The Nineties in America

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The Nineties in America

The Nineties in America Volume I Abortion—Genetics Research


Milton Berman, Ph.D. University of Rochester

Managing Editor

Tracy Irons-Georges

Salem Press, Inc. Pasadena, California Hackensack, New Jersey

Editorial Director: Christina J. Moose Managing Editor: Tracy Irons-Georges Acquisitions Editor: Mark Rehn Copy Editors: Timothy M. Tiernan, Rebecca Kuzins Research Supervisor: Jeffry Jensen Editorial Assistant: Dana Garey Research Assistant: Keli Trousdale Photo Editor: Cynthia Breslin Beres Graphics and Design: James Hutson Production Editor: Joyce I. Buchea Layout: Frank Montano Title page photo: Bill Clinton delivers his acceptance speech at the 1992 Democratic National Convention. (AP/Wide World Photos) Cover images (pictured clockwise, from top left): President Bill Clinton and Vice President Al Gore, 1993. (AP/Wide World Photos); General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, 1991. (AP/Wide World Photos); Brandi Chastain, Women’s World Cup Final, 1999. (AP/Wide World Photos); Keyboard. (©Kts/

Copyright © 2009, by Salem Press, Inc. All rights in this book are reserved. No part of this work may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the copyright owner except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews or in the copying of images deemed to be freely licensed or in the public domain. For information address the publisher, Salem Press, Inc., P.O. Box 50062, Pasadena, California 91115. ∞ The paper used in these volumes conforms to the American National Standard for Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, Z39.48-1992 (R1997).

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data The nineties in America / editor, Milton Berman. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and indexes. ISBN 978-1-58765-500-5 (set : alk. paper) — ISBN 978-1-58765-501-2 (v. 1: alk. paper) — ISBN 978-1-58765-502-9 (v. 2 : alk. paper) — ISBN 978-1-58765-503-6 (v. 3 : alk. paper) 1. United States—History—1969—Encyclopedias. 2. United States—Social conditions—1980— Encyclopedias. 3. United States—Politics and government—1989-1993—Encyclopedias. 4. United States—Politics and government—1993-2001—Encyclopedias. 5. United States—Intellectual life—20th century—Encyclopedias. 6. Popular culture—United States— History—20th century—Encyclopedias. 7. Nineteen nineties—Encyclopedias. I. Berman, Milton. E839.N56 2009 973.92—dc22 2008049939

First Printing

printed in the united states of america

■ Table of Contents Publisher’s Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi Complete List of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . xvii

Bailey, Donovan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Baker, James. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Baker v. Vermont . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Balanced Budget Act of 1997 . . . . . . . . . . 76 Ballet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Barkley, Charles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Barry, Dave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Barry, Marion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Baseball . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Baseball realignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Baseball strike of 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Basic Instinct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Basketball . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Baywatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Beanie Babies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Beauty and the Beast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Beauty Myth, The . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Beavis and Butt-Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Bernardin, Joseph Cardinal . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Beverly Hills, 90210 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Bezos, Jeff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Biosphere 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Blair Witch Project, The . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Blended families. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Bloc Québécois . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Blogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Bobbitt mutilation case . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Bondar, Roberta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Bono, Sonny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Book clubs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Bosnia conflict . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Bowl Championship Series (BCS) . . . . . . . 114 Boxing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Boy bands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Broadway musicals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Brooks, Garth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Brown, Ron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Browning, Kurt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Buchanan, Pat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Buffett, Warren . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Burning Man festivals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Bush, George H. W. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Business and the economy in Canada . . . . . 132 Business and the economy in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Byrd murder case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

Abortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Academy Awards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Africa and the United States. . . . . . . . . . . . 7 African Americans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Agassi, Andre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Agriculture in Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Agriculture in the United States . . . . . . . . . 15 AIDS epidemic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Air pollution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Airline industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Albee, Edward. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Albert, Marv. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Albright, Madeleine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Allen, Woody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Ally McBeal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Alternative rock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Alvarez, Julia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Alzheimer’s disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 America Online . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 . . . . . 35 AmeriCorps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Angelou, Maya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Angels in America. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Antidepressants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Apple Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Archaeology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Archer Daniels Midland scandal . . . . . . . . . 46 Architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Armey, Dick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Armstrong, Lance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Arnett, Peter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Art movements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Asian Americans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Astronomy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Attention-deficit disorder . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Audiobooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Autism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Auto racing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Automobile industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69


The Nineties in America

Cable television . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cammermeyer, Margarethe. . . . . . . . Campaign finance scandal . . . . . . . . Campbell, Kim. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Canada and the British Commonwealth . Canada and the United States . . . . . . Cancer research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carey, Mariah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carjacking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carpal tunnel syndrome . . . . . . . . . Carrey, Jim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Casual Fridays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cell phones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Censorship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CGI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charlottetown Accord. . . . . . . . . . . Cheney, Dick. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chicago heat wave of 1995 . . . . . . . . Chick lit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Child pornography . . . . . . . . . . . . Children’s literature. . . . . . . . . . . . Children’s television. . . . . . . . . . . . Children’s Television Act . . . . . . . . . China and the United States . . . . . . . Chopra, Deepak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chrétien, Jean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Christian Coalition . . . . . . . . . . . . Christo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Christopher, Warren . . . . . . . . . . . Cirque du Soleil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Civil Rights Act of 1991 . . . . . . . . . . Classical music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clean Air Act of 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . Clinton, Bill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clinton, Hillary Rodham . . . . . . . . . Clinton’s impeachment . . . . . . . . . . Clinton’s scandals . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cloning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clooney, George . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CNN coverage of the Gulf War . . . . . . Cochran, Johnnie . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coen brothers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coffeehouses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cohen, William S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cold War, end of. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Columbine massacre . . . . . . . . . . . Comedians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comic strips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conservatism in U.S. politics . . . . . . .

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140 141 142 144 145 147 148 150 151 152 153 154 154 155 157 159 160 161 163 165 167 171 174 175 177 178 179 181 182 183 184 186 187 188 191 193 196 199 201 202 204 205 206 207 208 210 212 214 216 219

Contract with America Copyright legislation . Country music . . . . . Crime . . . . . . . . . Crown Heights riot . . Cruise, Tom . . . . . . Culture wars . . . . . .


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220 224 225 227 231 233 234

Dahmer, Jeffrey . . . . . . . . . . . Damon, Matt. . . . . . . . . . . . . Dances with Wolves . . . . . . . . . . Dayton Accords . . . . . . . . . . . Dead Sea scrolls publication . . . . Death Row Records . . . . . . . . . Defense budget cuts . . . . . . . . . Defense of Marriage Act of 1996 . . DeGeneres, Ellen . . . . . . . . . . Demographics of Canada . . . . . . Demographics of the United States Depo-Provera . . . . . . . . . . . . Devers, Gail . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diallo shooting . . . . . . . . . . . Digital audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . Digital cameras . . . . . . . . . . . Digital divide. . . . . . . . . . . . . Dinkins, David . . . . . . . . . . . . Dole, Bob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Domestic partnerships . . . . . . . Don’t ask, don’t tell . . . . . . . . . Dot-coms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Downsizing and restructuring . . . Dream Team . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drive-by shootings . . . . . . . . . . Drudge, Matt . . . . . . . . . . . . Drug advertising. . . . . . . . . . . Drug use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dubroff, Jessica . . . . . . . . . . . Duke, David . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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238 239 240 241 242 243 244 246 247 248 250 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 263 264 267 270 271 272 272 274 275 276 277 278

Earth Day 1990 . . . . . . . . . Earth in the Balance. . . . . . . . Ecstasy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Educate America Act of 1994 . . Education in Canada . . . . . . Education in the United States . Egan v. Canada . . . . . . . . . . EgyptAir Flight 990 crash . . . . Elder abuse . . . . . . . . . . . Elders, Joycelyn . . . . . . . . .

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281 282 283 284 285 287 290 290 293 294

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Table of Contents

Elections in Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . Elections in the United States, midterm . Elections in the United States, 1992 . . . Elections in the United States, 1996 . . . Electric car . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electronic music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Employment in Canada . . . . . . . . . . Employment in the United States . . . . ER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Etheridge, Melissa . . . . . . . . . . . . . Europe and North America. . . . . . . .

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295 297 299 302 306 308 310 311 312 314 315 316

Fabio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Faludi, Susan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Falwell, Jerry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 . Farrakhan, Louis . . . . . . . . . . . . Fashions and clothing . . . . . . . . . . Feng shui. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fen-phen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ferguson, Colin . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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318 319 320 321 323 323 325 327 328 328

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Fermat’s last theorem solution . . . Film in Canada . . . . . . . . . . . Film in the United States . . . . . . Fleiss, Heidi . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flinn, Kelly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . Football . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forbes, Steve . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foreign policy of Canada . . . . . . Foreign policy of the United States. Forrest Gump . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frasier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Friends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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330 331 333 337 338 339 341 343 344 346 349 350 351

Gardner Museum art theft . . Gates, Bill . . . . . . . . . . . Gehry, Frank . . . . . . . . . . General Motors strike of 1998 Generation Y. . . . . . . . . . Genetic engineering . . . . . Genetically modified foods . . Genetics research . . . . . . .

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354 354 356 357 358 360 361 364

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■ Publisher’s Note The Gulf War, dot-coms, impeachment, grunge, Y2K—the 1990’s were a time of both optimism and conflict, hope and worry. The decade began with a seemingly victorious war, fell into recession, bounced back with a strong bull market, and ended in political bitterness and scandal. The Nineties in America examines the iconic personalities and moments of this important decade. With articles about films, books, political leaders, events, fads, and technology, the encyclopedia serves as a valuable source of reliable information and keen insights for today’s students.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

This illustrated threevolume encyclopedia is a companion set to The Sixties in America (1999), The Fifties in America (2005), The Seventies in America (2006), and The Eighties in America (2008). It covers events, movements, people, and trends in popular culture, literature, art, sports, science, technology, economics, and politics in both the United States and Canada. The Nineties in America features long overviews and short entries discussing people, books, films, television series, musical groups, and other important topics representative of that era. Every entry focuses on the topic or person during the 1990’s—for this work, defined as January, 1, 1990, through December 31, 1999—in order to explore what made the decade unique. Topics that span several decades often provide some background and information on subsequent events to help place the 1990’s in perspective. The Nineties in America contains 630 essays, in alphabetical order, ranging from one to six pages in length. Written with the needs of students and general readers in mind, the essays present clear discussions of their topics, explaining terms and references that may be unfamiliar. Entries fall into the following general categories:

Contents of the Encyclopedia

• • • • • • • •

economics education environmental issues film health and medicine international relations journalism Latinos legislation literature military and war music Native Americans people politics and government popular culture religion and spirituality science and technology sexuality social issues sports television terrorism theater and dance transportation women’s issues

The encyclopedic format allows readers to take either a broad view or a narrow one. For example, in addition to the essay on Bill Clinton, The Nineties in America offers related entries on Clinton’s impeachment, the Lewinsky scandal, the Starr Report, and the Whitewater investigation. Likewise, in addition to a profile on conservatism in U.S. politics during the decade are entries on the Republican Revolution, the Contract with America, and such pivotal figures as Newt Gingrich. The Nineties in America contains more than three hundred evocative photographs of people and events. In addition, fifty sidebars—lists, tables, graphs, excerpts from speeches—highlight interesting facts and trends from the decade.

African Americans art and architecture Asian Americans business Canada court cases and the law crime and punishment disasters

Essay Organization Every essay begins with a clear, concise title followed by a brief description called Identification (for people, organizations, and works, such as books or films); Definition (for objects, con-


The Nineties in America

cepts, and overviews); or The Event. Next, a heading for Author, Publisher, Director, or Producer is used when appropriate and includes vital dates. A Date line appears for events, legislation, films, books, television series, plays, and any topic linked to a discrete time. Biographical entries feature the headings Born and Died, listing the date and place of birth and death for the subject. A Place line appears if appropriate. Every essay includes a heading called Significance, which offers a brief assessment of what made the topic important during the 1990’s. Within the text, boldfaced subheads show readers the overall organization of the essay at a glance and make finding information quick and easy. Every essay features an Impact section, which examines the subject’s broader importance during the 1990’s. Longer overviews sometimes include a section called Subsequent Events that sums up later developments. Cross-references at the end of each essay direct readers to additional entries in the encyclopedia on related subjects. Every entry, regardless of length, offers bibliographical notes under the heading Further Reading in order to guide readers to additional information about the topic; annotations are provided in essays of 1,000 words or more. Every essay includes an author byline.

watched U.S. television shows, and Emmy Award winners. The two literature appendixes list the bestselling U.S. books and the winners of major literary awards, and two music appendixes provide notable facts about some of the decade’s most popular musicians and list Grammy Award winners. A sports appendix provides a quick glance at the winners of major sporting events of the 1990’s. The two legislative appendixes look at major decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court and important legislation passed by Congress during the decade. The other appendixes are a glossary of new words and slang from the 1990’s, a detailed time line of the decade, an annotated general bibliography, and an annotated list of Web sources on 1990’s subjects. The encyclopedia also contains a number of useful tools to help readers find entries of interest. A complete list of all essays in The Nineties in America appears at the beginning of each volume. Volume 3 contains a list of entries sorted by category, personage and photo indexes, and a comprehensive subject index. The editors of Salem Press would like to thank the scholars who contributed essays and appendixes to The Nineties in America; their names and affiliations are listed in the front matter to volume 1. The editors would also like to thank Professor Milton Berman of the University of Rochester for serving as the project’s Editor and for bringing to the project his expertise on North American history.


Appendixes Volume 3 of The Nineties in America contains sixteen appendixes that provide additional information about selected aspects of the decade in easily accessible formats. The five entertainment appendixes list major films, Academy Award winners, major Broadway plays and theatrical awards, most-


■ Contributors Grisel Y. Acosta

Melissa A. Barton

Thomas W. Buchanan

University of Texas at San Antonio

University of Colorado-Boulder

Ancilla Domini College

Michael Adams

Frederic J. Baumgartner

Kevin Buckler

CUNY Graduate Center

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

University of Texas at Brownsville Texas Southmost College

Keith J. Bell

Michael A. Buratovich

Western Carolina University

Spring Arbor University

Alexander S. Bennett

Michael H. Burchett

Carnegie Mellon University

Limestone College

Alvin K. Benson

William E. Burns

Utah Valley University

George Washington University

R. Matthew Beverlin

Joseph P. Byrne

University of Kansas

Belmont University

Kris Bigalk

Richard K. Caputo

Normandale Community College

Yeshiva University

Margaret Boe Birns

Russell N. Carney

New York University

Missouri State University

Nicholas Birns

Jack Carter

The New School

University of New Orleans

Ami R. Blue

Paul J. Chara, Jr.

Eastern Kentucky University

Northwestern College

David Boersema

Frederick B. Chary

Pacific University

Indiana University Northwest

Bernadette Lynn Bosky

Allan Chavkin

Yonkers, New York

Texas State University, San Marcos

Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville

Gordon L. Bowen

Dennis W. Cheek

Mary Baldwin College

Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation

Jane L. Ball

William Boyle

Michael W. Cheek

Yellow Springs, Ohio

University of Mississippi

Kennett Square, Pennsylvania

Rikard Bandebo

Kevin L. Brennan

Douglas Clouatre

Corporate Executive Board

Ouachita Baptist University

MidPlains Community College

Rachel Bandy

William S. Brockington, Jr.

Kathryn A. Cochran

Simpson College

University of South Carolina-Aiken

University of Kansas

David Barratt

Howard Bromberg

Elizabeth Cramer

Montreat College

University of Michigan Law School

Appalachian State University

Richard Adler University of Michigan-Dearborn

James Darrel Alexander, Jr. University of Central Oklahoma

Emily Alward Henderson, Nevada, District Libraries

Nicole Anae Charles Sturt University

Desiré J. M. Anastasia San Diego State University

Carolyn Anderson University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Christina C. Angel University of Denver

Andy Argyrakis Tribune Media Services

Jeffrey S. Ashley Eastern Illinois University

Charles Lewis Avinger, Jr. Washtenaw Community College

Amanda Bahr-Evola


The Nineties in America

John P. Cryderman

John W. Engel

Jan Hall

Temple University

University of Hawaii at Manoa

Columbus, Ohio

Dolores A. D’Angelo

Victoria Erhart

Randall Hannum

Bethesda, Maryland

Strayer University

New York City College of Technology, CUNY

Eddith A. Dashiell

Thomas L. Erskine

Ohio University

Salisbury University

Anita Price Davis

Elisabeth Faase

Converse College

Athens Regional Medical Center

Danielle A. DeFoe

Thomas R. Feller

Sacramento State University

Nashville, Tennessee

David L. DeHart

Gerald P. Fisher

Appalachian State University

Georgia College and State University

Paul Dellinger

Michael P. Fitzgerald

Wytheville, Virginia

Vestal, New York

AnnMarie Depas-Orange

Robert Flatley

Alabama State University

Kutztown University

James I. Deutsch

George J. Flynn

Smithsonian Institution


Joseph Dewey

Janet E. Gardner

University of Pittsburgh-Johnstown

University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth

Katherine M. Helm

Gilbert Geis

Mark C. Herman

University of California, Irvine

Edison College

Richard A. Glenn

Steve Hewitt

Millersville University

University of Birmingham

Nancy M. Gordon

Paul Hodge

Amherst, Massachusetts

University of Washington

Robert F. Gorman

Samuel B. Hoff

Texas State University, San Marcos

Delaware State University

Needham Yancey Gulley

William H. Hoffman

Athens Technical College

Fort Myers, Florida

Larry Haapanen

Meredith Holladay

Lewis-Clark State College

Baylor University

Michael Haas

Kimberley M. Holloway

College of the Canyons

King College

Irwin Halfond

Ski Hunter

McKendree University

University of Texas at Arlington

June Harris Texas A&M University, Commerce

Alan Haslam California State University, Sacramento

AWR Hawkins III Texas Tech University

Bernadette Zbicki Heiney Lock Haven University of Pennsylvania

James J. Heiney Lock Haven University of Pennsylvania

John A. Heitmann University of Dayton

Peter B. Heller Manhattan College

Lewis University

M. Casey Diana Arizona State University

Marcia B. Dinneen Bridgewater State College

L. Mara Dodge Westfield State College

Pedro dos Santos University of Kansas

Thomas Drucker University of Wisconsin-Whitewater

Thomas Du Bose Louisiana State University at Shreveport

John R. Elliott Pepperdine University

Julie Elliott Indiana University South Bend

Howard C. Ellis Millersville University of Pennsylvania



Mary Hurd

Grove Koger

Sherri Ward Massey

East Tennessee State University

Boise State University

University of Central Oklahoma

Raymond Pierre Hylton

Margaret A. Koger

Laurence W. Mazzeno

Virginia Union University

Boise, Idaho

Alvernia College

Margot Irvine

David B. Kopel

Scott A. Merriman

University of Guelph

Independence Institute

Troy University

Jeffry Jensen

Yasue Kuwahara

Beth A. Messner

Glendale Community College

Northern Kentucky University

Ball State University

Bruce E. Johansen

Rebecca Kuzins

Eric W. Metchik

University of Nebraska at Omaha

Pasadena, California

Salem State College

Barbara E. Johnson

Timothy Lane

Julia M. Meyers

University of South Carolina-Aiken

Louisville, Kentucky

Duquesne University

Edward Johnson

Jacob F. Lee

Michael R. Meyers

University of New Orleans

The Filson Historical Society

Pfeiffer University

Sheila Golburgh Johnson

Michael E. Lee

Dodie Marie Miller

Santa Barbara, California

University of Oklahoma

Ivy Tech Community College

David M. Jones

Ann M. Legreid

Mark Edwin Miller

University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh

University of Central Missouri

Southern Utah University

Mark S. Joy

Denyse Lemaire

Randall L. Milstein

Jamestown College

Rowan University

Oregon State University

Laurence R. Jurdem

Thomas Tandy Lewis

Damon Mitchell

Jurdem Associates Public Relations

St. Cloud State University

Central Connecticut State University

Mathew J. Kanjirathinkal

Victor Lindsey

Christian H. Moe

Park University

East Central University

Southern Illinois University at Carbondale

David Kasserman

Alar Lipping

Rowan University

Northern Kentucky University

Jarod P. Kearney

R. C. Lutz

Rye Historical Society

Madison Advisors

Steven G. Kellman

Joanne McCarthy

University of Texas at San Antonio

Tacoma, Washington

Leigh Husband Kimmel

Roxanne McDonald

Indianapolis, Indiana

New London, New Hampshire

Paul M. Klenowski

Kimberly Manning

Thiel College

Chaffey Community College

John P. Koch

Martin J. Manning

Blake, Cassels, and Graydon

U.S. Department of State

Gayla Koerting

Henry W. Mannle

Nebraska State Historical Society

Tennessee Technological University

William V. Moore College of Charleston

Denis Mueller Northern Kentucky University

David Murphy Kentucky State University

Alice Myers Bard College at Simon’s Rock

John Myers Bard College at Simon’s Rock

Daniel-Raymond Nadon Kent State University-Trumbull Campus


The Nineties in America

Leslie Neilan

Michael Polley

Thomas E. Rotnem

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Columbia College

Southern Polytechnic State University

David L. Porter

Joseph R. Rudolph, Jr.

William Penn University

Towson University

Jessie Bishop Powell

Irene Struthers Rush

Montgomery, Alabama

Boise, Idaho

Tessa Li Powell

Concepcion Saenz-Cambra

U.S. Senate

University of London, Birkbeck College

Victoria Price

Virginia L. Salmon

Lamar University

Northeast State Community College

Maureen Puffer-Rothenberg

Vicki A. Sanders

Valdosta State University

Gainesville, Georgia

Edna B. Quinn

Joseph C. Santora

Salisbury University

Thomas Edison State College

Christopher Rager

Sean J. Savage

Pasadena, California

Saint Mary’s College

Steven J. Ramold

Richard Sax

Eastern Michigan University

Lake Erie College

Paul L. Redditt

Elizabeth D. Schafer

Georgetown College

Loachapoka, Alabama

Rosemary M. Canfield Reisman

Lindsay Schmitz

Charleston Southern University

University of Missouri, St. Louis

H. William Rice

Lawrence Schwegler

Kennesaw State University

University of Texas at San Antonio

Mark Rich

Brion Sever

Cashton, Wisconsin

Monmouth University

Robert B. Ridinger

Taylor Shaw

Northern Illinois University

ADVANCE Education & Development Center

Caryn E. Neumann Miami University of Ohio at Middletown

Norma C. Noonan Augsburg College

Amy J. Orr Linfield College

Brooke Speer Orr Westfield State College

Arsenio Orteza St. Thomas More High School

William A. Paquette Tidewater Community College

Robert J. Paradowski Rochester Institute of Technology

Jim Pauff Tarleton State University

David Peck Laguna Beach, California

Jan Pendergrass University of Georgia

Noelle K. Penna Bronx High School of Science

Douglas A. Phillips Sierra Vista, Arizona

John R. Phillips Purdue University Calumet

Edward A. Riedinger Christine Photinos

Ohio State University

National University

Emily Carroll Shearer Eastern Kentucky University

Charles W. Rogers Allene Phy-Olsen

Southwestern Oklahoma State University

Austin Peay State University

Martha Sherwood Kent Anderson Law Associates

Carl Rollyson Erika E. Pilver

Baruch College, CUNY

Westfield State College

Wayne Shirey University of Alabama, Huntsville

Barbara Roos Troy Place

Grand Valley State University

R. Baird Shuman

Sandra Rothenberg

University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign

Western Michigan University Framingham State College



Paul P. Sipiera

John M. Theilmann

William T. Walker

William Rainey Harper College

Converse College

Chestnut Hill College

Amy Sisson

Susan E. Thomas

Kathryn A. Walterscheid

Houston Community College

Indiana University South Bend

University of Missouri, St. Louis

Tom Smith

Jennifer L. Titanski

Mary C. Ware

New Mexico State University

Lock Haven University of Pennsylvania

SUNY, College at Cortland

Sonia Sorrell

Marilyn Tobias

Donald A. Watt

Pepperdine University

Public historian/independent scholar

Dakota Wesleyan University

Leigh Southward

Rebecca Tolley-Stokes

Shawncey Webb

Tennessee Technological University

East Tennessee State University

Taylor University

Joseph L. Spradley

Paul B. Trescott

Marcia J. Weiss

Wheaton College

Southern Illinois University

Point Park University

Brian Stableford

Richard Tuerk

Twyla R. Wells

Reading, United Kingdom

Texas A&M University-Commerce

University of Northwestern Ohio

August W. Staub

Sheryl L. Van Horne

George M. Whitson III

University of Georgia

Pennsylvania State University

University of Texas at Tyler

Christopher Strobel

Suzanne Araas Vesely

Thomas A. Wikle

Northern Kentucky University

Maharishi University of Management

Oklahoma State University

Paul Stuewe

Dwight Vick

Richard L. Wilson

Green Mountain College

West Texas A&M University

University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Taylor Stults

Sara Vidar

Scott Wright

Muskingum College

Los Feliz, California

University of St. Thomas

Cynthia J. W. Svoboda

Charles L. Vigue

Susan J. Wurtzburg

Bridgewater State College

University of New Haven

University of Utah

Melinda Swafford

Kathryn Vincent

Tennessee Technological University

University of Maryland


■ Complete List of Contents Volume I Publisher’s Note . . . . . . . . . . ix Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . xi Complete List of Contents . . . xvii Abortion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Academy Awards . . . . . . . . . . 2 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. See AIDS epidemic Advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Africa and the United States . . . . 7 African Americans . . . . . . . . . 9 Agassi, Andre . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Agriculture in Canada. . . . . . . 13 Agriculture in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 AIDS epidemic. . . . . . . . . . . 18 Air pollution . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Airline industry . . . . . . . . . . 21 Albee, Edward . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Albert, Marv . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Albright, Madeleine . . . . . . . . 25 Allen, Woody. . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Ally McBeal . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Alternative rock . . . . . . . . . . 29 Alvarez, Julia . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Alzheimer’s disease . . . . . . . . 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 America Online . . . . . . . . . . 34 Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . 35 AmeriCorps . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Angelou, Maya . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Angels in America . . . . . . . . . . 40 Antidepressants . . . . . . . . . . 41 Apple Computer. . . . . . . . . . 43 Archaeology . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Archer Daniels Midland scandal . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Armey, Dick . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Armstrong, Lance . . . . . . . . . 52 Arnett, Peter . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Art movements . . . . . . . . . . 54 Asian Americans . . . . . . . . . . 58 Astronomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Attention-deficit disorder . . . . . 63 Audiobooks . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Autism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Auto racing . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Automobile industry . . . . . . . 69 Bailey, Donovan . . . . . . . . . . 73 Baker, James . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Baker v. Vermont . . . . . . . . . . 75 Balanced Budget Act of 1997 . . . 76 Ballet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Barkley, Charles . . . . . . . . . . 79 Barry, Dave. . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Barry, Marion . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Baseball . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Baseball realignment . . . . . . . 86 Baseball strike of 1994. . . . . . . 87 Basketball team, Olympic. See Dream Team Basic Instinct . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Basketball . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Baywatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 BCS. See Bowl Championship Series (BCS) Beanie Babies . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Beauty and the Beast . . . . . . . . 95 Beauty Myth, The . . . . . . . . . . 96 Beavis and Butt-Head . . . . . . . . 97 Bernardin, Joseph Cardinal. . . . 98 Beverly Hills, 90210 . . . . . . . . . 99 Bezos, Jeff. . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Biosphere 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Blacks. See African Americans Blair Witch Project, The . . . . . . 103 Blended families . . . . . . . . . 104 Bloc Québécois. . . . . . . . . . 106 Blogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Bobbitt mutilation case . . . . . 108 Body piercings. See Tattoos and body piercings Bondar, Roberta . . . . . . . . . 109 Bono, Sonny . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Book clubs . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Bosnia conflict . . . . . . . . . . 113 Bowl Championship Series (BCS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Boxing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Boy bands. . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Broadway musicals . . . . . . . . 119 Brooks, Garth . . . . . . . . . . 120 Brown, Ron . . . . . . . . . . . . 122


Browning, Kurt . . . . . . . . Buchanan, Pat . . . . . . . . Buffett, Warren. . . . . . . . Burning Man festivals . . . . Bush, George H. W. . . . . . Business and the economy in Canada . . . . . . . . . . Business and the economy in the United States . . . . . Byrd murder case . . . . . .

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123 124 125 127 129

. . 132 . . 134 . . 138

Cable News Network. See CNN coverage of the Gulf War Cable television. . . . . . . . . Cammermeyer, Margarethe . . Campaign finance scandal. . . Campbell, Kim . . . . . . . . . Canada and the British Commonwealth . . . . . . . Canada and the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . Cancer research . . . . . . . . Capitol shooting. See U.S. Capitol shooting Car industry. See Automobile industry Carey, Mariah. . . . . . . . . . Carjacking . . . . . . . . . . . Carpal tunnel syndrome . . . . Carrey, Jim . . . . . . . . . . . Casual Fridays . . . . . . . . . Cell phones . . . . . . . . . . . Censorship . . . . . . . . . . . CGI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charlottetown Accord . . . . . Cheney, Dick . . . . . . . . . . Chicago heat wave of 1995. . . Chick lit. . . . . . . . . . . . . Child pornography. . . . . . . Children’s literature . . . . . . Children’s television . . . . . . Children’s Television Act . . . China and the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . Chopra, Deepak . . . . . . . . Chrétien, Jean . . . . . . . . . Christian Coalition . . . . . . . Christo . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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140 141 142 144

. 145 . 147 . 148

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150 151 152 153 154 154 155 157 159 160 161 163 165 167 171 174

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175 177 178 179 181

The Nineties in America Christopher, Warren . . . . . . Cirque du Soleil . . . . . . . . Civil Rights Act of 1991 . . . . Classical music . . . . . . . . . Clean Air Act of 1990 . . . . . Clinton, Bill . . . . . . . . . . Clinton, Hillary Rodham . . . Clinton’s impeachment . . . . Clinton’s scandals . . . . . . . Cloning . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clooney, George . . . . . . . . Clothing. See Fashions and clothing CNN coverage of the Gulf War . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cochran, Johnnie . . . . . . . Coen brothers . . . . . . . . . Coffeehouses . . . . . . . . . . Cohen, William S. . . . . . . . Cold War, end of . . . . . . . . Columbine massacre . . . . . . Comedians . . . . . . . . . . . Comic strips . . . . . . . . . . Computer-generated imagery. See CGI Computers . . . . . . . . . . . Conservatism in U.S. politics. . . . . . . . . . . . Contract with America . . . . . Copyright legislation . . . . . . Country music . . . . . . . . . Crime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Crown Heights riot. . . . . . . Cruise, Tom . . . . . . . . . . Culture wars . . . . . . . . . .

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219 220 224 225 227 231 233 234

Dahmer, Jeffrey. . . . . . . . Damon, Matt . . . . . . . . . Dances with Wolves. . . . . . . Dayton Accords. . . . . . . . Dead Sea scrolls publication. Death Row Records . . . . . Defense budget cuts . . . . . Defense of Marriage Act of 1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . DeGeneres, Ellen. . . . . . . Demographics of Canada . . Demographics of the United States . . . . . . . . . . . Depo-Provera . . . . . . . . . Devers, Gail. . . . . . . . . . Diallo shooting . . . . . . . . Digital audio . . . . . . . . . Digital cameras . . . . . . . .

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238 239 240 241 242 243 244

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182 183 184 186 187 188 191 193 196 199 201

202 204 205 206 207 208 210 212 214

. 216

. . 246 . . 247 . . 248 . . . . . .

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250 253 254 255 256 257

Digital divide . . . . . . . . . . . Digital video discs. See DVDs Dinkins, David . . . . . . . . . . Divorce. See Marriage and divorce Dole, Bob . . . . . . . . . . . . . Domestic partnerships . . . . . . Don’t ask, don’t tell . . . . . . . Dot-coms . . . . . . . . . . . . . Downsizing and restructuring . . . . . . . . . Dream Team . . . . . . . . . . . Drive-by shootings . . . . . . . . Drudge, Matt . . . . . . . . . . . Drug advertising . . . . . . . . . Drug companies. See Pharmaceutical industry Drug use . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dubroff, Jessica. . . . . . . . . . Duke, David . . . . . . . . . . . DVDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Earth Day 1990 . . . . . . . . . . Earth in the Balance . . . . . . . . Economy. See Business and the economy in Canada; Business and the economy in the United States Ecstasy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Educate America Act of 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Education in Canada. . . . . . . Education in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . Egan v. Canada . . . . . . . . . . EgyptAir Flight 990 crash . . . . Elder abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . Elders, Joycelyn. . . . . . . . . . Elections in Canada . . . . . . . Elections in the United States, midterm . . . . . . . . . . . . Elections in the United States, 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elections in the United States, 1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric car . . . . . . . . . . . . Electronic mail. See E-mail Electronic music . . . . . . . . . E-mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Embassy bombings in Africa. See U.S. embassy bombings in Africa Employment in Canada . . . . . Employment in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . .


258 259 260 263 264 267 270 271 272 272 274

275 276 277 278 281 282

283 284 285 287 290 290 293 294 295 297 299 302 306 308 310

311 312

ER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 Etheridge, Melissa . . . . . . . . 315 Europe and North America . . . 316 Euthanasia. See Physician-assisted suicide Fabio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Faludi, Susan . . . . . . . . . . Falwell, Jerry . . . . . . . . . . Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . Farrakhan, Louis . . . . . . . . Fashions and clothing . . . . . Feng shui . . . . . . . . . . . . Fen-phen . . . . . . . . . . . . Ferguson, Colin . . . . . . . . Fermat’s last theorem solution . . . . . . . . . . . Film in Canada . . . . . . . . . Film in the United States . . . Fisher, Amy. See Long Island Lolita case Fleiss, Heidi. . . . . . . . . . . Flight 592 crash. See ValuJet Flight 592 crash Flight 800 crash. See TWA Flight 800 crash Flight 990 crash. See EgyptAir Flight 990 crash Flinn, Kelly . . . . . . . . . . . Food trends. . . . . . . . . . . Football . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forbes, Steve . . . . . . . . . . Foreign policy of Canada . . . Foreign policy of the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . Forrest Gump. . . . . . . . . . . Frasier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Friends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Games. See Toys and games Gardner Museum art theft. . . Gates, Bill . . . . . . . . . . . . Gay rights. See Homosexuality and gay rights Gehry, Frank . . . . . . . . . . General Motors strike of 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Generation Y . . . . . . . . . . Genetic engineering . . . . . . Genetically modified foods . . Genetics research . . . . . . .

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318 319 320 321

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323 323 325 327 328 328

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. 337

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338 339 341 343 344

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346 349 350 351

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357 358 360 361 364

Complete List of Contents

Volume II Complete List of Contents. . . xxxiii Gephardt, Dick . . . . . Gifford, Kathie Lee . . Gingrich, Newt . . . . . Ginsburg, Ruth Bader . Giuliani, Rudolph . . . Glenn, John . . . . . . Global warming debate GoodFellas . . . . . . . . Gordon, Jeff . . . . . . Gore, Al. . . . . . . . . Grafton, Sue . . . . . . Graves, Michael . . . . Greenspan, Alan . . . . Griffey, Ken, Jr. . . . . . Grisham, John . . . . . Grunge fashion. . . . . Grunge music . . . . . Gulf War . . . . . . . . Gulf War syndrome . . Gun control . . . . . .

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367 368 369 370 371 373 374 376 376 377 379 380 381 382 384 385 385 388 392 393

Hackers . . . . . . . . . . . Hairstyles . . . . . . . . . . Haiti intervention . . . . . Hale-Bopp comet. . . . . . Hamm, Mia . . . . . . . . . Hanks, Tom . . . . . . . . Happy Land fire . . . . . . Harry Potter books. . . . . Hate crimes. . . . . . . . . Health care . . . . . . . . . Health care reform . . . . Heaven’s Gate mass suicide Heroin chic. . . . . . . . . Hill, Anita. . . . . . . . . . Hip-hop and rap music . . Hispanics. See Latinos Hobbies and recreation . . Hockey . . . . . . . . . . . Hogue, James. . . . . . . . Holocaust Memorial Museum . . . . . . . . . Holy Virgin Mary, The . . . . Holyfield, Evander . . . . . Home Alone . . . . . . . . . Home run race . . . . . . . Homeschooling . . . . . . Homosexuality and gay rights . . . . . . . . . .

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396 398 399 401 402 403 404 405 406 408 411 413 415 416 418

. . . 419 . . . 421 . . . 422 . . . . . .

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423 424 425 426 427 428

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Homosexuals in the military. See Don’t ask, don’t tell Hubble Space Telescope. . . . . 433 Human Genome Project. . . . . 435 Hurricane Andrew . . . . . . . . 438 Ice hockey. See Hockey Illegal immigration. . . . . . . IM. See Instant messaging Immigration Act of 1990. . . . Immigration to Canada . . . . Immigration to the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . In Living Color . . . . . . . . . Income and wages in Canada . . . . . . . . . . . Income and wages in the United States . . . . . . . . Independent films . . . . . . . Indians, American. See Native Americans Instant messaging . . . . . . . Intelligent design movement . . . . . . . . . . Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . Internet startups. See Dot-coms Inventions . . . . . . . . . . . Iron John. . . . . . . . . . . . . Israel and the United States . . Jenny Jones Show murder Jewish Americans. . . . Jobs, Steve . . . . . . . Joe Camel campaign . . Johnson, Magic . . . . . Jordan, Michael . . . . Journalism . . . . . . . Jurassic Park . . . . . . .

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Kaczynski, Theodore. See Unabomber capture Kelley, Kitty . . . . . . . . Kemp, Jack . . . . . . . . Kennedy, John F., Jr. . . . Kennedy rape case . . . . Kerrigan, Nancy . . . . . Kevorkian, Jack . . . . . . Khobar Towers bombing Killer bees . . . . . . . . King, Rodney . . . . . . . King, Stephen . . . . . .


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. 440 . 441 . 442 . 444 . 445 . 446 . 447 . 449

. 451 . 452 . 453 . 456 . 462 . 463 . . . . . . . .

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466 467 468 469 470 471 473 475

476 477 478 479 480 481 482 484 485 486

Kingsolver, Barbara . . . . . . Klaas kidnapping and murder case . . . . . . . . . . . . . Knox pornography case . . . . Komunyakaa, Yusef. . . . . . . Koons, Jeff . . . . . . . . . . . Kosovo conflict . . . . . . . . . Kwanzaa . . . . . . . . . . . . Kyoto Protocol . . . . . . . . .

. 487 . . . . . . .

488 489 490 491 492 493 495

Lagasse, Emeril. . . . . . . . . . Lang, K. D. . . . . . . . . . . . . Laparoscopic surgery . . . . . . Larry Sanders Show, The . . . . . . Las Vegas megaresorts . . . . . . LASIK surgery . . . . . . . . . . Late night television . . . . . . . Latin America . . . . . . . . . . Latinos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lee, Spike . . . . . . . . . . . . Left Behind books . . . . . . . . Lewinsky scandal . . . . . . . . . Liberalism in U.S. politics . . . . Life coaching . . . . . . . . . . . Limbaugh, Rush . . . . . . . . . Line Item Veto Act of 1996 . . . Literature in Canada . . . . . . . Literature in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lollapalooza . . . . . . . . . . . Long Island Lolita case . . . . . Long Island Rail Road murders. See Ferguson, Colin Los Angeles riots . . . . . . . . . Louima torture case . . . . . . . Love, Courtney . . . . . . . . . . Lucid, Shannon . . . . . . . . .

497 498 499 500 501 503 504 505 507 509 510 511 513 515 516 517 518

McCaughey septuplets . McCourt, Frank . . . . McEntire, Reba. . . . . McGwire, Mark . . . . . McMansions . . . . . . McMillan, Terry . . . . McNally, Terrence . . . McVeigh, Timothy . . . Madonna . . . . . . . . Mafia . . . . . . . . . . Magic Eye pictures . . . Mall of America . . . . Malone, Karl . . . . . .

535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 545 546 547 549

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520 525 527

528 531 532 533

The Nineties in America Mapplethorpe obscenity trial. . . 550 Marilyn Manson . . . . . . . . . 552 Marriage and divorce . . . . . . 553 Mars exploration . . . . . . . . . 554 Matrix, The . . . . . . . . . . . . 556 Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557 Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus . . . . . . . . . 560 Menendez brothers murder case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561 Metallica . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562 MetLife scandal . . . . . . . . . 563 Mexico and the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564 Michelangelo computer virus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566 Microsoft . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566 Middle East and North America . . . . . . . . . . . . 568 Midnight basketball . . . . . . . 571 Military, homosexuals in. See Don’t ask, don’t tell Military, women in the. See Women in the military Militia movement . . . . . . . . 572 Millennium bug. See Y2K problem Milli Vanilli . . . . . . . . . . . . 573 Million Man March . . . . . . . 574 Minimum wage increases . . . . 576 Minorities in Canada. . . . . . . 578 Mississippi River flood of 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579 Mistry, Rohinton . . . . . . . . . 580 Montana Freemen standoff . . . 581 Moore, Judge Roy . . . . . . . . 582 Morissette, Alanis . . . . . . . . 583 Morris, Dick . . . . . . . . . . . 584 Morrison, Toni . . . . . . . . . . 585 Mount Pleasant riot . . . . . . . 586 Movies. See Film in Canada; Film in the United States Mozart effect . . . . . . . . . . . 588 MP3 format. . . . . . . . . . . . 589 MTV Unplugged . . . . . . . . . . 590 Mulroney, Brian . . . . . . . . . 591 Murphy Brown . . . . . . . . . . . 593 Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595 Musicals. See Broadway musicals Myers, Mike. . . . . . . . . . . . 599 NAFTA. See North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Nanotechnology . . . . . . . . . 601 National debt . . . . . . . . . . . 602

National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) . . . . . . . . . Native Americans. . . . . . . . Natural disasters . . . . . . . . NC-17 rating . . . . . . . . . . NEA. See National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) Nicotine patch . . . . . . . . . Nine Inch Nails. . . . . . . . . Nirvana . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nobel Prizes . . . . . . . . . . Noriega capture and trial . . . North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) . . . . North Hollywood shoot-out . . Northern Exposure . . . . . . . . Northridge earthquake . . . . Novello, Antonia Coello . . . . Nunavut Territory . . . . . . . Nye, Bill. . . . . . . . . . . . . NYPD Blue. . . . . . . . . . . . Oakland Hills fire . . . . . . O’Connor, Sinéad . . . . . . Oklahoma City bombing. . . Oklahoma tornado outbreak. Olympic basketball team. See Dream Team Olympic Games of 1992 . . . Olympic Games of 1994 . . . Olympic Games of 1996 . . . Olympic Games of 1998 . . . Olympic Park bombing . . . Olympics bid scandal. See Salt Lake City Olympics bid scandal Ondaatje, Michael . . . . . . O’Neal, Shaquille . . . . . . O’Reilly, Bill . . . . . . . . . Organic food movement. . . Organized crime. See Mafia Oscars. See Academy Awards Outsourcing . . . . . . . . . Palahniuk, Chuck . . . . . . Paltrow, Gwyneth . . . . . . . Patriot missile . . . . . . . . PDAs . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perfect Storm, the . . . . . . Perlman, Itzhak . . . . . . . Perot, H. Ross . . . . . . . . Personal digital assistants. See PDAs Pharmaceutical industry . . .


. . . .

603 605 607 609

. . . . .

610 611 612 614 616

. . . . . . . .

618 619 621 622 624 625 625 627

. . . .

. . . .

629 631 632 635

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636 641 642 646 647

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. . . .

649 650 651 652

. . 654 . . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

657 658 659 659 661 662 664

. . 665

Philadelphia . . . . . . . . . . . . 667 Phoenix, River . . . . . . . . . . 668 Photography . . . . . . . . . . . 669 Physician-assisted suicide . . . . 670 Pitt, Brad . . . . . . . . . . . . . 672 Pixar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 673 Planned Parenthood v. Casey . . . . 675 Plasma screens . . . . . . . . . . 676 Poetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677 Pogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 678 Pokémon franchise . . . . . . . 679 Police brutality . . . . . . . . . . 680 Pollution. See Air pollution; Water pollution Popcorn, Faith . . . . . . . . . . 682 Poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 683 Powell, Colin . . . . . . . . . . . 685 Presidential elections. See Elections in the United States, 1992; Elections in the United States, 1996 Project Gutenberg . . . . . . . . 686 Promise Keepers . . . . . . . . . 687 Proulx, Annie. . . . . . . . . . . 688 Psychology . . . . . . . . . . . . 689 Publishing . . . . . . . . . . . . 691 Pulp Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . 692 Quayle, Dan . . . . . . . . . . . 694 Quebec referendum of 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 695 Queer Nation. . . . . . . . . . . 696 Race relations . . . . . . . . . Railway Killer. See Reséndiz, Ángel Maturino Ramsey murder case . . . . . . Rap music. See Hip-hop and rap music Real World, The . . . . . . . . . Recession of 1990-1991 . . . . Recreation. See Hobbies and recreation Reeve, Christopher. . . . . . . Reeves, Keanu . . . . . . . . . Reform Party . . . . . . . . . . Religion and spirituality in Canada . . . . . . . . . . . Religion and spirituality in the United States . . . . . . . . Reno, Janet . . . . . . . . . . . Rent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Republican Revolution . . . . Reséndiz, Ángel Maturino . . .

. 698

. 701

. 703 . 703

. 705 . 706 . 707 . 708 . . . . .

710 713 714 716 718

Complete List of Contents Restructuring. See Downsizing and restructuring Rice, Anne . . . . . . . . . . . . 719 Right-wing conspiracy . . . . . . 720 Ripken, Cal, Jr. . . . . . . . . . . 721

Roberts, Julia . . . . . . . . . Rock, Chris . . . . . . . . . . Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Museum . . . . . . . . . . Rock Bottom Remainders . .

. . 722 . . 723 . . 724 . . 726

Rock the Vote. . . . . Romer v. Evans . . . . Roth, Philip. . . . . . Ruby Ridge shoot-out Rules, The . . . . . . .

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726 728 729 730 732

Volume III Complete List of Contents . . . xlvii RuPaul . . . . . . . . . . . Russia and North America. Rust v. Sullivan . . . . . . . Ryan, Meg . . . . . . . . . Ryder, Winona . . . . . . .

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. . . . .

Salmon war . . . . . . . . . . . Salt Lake City Olympics bid scandal . . . . . . . . . . . Sampras, Pete . . . . . . . . . Saturn Corporation . . . . . . Saving Private Ryan . . . . . . . Scandals . . . . . . . . . . . . Schindler’s List . . . . . . . . . . Schlessinger, Dr. Laura. . . . . School violence. . . . . . . . . Schwarzkopf, Norman . . . . . Science and technology . . . . Scream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Search engines . . . . . . . . . Seinfeld . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selena. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seles, Monica . . . . . . . . . . Sex and the City . . . . . . . . . Shakur, Tupac . . . . . . . . . Sharpton, Al . . . . . . . . . . Shaw v. Reno. . . . . . . . . . . Sheehy, Gail . . . . . . . . . . Shepard, Matthew . . . . . . . Shoemaker-Levy 9 comet . . . Showgirls. . . . . . . . . . . . . Silence of the Lambs, The . . . . . Silicon Valley . . . . . . . . . . Silicone implant ban . . . . . . Simpson murder case . . . . . Simpsons, The . . . . . . . . . . Slang and slogans . . . . . . . Slogans. See Slang and slogans Smith, Susan . . . . . . . . . . Smith, Will . . . . . . . . . . . Soccer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Soccer moms . . . . . . . . . . Social Security reform . . . . .

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733 734 737 737 738

. 740 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

741 741 742 743 744 747 749 750 752 754 758 759 760 762 763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770 771 772 772 774 775 778 779

. . . . .

781 782 783 784 786

Somalia conflict . . . . . . . . . Sontag, Susan. . . . . . . . . . . Sosa, Sammy . . . . . . . . . . . South Park . . . . . . . . . . . . . Space exploration . . . . . . . . Space shuttle program . . . . . . Spam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Speicher, Scott . . . . . . . . . . Spirituality. See Religion and spirituality in Canada; Religion and spirituality in the United States Spoken word movement . . . . . Sport utility vehicles (SUVs). . . Sports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Star Wars: Episode I—The Phantom Menace . . . . . . . . . . . . . Starr Report . . . . . . . . . . . Stem cell research . . . . . . . . Stephanopoulos, George . . . . Stern, Howard . . . . . . . . . . Stewart, Martha . . . . . . . . . Stock market . . . . . . . . . . . Stockdale, James . . . . . . . . . Stojko, Elvis. . . . . . . . . . . . Storm of the Century . . . . . . Strand, Mark . . . . . . . . . . . String theory . . . . . . . . . . . Strug, Kerri . . . . . . . . . . . . Sundance Film Festival. . . . . . Supreme Court decisions . . . . Sustainable design movement . . . . . . . . . . . SUVs. See Sport utility vehicles (SUVs) Tae Bo . . . . . . . . . . . . Tailhook incident . . . . . . Take Our Daughters to Work Day . . . . . . . . . . . . Talk radio. . . . . . . . . . . Tarantino, Quentin . . . . . Tattoos and body piercings . Technology. See Science and technology


788 789 790 791 793 795 796 797

798 800 801 803 804 806 808 809 810 811 813 814 815 817 818 818 820 822

. . . .

835 836 837

841 843 845 846 849 850 852 854 855 857 858 858 860 862 865 867 869 870 871 872 873 874 875 876


. . 829 . . 829 . . . .

Telecommunications Act of 1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Telemarketing . . . . . . . . . . Television . . . . . . . . . . . . . Television ratings system. See TV Parental Guidelines system Tennis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Term limits . . . . . . . . . . . . Terminator 2: Judgment Day . . . . Terrorism . . . . . . . . . . . . . Texas A&M bonfire collapse . . . . . . . . . . . . Theater in Canada . . . . . . . . Theater in the United States . . . Thelma and Louise. . . . . . . . . Thomas, Clarence . . . . . . . . Three strikes laws . . . . . . . . Tibetan Freedom Concerts . . . Titanic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tobacco industry settlement . . . Toys and games. . . . . . . . . . Transgender community. . . . . Travolta, John . . . . . . . . . . Troopergate . . . . . . . . . . . Trump, Donald. . . . . . . . . . TV Martí . . . . . . . . . . . . . TV Parental Guidelines system . . . . . . . . . . . . . TWA Flight 800 crash . . . . . . Twenty-seventh Amendment . . . Twin Peaks. . . . . . . . . . . . . Tyson, Mike. . . . . . . . . . . .

831 832 834 835

Unabomber capture . . . . Unforgiven . . . . . . . . . . United Nations . . . . . . . Updike, John . . . . . . . . UPN television network . . U.S. Capitol shooting . . . U.S. embassy bombings in Africa . . . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . .

879 881 882 883 884 885

. . . 886

Vagina Monologues, The . . . . . . 890 ValuJet Flight 592 crash . . . . . 891 Ventura, Jesse. . . . . . . . . . . 892

The Nineties in America Versace murder. Viagra . . . . . . Victoria’s Secret Video games . .

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894 895 896 897

Waco siege . . . . . . . . . . . . 900 Wages. See Income and wages in Canada; Income and wages in the United States Wallace, David Foster . . . . . . 903 Wal-Mart . . . . . . . . . . . . . 904 Washington, Denzel . . . . . . . 905 Water pollution. . . . . . . . . . 906 WB television network . . . . . . 908 Web. See Internet; World Wide Web Web logs. See Blogs Wegman, William . . . . . . . . 908 Weil, Andrew . . . . . . . . . . . 909 Welfare reform . . . . . . . . . . 910 West Nile virus outbreak . . . . . 912 “What would Jesus do?” bracelets. See WWJD bracelets Where’s Waldo? franchise . . . . . 914 White House attacks . . . . . . . 915 Whitewater investigation. . . . . 915 Whitman, Christine Todd . . . . 917 Wigand, Jeffrey . . . . . . . . . . 918 Wilder, L. Douglas . . . . . . . . 919 Will and Grace . . . . . . . . . . . 920 Winfrey, Oprah. . . . . . . . . . 921 WNBA. See Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA)

Wolfowitz, Paul . . . . . . . . . Women in the military . . . . . Women in the workforce . . . Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA) . . . . Women’s rights . . . . . . . . . Woods, Tiger . . . . . . . . . . Woodstock concerts . . . . . . Workforce, women in the. See Women in the workforce World Cup of 1994 . . . . . . . World Trade Center bombing. . . . . . . . . . . World Trade Organization protests . . . . . . . . . . . World Wide Web . . . . . . . . WTO protests. See World Trade Organization protests Wuornos, Aileen Carol. . . . . WWJD bracelets . . . . . . . .

. 922 . 923 . 925 . . . .

928 928 931 933

. 935 . 937 . 939 . 941

. 944 . 945

X-Files, The . . . . . . . . . . . . 947 Xena: Warrior Princess . . . . . . . 948 Y 2K problem . . . . . . . . Yahoo! . . . . . . . . . . . Yamaguchi, Kristi. . . . . . Year of the Woman . . . . . Year-round schools . . . . . Year 2000 problem. See Y 2K problem

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

950 952 953 954 956

Zone diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . 958


Entertainment: Major Films of the 1990’s . . . . . . . . . 959 Entertainment: Academy Awards. . . . . . . . . . . . . 967 Entertainment: Major Broadway Plays and Awards . . . . . . . 969 Entertainment: Most-Watched U.S. Television Shows. . . . . 977 Entertainment: Emmy Awards. . . . . . . . . . . . . 979 Legislation: Major U.S. Legislation . . . . . . . . . . 983 Legislation: U.S. Supreme Court Decisions . . . . . . . . 990 Literature: Best-Selling U.S. Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . 997 Literature: Major Literary Awards . . . . . . . . . . . . 1000 Music: Popular Musicians . . . 1003 Music: Grammy Awards. . . . . 1012 Sports: Winners of Major Events . . . . . . . . . . . . 1021 Time Line . . . . . . . . . . . . 1027 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . 1042 Web Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . 1047 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1050 List of Entries by Category . . . 1055 Photo Index . . . . . . . . . . . . III Personages Index . . . . . . . . . VII Subject Index . . . . . . . . . . . XV

The Nineties in America

A ■ Abortion Definition

Medical termination of pregnancy

terminations, resulting in record numbers of deaths and injuries. The 1990’s was characterized by worldwide liberalization of abortion laws, compared with the previous decade. Generally, liberalization in attitudes also prevailed in Canada, with some legal amendments, resulting in new abortion clinics and increased access for women in historically underserved regions of the country. The situation was slightly different in the United States, with a number of important legal challenges to abortion rights upheld by the courts. Several cases, including Ohio v. Akron Center for Reproductive Health (1990) and Hodgson v. Minnesota (1990), resulted in parental notification requirements for minors. In Rust v. Sullivan (1991), the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the “gag rule,” which prevented federally funded (specifically Title X) family-planning services from providing abortion information. The gag rule continued until 1993, when President Bill Clinton passed legislation reversing the ruling, which was later reinstated by President George W. Bush in 2001. Another important case was that of Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992), in which the Court upheld four of five provisions restricting access to abortion but maintained a woman’s right to the procedure.

Legal Changes

Abortion has been practiced by women of most cultural groups throughout history, typically assisted by midwives and traditional medical practitioners. In 1990’s North America, women’s health needs were assisted by formally trained medical specialists, informed by national and state (or provincial) laws, which regulated pregnancy terminations. This time period was a turbulent one for women’s health rights, abortion law, and medical practice. The abortion debate in North America is typically briefly summarized as conflict between two competing groups: the proabortion, atheist faction, supporting the rights of the mother over the rights of the child, and the antiabortion, fundamentalist bloc, believing in the primacy of the child’s life over that of the mother’s well-being. In actuality, the situation is much more complex, with nuances in moral values, scientific understanding, and personal beliefs affecting the stances of individuals affiliated with both camps. Generally, members of the proabortion groups are keen to diminish the number of pregnancy terminations, often through the provision of education and birth control, while maintaining a stance that is highly supportive of a woman’s right to decide on an abortion. Abortion has been legal for Canadians since a Supreme Court of Canada decision in 1988, and for Americans since the well-known case of Roe v. Wade in 1973. However, in both nations, a woman’s ability to obtain an abortion has often depended on factors such as geographic proximity to a clinic, access to information, and income. During the 1990’s, there were a number of prominent American court cases and government acts addressing abortion, while the political situation was more static in Canada, with fewer significant legal challenges or legislative amendments. The decade was also characterized by high levels of violence in both nations toward medical providers of pregnancy

Violence The 1980’s had been characterized by dozens of bombing and arson attacks on abortion clinics. The levels of violence escalated during the 1990’s. Legal abortion provision became personally risky for medical providers. Four doctors, two receptionists, a volunteer, and a police officer were murdered in the United States, and a nurse was permanently disabled by antiabortion militants. The bloodshed spilled over into Canada, with several doctors shot, although they were more fortunate than their U.S. counterparts and survived the attacks. In an attempt to curb this violence against clinic workers, the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act (FACE) was passed by the U.S. Congress in 1994. This law provided arrest provisions and penalties for


The Nineties in America

Academy Awards

various forms of violence, including bombs, arson, physically violent acts, threatening violence, and impeding access to clinics. Impact During the 1990’s, the North American abortion arena became increasingly politicized, with many legal cases making their way to the U.S. Supreme Court. This resulted in increasing awareness of the importance of the Supreme Court justices and the justice nomination process. This decade was also characterized by greater levels of violence from antiabortion protesters, resulting in a number of U.S. murders and several attempts to kill Canadian doctors. People’s views on abortion also played a role in debates over birth control methods, abstinenceonly health education, and research using fetal tissue or stem cells. Further Reading

Cook, Rebecca J., Bernard M. Dickens, and Laura E. Bliss. “International Developments in Abortion Law from 1988 to 1998.” American Journal of Public Health 89, no. 4 (1999): 579-586. A summary statement on the laws covering abortion around the world, including Canada, with supporting references. Feldt, Gloria. The War on Choice: The Right-Wing Attack on Women’s Rights and How to Fight Back. New York: Random House, 2004. A well-referenced publication covering the history of women’s reproductive health in the United States, including a comprehensive time line focusing on legal and political developments. Hadley, Janet. Abortion: Between Freedom and Necessity. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996. A well-referenced examination of abortion politics around the world. Hyde, Elisabeth. The Abortionist’s Daughter. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2006. An insightful novel about the death of an abortion provider in small-town America. Knapp, Lynette, ed. The Abortion Controversy. San Diego, Calif.: Greenhaven Press, 2001. Twentyfive previously published chapters are included in this collection, structured to contrast proabortion positions with antiabortion ones. McLaren, Angus, and Arlene Tigar McLaren. The Bedroom and the State: The Changing Practices and Politics of Contraception and Abortion in Canada, 1880-1997. 2d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. A summary of Canadian abortion

politics by a well-respected medical historian and a sociologist. Piehl, Norah, ed. Abortion. Farmington Hill, Mich.: Greenhaven Press, 2007. A short collection of eleven previously published pieces presenting both sides of the abortion debate. Sanger, Alexander. Beyond Choice: Reproductive Freedom in the Twenty-first Century. New York: PublicAffairs, 2004. A comprehensive view of abortion incorporated within a consideration of individual responsibility and family well-being, with extensive scholarly references. Susan J. Wurtzburg Depo-Provera; Medicine; Planned Parenthood v. Casey; Rust v. Sullivan; Stem cell research; Supreme Court decisions; Vagina Monologues, The ; Women’s rights. See also

■ Academy Awards The annual presentation of awards by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences

The Event

The Academy Awards reflected the state of commercial filmmaking in the United States during the 1990’s. Because the annual televised ceremony has become a popular international spectacle, the event itself sheds light on attitudes and fashions. Since the ceremony’s inception in 1929, the Academy Awards (or Oscars) show has not only celebrated and encouraged artistic excellence but also promoted the products of the major American movie studios. By the 1990’s, those studios had been absorbed by conglomerates for which filmmaking was a minor profit center. However, the Oscars continued to provide publicity and prestige for their releases. In 1987, nominations for each category were announced on live television for the first time, intensifying excitement during the weeks leading up to the award show. From February through March each year, the media buzzed with reports on the finalists and speculation about the odds of their winning, while producers campaigned for votes. The lavish Oscar show—hosted six times during the 1990’s by Billy Crystal, three times by Whoopi Goldberg, and once by David Letterman—typically drew more viewers than any broadcast other than the Super Bowl. In 1998, multiple nominations for

The Nineties in America

Academy Awards


The Winners Nominations for the Oscars during the 1990’s reflected a general trend toward globalization. The category of Best Foreign Language Film has always provided recognition for imported work, but in 1996 four of the five nominees for Best Picture—Babe (1995), Braveheart (1995), Il Postino (1994), and Sense and Sensibility (1995)—were made outside the United States, as were all five—Elizabeth, Life Is Beautiful, Saving Private Ryan, Shakespeare in Love, and The Thin Red Line (all released in 1998)—in 1999. Hollywood has always been a magnet for ambitious outsiders, but foreigners who won Oscars in general categories during the decade include Roberto Benigni, Juliette Binoche, Judi Dench, Anthony Hopkins, Jeremy Irons, Sam Mendes, Anthony Oscar host Billy Crystal, left, dons a Hannibal Lecter mask at the 64th Academy Minghella, Anna Paquin, Geoffrey Awards on March 30, 1992. Anthony Hopkins, right, won an Oscar for Best Actor for his portrayal of Hannibal in The Silence of the Lambs, which won a total of Rush, and Emma Thompson. five awards. (AP/Wide World Photos) Steven Spielberg had attained commercial success with blockbusters including Jaws (1975), Close Enthe hit Titanic (1997) heightened interest, and when counters of the Third Kind (1977), Raiders of the Lost Ark the Oscar gala was finally telecast, 87 million Ameri(1981), and E.T. (1982). However, an Oscar in 1994 cans viewed it, earning the show a 34.9 rating and a for directing Schindler’s List (1993), which also won 55 share of the audience. for Best Picture, promoted him to the ranks of distinThe Oscars are designed to be inspiring, not least guished filmmakers, and an Oscar in 1999 for directto filmmakers who aspire to create work that will iming Saving Private Ryan confirmed his elevated statpress voting members of the Academy of Motion Picure. Similarly, although Clint Eastwood had been ture Arts and Sciences. However, during the 1990’s, directing films since Play Misty for Me in 1971, an Osthe awards also shaped the movie calendar. Because car in 1993 for directing Unforgiven (1992), which voters are less likely to remember contenders seen also won for Best Picture, garnered him respect as earlier in the year, studios released their best prosmore than just a popular actor in Westerns and popects during the crowded final months. The result lice procedurals. Winning the award for Best Actor was that better films were competing for attention in two consecutive years, 1994 (Philadelphia, 1993) from September through December and absent and 1995 (Forrest Gump, 1994), confirmed the prefrom theaters during other months. However, the eminence of Tom Hanks. In 1998, Jack Nicholson’s advent of digital video discs (DVDs), inexpensive Oscar for As Good as It Gets (1997) was his third— video cameras, and, later, technologies for downafter One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest in 1976 and Terms loading suggested that the 1990’s might have repreof Endearment in 1984. Kevin Spacey won for Best sented the peak of the Oscars’ power. The democraSupporting Actor in 1996 for The Usual Suspects tization of film production and distribution would (1995) and Best Actor four years later for American undercut the authority of the official industry Beauty (1998). Emma Thompson won an Oscar for awards, weakening the Oscars’ influence over which Best Actress in 1993 for Howards End (1992) and, films are seen and when. three years later, for Best Screenplay for Sense and


The Nineties in America


Sensibility. Jack Palance received the award for Best Supporting Actor in 1992 for City Slickers (1991), thirty-nine years after his previous nomination for Sudden Fear (1952), and it occasioned a memorable scene; seventy-one-year-old Palance demonstrated one-armed push-ups before his worldwide audience. The Western gained new life when Dances with Wolves (1990) and Unforgiven became only the second and third Westerns after Cimarron (1931) to win Best Picture. Preoccupation with “family values” in American politics was reflected, albeit obliquely, in nominees such as The Prince of Tides (1991), Forrest Gump, Secrets and Lies (1996), Shine (1996), As Good as It Gets, and Life Is Beautiful. The success of independent films (in 1997, four Best Picture nominees, The English Patient, Fargo, Secrets and Lies, and Shine, were made outside traditional Hollywood structures), even when independence consisted simply of being produced by autonomous units of conglomerates, pointed to new methods of production and distribution. Impact As the Cold War concluded, movies held a mirror to the soul of the only remaining superpower. During the 1990’s, the Academy Awards, the most publicized prize ceremony in the world, exerted a powerful influence on the production, marketing, and distribution of American films, even as they reflected trends that might lead to the Oscars’ diminished importance. Further Reading

Bona, Damien. Inside Oscar 2. New York: Ballantine, 2002. An opinionated report on what went on behind the scenes at the Academy Awards. Kinn, Gail, and Jim Piazza. The Academy Awards: The Complete Unofficial History. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal, 2006. A detailed review of each year’s Academy Awards. Illustrated with photos. Levy, Emanuel. All About Oscar: The History and Politics of the Academy Awards. New York: Continuum, 2003. A thorough survey of the history, sociology, and politics of the Oscars. O’Neill, Thomas. Movie Awards: The Ultimate Unofficial Guide to the Oscars, Golden Globes, Critics, Guild, and Indie Honors. New York: Perigee, 2003. A compilation of information about most of the major movie awards, including the Oscars. Osborne, Robert. Seventy-five Years of the Oscar: The Official History of the Academy Awards. New York: Abbeville Press, 2003. Written in association with

the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences and includes year-by-year accounts of the balloting results. Steven G. Kellman See also Allen, Woody; Coen brothers; Dances with Wolves; Film in the United States; Forrest Gump; GoodFellas; Hanks, Tom; Independent films; Paltrow, Gwyneth; Philadelphia; Saving Private Ryan; Schindler’s List; Silence of the Lambs, The; Sundance Film Festival; Titanic; Unforgiven.

■ Advertising Written or verbal information directed at individuals or a group with the intent of influencing their behavior as consumers


Advertising during the 1990’s affected greater numbers of individuals and began to have a much stronger impact as a result of increasingly intrusive advertising methods. In general, advertisements are intended to promote the use of particular services or products through certain, specific images (brands) and to take advantage of the human tendency to form product-related habits of taste (brand loyalty). By the 1990’s, advertising agencies had successfully penetrated nearly every form of communication in order to promote their clients’ services or products. From magazines to newspapers, radios to cinema, television to the Internet, and billboards to video games, increased consumption was the message intended to permeate every facet of life in the 1990’s. In William Dean Howell’s novel The Rise of Silas Lapham (1885), the titular hero becomes wealthy after announcing the benefits of using his mineral paint by having advertisements painted on the sides of barns. This ancient form of advertising—wall painting—has continued to exist even in a modern, technological society. Although fondly remembered in the form of advertisements painted on the sides of brick buildings, such wall paintings changed over time into the more temporary billboard. The 1990’s introduced a new twist on the traditional billboard—the so-called mobile billboard. When largeformat digital inkjet printers made large-scale banner printing possible, advertisers saw a way to reach consumers who were increasingly able to avoid television and radio advertising. By printing graphics

The Nineties in America

and text onto banners that were then plastered onto both sides of ten-by-twenty-foot panels installed on flatbed trucks, advertisers created billboards that could be moved from one location to another for maximum public exposure. By 1995, mobile billboards were a regular fixture on the streets of major cities. That year, Delroy Cowan took advantage of the trend by inventing mobile advertising trucks that had triangle-shaped panels (“trivision”) that could be rotated every six or seven seconds and introduced two of his special trucks in Miami. Like billboards, printed texts such as magazines and newspapers have a long history as advertising media. Printed flyers distributed on the streets in seventeenth century England often carried advertisements, and the first paid ads appeared in the French newspaper La Presse in 1836 in order to allow the publisher to lower its price and increase its circulation. The 1990’s, introducing the Internet as a medium for printed texts, witnessed the birth of a new flexibility for advertising and gave additional momentum to the “dot-com” boom. Some corporations, such as Worldshare, provided Internet access to users willing to donate time to view promotional advertisements. The Web sites FreeRide and Greenfield Online offered coupons for free products and even cash to anyone willing to read sponsors’ ads. During the 1990’s, many of these companies were able to exist solely by generating advertising revenue.

Magazine and Newspaper Advertising

Radio and television advertising existed since the first radio and television stations used commercial messages to encourage the consumer purchase of radios and television sets. Both pieces of technology were initially costly, and, not coincidentally, both introduced their form of advertising through commercial sponsorship of popular dramas and news programs. By the 1990’s, the advent of cable television and satellite radio allowed increasingly specific markets of viewers to whom the advertisers could direct increasingly specific marketing. Ironically, cable and satellite providers in the 1990’s also gained popularity by promoting “ad-free” television and radio programs, a development that reflected a rise in consumer disgust for intrusive advertising and necessitated the development of more covert forms of advertising such as product placement in films and television se-

Radio and Television Advertising



ries and product endorsements spoken in the context of talk radio hosts’ monologues. Talk radio had long allowed the announcement of sponsors’ names and products on air, but the 1990’s particularly emphasized the use of personal endorsements by talk-show jockeys such as Howard Stern and Rush Limbaugh. These endorsements were intended to sell products without explicitly acknowledging that the celebrity was making an advertisement. Scenery and costuming in films included literal product placement to silently and visually advertise the use of prominent products. The television series Sex and the City explicitly advertised products through the female characters’ worship of such brand-specific shoes as Christian Dior, Manolo Blahnik, and Jimmy Choos. One developing trend started during the 1990’s was the use of computer-generated images to advertise products. Computer graphics could be placed strategically on blank billboards and television screens included for that purpose in the background scenery of a film or television show. Theoretically, these product placements could be changed depending on the needs of the advertising sponsor. Loosening Restrictions Another trend born in the 1990’s was the loosening strictures on advertising for a number of previously controlled products on television and in print media, such as alcohol and certain prescription drugs. Hard liquor and prescription medication had been previously controlled in how they were allowed to be portrayed; alcohol manufacturers voluntarily restricted advertising to media where 70 percent of viewers were over twentyone years old and content was directed specifically at adults, while prescription drug manufacturers kept their advertisements vague in content. Relaxed social mores caused for looser selfregulation. In the late 1990’s, Captain Morgan was suggested as the chosen beverage of the “cool” dentist, and Senator Bob Dole hawked erectile dysfunction drug Viagra for Pfizer. These changes—along with, ironically, tighter regulations on the use of tobacco advertising—reflected changes in social mores. Drinking, in a tasteful context, was allowed for even the harder liquors such as Seagrams whisky, and the frank discussion of prescription medications on television became the norm. On the other hand, Camel was punished for using a cartoon character to sell cigarettes. Socially, smoking was consid-


The Nineties in America


ered more and more a social evil to be kept from children and adolescents, while social drinking lost some of its stigma. Alternative Advertising Other trends in advertising begun in this decade were simply new uses for existing technology. In 1998, cell phones began to have downloaded advertising as a new part of existing update software. The computer became host to

a variety of ad-laden, product-sponsored software, from public-service antidrug announcements (observed initially in the opening and closing screens of video-game machines such as Pac-Man) to the selfpromotion of computer game expansion packs. The old tradition of sandwich boards was updated by lighting up sandwich boards with neon tubing. Tshirts printed with advertising images and slogans continued in popularity, but the 1990’s updated the

Memorable 1990’s Advertising Slogans and Jingles Product

Slogan or Jingle


Slogan or Jingle

ABC Television

Don’t just sit there. Okay, just sit there.

Hershey bar

The great American chocolate bar.

Apple Computer

Think different.

Honey Nut Cheerios

Nobody can say no.


Your true voice.

Klondike bar

California Milk Processor Board

Got milk?

What would you do for a Klondike bar?



The heartbeat of America.


Rich. Creamy. And smart.

What you want is what you get. Did somebody say McDonald’s?


Coors Beer

Tap the Rockies.

Where do you want to go today?

Dell Computers

Dude, you’re getting a Dell.

Mountain Dew

Do the Dew.

NBC Television

Must see TV.

Diet Coke

Just for the taste of it! Diet Coke!

The New York Times

Expect the world.


Get N or get out.

Dr. Pepper

This is the taste.


Diet Dr. Pepper

Like nothin’ else.

The new generation of Oldsmobile.

Doritos chips

Doritos knows Jack about cheese.


The joy of cola. Generation next.

Doublemint gum

No single gum like it.

Duracell batteries

No battery is stronger longer. You can’t stop the copper top.

Pringle’s potato chips twin pack

Once you pop, you can’t stop.

Reese’s Pieces

You’ll love ’em to pieces.


Make 7-Up yours.

Energizer batteries

Keeps going and going and going.


Obey your thirst.

Tic Tac


Be like Mike [Jordan]. Drink Gatorade.

The half-calorie breath mint.

Geo Prizm

Get to know Geo Prizm.


It’s not TV—it’s HBO.

Breathe friendly. Winterfresh gum

Winterfresh mouth taste. The cool breath that lasts.

The Nineties in America

media by changing the preferred creator and subject from street vendors and soft drinks to prominent clothing designers. The 1990’s also witnessed the beginning of an unusual trend toward the creation of advertisements intended to be viewed as a form of art or entertainment. Taster’s Choice introduced a kind of miniature teledrama in the 1990’s that starred British actors Sharon Maughan and Anthony Head as new neighbors whose romantic encounters encouraged viewers to watch succeeding commercials more so than to drink the coffee. Commercials created specifically for broadcast during the half-time show of the Super Bowl vied for position in a televised vote by viewers for “Favorite Commercial.” Many advertisers regarded their work as art. Television commercial creators had their own awards for the best and most popular advertisements in a variety of categories. The long-standing Clio Award was joined in the 1990’s by the Golden Drum Award and an Emmy created in 1997 for “Outstanding Commercial,” won by Batten, Barton, Durstine & Osborn for “Chimps (HBO).”

Advertising for Its Own Sake

Impact The impact of 1990’s intrusive advertising cannot be overrated. The developing trend in advertising to inundate the population with requests to purchase brand-name products seemed to have desensitized individuals to the presence of commercials. Television and film viewers made use of technology to allow them to remove commercials from a recording of a favorite film or television show. Advertisers, in response, instituted embedded advertising to make consumer removal impossible. By the 1990’s, advertising had become so ubiquitous through daily life that—even should one eschew television, cinema, and broadcast radio—one could not escape the implicit messaging of mobile billboards, sandwich signs, T-shirt slogans, and “word-of-mouth” advertising that associates a brand name with a specific product (such as Kleenex instead of “facial tissue,” Xerox in place of “photocopy,” and Coke in place of “soda”). This quality of omnipresence was fully intentional on the part of advertisers. Ironically, many ads became either mere background noise or the subject of debate more for their plots and characters than for their commercial content.

Africa and the United States


Further Reading

Lobrano, Alexander. “In the Serious, Anxious ’90’s, Statement Becomes Message: Wear It, but Please Don’t Call It Fashion.” The International HeraldTribune, October, 1992. Lobrano provides an interesting commentary on the changing uses of the T-shirt slogan to reflect the changing tastes of 1990’s fashion enthusiasts. He comments wryly on the T-shirt’s shift from the pop culture icon of the 1960’s to the fashionable trademark of the 1990’s designer. O’Guinn, Allen. Advertising and Integrated Brand Promotion. New York: Thomson South-Western, 2005. This work, technically a textbook for commercial classes by South-Western, is an entertaining and well-designed analysis of the history and methodology behind advertising. Rutherford, David. Excellence in Brand Communication. Toronto: Institute of Communications & Advertising, 2002. A prominent work analyzing the history of advertising. Scholarly in tone and has impeccable research that clearly outlines how advertising has evolved over the decades. The list of additional sources seems particularly thorough. Tharp, Marye, and Dilara Moran. “A Snapshot of Global Trends in Advertising: The 1990’s.” AAA Annual Conference Review, January, 1997. Tharp and Moran focus on trends in advertising specifically in the 1990’s, such as the expansion of Internet advertising and the social implications for the rise in computer-altered advertising. Julia M. Meyers; America Online; Business and the economy in the United States; Children’s television; Dot-coms; Drug advertising; E-mail; Internet; Joe Camel campaign; Pharmaceutical industry; Sex and the City; Slang and slogans; Talk radio; Television; Viagra.

See also

■ Africa and the United States The interactions of the U.S. government with African nations


With the end of the Cold War, the United States attempted to adjust to the opportunities and challenges presented by countries on the world’s poorest continent and to define appropriate U.S. responses.


Africa and the United States

As the Soviet Union retreated from its expansionist policies of earlier decades and eventually collapsed entirely, African governments increasingly and decisively turned to the West for both political solutions to long-standing conflicts and economic assistance to cope with the problems of grinding poverty and humanitarian emergencies typically associated with the civil conflicts. Even as certain areas of Africa showed dramatic improvement, others descended into the throes of political chaos, civil war, and even genocide. American policy makers were tested as these crises moved either toward resolution or descended into major emergencies. On the positive side, several African regions saw resolution of long-standing conflicts and the emergence of new democratic regimes. This was especially true of Southern Africa, which sported several major changes of government that boded well for future stability. At the heart of the region’s general improvement was the demise of the white racist regime of South Africa and the emergence of a peaceful and democratic transition to black majority rule as Nelson Mandela collaborated with white South African president F. W. de Klerk to dismantle the country’s apartheid system in the early 1990’s. As South Africa moved toward peaceful reforms, progress was made in neighboring countries as well, including in Namibia, where independence was achieved in 1989 and further consolidated under peaceful democratic rule during the 1990’s. A long and bloody civil war in Mozambique finally came to an end as the rebels and the government agreed to demobilize forces and hold democratic elections. In both Namibia and Mozambique, American engagement in the settlements and U.N. peacekeeping forces contributed to the restoration of stability. During the 1990’s, the countries of Zambia and Malawi also benefited from democratic reform movements in the general climate of improvement in the region.

Bright Spots

In the Horn of Africa, a mixed picture emerged as the communist regime in Ethiopia was toppled in 1991 and new governments were established in both Addis Ababa and the newly independent Eritrea (1993). However, by the late 1990’s, war clouds appeared as the two countries sparred over control of their disputed border. Moreover, civil wars in neighboring countries, including Sudan and Somalia, greatly complicated the stability of the re-

Trouble Spots

The Nineties in America

gion. Somalia descended into civil war and eventually into interclan fighting that caused severe famine. President George H. W. Bush decided in the closing months of his tenure to deploy Operation Restore Hope in a bid to end the starvation in December, 1992. The operation succeeded in its humanitarian objectives, but as the United Nations assumed control of efforts to disarm competing clans, the situation deteriorated. Several Americans were killed in the famous Black Hawk Down incident, and the new Clinton administration, eager to avoid further entanglement and loss of American lives, withdrew forces, leaving Somalia to a fate of ongoing turmoil in subsequent years. The Somali experience led to hesitance by Clinton to intervene in other African civil wars, including Rwanda, where about 800,000 people died in 1994 in one of the most brutal and intense acts of genocide of modern times. Civil wars in the West African countries of Liberia and Sierra Leone also failed to elicit strong American responses in the 1990’s. Moreover, after the Rwandan genocide developed in 1994, refugees fled into the neighboring Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo), provoking a civil war there, which later developed into Africa’s first continental war. During a visit to Africa in 1998, Clinton apologized for American inaction in Rwanda, even as civil war raged in Sudan and neighboring Congo. Although the United States supplied considerable humanitarian aid to refugees, displaced persons, and famine victims throughout the continent, it was unable to negotiate settlements in many of these intransigent conflicts. Moreover, in a new and ominous development, terrorist groups such as al-Qaeda were able to operate in Somalia and later in Sudan. After the 1998 bombings of U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania by al-Qaeda terrorists, the United States attacked a Sudanese pharmaceutical factory suspected falsely of producing chemical agents. Terrorist activities in failed states such as Somalia became a new and foreboding problem for future U.S. policy makers. Throughout Africa, another emerging scourge was the AIDS epidemic. Central and Southern Africa have been hit especially hard, with the worst hit country of Botswana having an adult HIV/AIDS prevalence rate of more than 35 percent. African governments found stiff competition for increasingly sparse foreign aid to address the AIDS crisis and other needs, as American attention shifted to

The Nineties in America

the needs of newly established democratic regimes in the former Soviet bloc. Thus, the 1990’s proved to be a period of great turmoil and change, with the United States largely staying on the sidelines, preferring to let Africans find regional solutions to their problems. Impact U.S. influence on developments in Africa during the 1990’s was minimal, as demands in other parts of the world preoccupied U.S. administrations. Africa took a backseat to developments in Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, the Balkans, Asia, and the Middle East. This lack of U.S. engagement in Africa came at a time when African governments began a process of democratization and efforts at regional resolution of conflicts. The lack of sustained U.S. and European attention to Africa, coupled with stubborn local problems, contributed to the continent’s marginalization as much of the rest of the world began marching toward greater prosperity owing to the rapidly globalizing economy. Although parts of Africa benefited, many other parts continued to suffer. Further Reading

Gordon, David, David Miller, and Howard Wolpe. The United States and Africa: A Post-Cold War Perspective. New York: W. W. Norton, 1998. A policy assessment of Africa in light of U.S. interests in the region during a decade of transition. Taylor, Ian, and Paul Williams. Africa in International Politics: External Involvement on the Continent. London: Routledge, 2004. Examines great power involvement in Africa during the post-Cold War era and includes an assessment of U.S. policy. Wright, Stephen, ed. African Foreign Policies. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1998. A collection of ten essays exploring various aspects of African country foreign policies, including toward the United States and Western powers and institutions. Robert F. Gorman See also AIDS epidemic; Bush, George H. W.; Clinton, Bill; Cold War, end of; Foreign policy of the United States; Somalia conflict; Terrorism; United Nations; U.S. embassy bombings in Africa.

African Americans


■ African Americans Definition

U.S. citizens or residents of African

descent Despite some progress in economic conditions and significant cultural achievements, African Americans continued to experience discriminatory treatment and to have disproportionately high rates of poverty, criminal prosecutions, and female-headed families. In 1990, the Bureau of the Census reported that persons of African ancestry in the United States totaled slightly less than thirty million (or 13.2 percent of the total U.S. population). By 2000, their numbers had grown to 36.4 million persons (or 12.9 percent of the population). In 1990, 4.9 percent of African Americans were foreign-born, compared with 6.3 percent in 2000. Although African Americans continued to constitute the nation’s largest minority, the Hispanic population was growing more rapidly and would constitute the largest minority early in the twenty-first century. The census of 2000 indicated that approximately 54 percent of African Americans were living in the South, compared with 19 percent in the Midwest, 18 percent in the Northeast, and only 10 percent in the West. They tended to be concentrated in particular places. In 64 percent of U.S. counties, they represented less than 6 percent of the population, in contrast to ninety-six counties, where they comprised more than 50 percent of the population. Among cities, New York City, with 2.3 million blacks, had the largest concentration, and Chicago, with 1.1 million blacks, was second in size. Three cities—Detroit, Philadelphia, and Houston—had between 500,000 and one million African Americans. African American writers during the decade produced an impressive number of literary works of high quality. In 1993, Toni Morrison became the first African American woman to win the Nobel Prize for Literature. Rita Dove served as U.S. poet laureate from 1993 to 1995. Additional black writers of significance included Maya Angelou, Alice Walker, Charles Johnson, Cyrus Cassells, and John Edgar Wideman. Harvard professor Henry Louis Gates, Jr., an outstanding literary critic, wrote numerous works and helped edit the popular Norton Anthology of African American Literature (1996), which introduced many students to the field.

African American Culture


The Nineties in America

African Americans

The golden age of hip-hop culture and rap music is commonly dated from about 1988 to the late 1990’s. The subgenre of “gangsta rap,” as in the works of Ice-T and Tupac Shakur, was particularly controversial because of its preoccupation with police violence and graphic sex. Hip-hop inspired gritty films that glamorized tough black men in the inner city, such as John Singleton’s Boyz ’N the Hood (1991) and Allen and Albert Hughes’s Menace II Society (1993). However, much of hip-hop culture was mainstream and respectable. Russell Simmons, founder of Def Jam Recordings, became well known for his television and Broadway shows. In 1999, Lauryn Hill appeared on the cover of Time magazine after winning five Grammy Awards. The body of ideas labeled Afrocentrism became increasingly popular among many African American intellectuals. Molefi Kete Asante, author of The Afrocentric Idea (1987), argued that the African way of thinking is oriented toward spirituality and community, in contrast to the Eurocentric approach, which attempts to predict and control. He also insisted that the ancient Egyptians belonged to the same race as sub-Saharan Africans, and that they provided the foundation for the development of Greek and Roman philosophy. Other prominent Afrocentric theorists included Maulana Karenga, the founder of Kwanzaa, and Leonard Jeffries, who proposed a controversial theory of race based on melanin. African American politicians made a number of gains during the decade. In the elections of 1992, a record of thirty-nine blacks won seats in the House of Representatives. Carol Moseley-Braun became the second African American of the century to win a Senate seat—the first black woman in U.S. history to do so. L. Douglas Wilder served as governor of Virginia from 1990 to 1994. The controversial Marion Barry, mayor of Washington, D.C., was arrested on drug charges in 1990; after serving six months in jail, he served a second term from 1995 to 1999. In the early 1990’s, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) faced major financial problems. The Reverend Benjamin Chavis was chosen over Jesse Jackson as the executive director, but within eighteenth months Chavis was ousted for using NAACP funds in a sexual harassment lawsuit. Contributions and membership plummeted. The new leaders, Myrlie Evers-Williams


and Kweisi Mfume, were forced to reduce the staff from 250 to 50. Before the end of the decade, the organization had successfully regained financial stability, allowing it to launch a large-scale “get out the vote” campaign in the 2000 elections. Louis Farrakhan, the dynamic leader of the Nation of Islam, sponsored the so-called Million Man March, a huge African American demonstration in the nation’s capital on October 16, 1995. In addition to denouncing white supremacy, Farrakhan and other speakers called on African American men to be responsible fathers and to take an active role in community affairs. In the months following the march, it was reported that one and a half million black men registered to vote. In addition, the National Association of Black Social Workers reported a flood of applications to adopt black children. African Americans had among the nation’s highest rates of many diseases. They were twice as likely as whites to suffer from diabetes, and their life expectancy was about five years less. In 1998, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that they represented 43 percent of the reported cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The National Black Gay and Lesbian Conference as well as two outstanding black athletes, Earvin “Magic” Johnson and Arthur Ashe, helped promote AIDS education and raised financial support to help fight the dreadful disease. Most authorities agreed that the criminal justice system was biased against persons of color, and the “war on drugs” caused a dramatic rise in incarceration rates. The criminal penalties for crack cocaine, which was primarily used by blacks, were significantly harsher than those for powder cocaine, more commonly consumed by whites. In 2000, blacks comprised approximately 50 percent of the persons in U.S. prisons and jails. About 12 percent of black men in their twenties and thirties were incarcerated—more were in prison than in college. According to the Department of Justice, African Americans’ offender rate for homicide decreased about 50 percent during the 1990’s, from fifty to twenty-five per 1,000,000. Still, homicide victimization rates for blacks were more than five times higher than for whites, and offending rates were more than six times higher. In 1993, the poverty rate for African Americans stood at 33 percent. By 2000, the rate had declined

Social Problems

The Nineties in America

to the all-time low of 23 percent. The poverty rate for black children dropped from 46.1 percent in 1993 to 33 percent in 2000. Throughout the decade, nevertheless, the black poverty rate continued to be almost three times as high as the rate for whites. The disparity in wealth was even more striking. In 1995, the median net worth for black families was only $7,073, compared with $49,030 for white families. Harvard sociologist William Julius Wilson’s When Work Disappears (1996) focused attention on the lack of opportunities for the “underclass” in the central cities. Racial Violence The 1990’s saw a large number of violent incidents involving African Americans. By far, the most high-profile event was the Los Angeles riots of April, 1992, which was precipitated by the acquittal of four officers accused of beating Rodney King the preceding year. The rioting and looting resulted in fifty-three deaths, ten thousand arrests, and 3,700 burned-out buildings. That same year, a smaller riot occurred in the Crown Heights neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York, after a grand jury refused to indict a white Jewish driver who had accidentally struck and killed a seven-year-old boy of African ancestry. New York police officers were responsible for two incidents that infuriated the African American community. On August 9, 1997, Haitian immigrant Abner Louima was brutally beaten and sodomized with a stick by officers in a police station. Two officers finally pled guilty to the crime, but many observers suspected that other officers were protected by a “code of silence.” Two years later, four New York police officers fired forty-one rounds into Amadou Diallo, an unarmed black immigrant, because they mistakenly thought he was reaching for a weapon. The acquittal of the officers resulted in angry demonstrations and the arrests of more than 1,700 protesters. Many states in the 1990’s enacted hate crime laws (or bias crime laws), which usually increased penalties for offenders who intentionally choose a victim on the basis of race, ethnicity, or gender. In the case of Wisconsin v. Mitchell (1993), which involved a black offender, the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of such laws. In 1998, a particularly shocking hate crime occurred in Jasper, Texas, when three white supremacists chained a black hitchhiker, James Byrd, Jr., to their pickup truck and dragged

African Americans


him until his body broke into pieces. Some people criticized Texas for not having a hate crime law, even though two of the offenders were sentenced to death and the third man was sentenced to life imprisonment. Civil Rights The passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1991 resulted from congressional dissatisfaction with several Supreme Court interpretations that had limited aggressive enforcement of existing civil rights statutes. The act focused on employment qualifications having a disparate impact on blacks and other protected groups. Employers were required to demonstrate a close connection between such qualifications and the ability to perform the job in question. The law also clarified that plaintiffs might sue even if discrimination was only one of several motivations involved in an employment practice. After liberal justice Thurgood Marshall retired from the Supreme Court in 1991, Clarence Thomas, a black conservative, was named as his replacement. In spite of the strong opposition from civil rights leaders, combined with Anita Hill’s allegations of sexual harassment, the Senate approved the nomination by a narrow margin. This, combined with other changes in the Court’s membership, resulted in a majority that was more conservative than the preceding decade. In a series of school desegregation cases, for instance, the Court allowed school boards to end court-ordered busing plans, even though segregation continued to exist as a result of residential housing patterns. Affirmative action programs, which usually included race-based preferences in employment or admission to competitive schools, became increasingly controversial. In Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Peña (1995), the Supreme Court overturned a federal set-aside program for minority contractors, and the decision gave notice that any programs involving racial preferences might be vulnerable to a constitutional challenge. The next year in California, Ward Connerly, an African American businessman, led a successful campaign in favor of Proposition 209, which prohibited race-based preferences in all statesponsored activities. When Washington State voters approved a similar measure in 1998, the future of affirmative action appeared questionable. Impact Although the social and economic conditions of African Americans improved marginally during the 1990’s, the problems of unemployment


The Nineties in America

Agassi, Andre

and alienation in the central cites actually got worse. Several high-profile events, particularly the Rodney King riots and the trial of O. J. Simpson, highlighted the extent to which black and white Americans viewed reality from radically different perspectives, and the nation continued to become more racially segregated. In 1997, President Bill Clinton hoped to improve race relations with an initiative called “One America.” When the advisory board of the initiative, chaired by historian John Hope Franklin, held public conversations, they frequently appeared to harden the preexisting opinions of participants. The board’s final report of 1998 endorsed the noble ideas of promoting “racial reconciliation” and “building bridges across races,” but the board was unable to reach any consensus about specific proposals that might help realize these objectives.

West, Cornell. Race Matters. New York: Vintage Books, 1994. A lively written book expressing the ideology and frustrations of a left-of-center African American intellectual. Thomas Tandy Lewis See also AIDS epidemic; Angelou, Maya; Barry, Marion; Byrd murder case; Civil Rights Act of 1991; Crown Heights riot; Diallo shooting; Drug use; Elders, Joycelyn; Farrakhan, Louis; Hate crimes; Hill, Anita; Hip-hop and rap music; Johnson, Magic; Jordan, Michael; Kwanzaa; Los Angeles riots; Louima torture case; Minorities in Canada; Race relations; Shakur, Tupac; Sharpton, Al; Shaw v. Reno; Simpson murder case; Supreme Court decisions; Thomas, Clarence; Washington, Denzel; Wilder, L. Douglas; Winfrey, Oprah; Woods, Tiger.

Further Reading

Carson, Clayborne, Emma J. Lapsansky-Werner, and Gary B. Nash. The Struggle for Freedom: A History of African Americans. New York: Pearson/Longman, 2007. An excellent general history, including much material about the late twentieth century. Dickson-Carr, Darryl. Columbia Guide to Contemporary African American Fiction. New York: Columbia University Press, 2005. Excellent essays about the lives and writings of more than 150 famous and lessknown authors. Painter, Nell Irvin. Creating Black Americans: AfricanAmerican History and Its Meanings, 1619 to the Present. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. A well-written survey, richly illustrated with beautiful works of art by African Americans. Pinkney, Alphonso. Black Americans. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1999. Information and analysis about the late twentieth century, including socioeconomic status, family structures, religion, social problems, and cultural assimilation. Roberts, Kevin. African American Issues. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2006. Sociological analysis of topics like discriminatory treatment, affirmative action, stereotypes, and education. Thernstrom, Stephan, and Abigail Thernstrom. America in Black and White: One Nation, Indivisible. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997. A scholarly work that opposes affirmative action and argues that the country has made much progress in race relations.

■ Agassi, Andre Identification American tennis player Born April 29, 1970; Las Vegas, Nevada

Agassi shared with Pete Sampras the distinction of being the world’s best male professional tennis player during the 1990’s. He began the decade as a favorite of the media and fans because of his rebellious image and ended the decade as a kind of “elder statesman” of tennis. In the 1990’s, he won five grand-slam events, was number one on five different occasions, and was the Association of Tennis Professionals Player of the Year in 1999. During the 1990’s, Andre Agassi was on a rollercoaster ride, with rankings from number one to 141. Although he won some Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) tournaments in 1990 and 1991, by May of 1992 he was out of the top ten but recovered to defeat Goran Ivanisevic in the finals at Wimbledon, his first grand-slam victory since he turned professional six years earlier. In 1993, his ranking dropped as low as thirty-one, before he finished the year at twenty-four. That year, Agassi started dating actor Brooke Shields, whom he married in 1997. The couple divorced in 1999. In 1994, Agassi was unseeded in the U.S. Open but went on to defeat Michael Stich for the championship, rising to number two in the rankings. His first win at the Australian Open occurred in 1995 (he won the tournament three more times), when he beat archrival Pete Sampras. Agassi ranked num-

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Agriculture in Canada


match for Agassi, however, with tennis fans. At five feet, eleven inches, Agassi was short for a tennis player, and he was the underdog, relying on return of service and speed to overcome taller players with faster serves. Agassi was also a rebel with his long hair, his earring, and his penchant for wild colors rather than tennis whites. His attire and demeanor made him a hit with advertisers (Canon’s “Image is everything” campaign) as well as with fans. When he shaved his head in 1995, it made headlines, and he also altered his behavior, bowing and throwing kisses to crowds, becoming a gracious elder statesman of tennis. Further Reading

Agassi, Mike, with Dominic Cobello and Kate Shoup Walsh. The Agassi Story. Toronto: ECW Press, 2004. Chambure, Alexandre de. Andre Agassi: Through the Eyes of a Fan. Ottawa: ICCS, 2007. Philip, Robert. Agassi: The Fall and Rise of the Enfant Terrible of Tennis. London: Bloomsbury, 1993. Thomas L. Erskine See also

Sampras, Pete; Seles, Monica; Sports;


Andre Agassi serves to John McEnroe during their semifinal game at Wimbledon on July 4, 1992. (AP/Wide World Photos )

ber one for the first time in 1995, partly as a result of hiring Brad Gilbert as his coach and devoting himself to a rigorous training schedule. Unfortunately, after winning the gold medal at the 1996 Olympics in Atlanta, he went into another slump, dropping to number 141 in 1997. He rebounded yet again, returning to number four at the end of 1998, when he won five tournaments and was named the ATP Most Improved Player. In 1999, he won the U.S. and French Opens. He closed the decade as the top money-winner, earning over $4 million. He had won five grand-slam events, been runner-up in five more, and won ten ATP Masters Series titles. Impact As impressive as Agassi’s statistics were during the 1990’s, tennis fans and the general public were even more fascinated with his rivalry with Sampras, which had begun in their youth at Nick Bollettieri’s tennis camp in Florida. Sampras was no

■ Agriculture in Canada The raising and preparation of crops and livestock for Canadian and foreign markets


Despite Canada’s relatively modest population, about onetenth that of the United States, Canadian agriculture played a central role in its economy, producing net income for the country throughout the 1990’s. Most agricultural activity involves extensive use of the land, which Canada has in abundance, even if substantial portions of the country are not suitable for agriculture. There are essentially three major areas of Canadian agriculture: Ontario, Quebec, and the Atlantic Provinces, where the majority of the populace lives; the wide-open spaces on the great plains stretching across Manitoba, Alberta, and Saskatchewan provinces; and the Pacific coastal area comprised in the province of British Columbia. The large portion of Canada located north of the sixtieth latitude is unsuited for agriculture. Most of Canada’s agricultural land is used extensively—that is, most crops are grown with minimal la-


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Agriculture in Canada

bor input. Even the raising of livestock—and Canadian agriculture is roughly divided between crops and livestock raising—involves relatively little labor. By 1991, Canadians living on farms accounted for just 3.2 percent of the population, though the concentration was greater on the plains—16 percent in Saskatchewan, where most of Canada’s grain is produced. The cereal crops produced on the plains are well suited to mechanization; the farms on the plains are large, and production is totally mechanized. About 40 percent of Canada’s agricultural produce is exported, and about half of this comes from cereals, chiefly wheat and oil seeds. Almost all of this is grown on the plains, especially in Saskatchewan, but also in Alberta and Manitoba. However, during the 1990’s, the development of new hybrid varieties of corn led to the production of significant corn crops in Quebec and Ontario. Those parts of the country with substantial urban centers also saw the growth of vegetable and fruit crops, as this produce could be easily sold in the urban markets. In the most southerly part of Canada, in the province of Ontario alongside Lakes Erie and Ontario, even a modest wine-producing capacity was developed, matching that in the portions of the United States adjoining the lakes. Although, as in the United States, organic foods made up a very small portion of agricultural output, the industry grew rapidly over the years in the vicinity of urban markets. Livestock, the other major agricultural output, is raised throughout Canada, particularly on the plains, where beef cattle are extensively grazed, and in Quebec and Ontario, where smaller creatures, both pigs and poultry, are produced. The beef cattle industry saw considerable consolidation during the 1990’s, with many smaller packing plants near urban centers closing and production becoming concentrated in big facilities on the plains. The production of industrial pork generated, in Canada as in the United States, significant environmental issues mainly dealing with the disposal of manure. During the decade, a large pig processing operation in Quebec helped create a facility to reprocess vast volumes of pig manure.


Government Intervention Because of the vagaries of weather and other factors (such as transportation costs of large volumes of low-value output to the market), there was major government intervention in agriculture during the 1990’s. Throughout Canada,

there are cooperative marketing units to which farmers can voluntarily turn over their produce. The exception is Quebec, where all farmers are required to be members of the agricultural cooperative. In Canada, wheat, the major crop, is marketed by the Canada Wheat Board, which sells into the international market. Subsidies are also provided by the Canadian Grain Commission, the Livestock Feed Board, the Western Grain Transportation Board, the Agricultural Stabilization Board, and other entities devoted to particular agricultural products. Supply management, controlled by the provinces, ensures that output of milk, eggs, chickens, and turkeys do not outrun demand. In addition, the federal government imposes strict limits on the importation of livestock feed. These policies resulted in prices frequently exceeding those in the United States during the 1990’s, although pressure was building during the decade to reduce the controls in these areas. Canada suffered in international agricultural markets during the 1990’s because the major subsidies provided by the United States and the European Union for their agricultural producers had marked effects on international pricing. Despite its membership in the G7 (Group of Seven), Canada had modest clout in international arrangements because of its relatively small population, so it had to tailor its government policy to limited opportunities. However, it privatized some major operations in agriculture. Archer Daniels Midland, a major American corporation, took over some formerly cooperative activities in Canada, notably a grain elevator in 1993, and a flour miller. The Saskatchewan Wheat Pool, an agricultural cooperative, converted itself into a private corporation during the 1990’s, and the Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan, formerly owned by the government, went private during the decade. Impact During the 1990’s, Canada was a major contributor to the world’s supply of agricultural produce. The capacity of its great plains to produce the wheat and oilseeds that a growing world population required ensured its continued important role in future world trade negotiations. Further Reading

Britton, John N. H., ed. Canada and the Global Economy: The Geography of Structural and Technological Change. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press,

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1996. Discusses different aspects of the Canadian economy, including agriculture. Statistics Canada. Agriculture Division. Canadian Agriculture at a Glance. Ottawa: Minister of Industry, 1999. A comprehensive look at Canadian agriculture, with descriptions of the various crops, their location, and other information. Wallace, Iain. A Geography of the Canadian Economy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. A compact yet comprehensive look at Canada’s economy, including its agriculture. Nancy M. Gordon See also Agriculture in the United States; Archer Daniels Midland scandal; Employment in Canada; Foreign policy of Canada; Income and wages in Canada; North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA); Organic food movement.

■ Agriculture in the United States The raising and preparation of crops and livestock for U.S. and foreign markets


During the 1990’s, U.S. agriculture continued its transition from family farms into an industry dominated by commercial owners and processes. Agriculture’s purpose, roles, and methods were redefined in that decade, with environmental concerns influencing research and legislation regulating farming. Severe economic conditions had altered U.S. agriculture during the 1980’s, as corporate agriculture gained control of farmland owners lost as a result of foreclosures during the farm crisis. Many American farmers cultivating small acreages continued to suffer financial problems when the 1990’s began. Approximately 2.15 million farms existed in the United States in 1990, a decline from 2.44 million farms ten years prior. The average farm in 1990 was 461 acres in size, expanding by thirty-five acres from 1980. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) endeavored to improve prospects for all agriculturists by promoting educational, research, and marketing programs in the 1990’s. Four men served in the cabinet position of secretary of agriculture during the decade: Clayton K. Yeutter, Edward R. Madigan, Alphonso Michael Espy (the first African American to hold that position), and Daniel R. Glickman—the

Agriculture in the United States


first two appointed by President George H. W. Bush and the last two appointed by President Bill Clinton. Federal policies, global agricultural issues, environmentalists’ and consumers’ demands, and extreme weather impacted farmers throughout the decade. Many farmers lost federal support during the 1990’s when federal legislators drafted policies that restricted agricultural subsidies, cut the farm budget, and altered traditional farming practices. Federal agricultural funds had decreased annually after 1986, and such legislators as Representative Dick Armey wanted to limit farm subsidies. The Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, referred to as the 1990 Farm Bill, depleted aid resources. Designed to end certain financial provisions of the Food Security Act of 1985, the 1990 Farm Bill represented many legislators’ negative reaction to farm commodity programs, which they blamed for harming environmental resources. Emphasizing the environment, the 1990 legislation encouraged farmers to rotate crops, minimize chemical application, and plant alternative crops in an attempt to reduce erosion and pollution. Legislators believed that new stipulations would enable U.S. agriculture to be competitive in international markets. Ample global crop production influenced U.S. agricultural exports in the early 1990’s. According to Secretary of Agriculture Madigan, U.S. agriculture produced approximately half of the world’s soybeans, one-third of corn crops, and one-tenth of wheat yields. In 1992, because of surpluses worldwide, U.S. grain exports, especially corn and wheat, decreased by as much as 6 percent, which economists estimated at $1 billion. At that time, U.S. farmers increased production of poultry and other meats in an attempt to maintain income. After Republicans gained control of both houses of Congress in 1994, they sought further agricultural subsidy cuts. The Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996, often called the Freedom to Farm Act, promoted diversification by permitting farmers to plant any crops they chose. Legislators significantly decreased price supports, which farmers relied on in case they experienced crop losses or weak markets, intending eventually to cease all financial support. Because commodity prices were stable when that legislation passed, agricultural groups expressed minimal criticism, realizing that

Legislation and Diplomacy


Agriculture in the United States

the government historically had helped farmers if prices dropped significantly. President Clinton approved that act, stating that he planned to encourage additional legislation to give farmers some financial security. Price fixing by agricultural processor Archer Daniels Midland in the 1990’s worsened economic conditions for many U.S. agriculturists. By the late 1990’s, agricultural surpluses worldwide caused prices to decrease severely. The federal government gave farmers temporary aid during that time, resulting in agriculturists asking that the 1996 Freedom to Farm Act be revised to include monetary support measures. The Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998 reinforced crop insurance payments. The USDA provided $17.7 billion in emergency relief. By 1999, President Clinton and Congress expanded bankruptcy protection begun in the 1980’s to assist farmers in retaining their property. U.S. officials pursued diplomatic agreements regarding international agricultural trade and assistance. In the early 1990’s, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) determined policies for duties on agricultural goods shipped between the United States, Canada, and Mexico. U.S. and European Commission (EC) negotiators compromised regarding farm subsidies to secure the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). In 1997, Secretary of Agriculture Glickman and Russian agriculture minister Viktor Khlystun initiated U.S. agricultural aid to Russia. In 1990, Secretary of Agriculture Yeutter stated that twenty million people contributed to U.S. agricultural activities. Many U.S. farmers also obtained other jobs in local businesses or schools to supplement their agricultural income. Although 2 percent of Americans resided on farms in the 1990’s, many of those people did not participate in farming. About 38 percent of farm residents did not earn money from agriculture, a fact that resulted in the government’s revising its definition of farm residence by 1993 to indicate the 4.9 million households that profited from farming endeavors. In 1998, the USDA began collecting data for the agriculture census instead of the Bureau of the Census. Throughout the 1990’s, severe weather affected crops and livestock. The 1993 Mississippi River flood

Demographics and Education

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washed away soil resources and saturated fields in the Midwest, resulting in crop production decreasing by 13 percent. Three years later, extreme cold froze citrus in the Deep South, impacting production of oranges and grapefruits. Also in 1996, droughts hindered agriculture in the Great Plains. Atlantic states endured droughts the next year, while floods and extreme winter weather affected western states, requiring hay relief deliveries for livestock. Southwestern and southern states experienced drought conditions later that decade. Hurricanes destroyed southern and Atlantic agriculture. Such severe climatic situations caused many farmers to cease agricultural activities. Other farmers became frustrated by the consolidation of agricultural production. When producers such as Smithfield Foods purchased other hog-producing companies, they threatened pork farmers who relied on selling their stock to packers at competitive prices. At the 1999 National Pork Forum, swine farmers complained about industrial mergers that lowered prices. In the 1990’s, many young adults chose nonagricultural professions despite their families’ farming traditions. Attempting to encourage young agriculturists, some states offered financial assistance such as loans granted by the Illinois Farm Development Authority’s Young Farmer Guarantee Program. Conferences such as Farmers for the Next Century, held several times in the 1990’s, aided people starting to pursue agriculture. As part of a reorganization, the USDA developed civil rights policies during the 1990’s to recognize the diversity of people associated with agricultural work. In 1990, the USDA celebrated the centennial of the African American land-grant institutions established by the Morrill Act of 1890. The department funded scholarships for students at both African American and Native American land-grant institutions. African American farmers filed lawsuits, claiming they had experienced discrimination from the USDA, which had denied their federal loan and subsidy requests. By April, 1999, approximately 18,000 farmers presented evidence to receive compensation from the $2 billion settlement. After more than a century of publication, the USDA ceased issuing annual agricultural yearbooks after 1992. Secretary of Agriculture Espy stated that the yearbooks could not compete with other sources of agricultural news and educational media to dis-

The Nineties in America

tribute knowledge quickly. USDA publications educated diverse nonfarming readers, including consumers and students. Agriculturists appropriated science and technology for various purposes. Farmers used computers to maintain records and consulted the Internet for market information. Satellites provided images to evaluate fields for various factors affecting successful cultivation of crops. Envisioning future lengthy manned missions, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) funded space agricultural research to grow crops including sweet potatoes, and Tuskegee University researchers successfully used the nutrient film technique (NFT) on roots to devise agriculture compatible with space travel. The 1990 Farm Bill established research precedents for increased agricultural ecology and conservation practices. Secretary of Agriculture Madigan recognized that large demand for agricultural products necessitated efficient mechanization and irrigation. The USDA focused on providing grants to investigators emphasizing environmental awareness. Agricultural engineers improved low-input sustainable agriculture (LISA) and precision farming methods that many farmers adopted to minimize agricultural impact on natural resources. Legislation approved the Alternative Agricultural Research and Commercialization Center, which investigated processing agricultural resources into innovative products designed for uses other than consumption. Madigan encouraged farmers to produce more crops for domestic manufacturing such as kenaf fiber for newsprint and guayule for rubber instead of importing similar materials. In 1992, the Energy Policy Act boosted biofuels research. The USDA supported research to create pharmaceuticals from plants and animals. The development of nutraceuticals, medically beneficial foods, generated $17 billion in the United States during the decade. Veterinary researchers achieved successful vaccines that controlled such dangerous livestock diseases as rinderpest and brucellosis. Throughout the 1990’s, scientists applied biotechnology to crops and livestock. Bioengineering resulted in the production of sunflower oleic acid to make biodegradable plastics. Although many in Congress were reluctant to approve research money for agricultural genetic engineering, the USDA

Science, Technology, and Research

Agriculture in the United States


eased regulations. Agricultural researchers pursued various approaches to nonchemical pest control. Some scientists genetically engineered plants, while others sought integrated pest management (IPM) methods, including infecting insects with viruses. The USDA’s Meat Animal Research Center at Clay Center, Nebraska, devised genetic maps for swine and cattle. USDA researchers sought scientists worldwide to cooperate to achieve additional livestock genome mapping. Public Opinion Consumers voiced concerns associated with agriculture throughout the 1990’s. Food safety represented a major worry for many Americans who became aware of such dangers as salmonella, aflatoxin, and Alar, a pesticide used in apple orchards, which caused cancer in mice. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) banned Alar from agricultural usage by 1991. The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 further controlled pesticide use. In the early 1990’s, many consumers protested the controversial use of the natural bovine somatotropin hormone (BST), manufactured commercially with genetic engineering methods to boost milk yields by as much as 15 percent. The National Farmers Union and some agricultural organizations insisted that BST-produced milk be identified or removed from sale, causing public worries that the milk might be hazardous. In 1993, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) stated the BST milk was safe. Many dairy farmers feared they would lose profits because of the BST controversy. Demand for organic foods expanded by 20 percent annually in the 1990’s. The USDA established regulations for organic food by 1998, stating that no chemicals and hormones could be used in foods displaying organic food seals. Many people bought produce from farmers’ markets, which increased by more than 50 percent to almost three thousand markets nationwide during the decade. Impact Agriculture represented a significant component of the U.S. economy during the 1990’s. Influenced by legislation, farmers experimented with new plants and processes, creating unexpected opportunities and transforming domestic markets. As U.S. agricultural land became consolidated into corporate-owned farms, most Americans became more removed from the agricultural processes that impacted their lives. Often unaware of the agricultural sources of their food and clothes, many Ameri-


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AIDS epidemic

cans were also uninformed regarding governmental policies and agendas that altered agriculture, both strengthening and weakening farming. Some changes, particularly bioengineering, offered consumers more choices but also provoked intense controversies. Despite governmental restrictions and uncontrollable factors, especially weather and foreign markets, agricultural researchers and producers persevered and adapted during the 1990’s. Energy legislation that decade reinvigorated many farmers by encouraging alternative fuel manufacture but caused critics to complain about subsidies for ethanol corn crops. Erratic agricultural situations during the decade prepared agriculturists for challenges confronting them in the twenty-first century. Further Reading

Adams, Jane, ed. Fighting for the Farm: Rural America Transformed. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003. Incorporates information about such 1990’s agricultural issues as biotechnology and community-supported agriculture. Cochrane, Willard W. The Curse of American Agricultural Abundance: A Sustainable Solution. Foreword by Richard A. Levins. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2003. Agricultural economist comments on agricultural conditions during the 1990’s, particularly surpluses and declines in prices. Charts provide statistics. Hallberg, Milton C. Economic Trends in U.S. Agriculture and Food Systems Since World War II. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 2001. Assesses such 1990’s agricultural economic issues as prices, yields, and exports. Chronology, tables. Norberg-Hodge, Helena, Peter Goering, and John Page. From the Ground Up: Rethinking Industrial Agriculture. 2d rev. ed. New York: Zed Books, with the International Society for Ecology and Culture, 2001. Discusses detrimental aspects associated with agricultural technologies and benefits of ecologically based methods. Smith, Deborah Takiff, ed. Agriculture and the Environment. Washington, D.C.: USDA, 1991. Emphasizes balancing agricultural economic expansion with environmental protection. Photographs, charts. _______. Americans in Agriculture: Portraits of Diversity. Washington, D.C.: USDA, 1990. USDA yearbook profiles professionals whose work was represen-

tative of 1990’s agriculture. Section features the 1890 African American land-grant schools. _______. New Crops, New Uses, New Markets. Washington, D.C.: USDA Office of Publishing and Visual Communication, 1992. Notes how crops were appropriated for industrial and medical applications in the early 1990’s. Examines biotechnology, renewable fuels, and environmental topics. Elizabeth D. Schafer See also Agriculture in Canada; Air pollution; Archer Daniels Midland scandal; Armey, Dick; Bush, George H. W.; Business and the economy in the United States; Clinton, Bill; Genetically modified foods; Mississippi River flood of 1993; Natural disasters; North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA); Organic food movement; Science and technology; Water pollution.

■ AIDS epidemic Spread of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome


During the 1990’s, education and health care practices in Western countries, including the development of new approaches for treatment, contributed to a reduction in the rate of new cases of HIV infection. At the same time, the AIDS epidemic continued unabated in much of the Third World. As the decade of the 1990’s began, approximately 40,000 persons in the United States annually died from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related diseases, accounting for approximately 2 percent of total deaths. The year 1995 represented a turning point, however, as both new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in the United States began to level off, and deaths from AIDS actually dropped by 25 percent. Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Several events conflated to produce these results. First, educational programs emphasizing both non-promiscuity and “safer sex,” particularly those addressed to a gay community that was relatively well educated, had an impact. The fight against AIDS in the 1990’s also was marked by the introduction of new forms of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Previous forms of drug therapy utilized a variety of nucleoside analogs, drugs that inhibited activity of the viral en-

The Nineties in America

zyme reverse transcriptase, necessary for HIV to replicate following infection. The new generation of drugs did include new forms of reverse transcriptase inhibitors, but a variety of additional drugs known as protease inhibitors, antiretrovirals that blocked assembly and release of the virus, were also developed. Combinations of these antivirals, produced as cocktails, were found to be highly effective in many patients at inhibiting viral production, allowing the immune system of the patient to regain a semblance of “normalcy.” The drugs did not cure AIDS. However, because the drugs allowed the immune system to function, the patients were less likely to develop lifethreatening opportunistic infections. The eventual selection of drug-resistant virus placed a limit on the long-term effectiveness of such drug therapy. The timing of drug treatment, using chemicals capable of producing harmful side effects, was among the issues that had to be clarified: Was treatment equally effective regardless of the state of the immune system and the concentration of CD4+, the target cell of the virus, or would concentrations of the drugs have to be adjusted depending on the state of the patient? Since some forms of drug treatment required a 24/7 approach, what would be the effects of “missing” a proportion of doses? No definitive answers were available at the end of the decade. While limiting replication of the virus demonstrated usefulness in treating AIDS patients, studies in chimpanzees of the drug tenofovir, a nucleoside inhibitor, might be effective in blocking initial HIV infection of exposed patients. While initial studies on humans provided evidence (albeit limited) of its effectiveness, longer-term studies, including one later funded through the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, showed the drug was no more effective than other nucleoside inhibitors. Tenofovir was subsequently included among drug cocktails used during ART. As has also been observed with other forms of ART, significant side effects such as acidosis, heart problems, and possible organ failure do take place in some patients.

Preexposure Prophylaxis

Impact While nothing resembling a cure for AIDS was considered as realistic, the introduction of a second generation of individual drugs and drug cocktails was able to produce an impact on the life span of HIV-positive patients. Though the number of deaths from AIDS in the United States increased by a factor

AIDS epidemic


of 1000 percent in the five years after 1985, the number of deaths during the 1990’s was approximately 300 percent. The numbers themselves may be misleading, as the average span from diagnosis to death in a significant proportion of these individuals had more than tripled from the previous decade. From a decade high in 1995 of 51,000 reported AIDS-related deaths, the numbers had fallen to below 18,000 in 1999 and continued to drop in subsequent years. Clearly in many patients, aggressive antiviral therapy has been effective in reducing the viral load, resulting in a lessening of AIDS-related complications. Subsequent research into ART has resulted not only in new forms of protease inhibitors but also in development of a third generation of drugs that interfere with the infectious process itself. Drugs in this category include other forms of protease inhibitors, as well as drugs that act to prevent actual infection of target cells within the body. Some two dozen drugs had been approved by the Food and Drug Administration by the end of the 1990’s, with others undergoing further testing. While no cure is expected, such forms of treatment may downgrade AIDS from a death sentence in many individuals to a more chronic disease that may be managed for long periods of time.

Subsequent Events

Further Reading

Barnett, Tony, and Alan Whiteside. AIDS in the Twenty-first Century: Disease and Globalization. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. Description of the impact of the AIDS epidemic on developing countries in general and Africa in particular. The authors speculate on the effects of business and political practices on the origin and spread of the disease in these countries. Engel, Jonathan. The Epidemic: A Global History of AIDS. New York: HarperCollins, 2006. The author, a medical historian, provides a history of the outbreak, beginning with its first recognition in the early 1980’s, to the situation by 2006. An extensive bibliography is included. Garrett, Laurie. Betrayal of Trust: The Collapse of Global Public Health. New York: Hyperion, 2000. The Pulitzer Prize-winning writer addresses the impact of political events in developing countries, and subsequent breakdown of health care systems, on the growing epidemic of AIDS in much of the non-Western world.


Air pollution

Shilts, Randy, and William Greider. And the Band Played On: Politics, People, and the AIDS Epidemic. New York: St. Martin’s Press/Stonewall Inn Editions, 2000. Updated description of the outbreak of the AIDS epidemics and how the lack of recognition by agencies contributed to its spread. Shilts was a newspaper reporter who later succumbed to the illness. Stine, Gerald. AIDS Update 2007. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2007. Yearly update on research into the AIDS virus, as well as information about biological events that follow infection. Discussion about the progress of treatment is also included. Preventives currently undergoing testing such as preexposure prophylaxis are also described. Richard Adler See also Cancer research; Drug use; Health care; Homosexuality and gay rights; Johnson, Magic; Medicine; Science and technology.

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automobile-generated pollutant—also continued to be a major problem. In spite of an improving situation, about half of the people in the United States continued to breathe air that did not always meet the standards of the CAA. In addition to atmospheric pollution, indoor air pollution was a developing concern during the 1990’s. In some cases, air pollutants are two to five times more concentrated indoors than outside. Modern sealed buildings often make it difficult to bring in fresh air, and ventilating systems often circulate pollutants in office buildings. Various chemical agents such as air fresheners can contribute to indoor pollution. In addition, some types of fungi and viruses could be found in large buildings, coming at times from faulty cooling towers. The most dangerous form of indoor air pollution throughout the decade came from cigarette smoke. During the 1990’s, many local governments either regulated smoking indoors or banned it completely in an effort to deal with the impact of secondhand smoke. The usual culprits noted above continued to be responsible for air pollution during the decade. As was the case for earlier decades, industrial production and automobiles were responsible for most of the air pollution during the 1990’s. Sulfur dioxide continued to be the major form of air pollution during the 1990’s, causing, among other problems, acid deposition, which affected water quality and killed fish as well as plants. Coalburning electric power plants were the major source of SO2 during the decade, producing between 80 and 85 percent of all SO2. The problem of acid deposition remained most acute in the eastern United States in spite of significant cuts in emissions. The CAA required that 445 power plants cut their sulfur emissions by 50 percent in 1995, with another 700 required to cut emissions in 2000. Nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere come from a variety of sources, such as coal-fired power plants, but approximately one-third come from motor vehicle emissions. By 2000, nitrogen emissions were onethird greater than sulfur emissions and had grown by 4 percent from 1981 to 2000. Many nitrogen compounds are part of surface-level smog and dissipate readily, so are not a source of acid deposition. Catalytic converters in U.S. automobiles provided a major source of nitrogen emissions until the mid Sources of Pollution and Its Impact

■ Air pollution Degradation of air quality by various chemical and particulate agents.


Air pollution continued to be a major environmental concern during the decade in spite of significant air-quality improvements that had occurred and continued to occur. In addition to the standing concerns of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, carbon monoxide, and particulates such as lead in the atmosphere, the impact of greenhouse gases in causing global warming was of concern. The Clean Air Act of 1970 (CAA) continued to be the major means of regulating air quality in the 1990’s. It would be amended in 1990 and 1997 to further strengthen it and to deal with emerging problems. By the end of the 1990’s, the CAA had helped to produce a significant improvement in air quality in the United States. By 2000, there was a 29 percent decrease in total pollutants in the air since 1970, with a substantial amount of this decrease occurring during the 1990’s. Lead in the atmosphere showed the largest decrease, spurred on by the phaseout of lead in gasoline. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) levels improved markedly. Nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere continued to climb, a result of increased automobile use. Smog—surface ozone, another

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1990’s, when the catalyst was changed. While the new catalytic converters are quite effective, the engine must be warm for them to work, and this does not occur with many short trips. Surface-level ozone produced primarily by motor vehicles was a troubling issue for many cities during the decade, most notably the Los Angles basin and Houston. By 2000, about one-half of all Americans lived in areas that had severe smog problems during the summer months. Smog is a secondary pollutant formed from hydrocarbon fumes and nitrogen dioxide emitted from motor vehicles. People with respiratory problems are particularly sensitive to smog, as are pregnant women who may have a child with birth defects if they are extensively exposed to smog during pregnancy. Other pollutants such as carbon monoxide and particulate matter such as lead are often the product of vehicle emissions, although they are also the product of burning hydrocarbons in general. A debate developed in the 1990’s concerning the impact of various sizes of particles. In 1997, the Environmental Protection Agency changed its regulations to emphasize particles smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter. Research had shown that smaller particles penetrated deeper into people’s lungs, causing more severe health problems. Industry often opposed further efforts at regulating air quality during the decade, citing cost factors. Reducing SO2 emissions from coal-fired plants, for example, did have the potential for increasing energy costs. Impact Air pollution continued to be a source of environmental damage during the 1990’s. Various pollutants had a negative impact on the health of Americans, causing significantly more deaths per year than traffic accidents. In addition, air pollution has an adverse economic impact through harm to crop production, damage to buildings and monuments, and water-quality degradation, and helps to cause global warming. Regulating motor vehicle emissions, particularly from sport utility vehicles, was a major problem, unresolved at the end of the decade. In spite of improvements during the decade, air pollution would continue to be a problem for the United States. Further Reading

Blatt, Harvey. America’s Environmental Report Card. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2005. Evaluates the

Airline industry


progress in dealing with air pollution and other environmental issues during the decade. Environmental Protection Agency. Latest Findings on National Air Quality, 2000. oar/aqtrnd00/Index.html. Useful source of data concerning air pollution. Rosenbaum, Walter A. Environmental Politics and Policy. 7th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2008. Good coverage of the politics of air pollution and other environmental issues. John M. Theilmann Clean Air Act of 1990; Earth in the Balance; Global warming debate; Science and technology; Water pollution.

See also

■ Airline industry Definition

Organizations providing air transport

services Four major accidents, airline bankruptcies, international airline alliances, and Southwest Airlines’ success define the airline industry in Canada and the United States in the 1990’s. Along with creating the initial model for airline globalization, the 1990’s brought back some recursive problems for airlines: high fuel prices and operating costs, cumbersome taxes, and tragic accidents. Three of the most reported accidents in the United States were 1996’s ValuJet Flight 592 crash that resulted in the loss of 110 people, 1996’s TWA Flight 800 disaster that claimed 230 lives, and 1999’s EgyptAir Flight 990 crash that killed 217 people. Though there were no fatalities that could be attributed to any crashes of Canadian commercial aircraft in the 1990’s, one tragedy in 1998 occurred involving Swissair Flight 111, which crashed off the coast of Nova Scotia, killing 229 people, including 136 Americans. Though the problems and tragedies above are of great interest, this decade in the airline industry is marked uniquely by a rash of bankruptcies, an increase in international code-sharing agreements, 1995’s “open skies” agreement between the United States and Canada, international airline alliances, and Southwest Airlines’ success. Bankruptcy and Code Sharing The 1990’s began with five U.S. airlines filing for bankruptcy. The di-


Airline industry

rect effect of this was an economic recession in the United States from 1990 to 1991 combined with increased operating costs due to security concerns during the Gulf War. Further, residual effects from the Airline Deregulation Act (ADA) might have aggravated these problems. Consequently, five airlines filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy during this time: Continental Airlines, Pan American World Airways (Pan Am), Eastern Air Lines, America West Airlines, and Trans World Airlines (TWA). Unfortunately, Pan Am and Eastern ended their operations as a result. With the exception of Air Canada, Canada’s airline industry struggled as well. The ADA, signed into law in 1978, gradually diminished the federal Civil Aeronautics Board’s control over airfare, encouraged the creation of new airlines, and allowed international airline companies to provide service anywhere in the United States. The intent was to increase competition, thereby increasing quality and decreasing airfare. The result in the 1980’s was a chaotic series of birth, demise, and takeover of new and smaller airlines. This also happened in the 1990’s to some extent, but the increase in competition led to a significant increase in code sharing and global alliances among the world’s major airlines. American Airlines and Qantas of Australia began the code-sharing strategy in 1990. This allowed different airlines to use the same flight number to the advantage of passengers on their way to international destinations. More important, the strategy globally streamlined airline scheduling and the baggage-handling process. This also increased all airlines’ marketing power because they could, with the help of another company, advertise new routes to places they could not previously reach. By 1991, code-sharing agreements were necessities for all major airlines with international connections. American Airlines, Air Canada, Canadian Airlines, Delta Air Lines, United Airlines, Northwest Airlines, TWA, Continental Airlines, and US Air (US Airways by 1997) had code-sharing agreements with airlines all over the world. In addition, the bilateral “open skies” agreement of 1995 between Ottawa and Washington opened thirty-two new routes into the United States for Air Canada and Canadian Airlines. This was good news for both airlines, especially Canadian Airlines, which struggled to stay in business due to a shortage of domestic Canadian routes throughout the 1990’s. Unfortunately, Canadian Airlines did go under by 2000.

The Nineties in America International Alliances Two major global alliances formed in the late 1990’s: the Star Alliance and the Oneworld Alliance. Since these are a result of code sharing, it could be said that American Airlines and Qantas began the international airline alliance movement. American Airlines, British Airways, Canadian Airlines, Cathay Pacific Airways (of Hong Kong), and Qantas founded Oneworld in 1998. It is currently headquartered in Vancouver. In 1997, Air Canada, United Airlines, Lufthansa, Scandinavian Airlines System, and Thai Airways International founded the Star Alliance. Besides the benefits of code sharing, these alliances have been able to combine their frequentflyer programs and share terminals and concourses in the world’s major airports. Furthermore, these alliances are not limited to those listed above; their memberships totaled up to twenty major airlines. For American Airlines, the alliance seems to have been an alternate solution to its merger plans with Canadian Airlines and British Airways. Though a merger never came to fruition, it was attempted from 1995 through 1999 and infuriated airline executives in North America and the United Kingdom. Although governments have investigated these alliances, they were not sued for breaking antitrust laws. Southwest’s Success Southwest Airlines’ rise began shortly after the passage of the ADA. By 1999, Southwest was one of the most profitable airlines in the world. While the major airlines focused on alliances, code sharing, and the “hub-and-spoke” flightroute strategy, Southwest began to acquire several lucrative regional routes in the Pacific West, the Midwest, and Florida focusing on direct flights between cities. Although the major airlines in America owned several regional airlines that also focused on the direct-route strategy, they did not apply as much marketing force to those routes as Southwest did in the 1990’s. The result was that Southwest trumped the major airlines in terms of advertising these regional routes. The profit margins in the 1990’s show the effectiveness of its marketing and logistics strategies: In 1991, Southwest’s net profit for the year was $26.91 million; at the end of 1999, the year’s net profit was $474.37 million, placing it sixth in the world in operating profit, despite the fact that it did not participate in the alliances. Southwest’s rise may have given

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Albee, Edward


courage to other independent airlines such as Canada’s Westjet and the United States’ JetBlue in the late 1990’s. Impact In 2000, a third international alliance, SkyTeam, was formed by AeroMexico, Air France, Delta, and Korean Air. This solidifies the alliance system as the method with which airlines will deal with the global economy of the twenty-first century. One positive effect is that it streamlines travel for the world’s passengers and provides solidarity among airlines. One negative is the possibility that the airlines within the alliances will begin to merge, forming three or more giant airline companies. However, this would seem to go against antitrust laws and what passengers appreciate about independent airlines that specialize in direct flights. Further Reading

Oum, Tae Hoon, Jong-Hun Park, and Anming Zhang. Globalization and Strategic Alliances: The Case of the Airline Industry. New York: Pergamon, 2000. Extremely well-researched and presented discussion of the early alliances and their impact on the world. Smith, Myron J. The Airline Encyclopedia, 1909-2000. Vols. 1-3. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2002. A quintessential publication for anyone interested in the airline industry. Williams, George. Airline Competition: Deregulation’s Mixed Legacy. Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate, 2002. Unique and informative look at the effects of Europe’s deregulation, which closely followed the United States’ Deregulation Act. Troy Place See also Business and the economy in Canada; Business and the economy in the United States; Canada and the United States; EgyptAir Flight 990 crash; Europe and North America; Recession of 1990-1991; TWA Flight 800 crash; ValuJet Flight 592 crash.

■ Albee, Edward Major American absurdist playwright Born March 12, 1928; Washington, D.C. Identification

By the 1990’s, Edward Albee had established himself as America’s most prominent theatrical voice.

Edward Albee. (AP/Wide World Photos)

Albee began his climb to prominence with the OffBroadway production of The Sand Box (pr. 1960), a surrealistic one-act drama in which one man convinces another to commit suicide. His first Broadway hit was Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (pr. 1962), in which a couple spend a drunken evening deliberately destroying their marriage. The play won the Tony Award, and absurdism was established in mainstream American theater. By the 1990’s, Albee had already written two Pulitzer Prize-winning plays: A Delicate Balance (pr. 1966) and Seascape (pr. 1975). In 1991, Albee was ready to offer a new surrealistic play to contend for the Pulitzer Prize: Three Tall Women. He first found a producer in Vienna, where Three Tall Women opened at the English Theatre, Ltd. In 1992, the play moved to the Rivers Arts Repertory Theatre in Woodstock, New York. In 1994, it opened at OffBroadway’s Vineyard Theatre and won for Edward Albee his third Pulitzer Prize, a record previously held only by Eugene O’Neill.


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Three Tall Women commences as if it were a realistic play. There are three female characters: an elderly woman, her middle-aged attendant, and a young lawyer who is writing the elderly lady’s will. The first act is taken up with the elderly woman’s rambling reminiscences. As the act ends, she has a seizure, and the second act opens in a hospital room with her dying in bed. However, it is a dummy dying, for suddenly the old woman appears, followed by the other two women, and it is soon apparent that all three are aspects of the same woman at different ages in her life. The remainder of the play is taken up with their highly divergent remembrances of, and arguments about, the same incidents. Just before the play ends, the woman’s son comes in to sit silently by her bedside. This is perhaps an autobiographical moment, for Albee had become distanced from his own mother years earlier. After two less than successful plays, The Lorca Play (pr. 1992) and Fragments (pr. 1993), Albee’s surrealistic work, The Play About the Baby (pr. 1998), successfully completed the decade. Impact Throughout the 1990’s, in addition to the Pulitzer Prize, Edward Albee would receive four additional honors: the Kennedy Center Honors, the National Medal of Arts, the Obie Award for Sustained Achievement, and the Inge Award for Lifetime Achievement. He would also hold a distinguished professorship at the University of Houston. Albee could certainly claim the title of America’s outstanding living dramatist of the 1990’s.

■ Albert, Marv Identification Radio and television sportscaster Born June 12, 1940; Brooklyn, New York

After reaching the peak of his popularity during the mid1990’s, Albert spent the waning years of the decade attempting to salvage a career marred by scandal. For the bulk of the 1990’s, Marv Albert was one of the most successful sportscasters in the United States, enjoying immense popularity among sports audiences and widespread demand for his services from a variety of media outlets. A radio and television announcer for the New York Knicks basketball team and radio announcer for the New York Rangers hockey team since the 1960’s, Albert also worked for NBC Sports in a variety of capacities, most notably as a play-by-play announcer for National Football League (NFL) games. His frequent guest appearances on NBC’s The David Letterman Show during the 1990’s solidified his popularity, especially with younger audiences. By mid-decade, his name was widely recognized among sports audi-

Further Reading

Gussow, Mel. Edward Albee: A Singular Journey. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1999. Staub, August. “Public and Private Thought: The Enthymeme of Death in Three Tall Women.” Journal of Dramatic Theory and Criticism 12, no. 1 (Fall, 1997): 149-158. Wilmeth, Don B., and Christopher Bigsby, eds. PostWorld War II to the 1990’s. Vol. 3 in The Cambridge History of American Theatre. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000. August W. Staub Angels in America; Art movements; Broadway musicals; Homosexuality and gay rights; Rent ; McNally, Terrence; Theater in the United States.

See also

Marv Albert after being booked on assault and forcible sodomy charges on May 27, 1997. (AP/Wide World Photos)

The Nineties in America

ences, and several of his more popular catch phrases had become part of the American sports lexicon. Albert’s career was derailed in 1997 when he was charged with assault and forcible sodomy as the result of an alleged incident involving a woman with whom he had allegedly had a long-standing relationship. The woman accused Albert of repeatedly biting her and forcing her to perform a variety of sexual acts. Testimony given during the resultant trial revealed lurid details of their relationship, including stories of sexual encounters involving multiple partners and allegations that Albert sometimes wore women’s underwear. After DNA tests confirmed that Albert had bitten the woman, he pleaded guilty to misdemeanor assault and battery charges and was given a twelve-month suspended jail sentence. The allegations and trial severely damaged Albert’s career; he was subsequently fired from NBC and resigned from his job as announcer for the Knicks. Impact Marv Albert began the 1990’s as one of the most popular sportscasters in the United States, but by the end of the decade he was a disgraced public figure whose future as a sportscaster appeared questionable. The sensational account of his arrest and conviction was but one of many such stories to appear in the American news media during the 1990’s. The scandal, which had displaced the media frenzy over the death of Princess Diana of Great Britain in a suspicious automobile accident, was subsequently overshadowed by other scandals involving popular figures, including revelations of an illicit relationship between President Bill Clinton and White House intern Monica Lewinsky. As the story rapidly faded into obscurity, Albert began to rehabilitate his image, returning to the Knicks as a part-time radio announcer in 1998 and to NBC as a play-by-play announcer for National Basketball Association (NBA) basketball games in 2000. Further Reading

Albert, Marv. I’d Love to But I Have a Game. New York: Doubleday, 1993. O’Brien, Sinead. “Without Skipping a Beat: The Media Frenzy over Princess Diana Was Quickly Succeeded by the Media Frenzy over Marv Albert.” American Journalism Review 19, no. 9 (November 1, 1997): 26-27. Michael H. Burchett

Albright, Madeleine See also


Baskeball; Football; Scandals; Sports;


■ Albright, Madeleine U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, 1993-1997, and U.S. secretary of state, 1997-2001 Born May 15, 1937; Prague, Czechoslovakia (now in Czech Republic) Identification

As the third female U.S. ambassador to the United Nations and, more important, the first U.S. female secretary of state, Albright was one of the most influential women in the world. Born Marie Jana Korbel, Madeleine Albright was the daughter of a Czech diplomat. In 1939, her family fled Czechoslovakia to England in order to escape Nazi tyranny. Her experiences offered a unique perspective as she helped formulate and guide U.S. foreign policy in the 1990’s. In December, 1992, then president-elect Bill Clinton announced her nomination as U.S. ambassador to the United Nations. At that time, she said that she was thrilled over the “generous spirit” and goodwill of the American people and would be proud to represent them at the United Nations. Albright was unanimously confirmed by the U.S. Senate in February, 1993. Once at the United Nations, she immediately tackled the toughest foreign policy dilemmas of the 1990’s. Albright was successful in persuading North Korea to abide by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and to allow inspectors back in to ensure compliance. In 1995, Iraq had placed armed forces close to the border of Kuwait, making some fear a rerun of the 1991 Gulf War. Albright supported President Clinton’s military buildup in the Gulf, and Iraq was forced to withdraw its troops from Kuwait. She was the first of the foreign policy establishment to warn of potential conflicts in Africa and during her tenure at the United Nations brought Somalia, Rwanda, and South Africa to the forefront in the ever-changing priorities of U.S. foreign policy. Albright made history when the Senate confirmed her nomination on January 23, 1997, by a 99-0 vote, to become the first female secretary of state in U.S. history. A few weeks later, The Washington Post reported that Albright, who was raised a Catholic, was of Jewish heritage and that three of her grand-


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Allen, Woody

twentieth century. Very few women were fortunate enough to rise to the levels that Albright did, and she inspired women the world over to speak out and have a say in their lives and their future. Further Reading

Albright, Madeleine. Madam Secretary: A Memoir. New York: Miramax Books, 2003. Albright’s personal account of her life from childhood to her tenure as secretary of state. Blood, Thomas. Madam Secretary: A Biography of Madeleine Albright. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997. Blood, Albright’s official biographer, describes her life from her birth to her tenure as U.N. ambassador. David Murphy Africa and the United States; Cold War, end of; Europe and North America; Foreign policy of the United States; Israel and the United States; Kosovo conflict; Middle East and North America; Somalia conflict; United Nations.

See also

Madeleine Albright at a U.N. news conference in 1996. (AP/ Wide World Photos)

■ Allen, Woody American film director, author, comedian, and actor Born December 1, 1935; Brooklyn, New York Identification

parents died in concentration camps—information that she claimed had been hidden from her. Albright continued to advocate for the same type of foreign policy and priorities that she had while at the United Nations. She supported the Clinton administration during the Kosovo conflict and sought to keep peace between Bosnia and Herzegovina afterward. She represented the United States when the United Kingdom transferred sovereignty of Hong Kong over to China on July 1, 1997. Albright was known during her tenure for her outspoken support for human rights and strengthening U.S. ties to the United Nations and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), believing that the world and the United States were much better off when the United States cooperated with other nations to confront the foreign policy issues of the day. Impact Madeleine Albright ended the 1990’s as one of the most influential women in the world and arguably one of the most influential figures of the

In the 1990’s, Allen consolidated his status as an independent and critically acclaimed filmmaker by writing, directing, and frequently performing in motion pictures. Born Allen Stewart Konigsberg, Woody Allen made his initial reputation as a stand-up comedian and gag writer, whose early films were slapstick comedies. The persona he presented, that of the Jewish schlemiel, would remain, even as his work matured. By the 1990’s, he was well recognized in Europe as a distinctive American intellectual, whose work expressed post-World War II existentialism and owed much to the pensive writings of the French philosopher Albert Camus and the Russian literary masters Fyodor Dostoevski and Anton Chekhov. In America, Allen’s films were more often critical than commercial successes. As a New York-based artist who largely snubbed Hollywood, he had nevertheless received three Academy Awards for Annie Hall (1977) and would continue to receive Academy nominations and other prestigious awards for his

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Ally McBeal


However, when Farrow discovered in early 1992 that Allen had seduced her teenage adopted daughter, Soon-Yi Previn, her outrage landed him in the courts. Their legal battles, with mutual accusations of wrongdoing and poor parenting, were followed for months by an avid public. European admirers accepted events more calmly, and audiences did not desert him. In 1997, he finally married Soon-Yi, who never performed in his films but remained the dominant influence on his private life. Impact Allen is still expanding his substantial body of work, expressing a highly personal vision that celebrates his native New York City and, at the same time, reflects contemporary mores, perplexities, and aspirations of thoughtful people everywhere. Further Reading Woody Allen at a news conference in September, 1993. (AP/ Wide World Photos)

writing and directing throughout the 1990’s. His work of the decade elicited comparisons with the classic films of his acknowledged European hero, Ingmar Bergman, and was often experimental. Alice (1990) was a provocative fantasy, while Shadows and Fog (1992) paid homage to German expressionism and the music of Kurt Weill. Husbands and Wives (1992) continued the examination of a favorite Allen theme, the difficulty of maintaining intimate relationships. Manhattan Murder Mystery (1993) was an entertainment that celebrated the sophisticated Hollywood mystery-comedies Allen had enjoyed in his youth. In Bullets over Broadway (1994), he explored the mysteries of creativity, while Mighty Aphrodite (1995) contained satire of Greek tragedy. In Everyone Says I Love You (1996), Allen tried his hand at musical comedy. Deconstructing Harry (1997) and Celebrity (1998) were further journeys into the psychology of creativity and celebrity. The 1990’s was also the decade in which a sex scandal erupted that seriously threatened Allen’s career and status as a cinematic moralist. The women in his life, particularly actresses Louise Lasser, his second wife, and Diane Keaton, had always figured prominently in his work. In 1982, Allen had begun a twelve-year personal and professional relationship with Mia Farrow, who would perform in his films during the period and give birth to his son, Satchel.

Hirsch, Foster. Love, Sex, Death, and the Meaning of Life: The Films of Woody Allen. 3d ed. Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo Press, 2001. Schickel, Richard. Woody Allen: A Life in Film. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2003. Allene Phy-Olsen Academy Awards; Comedians; Film in the United States; Jewish Americans.

See also

■ Ally McBeal Identification Dramatic comedy television series Creator David E. Kelley (1956) Date Aired from September 8, 1997, to May 20,

2002 This ensemble comedy-drama caught the attention of a professional, age thirty-plus audience. With its eccentric characters, mix of fantasy and reality, romance, courtroom drama, and office silliness, the show became part of viewers’ Monday night schedules. Ally McBeal was the creation of David E. Kelley, writer of hit shows Chicago Hope, Picket Fences, and The Practice. Like these other shows, this hour-long mix of drama and comedy (dubbed a “dramedy”) had an ensemble cast. Set in the Boston law office of Cage and Fish, the story lines focus on the lawyers and their relationships as well as issues common to the contemporary workplace. Courtroom scenes show the principals in action. The title character, a Generation X attorney, played by Calista Flockhart, be-


Ally McBeal

The Nineties in America

Calista Flockhart, center, and fellow cast members of Ally McBeal accept the award for Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Comedy Series at the 1999 Screen Actors Guild Awards show in Los Angeles. (AP/Wide World Photos)

came the poster child for postfeminist angst. The series features a woman who bested her longtime boyfriend at Harvard Law by making the Review (while he did not), who is the victim of sexual harassment in the workplace and makes sure the offender is punished, and who makes good money and wears nice clothes. However, Ally finds that she cannot not have it all—a contradiction of feminist doctrine, which told women they could. She appears in control and confident on the outside but sees herself as a little girl in a big chair rather than an equal among her peers. The show drew viewers into her fantasy world, enabling them to see her innermost thoughts and desires. In June, 1998, Ally made the cover of Time magazine with the headline “Is Feminism Dead?” The answer was no; it had changed. Characters in the show representing feminist success, such as Ling, played by Lucy Liu (cold and power-hungry), are “scary” but comic. The one woman who appears to have it

all—a great job and a handsome, smart husband— discovers that her husband is in love with another woman. Former concerns of the feminist movement, such as equality in the workplace, are in the past; the women in Ally McBeal are successful but often torn between their professional and personal lives. Ally supports women’s rights, but not at the expense of her emotional life. Critics of the show were not impressed by the “dancing babies,” representing Ally’s biological clock, nor did they like her sexy demeanor, with her pouting lips and extremely short skirts. Some were disturbed that the very thin Flockhart might be anorexic and, therefore, a terrible role model for young women watching the show. However, the show was fun. The cast included Elaine, a secretary, played by Jane Krakowski, inventor of the face bra, and John Cage, a partner in the firm, played by Peter MacNicol, whose courtroom antics and fondness for his pet frog balanced the mostly serious courtroom scenes.

The Nineties in America Impact From the first episode, Ally McBeal caught the attention of young, professional people, women in particular. With her quick wit, vulnerability, and yearning for romance, Ally was someone to admire. Audiences did not want to be like her emotionally, but they did aspire to her wardrobe and her income. Further Reading

Jefferson, Margo. “You Want to Slap Ally McBeal, But Do You Like Her?” The New York Times, March 18, 1998, p. E2. Start, Steven D. “Lady’s Night.” The New Republic, December 29, 1997, 13-14. Marcia B. Dinneen Chick lit; Friends; Television; Sex and the City; Women in the workforce.

See also

Alternative rock


sword and, unfortunately, led to tragic endings that could not have been imagined. The rebellious spirit that pushed most of the alternative acts can be traced back to the punk era of the 1970’s. Alternative bands took inspiration from such authentic and forceful musicians as the Ramones, the Sex Pistols, the Clash, Elvis Costello, Graham Parker, Joe Jackson, and others. The musicians who took their lead from the inyour-face approach of the punk movement focused on remaining as honest as possible in their music. Shallow and simplistic approaches to music did not interest the true alternative band. The roots of rock music were certainly antiestablishment, and these new bands believed wholeheartedly in not compromising their principles merely to please the industry.

Laying the Groundwork

Grunge Rises to the Surface In the early 1990’s, one of the most important subgenres of alternative

■ Alternative rock A musical genre that professed dissatisfaction with the commercialism that pervaded the music industry


During the 1990’s, bands that were dismayed by the shallowness of the mainstream music industry took it upon themselves to produce a more gritty and purposeful form of music that gained prominence among teenagers and college students. While the popularity of alternative rock lasted for merely a few years, its impact was felt into the twenty-first century. While “alternative” rock had its beginnings in the 1980’s with such bands as R.E.M., Sonic Youth, the Smiths, the Cure, Jane’s Addiction, Red Hot Chili Peppers, the Replacements, and others, it did not become hugely popular until the 1990’s. While the various loosely grouped bands came from several musical roots, they all had a rebellious fervor that bonded them together. Whether their roots were in country, punk, heavy metal, or rock music, they presented themselves as more independent and adventurous instruments of change. The one unifying factor that linked them all was their disdain for and mistrust of the commercialism that permeated the music industry. While each of these musical acts attempted to remain true to their ideals, it became difficult for several of them as one alternative band after another became immensely popular. Success for bands such as Nirvana became a double-edged

Billy Corgan, lead singer of the Smashing Pumpkins. (Hulton Archive/Getty Images)


rock emerged in Seattle, Washington. Such bands as Nirvana, Pearl Jam, and Soundgarden burst onto the musical landscape with gritty hard-edged music. Through the success of these and other “angstdriven” bands, a whole “Seattle sound” became a national musical force. Kurt Cobain of Nirvana became the poster boy of the troubled musician who was never comfortable with success. With the release of Nevermind in 1991, Nirvana was catapulted into the limelight. The single “Smells Like Teen Spirit” took on an anthemlike status for what has come to be known as Generation X. For Cobain, this rise to almost godlike status became extremely difficult to cope with. He was addicted to heroin and susceptible to periods of deep depression. Tragically, he committed suicide on April 5, 1994. While this tragedy cut short the life of a very talented musical voice and the band he helped to form, Nirvana’s influence did not diminish. Several other quality bands found a large audience during the 1990’s, including the Smashing Pumpkins, the Dave Matthews Band, Counting Crows, and Alice in Chains. After initially receiving exposure on smaller radio stations or college radio stations, many of these groups eventually were given exposure on more traditional rock radio stations. A Lollapalooza tour was initiated in 1991 in order to introduce the listening public to several previously unknown alternative acts. Alternative rock was on the verge of becoming the next big thing in music, and for the next few years that seemed to be the case. Soundgarden released the critically acclaimed album Badmotorfinger in 1991. Along with Nirvana’s Nevermind, Soundgarden’s album is considered one of the great grunge statements of the decade. In 1993, the Smashing Pumpkins released the hugely popular album Siamese Dream. By 1994, the album had sold three million copies. Although the band’s 1995 release Mellon Collie and the Infinite Sadness was a double album, it also sold very well. By the end of the decade, many of the bands that had made alternative rock a musical force had either disbanded or lost their creative intensity. While an alternative band’s commercial success was looked upon in some quarters as selling out, the impact of the best that alternative rock had to offer cannot be denied. Bands such as Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Soundgarden, and the Smashing Pumpkins produced extraordinary music during their Impact

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prime. The music from these seminal alternative bands spoke to the generation that had come of age during the decade. In addition, several quality female performers found their voice during the 1990’s, including Tori Amos, Alanis Morissette, Courtney Love, P. J. Harvey, and Liz Phair. Further Reading

Anderson, Kyle. Accidental Revolution: The Story of Grunge. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 2007. An incisive look at the rise and fall of a vital music genre. Cross, Alan. Alternative Rock. Burlington, Canada: Collector’s Guide, 2000. An engrossing look at the best that alternative rock had to offer during the 1990’s. Hermes, Will, with Sia Michel, eds. Spin: Twenty Years of Alternative Music. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2005. A incisive collection of critical essays on the alternative music scene. Reisfeld, Randi. This Is the Sound! The Best of Alternative Rock. New York: Aladdin Paperbacks, 1996. A pointed discussion on the important alternative bands. Skancke, Jennifer. The History of Indie Rock. Detroit, Mich.: Lucent Books, 2007. As part of the Music Library series, this volume details the rise of the independent music industry. Thompson, Dave. Alternative Rock. San Francisco: Miller Freeman, 2000. Focuses on the important bands that impacted the alternative music scene. True, Everett. Nirvana: The Biography. Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo Press, 2007. A thorough evaluation of a seminal band. Jeffry Jensen See also Grunge fashion; Grunge music; Lollapalooza; Love, Courtney; Morissette, Alanis; MTV Unplugged; Music; Nirvana; Woodstock concerts.

■ Alvarez, Julia Identification Dominican American author Born March 27, 1950; New York, New York

Alvarez is one of the first Dominican American writers to achieve international acclaim. In the 1990’s, her first novels were published and awarded, which ensured a permanent place for her in the literary and academic canon.

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Alvarez, Julia


events was made into a film of the same name, which stars Salma Hayek as Minerva. Hayek won an Alma Award for her portrayal, and the novel became an American Library Association Notable Book the same year it was published. The second half of the decade continued to be a prolific one for Alvarez. She returned to her first love—poetry—and published three volumes of work. Homecoming: New and Collected Poems (1996) was a new version of an earlier work published in 1984, and The Other Side/El otro lado (1995) and Seven Trees (1998) were new. She also found time to publish a collection of essays, titled Something to Declare (1998), and a new novel titled ¡Yo! (1997) revisits the extended García family through stories that are told about sister Yolanda from different perspectives. During this decade, Alvarez was a writer-inresidence and professor at Middlebury College in Vermont. She was given tenure in 1991 and made full professor in 1996.

Julia Alvarez. (Algonquin Books)

Julia Alvarez writes about family relationships, especially between sisters, and the impact of multiple cultures on education, ideas, and identity. Her work introduced the voice of the Dominican population that migrated to the East Coast of the United States in the mid-twentieth century, primarily through the culture of Dominican elites. How the García Girls Lost Their Accents was published in 1991 and won the PEN Oakland/Josephine Miles Book Award in the same year. The novel explores how the García sisters try to assimilate to American life after their family was forced to move from the Dominican Republic because of its disapproval of Rafael Trujillo’s regime. Three years later, in 1994, Alvarez produced a strong follow-up to her first novel with In the Time of Butterflies. This novel again examines sister relationships through the lives of the Mirabal sisters, who were known in the Dominican Republic as “Las Mariposas,” or “The Butterflies.” The Mirabal sisters were involved with a subversive faction that opposed Trujillo and were jailed and murdered for their guerrilla activities. The murders and Trujillo’s dictatorship have influenced this and other writing by Alvarez. The fictionalized account of the real-life

Impact Julia Alvarez has influenced teachers, scholars, the film industry, and the populations of the United States and the Dominican Republic. Dominican Americans on the East Coast of the United States were seen, but their history was unknown by the majority of the U.S. population until Alvarez’s work was published. Her examination of women’s roles in Latin America and the United States continues to be widely studied among literary scholars. Further Reading

Johnson, Kelli Lyon. Julia Alvarez: Writing a New Place on the Map. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2005. Sirias, Silvio. Julia Alvarez: A Critical Companion. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2001. Stanley, Deborah A., and Ira Mark Milne, eds. Novels for Students: Presenting Analysis, Context, and Criticism on Commonly Studied Novels. Vol. 9. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale Group, 2000. Grisel Y. Acosta Chick lit; Demographics of the United States; Film in the United States; Immigration to the United States; Independent films; Latin America; Latinos; Literature in the United States; National Endowment for the Arts (NEA); Poetry; Publishing; Women’s rights.

See also


The Nineties in America

Alzheimer’s disease

■ Alzheimer’s disease A progressive deterioration of the brain, usually in elderly people, resulting in dementia and death


Public attention in the 1990’s focused on a rapid increase in the number of Americans either suffering from Alzheimer’s disease or caring for an affected family member. Potentially useful genetic findings raised thorny moral dilemmas. A decade of intensive research produced no cure or effective treatment of symptoms. Alzheimer’s disease is a spongiform encephalopathy—that is, a disease causing brain tissue to degenerate, becoming riddled with holes. Over a period of years, mental functioning declines, culminating in a vegetative state and death. Alois Alzheimer, who formally described it in 1907, considered it to be a rare disorder affecting middle-aged people. Around 1960, the medical community started recognizing that a common form of senile dementia affecting people in their seventies and eighties was the same thing. Senile dementia has been recognized since antiquity but was regarded as a normal consequence of aging. The number of Alzheimer’s patients in America

Alzheimer’s brain

Normal brain

Alzheimer’s disease causes the volume of the brain to shrink substantially. (Hans & Cassidy, Inc.)

rose steeply between 1950 and 2000. By the mid1990’s, they represented one-third of all patients requiring long-term nursing care, and it was estimated that one in five Americans would eventually succumb. Despite these alarming statistics, this is not an epidemic in the usual sense. The age-specific incidence of new cases remains fairly constant. More people are hospitalized with Alzheimer’s now because of an increase in overall life span and because antibiotics and other therapies keep elderly senile patients alive longer. Improvements in cardiac therapy contribute disproportionately. A gene predisposing a person to late-onset Alzheimer’s also predisposes him or her to arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). The person who avoids an early grave with triple bypass surgery is at high risk for Alzheimer’s disease. Genetics The years 1989-1995 witnessed great strides in understanding the biochemistry of and genetic basis of Alzheimer’s. Geneticists identified four genes, all involved in fat metabolism, as predisposing factors. Three of these are rare and are strongly associated with inherited early-onset Alzheimer’s. The fourth, a variant of the gene for apolipoprotein E, is present in 30 percent of Americans and is also associated with cardiovascular disease. Another variant of this gene appears to confer immunity. This discovery sparked considerable controversy, because in the absence of any effective treatment for Alzheimer’s, a person carrying the risk factor would be subjected to worry and possible discrimination without receiving any benefit. Should carriers of the gene being treated for the cardiovascular risks also be told of the potential for Alzheimer’s? The consensus among medical professionals is that this gene should be used as a diagnostic tool only to help confirm a suspected case of active disease. More definitive diagnostic tests have since become available. Human Costs The 1990’s saw a focus on caregivers and the burdens imposed on them. A surviving spouse or adult child endures years of caring for a person who consumes increasing amounts of time and money while becoming progressively less responsive, while dealing with a medical system and a bureaucracy insensitive to the psychological wellbeing of family members. Changing the rules for Medicare reimbursement of nursing home expenses addressed monetary issues. Despite the pro-

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liferation of support groups and respite programs, the caregiver problem remained acute. In 1991, Dr. Jack Kevorkian, the controversial guru of physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia, attracted national attention by assisting in the suicide of a woman in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease. Most commentators felt this act fell far outside what society ought to condone: The woman was still in good physical health and probably had several years before complete mental debility set in. On the other hand, the physical deterioration and mental incompetence this woman sought to avoid would have precluded assisted suicide at a later date. Those who condemn such acts out of hand, or automatically label them as insane, discount a desire to spare loved ones the emotional and financial burdens of caregiving as a valid motivation. A related debate concerns the extent to which modern medicine should be used to prolong the lives of people with dementia. Much of the explosion in Alzheimer’s incidence can be traced to medical innovations unavailable before World War II. Should a person be denied a procedure, such as open-heart surgery, which has become routine, based on his or her dementia? The answer in the 1990’s was no, with efforts focusing on ensuring equal access. At the beginning of the decade, medical researchers had high hopes that early diagnosis combined with new therapies would provide a cure or at least slow the progress of this devastating disease. In the search for a cause, they looked for predisposing environmental factors. They found little aside from the genetic pattern. One study, involving a cohort of nuns, suggested that subtle mental impairment was present decades before the onset of clinical disease. This explains why people who pursue continuing education in their sixties almost never develop Alzheimer’s, a finding used in the 1990’s to sell education to retirees. Rather than being protective, an active intellectual life in late middle age indicates a healthy brain. Aluminum toxicity is implicated in some cases of dementia, but no link to Alzheimer’s has been found. If there is an actual pathogen involved, it remains elusive. Prions—abnormal infectious proteins— cause other spongiform encephelopathies, but in humans at least these are rare diseases with a clear chain of transmission. The common pathogenic

Diagnosis and Treatment


bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis sometimes occurs in brain tissue and arteriosclerotic plaques; this may be a secondary infection. In 1990, the Food and Drug Administration approved tacrine and donepezil for treating Alzheimer’s patients. Neither slows organic brain degeneration, and severe side effects offset temporary improved functioning. Behavioral approaches can improve the quality of life for a time, but acquired routines are forgotten as the brain deteriorates. Impact In general, the 1990’s saw increasing incidence and increasing public awareness of Alzheimer’s disease but very little progress in treatment at the individual level or in grappling with the disease as a societal problem. Further Reading

Cutler, Neil R., and John J. Sramek. Understanding Alzheimer’s Disease. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1996. Explains research in layman’s terms. Post, Stephen G., and Peter J. Whitehouse. Genetic Testing for Alzheimer Disease. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998. Explains the genetics and the ethical issues involved. Whitehouse, Peter J., Konrad Maurer, and Jesse F. Bellenger, eds. Concepts of Alzheimer Disease: Biological, Clinical and Cultural Perspectives. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000. A good overview of the history and developments in the 1990’s. Martha Sherwood Elder abuse; Genetics research; Health care; Medicine; Physician-assisted suicide.

See also

■ Identification American-based online business Date Founded in 1994

The first online bookstore, grew to have one of the world’s largest selection of books. After launching, the company soon emerged as a leading Internet commerce site for the purchase of books and eventually other products. was the brainchild of Jeff Bezos, who in 1994 was the youngest senior executive at investment firm D. E. Shaw. He had been avidly watching developments in the Internet, the giant network of


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America Online

networks originally created by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) to ensure communications after a nuclear war. In the early 1990’s, the DOD handed control of the Internet over to private concerns, opening the way for ordinary people to access it. The World Wide Web and graphical browsers such as Mosaic and Netscape Navigator made using the Internet far less intimidating. Bezos realized that a business selling through a Web site would not be limited by the overhead of a physical storefront. It would need only warehouse space and offices for customer-service personnel. In effect, it would be a perpetually updating mail-order catalog. After carefully studying successful mailorder companies and making contacts in the bookselling world, Bezos left D. E. Shaw and moved to Seattle, where he could find large numbers of people with technical backgrounds. Bezos started on a shoestring budget, with three workstations in the garage of his rented two-bedroom home. His computer desks were old doors. He put all his money into creating a user-friendly Web site that would make the purchase process easy for customers and with top-notch customer service. He knew an Internet business could succeed only if people were confident that they could give their credit card information safely and that their purchase would arrive promptly. grew quickly to move to larger quarters, but desks continued to be old doors. During the Christmas rush, technical employees in Seattle were often taken to fulfillment centers in remote parts of the country to pack customer orders. However, most desk workers were not in physical condition for this demanding work, resulting in spectacular knee and back injuries. After’s initial growth spurt, it went through several years in which investment in rapid expansion left it constantly teetering on the edge of financial disaster. However, by the close of 1999 had established itself as a leader, one of the few businesses with the fundamentals to survive the dot-com bust of 2000. Impact Although was not the first business to sell merchandise online, its success proved the concept was no longer science fiction but a practical reality. The careful use of security software, combined with excellent customer service, won the confidence of buyers; by the end of the 1990’s, had survived its adolescent

transition to become a major player on the Internet landscape. Further Reading

Daisey, Mike. Twenty-one Dog Years: Doing Time @ New York: Free Press, 2002. Humorous reminiscences by a former employee. Ramo, Joshua Cooper. “Why the Founder of Is Our Choice for 1999.” Time, December 27, 1999, 50-51. Article announcing the choice of Bezos as Time’s person of the year is accompanied by articles about e-retailing and prominent Internet entrepreneurs. Leigh Husband Kimmel See also Bezos, Jeff; Business and the economy in the United States; Computers; Dot-coms; Silicon Valley; World Wide Web; Yahoo!.

■ America Online The first generally accessible Internet service provider (ISP)


The ISP, which helped to make the Internet available to millions of people and build an online community, thrived during the 1990’s. Earlier online services included Compu-Serv (later CompuServe), which debuted in 1969; General Electric’s GEnie, founded in 1985; and Prodigy, an IBM-Sears joint venture founded in 1984. However, these services would be surpassed in popularity by America Online (AOL) in the 1990’s. AOL succeeded in its goal of bringing the Internet to average Americans with the help of clever marketing and the purchase of various companies to provide technology, staff, and infrastructure. called AOL “an ISP for those who knew little or nothing about the Internet.” The inspiration to found AOL came from Bill von Meister, who in 1983 started an online game company called Control Video Corporation; Steve Case, later chairman and chief executive officer (CEO) of AOL, joined as a marketing consultant. Struggling financially, Control Video was renamed Quantum Computer Services in 1985. With Jim Kimsey as CEO, Quantum developed online communication services for Commodore, Apple, and finally IBMcompatible computers. In 1991, Quantum changed

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its name to America Online, Inc. AOL for DOS was launched in February, 1991, and a Windows version premiered in 1993. At first, AOL primarily offered its own services: games, information services, and chat rooms. Chat rooms in particular helped to build a sense of community among users that both took advantage of and contributed to the home-computer revolution. Internet access through AOL was limited, which pleased parents but displeased many other users. Later, it became possible to use other Internet software when logged into AOL. AOL gained attention from the press, including an influential article in The Wall Street Journal in 1992, and began an aggressive marketing campaign in 1993, sending its software in the mail. Membership grew to 10 million in 1996. In 1997, AOL bought CompuServe, then its biggest competitor. In the late 1990’s, AOL also began to provide both instant messaging (AIM) and Web-search services. Criticism of AOL included frustration at the difficulty of canceling the service. In 1996-1997, when facilities did not match demand, customers faced frequent busy signals when trying to connect through the dial-up service. Impact Cultural forces were poised for mass access to the information superhighway, and America Online helped to fill the demand, presenting online participation as family-friendly. In 2000, AOL merged with Time Warner. Further Reading

Ashby, Ruth. Steve Case: America Online Pioneer. Brookfield, Conn.: Twenty-first Century Books, 2002. Thornally, George. AOL by George! The Inside Story of America Online. Livingstone, N.J.: Urly Media, 1999. Wilkinson, Julia L. My Life at AOL. Bloomington, Ind.: AuthorHouse, 2001. Bernadette Lynn Bosky Apple Computer; Business and the economy in the United States; Computers; Dot-coms; Email; Instant messaging; Internet; Search engines; World Wide Web.

See also

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990


■ Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 The world’s first comprehensive civil rights law for people with disabilities Date Signed into law on July 26, 1990 Definition

This bill prohibited discrimination against the disabled and created a lasting impact on the millions of disabled people living in America. Considered by some to be the greatest legislative contribution made by Republican senator Bob Dole of Kansas, the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) prohibits discrimination in employment, in places of public accommodation (including all restaurants, retail stores, hotels, theaters, health care facilities, parks, convention centers, and places of recreation), in transportation services, and in all activities of state and local governments to a person who has a disability. According to this bill, disabilities are defined as a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities of such individual; a record of such an impairment; or being regarded as having such an impairment. The subject of disability rights was a very close issue to Senator Dole. During his tour of duty in World War II, Dole received a severely disabling injury at Castel D’Aiano, Italy. The wounds he received crippled his right arm for the rest of his life; even after multiple surgeries and months of rehabilitation, Dole had only about ten percent of the use of his arm. As a representative for the state of Kansas and then as a senator, he fought for the rights of the disabled. In his maiden speech in the Senate, given on April 14, 1969, Dole spoke of his own disability and how other people with disabilities were being denied the opportunities necessary to live life to its fullest. For years, he would give a speech on or around April 14 (the anniversary of his war wounds) that related to disabilities, reminding Congress that there was still work to be done. Dole challenged the government to do more to help this sector advance in life. Furthermore, he encouraged the formation of a presidential task force to determine how to get thousands of disabled persons back into the workplace and leading successful lives. In November, 1978, the National Council on the

Long Road to Victory


Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990

Handicapped was created. For over a decade, this organization sought a comprehensive law that would provide equal opportunities for those with handicaps. By 1987, the first draft of the Americans with Disabilities Act was written, and it quickly gained sponsorship by Republican senator Lowell Weicker and Democratic representative Tony Coelho, both of Connecticut, who introduced it in April, 1988. In November, Democrats Tom Harkin of Iowa and Ted Kennedy of Massachusetts became the Senate sponsors, as Lowell had been defeated for reelection. Legislation was reintroduced in 1989 and again in 1990. The version of the bill that was introduced in 1990 was the result of a compromise, as it had been modified to accommodate business interests as well as the disabled community.

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Support for such legislation was gaining momentum around the nation, culminating in March of 1990 when participants in the “Wheels of Justice” campaign demonstrated in Washington, D.C., occupying the Capitol Rotunda and demanding passage of the bill. In July, the Americans with Disabilities Act was passed with majority support in both houses and then signed into law by President George H. W. Bush in a traditional White House Rose Garden ceremony. One reason for the bill’s strong support was that many members of Congress had personal or family reasons for being concerned about disability issues. Beyond Senators Harkin and Kennedy and Congressmen Coelho, other key figures in the passage of the act were Attorney General Dick Thornburgh and Senator Dole. The major public in-

President George H. W. Bush signs the Americans with Disabilities Act on July 26, 1990. (AP/Wide World Photos)

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terest advocates for the ADA were the Disability Rights Defense and Education Fund and the American Civil Liberties Union. Many people who attended the signing ceremony played crucial roles in bringing the ADA to fruition, including Justin Dart (chair of the President’s Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities) and Sandra Swift Parrino (chair of the National Council on Disability). However, as these people were celebrating the first major piece of civil rights legislation for the disabled, others were continuing to voice their criticisms. Critics have argued that the ADA has brought about a number of claims by people who do not have serious disabilities, creating frivolous legal disputes and possibly hurting the very people the law was intending to help. Others feel that the legislation is inherently flawed because the burden of recognizing discrimination and the enforcement of the principles of ADA rests almost solely on the disabled individual. The federal government cannot investigate all the cases that are filed, so, for prompt action, a disabled individual frequently has to hire an attorney. Further criticisms are based upon the fact that this particular law extends to a very broad spectrum, including transportation, employment, public accommodation, and telecommunications, perhaps too broad for just one bill.

Controversy Amid Criticisms

Impact Although many with disabilities were justifiably upset with the slow pace of barrier removal, the Americans with Disabilities Act has done more to help the disabled than any other single piece of legislation. Further Reading

Goren, William D. Understanding the Americans with Disabilities Act. 2d ed. Chicago: American Bar Association, 2007. This book has a predominantly legal focus and discusses the ADA from the perspective of a disabled lawyer. Hamilton Krieger, Linda, ed. Backlash Against the ADA: Reinterpreting Disability Rights. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2003. An exploration of the difficulties faced in enforcing the ADA and the societal backlash once the ADA was created. Jones, Nancy Lee. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): Overview, Regulations, and Interpretations. New York: Novinka Books, 2003. A comprehen-



sive look at the ADA and how it has been interpreted in various contexts by legal institutions. Kathryn A. Cochran Bush, George H. W.; Civil Rights Act of 1991; Dole, Bob.

See also

■ AmeriCorps U.S. government-funded community-service network Date Created in 1993 Identification

A federally funded network of nonprofits, AmeriCorps connects tens of thousands of Americans each year with service projects in education, public safety, health, and the environment. AmeriCorps, which operates by connecting nonprofits, public agencies, and faith-based organizations with volunteers, came out of a climate of concern about education and community service. The organization was officially launched when President Bill Clinton signed the National and Community Service Trust Act of 1993, building on the first National Service Act, signed by President George H. W. Bush in 1990. AmeriCorps consists of three branches, AmeriCorps State and National, AmeriCorps National Civilian Community Corps (NCCC), and AmeriCorps Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA). The State and National branch provides grants directly to national service programs and consortia based across two or more states, including public agencies, higher education institutions, and community- and faith-based organizations. These grants are used to recruit, train, and place AmeriCorps volunteers in programs designed to fill community needs in education, conservation, public safety, and health. The program works with governor-appointed state service commissions to provide grants to single-state and local organizations. AmeriCorps NCCC is a full-time, team-based residential program for men and women based on regional campuses. The number of campuses has varied during AmeriCorps’ history. NCCC members participate in similar projects to other AmeriCorps members, as well as disaster relief, home building for low-income families, wildland firefighting, and environmental conservation.

Volunteering for America


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VISTA, founded in 1964 as a domestic program similar to the Peace Corps, was incorporated into AmeriCorps. It provides full-time volunteers to nonprofit, faith-based, and other community organizations, as well as public agencies, to support programs intended to bring low-income individuals and communities out of poverty. All three branches of AmeriCorps overlap in goals and types of projects, although methods of implementation are different. Volunteers usually receive a small stipend to cover cost of living, and after 1997, an Education Award upon completion of service that can be applied toward college or graduate education or paying back qualified student loans. AmeriCorps’ financial support of volunteers has drawn criticism from some quarters, although Peace Corps volunteers are also provided with a stipend and educational support. The First Five Years The National and Community Service Trust Act of 1993 created AmeriCorps and the Corporation for National and Community Service (CNCS). VISTA and NCCC were then incorporated into AmeriCorps. Governor-appointed state service commissions were created to administer AmeriCorps funding at the state level, but CNCS did not officially begin operation until 1994. The first class of AmeriCorps members, who began in September of 1994, consisted of twenty thousand people who served in more than one thousand communities. The same year, four NCCC campuses opened in Aberdeen, Maryland; Charleston, South Carolina; Denver, Colorado; and San Diego, California. In 1995, the Aberdeen campus moved to Perry Point, Maryland. In 1997, AmeriCorps introduced the Education Awards Program. Beginning in this year, it became possible for nonprofits, faith-based organizations, colleges and universities, and welfare-to-work programs to join the AmeriCorps network. A fifth AmeriCorps campus also opened in Washington, D.C. By 1999, AmeriCorps had 150,000 alumni and had served more than 33 million people in more than four thousand communities.

From the beginning, there was skepticism about whether AmeriCorps was really successful in its goals to accomplish positive change in American communities and to encourage its members to continue with education and service. Evaluations and assessments commis-

Controversy over Effectiveness

sioned by both AmeriCorps and outside organizations began as early as 1995. These evaluations focused on funding, use of money, effect in the community of AmeriCorps programs, and effect on AmeriCorps volunteers. Overall, studies found that AmeriCorps programs did have a positive effect on the communities served. However, effect on the volunteers varied. While some volunteers believed they gained important skills, the program did not widely improve education or cultural sensitivity as much as hoped. Many AmeriCorps members did not use their Education Awards or continue with higher education. Citizens Against Government Waste (CAGW), a private, nonpartisan nonprofit, argued in 1998 that AmeriCorps was expensive and ineffectual. Citing the program’s high dropout rate and the actual cost of funding an AmeriCorps volunteer, CAGW asserted that smaller-scale, nongovernmental volunteer programs were more effective in the community and less wasteful of resources. During its first five years, AmeriCorps’ funding more than doubled. However, debate continues over the effectiveness of AmeriCorps programs in encouraging higher education and appreciation of cultural diversity in its participants and in positively affecting the communities served. Impact AmeriCorps is a highly visible communityservice program that offers valuable opportunities and educational incentives to its members. During the 1990’s, AmeriCorps provided funds and personnel to support the start-up of programs such as Teach For America, City Year, and Public Allies, and to bring resources to organizations such as the Red Cross and Boys and Girls Clubs of America. In addition, debate over AmeriCorps’ use of funds, choice of organizations and projects to fund, and overall effectiveness for members and communities brought questions of government accountability and responsible use of taxpayer money to public light. Further Reading

AmeriCorps. The official Web site provides a history of the organization, information about volunteering for AmeriCorps, and how organizations can join the network. Marshall, Will, and Marc Porter Magee, eds. The AmeriCorps Experiment and the Future of National Service. Washington, D.C.: Progressive Policy Insti-

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tute, 2005. Provides an appraisal of the program and opinions from a variety of political thinkers on the future of the program. Somewhat limited in the views presented. Metz, Allan, comp. National Service and AmeriCorps: An Annotated Bibliography. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1997. A reference work providing a wide variety of sources on national service and AmeriCorps. The work lists books, dissertations, government documents, and serial literature and includes a brief appendix for Internet resources. Melissa A. Barton

Angelou, Maya


Identification African American poet Born April 4, 1928; St. Louis, Missouri

prepared the introductions to H. Beecher Hicks’s My Soul’s Been Anchored (1998) and the 1994 edition of Langston Hughes’s Not Without Laughter (1930). During the decade, Angelou continued to fulfill her lifetime appointment (1981) as Reynolds Professor of American Studies at Wake Forest University. In 1996, she served as ambassador to the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and as a member of Doctors Without Borders. During the Million Man March, held on October 16, 1995, in Washington, D.C., she read her own “Million Man March Poem,” urging African American activism, volunteerism, and voter registration. Angelou appeared in the film How to Make an American Quilt (1995). In 1998, she became the first African American woman to direct a film: Down in the Delta. For her spoken word albums Phenomenal Woman (1995) and On the Pulse of Morning (1993), she earned the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences Award. Her author-read audiobooks of the decade include The Heart of a Woman (1997) and the abridged version of 1970’s I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (1996).

Her writings, her diplomatic service to the United Nations Children’s Fund and the Million Man March, her work with stage and film, and her teaching have been a model to others.

Impact Angelou earned a number of honors and awards during the 1990’s, including the Langston Hughes Award (1991), “Woman of the Year” (1991) from Essence, the Distinguished Woman of North

See also Clinton, Bill; Educate America Act of 1994; Education in Canada; Education in the United States; Natural disasters; Poverty; Year-round schools.

■ Angelou, Maya

Maya Angelou was the second poet in history, the first woman poet, and the first African American to write and deliver a poem at a U.S. presidential inauguration. She read her poem “On the Pulse of Morning” at President Bill Clinton’s inauguration in 1993. By the end of the 1990’s, Angelou had published five books in her “franchise of autobiographies.” In May, 1997, Oprah Winfrey selected Angelou’s The Heart of a Woman (1981) as the first nonfiction book for Oprah’s Book Club. Angelou’s books published in the 1990’s include I Shall Not Be Moved (1990), Wouldn’t Take Nothing for My Journey Now (1993), the children’s book Life Doesn’t Frighten Me (1993), The Complete Collected Poems of Maya Angelou (1994), and Even the Stars Look Lonesome (1997). She also

Maya Angelou in 1996. (AP/Wide World Photos)


Angels in America

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Carolina Award (1992), the Women in Film Award (1992), the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People’s Spingarn Award (1994), a tribute from Congress (1996), and awards from the National Conference of Christians and Jews, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (Los Angeles), and the Martin Luther King, Jr., Legacy Association (1996). Performers, writers, women, directors, activists, teachers, and African Americans use her work and her life as models. Further Reading

Angelou, Maya. Collected Autobiographies of Maya Angelou. New York: Modern Library, 2004. Wilkinson, Brenda. Black Stars: African American Women Writers. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2000. Anita Price Davis See also African Americans; Alvarez, Julia; Clinton, Bill; Komunyakaa, Yusef; Literature in the United States; Million Man March; Poetry; Strand, Mark; Winfrey, Oprah. Tony Kushner. (Columbia University/Courtesy Jay Thompson)

■ Angels in America Identification Award-winning play Author Tony Kushner (1956) Date Millennium Approaches first performed in

1991, Perestroika first performed in 1992 This award-winning epic drama by Tony Kushner changed the face of American theater in the 1990’s. A powerful reaction to the devastating effects of the AIDS epidemic, it forced the American public to confront and challenge their beliefs about sexuality and politics. Angels in America: A Gay Fantasia on National Themes was written and first performed in two parts. Part one, Millennium Approaches, received its world premiere in San Francisco in 1991 and debuted in London in 1992, receiving national attention. Tony Kushner continued his work on part two, Perestroika, as Millennium Approaches was still enjoying its theatrical run. Perestroika was first performed in 1992, and a year later it too debuted in London to receive critical acclaim. The two parts finally arrived on Broadway in 1993. The play, performed in its entirety, spans a length of approximately seven hours.

The play is set in New York City in the mid-1980’s, in the midst of the AIDS epidemic. At the drama’s center are two relationships: one between Louis Ironson and Prior Walter, a gay couple confronting the reality of AIDS; the other between Joe Pitt and his wife Harper, a Mormon couple whose marriage is falling apart. Audiences learn that Prior has contracted the AIDS virus; although Louis attempts to care for Prior, he is ultimately unable to deal with the intensity of the illness and flees the relationship. Meanwhile, Joe, a Republican lawyer working for the notorious Roy Cohn, grapples to deal with his own closeted homosexuality. As these individuals struggle to endure in a world that offers little solace, their lives become intertwined in ways none of them could have predicted. Angels in America is an epic drama, the action of the play spanning distances of time and space. Characters, many of whom perform multiple roles, wander in and out of dreamscapes and are transported to absurd locations. At all times, the audience is made aware of the theatricality of the performance and made to consider the play as a political forum.

The Nineties in America Impact Angels in America had a tremendous impact on American theater in the 1990’s, a force still felt today. Set in the 1980’s, during a time when AIDS evoked widespread fear and panic, the play speaks against intolerance and ignorance. The years in which the play was first performed signaled a time of change in America. Bill Clinton won the presidential election in 1992, indicating an end to the Republican administrations of Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush. For the gay community, this victory symbolized a remedy to the oppressive nature of the conservative regime. Both Millennium Approaches and Perestroika won Tony Awards for Best Play and in 1993 a Pulitzer Prize. The play challenges audiences’ views on religion, sexuality, race, and politics, and above all promotes an understanding of human nature. In 2003, the play was adapted for a Home Box Office (HBO) miniseries.



became a popularly accepted concept. Ayd’s book received a promotional boost from the pharmaceutical company Merck, which, looking to establish a market for its new drug Elavil, purchased fifty thousand copies of Ayd’s book and sent them to potential distributors of the drug. Merck’s marketing campaign resulted in the reification of depression as a psychological syndrome and firmly established antidepressant drugs as a means of treatment. A common feature of almost all antidepressants is that they change levels of one or more of the monoamine neurotransmitters: dopamine, epinephrine, histamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. Classes of antidepressants differ, however, in both means of action and specificity of neurotransmitter targeted. The first antidepressants approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the 1950’s and 1960’s were either of two categories: monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs, such as

Further Reading

Fisher, James. The Theater of Tony Kushner: Living Past Hope. New York: Routledge, 2001. Vorlicky, Robert, ed. Tony Kushner in Conversation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1998. Danielle A. DeFoe See also AIDS epidemic; Conservatism in U.S. politics; Homosexuality and gay rights; Jewish Americans; Liberalism in U.S. politics; Literature in the United States; Philadelphia; Queer Nation; Rent; Theater in the United States.

■ Antidepressants Drugs designed to alleviate the symptoms of depression


A dramatic increase in the use of antidepressants in the 1990’s was stimulated by an increased public awareness of depression, a cultural shift in viewing depression as a biologically rooted disorder, and the development of new antidepressants with less severe side effects than previously available drugs. The experience of depression, characterized by saddened affect and/or loss of pleasure, has been described by writers for thousands of years. However, it was not until 1961 with the publication of Frank Ayd’s Recognizing the Depressed Patient that depression

A bottle of Prozac, one of the most popular antidepressants of the 1990’s. (AP/Wide World Photos)


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Parnate) or tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs, such as Elavil). MAOIs and TCAs increase levels of norepinephrine and serotonin; low levels of these neurotransmitters are thought to play a crucial role in causing depression. However, the severity and frequency of MAOI and TCA side effects, particularly the MAOIs, prompted researchers to search for effective compounds with a less deleterious side effect profile. The culmination of this research helped to launch an antidepressant revolution in the 1990’s. Trends in the 1990’s In 1987, Prozac (fluoxetine hydrochloride) was the first of a new category of antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), to be approved by the FDA. Prozac proved to be just as effective as the older antidepressants, but with less severe side effects. The success of Prozac in the early 1990’s prompted other pharmaceutical companies to produce different SSRIs (such as Celexa, Lexapro, Luvox, Paxil, and Zoloft) and reuptake inhibitors that targeted serotonin and norepinephrine (SNRIs, such as Effexor) or norepinephrine and dopamine (NDRIs, such as Wellbutrin SR). In addition to a better side effect profile, the newer antidepressants were sufficiently different in molecular structure—the TCAs are chemically similar—and offered physicians numerous treatment options: Patients who did not respond positively to one reuptake inhibitor often had success with another, unlike with the TCAs. More and better drug options, intense marketing by pharmaceutical companies, and books such as Peter Kramer’s Listening to Prozac (1993), extolling the virtues of antidepressants, combined to lead to a dramatic upsurge in the use of antidepressants in the 1990’s. In Psychopharmacology for Helping Professionals: An Integral Exploration (2006), R. Elliott Ingersoll and Carl Rak identify three trends in the use of antidepressants in the 1990’s: steep increases in prescriptions, greatly expanded usage in elderly and pediatric populations, and burgeoning off-label use (the drug is used for a purpose other than what it was approved for), such as for personality disorders or chronic pain syndromes. The authors also note that as the number of people receiving antidepressants increased in the 1990’s, the number of individuals undergoing counseling for depression decreased. Issues in the Use of Antidepressants Psychiatrist David Healy asserted in The Antidepressant Era (1997)

that the financial interests of pharmaceutical companies obfuscated an objective evaluation of the efficacy and safety of antidepressants. A growing body of research has brought into question the effectiveness and safety of antidepressants, giving credence to Healy’s concerns. Since the late 1990’s, a number of well-designed studies examining the effectiveness of antidepressants in treating depression have found little difference between the drugs and placebos. Moreover, a significant percentage of adults taking SSRIs will experience sexual dysfunction, multiple adverse side effects, and/or develop dependence on the drugs. Thus, the emerging picture since the 1990’s is that the effectiveness of antidepressants has been exaggerated and their side effects have been significantly downplayed. These findings have particular relevance for younger populations because most antidepressants have not been approved by the FDA for use by children, and the side effects are more severe and have longer-lasting consequences. For example, mouse pups given Prozac develop excessive fear and restlessness in adulthood. Furthermore, some studies begun in the 1990’s reported a positive correlation between increased suicidality risk and antidepressant use. Subsequent research prompted the FDA in 2004 to issue a “black box” warning label on all antidepressants, apprising consumers that antidepressants may increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior in children and adolescents. In 2007, the FDA expanded the warning to include people up to the age of twenty-five. Impact By 2007, SSRIs had become the best-selling drug of any kind in the United States; nearly one in eight Americans had tried an SSRI. The trend begun in the 1990’s of more people using antidepressants than employing counseling in treating depression continued well into the subsequent decade. It appears that the 1990’s ushered in a cultural perception that psychological problems are best solved by pills, not people. Further Reading

Glenmullen, Joseph. Prozac Backlash: Overcoming the Dangers of Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil, and Other Antidepressants with Safe, Effective Alternatives. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000. A Harvard psychiatric professor examines the risks associated with antidepressants (especially SSRIs), reviews the antidepressant research, and discusses alternative

The Nineties in America

approaches (psychotherapy, exercise, herbs) in coping with depression. Healy, David. The Antidepressant Era. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1997. A detailed history of the development, marketing, and effectiveness of antidepressants is presented by a noted expert in the field of psychopharmacology. Ingersoll, R. Elliott, and Carl Rak. Psychopharmacology for Helping Professionals: An Integral Exploration. Belmont, Calif.: Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2006. An introduction to psychopharmacology that is accessible to the lay reader. Chapters 4, 5, and 9 present a good overview of antidepressants. Kramer, Peter. Listening to Prozac: The Landmark Book About Antidepressants and the Remaking of the Self. Rev. ed. New York: Penguin Books, 1997. Bestselling book that played a significant role in promoting a culturally accepting attitude toward antidepressants explores the use of Prozac in treating depression and eliciting positive personality changes. Paul J. Chara, Jr. See also Culture wars; Drug advertising; Drug use; Health care; Medicine; Pharmaceutical industry; Psychology; Science and technology.

■ Apple Computer Identification

American hardware and software

company As the manufacturer of the Macintosh, the first computer based on a graphical user interface, Apple was a leader in innovation in the early 1990’s. By the end of the decade, the company had reinvented itself and come back from near financial collapse. In 1990, Apple Computer (later Apple, Inc.) introduced its fastest Macintosh to date, the IIfx. However, it was a troubled machine, its price point placing it out of the reach of all but the most high-end users. Furthermore, it used special hardware that was in short supply, and several of its interfaces were prone to intermittent trouble. By the end of the year, Apple announced that it would produce a number of new Macintosh models that would bring the price point down to levels comparable to Intel-based machines. In theory, these models would make Apple’s slogan of “The computer for the rest of us” less of a

Apple Computer


bad joke, but in fact the LC and IIsi remained pricey, and Apple’s market share did not grow. In 1989, Apple released its first laptop, the Mac Portable. A heavy, underpowered monstrosity, the computer was a failure. Apple took two years to rethink laptop computing and finally ended up partnering with Japanese electronics giant Sony to produce laptops. In October of 1991, Apple rolled out the PowerBook, which introduced several key features that would soon be widely copied, including a keyboard with handrests on either side of the trackball. That year also saw the introduction of the System 7 operating system (OS), which had been delayed several times. Also in 1991, Apple joined forces with International Business Machines (IBM) and Motorola to create the AIM alliance, which was supposed to create a new generation of computers based on RISC (reduced instruction set computing) processor technology. The alliance created the PowerPC microprocessor, which became the basis for all of Apple’s computers for more than a decade. In 1993, Apple finally took the drastic step of eliminating the Apple II, the computer that had originally made its fortune. By that point, the Apple IIgs, the only model remaining in production, had incorporated so many features from the Macintosh that it was deemed redundant. That year also marked major upheavals in Apple’s corporate structure as chief executive officer (CEO) John Sculley left under a firestorm of criticism, to be replaced by Michael Spindler, a German-born engineer nicknamed “the Diesel.” After the introduction of several lower-cost consumer models in 1992 and 1993, Apple rolled out the Power Macintosh series, its first computers to be based upon the PowerPC chip, in 1994. At first these machines were aimed primarily at high-end users, but as economies of scale began to take hold, the use of PowerPC chips spread throughout the Macintosh line to consumer models and laptops, and use of the 68000 series of chips was phased out. The mid-1990’s proved a low point for Apple. The innovative PowerBook 5300 proved a lemon, with horror stories of fragile power ports and flammable batteries driving customers away. Worse, the various projects that were supposed to create a new and innovative operating system to take full advantage of the PowerPC chip’s designs were foundering, and the Mac OS

Near Collapse and Comeback


The Nineties in America

Apple Computer

new universal serial bus (USB). Its market success led to the introduction of a companion consumer laptop, the iBook, which also featured curvilinear design and brilliant colored plastics. By the close of the 1990’s, the iMac and iBook had resecured Apple’s fortunes, positioning the company for the introduction of such innovative products as the UNIXbased OS X operating system and the iPod digital music player.

Steve Jobs, chief executive officer of Apple Computer, holds an iMac computer. Jobs and his new line of computers helped revitalize the company in the late 1990’s. (AP/Wide World Photos)

had received no major upgrades since the introduction of System 7. This failure of innovation, combined with an increasingly complex and confusing product line, drove customers away from the Macintosh toward Windows-based computers, particularly as Microsoft made Windows increasingly Mac-like. Even the replacement of Spindler as CEO with Gil Amelio could not stay Apple’s slide into oblivion. In 1997, the board of directors took drastic measures. In a complex deal, they purchased NeXT to gain access to the NEXTSTEP OS and brought back Apple cofounder Steve Jobs to become interim CEO. Jobs immediately simplified Apple’s confusing product line to desktop and laptop machines for professional and consumer use. In 1998, Jobs introduced the iMac, a return to the all-in-one form factor of the original Macintosh, but with curved lines and transparent plastic that some critics derided as girlish. However, it contained numerous technological innovations, including the

Impact Although Apple entered the 1990’s as an innovator, with several sophisticated desktop and laptop machines, by the middle of the decade the company seemed to have lost its way. Its product line had become confusing, with so many different niche market items that many prospective buyers had no idea which model was best for them. By 1997, Apple was in serious danger of failing altogether. However, Jobs’s return enabled Apple to recover its competitive position by simplifying its product line and by taking risks with such products as the iMac and iBook. As a result, Apple closed the decade positioned for the introduction of the iPod and the consequent expansion into consumer electronics. Further Reading

Carlton, Jim. Apple: The Inside Story of Intrigue, Egomania, and Business Blunders. New York: Random House, 1997. Corporate history of Apple, from its foundation by Jobs and Stephen Wozniak to Jobs’s return. Levy, Steven. Insanely Great: The Life and Times of Macintosh, the Computer That Changed Everything. New York: Viking Press, 1994. Published on the tenth anniversary of the Macintosh, the book came out just as the AIM alliance was bearing fruit, and thus shows the enthusiasm of those heady days. Malone, Michael S. Infinite Loop: How Apple, the World’s Most Insanely Great Computer Company, Went Insane. New York: Doubleday, 1999. A company history, including a great deal of information on the corporate politics that surrounded Jobs during the time shortly before he was pushed out of the company, as well as his return. Leigh Husband Kimmel Business and the economy in the United States; Computers; Jobs, Steve; Microsoft; Science and technology.

See also

The Nineties in America

■ Archaeology Systematic recovery and analysis of ancient and historic human cultural artifacts


During the 1990’s, archaeology entered a new era of professionalism, technological advances, and cultural and ethical awareness. The 1990’s brought new technologies that enabled archaeologists to test old theories and to propose new ones, opening the way for a more complete understanding of the past. New scientific developments permitted archaeologists greater access to information while at the same time providing greater protection for the objects and sites under study. Major Discoveries Archaeologists used DNA analysis to track early human migrations into the Americas, moving back the arrival date of the first humans to well before the previously established date of 12500 b.p. (before present). This discovery led to discussions about possible multiple migratory waves of genetically different groups of humans, a theory now supported by DNA analysis of modern Native American populations. In 1996, archaeologists identified one of the oldest skeletons ever found in North America. Named for the location in Washington State where he was found, the “Kennewick Man” was dated to 8400 b.p. Local Native American tribes filed for possession of the skeleton under the 1990 Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), but scientists objected, stating that genetic analysis was necessary to determine if the remains were actually Native American. Custody of the remains was still contested as of late 1999. At the Watson Brake in Louisiana, archaeologists discovered a 916-foot-long oval ridge connecting eleven earthen mounds that were originally up to 26 feet high. Archaeologists dated the site to 5400 b.p., the hunter-gatherer period prior to the development of agriculture in the area. This discovery contradicted the theory that only settled agricultural societies constructed large-scale building projects. In anticipation of the quadricentennial anniversary of the founding of Jamestown, the Jamestown Archaeological Assessment located fifty-eight sites that represented 10,500 years of human habitation. Using ground-penetrating radar, archaeologists were able to locate objects and remains beneath the



earth’s surface. Among the discoveries was the first James Fort, constructed in 1607. Within the fort, archaeologists found more than ninety thousand artifacts and the skeleton of a woman identified as Mistress Forrest who came to Jamestown in 1608. Excavations at Monticello, Thomas Jefferson’s Virginia estate, focused on the home of Elizabeth Hemings, matriarch of the slave family who worked for Jefferson. Using a digital elevation model, archaeologists located the foundations of the Hemings’s house and a nearby artifact midden (rubbish dump) that revealed details about Hemings’ household goods and daily life. In 1999, DNA tests confirmed that Sally Hemings, Elizabeth’s youngest daughter, gave birth to at least one child (Eston Hemings) who was fathered by Jefferson, thereby opening the way for Hemings’s descendants to be buried in the Jefferson historic plot. The 1990’s saw a burgeoning of archaeology-related Internet sites. Among the most useful and dependable of these sites were Links to the Past from the National Park Service, Southeast Archaeological Center, Jamestown Recovery Project, Institute of Nautical Archaeology, the Center for American Archaeology, and ArchNet: the World Wide Web Virtual Library for Archaeology. In addition to archaeological associations and organizations hosting Web sites, many university archaeology departments created their own Internet sites, identified by “.edu” following their Web address. Archaeological discoveries, practices, and controversies thereby became accessible to the general public.

Archaeology and the Internet

The 1990’s saw active federal, state, and local regulations put in place to protect the nation’s archaeological heritage. The Curation of Federally-Owned and Administered Archaeological Collections established regulations and guidelines for federal agencies to manage and preserve archaeological remains. NAGPRA established protection for Native American, Hawaiian, and Alaskan sites and artifacts. The National Park Service’s Abandoned Shipwreck Act extended the government’s control beyond land sites. The Passport in Time project invited volunteers to assist professionals in the excavation and study of sites and artifacts. The National Park Service’s Vanishing Treasures movement was organized to protect endangered sites, and the Mandatory Center of Exper-

Archaeology and the Law


The Nineties in America

Archer Daniels Midland scandal

tise for the Curation and Management of Archaeological Collections enlisted federal, state, and local agencies in archaeological management and exhibition. Illicit Trade and Forgeries Along with the exciting archaeological discoveries came a host of individuals who tried to cash in on the profit that was to be made from looting, illicit trade, improper collecting practices, and forgeries. In 1994, Sotheby’s, the prestigious New York auction house, offered items for sale that were later shown to have been plundered from Sipan in Peru. In 1996, Michael Ward, a member of the U.S. Cultural Property Advisory Committee, was forced to return fifty illegally obtained Mycenaean jewelry pieces to the Greek government. In 1998, U.S. Customs returned sixty-nine smuggled preColumbian artifacts to Costa Rica. In 1999, the J. Paul Getty Museum returned three antiquities to Italy after it was discovered that they had been stolen. According to the Archaeological Institute of America, looting reached “crisis” proportions during the 1990’s. Forgery was so commonplace that it was the subject of an exhibition at the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art in Kansas City, Missouri, in 1996. Impact The decade of the 1990’s brought developments in archaeological approaches and technology that changed the way archaeologists work, think about the past, and plan for the future. An everincreasing number of professionally trained archaeologists employed scientific developments that provided more precise results. Archaeologists began to work alongside anthropologists, historians, geologists, botanists, and zoologists, creating a fuller, richer, more accurate picture of the past than ever thought possible. In addition, the intense public scrutiny of archaeological procedures, collecting practices, forgery, and illicit trade activities set the stage for a more ethical and more responsible future. Further Reading

Fagan, Brian M. Ancient North America. 2d ed. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1995. This book, written by one of America’s foremost historians, chronicles the archaeology of North America starting with its earliest inhabitants. Lyman, R. Lee, and Michael J. O’Brien. Measuring Time with Artifacts: A History of Methods in American Archaeology. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2006. Scholarly yet accessible explanation of the

techniques, procedures, and methodologies that archaeologists employ to study artifacts and understand cultures across time. Murtagh, William J. Keeping Time: The History and Theory of Preservation in America. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, 2005. Written by the first Keeper of the National Register of Historic Places, this book traces the history of preservation from early efforts to save major historical sites to current civic activist movements. Zimmerman, Larry J, Karen D. Vitelli, and Julie Hollowell-Zimmer, eds. Ethical Issues in Archaeology. Walnut Creek, Calif.: Altamira Press, 2003. An edited volume of articles on ethics-related topics in association with the Society for American Archaeology. Sonia Sorrell African Americans; Architecture; Internet; Inventions; Native Americans; Science and technology; Search engines; World Wide Web.

See also

■ Archer Daniels Midland scandal The corporation conspires with foreign competitors to illegally fix prices on food additives used for both animal and human consumption Date 1992-1998 The Event

The criminal actions of Archer Daniels Midland and their foreign counterparts allowed the creation of an unprecedented monopoly in the agriculture industry, netting millions of dollars in illegal profits. It was because of this particular case that federal investigators have now become privy to the pervasive nature and scope of illegal price fixing both domestically and globally. Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) is a conglomeration of various agriculturally based businesses headquartered in Decatur, Illinois, but boasts more than 270 branch plants worldwide. Specializing in the processing of grains and oilseeds for creation of various products used in beverages (such as alcohol and soft drinks), foods, industrial fuel, cleaning products, vitamins, and animal feed, ADM became known in the agriculture business as the “supermarket to the world.” However, during the mid-1990’s ADM conspired

The Nineties in America

with two Japanese and one U.S.-based Korean subsidiary to fix prices on an amino acid-based product known as lysine, which is used in livestock feed as an additive to enhance the growth of beef cattle for meat production. Conspiring to create an international corporate cartel to fix the prices of lysine globally, high-ranking ADM executives orchestrated the exchange of technological secrets and price-fixing procedures that ultimately led to the artificial inflation of lysine prices by 70 percent during the first year of the illicit joint partnership. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) was tipped off about the illicit price fixing by a corporate executive who was actually assisting the FBI with a corporate espionage case of an unrelated matter. In attempt to avoid prosecution, this executive, Mark Whitacre, blew the whistle on his fellow colleagues and agreed to wear a wire for the FBI so that the international cartel could be dismantled and ultimately revealed. From 1992 through 1996, Whitacre went undercover for the FBI, assisting in the collection of hundreds of hours of video and audio tapes that were systematically used for the dismantling of what later became known as the largest price-fixing case in U.S. history of its time. Impact As a result, in 1996 ADM was fined an unprecedented $70 million for the lysine scandal and was additionally fined another $30 million for its involvement in a separate criminal plot to fix the global citric acid market. In 1998, three ADM executives were convicted and given federal prison sentences for their involvement in the price-fixing conspiracy. Ironically, Mark Whitacre was one of these three executives who went to prison; in fact, he received the longest sentence—eleven years. Whitacre was not granted immunity from prosecution, because it was later revealed that he embezzled $9 million from ADM and concealed his earlier involvement with the price-fixing scheme prior to his whistle-blowing efforts. Further Reading

Eichenwald, Kurt. “Former Archer Daniels Executives Are Found Guilty of Price Fixing.” The New York Times, September 18, 1998, p. A1. _______. The Informant. New York: Broadway Books, 2000. Wells, Joseph T. Frankensteins of Fraud. Austin, Tex.: Obsidian, 2000. Paul M. Klenowski



See also Advertising; Agriculture in the United States; Business and the economy in the United States; Crime; Employment in the United States; Genetically modified foods; Inventions; Organic food movement; Reno, Janet; Scandals; Science and technology; Stock market; Tobacco industry settlement; Wigand, Jeffrey.

■ Architecture The design and building of structures, especially habitable ones


Widespread usage of electronics at home and a growing diversity of family types drove changes in residential architecture during the decade. In commercial architecture, museums in particular became prized commissions for architects. Architecture encompasses the entire built environment, not just houses and apartments. It has been estimated that there are nearly three hundred different kinds of buildings in the United States, from parking garages, service stations, and day-care centers to hospitals, churches, museums, and courthouses. Each of these structures requires architectural plans of some sort, simple or sophisticated. As a result, architecture both reflects and affects the identity of a society and the individuals within it. Families continued to move into evermore-outlying suburbs, often resulting in lengthy commutes for the breadwinners of the family. Most suburban tract homes fell into two broad categories: large but basic homes, situated close together, with little to distinguish one from the other, and even larger, elegant homes on large lots, with a wealth of distinguishing features. The latter often were in exclusive gated communities, of which there were about 20,000 in 1997. Inexpensive suburban tracts provided few jobs for aspiring architects. The growth of these two types of suburbs also increased the separation between more affluent owners and the working class. Most tract developments featured much larger homes than were common a few decades earlier, despite the fact that families typically had fewer children. The “great room,” a large, undifferentiated space often open to the kitchen, was a popular feature. Also sought after was a spacious master suite with large walk-in closets and an attached private bathroom.




The Nineties in America

Architect Richard Meier stands in front of the Getty Center, whose buildings he designed. The Los Angeles complex, including the J. Paul Getty Museum, opened in December, 1997. (AP/Wide World Photos)

At the same time, downtown living began to increase in popularity, especially among singles and childless couples, both those who had no children and those whose children had grown and left home. From modest apartments to luxury condominiums, housing for downtown dwellers offered residents quicker commutes in many cases, access to richer cultural and entertainment experiences, and often a more economically and racially diverse environment. While the size of most new houses increased, interest in smaller homes was beginning to flourish. Residential architect Sarah Susanka was a leader in this movement. Susanka wrote several lavishly illustrated books that showed how privacy, comfort, and amenities could be provided in compact, well-planned homes. Her designs also promoted energy efficiency and the use of safe

Smaller and Greener

and healthy building materials. In part this reflected another growing movement, that toward more ecologically sound buildings in general. Smaller homes were less expensive to build, maintain, heat, and cool. Sustainable or “green” architecture was a new field in which ambitious architects could create exciting designs. This architectural philosophy encompasses not only using energy, water, and materials more efficiently but also reducing the impacts of buildings on humans and the environment. Green architects consider such factors as siting buildings to take advantage of natural heating and cooling and to disturb as little as possible the natural surroundings; lowering ongoing operation and maintenance costs; and reducing waste and pollution, in both construction and operation. Green buildings use more natural construction materials to improve indoor air quality, and their architects often attempt to incorporate recycled wood and other salvaged products

The Nineties in America

into construction. Green building practices also became more common in remodeling and renovation projects. In 1998, the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System, developed by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), was established to provide a set of standards for environmentally sustainable construction. The effort to establish a comprehensive rating system for green design and construction was begun in 1994 by Robert K. Watson of the Natural Resources Defense Council. LEED has since evolved from a single construction standard to six connected standards covering the entire building process, from development to construction. Receiving a high LEED rating has become a desirable goal for architects and builders. For centuries, cathedrals were the most impressive buildings in a city. During the industrial age, towering office structures dominated urban landscapes and made many architects’ reputations. By the 1990’s, museums and other cultural buildings were the most prestigious architectural commissions. In many cases, the spectacular buildings themselves began to be seen as more of an attraction than the art or other objects and activities that they housed. One of the best-known examples of the unique destination museum is the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, opened in 1997 and designed by Frank Gehry. Located alongside the Nervión River in the port city of Bilbao, in the Basque country of Spain, the museum expanded the city’s economy from an industrial base to a major tourist destination. The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao was Gehry’s most distinctive design in the 1990’s. Its unusual shapes and intricate, curvilinear forms were made possible in part by computer-aided three-dimensional interactive application, or CATIA, a French software program for computer modeling. At the end of the twentieth century, no architect was better known or more distinctive in his designs than Gehry. His earlier buildings had featured sharp, angular, rectilinear forms, but beginning in the late 1980’s, Gehry increasingly worked with curved and twisting shapes. From the outside, his later buildings are whimsical and sometimes confusing, usually overshadowing the buildings around them. Gehry first envisions the exterior of the build-

Nonresidential Buildings



ing to be as free-flowing as possible, later dividing up the interior space to encompass specific activities— not always successfully, his critics argue. Among his early 1990’s buildings in this style are the Team Disneyland Administration Building (1988-1995) in Anaheim, California, and the American Center (1988-1994) in Paris. Not all clients wanted such exotic facades or classical re-creations. The Getty Center (1984-1997) in Los Angeles is elegant and restrained, set on a hilltop away from the bustling metropolis below. It was designed by Richard Meier, an architect with a varied career spanning several decades and continents. In commercial and retail buildings, the modernist movement had lost popularity to more ornamented buildings. Postmodernist buildings continued to be built, but no overarching style characterized the 1990’s. One trend, popularized by the work of I. M. Pei, was the increased use of glass for the exteriors of buildings. New technology and processes made glass extremely durable and easy to work with, and many architects followed Pei’s lead in exploiting it as a building material. Exposing the interior and exterior mechanical workings of the buildings, such as pipes and ductwork, was a utilitarian but decorative trend. Other architects reached back into classical principles to design traditional structures. A prominent proponent of this approach was Robert A. M. Stern. His design for the Spangler Campus Center at the Harvard Business School looks as though it could have been built more than a century earlier. Computer use in architecture continued to expand. Increasingly sophisticated new software enabled architects to determine structural integrity, visualize traffic flows, and so on, while designing developments. Among the most advanced software was CATIA, a French software program originally developed to design fighter jets but soon adopted by many other industries. This versatile program not only modeled complex forms for unique designs but also analyzed the structural details and calculated costs. Perhaps its most dramatic use in architecture was by Gehry, for modeling his Guggenheim Museum Bilbao and the later Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles. Not only did new technology advance the practice of architecture, it also influenced the buildings designed as well. The predominance of new technology in people’s workplaces and homes required ar-

Technology and Jobs


The Nineties in America


chitects to consider innovative configurations for offices and to provide wiring and space for computers and other electronic devices in home design. As technology supplanted the manual creation of plan designs, many established architects moved from designing structures to project management, while architecture graduates found jobs scarce, less creative, and more institutionalized. Some young architects turned to a new field to display their creative talents: computer games and films. Because their training had prepared them to manipulate complex software packages and also envision intricate, innovative forms, they were valued for their ability to create inventive buildings and streetscapes for games. In the world of games, an architect’s imagination was not limited by cost, usefulness, or structural integrity. As an added bonus for the architecture graduate, the pay in the gaming industry was higher than at an architectural firm: At the end of the 1990’s, the average pay for a new architectural intern was about $40,000, whereas in the gaming world $50,000 was more typical, with pay in the film and television industries even higher. Other architects moved in the opposite direction, specializing in historic preservation. They were encouraged by the National Historic Preservation Act, first passed in 1966 and amended in 1992; federal and state tax credits for historic preservation; and the desire of many communities to maintain a distinctive central core area instead of pushing commercial businesses to outlying cookie-cutter strip malls and shopping centers. Many cities established historic districts to preserve the unique characters of older neighborhoods. Architects who can create updated, contemporary interiors without sacrificing the historic character of a building’s exterior became popular with clients and found greater respect within the profession. Impact The 1990’s saw many shifts in architecture. Growing numbers of people lived in suburban tracts, but custom-built homes and downtown condominiums and apartments also saw an upturn in interest. As technology altered the basics of architecture, professional architects moved into related areas. There was waning enthusiasm for the severe modernist look that had previously dominated the design of large buildings, and a few architects of unique structures became celebrities.

Further Reading

Friedman, Avi, and David Krawitz. Peeking Through the Keyhole: The Evolution of North American Homes. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2002. Specific to residential design in Canada and the United States. Interesting discussions of the changes in home design between the 1950’s and the 1990’s, including chapters on adapting homes to accommodate older persons; the degree to which widespread adoption of electronics has influenced home architecture; and what may evolve in the twenty-first century. Handlin, David. “Looking Backward and Forward.” In American Architecture. 2d ed. New York: Thames and Hudson, 2004. The final chapter of Handlin’s comprehensive book examines the state of U.S. architecture in the last quarter of the twentieth century, with discussions and illustrations of many significant buildings from the 1990’s. LaBlanc, Sydney. The Architecture Traveler: A Guide to 250 Key Twentieth-Century American Buildings. Rev. ed. New York: W. W. Norton, 2000. Includes discussion and illustrations of more than fifty U.S. buildings from the 1990’s. Provides indexes of architects and of locations as well as maps of buildings by regions. Roth, Leland M. “Responses to Modernism, 19732000.” In American Architecture: A History. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 2001. A detailed discussion of various styles and subsets of styles and the architects and buildings associated with them. Also offers extensive notes, a comprehensive glossary, illustrations, and an index. Susanka, Sarah. The Not So Big House: A Blueprint for the Way We Really Live. Newton, Conn.: Tauton Press, 1998. The first of several books by Susanka, a well-known residential architect. She argues that most new homes are larger than needed and that quality is more important than size, offering examples of compact homes that meet a variety of needs and provide distinctive amenities. Venturi, Robert, and Denise Scott Brown. Architecture as Signs and Systems for a Mannerist Time. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004. An extensive analysis of architecture, with many examples from the 1990’s, from two of the most influential architects of the late twentieth century. Irene Struthers Rush

The Nineties in America See also Gehry, Frank; Las Vegas megaresorts; McMansions; Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Museum; Sustainable design movement.

■ Armey, Dick Identification American politician Born July 7, 1940; Cando, North Dakota

Armey served as a Republican congressman from the Twenty-sixth Congressional District of Texas from 1985 to 2003 and the majority leader of the House of Representatives from 1995 to 2003. He was one of the key architects of the Republican congressional leadership’s Contract with America. Richard Keith Armey graduated from Jamestown College in Jamestown, North Dakota, and received the Ph.D. in economics from the University of Oklahoma in 1968. He taught economics at colleges and universities in Montana and Texas until 1985. While teaching and serving as an administrator at the University of North Texas in Denton, Texas, Armey ran for Congress in 1984 in the Twenty-sixth Congressional District of Texas, which includes the northern part of the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area. He was elected and served in Congress from 1985 to 2003. Armey firmly supported many of President Ronald Reagan’s conservative social and economic policies. He served on the bipartisan Base Closure and Realignment Commission, which investigated military bases in the United States and proposed the closing of several that were determined to be unneeded. Armey also worked with conservative Republicans and liberal Democrats to press for cuts in federal farm subsidies. These efforts eventually led to the agricultural program known as the Freedom to Farm Act, formally the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act, adopted in 1996. In 1990, after President George H. W. Bush broke his “no new taxes” pledge, the Republican Congressional Conference passed a resolution introduced by Armey opposing any new taxes. In 1991, Armey became the ranking Republican on the Joint Economic Committee. The following year, he was elected chair of the Republican Congressional Conference. Working with Newt Gingrich and other conservative leaders, Armey helped fashion the Contract with America, a series of reforms that con-

Armey, Dick


gressional Republicans promised to pass if they gained control of the House of Representatives. In the “Republican Revolution” in the 1994 elections, the Republicans took control of the House for the first time since 1954. Armey then became the majority leader in the 104th Congress. During Armey’s tenure as majority leader, much of the Contract with America was enacted. During President Bill Clinton’s administration, Armey worked to support the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which took effect in 1998. While many conservatives opposed NAFTA, Armey agreed with the free trade principles that he believed the agreement reflected. He decided not to stand for reelection in 2002 and retired from Congress in January, 2003. Impact Armey played a major role in the Republican Revolution of 1994 that led to Republican control of the House of Representatives for the first time in forty years. Further Reading

Armey, Dick. Armey’s Axioms: Forty Hard-Earned Truths from Politics, Faith, and Life. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, 2003.

Dick Armey. (U.S. Government Printing Office)


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Armstrong, Lance

_______. The Freedom Revolution: The New Republican Majority Leader Tells Why Big Government Failed, Why Freedom Works, and How We Will Rebuild America. Washington, D.C.: Regnery, 1995. Bader, John B. Taking the Initiative: Leadership Agendas in Congress and the “Contract with America.” Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1996. Mark S. Joy Bush, George H. W.; Contract with America; Gingrich, Newt; North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA); Republican Revolution.

See also

■ Armstrong, Lance Professional cyclist, cancer survivor, and patient rights advocate Born September 18, 1971; Plano, Texas Identification

In 1999, Lance Armstrong completed his comeback from cancer to win his first of what would become a record seven consecutive Tours de France. Armstrong used his succession of victories in the bicycle race to establish a foundation to fund cancer research and patient advocacy programs. In the 1990’s, Lance Armstrong laid the foundation for a career and personal story that would make him

Lance Armstrong rides past the Arc de Triomphe during the final stage of the Tour de France on July 25, 1999. (AP/Wide World Photos)

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one of the most recognizable athletes in the world in the early twenty-first century. His fame derives not only from having won seven consecutive Tour de France bicycle races but also from the fact that his success in the race came after he had extensive surgery and chemotherapy to treat advanced testicular cancer that had spread to his lungs, brain, and abdomen. Up to the time of his cancer diagnosis, Armstrong had an impressive cycling career, specializing in races over relatively flat or gently undulating terrain. In 1993, he won the World Road Cycling Championship in Norway. Prior to his comeback from cancer, however, Armstrong was not considered a serious contender in major multiday races like the Tour de France. Armstrong has leveraged the success of his Tour victories to advocate for rights to information and treatment options for cancer patients. In 1997, he established the Lance Armstrong Foundation to provide practical information to people with cancer and to expand access to clinical trials of experimental therapies. He has chronicled his experience as a cancer survivor and champion of patient rights in two best-selling autobiographies. In 2006, French newspaper L’Equipe published a report that alleged that urine samples linked to Armstrong that had been collected during the 1999 Tour de France had revealed indications of use of the banned performance enhancing drug erythropoietin (EPO). Other vague allegations of drug use have dogged Armstrong throughout his career and retirement. Armstrong has consistently denied using performance-enhancing drugs and has never failed a drug test. He has been consistently successful in a series of lawsuits against those who have made doping allegations against him. Impact Armstrong’s seven consecutive overall victories in the Tour is one of the most spectacular achievements in endurance athletics. Four other riders had managed five wins, but before Armstrong, none had succeeded in their attempts for a sixth consecutive win. His athletic success and personal story, as recounted in his and others’ best-selling books, has brought worldwide attention and funding to the cause of cancer patient rights.

Arnett, Peter


Further Reading

Armstrong, Lance, with Sally Jenkins. It’s Not About the Bike. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 2000. Coyle, Daniel. Lance Armstrong’s War. New York: HarperCollins, 2005. Thompson, Christopher S. The Tour de France: A Cultural History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006. Margot Irvine and John P. Koch See also

Cancer research; Sports.

■ Arnett, Peter Foreign correspondent specializing in war coverage Born November 13, 1934; Riverton, New Zealand Identification

Arnett and two colleagues from the Cable News Network broadcast over air raid sirens and explosions in the first sixteen hours of the 1991 Gulf War and remained in the capital after nearly all other foreign reporters had been withdrawn. In Arnett’s assessment, the Gulf War was the first to be covered “live from both sides.” In 1966, New Zealand-American journalist Peter Arnett won a Pulitzer Prize for his reports on the Vietnam War. During the first ten days of the Gulf War of 1991, he was able to obtain an interview with Iraqi president Saddam Hussein. In the interview, the dictator defended his incursion into Kuwait, blustered about his fearlessness, and proclaimed that God was on Iraq’s side. The White House accused Arnett of being a tool for Iraqi disinformation, and thirty-four members of Congress signed a letter to the Cable News Network (CNN) complaining of “unpatriotic journalism.” Arnett won an Emmy Award for the interview. The most controversial CNN report concerned U.S. bombing of a factory that produced infant formula. A U.S. Air Force spokesman, General Colin Powell, and the White House insisted that the factory was a disguised bioweapons facility, but no evidence was ever found that it had produced anything except powdered milk. Arnett stood by his story, further infuriating U.S. officials. In March, 1997, Arnett was the first Western journalist to interview al-Qaeda leader Osama Bin Laden. In the interview, the Saudi expressed his be-


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Art movements

lief that American civilians were “not exonerated” from jihad, because they chose the government that so offended him. Some of Bin Laden’s comments suggested, in retrospect, that plans to attack America were already conceived. In another controversial story, Arnett reported that U.S. forces had used sarin gas against a Laotian village in 1970 in order to kill American defectors. The story was instantly denied by the Pentagon; the producers claimed documentation, and CNN defended them. Within weeks, however, following intense Pentagon pressure, CNN retracted the story and fired the producers. Arnett was reprimanded and, as the “face” of the story, blamed by many, especially conservative Americans. Arnett has won nearly every prize Former CNN correspondent Peter Arnett in 1999. (AP/Wide World Photos) offered in the field of journalism, including the Overseas Press Club Lifetime Achievement Award. The journalism school at the Southern Institute of Technology is named after him. ■ Art movements Impact Arnett’s reporting during the Gulf War was significant for its independent assessment of the damage from U.S. bombardment and the reactions of ordinary people. In defiance of the U.S. military’s restrictive media guidelines, Arnett did not tour with soldiers as an “embedded” journalist. His reports often contradicted the U.S. military’s characterization of the warfare. Further Reading

Arnett, Peter. Live from the Battlefield: From Vietnam to Baghdad, Thirty-five Years in the World’s War Zones. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994. Francona, Rick. Ally to Adversary: An Eyewitness Account of Iraq’s Fall from Grace. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1999. Schwarzkopf, H. Norman. It Doesn’t Take a Hero. New York: Bantam Books, 1992. Jan Hall Bush, George H. W.; Cable television; CNN coverage of the Gulf War; Gulf War; Journalism; Powell, Colin; Schwarzkopf, Norman.

See also

Organized or implicit stylistic and ideological trends characterizing art forms of a given time and place


Art in the 1990’s cannot be defined by specific movements or genres. Not since the 1970’s was such pluralism in art seen. Many different styles were explored during this period, including abstraction, figuration, and conceptual art. Painting, sculpture, installation art, and photography were created in this decade, and video art especially flourished. The 1990’s saw a backlash against the perceived excesses of the 1980’s, a period when a vulgar, hypedup art market turned art into a commodity and artists into celebrities. Many artists were skeptical of art being too elitist and too easily co-opted by the art market. In addition, in 1989 the art market plummeted. In this postcrash economic and social environment, a reconsideration of why art should be made set the tone of the decade. Pluralism defined this environment where many different mediums were utilized. Also, artists imple-

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mented identity politics, and those on the peripheries of the art world, including women, gays, blacks, Hispanics, and Asians, explored issues concerning their groups and focused on their issues as the center of their artworks. Artists engaged in social critique. Exemplifying this attitude was the 1993 Whitney Biennial, which was criticized as showcasing weak art. While the themes in the exhibition reflected concerns with social issues, it depicted the problem of how to translate strong moral convictions into compelling art. Painting Painting in the 1990’s was diverse in scope and did not follow one movement or style. Both abstract and figurative painting flourished. Abstract painting turned art away from commodification and subverted the idea of spectacle through very individual and personal aesthetics. Working in a pluralistic mode, many styles of abstraction coexisted and drew from existing styles of the history of abstraction. There was also a concern with the materials of painting and its processes as well as gesture. Louise Fishman created paintings in the tradition of the gestural, stroked canvases of the abstract expressionists of the 1950’s. Elliott Puckette was also interested in the calligraphic aspect of painting, with figures scratched from the color ground. Mary Heilmann utilized the modernist grid and inserted splashy color filled in with paint layered upon itself. Jonathan Lasker created cartoon versions of neoexpressionist styles from Jackson Pollock and Willem de Kooning. Pat Steir painted canvases that were simultaneously abstract and figurative in her “waterfall” and “expressionist drips.” Philip Taaffe’s works were more ornamentally abstract, incorporating Eastern mandalas, Islamic abstract foliage, and other designs that were not easily readable as symbols. One of the most well-known abstract artists of the 1990’s was Terry Winters. His art drew from figurative imagery, but he translated it into the abstract, often deriving his images from architectural drawings, medical photographs, and computer graphics. Karin Davie brought issues of gender into her abstract paintings by addressing or suggesting the human body. Figurative painting in the 1990’s followed a number of themes. It communicated social or political content through iconography. Other figurative works followed a dialogue with a specific aesthetic style. Lastly, figurative painters in the 1990’s adopted

Art movements


imagery from technology and the media (fashion, film, video, photography, and computers). Elizabeth Peyton produced portraits of celebrities, rock stars, and her own personal friends. She created androgynous, dandyish images of people through a painterly effect of intense glazelike color with cherry-red lips and luxuriant hair. Karen Kilimnik appropriated the old masters through contemporary and historical references in a sort of kitschy tribute exemplified in paintings of Princess Diana and actor Hugh Grant. Painter Richard Phillips also mined the world of the media in his subject matter, as he created enormous portraits taken from 1970’s fashion photography in order to question the idea of idealized beauty. Carroll Dunham borrowed the cartoonish imagery utilized by Philip Guston and added humor by creating ambiguous bulbous forms that at the same time seemed violent in nature. Nicole Eisenman also utilized the figuration of cartoonish forms, through which she critiqued social and political issues. John Currin dealt with issues of sexuality and the body as commodity in his distorted, doll-like images of women. Lisa Yuskavage gave a feminist slant to the obsession with the female body with the depiction of female figures with exaggerated sexual characteristics. Lari Pittman also incorporated sexual imagery into his work, although it was hidden under an abstract veneer of decorative pattern. Manual Ocampo, a Filipino living and working in Los Angeles, created paintings that included swastikas and Ku Klux Klan hoods in order to protest prejudice and oppression. Alexis Rockman’s bizarre depictions of hybrid plant and animal life explored the destructive interaction between the human species and the natural world. Shahzia Sikander incorporated both Hindu and Muslim iconography into her paintings, which were stylistically indebted to Indian miniatures. A number of artists worked in “revival” styles that drew on the Western painting tradition. Gary Hume, for example, appropriated the color-field painters’ interest in bright, flat areas of glossy color. Joan Nelson’s work relied on old master glazes, and Richard Ryan’s still lifes recalled the work of Giorgio Morandi. Sculpture and Installation Art Installation art flourished in the 1990’s, with much sculpture overlapping into this category. A wide variety of materials outside the traditional realm of sculpture was employed—such as mixed media, including found


Art movements

objects, wax, and plastics—and diverse themes were explored. The grand dame of sculpture in the 1990’s was Louise Bourgeois. On September 29, 1997, Bourgeois received the National Medal of the Arts and was selected to represent the United States at the Venice Biennale in 1993. She also had a number of solo exhibitions during the 1990’s in Brooklyn, Milan, and Paris. Bourgeois drew on memories of her mother and childhood in some of her sculptures. Her gigantic steel spiders that filled entire rooms were in homage to her mother, a weaver whom she viewed as a positive and nurturing force in her life. Another influence in Bourgeois’s art was the pain of her father’s infidelities. This in turn led to the artist’s interest in psychoanalysis and her exploration of the themes of sexuality in her sculptures. While artist Richard Serra had been working as a sculptor since the 1960’s, his art came to fruition in the 1990’s in his use of thick plates of rolled steel that formed pathways or spaces that the viewer must navigate around. Artist Judy Pfaff also confronted the issues of architectural space, except instead of organizing and ordering the space as did Serra, Pfaff explored its disorganization. Materials such as steel tubes, wires, glass, and plastic were suspended in space, hanging from the ceiling and off walls. Jessica Stockholder dealt with found objects that juxtaposed color, form, and texture. Using materials such as milk crates, carpeting, household lamps, and other everyday items, she created whimsical and surrealist compositions. Other installation artists working in the 1990’s returned to the conceptualism that was prominent in the art of the 1970’s. Félix González-Torres explored issues such as gay identity and AIDS through his work. By using piles of brightly colored, discarded candy wrappers from candy that viewers could take and eat, he explored issues of the transience of things. On photographed billboards around New York City, he created a memorial to his companion who had died of AIDS. Roni Horn scattered aluminum blocks of letters on the floor, which although impossible to read, spelled out the word “ephemeral” twenty-four times in a play with semantics. Heim Steinbach also played with the idea of the constructed nature of language. He questioned the social and psychological meaning of found objects through their juxtaposition. Fred Wilson questioned how museums interpret historical truth and

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artistic value as well as the biases these cultural institutions express. For example, Wilson rearranged and recontextualized the Baltimore Historical Society’s collection in order to shed light on the history of slavery in America. Combining materials such as wax, embroidery, bronze, and paper, Kiki Smith evoked themes such as birth and death, crucifixion, and resurrection through fragile bodies hanging from walls and lying on the floor. For her, the body is the focus of mythologizing and storytelling. Ann Hamilton also used diverse materials in her installations. In “Tropos,” her 1993 installation at the Dia Center for the Arts in New York, a stitched carpet of horsehair covered the floor while at the end of the room a person sat at a table burning away the lines of a book, with coils of smoke lingering in the air. This experience brings the viewer into contact with natural processes and organic matter that is often lost in day-to-day living in contemporary society. Puerto Rican-born installation artist Pepón Osorio examined the theme of the self. His media installations dealt with cultural identity and politics of Latin cultures living in urban America. His mixed-media installations included film and video. David Hammons’s sculptures presented symbolism of racism and black pride in ironic sculptures that combined found objects from the streets of the Harlem community where he lived and worked. Kara Walker also explored issues in African American identity through her reuse of racial stereotypes in her black silhouette wall installations that in turn requestioned these stereotypes. Adrian Piper delved into the racial issues of having a black father and a white mother by using video installations that questioned the illogical nature of stereotypes. Mike Kelley incorporated ideas about commercialism and the abject into his sculptures of discarded stuffed animals and other objects. In his video installations and sculptures, Matthew Barney created surrealist fictions exploring ideas about beauty, gender, mythic narrative, and the potential for bodily transformation. Video Art and Photography Bill Viola relied on scale and slow motion in his video installations to create a physical and emphatic relationship between the viewer and his work. Gary Hill also invoked intense physical experiences through his videos through the utilization of imagery and language. Both Viola and Hill utilized large screens and multi-

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ple monitors in dark spaces in order to intensify the viewer’s experience. Tony Oursler’s videos projected faces on soft sculpture dummies with which audio and random noise were incorporated. His themes questioned the toxic effects of technology and substance abuse. In photography, Philip-Lorca diCorcia examined street life in big cities such as Los Angeles, New York, and Berlin. His photographs sometimes left much to chance, when his subjects did not realize they were being photographed, although he would start with an abstract idea of what he was looking for. Tina Barney’s photography had an anthropological and sociological slant. She took portrait photography of her subjects, trying not to stage or plan her photographs too much, and liked to capture the tensions of the relationships between people as well as the details of their surroundings. Canadian artist Jeff Wall placed photographic images in backlit boxes while exploring social and political themes. He constructed photos that seemed to reflect everyday life but manipulated them digitally in order to confuse viewers and to make them look twice. Having studied art history, Wall also referenced well-known works of art in his work. Influenced by Wall, Gregory Crewdson’s photography was also much influenced by film. He worked with a production crew of about sixty people and staged photographs that captured narrative tableaux of the psychological tensions and bizarre happenings of American suburbia. In the 1990’s, Catherine Opie often portrayed herself and her transgendered friends in Los Angeles. In her self-portraits, she portrayed herself in a variety of guises that were meant to shock by addressing gender and sexual issues, including that of herself dressed up as a butch man or in sadomasochistic dress. William Wegman became widely known in the 1990’s for photographs of his Weimaraner dogs. The dogs Fay Ray and her puppies became subjects, and he created children’s books with the dogs as the characters in stories such as “Cinderella” and “Little Red Riding Hood.” Impact Art in the 1990’s in America cannot be organized into art movements, as it was diverse, individualistic, and pluralistic. Voices of previously marginalized “others” were frequently voiced through art created by women, Latinos, African Americans, and homosexuals. Identity exhibitions at museums reflected this trend in the art world. The

Art movements


1993 Whitney Biennial explored the issues of race, sex, otherness, and difference mostly through installation art, video art, and photography. The exhibitions of Bad Girls at the New Museum of Contemporary Art in New York and Black Male at the Whitney Museum garnered attention. At the same time, painting, installation, and video art continued to address formalist themes involving material, shape, and color. This artistic environment would set precedents for artists to continue into the twenty-first century. Further Reading

Bright, Susan. Art Photography Now. New York: Aperture, 2005. An excellent overview of photography of the 1990’s. Cohalan, Mary Lou, and William V. Ganis. “Abstract Painting in the 1990’s.” Art Criticism 14, no. 2 (1999): 4-20. Excellent survey of abstract painting. Cullum, Jerry. “Stereotype this!” Art papers 22, no. 6 (1998): 16-21. Discusses the controversial issue of race in art. Godoeke, Jason, Nathan Japel, and Sandra Skurvidaite. “Figurative Painting in the 1990’s.” Art Criticism 14.2 (1999): 21-33. Excellent overview. Hopkins, David. After Modern Art, 1945-2000. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. Includes a chapter on the 1990’s that is general and short but a good overview. Hunter, Sam, John Jacobus, and Daniel Wheeler. Modern Art. Rev. ed. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2000. Includes a chapter with an excellent comprehensive survey of the art of the 1990’s. Keeblatt, Norman. “The Other Edge: Representing Ethnicity, Gender, and Sexuality.” Issues in Architecture, Art, and Design 5, no. 1 (1997-1998): 22-36. Discusses issues of race and gender in art. Mayer, Marc. Being and Time: The Emergence of Video Projection. Buffalo, N.Y.: Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, 1996. Good exhibition catalog on the topic of video art. Somers, Lynn, Bluewater Avery, and Jason Paradis. “From Corporeal Bodies to Mechanical Machines: Navigating the Spectacle of American Installation in the 1990’s.” Art Criticism 14, no. 2 (1999): 53-73. Very good overview. Taylor, Sue. “Lessons of Hysteria: Louise Bourgeois in the Nineties.” New Art Examiner 25 (1997-1998): 24-29. Many of the artists mentioned have excellent Web sites that are wonderful resources for in-


Asian Americans

formation on their work. Also, major museums of contemporary art such as the Museum of Modern Art in New York and the Dia Art Foundation are excellent sources of information. Sandra Rothenberg See also Koons, Jeff; Mapplethorpe obscenity trial; National Endowment for the Arts (NEA); Photography; Wegman, William.

■ Asian Americans Identification

U.S. citizens or residents of Asian

descent The number of Asian Americans continued to grow both through birth and immigration, increasing the Asian American share of America’s population from 3 to 4 percent during the decade. As Asian Americans were generally successful in American society, there nevertheless remained some social and cultural conflicts with other racial groups and mainstream America. Throughout the 1990’s, Asian Americans continued their dynamic growth. This was due to lower immigration barriers and the desire to move to America, the effects of a generally young Asian American population starting new families, and a continuous exodus from communist Asian countries. By 1990, 66 percent of Asian Americans were foreign-born. More than one-third had become citizens in the last decade, and almost two-thirds spoke an Asian language at home. An exception was Japanese Americans, who experienced less immigration and a lower birthrate. Diversity Among Asian Americans The 1990 U.S. Census Bureau lists 7,274,000 Asian Americans, contributing to 2.92 percent of the American population of 249,000,000. Since 1980, Asian Americans increased by 108 percent, the fastest-growing American group. By 2000, there would be 11,900,000 Asian Americans constituting 4.2 percent of the American population. This growth meant that Asian Americans contributed to American society to an everincreasing degree. Broken down according to specific Asian heritage, Asian Americans made up a remarkably diverse, heterogeneous group. The largest subgroups were still those Asian Americans whose ancestors

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had come to America the earliest. By 1990, Chinese Americans were the largest number of Asian Americans, with 1,650,000 people. They were followed by 1,401,000 people of Filipino ancestry, surpassing the 848,000 Japanese Americans. For the first time, Indian Americans constituted a significant number, 815,000 people, exceeding 799,000 Korean Americans. Generally English-speaking and well-educated, Indian Americans were attracted to America’s professional opportunities, particularly the booming computer and software industry. Reflecting the political upheavals of Southeast Asia, Vietnamese Americans increased to 615,000, followed by 147,000 Cambodian, 149,000 Laotian, and 90,000 Hmong Americans. Prior to communist victories in Southeast Asia in 1975, Southeast Asians rarely immigrated to America. The Southeast Asian refugee boom of the 1980’s was accounted for in the 1990 census. Even as the worst communist excesses ended in the region in the 1990’s, Southeast Asians continued to immigrate to America. The 2000 census showed that during the 1990’s, the number of Southeast Asian Americans had doubled from 990,000 to 2,100,000. The last subgroup of Asian Americans specifically identified on the census was 91,000 Thai Americans; 302,000 more Asian Americans did not indicate any subgroup. 366,000 Americans identified themselves as Pacific Islanders. Generally throughout the 1990’s, 94 percent of Asian Americans lived in a metropolitan area (but only 6 percent of Pacific Islanders did) and concentrated in the key states of California, New York, Texas, and Hawaii. There were significant enclaves such as Hmong Americans in Minnesota and vibrant Asian American communities in major eastern U.S. cities. In issues such as income per capita, college education, professional occupation, family size and structure, or poverty, Asian American subgroups differed widely from each other. Individual subgroups tended to exceed, correspond to, or fall below national averages in each category. This trend continued in the 1990’s and meant that Asian American subgroups tended to vary widely from each other. In general, higher levels of education corresponded to higher material success. However, for some subgroups with many recent immigrants such as Vietnamese and Thai Americans, this equation did not yet emerge.

The Nineties in America Relief for Japanese Americans For Japanese Americans, the decade opened well when on October 9, 1990, the first redress payments were made to Japanese Americans who had been interned by the U.S. government in 1942 during World War II. When 107-year-old Reverend Mamoru Eto was the first to receive his check for $20,000 at a ceremony in Washington, D.C., many Japanese Americans felt that this, together with the official American apology for the internment in 1988, provided some closure to a dark chapter in the treatment of Japanese Americans. Each surviving internee, some of whom were small children at the time of the occurrence, received this symbolic compensation. In April, 1992, the Japanese American National Museum opened in Los Angeles, documenting history, suffering, and achievements of Japanese Americans. Prominent Role Models Giving Asian Americans one of their first international sports superstars, on February 21, 1992, Kristi Yamaguchi won the first gold medal in figure skating for an Asian American at the Winter Olympics in France. Yamaguchi turned professional after the Olympics, joining Stars on Ice. Asian American Olympic success in that competition was followed at the 1998 Winter Olympics in Japan, when Chinese American Michelle Kwan won the silver medal. The success of some outstanding Asian Americans inspired many others to strive for achievement and recognition despite lingering cultural obstacles. Nationwide, Connie Chung became a familiar television face as the coanchor of CBS Evening News from 1993 to 1995. Actress Lucy Liu broke into mainstream American television with her part on the Ally McBeal show from 1998 to 2002. The decade also saw two Asian Americans cowinning the Nobel Prize in Physics, Steven Chu in 1997 and Daniel Tsui in 1998. At the cutting edge of the Internet, Jerry Yang cofounded Yahoo! in 1995. These examples indicated that Asian Americans became more visible to mainstream America in the 1990’s. Prominent Asian Americans appeared in other fields. During the 1995 murder trial of O. J. Simpson, Judge Lance Ito became a popular culture icon. When General Eric Shinseki became chief of staff of the U.S. Army in 1999, it signaled that Asian Americans could advance to top military positions. While somewhat underrepresented in the field of politics, Asian Americans held important public offices as

Asian Americans


well. At the top were the two Asian American senators of the decade, Daniel K. Inouye and Daniel Akaka, Democrats from Hawaii. Racial Conflicts Relations of Asian Americans with other American racial groups were not always harmonious in the 1990’s. There was a feeling that some European Americans still stereotyped Asian Americans as a “model minority.” Asian Americans were concerned that there were glass ceilings barring their access to top echelons of American business, politics, and society, and that mainstream America still looked at them as exotic others, not “real” Americans. There were also hate crimes against Asian Americans. A major racial conflict between Korean American store owners and African Americans living in deprived neighborhoods of South Central Los Angeles erupted during the Los Angeles riots of 1992. On April 29, or Sa-i-gu in Korean, when the riots broke out in the city, mobs of predominantly African Americans looted and burned some 2,300 Korean American and other Asian American stores. Feeling abandoned by the city’s fire and police departments, on April 30 Korean Americans armed themselves to protect their surviving businesses. In the ensuing gun battles with looters, one young Korean American, Edward Lee, was killed. Koreatown was essentially destroyed, total damage to Asian businesses ranging in estimate from $380 to $500 million. Reconstruction proved slow, and racial distrust lingered. The issue of whether affirmative action policies, especially in higher education, were causing reverse discrimination against Asian Americans arose in the mid-1980’s and came to a head in the 1990’s. Asian American applicants often felt discriminated against as they had to apply to college on merit alone, while members of underrepresented groups were often given a variety of non-merit-based benefits. On July 20, 1995, the Regents of the University of California voted to abolish affirmative action in admissions and employment. Instead, socioeconomic factors should be used to adjust the admissions process toward gaining a diverse student body. In 1996, voters in California passed Proposition 209, which eliminated state affirmative action programs. This time, Asian Americans voted six to four against the proposition. Campaign Finance Scandal As their economic success grew, Asian Americans were asked for political contributions. Asian Americans gave about $10 mil-


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Asian Americans

lion during the 1992 presidential campaign, almost the same to Republicans and Democrats. They learned that sometimes giving money to a successful candidate entailed access to that politician and perhaps a political appointment or favorable policies. In comparison with other ethnic groups, Asian Americans yielded a relatively small political return for their campaign generosity. By 1995, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) deeply resented their enemy Taiwan’s influence on American politics. The PRC decided to buy itself influence through campaign contributions, primarily to Democrats. However, American law forbids political contributions by noncitizens or non-permanent aliens, so the PRC had to contribute illegally. During the 1996 presidential campaign, the PRC funneled illegal money to the Democratic National Committee and the Bill Clinton-Al Gore campaign. Ironically, the four key Chinese Americans helping the communists were born on Taiwan and thus betrayed both their land of birth and violated the campaign laws of their new country. After Congress investigated the issue, the accused were put on trial, and the Democrats returned the illegal money. From 1998 to 2001, twenty-two people were convicted, including Chinese American illegal contributors John Huang, Charlie Trie, Johnny Chung, and Maria Hsia. The four each received jail sentences with probation and had to pay fines and perform community service. Law-abiding Chinese Americans feared a general backlash. Their worries were not unfounded, as proved by the arrest of Wen Ho Lee, a Taiwan-born American nuclear physicist, in December, 1999. Dismissed from his sensitive job at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in spring, 1999, Lee was charged with fifty-nine counts of federal crimes, alleged to have spied for the PRC, and held in solitary confinement from December, 1999, until his trial in September, 2000. At this time, the prosecution dropped all but one charge, illegally transferring classified data on his personal computer, which was done by many other scientists at the lab. Lee pleaded guilty and was released for time served. Judge James Parker personally apologized to Lee for the way the government had mishandled his case. Youth Culture and Intermarriage As many Asian American communities matured, there also developed Asian American youth cultures fusing tradi-

tional heritage with mainstream American ideas in an original fashion. In Southern California, for example, since July, 1990, young Asian Americans gathered at the annual Battle of the Imports car races that soon became televised on sports channels. Other youth events with a decidedly Asian American flavor emerged as well. Another challenge for young Asian Americans in the 1990’s was the issue of intermarriage. While many Asian Americans still were married within their ethnic group, the 1990’s saw an upsurge in interethnic Asian and interracial marriages. The effects of these interracial marriages on the next generation remained an open question by 1999. Impact Throughout the 1990’s, the diverse group of Asian Americans continued to grow rapidly, supported by immigration. There were considerable differences in education, social position, income, and family structure among different Asian American ethnic groups. The longer an Asian American community had its roots in American society, the more its members tended to be successful in America. A quickly rising group was Indian Americans, whose English skills and high education spared them from the slower social and economic ascent associated with recent immigrants. As many Asian Americans succeeded in American society, Asian Americans gained cultural selfconfidence. More Asian Americans became known nationally in sports, business, culture, and science. However, some lingering anti-Asian resentment, unsolved racial issues, and international conflicts created sometimes violent tensions. By the end of the decade, Asian Americans constituted a small but solidly grounded part of American society. Further Reading

Ancheta, Angelo N. Race, Rights, and the Asian American Experience. 2d ed. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2006. Academic study of Asian American struggle with racial discrimination in the United States; focuses also on cases, issues, and examples from the 1990’s. Notes, bibliography, tables, and index. Lee, Jennifer, and Min Zhou, eds. Asian American Youth: Culture, Identity, and Ethnicity. New York: Routledge, 2004. Collection of twenty-one essays on issues of young Asian Americans, most from a 1990’s perspective. Analyzes how young Asian Americans interacted with mainstream American

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culture and shaped their own specific subcultures in the 1990’s. Introduction, conclusion, bibliography, and index. Leonard, George J., ed. The Asian Pacific American Heritage. New York: Garland, 1999. While the book concentrates on Asian American literature and the arts, overview sections of the sixty-one chapters provide valuable insight into Asian American issues of the 1990’s. Chronology, lexicon of Asian American terms, illustrations, references, and index. Min, Pyong Gap, ed. The Second Generation: Ethnic Identity Among Asian Americans. Walnut Creek, Calif.: AltaMira Press, 2002. Eight chapters on postimmigration generation experience of Asian Americans from a 1990’s perspective. Spotlight on recent immigrants from the Philippines, Vietnam, India, and Korea. Some chapters provide overviews. Bibliography, tables, index. Takaki, Ronald. Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans. Rev. ed. Boston: Little, Brown, 1998. Considered the standard work in English on Asian American experience. Chapter 13 deals with critical issues of the 1990’s such as the Los Angeles riots, affirmative action, and Asian American heterogeneity. Photos, notes, index. R. C. Lutz Ally McBeal; Auto racing; Campaign finance scandal; China and the United States; Demographics of the United States; Elections in the United States, 1992; Elections in the United States, 1996; Employment in the United States; Immigration to the United States; Income and wages in the United States; Los Angeles riots; Race relations; Television; Yamaguchi, Kristi.

See also

■ Astronomy Study of celestial objects and phenomena


A series of new telescopes, orbiting observatories, and space probes revealed many new aspects of the solar system during the 1990’s. They also provided the first evidence of extrasolar planets and new windows into the nature and formation of stars, galaxies, and the expanding universe. Throughout the 1990’s, a new generation of giant telescopes, orbiting observatories, and complex



space probes were placed in service by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Of particular note was the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), launched into Earth orbit on April 24, 1990. Although its primary mirror turned out to be defective, other onboard instruments began important observations. Corrective optics were installed on December 7, 1993, leading to dramatic results from the HST. On August 10, 1990, the Magellan orbiter reached Venus, and the two giant 10-meter Keck telescopes began operation in Hawaii in 1990 and 1996. On April 7, 1991, NASA launched the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory into Earth orbit. Two spacecraft launched in 1989 began to make important discoveries in the 1990’s: the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) and the Galileo orbiter around Jupiter. Other NASA spacecraft that contributed to planetary astronomy in the 1990’s included the Clementine lunar observatory, the Mars Global Surveyor orbiter, the Mars Pathfinder lander, and the Lunar Prospector. Study of the solar system in the 1990’s began with the detailed mapping of the surface of Venus by the Magellan spacecraft. Using radar to penetrate the thick cloud cover, the orbiter had mapped 98 percent of the surface to near-photographic quality by 1992. During two more years of service, Magellan observed surface changes and measured gravity on Venus. Widespread volcanic activity was observed, but few impact craters, indicating processes that appear to resurface Venus over a few hundred million years. On October 29, 1991, the Galileo spacecraft came within 1,600 kilometers of the asteroid Gaspra and obtained the first close asteroid photo. On August 28, 1993, Galileo passed the asteroid Ida and discovered the first asteroid moon, Dactyl, orbiting Ida. Galileo reached Jupiter on December 7, 1995, and deployed a probe into Jupiter’s cloud layers, revealing the structure of Jupiter’s atmosphere. Galileo continued to orbit Jupiter for the rest of the decade, providing evidence for an iron core and intense volcanic activity on Io, a magnetic field on Ganymede, and a deep ocean under the ice of Europa. Repair of the Hubble Space Telescope came just in time for several important events. On March 24, 1993, Carolyn and Eugene Merle Shoemaker and David H. Levy discovered Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL-9), apparently fragmented by a close pass by Ju-

Solar System Discoveries


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piter. When its next orbit caused at least twenty-one fragments to collide with Jupiter in July of 1994, the HST provided the sharpest images. The HST was also used to study objects in the outer solar system, including early evidence for volcanoes on Io and some of the first Kuiper Belt objects beyond Pluto and similar to it. On January 25, 1994, NASA launched the Clementine spacecraft to orbit the Moon. During 348 lunar orbits, the surface was mapped and analyzed for three months. Clementine maps revealed the South Pole-Aitken Basin, the largest known crater in the solar system, and provided evidence for ice deposits that were later confirmed by the Lunar Prospector. In 1997, the American Astronomical Society (AAS) announced their grazing-collision theory for the origin of the Moon. During the last two months of 1996, NASA launched the Mars Global Surveyor, which began orbiting on September 12, 1997, and the Mars Pathfinder to demonstrate low-cost air-bag landing techniques for its Sojourner rover, which landed on July 4, 1997. The combined missions analyzed the atmosphere, magnetism, and geology of Mars. On August 6, 1996, NASA announced the results of their

analysis of an Antarctic meteorite, identified as coming from Mars, and claimed that it contained fossil microorganisms. Beyond the Solar System The COBE satellite provided the most important information about the universe at large in 1992 when it detected ripples in the cosmic background radiation that were identified with the formation of galaxies. By 1995, the HST began to obtain photos of infant galaxies in the early universe. In 1996, HST photos showed evidence for a supermassive black hole at the center of a galaxy, and by the end of the decade the HST had detected ten such galactic black holes. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory surveyed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) throughout the decade and finally detected the first one with an optical afterglow in 1999. Analysis of HST measurements then showed that its source is beyond our galaxy, confirming that GRBs were the most energetic events since the big bang, probably caused by the collapse of massive stars into black holes. During 1995, the first three brown dwarfs (substellar objects) were discovered, most notably at the Palomar Observatory, where a brown dwarf was observed in orbit around a red-dwarf star (Gliese 229). During the last half of the decade, about twenty giant extrasolar planets were discovered from the wobble of their host stars, most by Geoffrey Marcy and associates in California. In 1998, the HST and the Keck II telescope obtained images of gaseous disks around two stars, showing evidence of possible planet formation. Perhaps the most important discovery of the decade, announced at the 1998 AAS meeting, was new evidence from supernova studies that the expansion of the universe was speeding up. This evidence of an accelerating universe suggests a new form of “dark energy” dominating the mass-energy content of the universe.

The spacecraft Galileo obtained the first close photograph of an asteroid, Gaspra, on October 29, 1991. (NASA)

Impact New information about asteroids and the collision of comet SL-9 with Jupiter gave a better un-

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derstanding of the danger such objects pose for Earth. Observations of surface conditions on Venus and Mars helped to assess the unique conditions on Earth for life compared to global warming on Venus or global cooling on Mars. The uniqueness of Earth was also evident from observations of the unusual nature of giant extrasolar planets. The energy of the universe was seen in a new light with the discoveries of galactic black holes, gamma-ray bursts, and the accelerating expansion of the universe. Further Reading

Rees, Martin. Our Cosmic Habitat. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2001. A popular account of the nature and expansion of the universe by the Astronomer Royal of Great Britain. Seeds, Michael. Astronomy: The Solar System and Beyond. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 2006. A wellillustrated textbook with a comprehensive coverage of astronomy. Sobel, Dava. The Planets. New York: Viking Press, 2005. An engaging discussion of the planets and recent planetary research. Joseph L. Spradley Hale-Bopp comet; Hubble Space Telescope; Mars exploration; Science and technology; Shoemaker-Levy 9 comet; Space exploration; Space shuttle program.

See also

■ Attention-deficit disorder Definition

Neurobehavioral developmental

disorder The 1990’s saw a dramatic increase in the medicating of children with attention-deficit disorder and a corresponding nationwide controversy. Often referred to as the disorder of the 1990’s, attention-deficit disorder (ADD) came to be the most commonly diagnosed mental health condition in American children during the decade. A neurobehavioral developmental disorder characterized by inattentiveness and hyperactivity, the condition was widely studied, debated, and diagnosed. One of the earliest descriptions of the disorder comes from a series of lectures published in 1902 by George F. Still in which Still described a group of children with impulsive characteristics that today would be associated

Attention-deficit disorder


with ADD. The disorder was once called “morbid defect of moral control,” “post-encephalitic behavior disorder,” “minimal brain dysfunction,” and “hyperkinetic reaction of childhood.” It is more popularly known as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In 1994, diagnosticians distinguished between two separate sets of symptoms: inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. While symptoms usually occur together, a diagnosis can nevertheless be made when symptoms occur separately. The diagnosis usually transpires after a child enters school, when increased focus on details concerning reading, writing, and socializing becomes necessary. Children diagnosed with ADD have difficulty finishing schoolwork or any task that requires protracted periods of concentration. Fidgeting, squirming, uncontrolled walking, running, and talking are also considered symptomatic. ADD is said to affect 3 to 5 percent of all children and remains more prevalent among boys. Health professionals cannot determine any root cause for the elusive condition. During the 1990’s, which the President George H. W. Bush and Congress declared the “Decade of the Brain,” the use of psychostimulant medications, including Ritalin (the most popular treatment), Adderall, Concerta, and Metadate increased dramatically. Indeed, by 1996, ADD accounted for at least 40 percent of all children’s references made to psychiatrists. That same year, an article in Forbes magazine demonstrated that the rise of Ritalin consumption had increased fourfold between 1989 and 1994. These statistics prompted the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to report the rise of psychostimulant medication use among children to the United Nations International Narcotics Control Board. Subsequently, the United Nations reported that 10 to 12 percent of all male schoolchildren in the United States were taking Ritalin. Across the United States, children lined up in school hallways for school nurses to hand out daily doses. Although the American Medical Association (AMA) called ADD one of the bestresearched disorders in medicine, it became an increasingly visible source of controversy during the 1990’s, coming under the scrutiny of the media, social groups, and churches. Throughout the decade, magazine articles suggested that American children were being overmedicated. The increasing number

Ritalin Controversy


Attention-deficit disorder

of ADD diagnoses and the consequential skyrocketing rise in the use of prescription drugs led to the hotly debated disagreement that centered on methylphenidate hydrochloride, an amphetamine more popularly known as Ritalin. On one side of the controversy were the parents who passionately defended Ritalin for helping their out-of-control children and the physicians who cited incident after incident of positive results for their patients. On the other side were parents and physicians who argued that stimulant medications harm the brain, curtail growth, and were being marketed by pharmaceutical companies for enormous profits. Impact In the early twenty-first century, the controversy over psychostimulant medication continued unabated. Because stimulants increase the pulse rate, which could consequently lead to serious health is-

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sues, a great deal of apprehension remained concerning the use of these psychostimulant medications. New arguments emerged claiming that Ritalin has the potential for causing long-lasting changes in brain cell structure and function. Ritalin abuse, including the snorting of Ritalin and consequent addiction, became a problem among adolescents. Although it was believed that children would outgrow ADD, adults were regularly diagnosed with the disorder, while social and medical movements sprang up denying the existence of ADD entirely. In 2000, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) revised their guidelines for diagnosing ADD. Chief among the disagreements were the disorder’s causes, the research methodology, and the description of the condition as a mental disease. Also in 2000, the Church of Scientology lobbied Congress for an investigation of the harmful effects

A pharmacist holds a bottle of the prescription drug Ritalin and a pamphlet warning about its potential abuse. Prescribed for hyperactivity in children, the drug has been abused by some adolescents to get high. (AP/Wide World Photos)

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of Ritalin. In 2005, the Pediatric Advisory Committee of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released an announcement stating its concerns over the use of stimulants. Additionally, in 2006, Ritalin and other stimulant drugs were ordered by the government to carry a strong “black box” warning on their labels. Further Reading

Brown, Thomas E. Attention Deficit Disorder: The Unfocused Mind in Children and Adults. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2005. Argues that attention-deficit disorder is a result of a serious chemical imbalance in the brain and demonstrates the ways this imbalance affects behavior. Hallahan, Daniel P., and James M. Kauffman. Exceptional Learners: Introduction to Special Education. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 2008. The authors argue that the lack of empirical data suggests that attention-deficit disorder may not be valid as a medical condition. Hallowell, Edward, and John Ratey. Driven to Distraction: Recognizing and Coping with Attention Deficit Disorder from Childhood Through Adulthood. Both authors, who have attention-deficit disorder themselves, argue that the condition should not be labeled simply as a “disorder,” because of the negative connotation, and that the uncritical acceptance of the notion of ADD simply hides the need for major reforms in public schools. Hartmann, Thom. Attention Deficit Disorder: A Different Perception. Nevada City, Calif.: Underwood Books, 1993. Popular book that links attentiondeficit disorder to the genetic makeup of men and women who in prehistoric times utilized their more active brains to successfully hunt for food. Sheds a positive light on ADD and strongly suggests that the condition can be associated with creativity, high achievement, and success. M. Casey Diana See also Antidepressants; Drug advertising; Drug use; Medicine; Pharmaceutical industry.



■ Audiobooks Abridged and unabridged audio versions of fiction and nonfiction books aimed at both consumers and library patrons


The audiobook industry enjoyed significant growth during the 1990’s as the medium adapted to new formats. CD books and downloadable books joined audio cassettes to reach more listeners. Before the 1980’s, books in audio formats were primarily long-playing recordings aimed at the blind, or recordings of poems, short stories, or fragments of longer works for other consumers. The evolution of audio cassettes allowed longer portions of books and eventually unabridged books to become available. Tape players in automobiles and portable players such as the Walkman were developed initially to meet the needs of music listeners. What began as a small market began to increase when publishers discovered that consumers enjoyed listening to books on tape while driving, walking, or exercising. Many in the industry were surprised that people wanted to listen to books for periods longer than a half hour. Audiobooks could be purchased, borrowed from libraries, or rented from such companies as Books on Tape and Recorded Books, which also supplied libraries. The audiobook industry continued to adapt to change throughout the 1990’s. Brilliance Corporation began using data-compression techniques to alter the voices of readers electronically to simulate telephone calls or memories of past events. In 1992, Brilliance developed CD-ROM books, containing both audio and text, for Sony’s portable Discman. Another advance arrived when became the first Web site devoted to selling audiobooks in 1994. By 1995, video stores and supermarkets had begun renting audiobooks, with audio listening posts set up at such businesses as Tower Records. The Audio Publishers Association (APA), formed in 1986 with twelve members, had over two hundred members by 1999. The organization, which presents annual Audie Awards, adopted “audiobook” in 1997 as the preferred term describing its industry. A 1999 APA study indicated that audiobook users listened to thirteen books annually. The number of titles available on compact disc increased dramatically as newer versions of portable



players switched from tape to CD and as automotive manufacturers began including CD players in their vehicles. An even more dramatic change occurred with the introduction of MP3 players, which could download books over the Internet. Such massproduced digital audio players were introduced in 1997, and led the way in making books available on the World Wide Web in 1998. By the end of the twentieth century, audiobooks had grown into a $2 billion industry. An APA study found that the audiobook market grew 360 percent from 1990 to 1998, five times the growth of its print counterpart, with 21 percent of American households listening to audiobooks. A medium most familiar to public library patrons in the 1980’s had become a central part of American life. Impact

Further Reading

Hoffman, Preston, and Carol H. Osteyee. Audio Book Breakthrough: A Guide to Selection and Use in Public Libraries and Education. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1994. Oder, Norman. “The Future of Unabridged?” Library Journal 126, no. 19 (November 15, 2001): 38-39. Rosenblum, Trudi M. “From LPs to Downloads.” Publishers Weekly 246, no. 49 (December 6, 1999): 32-33. Michael Adams See also Book clubs; Children’s literature; Computers; Digital audio; Dot-coms; Internet; MP3 format; Publishing; Spoken word movement.

■ Autism A developmental disorder of the brain that affects social interaction and communication skills in individuals


In the 1990’s, autism diagnosis began to increase dramatically; one out of every five hundred children was affected by autism. This increase was due in part to the standardized methods of identification that were developed in the mid1990’s. Individuals with autism are found in all racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic levels. The main symptom of the disorder is the inability to relate to people. Autism affects individuals of a wide range of cognitive abilities, ranging from those with a high IQ to those

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who have mental retardation. Autism is difficult to diagnose; early signs are often behavioral rather than physical. Therefore, most individuals are not diagnosed until after the age two. However, as with any disorder, the earlier the diagnosis, the better. The incidence of autism is higher in males than in females. Causes and Symptoms Signs of autism include delay in spoken language and repetitive patterns of behavior and activities, such as eating the same food each day or walking the same route to a room. Autistic symptoms also include nontypical responses from the senses, such as oversensitivity to noise, light, and touch. Other symptoms include the lack of pretend play prior to age three and delayed or nontypical social interaction with others. Individuals with autism may also exhibit challenging behavior. In 1990, the cause of autism was unknown. Some researchers indicated that autism was caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, such as a virus and/or vaccinations. However, the incidence of autism was higher for individuals who have a family member with autism. Historically, and prior to the 1990’s, autism was thought to be caused by cold, uncaring parents who caused the child to develop poor social skills and to withdraw from society. This type of thinking led to families of children with autism being ostracized by society and blamed for the child’s condition. During the 1990’s, however, these perceptions were changing. Parents were viewed more as collaborators with professionals. Children with autism benefited from the family involvement by being able to generalize skills in a variety of settings. This family-professional partnership empowered families to advocate for change. Major Changes in Diagnosis In 1991, the Autism Diagnostic Interview was published and used to diagnose individuals with autism. In 1992, the American Psychiatric Association redefined criteria for diagnosing individuals with autism. It became classified as a specific spectrum disorder, which meant that the intensity of autism may vary among individuals affected by the disorder. Autism was also included in the fourth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, 1994). Before this time, autism was listed as an emotional disturbance with no knowledge of the cause.

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Prior to the 1990’s, autistic children did not receive educational services by public schools for the specific disorder of autism. Many of these children were institutionalized or received intensive home-based therapy. Services provided were behavioral in nature, often involving many hours of one-on-one intervention. However, in 1990, P.L. 101-476, the Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments, was amended by Congress. Autism was included in the categories of disabilities. Children with autism were able to receive a free, appropriate education with related services with age-appropriate peers. According to the U.S. Department of Education, in 1994 only 4 percent of children with autism were receiving services in the regular class in 1991-1992, suggesting that most of the children with autism were educated in segregated classrooms.

Major Changes in Educational Services

Many parents and physicians were concerned that thiomersal, a mercurybased preservative used in many immunizations given to infants and young children, was the cause of the increase in the incidence of autism. Through legislative efforts by parents, physicians, and other concerned individuals, this preservative was removed in 1999 from most immunizations. This action resulted in a slight decrease in the incidence of autism. However, the issue has remained controversial. Some researchers argue that the change is highly significant, while others state that there is not enough evidence to support either stance.

Thiomersal Controversy

Impact The change in legislation and the redefining of criteria for diagnosis allowed professionals such as researchers, educators, and physicians to track the incidents of autism. Children with autism were provided free, appropriate educational services, which allowed them to be a part of society. Individuals and families began to advocate for increased funding to research causes and treatment for autism. Further Reading

Akerley, M. S. “False Gods and Angry Prophets: The Loneliness of the Long-distance Swimmer.” In Parents Speak Out: Then and Now, edited by A. P. Turnbull and R. H. Turnbull. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill, 1985. Compelling story with an update of a family who has a child with autism.

Auto racing


Heward, William L. Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Charles E. Merrill, 2000. Provides an overview of various disabilities and laws on special education. Turnbull, Ann, Rud Turnbull, Elizabeth Erwin, and Leslie Soodak. “Historical and Current Roles of Families and Parents.” In Families, Professionals, and Exceptionality: Positive Outcomes Through Partnership and Trust. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Charles E. Merrill/Prentice Hall, 2006. This chapter details the history of the family in special education. Warren, F. “A Society That Is Going to Kill Your Children: Call Them Liars Who Would Say ‘All Is Well.’” In Parents Speak Out: Then and Now, edited by A. P. Turnbull and R. H. Turnbull. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill, 1985. Story that depicts the struggles of a family who has a child with autism. Melinda Swafford See also Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990; Educate America Act of 1994; Health care reform; Medicine; Pharmaceutical industry.

■ Auto racing Definition

The sport of racing automobiles

As a consequence of new sponsors, personalities, race tracks, and television exposure, automobile racing—and in particular NASCAR—reached unprecedented heights of popularity during the 1990’s. Indeed, NASCAR, with its cafés and memorabilia, became a “way of life” for many Americans. While automobile racing has its origins at the end of the nineteenth century with the beginnings of the industry, at certain levels the sport was radically transformed during the 1990’s. First, and particularly as a result of the spectacular success of the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR), automobile racing brought in enormous amounts of money. Second, it was no longer the automobile manufacturers that made the key decisions related to auto racing but rather those controlling business aspects and the organization of the sport. The influx of money was not true across the


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Auto racing

board, however. At the second level, beneath NASCAR and Formula 1 (primarily a Europeanbased activity), stood races organized by the Championship Auto Racing Teams (CART) and the Indy Racing League (IRL). Conflict between these two organizations diluted fan interest and profits. At a third level were those engaged in sports car road racing, governed by the Sports Car Club of America (SCCA) and International Motor Sports Association (IMSA). Finally, grassroots-level racing, either at the club level or at oval dirt and asphalt tracks located in rural America, thrived, but more as a labor of love than as a way to make money for those involved. The NASCAR Boom During the 1990’s, NASCAR exploded on the American scene. Once confined to the southeastern United States, NASCAR became a national sport, with high-paid drivers, a large and increasingly diverse fan base, extravagant sponsors, and broad media coverage. Money was everywhere. For example, sponsorship contributions rose 7 percent annually during the decade. By 1998, more than fifty companies invested more than $10 million each year. Top sponsors included Philip Morris, Anheuser-Busch, Coca-Cola, General Motors, PepsiCo, AT&T, RJR Nabisco, and McDonald’s. New sponsors in sectors with little direct connection to the automobile business—fast food, home supplies, detergents—became commonplace. Consequently, top drivers like Dale Earnhardt and Jeff Gordon earned more than $10 million per year, and successful crew chiefs $300,000 to $500,000. Ultimately the money was due to the fact that NASCAR was highly adaptable to television, and thus it was media executives rather than the auto industry who was now calling the shots in this business. The 1990’s also witnessed the rise of a new generation of NASCAR drivers. Heroes from the 1960’s and 1970’s, including Richard Petty, Bobby Allison, Cale Yarborough, David Pearson, and Buddy Baker, gave way to Jeff Gordon, Dale Jarrett, Ernie Ervin, Mark Martin, Bobby Labonte, Jeff and Ward Burton, Ricky Craven, Johnny Benson, and Jeremy Mayfield. Symbolically, Richard Petty’s 1992 “Fan Appreciation Tour” ended winless. Petty’s last race in Atlanta found him running his final laps at half speed, the consequence of an earlier crash. New owners were also a part of the NASCAR scene during the 1990’s. Included were stars from other sports, including National Football League

Jeff Gordon celebrates after winning the first Brickyard 400 NASCAR event on August 6, 1994. (AP/Wide World Photos)

coach Joe Gibbs and the National Basketball Association’s Julius Erving and Brad Daugherty. With new tracks located near Fort Worth, Texas, and Fontana, California, NASCAR was seemingly being transformed in virtually every possible way. Perhaps the most dramatic event of the 1990’s was NASCAR’s coming to the legendary Indianapolis Motor Speedway for the inaugural Brickyard 400 in 1994. With NASCAR founder Bill France and longtime Indy track owner Tony Hulman now dead, their successors could bury long-term differences and realize the potential of such an event in terms of media coverage and fan enthusiasm. Thus, on August 6, 1994, Jeff Gordon won the inaugural 160-lap event in front of 300,000 fans. Despite the great success of the Brickyard 400, during the 1990’s controversy swirled


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around the Indianapolis Motor Speedway and its owner, Tony George. During the 1980’s, CART and the United States Automobile Club (USAC) had been the two sanctioning bodies that governed racing at Indianapolis, and these two groups had an uneasy relationship. In 1994, George announced that the Indianapolis 500 would leave the CART series and become the centerpiece for George’s own IRL series. Whether the decision was motivated by ego, a concern over the increased presence of foreign drivers, or a perception that Indy was dropping in status as a race is unclear. The upshot of all of this, however, was that in 1996 a group of unknown drivers raced at Indianapolis, while CART organized its own race, the U.S. 500, held in Michigan on the same day. The split greatly affected this level of racing, as it led to decreased television revenues and waning fan interest. In the end, the Indianapolis 500 prevailed, and after shifting the race date of the U.S. 500 to July, in 1999 CART canceled the race altogether. Since the early 1970’s, tobacco companies had played a critical role in automobile racing through sponsorship of teams and events. No longer able to advertise in print or on television, the tobacco industry could advertise on the side of cars, however, and it did so freely. This investment came to an end in 1998, however, when after litigation involving the companies and the states’ attorneys general an agreement was reached that eliminated cigarette companies from automobile racing. After twenty-eight years, NASCAR’s Winston Cup ended, but racing continued, now known as the NEXTEL series. End of Tobacco Company Sponsorship

Impact Despite America’s wavering love affair with the automobile, auto racing remains one of the nation’s most popular sports, on the level with football, baseball, and basketball. A huge and vibrant business, its fan base draws from virtually every class segment in society. Further Reading

Assael, Shaun. Wide Open: Days and Nights on the NASCAR Tour. New York: Ballantine, 1998. An account of the 1996 NASCAR racing season. Fleischman, Bill, and Al Pearce. Inside Sports NASCAR Racing. Detroit: Visible Ink, 1998. A most useful compendium on NASCAR that contains many important facts about racing events and personalities during the 1990’s.

Automobile industry


Hagstrom, Robert G. The NASCAR Way: The Business That Drives the Sport. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998. A business perspective on a $2 billion sport. Levine, Leo. “The Business of Racing.” Road & Track 51, no.4 (April, 1999):146-149. A very perceptive analysis of automobile racing as a business. Sponsors, advertising, and the role of the media, especially TV, are discussed. Poole, David, and Jim McLaurin. NASCAR Essential. Chicago: Triumph Books, 2007. A fun read that contains many statistics as well as interesting stories. John A. Heitmann Automobile industr y; Gordon, Jeff; Sports; Television.

See also

■ Automobile industry Industry involved in the manufacture and sale of motor vehicles


During the 1990’s, the American automobile industry was transformed in terms of products, leadership strategies, organization, and technology. Increasingly, the American industry has evolved into part of a global web of manufacturers, parts suppliers, and consumers. In 1999, annual sales of cars and light trucks in the United States reached a high of 16.9 million units, eclipsing by nearly one million the previous high reached in 1986. Despite ending on this high point, the 1990’s proved to be extremely competitive and turbulent time for automakers. As the decade unfolded, and following a trend that began in 1980, more and more light trucks as opposed to passenger cars were manufactured. In addition to trucks and sport utility vehicles (SUVs), new “market segment busting” vehicles appeared, called “crossovers.” The crossover mixed together features such as style, sturdiness, reliability, and luxury. These new vehicles were in part the consequence of a new generation of leaders in the industry, typically “motor heads” rather than the “bean counters” that had preceded them. As a result of making innovative vehicles that were of better quality, sales quantities and profits moved commensurately higher. For example, after staggering losses at the beginning of the 1990’s, between 1994 and 1998 General Motors (GM) and Ford had a global net income of $52 billion on reve-


Automobile industry

nues of $1.3 trillion. Given the flush times, the end of the twentieth century witnessed a flurry of merger activity involving U.S. auto companies and overseas manufacturers. The American auto industry was no longer centered as a cluster of enterprises based for the most part in Detroit, but rather it was now profoundly global in scale and scope. Automobile and Light Truck Industry The rapid rise of light trucks in the American marketplace post-1980 marked a new era. In 1981, light trucks represented just 19 percent of the American market, but some twenty-two years later they totaled more than 54 percent of what was once thought of as “car makes.” Indeed, the market share of trucks increased each and every year after 1981 to the twentyfirst century, and this trend resulted in tremendous windfalls for American manufacturers. Trucks were often sold at profits of $10,000 or more per unit, while small cars typically garnered miniscule profit numbers—at times only $1,000 was made on the sales of such vehicles. It was recognized, however, that the expanding truck market had its limits. In what was then perceived to be a slow-growth market increasing by no more than 1 percent per year, new products were called for. To find new market niches, a fresh type of vehicle, the crossover, appeared during 1997 and 1998. The Honda CR-V, the Mercedes-Benz M-class, the Subaru Forester, and Toyota’s RAV4 were built on car platforms and cloaked to appeal as civilized and luxury SUVs. Another unique offering that was introduced at the end of the century was the DaimlerChrysler PT Cruiser. All manufacturers at the end of the decade were working on breaking through market segments by offering vehicles that uniquely mixed the practical with affordability, performance, and style. Just as product lines were revolutionized to include SUVs and crossover vehicles, so too was the high end of the market. Commensurate with the overall prosperity of the decade, luxury product sales increased markedly, with such products as the Lexus, Infinity, and Acura, along with BMW 5 and 7 series vehicles. These high-end cars were accountable for the decrease in the lucrative luxury sales on the part of American manufactures from 65 percent in 1996 to 52 percent in 1999. No longer was the Cadillac the iconic symbol of status and wealth in America; rather, it was the Lexus, built by Toyota to un-

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precedented standards of quality and comfort, or the BMW, with its advanced technology and panache. At the beginning of the 1990’s, the American automobile industry was in a decided decline. The industry lost $8 billion in 1991, and the Honda Accord was the best-selling car for the third year in a row. Despite the bleak outlook, the industry experienced a remarkable comeback, the result of new leadership. At General Motors, Chairman Robert Stempel, who had taken over from Roger Smith and had employed the same strategies of plant closings and diversification, gave way to John F. “Jack” Smith. Smith focused his energies on reapplying the managerial and organizational strategies of former GM chairman Alfred P. Sloan that led to rationalization of divisional efforts, a reduction in competition among the units, the use of common platforms across the firm, and the introduction of new technologies. At Ford, Alex Trotman followed strategies similar to that of founder Henry Ford. Trotman pushed for the introduction of the Contour-Mondeo world car, centrally manufactured in discrete locations but marketed worldwide. Even at Chrysler, executive transitions took place, as Lee Iacocca was forced out, eventually replaced by Robert Eaton and Robert Lutz. Eaton and Lutz totally revitalized the company, the result of new organizational and manufacturing practices that included the formation of platform teams and fresh products. While basking in the glow of success between 1996 and 1998, Eaton did not want to play it safe. He had been concerned for some time with Chrysler’s future, and in particular the lack of Chrysler’s presence in foreign markets, especially Asia and South America. Thus, beginning in February of 1998, with an ever-increasing involvement by lawyers, bankers, and second-level executives, negotiations proceeded to a point that ultimately led to the signing of a merger agreement with Daimler-Benz AG in early May. Numerous obstacles had to be overcome, from the most formidable, like different organizational structures, to patterns of acceptable cultural behavior, language, and the more trivial, like headquarter time zone differences. Would the company be called ChryslerDaimler or DaimlerChrysler? In the end, the Germans got their way in terms of the new firm’s name, and indeed that decision foreshadowed the

New Leaders and Organizational Strategies

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ascendancy of the Germans within the organization in the years that followed. In May of 1980, the Japanese government signed the Askew/Yasukawa Agreement to encourage Japanese automakers to invest in the United States and to purchase American-made parts. Until that time, Japanese cars sold in America were imported and made entirely of Japanese parts. In the twenty-five years that followed, Japanese automakers invested $28 billion in the United States, and in the process some twelve assembly plants and thirteen parts plants were established. These facilities included Honda plants in Ohio, Georgia, and Alabama; Subaru operations in Indiana; Mazda in Michigan; Mitsubishi manufacturing in Illinois; Nissan in Tennessee and Mississippi; and Toyota in Kentucky, Indiana, West Virginia, Alabama, and Texas. The Germans were also active in establishing new plants in the United States. In Greer, South Carolina, near Spartanburg, BMW established a plant in the early 1990’s that made Z4 roadsters and X5 SUVs. Former textile workers now worked the assembly line at BMW, and the presence of the company in the local community was felt in terms of connections with Clemson University to establish an automobile research center and in the employment of numerous North and South Carolina college graduates in management positions. The Germans were also active in Alabama, where in 1997 Mercedes established a plant to manufacture M-class and R-class vehicles. Employing just-intime techniques so that just two hours’ worth of inventory is stocked, Mercedes’ presence in Alabama resulted in a capital investment of nearly $680 million and the creation of ten thousand jobs. In sum, the automobile industry evolved during the 1990’s in such a manner that it was no longer possible to make a simple identification as to whether a car was American or foreign. The establishment of foreign-owned manufacturing plants in the United States was not only a recognition of the enormous market and buying power of the American people but also a clever strategy aimed at reducing nativist criticisms aimed at foreign firms who were accused of undermining American long-term prosperity and manufacturing-sector employment.

The Transplants

As a result of a new emphasis on quality, forced upon American manufacturers by the

New Technologies

Automobile industry


Japanese, warrantees became longer. In terms of configuration, front-wheel drive displaced the rearwheel drive as the most used arrangement in the typical car. First employed before World War II by Ernest Loban Cord in luxury vehicles and then after the war in mass-produced cars due to the design efforts of Alec Issigonis, front-wheel drive architecture proved to be more efficient in terms of fuel consumption, and also in terms of bad-weather handling. Safety issues, driven by federal government standards and consumer demand, also emerged as an important theme by the late 1970’s. The development of the air bag, introduced first in models during the mid-1970’s but employed almost universally by the 1990’s, was both an effective deterrent to fatal crashes and yet also highly controversial. The design is conceptually simple—accelerometers trigger the ignition of a gas generator propellant to very rapidly inflate a nylon fabric bag, which reduces the deceleration experienced by the passenger as he or she comes to stop in the crash situation. After two decades of controversy over the dangers of air bag deployment, in 1989 American manufacturers began installing air bags on many product lines. However, during the 1990’s questions over deployment and unintended injuries and death remained. In 1990, the first report of a driver being killed by an air bag took place, as a sixty-four-year-old woman suffered fatal chest injuries. Then, in 1993, the first of twentythree deaths over three years was reported in terms of a passenger-side air bag deployment. Despite the deaths, it can be concluded that fifteen thousand lives have been saved by air bags in the last twenty years. Better braking systems, including the use of disc brakes on all four wheels and ABS systems to equalize the braking system and prevent lockup, enhancing both stability and shortening braking distances, became prevalent in the industry again by the late 1990’s. Antilock braking was a European development that came to America first through imported German vehicles, namely the 1978 S-class Mercedes and the 7 series BMW. Bosch had patented elements of the system as early as 1936, and a number of innovations followed during the 1980’s and 1990’s. Above all, the car became computerized. A central computer monitored ignition and combustion functions, thereby decreasing emissions to unprecedented low levels. The computer, coupled in a closed loop with electronic fuel injection and an oxygen sensor, enabled engines to burn fuel extremely


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Automobile industry

efficiently, and with various sensors feeding information back to the computer, optimal efficiency became the rule for even the least-expensive vehicles by the early 1990’s. Impact For nearly a century, the American automobile industry has been the economic engine that has driven the nation’s economy. The automobile industry is connected to the steel, petroleum, petrochemical, textile, computer, glass, and rubber industries. At the end of the 1990’s, this sector was directly responsible for more than 3 percent of the American workforce, with a payroll of approximately $10 billion. Furthermore, more than eight million workers indirectly owe their jobs to this industry.

Ingrassia, Paul, and Joseph B. White. Comeback: The Fall and Rise of the American Automobile Industry. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995. Perhaps the most useful account of the American auto industry during the first half of the 1990’s. Mantle, Jonathan. Car Wars: Fifty Years of Greed, Treachery, and Skulduggery in the Global Marketplace. New York: Arcade, 1995. A broad but scattered narrative describing the emergence of the competitive global automobile industry. Walton, Mary. Car: A Drama of the American Workplace. New York: W. W. Norton, 1997. A remarkable account of Ford’s 1996 redesign of its best-selling Taurus. John A. Heitmann

Further Reading

Bradsher, Keith. High and Mighty: SUVs—The World’s Most Dangerous Vehicles and How They Got That Way. New York: PublicAffairs, 2002. An exposé of safety issues connected with the SUV.

Auto racing; Business and the economy in the United States; Electric car; General Motors strike of 1998; Sport utility vehicles (SUVs).

See also

B ■ Bailey, Donovan Canadian Olympic champion sprinter Born December 16, 1967; Manchester, Jamaica Identification

Bailey set multiple world records and won multiple Olympic gold medals in short distance events, most notably the 100meter dash, and became an international celebrity, emerging at a difficult time when track and field had been rocked by doping scandals. When Jamaica-born Donovan Bailey came to Ontario, Canada, at the age of thirteen to live with his father, he had never run in any organized event. Indeed, although he competed as a sprinter on his high school track team in Ontario (he ran the 100meter dash in a remarkable 10.65 seconds), his interest was in basketball: He played power forward for Sheridan College (Ontario) while he completed his degree in business administration. Intent on beginning a marketing and investment counseling career, Bailey ran recreationally in city events until 1994. That year, while watching Canadian Track Championships on television, he was certain he could do better. Bailey was twenty-six years old—relatively late to begin a running career—but after two months of intensive training, he began winning international sprinting competitions, culminating in his world championship in the 100-meter in Göteborg, Sweden, in 1995. The Atlanta Centennial Olympics in 1996 defined Bailey: He claimed the gold medal and set both a world and Olympic record in the 100-meter (9.84 seconds), traditionally the measure of the “world’s fastest man”; he also won gold as part of the Canadian 4-by-100-meter relay. Within months of his Olympic championship, Bailey was challenged by American Michael Johnson, who had set a world record in the 200-meter run, to a sprint to determine the “world’s fastest man.” The unsanctioned race, set at a compromise 150 meters, was scheduled for June, 1997, at Toronto’s SkyDome and, with its

$2 million purse, became a much-hyped international sports event. Amid the race’s carnival atmosphere, however, Bailey won easily as Johnson withdrew halfway through with a pulled quadriceps muscle. In a sport in which dominance is measured in increments of seconds and in which athletes’ bodies are subjected to enormous physical pressures, Bailey’s prominence was short-lived. He finished second in the 100-meter at the 1997 world championships in Athens, and after struggling with a ruptured Achilles tendon and then pneumonia (he par-

Donovan Bailey drapes himself in the Canadian flag as he takes his victory lap after winning the men’s 100-meter dash in the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta. (AP/Wide World Photos)


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ticipated in the 2000 Sydney Olympics), he retired in 2001, a five-time world and Olympic champion. He has since pursued a successful career as a motivational speaker and chief executive officer (CEO) of a sports marketing firm. Impact At a time when Canadian track and field was reeling from the international scandal involving the doping allegations leveled against its 1988 Olympic gold sprinter Ben Johnson, Bailey, with his brash charisma and unwavering confidence in his own abilities, became an instant national hero. In addition, he inspired a generation through his meteoric rise to prominence, his gritty determination to pursue his athletic dreams despite the conventional wisdom of starting much earlier, and his resilience in the face of numerous injuries. Further Reading

Hannigan, Glenn, and Robert Mashburn. One Glorious Summer: A Photographic History of the 1996 Atlanta Olympics. Atlanta: Longstreet Press, 1996. Howell, Colin D. Blood, Sweat, and Cheers: Sports and the Making of Modern Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2001. Joseph Dewey See also Canada and the United States; Minorities in Canada; Olympic Games of 1996; Sports; Television.

■ Baker, James Identification U.S. secretary of state, 1989-1992 Born April 28, 1930; Houston, Texas

James Baker served in senior government positions under three U.S. presidents and managed George H. W. Bush’s presidential campaigns in 1988 and 1992. As secretary of state for most of the Bush presidency, he directed American foreign policy in an that included the collapse of the Soviet Union, the end of the Cold War, and the Gulf War. James Addison Baker III attended Princeton University and the University of Texas School of Law and served two years as an officer in the United States Marine Corps (1952-1954). In 1975, he became undersecretary of commerce under President Gerald R. Ford and managed Ford’s unsuccessful electoral campaign in 1976. In 1979 and 1980, he led George H. W. Bush’s unsuccessful campaign for the

Republican presidential nomination. Under President Ronald Reagan, Baker served as White House chief of staff and later as secretary of the Treasury. In the 1988 election, Baker managed Bush’s successful campaign for the presidency, and he served from 1989 to 1992 as Bush’s secretary of state. Because of his close personal relationship with Bush, he was a trusted adviser with easy access to the president’s ear. Baker, Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney, and National Security Adviser Brent Scowcroft were colleagues who had served together in the Ford administration, and this threesome provided Bush with experienced, pragmatic advisers in dealing with foreign policy and national security issues. As secretary of state, Baker traveled to more than ninety nations. His rapport with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and Soviet foreign minister Eduard Shevardnadze helped maintain a positive relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union as that nation began to break into separate entities. When Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990, Baker led the effort to put together a multinational alliance to drive the Iraqis out of Kuwait in the Gulf War. After the Iraqis were expelled from Kuwait, Baker was among those who counseled Bush to forgo invading Iraq to drive Saddam Hussein from power. In August, 1992, Baker left the State Department to become White House chief of staff and to take over direction of Bush’s reelection campaign. Impact Baker’s management of the 1988 Bush campaign helped to put George H. W. Bush in the White House; his leadership at the State Department from 1989 to 1992 was instrumental in the creation of the “new world order” that emerged with the decline of the Soviet Union and the emergence of the United States as the world’s lone superpower. Further Reading

Baker, James A., and Thomas DeFrank. The Politics of Diplomacy: Revolution, War, and Peace, 1989-1992. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1995. Baker, James A., with Steve Fiffer. “Work Hard, Study . . . and Stay Out of Politics!”: Adventures and Lessons from an Unexpected Public Life. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 2006. Moore, Raymond A. “Foreign Policy.” In The Bush Presidency: Triumphs and Adversities, edited by Dilys M. Hill and Phil Williams. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1994. Mark S. Joy

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Baker v. Vermont


James Baker, left, stands with President George H. W. Bush and U.S. ambassador to the Soviet Union Robert Strauss during a White House press conference in August, 1991, to discuss the coup by Soviet hard-liners to remove Mikhail Gorbachev from power. (AP/Wide World Photos)

See also Bush, George H. W.; Cheney, Dick; Cold War, end of; Elections in the United States, 1992; Foreign policy of the United States; Gulf War; Middle East and North America; Powell, Colin; Russia and North America.

■ Baker v. Vermont Identification Vermont Supreme Court decision Date Decided on December 20, 1999

The Vermont Supreme Court’s unanimous ruling extended to same-sex couples the right to treatment equivalent to that of traditionally married couples. Three same-sex couples applied for and were denied marriage licenses in Vermont under the rationale that the dictionary definition of “marriage” as well as the legislative intent indicated a union between

a man and a woman. The couples submitted that the denial of marriage licenses abridged one of their basic constitutional rights. Each sued their respective towns, and the state of Vermont moved to dismiss the lawsuits on the grounds that no relief could be granted for the plaintiffs’ grievances. The trial court granted defendants’ motion, ruling that the marriage statutes could not be interpreted as allowing same-sex marriages and that the statutes were constitutional because they furthered the public interest by promoting a link between procreation and child rearing. After an initial dismissal by the Vermont Superior Court in 1997, plaintiffs appealed and presented their arguments before the Vermont Supreme Court. That court held unanimously that the state could not deprive same-sex couples of the statutory benefits and protections conferred on persons of the opposite sex who choose to marry.


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Having determined that Vermont marriage statutes excluded same-sex couples from marrying, the court rejected the state’s argument that same-sex marriages would harm citizens by weakening the link between marriage and child rearing. Responding to an argument that potential lack of interstate conformity might result from a legal recognition of same-sex marriages in Vermont, the court pointed out that Vermont allowed for certain marriage contracts not recognized by other states, such as first-cousin marriages, and noted that such concerns had not prevented the passage of similarly unique laws allowing same-sex couples to adopt. Further, the court held that the state is required to extend to same-sex couples the benefits and protections that flow from marriage, whether the goal is procreation or some equivalent domestic partnership. Dismissing other arguments, such as those concerning the “stability” of same-sex couples, the court held that that reasoning was too nebulous or speculative to be considered. That contention would not justify the inequalities placed on those couples in permanent relationships. The same situation could exist as well in male-female partnerships. Impact The decision led to the state’s and the nation’s first civil union law, intended to provide committed same-sex Vermont couples with the benefits and obligations parallel to those afforded to married heterosexual couples. In the years following this decision, most states in the United States have confronted the issue of same-sex marriage with varying results. Further Reading

Eskridge, William N. Equality Practice: Civil Unions and the Future of Gay Rights. New York: Routledge, 2002. Mello, Michael. Legalizing Gay Marriage. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004. Wolfson, Evan. Why Marriage Matters: America, Equality, and Gay People’s Right to Marry. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004. Marcia J. Weiss Defense of Marriage Act of 1996; Domestic partnerships; Egan v. Canada; Homosexuality and gay rights; Marriage and divorce.

See also

■ Balanced Budget Act of 1997 Legislation aimed at reducing the federal deficit and increasing the solvency of many social programs Date Signed into law on August 5, 1997 Identification

This act made several changes, particularly to the Medicare program. During the 1990’s, the Clinton administration and the U.S. Congress made great strides toward eliminating the record budget deficits that they inherited. This was accomplished through a number of shifts in policy and the enactment of new laws aimed at reducing the deficit and moving the nation toward a budget surplus. Among these pieces of legislation was the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (P.L. 105-33). This was an omnibus bill, meaning that it contained several (sometimes diverse) subjects or provisions in a single bill. The act included provisions dealing with food stamps, housing, children’s health, Medicaid, and even the auctioning of recaptured space in the television broadcast spectrum. However, the primary focus of the act was the Medicare program. In fact, the Balanced Budget Act made roughly 240 changes to the Medicare program alone, and these changes were expected to result in cost savings of approximately $115 billion. The bulk of the savings were to come from two primary areas: a change in the growth rate of reimbursements for fees for service providers and an increase in the out-of-pocket expenses paid by program beneficiaries in the form of higher premiums and copayments for services. In addition, the act added something called Medicare + Choice (now Medicare Part C) as an alternative to the traditional Medicare Parts A and B, which recipients had enjoyed since the inception of the Medicare program. The “choice” was that the act increased the number of private insurance carriers that could contract with the government to give options for senior citizens receiving Medicare. While the option to add a supplemental, private plan allowed for the possibility of getting wider coverage with lower out-ofpocket expenses, it also made the system more complex for beneficiaries. Impact If the sole goal of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 was fiscally related, it would appear that the

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act has been a success, as federal expenditures to Medicare were reduced. However, the act had an impact on people as well as dollars. Many physicians were adversely affected by the change in payments to providers, and there is a feeling that many people, especially those with longer-term acute conditions, might be left without the same access to care that they may have once enjoyed, because the lower payments led to fewer physicians accepting Medicare patients. Moreover, the addition of Medicare + Choice made the system more complex, and many advocates for the elderly feel that the system has become too cumbersome for a great number of senior citizens (beneficiaries of the program) to understand—especially when coupled with Medicare Part D, added in 2003. Further Reading

Rivers, Patrick A., et al. “The Impact of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 Act on Medicare in the U.S.A: The Fallout Continues.” International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance 15, no. 6 (2002): 249254. Tannenwald, Robert.“Implications of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 for the ‘Devolution Revolution.’” Publius 28, no. 1 (Winter, 1998): 23-48. U.S. Congressional Budget Office. Budgetary Implications of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. Jeffrey S. Ashley Clinton, Bill; Conservatism in U.S. politics; Demographics of the United States; Gingrich, Newt; Health care; Health care reform; Liberalism in U.S. politics; Medicine; Social Security reform; Welfare reform.

See also

■ Ballet Definition

A classical, theatrical, narrative form of

dance Ballet in the 1990’s was a blend of classical technique, traditional repertory, and expanded concepts of dance, creativity, and innovation. The 1990’s witnessed many historical milestones in the world of ballet. Several of the major American ballet companies celebrated anniversaries of years of



successful performance, participating in international celebrations. The New York City Ballet Founded by George Balanchine and Lincoln Kirstein, the New York City Ballet is the largest ballet company in the United States. The company is committed to sustaining Balanchine’s beliefs about ballet and its presentation. In 1990, Peter Martins assumed full responsibility for the company’s activities. In 1992, he established the Diamond Project, which enabled choreographers to create new ballets while still adhering to the dictates of classical ballet. In 1993, in commemoration of the tenth anniversary of Balanchine’s death, the company performed an entire season of Balanchine’s works in chronological order. The company celebrated its fiftieth anniversary in 1998. The entire 1998 winter and spring seasons were devoted to the celebration, with the performance of more than one hundred ballets. The San Francisco Ballet Formed in 1933 as a regional company, the San Francisco Ballet achieved national status at the beginning of the 1990’s. In 1991, the company performed in New York after a twenty-six-year absence. This performance received extraordinary praise for its purity and vitality. The classical style of the dancers and the choreography exhibited the influence of Balanchine on the company’s artistic director Helgi Tomasson, a former lead dancer for Balanchine. The company returned to dance in New York three more times during the decade; performances were given in 1993, 1995, and 1998. In May of 1995, the San Francisco Ballet was the host for UNited We Dance, an event commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the United Nations Charter. The company staged three major classical ballets during the 1990’s, The Sleeping Beauty in 1990, Romeo and Juliet in 1994, and Giselle in 1999. American Ballet Theatre The 1990’s was a period of reaffirmation of the American Ballet Theatre’s dedication to maintaining its large and eclectic repertory of ballets, including classical, early nineteenth century, and contemporary. In 1990, upon the resignation of Mikhail Baryshnikov, Jane Hermann and Oliver Smith became artistic directors and established a program aimed at maintaining the company’s tradition, which had evolved under Lucia Chase and Oliver Smith and had continued under Baryshnikov,


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while enriching the company with innovation. In 1992, Kevin McKenzie, the company’s principal dancer, became artistic director and not only reiterated the company’s dedication to its tradition but also emphasized its role in disseminating dance throughout the world. The Joffrey Ballet was founded by Robert Joffrey and Gerald Arpino as a company presenting a distinctively American visualization of dance. Arpino, originally lead dancer and then choreographer for the company, became artistic director in 1988 after the death of Joffrey. During the 1990’s, he continued the legacy of the company with a repertory including traditional ballets and new works that added new dimensions to the dance form. In 1993, he choreographed and produced Billboards, a rock ballet danced to the music of Prince. In 1995, he moved the company to a permanent home in Chicago and renamed it the Joffrey Ballet of Chicago. In 1996, in keeping with the company’s tradition of performing socially significant ballets, Arpino employed an all-female group of choreographers to create Legends, a ballet about women.

The Joffrey Ballet

During the 1990’s, the Cincinnati Ballet was under the direction of four different artistic directors. In 1992, the company celebrated its thirtieth-anniversary season with new complete productions of Romeo and Juliet and Swan Lake. In 1993, the company celebrated its twentiethseason anniversary of performing The Nutcracker. The year 1996 was a very eclectic year for the company as it staged both classical and contemporary ballets, including Balanchine’s Jewels and Agnes de Mille’s Rodeo. From 1996 through 1999, the company staged premiere performances of eighteen ballets, including a new Nutcracker, The Princess and the Pea, and Beyond Innocence. The Cincinnati Ballet

Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater The Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater has played an important role in expanding the definition of ballet. Since the 1970’s, when Ailey choreographed The River for American Ballet Theatre, Ailey and his company have contributed innovative work to the world of ballet. During the 1990’s, Masazumi Chaya, associate artistic director, staged The River for the Colorado Ballet, the Pennsylvania Ballet, and the Florida Ballet. He staged Flowers for the State Ballet of Missouri.

In 1994, two former principal Ailey dancers, Dwight Roden and Desmond Richardson, founded Complexions Contemporary Ballet, composed of both classical and contemporary dancers. The company, which prides itself on being America’s first multicultural dance company, draws its choreography and performance from the full range of dance techniques. In 1995, the company, with its blending of ballet, modern dance, and other dance forms, received The New York Times Critics’ Choice Award. In 1997, co-artistic director Richardson danced the lead role in American Ballet Theater’s premiere performance of Othello. In 1998, he danced in the Broadway musical Fosse.

Complexions Contemporary Ballet

Impact In the 1990’s, ballet became a more fully eclectic dance form. While the companies continued to perform the classical ballets inherited from the Russian tradition, they also added new ballets to their repertoires. These new creative works included elements from modern dance and jazz dance and were performed to various types of contemporary music. During this period, the influence of George Balanchine continued to dominate both ballet technique and choreography. Further Reading

Greskovic, Robert. Ballet 101: A Complete Guide to Learning and Loving the Ballet. New York: Limelight Editions, 2005. Discusses how a ballet is choreographed, rehearsed, and performed. Recounts story lines of fourteen standard repertoire ballets. Kaye, Elizabeth. American Ballet Theatre: A TwentyFive-Year Retrospective. Kansas City, Mo.: Andrews McMeel, 1999. Defines what constitutes a ballet company. Offers an in-depth look at the McKenzie era. Ramsey, Christopher, ed. Tribute: Celebrating Fifty Years of New York City Ballet. New York: William Morrow, 1998. Excellent for Balanchine’s influence on ballet. Includes a preface by Peter Martins. Shawncey Webb Broadway musicals; Cirque du Soleil; Classical music; Music.

See also

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■ Barkley, Charles Identification Professional basketball player Born February 20, 1963; Leeds, Alabama

Other than Michael Jordan, Barkley may have been the best NBA player of the 1990’s. Furthermore, his candid, often brash public image was the antithesis of Jordan’s carefully contrived superstar persona.

Barkley, Charles


single-season statistical averages in points, rebounds, and field-goal percentage while in Philadelphia, his best all-around season was in 1992-1993. He averaged 25.6 points, 12.2 rebounds, and 5.1 assists—a career high—per game. He was named the league’s most valuable player (MVP) and led the Suns to an NBA Finals showdown with Michael Jordan’s Chicago Bulls. The Suns were defeated in six games in Barkley’s only appearance in the NBA Finals. In the same year, a Nike advertisement in which Barkley insisted that he was “not a role model” added to his image as an outspoken renegade. However, his statement was lauded by Vice President Dan Quayle as a summons to family values. As were most of his comments, Barkley’s statement was misconstrued as an athlete’s denunciation of responsibility. On the contrary, Barkley noted that it was people like his mother and grandmother, who labored painstakingly to cultivate a positive and safe environ-

The self-proclaimed “ninth wonder of the world,” Charles Barkley is known as much for his verbosity as for his stellar National Basketball Association (NBA) career. Barkley joined Wilt Chamberlain, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, and Karl Malone as one of only four players to amass 20,000 points, 10,000 rebounds, and 4,000 assists in a career. However, his on-court exploits only partially defined a persona that, like Muhammad Ali, Jackie Robinson, and Arthur Ashe, transcended the province of sport. By the end of the 1990’s, Barkley was defined by his ambivalent identity. He was both the brawling, hard-drinking iconoclast and the politically conservative elder NBA statesman. The 1990’s began inauspiciously for Barkley: He was lambasted in the national press for what became known as the “spitting incident,” following a game against the New Jersey Nets in March of 1991. Subject to incessant and fervent racial epithets from a courtside spectator, Barkley attempted to spit on the heckler. However, his saliva missed its target and landed on a girl seated nearby. Barkley credits this incident with transforming his subsequent behavior toward and interaction with fans; however, the incident contributed to the perception that Barkley was a sullen, cantankerous superstar. In 1993, Barkley emerged as a dominant player whose all-around basketball skills endeared him to a public often divided over his candor. After eight seasons with the Philadelphia Seventy-Sixers, he was traded to the Phoenix Suns in 1992. Charles Barkley of the Houston Rockets dribbles past Sam Perkins of the Seattle SuperAlthough he experienced his best Sonics in a semifinal game in 1997. (AP/Wide World Photos)


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Barry, Dave

ment for him, who should be looked to as role models. Barkley reminded a culture that increasingly deified its public figures of its own culpability. Barkley ended his NBA career with the Houston Rockets, briefly joining other NBA superstars past their prime: Hakeem Olajuwon, Clyde Drexler, and, later, Scottie Pippen. After suffering a quadricep muscle injury early in the 1999-2000 season, Barkley returned for a final game and to a Houston crowd that honored his sixteen-year career with a standing ovation. Barkley told the fans, “Basketball doesn’t owe me anything. I owe everything in my life to basketball.” Charles Barkley was an eleven-time all-star and a five-time all-NBA First Team selection. He was also a member of the “Dream Team,” the U.S. Olympic squad that won a gold medal in 1992; additionally, he was part of the team that repeated as gold medalist in 1996. Though Barkley was often labeled as selfish, it was his individualism and honesty that, ironically, made him one of sport’s great role models. In 1992, when other players’ fears caused them to ostracize Magic Johnson because of his admission that he had acquired HIV, Barkley wore Magic’s uniform, number 32, as a sign of support for a colleague. “I’m disappointed in myself that I haven’t felt the same compassion for other people stricken with [HIV] that I now feel for Magic,” Barkley explained. Michael Jordan redefined basketball in the 1990’s with an otherworldly ability and profited from his manicured and amiable public persona; he was akin to a superhero. However, Charles Barkley—powerful and efficient on the court and brash and brutally honest off it—was a figure with whom American society could identify on an everyday level. He was a spokesman for the American subconscious, at times both affable and confrontational, who used his position as a public figure to entertain and thoughtfully provoke. Impact

Basketball; Dream Team; Johnson, Magic; Jordan, Michael; Malone, Karl; Olympic Games of 1992; Olympic Games of 1996; O’Neal, Shaquille; Sports.

See also

■ Barry, Dave American humorist, newspaper columnist, and author Born July 3, 1947; Armonk, New York Identification

Barry’s newspaper columns and books have offered readers a combination of the writer’s sometimes biting commentary tempered with his trademark zany wit. Called the “funniest man in America” by The New York Times, Barry was one of the most popular writers of humor and satire during the 1990’s.

Further Reading

Barkley, Charles, and Michael Wilbon. Who’s Afraid of a Large Black Man? New York: Penguin Press, 2005. Tulumello, Mike. Breaking the Rules: A Volatile Season with Sport’s Most Colorful Team, Charles Barkley’s Phoenix Suns. Altanta: Longstreet Press, 1996. Christopher Rager

Dave Barry in 1992. (AP/Wide World Photos)

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By the beginning of the 1990’s, Dave Barry had already won a large number of fans ranging in age from teenagers to baby boomers and senior citizens. By the end of the decade, Barry’s humor columns were run in over five hundred newspapers, reaching millions of American households. As a humor columnist for The Miami Herald and as a syndicated columnist, Barry had already won national prominence as a commentator on the ironies of middle-class life in America with his 1988 Pulitzer Prize for Commentary. Much of his popularity can be attributed to his on-target, though often tending toward silly, observations on a wide range of topics from marriage to fatherhood to U.S. history and government. The range of his topics is evident even in the titles of his works. Titles such as Dave Barry Slept Here: A Sort of History of the United States (1989), Dave Barry’s Only Travel Guide You’ll Ever Need (1991), and Dave Barry’s Book of Bad Songs (1997) demonstrate the diversity of his commentary. During this decade, Barry published fifteen bestselling books in addition to his weekly columns. In 1993, he became the first humor writer to have a television series based on this life and writing air on prime-time television. The series, starring Harry Anderson as Barry, was broadcast until 1997. The prolific writer then turned his attentions toward fiction writing near the end of the decade. The 1999 publication of Big Trouble, a satiric crime novel set in South Florida, marked Barry’s entry into the world of fiction. The novel sold well and was later made into a movie starring Tim Allen. Impact Dave Barry’s success is due in large part to his ability to find humor in almost any situation. By decade’s end, Barry had become one of the most popular American humorists because of this cultural commentary and because of his unique insights into human foibles. Considered by many to be one of the most significant voices of the babyboomer generation, Barry had earned a place among the country’s most celebrated humorists. By the end of the 1990’s, Barry was still reaching new audiences with his own brand of zany humor, insightful commentary, and biting satire. Further Reading

Barry, Dave. Dave Barry Slept Here: A Sort of History of the United States. New York: Ballantine, 1989. _______. Dave Barry Turns Fifty. New York: Crown, 1998.

Barry, Marion


_______. Dave Barry’s Greatest Hits. New York: Ballantine, 1988. Kimberley M. Holloway See also Comedians; Literature in the United States; Rock Bottom Remainders, The.

■ Barry, Marion Civil rights activist and mayor of Washington, D.C., 1979-1991 and 1995-1999 Born March 6, 1936; Itta Bena, Mississippi Identification

The arrest and conviction of Barry, a black mayor of a predominantly black city, for possession and use of cocaine turned into a racially heated debate about alleged white persecution of prominent African Americans. When Congress granted the District of Columbia limited home rule in 1973, Marion Barry, a longtime civil rights activist, won a seat on the city council in 1974 as the highest vote-getter. In 1978, he won election as mayor of Washington, D.C. Despite his repeated reelections, rumors of drug use dogged Barry. On January 18, 1990, when former girlfriend Rasheeda Moore cooperated in a Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) sting operation, Barry was filmed smoking crack cocaine and arrested. Shortly afterward, Barry entered the Hanley-Hazelden Center in West Palm Beach, Florida, for treatment for health concerns that included alcohol abuse. Barry and his press secretary were silent about any cocaine abuse. A planned absence of a month stretched to seven weeks when Barry transferred from HanleyHazelden to Fenwick Hall, a drug-treatment facility in South Carolina. On February 15, Barry was indicted on three felony counts of lying to a grand jury about his drug use and on five misdemeanor counts of cocaine possession. African American newspapers and radio shows portrayed the mayor as the victim of a white federal conspiracy to dethrone him. The FBI came under severe attack for using heavy-handed tactics to entrap Barry. Meanwhile, the white-controlled media, notably The Washington Post, bashed Barry in editorials and daily exposés of the criminal investigation. Barry abandoned his reelection plans after conviction on a misdemeanor. He served six months in prison.


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Baseball Further Reading

Agronsky, Jonathan I. Z. Marion Barry: The Politics of Race. Latham, N.Y.: British American, 1991. Barras, Jonetta Rose. The Last of the Black Emperors: The Hollow Comeback of Marion Barry in a New Age of Black Leaders. Baltimore: Bancroft Press, 1998. Caryn E. Neumann African Americans; Crime; Dinkins, David; Race relations; Simpson murder case.

See also

■ Baseball Definition

Professional team sport

Baseball in the 1990’s experienced considerable economic growth as new markets were created. Despite a players’ strike that led to the cancellation of the 1994 World Series, star players such as Mark Mcgwire and Sammy Sosa helped to reinvigorate the sport in the latter half of the decade.

Mayor Marion Barry speaks to reporters in May, 1996, after returning from a retreat in rural Maryland to recover from physical and spiritual exhaustion. (AP/Wide World Photos)

Always a popular politician in Washington, D.C., Barry won a seat on the city council in 1992. He won a landslide victory to a fourth mayoral term in 1994. In May, 1996, Barry abruptly took a leave from his mayoral duties to seek help at a retreat in rural Maryland and then at a more distant church facility near St. Louis, raising suspicions that he had relapsed. Barry’s hiatus occurred not long after he underwent surgery for prostate cancer, and he described himself as suffering from physical and spiritual exhaustion. He retired from politics in 1998 and aborted a run for city council in 2002 after another drug incident. He returned to the city council in 2004. Impact The Barry case made it quite apparent that many African Americans harbor a deep distrust of white public officials and that whites have difficulty understanding the depth of this distrust.

In the 1990’s, four new teams joined Major League Baseball: the Colorado Rockies, the Florida Marlins, the Tampa Bay Devil Rays, and the Arizona Diamondbacks. New stadiums in Cleveland, Baltimore, Atlanta, Chicago (White Sox), and Arlington, Texas, attracted fan attendance. In 1993, Major League Baseball attendance reached 70.3 million, a record high. The new markets proved lucrative. On April 9, 1993, the Rockies played their first home game at Mile High Stadium to a crowd of 80,227, a record attendance for baseball previously held in 1958 during a game between the San Francisco Giants and the Los Angeles Dodgers. The Rockies total attendance reached 4.48 million, and Florida had 3.06 million. Toronto had 4.1 million in the Skydome, and Camden Yards, the home of the Baltimore Orioles, attracted 3.6 million. The future of baseball, however, was challenged with a 234-day strike that spanned the 1994-1995 seasons. The strike resulted in the cancellation of the 1994 World Series. To generate greater interest for postseason play, baseball inaugurated realignment for the 1994 season, the first in twenty-five years. The American League and the National League would have three divisions: Eastern, Western, and the newly created Central. A wild-card team (the second-place finisher with the best record) would join three division leaders in an extra round of playoffs. The 1998 season in-

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cluded a transfer of the Milwaukee Brewers from the American League to the National League. The Detroit Tigers moved from the American League East to replace the Brewers in the American League Central, the new Devil Rays became part of the American League East, and the new Diamondbacks filled a position in the National League West. Further maneuvering to gain fan appeal occurred in 1997 with the inauguration of interleague play. The first round of interleague games in 1997 indicated a success, as attendance was up by 35 percent. Baseball in the 1990’s included a number of foreign-born players, making up 19 percent of all players and hailing from 197 countries. In 1992, the Toronto Blue Jays, managed by Cito Gaston, became the first Canadian team to win the World Series. On August 16, 1996, the New York Mets and San Diego Padres played a regular-season game in Monterey, Mexico, the first regular-season game played outside the United States and Canada. In 1993, Bob Watson was named general manager of



the Houston Astros, becoming the first African American ever to hold that post in the major leagues. In 1996, as general manager of the New York Yankees, Watson became the first African American general manager to guide a team to a World Series championship. On April 15, 1997, a crowd of 54,047 attended the fiftieth anniversary of Jackie Robinson’s major-league debut with the Brooklyn Dodgers. Commissioner Bud Selig announced that Robinson’s number, 42, would be permanently retired on all major-league teams. Notable records were achieved in the decade. On May 1, 1991, Rickey Henderson of the Oakland Athletics broke the all-time base-stealing record with his 939th career stolen base. On September 6, 1995, Cal Ripken, Jr., of the Baltimore Orioles broke the record of 2,130 consecutive games played, a record that was held by Lou Gehrig. It took the thirty-fiveyear-old Ripken thirteen years to set the new record, beginning on May 30, 1982. Gehrig’s streak began on June 1, 1925, and ended on April 30, 1939.

Texas Rangers pitcher Nolan Ryan, age forty-four, waves to the crowd after his seventh no-hitter on May 1, 1991. (AP/Wide World Photos)



Player Salaries In 1990, the average player salary was $597,537; in 1992, the average rose to $1,028,667, and by 1997 the average was at $1,380,000. Team payrolls skyrocketed in the 1990’s. In 1995, the Yankees had the highest payroll, $54,889,849, and the Cincinnati Reds were second with $46,763,886. The World Series champion Atlanta Braves had $46,423,444, the fourth highest. The lowest salary belonged to the Montreal Expos, with $12,956,557. The Yankees’ average salary was $2,000,271, compared to the average major-league salary of $1,110,766. The average salary of the Expos was $750,840. In 1998, the Orioles had the highest payroll, $70,408,134; the Yankees were second, with $63,159,901. The Expos were the only team to have a team payroll below $10 million, with $9,202,000. Individual player salaries burgeoned during the 1990’s. In 1993, Cecil Fielder of the Tigers received a five-year deal worth $36 million. Barry Bonds signed as a free agent with the Giants to a six-year contract worth $43,750,000. In January, 1996, the Seattle Mariners made Ken Griffey, Jr., the highest-paid player ever with a four-year, $34 million contract. However, in November, 1996, Albert Belle became the highestpaid player by signing a five-year, $55 million contract with the White Sox. In 1997, Sammy Sosa signed a four-year deal for $42.5 million with the Chicago Cubs, and on August 10, 1997, Greg Maddux inked a five-year deal guaranteeing him $11.5 million per year with the Braves. On December 10, 1997, National League Cy Young Award-winner Pedro Martinez of the Expos became baseball’s highest-paid player when he signed a $75 million, six-year contract with the Boston Red Sox. Even draft selection players received lucrative signing bonuses. On August 11, 1996, pitcher Kris Benson of Clemson University became the highest-paid draft choice ever when he signed a $2 million bonus with the Pittsburgh Pirates, but in November of 1996 Tampa Bay signed a high school pitcher for a record $10.2 million bonus. Labor and Management Relations Baseball in the 1990’s included a number of owner and player disputes. Owners were determined to roll back salaries through some form of salary-cap arrangement, to curtail salary arbitration, and to cut down some of the other gains that players had made. The players had one weapon, to strike. On February 15, 1990, baseball owners announced that spring training

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camps would not open as scheduled. Previous lockouts had taken place in 1973 and 1976. The lockout was a result of an unresolved dispute over salary arbitration. As a result, the thirty-two-day lockout resulted in a season opening that was one week late. Baseball’s four-year collective-bargaining agreement expired on December 31, 1993. Baseball owners introduced a salary cap as a means to curtail the rising contracts offered to players as a result of free agency. Negotiations continued into the 1994 season without any agreement. On July 28, 1994, the Major League Baseball Players Association executive board unanimously approved August 12 as the date for a strike. It was the third work stoppage in the past twenty-three years. The dispute focused on a salary cap, free agency, salary arbitration, and minimum salaries. Shortly after the strike began, the owners offered an alternative to salary caps by proposing a luxury tax, which would be levied on team payrolls exceeding $51 million. On September 14, 1994, the baseball season was canceled by the owners after thirty-four days of the players’ strike. For the first time since 1903, there would be no World Series. As the strike continued into 1995, President Bill Clinton urged both owners and players to resolve their differences by February 6. Meanwhile, on January 1, 1995, baseball owners locked out the sixty-four American and National League umpires. On April 2, after 234 days of strike, the players and owners came to an agreement. The season would begin on April 26, and teams would play 144 games instead of 162. League play opened with replacement umpires to fill in for the sixty-four umpires who were locked out. On May 1, the owners ended the lockout after reaching a five-year agreement. As a result of the players’ strike, owners lost revenue estimated at between $800 and $900 million; players lost $350 million in salary, and a total of 921 regular-season games were canceled, as well as playoffs and the World Series. Statistics for the 1995 season showed that attendance was down 21 percent from 1994. Pitching Performances In 1990, there were seven no-hitters (excluding performances of fewer than nine innings) pitched; 1991 also saw seven no-hitters. In only two seasons, pitchers had surpassed the number of no-hitters thrown in the 1980’s (thirteen). Four pitchers threw perfect games: Dennis Martinez, Kenny Rogers, David Wells, and David Cone.

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On May 1, 1991, Nolan Ryan pitched his seventh career no-hitter; at age forty-four, he became the oldest pitcher to throw a no-hitter. On September 22, 1993, Ryan pitched his final game. His career spanned twenty-seven years, and he left baseball as the all-time strikeout leader, with 5,714. There were four seasons in which pitchers compiled 300 or more strikeouts. Curt Schilling had 319 strikeouts in 1997 and 300 in 1998. Pedro Martinez came in second with 305 strikeouts in 1997. In 1999, Randy Johnson compiled 364, while Martinez had 313 strikeouts. Maddux won an unprecedented four straight National League Cy Young Awards in the 1990’s; Roger Clemens received three Cy Young Awards in the 1990’s. The 1990’s for the most part was a hitting decade. In 1992-1993, the batting average jumped from .256 to .266, home runs from 1.44 to 1.77 per game. In 1996, a major-league record seventeen players each hit forty or more home runs, topping the previous mark by eight players established in 1961. A total of eleven players hit fifty or more home runs in the 1990’s. In 1998, Sammy Sosa and Mark McGwire embarked on a home run race that would break the season home run record set by Roger Maris in 1961. On May 23, McGwire slammed his twenty-second and twenty-third home runs. By July 11, McGwire had thirty-eight, and he was joined by Sosa, who had thirty-five, and Ken Griffey, Jr., who had thirty-seven. On July 12, McGwire reached the forty home run mark faster than any other player in history. By July 25, there were several contenders for the record held by Maris: Sosa with thirty-seven, McGwire with forty-three, Griffey with forty, Greg Vaughn with thirty-seven, and Andres Galarraga with thirty-three. On August 20, McGwire reached fifty home runs, becoming the first player to hit fifty for three consecutive years. By August 31, Sosa and McGwire had fiftyfive home runs. On September 1, McGwire tagged number fifty-six, breaking the National League record set by Hack Wilson sixty-eight years before. On September 8, he broke Maris’s record with his sixtysecond home run. On September 12, Sosa hit his sixtieth; the following day, he hit two home runs and passed Maris. On September 7, McGwire reached seventy home runs. Sosa ended the season with sixtysix. The home run race was indeed responsible for restoring interest and excitement in baseball.

Hitting Performances



Dominant Teams The Yankees had three World Series appearances during the decade, winning in 1996, 1998, and 1999. The Braves made it to the championships five times, winning only in 1995. The Blue Jays appeared twice and won on both occasions, in 1992 and 1993. In 1991, the World Series included two teams, the Braves and Minnesota Twins, who had finished last the previous year. In 1995, the Cleveland Indians, considered by some as one of the best teams in the major leagues, compiled a record of 100-44. The Indians had six .300 hitters as well as Albert Belle, who had a batting average of .317, fifty home runs, and 126 runs batted in (RBI). In 1993, the Braves had a pitching staff that included Greg Maddux (20-10), Tom Glavine (22-6) and Steve Avery (18-6). Impact The 1990’s demonstrated the economic effect of a prolonged work stoppage on baseball, but it also demonstrated how baseball was capable of recovering from a devastating strike and regaining fan appeal with exciting performances on the playing field. The 1998 home run race demonstrated the important connection between baseball performance and fan appeal. Further Reading

Koppett, Larry. Koppett’s Concise History of Major League Baseball. Rev. ed. Carroll & Graf, 2004. Chronicles the long history of baseball, from its beginnings in the nineteenth century to the present day. Miller, Marvin. A Whole Different Ball Game: The Inside Story of the Baseball Revolution. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2004. As executive director of the Major League Baseball Players Association from 1966 to 1983, Miller provides insight on the relationship between players and owners in regard to collective bargaining. Solomon, Burt. The Baseball Timeline. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 2001. Provides narratives for 1990’s events in baseball. Staudohar, Paul D. “The Baseball Strike of 1994-95.” Monthly Labor Review 120, no. 3 (March, 1997): 2429. Reviews the economic impact of the baseball strike of 1994. Thorn, John, et al. Total Baseball: The Official Encyclopedia of Major League Baseball. 7th ed. Kingston, N.Y.: Total Sports, 2001. Precise statistical information of players and teams during the 1990’s. Tygiel, Jules. Past Time: Baseball as History. New York:


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Baseball realignment

Oxford University Press, 2000. Provides an interpretative narrative on American history as reflected in the development of baseball. Voigt, David Q. American Baseball. 3 vols. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1983. Perhaps the most in-depth history of baseball available. Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. Baseball: An Illustrated History. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994. Accompanying text to the popular Ken Burns series on baseball. The final chapter concludes with a discussion of baseball’s future. Alar Lipping Baseball realignment; Baseball strike of 1994; Griffey, Ken, Jr.; Home run race; McGwire, Mark; Ripken, Cal, Jr.; Sosa, Sammy; Sports.

See also

■ Baseball realignment Major League Baseball’s reorganization of leagues and expansion of the playoff system Date 1994 The Event

In undergoing realignment, Major League Baseball broke with tradition and laid the groundwork for future expansion and interleague play. By realigning the American League (AL) and National League (NL), baseball officials ended the twodivision arrangement that had existed since 1969. Under the new plan, each league divided its fourteen teams into three divisions: Western, Eastern, and the newly created Central Division. The three division champions and the team with the next best record (the wild-card team) advanced to a best-offive playoff series. The respective winners from each league continued on to the AL and NL League Championship Series, with the winners moving on to the World Series. The plan also opened the door for regular season interleague games, as officials sought to exploit geographic rivalries (such as MetsYankees, Cubs-White Sox). In addition, the plan corrected some long-standing geographical oddities by moving Atlanta from the Western Division to the Eastern and St. Louis and the Chicago Cubs from the Eastern to the Central Division. The old alignment was as follows: AL Western— California, Chicago White Sox, Kansas City, Minne-

sota, Oakland, Seattle, Texas; AL Eastern—Baltimore, Boston, Cleveland, Detroit, Milwaukee, New York Yankees, Toronto; NL Western—Atlanta, Cincinnati, Colorado, Houston, Los Angeles Dodgers, San Diego, San Francisco; NL Eastern—Chicago Cubs, Florida, Montreal, New York Mets, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, St. Louis. The new alignment became the following: AL West—California, Oakland, Seattle, Texas; AL Central—Chicago White Sox, Cleveland, Kansas City, Milwaukee, Minnesota; AL East—Baltimore, Boston, Detroit, New York Yankees, Toronto; NL West— Colorado, Los Angeles, San Diego, San Francisco; NL Central—Chicago Cubs, Cincinnati, Houston, Pittsburgh, St. Louis; NL East—Atlanta, Florida, Montreal, New York Mets, Philadelphia. In giving the game a facelift, baseball officials hoped to counter the growing competition from other major sports leagues, particularly professional football and basketball. They also looked to avoid the prospect of declining network television revenues, which threatened to exacerbate the sport’s serious financial problems. In doing so, officials shunned the arguments of baseball traditionalists who claimed that the owners were diminishing the importance of the regular season in favor of more playoffs simply for the purpose of creating additional sources of revenue. As it turned out, the plan was not fully implemented in the 1994 season, since the players’ strike on August 12 led to the cancellation of the remainder of the season, including the entire postseason. Impact Major League Baseball’s decision to realign leagues underscored the game’s growing dependency on television broadcast revenues. The plan followed in the footsteps of other major professional sports to restructure leagues and expand playoff systems to meet the expense of burgeoning payrolls. Further Reading

Chass, Murray. “Our Irrational Pastime: Division Setup Still Not Set Up.” The New York Times, January 11, 1994, p. B10. Costas, Bob. Fair Ball: A Fan’s Case for Baseball. New York: Broadway Books. 2000. William H. Hoffman See also

Baseball; Baseball strike of 1994; Sports.

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■ Baseball strike of 1994 A 234-day work stoppage by Major League Baseball players during the regular season Date August 12, 1994, to April 2, 1995 The Event

Labor-management disagreements prematurely ended the 1994 baseball season and delayed the beginning of the 1995 season. The strike resulted in the cancellation of the 1994 World Series and disillusioned many of the sport’s fans. The baseball strike of 1994 came as a result of failed negotiations between Major League Baseball (MLB) and the Major League Baseball Players Association (MLBPA) to establish a new collective-bargaining agreement (CBA). On seven previous occasions in the 1970’s and 1980’s, attempts to renegotiate the CBA had resulted in a strike. Although the CBA expired in December, 1993, the owners and players’ union agreed to begin the 1994 season while a deal was negotiated. On June 14, the owners presented their proposals for changes to the CBA. In the new agreement, owners wanted to implement a team salary cap and revenue sharing, which would transfer money from the most financially successful teams to the least profitable. Other proposals would decrease the profit share of the players from 56 percent to 50 percent, remove salary arbitration for players not eligible for free agency, and allow teams to retain free agents by matching contract offers from other teams. Donald Fehr, executive director of the MLBPA, estimated that the agreement proposed by the owners would cost the players $1.5 billion over the course of a seven-year deal. Fehr made a counteroffer, which for all practical purposes would have maintained the status quo, keeping salary arbitration and free agency as they had been and raising the minimum salary. Although negotiations continued for two months, neither side made substantial concessions. The Players Walk Out Under federal law, if the two sides did not reach an agreement by the end of the baseball season, the owners could declare an impasse in negotiations and unilaterally implement a salary cap. Rather than allow that to happen, on August 12 the MLBPA went on strike. The timing of the strike resulted in maximum financial loss for the owners. Although the players had received most of

Baseball strike of 1994


their yearly salary by August, the cancellation of the baseball playoffs would cost the owners 75 percent of their television revenues. Still, the players’ union and the owners were unable to reach an agreement, and a month after the strike began, Acting Commissioner Bud Selig announced that the remainder of the baseball season, including the playoffs, would be canceled. The 1994 season was the first time since 1904 that the World Series had not been played. At the end of 1994, owners declared negotiations at an impasse and established a salary cap. In response, the MLBPA filed a grievance with the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB), stating that the owners had not negotiated in good faith. The NLRB ruled in the favor of the union, and on March 31, 1995, a federal court ordered MLB to operate under the provisions of the previous CBA until a new agreement could be reached. While the NLRB considered the union’s grievance, the owners worked to begin the 1995 season using replacement players. However, problems soon arose with the plan, as Baltimore Orioles owner Peter Angelos refused to employ replacements and as MLB ran into roadblocks with labor law in both the United States and Canada. As the owners confronted these issues, the NLRB ruling nullified any need for replacement players. On April 26, the 1995 season began, eight months after the players went on strike. Although the 1995 and 1996 seasons were played without any additional work stoppage, the union and the owners did not agree on a new CBA until October, 1996. Both sides obtained a partial victory, as the plan contained provisions for revenue sharing, as well as a luxury tax collected from the teams with the top-five payrolls, but also kept free agency and salary arbitration much as they had been. Although intended to take the place of a salary cap, the luxury tax had no obvious effect on players’ salaries, which continued to rise. Additionally, the agreement allowed for two expansion teams for the 1998 season, a partial repeal of MLB’s antitrust exemption, and the creation of the Industry Growth Fund to promote baseball around the globe. Impact The baseball strike had a negative impact on both attendance and revenues. The players and the owners each lost hundreds of millions of dollars during the strike, and the dissatisfaction fans felt toward baseball reduced attendance after play resumed in April, 1995. Several years lapsed before at-


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Baseball strike of 1994

Baseball fans offer their two cents on the Major League Baseball labor dispute during a New York Yankees game on August 11, 1994. The strike began the next day. (AP/Wide World Photos)

tendance recovered from the strike. In 1993, more than 70 million fans attended games. In 1998, after four years of attendance between 50 and 65 million, fan turnout once again surpassed 70 million. Two events helped baseball recover from the strike of 1994-1995. First, on September 6, 1995, Cal Ripken, Jr., broke Lou Gehrig’s streak for the most consecutive games played. Ripken had long been one of the sport’s most popular players, and his surpassing Gehrig’s streak generated much excitement among fans, even those who had turned away from the game because of the strike. More important to baseball’s recovery was the home run race of 1998. That year, fans flocked to stadiums as Mark McGwire and Sammy Sosa pursued the single season home run record. Since 1998, MLB has maintained high attendance, and in 2007 turnout approached 80 million, shattering the previous record. The owners and the players’ union alike have appreciated the impact the strike had on the

sport and have since renegotiated the CBA twice without work stoppage. Further Reading

Burk, Robert F. Much More than a Game: Players, Owners, and American Baseball Since 1921. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001. An analysis of the business of baseball, spotlighting the relationship between players and owners. Helyar, John. Lords of the Realm: The Real History of Baseball. New York: Villard Books, 1994. Classic study of baseball’s owners, providing a detailed account of the issues that led to the 1994 strike as well as background information about the business side of the game. Staudohar, Paul D. “The Baseball Strike of 1994-95.” Monthly Labor Review 120, no. 3 (March, 1997): 2127. A concise account of the baseball strike, concentrating on collective bargaining and the financial impact of the work stoppage.

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Basic Instinct

Zimbalist, Andrew. In the Best Interests of Baseball? The Revolutionary Reign of Bud Selig. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, 2006. An account of the commissioner’s role in baseball, focusing on Selig’s tenure as acting commissioner and subsequent term as commissioner. Jacob F. Lee See also Baseball; Baseball realignment; Griffey, Ken, Jr.; Home run race; McGwire, Mark; Ripken, Cal, Jr.; Sosa, Sammy; Sports.

■ Basic Instinct Identification Erotic thriller film Director Paul Verhoeven (1938Date Released on March 20, 1992


This film tapped into an audience accustomed to violence and sex and made a star out of Sharon Stone.


piction of Stone and Roxy also provoked much controversy because gay activists criticized Hollywood’s tendency to portray lesbians as twisted and evil. The other controversy in the film involves the manipulation of its audience, since the clues are ambiguous, and Tramell’s guilt or innocence is not revealed until the shocking end. The plot is so designed that either of the two possible endings would be consistent with the information the audience has. The actor most affected by Basic Instinct was Stone, an intelligent woman whose looks had relegated her to playing blond sexpots. In Basic Instinct, she is sexy, but she is also a manipulative, ambitious, dangerous bisexual woman who seems in control throughout the film. Her role allowed her to vault into the next level of performance and led to better roles in such films as Casino (1995) and Diabolique (1996). In fact, after Basic Instinct, Stone made fifteen more films during the 1990’s. Such was the ap-

In Basic Instinct, Michael Douglas plays detective Nick Curran, whose accidental shooting of two tourists has led to his going cold turkey on his favorite vices—alcohol, drugs, and sex. When he investigates a rock star’s kinky death and finds that it has been described in a novel written by the rock star’s girlfriend, Catherine Tramell, played by Sharon Stone, Curran regards Tramell as his prime suspect. When he interviews her, however, she and he start to use sexual innuendo, and he becomes infatuated with her. The film manipulates its audience as it plays with the probability of her guilt or innocence. Clouding the issue is the presence of Dr. Beth Garner (Jeanne Tripplehorn), the police department’s psychologist, who is Curran’s lover and Tramell’s former university lover, and Roxy (Leilani Sarelle), Tramell’s jealous lesbian girlfriend. Impact Basic Instinct capitalized on Douglas’s earlier performance in Fatal Attraction (1987), another film in which his desire for an attractive blond woman led to his possible demise. In Basic Instinct, however, it is Stone who has the greatest impact. In the interrogation scene at police headquarters, Stone’s character, who is not wearing underwear, flashes the two detectives, creating the most discussed sex event in film during the 1990’s. Actually, some of the sex in the original film had to be cut in order to get a rating of R, rather than NC-17. The de-

Basic Instinct’s Catherine Tramell, played by Sharon Stone. (©Bureau L.A. Collection/Corbis)



peal of the film that in 2006 the sequel Basic Instinct II appeared, with Stone again playing crime novelist Catherine Tramell, and with Michael Glass starring in the Douglas role of a detective obsessed with a possible murderess. Further Reading

Dugan, Andy. Michael Douglas: Out of the Shadows— The Unauthorized Biography. London: Robson, 2003. Keesey, Douglas. Paul Verhoeven. Los Angeles: Taschen, 2005. Munn, Michael. The Sharon Stone Story. London: Robson, 1997. Thomas L. Erskine Film in the United States; Homosexuality and gay rights; NC-17 rating; Showgirls.

See also

■ Basketball Definition

Team sport

The sport was notable throughout the decade at various levels. Professionally, the popularity of Michael Jordan, widely considered one of the best basketball players ever, and the dominance of his Chicago Bulls were special. At the collegiate level, the National Collegiate Athletic Association’s championship tournament increased in popularity. Furthermore, for the first time, the United States fielded professional players for Olympic Games in 1992. In 1989, the International Basketball Federation (FIBA) allowed professionals to participate in the Olympics, opening the door for the United States to form a formidable team for the 1992 Games. During the 1990’s, the National Basketball Association (NBA) was dominated by the Chicago Bulls, who won six championships. At the amateur level, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) tournament produced many great games throughout the decade and the first team to win back-to-back championships since 1973. In women’s basketball, the development of the Connecticut-Tennessee collegiate rivalry facilitated a rise in interest in the sport, leading to the creation of two professional leagues. Some analysts have expressed the view that the popularity of professional sports heavily depends on the presence of great

The Chicago Bulls Dynasty

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teams and great individual players. During the 1990’s, the NBA possessed both. These factors helped the NBA maintain a high level of popularity that had been regained during the 1980’s with the dominance of and rivalry between the Los Angeles Lakers and the Boston Celtics, led respectively by Magic Johnson and Larry Bird. By 1990, it appeared that the Celtics and the Lakers were declining, and Johnson and Bird retired within the following two seasons. For the first time since 1979, neither team made the finals. In 1990, the Detroit Pistons won their second consecutive NBA championship, defeating the Portland Trail Blazers four games to one. Known as the “bad boys” for their rough style, the Pistons featured Isiah Thomas, Bill Laimbeer, Joe Dumars, John Salley, and Dennis Rodman. Multiple events on and off the basketball court occurred in 1991, however, that signified the beginning of a new era in the NBA. On the court, the Bulls defeated the Pistons four games to none in the Eastern Conference Finals, thus ending the latter’s reign as champions. In the NBA Finals, the Bulls beat the Lakers four games to one, giving the franchise its first championship. This was the first of three consecutive and six total titles for the Bulls during the 1990’s. Unfortunately, an event off the court became a major story for the NBA. Magic Johnson announced in November, 1991, that he had contracted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which forced him to retire (although he returned to the NBA later). Nevertheless, he was able to compete in the 1992 Olympics and became a powerful advocate for HIV/AIDS awareness. In 1992, the Bulls won their second championship in a row with a victory over the Trail Blazers four games to two. They won their third straight title the following season by beating the Phoenix Suns four games to two. After the 1993 NBA Playoffs, however, an off-the-court event would once again affect the game. Michael Jordan’s father died tragically. Not long after the incident, Jordan decided to retire. Without Jordan, the Bulls’ attempt at four consecutive championships failed. In 1994, the New York Knicks knocked off the Bulls four games to three in the Eastern Conference Finals. The Houston Rockets, led by Hakeem Olajuwon, defeated the Knicks four games to three to win the championship. Approximately halfway through the next sea-

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son, Jordan returned to the Bulls. Despite his presence in 1995, the Orlando Magic defeated the Bulls in the Eastern Conference Semifinals. For the second straight year, however, the Rockets won the NBA title, beating the Magic four games to none. In the 1995-1996 season, Jordan’s first full season since he came out of retirement, the Bulls achieved the best regular-season record in NBA history at 7210 and continued their fantastic performance by winning their fourth championship, defeating the Seattle SuperSonics four games to two in the finals. The Bulls won their fifth and sixth championship titles during the next two seasons, ending each with a victory over the Utah Jazz four games to two. In game six of the 1998 finals, Jordan made the gamewinning shot to seize the championship. He retired after that season. At that time, Jordan was already being proclaimed by several analysts as the greatest basketball player in NBA history. During the 1990’s, he won the scoring championship seven times and the NBA regular-season Most Valuable Player Award four times. During the last season of the decade, a dispute between players and owners led to a lockout, which lasted until February, 1999. Thus, this season was approximately half the length of a normal one. At its end, the San Antonio Spurs, led by David Robinson and Tim Duncan, won their first NBA championship by defeating the Knicks four games to one. It was historically significant, as the Spurs became the first team from the former American Basketball Association (ABA) to both play for and win an NBA championship. Following the U.S. men’s basketball team’s loss to the Soviet Union in the 1988 Summer Olympics (only their second loss in the history of the Olympics), the United States fielded professionals to play in the 1992 Olympics. Dubbed the “Dream Team,” the U.S. team was composed almost entirely of NBA players, including Jordan, Bird, and Johnson. The United States easily won the gold medal by defeating Croatia 117-85, having won eight games by an average margin of forty-four points. In doing so, the United States reestablished its dominance in Olympic basketball and contributed to the growth in international interest in the sport. The United States put together another Olympic basketball team with professional players in 1996. Including Shaquille O’Neal, Charles Barkley, and

The “Dream Team”



Scottie Pippen, the United States won its second consecutive Olympic gold medal in basketball with a 95-69 victory over Yugoslavia. Men’s college basketball produced a substantial amount of excitement in the 1990’s. After losing badly to the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), in the championship game in 1990, Duke University became the first team to win back-to-back national titles in 1991 and 1992 since the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), accomplished this feat in 1973. Coached by Mike Krzyzewski, Duke’s path to each championship included games that analysts consider to be a couple of the greatest in the history of college basketball. In the semifinals in the 1991 NCAA tournament, Duke played UNLV in a rematch of the previous season’s championship game. After winning the championship in 1990, UNLV had many players return the following season and produced an undefeated record entering the 1991 semifinals. Though thought to be overmatched, Duke upset UNLV 79-77 and advanced to the championship game. In the finals, Duke defeated the University of Kansas. Entering the next season, Duke had its top players returning, such as Christian Laettner, Grant Hill, and Bobby Hurley. Throughout the year, Duke was considered one of the best teams in the country, and earned one of the top four seeds in the NCAA tournament in 1992. In the regional finals, Duke met the University of Kentucky, a traditional college basketball power. In what many analysts consider one of the greatest college basketball games, Duke defeated Kentucky 104-103 in double-overtime. With Duke trailing by one point and with 2.1 seconds remaining, Hill threw an in-bounds pass threequarters the length of the court to Laettner, who made a quick shot eighteen feet from the basket as time expired, providing Duke with the victory. In the semifinals, Duke defeated Indiana University. In the championship game, Duke won easily against the University of Michigan, producing consecutive championships for a single college basketball team for the first time in nineteen years. In 1993, the University of North Carolina Tar Heels, coached by the legendary Dean Smith, won their first national championship in eleven years, as they defeated Michigan 77-71. The University of Arkansas won the national championship in 1994 with

College: Dominance of Traditional Powers


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a 76-72 victory over Duke. In 1995, UCLA won its first national title in twenty years, as they beat Arkansas in the finals. For the first time in eighteen years, Kentucky won the national championship at the end of the 1996 season. This was the first of three straight seasons in which they made it to the championship game. In 1997, however, they lost to the University of Arizona in overtime by a score of 84-79. Arizona’s path to the national title was unique, as they became the first team to defeat three number-one seeded teams in the NCAA tournament. Though being the runner-up in 1997, Kentucky won the championship in 1998 with a victory over the University of Utah, thus giving Kentucky its second championship in three years. In 1999, the University of Connecticut Huskies won the national championship by defeating Duke. Women’s basketball received increased attention in the 1990’s. A great rivalry emerged at the collegiate level. By the end of the decade, the Universities of Connecticut and Tennessee had established their programs as the top two in the country. Coached by Geno Auriemma, Connecticut completed a perfect season at 35-0 in winning its first national championship in 1995. Legendary coach Pat Summitt of Tennessee led her teams to three consecutive national championships from 1996 to 1998, capping the last of the titles with a 39-0 record. In addition to collegiate play, the Olympics created more interest in women’s basketball. After winning the bronze medal in 1992, the United States triumphantly reemerged in 1996, winning the gold medal by defeating Brazil 111-87. The U.S. women’s basketball team was led by Sheryl Swoopes, Lisa Leslie, and Teresa Edwards. Edwards became the first three-time Olympic gold medal winner in women’s basketball. A sign of the rise in interest in women’s basketball was the creation of two professional leagues in the latter part of the decade. In 1997, the American Basketball League (ABL) and the Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA) began their inaugural seasons. The ABL started with eight teams and eventually expanded to nine. Its existence, however, was short. In the middle of the 1998-1999 season, it suspended play and filed for bankruptcy. The WNBA has had more success. It started by making agreements with three television networks

The Rise of Women’s Basketball

to broadcast their games. Furthermore, it decided to hold its season during the summer, as there was less competition with other sports at this time of year. It also succeeded in signing Swoopes and Rebecca Lobo, two great college players. The league started with eight teams, but had twelve by the end of the 1990’s. The Houston Comets won the first three WNBA championships of the decade. Impact The Chicago Bulls’ dynasty and the fantastic performance by Michael Jordan helped the NBA maintain the high level of interest that was created in the 1980’s. Furthermore, the U.S. men’s basketball team regained its position as the preeminent power in basketball and generated greater interest in the sport on a global level. Great games in the NCAA tournament in the 1990’s helped make it one of the most popular sporting events in the country. Women’s basketball has also become more popular. At the college level, the women’s NCAA tournament received greater coverage by the media as the decade progressed. The increase in popularity of the college game, along with the success of the Olympic team in 1996, facilitated the formation of new professional leagues for women’s basketball. Further Reading

Chansky, Art. Blue Blood: Duke-Carolina: Inside the Most Storied Rivalry in College Hoops. New York: Thomas Dunne Books, 2006. A history of the evolution of the men’s basketball rivalry between these two universities. Provides a good account of some of the most exciting games between the two teams. Jordan, Michael. Driven From Within. New York: Atria Books, 2005. Details the development of Jordan’s talent and his career from his perspective as well as those closest to him. Includes comments from his mother and Dean Smith, his college coach at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Smith, Dean. A Coach’s Life: My Forty Years in College Basketball. New York: Random House, 2002. An autobiography by one of the most successful and respected coaches in the history of college basketball. Sports Illustrated. The Basketball Book. New York: Sports Illustrated Books, 2007. A written and pictorial account of the most important events in the history of the game. Includes chapters on basketball’s highlights by decade. Weiss, Dick, ed. True Blue: A Tribute to Mike Krzyzew-

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ski’s Career at Duke. Champaign, Ill.: Sports Publishing, 2005. Twenty-five friends, players, and colleagues provide their views of Duke University’s men’s basketball coach. Kevin L. Brennan Albert, Marv; Barkley, Charles; Dream Team; Johnson, Magic; Jordan, Michael; Malone, Karl; Olympic Games of 1992; Olympic Games of 1996; O’Neal, Shaquille; Sports; Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA). See also

■ Baywatch Identification Television adventure-drama series Date Aired 1989 and 1991-2001

Often dismissed as a kitschy series pandering to a young demographic with simplistic story lines serving as an excuse to show beautiful bodies on beautiful stretches of California



beaches, Baywatch evolved into a character-centered adventure series that treated environmental and social issues, a formula that made it the most-watched television show worldwide during the 1990’s. The original concept for a drama series based on the heroics of Los Angeles County lifeguards was pitched nearly ten years before production of Baywatch started. Baywatch debuted in September, 1989, on the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) after an encouraging late spring pilot. The show struggled, however, its creators unable to settle on a genre: Should it be a murder mystery, a rescueadventure drama, or a sexy soap opera? The show never found its audience (in addition, production costs were exacerbated by the demands of on-site shooting) and was canceled after a single season. Its star, David Hasselhoff (who played senior lifeguard Mitch Buchannon) was convinced that the show had potential and took over as executive producer. Within a year, he had marketed the series as a first-

The cast of Baywatch, with David Hasselhoff in the middle and Pamela Anderson to his left. (©Neal Preston/Corbis)


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Beanie Babies

run cable show. When the revamped Baywatch premiered, it offered savvy character-driven story lines centered on the emotional entanglements of an ensemble cast of lifeguards dramatically counterpointed with gripping beach rescue scenes that exploited virtually every danger, from shark attacks to earthquakes to terrorist explosions. The series also exploited the clichés of a Southern California beach lifestyle. Each episode featured MTV-styled montages set to hip music while cameras panned, most often in slow motion, the muscled, tanned lifeguards, male and female—a cast that came to include hot young actors including Pamela Anderson, Yasmine Bleeth, Alexandra Paul, and David Charvet. With the forty-something Hasselhoff as the éminence grise whose character grappled with the demands of single parenting, the series took off. For more than a decade, the show enjoyed unprecedented international success—measured, most notably, by The Guinness Book of World Records, which estimated the show’s worldwide audience at more than one billion at the height of its popularity. As the show’s popularity increased, however, producers (smarting under criticism of the series as lightweight) introduced stories about ocean conservation, endangered marine animals, water pollution, as well as social issues, including date rape, domestic violence, drug addiction, bulimia, and AIDS. After a decade, the show faltered into formula (despite relocating to Hawaii in its tenth year), and the constantly rotating cast became notorious for contentious backstage ego collisions. The show was canceled in May, 2001. Impact Although widely excoriated for its soft-porn ambience and its simplistic plots, Baywatch defined itself not so much by its content or by the tabloid fodder it generated but rather as a case study in the unrecognized market potential of first-run cable syndication. Like The Simpsons, The Sopranos, and South Park, Baywatch helped demonstrate how savvy marketing and adept programming could redefine the conception—and reach—of cable television.

Further Reading

Bonann, Gregory J. Baywatch: Rescued from Prime Time. Melrose, Mass.: New Millennium Entertainment, 2001. Hammond, Michael. The Contemporary Television Series. Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh University Press, 2005. McCabe, Janet. Quality TV: Contemporary American Television and Beyond. London: I. B. Tauris, 2007. Joseph Dewey Cable television; Simpsons, The; South Park; Television.

See also

■ Beanie Babies Definition

Stuffed animals made by Ty, Inc.

In part because of Ty’s smart marketing, including retiring certain toy animals and collaborating with McDonald’s to promote a new line, Beanie Babies became highly collectible stuffed animals, sparking a craze in the 1990’s. In 1993, H. Ty Warner, a former Dakin stuffed animal company employee, introduced a line of small, moderately priced stuffed animals called Beanie Babies at the World Toy Fair in New York City. The original nine Beanie Babies were Legs the Frog,

R. J. Milano, McDonald’s assistant vice president for marketing, displays Teenie Beanies, miniature Beanie Babies that the fast-food chain sold in various promotions in the late 1990’s. McDonald’s ran out of the popular stuffed animals in 1997. (AP/ Wide World Photos)

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Squealer the Pig, Brownie (Cubbie) the Bear, Spot the Dog, Chocolate the Moose, Flash the Dolphin, Splash the Whale, Patti the Platypus, and Punchers (Pinchers) the Lobster. Since then, hundreds of new animals have joined the Beanie Baby family. The animals were made differently than other stuffed toys because they were filled with a combination of “beans” (PVC pellets) and stuffing. This allowed the animals to be posed and gave them a unique, soft feel. Some of the responses at their unveiling were negative, saying that the animals looked dead. Although originally not popular, by 1995 Beanie Babies had become highly collectible because of Ty Warner’s marketing strategy of retiring animals, creating new characters, and marketing them in small batches to specialty shops rather than large toy stores. The Beanies grew increasingly popular and, in 1997, the Ty company collaborated with McDonald’s for the first time and manufactured Teenie Beanies, miniature versions of famous Beanie Babies, which were included in Happy Meals. Ty Warner ended Beanie Baby production in 1999 but reintroduced the Beanie Baby line in 2000. Impact The Beanie Baby craze really took off in 1996 with the retirement of eleven Beanies. The toys became increasingly difficult to find in stores and were being sold on the secondary markets for prices from two to twenty times their original cost. They became so collectible because of their limited availability and their “hang tags” and “tush tags.” Both tags have gone through many variations; the hang tags contain the animal’s name and a poem about the animal. The older the hang tag, the more valuable the Beanie Baby. Throughout the 1990’s, Ty Warner continued to develop new Beanies, including special editions, such as the 1998 Princess Bear in honor of Princess Diana, the proceeds of which went to charity. Other special Beanies have included a series of NASCAR bears, national bears, and other charity Beanies. Because of their tremendous popularity, there are books, Web sites, conventions, and collectors clubs devoted to Beanie Babies that survived through the 1990’s and into the next decade. Further Reading

Fox, Les, Sue Fox, and Jeanette Long. The Beanie Baby Handbook. Midland Park, N.J.: West Highland, 1998.

Beauty and the Beast


Holmes, Karen, ed. Ty Beanies Tracker. 3d ed. Braintree, Mass.: Bangzoom, 2007. Stowe, Holly, and Carol Turkington. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Beanie Babies. New York: Alpha Books, 1998. Leslie Neilan See also

Fads; Pokémon franchise; Toys and


■ Beauty and the Beast Identification Animated film Directors Gary Trousdale (1960-

) and Kirk Wise (1958) Date Released on November 13, 1991 The eighteenth century romantic French fairy tale “Beauty and the Beast” is a familiar story that has been shared in many different languages throughout the world. In 1991, Walt Disney Pictures released a magnificently created and carefully marketed animated film based on the tale, the first full-length animated feature ever to be nominated for a Best Picture Oscar. Disney’s thirtieth animated movie, and the fifth one based on a classic fairy tale, Beauty and the Beast was one of the company’s first animated features to be produced with Computer Animation Production System (CAPS) software, which allowed artistic drawings to be scanned into computers and then electronically painted and enhanced with background scenery. This technique helped create colorful characters and lush background that appealed to the visual senses. In this film, Disney brought these fantastic illustrations to life with wonderful songs and excellent casting that have amazed audiences. As the movie opens, the Beauty, Belle (voice of Paige O’Hara), runs through the streets while reading a book. Her heart is anywhere but in the French town where she resides with her father, Maurice (Rex Everhart), an inventor. The smart, strongminded, yet childlike girl has a modern spirit that rejects the advances of Gaston (Richard White), a selfcentered, vain man who cannot believe that Belle does not swoon over him. After Maurice loses his way in the forest and finds shelter in a castle, he is taken captive by the Beast (Robby Benson), a prince under the spell of an angered enchantress because of his


Beauty Myth, The

stubborn pride. Belle bargains for her father’s release from imprisonment in the enchanted castle in exchange for her own captivity. Disney’s portrayal of the castle’s inhabitants, including Lumiere (Jerry Orbach), a talking candelabra; Cogsworth (David Ogden Stiers), a chatting British clock; Mrs. Potts (Angela Lansbury), a warm and friendly teapot; and her son, Chip (Bradley Michael Pierce), a cracked teacup, are charming inspirations that show Disney at its finest. Beauty and the Beast appealed to people of all ages, drawn to the lively characters, rich imagery, and captivating music that made the film an instant classic. Impact Beauty and the Beast drew large audiences, earned numerous awards, created demand for keepsake merchandise and games, and was the first fulllength animated feature ever to be nominated for an Academy Award for Best Picture (losing to The Silence of the Lambs). The film won two Academy Awards, for Best Music, Original Score (Alan Menken), and Best Music, Original Song (Menken and Howard Ashman). Lansbury sang the Oscar-winning song for the ballroom dance scene. On April 18, 1994, the Palace Theatre in New York City opened the Broadway production of Disney’s Beauty and the Beast. It played there until September 5, 1999, and then moved to Lunt-Fontanne Theatre. From 1995 to 1999, the American Broadcasting Company (ABC) ran a children’s series titled Sing Me a Story with Belle. In 19971998, Disney released two short children’s videos with the Beauty and the Beast premise. The romantic Disney series continues to enchant audiences around the world. Further Reading

Beck, Jerry. The Animated Movie Guide. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 2005. Finch, Christopher. The Art of Walt Disney: From Mickey Mouse to the Magic Kingdom. Rev. ed. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2004. Frantz, Donald, and Sue Heinemann. Disney’s Beauty and the Beast. New York: Hyperion, 1995. Cynthia J. W. Svoboda Academy Awards; CGI; Film in the United States; Theater in the United States.

See also

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■ Beauty Myth, The Identification

International best-selling feminist

book Author Naomi Wolf (1962Date Published in 1991


Wolf’s attack on advertising and the media in her first, controversial book was used by feminists to motivate women to unite and was castigated by critics as inaccurate, historically incorrect, and paranoid. Naomi Wolf graduated from Yale University in 1984 and received a Rhodes Scholarship to Oxford University. She wrote for such publications as The New Republic, Glamour, Ms., Esquire, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, and The Washington Post but is perhaps best known for her first book, The Beauty Myth: How Images of Beauty Are Used Against Women, published in 1991. In The Beauty Myth, Wolf castigated beauty advertising, which emphasizes the need for every woman to use products to ensure that she is a “beauty.” More important, she pointed out that the quest for beauty pits women against each other and that this culture of divisiveness prevents them from uniting to fight for their real needs: child-care programs, effective antidiscrimination laws, parental leave, reproductive choice, fair compensation, and genuine penalties against sexual violence. According to Wolf, these changes can come not from men or the media but from women recognizing and working for their common needs. In a review of the 1990’s, Wolf defined feminism as “women’s ability to think about their subjugated role in history, and then to do something about it.” She said that the twenty-first century would see the End of Inequality (her caps) only if women decide to change it. As a group, women can lose their future, she warned, because women have been trained to see themselves as having no claim upon their history. Writing in The New York Times Magazine on May 16, 1999, Wolf noted many new landmarks for women but warned that women were at a turning point as the decade ended. The 1990’s made feminism mainstream, she said, but she warned that at the beginning of a new century it could either crest further or recede as women once again fail to do what they must. Impact During the 1990’s, Wolf followed The Beauty Myth with Fire with Fire: The New Female Power

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and How to Use It (1993) and Promiscuities: The Secret Struggle for Womanhood (1997). No subsequent work, however, had the impact of The Beauty Myth, which The New York Times called one of the seventy most significant books of the twentieth century; HarperCollins published a tenth anniversary commemorative edition in 2002. The original was an international best seller, and its impact may be best judged by the backlash (defined in a book of that name by Susan Faludi, published the same year) it produced. Its title and theme have become synonymous with continued work by feminists against the political system and the culture that they claim uses women’s insecurities to prevent them as individuals and as a group from realizing their full potential. Further Reading

Faludi, Susan. Backlash: The Undeclared War Against Women. New York: Crown, 1991. Wolf, Naomi. The Beauty Myth: How Images of Beauty Are Used Against Women. New York: HarperPerennial, 2002. _______. Fire with Fire: The New Female Power and How to Use It. New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1993. Erika E. Pilver

Beavis and Butt-Head


Brown; Planned Parenthood v. Casey; Reno, Janet; Roberts, Julia; Schlessinger, Dr. Laura; Sex and the City; Sheehy, Gail; Sontag, Susan; Take Our Daughters to Work Day; Thomas, Clarence; Vagina Monologues, The; Victoria’s Secret; Women in the military; Women in the workforce; Women’s rights; Xena: Warrior Princess; Year of the Woman.

■ Beavis and Butt-Head Creator Mike Judge (1962) Identification Animated television comedy series Date Aired from March 8, 1993, to November 28,

1997 A blunt look at American youth culture, this series attempted social commentary on the bleakness of American life while poking fun at the cultural icons of the time period.

Beavis and Butt-Head debuted on MTV as a film short on the network’s program Liquid Television. MTV contracted Mike Judge, the creator of the two characters, to develop the concept into a regular program. The show centers on its title characters, two adolescent residents of fictional Highland, Texas, who spend their time watching television (while See also Culture wars; Faludi, Susan; Family and commenting on and mocking the programs they Medical Leave Act of 1993; Health care; Hill, Anita; watch), filling idle time while not in school, and enLewinsky scandal; Marriage and divorce; Murphy gaging in senseless and destructive behavior. The characters interact with a variety of town residents, all of whom demonstrate some sort of personality flaw that reinforces the empty existence that Beavis and Butt-Head live. Beavis and Butt-Head spend their time without any adult supervision. Although not related, the two live in the same house without any reference to who or where their parents are. When not watching television and offering their own unique critique of music videos (heavy metal is their favorite; soft rock “sucks”), Beavis and Butt-Head attend school surrounded by socially detached fellow students and ineffective teachers. Their primary educators include an overly sensitive liberal and an overly aggressive Beavis, right, and Butt-Head from the movie Beavis and Butt-Head Do America conservative, overseen by an incom(1996). (Hulton Archive/Getty Images)


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Bernardin, Joseph Cardinal

petent administrator. Both characters are employed at a fast-food restaurant, where they continue to work despite their utter lack of intelligence or responsibility. Other town residents include a variety of people who either live shallow existences like Beavis and Butt-Head or are too busy pursuing materialism to care about the future of the title characters. Critics of Beavis and Butt-Head differed on the symbolism and impact of the show. To some observers, Beavis and Butt-Head represented the typical American teenager—uneducated, self-centered, and shallow. Other critics saw Beavis and Butt-Head as the product of an America that had lost is moral compass. Two boys were violent, cynical, and stupid because that was the culture around them. Despite not receiving any great critical acclaim, Beavis and Butt-Head was a commercial success, generating a compilation album of their favorite songs titled The Beavis and Butt-Head Experience (1993) and a feature film, Beavis and Butt-Head Do America (1996). The animated characters also appeared on The David Letterman Show, at the Oscars, and on the cover of Rolling Stone magazine. Impact While the show’s run was not particularly long, the program had considerable cultural impact. The grainy animation, slang, and intentionally offensive content was a model for later programs aimed at younger audiences. While the social commentary of the show was often lost on critics, its popular appeal elevated the show to a minor cult status. Further Reading

Cooper, Cynthia A. Violence on Television: Congressional Inquiry, Public Criticism, and Industry Response—A Policy Analysis. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1996. Sun, Douglas. “ ‘Change It! This Sucks!’ Beavis and Butt-Head, Idiot Savants of Cultural Criticism.” In New Directions of American Humor, edited by David E. Sloane. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1998. Steven J. Ramold See also Cable television; MTV Unplugged; Music; Real World, The ; Simpsons, The; South Park; Television.

■ Bernardin, Joseph Cardinal Roman Catholic archbishop of Chicago Born April 2, 1928; Columbia, South Carolina Died November 14, 1996; Chicago, Illinois Identification

Bernardin’s position as leader of the largest Catholic diocese in the United States enhanced his abilities to shape Catholics’ thinking on a number of social issues, but his handling of sexual abuse accusations (including one against himself ) made him a figure of great controversy as he protected the Church’s right to carry out its own program of disciplining offenders. Joseph Bernardin’s ascendancy within the Catholic Church was rapid and highly public. The son of Italian immigrants, he grew up in Columbia, South Carolina, where he became a priest in 1952. Only fourteen years later, he was made a bishop, serving first as an auxiliary in Atlanta and later as archbishop of Cincinnati. He achieved national attention for his work as general secretary and later president of the National Council of Catholic Bishops, where he promoted policies calling for respect for life and abolition of all nuclear weapons. In July, 1982, Bernardin was named archbishop of Chicago, a diocese then racked with financial scandal. Elevated to the Catholic Church’s College of Cardinals a year later, over the next decade he strived to restore confidence among Catholics in his diocese while working across the nation to promote programs of social justice and respect for life. In 1991, however, the diocese became the focal point of national interest in the growing number of scandals involving sexual abuse by priests. Bernardin acted quickly to investigate charges against several priests, setting up a commission to look into these and other allegations; eventually he removed dozens of priests from their pastoral duties. In the fall of 1993, however, he became the target of allegations made by Steven Cook, who claimed Bernardin had abused him when Cook was a seminarian in the Cincinnati diocese. Bernardin moved swiftly and openly to deal with these charges, proclaiming his innocence on the Cable News Network (CNN) and in numerous other interviews. Eventually, Cook withdrew the charges, and the two were reconciled. In 1995, Bernardin learned that he had pancreatic cancer. An operation in July was initially deemed successful, and he returned to work, publicly com-

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mitting himself to a new role as chaplain to the sick. While personally ministering to people suffering from cancer and other diseases, he became an activist lobbying for strong public policies against assisted suicide. Bernardin insisted that life was a gift from God, who alone should decide when it should be taken away. Unfortunately, while he was working on this new initiative, the cancer returned, and Bernardin died less than two years after the disease had been discovered. Impact Bernardin’s leadership on social justice issues and his efforts to highlight the plight of the sick and to emphasize the sanctity of human life helped bring about a revision in Catholic thinking on those matters. His aggressive pursuit of sexual offenders among the priesthood temporarily quelled concerns about this issue. Later revelations of abuse, however, indicated that problems were more widespread and proved that the Church’s initial response had been inadequate. Further Reading

Berry, Jason, and Gerald Renner. Vows of Silence: The Abuse of Power in the Papacy of John Paul II. New York: Free Press, 2004. Kennedy, Eugene. This Man Bernardin. Chicago: Loyola Press, 1996. Laurence W. Mazzeno Religion and spirituality in Canada; Religion and spirituality in the United States; Scandals.

See also

■ Beverly Hills, 90210 Identification Television drama series Producer Aaron Spelling (1923-2006) Date Aired from October 4, 1990, to May 17,

2000 Originally intended to focus on twin teenagers who moved to Beverly Hills from Minnesota and are desperate to fit in, the show evolved into an ensemble series, following the twins and their friends from adolescence into adulthood. The series Beverly Hills, 90210 dealt with such social issues as race relations, AIDS, eating disorders, and rape. Although the show was set in Beverly Hills, an icon of extreme wealth and glamour, its mostly young viewers found that even the “beautiful people” have problems. Viewers could identify with the

Beverly Hills, 90210


characters, while vicariously sharing in their privileged lifestyles. The show also began the trend of dramatic series centered on the lives of young adults, inspiring such new shows as Dawson’s Creek, The O.C., and One Tree Hill. Beverly Hills, 90210 helped the fledgling Fox network survive by offering first-run summer episodes, captivating viewers who sought alternatives to repeat programming and winning fans to such attractive stars as Jason Priestley (who played Brandon Walsh), Shannen Doherty (Brenda Walsh), Luke Perry (Dylan McKay) and Jennie Garth (Kelly Taylor). By focusing on the children of millionaires rather than on the millionaires themselves, the series was a departure for producer Aaron Spelling, who had previously targeted older viewers in such series as Dynasty and Fantasy Island. Centered on a popular high school clique, the show struck a chord with young adults who did not necessarily fit such a profile themselves. To realize that these privileged teenagers did not lead charmed lives but rather had to cope with common troubles engendered a sense of unity among viewers who became invested in the characters’ lives. Young people—and their parents—tuned in to learn how their fictitious counterparts handled problems that they themselves were facing. The show neither shied away from such formerly taboo subjects as teenage sexuality and alcoholism nor offered pat solutions. Typical 1980’s sitcoms had featured peripheral characters plagued by problems they resolved in single episodes, never to be discussed again. Beverly Hills, 90210, however, created story arcs in which main characters dealt with such issues in a realistic manner and time frame. Furthermore, these issues— from drug addiction to cult membership—molded characters’ lives and actions long after the issues were resolved. As viewers may have identified with the characters’ problems, so may they have shared in their struggles to move beyond them. Spanning the entire decade, the show exhibited the fashions, technology, and music of its period. The rich are often the earliest adopters of the latest trends, and so it was in Beverly Hills, 90210. As soon as Steve Madden shoes and baby-doll dresses appeared in magazines, the show’s characters were wearing them. No sooner did cellular phones appear than did the characters own them. Long before the Internet was mainstream, characters were using it to do email, meet people, and do research. Hit musical acts


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Bezos, Jeff

The stars of Beverly Hills, 90210 (from left): Tori Spelling, Jason Priestley, Shannen Doherty, Brian Austin Green, Luke Perry, Gabrielle Carteris, Ian Ziering, and Jennie Garth. (©Roberts Mikel/Corbis Sygma)

such as Duncan Sheik and Monica headlined at the show’s nightclub, The Peach Pit After Dark. Impact The show’s willingness to tackle controversial subjects rendered it more than just a superficial teenage series. It not only popularized trends of the decade but also spawned similar programs such as its spin-off, Melrose Place, and Dawson’s Creek, but they never matched the show’s popularity and longevity. Another spin-off, 90210 , premiered in 2008 and included Garth and Doherty. Further Reading

Holmes, Venice. The Beverly Hills 90210 Guide. East Lansing, Mich.: New King, 1993. McKinley, E. Graham. Beverly Hills, 90210: Television, Gender, and Identity. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997. Spelling, Aaron. Aaron Spelling: A Prime-Time Life. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996. Noelle K. Penna

AIDS epidemic; Cell phones; Drug use; Education in the United States; E-mail; Fashions and clothing; Friends; Internet; Music; Sex and the City; Television.

See also

■ Bezos, Jeff Identification Founder of Born January 12, 1964; Albuquerque, New

Mexico In making a successful retailer based on the Internet, Bezos proved the viability of electronic commerce. Jeff Bezos was one of the pioneers of the digital commercial revolution and one of the great success stories of the late 1990’s. By the middle of the decade, the Internet was no longer a bastion of scientists and university students. After America Online allowed its users direct connections to the Internet, followed by

The Nineties in America

the rise of the independent commercial Internet service providers, large numbers of ordinary people had Internet access. The development of the World Wide Web and graphical browsers made using the Internet far less intimidating. Bezos was the youngest senior executive at the financial firm D. E. Shaw when he saw the commercial potential of these changes. Before the Internet age, starting a retail sales business inevitably meant major investments in hardware and facilities. However, if one’s “store” were a site on the World Wide Web, one would need space only for warehousing and for fulfilling orders. Furthermore, one would no longer be limited to a set number of physical locations: The store could be accessed from any place that boasted an Internet connection and at any time. In order to develop his business plan, Bezos studied mail-order companies. A visit to the American Booksellers Association annual conference earned

Bezos, Jeff


him valuable connections and information. He left D. E. Shaw and moved to Seattle, where he could find a large number of people with technical experence. Working from the garage of a rented home, he set up the first Web site and went online as a bookseller in 1995. Within a year, established booksellers were taking notice of this start-up, and in 1997 went public. However, Bezos remained a warm, personable man even as the success of his company made him wealthy. This approachability has distinguished him from other technology leaders such as Bill Gates and Steve Jobs, whose prickly personalities and refusal to accomodate laypeople have earned them reputations as difficult people with whom to do business. Impact When Jeff Bezos founded, e-commerce was still a theoretical concept. However, his determination not only made it a reality but also proved that a business selling over the Internet could have strong advantages over traditional “bricks-and-mortar” stores. His far-reaching cultural and commercial influence was recognized in 1999 when the thirty-four-year-old entrepreneur was named Time magazine’s person of the year. Further Reading

Brackett, Virginia. Jeff Bezos. Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 2001. Leibovich, Mark. The New Imperialists: How Five Restless Kids Grew Up to Virtually Rule Your World. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2002. Ramo, Joshua Cooper. “Why the Founder of Is Our Choice for 1999.” Time, December 27, 1999, 50-51. Leigh Husband Kimmel See also; Business and the economy in the United States; Computers; Dot-coms; Gates, Bill; Internet; Jobs, Steve; Silicon Valley; World Wide Web.

Jeff Bezos. (AP/Wide World Photos)


The Nineties in America

Biosphere 2

■ Biosphere 2 An artificially enclosed ecosystem experiment Date September 26, 1991-September 26, 1993; March 6-September 6, 1994 Identification

Although this experiment proved to be overly ambitious and beset with difficulties from the beginning, it captured the public’s imagination and contributed useful data to a variety of fields, including ecology, space science, medicine, and agriculture. In name, Biosphere 2 took second place only to Biosphere 1, the Earth’s ecosystem. Located in the Arizona desert and reminiscent of the classic sciencefiction film Silent Running (1972), the three-acre complex made up the largest closed system ever built. It was designed for an ambitious one-hundredyear study and contained a quarter-acre ocean complete with a coral reef, a mangrove wetland, a savannah grassland, and a fog desert in addition to a three-quarter-acre agricultural system. The buildings were designed and built by Margaret Augustine and her Biospheric Design Corporation. After extensive testing, the hermetic sealing of the complex set a world record with less than 10 percent leakage, making it thirty times more airtight than the space shuttle. Heating and cooling were managed by circulating water through an independent piping system, and electrical power came from a natural gas energy center through airtight connections. Mission 1 began on September 26, 1991, when, as millions watched on television, an eight-person crew entered the complex for a twoyear stay. One of the crew members was a medical researcher and doctor, Roy Walford. The other crew members were Jane Poynter, Taber MacCallum, Mark Nelson, Sally Silverstone, Abigail Alling, Mark Van Thillo, and Linda Leigh. To inaugurate the experiment, an international environmental symposium, “Biospheric Challenges: Impacts on the Global Environment,” was convened by the project’s science consultants. The symposium attracted more than a hundred international scientific leaders representing, among others, World Wildlife Fund, Earth Island Institute, Royal Botanical Gardens, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Goddard Space Flight Cen-

The First Mission

ter. Members of the media declared the experiment the most exciting scientific venture since the Apollo program. Darker days were ahead, however. During the fall and winter of 1992-1993, the oxygen level in the complex began an unexpected decline, and carbon dioxide levels fluctuated dramatically. These phenomena were explained in part by lack of sunlight. During those months, the area experienced one of the cloudiest periods on record, due in part to an exceptionally strong El Niño current. The diminished sunlight adversely affected photosynthesis and the associated gas exchange. As an ergonomic experiment, the oxygen levels were allowed to drop to about 14 percent, comparable to an altitude of 14,000 feet. Oxygen was then injected into the system on January 13, 1993. Although Dr. Walford attributed the purportedly excellent health of the crew to their low-calorie, lowfat, nutrient-dense diet, crew members later remembered continual hunger during their two-year stay. While they were able to produce 80 percent of their food, they later said they had eaten so many sweet potatoes their skin took on an orange tint. The remaining 20 percent of their food supply was grown in the complex before the mission. After the apparently successful completion of the two-year mission, it was discovered that a carbon dioxide scrubber had been surreptitiously added to the facility and that there had been some unreported supplies brought in. In addition to these breaches in scientific etiquette, many observers were irked that the project’s management suppressed everything about the crew’s personal and social interactions. Consequently, the project that had once been so highly touted by the press quickly became the victim of overstatement and an object of a media feeding frenzy. One report, for instance, said the Mission 1 crew left the complex gasping for air, and another called the project the laughingstock of the scientific community. It was against this backdrop that the ill-fated Mission 2 began on March 6, 1994. The crew’s captain was Margaret Augustine’s husband, Norberto Romo. Its other members were John Druitt, Matt Finn, Pascal Maslin, Charlotte Godfrey, Rodrigo Romo (not related to Norberto), and Tilak Mahato. The mission was intended to last ten months.

The Second Mission

The Nineties in America

A few weeks later, on April 1, the managers of the project, Space Biospheres Ventures, were served a restraining order by armed federal marshals, and control of the project was handed over to their financier, Edward P. Bass. In order to deal with the storm of criticism surrounding the venture and with hopes of restoring its scientific credibility, Bass had replaced the management team with a group of highly respected scientists. On April 3, outside air was unexpectedly introduced into the complex. Abigail Alling and Mark Van Thillo, both crew members from Mission 1, were accused of breaking into the complex and damaging seals that allowed outside air to contaminate the experiment. Both Alling and Van Thillo had been barred from the premises. Alling later said that she and Van Thillo broke the seals and entered the complex in order to inform the crew members inside of the dismissal of the management team and to give them an opportunity to leave the experiment. She said all the crew members chose to stay and within an hour the biosphere was resealed. On June 1, Space Biospheres Ventures was dissolved, and on September 6, Mission 2 was ended four months early. On that date, the system was opened to the outside world and the sealed biosphere experiment was ended. It has not been resumed. Bass kept control of the project through the scientific committee he had installed until January, 1996, when a five-year lease of the facility was granted to Columbia University for use as an educational facility. Impact The knowledge gained by this experiment has proven valuable to researchers seeking to improve agriculture and nutrition, to build space or underwater habitats, or simply to understand human stresses in close environments. Even though the unrealistic expectations, the hyperbole, and the circuslike atmosphere at the beginning of the experiment destined the project to end in disappointment, taken in its entirety its long-term scientific impact has been positive. Further Reading

Alling, Abigail, et al. “Lessons Learned from Biosphere 2 and Laboratory Biosphere Closed Systems Experiments for the Mars On Earth Project.” Biological Sciences in Space 19, no. 4 (2005): 250-260. Discusses the “Mars on Earth” project in view of the Biosphere 2 experiment.

Blair Witch Project, The


McKinney, Michael L., Robert M. Schoch, and Logan Yonavjak. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. 4th ed. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones & Bartlett, 1998. Offers a comprehensive overview of environmental science that is designed to be accessible to nonmajor undergraduates. A companion Web site includes study aids and exercises. Illustrations, index, glossary. Poynter, Jayne. The Human Experiment: Two Years and Twenty Minutes Inside Biosphere 2. New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press, 2006. Insider’s account by a crew member details what life was like in Biosphere 2. Photographs, bibliography, and index. Wayne Shirey See also Agriculture in the United States; Air pollution; Architecture; Earth Day 1990; Earth in the Balance; Global warming debate; Inventions; Mars exploration; Organic food movement; Science and technology; Space exploration; Sustainable design movement; Water pollution.

■ Blair Witch Project, The Identification Horror film Directors Daniel Myrick (1964-

) and

Eduardo Sánchez (1968) Date Released on July 30, 1999 Shot on a very low budget and marketed aggressively, this motion picture was a critical success and set a record as the most successful independent film ever produced. The Blair Witch Project was the creation of Daniel Myrick and Eduardo Sánchez, two film students at the University of Central Florida. Inspired by the sensational, heavily fictionalized “documentaries” then being broadcast on television, they constructed an elaborate background story involving a witch, Elly Kedward, living in the eighteenth century Maryland town of Blair. Kedward, so the story went, was responsible for the deaths of many of the town’s children, and her malign influence has continued to the present day, apparently inspiring later atrocities. Myrick and Sánchez then hired Heather Donahue, Joshua Leonard, and Michael C. Williams to play three young, grungy filmmakers investigating the supposed witch. Given only the most general instructions, they ad-libbed their dialogue and spent a grueling week in the woods. The resulting twenty


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Blended families

imaginations. Nothing supernatural is shown and no explanations are offered, but the film’s constantly shifting images, its characters’ banal, repetitious obscenities, and its general sense of dread are highly unsettling. Shot on a budget of $35,000, the film debuted at the Sundance Film Festival and was signed for distribution by Artisan Entertainment. Thanks in large part to a canny publicity campaign on the Internet, it grossed $248,300,000 worldwide by the end of 1999—a record for an independent film. Impact The Blair Witch Project was the subject of cover stories in Time and Newsweek and quickly became a cult favorite among Generation X and Generation Y audiences. It was praised by prominent critics, and although it failed to win any Academy Award nominations, it is generally acknowledged as the most inventive horror film since The Shining (1980). Further Reading Eduardo Sánchez, left, and Daniel Myrick, directors of the hugely successful film The Blair Witch Project. The film grossed more than $1.5 million in its limited-release opening weekend and became one of the highest-grossing independent films of all time. (AP/Wide World Photos)

hours of footage were then edited down to less than an hour and a half. The three characters, named for the actors themselves, are shown interviewing several residents of the town (renamed Burkittsville) who have fragmentary knowledge of the Blair Witch legends. Subsequently the filmmakers hike deep into the woods to find the witch’s house, shooting random footage as they go, but they quickly become lost, disoriented, and frightened. They encounter sinister arrangements of stones and constructions of sticks, and after Joshua disappears one night, Heather and Michael hear what sound like his anguished cries. Eventually the two come across a crumbling, deserted house, but as they search it frantically the film comes to a jolting, ambiguous conclusion. Ostensibly, The Blair Witch Project—a jerky, grainy assemblage shot with handheld cameras—is the students’ footage discovered a year after their disappearance. Devoid of special effects, the film succeeds by leaving virtually everything to its viewers’

Corliss, Richard. “Blair Witch Craft.” Time, August 16, 1999, 58-64. Leland, John. “The Blair Witch Cult.” Newsweek, August 16, 1999, 44-49. Smith, Sean. “Curse of the Blair Witch.” Newsweek, January 26, 2004, 56-58. Grove Koger See also Film in the United States; Generation Y; Grunge fashion; Independent films; Sundance Film Festival.

■ Blended families Family structures with two married or cohabitating adults in which at least one adult has a child from a previous relationship


During the 1990’s, the term “blended family” appeared in reference to remarriages after divorce involving children. Because of dramatic increases in cohabitation among parents with children, the term began also to include families resulting from cohabitation. Other terms for blended families include restructured families, reconstituted families, remarried families, or stepfamilies. Most stepfamilies occur when a remarried parent has a child with his or her new spouse, creating half siblings, but also form with

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children from previous unions, creating stepparents or stepchildren. The presence of a stepparent, stepsibling, or half sibling identifies a blended family. Half siblings share one biological parent, while stepsiblings do not have any biological parents in common. Family structures in the United States changed considerably from the 1960’s to the 1990’s. Declining marriage rates, increased childbearing outside of marriage, and growing divorce rates led to the prevalence of blended family forms. During the 1990’s, the proportion of children living in blended families grew. In 1991, 9 percent of children living with two parents in the United States lived in a blended family. By 2001, the percentage had increased to 14.6 percent. Many scholars feel that these percentages are low because the U.S. Census Bureau estimates only reflect the household a child lives in, not the entire network of family ties. In 1991, more children living in blended families lived with a half sibling (50.6 percent of children living in blended families; 11 percent of all children), compared to a stepsibling and/or stepparent (23.5 percent of blended families; 8 percent of all children) arrangement. Data from 1991 suggest that a higher percentage of black children (20 percent) lived in blended families than did white or Hispanic children (14 percent). In 2001, the percent of blended families did not vary by race except for Asian households. White (14.7 percent), black (16.5 percent), Hispanic (14.2 percent), and Native American (17.3 percent) households reported similar percentages of children living in blended families. Only 5.1 percent of Asian children lived in blended families, because of lower rates of out-of-wedlock childbearing and divorce in the Asian population. In 2001 as in 1991, the most common type of blending was the presence of half siblings. About 45 percent of children in blended families (10 percent of all children) reported half siblings only. Nearly 23 percent of children in blended families (7 percent of all children) live with stepparent-only family arrangements.

Demographic Trends of the 1990’s

Blended Family Adaptations In spite of structural similarities to intact biological families (two parents and children), blended families differed considerably. Blending families increased the complexity of

Blended families


family relationships, and stepfamilies faced additional unique structural challenges. Most members of the blended family have lost at least one important primary relationship, and usually one biological parent lived outside the household. At least one parental-child bond came before the relationship between the new partners. Many children in blended families were also members of a noncustodial parent’s household. Research in the 1990’s focused on the blended family as an incomplete institution within which family rules and roles, particularly the stepparental ones, were not clearly defined. In blended families, taken-for-granted rules and well-established roles of the traditional family no longer applied. Stepfamily research suggested that stepfamilies have different challenges and opportunities than intact biological ones, but described higher levels of adaptability within the family unit and reported similar levels of parental happiness, degree of conflict, and number of positive family relationships. Studies showed that adjusting to stepfamily life was a process that took two to three years to complete. The most difficult challenges facing stepfamilies often dealt with realizing stepfamilies were different from intact nuclear families and that different did not imply inferior. A substantial proportion of stable, long-term stepfamilies functioned similarly to intact first marriages, although blended families reported lower levels of cohesion than intact biological ones. Impact The shift in family structure during the 1990’s including more blended families called for redefinition of the family. The traditional family, two biological parents with children, was not the most common familial form. In the 1990’s, the greater number of blended families raised social awareness of the diversity of family forms in the United States. Considerable media and academic attention was devoted to how blended families and intact biological families differed and were the same. The blended family in the 1990’s was one of the fastest-growing family types in the United States. The Census Bureau estimated that blended families would be the most common family form in the United States by 2010. Further Reading

Coleman, Marilyn, et al. “Reinvestigating Remarriage: Another Decade of Progress.” Journal of


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Bloc Québécois

Marriage and the Family 62, no. 4 (2000): 12881307. Reviews research on stepfamilies during the 1990’s, including demographic trends, remarriage relationships, the effects of blended families on children, societal attitudes toward stepfamilies, and legal issues. Demo, David A., et al. “Families with Young Children: A Review of Research in the 1990’s.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 62, no. 4 (2000): 876-895. Summarizes studies on the impact of family and household structure and parenting arrangements on the well-being of children. Fields, Jason. Children’s Living Arrangements and Characteristics: March 2002. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2003. An overview of demographic characteristics of children living in the United States drawn from 2000 census data. Furukawa, Stacy. The Diverse Living Arrangements of Children: Summer 1991. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1994. Provides national-level overview regarding living arrangements of children eighteen years and under in the United States. Includes detailed analysis of how each person in a household is related to all other household members for nuclear families, extended families, blended families, and adoptive families. Hetherington, E. Mavis, et al. “Diversity Among Stepfamilies.” In Handbook of Family Diversity, edited by David Demo, et al. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. Describes stepfamilies in the United States, with an emphasis on diverse stepfamily experiences and adjustment of family members. Visher, Emily B., and John S. Visher. How to Win as a Stepfamily. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1991. Includes both scholarly research and applied information about living in stepfamilies. Barbara E. Johnson See also Defense of Marriage Act of 1996; Demographics of the United States; Domestic partnerships; Homosexuality and gay rights; Marriage and divorce.

■ Bloc Québécois Identification

Canadian political party

The Bloc Québécois, a mainstay of French Canadian nationalism, achieved notoriety as the official opposition party in Canada’s House of Commons in 1993 and campaigned vigorously in favor of Quebec sovereignty during the Quebec referendum of 1995. The Bloc Québécois (“the Bloc,” or BQ) began as an impromptu alliance of parliamentarians from Quebec province in July of 1990. Following the breakdown of the Meech Lake Accord, which would have granted substantial concessions to the predominantly francophone province, Federal Minister of the Environment Lucien Bouchard resigned from his charge in Prime Minister Brian Mulroney’s cabinet and joined forces with Benoît Tremblay, Louis Plamondon, François Gérin, Nic Leblanc, and Gilbert Chartrand to form a political alliance. The Bloc became an official party on June 15, 1991, and promoted, with Bouchard at its helm, the aspirations of Quebec’s sovereignist movement. In a first display of strength, Bouchard’s Bloc helped turn public opinion against the Charlottetown Accord of 1992. Then, in the October 25, 1993, federal elections, the party surprised political observers when it secured fifty-four of Quebec’s seventy-five electoral districts. Surpassed only by the Liberal Party, its members held the second largest number of electoral seats in the House of Commons and, hence, became the Canadian government’s official opposition party. Among other things, this authorized the party’s leader to form a shadow cabinet and speak immediately after the prime minister or his representative in parliamentary debate. The Bloc also played a central role in the campaign for the “yes” vote during the Quebec referendum of 1995, which, had it won, would have prompted negotiations on the secession of Quebec from the rest of Canada. Ultimately, the path to sovereignty was rejected by a margin of less than one percent of the popular vote. Michel Gauthier succeeded Bouchard as leader of the party in 1996 but achieved disappointing results in public opinion polls and was replaced one year later by Gilles Duceppe. The Bloc performed moderately well in the 1997 federal election, receiving forty-four out of Quebec’s seventy-five electoral seats, but not well enough to retain its status as the

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official opposition. During the 1997-2000 term, Duceppe and his followers opposed without success passage of the federal government’s Clarity Act, which, when it became law in the year 2000, made secession from Canada more difficult. Impact In the early 1990’s, the Bloc Québécois emerged as one of Canada’s top four political parties. Its surprising success in the 1993 federal elections sent a clear message to all Canadians that the unique concerns of Quebec society, including its persistent calls for greater autonomy, could not simply be ignored. While some observers raised questions concerning the relevancy of a regional separatist party in Canadian federal politics, others cast doubt on the sincerity of the Bloc’s commitment to the sovereignty movement. By serving in Parliament and engaging in the discussion and passage of federal laws, were not the Bloc’s representatives tacitly acknowledging Quebec’s place in the Canadian federation? Further Reading

Bernard, André. “The Bloc Québécois.” In The Canadian General Election of 1997, edited by Alan Frizzell and Jon H. Pammett. Toronto: Dundurn Press, 1997. Cornellier, Manon. The Bloc. Toronto: Lorimer, 1995. Duceppe, Gilles. Question d’identité. Outremont, Quebec: Lanctôt, 2000. Jan Pendergrass Charlottetown Accord; Chrétien, Jean; Minorities in Canada; Mulroney, Brian; Quebec referendum of 1995.

See also

■ Blogs Definition

Web-based journals

Blogs evolved from simple online diaries used by few into a tool used by countless people and companies by the end of the 1990’s. They are used for diverse purposes such as news and corporate information, as well as personal use. The word “blog” is a portmanteau of the words “Web” and “log” that was coined in 1999 and adopted as both a noun and a verb. Blogs evolved from online diaries that started on Usenet in the years before the World Wide Web. With the advance of the World Wide Web, blogs evolved into continu-



ously updated sections of a Web site that related personal aspects of a person’s life. Typically they are displayed in reverse chronological order so that the most recent events are presented first. Blogs at the time were mostly text and could have images and hyperlinks inserted. Justin Hall, who offered a guided tour of the Internet as well as personal reflections, and Jerry Pournelle, a science-fiction author, are seen as two of the earliest bloggers, starting in 1994. Two blogs, from the sites Quakeholio and Blue’s News, evolved from the computer gaming scene in the mid-1990’s. Ritual Entertainment hired a full-time blogger in 1997, making it possibly the first company to have a professional blogger. News coverage also became a key area of development for blogs when Matt Drudge established a news blog, Drudge Report, in the mid-1990’s. Their use in the areas of news and entertainment demonstrated to businesses the vast potential of blogs. The number of well-established blogs exploded in 1998, beginning with a handful to numbering in the tens of thousands by the end of 1999. The rapid growth coincided with the launch of various hosted blogging services such as Open Diary, Blogger, and LiveJournal. Open Diary was innovative in that it was the first service to allow commenting on other people’s blogs. The ability to interact with others’ blogs became a vital part of the blogging community. Another important development was the Web site, which allowed people to maintain an easily updateable page for news about their Web site. Companies turned to the site to maintain blogs of recent corporate events for investors and consumers. Blogs quickly became part of the corporate culture, contributing to their acceptance. Impact Blogs saw explosive growth in the late 1990’s, and they were adopted for many different purposes. Corporations, entertainment industries, and news venues quickly adopted the technology, and blogs have played a significant role in the way they disseminate information. The popularity and utility of blogs has increased over time with the addition of multimedia capabilities. They have become an integral part of the Internet to the point where they number in the tens of millions. Further Reading

Hewitt, Hugh. Blog: Understanding the Information Reformation That’s Changing Your World. Nashville: T. Nelson, 2005.


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Bobbitt mutilation case

Kline, David, and Dan Burstein. Blog! How the Newest Media Revolution Is Changing Politics, Business, and Culture. New York: CDS Books, 2005. James J. Heiney; America Online; Apple Computer; Computers; Dot-coms; E-mail; Instant messaging; Internet; Microsoft; MP3 format; Project Gutenberg; Search engines; Silicon Valley; World Wide Web; Yahoo!.

See also

■ Bobbitt mutilation case Lorena Bobbitt mutilates her husband’s penis Date June 23, 1993 Place The Bobbitts’ apartment in Manassas, Virginia The Event

This case dominated the media and the attention of the American public for months. It also brought attention to the issue of domestic violence. Lorena Gallo came from a lower-middle-class family from Ecuador. In 1986, she immigrated to the United States on a student visa. In June of 1989, she married John Wayne Bobbitt. They bought a house

in 1990. At that time, Lorena Bobbitt was working ten hours a day, six days a week as a manicurist, making only $17,000 a year, and John was in the Marines. After his discharge from the Marine Corps on January 1, 1991, John jumped from one menial job to another. Lorena would later claim that John was very financially irresponsible and that his spending habits caused them to lose their house. According to Lorena, John was both verbally and sexually abusive during their marriage. On June 23, 1993, John came home drunk after a night of partying. Lorena stated that he demanded sex and ended up raping her. John then fell asleep, and Lorena said that she went into the kitchen to get a drink of water. Instead, she came back with a knife and lifted the sheet that was covering John and sliced off almost half of his penis. Lorena said that she left the apartment in a mental fog and decided to drive around. While driving, she realized that she had John’s severed penis in her hand and threw it out the car window into a field. Lorena later called 911 and reported John’s condition. Emergency medical personnel took him to the hospital. Other personnel looked for the severed body part in the field where Lorena said it was located. Eventually, emergency personnel found the severed penis. It was taken to the hospital and reattached during a nine-and-a-half hour surgery. Doctors felt confident that John would eventually regain full function of his penis.

Supporters of Lorena Bobbitt hold signs outside her trial on January 19, 1994. Charged with maliciously wounding her husband, who she claimed had sexually abused her, Bobbitt was acquitted two days later when the jury found her not guilty by reason of insanity. (©Jeffrey Markowitz/Sygma/Corbis)

Impact Lorena Bobbitt became an icon for women who suffered domestic violence. Her defense included insanity, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and battered women’s syndrome. On January 21, 1994, the jury found her not guilty by reason of insanity. The judge ordered Lorena to spend forty-five days in the custody of the commissioner of mental health for observation and diagnosis. John and Lorena Bobbitt divorced in 1995, and John continued to move from job to job. He starred in pornographic films, including John Wayne Bobbitt Uncut (1994) and Frankenpenis (1996). In 1997, he

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Bondar, Roberta


moved to Nevada, where he worked in a brothel and as a bartender. Lorena later made the news when she assaulted her mother. Further Reading

Davoli, Joanmarie. “Reconsidering the Consequences of an Insanity Acquittal.” New England Journal on Criminal and Civil Confinement 31, no. 1. (Winter, 2005): 3-14. Junod, Tom. “Forrest Stump.” Gentleman’s Quarterly 65, no. 3 (1995): 230-237. Pershing, Linda. “His Wife Seized His Prize and Cut It to Size: Folk and Popular Commentary on Lorena Bobbitt.” National Women’s Studies Association Journal 8, no. 3 (Fall, 1996): 1-35. Gerald P. Fisher Long Island Lolita case; Marriage and divorce; Tailhook incident; Women’s rights.

See also

Roberta Bondar. (Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center/NASA)

■ Bondar, Roberta Canadian neurologist and astronaut Born December 4, 1945; Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada Identification

Dr. Bondar’s research into space medicine and the neurological effects of spaceflight for NASA led to her serving on the space shuttle Discovery mission STS-42 in 1992, becoming the first Canadian woman and the first neurologist in space. Roberta Bondar holds a bachelor’s degree in zoology and agriculture from the University of Guelph (1968), a master’s in experimental pathology from the University of Western Ontario (1971), a Ph.D. in neurobiology from the University of Toronto (1974), and a medical degree from McMaster University (1977). After a brief stint as a teacher and several appointments in prestigious research facilities in both Canada and the United States, she began an extensive investigation under the auspices of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) into how long-term spaceflights might help researchers to understand the causes and treatment of catastrophic neurological disorders ranging from stroke to Parkinson’s disease. She was one of the six original Canadian astronauts (and the only woman) accepted into the Canadian Space

Agency in 1984 to begin the rigorous preparation to fly in the shuttle program. Eight years later, she flew as the international astronaut on the space shuttle Discovery in January, 1992, conducting life science experiments centered on vision and nerve stress testing. After her retirement from the space agency in September, 1992, Bondar devoted enormous energy to her interest in the preservation of North America’s most extreme and most threatened ecosystems (for instance, the Canadian Arctic and the American Southwest), a passion that she expressed in a series of stunning photography books that became best sellers in both Canada and the United States. (As a child, Bondar had learned photography from her father and was long fascinated by the process of vision: Her original research was in neuro-ophthalmology.) In addition, Bondar developed a revolutionary approach to business thinking based on her long study of neurological adjustments to the particular stresses of zero-gravity travel. Her visionary approach examined business as a dynamic and corporate success as a kind of biological adaptation system that depends as much on inspiration and charisma as it does on responding to changing conditions, using the model of an often hostile space environment to shape her conception of the high-pressure corpo-


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Bono, Sonny

rate environment. Her wide success as a motivational speaker and business consultant helped shape Canadian business entrepreneurship in the late 1990’s. Impact Bondar’s medical research pioneered innovative ways to protect astronauts from the neurological impact of long-term exposure to zero gravity (critical in the era of extended space missions); in addition, her application of space research into the understanding of neurological failure altered methods of rehabilitation treatment. However, her status as a Canadian cultural figure stems more from the range of her interests and her evident passionthat touches on a variety of disciplines, defining her as a classic Renaissance woman.

Congressman Sonny Bono in 1997. (AP/Wide World Photos)

Further Reading

Bondar, Roberta. Touching the Earth. Toronto: Key Porter Books, 1994. Jenkins, Dennis R. Space Shuttle: The History of Developing the National Space Transportation System— The Beginning Through STS-75. Osceola, Wisc.: Motorbooks, 1996. Kevles, Bettyann Holtzmann. Almost Heaven: The Story of Women in Space. New York: Basic Books, 2003. Joseph Dewey Canada and the United States; Glenn, John; Lucid, Shannon; Medicine; Space exploration; Space shuttle program.

See also

■ Bono, Sonny American entertainer and politician Born February 16, 1935; Detroit, Michigan Died January 5, 1998; Heavenly Valley Ski Resort, South Lake Tahoe, California Identification

During the 1990’s, Bono developed significant legislation on copyright and wild habitat protection. He is also beloved for catchy songs that defined an earlier age.

Born to Sicilian American parents in Detroit, Salvatore “Sonny” Bono developed talents that ranged from singing and songwriting to political service. As a promotion assistant in the 1960’s for record producer Phil Spector, Bono met many artists and was inspired to continue songwriting. He married his second wife, Cherilyn Sarkisian LaPierre, better known as Cher, in 1964, and the two began collaborating. In 1965, they produced the hit single “I Got You Babe” and went on to host a television variety show, The Sonny and Cher Comedy Hour, for the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) from 1971 to 1974. In 1969, they had a daughter, Chastity. Five years later, the couple divorced. By this point, Bono’s songs were well known, including “The Beat Goes On” and “Baby Don’t Go.” Frustrated by the red tape he faced over placing a sign on his Italian restaurant in Palm Springs, California, Bono ran for mayor and won, serving from 1988 to 1992. People had scoffed at his mayoral bid, to which he replied that no one had thought him capable of succeeding at music, either, and he had still managed to earn many gold records. Keen on government change, he ran for a Senate seat in 1992 but lost in the Republican primary. In 1994, he was elected to the House of Representatives as a Republican representing the Forty-fourth Congressional District. During his time in office from 1995 to 1998, Bono

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worked to bring attention to the environmental problems of the Salton Sea in Southern California. In honor of his work, H.R. 3267 was named the Sonny Bono Memorial Salton Sea Reclamation Act. Another act named for him is the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998. Bono had worked on an earlier version of this act, which added twenty years to all term provisions set forth in the Copyright Act of 1976. When he died at the age of sixty-two in a skiing accident, his wife, Mary, carried on his job in Congress. His headstone quotes a line about the cycle of life: “And the Beat Goes On.” Impact Bono’s copyright legislation provided more protection for creative works, and his efforts to restore the Salton Sea raised public awareness of environmental issues. Further Reading

Bono, Chastity. Family Outing. Boston: Little, Brown, 1998. Bono, Sonny. And the Beat Goes On. New York: Pocket Books, 1992. Cher. The First Time. New York: Isis, 1998. Jan Hall Conservatism in U.S. politics; Copyright legislation; Music; Water pollution.

See also

Book clubs

Commercial organizations that sell books to members, or a group of people who read books and meet to discuss those works


Book clubs represented big business throughout the 1990’s. The New York Times reported on December 14, 1999, that for the year through October, net sales for book clubs had reached $950 million, an increase of 4.5 percent over the comparable period a year earlier. Book discussion clubs became increasingly popular, in part because of Oprah’s Book Club. Three major corporations represented the key players in the book club business during the 1990’s: Bertelsmann’s Doubleday Direct, Time Inc.’s Bookof-the-Month Club, and Rodale Press’s six holdings. Bertelsmann claimed in 1999 that together, the


clubs boasted a combined membership of 4.5 million people. Bertelsmann International Media Company German-

based Bertelsmann is the largest book club operation in the world. In 1998, Bertelsmann’s Doubleday Direct (formerly the Doubleday One Dollar Book Club) acquired Newbridge Communications, renaming it Doubleday Select, Inc. In July of that year, Bertelsmann acquired Random House from Advance Publications, merging it with Bantam Doubleday Dell. Bertelsmann then represented the biggest trade publisher in the English-speaking world, with the United States becoming Bertelsmann’s most important market at the time. The U.S. operations of Bertelsmann included the Literary Guild and Doubleday’s book and record clubs. By December, 1999, the media conglomerate planned to consolidate a partnership with Bertelsmann’s Literary Guild and the Book-of-the-Month Club unit of Time Inc. Bertelsmann maintained a substantial stake in the online book business. In 1995, the company, together with America Online (AOL), launched the online service AOL Europe. By 1999, Bertelsmann held a 40 percent interest in In the same year, Bertelsmann launched Bertelsmann Online (, the Internet book retailer. School book clubs expanded dramatically in the 1990’s, perhaps driven to some degree by pedagogic movements such as “whole language” or “literature-based” approaches to teaching and learning. These approaches focused on literature-rich learning environments, which conceivably offered major book clubs such as Scholastic, Trumpet, and Golden Book Club opportunities to grow and diversify. School book clubs continued to supply children with books and other materials throughout the 1990’s but also began supplying classrooms with literacy materials in the form of trade books for elementary literacy programs. These book clubs also began supplying miscellaneous merchandise to children. Some of the most popular serialized school book club titles in the 1990’s, such as those of the Baby-sitters Club, Sweet Valley High, and Boxcar Children mystery series, included miscellaneous merchandise such as stickers, posters, puzzles, stamps, pencils, activity sheets, computer software, and games. Book clubs also supplied children with

School Book Clubs

■ Book clubs


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Book clubs

so-called activity books, such as Martin Handford’s Where’s Waldo? series, which challenged young readers to find characters rather than to read about them, while at the same time inviting readers to play games, solve puzzles, and crack brainteasers. Oprah Winfrey’s Book Club In September, 1996, media personality Oprah Winfrey launched Oprah’s Book Club on her daytime program, The Oprah Winfrey Show. She would do more to popularize book discussion clubs than any other person of her time. Initially, many underestimated the potential appeal of Oprah’s Book Club, including Winfrey herself. From a relatively short ten- to fifteen-minute segment close to the conclusion of the show, the segment had grown significantly by the late 1990’s. Shows featured Oprah discussing her choice of books with a group of well-dressed women seated around a tastefully arranged dinner table or coffee table. Winfrey’s first choice, Jacquelyn Mitchard’s The Deep End of the Ocean, though selling steadily in 1996, topped The New York Times weekly best seller list within three months of the show and remained there for twenty-three weeks. Sales figures for the book were estimated at about 100,000 copies before the show aired and ballooned to 850,000 after. Winfrey’s second choice, Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon, first published in 1977, topped The New York Times best seller list for the first time after Winfrey discussed the book on her show. Sales figures for Song of Solomon soared from 50,000 copies in circulation before the show aired to 500,000 after. Winfrey also featured the hardcover version of Morrison’s Paradise immediately after its publication in 1998. Paradise remained on the best seller list for eighteen weeks, including four weeks at number one. The “Oprah effect” raised questions about the extent to which Winfrey’s endorsement influenced sales of the books featured on her program. Evidence supported the view of Daisy Maryles, editor for Publishers Weekly, who once quipped that being one of Oprah’s Book Club picks transformed a novel from “well published and moderately successful” to “mega blockbuster.” Impact Where once mail-order companies brought the bookstore to one’s mailbox, with the development of the World Wide Web (1991) and the intro-

duction of Web browser software such as Mosaic (1993), book clubs brought the virtual bookstore to the home. The growth and development of the World Wide Web throughout the 1990’s also impacted how book club members convened to discuss books. While advancing computer technologies made it possible for more people to access book clubs, the World Wide Web also removed the need for club members to meet physically, or even in real time. Rather than meet in club rooms, homes, or community centers, more and more Americans joined virtual reading groups, communicating through e-mail, online forums, blogs, and chat rooms. Moreover, the growth in book clubs throughout the 1990’s significantly affected women. One feature common to most book clubs was the fact that most members were women. While book clubs generally encouraged many women, some of whom never read, to read regularly, such clubs also satisfied a social function, enabling women to organize collective reading. In this way, book clubs grew alongside the broader cultural movement toward selfdevelopment and self-discovery characterizing the 1990’s. Further Reading

Farr, Cecilia Konchar. Reading Oprah: How Oprah’s Book Club Changed the Way America Reads. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2005. An indepth discussion of Winfrey’s widely popular book club. Long, Elizabeth. Book Clubs: Women and the Uses of Reading in Everyday Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003. Researched discussion of book clubs within specific social and cultural contexts, complete with ethnographic material. Strickland, Dorothy S., et al. School Book Clubs and Literacy Development: A Descriptive Study. Report Series 2.22. Albany, N.Y.: National Research Center on Literature Teaching and Learning, 1994. Report documenting a three-part study of the effect of book clubs on children’s literacy development. Sponsored by the Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Washington, D.C. Nicole Anae; America Online; Blogs; E-mail; Internet; Morrison, Toni; Publishing; Where’s Waldo? franchise; Winfrey, Oprah; World Wide Web.

See also

The Nineties in America

■ Bosnia conflict Ethnosectarian civil war in Bosnia and Herzegovina Date March 1, 1992-December 14, 1995 Place Bosnia and Herzegovina, a province of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 The Event

The conflict marked the first appearance of genocidal aggression in Europe since the days of Nazi Germany (19331945) in which the United States made a decisive response, albeit after most of the violence had occurred.

Bosnia conflict


February 29 and March 1, Bosnia’s legislature sponsored a referendum on independence from Yugoslavia. In part because Serbs boycotted the referendum, 98 percent of the voters approved an independent Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which was declared on March 5. Meanwhile, Bosnian Serb members of the Yugoslav army and paramilitary allies organized an army with backing from the Serb-dominated Yugoslav government. Croatia also agreed to support the Bosnian Croat state. The Bosnian Serb Republic then proclaimed independence on April 7, shortening its name to Republika Srpska (or Serb Republic) on August 12. Only the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was accorded international recognition, however.

At the start of the conflict in Bosnia, the country was divided among Muslims (43.7 percent), Croats (17.3 percent), and Serbs (32.4 percent). Born of Croatian and Slovenian parents, Yugoslavia’s Prime Minister Josip Broz Tito (1892-1980) had a multiethThe Conflict Erupts into War Serbs claim that the nic vision for his country. After his death, ethnic rifirst war victim was a groom in a wedding procession valries increased, prompting delegates in the nawho was shot on March 1, 1992. Bosniaks claim that tional parliament from Serbia and allied provinces a Serb sniper killed a peace marcher on April 5. in 1989 to weaken the autonomy of the provinces. In Militarily superior to the other forces, the army of 1991, Croatia and Slovenia declared independence the Republika Srpska proceeded to remove nonfrom Yugoslavia, whereupon talk of Bosnia’s secesSerbs from territories that had been declared under sion increased. Fearing war, in September of 1991 its authority. Similarly, the Croatian republic sought a European Community peace conference asked to Croatize certain areas within Bosnia. The result Lord Peter Carrington and Portugal’s Ambassador was a campaign of "ethnic cleansing," whereby miJosé Cutileiro to draw up a power-sharing peace norities were either rounded up and placed in detenplan, which was ultimately rejected by the Bosnian state. The U.N. Security Council, meanwhile, authorized an arms embargo of all parties in Yugoslavia. On October 4, 1991, Serb delegates withdrew from the Bosnian parliament to form a separate legislature on October 24. In November, some Croats declared the existence of the Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia (later the Croatian Republic Herzeg-Bosnia), but Bosnian Serbs in a referendum insisted on remaining within Yugoslavia. On January 9, 1992, the Serb assembly proclaimed the independence of Bosnia, specifying certain areas of Bosnia to have seceded; the constitution for the new state, the Serb ReRefugee women from the Bosnian village of Srnice hold photos of their dead or missing public of Bosnia and Herzegovina, husbands after the Srebrenica massacre in July, 1995. (Hulton Archive/Getty was proclaimed on February 28. On Images)


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Bowl Championship Series (BCS)

tion camps or killed. Srpskan forces also mounted a forty-four-month siege of Bosnia’s capital, Sarajevo, to force the Bosnian state to recognize the Republika Srpska.

Herzegovina was signed on November 21 after intense negotiations led by U.S. secretary of state Warren Christopher. The agreement was formally adopted at Paris on December 14.

Role of the United States In June, 1992, the United States backed a Security Council resolution to redeploy a U.N. Protection Force from Croatia in order to secure the Sarajevo airport and to facilitate civilian relief by the Red Cross and other agencies. In April, 1993, the mandate was extended to protect various “safe havens”—that is, cities where all parties were to refrain from military attacks and to establish no-fly zones over Bosnia. The United States then secured North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) approval to shoot down four Serbian aircraft on February 28, 1994, violating the no-fly zone, yet Srpskan forces continued to engage in ethnic cleansing. Accordingly, the Security Council approved the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), a war crimes court. Nevertheless, Srpskan forces defied both the United Nations and the ICTY by slaughtering eight thousand Bosniak males in Srebrenica during July, 1995.

Impact Although several persons have been tried and convicted of war crimes in Bosnia by the ICTY, the court failed to deter similar crimes in Kosovo, a Yugoslav province, and in Rwanda. The Dayton Agreement, which has worked well, later provided a model for handling Kosovo.

Peace Plans Several peace plans emerged during the conflict. In January, 1993, U.N. special envoy and former U.S. secretary of state Cyrus Vance and European Community representative Lord David Owen offered a peace agreement, but the Republika Srpska rejected the plan on May 5. A plan by U.N. mediators Owen and Thorvald Stoltenberg of August, 1993, was rejected by the Bosniak government. Croats and Bosniaks even fought several skirmishes over their respective division of the spoils under the Vance-Owen plan from June, 1993, to February, 1994, when Washington succeeded in having them agree to form an alliance against the Republika Srpska. In 1994, the Republika Srpska turned down a peace plan advanced by a Contact Group (France, Great Britain, Germany, Russia, and the United States). In August, 1995, airplanes under NATO command started bombing Srpskan military positions in concert with a Croatian military advance on the ground. Contact Group pressure, including military threats from the United States, then brought Serbian president Slobodan Miloševi6 and others to a peace conference at Dayton, Ohio, where the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and

Further Reading

Burg, Steven L., and Paul S. Shoup. The War in Bosnia-Herzegovina: Ethnic Conflict and International Intervention. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 2000. An award-winning scholarly work that examines the conflict and international efforts to establish peace. Hayden, Robert M. “Bosnia: The Contradictions of ‘Democracy’ Without Consent,” East European Constitutional Review 7 (Spring, 1998): 47-51. The author argues that the peace agreement ratifies ethnic cleansing and, in effect, provides for a weak central government that is actually two separate states. Mousavizadeh, Nader, ed. The Black Book of Bosnia: The Consequences of Appeasement. New York: Basic Books, 1996. A detailed study of the causes of the war, how the war was fought, and the aftermath; identifies where the international community failed to act in time to head off the tragedy. Michael Haas Christopher, Warren; Clinton, Bill; Dayton Accords; Europe and North America; Kosovo conflict; United Nations.

See also

■ Bowl Championship Series (BCS) An agreement between the four top college football bowls pertaining mostly to the rotation of hosting a national championship game


The agreement served as a notable attempt to determine a national champion in college football’s top division in the fairest manner without holding a playoff.

The Nineties in America

Football may be the most popular college sport in the United States. One of the least popular aspects of the game, however, is the absence of a playoff system to determine a national champion. Until the 1992 season, the sportswriters and coaches conducted separate polls at the end of the year to determine a national champion. Sometimes they were split, or controversy existed in the choice of a champion. In the 1990’s, multiple efforts were undertaken to reform the traditional system of postseason bowl games to more fairly determine a national champion without a tournament. The first effort was the Bowl Coalition, which lasted from 1992 through 1994. The second effort was the Bowl Alliance, which lasted for the next three seasons. The third and most significant effort has been the Bowl Championship Series (BCS), created at the beginning of the 1998 season. The BCS was created by the commissioners of the major athletic conferences, along with Notre Dame, a traditional college football powerhouse. It is important to note that it is not managed by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), the primary organization responsible for intercollegiate sports in the United States. They formed an agreement with the four top bowl games (the Rose Bowl, Orange Bowl, Sugar Bowl, and Fiesta Bowl) to rotate a national championship game among them. It would likely be considered a national championship game under this system because it would involve the top two teams in the BCS poll at the end of the regular season. Prior to this system, it was possible that the top two teams would not play against each other in a bowl because of conference ties to certain bowls. After the first year in existence, the BCS formula used to determine the rankings of teams was adjusted to include five more computer polls. The new formula deciding the rankings utilized the writers’ and coaches’ polls, a strength-of-schedule rating, and eight computer polls. The goal was to minimize the role of human bias in putting together the rankings. Impact Though not without problems, the BCS has facilitated the process of holding a true national championship game between the top-two-ranked college football teams at the end of the season. Though closer to its goal of holding a game between the two best teams at the end of the season, the BCS



has had problems. Its formula for ranking teams has been changed three times since 1998. As a result of controversial choices of teams for the national championship game following the 2000, 2001, and 2003 seasons, the role of the computers has been reduced. The writers’ poll requested not to be used in the process after the 2004 season. Further Reading

Curtis, Brian. Every Week a Season: A Journey Inside BigTime College Football. New York: Ballantine, 2004. Mandel, Stewart. Bowls, Polls, and Tattered Souls: Tackling the Chaos and Controversy That Reign over College Football. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, 2007. Kevin L. Brennan See also

Football; Sports.

■ Boxing Definition

Professional prizefighting

The 1990’s saw a significant number of great fighters and great fights in all of boxing’s weight classes. It also had its share of high-profile ring tragedies and saw the growing popularity and acceptance of women in the sport. The heavyweight division began the decade with one of the great upsets in the history of the sport. In February, 1990, Mike Tyson, who had emerged as the dominant figure in the division in the late 1980’s, was knocked out in the tenth round by James “Buster” Douglas in a bout in Tokyo that was to have been a routine title defense. Tyson never regained his former status and was replaced by Evander Holyfield and Lennox Lewis as the decade’s dominant heavyweights. Another memorable moment in the history of the division occurred on November 5, 1994, when former champion George Foreman, at age forty-five, knocked out World Boxing Association (WBA) and International Boxing Federation (IBF) champion Michael Moorer to become the oldest man ever to win a heavyweight title. The lower weight divisions, as in previous decades, produced their share of great fighters during the 1990’s. In the light heavyweight division the dominant figure was clearly Roy Jones, Jr. Jones won the World Boxing Council (WBC) light heavyweight title in 1996 after having held both the IBF middle-


The Nineties in America


weight and super middleweight titles. He remained the generally recognized light heavyweight champion for the rest of the decade and was named Fighter of the Decade by the Boxing Writers Association of America. Julio César Chávez of Mexico, Pernell “Sweet Pea” Whitaker, and Oscar De La Hoya also held superstar status during the decade. Chávez, who held versions of the super featherweight and lightweight championships during the 1980’s, dominated the light welterweight division during the early 1990’s. His bout with Meldrick Taylor on March 17, 1990, in which he stopped Taylor with two seconds left in the final round, was one of the decade’s most exciting and controversial battles. Whitaker began the decade as the generally recognized lightweight champion and won the IBF light welterweight title in 1992 and the WBC welterweight title in 1993, holding the latter until losing it to a younger and stronger Oscar De La Hoya in 1997. De La Hoya, the youngest of the three, began his professional career in 1992 and won his first title at super featherweight and lightweight in 1994. In 1996, he won the WBC light welterweight title from Chávez and the following year the welterweight title from Whitaker. He remained a dominant figure in the welterweight division until September, 1999, when he lost by decision to Felix Trinidad of Puerto Rico. De La Hoya, nicknamed the “Golden Boy,” was named The Ring magazine’s Fighter of the Year in 1995 and its best pound-for-pound fighter in 1997 and would continue his career in the super welterweight/light middleweight division in the decade that followed. In the second half of the 1990’s, a new generation of boxers—including De La Hoya and Trinidad, Lennox Lewis at heavyweight, Bernard Hopkins at middleweight, and Shane Mosley at lightweight—gradually replaced the top fighters of the earlier part of the decade. Boxing’s lightest weight divisions also produced fighters who became well known in the United States during the decade. Among the best known was Phoenix-born Michael Carbajal, who won the IBF junior flyweight title in July, 1990, and went on to fight a celebrated three-fight series with WBC titleholder Humberto González of Mexico. The first CarbajalGonzález fight—held in March, 1993, and won by Carbajal by a seventh-round knockout—was the first fight in that weight class to headline a U.S. pay-perview boxing card.

Other Aspects of the Sport Boxing saw its share of ring tragedies during the 1990’s. British middleweight Michael Watson was seriously injured in a bout with fellow British fighter Chris Eubank in 1991. While Watson made at least a partial recovery from his injuries, the same was not true of American middleweight Gerald McClellan. McClellan, who had captured the World Boxing Organization (WBO) middleweight championship in 1991 and the WBC middleweight title in 1993, suffered a severe brain injury in a fight against British boxer Nigel Benn in 1995. Although he survived, McClellan remained permanently mentally and physically impaired. The 1990’s also saw the growing acceptance of women in the sport. Christy Martin, who began her boxing career in 1989, became the best-known female boxer in the United States during the decade. After winning the WBC women’s junior welterweight title in 1993, she defended the title numerous times before finally losing it to Sumya Anani in 1998. Martin was promoted during her career by well-known boxing promoter Don King and was featured on the cover of Sports Illustrated in 1996. Martin set the stage for female boxing superstar Laila Ali, daughter of former heavyweight champion Muhammad Ali, who fought her first professional bout in October, 1999. Impact Although by the 1990’s professional boxing no longer enjoyed the lofty status it once had as a sport in American culture, it continued to produce popular fighters and big-money fights. While the heavyweight division continued as the sport’s premier division, there were popular fighters and fights in all of its weight classes during the decade. During this time period, boxing also opened its doors for the first time to women who sought to compete in what had previously been an all-male sport. Further Reading

Finger, David E. Rocky Lives! Heavyweight Boxing Upsets of the 1990’s. Washington, D.C.: Potomac Books, 2005. Covers several of the top heavyweight bouts of the decade, as well as numerous bouts involving lower-level performers. Kawakami, Tim. Golden Boy: The Fame, Money, and Mystery of Oscar De La Hoya. Kansas City, Mo.: Andrews McMeel, 1999. Biography of one of the decade’s elite fighters, who also engaged in bouts with several of the era’s other top fighters, includ-

The Nineties in America

ing Chávez, Whitaker, and (after this book’s publication) Trinidad. McIlvanney, Hugh. The Hardest Game: McIlvanney on Boxing. Updated ed. New York: Contemporary Books, 2001. The last part of this work deals with fights and fighters of the 1990’s. While the focus is clearly on the heavyweight division, there are pieces on other top boxers of the period, including Jones, Chávez, Whitaker, and De La Hoya, as well as the Watson and McClellan ring tragedies. Scott Wright See also

Holyfield, Evander; Sports; Tyson, Mike.

Boy bands


around, New Edition had splintered off into several solo directions. New Kids on the Block maintained tremendous success, fueled by the number one album Step by Step (1990). However, the group’s music was far from the only attraction marketed; everything from a Saturday morning cartoon series to lunch boxes, bedding sets, buttons, and even dolls were available to fans. Around the same time in England, Take That was being given similar treatment thanks to the group’s soulful pop sounds and handsome looks. The band crossed to American shores in 1995 thanks to the smash single “Back for Good.” After these acts helped build up steam for boy bands, the scene surged in the latter half of the decade, thanks in part to entrepreneur/record label owner Lou Pearlman. His first find was the Backstreet Boys, who broke through in 1997, followed by the like-minded *NSYNC, often considered the most visible boy bands of the period. Though the Backstreet Boys racked up over 100 million album sales and *NSYNC netted over 56 million, the pair was shadowed by 98 Degrees, who boasted 10 million album sales and members’ promise that they were not contrived by music industry moguls.

The Peak of Popularity

■ Boy bands Definition

Pop music groups featuring male

singers Though the music industry had been creating pop groups made up of male singers for several decades, the 1990’s exploded with boy bands that were marketed toward preteen and teenage demographics. Members of these acts were known for their attractive looks, vocal harmonies, slick choreography, and glistening production.

Though the term “boy band” was not officially coined until the 1990’s, male vocal groups composed of similar formulas dated back to the 1960’s, when pop act the Monkees simultaneously lit up the television screen and stage. Other early incarnations included several acts on the soul record label Motown (whose roster included the Temptations, the Four Tops, and the Jackson 5), followed by the Latin group Menudo in 1977, which featured future pop sensation Ricky Martin and continues to operate today (members are changed once they turn twenty to reflect a teenage audience). In the 1980’s, the craze heated up once again thanks to record producer Maurice Starr, who introduced New Edition to the R&B community in 1983 and New Kids on the Block to pop circles in 1986. The members of *NSYNC stand with their award for Favorite Pop/Rock New Artist at By the time the 1990’s rolled the 1999 American Music Awards in Los Angeles. (AP/Wide World Photos)


The Nineties in America

Boy bands

Nevertheless, producers and executives continued searching for singers whom they could shape into similar molds, including Pearlman’s sculpting of less-enduring groups like LFO and O-Town, the

Year 1990

latter of whom formed during the ABC/MTV reality program Making the Band. Given the prefabricated nature of that selection process, the focus on fashion, and the fact that members did not write most of their songs, critics were quick to lash out against the concept as a whole. Even so, audiences (particularly teenage girls) fell Selected Boy Band Albums head over heels with the appealing packaging, fueling the fire for record labels to Title Band clone the concept (spawning the likes of Los Ultimos Heroes Menudo BBMak, Boyzone, Westlife, and Plus One, to name a few). Step by Step New Kids on the Block



Boys II Men


Detras de tu Mirada




1995 1996 1997



Cosmopolitan Girl


Everything Changes

Take That

Take That and Party

Take That

Face the Music

New Kids on the Block




Boys II Men

Nothing Else

Take That

II: Yo Te Voy a Amar

Boys II Men

Backstreet Boys

Backstreet Boys

Tiempo de Amar


Backstreet’s Back

Backstreet Boys


Boys II Men

Middle of Nowhere


98 Degrees

98 Degrees

Shoved In


5ive: The Album


15 Anos de Historia


Home for Christmas


Live from Albertane




98 Degrees and Rising

98 Degrees



Heat It Up

98 Degrees





Lyte Funkie Ones



Backstreet Boys

By the end of the 1990’s, the market had become so saturated with groups who sounded quite similar to one another that a public backlash ensued, sparked by the aforementioned criticisms, plus the music industry’s embrace of rock trends and instrument-playing acts that did not get their start as a marketing idea in a record label boardroom. Though many of the top-tier groups (like Backstreet Boys and *NSYNC) would continue to tour throughout the early 2000’s, they experimented with a more mature approach to making music and were scorned by those only interested in their earlier works. Many of the other acts associated with the time frame were hampered by personnel problems and eventually lost their record contracts, leading many to break up in the process.

A Sharp Decline in Sales

Impact Though some critics dismissed boy bands as nothing more than prefabricated groups of pretty faces, the cavalcade of groups who defined the sound and look went on to sell millions of CDs, concert tickets, and offshoot products geared toward youthful audiences. Outside of making waves with their music, the most successful boy bands were able to market to every imaginable facet of popular culture, simultaneously riding the record charts while igniting frenzied fads in the process. Despite many members of boy bands falling out of public favor, some stars birthed out of this movement have transcended those roots to evolve in solo contexts.

The Nineties in America

Two of the most notable examples of solo stars include Robbie Williams, who broke away from Take That and has since sold over fifty-three million albums on his own, along with Justin Timberlake, the former member of *NSYNC, with over eighteen million solo album sales to date. As of 2008, a revised lineup of the Backstreet Boys remained on the road, while the New Kids on the Block also announced a potential reunion.

Subsequent Events

Further Reading

Catalano, Grace. New Kids on the Block. New York: Bantam Books, 1989. An in-depth look at New Kids on the Block’s music, the subsequent rage surrounding the group, and personal trivia about each member. Delavan, John. Boy Bands: The Hunks and Heartthrobs Conquering the Pop Music World. Syracuse, N.Y.: Benchmark Press, 2001. A close look at several boy bands that drove the 1990’s craze, including the variables that helped them find mass appeal. McGibbon, Rob. Backstreet Boys: On the Road. Philadelphia: BainBridgeBooks, 1998. Traces the Backstreet Boys’ wild ride to fame and the extreme fanfare members received all over the world. *NSYNC and K. M. Squires. *NSYNC: The Official Book. New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell Books for Young Readers, 1998. An authorized tale of *NSYNC’s time in the spotlight told from members’ perspectives. Andy Argyrakis See also

Fads; Music.

■ Broadway musicals Musical theater productions opening on Broadway


The 1990’s saw a shift on the Broadway landscape from the dominance of the British mega-musical to Disney-driven productions and revivals as well as adaptations. In the early 1990’s, Broadway was riding high off the success of British mega-musicals such as Les Misérables (pr. 1987) and The Phantom of the Opera (pr. 1988). However, a sharp decline in audiences drove producers to nostalgia-driven pieces and revivals. Beginning of the Decade: Nostalgia Successful musicals in the early part of the 1990’s embraced famil-

Broadway musicals


iarity and nostalgia and included The Will Rogers Follies (pr. 1991), The Secret Garden (pr. 1991), and Crazy for You (pr. 1992), as well as revivals of Guys and Dolls (pr. 1950) in 1992 and Carousel (pr. 1945) and Show Boat (pr. 1927) in 1994. The Will Rogers Follies featured inventive dance numbers by Tommy Tune and a charming performance by Keith Carradine as Will Rogers. With its Busby Berkeley feel, homespun humor, and Americana designs, the production seemed to recall the movie and stage musicals of the 1930’s. It proved a solid change of pace from the British mega-musical. The 1930’s inspiration was also found in Crazy for You, a reworking of George and Ira Gershwin’s Girl Crazy (pr. 1930). With its zany staging and dynamic tap dancing choreography by Susan Stroman, the show ran for more than sixteen hundred performances. The Secret Garden, based on the beloved 1909 children’s novel, found a small but loyal audience who grew up with Frances Hodgson Burnett’s tale of a young English girl who discovers a dying garden and revitalizes it. In addition, major revivals of Broadway classics pulled audiences in with their charming nod to the past. Decline of the Mega-musicals With the emergence of the spectacle-driven mega-musical in the 1980’s, it had seemed as if the book-driven musical was a thing of the past. However, the early 1990’s saw British imports find mixed success, with many losing millions of dollars over the course of their runs. Aspects of Love (pr. 1990) lost over $8,000,000 despite its 377 performances on Broadway. The Andrew Lloyd Webber chamber opera seemed to fail under the weight of its negative press and poor word of mouth. Blood Brothers (pr. 1991), which ran for more than twenty years in Britain, lasted only 840 performances. Although it made use of popular stunt casting, it ultimately lost money on its original investment. Perhaps the most notorious money-loser was Lloyd Webber’s adaptation of Sunset Boulevard, which premiered on Broadway in 1994. Featuring stage and screen stars during its run, the production ran for 977 performances. However, both Patti LuPone, who played lead Norma Desmond in London and was promised the role should it transfer to Broadway, and Faye Dunaway, who was hired then fired when her voice did not prove strong enough, sued Lloyd Webber. New York critic Frank Rich estimated that although tickets sold moderately well, the total loss for the production, including lawsuits,


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was over $20 million, earning it the record for most money lost on a theatrical endeavor in the history of the United States. The financial shortcomings of other British productions such as Martin Guerre (pr. 1996) and Whistle Down the Wind (pr. 1996), neither of which made it to Broadway, and a handful of mega-musical copycats indicated that audiences were looking for more than spectacle. Only 1991’s Miss Saigon, which ran for ten years, was able to reverse the trend. The year 1994 brought a new producer of musicals to Broadway: Walt Disney Productions. Using a high-profile marketing campaign and riding the success of its film version, Beauty and the Beast became one of the longest-running musicals in Broadway history, with a staggering 5,464 performances over a thirteen-year run. Three years later, The Lion King, also based on a Disney film and featuring puppetry and masks by Julie Taymor, opened to rave reviews. Both Beast and Lion King brought nontheater composers to Broadway, changing the traditional “Broadway sound.”


End of the Decade Teenagers and young adults rediscovered musical theater when Jonathan Larson’s Rent opened in 1996. Based on Giacomo Puccini’s 1896 opera La Bohème, Rent, with its rock score and youthful protagonists, struck a powerful chord. A string of successful but short-lived musicals followed, including Jekyll and Hyde (pr. 1997), Titanic (pr. 1997), Ragtime (pr. 1998), and Footloose (pr. 1998). Major revivals of Chicago (pr. 1975) in 1996 and Cabaret (pr. 1966) in 1998 revitalized interest in both John Kander and Fred Ebb’s work, as well as the choreography of Bob Fosse, whose work was remounted in the dance revue Fosse (pr. 1999). Two other revivals, 1999’s Annie Get Your Gun (pr. 1946) and Kiss Me, Kate (pr. 1948), were also critically acclaimed. Impact The beginning of the decade found musicals in sharp decline. To counteract low attendance and increasing production costs, producers pushed ticket prices up from $60 to more than $80 by the end of the decade. By the end of the 1990’s, the Broadway musical seemed lost. Revivals and adaptations indicated that there was little room for original story lines. Financially, producers were more cautious and audiences more particular about paying so much for an unknown production. It was a decade of financial and artistic conservatism.

Further Reading

Block, Geoffrey. Enchanted Evenings: The Broadway Musical from “Show Boat” to Sondheim. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. An exploration of music as a dramatic tool in twentieth century musicals. Useful for discerning stylistic differences among composers in the 1990’s. Flinn, Denny Martin. Musical! A Grand Tour. New York: Schirmer Books, 1997. A look at the history of the American musical on both stage and screen. Jones, John Bush. Our Musicals, Ourselves: A Social History of the American Musical Theatre. Lebanon, N.H.: Brandeis University Press, 2003. A literate examination of how musicals promote social change. Includes insights into the 1990’s political landscape and Broadway’s response to it. Larkin, Colin. The Virgin Encyclopedia of Stage and Film Musicals. London: Virgin Books, 1999. An excellent resource covering both American and British musicals. Singer, Barry. Ever After: The Last Years of Musical Theatre and Beyond. New York: Applause Theatre & Cinema Books, 2004. Covers musicals from 1975 to the early 2000’s. Singer’s analysis concerning the 1990’s is particularly compelling. Suskin, Steven. Show Tunes 1905-1991: The Songs, Shows and Careers of Broadway’s Major Composers. New York: Limelight Editions, 1992. A phenomenal resource for exploring Broadway composers throughout the twentieth century. Wilmeth, Don B., and Christopher Bigsby, eds. The Cambridge History of American Theatre. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Covers theater from post-World War II to the 1990’s. Tom Smith See also Beauty and the Beast ; Rent ; Theater in the United States.

■ Brooks, Garth American pop country music singer and songwriter Born February 7, 1962; Tulsa, Oklahoma Identification

During the 1990’s, Brooks dominated the pop country music market, recording chart-topping hit singles and six studio albums. Throughout the decade, he broke records for sales and concert attendance.

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Garth Brooks holds six awards he won at the 1991 Academy of Country Music Awards. His awards included Top Male Vocalist and Album of the Year, for No Fences. (AP/Wide World Photos)

Garth Brooks was known as a country singer, but his style was heavily influenced by songwriters of the 1970’s, particularly James Taylor, Bruce Springsteen, and Dan Fogelberg. Brooks’s first, self-titled album was released in 1989. A traditional country music album, it received critical and popular acclaim, peaking at number two on the U.S. country album chart. It was an early indication of the success he had yet to enjoy, for Brooks’s second album, No Fences (1990), spent twenty-three weeks in first place on the Billboard country music charts. Early Albums No Fences turned Garth Brooks into a musical superstar and contained what would become Brooks’s signature song, “Friends in Low Places.” A working-class solidarity song, the single reached number one on the country music charts. Later, Country Music Television (CMT) named it one of the top ten country songs of all time. A sec-

Brooks, Garth


ond single from No Fences, “Unanswered Prayers,” reached number one for two weeks, and CMT named it one of the top ten love songs of all time. It is a sweet, ironic ballad about how things work out even when they do not appear that way. No Fences was almost an instant hit and sold more than five million copies in the first year of its release. It went on to score as the best-selling country album by a male artist, with sixteen million copies sold in the United States by the end of 2006. In No Fences, Brooks was polishing his style of pop country music, a style that would propel him to superstardom. In 1991, Brooks’s third album, Ropin’ the Wind, was released to advance orders of four million copies. A mixture of pop country and honky-tonk, songs included “The River,” “What She’s Doing Now,” and a cover of Billy Joel’s “Shameless.” Trumped in sales only by No Fences, this third album prompted the sales of his previous albums as well, a phenomenon that made Brooks the first country music singer to have three albums in the Pop Top 20 in one week. Ropin’ the Wind won Brooks his first Grammy Award for Best Male Country Vocal Performance (1992). He was also awarded the Academy of Country Music Award for Entertainer of the Year for 1990, 1991, 1992. The Chase (1992), Brooks’s next album, included the single “We Shall Be Free,” a stylistic combination of gospel, country, and rock. The song was influenced by the 1992 Los Angeles riots. With its message of cultural tolerance, it was received with resistance by country music disc jockeys and their culturally conservative audiences. Still, when he sang “We Shall Be Free” at concerts, he often received standing ovations. In 1993, Brooks recorded In Pieces, an instant number one success that eventually sold more than ten million copies internationally. Brooks set out on a British tour to publicize In Pieces in 1994. His public appearances sold out, and he appeared in many television talk shows and radio interviews. Although he was often belittled by British pundits and celebrities who did not understand American country music traditions, he returned to Britain in 1996 to star in more sold-out concerts. This time he restricted his media appearances to country radio and magazine interviews. He toured many countries, including Spain, International Stardom


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Ireland, France, Germany, Brazil, New Zealand, and Australia during this period, where his records were hits and his concerts usually sold out. One of the highlights of Brooks’s career in the 1990’s was his concert Garth: Live from Central Park, which aired on August 7, 1997. The free concert drew hundreds of thousands of people, estimated from 250,000 to 750,000. An additional 14.6 million viewers watched the performance live on Home Box Office (HBO), making it the most-watched special on cable television in 1997. Red Strokes Entertainment, Brooks’s production company, together with Paramount Pictures, worked on developing a movie starring the singer in 1999. The movie’s main character was to be a fictional rock singer named Chris Gaines. To publicize the project, Brooks played the character in a 1999 album, titled Garth Brooks in . . . The Life of Chris Gaines. Brooks’s active promotion of the album and film on television did not generate much buzz, and the film left the majority of the audience bewildered or totally unreceptive. As his career exerted ever more demands for time and energy, Brooks had difficulty handling the conflicts between work and family life. He had been talking about retirement since 1992, but in 1999 Brooks appeared on the Nashville Network and again mentioned retirement. Record sales had begun to decline, and Brooks officially announced plans to divorce from his wife in 2000. Impact Along with record-breaking sales, Garth Brooks was one of the most rewarded musicians of the 1990’s. He won one Grammy, eleven American Music Awards, ten Country Music Association Awards, fourteen Academy of Country Music Awards, five World Music Awards, and eight People’s Choice Awards. He was named Artist of the ’90s at the 1997 Blockbuster Entertainment Awards. He raised the international visibility and prestige of country music to an unprecedented level, and he went on to become the biggest best-selling solo artist in U.S. music history in the late 1990’s. Further Reading

Feiler, Bruce. Dreaming Out Loud: Garth Brooks, Wynonna Judd, Wade Hayes, and the Changing Face of Nashville. New York: Avon Books, 1998. The author travels to Nashville to investigate the changing country music scene in the 1980’s and 1990’s.

Features three country music stars, with an emphasis on Brooks. Sgammato, Jo. American Thunder: The Garth Brooks Story. New York: Ballantine, 1999. Biography includes stories about the artist’s life and his songs by a New York Times best-selling author. Stauffer, Stacey. Garth Brooks. New York: Facts On File, 1999. A basic biography of the country singer who changed the face of country music. Sheila Golburgh Johnson See also Country music; Digital audio; Lang, K. D.; McEntire, Reba; Music; Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Museum.

■ Brown, Ron Identification Secretary of commerce, 1993-1996 Born August 1, 1941; Washington, D.C. Died April 3, 1996; near Dubrovnik, Croatia

The first African American secretary of commerce, Brown served in that position during the first Clinton administration. He died in a plane crash while on an official trade mission to Croatia. Ronald Harmon Brown chaired the Democratic National Committee during the 1992 election campaign and was widely credited with uniting the party around Bill Clinton after the primaries and effectively redefining the Democrats’ image. His successor as commerce secretary, Mickey Kantor, who was Clinton’s campaign manager, called Brown “the best chairman we’ve ever had.” Brown’s nomination was seen as reward for his skillful management of the political primaries, yet the Commerce Department in 1992 was regarded as an ineffective bureaucracy; his appointment was not a prestigious one. Business interests feared that Brown would be too tough on them; advocates of business regulation worried that he would be too sympathetic, as a former lobbyist. With his legendary negotiating skill and energy, Brown boosted U.S. exports and doubled the budget for promoting high-technology investment. He won multibilliondollar contracts for American telecommunications and aircraft companies. In 1995, The New Republic labeled Brown “the most formidable Commerce secretary since Herbert Hoover.”

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Browning, Kurt

Yet scandal also surfaced. A Vietnamese businessman alleged in 1993 that Brown had accepted $700,000 from the government of Vietnam to end the trade embargo. The Justice Department concluded after a year-long investigation that there had been no bribe. In 1995, a Republican congressman accused Brown of violating disclosure requirements and evading taxes. Brown was further accused of awarding seats on trade missions as rewards for contributions or services to Democrats; these allegations were under investigation at the time of Brown’s death. The Croatia trip was to match American contractors with rebuilding needs in the war-torn country. The plane was originally reported to have crashed into the sea in rainy weather; subsequently, wreckage was found in mountains a few kilometers from the Dubrovnik airport. Because of the investigation involving Brown and the Commerce Department, the anti-Clinton conspiracy community aired suspicions that the crash had been engineered to eliminate an embarrassment, and even that Brown had been shot. Ron Brown is buried in Arlington National Cemetery. Impact Ron Brown was a talented negotiator with a record of public service as well as business acumen. He was a trustee of his alma mater, Middlebury College, a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, an affiliate of the Kennedy School of Government, and member of many government committees on business, health care, and public affairs. President Clinton established the Ron Brown Award for Corporate Leadership; the Commerce Department initiated the American Innovator Award in Brown’s name. A Brown Scholarship fund benefits promising African American students, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration named a research vessel for Brown.


Phillips, Kevin. Bad Money: Reckless Finance, Failed Politics, and the Global Crisis of American Capitalism. New York: Viking Press, 2008. Jan Hall See also African Americans; Business and the economy in the United States; Clinton, Bill; Elections in the United States, 1992; North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

■ Browning, Kurt Identification Canadian figure skater Born June 18, 1966; Rocky Mountain House,

Alberta, Canada As a well-known internationally acclaimed figure skater, Browning has achieved monumental records on the ice. In his career, he was a four-time world champion, a three-time world professional champion, a four-time Canadian champion, a three-time Olympic team member, and the first man to land a quadruple jump in competition (at the 1988 World Figure Skating Championships in Budapest).

Further Reading

Brown, Tracey L. The Life and Times of Ron Brown: A Memoir. New York: William Morrow, 1998. Holmes, Steven A. Ron Brown: An Uncommon Life. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2000.

Kurt Browning leaps during his routine at the World Figure Skating Championships in Prague in March, 1993. That year, he won both the Canadian and world championships. (Bernd Settnik/DPA/Landov)


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After winning the Canadian and World Figure Skating Championships in 1990 and 1991, Kurt Browning was expected to do well in the 1992 Olympics in Albertville, France. However, the gold medal was awarded to Viktor Petrenko of the Soviet Unified Team. Browning won sixth place, and fellow Canadian Elvis Stojko followed, coming in seventh that year. Browning made a comeback in 1993 to win once again both the Canadian and world championships. In 1994, Browning tried once more to win an Olympic medal in Lillehammer, Norway. After having the honor of carrying in the Canadian flag at the opening ceremony, Browning fell short of achieving a medal and received fifth place. Alexei Urmanov of Russia won the gold medal, and Browning’s colleague and teammate Stojko received the silver medal. It was Browning’s last chance of winning an Olympic medal because he then turned professional in the 1994-1995 season. Shortly thereafter, on June 30, 1996, Browning married Sonia Rodriguez, a principal dancer in the National Ballet of Canada. Throughout the decade, Browning won numerous skating awards, including the Lou Marsh Award (Canada’s Outstanding Athlete) in 1990, Sports Federation of Canada—Top Male Athlete in 1991 and 1993, an induction into Canada’s Sports Hall of Fame in 1994, and the American Skating World Professional Skater of the Year Award in 1999. In 1998, Browning received the highest possible honor bestowed by the International Skating Union, the Jacques Favart Trophy. Browning has also been the subject of two television documentaries: Tall in the Saddle (1990) and Life on the Edge (1992). Other noncompetitive appearances on television include Aladdin on Ice (1995, as Aladdin), Scott Hamilton: Upside Down (1996), Snowden on Ice (1997), Sesame Park (1997), and The Snowden, Raggedy Ann and Andy Holiday Show (1998, as Raggedy Andy). Impact Browning has received various accolades not only for his ability to perform but also for the way he entertains an audience while skating. He is both well known and well loved for his ability to execute intricate footwork, complete elaborate technical jumps, and show off his artistic talent, all while having fun.

Further Reading

Browning, Kurt, with Neil Stevens. Kurt: Forcing the Edge. Toronto: HarperCollins, 1992. Shulman, Carole. The Complete Book of Figure Skating. Champaign, Ill.: Human Kinetics, 2002. Kathryn A. Cochran Olympic Games of 1992; Olympic Games of 1994; Sports; Stojko, Elvis.

See also

■ Buchanan, Pat American politician, commentator, and U.S. presidential candidate in 1992 and 1996 Born November 2, 1938; Washington, D.C. Identification

Buchanan’s fiery speech at the Republican National Convention of 1992 helped define the profound differences within American culture known as the culture wars that emerged during the decade. In the early 1960’s, Pat Buchanan became the St. Louis Globe-Democrat‘s youngest editorial writer in the newspaper’s history. He quickly rose through the ranks at the paper and was an early supporter of Richard M. Nixon. Buchanan became an oppositional researcher for the Nixon campaign in 1968 and subsequently worked in the White House as an adviser to the president. During the Watergate scandal, Buchanan urged Nixon to burn the tapes, but he was never accused of any wrongdoing. He emerged in the early 1980’s as a television commentator and later became an adviser in the Ronald Reagan administration. In 1992, Buchanan parlayed his success on television and political service with a surprisingly strong campaign for the presidency. He challenged the Republican incumbent George H. W. Bush in the primaries and won 38 percent of the vote in New Hampshire on a platform of nationalism, immigration reduction, and opposition to multiculturalism, gay rights, and abortion. Buchanan was part of a resurgence of conservative values among people dissatisfied with the direction that popular culture had taken. Though Buchanan later supported the first President Bush in his election bid, in return for his support Buchanan requested a prime-time speaking spot at the Republican National Convention. In

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what became known as the culture war speech, the former presidential aide described “a religious war going on in our country for the soul of America,” with the Democrats (led by Bill Clinton) and their liberal values on one side and the Republicans on the other. Buchanan’s speech drew sharp criticism, but the sharpest quip was made by political commentator Molly Ivins, who said the speech “probably sounded better in the original German.” In the 1996 Republican primary, Buchanan ran again for the nomination and won an upset victory in New Hampshire. His rhetoric had taken on a populist note as he promised to “use the bully pulpit of the Presidency of the United States, to the full extent of my power and ability, to defend American traditions Presidential candidate Pat Buchanan gives a thumbs up to supporters on the evening and the values of faith, family, and of February 12, 1996, after finishing second in the Iowa caucus to Kansas senator Bob Dole. (AP/Wide World Photos) country, from any and all directions.” Buchanan openly advocated prayer in schools, saying, “Eternal tions in the United States, 1992; Elections in the truths that do not change from the Old and New TesUnited States, 1996; Journalism; Limbaugh, Rush; tament have been expelled from our public schools, Reform Party; Religion and spirituality in the United and our children are being indoctrinated in moral States; Television. relativism, and the propaganda of an anti-Western ideology.” After his defeat in the Republican primary, Buchanan returned to his work as a commentator.

■ Buffett, Warren

Pat Buchanan’s sharp rhetoric helped define the era as a time in American culture when reactions to modernity became a point of contention between conservatives and liberals. Buchanan was instrumental in helping to define the existing cultural differences and their significance in American culture. Impact

Further Reading

Alter, Jonathan. “Beltway Populist.” Newsweek, March 4, 1996, 24-27. Novak, Robert D. “Pat Buchanan, Populist Republican.” National Review, August 14, 1995, 33. Denis Mueller Cable television; Clinton, Bill; Conservatism in U.S. politics; Culture wars; Dole, Bob; Elec-

See also

American investor and businessman Born August 30, 1930; Omaha, Nebraska Identification

Commonly considered one of the greatest living investors, Buffett grew his fortune in the 1990’s to become one of the ten richest men in the world, and the only one to have made his money entirely from investing. Warren Buffett began the 1990’s as a very wealthy man, but a particularly shrewd investment of $1 billion in a poorly performing Coca-Cola Company at the end of the 1980’s became worth more than all of his other investments combined. However, despite this positive start, the 1990’s were a turbulent decade for Buffett, bringing a scandal and growing skepticism of his investment methodology.


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Warren Buffett. (AP/Wide World Photos)

When Salomon Brothers was embroiled in a bond-rigging scandal in 1991, Buffett, its largest investor, took the helm as chairman and chief executive officer of the embattled company. The government intended to withdraw the bank’s trading privileges, a move that would bankrupt the company. However, Buffett was able to intervene by meeting with Alan Greenspan, chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve system, and eventually the Federal Reserve lifted the ban, thus saving the company. Buffett continued investing in prominent companies, including weapons manufacturer General Dynamics and financial services firms Wells Fargo and Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac). He started purchasing companies outright, including several insurance firms, such as

Geico and General Reinsurance. The acquisitions essentially transformed Berkshire Hathaway (Buffett’s main investment vehicle, which he took over in 1965) primarily into an insurance company. By the end of the decade, insurance accounted for more than 70 percent of Berkshire’s revenues. Buffett’s attraction to the insurance industry was fairly logical. Since policyholders pay their premiums up front, their cash can be used for investment purposes before the claims are paid. Toward the end of the decade, Buffett was one of the few voices in the financial community who spoke out against the dot-com explosion. Initially, Buffett’s methods of investing and strategizing came under increasing criticism, and 1999 saw Buffett’s first negative year in a decade, with Berkshire’s per-share book value underperforming the S&P 500 index for

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the first time in twenty years. At the time, many declared that his insistence on investing in firmly established, proven businesses was out of date in the new Internet economy. However, in 2000 Buffett appeared to have the last laugh, as the high-technology stock bubble burst. Berkshire Hathaway, meanwhile, bounced back as investors ran back to established companies, and once again the financial community was praising his farsighted wisdom. Buffett’s contribution to the 1990’s spread much broader than his impact on the many high-profile companies in which he invested. He also became one of the earliest and strongest advocates of improved corporate governance, making public his stances on issues such as executive compensation. Impact Buffett has influenced the entire investment universe, from the chairman of the Federal Reserve to individual investors across North America. No other individual investor in living memory has been so closely followed. Further Reading

Buffett, Mary, and David Clarke. The New Buffettology. New York: Rawson Associates, 2002. Lowe, Janet. Warren Buffett Speaks: Wit and Wisdom from the World’s Greatest Investor. Rev. ed. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, 2007. Lowenstein, Roger. Buffett: The Making of an American Capitalist. New York: Random House, 1995. Rikard Bandebo See also Business and the economy in Canada; Business and the economy in the United States; Dotcoms; Gates, Bill; Greenspan, Alan; Trump, Donald.

■ Burning Man festivals The Event Annual temporary art community Place Black Rock Desert, Nevada

In 1986, a small, spirited, and artful party began the act of burning an effigy of “the Man.” This singular, semiprivate event evolved into an annual artistic tradition, a prolific, communal, anticommercial movement. The character of Burning Man festivals is unique to the entire world: On the Monday of the week prior to Labor Day weekend, thousands of radically selfexpressive and self-reliant individuals arrive at Black

Burning Man festivals


Rock Desert, Nevada, to endure eight days of tripledigit heat to create, commune, and share in the experience of the Saturday night burning of “the Man,” a massive wooden effigy. Because Burning Man festivals are commerce-free, participants bring their own supplies, tools, and survival gear, as well as art materials and equipment. A predetermined theme inspires the attendees to contribute artistically through theme camps (which began in 1993, when Peter Doty walked the playa, the ancient lakebed where the event takes place, dressed as Santa Claus), interactive endeavors, temporary living structures, moving art pieces, or art installations. Themes included Fertility (1997), the Nebulous Entity (1998), and the Wheel of Time (1999). At the end of the festival, all participants break down their constructions and clean up to meet the only mandate of the week: Leave no trace. The only residual is the “afterburn,” the indelible memory of the collective, spiritual experience. Core Values When the first Burning Man festival took place in 1986, it was merely an intimate gettogether, a ceremony in honor of the summer solstice. At Baker Beach in San Francisco, California, Renaissance man Larry Harvey conceived of the idea to burn “the Man.” Harvey and Jerry James built the eight-foot-tall construct, and the party of friends as well as a few beach bystanders watched as it was torched. An individual spectator held the wooden figure’s hand as it burned, making for the first impromptu performance art, while the event itself made for an annual ritual of expression, inspiration, and nonmaterial communing that has perpetuated and increased in popularity as exponentially as the construct of the Man has grown. That first year, the effigy was a basic wooden structure. The number of persons attending the event was twenty. In 2006, nearly forty thousand attendees gathered to witness the burning of a forty-foot rising and falling Man built atop a thirty-two-foot-high interactive maze in the Art Deco Pavilion. The improvised event had given rise to a planned annual social experience wherein participants involve themselves in the community, immerse themselves in interactive art, and carry the event’s apolitical and anticommercial tenets to the greater community of humankind throughout the rest of the year. The Burning Man participants of the 1990’s established and perpetuated the core values of a sus-


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tained community experience. “Burners” appreciate their culture, champion communication, and respect relationships. While self-reliance, self-expression, and taking responsibility for oneself are axiomatic principles, making oneself a part of the culture that defines itself as “radically inclusive” is imperative. Also, the mission of Burning Man festivals has always included a devout sense of and respect for “immediacy”: Priority is given to experience over theory, morality over politics, effort over consideration of gain, and participant support over commercial support.

first century, the annual event received criticism for its environmental impact. Vehicle travel to and from Black Rock Desert, power usage and generation on the playa, art cars on the playa, and fire art all contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. Nevertheless, Burners denounce commodification and deny materialistic motives, adhering to the leave-no-trace philosophy. While the temporary community lives out the artistic and humane ideals for one week every year, the members continue to encourage “green” living throughout the event and every day of the year.

Impact The Burning Man festivals and subculture have been referenced in various facets of popular culture, from music to television shows, and have spawned other regional events. In the early twenty-

Further Reading

Bruder, Jessica. Burning Book: A Visual History of Burning Man. New York: Simon Spotlight Entertainment, 2007. With the collaboration of thirty-

A bagpipe player and belly dancer on stilts participate in Burning Man 1998, held in Black Rock Desert, Nevada. (Hulton Archive/ Getty Images)

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Bush, George H. W.


■ Bush, George H. W.

(Walker) Bush. Prescott served as a Republican senator from Connecticut from 1953 to 1963. George Bush enjoyed the benefits of an excellent education at Phillips Academy and Yale University. His education was interrupted by his service in the Navy as an aviator; he served with distinction in the Pacific and was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross. Bush married Barbara Pierce in 1944 and entered Yale in 1945; he graduated with a B.S. in economics in 1948. From 1948 to 1964, Bush focused his energies on the Texas oil business. In 1964, he ran unsuccessfully for the Senate from Texas; in 1966, he was elected to the House of Representatives and served two terms. In 1970, he once again ran for the Senate and was again defeated. After this defeat, President Richard M. Nixon appointed Bush as ambassador to the United Nations (1971-1973). In 1974, President Gerald R. Ford appointed Bush as liaison to China, and in 1976 Bush became director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). With Democrat Jimmy Carter becoming president in 1977, Bush returned to Texas to serve as the president of a bank and to teach at Rice University. In 1980, he ran for the Republican presidential nomination but lost to Ronald Reagan, who selected Bush as his vice presidential running mate. Bush served eight years (1981-1989) as vice president; he was loyal to Reagan and developed support among the Republican stalwarts in order to succeed Reagan. Bush defeated the Democratic candidate Michael Dukakis in the November, 1988, election and was inaugurated on January 20, 1989.

Identification U.S. president, 1989-1993 Born June 12, 1924; Milton, Massachusetts

Domestic Agenda and Accomplishments

eight photographers, Bruder unpretentiously offers an intimate visit through the underground movement, covering its inception on Baker Beach in 1986 and following its growth into the 2000’s. Doherty, Brian. This Is Burning Man: The Rise of a New American Underground. New York: Little, Brown, 2004. In scholarly yet candid manner, Doherty delivers a thorough and insightful exploration of the subculture that is as difficult to characterize as it is spiritually charged. Considered the work to come closest to capturing the movement, the mission, and the man and woman behind its increasing growth and popularity. Nash, A. Leo, and Daniel Pinchbeck. Burning Man: Art in the Desert. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2007. An exemplary collection of black-and-white photography that captures the spirit and art of the Burning Man experience. Roxanne McDonald Alternative rock; Art movements; Earth in the Balance; Electronic music; Fads; Grunge music; Hip-hop and rap music; Hobbies and recreation; Lollapalooza; Music; Organic food movement; Poetry; Religion and spirituality in the United States; Woodstock concerts.

See also

Bush led the coalition forces in the Gulf War of 1991 against Iraq, removed Manuel Noriega as dictator of Panama, and was in office when the Soviet Union collapsed in December, 1991 George H. W. Bush led the United States during the early years of the 1990’s, a period of turbulent change in world affairs that challenged American leadership and tested its values and judgments. Bush succeeded in meeting these international challenges but pursued inconsistent, ill-defined, and lackluster domestic policies that proved to be his undoing and led to his defeat for reelection for another term as president. Before the Presidency George H. W. Bush was born on June 12, 1924, to Prescott and Dorothy

During his campaign for president, Bush identified himself as a compassionate conservative and stated that his vision for America was based on a “thousand points of light,” through which Americans would care for one another with respect and open hearts. Nonetheless, Bush’s domestic agenda was rather limited; not wanting to raise taxes, Bush and his aides bargained with the Democratic leadership of the Congress, and the business of the government went on as it had in the past. While the economy continued to grow as a result of the Reagan initiatives of the mid-1980’s, public perception of cracks within the system emerged when the number of homeless on the streets of American cities became more evident. Bush relied on local governments and community services to address this problem, but homelessness grew faster than these sources could handle. Bush’s


Bush, George H. W.

domestic agenda was dominated by striving for a balanced budget, developing free trade agreements, and addressing the legacy of problems that he inherited from Reagan’s secret Iran-Contra policies. During the four years that Bush was president, the national debt was not eliminated; this was due as much to increased spending as to a slowing economy, with the resultant decline in federal income. Bush’s second domestic priority was to establish a free trade zone among the United States, Canada, and Mexico—the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Despite increasing opposition from labor unions and other groups, NAFTA gained momentum and widespread bipartisan political support. NAFTA supporters envisioned a free trade zone comparable to the European Union; its opponents feared the loss of jobs and the displacement of businesses to Mexico. While the Bush administration did succeed in signing a preliminary document, it was left to Bill Clinton’s administration to conclude the process in 1993. Finally, Bush found himself with the legacy of the Iran-Contra scandal and the likelihood that six former Reagan administration officials would be indicted—including former secretary of defense Caspar Weinberger. Some in Bush’s inner circle anticipated that Bush himself could possible be indicted and, at the very least, would be called to testify on the Weinberger case. On December 24, 1992, less than a month before leaving office, Bush pardoned Weinberger and the others, and the case was dropped. These pardons were condemned by the national press and the general public. Foreign Policy and Accomplishments When Bush became president in 1989, the United States was at peace, but historic forces were unfolding throughout the world. The first year of his presidency witnessed the collapse of Soviet domination of the Eastern European states and the fall of the Berlin Wall; new prodemocratic regimes emerged and new political lines were drawn on ethnic-nationalist lines. At the same time, American attention was diverted to Central America, where the Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega was assisting in the transfer of illegal drugs to the United States. In the fall of 1989, the United States supported an anti-Noriega campaign within Panama and, in December, an American military force of twenty-five thousand invaded Panama and toppled the Noriega regime, replacing it with a

The Nineties in America

pro-American government. Noriega was imprisoned in the United States, and the Bush administration provided support for the new government through January, 1993. In 1990, Iraq, under the leadership of Saddam Hussein, invaded and occupied the neighboring state of Kuwait. Hussein announced that Kuwait was annexed into Iraq. Bush immediately denounced this aggressive action and worked for months through the United Nations and direct talks with other states to form a coalition to pressure or force Iraq to withdraw to its original borders. A U.N. declaration gave Iraq until January 15, 1991, to withdraw; Iraq did not comply. On January 17, 1991, the American-led coalition initiated air attacks against Iraq; on February 24, the ground assault began. Within forty-eight hours, Iraqi troops were fleeing Kuwait, and advanced units of the coalition strike force were within 150 miles of Baghdad. Bush ordered a cease-fire on February 27, stating that Kuwait had been liberated. The final major foreign policy development during the Bush presidency related to U.S.-Soviet relations. Bush and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev held a summit conference in December, 1989, in Malta; they announced that the previous hostile relationship was over and that they would be partners in moving the world toward peace. However, startling events in the Soviet Union were unfolding rapidly. In August, 1991, a group of reactionary political and military leaders attempted to overthrow Gorbachev; he was arrested while on vacation in the Crimea, and it appeared that his fate was sealed. However, Russia leader Boris Yeltsin championed opposition to the coup d’etat, and the hard-liners were defeated. Gorbachev was weakened, and in December the Soviet Union was being dismantled by separatist groups. On December 31, 1991, the Soviet Union ceased to exist. The Bush administration allowed these events to unfold without any interference. Presidential Election of 1992 With victory against Iraq in 1991, the reelection of George Bush to a second term appeared to be assured, but the American electorate was unsettled. The economic rebound was not as strong as anticipated, and Bush appeared not to recognize the seriousness of the homeless issue in major cities. In addition, he had raised taxes in 1990 when he had promised in 1988 that he would

The Nineties in America

George H. W. Bush. (Library of Congress)

not. Bush found himself confronted not only by the charismatic Democratic candidate, Bill Clinton, but also by a strong third-party candidate, Ross Perot. Perot won 19 percent of the popular vote. The Bush campaign lacked a focus to the final month, and it failed to close the gap with Clinton. Impact George Bush’s presidency was disappointing on the domestic level but quite positive in its foreign policies. The domestic agenda was limited in large part because most of the Reagan-era aides to the president believed in reducing the size and responsibilities of the federal government. At the same time, they were very much committed to sustaining the image and position of the United States as the defender of freedom. Bush has been applauded for his handling of the Iraq-Kuwait problem; he worked with the United Nations and the international community in forming a coalition that

Bush, George H. W.


forced Hussein to withdraw from Kuwait, and he did not utilize the coalition beyond its stated purpose. While Bush would be later criticized for not effecting regime change by removing Hussein from power, his clear and honest leadership of the effort has sustained the respect of allies and many Americans. His invasion of Panama and the removal of Noriega has been accorded mixed receptions. On one hand, Bush has been condemned for his cavalier approach to Latin America—continuing in the tradition of Reagan’s invasion of Grenada (1983)— in utilizing military force to resolve an American, not Panamanian, problem. On the other hand, many have interpreted this action favorably by noting that the Panamanian people welcomed Noriega’s removal and that the American forces were withdrawn quickly. Perhaps the most positive achievement of the Bush presidency and the most lasting impact of his administration was his caution in monitoring the collapse of the Soviet Union and the subsequent political turmoil in the region. While charged with the defense of the United States and the American people, Bush followed a tempered middle course in his relations with Gorbachev and Yeltsin and did not overreact to the day-to-day shifts in Soviet and then Russian affairs. Within Central and Eastern Europe, Bush moved American foreign policy to support the new governments that were being established, the unification of Germany, and the breakup of Yugoslavia into several ethnic-based nations. He recognized a new tide of history in Europe that supported American ideals and principles and linked the United States to it. Since Bush left office, he has pursued a mostly private life with his family. The George Bush Presidential Library and Museum was established in 1997 at Texas A&M University along with the Bush School of Government and Public Service. After the devastation of the tsunami that resulted in the loss of more than 200,000 lives in Southeast and South Asia and East Africa in 2004 and the catastrophe of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans in 2005, Bush worked with former president Clinton to acquire needed funds for recovery.

Subsequent Events

Further Reading

Barilleaux, Ryan J., and Mark J. Rozell. Power and Prudence: The Presidency of George H. W. Bush. College Station: Texas A&M Press, 2004. A scholarly evaluation of the Bush administration that ad-


The Nineties in America

Business and the economy in Canada

vances a generally positive interpretation of its domestic and foreign affairs accomplishments. Bose, Meena, and Rosanna Perotti, eds. From Cold War to New World Order: The Foreign Policy of George H. W. Bush. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002. This volume of scholarly essays examines the formulation of a new post-Cold War foreign policy by the Bush administration. The essays examine the turbulence of world politics during the Bush presidency and provide analyses of how it responded to the new realities and attempted to provide leadership for a “New World Order.” Bush, George H. W. Looking Forward. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1987. In this pre-1988 election reflection, Bush provides some valuable personal insights into his values and goals. Himelfarb, Richard, and Rosanna Perotti, eds. Principle over Politics? The Domestic Policy of the George H. W. Bush Presidency. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2004. Consists of a series of essays on the domestic problems and issues that confronted Bush during his presidency—balanced budget, increased taxation, the homeless, environmental concerns, and domestic security. Levantrosser, William, and Rosanna Perotti, eds. A Noble Calling: Character and the George H. W. Bush Presidency. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2004. A collection of essays on Bush’s leadership and character; generally sympathetic to Bush and his vision for America and humanity. Medhurst, Martin J., ed. The Rhetorical Presidency of George H. W. Bush. College Station: Texas A&M Press, 2006. Speeches, remarks, and evaluation commentaries focused on Bush’s argumentation and general style. Naftali, Timothy. George H. W. Bush. New York: Times Books, 2007. The best and most readable singlevolume biography on Bush. Sympathetic but not uncritical. William T. Walker See also Arnett, Peter; Baker, James; Cheney, Dick; Clinton, Bill; CNN coverage of the Gulf War; Cold War, end of; Elections in the United States, midterm; Elections in the United States, 1992; Gulf War; Immigration Act of 1990; Israel and the United States; Noriega capture and trial; North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA); Perot, H. Ross; Powell, Colin; Quayle, Dan; Recession of 1990-1991; Russia and North America.

■ Business and the economy in Canada Structure and functioning of the Canadian economy, including the production and distribution of goods, services, and incomes and related public policies


Canada has only one-tenth the population of the United States, and its economy tends to reflect this fact, at about 10 to 11 percent of the U.S. economy. The Canadian economy is closely tied to that of the United States (with many branches of U.S. firms) and the investment in Canadian business often originates with U.S. companies. These facts held true during the 1990’s. Overall, Canada’s gross domestic product (GDP), the common measurement of the size of the economy, increased by 43 percent during the 1990’s. By contrast, the United States’ GDP grew by 67 percent during the same period, but this largely reflected a much greater rate of inflation than occurred in Canada. Although Canada’s GDP increased every year during the 1990’s, the growth was slowest during the early years when Canada experienced conditions that, in some sectors, amounted to a recession. During the 1990’s, Canada’s economy continued the process begun several decades earlier as it evolved into a mature, servicebased economy. The primary sector of the economy—agriculture, forestry, and fishing—exhibited little growth. Fishing declined such that it engaged a smaller portion of the populace and provided less to economic growth than it had in previous decades. Because Canada stretches along the northern border of the United States, its economy tends to be more regionally concentrated. The most prosperous provinces, Ontario and Quebec, are in the center of the country, where most of manufacturing is located. Ever since the signing of the Auto Pact in 1965, which permitted the tariff-free shipment of cars and car parts between Canada and the United States, that portion of the North American auto industry located in Canada has been a major part of Canada’s manufacturing industry. This continued to be the case in the 1990’s, although production tended to shift from the assembly of complete vehicles to the manufacture of components. Manufacturing also diversified in this central section of Canada. Electronics and telecommunica-

Sectoral Change

The Nineties in America

Business and the economy in Canada


tions, led by Nortel Networks Corporation, played an important part in this diversification. The manufacturer of the BlackBerry (first released in 1999), widely used in business in the United States, is Research In Motion, a Canadian firm. The business software sector also thrived in central Canada, which is within easy reach of many businesses in the United States, as exemplified by JDS Uniphase and Cognos, both based in Ottawa. A relatively new college, Sheridan College, specializing in software and located in Ontario, supported this diversification. Overall, however, manufacturing as a proportion of the economy declined during the decade. During the early 1990’s, a period of very restrained economic development, the metropolitan region of Toronto, at the heart of Canadian business, suffered serious business losses, leading to a sharp decline in employment, especially in insurance and finance, which had been heavily concentrated in Toronto and Montreal. Globalization negatively affected Quebec, where manufacturing had been concentrated in textiles and clothing.

trees. Even though paper pulp is now a commodity product, and though paper mills have faced difficult economic times, Canada’s newsprint and paper pulp industry remains an important source of export earnings. Further, Canada continues to be a source of vital minerals. In addition to the traditional minerals produced by International Nickel’s plant in Sudbury, Ontario, a very large, new source of nickel was discovered in Labrador during the 1990’s. Diamonds have been found in several places in the Northwest Territories. Exploration continues, and new finds assure that Canada will continue to be a source of critical minerals. Finally, the tar sands in Alberta have gained new importance, as access to other petroleum assets are impacted by geopolitical developments. Though the low petroleum prices of the 1990’s restrained development of the tar sands as a source for oil that could be converted into gasoline, the natural gas associated with the tar sands provided important export earnings for Canada. Under pressure from Canadian business, the government entity Petro-Canada was privatized in 1991.

Foreign Trade Despite Canada’s shift away from a staples economy, the country remains a major producer of natural resources, of both forest products and mining and mineral resources. Canada produces about one-fifth of the world’s softwood lumber (mostly from the hugely productive forests of British Columbia on the Pacific coast), as well as 25 percent of the world’s newsprint, and 16 percent of market pulp (the raw material for paper). The forest products sector is a major producer of net foreign income for Canada. Unfortunately, the conflict with the U.S. forest products community that arose in the 1980’s over softwood lumber continued in later decades. Essentially, U.S. lumber producers claimed that Canadian lumber was effectively subsidized, because the price Canadian loggers were paying landowning provincial governments was less than the price U.S. loggers had to pay to the private landowners from whom they bought most of the trees they logged. Though the conflict was initially settled by compromise during the 1990’s, it has continued to negatively affect U.S.-Canadian trade relations despite the provisions of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), established in 1994. Canada produces a substantial proportion of the world’s newsprint, which is made from small forest

Impact Although Canada’s economy remains a small fraction of the size of that of the United States, its important resources contributed significantly to the American economy in the 1990’s. Further Reading

Britton, John N. H., ed. Canada and the Global Economy: The Geography of Structural and Technological Change. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1996. Contains articles by assorted experts on the various sectors of Canada’s economy. Statistics Canada. The Canadian Economic Observer: Historical Statistical Supplement 2000/01. Ottawa: Ministry of Industry, 2001. Contains numerous tables on Canada’s economy. Wallace, Iain. A Geography of the Canadian Economy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. A compact but comprehensive and useful account of the Canadian economy. Nancy M. Gordon Agriculture in Canada; Automobile industry; Business and the economy in the United States; Canada and the United States; Downsizing and restructuring; Income and wages in Canada; North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA); Recession of 1990-1991.

See also


Business and the economy in the United States

■ Business and the economy in the United States Structure and functioning of the U.S. economy, including the production and distribution of goods, services, and incomes and related public policies


After a brief, mild recession in 1990-1991, the decade was characterized by steady economic growth, relatively full employment, and relatively stable prices. Between 1990 and 1999, the nation’s output (measured by gross domestic product, or GDP, adjusted to remove inflation) increased from slightly over $28,000 per person to nearly $34,000 per person, an increase of 21 percent. However, real consumption per capita rose only 12 percent over the decade. The recession in 1990-1991 and subsequent slow recovery increased unemployment rates, which averaged around 7 percent in 1991-1993. This factor figured prominently in the presidential election of 1992 and contributed to the defeat of incumbent George H. W. Bush by Bill Clinton. For the rest of the decade, unemployment trended steadily downward, reaching 4.2 percent in 1999, the lowest rate since 1969. The decline was particularly large for black workers, falling from 10 percent in 1990 to 7 percent in 1999. The inflation rate was consistently relatively low, averaging 2.7 percent between 1990 and 1999. Much of the increase in prices was matched by upgrades in product quality and by introduction of new products not fully reflected in the price indexes. Thus, the purchasing power of the dollar declined relatively little. Price stability was aided by the relative stability of fuel and energy costs. Health and Happiness One payoff from higher income and the upgrading of technology was longer life. Life expectancy at birth rose from 75.4 years in 1990 to 76.7 years in 1999. The increase was much larger for men—from 71.8 to 73.9, thus narrowing the traditional female advantage. Much of the increase came from reduced incidence of heart disease and stroke, reflecting a combination of improved medical treatment and improved lifestyles (reduced smoking and fat consumption). These gains came at a high cost. National health expenditures were about 12 percent of GDP in 1990 and increased to about 14 percent by 1999. Most of

The Nineties in America

the increase was concentrated in 1990-1993, followed by a period of relatively successful cost control for government insurance programs. Between 1990 and 1999, the price index for medical goods and services increased by 43 percent, far outracing the general consumer price index, which rose only 24 percent. The disproportionate rise in medical costs was a predictable result of government programs, which greatly raised demand but did little to augment supply of medical goods and services. While people were healthier and wealthier, they were not happier. A vast number of surveys asking people about their level of happiness consistently found the average had no tendency to increase over time, despite rising annual incomes. The result is not difficult to explain. A high-income society has a high job turnover rate, meaning that many people are losing a job or worry that they might or are anxious about a new job they are starting. People complained much about longer distances and time spent commuting. Heads of households worried about the rising cost of health insurance and about children’s college expenses. For the working population, a possible higher income did not come with any more time to enjoy it. Labor Force and Productivity The decade witnessed a vigorous growth in jobs: The number of workers employed increased from 119 million in 1990 to 134 million in 1999, helping to reduce the unemployment rate. Manufacturing employment registered a slight decline, falling from 17.7 million in 1990 to 17.3 million in 1999. This decline occurred in spite of a large increase in manufacturing output—from $64 billion (dollars of year 2000) to $94 billion in 1999—a rise of 47 percent. The rise in output without increased employment reflected the high rate of technological progress in manufacturing. About three-fourths of all workers were employed in the service sectors (including government). Service output grew about 26 percent from 1990 to 1999, largely from a 22 percent rise in service employment. These numbers suggest a relatively low rate of technological improvement in service activities. However, measuring the quantity of service output is very difficult. Both output and productivity may have grown more than these figures suggest. Labor productivity, measured by output per person-hour, rose about 18 percent between 1990 and 1999. Major contributors to higher labor pro-

The Nineties in America

ductivity included an increase in human capital, an increase in the amount of physical capital, and improvements in technology. The increase in human capital arose from higher educational attainment. The proportion of the population aged twenty-five and older who had graduated from high school rose from 78 percent in 1990 to 84 percent in 2000, and the proportion of college graduates increased from 21 to 26 percent. The increase in the amount of physical capital (primarily buildings and equipment) per worker probably raised labor productivity about one-half of one percent per year. Improvements in technology included many highly visible examples, such as computers and telecommunications. Robots came to play a major role in fabricating automobile components. Wages and Other Incomes Economists expect that labor’s reward will reflect labor’s productivity. However, estimates of real wages, hourly and weekly, by the Bureau of Labor Statistics suggest an increase of only 4 or 5 percent from 1990 to 1999 for private nonagricultural jobs. However, the estimates of total compensation of employees, after adjustment for inflation, give values of approximately $21,500 per worker for 1990 and $24,000 for 1999, expressed in prices of 1982-1984. This represents an increase of about 11 percent. Much of the difference arose from the rising cost of fringe benefits such as health insurance. Different data estimate median real incomes adjusted for inflation. (The median is the value in the middle, when all items are arranged in order of size.) The median income for families in 1993 (the first year for which estimates are available) was $50,782 in 2006 dollars. By 1999, it was $59,088. The increase of 16 percent closely matches the rise in labor productivity. Labor union membership declined slightly. There were 16.7 million union members in 1990 and 16.3 million in 2000. Private-sector membership declined by more than one million. This brought the proportion of members among private-sector wage and salary workers down below 10 percent, continuing a long-term trend dating from the 1950’s. Much of the decline could be attributed to falling employment in manufacturing, the domain of many traditionally strong militant unions. Another factor, visible in the automobile industry, was the relocation of the industry into areas traditionally not strongly fa-

Business and the economy in the United States


vorable to unionization. With this trend came a decrease in interruptions of work by strikes. The decline in union membership was vigorously resisted by the Service Employees International Union (SEIU), headed by Andy Stern. This union aggressively undertook to organize a number of low-income occupations such as janitors, security guards, and hotel maids. Consumption spending per capita, after adjustment for inflation, increased more than disposable incomes. The result was that personal saving fell from its longtime average around 8 percent of disposable personal income to only 2.4 percent in 1999. Household debt burdens increased. Consumer credit and home mortgage debt totaled about $3.4 trillion in 1990 and rose to $6.2 trillion in 1999. This raised the ratio of debt to disposable income from 81 percent in 1990 to 93 percent in 1999. The decrease in the personal saving rate continued into the next decade. It contributed to the country’s large import surplus and helped explain the large inflow of foreign capital. Government poverty estimates are built up from estimates of the cost of an adequate diet. In 1990, the poverty threshold for a family of four was $13,359. Adjustments for rising prices brought the figure to $17,604 for year 2000. About 34 million persons were in poverty in 1990, representing 13.5 percent of the population. The number increased to 39 million during the subsequent recession, then declined to 33 million in 1999, which was 11.9 percent of the population. The incidence of poverty was particularly heavy for female-headed households. Children in such households face particularly difficult life situations. The number of children in poverty rose from 12.7 million in 1990 to nearly 15 million in 1993, then declined to 11.7 million in 1999. The last figure included about one-sixth of all children.


The decade was very profitable for corporations and investors. Corporate profits after tax rose from $264 billion in 1990 to $517 billion in 1999, just about doubling. High profits helped fuel a strong boom in prices of corporate stocks. The Standard & Poor’s index of stock prices rose from 335 in 1990 to 1,327 in 1999, setting new records frequently along the way. Stock prices rose much more than profits, in part because of declining interest rates. Interest-bearing assets became less

Profits and Stock Prices


Business and the economy in the United States

attractive than stocks, and it became cheaper to borrow in order to buy stocks on credit. In the late 1990’s, the stock market boom took on many aspects of a “bubble.” This term describes a situation in which particular stocks are driven up in price by speculative demand based on the expectation that their prices will rise still further. Stocks associated with computers, Internet businesses, and telecommunications were particularly favored—thus the episode was called the “dot-com boom.” Some firms were recent start-ups with no experience of profitability. The bubble was to burst in 2000, to be followed by several years of lackluster stock price performance. Business and Technology The number of business firms grew rapidly during the 1990’s. In 1990, federal tax records listed about 20 million firms, of which 3.7 million were corporations. By 1999, the total reached 24.4 million, 4.9 million being corporations. Each year, more than 500,000 new firms were established, but each year almost as many went out of business. By year 2000, an estimated 51 million households were using computers and 42 million had Internet connections. Novel types of businesses came to prominence: Yahoo! demonstrated the potential for an Internet search engine. EBay showed the enormous appeal of online auction activities for both buyers and sellers. Cell phone usage expanded explosively in the 1990’s. An estimated 5 million subscribers used them in 1990. By 2000, the estimate was 109 million—a twenty-fold expansion. Compact disc sales also mushroomed, reaching a peak of 943 million units in 2000 before slackening off slightly. Cable television already had 50 million subscribers by 1990. This grew to 67 million by 1999. Satellite service, which was inconsequential in 1990, grew rapidly during the decade; by 2000, there were about 50 million installations in place. The number of passenger cars on the road was relatively constant, around 134 million, but the number of vans, pickup trucks, and sport utility vehicles (SUVs) increased from 48 million in 1990 to 79 million in 2000—an increase of about 60 percent.

The international involvement of the U.S. economy continued to increase during the 1990’s. Exports rose from 9.5 percent of GDP to 10.3 percent, while imports increased from 10.9 percent to 13 percent. As a result, the country’s trade


The Nineties in America

gap widened. This was associated with an increase in capital inflow into the United States, helping to close the financing gap resulting from the decline in the rate of personal saving. The United States continued to exercise leadership in the effort to reduce trade and finance barriers around the world. A milestone was the creation in 1995 of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This provided a forum in which countries exchanged trade concessions for mutual advantage. The rapid economic emergence of China owed much to the reduction of import restrictions against Chinese products by the United States and the European Union. Another landmark was the creation in 1994 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), involving the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Internationalization of the markets for goods helped to protect the United States against inflation. Internationalization of financial markets provided abundant international capital to finance American investment projects. American interest rates became increasingly influenced by conditions in worldwide capital markets. Another dimension of globalization was immigration. Over the period 1991-2000, nine million foreign-born persons obtained legal permanent resident status, about one million of them refugees. In addition, by 2000 there were an estimated 8.5 million unauthorized immigrants, of whom 4.7 million were from Mexico. Despite much criticism that immigrants were “taking jobs away from Americans,” research studies determined that most immigrants found jobs that Americans did not want or could not fill. These jobs were at both ends of the income scale, as many scientists and engineers came from China and India to meet the needs of high-tech industries. On balance, the availability of immigrant labor helped strengthen the demand for American workers doing complementary jobs. Globalization was not popular. Violent demonstrations disrupted the WTO meetings in Seattle in December, 1999. Much criticism was directed at “shipping jobs overseas,” or outsourcing, despite the very strong performance of the U.S. labor market. Critics were apparently unaware that some major foreign firms such as Toyota established factories in the United States. Federal Government Policies One of the most prominent federal officials dealing with the econ-

The Nineties in America

omy was Alan Greenspan, who served as chair of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve system during the entire decade. Federal Reserve staff developed skill in using the federal fund interest rate as a target for open-market operations (buying and selling U.S. government securities in transactions with investors). Interest rates were reduced during the recession of 1990-1991, then increased repeatedly in 1994 as boom conditions threatened to aggravate inflation. Convinced that technological improvement was raising potential output rapidly, Greenspan refused to exercise much restraint against the boom of the late 1990’s. Federal fiscal policy took a surprising turn. Booming economic conditions and tax rate increases brought a great upsurge in federal tax revenues. By the end of the 1990’s, federal revenues were taking more than 20 percent of the GDP, a ratio far above the historical average. In combination with restraint in the growth of expenditures, this revenue surge produced government surpluses totaling nearly $200 billion in 1998-1999. This permitted some reduction in the national debt. Fantasies about continuing this trend were soon shattered by economic recession and war in the new millennium. A major change in policy toward poverty occurred with the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, which brought so-called welfare reform. The previous program of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) was heavily criticized for subsidizing dysfunctional behavior, such as idleness and outof-wedlock childbearing. In its place came Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), administered by states with federal guidelines and financial support. The new program put more emphasis on the obligation of beneficiaries to find jobs or undergo training. The new program led to substantial decline in the number of welfare recipients. A less well-known poverty-relief program was the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), created in 1975. Only $4 billion was spent in 1990, but then payments surged, reaching $26 billion in 2000. In 1997, Congress created the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) to cover children from low-income families who did not qualify for Medicaid. These programs were state-administered but with federal guidelines and financial support. By 2000, 3.4 million children were covered; this

Business and the economy in the United States


number continued to grow rapidly in the new millennium. Impact The 1990’s produced an enviable record of full employment and price stability. Economic growth was substantial. However, income inequality was widening, with income gains concentrated above the median. Well-educated managers, scientists, engineers, and professionals did very well. Factory workers did less well. The 1990’s bequeathed to the new millennium a public school system that was failing many of the nation’s children, particularly ethnic minorities. The dot-com boom was about to burst, yielding a stock market that had trouble advancing in the decade to come. Further Reading

Cairncross, Frances. The Death of Distance: How the Communications Revolution Is Changing Our Lives. London: Orion Books, 1997. Good overview of the impact of cell phones, e-mail, and the Internet. Friedman, Thomas L. The World Is Flat. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005. A best-selling journalistic overview of globalization. Includes many references to 1990’s events such as the rise of the Internet and the economic emergence of China and India. Heckman, James J., and Alan B. Krueger. Inequality in America. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2003. This symposium provides abundant data on income distribution, education, and related topics for the 1990’s. “The Importance of Health and Health Care.” In The Economic Report of the President. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2008. Includes 1990’s data on health conditions, the medical marketplace, and government programs. Kahneman, Daniel, and Alan B. Krueger. “Developments in the Measurement of Subjective WellBeing.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 20, no. 1 (Winter, 2006): 3-24. A Nobel Prize winner introduces readers to the fascinating effort to identify the economic dimensions of happiness. Levy, Frank, and Richard J. Murnane. The New Division of Labor: How Computers Are Creating the Next Job Market. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004. Both business and household uses of computers are highlighted. Markham, Jerry W. A Financial History of the United States: From the Age of Derivatives into the New Millen-


The Nineties in America

Byrd murder case

nium, 1970-2001. Vol. 3. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 2002. Encyclopedic survey of the period, including internationalization of finance, Federal Reserve policy, innovations in financial practices, and the stock market bubble. Sharp, Ansel M., Charles A. Register, and Paul W. Grimes. The Economics of Social Issues. 15th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2002. Written for beginning-level undergraduates, this book focuses on a wide range of economic topics, including poverty and unemployment, economic growth, and education and crime. Paul B. Trescott

market; Welfare reform; World Trade Organization protests; Yahoo!; Y2K problem.

See also Agriculture in the United States;; Automobile industry; Demographics of the United States; Dot-coms; Education in the United States; Greenspan, Alan; Health care; Immigration to the United States; Income and wages in the United States; Internet; National debt; North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA); Outsourcing; Poverty; Recession of 1990-1991; Stock

At approximately 1:00 a.m. on Sunday, June 7, 1998, forty-nine-year-old James Byrd, Jr., was walking home after attending several parties. Byrd, a figure familiar to most people who lived in the small town of Jasper, often walked about town because he did not own a car. As the inebriated Byrd meandered down Martin Luther King Boulevard, he was offered a ride by three white men: Shawn Allen Berry (age

■ Byrd murder case The dragging death of James Byrd, Jr., an African American man, by three white men Date June 7, 1998 Place Jasper, Texas The Event

The brutality of Byrd’s murder triggered outrage across the country, prompted calls for tolerance, and energized efforts to advance hate crime legislation.

A Jasper County assistant district attorney holds up the logging chain allegedly used to drag James Byrd, Jr., to his death. (AP/Wide World Photos)

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twenty-three), John William King (age twenty-four), and Lawrence Russell Brewer (age thirty-one). The three ex-convicts had been driving around in Berry’s pickup truck, drinking and socializing. Unfortunately for Byrd, King and Brewer were white supremacists. King was incensed that Berry offered a ride to an African American. Berry later claimed that, as they drove, King and Brewer schemed to harm Byrd. After stopping at a secluded location, Byrd was beaten, stripped, chained by his ankles to the back of the truck, and dragged approximately three miles down Huff Creek Road. He sustained horrific injuries, the most shocking of which occurred when his head, shoulder, and arm were shorn off by the edge of a concrete culvert. The remainder of Byrd’s body was dumped in the African American section of the segregated Huff Creek Cemetery. Byrd’s body was found later that morning by local residents. As police investigated the death, they soon realized that the incident was not a standard “hit and run,” as first thought. Police were soon led to Berry by evidence at the crime scene and an eyewitness who saw Byrd riding in the bed of a gray truck. Under questioning, Berry identified his companions and claimed that they were responsible for Byrd’s murder. All three were charged with kidnapping and murder. In 1999, King and Brewer were found guilty and sentenced to death. Berry received a life sentence. Impact The enormous media coverage generated by James Byrd’s dragging death reminded Americans that racism was alive and well at the end of the

Byrd murder case


twentieth century. Though a grisly hate crime had occurred in the small town, the guilty verdicts helped promote racial healing in Jasper, as did a park created in Byrd’s memory. Additionally, the fence that segregated Huff Creek Cemetery was dismantled. Byrd’s dragging death also triggered national outrage and condemnation. African American leaders denounced the heinous crime. Lawmakers called for additional legislation to deal with hate crimes. Additionally, Byrd’s murder focused attention on the pervasiveness of racial prison gangs. While in prison, both King and Brewer joined white supremacist gangs, allegedly to protect themselves from other prisoners. They emerged from prison as fervent racists. Subsequent Events Byrd’s murder compelled the 2001 passage of Texas’s James Byrd Hate Crimes Act. His family also established the James Byrd Foundation for Racial Healing. Two films were produced about the event: Two Towns of Jasper (2002) and Jasper, Texas (2003). Further Reading

King, Joyce. Hate Crime: The Story of a Dragging in Jasper, Texas. New York: Pantheon Books, 2002. Temple-Raston, Dina. A Death in Texas: A Story of Race, Murder, and a Small Town’s Struggle for Redemption. New York: Henry Holt, 2002. Beth A. Messner See also African Americans; Crime; Hate crimes; Race relations.

C ■ Cable television Television distribution system in which programming is delivered to subscribers from a centralized provider through fixed optical fibers or coaxial cables


Cable television began as a means to bring television programming to people who lived in rural areas where broadcast signals could not be received easily, but during the 1990’s cable television joined broadcasting and telephone service as a telecommunications giant. By the 1990’s, cable television had become a permanent fixture in popular culture. The average cable subscriber could choose from a wide selection of cable programming that included basic networks such as Music Television (MTV), Cable News Network (CNN), and the Turner Broadcasting System (TBS) and premium networks such as Disney, Home Box Office (HBO), and Showtime. New and innovative cable networks emerged that included children’s programming on Nickelodeon, around-the-clock sports on the Entertainment and Sports Network (ESPN), original documentaries on the Discovery Channel, gavel-to-gavel coverage of U.S. congressional activity on the Cable Satellite Public Affairs Network (C-SPAN), and focused content such as Black Entertainment Television (BET). Founded in 1991, the Courtroom Television Network (Court TV) provided live coverage of high-profile trials such as the 1992 prosecution of murderer-cannibal Jeffrey Dahmer, O. J. Simpson’s 1994 trial for the murders of his former wife and her friend, and the 1996 trial of Lyle and Erik Menendez for the murders of their parents. CNN established itself as a major news competitor with its live coverage of the 1991 Gulf War. Cable television was so well established by the 1990’s that it was home to the 1992 U.S. presidential campaign’s key moments. Texas businessman H. Ross Perot announced his intention to run for U.S. president as a third-party candidate on CNN’s

Larry King Live and Democratic Party nominee Bill Clinton appeared on MTV. During the 1990’s, the cable industry fluctuated between periods of government regulation and deregulation. From 1984 to 1992, cable operators enjoyed a brief period of deregulation in which they were allowed to set their own rates. Because the cable industry did not have any real local competition, local providers quickly became virtual monopolies in the communities that they served. As a result, cable rates increased dramatically between November, 1986, and April, 1991. Responding to cable subscribers’ complaints about steadily increasing cable rates, Congress passed the Cable Television Consumer Protection and Competition Act of 1992 (overriding President George H. W. Bush’s veto). This act reregulated cable by controlling the rates for cable companies’ basic-tier services, composed of the broadcast stations in their area and their public access channels. Cable operators were also required to offer an expanded basic service composed primarily of broadcast stations with broad appeal, such as the Family Channel and USA Network. For an extra fee, cable subscribers could also receive premium cable programming such as HBO and Showtime. The period of the reregulation of the cable industry under the 1992 cable act, however, was short-lived. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 returned the cable industry to the government’s pre-1992 deregulation philosophy by phasing out regulation on all but the lowest level of cable service after March, 1999.

Cable Regulation

Competition and Mergers Deregulation and technological changes in the late 1990’s helped to increase competition in the cable industry. The 1992 cable act had eliminated many of the barriers to competition by opening what had once been exclusive cable programming to other distribution technologies such as wireless cable, telephone companies, and the emerging direct satellite broadcast

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business. In 1996, media baron Rupert Murdoch launched the Fox News Channel to compete against CNN. By the close of the decade, cable companies were delivering their programming via satellite, giving viewers twenty-four-hour access to music, sports, movies, news, and weather as well as children’s programming, religious networks, and foreign-language channels. More and more cable companies began merging with other media outlets to form huge multimedia conglomerates. In 1996, Walt Disney Company, owner of cable networks A&E and Lifetime, merged with Capital Cities/ABC. In October, 1996, Time Warner, Inc., acquired Ted Turner’s TBS, making an already vast empire even larger. Tele-Communications, Inc. (TCI) had acquired so many cable companies by the mid-1990’s that it provided cable to almost one in three U.S. households and owned significant interests in cable networks that included BET, the Discovery Channel, and the Family Channel. In 1999, Viacom Inc., owner of MTV, VH1, and Nickelodeon, announced that it was buying the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), home to the television news magazine program 60 Minutes and famous news journalists Dan Rather, Walter Cronkite, and Edward R. Murrow. The Viacom-CBS merger (completed in May, 2000) would become the largest in U.S. history, with Viacom becoming the second-biggest media conglomerate behind Time Warner. By the end of the decade, approximately seven in ten television households, more than 65 million, had opted to subscribe to cable, generating annual revenues of $48.2 million. In its short history, cable television quickly became a cultural force that significantly redefined news, sports, and music programming and changed the way in which people watched television. Impact

Further Reading

Barron, Stanley J. “Cable and Other Multichannel Services.” In Introduction to Mass Communication: Media Literary and Culture. 3d ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 2004. This university-level textbook covers a variety of media-related topics to help students become better consumers of media content. Includes a chapter on the history of cable and how cable television has shaped and reflected culture.

Cammermeyer, Margarethe


Mullen, Megan. Television in the Multichannel Age: A Brief History of Cable Television. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 2008. Using oral history transcripts, personal interviews, and government documents, Mullen traces the evolution of cable television from its origins in the late 1940’s to the communications satellites and direct broadcast distribution systems of the modern digital age, both in the United States and internationally. Discusses factors that have influenced the television landscape, including government policy making, emerging technologies, and the public’s programming tastes. Parsons, Patrick R. Blue Skies: A History of Cable Television. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2008. A complete history of cable television that traces the social, economic, geographical, political, and technological changes and advancements that created the cable industry. Eddith A. Dashiell Children’s television; Children’s Television Act of 1990; CNN coverage of the Gulf War; Digital divide; MTV Unplugged; Telecommunications Act of 1996; Television; UPN television network; WB television network.

See also

■ Cammermeyer, Margarethe Identification American military officer Born March 24, 1942; Oslo, Norway

As one of the first open homosexuals to reveal themselves within the U.S. military, Cammermeyer was a symbol for the greater visibility of gays and lesbians in the 1990’s. Margarethe Cammermeyer was born in Norway during the wartime Nazi occupation and immigrated to the United States as a child. She joined the U.S. Army as a nurse, served in the Army Reserve in Vietnam, was eventually promoted to full colonel in the Washington National Guard, and became a respected authority in neuroscience in nursing. She married, gave birth to four sons, then divorced. In her forties, she came out as lesbian and started a relationship with another woman. Cammermeyer revealed that she was lesbian in response to a 1989 questionnaire. The Army had long banned homosexuals, ostensibly not for moral or religious reasons but because


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Campaign finance scandal

sexual tension between members of the same sex was judged to have a deleterious effect on unit cohesion and morale. Cammermeyer was honorably discharged in 1992, but she filed a civil suit. After newly elected President Bill Clinton changed the stipulations regarding homosexuals in the military in 1993, and after a federal district judge in Seattle overturned the National Guard’s discharge of her the following year, Cammermeyer was permitted to remain on active duty until she retired in 1996. That year, she ran for Congress in Washington State, winning the Democratic Party nomination but losing by a substantial margin to the Republican candidate in the general election. The Cammermeyer controversy was one of many in the 1990’s featuring the growing visibility of gay and lesbian Americans in a sphere of life where many had assumed they had not existed. Along with the emergence of lesbian cultural figures such as Melissa Etheridge and Ellen DeGeneres, Cammermeyer helped put a human face to the struggle of lesbians and gays for social acceptance. There was a close tie in the 1990’s between gay and lesbian selfassertion and the Clinton administration, which appointed gays and lesbians to high office in unprecedented numbers and generally fostered a tolerant attitude toward homosexuals that often excited sharp opposition among conservative Republicans. A television dramatization, Serving in Silence (1995), starring Glenn Close, helped popularize Cammermeyer’s story even further. The Cammermeyer controversy was also one of several scandals in the 1990’s involving sex and the Army, such as the Tailhook scandal, that revealed a military uncertain in its adaptation to a post-Cold War role. Impact Throughout U.S. history, the military has been a microcosm of society; as various groups have received full civil rights, their participation in the military has been expanded or recognized. The Cammermeyer controversy was a crucial test of whether this progressive narrative extended to gays and lesbians. Further Reading

Cammermeyer, Margarethe. Serving in Silence. New York: Viking Press, 1994. Francke, Linda Bird. Ground Zero: The Gender Wars in the Military. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997. Miller, Diane Helene. Freedom to Differ: The Shaping of

the Gay and Lesbian Struggle for Civil Rights. New York: New York University Press, 1998. Nicholas Birns See also Clinton, Bill; DeGeneres, Ellen; Don’t ask, don’t tell; Etheridge, Melissa; Homosexuality and gay rights; Scandals; Tailhook incident; Women in the military.

■ Campaign finance scandal Interlocking series of scandals involving campaign finance in the 1996 Clinton reelection campaign

The Event

The scandal served as a dark cloud over the final stages of President Bill Clinton’s reelection campaign and a potential legal hazard. Bill Clinton was determined to raise as much money as possible for the 1996 presidential campaign, in part because of the 1994 “Republican Revolution,” in which Republicans gained a majority in both houses of Congress. The victory was of such a magnitude as to foreshadow a likely defeat for Clinton in 1996. Clinton decided to launch an ad campaign to refurbish his image and brought on longtime friend and consultant Dick Morris to run it. Morris estimated the price as at least $1 million per week, which inevitably would increase later, and did not include any other campaign expenses; he later estimated the total campaign cost at $300 million and also estimated that one-third of Clinton’s public schedule, at least while in the United States, involved raising funds. Misuse of the White House Technically, public property such as the White House is not supposed to be used for purely political purposes. In reality, it can be hard to separate policy from politics, and this is made even more difficult because the White House is also the president’s official residence. As Clinton desperately sought money, the White House also became a cash cow for his campaign. White House coffees were used as fund-raisers, and the Lincoln Bedroom, the White House’s guest room, was used similarly. Morris later identified seventeen individuals and four couples who contributed $100,000 or more and attended coffees, as well as thirty-eight individuals and five couples who contributed $100,000

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or more and overnighted in the Lincoln Bedroom (ten individuals and one couple were on both lists). This was the first time the White House had been used that way. Clinton himself claimed that most of the guests at the coffees and in the Lincoln Bedroom were friends, many of whom happened to be major contributors. He continued to say this even after the discovery of a personal memo (after the Center for Public Interest in 1996 charged him with misusing the White House) he wrote after meeting Democratic National Committee (DNC) fund-raiser Terry McAuliffe linking overnight stays at the White House to money donated (the DNC in fact had projected income from overnight stays). The Chinese Connection It is illegal to launder political donations through someone else. In the case of the recipients, the illegality only occurs if they are aware of the laundering. Thus, the most serious scandal involved Vice President Al Gore’s fundraiser at Hsi Lai Buddhist Temple in Los Angeles (organized by Maria Hsia, later identified as a Chinese agent). Though Gore initially made light of the charges, in the end the DNC returned the tainted money. There were other Chinese money-laundering operations as well. Johnny Chung received $300,000 from Ji Shengde, the head of Chinese military intelligence, to pass on to Clinton and the DNC. A Macao hotelier suspected of organized crime ties, Np Lap Seng, gave $1.4 million to Charlie Trie, a longtime friend of Clinton. James Riady, scion of the Indonesian Lippo Group (tied to Clinton friend Webb Hubbell), gave Clinton and the DNC $700,000 in 1992. Papers released in 1998 indicated that this and other contributions were for ending the trade embargo with Vietnam. In 1996, Riady worked with John Huang to supply another $1.6 million in laundered contributions. Not all the laundered money came from China: The $690,000 in laundered funds arranged by Pauline Kanchanalak came from many sources, including three Thai businessmen. The final scandal involved influence peddling rather than money laundering. Inevitably, there was a great deal of this, as is generally true in politics. There are legal consequences only if one can prove that there was an explicit promise of action in exchange for money. In 1998, news came out that in 1996 Loral Space and Communications (whose

Campaign finance scandal


chief executive officer, Bernard Schwartz, was the top Democratic contributor in 1997) and Hughes Electronics provided secret rocket-guidance technology to China that could be used for space launches as well as ballistic missiles. While a grand jury was considering the matter, Clinton overruled the Justice, Defense, and State Departments, approving such high-technology transfers to a potential enemy. Even many Democrats opposed this, including future House Speaker Nancy Pelosi. Legal Consequences The key figures in the moneylaundering scandal either stonewalled or fled to foreign countries. Federal Bureau of Investigation chief Louis Freeh compared these actions to the Mafia rule of omertà. Attorney General Janet Reno made the controversial decision not to appoint an independent prosecutor. As a result, there was no serious pursuit of either Clinton or Gore. In regard to the campaign finance scandal, they faced no charges or impeachment, despite the efforts of a small band of Republicans in early 1997. The others involved fared less well. The DNC in 1996 returned a total of $2.8 million in illegal funds. Many of the illegal contributors were convicted, including Charlie Trie, James Riady, Pauline Kanchanalak, Maria Hsia, Johnny Chung, and John Huang, though some (most notably Huang) basically received slaps on the wrists. The technology transfers led to significant punishments for Hughes and Loral. Impact The scandal probably reduced Clinton’s vote in 1996, thereby depriving him of a majority of popular votes, and the follow-up scandal involving Norman Hsu in Hillary Rodham Clinton’s 2008 presidential campaign was undoubtedly made worse by its similarity to the previous scandal. Without evidence that Bill Clinton’s campaign was aware of illegal contributions, there was no legal case against Clinton, Gore, or their top campaign staff. Further Reading

Clinton, Bill. My Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004. Includes the former president’s perspective on the scandal. Harris, John F. The Survivor: Bill Clinton in the White House. New York: Random House, 2005. Extensive study of the Clinton presidency, including a brief discussion of the campaign finance scandal. Limbaugh, David. Absolute Power: The Legacy of Cor-


Campbell, Kim

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ruption in the Clinton-Reno Justice Department. Washington, D.C.: Regnery, 2001. A critical look at the Justice Department under Reno, including three chapters focusing on the campaign finance scandal and providing considerable details on all its aspects. Lowry, Rich. Legacy: Paying the Price for the Clinton Years. Washington, D.C.: Regnery, 2003. A critical look at the Clinton administration, including the various scandals. Morris, Dick, and Eileen McGann. Because He Could. New York: ReganBooks, 2004. Biography of Clinton as politician by a longtime aide and friend involved in the 1996 campaign. Includes a brief discussion of each scandal. Smith, Sally Bedell. For Love of Politics: Bill and Hillary Clinton—The White House Years. New York: Random House, 2007. A study of the Clinton administration, with a special focus on the dynamics between the Clintons. Timothy Lane Brown, Ron; China and the United States; Clinton, Bill; Clinton’s impeachment; Clinton’s scandals; Elections in the United States, midterm; Elections in the United States, 1996; Foreign policy of the United States; Gore, Al; Morris, Dick; Reno, Janet; Republican Revolution.

See also

■ Campbell, Kim Prime minister of Canada, JuneNovember, 1993 Born March 10, 1947; Port Alberni, British Columbia, Canada Identification

Campbell was Canada’s nineteenth prime minister and the first woman to serve in that position. Kim Campbell first emerged on the Canadian political scene at the municipal level when she became a school trustee in the city of Vancouver in 1980. A lawyer by training, her next move was to the provincial legislature as a member of the governing Social Credit Party. Her meteoric political rise continued when in 1988 she was elected as a Progressive Conservative member of Parliament to the government of Prime Minister Brian Mulroney. Mulroney quickly appointed her as a cabinet minister. It was in the 1990’s that her ascent reached its

Kim Campbell is sworn into office as Canadian prime minister on June 25, 1993. (AP/Wide World Photos)

highest point, and Campbell, as a woman, established a number of political firsts. In 1990, she became the first woman appointed as minister of justice in the Canadian government. In that capacity she succeeded in passing legislation to strengthen gun control and to protect the rights of victims of sexual assault. In 1993, she became the first ever female minister of defense. In contrast to her growing profile, the government and Prime Minister Mulroney in particular became increasingly unpopular. In February, 1993, Mulroney announced his retirement as prime minister, and Campbell, despite her short time in the Progressive Conservative Party, quickly became the favorite to succeed him. At a leadership convention in June, 1993, she became leader of the party and, because the party controlled the government, prime minister. In her short term in office, she reorganized the government before seeking an electoral mandate in a general election

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on October 25, 1993. The result was a disaster for Campbell and her government. Not only did the Conservatives lose the election to the Liberals under the leadership of Jean Chrétien but also Campbell lost her own seat in Parliament, and her party managed to win only two seats, its worst defeat in history. Campbell, now one of the shortest-serving Canadian prime ministers ever, quickly resigned as party leader and disappeared from political life. Impact Campbell’s political success ultimately did not have a lasting impact beyond the symbolism of having achieved high political status as a woman, including becoming Canada’s first female prime minister. Although representing a first for women by becoming prime minister, even this legacy lacked strength, as the only election she actually fought while prime minister led to her party’s worst electoral defeat in history. This was largely nothing to do with Campbell but instead reflected continuing anger toward former prime minister Brian Mulroney as well as the rise of strong regional political parties in Quebec and western Canada that took votes away from the Conservatives. Further Reading

Dobbin, Murray. The Politics of Kim Campbell: From School Trustee to Prime Minister. Toronto: Lorimer, 1993. Fife, Robert. Kim Campbell: The Making of a Politician. Toronto: HarperCollins, 1993. Steve Hewitt See also Bloc Québécois; Chrétien, Jean; Elections in Canada; Mulroney, Brian; Women’s rights.

■ Canada and the British Commonwealth Diplomatic, cultural, educational, and economic relations among Canada, the United Kingdom, and the other Commonwealth countries


Canada continued to be a senior partner in the Commonwealth as the latter moved from being a political force and trading bloc to taking on a more cultural and educational role, upholding and encouraging principles of democracy and good governance in its member states.

Canada and the British Commonwealth


Over the half century after World War II, the British Empire devolved all its power back to the individual states that it comprised. For a while, trade preferences and monetary systems held the Commonwealth together, but this role ceased with Britain’s membership in the European Union, and later, Canada’s joining a free trade agreement with the United States and then the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). What remained has been described as a “gentlemen’s club,” with regular meetings of heads of states, a recognition of the British queen as head of the Commonwealth, and the common language of English. Strong educational and cultural ties and traditions have also remained. Canada has traditionally seen the Commonwealth as a cultural and political counterbalance to the influence of the United States, though with NAFTA, this has inevitably weakened. Nevertheless, Canada remains one of sixteen Commonwealth countries to be a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II as its sovereign, represented by a governorgeneral residing in the capital, Ottawa. Although the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings (CHOGMs) have no force in law, the agreements of these biennial meetings have considerable weight. In the 1980’s, Canada played a considerable part in these meetings with Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau’s seniority as a Commonwealth statesman. His successor, Brian Mulroney, was an equally keen supporter of the Commonwealth. During the 1980’s, CHOGMs had been deadlocked over sanctions against South Africa, a former Commonwealth member. Mulroney led strongly against the apartheid system, which indeed collapsed at the turn of the decade, leading to the rejoining of the Republic of South Africa in 1994. Probably the most significant CHOGM of the decade was the 1991 meeting held in Harare, Zimbabwe, where “rules” for the democratic credentials of its members were laid down, thus fixing the foci for future political development and cooperation. Significantly, Nigeria’s membership was suspended at the 1995 meeting, as its military dictatorship executed several civil rights activists during the conference itself. It was Nelson Mandela, the new South African president, who led the call for this. Besides meetings for heads of government, there were regular meetings for education and finance ministers of Commonwealth countries, in all of



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Canada and the British Commonwealth

which Canada took part. As one of the wealthier nations, Canada contributed significantly to the budget for such meetings. The Commonwealth Games The Commonwealth Games are probably the most visible demonstration of the Commonwealth. Held every four years, the games attract representatives from most of the Commonwealth countries, with seventy countries in 1994. The first event was held in 1930 in Hamilton, Ontario. Canada’s most successful games had been on home soil, at Edmonton in 1978, where the Canadians led the medals table, beating traditional rivals Australia and England. In the 1990’s, there were three games, the most significant for Canada being the 1994 games, held at Victoria, British Columbia, using its Centennial Stadium. The host country traditionally does well, and this occasion was no exception, with Canada winning a record 133 medals, though still unable to overtake Australia, which dominated all three games of the decade. The Victoria Games were also memorable for the readmittance of South African athletes and, for the first time, the inclusion of handicapped athletes—in athletic, swimming, and bowl events. Sadly, 1994 was the last time that Hong Kong athletes would participate in the games, prior to the territory’s annexation into China. Canada remained traditionally strong in gymnastics, swimming and diving, shooting, and wrestling. In both 1990 and 1994, for example, Canada won the team gold medal for men’s gymnastics and women’s rhythmic gymnastics. In 1990 in Auckland, New Zealand, gymnast Curtis Hibbert collected five individual golds and one silver. Gymnast Lori Strong took three golds and a bronze in those games, while her fellow gymnast Erika-Leigh Stirton collected five golds at the 1998 games in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, the first time the games had been held in an Asian country. In other sports, Canada performed very well in 1994 in athletics, winning four golds and seven silvers. Outstanding were the performances of Angela Chalmers in the 3,000 meters, where she added a gold to the two golds she won at Auckland, and Mike Smith, winning a gold for the decathlon to add to his Auckland gold. In boxing, Mike Strange won a gold in the lightweight division, a victory he was to repeat in 1998. Tanya Dubnicoff won the gold medal in the women’s sprint cycle race. In diving, the women captured seven of the nine medals available.

The Commonwealth of Learning Of a number of institutions the Commonwealth had set up, the Commonwealth of Learning was probably the most significant for Canada. It had been proposed by Canada in the 1980’s, and land had been donated in Vancouver, British Columbia. Its aim was to provide educational resources to the developing countries of the Commonwealth, especially through electronic means and prepared packages for use on-site. It was not a university, nor did it have students or scholarships. Nevertheless, it has been able to develop learning resources in many fields, especially in banking, government, and administration. Parallel to this is the Commonwealth Foundation, based in London, which provides travel grants, cultural exchanges, and cooperation between nongovernmental, professional, and cultural bodies. Impact Much of the impact of the Commonwealth has been low-key. For example, out of the 1994 Commonwealth Games, the Canadian committee of the games and the government offered to produce a number of teaching packages for coaching individual athletes in developing countries, where sports facilities were limited. Canadian universities continued to welcome Commonwealth students and host Commonwealth conferences of various sorts. For example, the inaugural conference of the Commonwealth Association for Public Administration and Management was held in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, in 1995. Further Reading

Buckner, Phillip, ed. Canada and the End of Empire. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2005. Chapters on postcolonialism and Canada’s relationship with the United Kingdom. Commonwealth Secretariat. Current Good Practices and New Developments in Public Service Management: Profile of the Public Service of Canada. London: Author, 1994. Part of the public-service profile of best practices in various Commonwealth countries. Dheensaw, Cleve. The Commonwealth Games: The First Sixty Years, 1930-1990. Auckland, New Zealand: Hodder & Stoughton, 1994. Traces the development of the games. Pictures and statistics. David Barratt Foreign policy of Canada; Mulroney, Brian; North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

See also

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■ Canada and the United States The domestic and foreign policy issues that define relations between Canada and the United States


Canada and the United States share the longest undefended border in the world. Relations between the two nations reflect a common British heritage, language, and goals. The two countries worked closely during the 1990’s: On the domestic front, the establishment of the North American Free Trade Agreement removed trade barriers between them; on issues of foreign policy, Canada cooperated with U.S.-led interventions around the world. The 1990’s brought two American presidents, George H. W. Bush (1989-1993) and Bill Clinton (1993-2001), into discussions with Canadian prime ministers Brian Mulroney (1984-1993), Kim Campbell (1993), and Jean Chrétien (1993-2003). The leaders of both nations addressed the domestic issues of trade (namely NAFTA, the North American Free Trade Agreement), international terrorism, narcotrafficking, poverty, G7 and G8 summits, the environment, and foreign policy actions in the Gulf War, Bosnia, Cuba, and Kosovo. By the 1990’s, Canadian national identity was strengthened by the redefined relationship with Great Britain, with whom Canada shares a common sovereign, and the resolution of the Quebec separatist movement. In 1982, Canada assumed control over its own constitution, severing Canada’s legislative ties to London’s Parliament and ending a final vestige of Canada’s colonial past. The Meech Lake and Charlottetown Accords (1987 and 1992), which would have given Quebec special status within the Canadian confederation, failed to achieve ratification by the required number of provincial legislatures. Quebec’s threats to secede from Canada were dealt a lethal blow in 1995, when a second Quebec referendum failed to achieve a majority vote to create an independent state. A renewed sense of national identity strengthened Canada’s bargaining position with the United States and led to more divergent positions between the two nations.

Canadian Identity

NAFTA and the Kyoto Protocol The North American Free Trade Agreement took effect January 1, 1994, and was fully implemented in 2008. Most trade and investment barriers have been removed among

Canada and the United States


Canada, the United States, and Mexico. Almost all tariffs on agricultural trade between Canada and the United States were removed by 1998. Canada is the United States’ largest export market, with an 81 percent increase since 1990 and trade worth over $450 million. Canadian approval of NAFTA was facilitated by the previously negotiated Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement in 1989; Mulroney’s reelection victory (1988), which included a national debate on NAFTA; and the close professional relationship shared by Prime Minister Mulroney with Presidents Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush. However, Canada and the United States diverged when Canada became the first major industrialized country to sign the international accord on biodiversity and climate change proposed by the United Nations Conference on the Environment, the Kyoto Protocol, in 1998 (ratified in 2002). The United States has yet to ratify this agreement. The Gulf War, Bosnia, and Kosovo Canada was the first nation to condemn the Iraqi-led invasion of Kuwait in 1990 and contributed four thousand troops in the U.N.-backed and U.S.-led coalition force of thirty-four nations. Prime Minister Mulroney assigned two destroyers to enforce a trade blockade of Iraq, a supply ship to aid coalition forces, a CF-18 air squadron, and a field hospital. No Canadian casualties were suffered while under U.S. command. Canadian forces undertook peacekeeping operations in Bosnia in 1993 under U.N. command, and in Kosovo in 1999 as part of their military commitment to the U.S.-led North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The Chrétien-Clinton Era During the tenure of Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, a close relationship developed between the prime minister and President Bill Clinton. A state visit to Canada in 1995, a prelude to the G7 conference in Halifax, Nova Scotia, emphasized the shared agenda of Canada and the United States. The two nations agreed to continue to work to stabilize Haiti and to resolve trade disputes over wheat, timber, and salmon fishing. Agreements between Canada and the United States achieved improvements in combating terrorism and organized crime but fell short on the issue of drug trafficking with Canada’s consideration of decriminalizing marijuana. At a 1997 state dinner in Washington, D.C., both Clinton and Chrétien agreed to work together on the International Space Station


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Cancer research

and signed a bilateral agreement to protect cultural heritage property of an archaeological and ethnological nature from being illegally exported between their countries. They diverged when Chrétien made an official visit to communist Cuba in 1998 and advocated an end to the U.S. embargo of the island nation. An attempt by one man to bring bomb-making materials into the United States through Washington state in 1998 and the discovery of terrorist cells in both Canada and the United States has forced both nations since the incident to reevaluate travel across and the policing of their common border. Impact A stronger Canadian national identity led Canada to consider adoption of laws more in common with European Union members than with the United States on marijuana, health care, same-sex marriage, pollution, and immigration. Trade and tourism continued to strengthen ties between both nations. Cheaper Canadian labor, advanced technology, and a highly trained workforce increased the number of U.S. firms establishing operations in Canada. Canadian surpluses in natural gas and oil reflect a cooperative U.S.-Canadian investment that is duplicated in agriculture, communications, and biotechnology industries. Cheaper Canadian labor has led to more U.S. television shows and films being produced in Vancouver, Toronto, Montreal, and other Canadian locations. The emergence of a strong Canadian identity stressing multicultural sensitivities witnessed acceptance by the United States that the two nations would have more divergent approaches to common problems. Further Reading

Adams, Michael. Fire and Ice: The U.S., Canada, and the Myth of Converging Values. Toronto: Penguin Canada, 2004. A comparative study of Canada and the United States that challenges traditional beliefs. Bothwell, Robert. Canada and the United States: The Politics of Partnership. New York: Twayne, 1992. A review of U.S.-Canadian relations over several centuries. Chrétien, Jean. My Years as Prime Minister. Toronto: Alfred A. Knopf, 2007. Details the contacts with U.S. presidents. Clinton, Bill. My Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004. Clinton’s biography discusses the state of U.S.-Canadian ties. Kennedy, Kevin C., ed. The First Decade of NAFTA: The

Future of Free Trade in North America. Ardsley, N.Y.: Transnational, 2004. Evaluates the pros and cons of NAFTA for Canada, the United States, and Mexico. Mulroney, Brian. Memoirs 1939-1993. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 2007. Offers an understanding of the ties with three U.S. presidents. Thompson, John Herd, and Stephen J. Randall. Canada and the United States: Ambivalent Allies. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1994. Raises the question of whether the United States and Canada are truly close, cooperative allies. Weaver, R. Kent. The Collapse of Canada? Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1992. Presents the debate about whether Canada can survive French Quebec nationalism and the strong influence of American culture. Webber, Jeremy. Reimagining Canada. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1994. Offers consideration of Canada’s future identity with its strong separatist tendencies and the dominating influences of American culture. William A. Paquette See also Bloc Québécois; Bosnia conflict; Bush, George H. W.; Campbell, Kim; Chrétien, Jean; Clinton, Bill; Elections in Canada; Foreign policy of Canada; Foreign policy of the United States; Gulf War; Kosovo conflict; Kyoto Protocol; Mulroney, Brian; North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA); Quebec referendum of 1995.

■ Cancer research Scientific investigation of the class of malignant tumors threatening human health


During the 1990’s, cancer research centered on the genetic basis of the disease. Several specific genes associated with increased cancer risk were identified. Research also addressed alternative mechanisms by which chemotherapy could be applied for control of the disease. In the 1980’s, researchers began to view most cancers as genetic diseases rather than having an infectious origin. The discovery of proto-oncogenes and the role they play in cell regulation became the key to such an understanding, with the underlying implication that one might screen for certain cancers.

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Acting with the knowledge that approximately 10 percent of breast cancers run in families, researchers identified mutations in two genes, BRCA1 and 2, as being associated with such cancers. In 1990, the locus for the BRCA1 gene was found on chromosome 17; BRCA2 was linked to chromosome 13 four years later, making it possible to screen for this form of cancer. In 1994, a marker was likewise identified for a rare form of thyroid cancer. The RET (rearranged during transfection) proto-oncogene, a membrane receptor for the enzyme tyrosine kinase that functions to regulate cell division, was found to undergo either amplification or rearrangement in children with this disease. In addition, increased risk for colon cancer was linked to several genetic markers. While the enzyme telomerase was not encoded by a protooncogene, Dr. Robert Weinberg demonstrated that its presence and activity may be necessary for cancer cells to survive. Certain risk factors or behaviors had been linked to some cancers for years. In particular, evidence that changes in the diet from one of high saturated fat to what has been called the “Mediterranean diet”—one rich in tomatoes and olive oil—was linked to reduced risk for colon and prostate cancer. An American Cancer Society (ACS) guideline released in 1996 suggested that one-third of cancers could be prevented with healthier diets. The strongest recommendation involved the link between smoking and respiratory cancers; the ACS strongly recommended that use of all forms of tobacco, including smokeless (such as snuff), be reduced. The danger of even secondhand smoke was recognized during the decade. Studies demonstrated that a significant risk of lung and other forms of respiratory cancers was found among spouses of smokers. In 1993, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) called environmental tobacco smoke—secondhand smoke—a human carcinogen, estimating that three thousand persons who are not themselves smokers die annually from lung cancer produced by secondhand smoke. This estimate did not even address the increased risk of cardiovascular disease. An estimated 150,000-300,000 cases of respiratory disease such as pneumonia or bronchitis in children result from secondhand smoke.

Genetic Markers and Risk Factors

Chemotherapy Several forms of chemotherapy were approved during the decade. In 1994, Taxol

Cancer research


(paclitaxel) was approved as a treatment for advanced breast cancer. Additional drugs, tamoxifen and raloxifene, were also approved for control of breast cancers. It was reported in 1998 that tamoxifen had reduced the incidence of breast cancer in “high-risk” women by approximately 45 percent, while raloxifene reduced the incidence of breast cancer in postmenopausal women by 75 percent. Meanwhile, camptostar was approved as a treatment for advanced colon cancer. Other treatments utilized new forms of monoclonal antibodies, molecules directed at markers specific to cancer cell surfaces. Herceptin was the first form of such molecules specific for certain types of breast cancer. Other types of monoclonal antibodies were approved for use in treating certain lymphomas. Impact With the exception of smoking-related cancers—lung and respiratory, in particular—the incidence of most forms of cancer either leveled off or even continued to be reduced during the decade. These changes could be attributed to several factors. First was the importance of early screening. The discovery that certain forms of cancer have a congenital basis—breast cancers, thyroid cancer, albeit a rare form, and even certain types of colon cancer— meant that doctors could screen persons at risk. In addition, improved methods of treatment were developed and applied during the decade, the object of which was either to improve the possibility of cure or at least to prolong life. In 1990, the surgeon general released a report emphasizing the benefits of quitting smoking. Approximately 47 million adults constituted the smoking population—27 percent of men, 23 percent of women. Given the approximate twenty-year lag between initiation of smoking and development of cancer, changes in cancer incidence would not be observed for decades. Nevertheless, a reduction in the smoking population that originated decades earlier began to demonstrate effects by 1999. While 172,000 cases of respiratory cancer were diagnosed that year, the incidence in men had declined from 86.5 per 100,000 in 1984 to below 42 per 100,000. The incidence of colon and rectal cancer continued to decline, the result of improved screening and polyp removal. Some 129,400 cases were diagnosed in 1999, a number that averaged a decline of 1.4 percent for


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Carey, Mariah

each year during the 1990’s. Overall, cancer deaths fell by nearly 1 percent during the decade.

■ Carey, Mariah

Further Reading


Allison, Lizabeth A. Fundamental Molecular Biology. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 2007. Extensive coverage of molecular biology. Several sections address the molecular biology of cancer and disruptions in gene regulation that may lead to a malignancy. Coffin, John M., Stephen H. Hughes, and Harold E. Varmus, eds. Retroviruses. Plainview, N.Y.: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1997. Story of retroviruses and the role they played in the discovery of oncogenes. McKinnell, Robert G., et al. The Biological Basis of Cancer. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Updated text that addresses the genetics and pathology of the disease. A simplified version of much of the material can be found in the Weinberg book. Narod, Steven, and William Foulkes. “BRCA1 and BRCA2: 1994 and Beyond.” Nature Reviews: Cancer 4 (2004): 665-676. Description of the two genes associated with congenital forms of breast cancer, accounting for twenty thousand cases annually. Roles played by the protein products. Pelengaris, Stella, and Michael Khan, eds. The Molecular Biology of Cancer. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 2006. Extensive discussion of the discovery of oncogenes and their role in development of cancer. Weinberg, Robert A. The Biology of Cancer. New York: Garland Science, 2006. Extensive coverage of the subject within a college textbook. The author is a major figure involved in understanding the molecular biology of the disease, and in particular, the roles played by cellular oncogenes. Richard Adler

American singer, songwriter, and producer Born March 27, 1970; Huntington, Long Island, New York In 1990, Carey amazed listeners with her self-titled debut album. Her versatile vocal range and ability to blend gospel, pop, and rhythm and blues brought her immediate success. Mariah Carey met her future husband, Tommy Mottola, president and chief operating officer of Sony Music Entertainment, at a music industry party in 1988. The chance meeting provided Carey with the impetus she needed to launch her career. Mottola realized Carey’s potential and quickly created a contract for her with Columbia Records. Her first album, released in 1990 when she was just twenty years old, included four number one singles—“Vision of Love,” “Love Takes Time,” “I Don’t Wanna Cry,” and “Someday”—and sold over seven million copies. Carey cowrote each of these songs and was also directly involved with their production. “Vision of Love” earned her two Grammy Awards that year. Carey’s success continued with her second album, Emotions (1991), whose title track became her fifth top single.

AIDS epidemic; Genetics research; Health care; Medicine; Pharmaceutical industry; Science and technology; Stem cell research.

See also

Mariah Carey, left, and Whitney Houston perform their Oscar-nominated song, “When You Believe,” during the 1999 Academy Awards in Los Angeles. (AP/Wide World Photos)

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While Carey quickly reached the top of many music charts, she received criticism for not presenting herself at many public appearances. As a result, in 1992 she performed live on MTV Unplugged and released an album of the performance. Her whirlwind career included a glamorous marriage to Mottola in 1993 and the release of her fourth album, Music Box. The recording of Merry Christmas (1994) and Daydream (1995) soon followed. Carey announced her pending divorce in 1997, the year she joined hiphop and rap singers to record Butterfly. Next she joined pop star Whitney Houston to record the song “When You Believe” for Disney’s The Prince of Egypt (1998). In 1999, it earned the Academy Award for Best Original Song, and Columbia Records released Carey’s thirteen hit singles in an album titled #1’s. Carey’s work of the 1990’s culminated with the release of her ninth album, Rainbow (1999). This recording included the song “Heartbreaker,” which brought her music to the top of the charts for the tenth consecutive year. In that year, she made her film debut as an opera singer in The Bachelor and released a video of her world performances, Around the World. Impact Mariah Carey was a top female singer and composer of the 1990’s. She sang beautifully, wrote or coauthored most of her own music, and helped produce other artists’ work. She had several tours and appeared in various television shows. Commercial success allowed Carey to become a philanthropist for her favorite charities, including the MakeA-Wish Foundation and the National Adoption Center. She also helped found Camp Mariah, a Fresh Air Camp for inner-city children in New York. Further Reading

Conti, Kathe A. “Mariah Carey.” In Dictionary of Hispanic Biography, edited by Joseph C. Tardiff and L. Mpho Mabunda. New York: Gale Research, 1996. Taylor, B. Kimberly, and Shannon McCarthy. “Mariah Carey.” In Contemporary Musicians, edited by Angela M. Pilchak. Detroit: Thomson/Gale, 2006. Cynthia J. W. Svoboda See also


Academy Awards; MTV Unplugged; Music;



■ Carjacking Definition

Forcible theft of an occupied motor

vehicle The number of carjackings grew from approximately 35,000 attempts per year between 1987 and 1992 to approximately 49,000 carjackings per year between 1992 and 1996. Carjacking differs from motor vehicle theft in that the vehicle is taken in the presence of the victim and the offender uses force or the threat of force. In the early 1990’s, carjackings, which appear to be crimes of opportunity, targeted older people, women, and tourists. According to newspaper accounts, tourists in Florida appeared to be the most frequent targets, since they often carried large amounts of cash. As a result, the state outlawed logos or other markings that identified vehicles as rental cars. In the spring of 1992, Representative Charles Schumer of New York introduced new legislation aimed at auto theft in general rather than carjacking in particular. This bill became the Anti-Car Theft Act of 1992. Although in approximately 84 percent of carjackings the victim is not injured, the sensational case of Pamela Basu and her twenty-two-month-old daughter made national news. In the fall of 1992, Basu’s car, with her daughter inside, was carjacked by two men. Basu became tangled in her seat belt while trying to rescue her daughter. As a result, she was dragged almost two miles, suffering fatal injuries. Her daughter was thrown uninjured from the car shortly afterward. This incident became the rallying point for the passage of a provision in the Anti-Car Theft Act of 1992, which was signed into law on October 25, 1992, by President George H. W. Bush. In a twelve-month period from 1997 to 1998, eight infants aged two months to fourteen months were kidnapped in carjackings. It appeared that most of the offenders did not know the child was in the vehicle and abandoned the vehicle and/or the baby a short time after the child was discovered. Impact The passage of the Anti-Car Theft Act resulted in a challenge under the double jeopardy clause of the U.S. Constitution. According to federal statutes, a person who used a firearm in the commission of a carjacking could also be punished for carrying a firearm in the commission of a violent crime. In United States v. Singleton (1994), the Fifth Circuit


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Carpal tunnel syndrome

Court judge decided that since both laws applied to the same act, it was double jeopardy. A provision of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 amended the Anti-Car Theft Act by adding the possibility of a death penalty if the carjacking victim was killed; the clause concerning the possession of a firearm was replaced by a clause referring to the offender’s intent to cause severe bodily injury or death. Further Reading

Klaus, Patsy. Carjackings in the United States, 1992-96. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1999. Rand, Michael. Carjacking: National Crime Victimization Survey. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1994. Gerald P. Fisher Automobile industry; Byrd murder case; Crime; Drive-by shootings.

See also

■ Carpal tunnel syndrome Definition

A repetitive strain injury affecting the

wrists Although known for years as a syndrome with meatpackers and other manual laborers, carpal tunnel syndrome in white-collar workers became more prominent during the 1990’s. Repetitive strain injury was first described in 1713 by Bernardino Ramazzini. During the 1990’s, repetitive strain injuries, which include carpal tunnel syndrome, increased substantially among the industries that were computer-intensive, becoming one the fastest-growing health problems in American businesses and costing billions of dollars. Between 1990 and 1997, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported an 80 percent increase in incidents of repetitive strain injury, with 8.4 million workers affected in 1999 alone. Carpal tunnel syndrome involves a swelling in the carpal tunnel, a small area in the wrist between the bones and the transverse carpal ligament. Blood vessels and the median nerve pass through this tunnel and, when the tunnel is swollen and irritated, pres-

sure is put on the median nerve by an increase in fluid buildup. The most common symptoms of carpal tunnel are a dull ache in the hand, forearm, or upper arm, as well as fatigue, tingling, numbness, burning sensation, or weakness in the hand. There is no clear reason why some people develop carpal tunnel syndrome and others do not. Risk factors include wrist injuries, inflammatory diseases, pregnancy, thyroid disease, diabetes, and repetitive motions, although some people develop the condition for no specific reason. Movements that involve prolonged or repetitive motion of the wrist put people at risk for the syndrome. Many people assumed that computer and mouse usage were responsible for an increase in hand numbness and tingling symptoms. With the increase in Internet access as well as the explosion of video games and e-mail opportunities, physicians began seeing younger people complaining of carpal tunnel symptoms. The symptoms were often ignored until there was significant damage to the nerve. The damage takes place over time and is slow to heal. Treatment and prevention include proper posture so that the back and shoulder muscles do not have to work so hard and so that the nerves and blood supply are not pinched. Positioning the arms and wrists correctly also prevents overworking the muscles in the forearm. Taking short breaks, stretching, and conditioning exercises can help prevent the symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. For people already affected, physical therapy and refraining from the repetitive work may be necessary, although permanent damage to the median nerve can result in lifelong disability. Impact During the 1990’s, the common assumption was that computer usage put people at a higher risk for carpal tunnel syndrome. A few studies have either proved inconclusive or shown that there is no increase in incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome in computer users as compared to the general population. Computer users, however, more often have temporary symptoms of numbness or tingling and still seem to comprise a large portion of the many documented cases of carpal tunnel syndrome. Further Reading

Damany, Suparna, and Jack Bellis. It’s Not Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: RSI Theory and Therapy for Computer Professionals. Philadelphia: Simax, 2000.

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Johansson, Philip. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Other Repetitive Strain Injuries. Berkeley Heights, N.J.: Enslow, 1999. Virginia L. Salmon See also

Computers; Internet; Medicine.

■ Carrey, Jim Canadian American actor and comedian Born January 17, 1962; Newmarket, Ontario, Canada Identification

During the 1990’s, comedian Jim Carrey showcased his goofy talents in many films, having opened up the decade by appearing in television’s edgy sketch comedy series In Living Color. Not since Jerry Lewis, Lucille Ball, and Charlie Chaplin had audiences been so entertained by someone so adept at physical comedy. Drawn at a young age to performing clownishly for his peers, James Eugene Carrey dropped out of high school, moving to Los Angeles in 1979. The 1980’s were a time of struggle for the young artist. He appeared in supporting roles in several films and eventually found regular work as a stand-up comedian. In 1990, he joined the cast in the sketch comedy series In Living Color. Immediately his particular brand of exaggerated lunacy became a favorite of many fans. Outrageously funny, Carrey specialized in overthe-top, extreme body and facial movements in his manic antics. Carrey’s film career took off during the 1990’s. He tirelessly threw himself into a rigorous schedule, developing eccentric characters for various films, including Ace Ventura: Pet Detective, The Mask, and Dumb and Dumber in 1994; Batman Forever (playing the Riddler) and Ace Ventura: When Nature Calls in 1995; The Cable Guy in 1996; Liar, Liar in 1997; The Truman Show in 1998; and Man on the Moon in 1999. In these last two films, Carrey extended his reach into dramatic roles that earned him two Golden Globe Awards. In The Truman Show, he played a man exploited by the entertainment industry. His uncanny portrayal of the late comedian Andy Kaufman in Man on the Moon was critically acclaimed. In 1997, People magazine named Carrey one of the fifty most beautiful people in the world. Carrey

Carrey, Jim


divorced twice during the 1990’s. He has one child, Jane, with his first wife, Melissa. Impact One of the great comedic actors of the 1990’s, Jim Carrey amazed audiences with his flair for physical fun and, late in the decade, with his dramatic performances. He continued to star in a variety of films in the early twenty-first century, including the highly acclaimed romantic dramedy Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind (2004). Further Reading

Knelman, Martin. Jim Carrey: The Joker Is Wild. Buffalo, N.Y.: Firefly Books, 2000. Trakin, Roy. Jim Carrey: Unmasked! New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995. Jan Hall Comedians; Film in Canada; Film in the United States; In Living Color; Television.

See also

Jim Carrey does a comic routine before presenting an award at the 1996 Academy Awards. (AP/Wide World Photos)


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Casual Fridays

■ Casual Fridays Work days identified by businesses when employees are allowed to dress casually


Prior to the 1990’s, most companies had dress codes for employees that did not include casual clothing items. Employers saw that allowing their employees to dress casually and more comfortably was a way to give workers a “perk” without using any resources. The idea behind casual Fridays was that dressing casually would be more comfortable for employees and would thereby improve productivity, morale, and communication. The computer industry is often credited with starting this trend in the 1990’s by giving their programmers this perquisite to encourage creativity. Clothing for casual Fridays often included khaki pants or skirts, polo shirts, and cardigan sweaters. Men’s crisp suits and starched white shirts were replaced with chino pants and a sport coat worn without a necktie. Women wore trouser socks and loafers instead of high heels and pantyhose. While these casual dress codes were less formal than traditional business dress codes, some garments remained inappropriate in a professional environment, as employers reminded their workers that clients and customers are often influenced by dress and appearance. Tattered jeans and most denim garments, athletic shoes, sweatshirts, tank tops or halter tops, and beach wear were not acceptable clothing items for the workplace and were seen as detracting from credibility and professionalism. Also, any clothing that was too tight, too short, or too revealing was inappropriate, as were T-shirts with alcohol, tobacco, or drug slogans. Sandals and open-toed shoes also remained too casual for some businesses. Impact As business and industry adopted a more casual dress code in the 1990’s, manufacturers met the customers’ demand for twill cotton pants and skirts and knit polo shirts, while sales for men’s ties and women’s hosiery plunged. Some major retailers provided “casual career” shops within their department stores. However, casual Fridays may have peaked and started a decline. Web sites, textbooks, and fashion consultants advise that people perform better when they look more professional.

Some businesses started to rethink their dress codes, and a return to a more tradi-

Subsequent Events

tional business dress evolved. Companies discovered that casual dress often resulted in casual work and that casual Friday led to “casual everyday.” Some businesses replaced casual Friday with “dress-up Thursday,” with positive reports from employees, managers, and customers. Further Reading

Johnson Gross, Kim, and Jeff Stone. Work Clothes: Casual Dress for Serious Work. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996. Kaplan-Leiserson, Eva. “Back-to-Business Attire: Society of Human Resource Management Report Says Casual Dress Codes Declining.” Training & Development 54, no. 11 (November, 2000): 39. Leigh Southward See also Dot-coms; Employment in Canada; Employment in the United States; Fashions and clothing; Women in the workforce.

■ Cell phones Wireless telephones that use radio signals to transmit and receive messages


Cell phones have revolutionized the way that people communicate with each other and have greatly affected an individual’s accessibility, security, and coordination of activities. After fifteen years of research and development under the direction of Martin Cooper, the first truly portable cell phone was manufactured by Motorola in 1983. As a result of innovations in cellular networks that enabled phone calls to be switched from a network in one geographical area to a network in another, the use of cell phones became increasingly popular during the late 1980’s. In the early 1990’s, in addition to mobile car phones, tote bag models that could be hooked to a car battery through the cigarette lighter and briefcase models that had their own large battery to provide power were developed. By 1991, North American cellular phone companies were using digital cellular service in place of analog service. The chosen technologies for these second-generation cell phones were Global System for Mobile (GSM) Communications, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). This protocol allowed up to

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bols that provided a convenient way of communicating. They were particularly useful in the case of an emergency. Martin Cooper and Arlene Harris founded a company called SOS Wireless in the early 1990’s to accommodate the senior population with cellular telephone service for emergencies. By 1999, cell phone sales exceeded sixty-nine million in the United States. Impact Cell phones have become invaluable tools not only for personal communications but also for business communications. Through the use of cellular technology, remote areas have been provided with telephone service without the installation of telephone lines. The development of digital cell phones in the 1990’s led to third-generation cell phones that provide not only wireless vocal communication but also text messaging, Internet access, and video communication. These phones contain cameras, calendars, and alarm clocks, as well as provide data storage and increasingly better signal coverage. One major concern with the frequent use of cell phones is the possible link of radio wave radiation with the development of brain cancer. Further Reading

As cell phone technology developed, the phones became smaller, lighter, and cheaper.

eight users to occupy each of the channels that were spaced 200 kilohertz apart in the 1900 megahertz bandwidth used by North American GSM. All cell phones communicate through radio signals with a cell site base station whose antennae are usually mounted on a tower, pole, or building. As digital technology grew, cell phone sales in the United States approached five million by the end of 1991. For three fundamental reasons, cell phone sales soared during the 1990’s. First, digital circuit switch transmission provided quicker network signaling that increased call quality and reduced the number of dropped calls. Second, with advancements in battery technology and computer chip technology, digital cell phones became smaller. Handheld cell phones weighed less than half a pound. Third, by the mid-1990’s, the average cost of a cell phone had dropped below $50. Cell phones became status sym-

Agar, Jon. Constant Touch: A Global History of the Mobile Phone. Blue Ridge Summit, Pa.: Totem Books, 2005. Goggin, Gerard. Cell Phone Culture: Mobile Technology in Everyday Life. New York: Routledge, 2006. Alvin K. Benson See also Computers; Digital audio; Instant messaging; Internet; Inventions; Science and technology.

■ Censorship The suppression of speech or material considered objectionable


While pressure groups sought to censor sexual, violent, and other objectionable media content, often successfully, during the 1990’s, the U.S. Supreme Court continued to call upon the First Amendment in defense of freedom of expression. The chilling effect of a decade of controversy over objectionable content in the media led to increasing selfcensorship on the part of artists and commercial entities. By mid-decade, these censorship battles were extended into cyberspace.


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Censorship battles that had been engaged in the 1980’s, ranging from the content of popular music albums to art museum exhibits, reached degrees of resolution during the 1990’s. Supreme Court decisions strengthened the First Amendment by defending “hate speech” and flag burning and—in what is arguably the Court’s most significant decision of the decade—determined that the Internet has the strongest possible First Amendment protections. In 1990, the Parents’ Music Resource Center (PMRC), cofounded by Tipper Gore, and other groups convinced the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) to standardize its “parental advisory” stickers, which were first developed in the 1980’s to warn parents about profane, violent, or sexual lyrics. Music publishers agreed to this form of self-censorship in order to avoid imposition of government regulations. Some retailers refused to sell albums that had parental advisory labels.

Music Lyrics

Hip-hop artist Ice-T’s song “Cop Killer” typified controversies about song lyrics in the 1990’s. Published as part of the album Body Count (1992), the song resonated with the deepening social tensions that had been triggered by the videotaped beating by white L.A. police officers of black motorist Rodney King: “Cop killer, it’s better you than me/ Cop killer, f—k police brutality!/ Cop killer, I know your family’s grievin’ (f—k ’em)/ Cop killer, but tonight we get even.” Ice-T pointed out that the song was written “in the first person as a character” rather than as a literal threat. Others defended the lyrics as an example of a timely political protest. However, with the actions of pressure groups, including police organizations, the album was reissued minus the “Cop Killer” song. Ice-T defended his part in the decision as a way to keep from being pigeonholed. Another similar controversy was 2 Live Crew’s rap album As Nasty as They Wanna Be (1989), which was labeled “obscene” by six state legislatures. The rock group Jane’s Addiction replaced an album cover for Ritual de lo Habitual (1990) in response to complaints from the public; the new cover featured the text of the First Amendment. In Texas, then governor George W. Bush signed an appropriations bill forbidding the state pension fund to invest in record companies publishing “obscene” albums. A St. Louis high school band was forbidden to play Jefferson Airplane’s “White Rabbit” because of its supposed references to drug use, even though the high school band’s arrangement of the song was an instrumentalonly version. In 1990, in the first criminal trial of an art gallery based on the contents of an exhibition, the Cincinnati Contemporary Arts Center and its director were charged with “pandering obscenity.” The case centered on the exhibition of Robert Mapplethorpe’s erotic photography. The jury considered Mapplethorpe’s controversial photographs a form of protected speech, and the exhibit reopened. Sensitized by many such well-publicized controversies, Congress restricted the grant-making programs of the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) after 1990. NEA grant recipients were now required to sign antiobscenity pledges, and they were directed to “take into consideration general standards of decency and respect for the diverse beliefs and values of the American public.” The NEA de-

The Fine Arts

Rap artist Ice-T explains to the media why he removed his controversial song “Cop Killer” from his 1992 album Body Count. (AP/Wide World Photos)

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nied thousands of grant applications during the decade on the basis of the 1990 legislation. Hate Speech “Hate speech” can be defined in general terms as publicly uttered hostile remarks directed at a social or ethnic group. By the beginning of the 1990’s, such speech was prohibited at many U.S. colleges, as well as by legislation on the part of some state and municipal governments. In 1992, however, the Supreme Court overturned St. Paul, Minnesota’s hate speech ordinance, noting that expression cannot be repressed merely because it is offensive or in other ways emotionally painful to those it targets. In other free speech victories, the Court defended the right to distribute unsigned but nevertheless truthful political literature and insisted that Congress’s 1989 Flag Protection Act was unconstitutional because flag burning is a symbolic expression of a political opinion. The Internet A theme that linked many of these censorship efforts was the protection of minors. This was an important part of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, which proposed to criminalize obscene, indecent, and “patently offensive” speech on the Internet. However, the Supreme Court held this portion of the legislation unconstitutional, deciding that the Internet deserves the highest level of protection for freedom of speech, on the same level as that given books and newspapers. In the words of the Court, the Internet is a new locus of free expression where “any person with a phone line can become a town crier with a voice that resonates farther than it could from any soapbox.” Two more Internet-related efforts on the part of Congress rounded out the decade. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 criminalized efforts to work around copyright protections by heightening penalties for copyright infringement and by limiting the liability of online providers so long as they remove protected material when notified. Also in 1998, the theme of protecting children returned in the form of the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act, requiring sites to get parental permission before granting e-mail accounts to children under the age of thirteen. Impact Relatively few of the efforts during the decade that sought to censor violent, sexual, or otherwise objectionable content argued from a base of



substantive evidence regarding the actual behavioral effects of such forms of expression on recipients. Instead, anecdotal evidence and even evidence based on respectable research projects were filtered through previously held opinions on the issue. These censorship efforts encouraged self-imposed restraints on the creation and/or distribution of potentially objectionable content by marketing associations, broadcasters, and artists. Further Reading

Foerstel, Herbert F. Banned in the U.S.A.: A Reference Guide to Book Censorship in Schools and Public Libraries. 2d ed. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002. First published in the mid-1990’s, the updated version is an authoritative resource for teachers, librarians, and researchers. Nuzum, Eric. Parental Advisory: Music Censorship in America. New York: HarperCollins, 2001. A lively work covering music censorship from the 1950’s to the end of the twentieth century. Overbeck, Wayne. Major Principles of Media Law. Boston: Thomson/Wadsworth, 2008. An annually updated volume written for laypersons and attorneys alike. An associated Web site offers frequent updates to keep readers up-to-date between editions of the book. Rojas, Hernando, Dhavan V. Shah, and Ronald J. Faber. “For the Good of Others: Censorship and the Third-Person Effect.” International Journal of Public Opinion Research 8, no. 2 (Summer, 1996): 163-186. The “third-person effect” hypothesis described in the article suggests that people exposed to mass-media messages expect the messages to have a greater effect on others than on themselves. Barbara Roos Child pornography; Hip-hop and rap music; Internet; King, Rodney; Los Angeles riots; Mapplethorpe obscenity trial; Music; National Endowment for the Arts (NEA); Supreme Court decisions; Telecommunications Act of 1996.

See also

■ CGI Definition

Computer-generated imagery

CGI forever changed the ability of television and film to portray images and stories, while bringing attention to the special-effects industry.



Computer animation was first used in the 1950’s when Bell Laboratories and other research centers used it for graphics in military, manufacturing, or applied sciences applications. Computer animation was not developed for artistic work, as it was believed to be too technical for such use. Hightech computer-graphics laboratories and computergraphics experts began experimenting with CGI in the1960’s. In the late 1960’s and early 1970’s, CGI was used by independent animators and television for commercials and station logos, but the graphics technology was very limited. Early threedimensional (3-D) computer animation and imaging systems only functioned on slow, costly mainframe computers, and the cost and limitation of the hardware restricted the use of computer graphics. During the 1970’s and 1980’s, computer technology became more practical and useful. The 1970’s saw a transformation of the technology and a lowering of the cost, so 3-D computer animation and imaging technology greatly progressed. In the 1980’s, CGI became an area of artistic and commercial appeal because of enhanced technology, more people trained on computer animation and imaging, and a larger market. Pixar began pushing the limits of CGI technology with character animations in the mid- and late 1980’s. The efforts, however, did not draw major public attention until the release of Disney’s Tron in 1982, which relied on CGI scenes of the internal computer world. The first entirely computergenerated animation and longest-running sequence in a feature film was the Genesis effect in Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan (1982). The first completely computer-generated character was the stained-glass knight in Young Sherlock Holmes (1985). Director Robert Zemeckis used CGI in the Back to the Future films (1985, 1989, 1990), and in Who Framed Roger Rabbit (1988) he integrated live action and animation. Throughout the 1980’s, however, CGI was used to support the story, not carry it. A decrease in prices on computer technology and the increase in the hardware capabilities and power of computers in the 1990’s allowed more integration of CGI by visual professionals. In addition, as 3-D animation became more complex and varied, it greatly impacted television. In the1980’s and for part of the 1990’s, CGI was too expensive and time-consuming for television,

CGI Becomes Widespread

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but it was used in commercials, credit sequences, music videos, feature films, and video games. Television began turning to CGI in the mid-1990’s mainly for commercials, but the animation was not always a smooth fit and the audience knew that the images were playing with reality. The first mainstream 3-D computer animation for television appeared in commercials for the Coca-Cola polar bears and Babylon 5 television series, both in 1993. Steven Spielberg’s television series, The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles (1992-1993), used CGI to clone extras and put the characters into exotic locations. In the early 1990’s, directors Spielberg, Zemeckis, and James Cameron promoted the use of the new imaging technologies. Filmmakers believed that film is driven to create photorealistic imagery and that audiences want to believe in magic and just enjoy the story, not wonder at the effects. The creation or simulation of reality became the main emphasis, and improvements in the power of the CGI systems, graphic clarity, and resolution allowed directors unprecedented control over what the audience would see. Directors could also realize their dreams, no matter how fantastic or complex in terms of special effects. Science-fiction cinema was producing the most spectacular CGI films, and, by 1993, the ten highest-grossing films of all time had special effects. Working with Industrial Light and Magic (ILM), the special-effects company for The Abyss (1989), Cameron used CGI in a way that was considered groundbreaking, demonstrating its dramatic and artistic potential. Cameron also created the first CGI main character in film, the T-1000, in Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991). Cameron’s 1997 Titanic seamlessly integrated a digital world into live action and went on to become one of the highest-grossing films of all time. Spielberg used CGI dinosaurs in combination with models and manipulated images for the extremely successful Jurassic Park (1993) and The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997). Zemeckis inserted a live character into historical films and manipulated historical figures in Forrest Gump (1994). His 1997 Contact used CGI throughout the film in both obvious and subtle ways and is considered a milestone in the use of animation and CGI for telling a story. Toy Story (1995) was the first fully 3-D computer-animated feature-length film and was followed by the sequel, Toy Story 2, in 1999. By 1999, CGI effects were heavily used in films such as The Matrix, which sparked a

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Charlottetown Accord


mainstream interest in virtual reality, and in Star Wars: Episode I—The Phantom Menace, in which director George Lucas included fully created CGI characters, including the controversial Jar Jar Binks.

Pixar; Science and technology; Star Wars: Episode I— The Phantom Menace ; Television; Terminator 2: Judgment Day; Titanic.

Impact CGI challenged how thoughts and ideas are communicated in visual forms. By the end of the 1990’s, filmmakers were using the technology to create interpretations of reality. There was an explosion of productions with high-quality, creatively diverse 3-D computer animation. Science fiction involved the public again in imagining other worlds and creatures and in looking for a future that may be more fantastical than had been imagined in a long time. Even though CGI techniques have become cheaper and more accessible, directors and actors still prefer the live set energy combined with technology. Audiences now expect CGI usage and cannot always tell when it is used because the integration has become so seamless.

■ Charlottetown Accord

Further Reading

Britton, Peter. “The WOW Factor.” Popular Science 243, no. 5 (November, 1993): 86. Discusses the use of digital effects in several films as well as the potential future of filmmaking. Butler, Jeremy G. Television: Critical Methods and Applications. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2002. An extensive discussion of CGI and its impact on television. Craig, J. Robert. “Establishing New Boundaries for Special Effects: Robert Zemeckis’s Contact and Computer-Generated Imagery.” Journal of Popular Film and Television 28, no. 4 (Winter, 2000): 158. Good background on the history of CGI in film and television. Kerlow, Isaac V. The Art of 3D Computer Animation and Effects. 3d ed. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, 2004. First chapter offers a good history and interesting time line. Numerous illustrations. Pierson, Michele. Special Effects: Still in Search of Wonder. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002. Several sections discuss computer-generated imagery and its use in films, as well as the impact of the technology on culture. Virginia L. Salmon Computers; Film in Canada; Film in the United States; Forrest Gump; Jurassic Park; Matrix, The ;

See also

Failed effort to amend the Canadian constitution Date Submitted to a public referendum on October 26, 1992 Identification

The Charlottetown Accord was an ultimately unsuccessful effort to reform the Canadian constitution. The roots of the Charlottetown Accord lay in 1982, when the government of Canada amended the Canadian constitution. It did so without the support of the government of the province of Quebec. Although the new constitution still applied to Quebec, many Québécois, including the provincial government, remained alienated. As a result, in the late 1980’s, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney made an attempt at constitutional reform that became known as the Meech Lake Accord. The effort died in 1990 when it failed to be ratified by all of the provinces by a required deadline. The Charlottetown Accord would be Mulroney’s next endeavor at constitutional reform. A series of commissions led into discussions among the provincial and territorial governments and organizations representing Canada’s aboriginal peoples, who had been ignored when the Meech Lake Accord was negotiated. An agreement was eventually reached and signed in the city of Charlottetown. This proposal would have amended the Canadian constitution and, in the process, provided more powers to the provinces, including over cultural matters and certain types of natural resources. It also offered major reform to the Canadian senate. The key part, however, was a clause that would have recognized Quebec as constituting a “distinct society” within Canada. Since one of the criticisms of the Meech Lake Accord had been that the Canadian populace was not consulted about it, the decision was made to seek ratification of the Charlottetown Accord through a nationwide referendum on October 26, 1992. A referendum ensued. While most politicians and parties favored ratification, two new regional parties, the Reform Party in western Canada and the Bloc Québécois in Quebec, strongly opposed the accord.


Cheney, Dick

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The end result was the defeat of the accord with 54 percent of voters, constituting majorities in several western Canadian provinces and Quebec, voting against it. Impact The Charlottetown Accord demonstrated the strength of divisions within Canada. Voters in Quebec voted against it because they believed it did not provide Quebec with enough powers, while in the other provinces the vote against was based on the perception that it offered too much power to Quebec. The failure of the accord was also another indication of the unpopularity of Mulroney’s Progressive Conservative government, which had initiated the process and pushed for its ratification. Finally, those who opposed the agreement, namely Preston Manning and the Reform Party and Lucien Bouchard and the Bloc Québécois, would benefit from their opposition in the 1993 federal election. Further Reading

McRoberts, Kenneth, and Patrick Monahan. The Charlottetown Accord, the Referendum, and the Future of Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1993. Newman, Peter C. The Canadian Revolution, 19851995: From Deference to Defiance. Toronto: Viking Press, 1995. Steve Hewitt See also Bloc Québécois; Chrétien, Jean; Elections in Canada; Minorities in Canada; Mulroney, Brian; Quebec referendum of 1995.

■ Cheney, Dick U.S. secretary of defense, 19891993 Born January 30, 1941; Lincoln, Nebraska Identification

Cheney’s insights regarding foreign policy and defense issues were instrumental in shaping the direction of the U.S. military and homeland security. After starting out as a congressional intern and being involved in politics for twenty years—including serving as a congressman from Wyoming—Dick Cheney served as secretary of defense under President George H. W. Bush from March, 1989, to January, 1993. He was confirmed with a vote of 92 to 0. Cheney’s first major defense issue in office was

Dick Cheney in 1992. (AP/Wide World Photos)

Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega. With the aid of Cheney’s top advisers, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Colin Powell and Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Paul Wolfowitz, Panama was invaded and, on January 3, 1990, Noriega was in American custody as a prisoner of war and later convicted under several federal charges. In August, 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait. Soon after, Cheney flew to Saudi Arabia to meet with King Fahd to discuss deploying U.S. forces to Saudi Arabia, thus beginning Operation Desert Shield. Then, on January 15, 1991, the United Nations ordered that Iraq remove its troops from Kuwait. When Iraq refused, Congress authorized Cheney to sign an order to execute Operation Desert Storm. The war lasted six weeks and was extremely successful, resulting in Iraq’s withdrawal from Kuwait. In conjunction with President Bush and Colin Powell, Cheney decided to leave Saddam Hussein in power because of strong rumblings that the Iraqis would bring down their own leader. Cheney was presented with the Presidential Medal of Freedom on July 3, 1991, for his successful management of the Gulf War. During his tenure as secretary of defense, Cheney was also influential in decisions regarding U.S. involvement in matters with the Soviet Union, Somalia, and Bosnia.

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In 1994, Cheney established the Alliance for American Leadership, a political action committee. Through this vehicle he was able to raise funds to support Republican campaigns and tour the country giving speeches. Meanwhile, he debated whether to run for president in 1996. On January 3, 1995, he released a statement saying he had decided not to run. From 1995 to 2000, Cheney served as chairman of the board and chief executive officer of Halliburton, an oil and gas company. In the late 1990’s, he brought the industry together to fight Congress regarding sanctions on doing business with Iran but was unable to overturn them. In 2000, Cheney was elected vice president of the United States under George W. Bush after consulting for Bush’s election campaign for much of 1999. Impact Cheney led several triumphant military campaigns throughout his term as secretary of defense, including the highly successful Operation Desert Storm. He was admired during the 1990’s for his wealth of knowledge regarding defense policy and his ability to demonstrate grace under pressure. Further Reading

Andrews, Elaine. Dick Cheney: A Life in Public Service. Brookfield, Conn.: Millbrook Press, 2002. Hayes, Stephen F. Cheney: The Untold Story of America’s Most Powerful and Controversial Vice President. New York: HarperCollins, 2007. Kathryn Vincent Bosnia conflict; Bush, George H. W.; Foreign policy of the United States; Gulf War; Middle East and North America; Noriega capture and trial; Powell, Colin; Schwarzkopf, Norman; Somalia conflict; Wolfowitz, Paul.

See also

■ Chicago heat wave of 1995 High temperatures in the Chicago area contribute to the deaths of as many as seven hundred people over five days Date July 12-16, 1995 The Event

This disaster affected mostly the poor and the elderly, and for this reason would be studied long after the event occurred. The Chicago heat wave of 1995 was one of the worst weather-related events ever to hit the city and the

Chicago heat wave of 1995


state of Illinois. Although an official death toll for the Chicago heat wave is subject to controversy, estimates range from 525 persons dead to over 700 fatalities related to those few days in mid-July. Many dispute the death count, attributing some of the numbers to natural causes, illnesses, and disease, not to physical stress from high temperatures. Standards for determining heat-related deaths did not exist in 1995, so Cook County’s chief medical examiner Edmund Donoghue used state-of-the-art criteria that were later verified as being sound by medical examiners around the country. However, even after the statistics are adjusted, the number of human lives lost during the heat wave remains high. The question of why so many lives were lost in what appears to be a preventable disaster is still under scrutiny. Most of the dead were poor or elderly, with many of those dying alone. It took several days for some of the dead to be located, as many had simply disappeared during their lifetime into the inner city, having no contact with friends, family members, or neighbors; no one reported them as being in danger or missing, and the bodies were not located until after the heat wave was over. According to the Illinois State Climatologist Office, more human life is lost to heat waves than all other weather events combined, including lightening, floods, tornadoes, winter storms, and hurricanes. On July 10, 1995, the high in Chicago was 90 degrees Fahrenheit and rose dramatically over the next few days, peaking at 106 degrees Fahrenheit on July 13. Temperatures started declining, and by July 17 the mercury dropped to 89 degrees Fahrenheit. Also significant during the heat wave were the nighttime lows, which were recorded in the upper seventies and lower eighties combined with recordhigh humidity levels. However, several experts who studied this event acknowledge that the heat and humidity were not the only contributing factors to the mortality rate and that a collective failure probably occurred. Urban Heat Islands and Other Factors The inner city of Chicago is particularly susceptible to what is known as an “urban heat island,” created when buildings, roads, and parking lots concentrated in a small area absorb, then radiate, more heat at night compared to a rural site. Also worth noting is that the temperatures were measured at Midway Airport, located on the outskirts of the city in a more subur-


The Nineties in America

Chicago heat wave of 1995

ban setting, and the temperatures recorded do not necessarily reflect the more severe heat that the inner city experienced. The Chicago heat wave of 1995 was a complex event, and the high death toll can be attributed to several other factors. Many look at the social reasons for the high death rate. Those hardest hit were the elderly of lower socioeconomic standing. There can be various explanations for this. One is that they lacked the means of escaping the lethal heat and were essentially trapped, depending on city officials for help. Another reason is that a fear of crime made people reluctant to open doors and windows, contrasted to the heat waves of the 1930’s when many residents slept outside near Lake Michigan or in city parks. Although some of the low-income elderly citizens had air conditioners, many could not afford to use them. Furthermore, a study led by sociologist Christopher Browning published in the August, 2006, issue

of American Sociological Review examined the high death rate of the elderly living in low-income neighborhoods during severe heat waves. This study found that more deaths occurred in areas that were considered run-down. While other research focused on inadequate services or the isolation of many seniors as causes for the high loss of life, this study looked at the commercial decline of certain areas. The conclusion was that businesses did not attract elderly customers or promote a feeling of security to lure them from their overheated dwellings. Many buildings were abandoned, boarded up, or marred with graffiti, and the elderly felt safer inside their own apartments than outside on the street. Nevertheless, others cite an unprepared city government as contributing to the disaster. Also fueling the situation was a breakdown in the city’s response and inadequate emergency relief services. A severe heat warning was

The City’s Role

Emergency personnel wheel a body outside Chicago’s Cook County morgue on July 18, 1995. Most of those who died because of the heat wave were poor or elderly. (AP/Wide World Photos)

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not issued until July 15, the last day of the extreme temperatures. Because the warning was delayed, the city’s five cooling centers were underutilized. Inadequate emergency services, ambulances, and hospitals were severely strained and unable to respond appropriately to the need. Fire engines were used as ambulances, and many of the elderly died alone as a result of the slow response. In what was believed to be the largest mass grave in Cook County’s history, on August 25, 1995, the last victims were laid to rest. The grave, 160 feet long, 10 feet wide, and 6 feet deep, held the coffins, plain wooden boxes with numbered brass tags and yellow pieces of paper indicating the names. The dates of death were never determined. No one at the graveside knew or was related to the deceased, but three ministers presided at the service, a representative from a local historical society was present, and some onlookers happened by, commenting on the tragedy of so many dying alone. The Future of Heat Waves Although several skeptics believe that the numbers of dead were exaggerated by the medical examiner, the numbers may have been underreported. The American Journal of Public Health established that as many as 250 deaths were not attributed to the heat because the bodies were buried before an autopsy was performed. Whatever the actual numbers may have been, this type of disaster happening again remains probable. Chicago continues to be vulnerable to extreme heat conditions because of the urban heat island syndrome and the number of low-income elderly who live inside the city. However, numbers of deaths in comparable situations in the future may be reduced by having a more comprehensive approach to forecasting, one that considers heat-island conditions. Also, an improved early-warning system, increased research on heat waves, and, finally, establishing a standard to classify heat-related deaths can avoid the misery experienced by the city during the heat wave of 1995.

The necessity for developing a standard of determining heat-related deaths became apparent after this heat wave. In addition, observers would look to this event in later disasters, such as Hurricane Katrina (2005), when studying the relationship of social class and age to a disaster. Impact

Chick lit


Further Reading

Browning, Christopher R., et al. “Neighborhood Social Processes, Physical Conditions, and DisasterRelated Mortality: The Case of the 1995 Chicago Heat Wave.” American Sociological Review 71 (August, 2006): 661-678. Study led by an Ohio State University sociologist concludes that severe heat waves have killed more people in run-down neighborhoods where there are few businesses to draw older people out of their dwellings. Changnon, S. A., K. E. Kunkel, and B. C. Reinke. “Impacts and Responses to the 1995 Heat Wave: A Call to Action.” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 77, no. 7 (1996): 1497-1506. A meteorological perspective on the weather conditions in Chicago in 1995 that calls for a comprehensive approach to forecasting. Klinenberg, Eric. Heat Wave: A Social Autopsy of Disaster in Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Explores the social context of the disaster, looking at several factors that led to the high death toll. Kimberly Manning Business and the economy in the United States; Natural disasters; Perfect Storm, the; Poverty; Recession of 1990-1991.

See also

■ Chick lit A genre of fiction featuring twentyand thirtysomething single women coping with love and career issues in an urban environment


Chick lit’s representation of women can be said to lie in the gap between traditional female roles and feminism. The genre itself raised controversy among feminists because of its glamorization of consumerism, among other issues. Nevertheless, the lucrative genre gained a strong following during the 1990’s. As the generation of twenty- and thirtysomething women of the 1990’s experienced longer periods of dating, so-called starter marriages, and more focus on careers (delaying or foregoing marriage) than previous generations, such lifestyle choices began to be reflected in humorous novels by authors such as Helen Fielding, Candace Bushnell, Melissa Bank, and Laura Zigman. In the mid-1990’s, Bushnell and Fielding both transformed their popular newspaper


Chick lit

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novels of the 1990’s focused on white, upper-class, well-educated women. Many of these heroines Year Title Author come from single-parent homes 1992 Waiting to Exhale Terry McMillan or do not wish to re-create their parents’ marriage. They find that 1995 Watermelon Marian Keyes their career prospects are not 1996 Bridget Jones’s Diary Helen Fielding much better than their love lives: How Stella Got Her Groove Back Terry McMillan Protagonists breaking up and/or getting fired (maybe even more Lucy Sullivan Is Getting Married Marian Keyes than once in the course of the 1997 Sex and the City Candace Bushnell story) are common plot elements. Perfect Timing Jill Mansell As sociologist Barbara Dafoe Well Groomed Fiona Walker Whitehead noted in 1999, “Bosses and boyfriends behave a lot alike 1998 Animal Husbandry Laura Zigman in the novels. They make nice to Rachel’s Holiday Marian Keyes you (ever so briefly). Then they 1999 Bridget Jones: The Edge of Reason Helen Fielding dump you.” The Girls’ Guide to Hunting and Fishing Melissa Bank Consumerism is another other key feature in the novels. As SteJemima J: A Novel About Ugly Ducklings Jane Green phanie Harzewski writes, “Chick and Swans lit virtually jettisons the figure Last Chance Saloon Marian Keyes of the heterosexual hero, with Love: A User’s Guide Clare Naylor Manolo Blahniks upstaging men.” Mr. Maybe Jane Green Body image is also an important topic in the chick lit narrative. For example, each entry in Bridget Jones’s Diary lists her weight on columns about life as a single woman in the city that particular day and her feelings about it. Finally, (Bushnell in New York, Fielding in London) into exone of the most important elements in chick lit is hutremely successful novels. Fielding’s Bridget Jones’s Dimor, which authors use to guide the reader through ary (1996)—an homage to Jane Austen’s novel Pride the various obstacles (sometimes humiliations) the and Prejudice (1813), right down to the hero’s name, characters face. Darcy—spawned a 1999 sequel, Bridget Jones: The Impact Chick lit novels offered a new way of lookEdge of Reason, mimicking Austen’s Persuasion (1818), ing at life as a single woman. With Bridget Jones’s Diary as well as two films. Bushnell’s novel Sex and the City and Sex and the City, and the novels that followed, (1997) was turned into the popular Home Box Ofreaders empathized with heroines who were strugfice (HBO) series. Around this same time, a television gling with bad boyfriends and bosses. With the sucshow about a single lawyer looking for love, Ally cess of these novels came debates over whether the McBeal, premiered. Soon, novels featuring similar protagonists were truly empowered or deluding characters and settings were hitting the best-seller themselves, as well as concerns over the genre’s emlists, and the phrase “chick lit” (derived from the slang phasis on consumerism and body image. word for a young woman and “literature”) was coined. Subsequent Events Chick lit novels continued to Chick Lit Characteristics and Themes While it has sell strongly into the early twenty-first century. In been argued that perhaps the first chick lit novel 2001, Harlequin began its own chick lit division, Red was African American author Terry McMillan’s Dress Ink, and in 2005 Warner Books started the Waiting to Exhale (1992), featuring four career5 Spot imprint for such books. Furthermore, chick oriented black women struggling with relationships lit grew more diverse, with novels written by African and strengthening their friendship, most chick lit American, Asian American, and Latina women, as

Selected “Chick Lit” of the 1990’s

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well as from the perspective of older women (also known as “hen lit”). Further Reading

Bushnell, Candace. Sex and the City. New York: Warner Books, 1997. Based on Bushnell’s columns for The New York Observer, the novel follows the travails of columnist Carrie Bradshaw and her friends. Ferriss, Suzanne, and Mallory Young, eds. Chick Lit: The New Woman’s Fiction. New York: Routledge, 2006. Collection of essays on the rise of chick lit, its history, and new forms of chick lit, such as nanny lit and mommy lit. Includes an essay by Harzewski on the genre’s relation to novels of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Fielding, Helen. Bridget Jones’s Diary. New York: Penguin Books, 1998. Follows Bridget Jones through her disappointing romance with a coworker, her parents’ marital troubles, and her job disappointments as she puts off the annoying lawyer Mark Darcy. Mlynowski, Sarah, and Farrin Jacobs. See Jane Write: A Girl’s Guide to Writing Chick Lit. Philadelphia: Quirk Books, 2006. Chick lit author Mlynowski provides a brief history of the genre as well as tips for writing such books. Features interviews with genre pioneer Marian Keyes, Sophie Kinsella (Shopaholic series, 2000-2007), Meg Cabot (The Princess Diaries, 2000), and others. Whitehead, Barbara Dafoe. “The Plight of the HighStatus Woman.” The Atlantic Monthly (December, 1999): 120-124. Looks at how chick lit novels differ from romantic fiction of the past, especially focusing on darker elements of these novels. Julie Elliott Ally McBeal; Literature in the United States; McMillan, Terry; Sex and the City; Women in the workforce.

See also

■ Child pornography Definition

Depictions of children in sexual

postures The subject of child pornography dominated discussion in the 1990’s about what kinds of sexual materials ought to be protected by the U.S. Constitution’s First Amendment guarantee of free speech.

Child pornography


Child pornography raises issues that differ from those concerning adult pornography, which generally is permissible in the United States. Further complicating the issues related to child pornography is the technological ability of pornographers to create computer-generated images of a sexual nature depicting children without necessarily involving actual children. In 1986, the U.S. Congress enacted the Child Protection and Obscenity Enforcement Act in an attempt to control the surging availability of child pornography, particularly on the Internet. Among other justifications they offered for the measure, the lawmakers argued that child pornography could be harmful and that such material is not of sufficient social value to qualify for free speech protection. In 1990, in Osborne v. Ohio, the U.S. Supreme Court reviewed the Ohio statute outlawing child pornography and ruled by a vote of six to three that the law met constitutional standards. The Court declared that the law was not a paternalistic attempt to regulate the minds of individuals; rather, it sought to serve a compelling state interest by protecting children from becoming victims of pornographers. Dissenting justices objected that the phrase in the law specifying “lewd exhibition of nudity” was unacceptable and should have read “lewd exhibition of genitals.” They also asserted that the statute’s phrase “graphic focus” was too vague to satisfy constitutional standards, noting that the vagueness of the phrase allowed for unacceptable uncertainty as to what precisely the law prohibited. Computer-Generated Images Subsequently, the computer graphic process known as morphing raised additional questions regarding the constitutionality of child pornography. Morphing, a process in which a computer program fills in the blanks between two dissimilar objects to produce a combined image, allows the production of what has been labeled “virtual pornography.” The creation of virtual pornography is a relatively inexpensive and undemanding process: Innocent photographs of actual children can be scanned electronically and then altered and combined with other images, using morphing software, to produce pornographic scenarios. The process can also be used to create depictions of imaginary children. Morphing is sometimes used to create images of sexual activities that go beyond the boundaries of behavior in which any


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Child pornography

actual children might be induced to engage. The U.S. Congress outlawed virtual child pornography in the Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996 (CPPA). This act prohibits involving a minor in any visual depiction of explicit sexual conduct, including photographs, films, video pictures, and computer-generated images. In passing the law, the legislators maintained that the CPPA would discourage the circulation of child pornography. Some proponents of the act claimed that pedophiles employ such materials in their attempts to seduce children, although opponents of the act insisted that the evidence to support such a claim was inconclusive. The sponsors of the CPPA also argued that child pornography represents an unacceptable invasion of privacy and that children could be harmed by seeing images of themselves seemingly engaged, even if not actually so, in sexual acts. In addition, the legislators asserted that, virtual or otherwise, child pornography contributes to the moral degeneracy of the society. They further pointed out that access to the Internet is widespread among underage persons, who should be shielded from child pornography. Opponents of the CPPA stressed that no child need be personally involved in the obscene behavior generated by virtual pornography morphing. They took the view that the freedom to purvey sexual information in the form of Internet imagery is a fundamental right possessed by all U.S. citizens; some asserted that this right is valuable in that it contributes to a healthier understanding of the wide variety of human sexual expression and encourages the elimination of unreasonable taboos. Constitutional Issues In December of 1997, David Hilton was indicted in a federal court in Maine for possession of computer disks containing depictions of child pornography. The defendant challenged the constitutionality of the CPPA statute on the grounds that it was vague and overly broad. Specifically, he argued that the phrase in the law that criminalized possession of materials in which the persons engaging in sexually explicit acts are or “appear to be” minors involved what inevitably could be an imprecise attempt to ascertain the actual ages of the depicted individuals. In United States v. Hilton, however, the majority of the judges of the appellate court thought otherwise. They noted that there are extremes of pornography, with examples involving adults, which are permissible, on one end and child

pornography, which is illegal, on the other. They found virtual child pornography to be much closer to the illegal end of the continuum than to the allowable end, and they also ruled that the statute satisfied constitutional requirements. The appellate court’s opinion was allowed to stand when the U.S. Supreme Court declined to hear the case. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit echoed the views expressed in the Hilton case in United States v. Acheson in 1999, but also in 1999, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit ruled, in Free Speech Coalition v. Reno, that the CPPA was unconstitutionally vague because of its use of phrases such as “appears to be” and “conveys the impression.” It would be left to the U.S. Supreme Court in the next decade to resolve the differences between the Hilton and Acheson opinions and the opinion in the Free Speech Coalition case. Impact The development of computer techniques for creating child pornography generated intense debates among the public and lawmakers in the United States regarding fundamental moral issues of harm, privacy, sexuality, and freedom of speech. With ongoing advancements in computer graphic capabilities, these debates continued into the twenty-first century. Further Reading

Arnaldo, Carlos A., ed. Child Abuse on the Internet: Ending the Silence. New York: UNESCO Publishing/ Berghahn, 2001. Collection of essays pays particular attention to experiences with child pornography in different countries. Ferraro, Monique Mattei, and Eoghan Casey. Investigating Child Exploitation and Pornography: The Internet, the Law and Forensic Science. Boston: Elsevier/ Academic Press, 2005. Provides information on the tactics that law-enforcement authorities use in detecting and prosecuting cases of child pornography. Jenkins, Philip. Beyond Tolerance: Child Pornography on the Internet. New York: New York University Press, 2001. Presents a readable discussion of the realm of child pornography as well as recommendations on how best to deal with it. O’Brien, Shirley. Child Pornography. 2d ed. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1993. Argues that there is a direct relationship between pornography and the sexual molestation of children. Gilbert Geis

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Censorship; Computers; Crime; Internet; Knox pornography case; Mapplethorpe obscenity trial; Photography.

See also

■ Children’s literature Definition

Books written and published for

children A growing awareness in the United States and Canada of increased diversity, global interdependence, changes in family structure, and changing attitudes toward disability and disease resulted in a number of new emphases in literature for the young. Throughout the 1990’s in the United States, a major trend in children’s literature was the use of multicultural subjects and stories on environmental topics. In 1992, many books commemorating the five hundredth anniversary of Christopher Columbus first landing in the Americas appeared. For older children, books on friendship, social problems, getting along with others, and growing up were the norm. Other trends included recognition of changes in the traditional family unit to include single-parent families, homosexual couples, and grandparents rearing grandchildren. Illustrations assumed a more important role. Also, there was an increase in both mass and variety of books published and networking between public and school libraries. Canadian children’s literature included similar subjects. However, differing attitudes about propriety were reflected in a greater likelihood that Canadian stories would focus on weaknesses in their characters. The Canadian landscape played a great role as well. Writers more consciously focused on capturing the essence of being Canadian and encouraging regional and then national identity. Picture Books In the United States, picture books in the 1990’s created a tension between the information conveyed by the words and the pictures themselves, resulting in collaboration between word and picture rather than a redundancy. Magpie Magic (1999), by April Wilson, depicts through pictures alone a young artist who draws a picture of a magpie that comes to life and interacts with a series of additional drawings. Allen Say’s Grandfather’s Journey (1993) resembles a family scrapbook. Still life water colors contribute to the meaning of the story of a

Children’s literature


young man who travels back and forth between Japan and America. The Paper Dragon (1997), written by Marguerite W. Davol and illustrated by Robert Sabuda, is an example of the illustrated book, in which the text can stand alone without the pictures, although the illustrations enhance this story of a wise Chinese man who is able to still a dragon who has appeared in the land. In Canada, picture books for babies and toddlers included Pierre Pratt’s Hippo Beach (1997), which was translated from French. It contains only two sentences, in between which a hippo yawns; the yawn becomes a shoe; the shoe becomes a car; and the car drives away into the blue sky. Concept books included alphabet books such as Jo BannatyneCugnet’s A Prairie Alphabet (1992) and counting books such as One Grey Mouse (1995), by Katherine Burton. The rich multicultural makeup of Canada encouraged publication of collections of retold traditional stories, lavishly illustrated. Some critics maintained that contemporary Americans tended to respond negatively to fantasy literature, possibly because of fear of the consequences of freeing children to exercise their imagination, but as the prejudice against such literature diminished, more American children’s authors began to produce fantasy works with characters ranging from ghosts, as in Pam Conrad’s Stonewords: A Ghost Story (1990), about Zoe, whose best friend is a ghost, to dragons such as those in Flight of the Dragon Kyn (1993), by Susan Fletcher. Other characters from the animal kingdom were also popular. Miniature wild spiders come from a plant in Sally Derby’s Jacob and the Stranger (1994), and poisonous spiders from the Ice Age who come to Vermont provide humor in Gregory Maguire’s Seven Spiders Spinning (1994). Among books published in the United States, by any measure the most successful fantasy book of the decade was J. K. Rowling’s Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone (1998; American title), which was incorporated into the U.S. public school curriculum and which was first on the 1999 best seller lists of The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, and USA Today concurrently. In Great Britain, the book was titled Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone (1997). Fantasy books in Canada during the 1990’s ranged from stories with imaginative humor to novels that contained moral lessons beneath the humor Children’s Fantasy

(Continued on page 170)


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Children’s literature

Selected American and Canadian Children’s Literature, 1990-1999 Year 1990







Stonewords: A Ghost Story

Pam Conrad

Chain of Fire

Beverly Naidoo; illustrated by Eric Velasquez


Paul Fleischman

Tug of War

Joan Lingard


Michael Bedard

Maniac Magee

Jerry Spinelli

The True Confessions of Charlotte Doyle

Avi; illustrated by Ruth E. Murray

The China Year

Emily Cheney Neville

Year of Impossible Goodbyes

Sook Nyul Choi

Mama Let’s Dance

Patricia Hermes


Phyllis Reynolds Naylor

Eating Between the Lines

Kevin Major

Nothing But the Truth: A Documentary Novel


The Wright Brothers: How They Invented the Airplane

Russell Freedman

A Prairie Alphabet

Jo Bannatyne-Cugnet; art by Yvette Moore

Missing May

Cynthia Ryland

Ticket to Curlew

Celia Baker Lottridge; illustrated by Wendy Wolsak-Frith

What Hearts

Bruce Brooks

The Dark-Thirty: Southern Tales of the Supernatural

Patricia McKissack; illustrated by Brian Pinkney

Somewhere in the Darkness

Walter Dean Myers

Grandfather’s Journey

Allen Say

Flight of the Dragon Kyn

Susan Fletcher

For the Life of Laetitia

Merle Hodge

The Giver

Lois Lowry

Some of the Kinder Planets

Tim Wynne-Jones

Crazy Lady

Jane Leslie Conly

Dragon’s Gate

Laurence Yep

Eleanor Roosevelt: A Life of Discovery

Russell Freedman

Jacob and the Stranger

Sally Derby; illustrated by Leonid Gore

Seven Spiders Spinning

Gregory Maguire; illustrated by Dick Zimmer

Flour Babies

Anne Fine

Cezanne Pinto

Mary Stolz

Walk Two Moons

Sharon Creech

Summer of the Mad Monk

Cora Taylor

Catherine, Called Birdy

Karen Cushman

The Ear, the Eye, and the Arm

Nancy Farmer

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Children’s literature





One Grey Mouse

Katherine Burton

The Eagle Kite

Paula Fox

The Midwife’s Apprentice

Karen Cushman

The Tiny Kite of Eddie Wing

Maxine Trottier; paintings by Al Van Mil

What Jamie Saw

Carolyn Coman

The Watsons Go to Birmingham: 1963

Christopher Paul Curtis

Yolonda’s Genius

Carol Fenner

The Great Fire

Jim Murphy

Uncle Ronald

Brian Doyle

Parrot in the Oven: Mi Vida

Victor Martinez

The View from Saturday

E. L. Konigsberg

A Girl Named Disaster

Nancy Farmer


Eloise McGraw

The Thief

Megan Whalen Turner

Belle Prater’s Boy

Paul White

The Paper Dragon

Maguerite W. Davol; illustrated by Robert Sabuda

Hippo Beach

Pierre Pratt

Dancing on the Edge

Han Nolan

Out of the Dust

Karen Hesse


Kenneth Oppel

Ella Enchanted

Gail Carson Levine

Lily’s Crossing

Patricia Reilly Giff


Jerry Spinelli

The Nose from Jupiter

Richard Scrimger


Louis Sachar

Stephen Fair

Tim Wynne-Jones

A Long Way from Chicago

Richard Peck

Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone

J. K. Rowling

Magpie Magic

April Wilson


Virginia Hamilton

When Zachary Beaver Came to Town

Kimberly Willis Holt

Bud, Not Buddy

Christopher Paul Curtis


Kenneth Oppel

Getting Near to Baby

Audrey Couloumbis

Our Only May Amelia

Jennifer L. Holm

26 Fairmount Avenue

Tomie dePaola







Children’s literature

for older children. The 1998 novel The Nose from Jupiter, by Richard Scrimger, finds thirteen-year-old Alan in the hospital; gradually he recalls that Norbert, an alien, has taken up residence in his nose, and Norbert enables Alan to score a winning goal, make friends with Miranda, and shame the school’s bullies. Beneath the fun is the moral lesson that even the weak can learn how to be brave and upright. Throughout the 1990’s, multiculturalism, relationships with family and others, growing up, and social issues dominated children’s fiction. Adjusting to life in a new culture is the subject of The China Year (1991), by Emily Cheney Neville. Racial relationships are the focus of Beverly Naidoo’s Chain of Fire (1990), in which Naledi tries to block moving a black village to a site chosen by whites, and Paul Fleischman’s Saturnalia (1990), in which an Indian apprentice in seventeenth century Boston finds both friends and enemies among whites. Adjusting to change is addressed in Newfound (1990), by Jim Wayne Miller; Robert must cope with his parents’ divorce. Laetitia must leave her closeknit Caribbean village to attend secondary school in For the Life of Laetitia (1993), by Merle Hodge. In Joan Lingard’s Tug of War (1990), Yuki treats the survival and the hardships of war and persecution. A Latvian family flees their country in World War II, fearing the possibility of separation or death. A Korean family flees Soviet occupation in Year of Impossible Goodbyes (1991), by Sook Nyul Choi. Books for older children focused on growing up and learning the importance of family, as in Mama Let’s Dance (1991), by Patricia Hermes, in which three children deserted by their mother learn to stick together. In a lighter vein, a class of schoolboys must care for flour bags to learn about parenting in Anne Fine’s Flour Babies (1994). Books on social issues included The Eagle Kite (1995), by Paula Fox, in which Liam must deal with his feelings about AIDS when his father contracts it. In Cezanne Pinto (1994), by Mary Stolz, an old man tells of his boyhood escape from slavery. Virginia Hamilton’s Bluish (1999) focuses on friendship: Dreenie befriends Bluish, a fifth-grade classmate who is battling leukemia. The major themes in American children’s fiction are repeated in many of the best-known Canadian works. Paul Yee’s Tales from Gold Mountain: Stories of the Chinese in the New World (1990) addresses the challenges of adapting to a new environment. Being sent Children’s Fiction

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to Toronto during the German bombing of London in World War II is the subject of Kit Pearson’s The Sky Is Falling (1990). Relationships are important in Michael Bedard’s Redwork (1990), in which an old man who lost a leg in the war meets the lonely Cass, who helps restore the old man to psychic wholeness. Mickey finds security and learns to feel and accept love when his mother flees to Uncle Ronald O’Rourke’s house in Uncle Ronald (1996), by Brian Doyle. Children’s Nonfiction The natural world, people, places, and historical events provided subjects for much of the children’s nonfiction of the 1990’s both in the United States and in Canada. Doug Wechsler describes birds that have unusual appearances and habits in Bizarre Birds (1999), while Esther Quesada Tyrrell’s Hummingbirds: Jewels in the Sky (1992) shares special features of more than three hundred kinds of hummingbirds. Illustrations by Robert A. Tyrrell add to the beauty and interest level of the book. Stories of the lives of people from various walks of life were also abundant in the 1990’s. Russell Freedman published The Wright Brothers: How They Invented the Airplane in 1991 and Eleanor Roosevelt: A Life of Discovery in 1993. The work of Anna Etheridge is described in Mary Francis Shura’s Gentle Annie: The True Story of a Civil War Nurse (1991). The lives of U.S. presidents are sketched in 1998’s Lives of the Presidents: Fame, Shame (and What the Neighbors Thought), written by Kathleen Krull and illustrated by Kathryn Hewitt. Environmental concerns for penguins and seals are subjects for Helen Cowcher’s Antarctica (1990), while pollution by paper mills and other industries is the topic of Lynne Cherry’s A River Ran Wild (1992). In Leon Walter Tillage’s Leon’s Story (1997), Tillage tells of the cruelty and fear that he experienced growing up in a small southern town in the 1930’s and 1940’s. In Canadian nonfiction, the subject of slavery is addressed in The Last Safe House: A Story of the Underground Railroad (1998), by Barbara Greenwood. Greenwood also recalls earlier days in A Pioneer Story: The Daily Life of a Canadian Family in 1840 (1994). Typical of a Canadian propensity for educating children about their own regions as well as about Canada is Vivien Bowers’s Wow Canada! Exploring This Land from Coast to Coast (1999), in which twelve-yearold Guy describes his family’s trip across the Canadian provinces and territories. Linda Maybarduk’s

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The Dancer Who Flew: A Memoir of Rudolf Nureyev (1999) details the childhood, rise to stardom, defection, and death, in 1993, of the ballet superstar who died of AIDS. Poetry Following a decade of renewed interest in poetry for children, as reflected partly in awards garnered for children’s books in this genre, the 1990’s saw a blurring of the distinction between prose and poetry with the introduction of novels in verse. Pioneers of this form are Virginia Euwer Wolff and Mel Glenn. Wolff’s Make Lemonade (1993) depicts a teenager who is a babysitter for a seventeen-year-old mother of two. As their friendship develops, the babysitter goes to college and has her own ups and downs, but they learn things from each other, and the young mother returns to school. In Glenn’s Who Killed Mr. Chippendale? A Mystery in Poems (1996), the murder of a respected English teacher results in a series of free-verse commemorations and comments from students as well as from colleagues, police officers, and community figures. Karen Hesse’s Out of the Dust (1997) uses free-verse poems to paint a realistic verse picture of the hardships of the Depression era set in Oklahoma during the Dust Bowl. For the very young, Eric Metaxas wrote The Birthday ABC (1995); the illustrator, Tim Raglin, provides elegantly costumed animals to highlight the alphabet birthday rhymes. Another trend of the decade was the increasingly sophisticated artistic technique and graphic capability. The belief among Canadian writers, shared by U.S. poets, that while a single poem may take only seconds to read, its sound and rhythm as well as the effect of illustrations may remain in a child’s mind forever fueled the output of children’s poetry books. One such collection of poems is David Booth’s edition of Doctor Knickerbocker and Other Rhymes: A Canadian Collection (1993), illustrated by Maryann Kovalski. Rudeness, fantasy, wisdom, and advice derived from the lore of Canada’s British, Scottish, Irish, and Welsh heritage fill this volume. Lois Burdett teaches second-graders Shakespeare by using her volumes from her series Shakespeare Can Be Fun!, begun in 1995, in which seven of Shakespeare’s plays are adapted and simplified. Impact In a time when change seems to be accelerated with each passing decade, it is noteworthy that children’s literature of all types has met the challenge of keeping up with the pace of modern life.

Children’s television


Subject matter not addressed widely in earlier decades became the norm in the 1990’s: multicultural topics, issues regarding AIDS and other diseases, environmental concerns, and social problems brought on by changing views of what the family unit is or should be, for example. In an age when children have become dependent on visual stimulation, sometimes to the detriment of other senses, the expertise of the illustrator has become a high priority in children’s literature. Further Reading

Baker, Deirdre, and Ken Setterington. A Guide to Canadian Children’s Books. Plattsburgh, N.Y.: McClelland & Stewart, 2003. Compendium of recommended Canadian titles for children. Jones, Raymond E., and Jon C. Stott. Canadian Children’s Books: A Critical Guide to Authors and Illustrators. Don Mills, Ont.: Oxford University Press, 2000. Compendium of a variety of Canadian authors and illustrators, including ethnic and regional writers. Nikolajeva, Maria, and Carole Scott. How Picturebooks Work. New York: Garland, 2001. Examines the function of the picture book format in a number of international books. Norton, Donna E., et al. Through the Eyes of a Child: An Introduction to Children’s Literature. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2003. Useful guide for children’s literature teachers that offers information on multiple genres. Victoria Price Canada and the United States; Children’s television; Education in Canada; Education in the United States; Harry Potter books; Literature in Canada; Literature in the United States; Poetry.

See also

■ Children’s television Television programming designed primarily for children or for a mixed child and adult audience


Efforts to protect young television viewers from violent, sexual, and other such content continued in the 1990’s. Both the Canadian and U.S. federal governments responded with legislation requiring the V-chip filtering system in all new television sets. Despite a lack of agreement about the effects of television violence on young viewers, new limits were


Children’s television

placed on children’s television programming. Policy developments in Canada were further complicated by the presence of the strong U.S. media market. The constitutions of Canada and the United States both guarantee freedom of expression. The Canadian television system is more centralized and government-influenced than its U.S. counterpart. The Canadian situation is also shaped by two factors not present in the United States: the need to accommodate two official languages (French and English) and the need to cope with the spillover of U.S. programs via air, cable, and satellite channels. Despite these and other differences, very similar federal restrictions on the content of children’s programming were imposed in both nations during the 1990’s. Also, pro-censorship pressure groups proved effective in both countries. Citizen-activist pressure groups included the influential Fraser Institute in Canada and the Action for Children’s Television (ACT) in the United States. ACT helped to build wide public support for the Children’s Television Act of 1990.

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program to also appear in commercial messages within the program. Finally, the hosts of children’s television shows were henceforth prohibited from appearing in such commercials. Early in the decade, the Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) began examining the issue of television violence. This led to the 1993 publication of the Canadian Association of Broadcasters’ (CAB) Code of Ethics, which prohibited “gratuitous violence” on television and also forbade showing violence to be a good solution in children’s shows. The nongovernmental CAB established a Canadian Broadcast Standards Council (CBSC) as a form of industry self-regulation, an action similar to efforts on the part of the U.S. music industry, which self-policed by putting parental advisory stickers on albums containing potentially offensive content in order to avoid government restrictions. V-Chip Technology In June, 1994, the V-chip was introduced to the Canadian public as a solution to censorship pressures. A Canadian invention, the V-chip allows parents to block objectionable pro-

Regulations Over the years, films, comic books, and even the lyrics of popular songs have been targets of concern for the public, pressure groups, and governments in both Canada and the United States. During the 1990’s, television held center stage. In 1990, the U.S. Congress passed the Children’s Television Act. Its goal was to encourage more informational and educational programming for children than the commercial market had been able to produce on its own. Henceforth, television stations in the United States would be required by the federal government to schedule educational/informational children’s programming for a minimum number of hours per week in order for a station’s license to be renewed by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). The FCC also began to limit the extent of commercial time allowed in children’s programPresident Bill Clinton holds a V-chip at the Library of Congress on February 8, 1996. ming. It also prohibited having toys The chip allows parents to block objectionable television content. (AP/Wide World that appear as characters within a Photos)

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grams from their TV sets using an on-screen classification system—although this system was delayed for years after the V-chip’s introduction. Part of the push for classification and the V-chip came from the concerns of Canadian broadcasters and the Canadian public about U.S. stations available in Canada. In the United States, V-chip requirements were written into the Telecommunications Act of 1996. As in Canada, it was the U.S. content developers themselves who were charged with designing and regulating a nationwide V-chip ratings system. The Telecommunications Act required stations to inform television program guides about the suitable viewing age range for all program listings. In 1998, the FCC informed television manufacturers that the V-chip would be required in all new television sets thirteen inches or larger by January, 2000, the same year that Canadian broadcasters actualized their on-screen classification system for use with V-chip technology. One of the few agreed-upon conclusions drawn from research during the 1990’s about media effects on children is that a child’s comprehension of television programming is not a simple process. Comprehension requires a complex set of tasks that include selective attention, the ability to impose coherence on a series of events, and the ability to make inferences beyond the literal meaning of pictured content. Not surprisingly, other research indicates that interacting with adults about the content of a television program can increase a child’s understanding of his or her viewing experience. Viewer age is another widely recognized variable in predicting the effects of television violence on children, for attention to the screen first increases then decreases with the passage of time. Attention to the television screen is termed “fragmentary” before the age of two. Attention gradually increases during the preschool and early elementary school years. Then, around age eight, it starts to decrease to the attention rates that characterize adult viewers. Research on media effects on children produced a variety of results. One study concluded that frequent television viewing—regardless of content— was proven to be the harmful factor. Another study suggested that rather than media violence causing behavioral change in young viewers, children who already exhibited aggressive behaviors tended to select a larger amount of violent content than other children.

Media Effects

Children’s television


Neither activist groups nor lawmakers made consistent attempts to draw their conclusions from a fair range of evidence. Moreover, there was a general failure among groups to precisely define “violence.” Yet another problem was a lack of clarity about the relationships between aggressive behaviors in laboratory experiments and aggressive behaviors prompted by real-world settings. Marjorie Heins, author of Not in Front of the Children (2001) and herself a First Amendment attorney, sums up the era’s perceptions of the issue: The effects vary widely, and are difficult to quantify. . . . Thus, for some people, in some circumstances, some movies, TV shows, or video games may cause a “copy cat” effect. For others, the same entertainment may produce revulsion, fear, indignation, boredom, curiosity, or some combination of these reactions. For still others, the same works provide escapist enjoyment. . . . At bottom, public concern about violent entertainment probably has more to do with widely shared feelings about the kinds of messages and ideas children should be receiving than with any direct cause-and-effect relationship that has been, or likely can be, established.

According to Heins, there was agreement about one research finding. While under some circumstances television viewing may contribute to aggressive behavior, its impact is always modified “by age, sex, family practices and the way violence is presented. . . . Television has large effects on a small number of individuals, and modest effects on a large number of people.” A prime example of the widespread controversy over media violence was the children’s television series Mighty Morphin Power Rangers, which aired from 1993 to 1996. Geared toward nine- to twelve-yearolds, the series drew major criticism from U.S. and Canadian viewers who objected to the show’s violence (an average of 211 acts of violence per episode). Many Canadian stations took the series off the air, but Canadians with cable television could choose to continue viewing it on the American Fox network. Violence was not the only trigger for controversy during the decade. Studies documented that stereotyping, particularly with regard to gender and race/ ethnicity, was prevalent in children’s programming. African American characters were often negatively stereotyped, while other minority groups received little representation.


Impact By the end of the 1990’s, battles over television content and media effects on children were being extended to the Internet and to video games, although with different immediate results. In 1999, Canada’s regulatory commission for radio and television, the CRTC, announced that it would not regulate new media activities on the Internet (including Web sites, video games, and online radio and television programming) under Canada’s Broadcasting Act. In 2000, the U.S. Congress passed the Children’s Internet Protection Act. The V-chip “solution” did not have the hoped-for successes in either country. Older children had little trouble teaching themselves how to override V-chip technology. Surveys in both Canada and the United States revealed that many parents either did not know that their television sets had V-chips in them or did not know what the devices were for. Other parents did not know how to use the technology. Another survey showed that fewer than 10 percent of Canadian households with children in the home used their V-chip technology, despite the fact that it had been in place for more than a decade. Further Reading

Gentile, Douglas A., ed. Media Violence and Children: A Complete Guide for Parents and Professionals. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2003. Experts address the broad range of negative effects that media violence has on children. Greenfield, Patricia Marks. Mind and Media: The Effects of Television, Video Games, and Computers. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1984. A well-balanced discussion about the range of effects that electronic media have on children. Though published in 1984, it is far from out of date. Heins, Marjorie. Not in Front of the Children: “Indecency,” Censorship, and the Innocence of Youth. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001. Scholarly discussion, with a strong legal perspective, of issues related to censorship and youth. Barbara Roos Censorship; Children’s Television Act of 1990; Telecommunications Act of 1996; Television; TV Parental Guidelines system; UPN television network; WB television network.

See also

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Children’s Television Act

■ Children’s Television Act Federal legislation designed to improve television programming for children Date Enacted October 18, 1990 Identification

The Children’s Television Act was an attempt by the U.S. Congress and the Federal Communications Commission to increase the educational value of television programming provided children. In 1990, Congress reviewed a study revealing that children between the ages of two and six watched an average of three hours of television per day, and the by age eighteen, the average American child has viewed 15,000 to 20,000 hours of television. An additional study of 750 ten- to sixteen-year-olds found that two-thirds of the respondents felt that their peers were influenced by television, and 60 percent felt that it was negative. Based on these findings, Congress determined that television potentially could be beneficial to society by meeting the educational and emotional needs of the nation’s youth. To ensure these needs were met, Congress enacted the Children’s Television Act on October 18, 1990, with the goal of increasing educational and informational core programming broadcast to children. To aid the act’s implementation, in 1991 the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) defined core programming as “programming that furthers the positive development of children 16 years of age and under in any respect, including the child’s intellectual/cognitive or social/emotional needs,” and created criteria for programs to qualify. To retain their licenses, broadcasters had to air a minimum of three hours of core programming weekly between 7 a.m. and 10 p.m.; the programming had to be at least thirty minutes and regularly scheduled. In addition, stations had to log all aired core programming, complete a publicly available quarterly report listing their compliance, and submit in writing programs that met the criteria prior to airing so that television guides and listings could identify them. Advertising was also monitored under the act. Commercials were limited to 12 minutes per hour on weekdays, and 9.5 minutes (increased to 10.5 in 1993) on weekends. Broadcasters were expected to cease “host selling” (advertising with program characters) and “product tie-ins” (advertising products from the program) within core programming.

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In 1996, the FCC created additional guidelines to be followed. Broadcasters had to indicate the age group the core programming was targeting, reveal what the core programming’s significant purpose was (education no longer being the sole purpose), and place an E/I (educational/informational) icon and/or a verbal announcement prior to its airing. Impact Although the overall effectiveness of the Children’s Television Act remains debatable, the act did achieve its main goal of providing programming that was beneficial educationally, emotionally, and/ or socially to children sixteen years and younger. The act also provided parents with the necessary tools to help monitor their children’s television viewing through written descriptions in television guides and through iconic and verbal announcements. Further Reading

Minow, Newton N., and Craig L. LaMay. Abandoned in the Wasteland: Children, Television, and the First Amendment. New York: Hill & Wang, 1995. Steyer, James P. The Other Parent: The Inside Story of the Media’s Effect on Our Children. New York: Atria Books, 2002. Winn, Marie. The Plug-in Drug: Television, Computers, and Family Life. New York: Penguin Books, 2002. Sara Vidar Advertising; Cable television; Children’s television; Educate America Act of 1994; Education in Canada; Education in the United States; Telecommunications Act of 1996; Television; TV Parental Guidelines system; Video games.

See also

■ China and the United States Diplomatic and economic relations between China and the United States


Early in the decade, there was considerable debate over how the United States should react to the bloody suppression of student demonstrators in Beijing’s Tiananmen Square in 1989. President George H. W. Bush’s conciliatory approach was severely criticized but ultimately adopted by President Bill Clinton as well for economic considerations. U.S. relations with the People’s Republic of China (PRC) reached a low point during the Third Taiwan Strait

China and the United States


Crisis in 1995-1996 but sufficiently recovered by 1999 when the United States and the PRC signed a key trade agreement. In 1990, U.S. president George H. W. Bush favored a diplomatic approach to the People’s Republic of China (PRC) despite the Tiananmen Square massacre in 1989. Bush annually renewed the PRC’s mostfavored-nation (MFN) trading status. When Iraqi president Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait on August 2, 1990, the PRC supported the United Nation’s Security Council Resolution 660 condemning the invasion and Resolution 661 imposing sanctions on Iraq. On November 29, 1990, the PRC did not veto but abstained on Resolution 678 authorizing military force in ejecting Iraq from Kuwait, a major diplomatic victory for the United States. Bush even met the PRC’s hard-line premier, Li Peng, in New York City on January 31, 1991. In turn, the PRC cooperated with the United States on world issues such as peace progress in Cambodia and pressure on North Korea. However, after the PRC bought twenty-four Sukhoi-27 jet fighters from Russia in March, 1992, President Bush authorized the sale of 150 F-16 fighters to the Republic of China (ROC, Taiwan) on September 2. Clinton’s Initial Approach to China In January, 1993, U.S. president Bill Clinton faced three challenges regarding U.S. relations with communist China: Chinese arms sales to countries hostile to the United States, human rights issues, and trade problems. The PRC’s trade surplus with the United States reached $15 billion. On May 28, Clinton renewed the PRC’s MFN status but linked this renewal to progress on human rights. U.S.-PRC relations soured. On August 23, 1993, the United States imposed sanctions on the PRC for the sale of M-11 missiles to Pakistan. Later that summer, U.S. warships intercepted the Chinese freighter Yin He on charges it carried forbidden chemicals to Iran. When no chemicals were found, the PRC angrily denounced the United States on September 4. Clinton met the new PRC president Jiang Zemin in Seattle in November in a frosty atmosphere. Indicative of America’s economic interests in communist China, the Clinton administration waived the August 23 sanctions in December. A visit by U.S. secretary of state Warren Christopher in March, 1994, failed to persuade the Chinese leadership to


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China and the United States

agree on more human rights. However, bowing to economic interests, on May 26 Clinton decoupled renewal of the PRC’s MFN status from China’s human rights record. Third Taiwan Strait Crisis By 1994, the ROC was the sixth-largest trading partner of the United States, with American exports to Taiwan worth $16 billion, double the amount of U.S. exports to mainland China. In 1995, Cornell University invited its alumnus, ROC president Lee Teng-hui, to speak at its reunion. Against Clinton’s opposition, the House of Representatives voted 396-0 and the Senate 97-1 to grant Lee a visa, which the administration issued. Lee’s June 7-11 visit infuriated the PRC. On July 21, the PRC triggered the Third Taiwan Strait Crisis by conducting missile tests in the Taiwan Strait separating mainland China from the island of Taiwan. Initial American responses were conciliatory, yet on December 19, the aircraft carrier USS Nimitz crossed the Taiwan Strait, supposedly because of bad weather elsewhere. The PRC racked up the pressure in January, 1996, by gathering troops on its side of the strait and conducting live missile firings close to Taiwan beginning on March 7. On March 8, U.S. secretary of defense William Perry ordered the aircraft carrier USS Independence to sail to Taiwan, to be joined by the Nimitz. Taiwan reelected President Lee Teng-hui with a strong 54 percent majority on March 23, and the crisis subsided.

After the crisis, both the United States and the PRC sought to mend fences. In August, 1996, Wal-Mart opened its first store in southern China. During the 1996 U.S. presidential campaign, the PRC supported Clinton. U.S. exports to the PRC were $12 million against imports of $51.5 million, creating a trade deficit of $39.5 million. Every year both trade and the trade deficit grew further. The communist leadership decided to seek Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) with the United States. PRC premier Zhu Rongji visited Clinton in Washington in April, 1999, ready to sign an agreement, but Clinton refused. The accidental May 8 U.S. bombing of the PRC embassy in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, further soured relations. Nevertheless, after much haggling, on November 15, U.S. trade representative Charlene Barshefsky signed the Agreement on Market Access in Beijing.

U.S.-PRC Trade Accord

It would eventually be passed by Congress and signed by Clinton into law on October 10, 2000. Impact In the 1990’s, Sino-American relations entered a more troubled time. There was huge American outrage at the massacre of Chinese student demonstrators in Tiananmen Square in June, 1989. After his initial attempt failed to link the U.S.-PRC economic relationship to human rights, President Clinton reversed course. America was put to the test when the PRC tried to intimidate the Republic of China in 1995 and 1996. With both the PRC and the United States deciding not to let Taiwan cloud their ever-growing economic relationship, progress was made. The trade agreement of November 15, 1999, not only gave both sides some much-sought advantages but also facilitated the PRC’s entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO) by December 11, 2001. Further Reading

Foot, Rosemary. The Practice of Power: U.S. Relations with China Since 1949. Reprint. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2004. Chapter 9 covers the 1990’s to the mid-decade. Uses many Chinese sources. Hufbauer, Gary Clyde, Yee Wong, and Ketki Sheth. U.S.-China Trade Disputes: Rising Tide, Rising Stakes. Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics, 2006. Detailed, scholarly look at U.S.PRC trade relations during the decade. Tables, references, index. Lampton, David. Same Bed, Different Dreams: Managing U.S.-China Relations, 1989-2000. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001. Scholarly work focusing on global, societal and personal level of Sino-American relationship. Mann, James. About Face: A History of America’s Curious Relationship with China, from Nixon to Clinton. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1999. Chapters 12 to 18 cover the 1990’s up to 1998. Detailed and critical of Clinton; evaluates Taiwan issue. Photos, notes, index. Suettinger, Robert. Beyond Tiananmen: The Politics of U.S.-China Relations. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institute Press, 2003. Excellent, detailed, and comprehensive analysis of U.S.-PRC relations during the 1990’s. Zhu, Zhiqun. U.S.-China Relations in the Twenty-first Century: Power, Transition, and Peace. New York: Routledge, 2006. Chapter 5 deals with U.S.-

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Chinese relations from 1990 to 2005 from a political science point of view. Tables, notes, and bibliography. R. C. Lutz See also Bush, George H. W.; Business and the economy in the United States; Christopher, Warren; Clinton, Bill; Cold War, end of; Conservatism in U.S. politics; Elections in the United States, 1992; Elections in the United States, 1996; Foreign policy of the United States; Liberalism in U.S. politics; United Nations; Wal-Mart.

■ Chopra, Deepak Holistic health doctor and New Age teacher Born October 22, 1946; New Delhi, India Identification

One of the foremost mind-body theorists, Chopra has intrigued many people with his observations on the relationship between physical health and the mind. His books have offered advice on living well in a world of increasing pressures. Carrying on the family tradition of medical practice, Deepak Chopra graduated from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences in 1969. The next year, he began his career in the United States, eventually working in private practice in endocrinology and internal medicine, as well as teaching at Tufts and Boston University and serving as chief of staff at Boston Regional Medical Center. After promoting transcendental meditation in the 1980’s, he began to take an interest in how to treat the mind as well as the body. In 1996, Chopra and David Simon founded the Chopra Center for Wellbeing in San Diego, California, which offers various healing therapies for the mind and body. In 1991, Chopra wrote Unconditional Life, about how to achieve one’s ideal life. His influential and prolific writings reached many readers seeking answers to their suffering. Offering wisdom about selfawareness, Chopra pointed to the power of the mind to heal oneself. Altruism and compassion are pathways to reduce the world’s suffering. With the publication of Perfect Health (1991), Chopra introduced readers to Ayurveda, an ancient Indian system of medicine. His next book, Ageless Body, Timeless Mind (1993), tackled the problems of aging, and Creating

Deepak Chopra. (AP/Wide World Photos)

Affluence (1993) addressed “wealth consciousness.” He then published The Seven Spiritual Laws of Success (1994) and The Way of the Wizard (1995). Later in the decade, he wrote books on love and spirituality, including Everyday Immortality (1999), a work focusing on sutra study. He published two novels, The Return of Merlin (1995) and Lords of Light (1999), and produced a CD of love poems and two videos on spirituality. He was also drawn to such diverse creative projects as scriptwriting, a Web site, novels, editing poetry volumes, and comic books with spiritual and cultural themes. Impact Deepak Chopra’s works have helped to convey ancient teachings in a contemporary style to a worldwide audience. His books and lectures have offered traditional Indian medical wisdom merged with advice on practical topics ranging from aging to financial success to happiness. His books have been translated into more than thirty-five languages. Further Reading

Chopra, Deepak. Perfect Health: The Complete Mind/ Body Guide. New York: Harmony Books, 1991.


Chrétien, Jean

Chopra, Deepak, David Simon, and Leanne Backer. The Chopra Center Cookbook: A Nutritional Guide to Renewal. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, 2002. Jan Hall Life coaching; Religion and spirituality in the United States; Weil, Andrew.

See also

■ Chrétien, Jean Canadian prime minister, 19932003 Born January 11, 1934; Shawinigan, Quebec, Canada Identification

Chrétien’s government solved, for at least the short-term, the fractious question of Quebec’s secession from Canada. A member of the Liberal Party from Quebec, Jean Chrétien became the prime minister of Canada on November 4, 1993, after a long career in politics. He had always supported Canadian unity, and his election temporarily quieted the independence movement in his home province. The Canadian confederation, as created in the British parliament by the British North America Act of 1867, remained for its first century of existence a fractured nation. The act combined the portions of Canada settled by the French in the seventeenth century with the portions of Canada settled by immigrants from Great Britain in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. By 1867, the need for a form of self-government was blindingly clear, yet in that supremely nationalistic century, combining two groups with quite different cultural identities was very difficult. The British North America Act, which served for the century after its passage as Canada’s constitution, was a compromise, providing for self-government in a single federal entity of the two groups of peoples who made up the vast majority of Canada’s inhabitants at that time. In the late twentieth century, the compromise came under heightened attack, chiefly from the inhabitants of Quebec who “wanted out” from the predominantly anglophone Canadian confederation. The Québécois had retained their French culture and felt themselves being submerged in the mainly British culture of the rest of Canada. Their leaders

The Quebec Question

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pressed for a constitutional revision that, in various forms, would have created an independent, or “sovereignist,” government outside the federal government of Canada. The movement was a popular one that rested heavily on the principle of selfdetermination, a major concept in the democratic philosophy that dominated Western civilization in the twentieth century. The Québécois movement pressed for referenda that would create the independent Quebec they sought. Referenda occurred in 1980 and in 1995, and in each case those who opposed an independent Quebec won by a very slim majority: In 1995, the no votes (opposing separatism) were 50.6 percent, the yes votes 49.4 percent. Chrétien, though of solidly francophone background, was a member of the Liberal Party and was working entirely on the national political scene. He became prime minister at a time when the Quebec question was a central issue. He crafted a remarkable solution that acknowledged the validity of self-determination but also ensured that Canada would not be torn apart on the slimmest of margins. The Chrétien Solution Chrétien began by referring the issue of Quebec sovereignty, and the rights of its voters to determine the status of the province, to the Canadian Supreme Court. The court provided a masterly decision: It recognized the right of selfdetermination but determined that Quebec could secede from the Canadian confederation only when a substantial majority of the voters required it, deftly refusing to quantify “substantial” though clearly ruling out a mere 1 percent. Chrétien then took the issue to the Canadian parliament when his Liberal government proposed the Clarity Act, introduced in 1999 and passed in 2000. The act defined the conditions under which secession could occur: Majority vote in favor of sovereignty for Quebec would have to be substantial, and only after negotiation with the government of Canada. That Chrétien was able to carry the act through the Canadian parliament was certainly due to his Quebec origins; only such a Québécois could have made it acceptable in Quebec and the rest of Canada. The Chrétien government followed up on this masterly legislative solution with numerous other moves to deflect provincial discontent. In particular, it turned over to the provincial governments a number of governmental responsibilities that had hith-

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erto been carried out on the federal level. It increased the transfer of revenues from the federal government to the provinces so that henceforth half of all federal taxes were passed back to the provincial governments. This infusion of funds enabled the provincial governments to spend more on health care and education. It substantially downsized the federal government, which had the beneficial effect of eliminating the federal deficit. It increased the Canada Child Tax Benefit so that many middle-class families were included. Finally, it directed many special development projects to Quebec, helping to solidify its electoral support in the province. The Chrétien government enjoyed good relations with the United States. After some initial ambivalence, Canada endorsed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which had already been approved by Chrétien’s predecessor, Brian Mulroney. Ideologically, Chrétien was closer to President Bill Clinton than to Mulroney, but he was careful to maintain Canada’s independence. Economically, NAFTA resulted in an increase in Canadian-U.S. trade, making Canada even more integrated with the latter. However, despite Canada’s victories in international tribunals in the softwood lumber dispute, the Chrétien administration agreed to an arrangement with the United States in which it would levy a special duty on some of its softwood lumber exports to the United States. Impact Although the Chrétien administration presided over a political revival of the federal Liberal Party, it was chiefly important for crafting the solution to the Quebec independence movement embodied in the Clarity Act. Only someone with Chrétien’s credentials could have accomplished this masterly constitutional compromise. Moreover, by following this measure up with a restructuring of federal-provincial relationships that delegated substantially greater revenues to the provinces, Chrétien spread the compromise to all parts of the country. Further Reading

Chrétien, Jean. Straight from the Heart. Toronto: Key Porter Books, 1994. Memoir provides Chrétien’s personal point of view. Lawrence Martin, Chrétien’s biographer, has criticized this work as being less than truthful. Frizzell, Alan, Jon H. Pammett, and Anthony Wes-

Christian Coalition


tell. The Canadian General Election of 1993. Ottawa: Carleton University Press, 1994. A detailed account of the election tactics that brought Chrétien to the premiership. Harder, Lois, and Steve Patten, eds. The Chrétien Legacy: Politics and Public Policy in Canada. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2006. A good survey of the Chrétien government by a variety of authors. Martin, Lawrence. Chrétien: The Will to Win. 2 vols. Toronto: Lester, 1995-1999. A detailed account of Chrétien’s life, especially its base in the politics of Quebec. Nancy M. Gordon See also Bloc Québécois; Canada and the United States; Charlottetown Accord; Demographics of Canada; Education in Canada; Elections in Canada; Health care; Mulroney, Brian; North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA); Quebec referendum of 1995.

■ Christian Coalition U.S. conservative Christian political action group Date Founded in 1989 Identification

In the 1990’s, the Christian Coalition was perhaps the most visible face of the New Christian Right in American politics. Many analysts suggest that the Coalition had a significant impact on the 1994 midterm elections, when the Republicans took control of the both houses of Congress for the first time in forty years. The Reverend Pat Robertson, a charismatic Christian preacher and creator of both the 700 Club television program and the Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN), made an unsuccessful bid for the Republican presidential nomination in 1988. Robertson’s founding of the Christian Coalition in 1989 has been seen as an attempt to perpetuate his influence within the conservative religious and political community in the United States. The Christian Coalition was also intended to fill the void created by the closing of the Moral Majority organization that same year. The Reverend Jerry Falwell had founded the Moral Majority in 1978. The Coalition used many of the same techniques that the Moral Majority had pioneered in organiz-


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Christian Coalition

ing, fund-raising, and spreading its message, and pursued a similar agenda. Influence in the 1990’s Ralph Reed became executive director of the Christian Coalition in 1989 and proved highly effective in getting media exposure for the organization and in getting conservative politicians to pay attention to the group’s agenda. The Coalition was established as a tax-exempt organization and as such was barred from direct involvement in partisan politics. A common tactic the Coalition used to influence elections was to distribute voting profiles, recording the voting pattern of candidates on the issues of concern to the Coalition and its constituents. These voting profiles and related literature were often distributed in evangelical and fundamentalist churches shortly before an election. During some of the election cycles of the mid-1990’s, the organization distributed up to thirty million pieces of literature, including these voting profiles. The literature did not specifically endorse any party or candidate, but those who agreed with the Coalition’s agenda could easily discern which candidates voted in line with that agenda and which did not. The Christian Coalition promoted voter registration and get-out-the-vote campaigns among conservative Christians, as well as sponsored conferences to teach political strategies for conservative Christian politicians and activists. While the organization has made some effort to reach out to Roman Catholics, black evangelicals, and Jewish Americans, the overwhelming majority of the Coalition’s supporters are white evangelical Protestants. In the mid-1990’s, the Coalition claimed a membership of 1.7 million (although critics have disputed these numbers) and had an annual budget of over $25 million. The Coalition’s support is often cited as a significant factor in the success of the “Republican Revolution” of 1994, in which the Republicans gained control of both houses of Congress. In 1996, the organization announced its Contract with the American Family. The name was intended to connect with the Contract with America, which Republican leaders had proposed. The Contract with the American Family clearly illustrated many of the key concerns of the Coalition. It promoted pro-life, antiabortion policies, opposed the Equal Rights Amendment, supported school voucher programs to help parents pay tuition for private religious schools, and called for passage of a Religious Equal-

Ralph Reed, executive director of the Christian Coalition, speaks at a Republican convention in Atlanta in 1995. (AP/Wide World Photos)

ity Amendment to the Constitution. While nearly every conservative member of Congress attended the press conference announcing the Contract with the American Family, little progress was made in getting this agenda enacted into law. Ralph Reed left the Christian Coalition in 1997 to start his own political consulting firm. Without his leadership, the status and influence of the Coalition declined. In recent years, the Coalition’s budget, number of staff, and apparent political clout has never equaled the levels of the mid1990’s. In later years, the Coalition encountered troubles with both the Federal Election Commission and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) concerning allegations that its campaign literature was partisan. At one point, the IRS revoked the organization’s tax-

Current Status

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exempt status, but in a 2006 settlement the status was reinstated, provided that the organization allows candidates to publish a brief statement explaining their voting record in the voter guides the group distributes. Impact Supporters and critics have probably overestimated the impact that the Christian Coalition and similar New Christian Right organizations had in the 1990’s. While the Coalition and other such groups may have significantly affected the 1994 congressional elections, they failed to defeat President Bill Clinton in either 1992 or 1996. In the late 1990’s, there was evidence that some Republicans feared that the New Christian Right had taken their party too far to the right of the mainstream in American politics. Further Reading

Birnbaum, Jeffrey H. “The Gospel According to Ralph.” Time, May 15, 1995, 29-35. A helpful, accessible portrait of Ralph Reed at the helm of the Christian Coalition. Davis, Nancy J., and Robert V. Robertson. “Are the Rumors of War Exaggerated? Religious Orthodoxy and Moral Progressivism in America.” American Journal of Sociology 102, no. 3 (November, 1996): 756-787. Authors argue that conservative religious voters do not differ much from other voters on issues other than those that are considered to have distinctly religious overtones. Reed, Ralph. Politically Incorrect: The Emerging Faith Factor in American Politics. Dallas: Word, 1994. Reed’s own contribution to the debates about the place of religion in American politics. Rozell, Mark J., and Clyde Wilcox. “Second Coming: The Strategies of the New Christian Right.” Political Science Quarterly 111, no. 2 (Summer, 1996): 271-294. An interesting look at the grassroots organizational efforts of the Christian Coalition and like-minded groups in the state of Virginia. Thomas, Cal, and Ed Dobson. Blinded by Might: Can the Religious Right Save America? Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1999. Contains some interesting critiques from two evangelical Christians who often find themselves at odds with the Coalition. Mark S. Joy Clinton, Bill; Conservatism in U.S. politics; Culture wars; Elections in the United States, midterm; Elections in the United States, 1992; Elec-

See also



tions in the United States, 1996; Falwell, Jerry; Religion and spirituality in the United States; Republican Revolution.

■ Christo Identification Artist Born June 13, 1935; Gabrovo, Bulgaria

Christo is an environmental artist who has installed largescale “wrapped” artworks across the world for decades. Growing up in Bulgaria, Christo was interested in Shakespeare and theater, enrolling in the Academy of Fine Arts in 1953. After one semester, he left because of the university’s strict socialist rules. He studied at the Sofia Academy until 1956, then worked in Prague. In 1957, he escaped the confines of communist life, defecting to Austria. Christo took quickly to his new lifestyle, enrolling in the Viennese Academy

Christo stands in front of his wrapped Reichstag building in Berlin in June, 1995. The veiling took about a week to complete. (AP/Wide World Photos)


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Christopher, Warren

of Fine Arts, but left for Paris after one semester. In Paris, Christo found himself with no money or citizenship and supported himself by painting portraits. During this period, he developed a love of surrealism and abstract minimalism. In 1962, Christo married fellow artist JeanneClaude, forming a lifelong artistic partnership. Christo executed the projects, and Jeanne-Claude handled public relations. The couple focused on what would become Christo’s signature works, the “wrapping” pieces. Although Christo began wrapping objects and buildings with various materials in 1958, the large-scale pieces he undertook in the 1990’s made him a household name. In 1990, Christo erected 1,340 blue umbrellas in Ibaraki, Japan, and 1,760 yellow umbrellas in the Tejon Pass in Southern California, each measuring 6 meters in height and 8.66 meters in diameter. The project required more than two thousand workers, cost more than $26 million to create, and was viewed by more than three million people. It became associated with tragedy, however. On October 26, 1991, an umbrella at the Southern California installation was uprooted by a gust of wind and struck a woman, killing her. As a result, Christo ordered all the umbrellas to be taken down, and a worker in Japan was electrocuted during this process. After the umbrellas, the couple worked on wrapping the Reichstag in Berlin. The project was approved by the German parliament on February 25, 1995, with veiling beginning on June 17, and completed seven days later. The government building was covered with 100,000 square meters of fireproof polypropylene fabric, then a layer of aluminum, and finished with fifteen kilometers of rope. Christo’s final project of the 1990’s, Wrapped Trees, took place in Berower Park, Reihen, Switzerland, in November, 1998. Christo wrapped 178 trees in the park with 55,000 square meters of polyester and twenty-three kilometers of rope. Unique patterns were designed for each tree, creating distinctive shapes in the sky. Impact The environmental installations Christo has created over the decades and throughout the 1990’s encourage discussions of what constitutes art. While the projects are always impressive in size, materials, labor, and expense, they evoke a simplistic calmness and serenity. Christo and Jeanne-Claude deny any meaning to the wrappings other than their inherent

aesthetic value. They remain dedicated to making the world “a more beautiful place” and to developing new appreciations for familiar objects and landmarks. The couple funds all of their projects through the sales of preliminary sketches for each work. Further Reading

Chernow, Burt. Christo and Jeanne-Claude: An Authorized Biography. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000. Chiappini, Rudy. Christo and Jeanne-Claude. Milan, Italy: Skira, 2006. Ronte, Dieter. Christo and Jeanne-Claude: International Projects. London: Philip Wilson, 2005. Sara Vidar Architecture; Art movements; Burning Man festivals; Earth Day 1990; Koons, Jeff; Mapplethorpe obscenity trial; National Endowment for the Arts (NEA); Photography.

See also

■ Christopher, Warren Identification U.S. secretary of state, 1993-1997 Born October 27, 1925; Scranton, North Dakota

During his tenure as secretary of state under President Bill Clinton, Christopher helped to restore Jean-Bertrand Aristide to power in Haiti and led the Dayton Accords to end the conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Having enjoyed a distinguished career in public service under Democratic administrations, including serving as deputy attorney general and deputy secretary of state, Warren Christopher chaired the Independent Commission on the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD), known as the Christopher Commission, following the 1991 beating of black motorist Rodney King by Los Angeles police officers. After reviewing five years’ use-of-force reports, civil cases, and internal LAPD communications, the commission concluded that management had failed to address policy violations. The commission proposed reforms for the LAPD, which were overwhelmingly approved by popular referendum. In 1992, Christopher headed the vice presidential search team for Arkansas governor Bill Clinton and served as head of Clinton’s transition team after the election. President Clinton tapped Christopher to be his secretary of state. The first major international challenge of his term occurred after Haitian

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president Jean-Bertrand Aristide was ousted in a military coup within eight months of being elected. Christopher helped negotiate Aristide’s return to office, and the United States participated in a U.N. peacekeeping effort, Operation Uphold Democracy. U.S. troops remained in Haiti until 2000; Aristide proved to be an ineffectual leader, and his elected successor also made little progress in the poverty-stricken nation. Christopher stepped forward to negotiate a truce to the vicious war involving Bosnians, Croats, and Serbs in the newly independent Bosnia and Herzegovina. After bloody massacres, deliberate shelling of civilians, and allegations of genocide, the United States and its allies in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) stepped in with Operation Deliberate Force to halt the violence. Christopher’s State Department hosted a peace conference at secluded Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, in November, 1995. The site was carefully chosen to prevent any one party at the talks from grandstanding or taking its case to the press. Skillful negotiations set boundaries among the entities and provided for continued monitoring to prevent further outbreaks of violence over yet unsettled issues. The Dayton Accords were the signature achievement of Christopher’s tenure as secretary of state. At the end of President Clinton’s first term, Christopher decided to return to private life. He was succeeded by Madeleine Albright. Christopher remained active on the board of advisers of the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, a think tank for analyzing American interests in the Middle East, and the advisory board of the Partnership for a Secure America, a nonprofit that promotes bipartisanship on national security and foreign policy issues. Christopher represented Al Gore in the Florida recount controversy following the 2000 presidential election. Impact Christopher proved his mettle as a negotiator in the turbulent 1990’s. He holds many honorary degrees and awards, including the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and is highly ranked among U.S. secretaries of state. Further Reading

Albright, Madeleine. Madame Secretary. New York: Hyperion, 2003. Christopher, Warren. Chances of a Lifetime. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001.

Cirque du Soleil


_______. In the Stream of History: Shaping Foreign Policy for a New Era. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1998. Jan Hall See also Albright, Madeleine; Bosnia conflict; China and the United States; Clinton, Bill; Dayton Accords; Elections in the United States, 1992; Foreign policy of the United States; Gore, Al; Haiti intervention; King, Rodney; Kosovo conflict; Los Angeles riots.

■ Cirque du Soleil Identification

Modern circus troupe

Cirque du Soleil created a new eclectic entertainment medium that drew the audience into a fantasy world where anything was possible. Cirque du Soleil was founded in 1984 by street performers Guy Laliberté and Daniel Gauthier in BaieSaint-Paul, Quebec, Canada. The 1980’s were a tumultuous period for the group, alternating between both financial and performance success and failure. The circus troupe also frequently changed management and artistic direction. However, the company stuck to the guiding principles of the modern circus, replacing animal acts with human acrobatics as well as drawing on circus styles from all over the world. In 1989, Franco Dragone became artistic director and created the show Nouvelle Expérience, which turned the performance group into a profitable venture and a worldwide success. With Nouvelle Expérience, Dragone brought the audience into the performance by eliminating the traditional curtain and having the performers move the props. These innovations required the performers to continuously remain in character. The show enjoyed a three-year tour, 1990-1993, that included one year at the Mirage Resort and Hotel in Las Vegas. In 1992, Cirque du Soleil staged its first show with a story line, Saltimbanco. With its message of peace and multiculturalism, Saltimbanco was one of the group’s most successful shows. It continued to be performed throughout the 1990’s and into the next century. As Cirque du Soleil celebrated its tenth anniversary, the ambiance created in its shows darkened, became dreamlike, and incorporated elements of surrealism. Alegría (pr. 1994), the first of these shows,


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Civil Rights Act of 1991

dealt with abuse of power and the quest for freedom. Quidam (pr. 1996) portrayed the imagination of a world-weary young girl. In 1993, the company created its first resident show, Mystère, for the Treasure Island Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas. The show was a mystical depiction of life, drawing on multicultural mythologies and sung in an imaginary language. Dralion (pr. 1999) returned to a lighter theme filled with energy and fun but was sung in an imaginary language as well as in French and Italian. Impact Cirque du Soleil transformed the concept of the circus. Banishing the circus ring and animal acts, the company blended acrobatic acts, dance, music, exotic costumes, technical effects, and philosophical commentary into performances that surpassed any one form of entertainment. Through innovative techniques, the creators drew the audience into the performance and provided a total entertainment experience. Further Reading

Babinski, Tony, and Kristian Manchester. Cirque du Soleil: Twenty Years Under the Sun—An Authorized History. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2004. Bacon, John U., and Lyn Heward. The Spark: Igniting Creative Fire That Lives Within Us All. New York: Currency, 2006. Vial, Veronique. Wings: Backstage with Cirque du Soleil. San Francisco, Calif.: Tondo Books, 1999. Shawncey Webb See also Ballet; Canada and the United States; Las Vegas megaresorts; Music; Theater in Canada; Theater in the United States.

■ Civil Rights Act of 1991 Federal legislation that outlawed employment discrimination practices based on disparate impact Date Signed on November 21, 1991 Definition

The Civil Rights Act of 1991 returned the burden of proof to employers to defend job practices challenged as discriminatory. The law left it to courts to determine what constituted “business necessity” when justifying portended discriminatory practices. The law also opened the way for challenges to affirmative action.

President George H. W. Bush signed the Civil Rights Act of 1991 on November 21, despite having vetoed similar legislation in 1990 for fear of creating too many inducements for hiring quotas. Invoking the undesirability of quotas, the U.S. Supreme Court had effectively undone disparate impact in Wards Cove Packing Company v. Atonio (1989). Title I of the 1991 Civil Rights Act prohibited unlawful employment practices based on disparate impact, in which a policy or practice seems neutral but has an adverse effect on a particular group. A complaining party could (1) show that use of a particular employment practice causes a disparate impact on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin and the employer failed to demonstrate that the challenged practice is job-related for the position in question and consistent with business necessity, or (2) identify an alternative employment practice that an employer refused to adopt. For example, recruitment through employee referrals would not be permitted if the majority of employees were white males and this practice resulted in the disproportionate hiring of white males. Race norming—the use of test scores, whether adjusted, with different cutoffs, or otherwise altered—was prohibited in connection with selection or referral of applicants or candidates for employment or promotion. Workers challenging a seniority system as discriminatory were permitted to wait until the adverse impact was felt to bring a lawsuit. Title I also prohibited all racial discrimination in the making and enforcement of contracts. It provided the right of recovery of compensatory and punitive damages for unlawful intentional discrimination, including disability as specified in the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. Title I capped compensatory and punitive damages, varying by company size, and permitted jury trials. Title II of the Civil Rights Act, known as the Glass Ceiling Act of 1991, addressed the underrepresentation of women and of minorities in management and decision-making positions in business. It established the Glass Ceiling Commission to study how businesses fill management and decision-making positions, the practices used to foster the necessary qualifications for advancement into those positions, and the compensation programs and reward structures used in workplaces.

Major Provisions

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Title III, known as the Government Employee Rights Act of 1991, provided procedures to protect the right of Senate and related government employees, regarding their public employment, to be free of discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, or disability. The act also extended procedures for judicial review and related protections to previously exempt state employees. Impact Workplace and harassment discrimination cases brought to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) mushroomed throughout the 1990’s. Sexual harassment claims exceeded ten thousand every year from 1992 onward. Sex discrimination cases exceeded twenty-one thousand cases every year, accounting for 30 percent of all charge filings in the decade, second only to approximately twenty-nine thousand race discrimination annual filings (38 percent). Further, class-action suits, which had declined in number from eighty-one in 1985 to twenty-five in 1992, increased to seventy-five in 1996. Women as a percentage of officials and managers in the private sector rose by about onehalf a percentage point each year throughout the 1990’s, from a low of 29.3 percent in 1990 to a decade high of 34.5 percent by 1999. In 1995, the Regents of the University of California adopted a resolution to end the university’s preferential treatment of disadvantaged ethnic groups in hiring and in school admissions. In the November, 1996 elections, 55 percent of voters in California approved Proposition 209, which eliminated preferential treatment of any job candidate on the basis of race, sex, color, ethnicity, or national origin in state government hiring, public school admissions, and public contracting. The ban took effect in 1997 after the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit denied attempts to prevent implementation. The U.S. Supreme Court declined to hear challenges to Proposition 209. Most Supreme Court employment discrimination cases throughout the decade involved women and older persons. In Harris v. Forklift Systems, Inc. (1993), the Court held that to be actionable as “abusive work environment,” conduct need not seriously affect an employee’s psychological well-being or lead the plaintiff to suffer injury. In Landgraf v. USI Film Products et al. (1994), the Court ruled against retroactively applying the Civil Rights Act of 1991. In Romer v. Evans (1996), the Supreme Court struck

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down Amendment 2 of Colorado’s state constitution, which forbade the extension of official protections to those who experience discrimination on the basis of their sexual orientation. In O’Connor v. Consolidated Coin Caterers Corp. (1996), the Court held that a discharged worker need not show that he or she was replaced by another person under age forty to establish a prima facie case of discrimination under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967. In Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services (1998), the Court ruled that sex discrimination consisting of same-sex harassment is actionable under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In both Sutton v. United Airlines, Inc. (1999) and Murphy v. United Parcel Service, Inc. (1999), the Supreme Court held that a determination of disability under the Americans with Disabilities Act must consider whether a person was substantially limited in a major life activity when using a mitigating measure, such as eyeglasses where the alleged disability is sight. Subsequent Events In Grutter v. Bollinger et al. (2003), the Supreme Court affirmed consideration of race in admissions by the University of Michigan’s Law School. Justice Sandra Day O’Connor also expressed her hope that the use of racial preferences would no longer be necessary within twenty-five years. Further Reading

Fowler, W. Gary, Donald W. Jackson, and James W. Riddlesperger. “Symbolic Politics Revisited: The Bush Administration and the Civil Rights Act of 1991.” Contributions in Political Science 396 (2004): 183-202. Reviews the political and social pressures on George H. W. Bush’s administration to support the act in 1991 despite the veto in 1990. Shull, Steven A. A Kinder, Gentler Racism? The ReaganBush Civil Rights Legacy. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1993. Contends that George H. W. Bush continued and heightened President Ronald Reagan’s efforts to cut back on federal protection of civil rights. Skrentny, John David. The Ironies of Affirmative Action: Politics, Culture, and Justice in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996. Provides a historical account of the development of affirmative action. Weiss, Donald H. Fair, Square, and Legal: Safe Hiring, Managing, and Firing Practices to Keep You and Your Company Out of Court. 4th ed. New York:


Classical music

AMACOM, 2004. Provides information aimed at helping employers comply with civil rights laws by avoiding sex discrimination in hiring, sex discrimination and sexual harassment of employees, and mismanagement of older employees and employees with disabilities. Richard K. Caputo See also Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990; Bush, George H. W.; Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993; Hill, Anita; Homosexuality and gay rights; Race relations; Romer v. Evans; Supreme Court decisions; Take Our Daughters to Work Day; Thomas, Clarence; Women in the workforce; Women’s rights.

■ Classical music Compositional styles, composers, and works of art music


The 1990’s generally saw its core audience in America continue to age. Live performance continued to enjoy sustainable levels of support, with the rash of orchestra bankruptcies that plagued the 1980’s abating during the economic boom of the middle and late 1990’s. While the classical artist was not hit as hard economically by Internet downloading as the popular music field, this situation reflects an aging demographic for classical music less likely to use the Internet and the fact that classical music sales were already small in scope as the decade began. Some professional organizations for classical music performance considered interesting new approaches to attract a younger audience. The Los Angeles Philharmonic, for example, employed maverick stage director Peter Sellars to coordinate performances of orchestral music early in the decade with the intent of inviting a more diverse and youthful audience to a reinvented concert. This effort and others like it met with relative success. The vast majority in the field of classical music performance, however, chose to follow a more traditional path and continue to concertize along traditional lines. Asia, long a growing player in both classical music production and consumption, provided hope for sustained interest and economic vigor for the field. Asian students increased per capita in American schools of music, including and perhaps especially at the most elite conservatories. Asian cities

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and populations of Asian immigrants in the United States became a key new market for Western classical music. New Developments in Composition The 1990’s saw the tendency of postmodernity influencing musical composition increase enormously. Postmodernity in music often takes the form of privileging processes over final products and play over purpose, using history through appropriations of past musical works and styles, blurring boundaries between popular and classical, and often moving irony to the foreground of works. John Adams’s postmodernism was thoroughly revealed during the 1980’s in his critically and artistically successful opera Nixon in China (1986). It was difficult for audiences to see a Richard Nixon lookalike singing an opera aria without enjoying the irony. Adams continued to work in this area with The Death of Klinghoffer (1991), an opera about the 1984 hijacking of an Italian cruise ship by Palestinian terrorists. While Nixon in China had been ironic, the serious tone of The Death of Klinghoffer brought controversy along with its difficult subject matter. The American premiere took place in San Francisco and was met with protests. The Los Angeles Civic Center Opera, a co-commissioning company, canceled its premiere. The work falls well into the ideals of postmodern music for blending past approaches, such as Johann Sebastian Bach cantatas, with later procedures in harmony. Adams met more success with works on less controversial subjects, such as his vast and haunting Naïve and Sentimental Music (1998). By placing a premium on melody, Adams continued to distance himself from the serious academic music that dominated the new music scene from the 1950’s through the early 1980’s. Stylistically, Adams rifled the past, juxtaposing materials from such disparate styles as American minimalism and late nineteenth century chromatic harmony. These elements seemed to have nothing in common, but in Adams’s hands both lost their original purpose and playfully united to provide a clever and winning synthesis. While Adams approached classical music as an insider thoroughly and rigorously trained at Harvard University and for many years a professor of music at the San Francisco Conservatory, his postmodern colleague John Zorn, a proud college dropout, came to music from a radically different background. As a

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Clean Air Act of 1990


youth, Zorn stole record albums almost indiscriminately and in all styles. Later, he taught himself alto saxophone mainly by trying to learn Ornette Coleman’s unorthodox free jazz solos. While Adams’s classical scores were essentially finished products, which the performer then interprets as faithfully as possible, Zorn’s classical scores resembled instructions to games of improvisation or loosely conceived verbal instructions written on file cards in a code understood by the composer and his coterie of fellow virtuosic improvisers. Zorn’s classical work as a composer began in the 1980’s in works for string quartet, such as Forbidden Fruit, in which elements of thrash metal join with quotes from diverse sources such as Ludwig van Beethoven or Japanese pop movie sound tracks. The quartet in that work is joined by a Japanese singer and a deejay who manipulates records as would happen in a rap or hip-hop performance. His work in the 1990’s grew in influence, as he wrote several classical pieces such as Elegy (1993) and Kristallnacht (1994), while continuing to record his game pieces in ever-new incarnations. While Adams and Zorn may reflect extremes of the postmodern tendency in 1990’s classical music, their diverse approaches typified the decade. More central might be clearly classical composer John Corigliano, who enjoyed many successful premieres during the decade and established himself as a preeminent American classical composer capable of manipulating diverse styles with excellent results.

television music, video-game music, commercial jingles, and commercially viable music. The result was a more relaxed and less schematic approach than in past decades among young and aspiring composers.

The University as Patron Since the 1950’s, the American university has taken on the charge of patronizing new music by hiring faculties of composers at virtually every state-supported and private university. This trend continued unabated during the 1990’s. While the university of the 1950’s clearly preferred a style that placed a premium on connections between mathematics and music, by the 1990’s the university had lost an easily identifiable aesthetic preference. The result was a wide range of composers supported and encouraged by universities. The general trend during the decade was toward a stylistic retrenchment around tonal approaches to harmony and corollary approaches such as pantonality. This new conservatism could be seen in the work of students during the 1990’s who often sought careers not in the academy but in making film scores,

See also

Impact Classical music saw much growth in the 1990’s but continued to suffer from a perception of its elitism, as evidenced by advertisers remaining far more willing to attract customers for expensive sport sedans and other prestigious items with classical music and leaving youth-oriented products to popular music. With young people tending to remain wary of elitist culture, this perception remained a problem throughout the decade, with only minimal efforts to reform how young people perceived classical music. Further Reading

Burkholder, J. Peter, Donald Jay Grout, and Claude V. Palisca. A History of Western Music. 7th ed. New York: W. W. Norton, 2006. A music history text used by academic institutions. Gann, Kyle. American Music in the Twentieth Century. New York: Schirmer Books, 1997. A survey of movements and their leaders through the late 1990’s. Hall, Charles J. A Chronicle of American Music, 17001995. New York: Schirmer Books, 1996. Provides a list of highlights in American music by year. Simms, Bryan R. Music of the Twentieth Century: Style and Structure. 2d ed. New York: Schirmer Books, 1996. A survey of important twentieth century music styles, structure, composers, and pieces. Michael E. Lee Art movements; Film in the United States; Music.

■ Clean Air Act of 1990 Identification U.S. environmental law Date Signed on November 15, 1990

This legislation strengthened earlier versions of the law and solved many salient air-quality problems of the 1990’s, including acid rain, ozone depletion, lead, and older power plants. The Clean Air Act of 1990 (CAA) was a major revision of earlier pioneering legislation, the Clean Air Act of 1970 and its 1977 amendments. The earlier versions recognized the need for air-quality stan-


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Clinton, Bill

dards but were largely ineffective because of a lack of a planning and enforcement. The 1990 CAA strengthened the law and added a number of important new provisions. It helped to reduce acid rain and ozone depletion by using an innovative marketbased approach, outlawed the use of leaded gasoline, and established an attainable permit system for large sources of air pollution. Acid rain is primarily caused by the emission of sulfur and nitrogen, mostly from power plants and cars, into the atmosphere. By 1990, acid rain was a major environmental concern, having adverse effects on forests, aquatic life, and plants as well as humans. The 1990 CAA required power plants to greatly reduce their emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide in two phases, with the dirtiest plants having to meet an emissions cap by 1995. The program used an innovative cap-and-trade system whereby plants were allowed allowances that could be bought, sold, or banked for future use. This system has proved highly effective in greatly reducing the emissions of these harmful gases. Leaded gasoline had been a major environmental and health problem since it was introduced in the 1920’s. The 1990 CAA mandated the removal of lead from all gasoline by 1996, leading to a 98 percent reduction in airborne lead and greatly reduced blood lead levels in children. The ozone layer absorbs over 97 percent of the Sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which break down ozone molecules, were routinely used in many applications, including refrigeration, cleaners, and aerosol spray cans. After the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1985, the U.S. government realized that something had to be done. The 1990 CAA phased out the production of chemicals such as CFCs that impacted the ozone layer. By 1996, U.S. production of CFCs, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform ended. Despite efforts to clean up older power plants, they continued to be a major contributor to air pollution in 1990. In an effort to grapple with this problem, the 1990 CAA introduced a permit program for large sources of air pollution. The permit included information on which pollutants were released, how much could be released, and steps that were being taken to reduce the pollution. This permitting system has simplified and clarified large source polluters’ obligations and resulted in great progress in cleaning up older power plants.

Impact The 1990 CAA has been one of the most successful pieces of environmental legislation in the history of the United States, greatly improving air quality. It reduced acid rain, ozone depletion, lead levels, and cleaned up older power plants. A 2003 study by the government’s Office of Management and Budget estimated that improvements in air quality attributable to the 1990 CAA resulted in over $120 billion in benefits due to reductions in hospitalizations, doctors’ visits, premature deaths, and lost workdays. By comparison, the costs to government and industry to implement the 1990 CAA standards were estimated at approximately $23 billion. Hence, the benefits have greatly outweighed the costs. Further Reading

Bryner, Gary C. Blue Skies, Green Politics: The Clean Air Act of 1990 and Its Implementation. 2d ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1995. Environmental Protection Agency. Clean Air Act. Robert Flatley Air pollution; Global warming debate; Kyoto Protocol; Water pollution.

See also

■ Clinton, Bill President of the United States, 1993-2001 Born August 19, 1946; Hope, Arkansas Identification

As the first Democratic president to be elected to two consecutive terms in more than sixty years, Clinton had a tremendous influence in American politics and was a major player on the world stage in the 1990’s. On March 1, 1990, Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas announced that he would seek a fourth term. Clinton was reelected by a healthy margin in November and spent the next two years raising his profile on the national scene. He had been one of the founding members of the Democratic Leadership Council (DLC), a group of centrist Democratic officeholders that sought to change the populist image of the Democratic Party. As he traveled the country speaking at DLC events and policy conferences, Clinton was urged to run for president in 1992. In

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fact, he had considered running for the White House in 1988 and felt that in 1992 he was ready to be president. He officially announced his run for president at the Governor’s Mansion in Little Rock, Arkansas, on October 3, 1991. A New Democrat From the beginning of his campaign for the presidency, Clinton promised to be a “new” kind of Democrat. Throughout the 1980’s, the Democratic Party was characterized as a tax-andspend party that was looking out for special interests. The goal of the DLC was to change the image of the Democratic Party as a liberal, out-of-touch party into one that was responsive to the needs of the mainstream middle-class Americans, in step with their values and priorities. The campaign hit a major bump in January, 1992, when Gennifer Flowers accused Clinton of having an affair with her. With the New Hampshire primary

Clinton, Bill


fast approaching, Clinton sought to quickly quell the controversy caused by Flowers’s allegations. He appeared on the television newsmagazine 60 Minutes with his wife, Hillary, by his side. Clinton admitted to causing “pain” in his marriage, and Mrs. Clinton said that she loved and respected her husband. The effort paid off when Clinton placed second in the crucial New Hampshire primary, which gave him momentum campaigning for the Democratic nomination as the “Comeback Kid.” His break came on March 3 when he won the Georgia primary with 57 percent of the vote. He handily won the South Carolina primary a few days later. Clinton officially won the Democratic nomination on June 2, and he formally accepted the nomination at the Democratic convention on July 16. Also, at the convention, Clinton selected Senator Al Gore of Tennessee to be his vice presidential candidate. Both were of the baby-boom generation and campaigned

Bill Clinton takes the oath of office on January 20, 1993. (Library of Congress)


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on a platform of “hope for the future.” Indeed, the campaign theme song was Fleetwood Mac’s “Don’t Stop Thinking About Tomorrow.” The Clinton-Gore ticket entered the fall campaign against President George H. W. Bush with the promise of a “New Covenant” for the American people that would restore hope and confidence in government, bettering the life of the middle class. Bush criticized Clinton for avoiding the draft during the Vietnam War. Clinton told the American Legion that he still thought the war was a mistake, but he hoped that veterans would vote based on the future, not the past. However, he had no qualms with anyone who chose to vote against him because of his draft record. The 1992 election was made more colorful by the entry of Texas businessman H. Ross Perot into the race as an independent. He was able to join Clinton and Bush at all three of the debates that fall. After a campaign urging Americans to think of the future and attacking Bush for not focusing on the economy, Clinton won the 1992 election with 43 percent of the popular vote and 370 electoral votes. Many attributed Clinton’s victory to Perot’s siphoning of votes from Bush. Clinton took office on January 20, 1993, with a proclamation that America would continue to lead the world, and he urged all Americans to sacrifice for the greater good of their nation. First Term Clinton began his first term by lifting the Ronald Reagan-era bans on fetal tissue research and on allowing federal funding of international family-planning programs. He made good on his campaign promise to focus on health care by appointing his wife chair of a task force to develop a universal health care plan. Clinton also sought the lifting of the military ban on homosexuals. He finally settled on the “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy. He made good on his pledge to cut the White House staff by 25 percent while at the same time increasing the ability of the staff to assist citizens in dealing with the federal government. Having promised in his campaign to focus “like a laser beam” on the economy, Clinton foremost sought to reduce the deficit in order to provide more jobs and to increase the income of middleclass Americans. The plan increased taxes on wealthy Americans and corporations; Clinton called on them to contribute to the success of the country. The plan was passed by Congress in August, 1993,

without a single Republican vote. The act lowered taxes on 15 million middle-class Americans and provided tax relief to 90 percent of small businesses. However, his goal to provide universal health care was not achieved. Many feared a “government takeover” of health care, and Clinton had to settle for health care for children and legislation allowing workers to keep their health insurance even if they switched jobs. In 1993, Clinton signed into the law the Brady bill, which required background checks on gun purchasers, and the Family and Medical Leave Act. That law required twelve weeks of unpaid leave for any employee who had to take time off to care for a newborn child or seriously ill family member. Also, Clinton was able to appoint two Supreme Court justices in his first term, Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Stephen G. Breyer. On the foreign policy front, Clinton was a strong ally to Russian president Boris Yelstin and supported Yelstin as he brought democracy to the former Soviet Union. Clinton also worked tirelessly for peace in the Middle East. He was successful in getting Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin and Palestinian leader Yasir Arafat to sign a major peace agreement at the White House on September 13, 1994—the Oslo Accords. The Clinton administration suffered a major setback in the 1994 midterm elections when the Democrats lost majority control of Congress. Clinton was asked at a press conference following the election if he was even relevant, given that the Republicans controlled Congress. He was quick to remind people that he had veto power. Indeed, in 1995 Clinton won a budget showdown with Republican congressional leaders. Clinton achieved a balanced budget that did not contain deep cuts in social programs vital to the poor. In August, 1996, he signed a welfare reform bill that would help people move from government assistance to the workforce. Clinton’s success gave him confidence as he planned for his 1996 reelection campaign. Clinton faced Kansas Republican senator Bob Dole in the 1996 presidential campaign. Clinton was able to run on his strong economic record and on a promise to “build a bridge to the future,” since the winner would be the first president of the twenty-first century. Clinton won reelection on November 5, 1996, receiving 49 percent of

Second Term

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the popular vote to Dole’s 41 percent and winning 379 electoral votes. Clinton began his second term in 1997 by appointing Madeleine Albright as the first female secretary of state. He set out to make education and balancing the budget his priorities for his second term. Clinton also signed legislation in 1996 raising the minimum wage. Clinton’s second term hit a major stumbling block when, in January, 1998, independent counsel Kenneth Starr, who had investigated the Clintons’ Whitewater land deal from the 1980’s, made a major discovery while investigating Clinton’s deposition in the Paula Jones sexual harassment lawsuit. In that testimony, Clinton denied having a sexual relationship with a former White House intern, Monica Lewinsky. Clinton strongly denied any sexual relationship, and the scandal hung over the administration throughout 1998. In August, 1998, Clinton confessed to an “inappropriate relationship” with Lewinsky. Therefore, many thought Clinton committed perjury in his testimony in the Jones case, which led the House of Representatives to impeach the president. He became the second president in U.S. history to be impeached. The Senate, however, voted not to remove him from office. The Lewinsky investigation backfired on the Republicans, as their party lost seats in the 1998 midterm elections. Despite the impeachment, Clinton’s approval ratings remained high, and he spent the rest of his term promoting peace in the Middle East and Northern Ireland. He left office with a 65 percent approval rating—the highest end-of-term approval since President Dwight D. Eisenhower. The United Kingdom joined the United States in air attacks on Iraq in late 1998, after Iraq turned away U.N. weapons inspectors. Many thought this was a major setback to Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction program. The U.S. economy also stayed strong during Clinton’s second term; he left office with a budget surplus of $230 billion. Clinton supported his wife when she announced in 1999 that she would run for the Senate from New York in 2000. She was able to run on her husband’s legacy of a healthy economy and concern for children and the middle class. Impact Bill Clinton, as the first Democratic president reelected since the 1930’s, was a major power player throughout the 1990’s. He was responsible for bringing the Democratic Party to the center, where it largely remains to this day. Thanks to his

Clinton, Hillary Rodham


leadership, when he left office the economy was strong, the crime rate was down, and America was widely respected throughout the world. One cannot study the 1990’s without considering the influence that Clinton had throughout the decade. Further Reading

Clinton, Bill. Giving: How Each of Us Can Change the World. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2007. Clinton’s newest book, describing how everyone can change the world by supporting charities and being involved in their own communities. _______. My Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004. Clinton’s memoir provides a behind-the-scenes account of his political career. Clinton, Hillary Rodham. Living History. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2003. Describes the First Lady’s White House years and her political life. Hamilton, Nigel. Bill Clinton: Mastering the Presidency. New York: PublicAffairs, 2007. A study of Clinton’s character and policies by an accomplished biographer. David Murphy See also Albright, Madeleine; Bosnia conflict; Bush, George H. W.; Business and the economy in the United States; Clinton, Hillary Rodham; Clinton’s impeachment; Clinton’s scandals; Cohen, William S.; Dole, Bob; Don’t ask, don’t tell; Elections in the United States, midterm; Elections in the United States, 1992; Elections in the United States, 1996; Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993; Foreign policy of the United States; Gore, Al; Haiti intervention; Health care; Health care reform; Israel and the United States; Kosovo conflict; Lewinsky scandal; Liberalism in U.S. politics; North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA); Social Security reform; Somalia conflict; Starr Report; Troopergate; Welfare reform; Whitewater investigation.

■ Clinton, Hillary Rodham First Lady of the United States, 1993-2001 Born October 26, 1947; Chicago, Illinois Identification

Clinton served as First Lady in the 1990’s and brought important issues to the forefront of policy debates, all the while fulfilling the traditional role of First Lady and being a supportive wife and mother.


Clinton, Hillary Rodham

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In the presidential campaign of 1992, the Democratic candidate for president, Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas, promised that together with his wife, Hillary Rodham Clinton, voters would get “two for the price of one.” Even though that statement led to attacks from opponents that the future First Lady would have too much influence on her husband, she was widely admired by most Americans and most people around the world by the end of the 1990’s. Health Care Plan The fears of many critics were reinforced when, on January 25, 1993, President Clinton named his wife chair of the President’s Task Force on National Health Care Reform. Ira Magaziner’s corporate consulting firm had conducted an exhaustive study of America’s health care system, and he served on the task force along with the cabinet secretaries of commerce, defense, health and human services, labor, and veterans affairs. Senior staff at the White House and Office of Management and Budget rounded out the membership of the task force. Health care reform seemed from the outset to be an almost impossible venture, but both Clintons thought it a worthy cause; as of 1992, health care was costing the United States more than any other industrialized nation in the world at 14 percent of the gross domestic product. Hillary Clinton felt it unacceptable that the United States spends so much on health care yet does not offer universal coverage. President Clinton told Magaziner that the task force had to complete its work within the first year of his presidency, as Clinton had promised during the election campaign to make health care a priority. The First Lady and Magaziner went to the Congress and met with all the influential members; they soon realized that passing health care legislation by the spring of 1993 was an impossible task. The administration was working hard to get the president’s economic package through the Congress, and many felt that a battle for health care reform would seriously hinder that effort. Finally, the long-awaited moment for the task force came on September 22, 1993, when President Clinton introduced his administration’s plan for universal health care during a speech before a joint session of Congress, with the First Lady sitting in the gallery. She listened as her many months of planning policy, traveling around the country, and study-

Hillary Rodham Clinton. (Library of Congress)

ing the current health care system culminated in actual legislation. She then set out lobbying members of Congress for passage of the plan, becoming the first presidential wife to testify in front of the House Ways and Means Committee on such a major piece of legislation. However, the legislation stalled in both houses of Congress because of the highly charged political atmosphere. That the bill was 1,342 pages long only complicated matters. Many in Congress feared that the government was simply taking over the health care system rather than drastically reforming the current system to reduce costs and provide coverage for all Americans. Many Republicans feared that a major victory such as passage of a universal health care plan would ensure continued Democratic control of Congress in the 1994 midterm elections and help the president cruise to a reelection victory in 1996. Long before the 1990’s, Hillary Clinton had supported women’s rights and fought for policies to better the lives of women and children the world over. She finally had a global stage on which to serve as an advo-

Human Rights Advocate, Supportive Spouse

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cate for women and children at the U.N. Conference on Women in Beijing on September 5, 1995. Clinton proudly proclaimed that “human rights are women’s rights and women’s rights are human rights.” She exhibited great bravery by making such a proclamation in a country well known for its human rights violations. Also in 1995, she was the main supporter of legislation passed to assist those suffering from Gulf War syndrome. Clinton campaigned across the country in 1996, helping her husband win a second term in office. On August 17, 1998, President Clinton confessed to an “inappropriate relationship” with former White House intern Monica Lewinsky. In the months leading up to the president’s confession, Hillary Clinton publicly supported her husband and said she believed him when he stated in early 1998 that the Lewinsky allegations were false. Clinton was terribly upset with her husband and held on to her religious faith to get her through that difficult time, as well as to help her forgive her husband. The couple’s daughter, Chelsea, served as a source of strength to both of her parents and helped to bridge the marital rift that the scandal had caused. Impact Hillary Rodham Clinton ended the 1990’s as one of the most influential women in the world. Thanks to her advocacy for universal health care, as well as women’s and children’s issues, these issues are now part of the public policy debate. At the start of the decade, it was uncertain whether those important issues would be addressed. After much thought, Clinton decided to remain in the policy arena: She announced her candidacy for the Senate from New York on July 7, 1999. Clinton spent the rest of the year campaigning throughout the state. Further Reading

Clinton, Bill. My Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004. Clinton’s memoir covers his childhood and provides a behind-the-scenes account of his political career. Clinton, Hillary Rodham. It Takes a Village. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006. Tenth anniversary edition of Clinton’s 1996 best-seller describing how to make the world better for children. _______. Living History. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2003. Memoir describes the First Lady’s White House years and her political life. David Murphy

Clinton’s impeachment


Clinton, Bill; Clinton’s impeachment; Clinton’s scandals; Elections in the United States, midterm; Elections in the United States, 1992; Elections in the United States, 1996; Health care; Health care reform; Lewinsky scandal; Right-wing conspiracy; Whitewater investigation; Women’s rights; Year of the Woman.

See also

■ Clinton’s impeachment U.S. House of Representatives adopts two articles of impeachment against President Bill Clinton; U.S. Senate acquits the president Date Impeached on December 19, 1998; acquitted on February 12, 1999 The Event

Bill Clinton became only the second president, and the first elected one, to be impeached, and the first to be impeached for reasons unrelated to his official duties as president. In the presidential election of 1992, Arkansas governor and Democratic candidate Bill Clinton defeated Republican George H. W. Bush, the incumbent president. Despite receiving only 43 percent of the popular vote, Clinton won 370 electoral votes to Bush’s 168. On January 20, 1993, Clinton was inaugurated as the forty-second president of the United States and the first Democrat since Jimmy Carter was inaugurated in January, 1977. Whitewater Investigation The Whitewater Development Corporation, commonly called Whitewater, was a failed real estate deal in which Clinton had been an investor during his tenure as governor of Arkansas. Allegations of impropriety in the Whitewater matter had surfaced during the presidential campaign. Following the election, the media continued to press the issue, and Clinton’s political opponents called for an investigation. In January, 1994, at Clinton’s request, Attorney General Janet Reno appointed Robert Fiske as a special prosecutor to investigate Clinton’s involvement in the failure of the Whitewater Development Corporation. Conservative commentators, whom First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton would later call a “vast right-wing conspiracy,” further alleged that Vince Foster—the former deputy White House counsel and longtime friend of the Clintons who had been found dead in his car, the apparent victim of a suicide—had been murdered by the Clintons because he knew about


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their complicity in crimes relating to Whitewater. On June 30, 1994, however, Congress abolished the position of special prosecutor by passing the Independent Counsel Reauthorization Act of 1994. The position of independent counsel was created by the Ethics in Government Act of 1978. (The Ethics in Government Act had expired in December, 1992, but was reauthorized in June, 1994.) The purpose of the act and its reauthorization was to avoid conflicts of interest that would arise if the executive branch were investigating its own officials. The act provided for an independent counsel to investigate members of the executive branch if warranted after a preliminary review by the attorney general. Under the act, the attorney general must request the appointment of counsel from a special division of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. Once appointed, counsel may be removed by the attorney general only for reasons specified in the act. On August 9, 1994, eight months into Fiske’s investigation, the three-judge special division, chaired by Republican judge David Sentelle, replaced Fiske with Kenneth Starr, a former federal judge and Republican solicitor general. The special division removed Fiske on the grounds that he had been appointed by Clinton’s attorney general, thus creating the appearance that he was not completely independent. No reasons were offered by the panel to suppose Fiske a confidante or lackey of either the attorney general or Clinton. Equally important, no evidence points to the conclusion that Clinton’s political opponents persuaded the panel to remove Fiske or replace him with Starr. Unrelated to Whitewater, on May 6, 1994, Paula Jones, a former Arkansas state employee, sued President Clinton in federal court for sexual harassment. Jones claimed that on May 8, 1991, then governor Clinton made an improper sexual advance toward her in a Little Rock hotel room. Jones was represented by the Rutherford Institute, an organization with strong ties to the Republican Party, and sought $700,000 in damages. Clinton responded by filing a motion to dismiss on grounds of presidential immunity—that is, because Clinton was a sitting president, he was immune from a civil lawsuit. The district judge denied Clinton’s motion and ruled that discovery could go forward, but ordered any trial stayed until the end of Clinton’s presidency. A divided panel of the court of

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appeals affirmed the denial of the motion to dismiss but reversed the order postponing the trial. In Clinton v. Jones (1997), a unanimous Supreme Court ruled against the president, holding that the doctrine of separation of powers did not require a federal court to stay all private actions against the president until he left office. As such, the lawsuit proceeded. Prior to the president’s deposition in the sexual harassment case, however, Linda Tripp, a former White House employee, informed Jones’s lawyers that the president was involved in an affair with a White House intern, Monica Lewinsky. In early January, 1998, Lewinsky offered a sworn affidavit in the Jones lawsuit, averring that she never had a sexual relationship with the president. Shortly thereafter, on January 12, Starr received secretly recorded audio tapes of Tripp’s telephone conversations with Lewinsky. These tapes revealed that Lewinsky was willing to deny a sexual relationship with the president in exchange for the president’s assistance in securing her employment. Believing that the president’s actions, if true, constituted obstruction of justice, Starr requested and received approval from the attorney general to investigate the Lewinsky matter. On January 17, Clinton, in a sworn deposition in the Jones case, denied ever having “sexual relations” with Lewinsky. A federal grand jury, initially impaneled to investigate Whitewater, turned its attention to the Jones and Lewinsky matters. Specifically, the grand jury considered three accusations: whether Clinton had committed perjury during his deposition in the Jones case; whether Clinton had attempted to obstruct justice by encouraging Lewinsky and others to lie about his sexual relationship with Lewinsky; and whether Clinton had attempted to hide evidence of his relationship with Lewinsky. On August 17, 1998, the president testified before the grand jury via closed-circuit television. That evening, Clinton addressed the nation, admitting that his relationship with Lewinsky was inappropriate. He apologized for misleading the public about that relationship but insisted that he had never perjured himself. In addition, Clinton criticized both Jones and Starr for their politically inspired motives. By law, the independent counsel was required to inform the House of Representatives of any credible information that might constitute grounds for impeachment. The Starr Report, submitted to the lower chamber on September 9, 1998, cited eleven

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possible impeachable offenses, including lying under oath, obstructing justice, tampering with a witness, and abusing constitutional authority. Interestingly, not one of the offenses pertained to Whitewater. House Impeachment and Senate Trial In the 105th Congress, the House of Representatives was divided—228 Republicans and 206 Democrats, with one independent. The Senate had fifty-five Republicans and forty-five Democrats. Fearing impeachment proceedings, the president’s supporters asserted three positions. First, the framers of the Constitution had not intended for impeachment inquiries to be employed so wantonly. Impeachment was designed for crimes of substantive magnitude, like treason and bribery. Second, impeachment was an appropriate remedy only for public, but not private, wrongs. Third, impeachment required a very high standard because the United States had a presidential and not a parliamentary system, and because it nullified the popular will. The president’s opponents invoked the rule of law: Lying under oath is an impeachable offense. An extramarital affair may not be an impeachable offense, but perjury, obstruction, and abuse of power are. On October 8, 1998, the House voted 258 to 176 to conduct an impeachment inquiry. Every Republican voted for the inquiry, and 86 percent of the Democrats opposed it. Leading up to the 1998 midterm elections, Republicans attempted to focus public debate on the Lewinsky scandal. That effort was largely unsuccessful: The Democrats picked up five seats in the House and maintained their seats in the Senate. Even so, the Republicans pressed forward. After weeks of partisan debate, the House Judiciary Committee approved four articles of impeachment against the president. On each, the committee vote was strictly along party lines. Article I accused the president of committing perjury before the grand jury. Article II charged Clinton with perjuring himself in the Jones deposition. Article III charged the president with obstructing justice. Article IV accused Clinton with perjuring himself in his responses to the House Judiciary Committee’s questions. On December 19, 1998, the full House adopted Articles I and III. (Only a majority vote is required to impeach officers of the United States.) Article I passed 228-206 on virtually a straight party-line

Clinton’s impeachment


vote, with five Democrats in favor and five Republicans opposed. Article III passed narrowly 221-212, again largely along party lines. Article II failed 229205, with twenty-eight Republicans voting against it. Article IV was defeated decisively 285-148. Clinton became the second president, and the first elected one, to be impeached. On January 7, 1999, the Senate trial began. Each side was allotted twenty-four hours to make its case, followed by questions from the senators. The House, acting as the prosecution, presented first. On February 12, the Senate voted on the two articles of impeachment; both failed. (A two-thirds vote is required to convict and remove officers of the United States.) On the perjury article, ten Republicans joined forty-five Democrats voting not guilty. On the obstruction article, the Senate was equally divided: five Republicans joined forty-five Democrats voting not guilty. Impact From a Democratic perspective, both the conservative independent counsel and the Republican-controlled Congress took a cavalier approach to the impeachment process by attempting to criminalize political differences. Had the Republican Party been successful in removing President Clinton from office for sexual misadventures, so the argument went, there would have been a massive separation-ofpowers shift toward congressional aggrandizement and terrible damage to the institution of the presidency. The Republican effort subordinated the constitutional objective of addressing impeachable wrongs to political partisanship. It signaled the Republican Party’s desire to destroy Clinton personally and politically at any price. From a Republican perspective, impeachment, conviction, and removal was the only remedy for a reckless and lawless president. Providing false and misleading testimony in a sworn deposition and before a duly impaneled grand jury, endeavoring to obstruct justice by encouraging false affidavits and taking affirmative steps to conceal a felony, and tampering with witnesses were all serious offenses. The president’s conduct brought more than disgrace to himself and to the institution of the presidency; the president’s conduct constituted a crisis of public order—a crisis that could be remedied only through constitutionally and historically justified impeachment, conviction, and removal from office. The impeachment proceedings against President


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Clinton’s scandals

Clinton exacerbated the rancorous partisanship that dominated national politics in the late 1990’s. Virtually the entire process was dictated by party-line thinking. The Republicans allowed their tremendous personal disdain for the president to consume them to the point that it prevented any compromise with Democrats, even those who were disappointed in their own leader. The Democrats orchestrated a plan to win by fostering partisanship and using it as a shield for the president. In 1999, the Ethics in Government Act expired. It was not renewed, both parties recognizing the inherent dangers in granting virtually unchecked power to a politically unaccountable independent counsel to conduct a debilitating criminal investigation of the president. Further Reading

Baker, Peter. The Breach: Inside the Impeachment and Trial of William Jefferson Clinton. New York: Scribner, 2000. The definitive account of the impeachment and trial of President Clinton. Written without spin, an extensively researched, incredibly detailed, unbiased account of the events between August 17, 1998, and February 12, 1999. Focus is not on Paula Jones, Monica Lewinsky, Kenneth Starr, or sex but rather on Clinton and the Democratic and Republican leadership in the Congress. Isikoff, Michael. Uncovering Clinton: A Reporter’s Story. New York: Crown, 1999. A look at the events leading up to President Clinton’s grand jury confession on August 17, 1998—sex and all. Written by the Newsweek reporter who exposed the president’s affair with Monica Lewinsky. Maraniss, David. The Clinton Enigma: A Four-and-aHalf-Minute Speech Reveals This President’s Entire Life. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998. A fascinating dissection of President Clinton’s nationally televised curious apology confessing that he had misled the American people about his relationship with Monica Lewinsky. A character sketch of the president, showing how he was alternatively “reckless and cautious, righteous and repentant, evasive and forgetful . . . transforming his personal trauma into a political cause.” Posner, Richard A. An Affair of State: The Investigation, Impeachment, and Trial of President Clinton. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1999. Written by a longtime and well-respected federal

judge and academic. Discusses the constitutional history, law, jurisprudence, morality, and politics of the impeachment of President Clinton. Schippers, David P., and Alan P. Henry. Sellout: The Inside Story of President Clinton’s Impeachment. New York: Regnery, 2000. A criticism of President Clinton’s actions and a lament on the Senate’s failure to convict the president. U.S. Congress. House. Referral from Independent Counsel Kenneth W. Starr. 105th Congress, 2d session, 1998. House Document 310. The so-called Starr Report, sexual details included, which cited eleven possible impeachable offenses against the president. Van Tassel, Emily Field, and Paul Finkelman. Impeachable Offenses: A Documentary History from 1787 to the Present. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1999. A well-researched documentary history of the seventeen impeachment proceedings against officers of the United States. Richard A. Glenn Clinton, Bill; Clinton, Hillary Rodham; Clinton’s scandals; Lewinsky scandal; Reno, Janet; Right-wing conspiracy; Scandals; Starr Report; Supreme Court decisions; Troopergate; Whitewater investigation.

See also

■ Clinton’s scandals Personal, political, and legal scandals and allegations of illegal and unethical behavior by President Bill Clinton during his presidency, 1993-2001


Clinton’s scandals included self-admitted, alleged, and proven adulterous affairs and sexual harassment, investment improprieties in Arkansas, controversial fund-raising sources from the 1996 presidential election, and independent counsel Kenneth Starr’s extensive investigation and explicitly written report to Congress regarding allegations that Clinton committed perjury and obstruction of justice. The Starr Report was the basis for the decision of the U.S. House of Representatives to impeach Clinton in 1998. Although Clinton was narrowly acquitted by the Senate in 1999, he was only the second president in U.S. history to be impeached. After Bill Clinton’s landslide reelection as governor of Arkansas in 1990, Clinton announced his presi-

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dential candidacy on October 3, 1991. Competing in a crowded race for the 1992 Democratic presidential election, Clinton was forced to answer allegations that he had a lengthy sexual affair with Gennifer Flowers in Arkansas during the 1980’s. Shortly before the New Hampshire primary and on the evening of the 1992 Super Bowl game, Bill and Hillary Rodham Clinton appeared on the televised news program 60 Minutes and denied the affair, despite Flowers’s widely publicized press conference that included taped phone conversations between her and Clinton. Nonetheless, Clinton won a strong second-place finish in New Hampshire and became the presumptive Democratic presidential nominee by the spring of 1992. Throughout Clinton’s presidential campaign, he was plagued by several issues regarding his credibility, integrity, and patriotism. Clinton’s political opponents and critics nicknamed him “Slick Willie” and referred to his misleading and evasive statements about marijuana use and avoiding military service during the Vietnam War. Before his presidency, Clinton relied on his wife as the primary income earner in their marriage. Hillary Rodham Clinton was an attorney at the Rose Law Firm in Little Rock, Arkansas. She was also primarily responsible for the Clintons’ investment decisions. In this capacity, she invested in the Whitewater real estate development in Arkansas with James and Susan McDougal. After this real estate venture failed, financial improprieties and controversy surrounding it led to investigations by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission and the eventual conviction and imprisonment of the McDougals. James McDougal repeatedly and publicly claimed that the Clintons were seriously and illegally involved in the Whitewater scandal. In July, 1993, Vince Foster, Clinton’s deputy White House counsel, committed suicide in a federal park in Virginia. Foster had known Bill Clinton since childhood and had worked with Hillary Clinton as an attorney at the Rose Law Firm. Some critics and opponents of the Clintons suspected that they ordered Foster to be murdered in order to cover up an affair between Foster and Hillary and to eliminate him as an incriminating witness in the Whitewater case and remove Whitewater-related documents from Foster’s office. This extreme, controversial theory about Foster’s death was one of

The Whitewater Scandal

Clinton’s scandals


the first anti-Clinton conspiracy theories that made it increasingly difficult for the American public to discern reasonable, credible accusations of illegal behavior by Clinton. On April 22, 1994, Hillary Clinton held a press conference and denied any wrongdoing in the Whitewater investment. Bill Clinton directed Attorney General Janet Reno to appoint a special prosecutor to investigate the Whitewater issue. Robert Fiske then subpoenaed the Clintons for documents in May, 1994. The Resolution Trust Corporation, a federal agency, eventually cleared the Clintons of any wrongdoing. Kenneth Starr Although it was not the most prominent of Clinton’s scandals, the Whitewater scandal led to the appointment of Kenneth Starr by a judicial panel in August, 1994, as an independent counsel to continue the Whitewater investigation. Starr was a conservative Republican, a native of Arkansas, and solicitor general during George H. W. Bush’s presidency. This responsibility then led to Starr’s investigation of Paula Jones’s civil suit against Bill Clinton for sexual harassment. Perceiving contradictions between Clinton’s January, 1998, deposition and that of Monica Lewinsky, a former White House intern, in the Jones case, Starr concluded that Clinton had committed perjury and obstruction of justice in order to deny and cover up a sexual affair with Lewinsky. The Supreme Court ruled in May, 1997, in Clinton v. Jones that the U.S. Constitution does not make the president immune from civil suits involving actions that occurred before he became president. On November 13, 1998, Clinton paid Jones $850,000 as an out-of-court settlement after Jones agreed to end her appeal. Clinton continued to deny that he had sexually harassed or propositioned Jones and refused her demand for a public apology. Information from the Jones case also intensified the Troopergate scandal. Some Arkansas state troopers stated that when Clinton was governor, he used them to contact Jones and other women for sexual liaisons. One trooper claimed that Clinton offered him a federal job if he denied knowing anything about Clinton’s adulterous behavior in Arkansas. In addition to Troopergate, the Filegate and Travelgate scandals, in which the Clintons were respectively accused of improperly using Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) files and firing employees


Clinton’s scandals

of the White House travel office, contributed to a growing suspicion that the Clintons had a tendency to abuse their power over government employees. Most Democrats and other supporters of the Clintons believed that these investigations and controversies and the eventual impeachment of Bill Clinton were motivated and even fabricated by Republicans in Congress and conservative media commentators, think tanks, and interest groups ruthlessly determined to discredit and destroy the Clinton presidency. Hillary Clinton collectively referred to these forces as a “vast right-wing conspiracy.” For the Clintons and their supporters, it was not coincidental that Starr’s investigation was expanded after the Republicans won control of Congress in 1994 and further intensified after Clinton was reelected in 1996. Furthermore, the House Judiciary Committee began its impeachment hearings a few months before the 1998 midterm elections. For Bill Clinton, the fact that polls showed that most Americans opposed his impeachment and approved of his job performance and that Newt Gingrich resigned as Speaker of the House shortly after the Democrats gained House seats in the 1998 midterm elections substantiated his belief that the Starr Report and the House impeachment hearings were politically motivated. Although Clinton admitted to the American public that he had lied to them in his earlier public denial of a sexual affair with Monica Lewinsky, he believed that most Americans would distinguish between his personal life and presidential performance and, thus, oppose impeachment. Clinton’s victorious, well-financed reelection campaign in 1996 led to investigations and controversies regarding Clinton’s fund-raising practices. Some critics accused Clinton of unethically “renting” White House bedrooms to wealthy guests in exchange for campaign contributions. A more controversial fund-raising scandal involved Indonesian businessmen with ties to the Chinese government. The Democratic National Committee (DNC) was later required to return nearly $3 million in illegal contributions, many of them from Indonesian and Chinese sources. Clinton’s critics suspected that Clinton may have jeopardized national security by allowing Chinese access to advanced, militarily sensitive technology in exchange for these funds.

Partisan Politics, 1994-1998

After the Senate acquitted Clinton of his impeachment charges in Febru-

Final Scandals, 1999-2001

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ary, 1999, a federal judge in Arkansas ruled in April, 1999, that Clinton had committed civil contempt because of his misleading testimony in the Jones case and must pay Jones $91,000 in legal expenses. During the remainder of his presidency, Clinton often received high public approval ratings for his job performance, especially on the economy, and low public approval ratings for his ethical character and credibility because of these scandals. In running for president in 2000, Vice President Al Gore wanted to politically benefit from Clinton’s economic record while avoiding any association with Clinton’s scandals, especially Gore’s role in the fund-raising scandal. Gore’s ambivalence about Clinton motivated him to limit Clinton’s campaign appearances on his behalf. Nonetheless, George W. Bush won the 2000 presidential election. Some voters told pollsters that they voted for Bush in order to restore moral values to the presidency. The last scandal of the Clinton presidency became known as Pardongate. Before leaving the presidency in 2001, President Clinton issued several controversial and ethically questionable pardons. He pardoned clients represented by Hillary Clinton’s brothers; Puerto Rican terrorists; a drug dealer whose father made large Democratic campaign contributions; and Marc Rich, a commodities trader who was convicted of tax and oil embargo violations and was living in Switzerland as a fugitive. Denise Rich, his ex-wife, had given large contributions to Clinton’s library foundation and legal defense fund, the Democratic Party, and Hillary Clinton’s Senate campaign. Impact With Republicans controlling Congress during the last six of Clinton’s eight years as president, his scandals sensationalized and intensified partisan conflicts between Clinton and Congress. Media coverage and discussion of Clinton’s scandals contributed to the rise of Internet-based investigative journalists, such as Matt Drudge, and conservative talk radio show hosts, such as Rush Limbaugh. Furthermore, Clinton’s scandals affected the American public’s complex, ambivalent perception of the forty-second president of the United States. Many Americans who valued Clinton’s economic record and political skills did not trust or respect him. Subsequent Events After public and media attention to the Pardongate scandal subsided, Bill Clinton raised funds for humanitarian causes, such as re-

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lief for the victims of Hurricane Katrina (2005) and the Asian tsunami (2004), AIDS research and treatment, and environmental protection. He occasionally cooperated and appeared with former president George H. W. Bush in these efforts. Clinton’s public reputation subsequently improved, but he later became controversial and divisive because of some of his remarks on behalf of his wife’s 2008 presidential campaign and his critics’ investigation of the sources of his greatly increased personal wealth. Further Reading

Berman, William C. From the Center to the Edge: The Politics and Policies of the Clinton Presidency. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001. Includes references to how Clinton’s scandals affected his job performance and relationship with Congress. Clinton, Bill. My Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004. Clinton’s memoirs of his presidency include an explanation, defense, and refutation of several events and controversies known as Clinton’s scandals. Drew, Elizabeth. The Corruption of American Politics: What Went Wrong and Why. Woodstock, N.Y.: Overlook Press, 1999. A journalist’s study of the corrupting influences of campaign finance and the political environment during the 1990’s. Includes an explanation and analysis of the Indonesian-Chinese fund-raising scandal. Hamilton, Nigel. Bill Clinton: An American Journey. New York: Random House, 2003. A detailed biography of the president, from his family background to his election as president in 1992. Includes controversies about Clinton’s sexual affairs in Arkansas, especially the Flowers scandal, and draft avoidance. Isikoff, Michael. Uncovering Clinton: A Reporter’s Story. New York: Crown, 1999. A journalist’s account of his investigation of Clinton’s scandals, especially Whitewater, the Jones case, Troopergate, the Lewinsky affair, and Starr’s investigation and report to Congress. Isikoff’s sources include Starr’s staff. Morris, Dick, and Eileen McGann. Because He Could. New York: ReganBooks, 2004. Morris, a former campaign and media consultant for Clinton, reviews and critiques My Life. In particular, Morris contends that Clinton’s dishonesty and other character flaws contributed to his scandals and the misleading, duplicitous content of his memoirs.



Tyrrell, R. Emmett, Jr. The Clinton Crack-Up: The Boy President’s Life After the White House. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2007. Tyrrell, a conservative editor and critic of Clinton, claims that since Clinton left the White House his scandalous behavior has continued. Includes a detailed analysis of Pardongate. Sean J. Savage See also Campaign finance scandal; Clinton, Bill; Clinton, Hillary Rodham; Clinton’s impeachment; Drudge, Matt; Elections in the United States, midterm; Elections in the United States, 1992; Elections in the United States, 1996; Gingrich, Newt; Gore, Al; Lewinsky scandal; Limbaugh, Rush; Reno, Janet; Right-wing conspiracy; Scandals; Starr Report; Troopergate; White House attacks.

■ Cloning The asexual reproduction of organisms or fragments of DNA, producing identical genetic duplicates of the original specimen


The 1990’s saw dramatic advances in the development of animal cloning by “nuclear transfer” technology, which involves taking nuclear DNA from a mature individual, placing it in a denucleated egg cell, and then implanting the egg in the womb of a host. Research of this sort was closely associated with technologies of genetic engineering, which had begun to produce genetically modified animals; cloning offered a potential means of assisting their reproduction. In the meantime, the cloning of DNA fragments made a vital contribution to the emergent science of genomics. The idea of cloning ingrained in the popular imagination had been formed long before the 1990’s by melodramatic fiction, such as the successfully filmed novel The Boys from Brazil (1976), featuring multiple clones of Adolf Hitler. An equally melodramatic hypothetical use of the technology was featured in Michael Crichton’s Jurassic Park (1990), made into a film (1993) by Steven Spielberg, in which dinosaurs are cloned from fossil deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Such images, featuring mature animals cloned from cells abstracted from adult bodies, seemed plausible because plants were easy to clone in a similar fashion, by taking cuttings. At the beginning of the


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1990’s, however, the only actual means of producing animal clones was by splitting early embryos— mimicking the natural process that creates identical twins—and that was difficult to achieve in mammals. It was not until 1993 that scientists at George Washington University succeeded in splitting a human embryo. In the following year, Neal First of the University of Wisconsin accidentally discovered a new means of inducing embryos to split, cloning a set of bovine embryos. First’s discovery was rapidly adopted by scientists attempting to clone mammals by means of nuclear transfer as a way of multiplying the chances of bringing an embryo to term. It assisted scientists at the Roslin Institute in Scotland to produce a sheep cloned in this fashion, nicknamed Dolly, whose birth was announced in February, 1997. Scientists at the University of Hawaii Medical School announced the birth of Cumulina, a mouse cloned by their own variation of the nuclear transfer method, in July, 1998. Nuclear transfer remained a

Milestones in Cloning

somewhat haphazard process, however; Dolly was the only success in 277 experimental runs. Dolly was followed a year later by Polly, the first clone of a genetically modified ewe. The difficulties of reproduction by nuclear transfer, however, coupled with the difficulties of initial genetic modification, meant that progress in developing breeding populations of genetically modified animals was slow. The possibility of developing any large-scale industrial enterprise by this means still seemed remote at the end of the 1990’s. The first recognized live birth of a cloned primate produced by embryo splitting was a rhesus monkey born at the Oregon Regional Primate Research Center in 1999. It subsequently transpired, however, that techniques used by U.S. fertility clinics in the late 1990’s had often resulted in accidental embryo splitting, increasing the probability of identical twin births by a factor of four. Planned research in human cloning was, however, focused throughout the 1990’s not on reproductive cloning but on therapeutic cloning, involving the produc-

Dolly the sheep, the first animal to be cloned from adult cells. (AP/Wide World Photos)

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tion of specialized tissues to repair organs damaged by disease or injury. The basic idea of therapeutic cloning was that the problems involved in transplanting organs and tissues from one human to another could be entirely set aside if the new tissue were genetically identical to the host tissue, so that no immune reaction could result. New developments in cloning techniques renewed the hope that it might be possible to produce specialized kinds of cells, or even to grow entire organs, from an individual’s own cells. This kind of research became increasingly focused on the reproduction and manipulation of “stem cells,” and by the end of the decade therapeutic cloning had effectively become a branch of stem cell research. The difficulty of distinguishing between reproductive and therapeutic cloning made the legal regulation of cloning research awkward. The modest aims and accomplishments of actual research in human cloning did not prevent a massive media reaction to the birth of Dolly that was focused on the increased possibility of using nuclear transfer technology to produce a human clone. Within days, U.S. president Bill Clinton imposed a moratorium on the use of government funds for cloning research and set up a National Bioethics Advisory Commission, which reported ninety days later, recommending legislation to prohibit anyone from attempting to produce a child by means of nuclear transfer.

Cloning Research and Political Reaction

The surge of publicity and speculation generated by the first successful experiments in cloning by nuclear transfer far outweighed the actual significance of the achievements. The most important scientific impact of the advancement of cloning technology in the 1990’s involved new techniques for cloning fragments of DNA, which revolutionized forensic science and genomics and facilitated a rapid acceleration of the Human Genome Project. Impact

Further Reading

Brown, T. A. Gene Cloning and DNA Analysis: An Introduction. 5th ed. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 2006. A textbook on the techniques and applications of cloning individual lengths of DNA in genomic analysis. Features a commentary on the broader applications of the technology. Levine, Aaron D. Cloning: A Beginner’s Guide. Oxford,

Clooney, George


England: Oneworld, 2007. A useful synoptic overview aimed at a general audience. Pence, Gregory E. Cloning After Dolly: Who’s Still Afraid? New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2004. A follow-up volume to the item below, taking on more recent developments and counterarguments produced in response to its predecessor. _______. Who’s Afraid of Human Cloning? Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1998. An agendasetting account of the ethical issues relevant to the possibility of human cloning by an academic philosopher. Scientific American. Understanding Cloning. New York: Warner Books, 2002. A wide-ranging anthology of informative and speculative essays from the popular science magazine, in the Science Made Accessible series. Wilmut, Ian, and Roger Highfield. After Dolly: The Uses and Misuses of Human Cloning. New York: W. W. Norton, 2006. A carefully balanced account of the issues raised by the cloning of the epoch-making sheep, coauthored by one of the scientists responsible. Brian Stableford Genetic engineering; Genetics research; Human Genome Project; Medicine; Science and technology; Stem cell research.

See also

■ Clooney, George Identification American actor, producer, and writer Born May 6, 1961; Lexington, Kentucky

By the early 1990’s, Clooney had been seen on both television and movie screens. Although gainfully employed as a Hollywood actor, he sought more recognition. He found his golden opportunity when he played Dr. Doug Ross, an emergency room doctor, for the series ER. George Clooney began the 1990’s as a generally unknown actor in his role as an unlikable drug-dealing surfer, Mark Remar, in the low-budget movie Red Surf (1990). In that same year, he was also cast in a short-lived police drama, Sunset Beat, in which he played Chic Chesbro, an undercover biker policeman by day and a rock guitar player by night. The following year, he was cast in the television series Baby Talk as a construction worker, but disagreement with the producer, Ed Weinberger, led Clooney to quit. In


The Nineties in America

CNN coverage of the Gulf War

aged to host Saturday Night Live, appear on Friends, and work starring movies into his schedule. In his first significant Hollywood movie, From Dusk Till Dawn (1996), Clooney played Seth Gecko, one of two despicable criminal brothers who, after a failed bank heist, resort to shooting and killing. Clooney followed this appearance with a string of successful films. He starred in One Fine Day (1996), The Peacemaker (1997), Batman and Robin (1997), Out of Sight (1998), and Three Kings (1999). He lent his voice as Sparky the Dog for a 1997 episode of Comedy Central’s South Park and as Dr. Gouache in South Park: Bigger, Longer, and Uncut (1999). Impact In the 1990’s, George Clooney went from a virtually unknown actor to a household name. His acting and popularity won him awards, movie roles, and cover pictures on magazines. In 1998, television viewers were sorely disappointed when they learned that Clooney did not renew his contract with ER. Clooney had become a famous actor, a sex symbol, and a voice for his favorite causes. Further Reading

George Clooney in 1996. (AP/Wide World Photos)

1992, Clooney was in another brief television series, Bodies of Evidence, as Detective Ryan Walker. He also appeared as a dancing transvestite in the 1993 movie The Harvest. In 1993-1994, Clooney played yet another sexy detective role as James Falconer in the television series Sisters, but this character had more depth than his previous roles. In 1994, Clooney’s career rocketed to stardom. He became a nearly overnight heartthrob to millions of viewers who tuned in to the new one-hour medical drama series ER on the National Broadcasting Company (NBC). As Dr. Doug Ross, Clooney played the part of a handsome and beguiling emergency room pediatrician who drank, played tricks on his coworkers, and monopolized the attention of many women. Clooney portrayed the many foibles of Dr. Ross, whose charm seemed to hide his shortcomings. Clooney’s role soon earned him Emmy and Golden Globe Awards. Although his ER role required him to set a demanding pace, Clooney man-

Dougan, Andy. The Biography of George Clooney. Philadelphia: Trans-Atlantic Publications, 1997. Keenleyside, Sam. Bedside Manners: George Clooney and “ER.” Toronto: ECW Press, 1998. Noden, Merrell. George Clooney: A Biography. New York: Time Inc., 2000. Cynthia J. W. Svoboda See also

ER; Film in the United States; South Park;


■ CNN coverage of the Gulf War The Cable News Network defies U.S. military guidelines restricting independent news coverage of the Gulf War Date January 17-February 27, 1991 The Event

When the Cable News Network first began broadcasting news twenty-four hours a day in 1980, critics referred to it as the “Chicken Noodle Network.” However, the network was able to establish itself as a major competitor with the three major U.S. news networks with its extensive live coverage of the 1991 Gulf War. As journalists arrived in Saudi Arabia to cover the impending attack on Iraq by the United States and

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its U.N. allies in an effort to liberate Kuwait, they discovered that the U.S. military was not allowing the same level of independent reporting they had when they covered the Vietnam War. Journalists now were required to follow strict media pool guidelines limiting what information they would be permitted to report. Military public affairs officers would shepherd journalists on guided tours of coalition troops, deciding where the reporters could go and whom they could interview. However, the Cable News Network (CNN) refused to be confined by the military’s restrictive media pool guidelines. Instead, the network sent reporters to Baghdad to do what had never been done before—cover the war live from the enemy’s capital city. When the first allied bombing raid on Baghdad began on January 17, 1991, CNN was the only news outlet able to broadcast live telephone voice reports of the attacks. Hiding under beds and desks in a Baghdad hotel, CNN reporters Peter Arnett, Bernard Shaw, and John Holliman were the first to tell the world that war had begun, thus scooping the U.S. military’s official announcement by twentyseven minutes. During the initial hours of the invasion, with no video available for another twenty-four hours, even the competing U.S. networks were broadcasting CNN reports, complete with the CNN logo on the screen. U.S. general Colin Powell, chair of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, acknowledged in his first two media briefings that the Pentagon, too, was watching CNN. The Iraqi military temporarily stopped CNN’s nonstop war coverage by banning all live broadcasting from the country, forcing CNN’s Baghdad team off the air after sixteen intermittent hours. Iraq later expelled all the foreign media except for CNN’s veteran war correspondent Peter Arnett and his team, producer Robert Wiener and engineer Nic Robertson. CNN was beyond the reach of the U.S. military censors, but now the network had to abide by Iraqi media-censorship rules. The Iraqi government selected CNN’s reporting locations and monitored Arnett’s interviews. As a result, many of Arnett’s stories focused on bombing damage to civilian areas and the suffering of the Iraqi people. Two weeks after the war began, Iraqi president Saddam Hussein granted CNN’s Arnett his first television interview, which was beamed to millions of viewers in 106 countries.

CNN coverage of the Gulf War


CNN’s war coverage would contradict information provided by military officials during their daily televised media briefings. In one story, Arnett reported that military cruise missiles had destroyed a baby powdered milk factory in Baghdad and not a chemical weapons plant as the military had stated. Despite pressure from the U.S. government to leave Iraq, CNN stayed in Baghdad throughout the Gulf War and dominated the war coverage by providing a continuous flow of information from Baghdad, Riyadh, Amman, Tel Aviv, and U.S. military and White House news conferences. Reaction to CNN’s War Coverage Many Americans, including members of Congress and even fellow journalists, severely criticized CNN for airing reports about the war that had been provided or censored by the Iraqi government. Arnett was called a traitor and an Iraqi sympathizer, and his reporting was labeled as a propaganda tool by Hussein. CNN’s competitors called its round-the-clock war coverage biased, amateurish, inaccurate, and simplistic. However, at the same time, hundreds of U.S. reporters sent to Saudi Arabia felt censored because they did not have easy access to the troops on the ground and were not allowed to go with the fighter jets that bombed Baghdad. The Pentagon explained that the media pool guidelines were necessary to protect U.S. troops, military operations, and even the journalists because U.S. enemies were watching CNN. Because the U.S. military knew that Iraqi government leaders were watching CNN’s live war coverage as a source of intelligence, it used CNN and other television news organizations as part of its strategy to confuse the enemy. The military allowed worldwide television coverage of its warships practicing a landing off the coast of Saudi Arabia, giving the impression that the military planned to attack by sea, but never let on that the practice landing was staged to deceive Iraq. When allied forces attacked on February 24, 1991, the attack came by land instead. One hundred hours after the ground war began, President George H. W. Bush ordered a cease-fire, and it was CNN that broke the news of Hussein’s offer to withdraw from Kuwait. Impact CNN’s continuous presence in Baghdad, along with the technology that allowed its reporters to get its war coverage to viewers around the world, catapulted the network past the three major U.S. networks for the first time in its history. CNN’s last-


Cochran, Johnnie

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ing impact on the Gulf War even led Pentagon officials to coin the term the “CNN effect” to describe the impact of the new global media with twenty-four-hour, real-time news coverage on U.S. foreign policy decision making. Further Reading

Allen, Thomas B., F. Clifton Berry, and Norman Polmar. CNN: War in the Gulf: From the Invasion of Kuwait to the Day of Victory and Beyond. Atlanta: Turner, 1991. A documentary of CNN’s coverage of the Iraqi-Kuwait crisis, including the 1991 Gulf War. Arnett, Peter. Live from the Battlefield: From Vietnam to Bagdad—Thirtyfive Years in the World’s War Zones. New York: Simon & Schuster, Johnnie Cochran puts on the crime scene gloves to reiterate to the jury in the O. J. Simp1994. Arnett’s memoir detailing son murder trial that they did not fit the suspect. (AP/Wide World Photos) his experiences covering the Gulf War for CNN as well as his is best known for his work as defense attorney in the trial of thirteen years as a Pulitzer Prize-winning Associformer football great O. J. Simpson. ated Press reporter covering the Vietnam War in which he compares the controversy surrounding Johnnie Cochran, dubbed the Civil Trial Lawyer of his Gulf reporting with the criticism he received the Year in 1990, faced challenging courtroom batfor his reporting during Vietnam. tles during his career. The early years of this decade Wiener, Robert. Live from Baghdad: Making Journalfound Cochran representing a white truck driver, ism History Behind the Lines. New York: St. Martin’s Reginald Denny, who was pulled from his truck and Griffin, 2002. Wiener’s account of the six months nearly beaten to death by an angry mob during the he spent as the CNN executive producer with Pe1992 Los Angeles riots, which were sparked when ter Arnett in Baghdad reporting on the Gulf War. four Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) offiEddith A. Dashiell cers were acquitted in the 1991 beating of an African American man, Rodney King. Cochran argued disSee also Arnett, Peter; Cable television; Foreign crimination because the LAPD failed to protect the policy of the United States; Gulf War; Gulf War synneighborhood, South Central Los Angeles, where drome; Journalism; Schwarzkopf, Norman. Denny’s beating occurred. Although he did not win a settlement for his client, he continued his fight against the LAPD for misapplication of power. ■ Cochran, Johnnie Cochran helped win a record $9.4 million jury verdict for a Latina girl who was molested by an LAPD Identification African American attorney officer. Conversely, in 1993, Cochran settled a child Born October 2, 1937; Shreveport, Louisiana molestation case for pop icon Michael Jackson. Died March 29, 2005; Los Angeles, California In 1995, Cochran found himself leading the defense team in the trial of O. J. Simpson, who was acCochran, an advocate for justice, focused his life’s work on cused of murder in the 1994 slayings of his ex-wife, dismantling the Los Angeles Police Department’s discrimiNicole Brown Simpson, a white woman, and her natory practices, along with its many misuses of power. He

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friend Ronald Goldman. When Simpson asked Cochran to join a team of lawyers (dubbed the “Dream Team” by reporters), Cochran did not immediately accept. Instead, he spent time analyzing television broadcasts and studying print media about the case. Cochran was enraged by circumstances surrounding the case: a misuse of power, overt discrimination, dishonesty, and corruption. Cochran and the defense team argued that the LAPD had planted evidence against Simpson. A bloody glove, which was found at the scene of the murders, had been allegedly worn by Simpson, according to information provided by LAPD detectives to the prosecution, but the glove did not fit. During his closing argument, the charismatic Cochran repeated the now famous refrain, “If it doesn’t fit, you must acquit,” and Simpson was cleared of charges. Two years later, Cochran stood beside his friend and client, former Black Panther leader Geronimo Pratt, when his murder conviction was finally overturned. Impact For Cochran, the O. J. Simpson trial clearly signaled the absence of justice; he was reminded of atrocious acts that, to him, defined the LAPD. Best known for his successful defense in this case, Cochran fought for victims of police abuse and was called the “people’s lawyer” by the Reverend Jesse Jackson.

Coen brothers


■ Coen brothers American film writer/producer/ director team Born Joel Coen, November 29, 1954; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Ethan Coen, September 21, 1957; Minneapolis, Minnesota Identification

During the 1990’s, the Coen brothers brought a quirky, literate, ironic, and often shocking sensibility to their unique versions of American genre films, especially the screwball comedy and the film noir. The sons of an academic couple, Joel and Ethan Coen were raised in a Jewish suburb of Minneapolis. At an early age, the brothers developed an interest in popular culture and in making their own versions of Hollywood movies. After graduating from the alternative high school/college at Simon’s Rock, the pair attended New York University, where Joel studied film and Ethan philosophy. Several years of apprentice film work preceded their startling, self-financed debut feature, Blood Simple (1984), which won the Grand Jury Prize at the Sundance Film Festival.

Further Reading

Cochran, Johnnie L., with David Fisher. A Lawyer’s Life. New York: Thomas Dunne Books, 2002. Cochran, Johnnie L., with Tim Rutten. Journey to Justice. New York: Ballantine, 1996. Maddox, Alton H., Jr. “What You Need to Know About Johnnie Cochran.” New York Amsterdam News 96, no. 15 (April 7, 2005): 12-40. AnnMarie Depas-Orange See also African Americans; Crime; King, Rodney; Los Angeles riots; Police brutality; Race relations; Simpson murder case.

The filmmaking duo Ethan (left) and Joel Coen, who directed the thriller Fargo, laugh as they pose at the 1996 Cannes Film Festival. (AP/Wide World Photos)


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In the 1990’s, a decade characterized by its bigbudget sequels, the Coens released five features, typically produced on small budgets, always based on their highly original screenplays (and their explicit storyboards): Miller’s Crossing (1990), Barton Fink (1991), The Hudsucker Proxy (1994), Fargo (1996), and The Big Lebowski (1998). The Coens set their films in various regions of the United States, often in past eras: Miller’s Crossing follows the gang wars and corrupt politics of the 1920’s; Barton Fink explores a mind-numbing 1941 Hollywood studio system; and The Hudsucker Proxy satirizes the corporate world of 1958 New York City. Two of the Coens’ many unforgettable characters, the perpetually stoned “Dude” (Jeff Bridges) and his bowling buddy, Vietnam veteran Walter (John Goodman), move through 1990’s Los Angeles locked into 1960’s attitudes in The Big Lebowski. Although set in the 1990’s, Fargo evokes an earlier time of innocence in the character of Marge (Frances McDormand), the pregnant, practical, and optimistic policewoman faced with a series of hideous murders. The most expensive production, featuring the biggest Hollywood name (Paul Newman), The Hudsucker Proxy was their least successful film, critically and financially, while the modestly made Fargo was their greatest commercial and critical success, winning Academy Awards for Best Original Screenplay and Best Actress (for McDormand, who is married to Joel Coen). The brothers share writing credits and, although Ethan is credited as producer and Joel as director, they share these responsibilities and also coedit, under the pseudonym Roderick Jaynes. Added to the family atmosphere are regular crew and cast members (John Turturo, John Goodman, Steve Buscemi). In many respects, the Coen brothers continue the practice they began as boys: working together, having fun, and making their own versions of Hollywood genre films. Perhaps the best example of their ability to combine pulp fiction and philosophy, macabre violence and clever dialogue, in ways both derivative and unique is Miller’s Crossing, one of the best films of the 1990’s. Impact The Coen brothers have demonstrated the viability of creating low-budget Hollywood films that possess the originality and autonomy of the best independent cinema, while capitalizing on the distribution potential of major studios.

Further Reading

Allen, William Rodney, ed. The Coen Brothers: Interviews. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2006. Palmer, R. Barton. Joel and Ethan Coen. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2004. Robson, Eddie. Coen Brothers. London: Virgin Books, 2003. Carolyn Anderson Academy Awards; Film in the United States; Independent films; Jewish Americans; Sundance Film Festival.

See also

■ Coffeehouses Establishments that sell a variety of beverages and snacks and that commonly serve as social and entertainment venues


The increased popularity of coffeehouses in the 1990’s gave rise to a new American subculture and helped to reinforce the on-the-go lifestyle of modern America. The fast pace of Americans’ lives as well as a demand for trendy gourmet coffees and teas created a market niche for coffeehouses in the 1990’s. Many Americans adopted an on-the-go lifestyle and sought a convenient way to obtain their morning coffee without the hassle of self-preparation. Companies such as Starbucks and Seattle’s Best Coffee saw this demand and developed a streamlined atmosphere in which patrons could get a cup of coffee or tea in a matter of minutes. Coffeehouses were transformed from high-class establishments with upperclass patrons in mind into hip, fast-paced cafés targeted toward American youth and the middle class. Another demand that arose during the decade was for a more diversified selection of beverages. Americans wanted more than just the standard black coffee. Coffeehouses began to carry a variety of beverages, including espressos, cappuccinos, and chai tea. In addition, sandwiches and pastries were introduced to great success as well as desserts and finger foods. Coffeehouses have historically been known as social spaces for the exchange of information. With the rise of the Internet in the mid-1990’s, Internet cafés sprang up, and some coffeeshops even offered free wireless Internet service to patrons. This feature

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helped to attract a new customer type, the casual diner, to coffeehouses. Patrons could enjoy their beverages and snacks while communicating via the Internet. This next step in the evolution of the coffeehouse brought changes to the interior design, which remained streamlined for fast service but included comfortable furniture, art, and casual music—features that began to play an important role in the coffeehouse atmosphere. Impact Coffeehouses both supported Americans’ on-the-go lifestyle and provided patrons with comfortable social spaces. They also served as convenient locations for Internet access. Further Reading

Michelli, Joseph A. The Starbucks Experience: Five Principles for Turning Ordinary into Extraordinary. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2007. Schultz, Howard, and Dori Jones Yang. Pour Your Heart into It: How Starbucks Built a Company One Cup at a Time. New York: Hyperion, 1997. James Darrel Alexander, Jr. See also

Cohen, William S.

in the subject matter of each of these areas, Senator Cohen became an authority in the area of defense policy and national security affairs. Cohen’s identity as a Republican did not prevent him from criticizing the occupant of the White House, even when the president was a member of the senator’s own party. In 1986, Cohen was one of only three Republicans to align with Democrats in signing a majority report that held President Ronald Reagan accountable for the events known as the Iran-Contra affair. In 1990, when many in his party asked for swift military action by the George H. W. Bush administration following Iraqi president Saddam Hussein’s invasion of Kuwait, Cohen was vocal in calling for the administration to adhere to the 1973 War Powers Act. Cohen believed it was critical for President Bush to receive a vote from Congress before the nation proceeded to war. During President Bill Clinton’s first term, Cohen criticized a number of the administration’s foreign and defense policy positions. Cohen opposed continuing a program that funded the B-2 “stealth” bomber and criticized the White House’s strategy on

Food trends; Organic food movement.

■ Cohen, William S. U.S. secretary of defense, 19972001 Born August 28, 1940; Bangor, Maine Identification

In January, 1997, President Bill Clinton appointed Cohen, a moderate Republican from Maine, as secretary of defense. The appointment came following Cohen’s decision to retire after a twenty-four-year legislative career in the U.S. Congress. A thoughtful, articulate attorney and author, William S. Cohen was a highly regarded figure in congressional circles when the people of Maine reelected him to his second term to the U.S. Senate in 1990. Known as an independent thinker and at times an outspoken critic of his party’s leadership, Senator Cohen became popular with many of his colleagues for the ability to work with members of both parties to develop a consensus on a variety of issues. During his eighteen-year career in the Senate (1979-1997), Cohen served as a member of the Armed Services Committee and the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. By submersing himself


William S. Cohen. (U.S. Department of Defense)


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the role of U.S. peacekeeping forces when Clinton sent them to solve the crises in the fragmented nation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Following Clinton’s 1996 reelection, he nominated Cohen as secretary of defense. It was the first time a Republican had been nominated by a Democratic president to serve in that position. Under his tenure at the Pentagon, Secretary Cohen assisted with the admission of Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), assisted Clinton and Russian president Boris Yeltsin in reducing Russia’s supply of nuclear weapons, and improved military relations with China. He was also instrumental in expanding the nation’s defense budget as well as raising salaries and improving living conditions for all members of the military. Impact William Cohen was a respected politician who served in legislative politics at a time when it was possible for a nonpartisan politician to accomplish his or her objectives by displaying a willingness to listen to and consider opposing views. He believed that disagreements could be solved if both parties worked together with the knowledge that they could create solutions that would stand the test of time. Cohen’s decision to retire from the Senate because of an increased level of polarization in Washington speaks of how different the capital had become since the time he first arrived there nearly a quarter of a century before. Further Reading

McGeary, Johanna. “Mix and Match.” Time, December 16, 1996, 28. Priest, Dana, and Helen Dewar. “Republican Cohen Equally at Home with Policy and Poesy.” The Washington Post, December 6, 1996, p. A26. Laurence R. Jurdem Bush, George H. W.; China and the United States; Clinton, Bill; Elections in the United States, 1996; Foreign policy of the United States; Kosovo conflict; Russia and North America.

See also

■ Cold War, end of Conclusion of the Cold War between the Western democracies led by the United States and the communist nations led by the Soviet Union


The collapse of the Soviet Union in December, 1991, was the final event in the end of the Cold War between the East and the West. This struggle emerged out of the victory of these allies in World War II. For more than four decades, the United States and its allies—primarily the members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)—were locked in a noncombative struggle with the Soviet Union and its allies, most of them members in the Warsaw Pact. While the policies of U.S. president Ronald Reagan, Pope John Paul II, and British prime minister Margaret Thatcher had significant impact on the end of the Cold War, the primary factors were internal to the Soviet Union. Symptoms of decline in the Soviet leadership and its system of governing were evident during the late 1970’s. Mikhail Gorbachev was named general secretary of the Communist Party in 1985, and he immediately moved to diffuse tensions between the East and the West. Gorbachev found the Soviet Union to be in a hopeless condition of stress that resulted from two major causes: a dismal economic and fiscal situation stemming from excessive military spending and exorbitant foreign aid commitments, and mounting public criticism of the war in Afghanistan and, then, in 1986, the government’s handling of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor meltdown. The Soviet Unraveling Attempting to turn the situation around, Gorbachev introduced two new concepts, glasnost and perestroika. Glasnost referred to a new openness in Soviet society that was sympathetic to democratic concepts; perestroika was focused on the economic reorganization of the Soviet system. He hoped that these policies would improve public support and provide more consumer products. In fact, these forces resulted in aggravating the domestic Soviet system because people expected unrealistically quick results; the reforms contributed significantly to the unraveling of the Soviet system and raised fundamental questions on identity and values among the populace. Combined with the aggressive nature of the Reagan policies (namely the Strategic Defense Initiative), the pro-Solidarity

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Bush’s Statement on Gorbachev’s Resignation On December 25, 1991, Mikhail Gorbachev resigned as president of the Soviet Union, which officially dissolved six days later. After Gorbachev stepped down, President George H. W. Bush issued the following statement praising Gorbachev’s leadership: Mikhail Gorbachev’s resignation as President of the Soviet Union culminates a remarkable era in the history of his country and in its long and often difficult relationship with the United States. As he leaves office, I would like to express publicly and on behalf of the American people my gratitude to him for years of sustained commitment to world peace, and my personal respect for his intellect, vision, and courage. President Gorbachev is responsible for one of the most important developments of this century, the revolutionary transformation of a totalitarian dictatorship and the liberation of his people from its smothering embrace. His personal commitment to democratic and economic reform through perestroika and glasnost, a commitment which demanded the highest degree of political and personal ingenuity and courage, permitted the peoples of Russia and other Republics to cast aside decades of dark oppression and put in place the foundations of freedom. Working with President Reagan, myself, and other allied leaders, President Gorbachev acted boldly and decisively to end the bitter divisions of the Cold War and contributed to the remaking of a Europe whole and free. His and Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze’s “New Thinking” in foreign affairs permitted the United States and the Soviet Union to move from confrontation to partnership in the search for peace across the globe. Together we negotiated historic reductions in chemical, nuclear, and conventional forces and reduced the risk of a nuclear conflict. Working together, we helped the people of Eastern Europe win their liberty and the German people their goal of unity in peace and freedom. Our partnership led to unprecedented cooperation in repelling Iraqi aggression in Kuwait, in bringing peace to Nicaragua and Cambodia, and independence to Namibia. And our work continues as we seek a lasting and just peace between Israelis and Arabs in the Middle East and an end to the conflict in Afghanistan. President Gorbachev’s participation in these historic events is his legacy to his country and to the world. This record assures him an honored place in history and, most importantly for the future, establishes a solid basis from which the United States and the West can work in equally constructive ways with his successors.

position of Pope John Paul II, and the toughness of Margaret Thatcher, the tenability of the Soviet Union became more questionable. In 1989, the Eastern European states broke with the Soviets without opposition, the Berlin Wall fell, and Yugoslavia imploded. At the Malta Summit (December, 1989) between U.S. president George H. W. Bush and Gorbachev, the Cold War was declared to be in the past; in December, 1991, the Soviet Union ceased to exist when it was fragmented into numerous nationstates. Impact The excitement, aspirations, and hopes that were voiced for a world at peace were sustained

through most of the 1990’s. Relations between the West and the East improved, a new Russia emerged from political and economic chaos, and the United States was viewed as the last remaining superpower. The political maps of Central and Eastern Europe and north-central Asia were redrawn to recognize national-ethnic realities. However, the fragility of the new freedoms in Russia was evident when many citizens voted for candidates that were representative of the Soviet regime. The close and rather informal relations that Russia under President Boris Yeltsin enjoyed with the West gave way to the stern, nationalist policies of President Vladimir Putin. The “partnership” of Putin and U.S. president George W.


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Columbine massacre

Bush gave way to a strained U.S.-Russian relationship that reflected the continuity of opposing international policies. Further Reading

Arquilla, John. The Reagan Imprint: Ideas in American Foreign Policy from the Collapse of Communism to the War on Terror. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2006. Arquilla’s interpretation on the end of the Cold War credits the policies and initiatives of President Ronald Reagan for much of the success in accelerating the end of the Cold War. Bogle, Lori Lyn, ed. The Cold War. New York: Routledge, 2001. A collection of essays that collectively presents the end of the Cold War as a very complex development during which the leaders of both the West and the East recognized that the Cold War was not necessary or tenable in the 1990’s. Bose, Meena, and Rosanna Perotti, eds. From Cold War to New World Order: The Foreign Policy of George H. W. Bush. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002. This is an important work consisting of essays on the impact of the end of the Cold War on the foreign policy of the United States; Bush’s concept of a “New World Order” was focused on American hegemony in a worldwide community of democratic states. Cowley, Robert, ed. The Cold War: A Military History. New York: Random House, 2005. Cowley’s study of the military strategies and weapons war between the United States and the Soviet Union is the best single volume available on the subject. Dockrill, Michael L., and Michael F. Hopkins. The Cold War, 1945-1991. 2d ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. A comprehensive history of the Cold War that relies on primary sources; an excellent, general history. Gaddis, John Lewis. The Cold War: A New History. New York: Penguin Books, 2005. One of the most widely read and available histories of the Cold War. Gaddis’s interpretation of the end of the Cold War is sympathetic to Gorbachev and credits Reagan, John Paul II, and Thatcher for their parts in bringing about its end and the collapse of the Soviet Union. Gregory, Ross. Cold War America, 1946-1990. New York: Facts On File, 2003. An excellent reference book focused on the Cold War in the United States from its post-World War II origins to the Gorbachev era.

O’Sullivan, John. The President, the Pope, and the Prime Minister: Three Who Changed the World. Washington, D.C.: Regnery, 2006. O’Sullivan contends that Reagan, John Paul II, and Thatcher were the primary agents for change and that their combined policies and actions resulted in the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union. An intriguing and highly readable book. Pons, Silvio. Reinterpreting the End of the Cold War: Issues, Interpretations, Periodizations. London: Frank Cass, 2004. This book is perhaps the most thorough and scholarly revisionist explanation on the end of the Cold War; Pons advances many challenges to the simplicity of the earlier discussions on the topic. Skinner, Kiron K., ed. Turning Points in Ending the Cold War. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, 2007. The book’s articles focus on the early 1980’s, when a new phase of the Cold War began. Reagan’s initiatives to alter Soviet behavior, the roles of Gorbachev and Yeltsin, the emergence of democratic values in Poland and Hungary, and hopes for a reunified Germany contributed to the end of the Cold War. William T. Walker Baker, James; Bush, George H. W.; Cheney, Dick; Foreign policy of the United States; Russia and North America.

See also

■ Columbine massacre The murder of twelve high school students and one teacher perpetrated by two students Date April 20, 1999 Place Columbine High School in Jefferson County, Colorado, near the town of Littleton The Event

For many Americans, Columbine was the most traumatic crime of the decade. The deadliest high school shooting in U.S. history, the event spurred a wide variety of changes in public policy. At 11:19 a.m., Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, seniors at Columbine High School, launched their attack on the steps outside the school, where they shot two students who were eating lunch by the upper west entrance. Rachel Scott was killed, and Richard Castaldo was seriously injured but survived. Next,

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Harris shot three students on the west staircase. One of these students, Daniel Rohrbough, was later fatally shot by Klebold. Sheriff’s Deputy Neil Gardner, the school resource officer, arrived on the scene at 11:24 a.m., returning from lunch. He fired at Harris and Klebold from a distance. When the gunmen retreated into the school building, Gardner did not pursue. Many more officers, including a special weapons and tactics (SWAT) team, arrived quickly. However, no lawenforcement officers entered the building, even while an open 911 line revealed that students (ten total) were being methodically killed inside the library. At 11:35 a.m., Harris and Klebold left the library and entered the cafeteria, which had been evacuated. They then attempted to break into a locked room where many students had taken refuge. This event too was known to the police in real time via a 911 line. The gunmen returned to the library, where, after shooting out the windows at policemen and paramedics, they shot themselves dead around 12:08 p.m. A SWAT team finally entered the opposite end of the building at about 12:06 p.m. The police began to search carefully one room at a time. Over the next few hours, wounded teacher Dave Sanders bled to death, even though cell phone calls from students who were locked in a room with him had begged for urgent medical care. The murder victims were Sanders (age fortyseven), Scott (seventeen), Cassie Bernall (seventeen), Steven Curnow (fourteen), Corey DePooter (seventeen), Kelly Fleming (sixteen), Matthew Kechter (sixteen), Daniel Mauser (fifteen), Rohrbough (fifteen), Isaiah Shoels (eighteen), John Tomlin (sixteen), Lauren Townsend (eighteen), and Kyle Velasquez (sixteen). Before the Massacre Diaries and other writings discovered in the perpetrators’ homes revealed that they had planned the killings for over a year and that they were consumed by a wide-ranging hatred of most other people and a belief in their own superiority and self-awareness. Before the killings began, Harris and Klebold had, without being caught, violated twenty state and federal weapons control laws. In 1998, the two teenagers had broken into a van to steal some items. They were caught and pleaded guilty to first-degree criminal trespass, theft, and criminal mischief. On February 3, 1999, they suc-

Columbine massacre


People gather for a memorial service for the victims of the Columbine High School shooting rampage in Littleton, Colorado, on April 25, 1999. (AP/Wide World Photos)

cessfully completed a year-long juvenile diversion program in which they had been required to perform community service and to take classes in anger management. On April 14, 1999, the U.S. Marines rejected Harris’s attempt to enlist because he was taking Luvox, an antidepressant for which he had a prescription. One of the killers’ guns, an Intratec TEC-DC9 semiautomatic pistol, was supplied by their friend Mark Manes, who also bought Harris ammunition the night before the massacre. Manes was sentenced to six years in Colorado state prison for selling a weapon to a minor. Harris’s friend Robyn Anderson supplied the other three guns: two shotguns (Savage 67H and Stevens 311D) and one carbine (Hi-Point 9 millimeter). Anderson bought the guns legally in December, 1998, at the Tanner Gun Show. She told conflicting stories about the purchase but said that she would not have purchased the guns if she knew that her name would be registered. Prosecutors did not file charges against her because they believed that she was unaware of Harris and Klebold’s plans.


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Impact As a result of the Columbine massacre, many police departments changed their tactical doctrines so that police would act immediately against an active shooter. A number of schools eliminated Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) or sports shooting programs and severely enforced zero-tolerance policies regarding weapons, even punishing elementary students for drawing pictures of guns. Concerns about violent media and video games (such as Doom and Wolfenstein 3D, which Harris and Klebold often played) intensified. Movie theaters more strictly enforced the age limits for R-rated films. A number of programs for surveillance and control of teenagers, especially in schools, were expanded. The goth teenage culture was a prime target, based on initial (and incorrect) reports that the killers belonged to Columbine’s “Trenchcoat Mafia,” a dozen friends who liked to wear black trench coats. (The gunmen had worn such coats on the day of the massacre.) Many schools and community organizations implemented or augmented antibullying programs, based on allegations that Klebold and Harris had been bullied by a “jock” elite at Columbine. Subsequent Events Columbine inspired Democratic political operative Donna Dees-Thomas to organize the “Million Mom March,” which held large antigun rallies in Washington, D.C., and other cities on Mother’s Day, May 14, 2000. Efforts to expand federal gun control laws failed, in part because Democratic strategists hoped to use the issue in the presidential election. In November, 2000, Colorado voters passed an initiative imposing special restrictions on gun shows, after the legislature had defeated all five items in a gun control package proposed by the governor and attorney general. In an October 11, 2000, presidential debate, Democratic candidate Al Gore blamed Columbine on insufficient gun control, while Republican candidate George W. Bush pointed to culture. Michael Moore’s film Bowling for Columbine (2002) won the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature in 2003 but was also criticized for factual errors and fabrications. Further Reading

Brown, Brooks, and Rob Merritt. No Easy Answers: The Truth Behind Death at Columbine. Brooklyn,

N.Y.: Lantern Books, 2002. A conversational account by Brown, a student who knew the killers and who blames bullying as the ultimate cause. Governor’s Columbine Review Commission Report. May, 2001. The state of Colorado’s official investigation and report. Larkin, Ralph W. Comprehending Columbine. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2007. Blames the “jockocracy,” evangelical Christians, and paramilitary mythology for the massacre. Lindholm, Marjorie, and Peggy Lindholm. A Columbine Survivor’s Story. Littleton, Colo.: Regenold, 2005. Self-published autobiography of a student who was in the school during the attack. Nimmo, Beth, Darrell Scott, and Steve Rabey. Rachel’s Tears: The Spiritual Journey of Columbine Martyr Rachel Scott. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2000. Biography of one of the victims by her parents that focuses on Rachel’s kindness toward others and her spiritual strength. Salazar, Ken. Report of the Investigation into the 1997 Directed Report and Related Matters Concerning the Columbine High School Shootings in April, 1999. Darby, Penn.: Diane Publishing, 2004. Colorado attorney general’s report on the Jefferson County Sheriff’s Department’s numerous contacts with Harris before the murders. Zoba, Wendy Murray. Day of Reckoning: Columbine and the Search for America’s Soul. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Brazos Press, 2000. A Christian journalist’s exploration of the problems in American culture that she believes led to the massacre at Columbine. David B. Kopel See also Antidepressants; Censorship; Clinton, Bill; Crime; Gore, Al; Gun control; Internet; Marilyn Manson; Reno, Janet; School violence; Video games.

■ Comedians Performers of humorous material on stage and in film, television, and recordings


During the 1990’s, an ever-increasing demand for television and film entertainment allowed many stand-up comedians to cross over to comedic acting. A number of successful television and film comedians were able to reach huge audiences in the 1990’s.

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Some comedians created and sustained comic personas in weekly sitcoms, and some took their television personas to the big screen. Others, more standup comedian than actor, retained their live-performance proficiency, performing at comedy clubs and other small venues. When their careers as television or movie stars faded, they still had their skills as stand-up comedians. New York City, Los Angeles, and Chicago have some of the best-known comedy clubs in the United States—Dangerfield’s, Gotham Comedy Club, Stand-Up NY, The Comedy Store, Groundlings Theater, Laugh Factory, The Second City, and The Improv—as do other cities like Atlanta, St. Louis, Columbus, Indianapolis, and Dayton. The clubs have open mike events at which amateur comedians can perform before audiences and quickly learn what does and does not work. Comedians try out new material and new takes on old material, putting together a routine of stories, one-liners, and satiric or ridiculous observations about life, culture, or people. Word-of-mouth publicity brings exceptional comedians’ names to the attention of eager agents or producers with connections to late-night television shows. After such an introduction to the broader public, a comedian’s chances of breaking into series television or film are increased. Many comedians on television started out doing stand-up, receiving little compensation for their work and occasional abuse from audience hecklers. By the 1990’s, some had already established themselves as giants in their field. Carol Burnett and Bill Cosby, for example, had reached their pinnacle in the 1980’s or before and were beginning to fade as the new decade dawned. Burnett’s outstanding variety shows of the 1960’s and 1970’s, An Evening with Carol Burnett and The Carol Burnett Show, were followed by two short-lived shows in the 1990’s. Cosby’s groundbreaking The Cosby Show went off the air in 1992 after eight seasons. His other sitcom series, Cosby, played to lesser acclaim in the latter part of the decade. Among the comedians who made successful transitions from comedy clubs to television in the 1990’s were Jerry Seinfeld, Martin Lawrence, Tim Allen, Roseanne Barr, Ray Romano, Brett Butler, Damon Wayans, Jamie Foxx, Phil Hartman, and Drew Carey. Each starred in a television sitcom, all with considerable commercial success. Foxx joined the cast of In

Television Comedians



Living Color in 1991 and later starred in critically acclaimed films, including Ray (2004), for which he won an Academy Award for Best Actor. Chris Rock, credited by many with reviving interest in stand-up comedy, starred in acclaimed comedy specials— including the career-launching Chris Rock: Bring the Pain (1996)—on the pay-television network Home Box Office (HBO). Television was not a successful venture for some comedians, however. Paula Poundstone and Sinbad both had shows that lasted only one season. The Paula Poundstone Show, in fact, lasted only two episodes. Its unusual format mixing political observation, comedy sketches, and interactions with the audience did not find an audience, and ratings were low. The Sinbad Show, a sitcom, lasted a full season, but being about an extended African American family, the show may have suffered from comparison with The Cosby Show. Ellen DeGeneres’s show Ellen aired from 1994 to 1998 but was most notable for being the vehicle through which she revealed her homosexuality. Some stand-up comedians’ performances on television variety shows like Saturday Night Live or the late-night talk shows hosted by David Letterman and Jay Leno opened the way to movie careers. Jim Carrey, a slapstick comedian, performed for a couple of seasons in sketches on In Living Color and in a short-lived sitcom The Duck Factory before he starred in Ace Ventura: Pet Detective (1994), a goofy, crude, but commercially successful movie. He followed that with 1994’s The Mask and Dumb and Dumber, commercial successes that established him as an A-list comedic actor. Tim Allen, a character comedian, had a longrunning television series, Home Improvement, that ran through most of the 1990’s. He also acted in successful movies like The Santa Clause (1994), Jungle 2 Jungle (1997), and Galaxy Quest (1999). Roseanne Barr’s TV movie Backfield in Motion (1991) and two theatrical films, Even Cowgirls Get the Blues (1993) and Blue in the Face (1995), never brought the success of her television series, nor did her television talk show. Film Comedians

Impact Comedians like Seinfeld, Allen, Carrey, Cosby, Romano, Hartman, and Barr dominated television sitcoms, sketch comedies, and film comedies in the 1990’s. Their popularity influenced American culture, affecting attitudes about race, religion,


Comic strips

socioeconomics, and sexual orientation, among other issues. Further Reading

Mohr, Jay. Gasping for Airtime: Two Years in the Trenches of “Saturday Night Live.” New York: Hyperion, 2004. An inside look at the comedians on Saturday Night Live during 1993-1995, when the author worked for the show. Shydner, Ritch, and Mark Schiff, comps. I Killed: True Stories on the Road from America’s Top Comics. New York: Crown, 2006. Contains anecdotes by comedians like Chris Rock and Jerry Seinfeld. Sometimes vulgar, the book offers insight into the on- and backstage lives of comedians. Tracy, Kathleen. Jerry Seinfeld: The Entire Domain. Secaucus, N.J.: Carol, 1998. A biography of the comedian including his career as stand-up comedian and the history of the sitcom Seinfeld. Jane L. Ball

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for decades, while attracting little attention outside their fan base. There were some changes during the decade. One of the most beloved American comic strips, Bill Watterson’s Calvin and Hobbes, ended in 1995 as Watterson disappeared from the comics scene entirely. Gary Larson’s widely admired single-panel The Far Side ended the same year, giving the impression that a golden age was ending. The failing health of Charles M. Schulz, creator of Peanuts, forced him to move from a four-panel to a three- or one-panel format, and he announced his retirement on December 14, 1999. Some events in strips were minor cultural phenomena, such as the 1995 death of Farley the dog in Lynn Johnston’s Canadian domestic drama, For Better or For Worse. The comic strip to achieve the most meteoric success in the 1990’s was Scott Adams’s Dilbert, first published on April 16, 1989. Beginning as a fantasy strip centering on software engineer Dilbert and his megalomaniacal talking dog Dogbert, Dilbert

Allen, Woody; Cable television; Carrey, Jim; DeGeneres, Ellen; Film in the United States; In Living Color; Late night television; Rock, Chris; Seinfeld; Television.

See also

■ Comic strips Sequential narrative cartoon drawings, often published in newspapers, in periodicals, and on the World Wide Web


Newspaper comic strips in the 1990’s dwindled in cultural importance as shrinking newspaper space led to smaller and fewer strips being published. Comic-strip audiences expanded with a move to publication on the World Wide Web beginning mid-decade. The daily newspaper comic-strip section remained one of the most conservative areas of American popular culture in the 1990’s. The retrenchment caused by newspapers going out of business and the survivors cutting back on the space devoted to strips made the comics page very difficult to break into. The conservatism of the comics’s aging audience played a role as well, as attempts to remove old strips to make way for new met with protests from fans. Continuity-heavy “soap opera” strips such as Gil Thorp and Mary Worth and humor stalwarts such as Hi and Lois and Momma continued to run as they had

Dilbert creator Scott Adams holds an ink drawing of his popular character. (AP/Wide World Photos)

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quickly found a niche as a satire of office life. (So focused was the strip on the corporate workplace that many papers ran it in the business section rather than the comics page.) Characters included the dictatorial but very stupid Pointy-haired Boss, the competent but frustrated Alice, and Wally, whose life is dedicated to avoiding work. Dilbert’s simple, stylized art with virtually no detail was a good fit to the shrunken space allotted to newspaper strips. Dilbert developed into a massive commercial empire, with numerous collections in print, spin-off books, stationery, dolls, and an animated TV series that ran on the United Paramount Network (UPN) in 1999 and 2000. Adams used the Internet to foster a community among his readers, appealing for workplace anecdotes he could use for strip ideas. Adams and Dilbert have won numerous awards, including the National Cartoonist Society’s Reuben Award for 1997. Successful newcomers in the 1990’s included Jerry Scott and Jim Borgman’s Zits (1997), starring fifteen-year-old Jeremy Duncan, his family, and friends; and Darby Conley’s Get Fuzzy (1999), starring a Boston adman named Rob Wilco and his talking pets, Bucky Katt and Satchel Pooch. Garry Trudeau’s liberal Doonesbury remained the premier political comic strip during the decade. Doonesbury’s sometimes controversial political content led some newspapers to put the comic strip on the editorial page or elsewhere away from the main comics page. One newcomer, Aaron McGruder’s The Boondocks (1997), also featured political commentary and controversy. The strip’s main characters are two young African American brothers, the intensely political Huey and the wouldbe gangster Riley. The strip derived much of its power from its distinctively left-wing African American perspective, one not seen before on the comics page. Although several daily newspaper strips featured African American creators and casts in the 1990’s, there were no strips from Latino, Asian American, Native American, or openly gay or lesbian perspectives. Trudeau’s liberal dominance of the daily newspaper comics page was challenged by Johnny Hart’s occasional dabbling in evangelical Christian politics in B.C., and Bruce Tinsley’s conservative Mallard Fillmore (1991), starring the eponymous talking duck. Mallard Fillmore was widely syndicated, but it did not

Political Comics

Comic strips


remotely approach the artistic and commercial success or cultural impact of Doonesbury. Weekly periodicals such as New York’s Village Voice were an outlet for comic strips whose subject matter was too controversial or formats too experimental for daily newspapers and the dominant syndicates, providing greater creative control but less money. Comics appearing in the “alternative media” included Ben Katchor’s surreal Julius Knipl, Real Estate Photographer and many strips featuring left-wing political and cultural satire, such as Tom Tomorrow’s This Modern World and Ruben Bolling’s Tom the Dancing Bug. The gay and lesbian press provided homes for Alison Bechdel’s long-running lesbian epic Dykes to Watch Out For and Eric Orner’s gay male soap opera The Mostly Unfabulous Social Life of Ethan Green, among other strips for and about gays and lesbians. The technology of the World Wide Web opened up the potential for vast audiences for comic strips outside the shrinking newspaper world. In addition to the Web presences established for existing and new newspaper comics, the 1990’s also saw the invention of the webcomic, a comic strip existing solely or primarily on the Web. Early examples of successful webcomics included Bill Holbrook’s Kevin and Kell (1995) and Peter Zale’s Helen, Sweetheart of the Internet (1996). Because of the individualist nature of the Web, these comics addressed a smaller, niche audience rather than the broad-based one that newspaper comics formerly addressed.

Alternatives to Daily Newspapers

Impact Comic strips addressed a shrinking audience in newspapers during the 1990’s, but by the end of the decade they had found a new and effective platform on the Web. Although the comics page was slow to change, it reflected developments such as the rise of the computer and software industry and the political conflicts of liberals and conservatives in the Bill Clinton era. Further Reading

McCloud, Scott. Reinventing Comics: How Imagination and Technology Are Revolutionizing an Art Form. New York: HarperCollins, 2000. This work by one of the most influential thinkers about comics includes extensive discussion of the impact of the Internet on comics. Nordling, Lee. Your Career in the Comics. Kansas City, Mo.: Andrews McMeel, 1995. An exhaustive study


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of the newspaper comics business, geared for the aspiring cartoonist. Somewhat dated because of the rise of the Internet in the late 1990’s. Walker, Brian. The Comics: Since 1945. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2002. A standard history of the medium since World War II that includes many reproductions. The author is both a comics scholar and a comic-strip creator himself, part of the team that produces Beetle Bailey and Hi and Lois. William E. Burns See also

Comedians; Journalism; Where’s Waldo?


■ Computers Electronic devices that process, store, and output data based on programmed instructions


During the 1990’s, powerful computing became ubiquitous. At work, client-server networked systems replaced mainframes, and at home powerful microcomputers ran a variety of applications, including accessing the World Wide Web. The connected world became a reality, with computers, handheld devices, and appliances all communicating. The 1990’s marked a period of remarkable improvements in microcomputer technology and growth of microcomputer companies. While Apple Computer (later Apple, Inc.), Tandy, and International Business Machines (IBM) were producing most microcomputers in the 1980’s, a number of companies, including Hewlett-Packard (HP), Compaq, Dell, and Gateway, were shipping Intel microcomputers, generally referred to as IBM clones, by 1990. The growth of the microcomputer industry in the 1990’s was chaotic and unpredictable, with many changes in the leaders and frequent acquisitions. Dell is one of the best-known and most successful microcomputer companies of the 1990’s. Founded in 1984, Dell shipped its first computer in 1985, had annual sales of $2 billion in 1992, became the largest manufacturer of microcomputers in 1999, had annual sales of $30 billion in 2000, and has dueled with HP for leadership in microcomputer manufacturing since 2000. IBM and Tandy were typical of the microcomputer manufacturing companies with weak sales in

the 1990’s. Tandy was an early leader in the manufacture of microcomputers, producing the popular Radio Shack line of computers. In 1993, however, Tandy sold its computer business to AST Research, and in 1995 it eliminated most of its retail microcomputer sales. IBM introduced the IBM PC microcomputer in 1981 and started the modern era of small computers. It developed the PS/2 series in 1987, featuring a proprietary MCA bus, 3.5-inch floppy disk, and PS/2 keyboard. The PS/2 experienced initial success, selling well over two million machines in less than two years, but its proprietary architecture doomed it to failure, with the last PS/2 being manufactured about 1994. Mainframe computing of earlier times all but ceased in the 1990’s. Instead, corporate computing switched to a new client-server (C/S) model, and supercomputing activity decreased. IBM became the largest supplier of servers rather than being the leading mainframe computer vendor. The UNIX, Microsoft, and Compaq/DEC servers controlled a majority share of the server market as the 1990’s closed. In fact, after Compaq purchased Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in 1998, it was the second-largest computer company in the world. Cray and Intel dropped out of the supercomputer field in the 1990’s, with single-instruction multipledata (SIMD) machines becoming the main type of scientific supercomputer. Improvements in microcomputer central processing units (CPUs) were dramatic in the 1990’s. IBM developed the RS/6000, a reduced instruction set computer (RISC), in 1990. It was a technical success and had reasonably good sales. Apple, IBM, and Motorola formed an alliance to develop RISC architectures, and in 1993 they announced the PowerPC architecture, which resulted in several successful computers, including Apple’s Power Macintosh. DEC released its first Alpha chip in 1992, and it also led to a successful line of RISC microcomputers and workstations. Advanced Micro Devices produced a number of important CPU chips in the 1990’s, but the real leader in CPU development during the decade was Intel. In 1989, Intel introduced its complex instruction set computer (CISC) chip, the I486, which had 1.2 million transistors and an embedded floating-point unit. In the same year, the company introduced its moderately successful I860 RISC chip. In 1993, Intel combined


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the best features of the I486 and I860, introducing the Pentium 1, which contained 3.1 million transistors and was a major technical and commercial success. The Pentium II, released in 1997, had 7.5 million transistors; the Pentium III, released in 1999, had 20 million transistors; and the Pentium IV, released in 2000, had 42 million transistors. Even allowing for differences in the transistor count created by Intel’s move from single chips to slot-based CPUs, the improvements in Intel CPUs over the 1990’s were phenomenal. In addition to CPU improvement in the 1990’s, there were many improvements in peripheral devices. Of the numerous products introduced or improved, some of the most important were the Microsoft IntelliMouse (1996), the Iomega Zip drive (1999), and numerous improvements in hard drives (1990-2000) and DVD storage (1997). Several new standards were released in the 1990’s, including the plug and play (1993), which made it much easier to add software drives to an operating system, and the USB standard (1995), which allowed many new devices to be attached to a microcomputer. Operating Systems While there were many advances in software in the 1990’s, no type of software developed faster than operating systems. The UNIX operating system was introduced in 1969, adapted to microcomputers as XENIX in 1970, and experienced steady growth during the 1980’s. By 1991, a number of companies had robust versions of UNIX running on their computers, including IBM’s AIX, Sun Microsystems’ SunOS, and DEC’s OpenVMS. In 1994, Linus Torvalds introduced a free version of UNIX called Linux, which runs on both microcomputers and large servers. After its introduction, Linux experienced very rapid adoption, and by 2000 it was not only being distributed as freeware but also sold by many computer companies. About 1992, Sun released Solaris as its latest version of UNIX and has used Solaris since then. Many other companies developed their own flavor of UNIX during the 1990’s, including HP, Silicon Graphics (Cray), Apple Computer, and Santa Cruz Operations (SCO). All versions of UNIX, as well as Windows NT, used a number of concepts of the Mach kernel UNIX project at Carnegie Mellon. In 1990, Microsoft and IBM stopped collaborating on the OS/2 operating system. IBM continued to market OS/2 and had some success with its OS/2



Wrap, released in 1994. However, the failure of the PS/2 led to the demise of OS/2. IBM developed several versions of UNIX over the 1990’s, which were fairly successful. The major operating systems story at IBM during the 1990’s was the transition of its mainframe MVS operating system to its VM line of super-server operating systems. The VM server operating system is the largest single-server operating system today. The advances in operating systems made at Microsoft during the 1990’s are unsurpassed by any other company. In 1992, Microsoft released Windows 3.1, and while this operating system had technical limitations, its reception by businesses and home users made it the most commercially successful operating system in history. The ease of adding applications to Windows 3.1 and the relatively user-friendly interface made it an immediate success. Windows NT was released by Microsoft in 1993. It embodied the best features of the Mach kernel UNIX, OpenVMS, and the Motif graphical user interface (GUI). Windows NT was both a technical and commercial success. With Windows 95, Microsoft finally got a solid technical foundation to support its outstanding GUI and application extensibility. Windows 95 was almost as big a success story as Windows 3.1. Windows 98 and Windows Millennium Edition (2000) were also technical and commercial successes, but Microsoft brought this line of operating systems to a halt in 2001 with its introduction of Windows XP. Not all of Microsoft’s operating systems efforts in the 1990’s were successful. The most notable examples of Microsoft failures were Bob (1995), with its gamelike interface, and Windows CE (1996), designed to support small computers. Bob failed to gain any acceptance from nontechnical users, and Windows CE was not as well received as the Palm OS. A number of handheld devices, like the U.S. Robotics Palm Pilot (1996) and the BlackBerry (1999), combined aspects of communications, entertainment, and information. This, combined with the maturation of the Internet as a communications network, enabled many people to actively use their handheld devices to communicate, listen to music, or browse the World Wide Web. In the 1990’s, many businesses realized that telecommuting and communicating

Net-Centric Computing in a Connected World


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with the office using a computer was a desirable option for their employees. As local Internet service providers (ISPs) proliferated, and as the speed of the Internet connections increased, telecommuting became a popular work option for many employees, with more than 10 million people working this way by 1997. The development of Java by Bill Joy of Sun Microsystems in 1995 was an important step in the movement toward a connected world. Java actually includes a virtual computer and rudimentary operating system that was designed specifically to support programming small systems such as cell phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and intelligent home appliances. Largely in response to the success of Java, Microsoft released its .Net architecture in 2000. Java- and .Net-enabled Web sites have improved Web applications, with one of the most famous examples being Bill Gate’s connected house, which was completed in the late 1990’s. Other developments in the 1990’s that led to a more connected world included the explosive growth of the World Wide Web and e-commerce. Amazon .com officially opened in July, 1995, as an online bookseller and by 1996 was a successful e-business. In 1995, eBay began as an online auction and over the remainder of the 1990’s established the new and highly successful online auction business model. In 1996, Google was started by Sergey Brin and Larry Page and over the 1990’s became the premier search engine on the Web. In fact, by 2000 Google was challenging the Microsoft Network (MSN) for preeminence as a portal. Software One of the most important software developments during the 1990’s was the emergence of Microsoft Office as the dominant productivity software. The incorporation of the Access database management system on Office 2000 for the PC and Office 2001 for the Macintosh gave Microsoft almost the entire market for productivity software at that time. Graphics software also improved during the decade, with Adobe, Macromedia, Pixar, and Silicon Graphics each adding or improving its graphical software. Computer security software became an important product, with Symantec becoming a leader when it purchased Norton in 1990. When IBM acquired Lotus in 1995, it moved to make Lotus Notes the premier corporate e-mail program, while Microsoft’s Outlook Express became the most popu-

lar e-mail program for home users with its inclusion in Windows 98. Development of Web design software exploded during the 1990’s. Many Web development tools appeared, including Macromedia’s Dreamweaver (1997) and Microsoft’s FrontPage (1996). The Web servers Apache and Microsoft’s Internet Information Server (IIS) were introduced in the 1990’s and dominated the Web server market in the 2000’s. While Java was initially designed for embedded systems programming, the Java Web applet became very popular as a way to make Web pages more interactive, and it popularized the Java programming language. Many programmers began using Java to develop Windows and UNIX applications toward the end of the 1990’s, and a number of companies, including Adobe and IBM, made a commitment to Java applications programming. In 2000, Microsoft introduced the .Net architecture as its answer to Java, with several important programming languages, including its popular Visual Basic. As the Web became increasingly important in the late 1990’s, a new programming model, based on Web services, was introduced. Impact In the 1990’s, chip and hard disk technology greatly improved, resulting in microcomputers becoming more powerful than the best workstations of the 1980’s. The popular mainframes of the 1980’s all but disappeared, being replaced by a client-server model of computing, based on powerful applications and database servers supporting individuals, using microcomputers. The Internet matured in the 1990’s, as the World Wide Web created a dynamic method of disseminating information and doing business. Further Reading

Campbell-Kelly, Martin, and William Aspray. Computer: A History of the Information Machine. New York: Basic Books, 1996. A short but engrossing history of computers. Hiltzik, Michael. Dealers of Lightning: Xerox PARC and the Dawn of the Computer Age. New York: HarperCollins, 1999. A thorough coverage of the developments at the Xerox PARC labs. Ralston, Anthony, Edwin D. Reilly, and David Hemmendinger, eds. Encyclopedia of Computer Science. 4th ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2003. One of the standard reference works in its field.

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This edition has accurate articles covering all areas related to computers, including many articles on computers of the 1970’s. Rojas, Raul. Encyclopedia of Computers and Computer History. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2001. Contains over six hundred articles about computers, including those made during the 1970’s, from scholars in computer science and the history of science. Wurster, Christian. Computers: An Illustrated History. New York: Taschen, 2002. A history of computers, interfaces, and computer design that includes pictures of nearly every computer ever made. George M. Whitson III; America Online; Apple Computer; CGI; Digital divide; Dot-coms; DVDs; E-mail; Hackers; Instant messaging; Internet; Inventions; Michelangelo computer virus; Microsoft; MP3 format; PDAs; Search engines; Silicon Valley; Spam; Telecommunications Act of 1996; World Wide Web; Y2K problem.

See also

■ Conservatism in U.S. politics A political ideology that tends to support tradition, authority, established institutions, states’ rights, liberal individualism, and limiting the political and fiscal power of the federal government


During the 1990’s, conservatism was the nucleus for much of the political opposition to Democratic president Bill Clinton. In 1992, Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas defeated Republican incumbent George H. W. Bush in the presidential election. Despite this victory, a united Republican Party won control of both houses of Congress in the 1994 midterm elections. Public support for conservatism as personified by Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich began to decline by late 1995, and Clinton was easily reelected in 1996. Nonetheless, the Republicans continued to control Congress during the remainder of the 1990’s, and Clinton promoted and accepted moderate, bipartisan compromises on such policies as taxes, deficit reduction, antiterrorist legislation, and welfare reform.

Conservatism in U.S. politics


Although Bill Clinton was the first Democrat to be elected president since 1976, he received only 43 percent of the popular vote, while the Democrats lost ten seats in the U.S. House of Representatives in the 1992 elections. In the 1994 midterm elections, the Republicans gained majority control of the House and Senate and chose Representative Newt Gingrich of Georgia as Speaker of the House and Senator Bob Dole of Kansas as Senate majority leader. These Republican electoral victories were partially caused by the belief of many voters that Clinton was too liberal because of his initial policies on tax increases, national health insurance, gun control, and gays in the military. They were also influenced by the efforts of conservative media commentators such as Rush Limbaugh and Pat Buchanan, the voter mobilization efforts of the National Rifle Association (NRA) and Religious Right, especially the Christian Coalition, and the Contract with America. Developed and promoted by Gingrich, the Contract with America was a conservative policy platform that most congressional Republican candidates supported. It included such conservative ideas and objectives as tax cuts, welfare reform, a balanced budget, and a smaller federal bureaucracy. By late 1995, public opinion was more favorable toward Clinton and less supportive of Gingrich and other leading Republicans in Congress. This change was partly caused by the budget impasse between Clinton and Gingrich and the April, 1995, bombing of a federal building in Oklahoma City, which was linked to right-wing extremists. Conservative activist and journalist Pat Buchanan won an upset victory in the Republican presidential primary of New Hampshire in 1996. Although Senate majority leader Dole became the Republican presidential nominee of 1996, Buchanan and other conservatives perceived Dole as too compromising, uninspiring, and insufficiently conservative. Jack Kemp, Dole’s running mate, however, was a prominent free market, fiscal conservative who believed that tax cuts and deregulation would stimulate enough economic growth to reduce and eventually eliminate budget deficits.

Conservatism and Clinton’s First Term

With many voters perceiving Clinton as an effective, moderate economic manager, Clinton was easily reelected in 1996. However, independent counsel Kenneth Starr’s investigation of Clinton, authorized

Conservatism and Clinton’s Second Term


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Contract with America

by the Republican-controlled Congress, led him to discover that Clinton may have committed crimes relating to the sexual harassment lawsuit of Paula Jones and an adulterous affair with Monica Lewinsky, a former White House intern. After Clinton publicly admitted to having an affair with Lewinsky but denied committing perjury and other related crimes, efforts to further investigate Clinton and either pressure him to resign or impeach him became a major conservative objective from late 1997 until early 1999. However, public opinion polls and Democratic gains in the 1998 midterm elections suggested that most Americans opposed impeachment. In 1998, First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton stated in a media interview that she and her husband were victims of a "vast right-wing conspiracy that has been conspiring against my husband since the day he announced for president." In particular, she referred to conservative-motivated investigations of the Clintons’ investments in the Whitewater development in Arkansas and Bill Clinton’s sexual behavior. Although Clinton was impeached, Gingrich resigned from Congress, and the Senate acquitted Clinton in 1999. Many conservative activists, especially in the Religious Right and among media commentators, remained convinced that Clinton had proven that he was morally unfit to be president and that his behavior personified liberal permissiveness regarding sex and marriage. Impact After the division among conservatives between voting for either President George H. W. Bush or H. Ross Perot contributed to Bill Clinton’s election as president in 1992, conservatives in Congress, the media, and interest groups initially focused on defeating or diluting Clinton’s more liberal policies, especially on health care, taxes, gun control, and abortion rights. They also forced Clinton, especially after the 1994 midterm elections, to accept modified versions of conservative policy proposals on welfare reform, deficit reduction, and bureaucratic downsizing. However, Republican efforts to investigate, impeach, and force Clinton to leave the presidency provoked a public perception of conservatism as extreme, harsh, and uncompromising. Influenced by this new public mood, Texas governor George W. Bush prepared for the 2000 presidential election by articulating and advocating “compassionate conservatism” as a more moderate,

reasonable, and unifying alternative to the divisive, combative conservatism of the 1990’s. Further Reading

Conason, Joe, and Gene Lyons. The Hunting of the President: The Ten-Year Campaign to Destroy Bill and Hillary Clinton. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000. A pro-Clinton study of conservative efforts to oppose, discredit, investigate, and impeach Bill Clinton. Wilcox, Clyde. The Latest American Revolution? The 1994 Elections and Their Implications for Governance. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995. An explanation and analysis of the influence of conservatism on the Contract with America and Republican success in the 1994 midterm elections. Woodward, Bob. The Agenda: Inside the Clinton White House. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994. An analysis of Clinton’s early policy agenda that includes references to the growing conservative opposition to Clinton. Sean J. Savage Abortion; Buchanan, Pat; Bush, George H. W.; Christian Coalition; Clinton, Bill; Clinton, Hillary Rodham; Clinton’s impeachment; Clinton’s scandals; Contract with America; Culture wars; Defense of Marriage Act of 1996; Dole, Bob; Elections in the United States, midterm; Elections in the United States, 1992; Elections in the United States, 1996; Gingrich, Newt; Kemp, Jack; Lewinsky scandal; Liberalism in U.S. politics; Limbaugh, Rush; Perot, H. Ross; Right-wing conspiracy; Starr Report; Welfare reform; Whitewater investigation.

See also

■ Contract with America Seminal legislative plan that Republicans promised to bring before Congress if they gained a majority of seats in the new Congress Date Announced in 1994 during the congressional election campaign Identification

This Republican platform trumpeted the mainstream arrival of ascending conservative ideas. To all but the most seasoned political observers, particular sessions of Congress typically do not make a lasting impression on one’s memory. Unlike the

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Contract with America

The Republicans’ Contract with America In their Contract with America, the Republicans promised to take immediate action on ten bills: Within the first 100 days of the 104th Congress, we shall bring to the House Floor the following bills, each to be given full and open debate, each to be given a clear and fair vote and each to be immediately available this day for public inspection and scrutiny. 1. The Fiscal Responsibility Act: A balanced budget/tax limitation amendment and a legislative line-item veto to restore fiscal responsibility to an out-of-control Congress, requiring them to live under the same budget constraints as families and businesses. 2. The Taking Back Our Streets Act: An anti-crime package including stronger truth-insentencing, “good faith” exclusionary rule exemptions, effective death penalty provisions, and cuts in social spending from this summer’s “crime” bill to fund prison construction and additional law enforcement to keep people secure in their neighborhoods and kids safe in their schools. 3. The Personal Responsibility Act: Discourage illegitimacy and teen pregnancy by prohibiting welfare to minor mothers and denying increased AFDC for additional children while on welfare, cut spending for welfare programs, and enact a tough two-years-and-out provision with work requirements to promote individual responsibility. 4. The Family Reinforcement Act: Child support enforcement, tax incentives for adoption, strengthening rights of parents in their children’s education, stronger child pornography laws, and an elderly dependent care tax credit to reinforce the central role of families in American society. 5. The American Dream Restoration Act: A $500 per child tax credit, begin repeal of the marriage tax penalty, and creation of American Dream Savings Accounts to provide middleclass tax relief. 6. The National Security Restoration Act: No U.S. troops under U.N. command and restoration of the essential parts of our national security funding to strengthen our national defense and maintain our credibility around the world. 7. The Senior Citizens Fairness Act: Raise the Social Security earnings limit which currently forces seniors out of the work force, repeal the 1993 tax hikes on Social Security benefits and provide tax incentives for private long-term care insurance to let Older Americans keep more of what they have earned over the years. 8. The Job Creation and Wage Enhancement Act: Small business incentives, capital gains cut and indexation, neutral cost recovery, risk assessment/cost-benefit analysis, strengthening the Regulatory Flexibility Act and unfunded mandate reform to create jobs and raise worker wages. 9. The Common Sense Legal Reform Act: “Loser pays” laws, reasonable limits on punitive damages and reform of product liability laws to stem the endless tide of litigation. 10. The Citizen Legislature Act: A first-ever vote on term limits to replace career politicians with citizen legislators.



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Contract with America

highly visible executive branch, the legislative branch operates in relative obscurity, usually only making waves with a few key votes and the occasional scandal. However, the 104th Congress was a congressional session filled with exceptions, and its lasting impact on the collective memory of the nation is but one more of its noted peculiarities. The New Republican Majority The Contract with America, the now notorious legislative platform of the 104th Congress, was the most recognizable and broadly sweeping partisan congressional agenda of the modern political era. Its preelection announcement by Republican House candidates heralded the arrival, or some would say continuance, of many Ronald Reagan-era right-wing ideas in the political mainstream of the mid-1990’s. The contract’s constituent elements, unlike its lasting endurance as a symbol of conservative policy action, are much less

well known. Indeed, public opinion polling conducted in 1994 and 1995 saw that even in the contract’s heyday, well under half of Americans knew exactly what it was. The ten-point plan proposed far-reaching reforms. These proposals ranged from the usual (an anticrime package, including increased prison funding, the Taking Back Our Streets Act) to the potent (congressional twelve-year term limits, the Citizen Legislature Act) to the procedural (a call for the line-item veto, under the Fiscal Responsibility Act). The Republicans pledged that once they took control of the House, the bills would be proposed on the House floor within the first one hundred days of the new Congress. The contract’s origins can be traced to the mid-century conservative ideology of Barry Goldwater Republicanism but are more

The Origins of the Contract

Weeks before Republicans took control of both houses of Congress, House Minority Whip Newt Gingrich addressed Republican congressional candidates on Capitol Hill during a rally where they pledged the Contract with America. Gingrich assumed the role of Speaker of the House in 1995. (AP/Wide World Photos)

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directly linked to the “Reagan Revolution” of 1980. Reagan’s election in 1980 was a seminal event in politics, one that saw the national triumph of a candidate who emphasized states’ rights, low taxes, and a small federal government. Despite Reagan’s sweeping successful bids for the White House in 1980 and 1984, the House of Representatives remained in Democratic Party hands, and the Republicans were nicknamed by political pundits as the “permanent minority” (referring to their status of not having control of the legislative branch of government). Refusing to stand idly by, Republican politicians tried for years to transplant Reagan’s national electoral success into a legislative platform that would regain the reins of congressional power for their party. At first, the Contract with America was developed in a nearly scientific manner by professional pollsters and Republicans. Notably, pollster Frank Luntz is credited with being the sage behind the scenes who midwifed the broad legislative agenda for the Republicans. The agenda not only included specific policy proposals that were popular in themselves but also linked them together into a coherent national plan, giving Republican candidates crowd-pleasing talking points while conveying the image of revolutionary political reform. The platform appealed to voters who were tiring of the Bill Clinton White House. By 1994, Clinton had been drawn into a seemingly endless war in the Balkans, had failed to institute a national health care plan, and had backed the befuddling “don’t ask, don’t tell” military policy regarding homosexuals, which irked conservatives and civil rights advocates alike. There is little doubt that without the guile and rhetorical courage of House Speaker Newt Gingrich, there would have been no vaunted Contract with America. With Clinton faltering and with the nation’s conservative movement gaining steam on the backs of the vigorous right-to-life and evangelical movements, the longtime politician from Georgia masterminded a Republican call to arms. Republican powerbrokers such as Dick Armey, John Boehner, and Tom DeLay also played a role in the development of the contract. However, this was Gingrich’s brainchild delivered with Luntz’s scientific expertise. When the Republicans gained control of both houses of Congress in 1994, they ended four decades of Democratic Party rule. Despite this momen-

The Contract Comes to Life

Contract with America


tum, the electoral triumph did not translate into legislative success. Some measures of the contract passed, but most did not. The usual culprits in Washington gridlock reared their heads. Failed bills either were tied up in conference committees, where disagreements between the lower and upper chambers were hashed out, or were voted down by either the Senate or the president himself. In the case of the Citizen Legislature Act, which proposed an amendment to the Constitution, the bill failed to receive the required two-thirds majority in the House. Much like the contract itself, Gingrich briefly burned brightly as a vanguard politician but then ran out of oxygen. In 1996, Gingrich admitted to using tax-exempt donations to fund his “Renewing American Civilization’’ college course, which he taught at two colleges; he was fined $300,000 by the House Ethics Committee in 1997. Thus, there was a crisis of confidence in his leadership after the contract fizzled. Impact The core significance of the contract is not its legislative nosedive so much as its contribution to the rise of the Republican Party (though some believe it made little actual difference in the midterm elections). Though many of the contract’s provisions did not become law, it still remains in the memory of political aficionados long after its heyday. Its lasting impression is reflective of its utter grandiosity, but its modest success is a warning to ambitious politicians not to overreach their power. Further Reading

Bader, John B. Taking the Initiative: Leadership Agendas in Congress and the “Contract with America.” Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1996. Bader’s book lacks historical perspective because it was written contemporary to the contract, but it is chock full of details of how the contract was designed and implemented. Garrett, Major. The Enduring Revolution: How the Contract with America Continues to Shape the Nation. New York: Crown, 2005. This work breathes new life into the platform’s principal ideas. Garrett, an author and pundit on television news programs, reminds readers about the mystique surrounding the contract. Gingrich, Newt. To Renew America. New York: HarperCollins, 1995. Gingrich outlines his political philosophy as well as his policy goals.


Copyright legislation

_______. Window of Opportunity: A Blueprint for the Future. New York: Tom Doherty Associates, 1984. In a fascinating preview of the political upheaval that was to come, Gingrich discusses his goals for the nation. Mayhew, David R. America’s Congress: Actions in the Public Sphere, James Madison Through Newt Gingrich. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2000. A leading legislative authority places the Contract with America in its historical context while noting the stability of American institutions. R. Matthew Beverlin Armey, Dick; Christian Coalition; Clinton, Bill; Conservatism in U.S. politics; Elections in the United States, midterm; Gingrich, Newt; Line Item Veto Act of 1996; Republican Revolution; Term limits.

See also

■ Copyright legislation Laws passed by Congress updating U.S. copyright law to address challenges in protecting intellectual property in the digital age


The 1990’s marked the beginning of efforts by Congress to pass laws aimed at helping filmmakers, artists, authors, and software developers protect the copyrights to their digital works. With the emergence of new technologies such as computers and the Internet, anything from music to software could be duplicated and distributed with the click of a computer mouse. Digital copies, unlike copies on paper, tape, and film, could be reproduced infinitely with no loss of clarity. As a result, pirates worldwide were copying music, video, and text instantly, constantly, and illegally. By the 1990’s, copyright laws based on national boundaries had been made irrelevant by the borderless and fast world of the Internet. In December, 1996, under the auspices of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), a U.N. organization that promotes the protection of intellectual property throughout the world, copyright experts from 160 countries met in Geneva, Switzerland, to draft the first major revision of international copyright laws in twenty-five years. During

Copyright and the Internet

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this conference, WIPO adopted two treaties to ensure that the electronic transmission of any copyrighted work was subject to the same rules as traditional print works. As part of its implementation of the WIPO treaties, the U.S. Congress passed legislation updating the 1976 U.S. copyright law to make it illegal to copy or download digital music, video, or other works without permission from the copyright holders. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 (DMCA) was backed by the entertainment, software, and publishing industries, as well as high-technology groups. The DMCA also made it unlawful for people to circumvent high-tech tools such as passwords or other security measures that copyright holders used to protect their works from unauthorized copying. Under the DMCA, Internet service providers (ISPs), however, could not be held liable for copyright infringements when users uploaded material to their sites. The Internet providers would be protected against copyright lawsuits if they acted only as a “mere conduit” for transmitting copyrighted articles, music, or artwork. The Internet providers were required to prove that they had no actual knowledge of the infringement and that they took quick action to take the copyrighted material off their sites. The law also allowed nonprofit libraries, archives, schools, and public broadcasting stations to copy data and contained provisions regarding the licensing of music on the Internet and other digital media. Still, while the DMCA helped copyright holders fight piracy, the explosion of sophisticated, Internet-based music and motion pictures continued to attract bootleggers who posed a mounting threat to the U.S. entertainment industry. During the 1990’s, Congress also extended the length of time authors, artists, and other creators could own the copyrights to their works with the passage of the Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998 (CTEA). Before the CTEA, copyright lasted for the life of the author plus 50 years (75 years for a work of corporate authorship). The CTEA extended copyright by an additional 20 years, to life of the author plus 70 years. For works of corporate authorship, copyright was extended to 120 years after creation or 95 years after publication, whichever endpoint was earlier. Congress also allowed works that had been published prior to January 1, 1978, to have their term of protec-

Extension of U.S. Copyright

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tion retroactively increased by 20 years. This essentially froze the date for when works covered by the old copyright rules would enter the public domain where individuals could use these works free of charge and without having to get permission. For example, under the CTEA, works published in 1923 or afterward that were still copyrighted in 1998 would not enter the public domain until 2019 or afterward unless the owner of the copyright released them into the public domain prior to that date or if the copyright was extended again. The CTEA was also known as the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act, named in memory of the late congressman Sonny Bono, the male half of the 1960’s and 1970’s performing duo Sonny and Cher who died in a 1998 skiing accident nine months before the act became law. The CTEA was also pejoratively known as the “Mickey Mouse Protection Act” because of Disney’s successful lobbying efforts to get Congress to extend the copyrights of its profitable Disney characters whose copyrights were due to expire. Supporters of the CTEA believed that extending copyright protection would help the United States by providing more protection to U.S. artists and authors for their works in foreign countries. Opponents of the CTEA, however, argued that extending copyright for an additional twenty years was the beginning of a slippery slope toward a perpetual copyright term that violated the spirit of the “for limited times” language of the U.S. Constitution that created copyright. Impact With everything from illegal music downloading sites to the online pirating of commercial motion pictures, the Internet provided numerous challenges in regard to copyright law. Many factors, including its widespread use and relative ease of access, made the Internet more difficult to police. However, in spite of these difficulties, lawmakers and copyright holders during the 1990’s strove to make sure that copyright was protected in cyberspace through the passage of two 1998 laws, the Copyright Term Extension Act and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Further Reading

Litman, Jessica. Digital Copyright: Protecting Intellectual Property on the Internet. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 2001. Litman details the history of the lob-

Country music


bying that led to the Digital Millennium Copyright Act and addresses imminent problems to be expected from efforts to limit free access to information on the Internet in favor of the companies that hold the copyright. Merges, Robert P., Peter S. Mennell, and Mark A. Lemley. Intellectual Property in the New Technological Age. 3d ed. New York: Aspen, 2003. This textbook focuses on the multiple aspects of U.S. intellectual property law in the digital age. Tao, Hong. Facing the Internet: Balancing the Interests Between Copyright Owners and the Public. Saarbrücken, Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Mueller, 2007. Tao examines the implementation of the 1996 WIPO copyright treaties in different countries, including the United States. Eddith A. Dashiell Bono, Sonny; Computers; Internet; Publishing; World Wide Web.

See also

■ Country music Southern- and Western-inspired music genre that incorporates pop influences


Though traditional country music was known for its southern drawls, twangy guitars, and performances in honkytonk clubs, the 1990’s ushered in an entirely new era for the genre. Aside from adapting commercial pop tendencies, the style crossed over well beyond its core audience and expanded past its Nashville recording base to become an international phenomenon. The trend of country music’s crossover appeal in the 1990’s actually dates back to the 1970’s, when pop influences infiltrated the recordings of Glen Campbell, Kenny Rogers, Anne Murray, and John Denver. Those trends continued to surge in the 1980’s thanks to the commercial appeal of Dolly Parton and Willie Nelson, and later, Reba McEntire and Garth Brooks. In all of these instances, country music covered a broader musical base relatable to widespread audiences, not just its core fan base throughout the southern and western regions of the United States. By the turn of the decade into the 1990’s, the style’s earliest roots were barely recognizable as Brooks in particular broke the mold on all levels, interjecting rock and pop into his country pedigree, while staging sold-out stadium shows.


Country music

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Shania Twain performs at the 1996 Country Music Association Awards show in Nashville. (AP/Wide World Photos)

Brooks was clearly a forerunner in the movement when his No Fences album not only topped the country charts upon its release in 1990 but also landed at number three on the Billboard pop charts (a feat that was repeated in the number one position four more times this decade), helping to transform the singer into an international icon. McEntire also forged forward with the attention she garnered throughout the prior decade, becoming the first female artist to have a double platinum album with 1991’s For My Broken Heart (inspired by several band members who died in a plane crash). The following year, the duo Brooks and Dunn released “Boot Scootin’ Boogie” as a single, which also helped fuel the country line-dancing movement and a subsequent increase of clubs catering to that audience.

The Groundswell Grows

Billy Ray Cyrus also blended country, pop, and rock with a danceable element on 1992’s country and pop chart-topper Some Gave All, which spawned the single “Achy Breaky Heart.” Aside from his success at radio, Cyrus was also regarded for his handsome looks, which garnered additional mainstream attention but also stirred up some controversy among country purists and critics opposed to the idea of selling the style with sex appeal. For the female faction, Canadian superstar Shania Twain was also regarded for her model-worthy attraction, helping 1995’s The Woman in Me to reach number five on the mainstream charts and 1997’s Come on Over to become the best-selling country album of all time and the best-selling album by a female artist of any association (moving over 20 million copies). However, even with Twain’s tremendous appeal, Brooks still

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ruled the decade on the concert- and CD-selling circuit and has since racked up over 128 million albums in the United States. While many of the above sought to break beyond traditional audiences, other artists insisted on reclaiming the genre’s heritage. This group of musicians was also dubbed “new traditionalists” and was led by the tall Texan George Strait (who first found fame in the 1980’s), along with artists like Ricky Skaggs, Alan Jackson, Vince Gill, and Dwight Yoakam. By the end of the 1990’s, however, players like Strait were also reaping the benefits of the general public’s embrace of country, finding crossover potential in 1997 with the stadium-centered George Strait Country Music Festival—which also became a springboard to fame for Tim McGraw, Faith Hill, the Dixie Chicks, and Kenny Chesney.

Counterculture Still Finds Footing

Approaching the New Millennium As the decade came to a close, there were no signs of slowing down for the crossover movement, with McGraw, Hill, Chesney, and the Dixie Chicks all selling out stadiums on their own. In 1999, the constantly evolving Lonestar helped progress commercial country even further when the single “Amazed” topped the country charts, followed by the Billboard Hot 100. Those trends continued into the next decade, with many of the same acts finding additional success with album and single sales, not to mention concert attendance that rivaled some of the biggest rock bands of the time period. Impact While some have often scoffed at country’s more profitable pursuits throughout the 1990’s, the many artists involved in that dynamic shift helped raise the genre to prominent heights and expanded its audience. This movement also helped set the compass for the future of country music, which continues to integrate pop, rock, and other outside influences. Many artists from the 1990’s continued to thrive into the early twenty-first century, updating their sounds and stage shows to reflect commercial trends. Further Reading

Feiler, Bruce. Dreaming Out Loud: Garth Brooks, Wynonna Judd, Wade Hayes, and the Changing Face of Nashville. New York: Avon Books, 1998. A detailed account of country music’s evolution, particularly chronicling the 1990’s surge of the aforementioned artists.



Kingsbury, Paul, ed. The Encyclopedia of Country Music. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. An exhaustive look at the genre’s most prominent artists. Compiled by the staff of the Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum in Nashville. Kosser, Michael. How Nashville Became Music City, U.S.A.: Fifty Years of Music Row. New York: Hal Leonard, 2006. Traces the history of “Music City” since the 1940’s. McEntire, Reba, with Tom Carter. Reba: My Story. New York: Bantam Books, 1994. One of the leading musicians in the commercial country craze tells her personal story. Sgammato, Jo. American Thunder: The Garth Brooks Story. New York: Ballantine, 1999. A biography and backstage look at one of the scene’s most successful innovators, including information about how Brooks helped direct the entire genre throughout the 1990’s. Andy Argyrakis Brooks, Garth; Lang, K. D.; McEntire, Reba; Music.

See also

■ Crime Transgressions of local, state, or federal law


After a period of steady increase, peaking in 1991, the rates of both property and violent crimes declined throughout the rest of the 1990’s in the United States and Canada. Beginning in the 1960’s, the crime rates in the United States and Canada increased, reaching a peak in 1991. Canada had higher property crime rates than the United States for breaking and entering, motor vehicle theft, and arson. Rates of violent crimes, such as homicide, aggravated assault, and robbery, were much higher in the United States. In the United States, the crime rates in all categories decreased during the 1990’s, while Canada experienced its greatest decline in violent crimes. During this period, the United States and Canada both experienced the largest, longest declines in crime rates since crime statistics first began to be tracked in the two nations. The countries showed similar trends in overall decline, and the rates of property crimes in both countries actually converged by 1999. In addition to showing similar over-


The Nineties in America


all trends, the two countries showed the same regional trends in regard to their eastern and western areas, with the highest crime rates in the west and the lowest in the east. One dissimilarity between the two nations was that Canada’s cities had lower rates of homicide than did U.S. cities. Criminologists have studied the decline in crime rates that began in 1991, trying to determine what caused or contributed to it. Because the decline occurred in the two contiguous countries at the same time, some researchers have looked for similarities in social factors in the two locations. Criminologists studying Canada have concluded that some of the crime committed in that country is related to such factors as family breakdown, poor parenting, poverty, moral and religious decline, the ease of obtaining guns, lack of discipline, and leniency in the law. Some of those same factors have been blamed for increasing crime in the United States. Particularly in the United States, the abuse of illicit drugs constitutes one of the biggest factors influencing crime rates. The U.S. government attempted to respond to that problem in the 1980’s by creating the “war on drugs.” Experts have studied the social changes that occurred in the 1990’s in Canada and the United States to try to isolate the factors that may have caused or at Search for Causes

least contributed to the drops in crime rates that were seen in the two countries. These factors included an improving economy, innovations in policing, changes in gun control laws, increased incarceration of offenders, changes in drug use, and shifting demographics. The Economy Economic trends are often associated with crime levels. Varied theories of the causes of crime posit that a healthy economy, with its availability of jobs, is related to decreases in crime. During the 1990’s, the economy was very strong and growing in the United States, unlike in Canada. Inflation rates were stable in Canada during the decade, however, and the nation experienced some economic growth, which resulted in a decrease in unemployment. The differences in economic growth in the two countries during the period have served to confuse analyses concerning crime rates. Theoretically, if a strong economy is a major factor in the decline of crime, the robust economy in the United States during the 1990’s should have meant a larger drop in that country’s crime rate and a smaller drop in Canada’s, given that the latter’s economic growth during the period was somewhat lackluster.

During the 1990’s, community-oriented policing, in which law-enforcement agencies work to engage community members in addressing the


United States Crime Rates Per 100,000 Inhabitants, 1990-1999 Year


All Crimes

Forcible Aggravated Violent Property Murder Rape Robbery Assault Burglary Larceny

Vehicle Theft

























































































































Source: Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports and the Disaster Center.

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crime problems that affect them, became increasingly popular. One of the ingredients of communityoriented policing is the close involvement of police officers with the communities to which they are assigned. As many police departments attempted to increase officer contacts with citizens, the number of police officers on the streets increased by approximately 11 percent in the United States over the decade; in Canada, however, the number of officers decreased by 11 percent. If the ratio of police officers to citizens affects the crime rates in communities, then the United States should have experienced a larger drop in crime than did Canada, but this was not the case. Technology had significant effects on policing during the 1990’s as computers became more efficient, affordable, and user-friendly. The use of computers permitted law-enforcement agencies to create shared databases and improve dispatching efficiency; computerization also facilitated police officers’ report writing and inquiries regarding criminal records. These technological improvements increased the effectiveness and efficiency of lawenforcement agencies. They also allowed individual law-enforcement agencies to become involved in multiagency investigations and task forces. Such interagency cooperation and sharing of information further increased the effectiveness of law enforcement. In the 1990’s, New York Police Department (NYPD) officials credited a new department accountability process called Compstat (from “computer statistics” or “comparative statistics”) with contributing to reductions in crime throughout the city. Compstat uses a management technique that departs from the community-oriented policing model that focuses on the street-level officer. With Compstat, police department personnel at the middlemanagement level are held responsible for what is happening in their precincts. These managers compare real-time crime statistics to identify crime hot spots in their precincts and meet with agency administrators and other commanders to discuss openly what they are doing that has been successful in reducing crime as well as what they are doing or plan to do in response to growing crime problems. Weekly brainstorming meetings provide opportunities for managers and officers to share information about what has worked for them in particular situations. This style of crime fighting emphasizes efforts such



as removing graffiti, maintaining the appearance of neighborhoods, and enforcing laws concerning minor offenses, such as panhandling, to promote good quality of life in communities and to show potential criminals that citizens care about their neighborhoods. Police Commissioner William Bratton claimed that the downward trend in crime in New York City was the result of his management style and the use of Compstat. He further asserted that the decrease in crime in New York City had led to the national downturn in crime. Skeptics believed that part of the city’s success could be explained by the 15 percent increase in the number of police officers in New York during the 1990’s. Whatever the cause of the decline, Compstat began in the NYPD after Bratton became commissioner in 1993. The use of Compstat alone does not explain the downturn in crimes that began in 1991, nor does it explain why other cities— such as San Diego and San Jose, California, and Austin, Texas—experienced similar reductions in crime without Compstat. Could the increase in the number of police officers or the practice of community-oriented policing explain the downward trend in crime rates seen in the 1990’s? The actual decline began before Bill Clinton’s presidential administration began in 1993. One of President Clinton’s campaign promises included placing 100,000 more police officers on the streets of U.S. cities to develop the communitypolicing ideal. By the end of Clinton’s presidency, the numbers of officers had increased by approximately 40,000 to 60,000. Given that the decline in crime rates had started long before these additional officers were out enforcing the law, the increase in the number of officers cannot explain the initial drop in crime rates. However, this program may have influenced the sustained decline in crime during the 1990’s. As noted previously, crime rates in Canada dropped as well during this period, although that country actually experienced a decreased police presence. Although increased police presence was not a factor in diminishing crime in Canada, it appears to have been an influence in the United States. This claim may be somewhat supported by the fact that after President George W. Bush did away with Clinton’s program, the dramatic declines in crime rates seen in the 1990’s ceased.


Gun Control Gun control laws restrict the legal purchase of firearms. Although such laws may help to decrease numbers of homicides, criminals are still able to obtain firearms through illicit means. During the 1990’s in Canada, guns remained the weapon of choice in homicides. Nevertheless, only one-third of the homicides in Canada involve the use of firearms. Canadian gun-ownership advocates argue that gun control merely keeps guns out of the hands of responsible citizens while failing to prevent the wrong people from getting firearms. Proponents of gun control credit such laws with the reduction in homicide rates. In the United States, two-thirds of homicides involve the use of firearms. The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act, known as the Brady bill, was signed into law in 1993; this law increased the waiting period for gun purchases. The increased control of firearms in the United States may have played a role in the reduction of violent crimes in the 1990’s. Arguments both for and against gun control in the United States parallel the arguments made in Canada.

In the United States, the nationwide incarceration rate began to increase in the 1980’s, growing by 42 percent over the next decade. As the incarceration rate increased in the United States, the crime rate started to drop. The argument that increased incarceration has a causal connection to the reduction in the crime rate implies that any gains made will be reversed when these offenders are released back to the streets. Canada’s incarceration rate fell by 3 percent from 1991 to 1999. Theorists have speculated that the decrease in the incarceration rate may be related to the higher rate of property crime in Canada, in comparison with the United States, during that period.


In the 1980’s, the rates of drug use in the United States and in Canada were close to equal. During this period, crack cocaine emerged as a popular drug, and what has been referred to as the “crack epidemic” is considered to have been a factor that contributed to high urban crime rates. Since the 1980’s, the United States has seen rates of arrests for drug use that are three times higher than the rates in Canada. It has been argued that the use of crack cocaine decreased in both countries during the 1990’s and that this decrease contributed to declines in crime.


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Research on the causes of crime has consistently found a strong relationship between age and crime. Young people ages fifteen through twenty-four are more likely to be offenders than are persons in other age groups. During the 1990’s, the populations of both Canada and the United States experienced decreases in this age group. Some researchers credit the reduction of crime in Canada to an 18 percent reduction in the proportion of youths in the population. The reduction in the population of fifteen- to twenty-four-year-olds was the strongest common factor related to crime that occurred in both countries during the 1990’s.


Impact During the 1990’s, reductions in crime rates contributed to a general feeling of social wellbeing in Canada and the United States. Subsequent studies have aimed to clarify the causes of these declines in crime. Because criminal justice policies differ between the two countries, the drops in crime cannot be tied to any particular criminal justice policies. The key to an understanding of the exact reasons for the decreases in crime rates in either of these nations during the 1990’s may depend on researchers’ ability to understand the causes of the similar declines in the other. The trend of declining crime rates continued in both Canada and the United States into the early years of the twenty-first century, but around 2005, the rates began to increase in several crime categories. Whereas legislators in the United States have focused on the issue of crime since the 1960’s, crime did not become a major political issue in Canada until much later. The increased political focus on crime and rising crime rates in Canada in the early twentyfirst century prompted public officials there to push for the passage of laws aimed at reducing crime, such as stricter gun control laws, antigang laws, and laws targeting young offenders. Further Reading

Chaiken, Jan M. “Crunching Numbers: Crime and Incarceration at the End of the Millennium.” National Institute of Justice Journal (January, 2000): 1017. Explores trends in crimes of violence and property offenses, analyzing possible relationships between diminished crime rates and increases in incarceration rates. Conklin, John. Why Crime Rates Fell. Boston: Pearson Education, 2003. Argues against some of the generally accepted explanations for the decline in

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crime rates during the 1990’s and offers instead reasons such as less reporting of offenses to police, a natural cycle of crime, and increased religious and family influences, among other factors. Gainsborough, Jenni, and Marc Mauer. Diminishing Returns: Crime and Incarceration in the 1990’s. Washington, D.C.: Sentencing Project, 2000. Presents a critical argument regarding the concept that increased incarceration during the 1990’s was responsible for the reduction in crime rates in the United States. Levitt, Steven. “Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990’s: Four Factors That Explain the Decline and Six That Do Not.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 18, no. 1 (Winter, 2004): 163-190. Looks at the decline in crime in the United States during the 1990’s, identifying the areas and degrees of decline. Takes a critical look at the reasons given for the drop in the crime rate. Messner, Steven, et al. “Policing, Drugs, and the Homicide Decline in New York City in the 1990’s.” Criminology 45, no. 2 (May, 2007): 385-414. Assesses changes in policing and the drug trade and the possible effect of these changes on the homicide rates in New York City during the 1990’s. Ouimet, Marc. “Crime in Canada and in the United States: A Comparative Analysis.” Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 36, no. 3 (August, 1999): 389-408. Notes that for three decades leading up to the 1990’s, the crime rates in the United States and in Canada were very similar, and argues that the apparent difference between the two countries is explained by high crime rates in several large cities in the United States that skew the statistics used in analyses. _______. “Explaining the American and Canadian Crime ‘Drop’ in the 1990’s.” Canadian Journal of Criminology 44, no. 1 (January, 2002): 38-51. Argues that the decline of crime rates in both Canada and the United States was influenced by increased employment, changes in demographics, and changes in societal values. Sprott, Jane B., and Carla Cesaroni. “Similarities in Homicide Trends in the States and Canada: Guns, Crack, or Demographics.” Homicide Studies 6, no. 4 (2002): 348-359. Ties the decrease in homicide rates in both Canada and the United States to the changes in demographics in both countries. Zimring, Franklin E. “Seven Lessons from the

Crown Heights riot


1990’s.” In The Great American Crime Decline. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Addresses similarities and differences of potential causes of the decline in crime rates in the United States and in Canada. Argues that the reduction in crime rates was not the result of any single factor. Notes that the sole factor shared by both countries was the decline in the size of the youth population and asserts that this factor may play a larger role than many criminologists are willing to admit. Gerald P. Fisher See also Carjacking; Clinton, Bill; Drive-by shootings; Gun control; Hate crimes; Immigration Act of 1990; Louima torture case; North Hollywood shootout; Oklahoma City bombing; Olympic Park bombing; Police brutality; Ruby Ridge shoot-out; School violence; Shepard, Matthew; Terrorism; Three strikes laws.

■ Crown Heights riot The Event An anti-Semitic riot Date August 19-22, 1991 Place Brooklyn, New York

This was the first large-scale anti-Semitic riot in the United States. On a hot August night in 1991, seven-year-old Gavin Cato was riding his bicycle on the sidewalks of Crown Heights, a neighborhood in Brooklyn. A few miles away, graduate student Yankel Rosenbaum was conducting research for a doctorate. The events of the next few hours would link the two, bringing to the surface racial animosity in a quiet area of the city. The event would also reveal police ineffectiveness during a critical period. Finally, the event crippled the political career of New York’s first black mayor, David Dinkins. In 1991, Crown Heights was dominated by three cultural groups: Most residents were from the West Indies, slightly fewer were African Americans, and about 10 percent were Jews of the Hasidic Lubavitch sect, headquartered in Brooklyn, which emphasizes community self-help and commitment to religious principles and whose members have a distinctive personal appearance. Relations between the three groups were tense: All were competing for limited housing and services during a time of economic


Crown Heights riot

The Nineties in America

Police walk past a police car that was overturned by rioters on August 21, 1991, in the Crown Heights neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York. (AP/Wide World Photos)

scarcity. In 1990, in response to a $1.8 billion budget deficit, Mayor Dinkins slashed social services, laid off over 25,000 city workers, and raised taxes enormously. In tough times, any perceived preferential treatment of an ethnic group will be resented, and many African Americans thought that the Lubavitch were getting preferential treatment. One particularly difficult point was the police protection that accompanied the Lubavitch leader, Menachem Schneerson, when he traveled in the city. To the Lubavitch, protection was justified because Schneerson had been the subject of death threats. As Schneerson’s entourage sped through Crown Heights on the night of August 19, it was followed by a station wagon driven by Yosef Lifsh. He was not part of the motorcade but was following to help provide security. Trying to cross a major intersection, Lifsh struck another car, lost control, and hit Gavin Cato and his cousin Angela. The mood of the crowd that gathered was angry, and Lifsh was beaten. Po-

lice officers on the scene asked the first ambulance to arrive, a Jewish volunteer ambulance, to take Lifsh away quickly. The intent was to protect Lifsh, but the decision delayed care for Gavin and Angela Cato. Retaliation Without this shortsighted action, there probably would have been no riot. The perception seized upon by the crowd was that black children lay critically injured while Jewish adults received police protection and medical help. Although city ambulances arrived soon afterward, Gavin Cato died before he reached the hospital. When this news hit the street, hotheads in the crowd began inciting violence against any Jew that could be found. Several were terrorized, attacked, and beaten. A few blocks away and a couple hours later, Yankel Rosenbaum, a Jewish graduate student from Australia, was attacked by a crowd of young black men, one of whom stabbed him several times. The police soon found sixteen-year-old Lemrick Nelson hiding behind a bush; he had Rosenbaum’s blood on his pants

The Nineties in America

and a bloody knife in his pocket. Despite multiple wounds, Rosenbaum was in stable condition when he arrived at a local hospital and would have survived had he been given adequate medical care, but Rosenbaum bled to death early the next morning. For three days, various groups of African Americans—many of whom were not residents of Crown Heights—rioted in the neighborhood, looting businesses, overturning cars, and throwing rocks through windows. On the first night of the riot, Dinkins and other civic leaders went to Crown Heights and were pelted with rocks. The mayor had to hide in the Cato household to avoid being severely injured. Control seemed to be handed over to various anti-Semitic agitators by day and rioters by night. For some, the physical damage was not as disturbing as marching crowds that chanted anti-Semitic slogans. Several accounts claim that an elderly Jewish woman named Bracha Estrin, a survivor of the Nazi holocaust, was so frightened and distraught that she committed suicide. Impact The Crown Heights riot was politically crippling to the city’s administration and law enforcement. Dinkins considered himself a harmonizer and envisioned the city as a beautiful mosaic of various groups living together peacefully. During the riot, this vision was ruined, and his administration lost credibility. The riot lasted as long as it did in part because police tactics were ineffective and were designed to prevent police brutality, not crime. The strategy was to establish a cordon and prevent the riot from spreading, hoping that the unrest would burn itself out. This measure protected neither property nor people in the area and proved unworkable. By the second day of the riot, police were ordered to break up groups of rioters. Police ineptitude also slowed efforts to find justice for Rosenbaum. Although Rosenbaum allegedly identified Nelson as his attacker, police officers kept no notes of the identification. In fact, no officer interviewed Rosenbaum until three hours after the event, when he was dying. Similarly, officers neglected to record Nelson’s confession; no one had him sign a document waiving his Miranda rights. When Nelson’s case came to trial in 1992, he was acquitted despite the mass of incriminating physical evidence. Not until 1997 was Nelson found guilty of violating Rosenbaum’s civil rights and sentenced to substantial time in prison.

Cruise, Tom


Further Reading

Evanier, David. “Invisible Man.” The New Republic 205, no. 16 (October 14, 1991): 21-26. This article profiles Yankel Rosenbaum. Gourevitch, Philip. “The Jeffries Affair.” Commentary 93 (March, 1992): 34-38. Argues that widespread anti-Semitism simmered within the African American intellectual community long before the riot. Lardner, James, and Thomas Reppetto. NYPD: A City and Its Police. New York: Henry Holt, 2000. Briefly overviews the significance of the riot to the police who had to quell it. Shapiro, Edward. Crown Heights: Blacks, Jews, and the 1991 Brooklyn Riot. Waltham, Mass.: Brandeis University Press, 2006. Overviews various interpretations of the riot. Michael R. Meyers See also African Americans; Dinkins, David; Hate crimes; Jewish Americans; Los Angeles riots.

■ Cruise, Tom Identification American actor Born July 3, 1962; Syracuse, New York

Already a major film star at the beginning of the decade, Cruise became a superstar alternating between commercial and more demanding film roles. After ending the 1980’s on a high note by earning his first Academy Award nomination for Born on the Fourth of July (1989), Cruise began the decade with two critical and commercial flops: the car-racing drama Days of Thunder (1990) and the Irish-immigrant saga Far and Away (1992). Days of Thunder was nonetheless notable for introducing the star to Australian actress Nicole Kidman, who became Cruise’s second wife, following his divorce from Mimi Rogers in 1990. The couple also costarred in Far and Away. Cruise then began an impressive string of hits. A Few Good Men (1992) was one of several Cruise films questioning those in authority. As a Navy attorney with a reputation for laziness, Cruise’s character discovers his true character while defending two Marines accused of murder. In The Firm (1993), Cruise played an even more naïve lawyer expected to sell his soul to succeed with a powerful yet sinister law firm. The moral choices made by Cruise’s char-


The Nineties in America

Culture wars

acters in the comparatively anything-goes 1980’s became harder in the 1990’s. Interview with the Vampire (1994) offered Cruise one of the most controversial roles of his career because Anne Rice strongly opposed his casting in this adaptation of her popular 1976 novel but came to praise his work. The vampire Lestat was his first true villain, who seduces a Louisiana plantation owner (Brad Pitt) into a perpetual life of sin. Cruise’s star power helped turn Mission: Impossible (1996) into more than just another callous version of a popular television series. While not making great demands on Cruise as an actor, the role allowed the star to showcase his physical skills as he performed most of his own stunts. Jerry Maguire (1996) was Cruise’s most popular film with reviewers and audiences. The title character is a sports agent fired because of a crisis of conscience over the long-term needs of his clients. Left with a single client (Oscar winner Cuba Gooding,

Jr.) and a one-person staff (Renée Zellweger), Maguire sets about changing his life. Writer-director Cameron Crowe’s romantic comedy brought Cruise his second Academy Award nomination. Cruise ended the 1990’s by tackling two more serious roles. In Eyes Wide Shut (1999), the final film by legendary director Stanley Kubrick, Cruise played a Manhattan physician obsessed by sexual fantasies. Cruise then earned his third Oscar nomination, as Best Supporting Actor, for Paul Thomas Anderson’s Magnolia (1999). As a cynical self-help expert teaching male sexual prowess, Cruise’s Frank Mackey is estranged from his dying father (Jason Robards, Jr.) before finding some reconciliation. Impact A Few Good Men, The Firm, Interview with the Vampire, Mission: Impossible, and Jerry Maguire were worldwide hits, as Cruise solidified his position as a superstar. In addition, many of Cruise’s characters reflected the decade’s concern with shedding the materialistic values of the 1980’s. Further Reading

Crowe, Cameron. “Conversations with Cruise.” Vanity Fair, June, 2000, 218-233. Morton, Andrew. Tom Cruise: An Unauthorized Biography. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2008. Studlar, Gaylyn. “Cruise-ing into the Millennium: Performative Masculinity, Stardom, and the AllAmerican Boy’s Body.” In Ladies and Gentlemen, Boys and Girls: Gender in Film at the End of the Twentieth Century, edited by Murray Pomerance. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2001. Michael Adams Academy Awards; Film in the United States; Pitt, Brad; Rice, Anne.

See also

■ Culture wars Sociopolitical conflicts, generally with liberals against conservatives


Usually nonviolent, the American culture wars of the 1990’s showed a chasm in worldviews between intense believers on different sides of issues centering on religion and race.

Tom Cruise attends a press conference in Germany to promote his movie Mission: Impossible. (AP/Wide World Photos)

Even if many Americans did not have strong opinions about all the particular issues in the culture wars, partisans on the two sides of each of those issues certainly did, and the sides tended to be liberal,

The Nineties in America

Culture wars


Buchanan’s Republican National Convention Speech [The president] is our first diplomat, the architect of American foreign policy. And which of these two men is more qualified for that role? George Bush has been U.N. ambassador, CIA director, envoy to China. As vice president, he coauthored the policies that won the Cold War. As president, George Bush presided over the liberation of Eastern Europe and the termination of the Warsaw Pact. And Mr. Clinton? Well, Bill Clinton couldn’t find 150 words to discuss foreign policy in an acceptance speech that lasted an hour. As was said of an earlier Democratic candidate, Bill Clinton’s foreign policy experience is pretty much confined to having had breakfast once at the Intl. House of Pancakes. The presidency is also America’s bully pulpit, what Mr. Truman called, “preeminently a place of moral leadership.” George Bush is a defender of right-to-life, and lifelong champion of the JudeoChristian values and beliefs upon which this nation was built. Mr. Clinton, however, has a different agenda. At its top is unrestricted abortion on demand. When the Irish-Catholic governor of Pennsylvania, Robert Casey, asked to say a few words on behalf of the 25 million unborn children destroyed since Roe v. Wade, he was told there was no place for him at the podium of Bill Clinton’s convention, no room at the inn. Yet a militant leader of the homosexual rights movement could rise at that convention and exult: “Bill Clinton and Al Gore represent the most pro-lesbian and pro-gay ticket in history.” And so they do.

on the one hand, and conservative, on the other— or, according to sociologist James Davison Hunter, progressive and orthodox. It was in Culture Wars: The Struggle to Define America (1991) that Hunter made the term “culture wars” well known. By using the term in the singular during a speech at the 1992 Republican National Convention (RNC), Pat Buchanan further popularized it. In that RNC speech, Buchanan also referred to a “religious war” within America. That war


Bill Clinton supports school choice—but only for state-run schools. Parents who send their children to Christian schools, or Catholic schools, need not apply. Elect me, and you get two for the price of one, Mr. Clinton says of his lawyer-spouse. And what does Hillary believe? Well, Hillary believes that twelve-year-olds should have a right to sue their parents, and she has compared marriage as an institution to slavery—and life on an Indian reservation. . . . Friends, this is radical feminism. The agenda Clinton & Clinton would impose on America— abortion on demand, a litmus test for the Supreme Court, homosexual rights, discrimination against religious schools, women in combat— that’s change, all right. But it is not the kind of change America wants. It is not the kind of change America needs. And it is not the kind of change we can tolerate in a nation that we still call God’s country. . . . My friends, this election is about much more than who gets what. It is about who we are. It is about what we believe. It is about what we stand for as Americans. There is a religious war going on in our country for the soul of America. It is a cultural war, as critical to the kind of nation we will one day be as was the Cold War itself. And in that struggle for the soul of America, Clinton & Clinton are on the other side, and George Bush is on our side. And so, we have to come home, and stand beside him.

was mainly over whether divine, immutable law governs morality, and the war sometimes found liberals of various Christian denominations allied not only with one another but also with Reform Jews. On the other side w