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4/4!, ).4%2!#4)/. 4HEORYANDPRACTICEOFANEWPARADIGM FORTHEDESIGNDISCIPLINES %DITEDBY'ERHARD-"UURMAN

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  &OREWORD 'ERHARD-"UURMAN  )NTRODUCTION 'ERHARD-"UURMAN  #ONTENT'RAPHICS (OWTO2EADTHE6ISUALS   4HE#ONTINUOUS#ONSTRUCTIONOFTHE#OMPUTER5SER 6ISIONSAND5SER-ODELSINTHE(ISTORYOF (UMAN #OMPUTER)NTERACTION -ICHAEL&RIEDEWALD  )NTERACTION$ESIGNn$ESIGNAS)NTERACTION /NTHE%MERGENCEOF$ESIGNASA3YMBOLIC&ORMOF -ODERN#OMMUNICATION .ORBERT-3CHMITZ  4OTAL)NTERACTION )NTERACTIONASA'UIDING0RINCIPLE"EYOND!ESTHETICS 'ERHARD-"UURMAN  'ENERATION&LASH ,EV-ANOVICH  2EMEMBERINGTHE&UTURE -EMORYAND)NTERACTION 2EGINE(ALTER  (OW6IRTUAL7ORLDS!FFECT5S /NTHE3TRUCTUREOF4RANSFERSFROMTHE-EDIA7ORLDTO THE2EAL7ORLD *ÓRGEN&RITZ  #ONSTITUENTSOF(YBRID2EALITY #ULTURAL!NTHROPOLOGICAL2EmECTIONSANDA3ERIOUS 'AME$ESIGN%XPERIMENT-ERGING-OBILITY -EDIA AND#OMPUTING 3TEFFEN07ALZ  



 

 





 

 

 

 

 

 

 

          

1UESTIONSONTHE-ETHODOF6ISUAL$ESIGN *ÓRGEN3PØTH  6ISUAL0ERCEPTIONAND6IRTUAL7ORLDS "ERND+ERSTEN  "EING)NVISIBLE .ADIA'ISLER !DRIAN-ÓLLER  (EAR-E)NTERACT $ANIEL(UG  )NTERACTIVE3YSTEMSn7EARABLE#OMPUTERS #HRISTIAN7EBER 'ERHARD-"UURMAN  "ETWEEN-ANAND-ACHINE 2APHAEL0ERRET  'ENERATIVE$ESIGN -AX2HEINER &ELIX%GGMANN  )NTERACTIVE3IMULATIONS 0HILIP!CKERMANN  "IO3ONICS)NTERACTIVE'ROWTH3YSTEM $ANIEL"ISIG  4ANGIBLE5SER)NTERFACESFOR%DUCATIONAL5SE "ENEDIKT-6OEGTLI -ORTEN&JELD 0ATRICK*UCHLI  2OBOTSIN%DUCATIONAND4RAINING 4HE#ASEOFAN)NTERACTIVE-ULTI !GENT3YSTEM 0ETER4ROXLER  )NTERACTION$ESIGN$ElNITIONAND4ASKS #AROLINE3CHUBIGER   "IOGRAPHIES  ,INKS  )NDEX    

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 )NTHISBOOKWEPROVIDEAGLIMPSEOFTHENEWDISCI PLINE OF INTERACTION DESIGN WHICH IS GAINING IN IMPOR TANCE IN DESIGN PROGRAMS AT COLLEGES UNIVERSITIES AND COMPANIESTHROUGHOUTTHEWORLD ! HOST OF QUESTIONS SOLUTIONS METHODS THEORIES SUB DISCIPLINES AND IDEOLOGIES INTERSECTS IN THE lELD OF HUMAN COMPUTERINTERACTION6ARIOUSDESIGNDISCIPLINES HAVE BEGUN TO DEVELOP THEIR OWN UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONCEPTOFINTERACTION4HEYAREENDEAVORINGTODElNEITS POSSIBLE MEANINGS BASED ON THEIR OWN PERSPECTIVES AND AGAINSTTHEBACKDROPOFTHEIRINDIVIDUALHISTORIES!SWITH ANY DISCOURSE THIS ONE ALSO BRINGS WITH IT DIVERSE INTER PRETATIONSANDEMPHASES!CLEARUNDERSTANDINGWILLUL TIMATELYEMERGEINAWORLDTHATREINVENTSITSELFACROSSALL FORMSOFEXPRESSIONBASEDONINTERACTIVEPRINCIPLESINDE SIGN ART WORKANDENTERTAINMENT 7ITH THIS BOOK WE WOULD LIKE TO HELP DEVELOP AND DESCRIBEACOMPREHENSIVEDElNITIONOFTHECONCEPT AND PLACECURRENTDISCOURSEONABROADERFOOTINGnNOTONLY FOR THOSE WORKING IN THE lELDS OF DESIGN AND APPLIED SCIENCES BUT FOR A LAY AUDIENCE AS WELL )T IS A MATTER OF GREATURGENCYFORUS ASADESIGNDISCIPLINE TOPRESENTOUR STANDPOINT DElNEOURSOLUTIONSANDEXPLAINOURLINKSTO THEENVIRONMENTOFSYSTEMSINWHICHINTERACTIONDESIGN ISEMBEDDED /UR POSITION DIFFERS GREATLY FROM THAT COMMONLY FOUNDIN%NGLISH SPEAKINGCOUNTRIES WHERETHETERMINTER ACTION DESIGN REFERS TO THE CONCEPTUALIZATION EVALUATION ANDIMPLEMENTATIONOFINTERACTIVECOMPUTERSYSTEMS IN CLUDING THE DEVELOPMENTS LINKED TO THESE SYSTEMS 3)' #()  4HE %NGLISH VERBhTO DESIGNv PRIMARILY DESCRIBES THEPLANNINGWORKASSOCIATEDWITHCONTROLLINGEITHERDI RECTLY OR INDIRECTLY THE STEPS INVOLVED IN COMPUTER USE 4HISCONCEPTIONOFDESIGNISCONFUSING ATLEASTASVIEWED FROM THE %UROPEAN TRADITION WHICH FOCUSES ON THE DE SIGN AESTHETICDIMENSIONSOFTHEPROBLEM )N THE DESIGN DISCIPLINES THERE HAS BEEN A RELATIVELY CLEARDIVISIONOFLABORBETWEENTHElELDSOFCOMMUNICA TIONDESIGNANDINDUSTRIALDESIGNTONAMETHETWOMOST IMPORTANT OVERTHELASTFEWDECADES(OWEVER CATEGORI CAL BOUNDARIES BETWEEN THESE lELDS HAVE TODAY BECOME BLURRED INASMUCH AS WE ARE INCREASINGLY REPLACING ME CHANICALSOLUTIONSWITH)4STRATEGIES SUPPLEMENTINGREAL OBJECTSWITHVIRTUALREALITIESAUGMENTATION ANDSOLVING

PROBLEMSTHROUGHCONTACTLESSORNONVISUALINSTALLATIONS4HE CRUCIALQUESTIONISWHETHERORNOTWECANRETAINOURMANNER OFWORKING WHICHISGROUNDEDINBOTHDElNABLEANDCLEARLY DElNED STRATEGIES MATERIALS AND FACTORS 4HESE DISCIPLINARY BOUNDARIESAREINCREASINGLYJUMBLED THEMATICALLYEXPANDED AND DIFFERENTIATED n IN FACT THEY ARE BECOMING POROUS !S ARESULTOFTECHNOLOGICALDEVELOPMENTS ANDALSOOUTOFOUR OWNINSECURITY WEFORGECREATIVEYETMOSTLY ARBITRARYLINKS FROM ONE SUBJECT OR BRANCH OF SCIENCE TO ANOTHER n ALWAYS INSEARCHOFANAPPROPRIATE PROBLEM ORIENTEDSOLUTION4HIS NECESSARILYLEADSUSTOTHEQUESTIONOFWHAThGOODDESIGNvWILL MEANINTHEFUTURE,ETSSAYTHISMUCHFORNOWINTERACTIVITY AS A CHARACTERISTIC OF DESIGN IS ACHIEVED PRIMARILY THROUGH INTELLIGENT SITUATION ADAPTEDANDENTERTAININGINTERRELATIONS BETWEENSYSTEMSANDUSERS$ESIGNISBASEDONTHESENECESSI TIESANDTHEFAMOUSMAXIMISAPPLICABLEHERE TOOFORMFOL LOWSFUNCTION 4HIS BOOK PROVIDES INSIGHT INTO THE WORK OF THE )NTER ACTION$ESIGN0ROGRAMAT5NIVERSITYOF!PPLIED3CIENCESAND !RTS :URICH )T SHOWS HOW THIS EXCITING NECESSARY AND NEW UNDERSTANDINGOFDESIGNHASINmUENCEDOURATTITUDESASDE SIGNERSANDAESTHETES "YWAYOFCONCLUSION )WOULDLIKETOTHANKTHEAUTHORSOF THISBOOKFORTHEIRCOLLABORATIONANDPATIENCE3PECIALTHANKS GOTO.ORBERT3CHMITZFORHISCRITICALREMARKSANDCOMMEN TARY 2OBERT 3TEIGER OF6ERLAG "IRKHØUSER FOR HIS UNmAGGING FAITHINOURPROJECT $ANIEL(UGFORHISORGANIZATIONALTALENTS AND lNALLY *ÓRGEN3PØTHFORHISUNCOMPROMISINGDEVOTION TOTHEDESIGNOFTHISBOOK  'ERHARD-"UURMAN                

&OREWORD 'ERHARD-"UURMAN

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'RAPHIC3YMBOLS   BLANKTEXTLINE  FOOTNOTE  lGURE CAPTION  NUMERATION  BEGINNINGOFCITATION  ENDOFCITATION  PARAGRAPHPROCEED  ENDOFARTICLE                                     

                                              

 )NTRODUCTIONAND/VERVIEW 4HEDESIGNOFINTERACTIVESYSTEMSISACOMPLEXTOPIC SINCEAWIDERANGEOFSUBJECTAREASMUSTBEDRAWNUPON FOR ITS DEVELOPMENT 4HOUGH NO BINDING DElNITION HAS BEENFORMULATEDTODATE THEREEXISTSASERIESOFMODELAP PROACHES THAT CAN BE VIEWED AS PARTIAL THEORIES! COM PLETE REVISION OR REDElNITION OF THE TERM IS NOT THE AIM OFTHISCOLLECTION SINCEITISNOTREALLYPOSSIBLETODEVELOP A VALID ALL ENCOMPASSING CONCEPT )N THE CONTEXT OF DE SIGNINTERACTIONDESIGN WECANBASEOURDISCUSSIONON ASIMPLEDElNITION)NTERACTIONDESIGNSIGNIlESTHEPARA DIGMATIC REPRESENTATION AESTHETICSENSORY PRESENTATION ANDTECHNOLOGICALIMPLEMENTATIONOFCOMPUTER SUPPORT ED PERCEPTIONS COGNITION AND SENSORICS AND ACTIONS ACTUATORSYSTEMSANDVISUALIZATION INMIXEDMEDIA)N THISlELDWEFOCUSONVARIOUSTYPESOFSIGNSYSTEMS%CO HAS EXTENSIVELY EXPLORED ARCHITECTURE LANGUAGE KINESICS IMAGES FASHION TACTILITY AND MUSIC AS lELDS OF SEMIOTIC STUDY7HATISINTERESTINGISTHATWECANGRASPTHESETRA DITIONALhLANGUAGESvASDOMAINSOFACTIONANDCOMMUNI CATIVEPERFORMANCE7ECANRECOGNIZETHEPOTENTIALAND LIMITATIONS OF THEIR TECHNOLOGICAL EMULATION AND TRANS LATION WHILEWITNESSINGTHEMERGEROFTHEIRCHARACTERISTIC FORMSOFEXPRESSION)HAVEINCLUDED&IGURETOSHOWHOW WECANREDElNETHESESEMIOTIClELDSFROMTHEVIEWPOINT OFTHENEWTECHNOLOGICALPOTENTIAL4OGETHERWITHAHOST OF BUZZWORDS FROM SCIENCE AND RESEARCH THE TRADITIONAL lELDS OF SEMIOTIC INVESTIGATION PROVIDE A GLIMPSE OF THE NEWASPECTSOFCOMMUNICATIONANDINTERACTION4HETERMS PRESENTEDHEREHAVENOTBEENlXEDINADElNITIONALSENSE BUTAREMEANTTOPROVIDEORIENTATIONFORTHESTUDYOFTHE FOLLOWINGTEXTS/NEIMPORTANTMOTIVEFORTHEPUBLICATION OFTHISCOLLECTIONISTODEMONSTRATEHOWTHESETRANSFORMA TIONS AND DEVELOPMENTS ARE PERMEATING DESIGNERS AREAS OF WORK CHANGING THEIR SUBSTRATE CODES RULES AND THUS THEIRFOUNDATIONSANDSELF CONCEPTION!TTHESAMETIME THISBOOKINTENDSTOSHOWWHERETHENEWBEGINNINGSLIE ANDHOWTHEDISCIPLINEISTACKLINGTHECURRENTCHALLENGES    

&ROMTHEVANTAGEPOINTOFTHEDESIGNDISCIPLINES EF FORTSTODEVELOPAVALIDUNDERSTANDINGOFTHETERMINTER ACTION DESIGN ARE OF GREAT INTEREST DUE TO THE SIGNIlCANT CHANGESINMATERIALSANDRESOURCES$ESIGNERSPERCEIVETHE WORLDASAFORMABLESIGNUNDERGOINGCONSTANTCHANGEAS ARESULTOFBOTHINDIVIDUALANDCOLLECTIVEDESIGNACTSAND INTERVENTIONS9ETITISNOTONLYTODAYSCONSUMERSWHOARE CONSTANTLY FORCED TO REAPPRAISE BOTH WHAT THEY PERCEIVE AND THE REALITY THEY CONSTRUCT FROM THEIR PERCEPTIONS $ESIGNERS ARE ALSO INCREASINGLY LOSING THEIR BEARINGS NO LONGERGUIDEDBYTHEQUALITIESANDPROPERTIESOFMATERIALS ANDRESOURCES!MULTI OPTIONALCODIlCATIONANDDECODI lCATION APPARATUS IS TRANSFORMING ARCHITECTURE PROD UCTS LANGUAGE MUSIC ANDMANYOTHERSIGNSYSTEMSINTO RANDOMLY INTERCHANGEABLE SYNAESTHETIC PLAYING lELDS 0ROJECTSWITHTITLESLIKEh4HE$ISAPPEARING#OMPUTERv ORh4HINGS4HAT4HINKvSHOWTHATWEMUSTREVISEOUR IDEASABOUTOURCULTURALARTIFACTSANDDESIGNINTHETWENTY lRSTCENTURY!SERIESOFFRAGMENTARYREPORTSFROMTHESEM INARS AND RESEARCH PROJECTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF DESIGN AT THE 5NIVERSITY OF !PPLIED 3CIENCES AND !RTS :URICH -EDIA AND $ESIGN HAS BEEN PROVIDED TO ILLUSTRATE THIS POINT                     5%CO %INFÓHRUNGINDIE3EMIOTIK THUNALTEREDEDITION -UNICH   HTTPWWWDISAPPEARING COMPUTERNETPROJECTSHTML HTTPWWWMEDIAMITEDURESEARCH#ONSORTIUM0UB7EBPL)$

)NTRODUCTION 'ERHARD-"UURMAN

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PLEXLIVINGCONDITIONSARENOLONGERREGULATEDSOLELYONTHE BASISOFTRADITIONALSIGNS MEANINGS ANDFORMSOFSOCIAL INTERACTION4ECHNOLOGYSUPPORTSANDREPRESENTSFORMSOF SOCIALINTERACTION CREATINGNEWPOTENTIALFOREXPERIENCE !TTHESAMETIME OBJECTSLOSEANYBINDINGMEANING SINCE THEY FUNCTION AS CARRIERS OF MEANING IN MULTIPLE SENSES 4EXTILE PRODUCTS THAT HAVE EVOLVED INTOhWEARABLESv ARE AS FASHIONABLE ACCESSORIES JUST AS READABLE AS HIGH TECH GADGETRY,IKEWISE THECOMPUTERHASBECOMEEVERSMALL ER AND MORE POWERFUL AND THUS THE BACKBONE OF A NET WORKEDCULTURE4HETRADITIONALREPERTOIREOFDESIGNISJUST ASAWKWARDINITSDEALINGSWITHTHESENEWDEVELOPMENTS AS YESTERDAYS DESIGNERS WERE IN THEIR ATTEMPTS TO INVEST WHATWASTHENNEWTECHNOLOGYWITHCULTURALMEANING                                 

)NTRODUCTION 'ERHARD-"UURMAN

,EARNINGFROM(ISTORY )WOULDLIKETODESCRIBEAFEWIMPORTANTDEVELOPMEN TAL PHASES OF THE DESIGN DISCIPLINES IN ORDER TO SENSITIZE THEREADERTOTHEIRSIGNIlCANCE4HEHISTORYOFDESIGNCAN BEREmECTEDINFOURTYPICALIMAGES4HElRSTCONCERNSTHE HISTORYOFTHElRSTTYPOLOGIESANDMORPHOLOGICALSTUDIES OFOBJECTS ASWELLASTHEIDEASCONCERNINGTHEIRUSE4HE )NDUSTRIAL2EVOLUTIONANDITSACCOMPANYINGSOCIALTRANSI TIONS LED TO THE lRST ARCHETYPAL SIGNS OF USE AND TO NEW MEANINGS0EOPLEANDMATERIALSWEREhPROGRAMEDvINSO MUCH AS THEY WERE INSCRIBED WITH INFORMATION ON USE BENElTSANDVALUETHROUGHTHEMETHODSOFSERIALPRODUC TION4HISAGESOUGHTOUTNEWFORMSOFEXPRESSIONBUTWAS CHAINEDTOHISTORYSREPOSITORYOFSIGNS 4HESECONDNARRATIVEDEALSWITHENTIRELYNEWCONSTRUC TIONS WHICH IN TURN LED TO NEW FORMS OF EXPRESSION IN TECHNOLOGY&ORMANDFUNCTIONWEREINCREASINGLYTREATED AS INSEPARABLE ENTITIES AND AN ALPHABET OF ELEMENTARY FORMS SIGNSYSTEMS ANDRULESEMERGED$ESIGNnASAVI SUALSCIENCEnCREATEDBOTHTHEINTERIORSANDTHEACCESSO RIESOFMODERNSOCIETYANDITSCHANGEDVIEWOFMANKIND 4ECHNOLOGY BECAME THE ENGINE OF DEVELOPMENT AND ITS ARTIFACTS SYMBOLIZED THE SPEED AND QUALITY OF PROGRESS 2EVOLUTIONARY UPHEAVAL OCCURRED IN THOSE PLACES WHERE PEOPLETOYEDWITHMEANING INVERTINGITANDTHUSDISCOV ERINGTHERELEVANCEOFPLACEANDCONTEXT 2ECOGNIZING THE COMMUNICATIVE FUNCTION OF THESE SIGNS WE LEARN BY LOOKING AT THE THIRD NARRATIVE EVEN MOREABOUTTHEPOWEROFOBJECTSANDTHEPRESENTATIONOF INDIVIDUALSANDSOCIETY4HEINCREASINGCOMPLEXITYOFTHIS REALITY RESULTED IN PROGRAMMATIC LEAPS SYSTEMATIZATION INCREASES IN EFlCIENCY OBJECTIlCATION PROCESSES AND A MANIAFORSTYLISTICREGULATION$ESIGNREmECTEDINDUSTRIAL POWERANDTHEGROWINGINDIVIDUALIZATIONOFSOCIETY ANDIT EVOLVEDINTOAREPRESENTATIONOFANEWSOCIALVALUESYSTEM ANDVALUEHIERARCHY4HELINGUISTICDIVERSITYANDDIALECTICS OFTHISPROGRESSINTENSIlEDASSIGNSLOSTTHEIRCAPACITYTO PROVIDE ORIENTATION 4HE ENVIRONMENT GREW INTO A CON FUSING FOREST OF SIGNS WITH INSTRUMENTAL STYLES AND MAR KETINGMETAPHORS'OODDESIGN INSHORT WASDECLAREDTO BEINVISIBLE )N THE FOURTH NARRATIVE WE ENCOUNTER THE ONGOING INDIVIDUALIZATION OF MASS TASTES INTELLIGENT MATERIALS INFORMATIONAL NETWORKING FORMS MINIATURIZATION AND ROBOTICS4ECHNICALLYSUPPORTEDORSOCIONICFORMSOFCOM MUNICATION EMERGE IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HUMAN BEINGSANDTECHNOLOGY(ERE THEMECHANICSOFOURCOM





)NTERACTION$ESIGN ) WOULD LIKE TO MASTER THE NEW CHALLENGES IN SUCH A WAYTHATWERETAINANDEXPLOITTHEIRPOTENTIAL)NMYOPIN ION TWENTY lRST CENTURY DESIGN WILL HAVE TO DEAL WITH AMONGOTHERISSUES THEFOLLOWINGASSUMPTIONSANDQUES TIONS  *OINTTEACHINGANDRESEARCHWORKINTHETECHNICAL SOCIAL ANDVISUALSCIENCESDESIGN  $ESIGNERS WILL BECOME THE ENGINEERS OF EXPERIENCE hDESIGNTHEEXPERIENCEv  $IGITALINFORMATIONWILLTAKEONPHYSICALFORM  3ENSORYANDACTORICARTIFACTSWILLACTINSOCIALCONTEXTS  (OWWILLWENEGOTIATEANDDEALWITHTHENEWVALUES  7ITHWHATANDHOWAREWETOFULlLLEMOTIONALNEEDS  7ILLLIFEITSELFBECOMETHEPUTTYOFDESIGN  )NTERACTIONDESIGNCANNOTBEREDUCEDTOTHEELEMENTS OF PERCEPTION TO THE ACTION THEORETICAL COMPONENTS OF INTERPERSONAL OR SOCIAL INTERACTION OR TO THE TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF THE MODELING REPRESENTATION OF PROCESSES )N LINE WITH -EAD ) PREFER TO VIEW SOCIAL INTERACTION INCLUDING COMPUTER BASED SOCIAL INTERACTION AS AN ON GOING ACTIVITY THAT CAN NO LONGER BE STOPPED TODAY   )N THIS ACTIVITY WE DEVELOP SITUATIONAL ACTION GUIDELINES ONGOINGADJUSTMENT ANDMAKEUSEOFDETERMINISTICBE HAVIORALINSTRUCTIONS4HEPARTICIPANTSININTERACTIONARE HUMANBEINGSTHEMSELVES WHOWILLINCREASINGLYCOORDI NATETHEIRACTIONS NEEDSANDWORKWITHTHEHELPOFINTELLI GENTMECHANISMS ANDWHOWILLBEABLETOSOLVEEMERGENT PROBLEMS THROUGH THE POTENTIAL OF COLLABORATION COM MUNICATION AND INFORMATION &OR THIS REASON THE CORE PROBLEMOFINTERACTIONDESIGNLIESINEMULATING SUPPORT INGANDREPLACINGTHEENDLESSPOSSIBILITIESANDREPERTOIRE OFINTERACTIONTHROUGHTECHNOLOGICALPROCESSESWHENTHIS ISDEEMEDSENSIBLE4HISCOORDINATION ASWELLASTHECRE ATION OF SOCIAL MEANING IS ACHIEVED THROUGH THE USE OF TECHNOLOGYANDTHEPLAYFULEXPLOITATIONOFNEWPOTENTIAL INTHEMOSTDIVERSEOFCONTEXTS4HEREINLIESAMAJORCHAL LENGEFORTHEDESIGNOFTHEFUTURE 

4HESEGENERALREmECTIONSARENOTMEANTTONEGATETHE COMPLEXITYOFTHEHUMANINTELLECT THEWORKOFCONSCIOUS NESS ORTHEPOWERSOFLIVELYANDIMAGINATIVETHOUGHT)T WILLBEAWHILEYETBEFOREAMACHINEEXISTSTHATBESTSUSIN THESE AREAS -Y REmECTIONS MERELY ADDRESS THE PROSPECTS OFANDOUTLOOKSONALIFEIMMERSEDINTECHNOLOGY THATIS ANEXISTENCEASTOTALINTERACTION                                       '(-EAD 'EIST )DENTITØTUND'ESELLSCHAFTAUSDER3ICHTDES 3OZIALBEHAVIORISMUS&RANKFURTA-  

ING THOSE DEVELOPED BY ,AUREL 2EEVES AND .ASS 4AKING ASANEXAMPLETHEATERANDAGENTMETAPHORS HEEXPLAINS HOWWECANVIEW ASASOCIALACT THECONSTRUCTIONOFREAL ITYTHROUGHCOMPUTERINTERACTIONBETWEENVIRTUALAGENTS ANDREALUSERS )NHISCONCLUSION &RIEDEWALDDESCRIBESTHEELEMENTS OF hCOLLABORATIONv AND hEXPERIENCEv AS THE FUNDAMENTAL CONSTITUENTSOFINTERACTIVESYSTEMS5NDERSTANDINGSOCIAL INTERACTIONISCRUCIALFORCONCEPTUALIZINGENHANCED MORE EASILY COMPREHENSIBLE INTERFACES BETWEEN HUMANS AND MACHINESINTHEFUTURE   .ORBERT-3CHMITZ )NTERACTION$ESIGNn$ESIGNAS)NTERACTION /N THE %MERGENCE OF $ESIGN AS A 3YMBOLIC &ORM OF -ODERN#OMMUNICATION  )NHISESSAYh)NTERACTION$ESIGNn$ESIGNAS)NTERAC TION v.ORBERT-3CHMITZPORTRAYSALLMANIFESTATIONSOF DESIGNTHROUGHOUTTHEAGESASTHESYMBOLICCAPITALOFSO CIALSTATUS4HEAUTHORVIEWSTHEFUNCTIONOFDESIGNINAN INCREASINGLY NETWORKED SOCIETY AS A MEANS OF STABILIZING ANDDYNAMIZINGCOMMUNICATIVECOMPETENCEnBEGINNING INTHE2ENAISSANCEANDENDINGINOURMODERNFUNCTIONAL SOCIETIES )F WE EXAMINE THE SIGNIlCANCE OF DESIGN AS AN EXPRESSION OF SOCIAL lGURATIONS IN PRE INDUSTRIAL INDUS TRIAL AND POST INDUSTRIAL ERAS INTERACTION DESIGN CAN BE UNDERSTOODASACONSEQUENCEOFTHESEDEVELOPMENTS4HE ACCELERATION OF INTERACTION RELATIONS STIMULATED BY CON TINUALLYENHANCEDTECHNOLOGY COMPELSUSTOTURNTOTHE ISSUESRAISEDINTHESETECHNOLOGICALWORLDS &OR THE AUTHOR THE CONCEPT OF INTERACTIVITY IS COM MONINTHISMEANING BUTHEPERCEIVESANOVELTYINTHEOB JECTIlCATIONOFSOCIALCONDITIONSTHROUGHTECHNOLOGY)N TERACTIONDESIGNANDITSASSOCIATEDTASKSAREALSOVIEWEDAS THECONSEQUENCEOFTHESOCIALLYANDTECHNOLOGICALLYLINKED INTERACTIONRELATIONSOFOURTIME         

)NTRODUCTION 'ERHARD-"UURMAN

!BOUTTHE%SSAYS 4HESECONDPARTOFTHEINTRODUCTIONPROVIDESABRIEF SUMMARY OF THE CONTRIBUTIONS AND ESSAYS IN THE BOOK 2EADERSMAYUSETHISOVERVIEWFORANINITIALTHEMATICORI ENTATION   -ICHAEL&RIEDEWALD 4HE #ONTINUOUS #ONSTRUCTION OF THE #OMPUTER 5SER 6ISIONS AND 5SER -ODELS IN THE (ISTORY OF (UMAN #OMPUTER)NTERACTION  )N THIS ESSAY -ICHAEL &RIEDEWALD INVESTIGATES HOW DETERMINIST AND CONSTRUCTIONIST IDEAS HAVE INmUENCED THEDESIGNOFTECHNICALSYSTEMS(EBEGINSWITHACRITICAL APPRAISAL OF TECHNOLOGICALLY AND SOCIALLY DETERMINIST EX PLANATIONSOFTHELINKSBETWEENTECHNOLOGICALANDSOCIAL CHANGE THENINTRODUCESASOCIAL CONSTRUCTIONISTAPPROACH THATCENTERSONHUMANBEINGS WHO INCONJUNCTIONWITH TECHNOLOGY FORMADYNAMICSYSTEMWITHDIVERSEFEEDBACK OPTIONS4HECONCEPTIONDEVELOPEDHERESTATESTHATPROG RESSCANBEPROMOTEDANDTHATITRESULTSFROMTECHNOLOGI CALDEVELOPMENTSANDINITIATINGACTIONSBYUSERSTECHNOL OGYAPPLICATIONS  "ASEDONTHESEREmECTIONSnANDDRAWINGONTHEWORK AND ANALYSES OF6ANNEVAR "USH *#2 ,ICKLIDER $OUG LAS%NGELBART !LAN+AYANDOTHERSn&RIEDEWALDDEMON STRATESHOWANANTHROPOCENTRICCONCEPTIONOFTHEWORLD HAS INCREASINGLY INmUENCED THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION (E ALSO SHOWS THE GROWING SIG NIlCANCETHATCOMPUTERTECHNOLOGY CONCEIVEDASASOCIO TECHNICALSYSTEM HASASSUMEDASARESULTOFNEWFORMSOF COMMUNICATIONANDINTERACTION #ITINGTHEANALYSESOFLINGUIST"ENJAMIN7HORF &RIE DEWALDDESCRIBESHOWANUNDERSTANDINGOFNON LINEARITY ANDITSSYMBOLICREPRESENTATION ASWELLASOFTHERELATIONS BETWEEN SYMBOLIC REPRESENTATION LANGUAGE AND REALITY CONSTRUCTION HASOPENEDUPENTIRELYNEWRESEARCHlELDS INSCIENCEANDDESIGNHYPERTEXTAND)NTERNET !FURTHER HISTORICALSTEPINTHISEVOLUTIONARYPROCESSISCONSTITUTED BY INSIGHTS INTO BOTH COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY AND THE PER CEPTUAL SENSOMOTORIC AND COGNITIVE NEEDS OF USERS AS WELLASDEVELOPMENTSRESULTINGFROMTHESEINSIGHTS4HIS INCLUDESTHEINVENTIONOFTHECOMPUTERMOUSEBY$OUGLAS %NGELBART WHICHTODAYISONEOFTHESTANDARDFEATURESOF HUMAN COMPUTERINTERACTION,ASTLY &RIEDEWALDPRESENTS NEW HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION APPROACHES INCLUD





3CHMITZ THEN ARGUES THAT A NEW THEORY OF DESIGN IS DOOMEDTOFAILUREIFITONLYCONCENTRATESONQUESTIONSOF FORMALAESTHETICS!NIMPORTANTASPECTOFHISESSAYCON CERNSTHEPOTENTIALOFANEWDISCIPLINEOFDESIGN ONETHAT FOCUSESONTHEFAIRLYDISTRIBUTEDSOCIALANDTECHNICALCOM PETENCE OF THE INDIVIDUAL USER INSTEAD OF THE AVAILABILITY OF BOTH MATERIALS AND SITES OF PRODUCTION &OR 3CHMITZ INTERACTIONDESIGNSTASKISTOEXPOSEANDDESIGNTHEACCESS POINTSTOTHISSYMBOLICCAPITALOFAWORLDSOCIETY4HESE REmECTIONS TEACH US THAT WE WOULD DO WELL TO UNCOVER THESEMECHANISMSANDTECHNOLOGIESTHROUGHGOODDESIGN &ORTHISREASON THEINTEGRATIONOFQUALITATIVEFACTORSINTO OURTOOLSANDSTRUCTURESCANBESEENASBOTHABITOFDIS TRIBUTIVEJUSTICEANDAFORFEITUREOFPOWERINFAVOROFTHE RULINGELITE   'ERHARD-"UURMAN 4OTAL)NTERACTION)NTERACTIONASA'UIDING0RINCIPLE "EYOND!ESTHETICS  )N THIS ARTICLE "UURMAN DISCUSSES HOW TECHNOLOGI ZATION PROCESSES MUST BE UNDERSTOOD IN GENERAL TERMS AND WHY WE CAN CONCEIVE OF SOCIAL PROGRESS AS AN ON GOING NEVER ENDING EXPERIMENT (E ESCHEWS THE VIEW THAT TECHNICAL ARTIFACTS AND SERVICES RESULT FROM SOCIALLY FORMULATEDNEEDSANDTHEUTILIZATIONOFFUNCTIONS2ATHER INASMUCHASITENGENDERSUSE TECHNOLOGYPERMEATESOUR PRESENTLIVESANDBECOMESASTRUCTURALCONDITIONFOROUR INDIVIDUALITY   ,EV-ANOVICH 'ENERATION&LASH  ,EV-ANOVICHDESCRIBES INHISESSAY THEBURSTOFCRE ATIVITYTHAT&LASHTECHNOLOGYHASTRIGGEREDTHROUGHOUTTHE WORLDOVERTHELASTFEWYEARS(EVIEWSTHEMASSUSEOFTHIS SPECIlCFORMOFEXPRESSIONASREmECTINGTHECULTURALSENSI BILITYOFANENTIREGENERATION4HISNEWGENERATIONSINTER ESTINMEDIATHEORYANDMEDIACRITIQUEISONTHEDECLINE ANDCREATIVEPOTENTIALISBEINGTAPPEDINTHEDEVELOPMENT OFNEWSOFTWARE)NTHEAESTHETICSOFTHESEINDIVIDUALSOFT WARE CREATIONS -ANOVICH SEES A REVIVAL OF TRADITIONAL FORMS OF EXPRESSION (ERE INFORMATION DESIGN FUNCTIONS ASATOOLFORRECOGNIZINGANDDESCRIBINGREALITY!CCORDING TO-ANOVICH PROGRAMMINGnTHENECESSARYBASISFORTHIS

CREATIVEEXPRESSIONnREPRESENTSAGAININBOTHEXPRESSIVE POWERANDNEWFORMSOFEXPRESSION   2EGINE(ALTER 2EMEMBERINGTHE&UTURE -EMORYAND)NTERACTION  )NHERESSAYh2EMEMBERINGTHE&UTURE v2EGINE(AL TEREXAMINESTHERELATIONSHIPBETWEENMEMORYANDINTER ACTION 3HE DElNES MEMORY AS A CONDITION FOR COMMU NICATION AND EXPLORES THE FUNCTION OF FORGETTING AS THE REQUIREMENT FOR PERCEIVING NEW INFORMATION &ROM THIS ANGLE FORGETTING FUNCTIONS AS A CONDITION OF REMEMBER ING 4HE COMPUTER NORMALLY CONCEIVED AS EXTERNALIZED MEMORY PERFORMS THIS FORM OF REMEMBERING AND FOR GETTINGCEASELESSLY NOTINTHEPRODUCTIONOFSEMANTICALLY MEANINGFUL CONTENT BUT IN PURE COMPUTING OPERATIONS 4HEDELEGATIONOFMEMORYINTHESENSEOFCOMMUNICA TION TOTHECOMPUTERISBASEDONAMISTAKENASSOCIATION OFTHECOMPUTERWITHHUMANCONSCIOUSNESS )N (ALTERS VIEW THE COMPUTER AS A CHANNEL DEVOID OFSENSEANDMEANING STANDSINDIRECTOPPOSITIONTOTHE INTENTIONAL ACTIONS OF DESIGN )NTERACTION MEDIATES BE TWEENTWOSYSTEMSHUMANCONSCIOUSNESSANDTHECOM PUTER WHOSEGREATESTCREATIVEPOTENTIALLIESINTHEIRABILITY TOPRODUCETHEUNEXPECTED)TISONLYFROMTHISVIEWPOINT THATTHECOMPUTERGAINSCREATIVERELEVANCE ANDONLYHERE THATITISNOTNEUTRALIZEDASANEXTENSIONOFHUMANCON SCIOUSNESS)NTHISCASEBOTHSYSTEMSEXISTCONCOMITANTLY AND PRODUCE NEW CONTENT (EREIN LIES AN IMPORTANT DE SIGNAPPROACH4AKINGEXPERIMENTALFORMSOFREMEMBER ING AND CONTEXT RELATED INTERACTION AS AN EXAMPLE THE AUTHOR SHOWS HOW THE ACT OF REMEMBERING FUNCTIONS IN SUCH HYBRID FORMS TODAY 4HESE EXPERIMENTS ALSO DEAL WITHNEWPRINCIPLESOFNARRATIONANDTHEWAYSINWHICH WECANINSCRIBERANDOMCONTEXTSWITHEXTERNALORFOREIGN MEMORIES 4HEY SHOW US HOW WE ACTIVATE EXPAND AND CHANGEOURMEMORYOFPLACE4HEEXAMINATIONOFTHEAC CESSPOINTSTOSUCHSNIPPETSOFMEMORYMAKESCLEARHOW IMPORTANTINTERACTIONISFORDESIGN      

TIONSOFTHEPROBLEMSINVOLVEDINREPRESENTINGRISKTRUST ENVIRONMENTS&ORTHEAUTHOR THEBASICCONCEPTIONDEVEL OPEDINTHISARTICLECANSERVEASAVALIDMODELFOREXPERI MENTALGAMES THElELDOFQUALITATIVESOCIALRESEARCH AND CULTURALANTHROPOLOGY   *ÓRGEN3PØTH 1UESTIONSONTHE-ETHODOF6ISUAL$ESIGN  -AKINGUSEOFAWEALTHOFVISUALMATERIALFROMINTER ACTION DESIGN CLASSES AT THE 5NIVERSITY OF !PPLIED !RT IN :URICH *ÓRGEN 3PØTH CONCENTRATES IN HIS ARTICLE ON A RANGEOFDIDACTICISSUES(EDESCRIBESTHEFOUNDATIONSOF VISUALDESIGN WHICHDEVELOPEDINSEVERALSTAGESIN%UROPE ANDAREINCORPORATEDINTOTODAYSDESIGNPROGRAMS-OV INGFROM'RASSETIN&RANCE TO+ANDINSKYAND!ICHER HE EXPLAINSANDILLUSTRATES THROUGHEXAMPLES METHODOLOGI CAL CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING THE PRODUCTION OF SIGNS ANDSIGNSTRUCTURE4HEAUTHORDISCUSSESTHEINCLUSIONOF DIGITALMEDIAASANEXTLOGICALSTEP ANDPRESENTSMOVING SIGNS ANIMATION AND EVEN THE AUTONOMOUS GENERATION OFSIGNSASFUTUREDIRECTIONSFORTHEDISCIPLINE7ITHITSVI SUALMATERIALANDFUNDAMENTALAPPROACH THISREPORTISOF SPECIALINTERESTTOEDUCATORSANDCOLLEGEPROFESSORS   "ERND+ERSTEN 6ISUAL0ERCEPTIONAND6IRTUAL7ORLDS  "ERND+ERSTENPROVIDESUSWITHINSIGHTINTOHOWHU MANPERCEPTIONWORKSINVIRTUALWORLDS(ISANALYSESIN THISESSAYAREBASEDONTHEASSUMPTIONTHATONEMUSTlRST UNDERSTAND THE LAWS OF PERCEPTION AND NOT ONLY INTUI TIVELY INORDERTOCONSTRUCTASPECIlCREALITY 4AKINGANAPPROACHCLOSELYLINKEDTOPSYCHOPHYSICS +ERSTENlRSTDESCRIBESHOWIMAGESEMERGEINOURMINDS ANDWHATPOWERTHESETECHNICALLYGENERATEDIMAGESPOS SESS(EPROVIDESANOUTLOOKFORTHEFUTUREANDADDRESSES AWIDERANGEOFMOREADVANCEDPOINTSCONFRONTINGCREA TORSOFVIRTUALWORLDS      

)NTRODUCTION 'ERHARD-"UURMAN

*ÓRGEN&RITZ (OW6IRTUAL7ORLDS!FFECT5S /NTHE3TRUCTUREOF4RANSFERSFROMTHE-EDIA7ORLDTO THE2EAL7ORLD  *ÓRGEN&RITZSARTICLEADDRESSESTHEIDEAOFhTRANSFERSv BETWEENVIRTUALANDREALWORLDS PARTICULARLYTHEIRSTRUC TURE OCCURRENCEANDOTHERDESCRIPTIVEFEATURES h4RANSFERvALSOREFERSTOTHETRANSFORMATIONOFWHAT IS TRANSFERRED AND THUS THE PROCESSES BY WHICH IT ADAPTS TOANOTHERWORLD/NTHEBASISOFCOMPUTERGAMES &RITZ ANALYZESCONSCIOUSLYMADETRANSFERSASWELLASTHEASSOCI ATEDADAPTATIONANDRE FORMATIONPROCESSES(EATTEMPTS TOEXPLAINTHETRANSFERSANDTHEIRCONDITIONSAUTHORITIES CONTEXTS IMPULSES TO ACT ETC USING SCRIPTS PRINTS AND FACTS ANDINVESTIGATESTHEIRSPECIlCEFFECTANDFORMSCON SCIOUS PROBLEM SOLVING UNCONSCIOUS EMOTIONALIZING  &URTHERMORE HE DESCRIBES THE DIFlCULTIES OF UNWANTED TRANSFERS BETWEEN REAL AND VIRTUAL WORLDS AS WELL AS THE ONGOINGCONTROLMECHANISMSTHATDESIGNERSMUSTDESIGN ANDPLAN   3TEFFEN07ALZ #ONSTITUENTSOF(YBRID2EALITY #ULTURAL!NTHROPOLOGICAL2EmECTIONS ANDA3ERIOUS'AME$ESIGN%XPERIMENT -ERGING-OBILITY -EDIAAND#OMPUTING  )NHISESSAY 3TEFFEN07ALZDESCRIBESAHYBRIDREALITY THATISBASEDONANDCANBEDESCRIBEDBYBOTHOURMOBILE BEHAVIOR IN THE REAL WORLD AND OUR USE OF DIGITAL MEDIA AND COMPUTERS7ALZ DISCOVERS ENTIRELY NEW SOCIO EMO TIONAL INTERACTIONS AND COMMUNICATION ACTIONS IN THESE TECHNOLOGICALLY CHARGED TIME AND SPACE BOUND HYBRID REALITIES(ISTWO PARTCONTRIBUTIONCONSISTSOFANINVESTI GATIONOFTHISPROCESSOFCHANGEBASEDONANEXPERIMENTAL GAME -!$ #OUNTDOWN AND AN ACCOMPANYING CUL TURALANTHROPOLOGICALANALYSIS7ALZlRSTINTRODUCESTHREE MECHANISMSMEDIA COMPUTINGANDMOBILITYINEVERYDAY LIFE(EDESCRIBESTHESEASCONSTITUENTCOMPONENTSOFOUR INTERACTIONS AND HUMAN TECHNOLOGY RELATIONS )N PRIN CIPLE THEYFORMhHYBRIDREALITIESv4HETHEORETICALCOREOF HISGAMESEXPERIMENTALSTRUCTUREISGROUNDEDINTHESERE mECTIONSONTHECURRENTANDFUTUREMEANSOFPRODUCING MAINTAININGANDDISSOLVINGWHATHECALLSDISTANTPROXIM ITYANDPROXIMATEDISTANCE)TISALSOBASEDONHISEXPLICA





)NADDITIONTODESCRIBINGHOWWEEXPERIENCEVIRTUAL WORLDS +ERSTENINCLUDESANOVERVIEWOFTHEMOSTIMPOR TANT LAWS OF PERCEPTION (E ENUMERATES THE FACTORS DE SIGNERSMUSTCONSIDERINTHEIRWORK INCLUDINGTHOSETHEY CANONLYCONTROLIMPRECISELYEXAMPLEMOODSANDEMO TIONS ANDTHOSETHATnWITHADEGREEOFSOCIALINTELLIGENCE nTHEYCANCOMPUTEQUITECONSCIOUSLYAFOCUSONBEAUTY QUICKLYLEADSTOAhDICTATEOFBEAUTYv  !DDITIONALPOINTSOFINTERESTINTHISARTICLEARETHEIN SIGHTSPROVIDEDBYPERCEPTUALRESEARCHINTOTHELIMITSAND POTENTIALOFHUMANPERCEPTIONOFTHEMEDIATHEDISCUS SIONOFTHECONTROLLABLEANDLESSCONTROLLABLEFACTORSINTHE DEVELOPMENTOFVIRTUALWORLDSAND LASTLY THEAUTHORSRE mECTIONSONTHEBOUNDARIESOFOURhCONSTRUCTIONALIMAGI NATIONv)NTHISESSAY THEAUTHORBRINGSTOGETHERKNOWL EDGEOFSCIENTIlCLAWS INSIGHTSINTOPLANNINGLIMITATIONS AS WELL AS THE ETHICAL MORAL CONSIDERATIONS THAT MUST mOWINTOAPPLICATIONS4HESETHREEBASICASSUMPTIONSCOR RESPONDTOTHOSEINTHEDISCIPLINEOFDESIGN   .ADIA'ISLER !DRIAN-ÓLLER "EING)NVISIBLE  4HIS ESSAY QUESTIONS WHETHER WE ARE SUFlCIENTLY EX PLOITING THE POTENTIAL OF THE DIGITAL MEDIA AND WHY WE MUSTREGARDTHEIRPERCEPTUALANDEXPRESSIVEPROPERTIESAS ASOURCEOFCREATIVEPOTENTIALFORSENSITIVE PROFOUNDDE SIGN CONCEPTS 4HE AUTHORS INTRODUCE THREE CENTRAL CON CEPTSTHATTHEYGOONTOEXAMINEFROMASYSTEMSTHEORY VIEWPOINT hNONLINEARITY AND POTENTIALITY v hTRUST v AND hMATERIALv 7ITHIN THIS DElNED FRAMEWORK THE AUTHORS DEVELOP DIFFERENT HYPOTHESES PRESENT VARYING REmEC TIONS AND SKETCH OUT THE PROSPECTS FOR INTERACTIVITY AND DESIGN4HEQUESTIONSAREPURSUEDFROMTWOVERYDIFFER ENTVIEWPOINTSTHATOFTHESCIENTIST ANDTHATOFTHEART IST4HISCONSTELLATIONDEMONSTRATESTHENECESSITYFORBOTH IMPROVEDCOLLABORATIONANDANENTIRELYNEWINTERFACULTY APPROACHTHATENDEAVORSTOPROMOTEPROGRESSAGAINSTTHE BACKDROPOFANENTIRERANGEOFOPTIONS SCIENTIlC ARTISTIC PRACTICES METHODICAL REmECTIONS AND SCIENTIlC EXCLUSION PRINCIPLES ASWELLASARTISTICINDIVIDUALITYANDFREEDOM 4HISAPPROACHCANBEINTERPRETEDASAMETAPHORFOR OURSHIFTFROMAWORLDOFCLOSEDSYSTEMS BREACHES IDEOLO GIES AND SPEECHLESSNESS TO A UNIVERSE OF mOWING BOUND ARIESBETWEENTHEEXPLICABLE THEPROVED THEMOMENTARY THESUBJECTIVEANDTHEAPPROXIMATE

$ANIEL(UG (EAR-E)NTERACT  $ANIEL(UGSESSAYEXAMINESTHEDOMINANCEOFTECH NICALLYPRODUCEDIMAGESINOUREXPERIENCEOFTHEWORLD ASWELLASTHERELATEDQUESTIONOFWHYSOUNDSBOTHNATU RALANDARTIlCIAL AREGIVENSUCHLITTLEATTENTIONINOURDIS COURSE(ElRSTAPPROACHESTHESUBJECTFROMAHISTORICAL AND CULTURAL PHILOSOPHICAL PERSPECTIVE PROVIDING AN IN DEPTH LOOK AT HOW THE DOMINANCE OF TECHNICALLY GENER ATED IMAGES CAN BE UNDERSTOOD AGAINST THE BACKDROP OF CULTURALDEVELOPMENTS (UG THEN QUESTIONS WHAT SIGNIlCANCE SOUNDS HAVE AND HOW WE NOT ONLY COMPLETE OUR PERCEPTION OF REAL ITY BUTALSOREMEMBERANDUNDERSTANDWITHTHEHELPOF ACOUSTIC SIGNALS ,ASTLY HE PROVIDES A FEW SUGGESTIONS AS TOHOWDESIGNERSCANMAKEFORMALANDFUNCTIONALUSEOF SOUND ANDHOWINTERACTIONCANBEACHIEVEDBYACOUSTIC MEANS(UGDEVELOPSTHESETHOUGHTSUSINGEXAMPLESFROM VARIOUS SUB DISCIPLINES INDUSTRIAL DESIGN AUDIO VISUAL MEDIA INTERACTIONDESIGN    #HRISTIAN7EBER 'ERHARD-"UURMAN )NTERACTIVE3YSTEMSn7EARABLE#OMPUTERS  )NTHEIRESSAY #HRISTIAN7EBERAND'ERHARD-"UUR MANTAKEATOPICALLOOKATTHElELDOFWEARABLECOMPUTERS &ROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF INTERACTION DESIGN THIS AREA OF WORKANDRESEARCHISOFGREATSIGNIlCANCEBECAUSEITBRINGS TOGETHERANUMBEROFTHEMATICISSUESWIRELESSTECHNOLO GIES MINIATURIZATION UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING CONTEXTUAL COMPUTING INTERFACES DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES TEXTILE TECH NOLOGY ASWELLASFASHION INDUSTRIALANDINTERACTIONDE SIGN-ANYRESEARCHINSTITUTES UNIVERSITIESANDCOMPANIES ARESTUDYINGANDDEVELOPINGWEARABLECOMPUTERS4HISISA HIGHLYCOMPLEXlELDFORDESIGN SINCEITSEEKSTOINTEGRATE SPECIlCFUNCTIONALITIESCOMMUNICATION INFORMATION IN TERACTION INTOEXISTINGHUMANCLOTHINGANDGEAR(EREWE ARENOTATTEMPTINGTOINVENTNEWCLOTHESOROTHERWEAR ABLE ACCESSORIES BOTH FUNCTIONAL AND AESTHETIC  2ATHER WE ARE PRIMARILY WORKING TO INCORPORATE TECHNOLOGICAL MATERIALANDCREATIVEINNOVATIONSINTOEXISTINGARTIFACTSSO ASTOGIVEUSERS INTHESPECIlCCONTEXTSINWHICHTHEYACT ANADDEDBENElTTHATFUNCTIONSINTHEBACKGROUND(ERE DESIGN NECESSARILY BECOMES INTERACTION DESIGN )TS QUALI TIESCANNOTBEMEASUREDINTERMSOFSUPERlCIALEFFECTS BUT

PRODUCTION 7HEREAS IN THE S #ONSTRUCTIVE !RT IN PARTICULAR EXPLOITED THESE SPECIAL COMPUTER CAPABILITIES EG$OMINIC"OREHAM &RANK"šTTGER NOWADAYSINDUS TRY IS INCREASINGLY APPROPRIATING SIMILAR PROCEDURES FOR $WORLDS GAMES PHYSICALSIMULATIONS ETC &ORTHISREA SON ANIMPORTANTELEMENTOFDESIGNWORKLIESINCODIFY ING THE RULES BY WHICH MACHINES GENERATE FORMS COLORS ANDPATTERNS4HEAUTHORSPRESENTTHISCENTRALTHESISUSING APRACTICALCASESTUDYFROMCLASSROOMINSTRUCTION 4HIS WORK ILLUSTRATES WHAT IS MEANT BY THE CODIlCA TION OF IMAGES TURNING IMAGES INTO NUMBERS  4HE AU THORS PROVIDE AN ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO THE WAYS THAT AESTHETIC IMAGERY AND ITS MATHEMATICAL BASIS ARE CONNECTED 4HE TECHNICALLY PRODUCED IMAGES PREVALENT TODAYMUSTBEUNDERSTOODASTOOLSOFKNOWLEDGEPRODUC TIONORKNOWLEDGERECEPTION4HEIRFUNCTIONCANONLYBE EXPLAINED IN THE CONTEXTS FROM WHICH THEY EMERGE ON A REAL TIMEBASIS   0HILIP!CKERMANN )NTERACTIVE3IMULATIONS  %NTITLED h)NTERACTIVE 3IMULATIONS v THIS ESSAY DEALS WITHTHEPOTENTIALOFINTERACTIVEPROCESSINGCHAINS)TSHOW CASESASAMPLEAPPLICATIONTHAT53-3CHØRRER3šHNE!' COMMISSIONEDTHEAUTHOR 0HILIP!CKERMANN TODEVELOP !CKERMANNlRSTDISCUSSESTHECOMPUTERASAPOWERFUL SIMULATIONENVIRONMENTTHATALLOWSUSERSTOEXPERIENCE INANEXPERIMENTALSPACE THEPERMEATIONOFTHEORYAND PRACTICE                

)NTRODUCTION 'ERHARD-"UURMAN

RATHER IN TERMS OF THE PROPERTIES OF HUMAN TECHNOLOGY INTERACTIONANDTHENEWWAYSTHIShINVISIBLEvTECHNOLOGY SIGNALSITISTHERE   2APHAEL0ERRET "ETWEEN-ANAND-ACHINE  )N HIS ESSAY 2APHAEL 0ERRET EXPLAINS HOW MACHINES PERCEIVEUSANDHOWWERESPONDTOTHISPERCEIVEDREPRE SENTATION#ENTERINGONPOSSIBLEFEEDBACKMECHANISMSIN HUMAN MACHINEINTERACTION HEDESCRIBESTHETECHNICIZED SENSORYAPPARATUSOFOURELECTRIlEDSOCIETYANDITSMEM BERS &ROMTHISSTATUSREPORT WHICHTREATSCURRENTANDFU TURE TECHNICAL FACILITIES INPUTS AND OUTPUTS 0ERRET DE VELOPSTHEFOUNDATIONSFORHISCONCEPTOFINTERACTIVITY(E TESTSTHISCONCEPTINHISEXPERIMENTALINSTALLATIONh$RESS CODEvnAREALROOMEQUIPPEDWITHSENSORSTHATTRACK THEMOVEMENTSOFTWOINTERACTINGPARTIES4HEINSTALLATION THENREPRESENTSTHEMOVEMENTPATTERNSINTEXTILEFORMIN THEREALWORLD4HROUGHTHISPROCESS SURVEILLANCEDATAIS NOTONLYRETURNEDTOTHEPERSONGENERATINGIT BUTALSORE WORKEDASCLOTHING REMEMBEREDANDPUBLICLYDISPLAYED )N ADDITION THE AUTHOR PRESENTS EXAMPLES OF HUMAN MACHINEINTERACTIONSORPARTNERSHIPS FROMTHEARTSAND SCIENCES+NIGHT2IDER "LADE2UNNER (EUSESTHEMTO ELABORATEONHISTHOUGHTSCONCERNINGTHEQUALITATIVENEW DEMANDS PLACED ON TECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS THAT ARE INCREASINGLY LENDING THEMSELVES TO SENSUOUS IMMEDIATE ANDEVENBEAUTIFULFORMSOFEXPRESSIONASARESULTOFOPTI MIZEDINTERACTIONPROCESSES   -AX2HEINER &ELIX%GGMANN 'ENERATIVE$ESIGN  4HIS ESSAY BY -AX 2HEINER AND &ELIX %GGMANN DE SCRIBES BOTH THE CONCEPTUALIZATION AND THE RESULTS OF A WORKSHOP IN THE INTERACTIVE MEDIA PROGRAM AT THE 5NI VERSITY OF !PPLIED !RTS IN :URICH %NTITLED h'ENERATIVE $ESIGN vTHEWORKSHOPCENTEREDONTHEFUNDAMENTALSOF GRAPHIC PROGRAMMING AND EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMMING PROCEDURES 4HEAUTHORSDElNEGENERATIVEDESIGNASTHEMACHINE BASED PRODUCTION OF FORMS $ESIGNERS DO NOT CREATE THE FORMSTHEMSELVESBUTRATHERWRITETHERULEBOOKSFORTHEIR





5SINGAPRODUCTCONlGURATORASANEXAMPLE !CKER MANNSHOWSTHECOMPLEXINTERRELATIONSBETWEENPRODUCT DATA THE SIMULATIVE ENVIRONMENT AND THE COMMERCIAL PROCESSESOFPLANNING PRODUCTIONANDDISTRIBUTION4HE CONlGURATOR IS A FUNCTIONAL INTERACTIVE SIMULATION THAT DYNAMICALLY DEPICTS ALL PROPERTIES OF THE MODEL AND ITS MODULES HERE THE MODEL IS A MODULAR OFlCE FURNITURE SYSTEM )TALSOPORTRAYSANYUSE RELATEDCHANGESINTHESE PROPERTIES FORMAL AND STRUCTURAL RULES ROLES PHYSICAL PROPERTIES ETC !CKERMANNDESCRIBESTHECHARACTERISTICS OFSUCHINTERACTIVESIMULATIONSWITHINTHECONTEXTOFDIA LOGICBUSINESSPROCESSESANDTHEIRCOMMERCIALCONDITIONS WHICH ALSO FALL UNDER THE HEADING hENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNINGv %20  (E REGARDS INTERACTIVE SIMULATIONS AS DElNING VISIONS IN THE lELDS OF MULTIMEDIA COMPUTING AND INTERACTION DESIGN /NE REASON FOR THIS VIEW IS THAT SUCHSIMULATIONSENHANCETHEECONOMICEFlCIENCYOFIN NOVATION PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION PROCESSES hCUS TOMERSATISFACTIONv  ! CONSISTENT DISPLAY OF DATA PRODUCT DATA KNOWL EDGE PROCESS DATA CUSTOMER DATA ETC IS THE NECESSARY FOUNDATIONFORSIMULTANEOUSBUSINESSPROCESSES)NSIMU LATIVE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS ALL RECORDED DATA MUST BE PROCESSEDANDORGANIZEDINTORELEVANTVIEWS#ONSTANTLY UPDATEDDATAISTHEREFOREAMUSTFORCOMPANY WIDE COL LABORATIVEINFORMATIONMANAGEMENTSYSTEMS4HISMEANS THAT EVERY ACTIVITY FROM ENGINEERING TO CUSTOMER CARE MUSTBEPROCESSEDONAREAL TIMEBASISSOTHATNECESSARY CHANGES CAN BE DISPLAYED 4HE COMPANY AND ITS OPERA TIONSAREREmECTEDINANEXTENSIVEDATAMODELANDBECOME LIKEANORGANISM VISIBLEINTHEIRLATESTFORMATTHEINTER FACES/NTHEBASISOFACONlGURATIONTOOLDEVELOPEDFOR 53-(ALLER !CKERMANNSHOWSHOWPRODUCTDATAPHYSI CAL GEOMETRIC DATA WHICH IS DEPENDENT ON OTHER BUSI NESSDATA CANBEDISPLAYEDANDMADEINTEROPERABLEINA SIMULATIVEINTERACTIVEENVIRONMENT 4HEAUTHORCONVINCINGLYDEMONSTRATESTHEPOTENTIAL OFFERED BY INTERACTIVE SIMULATIONS THAT ALLOW US TO LINK SUB PROCESSESTOFORMASINGLE DYNAMIC COMPANY WIDE PROCESS )F THIS MODEL IS EXTENDED ACROSS THE BOUNDARIES OF BUSINESSES NATIONS AND OTHER hSYSTEMS v A MECHANISM CAN BE SET IN PLACE THAT PERFORMS A NUMBER OF FUNC TIONS IT CAN INFORM US OF THE OPERATIONAL STATUS OF SAY SOMEONES CAR CONlGURE A PRODUCT AND ULTIMATELY DE SCRIBEALLHUMANACTIONANDRENDERITCOMPREHENSIBLEAS THE EXECUTION OF A TECHNICAL OPTION %VENTUALLY WE WILL

END UP VIEWING THESE PROCESSES FROM AN AESTHETIC VIEW POINT AND SEEKING WAYS TO INTEGRATE SUCH MECHANISMS INTO OUR ENVIRONMENTS AS AESTHETIC PHENOMENA /NE EXAMPLE IS THE GLASS 67 FACTORY IN 7OLFSBURG WHICH DEMONSTRATES THAT EVEN TODAY WE ARE CREATING THEATRICAL PRESENTATIONS AND LIFESTYLES FROM MORE RATIONAL PRODUC TIONPROCESSES   $ANIEL"ISIG "IO3ONICS)NTERACTIVE'ROWTH3YSTEM  )NHISESSAY $ANIEL"ISIGDESCRIBESAMEANSOFTRANS FORMINGHUMANINTERACTIONINTOSPATIAL TIME BASEDSIGN FORMATIONSWITHTHEAIDOFADYNAMIC SELF ORGANIZINGSYS TEM 4HE EXPERIMENT EXPLORES THE AESTHETIC RULES NECES SARYTOCONSTRUCTSUCHFORMATIONSASWELLASTHEQUESTION OFHOWINTUITIVEINTERACTIONCANBEREALIZEDVIACOMPLEX SYSTEMS 4HE EXPERIMENT SIMULATES BIOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT PROCESSESWITHWHICHTHEUSERCANINTERACT4HESYSTEMS GROWTH PROCESS IS CONTROLLED VIA A NETWORK OF CHEMICAL REACTIONSTHATLEADTOCHANGESINTHESYSTEMSAPPEARANCE ANDBEHAVIOR4HESECHANGESAREINDICATEDTHROUGHBOTH ACOUSTICANDVISUALOUTPUT-ICROPHONESTHATRECORDUSER INPUT TRANSFORM SIGNALS INTO CHEMICAL PROCESSES THAT UL TIMATELYLEADTOCHANGESINTHEGROWTHANDSHAPEOFTHE ORGANISM "IO3ONICS HAS BEEN CONCEIVED AS AN EXPERIMENTAL INSTALLATION )T IS INTENDED TO SHOW HOW AN IMMEDIATE FUNCTIONALRELATIONSHIPCANBEESTABLISHEDBETWEENANAB STRACT CHEMICAL MODEL AND SOUND IN GENERAL  )T MAKES CLEARTHATWECANEXERTANINmUENCEONOURENVIRONMENT THROUGHALLTYPESOFFEEDBACK 4HE INSTALLATION GIVES US AN IMPRESSION OF THE POS SIBLECHEMICALREACTIONSATWORKWHENWEHEARAPLEASANT HUMANVOICETHATCAUSESASHIVERTORUNDOWNOURSPINE )TINSPIRESSUCHREmECTIONSWHILEPROVIDINGANINTRIGUING ANDSTARTLINGVIEWOFCHEMICALPROCESSES        

#AROLINE3CHUBIGER )NTERACTION$ESIGN$ElNITIONAND4ASKS  #AROLINE 3CHUBIGER EVALUATED A RANGE OF TOPICAL WELL KNOWNWORKSONDESIGNINTERACTIONDESIGNANDAS SEMBLEDTHESEINANANTHOLOGY)NTHISESSAY SHEFOLLOWS A DElNED METHODOLOGY IN COMPARING AND ANALYZING VARIOUSMETHODICAL TERMINOLOGICALANDCOMMUNICATION THEORETICALISSUESRELATEDTOTHISTHEMATIClELD3CHUBIGER PROVIDESUSWITHASELECT METHODOLOGICALLYSOUNDVIEWOF THELITERATUREONINTERACTIONDESIGN)TINCLUDESBOOKSTHAT WERECOMMENDASINTRODUCTORYREADINGANDUSEINCLASS ROOMINSTRUCTION                                  

)NTRODUCTION 'ERHARD-"UURMAN

"ENEDIKT-6OEGTLI -ORTEN&JELD 0ATRICK*UCHLI 4ANGIBLE5SER)NTERFACESFOR%DUCATIONAL5SE  'ENERALLY THETERMAUGMENTEDREALITY!2 REFERSTO AN INTERACTIVE REAL TIME SUPERIMPOSITION OF VIRTUAL AND REALINFORMATION4HISOVERLAPOCCURSATGEOMETRICALLYDE lNEDLOCATIONSANDALLOWSUSERSTOSUPPLEMENTTHEIREN VIRONMENTWITHDIGITALINFORMATIONPRECISELYATTHEPLACES WHEREITISFUNCTIONALLYANDAESTHETICALLYDESIRED7ITHIN ANAUGMENTEDREALITYSYSTEM!23 VIRTUALITYISALWAYS ORIENTED TOWARD REALITY 4HROUGH TANGIBLE INTERFACES DIGITAL INFORMATION IS GIVEN PHYSICAL FORM 4HE PHYSICAL INTERFACEREPRESENTSANDCONTROLSTHEDIGITALINFORMATION 4HESEPHYSICALMODELSBOTHPROVIDEOUREYESANDHANDS WITHALLTHENECESSARYDATAANDCOMMUNICATEQUALITATIVE NON LINGUISTICINFORMATION )NTHISESSAY THETEAMOFAUTHORSDESCRIBESTHECON CEPT AND STRUCTURE OF AN !23 EQUIPPED WITH A TANGIBLE USER INTERFACE AND DEVELOPED FOR CHEMISTRY INSTRUCTION 7ITH THIS EXPERIMENTAL DEVICE STUDENTS CAN MANUALLY COMBINECHEMICALELEMENTSASTHEYLOOKINTOANARTIlCIAL LYGENERATEDMIRRORIMAGE4HEELEMENTSAREPORTRAYEDIN REALTIMEASCOMPUTER GENERATEDTHREE DIMENSIONALMOL ECULEMODELS   0ETER4ROXLER 2OBOTSIN%DUCATIONAND4RAINING4HE#ASEOFAN )NTERACTIVE-ULTI !GENT3YSTEM  )NHISESSAY 0ETER4ROXLERDESCRIBESWAYSOFSPARKING YOUNGPEOPLESINTERESTINENGINEERINGANDCOMPUTERSCI ENCESPECIlCALLYROBOTICS 4ROXLERARGUESTHATITISPOSSI BLETOCOMBINE INASINGLEAPPROACH THETEACHINGOFCOM PUTERSCIENCE MECHATRONICSANDROBOTICSWITHSOFTSKILLS SUCHASTEAM PRESENTATIONALANDCOMMUNICATIVEABILITIES 4HEAUTHORDESCRIBESINDETAILAPROJECTTHATSTUDENTSIM PLEMENTEDWITHTHEHELPOF,EGO-INDSTORM4HEPROJECT ISUSEDASANEXAMPLETOINTRODUCETHEVARIOUSASPECTSOF THISSPECIlCFORMOFMAN MACHINEINTERACTION       





 !)NTRODUCTION !STHISCOLLECTIONTOOKSHAPE ITSCREATORSFELTADESIRE TOhVISUALIZEv THE ESSAYS AND THEIR THEMATIC LINKS *ÓRGEN 3PØTH THEBOOKSCHIEFDESIGNER AND-AGNUS2EMBOLD A COMPUTERSCIENTISTANDSPECIALISTFORDYNAMICDATAGRAPH ICS WORKEDTOGETHERWITHTHEEDITORTOESTABLISHPRACTICABLE ANDEFFECTIVEPRINCIPLESFORVISUALLYILLUSTRATINGTHERELATION SHIPSBETWEENESSAYSANDCONVEYINGTHEMTOTHEREADER  "#ONCEPTS  "4HEPROBLEM ! FEW OF THE ESSAYS HAVE CLOSE THEMATIC LINKS WHILE OTHERSFOCUSSOSTRONGLYONONETOPICTHATTHEYMOREOR LESSSTANDALONE)NMANYCASES COMMONKEYWORDSMAKE SURPRISINGCROSS REFERENCESBETWEENTWOSEEMINGLYUNRE LATEDESSAYS4HECHALLENGELAYINlNDINGFORMSOFGRAPHI CALTYPOGRAPHICALREPRESENTATIONFORTHEESSAYSTHATWERE BOTH APPEALING AND INFORMATIVE $UE IN PART TO THEIR NUMBER AND SCOPE WE WERE SEEKING A WAY TO AUTOMATI CALLYGENERATEGRAPHICSACCORDINGTOPREDElNEDRULES  ""ASISOFVISUALIZATION !DATAGRAPHICnLIKEABARCHARTnDEPICTSQUANTIl ABLE DATA !NY AUTOMATED GENERATION OF CONTENT GRAPH ICS REQUIRES AN AUTOMATED QUANTIlABLE TRANSFORMATION OFTHEMOSTLYTEX TUAL INFORMATIONINTHEESSAYS5NLIKE HUMANBEINGS OURCURRENTCOMPUTINGSYSTEMSCANONLY INSUFlCIENTLYhREADvORINTERPRETESSAYS WHICHMEANSTHAT INOURWORK WEHADTORELYONDATATHATALREADYEX ISTEDIN THETEX TSANDWASNOTADDEDTHROUGHINTERPRETATIVEREAD INGORASSOCIATION  "$IFFERENTWAYSOFDATASELECTIONSUBPARTS !NIMPORTANTFACTORWASTHEMANNEROFDATACOLLEC TION )N WHAT FOLLOWS WE WOULD LIKE TO PROVIDE A BRIEF OVERVIEWOFALLDATAUNDERCONSIDERATION )T IS POSSIBLE TO DIVIDE ESSAY DATA INTO TWO MAIN GROUPS DATA THAT MUST BE COLLECTEDhMANUALLYv IN OUR CASE USINGHUMANINTELLIGENCE ANDDATATHATCANBECAP TUREDAUTOMATICALLYBYMACHINEINTELLIGENCE

"+EYWORDS +EYWORDSARETERMSTHATIDENTIFYANESSAYINASPECIAL WAYORHAVEINCREASEDSIGNIlCANCEFORIT)FAPERSONRE SEARCHESASUBJECTUSINGONEOFTHESEKEYWORDS ITWILLPRO DUCEALISTOFSEARCHRESULTSTHATSHOULDINCLUDETHEESSAY TOWHICHITISATTACHED+EYWORDSMAYEX ISTINORBEADDED TO AN ESSAY )N ANY CASE THEY REPRESENT A SPECIAL MARKER SET BY AN AUTHOR OR CATALOGUER +EYWORDS ARE SUBJECTIVE nTHEYREmECTTHESPECIlCPERSPECTIVEANDBACKGROUNDOF THEPERSONWHODECLARESTHEM  "-ETADATA %X AMPLES OF ESSAY METADATA ARE THE ESSAYS AUTHOR THETIMEPERIODSINWHICHITWASWRITTEN ITSLANGUAGE THE NUMBEROFIMAGESITUSES THETYPEOFIMAGES TEX TGENRE INTENDEDAUDIENCE LENGTHINCHARACTERS WORDS SENTENC ES SECTIONS PAGES lLEFORMAT TYPEFACE ETC7ElNDTHAT ITISPOSSIBLETOAUTOMATETHECOLLECTIONOFSOMEOFTHESE METADATA&OREX AMPLE THELANGUAGEINWHICHANARTICLEIS WRITTENCANBEDETERMINEDBYCOMPARINGTHEWORDSUSED INTHEARTICLEWITHWORDSOFOTHERKNOWNLANGUAGES)FTHE ARTICLE CONTAINS WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH THE REGION WHERE 2OMANIANISSPOKEN ITWASMOSTLIKELYWRITTENIN2OMA NIAN)FWORDSAREUNKNOWNTOTHECOMPUTER ITWILLNOT BEABLETODETERMINETHELANGUAGE&ORTHEMOSTPART THE TIME PERIOD DURING WHICH THE ESSAY WAS WRITTEN CAN BE RETRIEVEDAUTOMATICALLYnPROVIDEDTHATTHETEX TWASWRIT TENONACOMPUTERANDTHEWORD PROCESSINGPROGRAMKEPT TRACK OF THE WRITING SESSIONS )F IMAGES ARE AVAILABLE IN DIGITALFORM ITISALSOPOSSIBLETOAUTOMATETHEPROCESSING OF IMAGE METADATA SINCE IN THIS CASE IMAGE lLE FORMATS DIMENSIONS COLOR DEPTHS AND RESOLUTIONS ARE KNOWN (OWEVER IMAGECONTENTISMETA INFORMATIONTHATNEEDS TO BE CLASSIlED MANUALLY #ONSEQUENTLY CLASSIlCATION OF METADATAASMANUALORAUTOMATICMUSTBEPERFORMEDON ACASE BY CASEBASIS!LTHOUGHTHELENGTHOFATEX TISMETA INFORMATION ITCANBEDETERMINEDAUTOMATICALLYINSUCH GREATDETAILTHATITTRANSITIONSTOTHEDOMAINOFAUTOMATI CALLYCOLLECTABLEDATA     4HEFORMULATIONALONEMAKESCLEARTHATTHISISSECONDNATURE FORHUMANBEINGS!COMPUTERCANONLYCOMPARECHARACTERPATTERNS WITHOUTEX TENSIVEPROGRAMMING ITISUNABLETOGRASPTHECONSTRUCT OFLANGUAGE

#ONTENT'RAPHICS (OWTO2EADTHE6ISUALS

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"3TATISTICALDATA !N ESSAY IS USUALLY STORED ELECTRONICALLY IN THE FORM OF ALPHANUMERICAL CHARACTER SEQUENCES WHICH COMPUT ERS CAN EASILY CRUNCH #ONSEQUENTLY DATA COLLECTION CAN BEEASILYAUTOMATEDWHENTHEDATAPERTAINSTOTHENUM BEROFCHARACTERS WORDS SENTENCES SECTIONSANDPAGESIN ANESSAY ORTOTHEFREQUENCYOFWORDSANDCHARACTERSALL OTHERFREQUENCIESLEADTOUNUSABLERESULTS (OWEVER THIS DATAHASONLYALIMITEDSIGNIlCANCE3TATISTICALANALYSESARE MUCHMOREINTERESTINGWHENSEVERALESSAYSARECOMPARED %SSAYSTATISTICSCANBECOMPILEDINORDERTOCOMPARETWO ESSAYS TOCOMPAREONEESSAYWITHALLOTHERS ORTOANALYZE THEENTIREESSAYCOLLECTIONORBOOK  "3TRUCTURALDATA #OMPUTER LINGUISTICPROCESSESCANBEUSEDTOEVALU ATE GRAMMATICAL AND STRUCTURAL INFORMATION IN AN ESSAY (OWEVER THEYREQUIRETHATTHEGRAMMAROFTHELANGUAGE BEWELLKNOWNANDTHATTHEAUTHOROFTHETEX TACTUALLYUSE IT ! COLLECTION OF PURELY ASSOCIATIVE WORDS EVEN IF THEY REPRESENTASTATEMENTOFSORTS CANNOTBEANALYZEDLINGUIS TICALLY!NDEVENIFALINGUISTICANALYSISYIELDSRESULTS THESE RESULTS SAY LITTLE ABOUT THE SUBJECT OF THE ESSAY 4HEY ARE BETTERSUITEDTOUNDERSTANDINGTEX TGENREORTHECOMPLEX ITYOFTHEAUTHORSSTYLEWHICHMAYINTURNSHEDLIGHTON THECOMPLEX ITYOFTHESUBJECTMATTER   "$ATASELECTIONINTHEPRESENTCASE 7E HAVE CONCENTRATED ON DATA THAT WAS EASY TO COL LECTAUTOMATICALLY4HEFREQUENCYOFWORDSBOTHINANES SAYANDINCOMPARISONTOOTHERESSAYSPROVIDEDUSWITHA BASISFORGRAPHICSGENERATION)NORDERTOCREATEDETAILED GRAPHICSWITHTHEGREATESTPOSSIBLETHEMATICSIGNIlCANCE WEDISREGARDEDMETADATAANDFOCUSEDSOLELYONWORDFRE QUENCY)NORDERTOREMOVEFROMTHESTATISTICSANESSAYS NON THEMATIClLLERWORDSIT AND ONE IS THAT ETC WE USEDAMANUALLYCOMPILEDSTOPWORDLISTASAlLTERINTHE PRELIMINARYSTAGEOFTHEPROJECT 4HETERMhSECONDAUTHORvWASANOTHERVITALCRITERIA FOR THE SELECTED REPRESENTATIONAL MODE 4HE SECOND AU THOR WAS IDENTIlED FOR EACH EX AMINED WORD IN AN ESSAY ANDREPRESENTSTHEAUTHORWHOUSESTHISSPECIALWORDMOST FREQUENTLYINHISHERESSAY%ACHEX AMINEDWORDTHUSES TABLISHES A THEMATIC LINK BETWEEN TWO ESSAYS AT LEAST IN STATISTICALTERMS   

                                           !NABANDONEDAPPROACHTOVISUALIZINGTHEESSAYCONTENT !NDONLYRARELYDOESTHISSHEDLIGHTONTHECOMPLEX ITYOFTHE SUBJECTMATTER!UTHORSOFTENWRITECOMPLEX SENTENCESABOUTSIMPLE TOPICS0ROSEWRITERSMAYPURPOSELYDOSOFORREASONSOFSTYLE

)N A SECOND STAGE CORRELATIONS BETWEEN ESSAYS ARE DETERMINED "OTH THE hSECOND AUTHORv AND RELATIVE FRE QUENCIESARECALCULATEDFOREVERYWORDINORDERTOIDENTIFY WHICHOFTHETWOAUTHORSANDWHICHESSAYATTACHEShGREAT ESTIMPORTANCEvTOTHEWORD 4 HISISFOLLOWEDBYGEOMETRICCOMPUTATIONSTHATCON VERTTHECAPTUREDDATAINTOGRAPHICSTRUCTURESINOURCASE PRIMARILY CIRCLES  4 HE POSITION OF THE CIRCLES CENTER AS WELLASRADIUSLENGTH lLLERCOLORS TYPEFACECOLORANDCIRCLE TRANSPARENCYVARYDEPENDINGONDATA 4 HEGRAPHICSTRUCTURESAREEXPRESSEDINTHEDESCRIP TIVELANGUAGE36'ANDWRITTENINTOANOUTPUTlLE/NCE ALLTHEDESCRIPTIONSFORACONTENTGRAPHICHAVEBEENPIECED TOGETHER THE lLE IS CLOSED AND TRANSFERRED TO A BROWSER PROGRAM WITH A SOFTWARE COMPONENT FOR THE DISPLAY OF 36'lLES4 HISCOMPONENTTHENCONVERTSTHEDESCRIP TIONINTOVISUALOUTPUT 4 HEAUTHORINGTOOL$IRECTORALSOHASADISPLAYFUNC TIONFORVECTOR BASEDGRAPHICSTHATPERMITSDIRECTDISPLAY INTHESYSTEMANDTHATWOULDPRESUMABLYHAVESIMPLIlED THEDEVELOPMENTALPROCESSTHROUGHSIMPLERMANIPULATION DURINGGRAPHICSGENERATION(OWEVER WEDECIDEDTOFORE GOTHISALTERNATIVEOUTPUTFORREASONSOFTIME            7EUSED!DOBE)LLUSTRATORFORGRAPHICSAND!DOBE)N$ESIGN FORBOOKLAYOUT 36'SCALABLEVECTORGRAPHICS&ORMOREINFORMATION PLEASEVISIT HTTPWWWWORG'RAPHICS36' 7#7ORLD7IDE7EB#ONSORTIUM AGROUPOFINDUSTRYPROFES SIONALSDEDICATEDTOSTANDARDIZINGELECTRONICDATAFORMATS 8-,E8TENDABLE-ARKUP,ANGUAGE AMETA LANGUAGEUSEDTO DESCRIBEDATAFORMATS $IRECTORUSES,INGO WHOSESYNTAXISCLOSELYRELATEDTO0!3#!, ALANGUAGEDEVELOPEDBY.IKLAUS7IRTHOFTHE3WISS&EDERAL)NSTITUTEOF 4 ECHNOLOGYIN:URICH 3EEALSOhSTOPWORDLISTvINTHESECTIONh$ATASELECTIONINTHEPRES ENTCASEv )NOURCASETHE3AFARIBROWSERBY!PPLEWITHTHE36'PLUG INBY !DOBE AVAILABLEATHTTPWWWADOBECOMSVG

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#0RODUCTION  #)MPLEMENTATIONCRITERIA 4 HEGRAPHICSGENERATEDWEREINTENDEDFORHIGH QUAL ITY REPRODUCTION IN THE BOOK 3INCE WE WANTED THEM TO CONSISTPRIMARILYOFTYPOGRAPHYANDCOLOREDAREAS WESE LECTEDAVECTOR RATHERTHANAPIXEL BASEDFORMAT)NAD DITION ASANOUTPUTlLE THEFORMATWASTOBEWRITTENBY MEANSOFANALGORITHMTOENSUREAFULLYAUTOMATEDPRO CESS 4 HIS MADE IT ESSENTIAL TO WORK WITH ANhOPENv FOR MATTHATHADAWELL KNOWNINTERNALSYNTAXANDCOULDBE EASILY PROCESSED BY BOOK LAYOUT PROGRAMS  4 HE 3CAL ABLE6ECTOR'RAPHICS&ORMATOFTHE7ORLD7IDE7EB #ONSORTIUM   WHICH WAS DElNED WITH THE SUPPORT OF !DOBE AND OTHER COMPANIES FULlLLS THESE REQUIREMENTS !SANADDEDADVANTAGE ITISREADABLEBYHUMANBEINGSIN AFORMSIMILARTO8-, !NADDITIONALDEMANDONTHEGENERATIONPROCESSWAS THATITSHOULDPERMITQUICKANDmEXIBLEALTERATIONSTOTHE RULESOFGRAPHICSGENERATION4 HISISWHYWESELECTED-AC ROMEDIA$IRECTORASANAUTHORINGTOOLWITHANINTERPRET EDPROGRAMMINGLANGUAGEINORDERTOIMPLEMENTTHE ALGORITHM -ACROMEDIA $IRECTOR ALLOWS FOR DIRECT SCRIPT EDITINGWITHOUTRECOMPILATIONANDFEATURESFUNCTIONSFOR MANIPULATINGTEXTS WORDSANDCHARACTERS&URTHER THEAU THORINGTOOLMAKESPOSSIBLEANUNCOMPLICATEDDISPLAYOF GRAPHICSWITHINTHEPROGRAMINADDITIONTOOUTPUTOFTHE GRAPHICSASATEXTlLEIN36'FORMAT  #'ENERATIONPROCESS 4 HEGRAPHICSGENERATIONPROCESSUNFOLDSSEQUENTIALLY INANUMBEROFSTAGES)TISPARTIALLYREPEATEDFOREACHRE GENERATIONOFTHESAMEGRAPHIC)TSTARTSBYREADINGAND hCLEANINGv THE TEXT n THAT IS BY CONVERTING OR DELETING BLANK PARAGRAPHS BLANK CHARACTERS SPECIAL CHARACTERS ETC4 HETEXTPROCESSEDINTHISWAYISTHENlLTEREDWORDBY WORDSEEhSTOPWORDLISTvINu$ATASELECTIONINTHEPRES ENTCASEh ANDEVALUATED YIELDINGATABLETHATCONTAINSALL WORDSTHATAPPEARINTHEESSAY PLUSTHEIRFREQUENCY$ATA PREPARATION ONLY NEEDS TO BE PERFORMED ONCE PER ESSAY AND THIS INFORMATION CAN THEN BE STORED AS AN INTERME DIARY RESULT!T THIS POINT IT IS POSSIBLE TO COMPUTE HOW MANY WORDS HAVE A lLLER FUNCTION HOW MANY CROP UP SEVERALTIMESANDHOWMANYSTANDALONEINTHEESSAYCOL LECTION3TANDARDIZEDVALUESCANBEDERIVEDFORTHEENTIRE LENGTHOFTHEESSAY 





#'RAPHICLEVELS /URCONTENTGRAPHICSCONSISTOFTHREELEVELS EACHOF WHICHREPRESENTSDIFFERENTINFORMATION  #"ACKGROUND 4 HE BACKGROUND OF EACH GRAPHIC CLASSIlES THE ESSAY IN QUESTION WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF ALL OTHER ESSAYS IN THE BOOK4 HECONCENTRICCIRCLESREPRESENTTHEINDIVIDUALES SAYS WITH THE RADIUS IN DIRECT PROPORTION TO THE ESSAYS CHARACTERCOUNTSEE&IGURE )NADDITION THEESSAYSARE DEPICTEDASAPIESLICETHATHASBEENCOLOR CODEDACCORD ING TO *OHANNES )TTENS COLOR CIRCLE AND WHOSE WIDTH OF THECENTRALANGLEDERIVESFROMTHENUMBEROFCOINCIDING WORDSBETWEENTHEESSAYINQUESTIONANDTHATOFTHESEC ONDAUTHOR4 HERADIUSOFTHEPIESLICEALSODERIVESFROM THELENGTHOFTHEINDIVIDUALESSAYSTHESAMEISTRUEOFTHE CONCENTRICCIRCLES SEE&IGURE )NTHECONTEXTOFTHE BOOK THEESSAYSHAVEBEENARRANGEDSOTHATTHElRSTESSAY APPEARSATTHETOPOFTHECIRCLEANDTHEOTHERSFOLLOWINA CLOCKWISEDIRECTION 4 HE RADIUS OF THE WHITE SPACE IN THE MIDDLE OF THE PIESLICESISRELATIVETOTHELENGTHOFTHEOTHERESSAYSSEE &IGURE   "OTH THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE CENTER OF THE WHITE SPACE AND ITS RADIUS AND THE DISTANCE BETWEEN ITS RADIUSANDTHEOUTERMOSTCONCENTRICCIRCLESTANDINDIRECT PROPORTIONTOTHERELATIONSHIPBETWEENTHELENGTHOFTHE ESSAYINQUESTIONANDTHATOFTHELONGESTESSAYINTHEBOOK ! SHORT ESSAY IS THUS REPRESENTED BY A SMALL AMOUNT OF CENTRALWHITESPACE ALONGESSAYBYALARGEAMOUNT4 HE SLICESTHUSHAVEhLENGTHSvCORRESPONDINGTOEACHOFTHEES SAYS4 OILLUSTRATETHECOLORCODE WEHAVEGIVENEACHSLICE ASOLID COLOREDOUTEREDGETHATRUNSALONGTHECONCENTRIC CIRCLEALLOTTEDTOTHECORRESPONDINGESSAY  #"ARCODESTRUCTURE 4 HE BARCODE STRUCTURE WHICH APPEARS WITHIN THE CONCENTRIC CIRCLE OF THE ESSAY IN QUESTION BREAKS DOWN ITS STRUCTURE SEE &IGURE   "OTH THE CENTRAL ANGLE AND TRANSPARENCYOFEACHBARCORRESPONDTOTHELENGTHOFTHE ESSAYSPARAGRAPHS!LONGPARAGRAPHINTHETEXTISDEPICT EDBYALIGHTSHADEIEAHIGHDEGREEOFTRANSPARENCY AND A WIDE CENTRAL ANGLE 4 HE WHITE SPACE AT THE END OF THE BARCODERINGSTANDSFORTHEAMOUNTOFSOURCEINFORMATION ANDFOOTNOTESATTHEENDOFATEXT!LARGEAMOUNTOF WHITESPACEINTHEBARCODERINGINDICATESANESSAYWITHA LOTOFFOOTNOTESANDSOURCEINFORMATION 

                                            

    

  



    



        

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#ONTENT'RAPHICS (OWTO2EADTHE6ISUALS

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4HE DEVELOPMENT OF MORE COMPLEX FORMS OF SOCIAL INTERACTION WASSTRENGTHENEDBYTHEDEMANDSOFTHENEWECONOMYOFTHERISING BOURGEOISIE WHICHREPRESENTEDTHESECONDSOURCEOFTHEDYNAMICOF MODERNSOCIALEXISTENCE)NSTRUMENTALLYRATIONALPRODUCTIONPROCESSES INMANUFACTURING TRADEBOTHONANATIONALSCALEANDBETWEENTHEECO NOMICZONESOFTHERISINGNATION STATES ANDDISCIPLINEDREINVESTMENT NOTONLYPRODUCEDPREVIOUSLYUNHEARD OFWEALTHBUTABOVEALLLEDTO ACONTINUOUSPROCESSOFCAPITALACCUMULATION/NTHEONEHAND THIS REQUIREDAHIGHDEGREEOFSELF DISCIPLINEANDARATIONALLIFESTYLE CHAR ACTERISTICSTYPICALOFTHEPRE 2EFORMATIONAND2EFORMATIONBURGHERS OFTHETHRIVINGCITIESIN&LANDERS SOUTHERN'ERMANYAND3WITZERLAND /N THE OTHER HAND IT DEMANDED THE ABILITY TO INTERACT ON AN EVER MOREPRECISELEVELWITHALARGERNUMBEROFECONOMICPLAYERS WHOIN SOMECASESWERELOCATEDHUNDREDSANDEVENTHOUSANDSOFKILOMETERS AWAY)TISIMPORTANTTOBEARINMINDTHEEXTRAORDINARYNATUREOFTHIS PHENOMENON WHICH -ARX AND7EBER RIGHTLY INCLUDED IN THEIR DIS CUSSIONSONTHEGENESISOFCAPITALISM*USTASTODAYTHE)NTERNETCAN BEUSEDTOCARRYOUTPRECISElNANCIALTRANSACTIONSACROSSCONTINENTS A BILLOFEXCHANGEISSUEDBYA&LORENTINEBANKDIRECTORATTHETIMECOULD INITIATEINTENSERATESOFPRODUCTIONINTHEMOSTDISTANTCOLONIES &ORBOTHTHECOURTIERANDTHEMEMBEROFTHECOMMERCIALMIDDLE CLASS ANINCREASINGLYRElNEDANDCALCULABLEWAYOFLIFETHUSBECAME ANECESSITY4HISFUNDAMENTALCHANGEINBEHAVIORHADAPROFOUNDEF FECTONTHEEMOTIONALLIFEOFTHEMODERNINDIVIDUALANDWASPROBABLY THEMOSTIMPORTANTPRECONDITIONFORTHEABILITYTOENGAGEINHIGHLY COMPLEXSOCIALINTERACTION4HECOMPETITIONTHATDEVELOPEDBETWEEN THERISINGBOURGEOISIEANDTHEOLDANDNEWARISTOCRACYMEANTTHATTHIS PROCESS REMAINED DYNAMIC AND IT CONTINUES TODAY IN THE AESTHETIC SELF PORTRAYALOFANDCOMPETITIONBETWEENTHEDIFFERENTIATEDSTRATAOF MODERNhMIDDLE CLASSSOCIETYv 4HISHIGHLYSIMPLIlEDACCOUNTOFTHISCOMPLEXDEVELOPMENTHAS CONCENTRATED ON TWO ASPECTS OF THE INTERDEPENDENT PROCESSES OF THE FORMATIONOFMODERNCIVILIZATION IE THEDEVELOPMENTOFEVERMORE DIFFERENTIATED AESTHETIC FORMS INCLUDING THOSE CHARACTERIZING EVERY DAY CULTURE AND THE INCREASING INTERCONNECTION AND INTERACTION OF

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 ALL SOCIAL ACTORS !FTER ALL THE EVER GREATER AGGREGATION OF SOCIAL LIFE PRESUPPOSESANEVERGREATERCOMMUNICATIVECOMPETENCEANDANEVER GREATERCAPACITYFORINTERACTIONAMONGACONSTANTLYINCREASINGNUM BEROFSOCIALACTORS !CONCEPTSUCHASINTERACTIONDESIGNINCLUDESBOTHSIDESOFTHIS INTERCONNECTED PHENOMENON %LIASS lGURATION SOCIOLOGY DESCRIBES THISPROCESSOFDIFFERENTIATIONASASHIFTTOWARDSANEXERCISEOFPOWER THATISLESSANDLESSUNIFORM SINCETHECOMPLEXITIESTHATEMERGENECES SITATERECIPROCALINTERACTIONSTHATAREBOTHhADAPTEDvANDhOPENv$E SIGNISITSELFANAIDTOTHESTABILIZATIONANDDYNAMISMOFTHESEFORMS OFCOMPETENCE 4HISCANBEILLUSTRATEDBYWHATMIGHTBETERMEDTHEINFORMATION DESIGN OF 2ENAISSANCE CARTOGRAPHY 4HE BEAUTIFUL MAPS AND GLOBES PRODUCEDINTHESIXTEENTHCENTURYnANAGEINWHICHTHEKNOWNAND UNKNOWN WORLD WAS SUBORDINATED TO A RATIONALLY UNITARY SYSTEM OF LONGITUDES AND LATITUDES n ALSO SERVED TO IMPROVE COMMUNICATION BETWEEN WHAT WERE NOW INTERNATIONAL CAPITALIST TRADING CENTERS IN .UREMBERG !UGSBURG PORTS ON THE .ORTH 3EA AND THE -EDITERRA NEAN ANDPLANTATIONOWNERSINTHEDISTANT3PICE)SLANDS4HEACCURACY OFTHESEMAPSINDICATESAHIGHLEVELOFCOORDINATIONBETWEENVERYDIF FERENTPEOPLEFROMVERYDIFFERENTSOCIALBACKGROUNDSANDCLASSES FROM THE$UISBURGHUMANIST-ERCATORTOTHEAVERAGE$UTCHSEAMAN 4O SUMMARIZE THEN TECHNOLOGY AND THE DESIGN OF THE SYMBOLIC FORMSOFMODERNCULTUREAREBOTHFUNCTIONALANDAESTHETICELEMENTS OF THE CIVILIZING PROCESS INVOLVING THE INCREASING INTERCONNECTION OF SOCIETYASAWHOLE)TWOULDBEPOINTLESSTOTRYTODETERMINEALOCUS OFORIGINSINCEBOTHTHESOCIALREQUIREMENTSOFFUNCTIONALLYCAPITALIST SOCIETIESANDTHEIROBJECTIlCATIONASTECHNOLOGYANDDESIGNHAVEPRO MOTEDONEANOTHERFORATLEASTSIXHUNDREDYEARS)NTERACTIONDESIGN IS THE LATEST PHASE IN A HISTORY OF DESIGN THAT AS A SYSTEM CANNOT BE DElNEDINPURELYTECHNICALTERMSBUTMUSTBEREGARDEDASASYMBOLIC EXPRESSIONOFASOCIALlGURATION   

                                  

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 1UESTION 4HEREISNOREASONWHYSOFTWAREARTCANNOTUSEREPRESENTATIONAL IMAGES OR ANY OTHER FORM 7HY DO YOU ASSOCIATE SOFTWARE ART WITH NON REPRESENTATIONAL ABSTRACTVECTOR BASEDGRAPHICS  !NSWER .ATURALLYSOFTWAREARTISTSCANUSEREPRESENTATIONALIMAGESORANY OTHERhCONVENTIONALvFORMORMEDIA)TWASNOACCIDENTTHATSOONAF TERTHEIRARRIVALAT8EROX0!2#INTHES !LAN+AYANDHISASSO CIATES CREATED A PAINT PROGRAM AN ANIMATION PROGRAM OVERLAPPING WINDOWS ICONS 3MALLTALKANDOTHERPRINCIPLESOFMODERNINTERACTIVE GRAPHICALCOMPUTING4HECAPACITYTOMANIPULATEANDGENERATEMEDIA SHOULD NOT BE SEEN AS AN AFTER THOUGHT TO THE MODERN COMPUTER )T ISIMPORTANTFORITSIDENTITYASAhPERSONALDYNAMICMEDIUMv!LAN +AY 4OPUTITDIFFERENTLY THECOMPUTERISASIMULATIONMACHINEAND ASSUCHITCANANDSHOULDBEUSEDTOSIMULATEOTHERMEDIA 3O)HAVENOTHINGAGAINSTSOFTWAREARTISTSUSINGCREATINGMEDIA BUT)HOPETHATTHE&LASHGENERATIONWILLEXTENDITSPROGRAMMINGWORK TOINCLUDEREPRESENTATIONALMEDIA)NOTHERWORDS INTHEEARLYS THE PAINT PROGRAM AND THE ANIMATION PROGRAM HAD A REVOLUTIONARY EFFECTONPEOPLESPERCEPTIONOFTHECOMPUTER ALLOWINGTHEMTOSEEIT LESSASANADDINGMACHINEANDMOREASACREATIVE MEDIUM.OW AF TERALMOSTTWODECADESOFMENU BASEDMEDIAMANIPULATIONPROGRAMS ANDTHEUSEOFCOMPUTERSASMEDIADISTRIBUTIONMACHINESGREATLYAC CELERATEDBYTHE7ORLD7IDE7EB ALITTLEPROGRAMMINGCOULDPROVE QUITEREVOLUTIONARY)NSHORT WEARENOWSOUSEDTOTHINKINGOFTHE COMPUTERASAhPERSONALDYNAMICMEDIUMvTHATWENEEDTOREMIND OURSELVESANDOTHERSTHATITISALSOAPROGRAMMABLEMACHINE 0LEASECONSIDERHOWPROGRAMMINGHASBEENEMPLOYEDSOFARTO CREATEUSE STILL IMAGES ANIMATION AND lLMVIDEO 4HERE ARE THREE TRAJECTORIESTHATCANBETRACEDHISTORICALLY/NETRAJECTORYBEGINSWITH THEEARLIESTWORKSOFCOMPUTERARTnTHElLMSTHAT/SCAR&ISHINGERS STUDENTS MADE AT THE 7HITNEY IN THE MID  S AND THAT REPRESENT A DIRECT LINK TO EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY MODERNISM 4HIS TRAJECTORY EXTENDS TO THEhSOFT MODERNISMv OF TODAYS &LASH PROJECTS AND DATA

VISUALIZATIONARTWORKS)NOTHERWORDS PROGRAMMINGISUSEDHERETO GENERATEANDCONTROLABSTRACTIMAGES 4HESECONDTRAJECTORYBEGINSINTHES WHEN(OLLYWOODAND 46DESIGNERSSTARTEDUSINGCOMPUTER GENERATEDIMAGERY#') (ERE PROGRAMMINGWASPUTINTOTHESERVICEOFTRADITIONALCINEMATICREAL ISM0ARTICLESYSTEMS FORMALGRAMMARS !)ANDOTHERSOFTWARETECH NIQUESGENERATEDmYINGBATS HILLYLANDSCAPES OCEANWAVES EXPLOSIONS ALIEN CREATURES AND OTHER lGURATIVE ELEMENTS 4HESE WERE INTEGRATED INTOTHEPHOTOREALISTICUNIVERSEOFNARRATIVElLMS 7HATABOUTUSINGALGORITHMSNOTSIMPLYTOGENERATETHElGURA TIVEELEMENTSOFANARRATIVEBUTALSOTOCONTROLTHEWHOLElCTIONALUNI VERSE4HISISTHETHIRDTRAJECTORYPROGRAMMINGINCOMPUTERGAMES  n  (ERE ALGORITHMS CONTROL THE NARRATIVE EVENTS CHARACTER BEHAVIOR CAMERA MOVEMENT AND OTHER CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GAME WORLD n ALL IN REAL TIME 5NFORTUNATELY AS WE ALL KNOW AESTHETICALLY REVOLUTIONARY COMPUTER AND PLAYER DRIVEN GAME WORLDS FEATURE FOR MULA DRIVENCONTENTTHATCANMAKEEVENABAD(OLLYWOODlLMAPPEAR ORIGINALANDINSPIRING'RAND4HEFT!UTOISNOEXCEPTIONDESPITEITS BREAKTHROUGHSINSIMULATINGAMORECOMPELLINGOPENUNIVERSE ) THINK THIS BRIEF SURVEY SHOWS THAT THERE IS STILL AN UNTOUCHED SPACE COMPLETELY OPEN FOR EXPERIMENTATION AND CREATIVE RESEARCH A SPACEINWHICHPROGRAMMINGCANBEUSEDTOGENERATEANDORCONTROL lGURATIVElCTIONAL MEDIA &OR INSTANCE IN THE CASE OF MOVIES PRO GRAMMINGCANBEUSEDTOGENERATECHARACTERSONTHEmY TOCOMPOSITE INREAL TIMECHARACTERSSHOTAGAINSTABLUESCREENWITHBACKGROUNDS TOCONTROLTHESEQUENCEOFSCENES TOAPPLYlLTERSTOANYSCENEINREAL TIME TOCOMBINEPRE RECORDEDSCENESWITHIMAGERYGENERATEDONTHE mY TOHAVECHARACTERSINTERACTWITHTHEVIEWER ETC)NSHORT PROGRAM MINGCANBEUSEDTOCONTROLANYASPECTOFAlCTIONALMEDIAWORK      

 /FCOURSE ONCEINAWHILEWEENCOUNTERSIMILARPROJECTSATPLACES LIKE3)''2!0(OR)3%! BUTTHEYARETYPICALLYRESEARCHDEMOSTHAT HAVEBEENCREATEDATUNIVERSITIESANDDONOTREACHSOCIETYASAWHOLE .ATURALLY ONE MAY RAISE THE OBJECTION THAT AN ALGORITHMICALLY CON TROLLEDCOMPLEXlCTIONALUNIVERSEREQUIRESTHEKINDOFPROGRAMMING INVESTMENT ONLY POSSIBLE IN A COMMERCIAL GAME COMPANY OR A UNI VERSITY!FTERALL THISISNOTTHESAMEASWRITINGASCRIPTTHATDRAWSA FEWLINESTHATKEEPMOVINGINRESPONSETOUSERINPUT9ES BUTWHYDO lCTIONALlGURATIVEWORKSHAVETOFOLLOWCOMMERCIALMEDIAFORMULAS )FONEACCEPTSTHATTHECHARACTERSDONOTHAVETOBEhPHOTOREALISTIC v THATTHElCTIONALWORLDDOESNOTHAVETOBEEXCLUSIVELYTHREEDIMEN SIONAL THATCHANCEANDRANDOMNESSCANCO EXISTWITHNARRATIVELOGIC ANDTHATSTICKlGURESCANCO EXISTWITH$CHARACTERSANDVIDEOFOOT AGE ETC PROGRAMMINGlGURATIONlCTIONBECOMESLESSFORMIDABLE)N SHORT WHILE)WELCOME&LASHPROGRAMMING )THINKITISMUCHMORE CHALLENGINGTOPROGRAM1UICK4IME                   

0OSTSCRIPT/N4HE,IGHTNESSOF&LASH 7HEN)lRSTVISITEDTHEMOSTFAMOUS&LASHSITEnPRAYSTATIONNETn )WASSTRUCKBYTHELIGHTNESSOFITSGRAPHICS1UIETERTHANAWHISPER MORE ELEGANT THAN $OOR OR #HANNEL MORE MINIMAL THAN THE  S MINIMALISTSCULPTURESBY*UDD MORESUBDUEDTHANAWINTERLANDSCAPE ENSHROUDED IN FOG n THE SITE PUSHED THE CONTRAST SCALE TO THE LIMITS OFLEGIBILITY!SIMILARLIGHTNESSANDRESTRAINTCANBEFOUNDINMANY PROJECTSINCLUDEDINTHE"IENNALESHOW!GAIN THECONTRASTWITHTHE SCREAMINGGRAPHICSOFCOMMERCIALMEDIAANDTHEMEDIAARTOFPREVI OUSGENERATIONSISSTRIKING 4HELIGHTNESSOF&LASHCANBETHOUGHTOFASTHEVISUALEQUIVALENT OFELECTRONICAMBIENTMUSIC%VERYLINEANDEVERYPIXELCOUNT&LASH APPEALSTOOURVISUALnANDCOGNITIVEnINTELLIGENCE!FTERACENTURYOF 2'"COLOR WHICHBEGANWITH-ATISSEANDENDEDWITHTHEAGGRESSIVE SPREADS OF 7IRED WE ARE ASKED TO START OVER TO BEGIN FROM SCRATCH 4HE&LASHGENERATIONINVITESUSTOUNDERGOAVISUALCLEANSINGnTHISIS WHYWESEEAMONOCHROMEPALETTEOFWHITEANDLIGHTGRAY)TUSESNEO MINIMALISMTOCUREUSFROMPOSTMODERNISM)N&LASH THERATIONALITY OFMODERNISMISCOMBINEDWITHBOTHTHERATIONALITYOFPROGRAMMING ANDTHEEFFECTSOFCOMPUTERGAMES ANDTHISCOMBINATIONHASCREATED THENEWAESTHETICSOFLIGHTNESS CURIOSITYANDINTELLIGENCE-AKESURE YOURBROWSERHASTHERIGHTPLUG INWELCOMETOTHE&LASHGENERATION )AMNOTADVOCATINGAREVIVALOFMODERNISM)TGOESWITHOUTSAYING THATWEDONTWANTTOSIMPLYREPLAY-ONDRIANAND+LEEONOURCOM PUTERSCREENS4HETASKOFTHENEWGENERATIONISTOINTEGRATETHETWO KEYAESTHETICPARADIGMSOFTHETWENTIETHCENTURY BELIEFINSCIENCE ANDRATIONALITY EMPHASISONEFlCIENCYANDBASICFORMS IDEALISMAND THEHEROICSPIRITOFMODERNISMAND SKEPTICISM INTERESTINhMAR GINALITYvANDhCOMPLEXITY vDECONSTRUCTIVESTRATEGIES BAROQUEOPAQUE NESSANDTHEEXCESSESOFPOSTMODERNISM Sn !TTHISPOINTALLTHE FEATURESOFTHESECONDPARADIGMHAVEBECOMETIREDCLICH£S4HEREFORE APARTIALRETURNTOMODERNISMISNOTABADlRSTSTEP ASLONGASITISJUST AlRSTSTEPTOWARDDEVELOPINGNEWAESTHETICSFORTHENEWAGE  

'ENERATION&LASH ,EV-ANOVICH

 /FCOURSE THESEAESTHETICSSHOULDALSO REmECT THEDIFlCULTISSUES OFGLOBALIZATION4HEREMIXCULTUREWEARELIVINGNOWISNOTONLYEN GAGED IN REMIXING ALL PREVIOUS CULTURAL FORMS AND TEXTS BUT ALSO IN REMIXINGVARIOUSFEATURESOFWHATUSEDTOBECALLEDhNATIONALCULTUREv 4HIS INCLUDES EXISTING REMIXES BETWEEN IMMIGRANT POPULATIONS AND THEIR HOST CULTURES 4HE SOLUTION OFFERED BY MULTINATIONAL CONGLOM ERATES IS OBVIOUSLY NOT SATISFACTORY n A COMPOSITE THAT TAKES CERTAIN SIGNIlERS FROM A FEW NATIONAL CULTURES THE &RENCH IDEA OF ELEGANCE *APANESEMANGAICONOGRAPHY hCOOL"RITANNIAvREFERENCES ANDSOON ONLY TO INTEGRATE THEM INTO A RATHER BLAND AND MONOLITHIC TEXTTHAT ISSENTROUNDTHEWORLD)TREMINDSMEOFA3OVIET STYLECENTRALIZED ECONOMYINWHICHTHEOUTPUTOFALLTHECOLLECTIVEFARMSWASlRSTSENT TOACENTRALISTAUTHORITY ONLYTOBEREDISTRIBUTEDNATIONALLY ,UCKILY INALLCORNERSOFTHEGLOBE MUSICIANS THEATERGROUPS DANCERS DESIGN ERS ARCHITECTSANDSOONAREEXPLORINGAVARIETYOFREMIXESTHATFOLLOW A DIFFERENT LOGIC .OBODY KNOWS WHAT WILL EMERGE FROM THIS GLOBAL CULTURALLABORATORYnANDTHISISWHATMAKESOURTIMESSOINTERESTING !LTHOUGH MOST OF MY ARGUMENTS IN THIS PAPER ARE ABOUT VISUAL CULTUREANDVISUALAESTHETICS ITISIMPORTANTATTHISPOINTTOEVOKEA DIFFERENTPRACTICE-USICHASHISTORICALLYBEENTHEARTISTIClELDTHATHAS ALWAYSBEENAHEADOFOTHERlELDSINTHEUSEOFCOMPUTERSTOMAKEPOS SIBLENEWAESTHETICPARADIGMS!CTIVITIESINTHElELDOFPOPULARELEC TRONIC MUSIC OVER THE LAST THREE DECADES TESTIFY TO HOW EMPOWERING NEW TECHNOLOGIES CAN BE IN WELDING NEW COMPLEX AND RICH REMIXES BETWEENDIFFERENTCULTURES STYLESANDSENSIBILITIES7ITHOUTELECTRONIC ANDCOMPUTINGTECHNOLOGIESnFROMTURNTABLESANDTAPERECORDERSTO PEER TO PEERlLESHARINGNETWORKSANDMUSICSYNTHESISSOFTWAREONA REGULARLAPTOPnMANYASPECTSOFTHISCULTUREWOULDNEVEREXIST7ITH ITSMULTITUDINOUSVOICESANDAREALBOTTOM UPhEMERGENTvLOGIC THE lELDOFELECTRONICSOUNDWHICHPRETTYMUCHMEANSANYSOUNDTODAY ISAPOWERFULALTERNATIVETOTHEhTOP DOWNvCULTURALCOMPOSITESSOLD BY GLOBAL MEDIA CONGLOMERATES AROUND THE WORLD ,ET US HOPE THAT ARTISTSANDDESIGNERSINOTHERlELDSWILLFOLLOWMUSICSLEADINUSINGA COMPUTERTOMAKEPOSSIBLESIMILARLYRICHREMIXCULTURES 

                                  



2EMEMBERINGTHE&UTURE -EMORYAND)NTERACTION 2EGINE(ALTER

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2%-%-"%2).'4(%&5452% -%-/29!.$).4%2!#4)/. 2EGINE(ALTER   )NTRODUCTORY2EMARKS 7ITHTHEPROPAGATIONOFTHE)NTERNETINRECENTDECADES THEON GOINGTELEMATICPENETRATIONOFOURLIVINGSPACEHASLEDTOANEXPONEN TIALLYINCREASINGBOOMINDISCOURSES SOMEEUPHORICABOUTANDSOME CRITICAL OF MEDIA 3INCE THE SOBERING COLLAPSE OF THE DOTCOM MOVE MENT THIS BOOM HAS NOT ONLY LEVELED OUT CONSIDERABLY THE NERVOUS DISCOURSEOFTHEhFOUNDINGYEARSvSEEMSTOHAVEBEENCUTOFF ASIFIT WEREONLYREALLYABOUTTHEEXCITEMENTOFTHATTIME 7HAT HAS BECOME SOCIALLY ESTABLISHED HOWEVER IS THE RECOGNI TIONOFTHEOPERATIVEADVANTAGESOFTHENEWMEDIA4HEGREATDEBATES ABOUTISSUESOFARTIlCIALINTELLIGENCEWEREDEFUSEDBYREDUCINGTHEMTO THEOPTIMIZINGFUNCTIONSOFCOMMUNICATIONANDDATAADMINISTRATION 7ITH THIS YET ANOTHER ANTHROPOMORPHIC TECHNOLOGY MODEL OF THE -ODERN!GEAPPEARSTOHAVEPREVAILED LOCATINGhxTECHNICALINSTRU MENTSONTHEHORIZONOFAPROSTHESIS LIKEREINFORCEMENTANDREPLACE MENTOFHUMANSENSUAL AMBULATORYANDREASONINGORGANSv ,INKED WITH THIS DOMESTIlCATION OF THE ELECTRONIC AGE AND THE COMMONUNDERSTANDINGOFTHECOMPUTERASAPROSTHESISOFMANnWHO PRESUMABLY THINKSANDBEHAVESINANUNCHANGINGMANNER ANDISTHE CENTEROFALLOTHEREQUALLYUNCHANGINGTHINGSnISTHEIDEAOFTHECOM PUTERASSTORAGE!CCORDINGTOTHISCONCEPTIONTHECOMPUTERSESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICISTHATITWORKSASANEXTENSIONOFTHEPERSONALHUMAN MENTALFUNCTIONS ESPECIALLYTHEABILITYTOREMEMBER ANDTHEREBYPRE SERVESANDPROVIDESACCESSTOSUCHVASTAMOUNTSOFINFORMATIONTHAT NOTEVENTHEBEST TRAINEDHUMANBRAINCANCOMPETE  

                                  

#F*!SSMANN $ASKULTURELLE'EDØCHTNIS 3CHRIFT %RINNERUNGUNDPOLITISCHE)DENTITØTINFRÓHEN (OCHKULTUREN-UNICH   %VENhNONSENSEvLIKERANDOMLYGENERATED SEQUENCESOFNUMBERSAPPEALSTOACONVENTIONOFSENSE EVENIFITISANEGATION #FMYCOMMENTS2(ALTER h6ORBEMER KUNG$IE:UKUNFTDES2AUMSv)N2(ALTER "-EURER ED 3CHRIFTENREIHEDES,ABORATORIUMSDER:IVILISATION !KADEMIE$EUTSCHER7ERKBUND&RANKFURTA-AND .EW9ORK  AND"-EURER $IE:UKUNFTDES 2AUMSIBID 3+UBRICK !3PACE/DYSSEY '"   

 -EMORY IN THE COMPREHENSIVE SENSE IS THAT hCONNECTIVE STRUC TUREvINHERENTINEVERYCULTUREWHICHMAKESTHEMEREEXISTENCEOFTHE INDIVIDUALWITHINSOCIETYPOSSIBLEBYPROVIDINGORIENTATION HOPEAND REMEMBRANCETHROUGHITSLINKINGANDBINDINGPOWER4HEQUESTION OF WHAT THEhMEMORYv OF THE COMPUTER ACHIEVES AND WHAT IT DOES NOT HOWITCHALLENGESTHEEXISTINGCONCEPTOFMEMORY ISCLOSELYCON NECTEDNOTONLYTOTHEDEVELOPMENTANDACTIVITYOFSOCIETIESINGENERAL BUTALSOTOTHETHEMATIZATIONOFINTERACTION WHICHnASANORIGINATOR OFMEANINGnCANNOTBEREALIZEDWITHOUTMEMORY 4HE FOLLOWING ARTICLE DISCUSSES MEMORY AND INTERACTION IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF CREATIVE INTERVENTION "ECAUSE OUR LIVING SPACE IS AL WAYSSIMULTANEOUSLYTHELOCATIONFORBEHAVIOR ORIENTATIONANDCOM MUNICATION TELEMATIC CHANGE TO ITS STRUCTURE THE MOST CONSTITUTIVE OFWHICHCERTAINLYINCLUDESTHEWORKOFTHEMEMORYANDITSFORMSOF ORGANIZATION ALSORAISESTHEQUESTIONOFHOWCREATIVEACTIVITYISDELIM ITED!LLTHEMOREASOURCURRENTSOCIALANDECOLOGICALPROBLEMSCAN NOLONGERBEUNDERSTOODUSINGTHEPARADIGMSOFINDUSTRIALSOCIETY 9ET THE UNDERSTANDING OFhDESIGN AS A PROCESS v OFTEN VERBALIZED ASNOMORETHANEMPTYWORDSTHESEDAYS ISNOTSOLICITEDONCEMORE ONLYSYMBOLICALLY(OWEVER ASTHERELATIONSHIPBETWEENMEMORYAND INTERACTION REMAINS UNCLEAR IN THE UTILIZATION OF WHAT ARE KNOWN AS INTERACTIVEMEDIA THISARTICLEFOCUSESONANUNDERSTANDINGOFREmEXIVE ANDTHUSPROCESS ORIENTED DESIGNTHATSHIFTSCONCEPTUALACTINGTOTHE FOREGROUND 4HEREFORE AFTERINVESTIGATINGTHECONCEPTSOFMEMORYANDINTER ACTION INTHECOURSEOFTHEPAPER)WILLINTRODUCETWOPROJECTSWHICH INMYVIEWPRESENTIMPORTANTASPECTSFORFURTHERDISCUSSIONOFTHEIS SUESADDRESSEDBYTHISPUBLICATION)HOPETHATTHEPARADOXINTHETITLE OFMYARTICLEn2EMEMBERINGTHE&UTUREnWILLBECOMEINFERABLEINMY PORTRAYALOFTHESEWORKSASSTRATEGIESOFCONCEPTUALACTINGACHIEVEDBY BRINGINGTOGETHERMEMORYANDINTERACTION!SAPARAPHRASEOFTHECRI TIQUEOFCONSUMPTIONANDTHEUNDERSTANDINGOFMEMORYANDINTER ACTION ANDATTHESAMETIMEASASUMMARYANDCONCLUSION )WILLGIVE THE COMPUTER (!,  FROM 3TANLEY +UBRICKS lLM  ! 3PACE /DYSSEYTHElNALWORD

                         

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 #LARIlCATIONS-EMORY !TlRSTGLANCENOPAIROFCONCEPTSAPPEARSTOBEASALIENTOEACH OTHERASMEMORYANDINTERACTION )N FACT THE MOBILITY AND DYNAMICS SIGNALIZED BY THE CONCEPT OF INTERACTION ARE DIAMETRICALLY OPPOSED TO THE STATIONARY NATURE OF THOSECONTAINERSLIKELIBRARIES MUSEUMS ENCYCLOPEDIASANDARCHIVES WHICHAREASSOCIATEDWITHTHECONCEPTOFMEMORY4HISDICHOTOMYIS REINFORCEDASLONGASMEMORYISCONCEIVEDOFASAMNEMOTECHNICABIL ITYTHATACCUMULATESINFORMATIONANDSTORESITFORRECALL!CCORDINGTO THISCONCEPTION MEMORYALWAYSWORKSBESTWHENWHATWASSTOREDCAN BEREPRODUCEDCORRECTLY IE INAGREEMENTWITHTEMPORALLYPAST REAL OBJECTSANDEVENTS -EMORYALWAYSAPPEARSEQUATEDWITHTHEREMEMBRANCEOFSOME THINGTHATHASALREADYHAPPENEDINTHEPAST WHICHISlLEDASINFORMA TION4HISSTATICCONCEPTIONCARRIESTHROUGHTOTHEUNDERSTANDINGOF THECOMPUTERASAMEDIUMOFSTORAGEANDWITHREFERENCETOTHELARGEST TELEMATICGLOBALARCHIVE THE7ORLD7IDE7EB 7HENTHEWORDMEMORYISUSEDINTHISARTICLE ITISUSEDNEITHER INTHESENSEOFREMEMBRANCENORINANYOTHERCONNECTIONTOTHEPAST -EMORYISPRESUMEDTOBEACREATIVEPOTENTIAL THATIS AMANNEROF PRACTICALANDTHEORETICALACTIVITYWHICHISACTIVEANDWHICHACTIVATES INTHEPRESENT !NOTHER IDEA THAT WILL NOT BE DISCUSSED IN THIS MEMORY MODEL IS THE BELIEF THAT THE ACTIVITY OF THE HUMAN ABILITY TO THINK CAN ALSO BEEXECUTEDBYACOMPUTER ORIGINATINGFROM!LAN4URINGANDTESTED INHISMACHINEOFTHESAMENAME4HEMETAPHOROFNEURALNETWORKS FORMULATEDINNEUROBIOLOGY THECOGNITIVESCIENCESANDULTIMATELYIN COMPUTERSCIENCEHAVEALSOBEENOMITTED4HESUBJECTOFTHISARTICLE ASAWHOLEISNOTTHEMEMORYOFINDIVIDUALS BEITDElNEDASBIOLOGICAL ORPSYCHOLOGICALORASANALGORITHMICREmECTIONBASEDONTHEIMAGEOF THEHUMANBRAIN    

(OW THEN COULD A MEMORY BE CONCEIVED AS AN ACTIVE RESOURCE WITHANINmUENCEONPRESENTACTIVITY EXERTINGITSEFFECTFREELYWITHOUT INDIVIDUALIZATIONORTECHNOLOGICALABBREVIATION7HATCONSEQUENCES WOULDSUCHACONCEPTIONHAVEONOURUNDERSTANDINGOFINTERACTIVITY ANDTHECOMPUTER!NDHOWCANMEMORYANDINTERACTIVITYBELINKED TOFUNCTIONASCREATIVEINTERVENTION %LENA%SPOSITOENTEREDATERRITORYTHATPREVIOUSLYHADBEENRESERVED PRIMARILYFORTHECULTURALSCIENCESINHERSTUDY3OZIALES6ERGESSEN3HE DEVELOPEDASOCIOLOGICALTHEORYOFMEMORYASTHEMEMORYOFSOCIETY -YARGUMENTATIONESSENTIALLYFOLLOWSTHERESULTSOFTHISSTUDY WHICHn COMING FROM .IKLAS ,UHMANNS SYSTEM THEORY n CONCEPTUALIZED AN ANALYSISOFhFORMSANDMEDIAvPROCEEDINGFROMMEMORYALLTHEWAY TOTELEMATICCONTEXTS )NDEVELOPINGHERTHEORYOFMEMORY %SPOSITO KNOWNASACOEDI TOROFTHE,UHMANNGLOSSARY PICKSUPONONEOFTHEBASICTROPESOF SYSTEMSTHEORYSOCIETYCONSISTSOFCOMMUNICATION4HEREFORE WRITES %SPOSITO WHENTHESUBJECTOFMEMORYCOMESUPITALWAYSCONCERNS COMMUNICATION AND MOREOVER A SUPER INDIVIDUAL MEMORY WHICH REFERSTOTHECOMMUNICATIONTHATCONSTITUTESSOCIETYANDTHELINKAGES BETWEENTHEM "Y DETACHING FROM INDIVIDUAL FORMS OF MEMORY SHE ALSO COM PLETES A SEPARATION IMPORTANT FOR THE ISSUES RELEVANT HERE NAMELY THESEPARATIONOFCONSCIOUSNESSANDCOMMUNICATION)NTHISCONCEPT MEMORYISNOTAhCONTAINERvFORREMEMBRANCES NOTADHERENCETOTHE PAST BUTRATHERAPREREQUISITEFORCOMMUNICATION4HUSTHEFOCUSOFA COLLECTIVEANDPAST ORIENTEDREMEMBRANCE WHICHPLAYSANIMPORTANT ROLEINTHECULTURALSCIENCETHEORIESOFMEMORY PRIMARILYINCONNEC TIONWITH-AURICE(ALBWACHS ISSHIFTEDINFAVOROFACOMMUNICA TIONTHATALWAYSANDONLYTAKESPLACEINAGIVENPRESENT      

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