The Project Manager's Toolkit (Computer Weekly Professional)

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The Project Manager's Toolkit (Computer Weekly Professional)

The Project Manager's Toolkit This Page Intentionally Left Blank The Project Manager's Toolkit Practical Checklists

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The Project Manager's Toolkit

This Page Intentionally Left Blank

The Project Manager's Toolkit Practical Checklists for Systems Development

David M. Shailer

             

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Contents

Computer Weekly Professional Series Preface Acknowledgements

ix xi xii

1 PROJECT INCEPTION CHECKLISTS 151  3  4@# ;#;? ! 3 3 15* . ;6 ""$   &$" &  $" 3 " 4@# 15> "' 3  && "3 &"$ A   $" 152   & " $!4' $; "$$$$!  15- '. 4@# 4#&$  ".  4'"# /) 6 $" 15= !  3  /3  A "3$% !$#"'$ " & /&3$ 15<   ''"' $3 $ ) " 4@# 3!" 15+  ' 3 $ " 4# ) $)"B 159  $'&  $"? " 4@#B 1510 ,@# "&?$ A   "$ !  4)  1511 " $ ) 4@# ')#6#' $'&  "&4B 151* ";  /6 A &#& 3  4"#;"3  /$4; &.'4!  C$ 151> ! &:$ " & & :$ ) 4"#;"3 $'#

1 * 2 = + 10 1* 12 1= *0 *> **9 >>

2 PROJECT CONTROL CHECKLISTS *51 .  3$  / ##;& 3  4@# ')#6#' *5* 4 3 " 4@#  ""6 /)  "44 $ *5>  ;6 #!! #" $$$  3 3 *52   # " 4@# &  $D *5-   ".& "$ 3 !   3$ " & : !" *5= ?  "6$ ) 3 " 3 $' $ ) " 4/'! *5<  3 4 " &#!  "! 3 $" &"& *5+  &  !" "3 " 4# ) $)"B

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3 BUSINESS ANALYSIS CHECKLISTS

59

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vii

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Computer Weekly Professional Series  " ) 4)$$ $ # C "$ !# #  $ 4&" 3 "$ " )   (#.5   '6 &$  "&" " & $)" $#  #" 3 ' '$$'6% / "'$ &"$ "/  "#"' !" "3!  )   ) # " / 3 #  $'6 !&E&% 4&"& " & #" 3&5 $ ;4 3 "/"$ ) " $ 3 3  $ "''6 " !"@ "$;5   !" IComputer Weekly ,)$$ "' $ "$ / #"&  "$$$  (#.$ ;4 4&"   !" "3!  &"$ " & $$$ ) # 6 &  / ""5   )  ;6 /@#.$ )  $$ $  &#  !  ";$ ) '"& 3 &3 !" "3!  &"$  !. )! "#"&!# " & # $' 3  . ! $    " &$ )   4"# 5 $% $ $$ !4'6$ "444" # '36  $4& 4  4/'$ 3 4#$$5  "444" $! /;$ " $44& /6   /6 "&& "'  )!"  !4'"$ '#"&   /5 $ $$ 4.&$  4)$$ "'$  " 44 6  /'& 4 " /;#"$ ) "$'6 "##$$/' / &"'&  )!"   !4"  $$$ " 6 &  / "" )  $##$$)''6 4)!  @/$ "$ 6 !.     !'' !5 $4 3  "'"&6 $"/'$& "$ "  .&  3  #  ! ) 6 '& ';  / 4/'$&  $ $$5  " ! 6% $ & " 5! 6J!#'5#5; Series Editor " ! 6%   Series Advisory Board " ; " $%  6 ''3 /' $$  '6% " "3!  &% Computer Weekly 3 3% # #"'  .$6 ) ') 

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Computer Weekly Professional Series   6%  '6 " "3!  ''3  3$%   ".& "6'%  6 %  '6$% " $/3 Series titles published IT investment ± Making a business case The e€ective measurement and management of IT costs and bene®ts Stop IT project failures through risk management Understanding the Internet Prince 2: A practical handbook Considering computer contracting? David Taylor's Inside Track A hacker's guide to project management Corporate politics for IT managers: how to get streetwise Subnet design for ecient networks Information warfare: Corporate attack and defence in a digital world

Preface

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xi

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Acknowledgements

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xiii

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1 Project inception checklists

1

Project inception checklists

1.1

Getting the project kick-off meeting right

Type: To do Checklist description "@ 4@#$ ) $"  4@# ;#;? ! 3$5 $ ! 3$ $    )  4@# " & "  4   "''  $& 4"$ " /3 4   $"! '.' )  &$" & 3 "/ "  4@# $   &&  "#. " &   $   &&   5 $ $ " $!4' ##;'$   &#" " $'& / #.&   4@# ;#;? ! 3 A ?#.'6%  ! 3:$ "3 &"5  3$  $"6 3 "  $ .6 !4"  " "''  $& 4"$ /  .&   ! 35

Checklist 1

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Project inception checklists 78 2

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De®nitions/techniques  5

Next steps  " $$   "/. C$ $ $'& / #"4&  " $#  " ,@# "  ,@# " &/;5 $ #" / 3.   &.&"'$ "$$3 &   4@#  '4 !  & $" &  4@#:$ # (   3" D" 5  $  )!"  4'"#%  $  !  $"  "$; ) 4@# L$"4: A $ ##;'$ 151 L 3  4@# ;#;? ! 3 3:5  "  4@# 3"'$ " & /@#.$ " $4#"''6 !4"   3 3 "  $" )  4@# " &  # " $4"" ##;'$ "$ /  #'&&  ("!  $ "$4# ! #'$'65

5

Project inception checklists

1.3

Dealing with hidden agendas ± where to start

Type: Analysis Checklist description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

Checklist 1

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Project inception checklists 2

" '! $ )  4@# #" / .&B "  4@# / "$$$$& "3" $  #  /$ $$ 4'#6B "  4@# /@#.$ / #" 3&B "  #  /$ $$ 4'#6 / "$$$$& "3" $  4@#B "  4'#6 / #" 3&B " "' ".$ ". / # $&&  &'.  /$ $$ / E$B " "&& "' "' ".$ / 4?&B " '!$ ". / $ "3" $  4@# 7535 /&3% !$#"'% $#$% C"'68B " $ / #" 3&B

De®nitions/techniques 64$ ) 464 3H . .

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Next steps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

7

Project inception checklists

1.4

How to do a simple risk assessment

Type: To do Checklist description  " !" 6 "6$  "$$$$  $; ) " 4@#  " #!4" 6% 535  " "'6$$5  )'' 3 $# 3 $6$! $  '6   !&5  $# 3$ #" / "&&&  $ 6 3" D"  " & 4@#5 $4#"''6  $ 3   #'& " " 6 )"#$ " ". #"$& 4/'!$  4.$ 4@#$5

Checklist #  4@# "$ )''$H 7"8  "44'#" $H 78  78 !( )  " & '& 78 "$ ) '&

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Project inception checklists 78

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9

Project inception checklists

1.5 Twelve project procedures to have in place before you start Type: QA Checklist description  .6 )"# " 4@#$ & 4@# !" "3$  &#"$ " 4@#$ & !" "3!  4#&$  $#$ " & '$5  3& 4@# !" "3 #" "$ $I  /& /6 4 3  4'"# ."$ 4'#$% 4#&$ " & 4"##$5  '' "$ $I  /& $ # 44' #" )'' $ 4#&$  & 3  4@# !" "3  "&.$ $ '". 3  4@# !" "3  &"'  4/'!$ " & $$$ " "   5  ' $H get organized now 7/#"$   : / ! '"85  ! 4#&$  4'"#%  $!    3 )  4@# 7"'3  $ " &  ".& / 3 ./" #"#85 $ ##;'$ 3.$ " 4@# !" "3 " &" )  4#&$ " $'& /  4'"# /) " 4@# $"$5 ) 6 "   4'"# /)  4@# $"$% ."'"/' 4@# $#$ ) ! " & ? '' / $4   4@#  )"$# " "  /@#.$ )  4@# $')5

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De®nitions/techniques  5

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Project inception checklists . . . .

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11

Project inception checklists

1.6

Determining the big three ± targets, timescales and budgets

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Project inception checklists .

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De®nitions/techniques  5

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Project inception checklists

1.7

Nine tell-tale signs of a project nightmare

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Project inception checklists 7/8 7#8

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Project inception checklists Function elements

Simple

Medium

Complex

External input type External output type Logical internal ®le type External interface type External enquiry type

3 4 7 5 3

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De®nitions/techniques  5

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Project inception checklists

1.9

How should I staff a project?

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Project inception checklists 78 78 78 7.8 7.8

2

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Project inception checklists 7&8

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De®nitions/techniques  5

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Project inception checklists

1.10

Project trade-offs ± how to tease them out upfront

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Project inception checklists 7/8  '!H 78 $#$ $  4'"# " !"(!!   !/ ) 44'  .'.& 78 "3 &" $  !/(  4@# 7 #"  3 /6 & $ &"8 78 )"$  C"'6 $  $ " /"$ '.' ) ) # "'6 " !$ / ! 7#8  !" M(/' .H 78 $#$ $  "&4 " ! 4'$ !""'$ 4@# #$ 3 /"$$ 7/" )  !6#"' !" ! O8  &  "#. C& ) # "'6  !  "3 &" 78 "3 &" $  "'' $  $'4  &  "#.  ) # "'6  ;4 #$$ " & $#$ " " ! !! 78 )"$ $  "'' )"$   / &'.&  !  "3 &"  4.  (" $4 &  4&# 3 !5 2

  4@# $4 $% 4'"# " #;  "# )   $ " & #'! $ $# " "#  "$  '6   #;   " & "# #'! "$  '6   #;  5  6  #!/ " "''& 7535  #;$    #'! " &    "  #58 $ " $$ 4@# $; " & #'& 4 "''6 @4"&D  $##$$)' #!4' )  4@#5

-

$ $ !"( ) &#$ !"; 35  $'& /  #4"&   ,@# "I$; " "3!  &#! 5

De®nitions/techniques 6#"' "   A )! , #;:$ /;5  4 #4' $ $$ "''6 " 44' " & ! "  &#'6  #" 3"/' "$ $! 4@# !" "3!  # C$ !3 !4'65 ) 6 ". "  && !" &"6$: ; ""&% "&& 3    && 44'   4@# &$  !" "  #" / &   " &"65  )"#%  4 #4' "$$$ " "&& 3 44'  " L'": 4@# #" !";  '"5 $ /$." $ /"$&   )"# "  44' ". '"  3 #.$ # $'  4@# & 5 $ 44' "/$/ ! )!  #  4@# ;$I !" "3$ !"; 3  ($ 3 $"? '$$ 4&#.5

Next steps  "  ;6  3&   $ 4#$$ $  &$" & 3 " & "3 3%  #$$"'6 &#!  35 ! 44' ". " /$$$  &#! $ 7 .'' "!/'" )  O85 $ /#"$ $! 3 $  4"4 &$  !"  $  &$&  "3&5 !'"'6%  4@# $4 $ &$  /  43   /"# " & 33$ /";)"$ 4@# $# "H  ##; "$  .'.&   4@# /  43 "$ &E '6 #!!&5

24

Project inception checklists

1.11

What sort of project lifecycle should I adopt?

Type: Analysis Checklist description '' 4@#$ ". " ')#6#'5 ,@#$ /6 &E  ". " /3  3% !&&' " &  &%  /% ') " & &"5 .% " "44 $ / / " & &" #" ."6  !$'65  ') ) " 4@# #" / $#&%  #"#%  $!  / 5 R"$ !&$ 7 !&'3$8 ) $6$!$ &.'4!  ". / 44$& A /  & 6 4#; / !B $ ##;'$ '' 3. " /) '  ) $! )  #!! &.'4!  "44"#$ " & "  '". !$ " & &!$ "5

Checklist Waterfall development ")"'' "44"# A " $6$!$ &.'4!  !& 7'; 8   4$ )   4"$ ) " "'6$$ )!   4$ )  ( 4"$%  E "' 4 / 3  #!4'& $6$!5 &." "3$H . . . .

"$'6  &$& 3.$ #'" $3 ? 4 $  "3& &'."/'$ #" $ " ."6 ) # C$  4&#  &'."/' A #. $! !$ "444"   "$;  " & )"'6 L& " & $&: !& ) '"3$#"' &.'4! $5

$"&." "3$H . .

.

.

. .

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

RAD, prototyping, iterative development $ !&  .'.$ " 3 / C! $ 3" 3 " & $6$!$ &.'4!   ' " $"/' $6$! $ 4&#&5 25

Project inception checklists &." "3$H  #" / $&  H . . . . . . . . . . .

" LC#; " & &6: $' $ "##4"/' /$ $$$ " "446  ; " & L/3$: &"" C"'6 $  " ;6 $$  $6$! $ " ""6  $6$! $ $" &"'  755   )"#$8  $6$! $ 4!"'6 $# /"$&  4$ % #"4% $ &"" " " " ( $. /"#; & /"# 4#$$ 7# #" : "$'6 / &! $"&  " $ ) #!! 8 :$ "$6  $ " ; 3 .$ )  $6$! #" / 4&#&  ! $ " " C"'6 " '' / "##4"/'   /$ $$   E$  $" #  $6$! $  !$$ ##"' &.'4 (4#" $ !"#  "/'$ " &  "$;  " & /$ $$ (4#" $ !"#  C"'6 6 " ';'6   #   " 464 3 $# "5

$"&." "3$H  $'&  / $&  H . . .

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. . . . . . .

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Object Orientation (OO) /@#  " "!4$  $!4')6  &.'4!  4#$$ /6 6 3  !!#  "' '& ! #'$'65  #%  "  $6$!% "''& /@#$ $'& ($ "$ $6$! /@#$ 7535 #$!% #"% 4#"$ &85   $6$!  "!4$  !" "  26

Project inception checklists ""' '" $4$ / $ /@#$ 7535 #$! $/!$ 4#"$ &  /6 #"85 6 !!#; 3  "' '& $ #'$'6%  #'"!$ " !"  " # $ ' 7 /". ) "' '& /@#$ $ )"'6 E(&8 " & $ $ 3 7" #$! /@# #" / $& /6 ! "   "44'#" 85 &." "3$H . . .

&"" & 3 A /@#$ #" / #!4'(  & " /  '6 $ L"''&: &"" )  /@#$  $ #" 3$ '!&  " ) 4'"#$ A "''  #$! 4#$$ 3 $   #$! /@# "$'6  &$&   E$  $" # A !$ 44' #3 D  "''& /@#$ " &  &$" &  /".5

$"&." "3$H .

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&""/"$$ $''  " &' 3 /@#$% 55 .6 ) 43"!! 3  . ! $ ' 6 !. $!'$$'6 )! /@# "& $3 78  " /@# "& $6$!5 /@#  " &?$ )!   $ #    ' ;$ " $"/'$& /6 '; 3 4 ;6$  "# "/'5  % ' ;$ " (4'# # # $ /  $" #$% 55 " )3 ;6 '& / 4'"#&  " ' ; #" 3  !" 6 $!"'' /@#$ # " "&  ;4 "#; ) " & $ &4 &$ ".'6  3& #""'3 3 " & '/"6 $ /6 &.'4$ 7   . &  $6 &!8 &N#'  4'" ) $  '$$ 6 #"  .$"3  $ &N#'  $   $  !# &"" $"3 A 535 4!"'6 $# E# #"'#'" $ ˆ ) /@#$ 4'$ #!4'( !&$5

De®nitions/techniques !/( 3 A E( 3  "!  ) ! $4   " 4"#'" 4"$  " 4@#5 $ "$ "  & #6  #'")6  $#4 )  ;  " & " & #  " 6 3 # $ $4M$  L!$".: ) # "'65 #4#4 A  "&& "' C! $ ;4 / 3 "&&&    4@#  " 6 # '  ) #   4@#:$ 3 "' /@#.$5 L   . & : 7 8 $6 &! A " L$: $$ /6 &.'4$ '& " $   #& " / $!  '$:$5

Next steps  $ !4"    )' 6$') 7 $8 .  " "'6$$ )  "/. $$$5 $ $$ !" "3$ ';  &" ) L"4& "44'#" $: /#"$  $ &$ '; 6 3 $! 3 ) 7"'!$8  35 .% '; ' #$% :$  $#  3 "$ " ) "44'#" 5 !4 $6$!$ "   '6 #!4'( " &  #!4'(6 $$   !/ " & C"'6 ) ) # $  / &'.&5  : 6  / "4&% 6  / 35  $ ) 464 3 $'& / $ "$ " "!4  3 #'$  "  /$ $$ " $ A  #$$"'6  # !$#"'$5  !$#"'$  '6 ##   E "' $6$! $ $ #'$  "  /$ $$ " $5   $  & ) " 27

Project inception checklists !"  " # #6#'  43"& " 6"'& ")"''"44"# &.'4!   "  /$ $$ C$ 5 )%  $'6%  /$ $$ '& " ". " )" )! 4)# $6$! $ " " "4)# $6$! $!! " & ) 6 ". $N#  # E& #   "! 7/$ $$ 4"# $% " "'6$$% &.'4$8  &'.  464 3 !"6 /  6 35 % ) 6 " '' 3   !& "#$$ ! "   4@#% ##; " 6 ".  &.'4& " L  $D E$ "'': ! "'65  $  3  3  ". 3 $."' &?  !&$ 4.&&  &.&"'$ ". / " &  ;   " &   $ "#  5 ! &?  64$ ) 4@# C 3 &?  !&$ !3 /H . . . . . .

)''$#"' &.'4!  /"$&  C! $ )"$4" &.'4!  " &I 464 3 #" 3 # ' " & !"  " # 4"#;"3 ."'" % "#C$ % !4'! "  )"$# ; 7&"" "$% #4" &""/"$% ,I 8 &?  43"!! 3 4""&3!$ 73 $# % #'  $.%   85

 "'$ ##;'$ -5* L & 6 !"; " !&'36B:5

28

Project inception checklists

1.12

Make or buy ± deciding the package or bespoke development question

Type: Analysis Checklist description  " ) /"$# 4 $  $6$!$ &.'4! H 1

";  6$') A   "' /$4;5

*

 $!   !";  ) 6 A ( "' /$4;5

>

6 " 4"#;"3 A 4"#;"3  '65

2

6 " 4"#;"3 " & ".  "'&  $ A "'& 4"#;"35

"# 4 "$ $  "&." "3$I&$"&." "3$5 ""''6%  $ 4$$/'  !"; .6 "&." "3 ) " 4"#'" 4  &$"&." "3 ) " 5 .% $ "$  / &  $ # ! 3 & #" / #.&  " $ $4"# ) $ '3#"' # # $ "; ) 3" &5 "# 4 $'& / # $&& ) $ '". !$I&!$  6 $" 5

Checklist Internal bespoke (make) &." "3$H .

. . .

. .

.

.

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

$ $$ ; '&3 $ " &  $5

$"&." "3$H .

 "! !"6  ".  3 $;''$ $4#"''6  &#! " #5 29

!$ ) $ "  3% $

Project inception checklists . . . .

. . . .

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

Package only (buy) &." "3$H .

. . .

.

.

. .

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

$"&." "3$H .

.

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Project inception checklists

.

. . .

.

. .

. . .

.

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

Modi®ed package (buy and make) &." "3$H . . .

 #!4" 6 3$  $6$!  " $5  #" $4#)6 #" 3$ " &  '; " & )' )  $6$! "$ '' "$ $ $C # ) 4" $% "&& "' &"" " & ."'&" $5  $# #& !"6 / "."'"/' ) 4#"$ # !"6 !" " $! )  4"#;"3 &$"&." "3$ " ##!. & 7$ ,"#;"3  '6 $# 85  !"6 / 4$$/'  /6  $# #& )  4"#;"3 " & $4""'6  &  C& !&E#" $ 7 / 3 !  $8  &# #$$% &#"$ &4 & #   $44'  'D $!  $#5

$"&." "3$H .

(4 $.  !$ ) !  !4'!  " & #$$5  $ $!!$ !# ! &N#'  43"&  " % !4.& .$ #!$  /#"$  !&E#" $ ".  / "44'&5 31

Project inception checklists .

. .

.

 C& #" 3$ !"6 / $CD&    4"#;"3 &$3 $ "H A ) 4&# 43"&$ "  4$$/' A ) !&E#" $ " ! &N#' " &  # ! #$'6 A 4)!" # )  $6$! $ $$'6 &3"&&5  &'.6 !$#"' !"6 / "$ ' 3 "$ $" 3 )! $#"#5  #!4" 6 $ $''  .'.&  "#.$ "$$#"&  4&# 3 #!4 $6$!$H C! $ " "'6$$% $6$!$ " "'6$$ #5 .%  & 4"#;"3 $'# %  $ 4/"/'6 4"6 3 ) (4 $. $4#"'$ # "#$ "$ '' "$   .'.!  )   "' $  !" "3! 5  $44' !"6 &" $44 )!  #!4" 6:$ !4'! " $ #  $  #$'6 ) !  $44  !" 6 ."" $5

De®nitions/techniques  5

Next steps 4 & 3   " )  $6$!%  $'& / 4$$/'  " ; $! )  "/. 4$ " & # $   &#" " $' !3 / "44'#"/'5 ) " 4"#;"3  6/& 4"#;"3I/$4; $' $ #$ "$  4)& "44"#% $! #")' "    4"#;"3$'# 4#$$ $'& / !"&5  ##;'$ 151> L! &:$ " & & :$ ) 4"#;"3 $'# :5

32

Project inception checklists

1.13

Some do's and don'ts of package selection

Type: Analysis Checklist description )" 4"#;"3 $'# $ " 4#$$  $  35 ""''6% $! )  ##;'$$  & )6 3 /$ $$ &$ " & $)" C! $ $'' &  / # &#& 3"&'$$ )  " 4"#;"3  /$4; $' $ "&4&5  )'' 3 ##;'$ $ " $ ) #!! &" $  4  4@#5

4'"# ) " 4"#;"3$'#

Checklist Some do's .

 #")'   $'#  4# . $"/'6% ) # "'6% . &!"6 " & . & !"; $"/'65 . '' !  3 3  4#$$5 .   3 44'  .'.&   ."'" 5 .  $ /$ $$ / E $ 4""!  " & !"$ "'' $'44"3 " & "&& "' #$$ "3" $  / E5 :$ /  4''  #$ 3 " $!"'' "!  " " '"3 "! 5 A $  $C # ) " $"# $ !"#  /$ $$ 4#$$B  !# #" 3 % "  3I ; 3 )%  /$ $$ 4#$$$ $ C&B A  !# &"" # .$ $ C&B $   #'&&   4#B A $  # #"' "## #!4"/'B  !# #" 3  43"& $ C&B '' $  .'. " $$ &4" )!  #  $;''$ /"$B  !# ) " &4 & #6 $   ;6 $"? " & $ $ " $;B A " $  43"& 4"B .

 #"$ .  '"$$5 A "'D " "#  4"#;"3  .$ )  4"#;"3 !"6 E( '& /3$ / '' #!   /3$5 A  $ " "'' '"$$ )  4&# " )''6 $&% 55 ($ 3 ) # "'6 $'' ;$5 A $$$$  !4"# " & #$ ) 43"&$ " &  /$ $$ / E$ '' "## )! !"; 3  #" 35 . .  4 $ )  " & )"$  " 4&#5 A "  / $#& ?B A " #$$ / &#& ) $ ) # $ !.&   4.&&B A $  $6$! #"4 "''  &"" 6 CB !B $B ''B '' " &  $!B $  L.4: &"" !" &"6   4"#;"3 " & " $ 6 "&& "' #$ ) #''# 3 B

Some don'ts . .& $4.$ 3  . & A 6 &  / !" "3&  #! 4  6 $' 5 . .& 4# 3  /"& )!  . & A &$ /"&'.'  .'.! 5 . ". " #"$ $4#E#"  # "# " &$ : "'' ) #" 35 33

Project inception checklists . . .

". " '# # " !" $  #"$$  $ /"$% !"# $ " & $/$&"6 #!4" $ '' #$ " )   "&&   '# #5 44$$ "'' ##$! )  $44'   4&#5  . ##$! " & " &' 5 R)6 $   $ " & "; "# 5 ;!4  $ 3 "$$! 3  "$ / &  /6  $44'5 $  6$') ) " 6 "    &  #'& 3 $  )"#$  6  $6$!$5

De®nitions/techniques  5

Next steps 3"&'$$ )  $6$!$ " 4"#;"3$  !3 % 6 $'' ".  / !4'! &5  "4 + L6$! !4'! " ##;'$$: ) !  )!"  4"#;"3  $"''" 5

34

2 Project control checklists

35

Project control checklists

2.1

Five things to be checked throughout the project lifecycle

Type: Analysis Checklist description   4@# $  &"6  " 4@# 4'" % 44' )'' 3  4$#/& 4@# !&% " & &'."/'$  4&# % " $'& " 4@# !" "3 / & 3 "$ 4" )  4#$$B $ ##;'$    &&  '4 /'& !#" $!$ " ;#;  " '."  $"3$ )  4@#  !   )'' 35

Checklist 1

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Project control checklists 7#8

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 )'' 4@# # '%  $'& / 4$$/'  &!  " # $$  $ ) $4#E#"  $ " & 43"!$ " #" / &'.& 35

7&8

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De®nitions/techniques  5

Next steps ,'" $ " & 4#& !" "'$ $"    $ /  $   4'"  4#& # !";$  3$ "44 A  $  4@# !" "35 ,@# 4'" $ 64#"''6 # "  "#.6 ) "'' "! !!/$ /  )  4@# !" "35  &$ "'$ &  / " 4'" )  4@# !" "3 # # " $ 3'" 4@# ##;4 $ " & !'$ $   $ "''  "/. $ "44  35 ! 3 $%  ##;'$ *5* L4 3 " 4@#  ""6 /)  "44 $: !"6 / '4)'5 37

Project control checklists

2.2

Spotting a project runaway before it happens

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Checklist 1

!   !'$ 7$8  !"$5  !'$  #'& /    ! )H 7"8 "3 &" 7/8 /&3 7#8  $# 'D" 5

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39

Project control checklists

2.3

Three key communication issues to get right

Type: Analysis Checklist description   )  ;6$  " $##$$)' 4@# "$  / #!! #" 5 !! #" &$ : !" @$ "'; 3 " & $ & 3 !!$5   .'.$ '$  3 " &  &$" & 35 .%  #" / 3". "$ '' "$ 4$. #!! #" $ A  "'; 3  # $' 3 $ &$ " .6 #'" !$$"3  $ (#'&&5  " 4@#  / $##$$)'%  #!! #" "N# $'& : M 4   4@# !" "3 " & &   4@# "!5 "  $'& M " "'' '.'$5   $'& /  4@# !" "3   $$ " #!! #" $ ## 3 " & " #!! #" $ "444"5 $ ##;'$ '4$  & )6 ""$  #!! #" $ " 4  ". /; & 5

Checklist Developers .  6 $'' '"  3 " & ;  '" "/ "#"' ; 3 # & $ ) $  '' $  $6$!B .  6 ;   &$" &  /$ $$ 4$4#. . )  $  4 '3#"''6  # $$ '6B .  6 /3  3  "''   # #"' &"'$B .  6 ##; 3 "  L"!: /$ $$ $$ " '' 3 !   &4 &  $#$B Business users on the project .  6 " 4"#  ) $ 6 4$    /$ $$ #!! 6 7" &  @$ !" "3$8B .  6 !" "  3 # "#  $ 6 4$ B .  6  $ 3 &#$ $ !"&  &.'4!  $$$ $ " #!! #"&   4$B .  6 L#'"!! 3 4: &  '"#; ) # E& #   # #"' " "B .  6 /#! 3 !  M #& /6  &.'4$ " /6  4 34B .  6 '#;&   L:. "'"6$ &   " "6:  " 6 4   &"$ /"$&  # '36 7535 $ 3 " ;" & . ") " $6$! "$ / E(&  &.'4&8B Target users of the system .  6 "" ) #" 3$   "6 6 '' $  $6$!  &  @/$B .  $! )  )". "$4#$ )  @/ / 3 4$.& 7535 6 !"6 '; "'; 3 / /'& 3$  &'. )!$ /#"$ 6 #" ". " L)"3: /"; "  $"! !8B Finally, check the developer/business user development sessions . ". ! # $" $ '!&  &$#$$ $ "H A  ' 3 & "$  / #.&B A (#4 $ ". / 3 &B 40

Project control checklists

.

.

A  " &' 3 "$ / 3 &B A &$"3! $ ". / C"$& " " (4'&B "$ L34  ;: / $"/'$& #H A C"$$ &/"% &$#$$  &$"3! B A 3 $ /.$ M"$    ; 3  4 )  34B $  " $ 3 #""# H A  34 #" : 3  $ #  #""# $  " 4$ ) 4 " & "6 7$"''6  !" "3  $  !" "38B A C"$$ "'' &$#$$  &/"B A $ $; 3  $'$ )  34 "$ 6 6  "##!!&"  "44"$ !B

De®nitions/techniques 6/"& 464 3 A "'; 3 $! 3 3  .. !&  " /"&  ,5 $ $ 64#"''6 &  ) " 4"#'" 4" 3  $6$!% 535 L $" %  $ "44 $%  " "44 $ 7" & $  8  '   & 5:

Next steps  '.' " & 64 ) #!! #" $ $'& / ##;& /6  4@# !" "3  " ! '6 /"$$ $ " " 6 !3 3 $$$ #" / L 44&   /&:5  " " !/ ) # C$ " #" / $&  !" "  #!! #" /  4@# "! " & $ L#$!$:H . . . . .

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41

Project control checklists

2.4

How to cut a project down to size

Type: Analysis Checklist description  $! 4    " "'6$$ 4"$ ) " 4@#% " $ ) ) # $  &'. " $"/'$& 7$ ##;'$ -52 L6$! / &"6 " "'6$$ ) C! $:85 $ #" / " "'6$& $ 3  ," $# 3  3. " #$/ E . ) ) # $5  ##;'$ -5- L # "' 46 " "'6$$H "44'6 3  +0H*0 ':5 .% . ") $ ; &$ ) " "'6$$%  '$ ) ) # $ !";& ) &'.6 #" /  ( $. " &  E'$ !"6 &  / "44'&  &#  $D )  4@#5 $ ##;'$ #" / $&  " "'6$ ) # $ )   #'$  (#'$   7E$8 &'.65 6 '; 3 "  ."$ &! $ $ ) "# ) # % $! &'.6 4 $ #" / 3 "&5

Checklist Simplicity :$ "$6  !"; " $##$$ ) $! 3 $!4'5 )H .

.

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Level of quality  4# "3 )  ) # #" / "'& /6 #" 3 3  '.' ) C"'6 (4#&5 .

.

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Project control checklists Value assessment . !  " $  ."' )  ) #   4@# $4 $ /6 &" 3 4 " 3 #6I!4" # C"&"  " &   3 ) # $  "# C"&" 5 Important

Urgent

Not urgent

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.

.

.

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Risk bene®t assessment  # $ &  / #$&  !$ )  $; " & ."'   #!4" 65 F$ $ #" / "$;& )  $6$! "$ " ' " & ) "#  &.&"' ) # H .

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Project control checklists .

DH A  #!4'( '' $ $6$! 3B A  !" 6 /$ $$ 4#$$$ ''  $6$! "?#B A ":$  !4"#   /$ $$B A #" 4"$ )  $6$! / &'.& " '!  !4"#B

De®nitions/techniques  ˆ    .$!  ˆ S ) 4#.& / EI7#$ ) &.'4!  4'$ #$ ) #  & 4" 85

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44

Project control checklists

2.5

How to avoid wasting time on things that don't matter

Type: To do Checklist description  4@# $ #!4$& ) " #''# ) "$;$% "3$% ! 3$% . $ " & 3"'$5  # " 4@# "$ $"&% !$ )  !" "3!  ? $4   $ "#.$ $  $'. $$$ " & 4/'!$5 .% 4#$ ! #" / $4   $'. 3 $$$ " & 4/'!$ "% ) ."'"&% #'& / L4";&:  )  ! / 3   &E '65 !'"'6% C ) %  '6  $6!4! $ $'.& '". 3   #"$  $'.&5 $ ##;'$ '4$ " "'6$ " 4/'! /) (#$$. $#$ " $4   $'. 3 5

Checklist Understand the problem . " & 6 ;  "/  4/'!B A &$  "'"6$ ##B " "  ##!$" #$   &$I&$  ##B A  I $  4/'! !$I'"$ #"/'B A  &&  E$ "44"  /#! "44" B A  &&  '"$ "44"B A  ''  ( "44"B A $  " &#  !$ ';'6 #"$B . " & : 6 ;  "/  4/'!B . " & 6 &  ;  "/  4/'!B . " " 6 !"@ /@#.$  $'. 3  4/'!B . " $!$  / !$I'"$ !4"  "$4#7$8 )  4/'!B Determine problem owner . $  6 4/'!B . 6 & 6 "   $'.  4/'!B A  '' !"; 3 $ #" 3 "?#  "$4#$ ) 6 4@#B A " '& "44 I  "44 ) 6 !"; $ #" 3B A " '& "44 I  "44 ) 6 &  !"; $ #" 3B .  &$  $'.  4/'! ! " 6B A / #")' ) 6 3  $'. .6 4/'!5 ! 4/'!$ #"  / $'.&  #& 7" '"$   3 (4 $8 A $  " 4$ ' $$B A $  " "  3  #!! #" $$B A $  " /$ $$ 4#$$ $$B A $  " $44' $$B A $  " 4'#"'   $4 $$B Assess problem signi®cance: solve or not solve? . #;  4/'! &!" 5 $   $#4  $#4 ) $ 4@#B . ; "  /3 4#5  $3 E#"  $  4/'!B 45

Project control checklists . .

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.

"  / ')% 3 &  '! "& /6 " &?  "44"# " " 3 '.'B " '& "44 )  4/'! "$ $'.&B A " ''  #$  E( B A " '& : "44 )  4/'! "$ $'.&B " '' /  / E  $". 3 )  4/'! $ $'.&B " '' "44 )  4/'! $  $'.&B A " ''  #$ )  4/'! $  $'.&B A " '' #" 3 . !B ''  3 /  $B A ''  #$ )  $'. 3  4/'! 3 3 . !B A  ' 3 #" 6 '". B " ''  "44 )  4/'! $  $'.&B A " $". 3  / E '& / !$$& )  4/'! $  $'.&B

Sanity clause: test your assumptions . " "$$!4 $ " 6 !"; 3H A "/  #"$$ )  4/'!B A "/  ?#$ )  4/'!B A "/    )  4/'!B A "/  !4" # )  4/'!B  &$  E   ' $#! )  3$B A "/  3 #6 )  4/'!B A " 6 $ 6 " '; 3 "  4/'! " &   $6!4! ) " ! /"$# 4/'!B

De®nitions/techniques  5

Next steps  "  4 "' 4$ )! $ (#$H 1

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46

Project control checklists

2.6

Different ways of generating solutions for a problem

Type: To do Checklist description '' 4@# !" "3$ " C&  $'. " & ."6 ) 4/'!$5 4" )! #!! #"  $$$ " & 4$ ' $$$% 4/'!$ ) #4 4   $6$!:$ &$3 % /'&% " & !4'! " 5  4/'! $ !"''6 3'3&   4@# !" "3 " &   $ $ (4#&  #"  4/'!$'. 3 (#$5 $ " )"#'"  $ $" % 4@# !" "3$ C " " 3 ) 4/'!$'. 3 # C$  !4'6 "$ 6 $ E5 $ ##;'$  &#"$ $! )  4#$$$ " & # C$ " #" / $&  " 4/'!$'. 3 $$$ 5

Checklist Identify those affected by the problem & )6 44'  !"6 &  /  .'.&   4/'!$'. 3 (#$5   &$%  .'. $ H . . . .

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Planning the approach

) " 6 $' $ " 3 "&% !"4   $' $4"#  )"!;5 $ $'& : / $& & 3  &"$ " & $' $ 3 " 4#$$ /  #" / $&  @&3  &"$  # 3 "&5 .%   @&3!  4#$$ $! )  "$$!4 $ / &  $' $4"# !"6 / #"'' 3&5 . .

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Generating solutions '#     "6$ ) '; 3 "  4/'! )!  '$ /'5 4 3& &"$ . ) 6 "  $#'6 '." 5 . C "'H A  &$ $ &"I4/'! ""''6 '"& B A " "  #"$$I?#$ )  4/'!B A " "  #"$$I?#$ )  $' B 47

Project control checklists .

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48

Project control checklists .

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" ) )"'$ $6''3$!$5

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2.7

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3.2

How do we analyse our relationship with our customers?

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Business analysis checklists

3.3

Fourteen common business problems ± spotting which ones are yours

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Business analysis checklists

3.4

Where business analysis usually goes wrong

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3.5

What are the steps to analyse a business process?

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83

Business analysis checklists

3.12

Four key areas to a process

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85

Business analysis checklists

3.13

Lines of questioning for a business process

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86

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$$!4 C$  3 A 3 3  "$ / & " 44' "#"''6 $"6H They say

You ask

Their response tells you

We always/sometimes do that

Why?

True/false constraints on their work

We never do that

Why not?

True/false constraints on their work

That never works

Why not?

Is there a secret block that could be removed?

We have to do that

Says who?

Identi®es correct/incorrect process owner/stakeholder

We don't have to do that

Says who?

Identi®es correct/incorrect process owner/stakeholder

Often/sometimes this problem occurs

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Identi®es how critical the problem is to the process

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89

Business analysis checklists

3.14

How to choose between alternative solutions for changing a business process

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91

Business analysis checklists

3.15

Checking the redesigned process

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92

Business analysis checklists 7&8

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4.3

Easy things to miss in gathering requirements.

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Business requirements checklists

4.4

What documents should I produce?

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109

Business requirements checklists

4.5

How good is my business requirements speci®cation?

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5 Systems analysis checklists

113

Systems analysis checklists

5.1

What should be in a methodology?

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115

Systems analysis checklists

5.2

How do you make a methodology?

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 "# &'."/'  $'& / " $4#E& # C 7 $ ) "' ".  #!4'! "6 # C$85  # C$ #'&  / " L';: 7$   ) $ "$ C&8  " L#;/;: 73" $  3& $ " & 4#& 3 $ $4$85 116

Systems analysis checklists 7#8

7&8 2

$ 3&' $ #" / 4   )! L 4A4#$$A4:H 78  4 A " $#7$8 )  )!" $'& / $&  $ # C 7535 4.$ &#! $  &'."/'$% $ $.6I . #58 78 4#$$ A  $4$  )''  4&#  4% 55  &$#4 )  # C #5 78 4 A  )!" C&5 &' $ #" "'$  #'& /$ 4"##$%  $ " & 4$% " & 3 "' 4 #4'$5

# C F ##;'$H 7"8

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$ #" / $&  3" ?#  !" " # $$ #6 " & "'' 44' ; 3  &4 & '6  / 3  ; 3  &   !/''"5 ! ("!4'$H 78 "! 3 $" &"&$ A &#! $% !&' "!$% "/' " & #'! "! 3 78  & " '$  #& 78 $# #& .$  3 " & $6 #& 3 7.8 &#!  '"6 7.8 $# #& "&$ 7535 !&' &$#4 % .$ !/% '"$ " " & &"% '$ ) "/'$% '$ ) #"''& !&'$   .$ !/$85 ! $" &"&$ !"6 / "!& " $4#E# &'."/'$ "$ $! !3 "44'6  "'' &'."/'$5

De®nitions/techniques  5

Next steps  '" # " !&'36% 6 '' "'$ &  &.'4H .

"  3 4'" A 44' &  / " &    4)!   !&5  !3 / ' '; 3 " # + L6$! !4'! " #;'$$:  &!  " $$ )  3$ &  /  4'"#   &#   !&5 117

Systems analysis checklists .

.

.

.

.

 .$ 4'" A $! 4@#$ !"6 /  !&M3% " 6 3 3  !4$   !&  !B ''  &.&"'$ ".    4@#$ 6 " ; 3   &?  "6$B &/"#; 4#& A ) #" 4"$ )  !& "  ; 3% 6 &  /  )!&5 &$ #" )"''   '"#; ) $ "'' /#"$     ""$ && : ;5 ''  !&'36  3  #$$"65 .'4 " C"'6##' ! "'65 !  $#4 A /'& " )"!;  " #"35  : '#; 44'  $ 3   !& "  # C$  4#&$  (#4 $ #" : / " &'&5 !/"#  "6$ ) & 3  3$5 '"$ !#" $! A "$  !& #" 3$%  '' 6 ''  $ #" 3$   &.&"'$ " &  4@#$B $ (" "  3 C&B  6 &  )$ "  3 " #" 4 $B F"'6 .$ !$#"' #' A ". 6 "''& )  3 !  4@#$  )''  !&   3 '.' ) C"'6B  44'  &$" &  '.' ) C"'6 7   !#%   ''8B  4@# /&3$ " & !$#"'$ "'$# $ 3  !&B

 "''6% " !& #"  '6 / 3 " #" "!  ) &  ) #"$5  &$  3""  $##$$ A " L)'  " ' $ $'' " )':5  : #   " !&  $'. "'' 6 4/'!$5  !"6 / " 44' $$ #% ) $'.&% #'& ". " )" ! &"!"# ?#   C"'6 ) " $ / 3 4&#&5

118

Systems analysis checklists

5.3

Moving from current physical to current logical

Type: To do Checklist description )  $6$!$ &$3 % " " "'6$ "$ /" & " &"3"! ) " #  /$ $$ 4#$$  /  &   " $6$!5 .%  #  4#$$ !"6 # " "'' ; &$ ) "$;$ # '&  #$$"'6 &  /  #4"&   "  $6$!5 $ ##;'$ #" / $&  " "'D  #  46$#"' M )  )!"   " '3#"' .5  $ /"$&   # C ) & 3 $  :$ &"" M &"3"!$ 7$8 /  $"! 4 #4'$ #" / $&   $!'" 4#$$ M &"3"!$5

Checklist Removal of redundant physical processes and tasks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emoval of redundant data stores and bins !. " 6 &"" $$ " & C$   )!" " & $#$ " $& " 3 )  ( 4#$$ 7535  "6$% 43 '$% $/"$$!/'6 /#;$ #585 !/      &"" $ " 6 &"" $$ # # "  $"! &"" A  !' 4" $" 6 $ $& A  &?  4"$ $'&  / $ "$ &?  $$ . ) 6 ". &?  '$% 535 &%  .#% 4#;'$% &'.6 5 Removal of redundant data, resource and control ¯ows !. " 6 M$   & &"  4#$$$  &"" $$5 !.  &E  " 6 &"" M   " 4#$$  " 4#$$ &$  $ $!  "'' )  &""   &"" M5 119

Systems analysis checklists !.  &E  " 6 &"" M$ # # " &4'#"  )!" 5 !/  " 6 &"" M$ # #! )!  $"! '3#"' 4#$$ " & "'' 3    ( '3#"' 4#$$5 !/  " 6 !"#& 4" ) &"" M$   " $ 3' &"" M% 535 & "& " & & '  &"" M$ $'& / #!/ &   " $ 3' L& &"'$: &"" M5

De®nitions/techniques  5

Next steps  # $ "&@$! $ ". / !"&%  4#$$ #" / &"  3.  #  '3#"' 4#$$ !&'5 && "' C! $ 7)   $6$!8 #"  /  &#&5 $ "&& $ $'& "'$ / ##;& ) $!'" & &" #$ 755 !"#$  $"! '$ "$ "/.85 " $'& / "; " $ $6$! $  L';  '"$ $6$!  '6 /:5  C! $ #" / $ ) &"! "'  " " " #!4' &$3 $ #$$"65  '& / &.'4!  $#&  6  E !    4" )  '& $6$!5  # $ "$ / #!4'&%  C& '3#"' 4#$$ !&' "$ / 4&#&5 $ #"  / $&   46$#"' &$3 4#$$5

120

Systems analysis checklists

5.4

System boundary analysis for requirements

Type: To do Checklist description  "'' C! $ $4#E&  " C! $ 4#E#" #" / &'.& 3  &'.6 ) "  $6$!5  # /) &.'4!  #!! #$% :$ !4"   ;    $6$! / &"6 $"$ " &  &$  $4#  $"& C! $5 $ ##;'$ $ $&  &!  " " 3 '.'  C! $ #" / &'.&5  "H . . . .

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 !& $ L/"&/$: " &  # &"'&  !# $! 3 " "'6$$ $  / ".&&5  " "'6$$ #" / &    " C! /6C!  /"$$   34$ ) C! $ 7535 /6 /$ $$ 4#$$  $6$! ) # 85 )  " "'6$$ $ C!  /6 C! % " ."'' ) # $3 E#" # #" / 3.   C! $ " $/$C '6 /3 35  $ #!! && " $."' " "'6$$ ;  &4 & '6 " &  &" 3 " # $ $$ # #" / 4$ &   /$ $$ 4" ' ) ) E !  " & "3! 5  "  !" ""$ ) " "'6$$ A $6$! / &"6 " &  %  "% ) # "' 465

Checklist 1

"# C!  $'& / #"3D& "$ )''$H 7"8 7/8 7#8

''#" " #&  "# C!  "$   &"' !& ) $"$)6 3 % 535

$ $$ ,#$$%  6$! "!% ($ 3 6$! "! #5 ''#" " $6$!) # "!  "# C!    &#" # ) #   $6$! '& &  / &.'4&   " #&  &'.  C! 5 ;'& ) C!  / 3 &'.&  $ !& A 3% !&!  '% 55 $! !"$ ) $ )"$/'65  ("!4'% )  C!  $ " #" 3  " /3 $6$!%  ';'& ) #" 3 !3 / L':5

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&!';'& C! $ &  / &$#$$&  &!  " "  )"#$ #  M #  &'.6 )  C! 5 . "''6% $ C! $ $'& /#!  3  '';'& C! $5

2

';'& C! $ "  ';'6  / &'.& ."  4!! &'.6 !#" $!5  !/ ) 4 $ ($ H 7"8 )  &'.6 )  C!  7$/@#  !" "3!  "44."'85 7/8 '. " ;" & " &$  #!4!$  &"' $' A 55 #" 3  C! 5 7#8 '.  ) # "'6  " $4"" $' A 55 &.'4  C! $ )  121

 A $! #" 3

Systems analysis checklists

7&8

-

&"' $' # #"  / (4" &&  / "  $6$! 755 #" " 4@#85 ##4  ) # "'6   4'" & $6$! A 55 &.'4 4"$ )  4'" $6$! /  $  '' . / $&H " $" &"'  $' 5 $ '' ;4  )"#  " &N#' ""  " ! !! " & ) " / $' ".$  #" L4'33&  :5

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De®nitions/techniques  5

Next steps   & $' ) $ " "'6$$ '' /H . . .

" $ ) C! $ " & ) # $ # )"''   $6$! / &"6 " $ ) C! $ # C /$ $$ 4#$$ #" 3 " $ ) C! $ # '' C #" 3 # '  /  .;& ) ($ 3 $6$!$5

6 "''#" 3 ) # "!$%  +0H*0 ' #" / 4#.& A " +0 4 #  ) C! $ &'.&  *0 4 #  )  ) # $B  ##;'$ -5- L # "' 46 " "'6$$ A "44'6 3  +0H*0 ':5

122

Systems analysis checklists

5.5

Functional priority analysis: applying the 80:20 rule

Type: To do Checklist description $ ##;'$ $ $&  & C! $ $ " " :4#; 3 &: ) C! $ $ &  E&5  " "'6$$ #" / $&  &!  # ) # $ $'& / &'.& "'6 " & # #" / &'"6&5 $ "''$ $! ; & ) 4"$ 3 4'" ) #!4  $ ) " $6$!  / &.&5 .%  $'& / & " #!4   &4 & #$ "  &! & /6  !& $ #" $'& / "; "/  #  $ ) "# &'."/' 755 " "# &'."/' #" $" & "$ " #!4' $6$!85

Checklist 1

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‡ 2 !" $ "  ) # $ '3"''6 C& / "'$ "&&$  #$! $"$ )"# A + A '3"' C!  A 2 A  #"$$ #$! $"$)"# A * A # /$  $3 E#"   #!I&##$$". 3 . ! A 1 A # /$  $ $"$)"# . !5 . 6$! $3 E#" # #  A  &#"  $  ) # $ " /"#;3 & $$ "' ) # " #"  / "$'6 L"&&&  : '"H A 1 A $$ "'5

123

Systems analysis checklists *

 ."'' ."' ) " $4#E# C!  $ 3. /6  )'' 3 C" H . . .

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2

."' ˆ 4#4  7$"3 ‡ $". 38  711 #!4'(68  7$3 E#" # ‡ 18 $ #"'#'" '' 3. " ."' / 1= 000 " & * ) "# C! 5  " $ $ " $!4' !"$ ) 3. 3 " $4"& ) ."'$ ) "# C!   ) # 5  !% $!  !"6 #! 4  " ! $4$#"& " & $# E# !&5

C! $ "  34& / 3 ."'I' #$ " & ' ."'I3 #$5 ! $% $! &#$ $ #" / !"& "$  4$$/' '' $"3$H .  "  $6$!  &#" #" / $& ) $ 3  ) # $  C! $    34$ 7 4$  "#8 A $$ "' ) # $ " ".  / &.'4& 4)  A  $$ "' ) # $ " #" / 4"$&  &4 & 3   '". ."'$5  " ," " "'6$$   '$$H .

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"'#'"  #!'". ."'$ A $! 4  "' ."' ) "'' C!   ) # ."'$ A #"'#'" +0 4 #  )  "' A '$ "''  C! $  ) # $  ."'&$# & 3 & 7 /6 $$ "'I  $$ "' #"36 " &  ."' &$# & 38 A 4&# " #!'".   3 "' ) ."'$ &  '$5  ," / &"6 $   #!'". "' (#&$  +0 4 #  ) "' ."'5  !" 6 #"$$ $ ##$  6 " @$ *0 4 #  &  '$ 755 *0 4 #  )  "' #  )  $   '$85

De®nitions/techniques ," " "'6$$ A /"$&    # 6 "'" # !$% R')& ,"%  & " +0 4 #  ) "'6:$ "' "$  & /6 *0 4 #  )  44'" 5  '" $4 "$ / ) &  /   !" 6  E'&$5 '3  #$$"'6 "'"6$  $# +0 : *0 $4'%  #" / $ " " '"3 44 ) ?#$ " !"''6 3 "& )! " $!"'' 44 ) #"$$5  /"$# # C $ "$ )''$H 1

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Systems analysis checklists  $ ;6  $ "44"# L     /"/6    /" ":5 ! ) # $ !"6 ". ' /$ $$ / E / " L#:     3 )  $6$!% 535  " &' 3% $"I #.6% $#6 " & "& 3 " "'' ) # $ " " &N#'  /'&  '"5  6 L/ E$ 4) : 4'" $'& "&&   L#: ) # $ "$ " 3.   E$ 4"$5  "'$ "  #"'#'" $& $ (!'6 $!4' " &  $'& / $! &$#$$   /$ $$ $4 $$ "/    && &'.6 & A 55 & : /"$   $ $"$#$ "' O  4 ) $ " "'6$$ #" / $&  &.  /'& " & &'.6 $#&' A $ ##;'$ 15= L!  3  /3  A "3$% !$#"'$ " & /&3$5:

125

Systems analysis checklists

5.6

Shortcuts to move from business process analysis to systems analysis

Type: To do Checklist description )  "$ / " /$ $$ 4#$$  .$3" 4#& 3  &#$  &.'4 " $6$!%   4 )   .$3" #" / $&  L;#;$":  $6$!$ " "'6$$ ?5 64#"''6% /$ $$ 4#$$ &$#4 $ " & &"3"!$ # " ) #$   )'' 3H . . . . .

'$ A  L"$: "  &.&"'$ "  " /$ $$ 4#$$5  " " $ 3'  &.&"' !"6 " ! "   L":  "# $ A   '$ #''"/"  "#.  3"' )  4#$$  $/4#$$ $/4#$$$ A #!! 4#$$$ " 3  .;& & 3  !" 4#$$ "$;$ A   3$ "  &.&"'$ &  "#.  3"' )  4#$$ 33$ A . $ " ## "  $"% #" 3  #'$ " 4#$$5

"# ) $ ) #$ #" / $& "$ "  4   " "'6$$ 4"$ "$ &"'&   ##;'$ /'5

Checklist Role . & )6 " $ "##$$  $6$!) # $ !"( . & )6 " $ $"3 ) )!$ " & $" &"& $" 6 7 '" &.'4!  $"3$ $ #" / $&  &.'4 " $ "##$$  &"" !"(85 Sub-processes . & )6 #!! 4#$$$  .;& )! $."' !" 4#$$$ . & )6 4#$$ 3 $C # " & ';'6 '"6 ) ! $I$# $ . & )6 L: / $I4 $ . & )6 $# ) $ !" "' 7$4#"''6 )  '  '4 $ C&8 . & )6 4$$/' $ "&$5 Triggers . & )6 . & )6 . & )6 . & )6

$6$! . $ 4$$/' C$ " & $"$$ L&: / $  4$ " & " 4#$$$ 6  .;5

Tasks . & )6 #"'#'" $ C& . & )6 &"6 ) # $ C& . & )6 " " 3 '.' "  )!" $ C& 126

Systems analysis checklists . .

& )6 $! &#$ $44 ) # $ 7)! !4'#I(4'# #"$ E ! 8 & )6 ##"' $"$$ A 4$$/'6 C& ) 4 3I43$$ "#; 35

Interactions . & )6 )!$ " & $" &"& $" 6  $ ) &"" " "'6$$ 7" &  # &"" !$ C&8 . & )6 )!$ " & $" &"& $" 6 ) 4$$/' $# &$3 )  4 " & "&#46 4 7535 '$8 . & )6 4$$/' 34" ) # $ A !"'% C$% "D" $ #5

De®nitions/techniques  5

Next steps

6 " "'6$ 3 "# )  /$ $$ 4#$$ 4$%   4$ #" / #!4'&    6$!$ $3 &#! " 5  " "'6$ !$ / #")'   "$$! "  4$ )!  /$ $$ 4#$$  .$3"  " #!4' )! " $6$!$ &$3 4  ) .5  3 "&  4$ !$ / ##;& )H . . . .

#!4' $$ "##"#6   $6$! / &"6 # $$ #65

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" $6$! $4#E#" B:  $    )!"

127

$'& /

Systems analysis checklists

5.7

What's in a system speci®cation?

Type: QA Checklist description  #!4' $$% $ ##;'$ #" / $&  &!  ) "''  "444"  )!" "$ / #"4& & 3  " "'6$$ " & &$3 4"$$5 &"''6 " $4#E#" $'&  / ' 3 " 20A-0 4"3$5  6 '"3 " &N#'  ;4 # $$ % ' "'  #"4"/' ) / 3 .&O

$ " &  $

 #% &4 & 3   $D )  $6$!% $."' $4#E#" $ !"6 / && ) &?  ""$ )  $6$!5  ("!4'% $4"" $4#E#" $ #'& / 4&#& )H . . . . . . . .

$6$! # .$ &"" &E  $  '  ) # $ /"# ) # $ !"  " # ) # $ $6$! 4" ) # $ &$#4 )  # #"'  . !  $#6% /"#;4 " & &$"$ #.6 ) # $5

 )'' 3 &$#/ # $# $ $'& / 4$   " &#! 5 4 & 3  ) # $ / 3 &$#/&% $! $# $ !"6 ". ! #   " $5



Checklist De®nition of System Boundaries . "  $6$! &$ " & &$  & . " $6$!$ "  4I4  )"#$ 5 Function Overview and Detail . &"" M &"3"!$ . &""  4$I4$ 4'$ 4#$$ 3 '3# 7&$#4 % M#"% &#$   4$& #&8 . #!4'( &"" ."'&" . (#4 " &' 3 . 4#$$ #" $ " & ) # $ 7#'& / $ "$$8 . &E  " $ #'  " & " $ $. . &E  " $ # "' " & " $ ! . &E  " $  '  " & " $ /"# . ##; ) &4'#" ##;$  #'& 3 # '$  4.  &4'#" /"#  $ 7535 *( !  &8 . ##; ) $6$! $#6 ) # $ 7 #'& 3 " !"$ L"##$$:  I? $#85 Data Model Design . '3#"' 7 8 " & 46$#"'  6 !&'$ . &"" !$ A "/$ " & &!" $ 128

Systems analysis checklists . .

"/'$ A "!% 4!"6  &(% $# &"6  &#$% 3% )C #6  4!D #'! $ A "!% $D% 4 "'6% ''$%  36 '$% )3 ;6$5

Data to Function Design .  6 ) $6%  !"#$ . C6 "##$$ 4"$  #'& 3 .'!$ " & )C #65 Interfaces . $.# 3 '.' A  $" %  '  /"#% . 3 /"# . # #"' !#" #$ 7 & 6 " $) &"" 535 4#'$% !&"% !&")!" #58 . $6$! $)"5 System Operation and Security . 4" "'  $ A /"#  $ A )C #6 " & $C # . '#; 3% $ "##$$% &""/"$ 4# . "!   " && ! "'$  $$$ $B .   ) # $ A 4!D% $;4 3% ##;4  3% " $"# '3 43 . !"  " # ) $6$! $ 3$% 4""!$% ';4 "/'$ . &$"$ #.6 '$ " & 4#&$5 Reports . '$ ) 4$  #'& 3 )C #6%  /6!% !/ ) #4$% &$/ '$ 74"" !D&B8 . 3'" 7/"#  8 " & C$& A "'$ "##$$  4$ !"(5 Technical Description (including make/model/version and supplier) . "&" A 4#$$% 4 % $#" % &$; &.% "4 &.% % ;% , % , #"&$ . $)" A 4 $6$%  % #!4'% 4"#;"3$% #!!$ 4#'$I!" "3$ . # $!"/'$ A &$;$% "4$% 4"4% $" 6 744 &8% #"/'$% #"/'  &$5 Glossary/De®nitions .  !"  3 ) ! ! #$  $# $ .  !"  3 ) $6$! !$ 7)  $"'   C   $6$!  " 4"#'"   4" ) " /$ $$ !  # #48 . #$$ ) #$  /$ $$ !$  # #4$ &#! 5

De®nitions/techniques  5

Next steps $ /$ $$ "44'#" $ " 4&#&  $ ; & )  )!" 5  $ ; & )  )!" % $6$! &.'4! $ '' ##  " "4"D"& )"$ " & '' "; ' 3  4&# &   '.' ) ; C&5 $ C"'6 $ "'$ 3 "''6 ' " " $6$! " "$ / 44'6 3 35 129

Systems analysis checklists !!$ $  )!" $  #"4& )!"''6 / $ # " &  &"3"!$  /"&$  $'& 4$ " $5

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130

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5.8

General quality checks for a system speci®cation

Type: QA Checklist description  $    3  ". " 6$!$ $3 &#!  / " &$  3""  "  #$ ) $6$!$ &.'4!  ''  $!'65  " 6$!$ $3  / $)'   &.'4$%  !$ /H . . .

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De®nitions/techniques

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132

Systems analysis checklists

5.9

Checking a logical design

Type: QA Checklist description  3 " "'6$$ " & &$3 % " !/ ) &$3 &'."/'$ " 4&#& # )! " 6$!$ $3 4#E#" 7$ ##;'$ -5+ L "' C"'6 ##;$ ) " $6$! $4#E#" :85 $ ##;'$ #" / $&  ##; "  ;  "# &'."/' $ $N# '6 #!4'5

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135

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5.10

Six steps to ®rst-cut data requirements

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137

Systems analysis checklists

5.11

How to do data modelling

Type: To do Checklist description

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141

Systems analysis checklists

5.12

Object orientation ± development steps for a data-centric approach

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Systems analysis checklists

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6 System build checklists

147

System build checklists

6.1

What logical data models get wrong (and have to be put right)

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System build checklists .

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System build checklists . .

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System build checklists .

' A  #" ) $% $! ; & ) L #!4': $"$ &$  / !";&      &#" " $ &"" $   / $&  ) 4#$$ 3  '  "$ / #!4'&5

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Next steps  "'$ ##;'$ =5* L""/"$ 46$#"'D" A E. ""$ ) $)' 4$ " & #;$:5

152

System build checklists

6.2

Database physicalization ± ®ve areas of useful tips and tricks

Type: Analysis Checklist description ""/"$ 46$#"'D" $ " #;6 /$ $$5  " !" 6 &4 & #$  #'& 3H . . .

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4 "''  )"#  # .$ &""  $4"" "/'$ A &  !3   L'.: &"" A  )"#$ #" #" 3 . ! " &  $ /$  $'" 6 "44'#" )! $ #" 3$5  ("!4'% ) 6 !" " &4"! "'#&$ $4""'6 )!   " # $6$!% & : $ &4"! "'#&   "## #& $# A $   " ';4 $ " )  &4"! "' $6$! #" 3$ $ #& 3 $# 6  '6 ".    )"# "/'  #" 35 Primary keys and secondary indices . "; "'' ;6$  3 " " #""#$ "$ )" "$ 4$$/' 7. ';4$8 $ # $ " )"$$ ) &""/"$ !"# 3  @ $ #5 153

System build checklists .

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Codes and lookups . ". " 3 # ';4 "/' ) !$ #&I&#& ."'$ ) $#H #&64 Y 3Z% #&."' Y 3Z% #&$&$4'"6 Y#"7>  28Z% #&&$#4 Y#"7=08Z% #& &$4'"6$C # !/ Y 3Z5 .  : $ $#& #&$5 4'  "# #!4   "$ " #'!  $  35 .   $ (4'# " 3$  #&$  &  $! $4#"' $3 E#" # 7535 4" $ 1A2000 " !"&% 2001A9000 " /35  4/'! ##$  6 $" !"; 3 6 2001 4"85 Useful patterns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undry tips .  #'& &"I! $"!4   $I4&" 7/ ##8 A #" / $& ) $)'#; 3% $"# . $ R$ " &   $  !/&6 #!! $& /6 !" 6 &.'4$% 535 @  3 #$! / " 3& #" &&" ) " R5 154

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System build checklists .

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Next steps  "'$ ##;'$ =51 L" '3#"' &"" !&'$ 3  3 7" & ".  / 4 38:5

155

System build checklists

6.3

Seventeen quality checks for a physical data model

Type: QA Checklist description  3  46$#"'D" 4#$$ ) " &"" !&'% " ,6$#"' "" $3 $4#E#" $'& / 4&#& 7$ ##;'$ L. 3  " 46$#"' &"" !&':85 $ ##;'$ #" / $&  ##;  #  $ ) $# " &#!  ) #!4' $$5

Checklist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

De®nitions/techniques 4!D" A  4#$$ ) $ 3    $"$#$ "/ " "/' "    $$  # $# C6 4"$   &""5 ) $ $"$#$ "  4&"& 4&#"''6%    !"6 #$  "444" !&$  3   &"" $ $' 3 & $6$! 4)!" #5

Next steps  46$#"'D& &""/"$ $#$ #"

 / $& /6 &.'4$ ) $6$! /'& 35

156

System build checklists

6.4

What modules to add into every application build

Type: Analysis Checklist description ) $6$!$ &$3 # $&$  '6  ) # $ " " !!&"'6 "44"    /$ $$ $5 .%  " !" 6 '! $ " $'& / /'    $6$! "$ " !" ) #$  & "  $6$! $ ) 4&# /'& C"'65 F"'6 $6$!$ " '"/' 7 )8% #!4' 7$"/'%  && ) # "'68% "$6  !" " % M(/'% N#  7&  @/ C#;'6  $!4'68% ?#. 7&  3 @/85  "#. $% $! " "'6$$ $ C&  &!  "''  #!4  $ " " C&  / /' " &  6 "  / $& A " $6$!$  )"$#5 $ $ ##;'$  ##; " #!4  $ &  / /'    $6$! )! &"6 15

Checklist Common modules !! !&'$ #" )!  /"#;/  ) " $6$! A  #"&'% ) 6 ';%   # "''  /$ $$ ) # "'6 $ '&5 ) %  # &.'4&% #!! !&'$ #" / $&  )%  '"& $6$!$5  " 3& $6$!$ "##%  )'' 3 #!! !&'$ $'& / &.'4& " & $& 3  &.'4! H .

. . . .

. .

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

System build checklists .

#.6 '3 A ''# ) 4)!" # $"$#$ " & $#6  )!" H . # ) # $ $&  " & /6 !B P #" $ $ ) $#6 " &  &!  ) " )" $  $  &$ ) "  3 #5 . )"'& "##$$ "!4$5 A " " /"#;4 '3 74'$ $ ) ##; &3$  ##"' ."'$85 A ''#   " & &"3 $#  )!" 7 "  I? 4""!8H . # & "' 4" & E#" . ##"' &"" "##$$% $"! % 4#&% '4 & 755 3. "  C !/  "# ##"' 4  " & "#   43"!8 . "/' "##$$$ " & !/ ) $  & . !/ ) !$ 3 " '4% 55 " # 5

Locking strategy  $ "'"6$ " &" 3  !'$ $6$!$ "  $$ "   4&"  $"! 4# ) &"" "  $"! !5 $ #" #"$ 4/'!$5 )  $$ 6  4&" " #$!:$ "&&$$% $"6% # "&&$$ $  ##  B  ".& $ 4/'!$% " '#; 3 $"36 !$ / "&4& " '#;$  &"" / 3 4&"& /6   $ )! $!'" $ 4&"$ C$& /6 "  $5  )'' 3 " $! )  "44"#$  '#; 3 " #'& / $&H .

.

4!$# '#; 3 $"3$ A $ $"36 $ /"$&   "$$!4 " #   / $$ )  $"! 4# ) &"" $ $!"''5  #  $6$! $ 4!$# " #   ''  ##5 A " 6 /$ $$ "44'#" $ ". / /'   4!$# '#; 3 $' $5 .% $ " .;'' $ #  #" # )   ! $$ "  3  4&"  $"! 4# ) &"" "  $"! ! $ (!'6 !  !$ /$ $$ "44'#" $5 A 4!$# '#; 3 $' $ " 3 "''6 '$ " & #"45 $ ) ! '". " 6 '#; 3 $' 4      4" 3 $6$! " " !4$ " '#; 3 $'   "44'#" $')5 A  " $!   " & 46$ '#; 3 $"3$ '#; 4"3$ ) &"" 7* /'#;$8 " "  &.&"' $ ) &""5 ,$$!$# '#; 3 $"3$ A $ $"36 $ /"$&   "$$!4 "  '' / $! #   ) 4&"$ / $$5  4$$!$# . !4'$ " $! )!"' !#" $! $'& ($  $'. # M#$ 7" " '".       46$  &#&85 A  "  /"$# "6$ )  )# 3 '#; 3 A "& " & $)5 L"& '#; 3: $   &"" $ '#;& /6     46$ /"$&  " C$ /6  "44'#"  & $5 ) '#; 3 $   "44'#" !" "3$  '#; 3  '6 /6 "44'#" '3#5 A  " . ) $) '#; 3 $  "44"# "&4&% $! "& '#; 3 $ "'"6$  .;& /6     46$ ) $  '#; 3 44$$5 A ! $) '#; 3 !#" $!$ !3 /H . ! $"!4$ $  .& " &  '6 "''$ 4&" )  ! $"!4$ !"# . ##; ) 4!"6;6 )   ."'   " L'#;&: "/' " & &'   4&"&5 .6 "!4  "##$$ "  "'"6$ ##;$  L'#;&: "/' /)   $ "''&  / .& 158

System build checklists . .

$ 3 ) " M"3     .   &#"  $ '#;&5 $ $  #'"&  4&" $  $6$!  $ 3' $ ) ".6 4#$$$% 535 . 3 /"#  A ?#.'6 '#;$  ' &""/"$ /6 &$"/' 3 " 6 ; & )  '  $ '3 5

Maintenance Facilities ' 3$&  !&'$ " #"6   $44  /$ $$ " $"# $%  &$  / " $ ) !"  " # ) # $ " ;4$  $6$!   3 $!'6  /6  $ 3 &""  / $&  #'" 3 ""6  //$5  $ " $"!4' ) ) # $ " !"6 &  / "&&&H .

.

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ˆ 1 # $ $&  44'"  &4&  $# 85

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

System build checklists .

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

Other module considerations  " " ) ""$ " !3 &  / 4'" . . .

& "#$$ "'' !&'$H

" "  #!! $# " &' 3 #""#$#$B A $ ##;'$ =51* L $" &"&$  "44'6   $  )"#:5 $ !'# #6  !'' 3"' 4#$$ 3 (4#&  C&B '&  / $! L!" "' .&: )"#'$  #" 3 #" ##"' E'&$  #"$ ) !3 #6B

De®nitions/techniques  5

Next steps  ##;'$ =5- L &.&"' !&' C"'6 A ;6 C$ $  "$;:  $  $ !$ '' "?# "#"' !&' /'&5

160

System build checklists

6.5

Individual module quality ± key questions to ask

Type: QA Checklist description  C"'6 ) "  &.&"' !&' $ &N#'  !"$5 '' C"'6 !"$$ " $/@#. " & $!!$ C"'6 '$ ".  / /; )  3" 3&5 .%  $ &$"/'  "!4  ". $! ; & ) # $$ #6 ) "44"# "#$$ !&'$ " & $ ##;'$ #" / $& "$ " L6"&$#;:  !"$ $! "$4#$ ) !&' C"'65  !3 / /$ "44'&  " &$;##; 3  "';3 $ 35  $ #!! && "  ##"' !&'$ " 4 3 $ ; & ) F $ 3 $ # $ 4#$ ) #& '' / $/@#   !$ $$$ " & 4$$/'6  !$ #" 35

Checklist General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omplexity .  #!4'( $  !&' # $# B A $  "$6  )''B A " $!  '$ !" " B 7 '6 ) $ $ " 3   & " &  " ""6 43"!58 A  /3 $  !&'B . $  4.& !" 6 ) # $ 7535 #!4'( #"'#'"8    $!4'  B . !!$ /3 $ /")' 7"'' ) # $    4'"#8 " & $!"'' $ 3'6 7 !" 6 #!4  $  ;4 "#; )85 . ' $'& /   !&' #" / $& "$  $5 161

System build checklists .

.

$  '' #!! &B A '& / 4$   "'' #&5 A   (4'" " /'#; ) #&  " /'#; ) #!!  " " ' /6'  #!! $5 A  $'& / " !&' .$  "$ &#'"& "$ " # $"  "$ '' "$ " #!! & .$ $65  "$6 $  ) !&'  / #" 3&B

Links to other modules .  !" 6  )"# #"''$   !&'$B . $  $ "''  #!! !&'$ C&B A  " &' 35 A /3  )!" #''" 5 A #.6 " & $#6 '33 35 A !! #"'#'" $ 7535 &" !" 4'" 85 A #6 ."'&" 7$4#"''6 C& ) "44'#" $   && )    85 Testable . "  / $&B A $  " $ " $$ " & " "'$# $ ) 4'"6"/' $ #"$$ 7" #" /  " #& " & "3! &8B A "$ " .'! $ / # &#&  ##; ) /' #;$ "'6    4#$$B . "  / $  !/&6  ) # "'6 C& /6  $3 4#E#" A  ! " &  '$$B . $ ) &" 4""! " " $6$! &" A $ '' "''H A /"#  $  $4" !& 3  "&.$ ?#$ A $ 3 #6#'$  /   &4 &  )  !"#  &" 7535 $4& 4 ! '6 #6#' $ 3% $ ) /5 *9 #58

De®nitions/techniques  5

Next steps  ##;'$ =5= L" $"# $ " &   &$3 !:5  "'$ ##;'$ =52 L" !&'$  "&&   .6 "44'#" /'&:5

162

System build checklists

6.6 Transactions and how to design them Type: QA Checklist description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

Checklist Atomic .  $4#   $ " . $ "  " $"# 4&"$5 . $ "  " $"# " $"#  LE $ 

$ ) #!4'( "# $  4)!   &""/"$ $ #!4'(5 ''  $##& #!4''6  )"' #!4''6 A  4""' '".$  &""/"$  " # $$  $"  " 3 ) "  @/:5

Consistent .  $4#   "  $$  4&"$  " !/ ) "/'$  E'$  " $ 3' " $"# 5 .  " ."$ 64$ ) " $"# # $'& / ##;&H A "& " & &"' ' $ "  "$ " # $$  $ A  .#$% &$ #5 A  $ ) $ 4&"$ " "' A @ "' 4$ 3% #"$ /"#  6 A  $ " & ' ;  $    6 $  4 "'   '" $45 Isolation .  $4#   " !'4' " $"# $ "?# 3  $"!  6 "$  3$ 3 $ ')#6#'5 . $ " "# " $"# &$   )   4" )  $5  $'&  &4 &   "$$!4 "  $ ". /     755  $'& ##; "'' $ $" 3 # & $ "$ 4" ) $  4#$$85 Durable .  $4#   !3 / $! &'"6 / #!! 3  " $"# " & $ &"" / 3 "."'"/'   4#$$$5 .  # " " $"# "$ #!4'&% $ "# $ $'& / !!&"'6 4$  )  " $"# $  4#.5 163

System build checklists .

.

.

.

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

Other .  $'& : / " 6 #"''$   !&'$  " " $"# 5 .  " $"# $'& "'"6$ ". " #'" /3  3 " &  &5

De®nitions/techniques ,"3'.' '#; 3 A $ ##$     '#;$ " /'#; ) &"" 7$"6 " * /'#;8 " " "  &.&"' 5 4 & 3   &% " 4"3 #" # " $."' $5  # )  &" )  4&"% 4&"$   $   4"3 " C&5 $ #" #"$ " /' #; ) 3 $% 535 ( !/ "''#" #'! $5

Next steps  6 ;6 " $"# # &$  )'E' $ #" $'& / #&&   #"5 $ " $"# /"$& $6$!$ "'$ &#'" L$" " $"# :% L & " $"# : !";$ $ " &.'4$%  &# 3 " % #"     $" )  " $"# 5 4 & 3   64 ) % 6 !"6 6  " $"#  "/ 7 !"''6 4"$$ 3   /"#;  " $85  "'$  ##;'$ =5< L"   #'&  " #!!  &# " & " &' 3:5

164

System build checklists

6.7

What to include in common error detection and handling

Type: QA Checklist description $ )  "'' $6$!$ "44"#$H

&  ". "

 &#

#"4"/'65  "  4$$/'

7"8 ".  " &' 3 ) $  "#  &.&"' &.'4  &#% 4 " & ".3"5 7/8 ,&# #!!  7$8 ) "# &.'4  $5 44"# 7"8 3 "''6 3.$ '$$ " $"$)"#6 &3 ) #. $ #H . .

 (4 #&  '"D6 &.'4$ & :  #'& "'' ; &$ )  "44 3   #& $ (4$ 3  "44'#"  4 "' #"$$ (4 #&% "&; 3 &.'4$ $!!$ )3  3$ " & ) $!  "44 3 &$ : 3 #&&5

""''6% $!  #'& "3 " "44"# 7/8 #'& $? )!  $"! 4/'!$5 % / " '"$  #!!  $%  '$ ) $ / 3 "44& #"  #"$    4'"# 7" " "#$$ "''  &?  43"!$  " $6$!85  #  /'&$   " 4$6 ) $5  E( # " " E(!" 6 !$ / " #"4 " & ! $'  "44"#5 $ ##;'$ #" / $&  &E  " $'& /  #'&& 7  E$  $" #8  " #!!   5

Checklist 1

$ ) $ ") "# " $"#  "/' 4" 5 $$   #'&H . &"&'#; &#& . !/ ) 7$8  % 4&"&% &'& 4 "/'  E' 4" . "  / ! "  B . "  / DB .   "$ / '#;& " & $"6& '#;& & 3 $ " $"# % 55 '#;& )!  !!   &"" "$ "& " &% 4"4$% &$4'"6&  $# ) 4&"  ' #!!& /"#;   &""/"$5 7$ #" / &  3  ?#. $ ) ! $"!4$ )  $  /'     58

*

!4'6 )"'&# # C$ . ! 3 ##;$H . "'' ) # #"''$  !  A !"6 / '4 3  $!  4/'! 7'$ # #  $$$ 8 .  #'  $. A  &$  #'  ;    $. $  $4 & 3 " & " &$  &B .  #'  $. A  &$  $. ;  )  #'  $ $''  " & " &$  & 7$$$ !" "3! 8B .  !" 6 &""/"$ $ " "''&B " )  # # )"'$B . ) #!! #" $/"$& $)"% " )  4  '  $  4&B  & 6 &# $B 165

System build checklists .

.

. .

.

>

 !$$"3$ !$  /H . . . .

2

'" # ##;$H . $ " 3 #"'#'"   4$  $" &"& &." $  ##; 4 ."'5 )  "' #"'#'"& ."' ."$ $3 E#" '6  M"3 " "  35 ,"6 ##;H . $)' ) $ 3 !" 4'"  $"!$ ) &"" A 535  ‡ #'! # $% ##;&3% & # 5  36 ##;$H .  $ &"" '" $4$ " !" " &5  4" $  '  4" $5 !" ##;$H . ."'$   &!" % 535 &"$% 4$ #&$% "! $ . E'&$ $'& ". #!! ."'&" 4#&$   $ # $$  $"3 " & " &' 35 "3 $# ##;H . "; " $ ) ;   4$ " & 4$ " &  ! 3  $6$!5  "/4  & " & $ $" &$ # &$# & 3 ."3 A   3  )!" % 535 L  "$ ##&:  '4)' A  #'$ "$  # 43"!     43"!%   "$ ##&5

 " &' 3H . . . .

/$ " $"# " & 4)!$ ''/"#; 7$ ##;'$ =5= L" $"# $ " &   &$3 !:85 ,'"#$ $ /"#;  "444" $# " & E'&5 '"3$   /"# !" "3 $ "   @/$   /"# " #!! #&5  ."' $ $  $##$$  )"' ") "# " $"# 5

De®nitions/techniques  5

Next steps  "'$ ##;'$$ =5= L" $"# $ " &   &$3 C"'6 A ;6 C$ $  "$;:5

166

!: " & =5- L &.&"' !&'

System build checklists

6.8 How to distribute modules to servers Type: To do Checklist description  # " '3#"' &$3 "$ / 3 $  "' 4"$$ ) 46$#"' &$3 %  $4' 3 ) ) # $   &'."/' 43"!$ " & #!4  $ $  ( $"3 ) 46$#"' &$3 5  &!   /$  &$/ $ 43"!$ " & #!4  $ "#$$  46$#"' "&" "##% $ $ ##;'$5

Checklist Initial distribution . ,'"# 43"!$ " & #!4  $ /"$&   64H A $ $.# #!4  $ 7$# $ #58   ,  / $. A

&"" $.# #!4  $ 7F #"''$ #58   &"" $.

A

/$ $$ " $"# #!4  $  " /$ $$ $. 7) $6  6!$   &"" $.85

Apply performance constraints . .   "' &$/ ) 4 "' /' #;$5 ; " "# #!4   " &  $.  #  $ $&H A "$  $. $N#  #"4"#6  " &' C$$ ) $ #!4  B A

 !#  #!4   #!! #" $  " & % /6 !. 3 #!4  $% #" $ / ! !D&B

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6.9 Finding the big four performance bottlenecks Type: Analysis Checklist description  $! 4    ') ) !$ "44'#" $% 4)!" # 4/'!$ /#! .& 5  #" / & 3 &.'4!  " & $ 3 % . $% '" & 3 '. $"35 !!$ " 4)!" # /' #; #" / 4&#&5 $ 4.&$ " 4'"#  $" ;5 ) % .% " /' #; "44"$ )! L )  /': " & ) " "'6$$ $ C&5 $ ##;'$ $   &&  "$$$  &!  3 4)!" # /' #;$ " & 3. $!  $    .#! !5

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171

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6.10

Why projects don't achieve software reuse

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173

System build checklists

6.11

How to ®nd the causes of extremely elusive errors

Type: Analysis Checklist description

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6.12

Four standards to apply to the user interface

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De®nitions/techniques  5

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7 QA and testing checklists

179

QA and testing checklists

7.1

Establishing the need for testing and QA

Type: Analysis Checklist description $ 3 $ " ##"' $##$$ )"#  " 6  4@#5 .%  $ ) "&&&     & ) " 4@#5 $ " $'% "$ " 4@# #  $%  !  & ) $ 3 3$ $CD&  &$"$$ # $C #$5 F"'6 $  $! 3 " #" / /'&   " $6$! ")"&$5  "$  / 4" )  4#$$5 $ $ 3 "$  / 4'" & 4) % " /$ $$ #"$ !$ / !"& ) $5  )'' 3 ##;'$ ' $ 6 /'& 3  $ 3 $ $$ "'5

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De®nitions/techniques  5

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7.11

Power testing 1 ± checking the underlying database

Type: Analysis Checklist description !!$ $ 3 #" )#$  '6   .$/' A ":$  " $#  45  &  #.$ ) !" 6 "44'#" $ $ " &""/"$5  L3"/"3  % 3"/"3 : ' '& &#" " ) $! 3 $  3   &""/"$%  '' $ 4 $!5  $!!$  #" "; " ' 3 ! ) " #4   &""/"$  $ 45  #   )  /@#.$ ) $ 3 $  &# $ "$ $ "$ 4$$/' 7" & /) " '. !4'! " 8% " L4: $ $'& !4'6  " 3 ) $$ " & # C$ #.&  $ ##;'$  &$#. $ /6   3 "     &'6 3 &""/"$5

Checklist SQL technique

Used for

Bulk copy out

Use to con®rm correct data updates, i.e. capture the pre- and post-conditions by copying the data to an ASCII ®le and doing a ®le compare once the test has been completed.

SUM/COUNT

Use . . . .

.

to ensure: full range of test cases is present in the DB imported data has properly converted derived data is correct (especially partial updates) as a pre-/post-condition for data recovery, e.g. take total, crash db, recover db, take total, ensure totals match can show missing or duplicated data.

Counts could be: . sums of all ®nancial ®elds . counts of rows . sums of integer key values . sum of ®rst character position of `e', say in text ®elds MAX

Use to ensure that last updated date on columns for all critical tables is not after the last recovered position (i.e. a recovery test).

NULL/NOT NULL function

Ensure that mandatory data is present.

Left/Right join

Ensure that mandatory entities are present ± can show partial-update problem. Ensure that duplicates have been disallowed where applicable. Check for ®eld truncation. Can ensure complex SQL has no many-to-many joins (Cartesian product).

Count/Group by/Having Len function Query path

203

QA and testing checklists

De®nitions/techniques "$" 4&# A " !"!"#"' ! ) 3  !'4'6 3  !"#$ 35  # '" "' &""/"$ 6 $ /"$&  !"( 6% $ ! $ $!!$ $& ) !" 6 !" 6 "/' @ $5 4#E#"''6% ) "#     "/'% "''  $  "  "/' " "&&&   45  # )  $ " /"& @ / "/'   $ " & "/'   $%  $' 3 4 '' /   $5

Next steps  "'$  (  L4 $ 3: ##;'$$5

204

QA and testing checklists

7.12

Power testing 2 ± thrashing and crashing the system

Type: To do Checklist description   "44"#  $ 3 $  $   &$# 5  '6  #"  "' M"$ )  $6$! / ) &5  )"# $ "  '$$  $ E &$ !%   &$ . "''6 ''  "''  /$ $$ $; " "  "'$5 $ ##;'$ $   &&   $4  L4 $:  E &  M"$   $6$! /6 4.& 3 " $"!4' L '$:5

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De®nitions/techniques  5

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206

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7.13

Power testing 3 ± checking the business controls

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8 System implementation checklists

209

System implementation checklists

8.1

Change-auditing and change-capacity assessment ± how to see the big picture

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7#8

 ("!4'H Structure ‡ Element

Current

New and who is affected

What needs to happen to whom by whom to move from current to new

Role change

Stores and Purchasing are separate depts

Purchasing responsibility (currently Dave in Accounts) will move to Stores (Mgr Bill)

± Bill will be offered Stores and Purchasing Mgr (Exec) ± Additional admin support for Bill required (HR) ± Dave released from Purchasing, will continue as Accounts Clerk (ACs) ± Bill will be required to produce monthly purchasing reports and budgets to Accounts (ACs) ± All Purchase orders will go to Stores so new procedure to be developed and launched to all with purchasing authority (Training) ± Bill trained in new system (Training) ± Bill trained in Purchasing practices (ACs)

Management As above procedures

As above

Operational procedures

As above

As above

Jobs and skills As above

As above

211

Sequence

2

Priority

High

10

Medium

10

Low

8

Medium

4

High

3

High

4

High

System implementation checklists Reward structure

As above

Information technology

As above

As above

As above

± 6 month pay review with Bill being offered Management grade 2 (Exec/HR) ± bonus if Bill reduces purchasing turnaround from 4 to 2 weeks (Exec/HR) ± Inventory system will have a purchasing and goods receipt module added (IT)

1

Medium

2

Medium

1

High

etc.

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"!8 $ "''  "# $ I

7#8

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System implementation checklists Managing the change capacity !  "/.% )  " &/$ .  #"4"#6 $ $N#  ) "  &.&"'% &4"!   "!  "/$/  #" 3% " !/ ) $"3$ #" / "&4&H . . . . .

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De®nitions/techniques  5

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213

System implementation checklists

8.2

Things to plan for in an implementation

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System implementation checklists

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Support 1

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De®nitions/techniques  5

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System implementation checklists

8.3

Adopting the NASA go/no-go list

Type: QA Checklist description $  &"6 ) $6$! '" # "44"#$%  $ ' "&4 3   3I 3 "44"#  ;6 44'   3 "# 4" )  3I 3 '$5  "# !4'! " ! 3% $ ;6 C$ $ " "$;&5  $  '6 ) "''  !$ " L3: $'&  $6$! / '" #&5  "  $ /$    #"$ $ '$ /6  !# A  $ !"   / " $!!"6 " &   &"'&5 ) &"'& '$$ " C&% 6 $'& / !4'! & "$ $/'$$ /6 "# ;6  &.&"' )   $  " $ 3 $ C$ $5

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System implementation checklists

De®nitions/techniques  5

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System implementation checklists

8.4

How to build a training course

Type: To do Checklist description ; "''  "#.$ ) $)" &.'4!  " & &4'6! %  / $##$$)'% "  3 C$ #")' 4'"  35  )"#%  "  3 43"!! ) "  $6$! &$  / " &'& "$ )   $  &.'4! 5 $ $#  &$  4"$$ 3 ."$ &.'4!  $"3$H . . . . .

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System implementation checklists >

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System implementation checklists . . . .

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System implementation checklists Maintenance 1

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De®nitions/techniques  5

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System implementation checklists

8.5

Seven pillars of a service level agreement

Type: QA Checklist description .# .' 3! $ 7 $8 ". #.& " ' ) "  $ #  $ )  &4"6 $# 3 !.! 5 ,!"'6% 6 ". / $& "$ " 3""  / " $6$! $ " & " $6$! 4.& "$  " "# ) ! (4#$  / "/'  & " &  &  4.& 3 " & $ 3 " $6$!5 $ ##;'$ & E$ " $'& / #.&  $# " "3! 5 % .% " "3! $ ) $ " #" ($ /  &4"! $ " &    "' #$!$ "$ '' "$ / $4"" #!4" $ 4.& 3 " & $ 3 $)"5

Checklist User access . ."'"/'6  '  A 55 + "5!5 = 45!5B *2  5> L #!!

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231

System implementation checklists

8.6 What to look at when capacity planning Type: Analysis Checklist description    '"   !4'! " 4#$$%  C$ "$$ "$   !# 46$#"' $#$  "''#" " & 4#"$    $6$!5 F )  C$ $  "& " &  $D )  &""/"$ /  " !" 6  '! $  # $& 5 $ ##;'$ #" $6$!5

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De®nitions/techniques  5 232

System implementation checklists

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233

System implementation checklists

8.7

How to do a data conversion

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Checklist 1

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System implementation checklists 7.8

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7.8

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

&& "' $$$H 7"8  $&  .'! ) &""  / # .&5 78  !# " 6 "; 3 A & 6 & " !#B . #" 6 D "''6 4"  &"" " & ";   4"$$ 7535 "'' #4" #$!$ E$  # $!$8B . $"  " $!"'' $ ) !  &$4 " & "'' # .$  / $  C#; $##$$I)"' $' " & ' $;   /$ $$5 7/8  $& $4#"' #"$$5 78 $# &""H . $'& $ / # .&B . $'&  / " L/"'" # )"&: #&B . " "44 $  " $"# $ " " /"#;&"& 4   &" ) # .$ B . 6  "; "#. &""  '6B 78 "" 64 !$!"#$H . &  &!  ) $ $ " $"3)"& &""64 # .$  235

System implementation checklists

7#8

 $ $ & 3 " ! #!4'( $$% 535 # . 3 (   3  ! 6 A $  $# &"" "'"6$   &#!"' 4'"#$B 78  4" ) &.& &""H . &$ L/"'" #:   '& $6$! !" ("#'6  $"!    $6$!B .  !"6 / $")  #"'#'" "'' &.& &"" !$ ")$    $6$!  4.  L 4" : 4/'!$5 7.8 ."' &""H . #" #''# $ ) &"" !"6  /   /' ) # . 3% 535 #$!$ ) 10 6"$ "3  ". $''  4"&  E "' /"'" # ) S*0 . &  &#& " $ # !#"'  # . . $ $ $4#"''6  ) &"" " "$ / #"& )"& )!  $6$!   $6$! " & $  (!'6 '&5 64#"''6% $ 64 ) &"" '' 3.  !$ 4/'!$  # .$ $ #  "$ "&&&   $# $6$! "$ " $ $ " &  # ! /3 && 5 7.8 L6 &"": &!" $H . &  "$$! "  $# &"" $   '" #$ $4#E& A  $'& / " "'6$& ) &!"  36 . "'' &"" E'&$ ) # .$ $'& / $&   $ " 6 # )!   '$ " '' / (4#& /6   $6$! . ) $! ("!4'$H .  $ " " $ "$$!&  / !" &"6 &""   $# $6$! $ "#"''6 4$   "'' #&$ #5 .  3$  M"$ # "  3".$ " 6 " : $44$&   " 6  L)/ &$: ."' . ."'$ '; 999999999599 $'& / "&  #" . ##;  )!" ) L#!! : E'&$% 535 '4  !/$ #" / L01999 1*>2-=:  L7019998 1*>2-= ( **:5 !'"'6   )!" ) &"$% $#&$ #5 . &  #!4"  $# &!"   "3 &!" " & "  & "/ L&6 &"": &!" ## #$   $# &"" A 64#"''6 #'" ! /) # .$ 5 #; "  $6$! $ #.& /6 #!4" 6:$ #  "" ,# # 3$"  " & 3$ ) 5

De®nitions/techniques & !"' )! A $ ##;'$ -511 L  & " &"" !&'' 3:5 !"  36 A !$ &"" !$ ". " &"" 64% 535 #""#%  3% M"% / "'$ ". " &!" % '4  !/% 4$#&5  &!" $ " $ ) 3 # '$ "/  " &"" ! '' /".  / )!"&5

Next steps ,&# " &"" !"44 3 $6$!$ &$3 &#! 5  " "'!$ "'' $6$!$ # " &"" " $  ##%  #!4'   ) &"5 L6 &"": $ )  $' )  '& $6$!:$ 4#'"$  #'& 3 /3$ " &  $ &)"'$5 !4" $ ) ";  44 6  E( $ &""   !4'! " ) "  $6$!5 236

System implementation checklists $ $ "##4"/'% /  $ "$6  .'"& " "'"&6 /$6 !4'! " $#&'   (" /& ) #'"  3 &""  @$ # . 3 5 !!$  $ /  $4""   (#$$ A  #'"  3  4   '& $6$! /)  $ # .&  #'"  3  4    $6$! ")  "$ / # .&5

237

System implementation checklists

8.8 Nine important documents to hand over from development to the support team Type: QA Checklist description F ) % " $6$! $ /' " &  $"''& /6 " &.'4!  "!% " &  $44 "!  ".  L4#;  4 " &   :5 $ "44"#% .% "$ " !/ ) &"/"#;$H . . . .

'&3 $$ "'   L''/ 3: )  $6$! ) )"'$  / #!! #"& A 4 3  !4'! " % " &  #  /$ $$% " $;5 44 "! " &!."&  6 #"  # E& '6 $4 &   "#"' $$ )  $6$!5

$ $$ $$ /#!  # E&    $44 "!:$ "/'6  " &'  $6$! " & $ #" ". " 3". ?#   $6$!:$ $"35 .'4!  $"? 3  .'.&  $44 $$$ " & 3 L'#;&  :  $44 3 $6$!$  6:& " / &.'4 3  (  5

 &  $##$$)''6 " &. " $6$! )! &.'4!    $44 "!% $ ##;'$ & E$ " !$ $'& "'$ / !"& "."'"/' " & " 6 #" / $& )5

Checklist Project Charter  #" $'&  #'&  "$ &:\ )  4@# # '' "$$$  $44 "!  #3 D 3 ) &"! "' $44 $$$ A " $  ;6   $##$$ ) $ 4@#  !4'! " B " ;6 ""$ !$  $44B Business Requirement Speci®cations '& " 6 C$ "$ 3"& 3  " 4"#'" ) # $    $ "$ $4#E&% 

$ $$ C!  4#E#" $ !$ / # $'&  &!    $44 "!  &.'4!  !$ /  .'.&5 '$% #" $"$#$ $# "$ (4#& .'!$ #5 '& / C&  !  C& .$ "#"' 4)!" #5 System Speci®cation  #  $44 "! '' / !"; 3 43"! #" 3$  $ !4"  "  &$3 $4#E#"  $ " "."'"/' $ "  !4"# ) " 6 /3$ 4& #" / "#& " & 4 "' $' $ & E&5 Technical Speci®cation and Limitations  $ C& "  4" 3  . !  / & E&  #'& 3 !!6 " & &$;$4"# C! $% " $4& 4#$$ #5 $ " "444" "&"  $)" #" / # E3&5 Operator Manual including Restart/Recovery " $ (4#&  !$ ) /"#;4$% &"'6% ;'6% ! '6 #6#'$ #5B " $'& / &   $ ##5  $'&  $)"  /3 E($ / '"$&B 238

System implementation checklists Organization chart including lists of legal users and roles and responsibilities  $4 $%  $  $$%  $6$! L(4: " &  $ $4 $/' ) " "$4# )  $6$! $'& / & E& " & "3& $ " "$ C$ "$  '."  4"$ #" / E&  # $'&5 Training Plan for Support Staff $  " 6 " &.%  $'& / " " &. "  3 (#$  " $)  ; '&3 )!  &.'4!  $"?   $44 $"?5 Implementation Plan '' "$4#$ )  !4'! " $'& / 4'" & A   $"''" ) "&" " & $)"% # .$ ) ($ 3 &""  44'" )   &""/"$ #5 Contingency or Disaster Recovery Plan 4 & 3   ##"'  $6$! $   /$ $$ 7"$ &E &   ,@# "8%  !"6 &  / #  3 #6 4'" $ $'&  / E  )5  $44 "! '' &  ". " :"&6  3: 4'" ) $ ##!$" #$ . "$5

De®nitions/techniques  5

Next steps $ !$ $'& / 4&#& /6  &.'4!   !4'! " "!$ 4   " &. )  $6$!   $44 "!5 "# ! $'& / ##;& "  # " $  C&  )!" 5  4"##%  $ ) &N#'  )$  &'.6 ) " $6$!5 .%  $  $$$ 3  $;   /$ $$ ) 6 &  ". $N#   )!"  #  !" "  $6$! A )  '6  #. 6 /"#;5

239

System implementation checklists

8.9 Assessing the long-term viability of a system Type: Analysis Checklist description  )'' 3 $ " ##;'$ ) ""$  / $&  "$$$$ 3  ' 3! $44 ."/'6 ) " "44'#" 5  #" / $& ) /  $ " & ( "' &.'4! $  4"#;"3$ " & !"6 "'$ / "44'&  # #"' 4 $5  $'& / & "  "'' $6$!$ " (4#&  ". " ' 3 L$')'): A $ $'& / &! & "$ 4" )  ,@# " " & $ $$ "44'&   '3 ) " (4#" 5 $ '$ #'& /  &   " $# $  3. " ."'' $# 3 " & 4$ &  " $" #"5

Checklist Architecture design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

Build quality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

System implementation checklists Business/technical change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upport mechanisms (error and recovery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nternal knowledge . $  $6$! C L(4: ; '&3  &  &"3 $ )"'$ ) 6 ##B .  "$6 $   " $) ; '&3 )  $6$! / $44 $"?B "$  / & B  ' 3 &$  ";  /#! " #!4  $44 4$ B . " $;''$ " & ; '&3 '& " 4 "' $44 4$ &  ". "'"&6 /) / 3 " &   $6$! 7" &  " &38B  $ $;''$ "&'6 "."'"/'   !";4'"#B $  4' ) '."  $;''$ &#'  3   #"$ 3B 241

System implementation checklists . . .

.

.

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

Support organization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

De®nitions/techniques

 A 4  !4'% 4& A  3'& ' ) "'' $6$!$ &$3 $5

Next steps :$ "'"6$ 3&  L'; /) 6 '"4:  /3 4"#;"3$5

"; 3 

 $6$!$  !3 

)  " C$ !";$ "/  ' 3! $44 ) " $6$!%  !"6 / "  $6$! $     .$!  $  E & " $6$! " $  $;  3"  #$ )  $6$! & "&$5  ."/'6% .% "'' $6$!$ ". " '!& ')$4" A $ ##;'$ +510 L) !4'! "  A '. 3   $6$!:5 242

System implementation checklists

8.10

After implementation ± living with the system

Type: Analysis Checklist description "  "''  4"  .'.&  &.'4 3 " & !4'!  3 " $6$!%  $  !4"   @$ $ /"#; " & / $"$E& L # :$  :5 .% :$ !4"   ";  ' 3! . ) " $6$!5 6B #"$ $6$!$ 3 '&5 $  /$ $$ 3$ " & &.'4$% " $"# $6$! $33'$  ;4 45 . !%  $6$!% &$3 & $! ! "3% '' /#! '$$ " & '$$ "44'#"/'   /$ $$ "$  $ 5

Checklist Recognize its lifespan . " A  "'%  $"/'5 . .'4!  A (4" & 3 "4&'6 /   65 . "6 A   3 $!'6% $"/'5 . #'  A $33' 3  !" " 4"#5 . " A ! 5 Recognize what affects its lifespan . " 3$  # '36 7"?#$ $"N 385 . " 3$  . & $"$5 . " 3$  /$ $$  . ! I$"365 . .' ) 4.$ !"  " #I .$! 5 How do you spot an out-of-date system? . " 6 ;" &$ " & !" "' 4#&$  $6$! $5 . $ 3  $6$! $   . #!4"&   /$ $$ 4#$$5 . "3 !"  " # /''  '' !4.! 5 . "! $6$! #"  / /3 "$ " 4"#;"3  ! )"$5 . "&"I$)" 4'")! "  $6$! &4 &$  $  ' 3 $44&  &'6  $5 . "&"I$)" 4'")! "  $6$! &4 &$  "$  43"& 4"5 . N#'  #  $"?  "   ;  " "&"I$)" 4'")!5

De®nitions/techniques  5

Next steps  "'$ ##;'$ +59 L$$$$ 3  ' 3! ."/'6 ) " $6$!:5

243

System implementation checklists

8.11

Questions to ask at the post-implementation review

Type: To do Checklist description $ $ " $!4' ##;'$   &&  "$$$  " 4$!4'! " .5  #) "! ) # $   "44 /'"!   3"/  #&5  #) "! $  '4   ( 4@#5

Checklist 1

"   3 "' 3"'$ " &  #'$ &&  3  "#. 3 !B

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 #'&  ".& " )"'  )B

2

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  ! " &  /&3  B "  .$  ) # 4  $!"$  $&  3 "  $!"$ ) $ 4@#B

De®nitions/techniques  5

Next steps  #  !" "! ) $ (#$ $  )& /"#;    ( 4@#%  &$  / " 4@#(4 # /;  ##;'$ " $'& / $&  #&  #! ) $ .5 $ /;  ##;'$ $ " # "' $# "&&&  /6 "# " & .6 4@#5 $ 4@#(4 # /; $'& /  E$ &#!  " "'' 4@# !" "3$ $ "  $" ) "  4@# A $ ##;'$ 15* L. ;6 ""$   &$" &  $" 3 " 4@#:5

244