rested, content rest, sit down (imp. verb) restaurant rice right, everything in its place river room rope/s ruin

ujra, siir qira, yiqra (WV) haadir walla (idiom, see lesson ) sabab / asbaab wasil ahmar musajjal risaala musajjala aadi risaala aadiyya qariib nasiib diin / adyaan (S/P) diini / diiniyya (M/F adj.) mulaahaza ajjar, y¢ajjir (RV) sallah, ysallih (RV) tasliih muraasil / muraasila (M/F) hijaz, yihjiz (RV) hajiz sikan, yiskun (RV) saakin mirtaah (i)stariih matam timman, ruzz kullshi b-makaana (idiom, see lesson ) nahar ghurfa habil / hbaal (S/P) athar

ǍȮƯȾ ȮŴ Ⱦ ȆȜȼǍȮűɀ Ƚ Ț ȚȼǍɀȮƲȾȮƁ ȆȚȼǍȮŻȾ ǍǤƾȮŲ Ⱦ ʇȚȶ țƾƃȮŴȖ ɀ / ƿȮƃȮ ȼ ȼ Ŵ ǚǧ Ⱦ ȼȶ ǍȮƵȼ ȮŲȖ ɀ ǚȮƆdž ƉȮ ȼ žȽ ǀȼȮƴƆdž ƉȮ ȼ žȼ ǀȼȮŽƾȮŴȾȤ ȸȢƾȮŸ ǀdžȮƁȾȢƾȮŸ ǀŽƾȮŴȾȤ ƿȮƁǍȼȮȮŻ ƿȮƸȮƉȼȮſ ȴƾȮƁɀȢȖ / ǜȮƁȢ ǀƸȮ dž ƶȾ ȮƁȢ / ǠƶȮƁȢ ǀȼȮƮŲǾȮ ȼ žȽ ǍȮűƺȮ Ʀ ɀ Ɓ ȆɀǍȮűȖ dž ljƦȮƴƫȮ ȼ ɀ Ɓ ȆljdžȮƴǧ ȼ ljƸȮƴƫ Ȯů ɀ ȼ ǀƴȮŴȚǍȮ ž / ǚ ŴȚǍȮ Ⱦ Ƚ Ⱦ žȽ ǎȾȮƆƇɀ ȾȮƁ ȆǎȮƆȮ ȼ ŲȾ ǎȾȮƆȮŲȼ ǜȮƳȮ Ɖ Ȯ Ɓ Ȇǜ Ⱦ Ƚ ɀ Ⱦ ȼȮƳȮŴ ǜȮżƾȮŴ Ⱦ ȠƾȮůɀǍȮžȾ ljƁǍȼȮƄȮŴȘ ɀ ǛȮƯȼ ɀȮƭȮžȼ ȥȿ ȽȤ ȆǜȮƵdž ȮȾů ǀȼȮſƾƳȮžȼ țɀ ǠƪɀȮƴȮż Ƚ ǍȮƷȼ ȼȮſ ǀȼȮźɀǍȮŹ Ƚ ȲƾƃŲɀ / ǚȾȮƃȮŲȼ ǍȼȮŰȖ

S salad salesman saleswoman salt

zalaata bayyaa bayyaaa milih

ǀȼȮŶǽȼȥ ȬƾȮƸȮ ȿ ȼŮ ǀŸȼ ƾȮƸȮ ȿ ȼŮ ljȮȾƴȮžȾ

 | Glossary

salty saved, to be search, to season, chapter scene, view school second second (time) section/s, division/s, department/s see, to; to look self, being, soul sell, to sent, to service seven shall, will, going to shame on you she sheep, lamb/s shoe shoe repairman shop, store show, to shut, to; to close sick, ill sign, to signature sister similar, like, such as sit! please sit down sit down, to six skin/s, leather/s sleep, to small small change soap

maalih nija, yinji (WV) dawwar, ydawwir (HV) fasil manzar madrasa thaani thaanya qisim / aqsaam (S/P)

ljȮȾŽƾȮž ƾȮƆȼ ɀȮƶȾȮƁ ȆƾȮȼƍȾ ȤƦȶNjȼ ȮɀƁ ȆȤdžȶȼȢ ǚƫ Ⱦ ȼȮź ǍȼȮƮɀȮƶȮžȼ ǀȼȮŴȼȤNjɀ Ȯžȼ ǠſƾȮŰ ǀȮƸȼ ɀȮſƾȮŰ ȳƾƉɀȮŻȖ / ǛƉ Ⱦ ŻȾ

shaaf, yshuuf (HV) nafis baa, ybii (HV) dazz, ydizz (DV) khidma saba rah- (prefix, see lesson ) eeb aleek (idiom, see lesson ) hiyya tili / tilyaan (S/P) qundara qundarchi (see lesson ) dukkaan shawwaf, yshawwif sadd, ysidd (DV) mariid / mariida / mardaa waqqa, ywaqqi (RV) tawqii ukhut mithil (i)stariih tfaddal istariih giad, yugud (RV) sitta jilid /jluud (S/P) naam, ynaam (HV) saghiir khurda saabuun (collective)

ȯǞƪȮɀƁ ȆȯƾȮŵ ǏȮƱȾ ȼȮſ ǕƸȮƃȮɀƁ ȆȬƾȮŮ ȥȿ NjȾ ȮɀƁ Ȇȥȿ ȼȢ ǀžȼ Njɀ ȮųȾ ǀȼȮƯƃȮ ȼ ɀ Ŵ Ƞɀ ȼ Ȥ ǙƸƴŸ ƿƸŸ ǠȮ dž ƀȾ ȴƾƸɀȮƴŶȾ / ǠȾƴȮŶȾ ȜȼȤNjȼ ɀȮƶȮŻ Ƚ ǠǩɀȤNjȼ ɀȮƶȮȮŻ Ƚ ȴƾȮż ȿ ȽȢ ȯǞƦ ȼȮƪȮɀƁ ȆȯǞdž ȼȮŵ NjȮ Ⱦ ɀ Ɓ ȆNjȮ ȿ ƉȮ ȿ Ŵ ȼ ǟǤɀǍžȼ / ǀƬƁǍžȼ / ǒƁǍžȼ ǕƦȮŻǞȼ ȮɀƁ ȆǕdžȮŻȼȶ ǕƸȮŻǞɀ ȼȮů ǁȮų Ƚ ȽȚ ǚȮƅȾ ȮžȾ ljƁǍȼȮƄȮŴȘ ɀ ljƁǍȼȮƄȮŴȘ ǚ Ƭ ȮƱ Ȯů dž ɀ ȼ ȼ NjȮƯȽ ɀȮǦȽƁ ȆNjȮƯȼ ȮǬȾ ǀdžȮƄȮŴ Ⱦ ȢǞƴȮűɀ / NjȾȮƴȾȮű ȳƾȮƶȮɀƁ ȆȳƾȮſ ǍȮƸȮưǧ ȼ ȜȼȢɀǍȮų Ƚ ȴǞŮƾǧ

English–Arabic | 

soap vender something, thing son sorry (to be) soup speak, to; to talk special, private speech, talk spoon stand up, to; to stop stand, to stamp postal stamp station stay, to staying (part.) stomach/s story/s, tale/s street student study, to sugar sugar vendor suitcase, purse, luggage Sumer Sumerians surprised, to be sweet, nice, pretty sweets (candy and pastry) Swiss Switzerland symptom

saabunchi (see lesson) shii ibin mit¢assif, afwan shoorba hicha, yih chi (WV) tkallam, yitkallam (RV) khaas, khusuusi kalaam, hachi khaashuuga, milaqa wigaf, yoogaf (RV) gaam. yguum taabi taabi bariid mahatta buqa, yubqa (WV) baaqi, naazil (in a hotel) mida / miad qussa / qusas (S/P) shaari taalib diras, yudrus (RV) shakar shakarchi (see lesson ) junta Soomar (ancient land in Iraq) Soomariyyiin (ancient people) tajjab, yitajjab hilu halawiyyaat Swiisri Swiisra araad


T table table (list), chart take!

meez, mandada jadwal haak

ȜNjȼ ȼȮƬɀȮƶȮžȼ ȆǎƸȮž ȲȼȶNjɀ Ȯűȼ ȱƾȮƀ

 | Glossary

take it easy take, to take care, watch out talk, speech talk, to; to speak taxi taxi driver tea tea glass tea vender telephone, to telephone/s ground telephone mobile/cell telephone telephone operator/s televisions tell, mound teller, cashier temple ten thank you, thanks thank, to thanks be to God then, in that case there there is/are these these days they thing, something think, to third third (one) thousand

ala keefak (idiom, see lesson ) akhadh, yaakhudh (RV) diir baalak (idiom, see lesson ) kalaam tkallam yitkallam (RV, see above) taksi saayiq taksi, abu t-taksi chaay (i)stikaan chaay chaaychi (see lesson ) khaabar, ykhaabur (RV) talifoon / talifoonaat (S/P) talifoon ardi talifoon moobaayal baddaala / baddaalaat (S/P) talfizyoon tall sarraaf mabad ashra shukran shikar, yushkur (RV) nushkur alla, ilhamdu lillaah (phrase, see lesson ) laad (see lesson ) hnaak aku (see lesson ) hadhoola hal-ayyaam (idiom, see lesson ) humma shii fakkar, yfakkir (RV) thaalith (ordinal) thilith alif

ǙȼȮƱȮƸȮż ǟƴŸ njȮųƾȮƁ ȆnjȼȮųȖ Ƚ ǙȼȮŽƾȮŮ ǍȮƁȢ ȳǾȼȮż ǛdžȮƴȼȮƳɀȮƄȾȮƁ ȆǛdžȮƴȼȮƳɀȮů ǠƉȾȮƳȼȮů ǞŮȖ ȆǠƉɀȮƳȼȮů ǘƁƾŴ ǠƉƳdžȮƄŽȚ ȸɀ ƾȮǩ ȸɀ ƾȮǩ ȴƾƳȮƄȾ ȮŴȘ ɀ ǠǰȮɀƁƾȮǩ ǍȮȽŮƾƈȮɀƁ ȆǍȮȾŮƾȮų ȝƾſǞƱȮȾƴȼȮů / ȴǞƱȮȾƴȼȮů ǠǤɀȤȚ ȴǞƱȮȾƴȮů ǚȮȼƁƾŮǞž ȴǞƱȮȾƴȼȮů ȝǽȚNjȮ ȿ ȼ Ů / ǀŽȚNjȮ ȿ ȼŮ ȴǞȮƁɀǎȮƱȾ ɀȮƴȼȮů ǚȿ ȼȮů ȯȚdžǍȮǧ ȼ NjȮƃȮ Ư Ȯ ȼ ɀ žȼ ȜȼǍɀȮƪȮŸȼ ȹ ȚǍɀȮƳȮŵ Ƚ ǍȮƳ ȮƪȮ Ɓ ȆǍ ȮƳȮ ŵ Ⱦ Ƚ ɀ ȼ Ƚ ʇ NjȽ Ƶɀ ȮƇȼ ɀȮŽȘ ȆʇȚ ǍȮƳ Ȯƪ Ȯſ Ƚ ɀ Ƚ Njɀ ȮƯȼ ȮȼȮŽ ȱƾƶȮƀɀ ǞȮżȖ Ƚ ǀȼȮŽȶnjȮƀȼ ȳƾȮƁȿ ȀȮƀȼ ǝdžȮƵȮƀȽ ǠȮŵ Ⱦ ǍƦȮƳȼȮƱȮɀƁ ȆǍdžȮƳȼȮź ǂȮȾŽƾȮŰ ǂȾȮƴȮȾŰ ǗȮȾŽȖ

English–Arabic | 

threaten, to three throw, to ticket Tigris River thirsty this time tin tinsmith tired tired, to be to, for, in order to together toilet (bathroom) tomatoes tomorrow tongue/s too, also tooth tour, tourism, touristic Tower of Babylon town, city translation/s translation section translator/s travel, to traveling, traveler trip, travel good trip true, correct turn around, to twelve two type/s, kind/s

haddad, yhaddid tlaatha rima, yirmi tadhkara, bitaaqa nahar Dijla at shaan haadha (see lesson ) waqit tanak tanakchi (see lesson ) tabaan tiab, yitab (RV) li- / l- (see lesson ) siwiyya mirhaad tamaata baachir lisaan hamm sinn siyaaha, siyaahi Burij Baabil madiina tarjama / tarjamaat (S/P) qisim tarjama mutarjim / mutarjimiin saafar, ysaafir (RV) musaafir safra safra saiida sahiih indaar, yindaar thnaash thneen noo / anwaa

ȢNjƦ ȮƷȮ ȼ ɀ Ɓ ȆȢNjdž Ȯƀȼ ǀȼȮŰǾɀȮů ǠžɀǍȾȮƁ Ȇƾžȼ Ⱦ Ȥ ǀȼȮŻƾƭȾȮŮ ȆȜȼǍȼȮżnjȼȮů ǀȼȮƴȮűɀ ȾȢ ǍƷȼ ȼȮſ ȴƾƪɀȮƭȮŸȼ ȚȣƾȮƀ ǁȮŻȾ ȼȶ ǙȼȮƶȼȮů ǠȮǰɀȮƳȼȮƶɀȮů ȴƾƃȮƯɀ ȼȮů ƿȮƯȼ ɀȮƄȾȮƁ ȆƿȮƯȼ ȮȾů Ȳɀ / ȾȮŽ ǝdžȮƁǞȮ Ⱦ Ⱦ Ŵ ȩƾŲɀǍȮžȾ ǀȼȮŶƾƵȼȮŶ ǍȾȮǩƾȮŮ ȴƾƉȮȾŽ ǛȮ ȿ ƀȼ ǜȮ Ⱦ ȿ Ŵ ǠŲƾƸȮŴ Ŵ Ⱦ ȆǀŲƾƸȮ ȼ Ⱦ ǚȮŮƾȮŮ ȟȾǍȮȽŮ ǀȼȮƶȮƁNjȮžȼ ȝƾƵűȼ ɀǍȼȮů / ǀƵȼ Ȯűȼ ɀǍȼȮů ǀƵűȼ ɀǍȼȮů ǛƉ Ⱦ ȾȮŻ ƞȮƵȾȮűɀǍȼȮƄȮžȽ / ǛȾȮűɀǍȼȮƄȮžȽ ǍȮźȾ ƾƉȮɀƁ ȆǍȼȮźƾȮŴ ǍȮźȾ ƾƉȮžȽ ȜȼǍɀȮƱȮŴ ȼ ȜNjȮƸȮƯȮŴ ȼ ȜȼǍɀȮƱȮŴ ȼ ljȮƸȮƇǧ ȼ ȤȚNjɀȮƶȾȮƁ ȆȤȚNjɀȮſȘ ǐȮŸȼ ƾȮƶɀȮŰ ǜȮƸȮƶɀȮŰ ȬȚǞɀȮſȖ / ȬǞſ

U uncle unfortunately universe, world

khaal lisuu¢ il-hazz (idiom, see lesson ) aalam


 | Glossary

university upon, on usual, regular, normal

jaamia ala (see lesson ) aadi

ǀȮƯȼ Ȯžȼ ƾȮű ǟƴȮŸȼ ȸȢƾȮŸ

V vegetables verb very very much view, scene visa visit visit, to vowel

khudrawaat fiil kullish (invariable) jaziilan (invariable) manzar fiiza ziyaara zaar, yzuur (HV) haruf illa (also see haruf )

ȝȚȶȼǍƬȮ ɀ ųȽ ǚȮƯȾ ȮźȾ ǐƦȮƴȮż Ƚ ȹǾȮƁǎȮűȼ ǍȼȮƮɀȮƶȮžȼ ȜǎȮƸȮźȾ ȜȼȤƾȮƁȾȥ ȤȶǎȮɀƁ ȆȤȚȥ ǀdžȮƴȮŸȾ ȯǍȮ Ƚ Ųȼ

W walk, to; to travel take a walk, to; stroll, to walking, traveling (part.) want, to; to wish war warm was/were watch, clock, hour water we wealth weather, climate week welcome well/s well, oh, so well-being well known, famous western what? what did you think? what is happening?

misha, yimshi (WV) yitmashsha maashi raad, yriid (HV) harub daafi chaan (see lesson ) saaa mayy ihna maal (see lesson ) jaww usbuu ahlan wa sahlan biir / byaara (S/P) yani zeen, b-kheer mashhuur gharbi shunu? (see lesson ) shabaalak? (idiom, see lesson ) shaku maaku? (idiom, see lesson )

ǠƪȮƵɀ ȾȮƁ ȆƾȼȮƪȮžȾ ǟdžȮƪȮƵȼ ɀȮƄȾȮƁ ǠŵƾȮž NjȮƁǍȮɀƁ ȆȢȚȤ țǍȮ Ƚ Ųȼ ǠźȚȢ ȴƾȮǩ ǀŸȼ ƾȮŴ ǠȮ ȿ žȼ ƾƶȮŲȘ ɀ ȲƾȮž Ǟȿ Ȯűȼ ȬǞƃȮŴ ɀ ȽȚ ȹǾȮƷɀ Ŵȶ ȼ ȹǾȮƀɀ Ȗ ȜȼȤƾƸȮɀŮ / ǍƸȮŮ ǠƶȮƯɀ ȮȼƁ ǍƸȮƈȮɀŮ ȆǜȮƁȥ ȤǞƷɀȮƪžȼ ǠŮɀǍȼȮŹ ȒǞȮƶȮŵ Ƚ ȒǙȼȮŽƾƃȮƯȼ ɀȮŵ ȒǞȮżƾȮž ǞȮƳȼȮŵ

English–Arabic | 

whatever when when? when, at the time whenever where? where have you been ? where from? wherever from wherever while who, whom, which, that who? whoever whom? whose? why? wife will, shall, going to wine window with, have with all with pleasure with your permission without wolf/s woman/women world, universe wrong

shunu-ma, sh-ma (see lesson ) min (see lesson ) shwakit? (see lesson ) lamman (see lesson ) shwakit-ma (ee lesson ) ween? haay ween? (idiom, see lesson ) immeen, mneen? ween-ma (see lesson ) mneen-ma (see lesson ) been-ma (see lesson ) illi (relative clause, lesson ) minu? minu-ma (see lesson ) ilman? maalman? leesh, ilweesh? zooja, zawja rah-, ha- (see lesson ) nabiidh shubbaach maa bikull bikull suruur, ala eeni, ala raasi (see lesson ) an idhnak biduun dhiib / dhyaaba (S/P) mara/niswaan aalam ghalat

ɀ ȳȼ ȧ ǜȮžȾ ȒǁȮżȾ Ǟȼ ɀȮŵ ǜȮƵdž ȼȮŽ ȳȼ ǁȮżȾ Ǟȼ ɀȮŵ ȒǜȮƁȶ ȒǜȮƁȶ ȸɀ ƾȮƀ ȒǜȮƸȮƶȮžɀ ȆƞȮƵȮžɀ Ș ȳȼ ǜƁȶ ȳȼ ƞȮƶȮžɀ ȳȼ ǜȮƸȮŮ ǠƴɀȮŽȘ ȒǞȮƶȮžȾ ȳȼ ǞƶȮžȾ ȒǜȮƵȼ ɀȮŽȘ ȒǜȮƵȼ ɀȮŽƾȮž ȒǐȮƁǞɀȮŽȘ ȆǐȮƸȮŽ ǀȮűȼ ɀȶȼȥ ȆǀȮűȶȥ ȼ ȮŲȼ ȆȠɀ ȼ Ȥ njƸȮƃȼȮſ ɃƾȮƃ ȿ Ȯŵ Ƚ Ǖȼ Ȯžȼ ǚȮƳ Ƚ ȾȮŮ ȆǠƶƸŸ ǟƴŸ ȆȤȶǍȮŴ ǚ ȮƳ Ƚ Ƚ ȾȮŮ ǠŴȚȤ ǟƴȮŸȼ ǙȼȮſȣȘ ǜȮŸȼ ȴȶNjȾȮŮ ǀȼŮƾȮƁȣ / ƿȮƁȣ ȴȚǞƉȮ ɀ Ⱦ ſ / ȜȼǍȮžȼ ǛȼȮŽƾȮŸ ǓȼȮƴȼȮŹ

X Y year yellow

sana asfar

ǀȼȮƶȮŴ ȼ ǍȼȮƱǧȖ ɀ

 | Glossary

yes yogurt you

naam, ii liban inta / inti / intu (M/F/P)

ǠȮȾǣ ȆǛȮƯȼ ȼȮſ ǜȮƃȮ ȼ ȾŽ ǞƄɀȮſȘ / ǠƄɀȮſȘ / ǁɀȮſȘ

Z zero ziggurat

sifir zaqquura