The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism

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The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism

The N'prlon Anthology of Theory and Criticism .William E. Cain, MARY JEWETT GAI~ER PROFESSOR OF ENGUSH AN~ AMERICA

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The N'prlon Anthology of Theory and Criticism

.William E. Cain, MARY JEWETT










~.The Norlon Anthology of Theory and Criticism Vincent:.B. Leitch, General Editor PROFESSOR AND PAUL AND CARO," DAUBE SUlTON CHAIR IN ENGLISH . UNIVERSfIY OF OKLAHOMA



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Copyright C> 200 I by W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. First Edition. Since this page cannot legibly accommodate all the copyright notices, pages 2553-2559 constitute an extension of the copyright page. The text of this book is composed in Fairfield Medium with the display set in Bernhard Modern. Composition by Binghamton Valley Composition. Manuf

~Jifb~~teri~~o fc.!J\J anpscript Bditor: NiCF- FalJc:

ssi.itJ,~".p'yd(; C!(tt;"lJ!bian~ t.~.j

-'Y!!!tI9-S~DiAdi!,aAr;w tion Ma~er: Diane O'ConnoJ'

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.~a. . . . .Il>l •• R."uuanAn Research: Neil Ryder Hoos

Llbra.-y of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data The Norton antholo$)' of theo.-y and criticism I Vincent B.lLeitch, general editor. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-393-97429-4 1. Criticism.


Literature-Histo.-yand criticism. PN86 .N67 2001 801'.95-dc21 00-0,48057


Leitch, Vincent B., Date·

W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10110 W. W. Norton & Company Ltd., Castie House, 75176 Wells Street, London WIT 3QT 890


~---+--+--: Contents Alternative Table of Contents Preface XXXIII Ackriowledgrnents xxxvii



GORGIAS OF LEONTINI (ca. 483-376 D.C.E.) From Encomium of Helen 30' PLATO (ca. 427-ca. 347 D.C.E.) Ion 37 Republic 49 From Book II 49 From Book III 56 From Book VII 64 From Book X 67"" From Phaedrus 81 ARISTOTLE (384-322 D.C.E.) Poetics 90 Rhetoric 11 7 Book I 117 From Chapter 2 117 From Chapter 3 118 Book II 119 From Chapter 1 119 Book III 120 From Chapter 2 120 HORACE (65-8 D.C.E.) Ars Poetica 124




LONGINUS (first century C.E.) From On Sublimity 138 QUINT'ILIAN (ca. 30/35-ca. 100) Institutio Oratoria" 157 Book 8 157









From Chapter 5 From Chapter 6 Book 9 162 From Chapter 1 From Chapter 2 Book 12 167 From Chapter 2

157 158 162 166 167

PLOTINUS (ca. 204/5-270) 171 Fifth Ennead 174 Eighth Tractate. On the Intellectual Beauty AUGUSTINE OF HIPPO (354-430) On Christian Doctrine :188 : From Book One 188 From Book Two 188 From Book Three 191 The Trinity 192 Book Fifteen 191 192 Fram Chapter ~ From Chapter 10 193 From Chapter 11 194

:, [74 .

185 ;.;,

MACROBIUS (b. ca. 360) 196 Commentary on the Dream of Scipio Chapter III 198



HUGH OF ST. VICTOR (ca. 1097-1141) The Didascalicon 204 From Book One 204 From Book Three 206 Fram Book Five 207 From Book Six 208


MOSES MAIMONIDES (1135-1204) 211 The Guide of the Perplexed 214 [Introduction to the First Part] 214 GEOFFREY OF VINSAUF (ca. 1200) 226 Poetria Nova 229 I. General Remarks on PoetrylDivisions of the Pres~nt Tre~i:ise From II. Ordering the Material 230 From III. Amplification and Abbreviation 231 From IV. Ornaments of Style 236 THOMAS AQUINAS (1225-1274) Summa Theologica 243 From Question I 243




DANTE ALiGHIERI (1265-1321) II Convivio ' 249 Book Two 249 , 'Chapter 1 249 From The' Letter to Can Grande


25 1

GIOVANNI BOCCACCIO (1313-1375) 253 Oepealogy of the Gentile Gods 255 Book 14 255 'V. Other Cavillers at the Poets and Their Imputations 255 vB. The D~finitionof,Poetry, Its Origin, and Function 258 XII. The Obscurity of Poetry Is Not Just Cause For Condemning , 'Ii: 260 CHRISTINE DE PIZAN (ca. 1365-ca. 1429) The aook of the City of Ladies 265 , From Part One 265 From Part TWd 269


GIAMBATTISTA GlRALDI (.504-1573) 271 From pfscourlle on the -Composition or Romances


JOACHIM DU BELLAY (c:a. 1522-1560)279 The Defence and Illustration of the French Language Book I 281 Chapters I-VII 281 Book It 288 I Chapters III-IV 2~8 PIERRE'DE RONSARD (1524--1585) 291 From A Brief on the Art 'of French Poetry 294 GIACOPO MAZZONI (1548-1598) 299 On the pefense of the Comedy of Dante 302 From I,ntroduction and Summary 302 SIR PHILIP SIDNEY (15~4--1586) An Apology for Poetry" 326


PIERRE CORNEILLE (1606-1684) 363 Of the Three Unities of Action, Ti~e, and Place JOHN DRYDEN (1631-1700) 319 - From An Essay of Dramatic Poesy 381 383 From ~reface to Troilus lind Cressida From Preface to Sylvae 385 APHRA BEHN (1640-1689) 388 The Du~ch Lover 391 Ept!ltle to the Reader 391 Pr~face to The Luc~Chance 395








GIAMBAlTISTA VICO (1668-1744) From The New Science 401 JOSEPH ADDISON (1672-1719) The Spectator, No. 62 419 [True and False Wit] 419 The Spectator, No. 412 ' 423 [On the Sublirrtej 423



EDWARD YOUNG (1683..:.1765)' 426 From' Conjectures on Original Corrtpositiori ALEXANDER POPE (1688-1744) An Essay on Criticisrrt 441



SAMUEL JOHNSON (1709-1784) 458 The Rarrtbler, No.4 462 [On Fiction] 462 The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia 466 Chapter X. IrrtIac's History Continued.' A Dissettation upon.' : Poetry 4Q6 . From Preface to Shakespeare 468 Lives of the English Poets ' 480, . From Cowley 480 [On Metaphysical Wit] 480 DAVID HUME (1711-1776) Of the Standard of Taste

483 486

IMMANUEL' KANT (1724-1804) 499 Critique of Judgrrtent504 From Introduction 504 From Book I. Analytic of the Beautiful From Book II. Analytic of the Sublime

505' , 519

EDMUND BURKE (1729-1797) 536 A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Out Ideas of the Sublime' and Beautiful 539 Introduction on Taste 539 Part I. Section VlI. Of the Sublirrte 549' Part III. Section XXVII. The Sublirrte and Beautiful Compared 550 GOlTHOLD EPHRAIM LESSING (1729'-1781) From Laocoon 554 FRIEDRICH VON SCHILLER (1759-1805) On the Aesthetic Education of Man 573 Second Letter 573 Sixth Letter 574 Ninth Letter 579






MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT (1759-1797) '582; A Vindication of the Rights of Woman ,586 From Chapter II. The Prevailing Opinion of a' S'~jcual Character Discussed 586 GERMAINE NECKER DE STAt;:L (1766-1817) 594 From Essay on Fictions ·597 On Literature Considered in Its Relationship to SoCial Institutions On Women Writers (2.4) 604 . .


FRIEDRIcH SCHLEIERMACHER (f768 ..... 1834) 610 Hermeneutics 613 ' .. Outline of the 1819 Lectures 613 Introduction 613 Part Two. The Technical Interpretation 623'· GEORG WILHELM FRIEDRICH HEGEL (177oi-I831) Phenomenology of Spirit 630 [The Master-Slave Dialectic] 630 Lectures on Fine Art 636 From Introduction 636


WILLIAM WORDSWORTH (1770-1850) 645 Preface to Lyrical Ballads, with pastoral lind Other Poems (1802) SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE (i 772-1834) From The Statesman's Manual 672 Biographia Literaria 674 Part I 674 From Chapter 1 674 From Chapter 4 675 From Chapter 13 676 Part II 677 Chapter 14 677 THOMAS LOVE PEACOCK (1785-1866) The Four Ages of Poetry 684




-r." ....


PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY (.1792-1822) 695 From A Defence of Poetry, or Reniarks Suggested by an Essay Entitled "The Four Ages of Poetry" 699 . RALPH WALDO EMERSON (1803-1882) From The American Scholar 721 The Poet 724 EDGAR ALLAN POE (1809-1849) The Philosophy of Composition


739 742

THEOPHILE GAUTIER (1811-1872) 750 From Preface to Mademoiselle de Maupin 753




KARL MARX and FRIEDRICH ENGELS (1818-1883) (1820-1895) 759 From Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 764 From The German Ideology 767 From The Communist Manifesto 769 From Grundrisse 773 From Preface t~ A Contribution to the Critiq~ of Political ".' Economy 774 Capital, Volume 1 776 From Chapter 1. ~ommodities 776 From Chapter 10~ The Working-Day 783 From Letter from Friedrich Engels to Joseph Bloch 787 CHARLES BAUDELAIRE (1821-1867) 789 The Painter of Modern Life 792 From I. Beauty, Fa:shion, and Happiness 792 From III. The Artist, Man of the World, Man of the CrQwd, and, . Child 793 . IV. Modernity 796 From IX. The Dandy 798 XI. In Praise of Cosmetics 800 MATTHEW ARNOLD (1822-1888) 802 The Function of Criticism at the Present Time Culture and Anarchy 825 From Chapter 1. Sweetness and Light 825 WALTER PATER (I839-l894) 833 Studies in the History ot the Renaissance Preface 83.5 Conclusion 839 STEPHANE MALLARME (1842-1898) Crisis in Poetry 845 HENRY JAMES (1843-1916) The Art of Fiction 855 .





FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE (1844-1900) 870 On Truth and ~ying in a Non-Mora:l Sense 874 From The Birth of Tragedy 884 OSCAR WILDE (1854-1900) 895 Preface to The PiCture of Dorian Gray From The Critic as Artist . 900


SIGMUND FREUD (1856-1939) 913 The Interpretation of Dreams 919 From Chapter V. The Material and Sources of Dreams From Chapter VI. The Dream-Work .923





The "Uncanny" 929 Fetishism 952 FERDINAND DE SAUSSURE (1857-1913) 956 Course in General Linguistics 960 Introduction 960 Chapter III. The Object of Linguistics 960 Part One. General Principles 963 Chapter I. Nature of the Linguistic Sign 963 Part Two. Synchronic Linguistics 966 Chapter IV. Linguistic Value 966 Chapter V. Syntagmatic and Associative Relations W. E. B. DU BOIS {I 868-1963) Criteria of Negro Art 980


CARL GUSTAV JUNG (l875-1961) 987 On the I:l.elation of Analytical Psychology to Poetry LEON TROTSKY (1879-1940) 1002 Literature and Revolution 1005 The F6rm~list School of Poetry and Marxism VIRGINIA-WOOLF (1882-1941) A Room of One's Own 1021 [ Sha~espeare's Sister] 1021 [Chloe Liked Olivia] 1023 [Androgny] 1025 GYORGY LUKACS (1885-1971) Realism in the Balance 1033



T. S. ELIOT (1888-1965) 1088 Tradition and the Individual Talent The Metaphysical Poets 1098 JOHN CROWE RANSOM (1888-1974) Criticism, Inc. 1108 MARTIN HEIDEGGER (1889-1976) Language 1121



BORIS EICHENBAUM (1886-1959) 1058 From The Theory of the "Formal Method" 1062

ANTONIO GRAM SCI (1891-1937) The Formation of the Intellectuals





1135 1138


xiv /


ZORA NEALE HURSTON (1891-1960) 1144 Characteristics of Negro Expression 1146 What White Publishers Won't Print 1159 WALTER BENJAMIN (1892-1940) 1163 The Work of Art in the Age ,of Mechanical Reproduction MIKHAIL M. BAKHTIN (1895-1975) From Discourse in the 'Novel' 1190




MAX HORKHEIMER and THEC)OOR AboRNO (1895-1973)' (19lh-1969) 1220 Dialectic of Enlightenment 1223 From The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass' Deception 1223 EDMUND WILSON (1895-1972) Marxism and Literature" 1243


ROMAN jAKOBSON (1896-1982) '1254 From Linguistics and Poetics 1258 ' Two Aspects of Language and Two Types'of Aphasic Disturbances 1265 V. The Metaphoric and Metonymic Poles 1265 KENNETH BURKE (1897-1993) Kinds of Criticism 1272

1269 "

JACQUES LACAN (1901-1981) , 1278 . ' The Mirror Stage as Formative of the Function of the ~ as Revealed in Psychoanalytic Experience 12B~; '... From The Agency of the Letter in the Unconscious 1290 The Signification of the Phallus; 1302 LANGSTON HUGHES (1902-1967) 1311 The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain


GEORGES POULET (1902-1991) 1317 Phenomenology of Reading 1320

",," . .

JEAN-PAUL SARTRE (1905-1980) What Is Literature? 1336 Why Write? 1336

.•" .


CLEANTH BROOKS (1906-1994) 1350 The Well Wrought Urn 1353 Chapter 11. The Heresy of Paraphrase, The Formalist Critics 1366

! ... ~'





'WILLIAM K. WIMSATI JR. and MONROE C. BEARDSLEY (1907-1975) (1915-1985) The Intentional Fallacy 1374 The Affective Fallacy 1387


SIMONE DE BEAUVOIR (1908-1986) 1403 The Second Sex 1406 Chapter XI. Myth and 'Reality 1406 . CLAUDE LEVI-STRAUSS (b. 1908) Tristes Tropiques 1419 Chapter 28. A Writing Lesson ,


L. AUSTIN (1911-196,0)

Performative Utterances

1415 1419

.1427 1430

NORTHROP FRYE (1912-1991),. f442 I .. The Archetypes of Literature 1445 ROLAND BARTHES (I9f5-1980) 1457 Mythologies 1461 Soap-powders and Detergents 1461 The Brain of Einstein 1462 Photography and Electoral Appeal 1464 The Death of the Author 1466 From Work to Text 14: 7Q ;

LOUIS ALTHUSSER (1918-1990). 1476 , A Letter on Art in Reply to Andri'Dasp~e; " J 480 From Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses


PAUL,DE MAN .(19J 9-1983) 1509 Semiology and Rhetoric 1514 The Return to Philology, 1527


IRVING HOWE (1.920-1993) 1532 History and the Novel 1535 HANS ROBERT JAUSS (b. 1921) ,1547 . From Literary History as a Challenge to' Literary Theory' ~.


:. '



. :




',! .

RAYMOND WILLIAMS (1921-1988),' 1 1565,;; : Marxism and Literature 1567 Part 1. Chapter 3. Literature, . 1567, FRANTZ FANON (1925-1961) 1575 The Wretched of the Earth 1 578 From The Pitfalls of National Consciousness From On National Culture 1587








GILLES DELEUZE and FELIX GUATIARI (1925-1995) (1930-1992) 159~ Kafka: Toward a Minor Literature 1598 Prom Chapter 3. What Is a Minor Literature? 1598 A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia 1601 Prom Introduction: Rhizome 1601 JEAN-FRANQOIS LYOTARD (1925-1998) Defining the Postmodern 1612


MICHEL FOUCAULT (1926-1984) 1615 What Is an Author? 1622 Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison 1636 The Carceral 1636 The History of Sexuality, Volume I, An Introduction 1648 Part Two: The Repressive Hypothesis 1648 Chapter 1. The Incitement to Discourse 1648 Chapter 2. The Perverse Implantation 1659 Prom Truth and Power 1667 WOLFGANG ISER (b. 1926) 1670 Interaction between Text and Reader E. D. HIRSCH JR. (b. 1928) Objective Interpretation


1682 1684

HAYDEN WHITE (b. 1928) 1709 The Historical Text as Literary Artifact


JEAN BAUDRILLARD (b~ 1929) 1729 Prom The Prece'ssion of Simulacra .. 1732 JORGEN HABERMAS (b. 1929) 1741 The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An· Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society 174'5 Prom Part II. Social Structures of the Public Sphere 1745· Modernity-An Incomplete Project 1748 ADRIENNE RICH (b. 1929) 1759 Prom Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence CHINUA ACHEBE (b. 1930) 1781 An Image of Africa: RaCism in Conrad's Heart of Darkness

1762 1783

HAROLD BLOOM (b. 1930) 1794 The Anxiety of Influence 179,( Introduction. A Meditation upon Priority, and a Synopsis 1797 Interchapter. A Manifesto for Antithetical Criticism 1804 PIERRE BOURDIEU (b. 1930) 1806 Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste Introduction 1809 .





JACQUES DERRIDA (1930-2004) 1815 Of Grammatology 1822 Exergue 1822 The Exorbitant. Question of Method 1824 Dissemination 1830 Plato's Pharmacy 1830 I I. Pharmacia 183 1 2. The Father of Logos 1839 4. The Pharmakon 1846 5. The Pharmakeus 1863 II


From 9. Play: From the Pharmakon to the Letter and from Blindness to the Supplement 1866 RICHARD OHMANN (b. 1931) 1877 From The Shaping of a Canon: U.S. Fiction, 1960-1975 STUART HALL (b. 1932) 1895 Cultural ~tudies and Its Theoretical Legacies



BARBARA HERRNSTEIN SMITH (b. 1932) 1910 Contingencies of Value 1913 Chapter 3. Contingencies of Value i913 FREDRIC JAMESON (b. 1934) 1932 .... The Political Unconscious: Narrative as a gOciaIIy Symbolic Act 1937 Preface 1 937 Fron-. Chapter 1. On Iriterpretation: Literature as a Socially Symbolic Act 1941 Postmodernism and Consumer Society 1960 GERALD VIZENOR (b. 1934) 1975 Manif~st Manners: Postindian Warriors of Survivance From Chapter 1. Postindian Warriors 1977 EDWARD W. SAID (1935-2003) Orienialism 1991 Introduction 1991 MONIQUE WITTIG (b. 1935) One Is Not Born a Woman


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2012 2014

SANDRA M. GILBERT and SUSAN GUBAR (b. 1936) (b. 1944) 2021 The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the NineteenthCentury Literary Imagination 2023 From Chapter 2. Infection in the Sentence: The Woman Writer and the Anxiety of Authorship 2023




HELENE CIXOUS (b. 1937) The Laugh of the Medusa

2035 2039

GERALD GRAFF (b. 1937) Taking Cover in Coverage

2056 2059

STANLEY E. FISH (b. 1938) Interpreting the Variorum

2067 2071




1938), TABAN LO (b. 1939), HENRY OWUOR-ANYUMBA (1932-1992) 2089 On the Abolition of the English Departn'l"ent . 2092

TZVETAN TODOROV (b. 1939) Structural Analysis of Narrative

2097 2099

PAULA GUNN ALLEN (b. 1939) 2106 Kochinnenako in Academe: Three Approaches to .h;lterpreting a Keres Indian Tale . ;2108 JANE TOMPKINS (b. 1940) 2126 Me and My Shadow 2129


ANNETTE KOLODNY (b. 1941) 2143 Dancing through the Minefield: Some Observations on the :Theory, ,. Practice, and Politics of a Feminist Literary Criticism 2146 JULIA KRISTEVA (b. ;1941) 2165 Revolution in Poetic Language 2169 From Part I. The Semiotic and the Symbolic LAURA MULVEY (b. 1941) 2179 Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema



GAYATRI CHAKRAVORTY SPIVAK (b. 1942) A Critique of Postcolonial Reason 2197 From Chapter 3. History 2197 [Can the Subaltern Speak?] 2197


GLORIA ANZALDUA (b. 1942) 2208 Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza 2211 Chapter 7. La conciencia de la mestiZa: Towards a New Consciousness 2211HOUSTON A. BAKER JR. (b. 1943) 2223 Blues, Ideology, and Afro-American Literature: A Vernacular Theory 2227 Introduction 2227




TERRY EAGLETON (b. 1943) ·2240· Literary Theory: An Introduction 2243 From Chapter I. The Rise of English 2243 STEPHEN GREENBLATT (b. 1943) 2250' Introduction to The Power of Fonns in the English Renaissance



BARBARA CHRISTIAN (1943-2000) The Race for Theory 2257


DONNA HARAWAY (b. 1944) 2266 A Manifesto for Cyborgs: Science; Technology, and Socialist FefI1inism in the 1980s 2269

• BARBARA SMITH (b. 1946) 2299 Toward a Black Feminist Criticism . 2302 BARBARA JOHNSON (h.; 1947) 2316·· ; ... From Melville's Fist: The Exe"utiOll dfBillyBudd


BONNIE ZIMMERMAN (b. 194.7) 2338 . What Has Never Been: Ari'Ovefvie~ of Lesbian Fe~inist Literary Criticism 2340 . .~.\ ';.

SUSAN BORDO (b. 1947) 2360 Unbeanible Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and the Body 2362 Chapter 5. The Body and the Reproduction of Femininity 2362 HOM I K. BHABHA (b. 1949) The Commitment to Theory

2377 2379

LENNARD J. DAVIS (b. 1949) 2398 Enforcing Normalcy: Disability, Deafness, and the Body 2400 _ .. From Visualizing the Disabled Body: The Classical Nude and the Fragmented Torso 2400 HENRY LOUIS GATES JR. (b. 1950) 2421 Talking Black: Critical Signs of the Times 2424 EVE KOSOFSKY SEDGWICK (b. 1950) 2432 Between Men: English Literature and Male HomosociaI Desire From Introduction 2434 Epistemology of the Closet 2438 From Introduction: Axiomatic 2438 DICK HEBDIGE (b. 1951) 2445 Subculture: The Meaning of Style 2448 Chapter I. From Culture to Hegemony



xx /


STEVEN KNAPP and WALTER BENN MICHAELS (b. 1951) (b. 1948) Against Theory 2460 . BELL HOOKS (b. Gloria Je~n Watkins, 1952) Postmodern Blackness 2478 JUDITH BUTLER (b. 1956) 2485 Gender Trouble 2488 From Preface 2488 From Chapter 3. Subversive Bodily Acts




STUART MOULTI-IROP (b. 1957) 2502 You Say You Want a Revolution? Hypertext and the Laws of Media 2504


SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THEORY CRITICISM I. Theory and Criticism Bibliographies 2525 II. Anthologies of Theory and Criticism 2525 III. Histories of Criticism and Theory 2528 IV. Glossaries, Encyclopedias, amJ-Handbooks 2532 V. Introductions and Guides 2532 VI. Modern and Contemporary Critical Schools and Mo~ements Permissions Acknowledgments Author/Title Index 2561 Subject index 2565




-~.>--+---­ Alternative Table of" Contents Part I: Modern and Contemporary Schools and Movements CULTURAI.,. STUDIES Roland Barthes 1457 Walter B~njamin 1163 Susan Bordo 2360 Frantz Fanon 1575 Michel Foucault 1615 Ant~nio Gramsci 1135 JOrgen Habermas 1741 Stuart Hall 1895 Donna Haraway 2266 Dick Hebdige 2445 Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. Adorno Laura Mulvey 2 I 79 Edward W. Said 1986 Raymond Williams 1565


DECONSTRUCTION AND POSTSTRUCTURALISM Roland Barthes 1457 Jean Baudrillard 1729 Homi K. Bhabha 2377 Judith Butler 2485 Helene Cixous 2035 Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari 1593 Paul de Man I 509 Jacques Derrida 18 15 Michel Foucault 1615 Barbara Johnson 2316 Julia Kristeva 2165 Jacques Lacan 1278 FEMINIST THEORY AND CRITICISM Paula Gunn Allen 2106 Simone de Beauvoir 1403 Susan Bordo 2360 xxi


xxiv /


STRUCTURALtSM ANb SEMIbTICS louis· Althusser 1476 Roland B~rthes 1457 Northrop Frye 1442 Roman Jakobson 1254 Claude Levi,Strauss 1415 Ferdinand de Saussure 956 Tzvetan Todorov 2097 Hayden White 1709

Part II: Genres EPIC ~ND ROMANCE Aristotle 86· Mikhad Bakhtin 1186 Northrop Frye 1442 Giambattista Giraldi 271 Giacopo Mazzoni 299 Thomas Love Peacock 682 Plato 33 Giambattista Vico 399 DRAMA Aristotle 86 Aphra Behn 388 Pierre Corneille 363 john Dryden 379 Samuel Johnson 458 Friedrich Nietzsche 870 Sir Philip Sidney 323 n-iE NOVEL Mikhail Bakhtin 1186 Germaine Necker de Sta~l living Howe 1532 Henry James 851. Samuel Johnson 458 Richard Ohmann 1877


POETRY Harold Bloom 1794 Giovanni Boccaccio 253 T. S. Eliot 1088 717 Ralph Waldo Emerson Geoffrey of Vinsauf 226 Horace 121 Roman Jakobson 1254 Julia Kristeva 2165 841 Stephane Mallarme 299 Giacopo Mazzoni




Thomas Love Peacock 682 Edgar Allan Poe 739 Pierre de Ronsard 291 Percy Bysshe Shelley 695 Sir Philip Sidney 323 Giambattista Vico 399 William Wordsworth 645 POPULAR CULTURE Roland Barthes 1457 Charles Baudelaire 789 Simone de Beauvoir 1403 Walter Benjamin 1163 Susan Bordo 2360 Donna Haraway 2266 Dick Hebdige 2445 Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. Adorno Fredric Jameson 1932 Laura Mulvey 2179 Richard Ohmann 1877



Part III: Historical Periods CLASSICAL THEORY AND CRITICISM Aristotle 86 Gorgias 29 Horace 121 Longinus 135 Plato 33 Plotinus 171 Quintilian 155 MEDIEVALTHEORY AND CRITICISM Dante Alighieri 246 Thomas Aquinas 240 Augustine 185 Giovanni Boccaccio 253 Christine de Pizan 263 Geoffrey of Vinsauf 226 Hugh of St. Victor 201 Macrobius 196 Moses Maimonides 211 RENAISSANCE THEORY AND CRITICISM Giovanni Boccaccio 253 Joachim du Bellay 279 Giambattista Giraldi 271 Giacopo Mazzoni 299

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Judith Butler 2485 H~lene Cixous 2035 Sandra M. Gilbert arid Susan Gubar Donna Haraway 2266 Annette Kolodny 2143 Laura Mulvey 2179 Adrienne Rkh -1759 Jane Tompkins 2126 Monique Wittig 2012 Virginia Woolf 1017


FORMALISM Cleanth Brooks 1350 Kenneth Burke 1269. Boris Eichenbaum 1058 T. S. Eliot 1088 John Crowe Ransom 1105 William K. Wimsatt Jr. and Monroe C. Beardsley


GAY AND LESBIAN CRITICISM AND QUEER THEORY Gloria Anzaldlla 2208 Judith Butler 2485 Adrienne Rich 1759 Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick 2432 Barbara Smith 2299 Monique Wittig 2012 Bonnie Zimmerman 2338 MARX]SM Louis Althusser 1476 Walter Benjamin 1163 Antonio Gramsci 1135 Stuart Hall 1895 Donna Haraway 2266 Dick Hebdige 2445 Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. Adorno Fredric Jameson 1932 Gyorgy Lukacs 1030 Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak 2 I 93 Leon Trotsky 1002 Raymond Williams 1 565 Edmund Wilson 1240 NEW HISTORICISM Michel Foucault 16 15 Stephen Greenblatt 2250 Steven Knapp and Walter Benn Michaels Hayden White 1709






PHENOMENOLOGY AND HERMENEU1:ICS Simone de B'eauvoir i 403 Martin Heidegger 1118 E. D. Hirsch Jr. 1682 Wolfgang Iser 1670 Hans Robert Jauss 1547 Georges Poulet 1317 Jean-Paul Sartre 1333 POSTCOLONIAL THEORY AND CRITICISM Chinua Achebe 1781 Homi K. Bhabha 2377 Frantz Fanon 1575 Ngugi wA Thiong'o, Taban Lo Liyong, Henry Owuor-Anyumba Edward W. Said 1986 Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak 2193 PSYCHOANALYSIS' Louis Althusser 1476 Harold Bloom 1794 Judith Butler 2485 1593 Gilles Deleuze and F~lix Guattari • Sigmund Freud 913 Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar 2021 Carl Gustav Jung 987 Julia Kristeva 2165 Jacques Lacan 1278 Laura Mulvey 2179 RACE AND ETHNICITY STUDIES Paula Gunn Allen 2106 , Gloria Anzaldua 2208 Houston A. Baker Jr. 2223 Barbara Christian 2255 W. E. B. Du Bois 977 Henry Louis Gates Jr. 2421 bell hooks 2475 Langston Hughes 1311 ' Zora Neale Hurston 1144 Barbara Smith 2299 Gerald Vizenor 1975 READER-RESPONSE THEORY Roland Barthes 1457 Stanley E. Fish 2067 Wolfgang Iser 1670 . Hans Robert Jauss 1547 Georges Poulet 1317 Jean-Paul Sartre 1333





Pierre de Ronsard Sir Philip Sidney

29 1 323

ENLIGHTENMENT THEORY AND CRITICISM Joseph Addison 416 Aphra Behn 388 Edmund Burke 536 . Pierre Corneille 363 John Dryden 379 David Hume 483 Samuel Johnson 458 Immanuel Kant 499 Gotthold Ephraim Lessing 551 Alexander Pope 438 Friedrich von Schiller 571 Giambattista Vico 399 Mary WoUstonecraft 582 Edward Young 426 ROMANTIC THEORY AND CRITICISM Samuel Taylor Coleridge 668 Ralph Waldo Emerson 717 Theophile Gautier 750 Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 626 Friedrich von Schiller 571 Percy Bysshe Shelley 695 William Wordsworth 645 VICTORIAN THEORY AND CRITICISM Matthew Arnold 802 Charles Baudelaire 789 Henry James 851 Stephane Mallarme 841 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels 759 Walter Pater 833 Oscar Wilde 895

Part IV: Issiles and Topics AESTHETICS Louis A1thusser 1476 Charles Baudelaire 789 Pierre Bourdieu 1806 Edmund Burke 536 The6phile Gautier 750 Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 626 David Hume 483 Immanuel Kant 499 Gotthold Ephraim Lessing 551 Longinus 135 Walter Pater 833




Plotinus I 71 Friedrich von Schiller 571 Barbara Herrnstein Smith 1910 AUTHORSHIP Roland Barthes 1457 Walter Benjamin 1163 . Christine de Pizan 263 T.· S. Eliot 1088 Michel Foucault 1615 Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar 2021 E. D. Hirsch Jr. 1682 Horace 121 Stephane Mallarme 841 William K. Wimsatt Jr. and Monroe C. Beardsley Edward Young 426 THE BODY Susan Bordo 2360 • Judith Butler 2485 Helene Cixous 2035 Lennard J. Davis 2398 Michel Foucault 1615 Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar Donna Haraway 2266 Julia Kristeva 2165 Laura Mulvey 2179



THE CANON/TRADITION Matthew Arnold 802 Harold Bloom 1794 T. S.Eliot 1088 Gerald Graff 2056 Hugh of St. Victor 201 Ngugi wa Thiong'o, Taban Lo Liyong, Henry Owuot-Anyumba Richard Ohmann 1877 Percy Bysshe Shelley 695 Edward Young 426 DEFENSES OF CRITICISM Matthew Arnold 802 Homi K. Bhabha 2377 Cleanth Brooks 1350 Kenneth Burke 1269 Barbara Christian 2255 Paul de Man 1509 Stanley E. Fish 2067 Alexander Pope 438 John Crowe Ransom 1105 Barbara Herrnstein Smith 1910





Oscar Wilde 895 William K. Wimsatt Jr. and Monroe C. Beardsley Bonnie Zimmerman 2338


GENDER AND SEXUALI'IY Simone de Beauvoir 1403 Susan Bordo 2360 Judith Butler 2485 Hel~ne Cixous 2035 Michel Foucault 1615 Sigmund Freud 913 Julia Kristeva 2165 Jacques Lacan 1278 Laura Mulvey 2179 Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick· 2432 MC'nique Wittig 2012 IDEOLOGY AND HEGEMONY Louis Althusser 1476 Houston A. Baker Jr. 2223 Pierre Bourdieu 1806 Antonio Gramsci 113 5 Stuart Hall 1895 Dick Hebdige 2445 Fredric Jameson 1932 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels Edmund Wilson 1240


THE INSTITUTIO~ALIZA.TION OF LITERARY STUDY· Barbara Christian 2255 Terry Eagleton 2240 Gerald Graff 2056 Hugh of St. Victor 201 Annette Kolodny 2143 Ngugi wii Thiong'o, Taban Lo Liyong; Henry Owuor-Anyumba John Crowe Ransom 1105 Edward W. Said 1986 INTERPRETATION THEORY Dante A1ighieri 246 Paula Gunn Allen 2106 Thomas Aquinas 240 Augustine 185 Stanley E. Fish 2067 Sigmund Freud 913 E. D. Hirsch Jr. 1682 Hugh of St. Victor 201 Fredric Jameson 1932 Steven Knapp and Walter Benn Michaels Macrobius 196




Moses Maimonides 21 1 Friedrich Schleiermacher



LANGUAGE Augustine 185 J. L. Austin 1427 Mikhail Bakhtin 1186 Jean Baudrillard 1729 Martin Heidegger 1118 Roman Jakobson 1254 Julia Kristeya 2165 Jacques Lacan 1278 Claude Levi-Strauss 141 5 Friedrich Nietzsche 870 Ferdinand de Saussure 956


THE MODERN 789 Charles Baudelaire Walter Benjamin 1163 279 Joachim du Bellay T. S. Eliot 1088 Jiirgen Habermas 1741 Max Horkh.eimer and Theodor W. Adorno Fredric Jameson 1932 NARRATIVE Paula Gunn Allen 2106 Mikhail Bakhtin 1186 Germaine Necker de Stael Northrop Frye 1442 Giambattista Giraldi 271 Roman Jakobson 1254 Fredric Jameson 1932 Laura Mulvey 2179 Tzvetan Todorov 2097 Hayden White 1709




THE POSTMODERN Jean Baudrillard 1729 Barbara Christian 2255 Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari Donna Haraway 2266 bell hooks 2475 Fredric Jameson 1932 Jean-Fran~ois Lyotard 1609 Gerald Vizenor 1975 REPRESENTATION AND REALISM Aristotle 86 Pierre Corneille 363






Lennard J. Davis 2398 Irving Howe 1532 Gyorgy Luklics 1030 Friedrich Nietzsche 870 Plato 33 Plotinus 171 Sir Philip Sidney 323 Hayden White 1709 RHETORIC Aristotle 86 Augustine 185 Kenneth Burke 1269 Paul de Man 1509 Geoffrey of Vinsauf 226 Gorgias 29 Zora Neale. Hurston Barbara Johnson Jacques Lacan Giacopo Mazzoni Quintilian 1 55 Giambattista Vico 399 Hayden White 1709 SUBJECTIVITYIIDENTITY Louis Althusser 1476 Gloria Anzaldua 2208 Susan Bordo 2360 Judith Butler 2485 Lennard J. Davis 2398 Michel Foucault 1615 Sigmund Freud 913 Donna Haraway 2266 Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel bell hooks 2475 Jacques Lacan 1278 Laura Mulvey 2179 Adrienne Rich 1759 Jane Tompkins 2126 Gerald Vizenor 1975 Monique Wittig 2012


THE VERNACULAR AND NATIONHOOD Dante Alighieri 246 Paula Gunn Allen 2106 Gloria Anzaldua 2208 Houston A. Baker Jr. 2223 Pierre Corneille 363 Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari 1593 Joachim du Bellay 279


Ralph Waldo Emerson· 717 Frantz ,Fanon 1575 Giambattista Giraldi 271 Langston Hughes ' 1311 Ngugi wl1 Thiong'o, TabanLo Liyong, Henry Owuor-Anyumba Pierre de Ronsard 291 . WOMEN'S LITERATURE· Aphra Behn 388 H~l~ne Cixous 2035 Christine de Pizan 263 Germaine Necker de Sta~l 594 Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar Barbara Smith 2299 • Mary Wollstonecraft 582 Virginia Woolf 1017 Bonnie Zimmerman 2338





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---+--r----'----,--,-----,-Preface The most wide-ranging and comprehensive collection of its kind, The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism offers one or more selections from 148 figures, representing major developments from ancient to recent times, from Gorgias and Plato to bell hooks, Judith Butler, and Stuart Moulthrop. In contrast to comparable anthologies, it provides generous selections from previously underrepresented fields, such as rhetoric, medieval theory, and,criticism by women and people of color, along with a' full complement of works from canonical figures such as Aristotle, Immanuel Kant, Karl Marx,-Cleanth Brooks, Mikhail Bakhtin, and Michel Foucault; From'canonical authors, it includes classic texts as wen as selections' newly revalued. The standard works of Westein theory and criticism from the ancient Greeks to the present are represented, as are texts from "forgotten" figures such as Moses Maimonides, FriedrichSchleiermacher, and Frantz Fanon. The anthology is particularly rich in modern and contemporary theory,-providing materials from 93 writers and covering all the main schools and movements; ranging from Marxism; psychoanalysis, and formalism to poststructuralism; cultural studies, race and ethnicity studies, and many more. We have'alsodrawn from vital minor currents, including body studies, media theory; theory of national literature and institutional analysis and history. This anthology consolidates the many gains won through the expansion 'of theory in recent, decades. In view of current changes, it is worth pausing for a moment to reconsider the configuration and meaning of "theory" itself. Today the term encoihpasses significant works not only of poetics, theory of criticism, and aesthetics as of old, hut also of rhetoric, media and discourse 'theory; semiotics; race and ethnicity theory, gender theory, and visual and:popular cult:tfre theory. But theory in its newer sense' means still more' than, this broadly expanded body of topics and texts. It entails a mode, of questioning and analysis that goes beyond the earlier New Critical research into the -"literariness" of literature. Because of the effects of poststructuralism, cultural studies, and the new social movements, especially the 'women's and civil rights movements, theory now entails skepticism toward' systems; institutions, and norms; a readiness to take critical stands and to engage in resistance; an interest in blind spots, contradictions, and distortions (often discovered to be ineradicable); and a habit, of linking local 'and 'personal practices to the larger economic, political,' historical, and ethical forces of culture. This theory-or "cultural critique,", as it is more deSCriptively termed..:!-is less concerned with elaborating conditions: of'possibility, as is Kantian critique, than with investigating and criticizing values, practices; categories, and representations embedded in cultural texts and surrounding institutions. To an earlier generation, such theory looks like advocacy rather xxxiii




than a disinterested, objective inquiry into poetics and the history of)iterature. This revealing fault Hne that divides traditionalist literary critics from large numbers of contemporary theorists is perhaps today's version of the old Renaissance and neoclassical battles between the ancients and the moderns. The Table of Contents list figures and texts in chronological order. An Alternative Table of Contents recasts the 'chronological order, providing lists of figures in four categories commonly used iii studying theory: schools and movements; major genres; historical periods; and key issues and topics. Additional ways of organizing the history and subject matter of theory and criticism are possible; the Alternative Table of Contents is meant to be suggestive and not comprehensive. Other figures in the anthology could he included in the existing categories. We decided against combining proponents and opponents in the popular schools and movements categories,. as is sometimes done. Thus, for example, neither Leon Trotsky nor ·Mikhail Bakhtin appear under "Formalism" as its most celebrated critics. To list together antagonists and advocates would have created confusion and urtduly multiplied the number of figures in our categories. Within each school and movement, of course, readers will encounter differences and disputes. One of the risks of the categories we employ in the Alternative Table of Contents is that their groupings of figures and topics from different periods and moments unavoidably deemphasize historical conflicts, evolution, and differences. That .noted, the editors hope our readers find the Alternative Table of Contents suggestive and useful. Many ways of configuring !;he materials in the anthology are outlined in M. Keith Booker's manual for instructors, Teaching with "The Norton Anthology oJ Theory and Criticism"; A Guide for Instructors, a rich source of planning options, classroom 'strategies, and examination and discussion questions. The Introduction to Theory and Criticism that follows the two Tables of Contents consists of fifteen brief, semiautono.moussections that introduce students to the field of theory through its main historical periods, its major modern .and contemporary schools and movements, its perennial issues and problems, and its key terms. We are aware of no source offering students II quicker, more wide-ranging, or more lucid bird's-eye view of the history and nature of the ·field. Sections have been subtitled for easy reference in making assignments and in following the trajectory of the discussion. Each selection in the anthology is fully annotated so that students may focus on the texts and not have to consult reference sources for basic information. Headnotes to. each figure cover a range of topics. To begin with, they provide helpful biographical information and historical background. They discuss' sources and critical receptions as well as the relevance of the selections for theoretical questions. They highlight each selection's main arguments, where necessary definihg key terms and concepts and pointing out related perennial problems in the field. They regularly refer to other works by the authors and note problems identified by later critics. They position the authors in relation to other figures in the anthology, picturing the history of theory not as a string of isolated pearls but as a mosaic in which each work fits into larger frames of ongoing discussions and arguments. Finally, an annotated selected bibliography is given for each figure, covering main texts and editions, biographical sources (when available), the best secondary sources and criticism, and bibliographies related to the author's works (where available).




In choosing the selections the editors have been guided by a range of criteria. We have looked ,for readable and teachable texts that reflect the scope of the history of theory ..This dO,es not mean, however, that challenging and difficult texts are missing. We have favored complete works and selfcontained excerpts; snippets are the exception. Yet in a number of cases we have edited texts to focus on topics germane to the field and to save time, space for'other selections, and the energy of readers. We have sought out the best editions and translations; for Plato, Aristotle, Longinus, Kant, and Hegel, we introduce new, highly regarded translations. From the outset we have fol1owed the practice that no figure or selection could make it into the anthology without the agreement of at least half the editors. We have also made quite a few selections with an eye topai,ring or triangulating-for example, we chose the famous closing section on writing from Plato's Phaedrus, having in mind Derrida's landmark critique of that text in his Dissemination. When they occur, such fruitful counterpoints are indicated in the headnotes and in the Alternative Table of Contents. Of course, innumerable combinations and permutations are possible, and our accounts cannot be exhaustive. But we have noted typographically all cross-references in the headnotes and footnotes by putting in ~mall capitals the names of theorists and critics appearing in the anthology. While we have privileged standard works and contemporary classics of theory, we have also sought to resurrect forgotten texts and to discover overlooked gems; We believe you will be pleasantly surprised. . The Selected Bibliography of Theory a~d Criticism at the end of the anthology is the most comprehensive one in existence, containing works through the close of the twentieth century. It lists leading English-language sources in six main categories: Theory and Criticism Bibliographies; Anthologies of Theory and Criticism; Histories of Criticism and Theory; specialized Glossaries, Encyclopedias, and Handbooks; Introductions and Guides; and Modern and Contemporary Critical Schools and Movements. We have divided the three longest of these parts into convenient subcategories: into historical period in the lists both of anthologies and of histories ofcriticism and into sixteen autonomous profiles in the schools and movements section. To make the bibliography of schools and movements most useful to students, we have organized and briefly annotated the sources in short essa)'Sl"rather than lists, presenting each of the sixteen profiles in a five-paragraph format: (1) groundbreaking texts; (2) introductions, overviews, and histories; (3) anthologies and readers; (4) school- or movement-specific reference works (handbooks, dictionaries, encyclopedias, etc.); and (5) "crossover texts." This last category attests to the increasing frequency with which contemporary works of theory are not limited to one or two domains of influence. It can be argued that in recent years many of the most innovative writings have been hybrid, crossover texts, mixing and matching strands from numerous schools and movements, and we have sought to illustrate this significant trend judiciously. In putting this anthology together, we have faced a number of challenges. One difficulty was coping with the impossibility of including every significant theorist. Our original list of 250 figures had to be shortened to 148: even a very long book such as this one imposes limits. A few of the lengthiest selections-by Longinus, John Dryden, Percy Bysshe Shelley, and Adrienne Rich, for instance-had to be trimmed, and each editor had favorite figures




dropped. The enclosure of post-World War II theorY in the university and its I increased professionalization have meant that contemporary nonacademic critics, literary journalists, and writers' have' been largely excluded from the theory canon-a trend slowly being reversed, we hope. Theory'remains resolutely Eurocentric, but we 'look forward to a tim~.when;it.'wil1 go global. Our Selected, Bibliography posed its ,own' nagging: challenges. of iriclusion. and exclusion. To cite just one case, we had to be rigorously selective in'the category of guides and introductions to theory, since there ar~ so many 'available. We trust we have not missed any major ,'resources. Our.Subject Index errs on the side of fullness; we calculated that this would help more than hinder the reader seeking assistance. ' ' The editors of this anthology were selected because of their, scholarly expertise. They combine knowledge, of canonical works with awareness of contemporary trends and extensive experience as' teachers.,' Each was involved in constructing the anthology's contents and design, and each was responsible for refining selections, drafting headnotes, compiling bibliographies, and editing one another's work. In preparing the volume the editors have incurred obligations to many colleagues, whom we thank separately in the Acknowledgments. With their help, we believe we have made this a readable and teachable anthology replete with significant texts for our contemporaries, meaningful in the context of the history of theory, and able to enlighten and challenge today's students. :,'

'. .;


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---+---r---Acl~nowledgtnents While putting this anthology together, we incurred numerous debts to many people, whom we would like to acknowledge· pUblicly. We thank the following for making valuable suggestions and corrections during various stages: Meryl Altman (DePauw University), Eyal Amiran (Michigan State University), Albert Russell Ascoli (University of California at Berkeley), 'Eve Tavor Bannet (University of Oklahoma), Patrick Brantlinger (Indiana· University), Timothy Andres· Brennan (University of Minnesota at Twin 'Cities), Diane Brown (Macalester College), Gerald Lo Bruns (University of Notre Dame), Angie Chabram-Dernersesian (University of California at Davis), Michel Chaouli (Indiana University), King-Kok Cheung (University of California at Los Angeles), Verena Andermatt Conley (Harvard University), Eva L. Corredor (United States Naval Academy), Jane Cowles (Kenyon Conege), Jonathan Culler (Cornell University); Reed Way Dasenbrock (New Mexico State University), Robert Con Davis-Undiano (University of Oklahoma), Miriam Dean-Otting (Kenyon College), Sheila Delany (Simon Fraser· University), Aparna Dharwadker (University of Wisconsin), Vinay Dharwadker (University of Wisconsin)," Richard Dienst (Rutgers University), George Economou (University of Oklahoma), Richard Feldstein (Rhode Island College), Paul Fry (Yale University), Jane Gallop (University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee), Leela Gandhi (La Trobe University), MaIjorie Garber (Harvard University), Valerie Green (Kenyon College), Stephen Greenblatt -(Harvard University), Lawrence Grossberg (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill), Catherine Hobbs (University of Oklahoma), Robert C. Holub (University of California at Berkeley), J. Paul Hunter. (University of Chicago), Martin J. Irvine (Georgetown University), Arpad Kadarkay (U~· versity of Pliget Sound), Walter Kalaidjian (Emory University), Elaine H. Kim (University of California at Berkeley), John Kirby (Purdue University), Maureen Konkle (University of Missouri), Helga Madland (University of Oklahoma), Steven Mailloux (University of California ~t Irvine); Donald G. Marshall (University of Illinois at Chicago), Bill McCulloch (Kenyon College), Louis A. Montrose (University of California at San Diego), Timothy Murphy (University of Oklahoma), Winston Napier (Clark University), Cary Nelson (Univ~rsity of Illinois at Urbana), Suzarlne Nienaber (Kenyon College), Patrick O'Donnell (Michigan State University),.james Paxson (University of Florida), Sarah Pessin, Alvina Quintana (University of Delaware), Royal Rhqdes (Kenyon Conege), Elizabeth Richmond-Garza (University of Texas at Austin), Bruce RCibbins (Rutgers University), Charles Ross (Purdue University); A. LaVonne Brown Ruoff (University of Illinois at Chicago), Dj.anne Sadoff (Miami University), Jos~ David Saldivar (University of California at Berkeley), Ram6n Saldivar (Stanford University), Ronald Schleifer xxxvii




(University of Oklahoma), R. Allen Shoaf (University of Florida), Brigid Slipka (Kenyon College), the late Michael Sprinker (State University of New York at Stony Brook), Peter Struck (Ohio State Uriiversity), Gregory Ulmer (University of Florida), Steven Ungar (University of Iowa), H. Aram Veeser (City College of New York), Alan R. Velie (University of Oklahoma), Jerry W. Ward Jr. (Tougaloo College), Robyn R. Warhol (University of Vermont), Michael Warner (Rutgers University), Joel Weinsheimer (University of Minnesota at Twin Cities), Kathleen Welch (University of Oklahoma), Saranya Wheat (Kenyon College), Robyn Wiegman (Duke University), Martha Woodmansee (Case Western Reserve University), and Duncan Wu (Oxford University). Several global readings of the Selected· Bibliography of Theory and Criticism were provided by David Gorman (Northern Illinois University) and Wallace Martin (University of Toledo). We are particularly in the.debt of Professor Martin, who graciously shared his own abundant bibliographic research on the history of theory and criticism. All of these colleagues have helped make this anthology possible, and with much gratitude we thank them for their valuable time and effort. We single out Richard Dienst, David Gorman, ·Martin Irvine, John Kirby, and Donald Marshall for substantiaFcoiltributions to this text. M.Keith Booker (University of Arkansas at Fayetteville) has written a highly useful instructor's manual, Teaching with "The Norton Anthology oj Theory and Criticism'!: A Guide for Instructors, which we strongly recommend to teachers. His contribution extended beyond the manual to text selections, headnotes, and bibliographical items. The general editor thanks the editors, who have beenpassionately engaged in every facet of this work. It has been a wonderful collaboration. The editors in turn would like to thank Vincent Leitch for his inspiration, guidance, and tireless work on this project from beginning to end. At W. W. Norton, our editor, Peter Simon, guided this anthology with great professional care. Our exceptional copyeditor, Alice Falk, made significant contributions throughout this project, and Marian Johnson and Isobel Evans, managing editor and assis~nt editor, respectively, kept the complex publishing process moving smoothly. We thank them all. . We appreciate our supportive home universities, especially the libraries at Harvard University, Kenyon College, the University of Missouri, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, the University of Oklahoma, and Wellesley College. Thanks are also due our research assistants. ·In this regard the editors would like to thank Jeremy Countryman, Mary DiLucia, Melissa Feuerstein, Bill Johnson Gonzalez, Tina Hall, Heidi Lynn Kyser-Genoist, Eric Leuschner, Lilian Porten', Marjut Ruti, Maggie Schmitt, and Mary Schwartz. The general editor would also like to acknowledge Christine Braunberger- and Mitchell R. Lewis: the former designed the template of our schools and movements bibliographies, while the latter played an active .role in every aspect of the .project over a period of three years. We would also like to extend a personal thanks to friends and families.

The N orlon Anthology of Theory and CriticisITl



-~.>-+---­ Introduction to Theory and CriticisIn In recent decades, theory and critic;:ism have grown ever more prominent in literary and cultural studies, treated less as aids to the study of literature and culture than as ends in themselves. As Jonathan Culler notes in Framing the Sign: Criticism and Its Institutions (1988), "Formerly tl:te history of criticism was part of the histpry of literature (the storY of changing conceptions of literature a.dvanced by great writers), but ... now the hist~ry of literature is part of the history of criticism." This dramatic reversal, which occurred gradually over the course of the twentieth century, means that the history of criticism and theory increasingly proVide!,! the general framework for stuslying literature and culture in 'colleges and universities. Some literary scholars and writers deplore' the shift toward theory, regarding it as a turn away from literature and its central .concerns. These "antitheorists," as they are called, advocate a return to studying literature for itself-yet however refreshing this position may at first appear, it has problems: it itself presupposes a definition of literature, and it p,romotes a certain way of i;crutinizing literature ("for itself"). In other words, the anti theory' position turns out to rely on unexamined-and debatable-theories of literature and criticism. What theory demonstrates, in this case and. in others, isth~t there is no position free of.theory, not even the one called "common sense." . The history of theory and criticism from ancient times to the present is one of contending ideas and opinions about such apparently self-evident topics as "literature" and "interpretation." Historically, interpretation has been '£poceptualized in a number of different ways: as, for example, objective textual analysis or moral assessment or emotional response or literary evaluation or cultural critique. The same is also true of literature, which has been defined in terms of its ability to represent reality; or to express' its author's inner being, or to teach morality, or to cleanse olit emotions, to name only a few common but conflicting formulations. The history of criticism and theory contains many such arguments. Taken together, the antitheorists themselves adhere to very different; often contradictory understandings of literature and interpretation. Such~conflict points to the vitality, the excitement, and the complexity of the field of theory and criticism, whose expansive universe of perennial issues and problems engages ideas not only about literature, language, interpretation, genre, style, meaning, and tradition but also about subjectivity, ethnicity, race, gender, class, culture, nationality, ideology, institutions, and historical periods. In this anthology, students new to literary and cultural studies will discover a wide-ranging interdisCiplinary and com-




parative field whose practitioners examine,. formulate, and assess all manner of theories and problems related to the study of literature and culture. In addftion, students'new to critiCism and theory Will encounter a rich array of technical terms and concepts, .critical approaches and schools, and literary and cultural theories and theorists. From signifier to deconstruction to cultural studies, .from Kant to F'oucault, the field/of theory and criticism is marked by a multitude of signposts sometimes unfamiliar to even the most widely read students. In this introduction as well as in the headpotes to each author, we help students make sense· of this corIiIiIe,x;ppt)-¢.ward,ing field. We begin the introduction by surveying an array of notable answers to two central questions-what is interpretation'? and what Is1iterature?~in order to establish our bearings. Shifting direction, we then survey the historical devel0Plllent of theory and criticism, from the. cla~s~caJ. to. the .nomantic,after which we provide brief overYiews of major schoot~,and, r:nov:el:neI;lts of the last century. Alongthe way, we discuss many ofthethe.~f.i;sts·i~:this amhology, explain perennial problems and issues, d.efine key concepts and t~rms, and illuminate the unde,rl}rfng structure of ~hefieId 'of theory aiic:lcrltidsm, including its most sigiiifica~ conflic::ts. ...,. . ".' . j'





Within th~ field of theory and criticism, .various terms 'a~d' concepts are applied to the encounter between the' re'ader a~d the 'text: '(hi~. tra~saction which we will provlsionally call "reading" or, "~nterpretati9n,';'i:ypicalIy in~ volv~s such activit~es as persona. response, llP.predation, evaluation, 'historical reception, explication, ~egesis, aiid ~ritiqU:~.N