Reflections on Receiving the John Desmond Bernal Award

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Reflections on Receiving the John Desmond Bernal Award

Thomas S. Kuhn 4S Review, Vol. 1, No. 4. (Winter, 1983), pp. 26-30. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0738-0

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Reflections on Receiving the John Desmond Bernal Award Thomas S. Kuhn 4S Review, Vol. 1, No. 4. (Winter, 1983), pp. 26-30. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0738-0526%28198324%291%3A4%3C26%3ARORTJD%3E2.0.CO%3B2-A 4S Review is currently published by Sage Publications, Inc..

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REFLECTIONS

ON RECEIVING THE

JOHN DESMOND BERNAL AWARD*

Thomas S. Kuhn

When Arnold Thackray w r o t e , s i x months a g o , t o t e l l me I had b e e n nominated f o r t h e John Desmond B e r n a l Award of t h e 4 s S o c i e t y , I was a good d e a l s u r p r i s e d b u t a l s o much moved and g r e a t l y p l e a s e d . N e i t h e r of t h o s e r e a c t i o n s r e q u i r e s a s p e e c h , b u t I s h a l l f o r a moment expand upon them. A s John Ziman h a s j u s t s a i d , my p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g was i n p h y s i c s . H i s t o r y of s c i e n c e i s a f i e l d I f i r s t e n c o u n t e r e d l a t e i n g r a d u a t e s c h o o l , a s a s s i s t a n t i n a science course f o r non-scientists. T h a t c o u r s e was t h e i n v e n t i o n of James Bryant Conant, t h e n p r e s i d e n t of Harvard. I t was b u i l t l a r g e l y on c a s e h i s t o r i e s , and most of t h e r e a d i n g c o n s i s t e d of e x c e r p t s from o r i g i n a l s c i e n t i f i c t e x t s : C o p e r n i c u s , G a l i l e o , Boyle, Newton, L a v o i s i e r , and o t h e r s . That much w i l l b e f a m i l i a r t o anyone who h a s e n c o u n t e r e d one o r a n o t h e r of t h e Harvard Case H i s t o r i e s i n E x p e r i m e n t a l S c i e n c e , b u t n e i t h e r t h e y n o r C o n a n t ' s p u b l i c d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e c o u r s e r e f l e c t a n o t h e r of i t s a s p e c t s . S t a f f and s t u d e n t s a l s o r e a d i n s u c h works a s H e s s e n ' s S o c i a l and Economic Roots of Newton's P r i n c i p - i a ,- M e r t o n ' s S c i e n c e , Technology and S o c i e t y i n Seventeenth-Century England, and G.N. C l a r k ' s S c i e n c e and S o c i e t v i n t h e Aee of Newton. Those two s o r t s of m a t e r i a l s a t s i d e - b y - s i d e i n t h e c o u r s e . Both seemed e s s e n t i a l t o t h e aims we hoped t o a c h i e v e , b u t t h e r e was l i t t l e a p p a r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between them. Both were s i m p l y t h e r e , a n d b r i n g i n g t h e m t o g e t h e r seemed a most s i g n i f i c a n t c h a l l e n g e . Though I d i d n o t t a k e t h a t problem a s my own, my c o n s c i o u s n e s s of i t s c e n t r a l i m p o r t a n c e g o e s back t o t h e v e r y s t a r t of my c a r e e r , and i t i s g r a t i f y i n g t o b e honored now f o r c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o i t s s o l u t i o n . T h a t i s t h e background f o r my p l e a s u r e My s u r p r i s e h a s a d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e . D o u b t l e s s , a s John Ziman's p r e s e n t a t i o n s u g g e s t s , t h e work t h a t b r i n g s me t o your a t t e n t i o n i s The S t r u c t u r e of S c i e n t i f i c R e v o l u t i o n s . But when I w r o t e t h a t book I t h o u g h t of i t a s e x c l u s i v e l y i n t e r n a l i s t , a l i m i t a t i o n by which I was a c t u a l l y a b i t e m b a r r a s s e d . I n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n , I t o o k p a i n s t o document my awareness t h a t c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y d i d i n f a c t impinge on s c i e n t i f i c advance. I had e l s e w h e r e , I p o i n t e d o u t , w r i t t e n on C o p e r n i c u s and t h e c a l e n d a r a s w e l l a s on Carnot and t h e s t e a m e n g i n e . But c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of t h e s o c i a l s e t t i n g of s c i e n c e h a d , I i n s i s t e d , no p l a c e i n t h e p r e s e n t It was b a s e d e n t i r e l y on t h e t e c h n i c a l w r i t i n g s of s c i e n t i s t s , t h e book. s o r t s of s o u r c e s t o w h i c h t h e Harvard Case H i s t o r i e s had i n t r o d u c e d m e .

'The i n i t i a l r e m a r k s t h a t f o l l o w a r e a l i g h t l y p o l i s h e d v e r s i o n o f t h o s e made when a c c e p t i n g t h e B e r n a l Award on t h e e v e n i n g o f 5 November 1 9 8 3 . The Addendum w h i c h f o l l o w s them i s drawn i n p a r t Prom my c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o a symposium t h e f o l l o w i n g m o r n i n g . I n p u t t i n g t h e Addendum i n t o f i n a l f o r m I h a v e b e n e f i t t e d g r e a t l y f r o m c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h S h a r o n Treweek and S t e v e W o o l g a r . b u t t h e y b e a r no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e v i e w s e x p r e s s e d .

L e t m e p u t t h a t p o i n t a n o t h e r way. P r o b a b l y t h e t h i n g I do b e s t and c e r t a i n l y t h e one t o which I have d e v o t e d most t i m e i s c l i m b i n g from t h e w r i t i n g s i n t o t h e minds of dead s c i e n t i s t s , f i g u r i n g o u t how t h e y t h o u g h t , why t h e y b e l i e v e d what t h e y d i d , and how t h e y came t o change t h e i r minds. My p r i n c i p a l e f f o r t s h a v e , t h a t i s , been d i r e c t e d t o what I h a v e sometimes c a l l e d " t h e dynamic i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of p u r e i d e a s , " and I c o u l d s c a r c e l y b e more aware t h a t t o many members of t h i s a u d i e n c e any p h r a s e of t h a t s o r t i s h a i r r a i s i n g . How c o u l d someone who u s e s i t t o d e s c r i b e h i s c e n t r a l c o n c e r n s be a s u i t a b l e r e c i p i e n t f o r t h e B e r n a l Award? C l e a r l y I had o v e r l o o k e d something s i g n i f i c a n t a b o u t my own work. T h e r e a r e r e a s o n s f o r t h e i n v i t a t i o n you h a v e e x t e n d e d t o me, and my a t t e n t i o n was f i r s t c a l l e d t o them i n a l e t t e r from Alexandre ~ o ~ r kThose . of you who know h i s work w i l l b e s u r p r i s e d t o f i n d him i n t h a t r o l e . For t h o s e who do n o t , l e t me s a y a few words a b o u t him. More t h a n any o t h e r s i n g l e f i g u r e , Koyre/ p r o v i d e d my model of t h e way t o d e a l w i t h o l d i d e a s and t h e i r development. H e was n o t l i t e r a l l y a n i n t e r n a l i s t , f o r h e emphasized t h e r o l e of n o n - s c i e n t i f i c i d e a s , e s p e c i a l l y p h i l o s o p h i c a l and r e l i g i o u s i d e a s , i n t h e development of s c i e n c e . But h e was a p a s s i o n a t e opponent of t h e t h e s i s t h a t socio-economic f a c t o r s might a l s o p l a y a r o l e . Bacon was f o r h i m a f r a u d , and h e d e n i e d t o t h e Baconian program any r o l e a t a l l i n s c i e n t i f i c development. Confronted w i t h a n a c c o u n t of t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o Galilee's work of R e n a i s s a n c e e n g i n e e r i n g , and e s p e c i a l l y of t h e V e n e t i a n w i t h a remark t h a t s t i l l r a i s e s A r s e n a l , ~ o ~ responded r k my h a i r : " G a l i l e o went t o t h e A r s e n a l t o t e a c h , n o t t o l e a r n . " N e v e r t h e l e s s , n i n e months a f t e r S t r u c t u r e a p p e a r e d , Koyr;--then suffering from what s h o r t l y proved a t e r m i n a l i l l n e s s - - w r o t e m e a l e t t e r from which I s h a l l quote a s i n g l e paragraph here.

I am r e a d i n g now. I have r e c e i v e d i t from B l a c k w e l l ' s j u s t

b e f o r e we l e f t - - y o u r S t r u c t u r e of S c i e n t i f i c R e v o l u t i o n s . I

h a r d l y need t o t e l l you how i n t e r e s t i n g and e x c i t i n g I f i n d

i t . Your c o n c e p t of "paradigm1' and y o u r s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l

c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a b o u t t h e b e h a v i o r of t h e " p r o f e s s i o n " seem

t o me t o be r e a l l y i l l u m i n a t i n g and t o f i l l t h e gap between

t h e h i s t o r y of s c i e n c e a s s u c h and t h e s o c i a l h i s t o r y t h a t

till now were m i l e s a p a r t .

The i d e a t h a t I was a gap f i l l e r s t a r t l e d and i n i t i a l l y p u z z l e d me, b u t I s h o r t l y r e a l i z e d what ~ o ~ had r k i n mind. By emphasizing t h a t s c i e n t i f i c knowledge was t h e p r o d u c t of s c i e n t i f i c communities, t h e m s e l v e s set w i t h i n t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y , I had uncovered a n i n t e r f a c e t h r o u g h which t h e s o c i o economic i n f l u e n c e s h e had e l s e w h e r e r e j e c t e d c o u l d p l a y a r o l e i n t h e development of s c i e n c e . I t p l e a s e s me g r e a t l y t h a t s o many of you j o i n him i n v a l u i n g a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o which I had myself been b l i n d . Addendum A f t e r t h e c o n c l u s i o n of t h e p r e c e d i n g r e m a r k s , my two f e l l o w p a n e l i s t s , Bernard Barber and John Ziman, i n d e p e n d e n t l y a c c u s e d me of d i s i n g e n u o u s n e s s , and my remarks h a d , i n f a c t , been s i m p l i s t i c . The p r e f a c e t o S t r u c t u r e acknowledges t h a t a r e a d i n g of Ludwik F l e c k t o g e t h e r w i t h a remark by F r a n c i s S u t t o n had made me r e a l i z e my i d e a s "might r e q u i r e t o b e s e t i n t h e s o c i o l o g y of t h e s c i e n t i f i c community." I c o u l d n o t , when

I w r o t e t h o s e words, have been a l t o g e t h e r i n n o c e n t of s o c i o l o g i c a l c o n s c i o u s ness.

N e v e r t h e l e s s , when a c c e p t i n g t h e B e r n a l Award, t h e r e was a r e a s o n f o r s p e a k i n g a s I had: I d i d n o t t h e n want t o b e h e a r d complaining t h a t , twenty y e a r s a f t e r S t r u c t u r e , t h e gap between t h e s o c i a l s t u d y of s c i e n c e and t h e development of s c i e n t i f i c i d e a s was i n most p l a c e s v e r y n e a r l y as wide a s i t had- been when I f i r s t e n c o u n t e r e d i t . ~ i ; h t h a t o c c a s i o n now behind me, I can p r o v i d e t h e b e g i n n i n g s of a more b a l a n c e d a c c o u n t of t h e r e l a t i o n s , a c t u a l a n d p o t e n t i a l , between t h e c o n c e r n s of S t r u c t u r e and t h o s e of t h e s o c i o l o g y of s c i e n c e . S t r u c t u r e i s s o c i o l o g i c a l i n t h a t i t emphasizes t h e e x i s t e n c e of s c i e n t i f i c communities, i n s i s t s t h a t t h e y b e viewed a s t h e p r o d u c e r s of a s p e c i a l p r o d u c t , s c i e n t i f i c knowledge, and s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e n a t u r e of t h a t prod u c t c a n b e u n d e r s t o o d i n terms of what i s s p e c i a l i n t h e t r a i n i n g and v a l u e s of t h o s e groups. Having i n s i s t e d upon t h o s e p o i n t s , however, I proceeded t o make up t h e s o c i o l o g y of such communities a s I went a l o n g , o r r a t h e r t o draw i t from my e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c t e x t s supplemented by my e x p e r i e n c e a s a s t u d e n t of p h y s i c s . That i s a n abominable way t o do s o c i o l o g y , and i t d i d n o t o c c u r t o me t h a t i t s outcome would, qua s o c i o l o g y , have a c l a i m on t h e a t t e n t i o n of members of t h a t p r o f e s s i o n . They m i g h t , I suppose, l e a r n something usef u l from my book, b u t t h a t something c o u l d n o t b e s o c i o l o g y . T h a t i s a b e t t e r a c c o u n t of my s e n s e of i r o n y i n r e c e i v i n g t h e B e r n a l Award, and t h e c o m p l a i n t I had p r e v i o u s l y v e i l e d emerges from i t . I f S t r u c t u r e i s a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e s o c i o l o g y of s c i e n c e , t h e n t h e c o r e of t h a t c o n t r i b u t i o n h a s been missed o r e l s e d e n i e d by many of t h o s e who t r a c e t h e i r own work t o i t . My c o n c e r n s , b o t h i n S t r u c t u r e and e l s e where, have i n d e e d been s o c i o l o g i c a l , b u t t h e y have a l s o and i n s e p a r a b l y been c o g n i t i v e o r e p i s t e m i c . he q u e s t i o n t h i t more t h a n any o t h e r h a s g u i d e d and m o t i v a t e d m e i s n o t simply why s c i e n t i s t s choose t h e problems t h a t t h e y do, b u t a l s o , f a r more u r g e n t l y , why t h e s p e c i a l n a t u r e of group p r a c t i c e i n t h e s c i e n c e s h a s been s o s t r i k i n g l y s u c c e s s f u l i n r e s o l v i n g t h e problems s c i e n t i s t s choose. What i s i t a b o u t what s c i e n t i s t s do, I have b e e n a s k i n g , t h a t makes t h e i r o u t p u t knowledge? Those c o n c e r n s p r o v e e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y h a r d t o f i n d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e of s c i e n c e s t u d i e s . S u r e l y , t h a t need n o t b e t h e c a s e . I f I c o u l d draw s o c i o l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n s from t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o g n i t i v e p r a c t i c e s and p r o d u c t s of s c i e n t i s t s , then it should be p o s s i b l e t o t r a v e r s e t h a t path i n t h e r e v e r s e d i r e c t i o n . One would t h e n b e g i n w i t h s o c i o l o g i c a l i n q u i r y and r e l a t e i t s r e s u l t s t o t h e c o n t e n t s of t h e r e s e a r c h r e p o r t s s c i e n t i s t s produce, t o what o c c u r s when t h o s e r e p o r t s a r e a p p l i e d , a n d , above a l l , t o t h e way t h o s e c o n t e n t s and consequences change w i t h t i m e . One would, t h a t i s , u s e s o c i o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n between t h e c o g n i t i v e c o n t e n t of a n o l d e r s c i e n c e and t h e c o n t e n t of i t s s u c c e s s o r . A t t h a t p o i n t s o c i o l o g y o f s c i e n c e would t r u l y be s o c i o l o g y of knowledge, and t h a t i s t h e a m b i t i o n of S t r u c t u r e t h a t r e m a i n s t o b e f u l f i l l e d . I n most c i r c l e s i t i s n o t , I f e a r , even r e c o g n i z e d . I n a few t h e v e r y e x i s t e n c e of such a t o p i c i s denied.

Why s h o u l d t h i s b e ? Why s h o u l d t h e gap between t h e c o n c e r n s of S t r u c t u r e and t h o s e of t h e s o c i a l s t u d y of s c i e n c e c o n t i n u e s o v a s t ? To t h a t quest i o n I do n o t know t h e a n s w e r s , b u t I s h a l l s u g g e s t t h r e e w o r t h c o n s i d e r i n g . F i r s t , though I t h i n k i t u n l i k e l y , t h e gap may b e i n p r i n c i p l e u n b r i d g a b l e , i n which c a s e c o m p l a i n t s e r v e s no p u r p o s e . Second and more l i k e l y , t h e c a u s e of t h e gap may b e t h e background of t h e p e o p l e b e i n g r e c r u i t e d i n t o t h e s o c i a l s t u d y of s c i e n c e . I f t h e gap i s t o b e b r i d g e d , t h a t w i l l h a v e t o b e done by p e o p l e w i t h s u f f i c i e n t s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g t o r e a d t h e t e c h n i c a l p a p e r s of t h e s c i e n t i s t s t h e y s t u d y . T h e r e a r e o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t s o r t s of work t o do i n t h e s o c i a l s t u d y of science--work t h a t d o e s n o t demand s i g n i f i c a n t background i n s c i e n c e - - b u t t h e y s h o u l d n o t occupy t h e e n t i r e f i e l d s i m p l y by v i t u r e of i t s c u r r e n t l y s t a n d a r d p a t t e r n s of r e c r u i t m e n t . R i g h t o r wrong, t h e s e two e x p l a n a t i o n s of t h e gap a r e o b v i o u s . I t h i n k of a n o t h e r , however, which i s less s o . For many y e a r s s c i e n c e was t a k e n t o b e t h e d i s c i p l i n e which a c h i e v e d o b j e c t i v e knowledge by t h e a p p l i c a t i o n ( o f t e n s e e n a s q u a s i - m e c h a n i c a l ) o f p r o p e r method. So c o n c e i v e d , s c i e n c e was autonomous. I n t e r n a l i s t s t u d i e s , which were p h i l o s o p h i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l , t h e n examined t h e n a t u r e of s c i e n t i f i c method and c h r o n i c l e d i t s development and a p p l i c a t i o n . E x t e r n a l i s t s t u d i e s , which were s o c i o l o g i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l , examined t h e ways i n which s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s , p r i m a r i l y i n s t i t u t i o n a l and i d e o l o g i c a l , enhanced o r impeded t h e growth of s c i e n t i f i c knowl e d g e . Both t h e c o n t e n t and t h e c o g n i t i v e s t a t u s of s c i e n t i f i c knowledge w e r e t h e e x c l u s i v e b u s i n e s s of t h e i n t e r n a l i s t . The f i r s t g r e a t b r e a k i n t h a t c o n c e p t i o n of a n autonomous s c i e n c e o c c u r r e d r i m a r i l y under t h e i n f l u e n c e of M a r x i s t s t u d i e s . i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 3 0 ' ~p ~ The s h a p e of s c i e n t i f i c i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e s e l e c t i o n of t h e problems t h e i r members p u r s u e d , and t h e g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c advance were a l l s e e n t o be a f f e c t e d (some p e o p l e saw them a s e n t i r e l y d e t e r m i n e d ) by t h e socio-economic i n t e r e s t s of t h e s o c i e t y w i t h i n which s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t y o c c u r r e d . S c i e n c e w a s no l o n g e r autonomous: f a c t o r s e x t e r n a l t o t h e e n t e r p r i s e a f f e c t e d i t s c o n t e n t a s w e l l a s i t s r a t e of development. E x t e r n a l i s t s , while i n c r e a s i n g l y r e s t r i c t i n g t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e socioeconomic--to what were i n c r e a s i n g l y r e f e r r e d t o s i m p l y a s " i n t e r e s t s 1 ' - - s i m u l t a n e o u s l y expanded t h e i r s c o p e t o i n c l u d e t h e c o n t e n t of t h e s c i e n c e s and t h e d i r e c t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c development. What was l e f t f o r t h e i n t e r n a l i s t s - s t i l l c e n t r a l l y concerned t o t r a c e and t o e x p l a i n t h e c o g n i t i v e a c h i e v e m e n t s of sciences--was t h e a n a l y t i c and h i s t o r i c a l s t u d y of methods and i d e a s , t h e r a n g e of t h e l a t t e r now o f t e n extended t o i n c l u d e such a r e a s a s p h i l o I t was o n l y a s t h i s s h i f t t o o k p l a c e t h a t my m e n t o r , sophy and r e l i g i o n . Koyrg, c o u l d come t o seem t h e a r c h e t y p i c a l i n t e r n a l i s t . The developments j u s t s k e t c h e d were, I t h i n k , u n e q u i v o c a l l y f r u i t f u l . The s c i e n t i f i c e n t e r p r i s e i s n o t autonomous. Though socio-economic i n t e r e s t s a r e n o t t h e o n l y means t h r o u g h which s o c i e t y impinges on s c i e n c e , t h e y a r e s u r e l y t h e main o n e s , and t h e y had p r e v i o u s l y b e e n t o o l i t t l e s t u d i e d . S o c i o l o g y of s c i e n c e made a major c o n t r i b u t i o n by f o c u s s i n g upon them, and t h a t f o c u s remained a p p r o p r i a t e w h i l e s o c i o l o g y of s c i e n c e remained e x t e r n a l i s t , concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e e f f e c t s of t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y on s c i e n c e and eschewing t h e i n t e r n a l i s t ' s c o n c e r n w i t h s c i e n c e a s knowl e d g e . But t h e b e l a t e d emergence d u r i n g t h e p a s t two d e c a d e s of a n i n t e r n a l s o c i o l o g y of s c i e n c e , one t h a t t a k e s s c i e n t i f i c communities and t h e i r prod u c t s a s t h e o b j e c t s of s o c i o l o g i c a l s c r u t i n y , h a s s h i f t e d s o c i o l o g i c a l

c o n c e r n s w i t h o u t a l t e r i n g t h e model used t o p u r s u e them. I n t e r e s t s remain t h e dominant f a c t o r t h a t p r a c t i t i o n e r s of t h e new f i e l d employ i n e x p l a n a t i o n , and t h e i n t e r e s t s theydrpio;; remain p r e d o m i n a n t l y socio-economic. To me t h e r e s u l t o f t e n seems d i s a s t e r . Almost by d e f i n i t i o n , r e s o r t t o t h e t e r m " i n t e r e s t " h a s e x c l u d e d t h e s p e c i a l c o g n i t i v e i n t e r e s t s i n c u l c a t e d by s c i e n t i f i c t r a i n i n g and r e q u i r e d , as a n i n g r e d i e n t i n e x p l a n a t i o n s , by any s o c i o l o g y t h a t c l a i m s t o a b s o r b o r d i s p l a c e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e r n s of i n t e r n a l i s t s t u d i e s . We s h a l l n o t , i n my view, a c c o u n t a t a l l f o r s c i e n t i f i c knowledge w i t h o u t r e c o g n i z i n g t h e d e t e r m i n i n g r o l e i n s c i e n t i f i c p r a c t i c e of j u s t s u c h s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s : l o v e of t r u t h ( f e a r of t h e unknown, i f one p r e f e r s ) ; f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h p u z z l e s o l v i n g (compulsion t o e x h i b i t s p e c i a l s k i l l s ) ; r e p u d i a t i o n of t h e p a s t ( o b s e s s i o n w i t h t h e law of t h e e x c l u d e d m i d d l e ) ; and o t h e r s of t h e s o r t . l J h i l e i n t e r n a l s o c i o l o g y of s c i e n c e c o n t i n u e s t o a p e e x t e r n a l i n e x c l u d i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s l i k e t h e s e , t h e gap between t h e c o n c e r n s of S t r u c t u r e and t h o s e of t h e s o c i a l s t u d y of s c i e n c e w i l l c o n t i n u e v a s t , Structure, and my e n t e r p r i s e w i l l have f a i l e d i n i t s c e n t r a l p u r p o s e . a f t e r a l l , was i n t e n d e d t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e s t a t u s of knowledge i s i n no way reduced when knowledge i s s e e n a s s o c i a l .

7

Members of t h e p a n e l on " I s s u e s i n t h e Comparative A n a l y s i s of S c i e n c e R e l a t e d C o n t r o v e r s i e s " a t t h e 1983 4 S m e e t i n g a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n t i n u i n g t h e d i s c u s s i o n s t h a t were s t a r t e d i n B l a c k s b u r g . Gary Downey, John W i l k e s , G e r a l d Markle, and A r i e Rip have p r e p a r e d u p d a t e d v e r s i o n s of t h e i r remarks and w i l l p r o v i d e c o p i e s t o a l l t h o s e w i l l i n g t o p r o v i d e comments a n d / o r c r i t i q u e s . A copy of t h e s t a t e m e n t s of t h e p a n e l i s t s may b e o b t a i n e d from t h e p a n e l o r g a n i z e r . JAMES C. PETERSEN

DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY

WESTERN MICHIGAN UNIVERSITY

KALAMAZOO , MICHIGAN 49008