Wireless Multimedia Communications: Convergence, DSP, QoS, and Security

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Wireless Multimedia Communications: Convergence, DSP, QoS, and Security

Wireless Multimedia Communications Convergence, DSP, QoS, and Security © 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Wireless

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Wireless Multimedia Communications Convergence, DSP, QoS, and Security

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Wireless Multimedia Communications Convergence, DSP, QoS, and Security K.R. Rao Zoran S. Bojkovic Dragorad A. Milovanovic

Boca Raton London New York

CRC Press is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742 © 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S. Government works Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-8493-8582-7 (Hardcover) This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint. Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.copyright.com (http://www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com and the CRC Press Web site at http://www.crcpress.com

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Contents Preface.......................................................................................................................xi Acknowledgments.................................................................................................... xv List of Acronyms ...................................................................................................xvii Overview...............................................................................................................xxix Chapter 1

Introduction to Wireless Networking...................................................1 1.1

1.2

1.3 1.4

1.5 Chapter 2

Evolution of Mobile Networks...................................................2 High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data ...........................................3 i-Mode Services.........................................................................3 GPRS and EDGE for GSM Evolution.......................................4 Third Generation Systems History............................................6 IMT-2000...................................................................................7 GSM Evolution to UMTS........................................................ 11 IMT-2000 Standardization Process.......................................... 12 Evolving Wireless Multimedia Networks................................ 13 Multimedia over Wireless ....................................................... 17 Multimedia Services in WLAN............................................... 19 Ad Hoc Networks and Multimedia Services in WPANs .........20 Multimedia Services over 3G Networks.................................. 21 Hybrid Multimedia Networks.................................................. 22 Users’ Perspectives .................................................................. 23

Convergence Technologies ................................................................. 27 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5

2.6 2.7 2.8

Introduction ............................................................................. 27 Next Generation Network Architecture .................................. 29 Convergence Technologies for 3G Networks ..........................34 Technologies for 3G Cellular Wireless Communication Systems.................................................................................... 36 3G Mobile Communication Systems and WCDMA ............... 39 High-Speed Data Access .........................................................40 High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) .....................40 Enhanced Uplink ..................................................................... 43 Multiple Broadcast Multicast Services....................................44 3G Personal Communication Services Technologies.............. 45 Challenges in the Migration to 4G Mobile System .................46 Concluding Remarks ............................................................... 51

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Chapter 3

Contents

Wireless Video ................................................................................... 53 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5

3.6

3.7 Chapter 4

Wireless Multimedia Services and Applications ............................... 71 4.1 4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5 Chapter 5

Introduction ............................................................................. 53 Video over Wireless.................................................................54 Energy-Efficient Wireless Communication System ................ 57 Streaming Video over Wireless: Rate Control ........................ 59 Content Delivery Technologies ...............................................60 Layer ½ Technologies..............................................................60 Technologies above Layer 2 .................................................... 61 H.263/AVC Standard in Wireless Video Environment............ 63 Video Coding and Decoding Algorithms ................................ 63 Network Integration................................................................. 65 Compression Efficiency...........................................................66 Error Resilience .......................................................................66 Bit Rate Adaptivity .................................................................. 68 Concluding Remarks ............................................................... 69

Introduction ............................................................................. 71 Real-Time IP Multimedia Services in UMTS......................... 74 IP Multimedia Services ........................................................... 74 UMTS Releases ....................................................................... 76 Evolution from Short to Multimedia Messaging Services ...... 77 Internet Protocol Multimedia Subsystem ................................ 79 IMS Conception.......................................................................80 IP Multimedia Subsystem Architecture................................... 82 Multimedia Services Accessing............................................... 85 IMS in the Network Environment ........................................... 85 Web Services in IMS ............................................................... 87 Service Delivery Platform ....................................................... 88 Extended IMS Architecture ..................................................... 88 Policy Control in IMS..............................................................90 IMS Standardization Effort .....................................................92 Location-Based Services ......................................................... 93 Requirements for LBS Delivery ..............................................94 LBS System .............................................................................96 Concluding Remarks ...............................................................97

Wireless Networking Standards (WLAN, WPAN, WMAN, WWAN) .............................................................................................99 5.1 5.2 5.3

Introduction .............................................................................99 Standardization Process in IEEE 802 ................................... 102 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) ............................. 102 Overview of the IEEE 802.11 Standardization...................... 103

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5.4

5.5

5.6

5.7

5.8

5.9

IEEE 802.11a............................................................ 104 IEEE 802.11b ........................................................... 104 IEEE 802.11c............................................................ 104 IEEE 802.11d ........................................................... 104 IEEE 802.11e............................................................ 105 IEEE 802.11f............................................................ 105 IEEE 802.11g ........................................................... 106 IEEE 802.11h ........................................................... 106 The IEEE 802.11 MAC Layer.................................. 106 IEEE 802.11i ............................................................ 107 IEEE 802.11j ............................................................ 107 IEEE 802.11k ........................................................... 107 IEEE 802.11m .......................................................... 107 IEEE 802.11n ........................................................... 108 IEEE 802.11 General Architecture ........................................ 108 Wireless LAN Link Layer Standards .................................... 111 Wireless ATM LAN .............................................................. 113 Wireless ATM Working Group .............................................. 114 ETSI BRAN HIPERLAN Standard....................................... 115 HIPERLAN2 System............................................................. 117 Overview of Physical Layers of HIPERLAN2 and IEEE 802.11a ..................................................................... 121 Infrared Standards................................................................. 122 Interconnection for Wireless Networks ................................. 125 Techniques for Diffuse Links: Spread Spectrum................... 125 Wireless Personal Area Networks ......................................... 126 WPAN Devices ...................................................................... 127 Bluetooth ............................................................................... 129 Ultrawideband Communications........................................... 132 Advantages of UWB.............................................................. 134 UWB Regulation ................................................................... 135 IEEE 802.15.3a...................................................................... 136 IEEE 802.15.4 ....................................................................... 136 UWB Medium Access Control.............................................. 136 Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks.................................. 140 IEEE 802.16 Network Management...................................... 142 Frequency Range of IEEE 802.16 ......................................... 143 IEEE 802.16 Medium Access Control Protocol .................... 143 IEEE 802.16 OFDM PHY Layer........................................... 146 Wireless Wide Area Networks .............................................. 147 Mission, Scope, and Purpose................................................. 149 Technical Aspects Related to IEEE 802.20 System .............. 150 Air Interface Characteristics.................................................. 152 IEEE 802.20 System Architecture......................................... 154 Standard IEEE 802.20 Relationship to 802.16e and 3G ....... 155 IEEE 802.20 Wireless Mesh Networks ................................. 157

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Contents

IEEE 802.20-Based Architecture: An Example..................... 159 5.10 H.264 Video Transmission over IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN Networks ...................................................................... 160 H.264 Overview..................................................................... 160 Distributed Coordination Function........................................ 162 Video Communication over WLAN ...................................... 162 Proposals for Future Work on H.264 Standard...................... 164 5.11 Concluding Remarks ............................................................. 165 Chapter 6

Advances in Wireless Video ............................................................ 167 6.1 6.2

6.3

6.4 6.5 6.6 Chapter 7

Introduction ........................................................................... 167 Error Robustness Support Using H.264/AVC........................ 169 Error Control ......................................................................... 169 Error Concealment................................................................. 170 Limitation of Error Propagation ............................................ 171 Error Resilience Video Transcoding ..................................... 172 History .................................................................................. 172 Error Resilience Transcoder .................................................. 174 Error Resilience Transcoding Techniques ............................. 179 Energy-Efficient Wireless Video........................................... 180 Energy-Efficient Video Coding.............................................. 181 Multipath Video Transport .................................................... 182 General Architecture.............................................................. 183 Concluding Remarks ............................................................. 184

Cross-Layer Wireless Multimedia.................................................... 187 7.1 7.2

7.3

7.4

Introduction ........................................................................... 187 Cross-Layer Design ............................................................... 190 Modeling System................................................................... 190 Architecture for Video Delivery over Wireless Channel ....... 192 Cross-Layer Optimization ..................................................... 196 Cross-Layer Wireless Transmission ...................................... 197 Optimization Strategies ......................................................... 197 Cross-Layer Solutions ........................................................... 199 Cross-Layer Design Approaches for Resource Allocation and Management ...................................................................200 CDMA Resource Allocation..................................................200 Channel-Aware Scheduling ......................................202 TCP over CDMA Wireless Links.............................203 Joint Video Source/Channel Coding and Power Allocation .................................................203 Ability of a Video Codec to Adjust Its Source Coding Rates.............................................204

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7.5 Chapter 8

Mobile Internet................................................................................. 211 8.1 8.2

8.3

8.4 8.5

8.6 8.7 8.8 Chapter 9

Integrated Voice-Data ............................................................204 OFDM-Based Wireless Networks .........................................206 Concluding Remarks .............................................................208

Introduction ........................................................................... 211 Related Protocols................................................................... 212 Traditional Mobility Management......................................... 213 IP Mobility Protocol Classification ....................................... 214 Global Mobility Protocols ..................................................... 215 Global Mobility/Macromobility Protocols ............................ 218 Macromobility Protocols ....................................................... 219 Macro/Micromobility Protocols ............................................ 219 IP Mobility and Wireless Networks ...................................... 220 Wireless LANs.......................................................................220 Wireless WANs...................................................................... 221 Cellular and Heterogeneous Mobile Networks ..................... 222 Quantitative Analysis of Enhanced Mobile Internet .............224 Scalable Application-Layer Mobility Protocol...................... 225 Session Initiation Protocol..................................................... 226 P2P Overlay Networking....................................................... 226 Scalable Application-Layer Mobility Architecture ............... 227 Mobility and QoS .................................................................. 228 Seamless Mobility Services: A Network Architecture ......... 232 Concluding Remarks ............................................................. 233

Evolution toward 4G Networks ........................................................ 235 9.1 9.2 9.3

9.4

Introduction ........................................................................... 235 Migration to 4G Mobile Systems .......................................... 237 Beyond 3G and toward 4G Networks.................................... 239 WAN and WLAN Integration................................................ 239 Ad Hoc Networking............................................................... 239 Infrastructure-Based Access Technologies ............................ 241 UWB and S-T Coding ........................................................... 242 Location Awareness ............................................................... 242 4G Technologies from the User’s Point of View ................... 242 User Scenarios .......................................................................244 User Friendliness...................................................... 245 User Personalization................................................. 245 Terminal and Network Heterogeneity ...................... 245 Service Personalization ............................................ 247 Heterogeneous Systems Integration ...................................... 247 Heterogeneous Services......................................................... 247 Interworking Devices............................................................. 249

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9.5

9.6

9.7

9.8

All-IP Network ...................................................................... 249 Network Composition Procedure .......................................... 250 All-IP 4G Network Architecture............................................ 253 QoS Issues for 4G Networks .................................................254 Providing Quality of Service ................................................. 256 End-to-End QoS Support....................................................... 258 Security in 4G Networks ....................................................... 259 Infrastructure Security for Future Mobile Networks............. 259 Infrastructure Security Definition............................. 261 Infrastructure Security Requirements....................... 262 Secure Handover between Heterogeneous Networks............ 263 Security Context .......................................................264 Security Context in Handover .................................. 265 Network Operators’ Security Requirements.......................... 265 Requirements from Users’ Perspective ....................266 Requirements from the Network’s Perspective ........ 267 Requirements from the Service Providers’ Perspective ................................................ 268 Concluding Remarks ............................................................. 269

References ............................................................................................................. 271

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Preface Multimedia communication is one of the major themes in today’s information communication technologies. It has many facets, from multimedia networking to communications systems, signal processing, and security. The rapid growth of interactive multimedia applications, such as video telephones, video games, and TV broadcasting, has resulted in spectacular progress of wireless communications. However, the high error rates and the stringent delay constraints in wireless systems still significantly impact applications and services. On the other hand, the development of more advanced wireless systems provides opportunities for proposing novel wireless multimedia protocols and new applications and services that can take maximum advantage of the systems. The impressive evolution of mobile networks and the potential of wireless multimedia communications pose many questions to operators, manufacturers, and scientists working in the field. The future scenario is open to several alternatives: thoughts, proposals, and activities of the near future could provide the answer to the future trends of the wireless world. Wireless mobile communications may not only complement the well-established wireline network, they may also become serious competition in years to come. The perspective of today’s information society calls for a multiplicity of devices including Internet Protocol (IP)-enabled home appliances, vehicles, personal computers, and sensors, all of which are globally connected. Current mobile and wireless systems and architectural concepts must evolve to cope with these complex connectivity requirements. Research in this truly multidisciplinary field is growing fast. New technologies, new architectural concepts, and new challenges are emerging. This book reflects the latest work in the field of wireless multimedia communications, providing both underlying theory and today’s design techniques by addressing aspects of convergence, quality of service (QoS), security, and standardization activities.

BOOK OBJECTIVES Anyone who seeks to learn the core wireless multimedia communication technologies, concerning convergence, QoS, and security, will need this book. The practicing engineer or researcher working in the area of wireless multimedia communication is forced to own a number of different texts and journals to ensure satisfactory coverage of the essential ideas and techniques of the field. Our first objective for the book is to be the source of information on important topics in wireless multimedia communications, including the standardization process. Another of the book’s objectives is to provide a distillation from the extensive literature of the central ideas and primary methods of analysis, design, and implementation of wireless multimedia communications systems. The book also points the reader to the primary reference sources that give details of design and analysis methods. xi

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Finally, the purpose of the book is not only to familiarize the reader with this field, but also to provide the underlying theory, concepts, and principles related to the power and practical utility of the topics.

ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK Following an Introduction, Chapter 2 provides an overview of the key convergence technologies to offer many services from the network infrastructure point of view. After a short presentation of the next generation network architecture, we deal with convergence technologies for third generation (3G) networks. This chapter also reviews technologies for 3G cellular wireless communication systems. Next, the 3G wideband code-division multiplex access (WCDMA) standard, which has been enhanced to offer significantly increased performance for packet data broadcast services, is presented. Challenges in the migration to fourth generation (4G) mobile systems conclude this chapter. Chapter 3 surveys wireless video that has been commercialized recently or is expected to go to market in 3G and beyond mobile networks. We present a general framework that takes into account multiple factors (source coding, channel resource allocation, error concealment) for the design of energy-efficient wireless video communication systems. This chapter also reviews rate control in streaming video over wireless. We continue with a short presentation of content delivery technologies, and conclude with the H.264/AVC standard in the wireless video environment, together with a video coding and decoding algorithm, network integration, compression efficiency, error resilience, and bit rate activity. Chapter 4 seeks to contribute to a better understanding of the current issues and challenges in the field of wireless multimedia services and applications. This chapter begins with real-time IP multimedia services, including evolution from short to multimedia message services. Extended IP multimedia system (IMS) architecture is provided, too. After that, we examine the current IMS policy control to update the significant changes in the core network. A number of service delivering platforms that have already been developed and commercially deployed are discussed. Chapter 5 summarizes specifications for wireless networking standards that support a broad range of applications: wireless local area networks (WLANs), wireless personal area networks (WPANs), wireless metropolitan area networks (WMANs), and wireless wide area networks (WWANs). After a short presentation of IEEE 802.X standards, we deal with WLAN link layer standards. Wireless asynchronous transfer mode LAN, together with the European Telecommunication Standard Institute (ETSI) BRAN HIPERLAN standard, is included, as well. This chapter also reviews WPAN devices and Bluetooth. We continue with an overview of WMANs. The emphasis is on the IEEE 802.16 network arrangement, medium access control protocol, as well as on the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) physical (PHY) layer protocol. Chapter 6 focuses on advances in wireless video. We start by introducing error robustness support using the H.264/AVC standard that makes it suitable for wireless video applications. Also, error concealment and limitation of error propagation are considered. Next, we move to error resilience video transcoding for wireless

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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communications. We provide an overview of the error resilience tools including benefits according to category (localization, data partitioning, redundant coding, and concealment-driven techniques). This chapter highlights recent advances in joint source coding and optimal energy allocation, including joint source-channel coding and power adaptation. Finally, multipath transport is analyzed, together with general architecture for multipath transport of video streams. This is a promising technique for efficient video communications over ad hoc networks. Chapter 7 concentrates on cross-layer wireless multimedia design. Then, we describe cross-layer architecture for video delivery over a wireless channel, and continue with a cross-layer optimization strategy. Using this strategy, information is exchanged between different layers, while end-to-end performance is optimized by adapting to this information at each protocol layer. A short overview of cross-layer design approaches for resource allocation in 3G CDMA network is also provided. After that, we move to the problem of cross-layer resource allocation for integrated voice/data traffic in wireless cellular networks. The goal of Chapter 8 is to find a large audience and help stimulate further interest and research in mobile Internet and related technologies. First, related protocols for mobile Internet are presented and analyzed. Next, we describe IP mobility for cellular and heterogeneous mobile networks. We continue with scalable applicationlayer mobility protocols. We also review mobility and QoS. A network architecture analysis for seamless mobility services concludes this chapter. The book ends with Chapter 9, which is devoted to evaluation of future 4G networks. 4G is a very promising generation of wireless communications that will change people’s lives in the wireless world. After a discussion including migration to 4G mobile systems, as well as beyond 3G and toward 4G networks, we speak about 4G technologies from the user’s perspective. The emphasis is on heterogeneous system integration and services. After that we present an all-IP 4G network architecture. Then, we outline the issues concerning QoS for 4G networks. Next, we continue with security in 4G networks, together with infrastructure security and secured handover between heterogeneous networks. Network operators’ security requirements conclude the chapter. Each chapter has been organized so that it can be covered in 1 to 2 weeks when this book is used as a principal reference or text in a senior or graduate course at a university. It is generally assumed that the reader has prior exposure to the fundamentals of wireless communication systems. The book can be also very useful for researchers and engineers dealing with wireless multimedia communication systems. The references are grouped according to the various chapters. Special efforts have been taken to make this list as up to date and exhaustive as possible. A major challenge during the preparation of this book was the rapid pace of development. Many specific applications have been realized in the past few years. We have tried to keep pace by including many of these latest developments. Finally, we hope that this book will provide readers with a valuable tool and resource when working in wireless communications.

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Acknowledgments We hope that this book will provide readers with a valuable tool and resource when working in wireless multimedia communications generally and, in particular, when dealing with convergence, digital signal processing, quality of service, and security. Many years of work resulted in these wireless multimedia communication pages, but also in many lifetime friendships among people all around the world. Thus, it is a pleasure to acknowledge the help received from colleagues associated with various universities, research labs, and industry. This help was in the form of technical papers and reports, valuable discussions, information, brochures, the review of various sections of the manuscript, and more. Sincere and special thanks are due to the following people: Ling-Gee Chen, National Taiwan University, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Taipei, Taiwan Jae-Jeong Hwang, Kunsan National University, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Kunsan, Korea Valeri Mladenov, Technical University–Sofia, Faculty of Informatics, Sofia, Bulgaria Fernando Pereira, Lisbon Technical University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Instituto Superior Technico, Lisbon, Portugal Jurij Tasic, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Ljubljana, Slovenia Special thanks go to MSc Bojan Bakmaz, University of Belgrade, Serbia. He was instrumental in the final preparation of this book.

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© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

List of Acronyms 1G: 2G: 3G: 3GPP: 3GPP2: 4G: AAA: AAAC: AAL: AC: ACF: ACH: ACK: ACL: AES: AF: AF: AFC: AIFS: AIPN: AIR: AKA: ALT PHY: AM: AMC: AMPS: AMPS: AN: ANSI: AP: APA: API: APP: AR: ARM: ARQ: AS: ASDL: ASIC: ASO: AT:

first generation second generation third generation Third Generation Partnership Project 3G Partnership Project 2 fourth generation authentication, authorization, and accounting authentication, authorization, accounting, and charging ATM adaptation layer access category association control function association control channel acknowledgment asynchronous connectionless advanced encryption standard application function assured forwarding access feedback channel arbitrary interframe space all-IP network adaptive intrarefresh authentication and key agreement alternative physical layer aggregation module adaptive modulation and coding advanced mobile phone service Association of Radio Industries and Broadcasting access network American National Standardization Institute access point adaptive power allocation application programming interface application layer access router advanced router mechanisms automatic repeat request application server asymmetric digital subscriber line application-specific integrated circuit arbitrary slice ordering access time xvii

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ATM: BC: BCC: BCH: BER: BGCF: BLER: BoD: BPSK: BRAN: BRDN: BS: BSC: BSS: BSS ID: BTS: BTS: BW: BWA: CA: CAC: CAI BIOS: CAMEL: CARD: CBP: CCK: CDMA: CEPT: CID: CIP: CIR: CL: CM: CN: CN: CoA: CoP: CORBA: CP: CP: CPDU: CPS: CQI: CRC: CS: CS:

List of Acronyms

asynchronous transfer mode broadcast channel broadcast control channel Bose-Chandhuri-Hocqnenghem (code) bit error rate breakout gateway control function block error rate bandwidth-on-demand binary PSK broadband radio access network broadband railway digital network base station base station controller basic service set BSS identifier base transceiver station base transceiver system broadband wireless broadband wireless access composition agreement call admission control common air interface basic input–output system customized application for mobile network enhanced logic candidate access router discovery coded block pattern complementary code keying code-division multiple access European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications connection identifier cellular IP committed information rate convergence layer centralized mode core network corresponding node core of address care-of-port common object requests broker architecture common part content provider control PDU common part sublayer channel quality indicator cyclic redundancy code circuit switched convergence sublayer

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

List of Acronyms

CSCF: CSCF: CSI: CSMA/CA: CSMA/CD: CT: CTAP: CTS: CW: DAB: DAD: DARPA: DBA: DCC: DCCH: DCF: DCS: DCT: DDCA: DECT: DHA: DHCP: DHT: DiffServ: DIFS: DL: DLC: DLFP: DM: DMA: DoS: DP: DPDCH: DRC: DS: DSL: DSSS: DVB: EAP: EC: ECN: EDCA: E-DCH: EDGE: EEP: EF:

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call state control function call/session control function channel state information carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance carrier sense multiple access with collision detection context transfer channel time allocation period clear-to-send contention window digital audio broadcast duplicate address detection Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency dynamic bandwidth allocation DLC connection control dedicated control channel distributed coordinated function dynamic channel selection discrete cosine transform distributed dynamic channel allocation digital enhanced cordless telecommunications dynamic home agent dynamic host configuration protocol distributed hash table differentiated services DCF interframe space downlink data link control DL frame prefix direct link mode dynamic mobility agent denial of service data partitioning dedicated physical data channel data rate control direct sequence/distributed system digital subscriber line direct sequence spread spectrum digital video broadcasting Extensible Authentication Protocol error control explicit congestion notification enhanced distributed channel access enhanced dedicated channel enhanced data services for GSM evolution equal error protection expedited forwarding

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EGPRS: ELN: EMIP: EMS: EREC: ERP: ESS: ETSI: EUL: EV-DO: FA: FACH: FBC: FBWA: FCC: FCH: FCH: FCH: FCS: FDD: FDMA: FEC: FFT: FH: FHO: FHSS: FM: FMO: FMWC: FN: FPLMTS: FT: FTP: GCoA: GDR: GEO: GFA: GGSN: GIS: GMSC: GPRS: GPS: GSM: GTP: GW: HA:

List of Acronyms

enhanced GPRS explicit loss notification enhanced mobile IP enhanced messaging service error resilience entropy coding enterprise resource planning enhanced service set European Telecommunications Standards Institute enhanced uplink evolution data–optimized foreign agent forward access channel flow-based charging fixed broadband wireless access Federal Communications Commission frame channel frame control channel frame control header frame check sequence frequency division multiplex frequency division multiple access forward error correction fast Fourier transform frequency hopping fast handover frequency hopping spread spectrum frequency modulation flexible macroblock ordering fixed mobile wireless convergence foreign network Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunications System frequency time File Transfer Protocol global care of address gradual decoding refresh geosynchronous satellites gateway foreign agent gateway GPRS support node Geographical Information System gateway mobile switching center General Packet Radio System Global Positioning System Global System for Mobile GPRS Tunneling Protocol gateway home agent

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List of Acronyms

H-ARQ: HCCA: HCF: HDR: HDTV: HEC: HIPERLAN: HiperMAN: HLR: HMIP: HN: HRD: HS: HSCSD: HSDPA: HS-DSCH: HSS: HTML: HTTP: IBSS: IC: ICANN: IDMP: IDR: IDS: IEC: IEC: IEEE: IEEE-SA: IETF: IIS: IMS: IMT: IP: IPTV: IPv6: IR: IrDA: ISDN: ISI: ISM: ISO: ISP: ISUP: ISUP: ITU:

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hybrid automatic repeat request HCF controlled channel access hybrid coordination function high data rate high definition television header extension code high performance LAN high performance metropolitan area network home location register hierarchical MIP home network hypothetical reference decoder high-speed high-speed circuit-switched data high-speed downlink packet access high-speed downlink shared channel home subscription service Hypertext Mark-Up Language Hypertext Transport Protocol independent BSS integrated circuit Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers intradomain mobility arrangement protocols instantaneous decoding refresh intrusion detection systems interactive error control International Electrotechnical Commission Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IEEE Standards Association Internet Engineering Task Force intelligent interface selection IP multimedia subsystem international mobile telecommunication Internet Protocol Internet television Internet Protocol version 6 infrared infrared data association integrated services digital network intersymbol interference industrial, scientific, and medical International Organization for Standardization Internet service provider ISDN signaling user part ISDN user part International Telecommunication Union

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ITU-R: ITU-T: JSC: JVT: LAN: LBS: LCH: LCoA: LDR: LEO: LLC: LMDS: LOS: LPD: LPI: LTE: LU: M2M: MA: MAC: MAL: MAN: MANET: MAP: MB: MBMS: MBWA: MC: MC-CDMA: MDC: MEO: MGCF: MGCP: MGW: MIHO: MIMO: MIP: ML: MM: MMDS: MMS: MMSC: MMSE: MMS-IOP: MN: MNO:

List of Acronyms

ITU–Radio-Communication Standardization Sector ITU–Telecommunication Standardization Sector joint source channel Joint Video Team local area network location-based services link control channel local care of address low data rates low-earth orbit logical link control local multipoint distribution service line of sight low probability of detection low probability of interception long-term evolution location update machine-to-machine mobile agent medium access control mobility abstraction layer metropolitan area network mobile ad hoc networking mobile anchor point macroblock multimedia broadcast multicast services mobile broadband wireless access multicarrier multicode CDMA multiple description coding medium-earth orbit media gateway control function Media Gateway Control Protocol media gateway mobile initiated handover multiple input multiple output mobile IP maximum likelihood measurement module multichannel multipoint distribution service multimedia messaging service MMS center MMS environment MMS Interoperability Group mobile node mobile network operator

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List of Acronyms

MPEG: MRF: MRFC: MRFP: MS: MSC: MSDU: MSME: MSS: MT: MTC: MTSO: MVB: m-WLAN: NACK: NAL: NALU: NAPT: NAT: NDS: NEMO: NGN: NIHO: NLOS: NMS: NRT: NS: NVUP: OAM: OAMandP: OBEX: OFDM: OMA: OS: OSA: OSI: OSM: P2P: PA: PA: PAN: PBX: PC: PCC: PCF: PCRF:

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Motion Picture Experts Group media resource function multimedia resource function controller multimedia resource function processor mobile station mobile switching center MAC service data unit MAC sublayer management entity multiple subscriber stations mobile terminal mobile terminal controller mobile telephone switching office multivehicle bus moving wireless LAN negative acknowledgment network abstraction layer NAL unit network address port translation network address translate network domain security networks in motion next generation network network initiated handover non-line of sight Network Management System non-real time network service network view of the user profile operations and management operations, administration, maintenance, and provisioning object exchange orthogonal frequency division multiplexing Open Mobile Alliance operating system open service access open systems interconnection Office of Spectral Management peer-to-peer paging agent performance attendant personal area network private branch exchange personal computer policy and charging control point coordination function policy and charging rules function

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PCS: P-CSCF: PDA: PDC: PDF: PDM: PDN: PDP: PDU: PDU: PEF: PHS: PHY: PIFS: PLCP: PLMN: PLR: PM: PMD: PMP: PNC: PNM: PNNI: PoC: POS: PPP: PPS: PS: PSC: PSD: PSK: PSNR: PSTN: PTT: QAL: QAM: QoS: QoSB: QoSM: QP: QPSK: RAFC: RAN: RBCH: RCH: RCPC:

List of Acronyms

personal communication system proxy–call state control function personal digital assistant personal digital cellular policy decision function packet division multiplex packet data network Packet Data Protocol packet data unit protocol data unit policy enforcement function personal handyphone system physical (layer) PCF interframe space Physical Layer Convergence Protocol public land mobile network packet loss rate performance manager physical medium dependent point to multipoint piconet controller personal network management private network-to-network interface push-to-talk over cellular personal operating space Point-to-Point Protocol picture parameter sets packet switched parameter set concept power spectral density phase shift keying peak signal-to-noise ratio public switched telephone network push-to-talk QoS abstraction layer quadrature amplitude modulation quality of service QoS broker QoS manager quantization parameter quadrature PSK random access feedback channel radio access network radio broadcast channel random channel rate-compatible punctured convolutional (code)

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

List of Acronyms

RD: RF: RFC: RG: RLC: RNC: RNS: RP: RP: RR: RRC: RSs: RSVP: RT: RTCP: RTG: RTP: RTS: RTSP: RTT: RVLC: SA: SACK: SAE: SAMP: SAP: SBLP: SC: SC: SC: SCIM: SCO: SCP: S-CSCF: SDMA: SDP: SDP: SDR: SDU: SEI: SG: SGSN: SGW: SINR: SIP: SLA:

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Reed-Solomon (code) radio frequency request for comments radio gateway radio link controller radio network controller radio network subsystem referent point register and proxy register and redirect radio resource control redundant slices Resource Reservation Protocol real time Real-Time Control Protocol receive/transmit transition gap Real-Time Protocol request-to-send Real-Time Streaming Protocol round-trip time reversible variable length code subnet agent selective acknowledgment system architecture evolution Scalable Application Layer Mobility Protocol service access point service-based local policy security context selective combining single carrier service capability interaction manager synchronous connection–oriented service control point serving–call state control function space–division multiple access Session Description Protocol service delivery platform software defined radio service data unit supplement enhancement information study group service GPRS support node signaling gateway signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio Session Initiation Protocol service level agreement

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SLF: SMS: SMTP: SOA: SOAP: SONET: SP: SPN: SPS: SS: SS: SS7: SSCS: SSI: S-T: STC: STM: TAG: TBF: TBTT: TC: TCAP: TCP: TD: TD CDMA: TDD: TDM: TDMA: TE: TFI: TFRC: TG: TIA: TIMIP: TISPAN: TPC: TTC: TTG: TTI: UAC: UAS: UBCH: UDCH: UDP: UE:

List of Acronyms

subscription local (locator) function short message service Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Session Description Protocol Simple Object Access Protocol synchronous optical network service provider service provider network sequence parameter sets spread spectrum subscriber stations signaling system no. 7 service specific convergence sublayer source significance information space–time short transport channel synchronous transfer mode Technical Advisory Group temporary block flow target beacon transmission time time code transaction capability application part Transmission Control Protocol time division time division CDMA time division duplex time division multiplex time division multiple access terminal temporary flow identity TCP-friendly rate control task group Telecommunication Industry Association terminal independent MIP telecoms and Internet converged services and protocols for advanced networks transmit power control Telecommunications Technology Council transmit/receive transition gap transmission time interval user agent client user agent server user broadcast channel user data channel User Datagram Protocol user equipment

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

List of Acronyms

UEP: UMA: UMCH: UMTS: UNII: UP: UPDU: URI: USAP: USIM: UT: UTRA: UTRAN: UWB: VAS: VCC: VCEG: VCL: VFIR: VHO: VLC: VLC: VLR: VLSI: VMSC: VoIP: VPN: W3C: WAN: WAP: WARC: WATM: WCDMA: WDM: WEP: WG: WiFi: WiMAX: WISP: WLAN: WLL: WMAN: WPAN: WS: WSDL: WWAN:

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unequal error protection unlicensed mobile access user multicast channel Universal Mobile Telecommunication System unlicensed national information infrastructure uplink user PDU user resource identifier user service access point UMTS subscriber identity module user terminal UMTS terrestrial radio access UMTS radio access network ultrawideband value-added service voice call continuity Video Coding Expert Group video coding layer very fast infrared vertical handover variable-length code variable length coding visitor location register very large scale integration visitor mobile switching center voice over IP virtual private network World Wide Web Consortium Wireless area net Wireless Applications Protocol World Administrative Radio Conference wireless ATM wideband CDMA wavelength division multiplex wired equivalent privacy working group wireless fidelity worldwide interoperability for microwave access wireless Internet service provider wireless local area network wireless local loop wireless MAN wireless PAN Web services Web Services Description Language wireless WAN

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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WWRF: XML:

List of Acronyms

Wireless World Research Forum Extensible Mark-up Language

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Overview Taking into account speculation on the future of wireless multimedia communications, in this introductory section, we start with a brief overview. It includes the evolution and vision of wireless communications together with technical challenges. Cellular systems in operation today are presented very briefly. The design details of these systems are constantly evolving with new systems emerging and old ones going by the wayside. Finally, wireless spectrum allocation is outlined.

EVOLUTION OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS Wireless communication is a fast-growing part of the dynamic field of electronic communication. The term wireless has come to mean nonbroadcast communication, usually between individuals who very often use portable or mobile equipment. Wireless mobile communication may not only complement the well-established wireline network, it may also become a serious competitor in years to come. The first wireless systems developed in the preindustrial age transmitted information over line-of-sight distances. The early communication networks were replaced first by the telegraph network and later by the telephone. A few decades after the telephone was invented, the first radio transmission and radio communications were born. Radio technology advanced rapidly to enable transmission over large distances with better quality, less power, and smaller, cheaper devices, thereby enabling public and private radio communications, television, and wireless networking. Early radio systems transmitted analog signals. Today, most radio systems transmit digital signals composed of binary bits, where the bits are obtained directly from a data signal or by digitizing an analog signal. A digital radio can transmit a continuous bit stream or it can group the bits into packets. The latter type of radio is called a packet radio and is characterized by burst transmission: the radio is idle except when it transmits a packet. The packet networks continue to be developed for military use. Packet radio networks also found commercial application in supporting wide-area wireless data services. These services, first introduced in the early 1990s, enable wireless data access (including e-mail, file transfer, and Web browsing) at fairly low speeds, on the order of 20 kbps. A strong market for these wide-area wireless data services never really materialized, due mainly to their low data rates, high cost, and lack of killer applications. These services mostly disappeared in the 1990s, supplanted by the wireless data capabilities of cellular telephones and wireless local area networks.1 The introduction of wired Ethernet technology in the 1970s steered many commercial companies away from radio-based networking. Ethernet 10 Mbps data rate far exceeded anything available using radio, and companies did not mind running cables within and between their facilities to take advantage of these high rates. In 1958, the FCC (Federal Communications Commission) enabled the commercial development of wireless local area networks (LANs) by authorizing the public use xxix

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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of the ISM (industrial, scientific, and medical) frequency bands for wireless LAN products. The ISM band was very attractive to wireless vendors because they did not need to obtain an FCC license to operate in this band. However, the wireless LAN systems could not interfere with the primary ISM band users, which forced them to use a low-power profile and an inefficient signaling scheme. Moreover, the interference primary users experienced within this frequency band was quite high. As a result these initial wireless LANs have very poor performance in terms of data rates and overage. This poor performance, coupled with concerns about security, lack of standardization, and high cost, resulted in weak sales. Few of these systems were actually used for data networking; they were relegated to low-tech applications like inventory control. The current generation of wireless LANs, based on the family of IEEE 802.11 standards, has better performance. Despite the data rate differences, wireless LANs are becoming the preferred Internet access method in many homes, offices, and campus environments due to their convenience and freedom from wires. However, most wireless LANs support applications such as e-mail and Web browsing that are not bandwidth intensive. The challenge for future wireless LANs will be to support many users simultaneously with bandwidth-intensive and delay-constrained applications such as video. Range extension is also a critical goal for future LAN systems. Cellular systems exploit the fact that the power of a transmitted signal falls off with distance. Thus, two users can operate on the same frequency at spatially separate locations with minimal interference between them. This allows very efficient use of cellular spectrum, so that a large number of users can be accommodated.2 The explosive growth of the cellular industry took almost everyone by surprise. Throughout the late 1980s, as more and more cities became saturated with demand for cellular service, the development of digital cellular technology for increased capacity and better performance became essential. The second generation (2G) of cellular systems, first deployed in the early 1990s, was based on digital communications. The shift from analog to digital was driven by its higher capacity and the improved cost, speed, and power efficiency of digital hardware. Although 2G cellular systems initially provided mainly voice services, these systems gradually evolved to support data services such as e-mail, Internet access, and short messaging. Unfortunately, the great market potential for cellular phones led to a proliferation of 2G cellular standards: three different standards in the United States alone, and other standards in Europe and Japan, all incompatible. The fact that different cities have different, incompatible standards makes roaming throughout the United States and the world using one cellular phone standard impossible. Moreover, some countries have initiated service for third generation (3G) systems, for which there are also multiple incompatible standards. As a result of the standards proliferation, many cellular phones today are multimode: they incorporate multiple digital standards to facilitate nationwide and worldwide roaming, and possibly the first generation (1G) analog standard as well, because only this standard provides universal coverage throughout the United States. Satellite systems are typically characterized by the height of satellite orbit, lowearth orbit (LEOs at roughly 2,000 km altitude), medium-earth orbit (MEOs at roughly 9,000 km altitude), or geosynchronous orbit (GEOs at roughly 40,000 km altitude).

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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The geosynchronous orbits are seen as stationary from the Earth, whereas the satellites with other orbits have their coverage area change over time. Geosynchronous satellites have large coverage areas, so fewer satellites are necessary to provide widearea or global coverage. However, it takes a great deal of power to reach the satellite, and the propagation delay is typically too large for delay-constrained applications like voice. These disadvantages caused a shift in the 1990s toward lower-orbit satellites. The goal was to provide voice and data service competitive cellular systems. However, the satellite mobile terminals were much bigger, consumed much more power, and cost much more than contemporary cellular phones, which limited their appeal. The most compelling feature of these systems is their ubiquitous worldwide coverage, especially in remote areas or third-world countries with no landline or cellular system infrastructure. Unfortunately, such places do not typically have large demand or the resources to pay for satellite service. As cellular systems became more widespread, they took away most revenue that LEO systems might have generated in populated areas. With no real market left, most LEO satellite systems went out of business.3,4 A natural area for satellite systems is the broadcast environment. Direct broadcast satellites operate in the 12 GHz frequency band. These systems offer hundreds of TV channels and are major competitors to cable. Satellite-delivery digital radio has also become popular. These systems, operating in both Europe and the United States, offer digital audio broadcasting at near-CD quality.

VISION OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS The vision of wireless communications supporting information exchange between people or devices is the communications frontier of the next few decades, and much of it already exists in some form. This vision will allow multimedia communication from anywhere in the world using a small handheld device or laptop. Wireless networks will connect palmtop, laptop, and desktop computers anywhere within an office building or campus, as well as from the corner café. In the home, these networks will enable a new class of intelligent electronic devices that can interact with each other and with the Internet, in addition to providing connectivity between computers, phones, and security/monitoring systems. Such smart homes can also help elderly and disabled individuals with assisted living, patient monitoring, and emergency response. Wireless entertainment will permeate the home and any place that people congregate. Video teleconferencing will take place between buildings that are blocks or continents apart, and these conferences can include travelers as well. Wireless video will enable remote classrooms, remote training facilities, and remote hospitals anywhere in the world. Wireless sensors have an enormous range of both commercial and military applications. Commercial applications include monitoring of fire hazards, hazardous waste sites, stress and strain in buildings and bridges, carbon dioxide movement, and the spread of chemicals and gases at a disaster site. The wireless sensors self-configure into a network to process and interpret sensors measurements, and then convey this information to a centralized control location. Military applications include identification and tracking of enemy targets, detection of chemical and biological attacks, support of unmanned robotic vehicles,

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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and counterterrorism. Finally, wireless networks enable distributed control systems, with remote devices, sensors, and actuators linked together via wireless communication channels. Such networks enable automated highways, mobile robots, and easily reconfigurable industrial automation. The described applications are the components of the wireless vision. A question often arises: What, exactly, does wireless communication represent? This complex topic could be segmented into different applications, systems, or coverage regions. Wireless applications include voice, Internet access, Web browsing, paging and short messaging, subscriber information services, file transfer, video teleconferencing, entertainment, sensing, and distributed control. Systems include cellular telephone systems, wireless LANs, wide-area wireless data systems, satellite systems, and ad hoc wireless networks. Coverage regions include in-building, campus, city, regional, and global. The question of how best to characterize wireless communications along these various segments has resulted in considerable fragmentation in the industry, as evidenced by the many different wireless products, standards, and services offered or proposed. One reason for this fragmentation is that different wireless applications have different requirements. Voice systems have relatively low data rate requirements (around 20 kbps) and can tolerate a fairly high probability of bit error (bit error rates, or BERs, of around 10 –3), but the total delay must be less than around 30 ms or it becomes noticeable to the end user. On the other hand, data systems typically require much higher data rates (1 to 100 Mbps) and very small BERs (the target BER is 10 –8 and all bits received in error must be retransmitted) but do not have a fixed delay requirement. Real-time video systems have high data rate requirements coupled with the same delay constraints as voice systems, whereas paging and short messaging have very different low data rate requirements and no delay constraints. These diverse requirements for different applications make it difficult to build one wireless system that can efficiently satisfy all these requirements simultaneously. Wired networks typically integrate the diverse requirements of different applications using a single protocol. This integration requires that the most stringent requirements for all applications be met simultaneously. Although this may be possible on some wired networks, with data rates on the order of gigabits per second and BERs on the order of 10 –12, it is not possible on wireless networks, which have much lower data rates and higher BERs. For these reasons, at least in the near future, wireless systems will continue to be fragmented, with different protocols tailored to support the requirements of different applications. The exponential growth of cellular telephone use and wireless Internet access have led to great optimism about wireless technology in general. The 1G cellular wireless mobile systems were analog and were based on frequency-division multiplex (FDM) technology. Limited to the technologies of that time, most phones were large, placed in a briefcase-sized case, and permanently installed in a vehicle. Based on the number of vehicles that might need a phone and the number of people who could afford to pay, it was once projected by some that the cellular industry would see only limited growth. Indeed, the growth of cellular subscribers was moderate before the 1980s. By the end of the 1980s, however, advances in semiconductor technologies provided a vital boost to the cellular mobile industry. Using application-specific

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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integrated circuits (ASICs), the size of the phone shrank to a small handset. It turned out that this small technical evolution led to a major revolution for the cellular mobile industry for at least two reasons. First, the industry’s consumer base was changed from the number of vehicles to the number of people, which is a much larger base. Second, the function of the phones was also changed from being able to call from a vehicle to being able to call from anywhere. This greatly increased people’s desire to have a phone and therefore significantly increased the penetration rate. The second boost for the cellular industry came from the introduction of the 2G digital technology standards, including GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications), IS-136 (time-division multiple access, TDMA), IS-95 (code-division multiple access, CDMA), and personal digital cellular (PDC). Digital technology has not only improved voice quality and services, but more importantly, has significantly reduced the cost of handset and infrastructure services, leading to further acceleration of the industry’s growth.5 Extension of the 2G system is introduced in 2.5G systems packet service enhancement. Moving forward to the twenty-first century, further acceleration of growth was widely anticipated. 3G systems have been deployed,6 and while 3G systems significantly improve the spectral efficiency and possibly the cost of the system, a more profound feature is the significant improvement of data and multimedia capabilities. Although this feature seems to be a mere evolution from a technical viewpoint, its potential lies in the promotion of communications not only from person to person, but also from person to machine and from machine to machine. Similar to the expansion from vehicles to people in 2G systems, this expansion is hoped to lead to a significant increase in the user base, as the number of machines can be an order of magnitude larger than the number of people. In addition to the possible user base expansion, growth is further fueled by the significant increase of the user penetration rate. Increasingly, more functions are being built into the wireless mobile handset. One example is the combination of the phone with a personal digital assistant (PDA). This combination, with a user-friendly interface, can greatly improve convenience for a user over that provided by a wireline phone. When further combined with improved voice quality, reliability, multiple functionality, and reasonable air price, it can indeed become a serious competitor to the wireline phone system.7 Furthermore, the continuous success of mobile communication systems, as well as its consequences in terms of the need for better quality of service (QoS), more efficient systems, and more services, promises a transmission rate of up to 2 Mbps, which makes it possible to provide a wide range of multimedia services including videotelephony, paging, messaging, Internet access, and broadband data. However, it is expected that there will be a strong demand for multimedia applications which require higher data rates above 2 Mbps in cellular systems, especially in the downlink, where mobile users will enjoy high-speed Internet access and broadcast services. To offer such broadband packet data transmission services, a 3.5G wireless system has been introduced. This system is expected to achieve higher performance with a peak data rate of about 10 Mbps. High-speed packet transmission is possible by time-sharing a commonly used data channel among access users, called high-speed downlink shared channel (HS-DSCH). The 3.5G system relies on new technologies

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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that make it possible to achieve such a high data rate. These new technologies include adaptive modulation and coding, hybrid automatic repeat request, fast cell selection, and fast packet scheduling. A packet scheduler controls the allocation of channels to users within the coverage area of the system by deciding which user should transmit during a given time interval. Therefore, to a large extent, it determines the overall behavior of the system.8 Fourth-generation (4G) beyond 3G wireless networks promises much higher overall data throughput and many more diverse services than current networks.6 All-IP (Internet Protocol) wireless has emerged as the most preferred platform for 4G wireless networks. In such networks different access systems are integrated on an all-IP-based network, including network and internetworking of different systems with the backbone. The design of a future wireless networking architecture has to take into account the fact that the dominant load in 4G wireless networks will be high-speed, content-rich, burst-type traffic, which already poses a great challenge to all existing wireless networking technologies deployed in current networks. Many research activities have been carried out to design suitable architecture for 4G wireless networks, which should be efficient, adaptive, flexible, and scalable, and should also be able to work harmoniously with different network technologies (including currently deployed networks) and accommodate heterogeneous networking applications. Additional research activities are required to investigate how to realize smooth migration and seamless interoperability between the legacy networks and future 4G wireless networks. The architecture of 4G wireless networks should efficiently address the constraints and problems existing in the currently deployed wireless networking platforms, such as rigid network structure, low overall bandwidth efficiency, strictly interference-limited capacity, difficulty performing ratematching algorithms, lack of flexibility to implement cross-layer network design, and so forth. The research on the next generation wireless networking involves many cutting-edge research topics, such as cross-layer joint optimization design, quality of service assurance, dynamic network resource allocation, ad hoc or mesh network routing algorithms, heterogeneous networking, cooperative network detection, vertical/horizontal network service integration, and so on.

ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS The most basic possible wireless system consists of a transmitter, a receiver, and a channel, usually a radio link, as shown in Figure 0.1. Because radio cannot be used directly with low frequencies such as those in a human voice, it is necessary to superimpose the information content onto a higher frequency carrier signal at the Transmitter (Modulation)

Source

Baseband

FIGURE 0.1

Modulated signal

Receiver (Demodulation)

Channel (radio, copper or fiber)

Elements of a single communication system.

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Destination Baseband

Overview

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transmitter, using a process called modulation. The use of modulation also allows more than one information signal to use the radio channel by simply using a different carrier frequency for each. The inverse process, demodulation, is performed at the receiver in order to recover the original information. The information signal is also sometimes called the intelligence, the modulating signal, or the baseband signal. An ideal communication system would reproduce the information signal exactly at the receiver, except for the inevitable time delay as it travels between transmitter and receiver, and except, possibly, for a change in amplitude. Any other changes constitute distortion. Any real system will have some distortion, of course; part of the design process is to decide how much distortion, and of what type, is acceptable. Figure 0.1 represents a simplex communication system. The communication is one way only, from transmitter to receiver. Broadcasting systems are like this, except that there are many receivers for each transmitter. Most of the systems we discuss in this book involve two-way communication. Sometimes communication can take place in both directions at once. This is called full-duplex communication. An ordinary telephone call is an example of full-duplex communication. It is quite possible (though perhaps not desirable) for both parties to talk at once, with each hearing the other. Figure 0.2 shows full-duplex communication. Note that it simply doubles the previous figure—we need two transmitters, two receivers, and, usually, two channels. Some two-way communication systems do not require simultaneous communication in both directions. An example of this half-duplex type of communication is a conversation over citizens’ band (CB) radio. The operator pushes a button to talk and releases it to listen. It is not possible to talk and listen at the same time, as the receiver is disabled while the transmitter is activated. Half-duplex systems save bandwidth by allowing the same channel to be used for communication in both directions. They can sometimes save money as well by allowing some circuit components in the transceiver to be used for both transmitting and receiving. They do sacrifice some of the naturalness of full-duplex communication, however. Figure 0.3 shows a half-duplex communication system. The full- and half-duplex communication systems shown so far involve communication between only two users. Again, CB radio is a good example of this. When Transmitter (Modulation)

Terminal

Baseband

Modulated signal

2 Channels (or 2 signals multiplexed on 1 channel)

Receiver (Demodulation) Modulated signal

FIGURE 0.2 Full-duplex communication system.

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Receiver (Demodulation)

Baseband

Transmitter (Modulation)

Terminal

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Transmitter (Modulation)

Receiver (Demodulation) T/R switches

Terminal

Baseband

Baseband

Terminal

Channel Receiver (Demodulation)

FIGURE 0.3

Transmitter (Modulation)

Half-duplex communication system.

there are more than two simultaneous users, or when the two users are too far from each other for direct communication, some kind of network is required. Networks can take many forms, and several are examined in this book. Probably the most common basic structure in wireless communication is the classic star network, shown in Figure 0.4. The central hub in a radio network is likely to be a repeater, which consists of a transmitter and receiver, with their associated antennas, located in a good position from which to relay transmissions from and to mobile radio equipment. The repeater may also be connected to wired telephone or data networks. The cellular and personal communication system (PCS) telephone systems have an elaborate network of repeater stations. The architect of any wireless communications system must overcome three unique and fundamental obstacles that do not affect wireline systems: r The physical channel is completely nonengineerable. The wireless communication system (transmitters and receivers) must be designed around the natural or given characteristics of the radio channel.

Terminal

Terminal

ub H

Terminal

FIGURE 0.4 Star wireless network.

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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r The channel is, so to speak, nonclonable. In a wireline network, the growth in traffic between point A and point B can be addressed, at a cost, by adding new identical transmission facilities between those nodes: more fiber, more coax, more copper. In a wireless network, this option does not exist. The total available physical bandwidth between points A and B is finite. r The wireless system architect must allow for the fact that the signal will experience significant destructive interactions with other signals (including images of itself) during transmission. These effects are produced, in part, by the physical channel itself.

TECHNICAL CHALLENGES Many technical challenges must be addressed to enable the wireless applications. These challenges extend across all aspects of the system design. Computers process voice, image, text, and video data, but breakthroughs in circuit design are required to implement the same multichip, lightweight, handheld device. Because consumers do not want large batteries that frequently need recharging, transmission and signal processing in the portable terminal must consume minimal power. The signal processing required to support multimedia applications and networking functions can be power-intensive infrastructure-based networks, such as wireless LANs and cellular systems, which place as much of the processing burden as possible on fixed sites with large power resources. The associated bottlenecks and single points-of-failure are clearly undesirable for the overall system. Energy is a particularly critical resource in networks where nodes cannot recharge their batteries sensing applications. Network design to meet the application requirements remains a big technological hurdle. The finite bandwidth and random variations of wireless channels also require robust applications that degrade gracefully as network performance degrades. As the signal propagates through a wireless channel, it experiences random fluctuations in time if the object’s transmitter surroundings are moving, due to changing reflections and attenuation. Thus, the channels appear to change randomly with time, which makes it difficult to design reliable system performance. Security is also more difficult to implement in wireless systems. The analog cellular systems have no security, and one can easily overhear conversations by scanning the analog cellular frequency band. All digital cellular systems implement some level of encryption. However, with enough knowledge, time, and determination, most methods can be cracked and, indeed, several have been compromised. To support applications like electronic commerce and credit card transactions, the wireless network must be secure against such listeners. Wireless networking is also a significant challenge. The network must be able to locate a given user wherever that user is among billions of globally distributed mobile terminals. It must then route a call to that user as it moves. The finite resources of the network must be allocated in a fair and efficient manner based on user demands and ranges of locations. Moreover, there currently exists a tremendous infrastructure of wired networks—the telephone system, the Internet, and fiber-optic cable—which

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should be used to connect wether into a global network. Interfacing between wireless and wired networks is a difficult problem. The layers in a wireless system include the link or physical layer, which handles bit transmissions over the communications medium; the access layer, which handles shared access to the communications medium; the transport layers, which route data across the network and ensure end-to-end connectivity; and the application layer, which dictates the end-to-end data rates and delay constraints associated with the application. Although a layering methodology reduces complexity and facilitates modularity and standardization, it leads to inefficiency and performance loss due to the lack of a global design optimization. Wireless links can exhibit very poor performance along with user connectivity and network topology changes over time. In fact, the very notion of a wireless link is somewhat fuzzy due to the nature of radio propagation and broadcasting. The dynamic networks must be optimized for this channel and must be robust and adaptive to its variations, as well as to network dynamics. Thus, these networks require integrated and adaptive protocols at all layers, from the link layer to the application layer. This cross-layer protocol design requires interdisciplinary expertise in communications, signal processing, and network theory and design.

WIRELESS SYSTEMS IN OPERATION TODAY The design details of current wireless systems are constantly evolving with new systems emerging and old ones going by the wayside. We focus mainly on the high-level design aspects of the most common systems. Cellular systems provide two-way voice and data communication with regional, national, or international coverage. Cellular systems were initially designed for mobile terminals inside vehicles with an antenna on the vehicle roof. Today these systems have evolved to support lightweight handheld mobile terminals operating inside and outside buildings at both pedestrian and vehicle speeds. The basic premise behind cellular system design is frequency reuse, which exploits the fact that signal power falls off with distance to reuse the same frequency spectrum at spatially separated locations. Specifically, the coverage area of a cellular system is divided into nonoverlapping cells where some set of channels is assigned to each cell. This same channel set is used in another cell some distance away, as shown in Figure 0.5, where Ci denotes the channel set used in a particular cell. Operation within a cell is controlled by a centralized base station. The interference caused by users in different cells operating on the same channel set is called intercell interference. The spatial separation of cells that reuse the same channel set, the reuse distance, should be as small as possible so that frequencies are reused as often as possible, thereby maximizing spectral efficiency. However, as the reuse distance decreases, intercell interference increases, due to the smaller propagation distance between interfering cells. Since intercell interference must remain below a given threshold for acceptable system performance, reuse distance cannot be reduced below some minimum value. In practice, it is quite difficult to determine this minimum value because both the transmitting and interfering signals experience random power variations due to the characteristics of wireless signal propagation. To

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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C1 C2

C1

C3

C3 C1

C1 C2

C3

C1 C2 C3

C3 C1

FIGURE 0.5

C2

C2

C1

Cellular systems.

determine the base station placement, an accurate characterization of signal propagation within the cells is needed. Cellular systems in urban areas mostly use smaller cells with base stations close to street level transmitting at much lower power. These smaller cells are called microcells or picocells, depending on their size. Smaller cells occur for two reasons: the need for higher capacity in areas with high user density size, and the cost of base station electronics. A cell of any size can support roughly the same number of users if the system is scaled accordingly. Thus, for a given coverage area a system with many microcells has a higher number of users per unit area than a system with just a few macrocells. In addition, less power is required at the mobile terminals in microcellular systems because the terminals are closer to the base stations. However, evolution to smaller cells has complicated network design. Mobiles traverse a small cell more quickly than a large cell, and therefore handoffs must be processed more quickly. It is also harder to develop general propagation models for small cells, because signal propagation in these cells is highly dependent on base station placement and the geometry of the surrounding reflectors.9 All base stations in a given geographical area are connected via a high-speed communications link to a mobile telephone switching office (MTSO), as shown in Figure 0.6. The MTSO acts as a central controller for the network, allocating channels within each cell, coordinating handoffs between cells when a mobile traverses a cell boundary, and routing calls to and from mobile users. The MTSO can route voice calls through the public switched telephone network (PSTN) or provide Internet access. A new user located in a given cell requests a channel by sending a cell’s base station over a separate control channel. The request is relayed to the MTSO, which accepts if a channel is available in that cell. If no channels are available, then the call request is rejected. A call handoff is initiated when the base station

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Internet

Base station

Local exchange Cellular phone

FIGURE 0.6

Long-distance network

Mobile telephone switching office

One example of cellular network architecture.

or the mobile in a given cell detects that the received signal power for that call is approaching a given minimum threshold. In this case the base station informs the MTSO that the mobile requires a handoff, and the MTSO then queries surrounding base stations to determine if one of these stations can detect that mobile signal. If so, then the MTSO coordinates a handoff between the base stations. If no channels are available in the cell with the new base station, then the handoff fails and the call is terminated. A call will also be dropped if the signal strength between a mobile and its base station drops below the minimum threshold needed for communication due to random signal variations. 1G cellular systems used analog communications, primarily because these systems were designed in the 1960s, before digital communications became prevalent. 2G systems moved from analog to digital due to the many advantages of digital. The components are cheaper, faster, smaller, and require less power. Voice quality is improved due to error correction coding. Digital systems also have higher capacity than analog systems because they can use more spectrally efficient digital modulation and more efficient techniques to share the cellular spectrum. They can also take advantage of advanced compression techniques and voice activity factors. In addition, encryption techniques can be used to secure digital signals against eavesdropping. Spectral sharing in communication systems, also called multiple access, is done by dividing the signaling dimensions along the time, frequency, and/or code space axes. In frequency-division multiple access (FDMA), the total system bandwidth is divided into orthogonal frequency channels. In time-division multiple access (TDMA), time is divided orthogonally and each channel occupies the entire frequency band over its assigned time slot. TDMA is more difficult to implement than FDMA because the users must be time synchronized. However, it is easier to accommodate multiple data rates with TDMA because multiple time slots can be assigned to a given user. Code-division multiple access (CDMA) is typically implemented using direct-sequence or frequency-hopping spread spectrum with either orthogonal or nonorthogonal codes. In direct sequence each user modulates its data sequence by a different sequence, which is much faster than the data sequence. In the frequency domain, the narrowband data signal is convolved with the wideband signal, resulting in a signal with a much wider bandwidth than the original data signal. In frequency hopping the carrier frequency is used to modulate the narrowband data. This results

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in a modulated signal that hops over different carrier frequencies. Typically, spread spectrum signals are superimposed onto each of the distinct signals by separately decoding each spreading sequence. However, for nonorthogonal codes users within a cell interfere with each other (intracell interference) and codes that are reused in other cells cause intercell interference. Both the intracell and intercell interference power is reduced by the spreading gain of the code. Moreover, interference in spread spectrum systems can be further reduced through multiuser detection and interference cancellation. Efficient cellular system designs are interference limited; that is, the interference dominates the noise floor because otherwise more users could be added to the system. As a result, any technique to reduce interference in cellular systems leads to an increase in system capacity and performance. Some methods for interference reduction in use today or proposed for future systems include cell sectorization, directional and smart antennas, multiuser detection, and dynamic resource allocation. The 1G cellular systems in the United States, called the AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service), used FDMA with 30 kHz FM-modulated voice channels. Many of the 1G cellular systems in Europe were incompatible, and the Europeans quickly converged on a uniform standard for 2G digital systems called GSM. The GSM standard uses a combination of TDMA and slow frequency hopping with frequency-shift keying for the voice modulation. In contrast, the standard activities in the United States surrounding 2G digital cellular provoked a raging debate on spectrum-sharing techniques, resulting in several incompatible standards. In particular, there are two standards in the 900 MHz cellular frequency band: IS-54, which uses a combination of TDMA and shift-keyed modulation; and IS-95, which uses direct-sequence CDMA with binary modulation and coding.10,11 All 2G digital cellular standards have been enhanced to support high-rate packet data systems and provide data rates of up to 100 kbps by aggregating all time slots together for a single user. This enhancement is called GPRS. A more fundamental enhancement, Enhanced Data Services for GSM Evolution (EDGE), further increases data rates using a high-level modulation format combined with forward error correction (FEC) coding. This modulation is more sensitive to fading effects, and EDGE uses adaptive techniques to mitigate this problem. The received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is measured at the receiver and fed back to the transmitter, and the best modulation and coding combination for this SNR value is used. The IS-54 and IS-136 systems provide data rates of 40 to 60 kbps by aggregating time slots and using high-level modulation. This evolution of the IS-136 standard is called IS-136H (high-speed). The IS-95 systems support higher data rates using a time-division technique called high data rate (HDR). The 3G cellular systems are based on a wideband CDMA standard developed under the auspices of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). The standard, initially called International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 (IMT-2000), provides different data rates depending on mobility and location, from 384 kbps for pedestrian use, to 144 kbps for vehicular use, to 2 Mbps for indoor office use. The 3G standard is incompatible with 2G systems, so service providers must invest in a new infrastructure before they can provide 3G service. The first 3G systems were deployed in Japan. One reason that 3G services emerged first in Japan is the process of 3G spectrum

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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allocation, which in Japan was awarded without much upfront cost. The 3G spectrum in both Europe and the United States is allocated based on auctioning, thereby requiring a huge initial investment for any company wishing to provide 3G service. Motivated by the ever-increasing demand for wireless communications, the cellular network has evolved to the 3G, for example, the UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System), which is specified by the 3G Partnership Project (3GPP) and is one of the most popular 3G systems nowadays. The 3G cellular network is capable of supporting QoS critical to multimedia services, but at the expense of high complexity and implementation costs. For example, four service classes are supported in UMTS: conversational, streaming, interactive, and background services. However, the expensive radio spectrum for 3G cellular networks prohibits rapid deployment, and the low bandwidth restricts system capacity. The future 4G wireless networks need to address these existing constraints and problems effectively. Heterogeneous networking is a promising approach to accelerate the technological evolution toward 4G wireless networks. In recent years, IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs have proliferated due to a high performance-to-cost ratio. Usually, operating at license-free frequency bands, wireless LANs can occupy a much wider spectrum than the cellular system and provide data services using a simple medium access control (MAC) protocol. The complementary characteristics of the 3G cellular network and wireless LANs promote their interworking. Future mobile devices can be equipped with network interfaces to both the 3G network and wireless LANs at a reasonable price. The dual-mode mobile devices can then enjoy services in cellular wireless LAN integrated networks.13 4G, or beyond 3G, wireless networks promise much higher overall data throughput and much more diverse services than do current networks. All-IP wireless has emerged as the most preferred platform for 4G wireless networks. In such networks different access systems are integrated on an all-IP-based network, including interworking of different systems with the backbone. The design of a future wireless networking architecture has to take into account the fact that the dominant load in 4G wireless networks will be high-speed, content-rich, burst-type traffic, which already poses a great challenge to all existing wireless networking technologies deployed in current networks. Many research activities have been carried out to design suitable architectures for 4G wireless networks, which should also be able to work harmoniously with different network technologies (including currently deployed networks) and accommodate heterogeneous networking applications. The architecture of 4G wireless networks should effectively address the constraints and problems existing in the currently deployed wireless networking platforms, such as low overall bandwidth efficiency, strictly interference-limited capacity, difficulty performing rate-matching algorithms, lack of flexibility to implement cross-layer network design, and so forth.

WIRELESS SPECTRUM ALLOCATION Most countries have government agencies responsible for allocating and controlling the use of the radio spectrum. In the United States, spectrum is allocated by the FCC for commercial use and by the Office of Spectral Management (OSM) for military use. Commercial spectral allocation is governed in Europe by the

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) and globally by the ITU. Governments decide how much spectrum to allocate between commercial and military use, and this decision is dynamic depending on need. Historically, the FCC allocated spectral blocks for specific uses and assigned licenses to use these blocks to specific groups or companies. For example, in the 1980s the FCC allocated frequencies in the 800 MHz band for analog cellular phone service, and provided spectral licenses to two operators in each geographical area based on a number of criteria. Although the FCC and regulatory bodies in other countries still allocate spectral blocks for specific purposes, these blocks are now commonly assigned through spectral auctions to the highest bidder. Although some argue that this market-based method is the fairest way for governments to allocate the limited spectral resource, in addition to providing significant revenue to the government, there are others who believe that this mechanism stifles innovation, limits competition, and hurts technology adoption. Specifically, the high cost of spectrum dictates that only large companies or conglomerates can purchase it. Moreover, the large investment required to obtain spectrum can delay the ability to invest in infrastructure for system rollout and results in very high initial prices for the end user. The 3G spectral auctions in Europe, following which several companies ultimately defaulted, have provided fuel to the fire against spectral auctions. In addition to spectral auctions, spectrum can be set aside in specific frequency bands that are free to use with a license according to a specific set of rules. The rules may correspond to specific communications standards, power levels, and so on. The purpose of these unlicensed bands is to encourage innovation and low-cost implementation. Many extremely successful wireless systems operate in unlicensed bands, including wireless LANs, Bluetooth, and cordless phones. A major difficulty of unlicensed bands is that they can be killed by their own success. If many unlicensed devices in the same band are used in close proximity, they generate much interference to each other, which can make the band unusable. Underlay systems are another alternative to allocate spectrum. An underlay system operates as a secondary user in a frequency band with other primary users. Operation of secondary users is typically restricted so that primary users experience minimal interference. This is usually accomplished by restricting the power/hertz of the secondary users. Ultrawideband (UWB) is an example of an underlay system, as are unlicensed systems in the ISM frequency bands. The trend toward spectrum allocation for underlays appears to be accelerating, mainly due to the lack of available spectrum for new systems and applications. Satellite systems cover large areas spanning many countries and sometimes the globe. For wireless systems that span multiple countries, spectrum is allocated by the ITU-R. The standards arm of this body, ITU-T, adopts telecommunications standards for global systems that must interoperate with each other across national boundaries. Most wireless applications reside in the radio spectrum between 30 MHz and 30 GHz. These frequencies are natural for wireless systems because they are not affected by the Earth’s curvature, require only moderate-sized antennas, and can penetrate the ionosphere. Note that the required antenna size for good reception is inversely proportional to the square of signal frequency, so moving systems to a higher frequency allows for more compact antennas. However, received signal power

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TABLE 0.1 Licensed Spectrum Allocated to Wireless Systems in the United States AM radio FM radio Broadcast TV (Channels 2–6) Broadcast TV (Channels 7–13) Broadcast TV (UHF) 3G broadband wireless 3G broadband wireless 1G and 2G digital cellular phones Personal communications service (2G cell phones) Wireless communications service Satellite digital radio Multichannel multipoint distribution service (MMDS) Digital broadcast satellite (satellite TV) Local multipoint distribution service (LMDS) Fixed wireless services

535–1,605 kHz 88–108 MHz 54–88 MHz 174–216 MHz 470–806 MHz 746–764 MHz, 776–794 MHz 1.7–1.85 MHz, 2.5–2.69 MHz 806–902 MHz 1.85–1.99 GHz 2.305–2.32 GHz, 2.345–2.36 GHz 2.32–2.325 GHz 2.15–2.68 GHz 12.2–12.7 GHz 27.5–29.5 GHz, 31–31.3 GHz 38.6–40 GHz

with nondirectional antennas is proportional to the inverse of frequency squared, so it is harder to cover large distances with higher frequency signals. Spectrum is allocated either in licensed bands, which regulatory bodies assign to specific operators, or in unlicensed bands, which can be used by any system subject to certain operational requirements. Table 0.1 shows the licensed spectrum allocated to major commercial wireless systems in the United States. There are similar allocations in Europe and Asia. Note that digital TV is slated for the same bands as broadcast TV, so all broadcasters must eventually switch from analog to digital transmission. Also, the 3G broadband wireless spectrum is currently allocated to UHF TV stations 60 to 69 but is slated to be reallocated. Both 1G analog and 2G digital cellular services occupy the same cellular band at 800 MHz, and the cellular service providers decide how much of the band to allocate between digital and analog services. Table 0.2 shows the unlicensed spectrum allocations in the United States. TABLE 0.2 Unlicensed Spectrum Allocations in the United States ISM Band I (cordless phones, 1G wireless LANs) ISM Band II (Bluetooth, 802.1 lb wireless LANs) ISM Band III (wireless PBX) NII Band I (indoor systems, 802.1 la wireless LANs) NII Band II (short outdoor and campus applications) NII Band III (long outdoor and point-to-point links)

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

902–928 MHz 2.4–2.4835 GHz 5.725–5.85 GHz 5.15–5.25 GHz 5.25–5.35 GHz 5.725–5.825 GHz

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ISM Band I has licensed users transmitting at high power that interferes with the unlicensed users. Therefore, the requirements for unlicensed use of this band are highly restrictive and performance is somewhat poor. The U-NII bands have a total of 300 MHz of spectrum in three separate 100 MHz bands, with slightly different restrictions on each band. Many unlicensed systems operate in these bands.

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

to 1 Introduction Wireless Networking Wireless communications are expected to be the dominant mode of access technology in this century. In addition to voice, a new range of services such as audio, image, video, high speed data, and multimedia are being offered for delivery over wireless networks. Mobility will be seamless, realizing the concept of persons in contact anywhere, at any time. Wireless communications networks are experiencing phenomenal growth in various parts of the world.1 Cellular services have evolved from sparse coverage and heavy terminal equipment—mainly for vehicles—to almost ubiquitous coverage with very small terminals affordable to the customer. Wireless systems are poised to play a continuing significant role in meeting the telecommunications needs of the twenty-first century. According to some forecasts, the number of mobile phone subscribers by 2010 may reach 1 billion and surpass fixed phone lines. Thus, wireless communication is likely to become the dominant mode of access technology. Also, as we consider the current and future needs of wireless, it is apparent that a new generation of wireless technologies is needed that enables the convergence of many different wireless technologies across various existing networks and is flexible enough to handle a wide range of customer demands. One example is the fourth generation (4G) systems. Wireless systems are poised to play a continuing significant role in meeting the telecommunications needs. There is a desire to communicate simultaneously using speech, video, and data. The speed of communication is also important. Wireless communications are expected to be the dominant mode of access technology.2 The rapid growth of interactive multimedia applications, such as video telephones, video games, and TV broadcasting, has resulted in spectacular studies in the progress of wireless communication systems. The current third generation (3G) wireless systems and the next generation (4G) wireless systems support high bit rates. However, the high error rates and stringent delay constraints in wireless systems are still significant obstacles for these applications and services. On the other hand, the development of more advanced wireless systems provides opportunities for proposing novel wireless multimedia protocols, applications, and services that can take the maximum advantage of these systems. The impressive evolution of mobile networks and the potential of wireless multimedia communications pose many questions to operators, manufacturers, and scientists working in the field. The future scenario is open to several alternatives. Thoughts, proposals, and activities of the near future could provide the answer to the open points and dictate the future trends of the wireless world. The perspective of today’s information society calls for a multiplicity of devices, including Internet Protocol (IP)–enabled home appliances, vehicles, personal 1

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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computers, sensors, and actuators, all of which are globally connected. Current mobile and wireless systems and architectural concepts must evolve to cope with these complex connectivity requirements. Scientific research in this truly multidisciplinary field is growing fast. New technologies, new architectural concepts, and new challenges are emerging.3–7 A broader band knowledge spanning different layers of the protocol stack is required by experts involved in the research, design, and development aspects of future wireless networks. Network design using the layered open systems interconnection (OSI) architecture has been a satisfactory approach for wired networks, especially as the communication links evolved to provide gigabit-per-second rates and bit error rates (BER) of 10 –12. Wireless channels typically have much lower data rates (on the order of few megabits per second), higher BERs (10 –2 to 10 –6), and exhibit sporadic error bursts and intermittent connectivity. These performance characteristics change a network topology, and user traffic also varies over time. Consequently, good end-to-end wireless network performance will not be possible without a truly optimized, integrated, and adaptive network design. Each level in the protocol stack should adapt to wireless link variation strategies at the other layers in order to optimize network performance.

1.1 EVOLUTION OF MOBILE NETWORKS The passage from generation to generation is not only characterized by an increase in the data rate, but also by the transition from pure circuit-switched (CS) systems to CS voice/packed data and IP core-based systems. Evolution of cellular communications from second generation (2G) to 3G is presented in Figure 1.1. 2G systems are a milestone in the mobile world. The evolution from the first generation (1G) of analog systems meant the passage to a new system, while maintaining the same offered service: voice. The success of 2G systems, which extend the traditional PSTN (public switched telephone network) or ISDN (integrated services digital network) and allow Analog 1G

Digital 2G

GSM (9.6–14.4 kbps)

Digital evolved 2G HSCSD (57.6 kbps) GPRS/EDGE (171.2–384 kbps)

AMPS

IS – 136 (9.6–14.4 kbps)

IS – 95 (9.6–14.4 kbps)

Circuit switched

FIGURE 1.1

3G

CDMA 2000 (384 kbps)

CS voice/packet data

Evolution of cellular communications from 2G to 3G.

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

IP core

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for nationwide or even worldwide seamless roaming with the same mobile phone, has been enormous. Today’s most successful digital mobile cellular system is GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications).8,9 GSM is digital system in Europe. In Japan the PDC (personal digital cellular) system is operated. In the United States the digital market is divided into several systems, TDMA (time division multiple access)-based and GSM systems. This fragmentation has led to severe problems regarding coverage and service availability. Some mobile subscribers in United States and Canada still use analog AMPS (advanced mobile phone services) systems.10,11 2G mobile systems are still mainly used for voice traffic. The basic versions typically implement a circuitswitched service focused on voice, and only offer low data rates (9.6 to 14.4 kbps). Transitional data technologies between 2G and 3G have been proposed to achieve faster data rates sooner and at a lower cost than 3G systems. The evolved systems are characterized by higher data rates (64 to 384 kbps) and packet data mode.

HIGH-SPEED CIRCUIT-SWITCHED DATA HSCSD (high-speed circuit-switched data) comes from the need to solve problems related to the slowness of GSM in data transmission. In fact, GSM supports data transmissions with data rates up to 9.6 to 14.4 kbps in circuit-switched mode, and the transfer on signaling channels of small size packets (up to 160 characters). HSCSD was proposed by ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) in early 1997. The key idea is to exploit more than one time slot in parallel among the eight time slots available with a proportional increment in the data rates.10 For example, HSCSD allows the user to access a company LAN (local area network), send and receive e-mail, and access the Internet on the move. On the other hand, HSCSD service does not effectively take advantage of the bursty nature of the traffic (e.g., Web browsing, e-mail). Channels are reserved during the connection. Furthermore, the exploitation of more time slots per user in a circuit-switched mode leads to a drastic reduction of channels available for voice users. For instance, four HSCSD users, each with four time slots assigned, prevent 16 voice users from accessing the network. Therefore, there is a need for packet-switched mode to provide more efficient radio resource exploitation when bursty traffic sources are involved. I-MODE

SERVICES

A great success in Japan has been obtained by the i-mode services, introduced in 1999, which are provided by the packet-switched communication mode of the PDC system.11 Hence, the i-mode represents a transitional step of PDC toward 3G. The i-mode service utilizes a compact HTML (Hypertext Mark-Up Language) protocol, thus easing the interface to the Internet. Subscribers can send/receive e-mail and access a large variety of transitions, entertainment, and database-related services, as well as browsing Web sites and home pages. i-Mode is user friendly and all instructions can be managed by only 10 keys.

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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GPRS AND EDGE FOR GSM EVOLUTION GPRS (general packet radio service) and EDGE (enhanced data rates for GSM evolution) have been introduced as transitional data technologies for the evolution of GSM (Figure 1.1). GPRS is the packet mode extension to GSM, supporting data applications and exploiting the already existing network infrastructure in order to save the operator’s investment. GPRS needs a mode adaptation at the radio interface level of GSM hardware. However, it adopts a new physical channel and mapping into physical resources.11 The new physical channel is called 52-multiframe and is composed of two 2G control multiframes of voice-mode GSM. High data rates can be provided since the GPRS users can exploit more than one time slot in parallel with the possibility, contrary to the HSCSD technology which varies the number of time slots assigned to a user. The maximum theoretical bit rate of the GPRS is 171.2 kbps (using eight time slots). Current peak values are 20/30 kbps. The 52-multiframe is logically divided into 12 radio blocks of four consecutive frames, where a radio block (20 ms) represents the minimum time resource assigned to a user. If the user is transmitting or receiving big flows of data, more than one radio block can be allocated to it. The whole set of these blocks received/transmitted by a mobile terminal during a reception/transmission phase forms the temporary block flow (TBF), which is maintained only for the duration of the data transfer. The network assigns each TBF a temporary flow identify (TFI) which is unique in both directions. Contrary to the GSM, GPRS service can flexibly handle asymmetric services by allocating a different number of time slots in uplink and downlink. Time slots can be allocated in two ways: r On demand, where the time slots not used by voice calls are allocated, and in case of resource security for voice calls (congestion), time slots already assigned to GPRS service can be deallocated. r State in which some time slots are allocated for GPRS and they cannot be exploited by voice calls. Another new aspect of the GPRS with respect to GSM is the possibility of specifying a quality of service (QoS) profile. This profile determines the service priority (high, normal, low), reliability, and delay class of the transmission, and user data throughput.12,13 The radio link protocol provides a reliable link, while MAC (multiple access control) protocols control access with signaling procedures for the radio channel and the mapping of LLC (link layer control) frames into the GSM physical channels. Concerning the fixed backbone, the GPRS introduces two new network elements: service GPRS support node (SGSN) and gateway GPRS support node (GGSN). The architecture reference model is shown in Figure 1.2.14 The SGSN represents for the packet world what the mobile switching center (MSC) represents for the circuit world. The SGSN performs mobility management (e.g., routing area update, attach/detach process, mobile station, MS paging) as well as security tasks (ciphering of user data, authentication). GGSN tasks are comparable to those of a gateway MSC. It is not connected directly to the access network, but provides a means to connect SGSNs to other nodes of external packet data networks

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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Other networks VLR

MSC

BSC

EIR External data network (PDN)

HLR/GR

GGSN

SGSN

BSC

Mobility management Authentication Encryption Routing

BTS

Gateway Mobility management Routing Encapsulate

FIGURE 1.2 GSM-GPRS network architecture.

(PDNs). It also provides routing for packet coming from external networks to the SGSN where the MS is located as specified by the home location register (HLR). The new hardware boards for the BSC are called packet data units (PDUs), and their main functions are GPRS radio channel management (e.g., set-up/release); multiplexing of users among the available channels; power control; congestion control; broadcast of system information to the cells; and GPRS signaling from/to the MS, base transceiver station (BTS), and SGSN. The evolution of the GPRS will be in the direction of improving the QoS by applying some of the concepts belonging to the 3G mobile systems (like the connection-oriented QoS), as well as using powerful coding schemes and a more efficient modulation scheme, thus providing the user with services closer to real-time services. In the path to 3G systems, EDGE can be seen as a generic air interface for the efficient provision of higher bit rates with respect to GSM.15,16 A typical GSM network operator deploying EDGE has a running GSM network, where EDGE can be introduced with minimal effort and costs. EDGE uses enhanced modulation schemes with respect to GSM in order to increase the gross bit rate on the air interface and the spectral efficiency with moderate implementation complexity. Data rates up to 384 kbps using the same 200 kHz wide carrier and the same frequencies as GSM can be achieved. EDGE can be introduced incrementally, offering some channels that can switch between EDGE and

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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GSP/GPRS. This will relieve both capacity and data rate bottlenecks in such a way that Internet and low bit rate audiovisual services become feasible on an on-demand basis.

1.2 THIRD GENERATION SYSTEMS HISTORY 3G is now the generally accepted term used to describe the new way of mobile networks and services. 1G is used to categorize the first analog mobile systems to emerge in the 1980s, such as the AMPS and Nordic mobile telephony (NMT). These systems provided a mobile solution for voice, but have major limitations, particularly in terms of interworking, security, and quality. The next wave, 2G, arrived in the late 1980s and moved toward a digital solution which gave the added benefit of allowing the transfer of data and provision of other nonvoice services. GSM communication has been the most successful with its global roaming model. 3G is based on the developments in cellular to date, and combines them with complementary developments in both the fixed-line telecom networks and from the world of the Internet. The result is the development of a more general purpose network, which offers the flexibility to provide and support access to any service, regardless of location. These services can be voice, video, or data and combinations thereof, but as already stated the emphasis is on the service provision as opposed to the delivery technology. The motivation for this development has come from a number of main sources: r Subscriber demand for nonvoice services, mobile extensions to fixed-line services, and richer mobile content r Operator requirements to develop new revenue sources as mobile voice services and mobile penetration levels reach market saturation r Operators with successful portfolios of nonvoice services now unable to sustain the volume of traffic within their current spectrum allocation r Equipment video requirements to market new products as existing 2G networks become mature and robust enough to meet current consumer demand 3G systems can provide higher data rates, thus enabling a much broader range of services17–21 and the following types of services have been identified: r Basic and enhanced voice services including applications such as audio conferencing and voice mail r Low data rate services supporting file transfer and Internet access at rates on the order of 64 to 144 kbps r High data rate services to support high-speed packet and circuit-based network access, as well as high-quality video conferencing at rates higher than 64 kbps r Multimedia services, which provide concurrent video, audio, and data services to support advanced interactive applications r Multimedia services capable of supporting different quality of service requirements for different applications

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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Compatibility with 2G systems is one of the main goals of 3G systems. Different groups tried to unify the different proposals submitted to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in 1998, from ETSI for Europe, Association of Radio Industries and Broadcasting (ARIB) and Telecommunication Technology Council (TTC) for Japan, and American National Standards Institute (ANSI) for the United States.

IMT-2000 In 1985 the ITU defined the vision for a 3G cellular system, at first called Future Public Mobile Telecommunications System (FPMTS) and later renamed International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000). ITU has two major objectives for the 3G wireless system: global roaming and multimedia services. The World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC’92) identified 1.885 to 2.025 MHz and 2.110 to 2.200 MHz as the frequency bands that should be available worldwide for the new IMT-2000 systems.22 A common spectral allocation, along with a common air interface and roaming protocol design throughout the world, can accomplish the global roaming capability. To simultaneously support new multimedia services that require much higher data rates and better QoS than only-voice services, the 3G wireless system envisages: r Higher data rate services (up to 384 kbps for mobile users, and 2 Mbps for fixed users, increasing to 20 Mbps) r Increased spectral efficiency and capacity r Flexible air interfaces, as well as more flexible resource management Following are some key features of IMT-2000 systems: r Communications anywhere, at any time by using small lightweight pocket communicators that could be adaptable and reprogrammable. This enables the handsets to work in many environments. r The facilities of universal personal communications, which will enable customers to roam freely between fixed and mobile networks anywhere in the world and allow them to communicate with any one, any time at any place, and in any form. Roaming will not be restricted due to coverage or geographic location. r Access to a wide range of services besides speech, such as data, multimedia, supplementary services, roaming, and so on. An important objective of IMT-2000 is to support multimedia services, for example, real-time audio and video conference services, information retrieval services from a number of sources, and ability to surf the World Wide Web. Examples of multimedia calls are shown in Figure 1.3. A single multimedia call may involve simultaneous communication with different devices, or multiple calls simultaneously in progress from one terminal to different devices.

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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Multiple devices per call

Two different calls in progress from the same terminal

512 kb/s

64 kb/s Data base

FIGURE 1.3

Asymmetric mode

Examples of multimedia calls.

r A unified infrastructure will be achieved by unifying the many diverse wireless systems that exist today into a seamless radio infrastructure capable of offering a wide range of services. r Integration of mobile and fixed networks will result in improved service integration between these networks. r Telecommunications services for developing countries at low capital cost, that is, provision of a fixed wireless interface that supports basic POTS (plain old telephone service) and narrowband ISDN services. r Provision of a virtual home environment. The intention is that the user receives exactly the same service regardless of his geographic location, subject to the constraints of the operating environment. The above features are encapsulated in Figure 1.4, which was generated by the USA delegation to ITU-R TG8/1. Key concepts that are utilized in mobile communications technologies are multiple access, performance and capacity enhancement battery technology, and networking control security. Electronic commerce using a fixed network will adopt a public key methodology. On the other hand, electronic commerce across wireless networks needs higher level cryptographic systems to maintain the confidentiality, integrity, and the availability of the information network. Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is the European version of IMT-2000. The UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) was approved by ITU

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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Satellite

Smart BTS

Wireless network

Flexible MSC

IS-41 and/or GSM-MAP equlivalent

Other networks

In-Building

Smart BSC

Adaptive handset

Dedicated BSC and BTS’s (application dependent)

Multimedia devices

Flexible switching and transport network (e.g. ATM) Application dependent handset

Wireless local loop

FIGURE 1.4 Multifunctional network. Reproduced with permission from M. Shafi et al. “Wireless communications in the 21st century: A perspective,” Proc. of the IEEE 85 (October 1997): 1622–38.

in 2000.14 Wideband CDMA (W-CDMA), supported by groups in Japan (ARIB) and Europe and background-compatible with GSM, has been selected for UTRA frequency division duplex (FDD), whereas TD-CDMA has been selected for the UTRA time division duplex (TDD).23–25 The introduction of TDD mode is mainly because of the asymmetric frequency bands designed by ITU. Also, the asymmetric nature of the data traffic on the forward and reverse links anticipated in the next generation wireless systems (e.g., Internet applications) suggests that TDD mode might be preferred over FDD. The use of two access methods (FDD and TDD) together with the exploitation of variable bit rate techniques is an important aspect in order to fulfill the flexibility requirement. W-CDMA supports asynchronous mode operation where reception and transmission timings of different cell sites are not synchronized. It also supports forward and reverse fast closed loop power control with an update rate of 1,600 Hz that is double with respect to the update rate.26 In TDD mode, code, frequency, and time slot define a physical channel. In FDD mode, a physical channel is defined by its code and frequency and possibly by the relative phase. They have the following structure: a frame length of 10 ms organized in 1.5 time slots. The frame is the minimum transmission element in which the information rate is kept constant. The source bit rate can be different frame by frame, while the chip rate is always kept constant. A time slot has a duration of 10/15 ms and it is the minimum transmission element in which the transmission power is kept constant. Power control can update the transmission power level each time slot. Dual channel quadrature phase shift keying modulation is adopted on the reverse link, where the reverse link dedicated physical data channel (DPDCH) and the dedicated physical control channel are mapped to the I and Q channels, respectively. The I and Q channels are then spread to the chip rate with

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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Wireless Multimedia Communications Radio resource control (RRC)

Control

Logical channels

Medium access control (MAC) Transport channels

Physical layer (L1) Physical channels

FIGURE 1.5

W-CDMA radio interface protocol architecture.

two different channelization codes and subsequently complex-scrambled by a mobile station-specific complex code. For multicode transmission, each additional reverse link DPDCH may be transmitted on the I or Q channel. Either short or long scrambling codes should be used on the reverse link. Figure 1.5 provides an overview of the radio protocols architecture of the UMTS Radio Access Network (URAN).27 Radio protocols can be divided into three levels: physical layer, data link layer, network layer. The link layer is divided in two sublayers: MAC and radio link control (RLC). MAC protocols provide optimized radio access for packet data transmission through the statistical multiplexing of some users on a set of shared channels. MAC protocols are crucially important in providing an effective exploitation of the limited radio resources. The RLC provides a reliable transport of the information through retransmission error recovery mechanisms. The radio resource control (RRC) is part of the network layer and it is responsible for resource management. A radio bearer is allocated by the RRC with bit rates and QoS such that the service required by upper layers can be provided with the available resources at that moment. Note that resource management is an important issue in each mobile and wireless system, but it is crucial in CDMA-based systems, and has quite different aspects with respect to the resource management in FDMA/TDMA systems like GSM. In this context, power control and radio admission control are key resource management mechanisms.28 W-CDMA also has built-in support for future capacity enhancements such as adaptive antennas, advanced receiver structures, and downlink transmit diversity. Furthermore, to improve the spectral efficiency to the extent possible, turbo codes, capable of near Shannon limit on power efficiency, have recently been adopted by the standards-setting organizations in the United States, Europe, and Asia. For the UTRA/W-CDMA, the same constituent code is used for the rate 1/3-turbo code. Other codes are obtained by the rate matching process, where coded bits are punctured or repeated accordingly.29,30 Figure 1.6 shows the architecture of a UMTS network.27 It consists of a core network (CN) connected with interface I to the URAN, which collects all the traffic coming from the radio stations. The URAN consists of a set of radio network subsystems

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Introduction to Wireless Networking

Charging gateway functionality

Radio network subsystem lub

Radio network controller

11

lu

3G SGSN

External data network (PDN)

GGSN

Node B HLR lu

3G MSC

Other networks

FIGURE 1.6

UMTS network architecture.

(RNSs) connected to the CN through the I interface. Each RNS is responsible for the resources of its set of cells, and each node has one or more cells. An RNS is analogous to the BSS in the GSM-GPRS architecture and consists of a radio network controller (RNC) and one or more nodes, B. The installation of a node B requires a complete replacement of the analogous BTS, since it must handle the different air interface introduced in W-CDMA. A node B is connected to the RNC through the I interface. An RNC separates the circuit-switched traffic (voice and circuit-switched data) from the packet-switched traffic and routes the former to the 3G-MSC and the latter to the 3G-SGSN. The 3G-MSC requires modifying the GPRS-MSC to handle new voice compression and coding algorithms, and it processes the circuit-switched traffic routed to it by the RNC. The MSC then sends the data to a PSTN or another public land mobile network (PLMN). The packet-switched information is routed using the IP-over-ATM protocol specified by the ATM adaptation layer 5 (AAL5). The SGSN is modified to handle AAL5 traffic but performs the same function as in GPRS. Signaling and control functions between the mobile MS and the RAN typically depend on the radio technology, whereas signaling and control functions between the MS and the CN are independent from the radio technology (i.e., access technique).

GSM EVOLUTION TO UMTS The UMTS standard is specified as a migration from the 2G GSM standard to UMTS via the general packet radio service (GPRS) and enhanced data rates for global evolution (EDGE), as shown in Figure 1.7.31 The goal of 3G is to provide a network infrastructure that can support a much broader range of services than existing systems, so the changes to the network should reflect this. However, many of the mechanisms in the existing networks are equally applicable to supporting new service models, for example, mobility management. For a successful migration, the manufacturers and suppliers of new 3G equipment

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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Wireless Multimedia Communications

GSM

GPRS

UMTS

EDGE

FIGURE 1.7

GSM evolution to UMTS.

understand that most licenses granted for 3G network operation will be to existing 2G operators, and thus the next step must be an evolution rather than a revolution. Operators in the main are expected to introduce GPRS functionality before taking the step to 3G. This will allow them to educate and develop the consumer market for these new services prior to making a major investment in new technology. This means that the CN will comprise the GSM circuit switched core and the GPRS packet switched core. The first release (Release 99) specification for UMTS networks is focused on changes to the RAN rather than the CN. This allows the CN to continue in functionality, although changes will be made in areas of performance due to the higher data rates required by subscribers in the future networks. Maintaining this functionality allows the mobile network operators to continue using their existing infrastructure and progress to 3G in steps. The handover between UMTS and GSM offering worldwide coverage has been one of the main design criteria for the 3G system.

IMT-2000 STANDARDIZATION PROCESS IMT-2000 is not a particular technology, but rather a system which should allow seamless, ubiquitous user access to services. The task is to develop a next generation network fulfilling criteria of ubiquitous support for broadband real-time and nonreal-time services. The key criteria are: r r r r r r

High transmission rates for both indoor and outdoor operational environments Symmetric and asymmetric transmission of data Support for circuit and packet switched services Increased capacity and spectral efficiency Voice quality comparable to the fixed line network Global availability, providing roaming between different operational environments r Support for multiple simultaneous services to end users The process is intended to integrate many technologies under one roof. Therefore, it should not be seen that wireless technologies from different regional standardization bodies, or supported by different manufacturers, are competing with each other, but rather that they can be included in the IMT-2000 family. This is evident with the development of such interworking models as wireless LAN and 3G. A major enabler of the ITU-T vision is the emergence of software defined radio (SDR). With SDR, the air interface becomes an application, which enables a single mobile device to be

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IMT-2000 ITU-DS direct sequence

ITU-MC multi carrier

ITU-TC time code

ITU-SC single carrier

ITU-FT frequency time

UMTS

CDMA 2000

UMTS-TDD TD-SCDMA

UWC-136

DECT

FIGURE 1.8 IMT-2000 technologies.

able to operate with a variety of radio technologies, dynamically searching for the strongest signal, or the most appropriate network to connect to. Thus far, the ITU-T has given the imprimatur of 3G to five different radio access technologies, as shown in Figure 1.8.31 ITU-DS is the UMTS frequency division duplex (FDD) standard; ITU-MC is CDMA-2000; and ITU-TC covers both UMTS time division duplex (TDD) and time division synchronous CDMA. The IMT-SC system, UWC-136, is the EDGE standard. The ITU-FT incorporates the European standard for cordless telephones—digital enhanced cordless telecommunications (DECT). DECT provides a local access solution which may be used, for example, in a home environment. The handset can automatically handover to a subscriber’s domestic access point, providing dedicated resources. Although the integration of DECT with GSM has been standardized, it has yet to see any exposure. The development of these standards is under the control of two partnership organizations formed from a number of regional standardization bodies. The 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project) is responsible for UMTS and EDGE, while the 3GPP2 (Third Generation Partnership Project 2) deals with CDMA2000 (Figure 1.9). DECT is the exception to this, with its standards developed solely by ETSI.31 As can be seen, there is considerable overlap in terms of the bodies involved in the two organizations. The various bodies are described in Table 1.1.

1.3 EVOLVING WIRELESS MULTIMEDIA NETWORKS In what follows, the objective is to provide a brief and yet comprehensive introduction to the evolution of wireless multimedia networks and the key technological ETSI Europe

T1 USA

CWTS China

3GPP

FIGURE 1.9 3G partnerships.

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

TTC Japan

ARIB Japan

3GPP2

TTA Korea

TIA USA

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TABLE 1.1 Standardization Bodies Body ETSI

T1

CWTS TTC

ARIB TTA TIA

Description The European Telecommunications Standards Institute is responsible for the production of standards for use principally throughout Europe, but standards may be used worldwide. Committee T1 develops technical standards and reports in the United States with regard to the interconnection and interoperability of telecommunications networks at interfaces with end user systems. The China Wireless Telecommunication Standard group has the responsibility to define, produce, and maintain wireless telecommunication standards in China. The Telecommunication Technology Committee is a Japanese organization whose role is to contribute to the standardization and dissemination of standards in the field of telecommunications. The Association of Radio Industries and Businesses conducts investigations into new uses of the radio spectrum for telecommunications and broadcasting in Japan. The Telecommunications Technology Association is an IT standards organization that develops new standards and provides testing and certification for IT products in Korea. The Telecommunications Industry Association is the leading U.S. trade association serving the communications and information technology industries.

aspects and challenges associated with this evolution. In this context, we aim to define the appropriate framework for the emerging wireless multimedia technologies and applications. Undoubtedly, the most widely supported evolving path of wireless networks today is the path toward IP-based networks, also known as all-IP networks. The term all-IP emphasizes the fact that IP-based protocols are used for all purposes, including transport, mobility, security, QoS, application-level signaling, multimedia service provisioning, and so on. In a typical all-IP network architecture, several wireless and fixed access networks are connected to a common core multimedia network, as illustrated in Figure 1.10. Users are able to use multimedia applications over technologies, such as WLANs, WPANs, 3G cellular such as UMTS, CDMA2000, and so forth. In this environment, seamless mobility across the different access networks is considered a key issue. Also, native, multimedia support by these networks is very important. In the all-IP network architecture shown in Figure 1.10, the mobile terminals use the IP-based protocols defined by IETF to communicate with the multimedia IP network and perform, for example, session/call control and traffic routing. All services in this architecture are provided on top of the IP protocol. As shown in the protocol architecture of Figure 1.11, the mobile networks, such as UMTS, CDMA2000, and so on, turn into access networks (e.g., cellular voice) and are used only to support the legacy 2G and 3G terminals, which do not support IP-based applications (e.g., IP telephony). On the user plane, protocols such as RTP and RTSP are employed. On the other hand, on the control plane, protocols such as Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) are employed.32

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IEEE 802.11 ETSI HIPERLAN Broadband wireless Wireless IP access network (IETF)

CDMA2000

GPRS, EDGE W-CDMA

CDMA packet data service (3GPP2)

UMTS PS domain (3GPP)

Wireline broadband e.g. ADSL Mobile multimedia terminals

Wireless users, always connected, anywhere/anytime

Multimedia IP network (SIP servers, streaming servers, messaging servers, etc.)

Transitions between different access networks

Varity of access networks with different wireless fixed technologies

Legacy networks (PSTN, PDN, ISDN)

Core network based on IP signaling and transport protocols with mobility support, ubiquitous service provisioning and end-to-end QoS

FIGURE 1.10 Multimedia IP network architecture with various access technologies. Reproduced with permission from A. Salkintrizis and N. Passas, eds. Emerging Wireless Multimedia: Services and Technologies. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2005.

For the provision of mobile bearer services, the access networks mainly implement micromobility management, radio resource management, and traffic management for providing QoS. Micromobility management in UMTS access networks is HTTP

FTP

RTSP

RTCP

RTP

UDP

TCP

Access network

IP

UTRAN user plane

GPRS user plane

802.11

HIPERLAN

CDMA 2000 user plane

FIGURE 1.11A Simplified protocol architecture in an all-IP network architecture: a) user plane; b) control plane. Reproduced with permission from A. Salkintrizis and N. Passas, eds. Emerging Wireless Multimedia: Services and Technologies. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2005.

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Wireless Multimedia Communications

RSVP

SIP

Core network signaling e.g. SIP

TCP/UDP AII-IP core network

Access network

IP

GPRS control plane

FIGURE 1.11B

CDMA 2000 control plane

Access network signaling UTRAN control plane

e.g. 24.008, IS-136 Radio access signaling

GSM-MAP IS-41 UTRAN, GERAN, CDMA 2000

(Continued).

based on GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP)33 and uses a hierarchical tunneling scheme for data forwarding. On the other hand, micromobility management in CDMA2000 access networks is based on IP micromobility protocols. Macromobility, that is, mobility across different access networks, is typically based on mobile-IP, as per RFC 3344.34 In the short term, the all-IP network architecture would provide a new communications paradigm based on integrated voice, video, and data. You could, for instance, call a user’s IP multimedia subsystem (IMS) number and be redirected to the user’s web page. Here you could be presented with several options, for example, write an e-mail to the user, record a voice message, click on an alternative number to call if the user is on vacation, and so forth. You could also place an SIP call to a server and update your communication preferences, which could be in the form “only my manager can call me, all others are redirected to my web page” (or vice versa!). At the same time, you can be on a conference call briefing your colleagues about the outcome of a meeting. At this point, it is instructive to record the key aspects of the evolution toward the wireless multimedia network architecture shown in Figure 1.10. The most important aspects relevant to the evolution toward the wireless multimedia networks follow. Wireless networks will evolve to an architecture encompassing an IP-based multimedia core network and many wireless access networks (Figure 1.1). As discussed above, the key aspect in this architecture is that signaling with the multimedia core network is based on IP protocols (more correctly, on protocols developed by IETF) and it is independent of the access network (be it UMTS, CDMA2000, WLAN, etc.). Therefore, the same IP-based services could be accessed over any access network. An IP-based core network uses IP-based protocols for all purposes, including data transport, networking, mobility, multimedia service provisioning, and so on. The first commercial approach toward this IP-based multimedia core network is the so-called IP multimedia core network subsystem (IMS) standardized by 3GPP and 3GPP2. The long-term trend is toward all-IP mobile networks, where not only the core network but also the radio access network are based solely on IP technology. In this

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approach, the base stations in a cellular system are IP access routers and mobility/ session management is carried out with IP-based protocols (possibly substituting the cellular-specific mobility/session management protocols, such as GTP). Enhanced IP multimedia applications will be enabled in wireless networks by means of application-level signaling protocols standardized by IETF (e.g., SIP, HTTP). End-to-end QoS provisioning will be important for supporting the demanding multimedia applications. In this context, extended interworking between, for example, UMTS QoS and IP QoS schemes is needed; or, more generally, interworking between layer-2 QoS schemes and layer-3 QoS (i.e. IP QoS) is required for end-toend QoS provision. Voice over IP (VoIP) will be a key technology. As discussed in Chapter 4, several standards organizations are specifying the technology to enable VoIP, for example, the ETSI BRAN TIPHON project, IETF SIP WG. The mobile terminals will be based on software-configurable radios with capabilities to support many radio access technologies across many frequency bands. The ability to move across hybrid access technologies will be an important requirement, which calls for efficient and fast vertical handovers and seamless mobility. The IETF working groups, SEAMOBY and MOBILE-IP, are addressing some of the issues related to seamless mobility. Fast Mobile IP and micromobility schemes are key technologies in this area. In a highly hybrid access environment, security will also play a key role. IEEE 802.11 Task group I (TGi) is standardizing new mechanisms for enhanced security in WLANs, and the IETF SEAMOBY group addresses the protocols that deal with (security) context transfer during handovers. For extended roaming between different administrative domains and/or different access technologies, advanced authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) protocols and AAA interworking mechanisms will be implemented. Wireless personal area networks (WPANs) will play a significant role in the multimedia landscape. WPANs have already started spreading, and they will become integrated with the hybrid multimedia network architecture, initially providing services based on Bluetooth technology, and later based on IEEE 802.15.3 high-speed wireless PAN technology, which satisfies the requirement of the digital consumer electronics market (e.g., wireless video communications between a PC and a video camera). WLANs will also contribute considerably to wireless multimedia provisioning. WLAN technology will evolve further and will support much higher bit rates, on the order of hundreds of megabits per second.

1.4 MULTIMEDIA OVER WIRELESS The evolutionary aspects summarized above call for several technological advances, which are coupled with new technological challenges. These challenges become even tougher when we consider the limitations of wireless environments. One of the most important challenges is the support of multimedia services, such as video broadcasting, video conferencing, combined voice video applications, and so on. The demand for high

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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Wireless Multimedia Communications

bandwidth is definitely the key issue for these services, but it is not enough. Other major requirements that should also be considered include seamless mobility, security, context awareness, flexible charging, and unified QoS support, to name but a few.37 Owing to the widespread adoption of IP, most multimedia services are IP based. The IP protocol, up to version 4 (IPv4), was designed for fixed networks and best effort applications with low network requirements, such as e-mail and file transfer, and, accordingly, it offers an unreliable service that is subject to packet loss, reordering, packet duplication, and unbounded delays. This service is completely inappropriate for real-time multimedia services such as video-conference and VoIP, which call for specific delay and loss figures. Additionally, no mobility support is natively provided, making it difficult for pure IP to be used for mobile communications. One of the benefits of version 6 of IP (IPv6) is that it inherently provides some means for QoS and mobility support, but it still needs supporting mechanisms to fulfill the demanding requirements that emerge.37 The efficient support of IP communications in wireless environments is considered a key issue of emerging wireless multimedia networks. The IP protocol and its main transport layer companions (TCP and UDP) were also designed for fixed networks, with the assumption that the network consists of point-to-point physical links with stable available capacity. However, when a wireless access technology is used in the link layer, it could introduce severe variations in available capacity, and could thus result in low TCP protocol performance. There are two main weaknesses of the IP-over-wireless links: r The assumption of reliable communication links. Assuming highly reliable links (as in fixed networks), the only cause of undelivered IP packets is congestion at some intermediate nodes, which should be treated in higher layers with an appropriate end-to-end congestion control mechanism. UDP, targeted mainly for real-time traffic, does not include any congestion control, as this would introduce unacceptable delays. Instead, it simply provides direct access to IP, leaving applications to deal with the limitations of the IP best effort delivery service. TCP, on the other hand, dynamically tracks the round-trip delay on the end-to-end path and times out when acknowledgments are not received in time, retransmitting unacknowledged data. Additionally, it reduces the sending rate to a minimum and then gradually increases it in order to probe the network’s capacity. In WLANs, where errors can occur due to temporary channel quality degradation, both these actions (TCP retransmissions and rate reduction) can lead to increased delays and low utilization of the scarce available bandwidth. r The lack of traffic prioritization. Designed as a “best effort” protocol, IP does not differentiate treatment according to the kind of traffic. For example, delay sensitive real-time traffic, such as VoIP, will be treated in the same way as ftp or e-mail traffic, leading to unreliable service. In fixed networks, this problem can be relaxed with overprovisioning of bandwidth, wherever possible (e.g., by introducing high capacity fiber optics). In WLANs this is not possible because the available bandwidth can be as high as a few tens of megabits per second. But even if bandwidth was sufficient, multiple

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access could still cause unpredictable delays for real-time traffic. For these reasons, the introduction of scheduling mechanisms is required for IP over WLANs in order to ensure reliable service under all kinds of conditions.

MULTIMEDIA SERVICES IN WLAN WLAN systems are technologies that can provide very high data rate applications and individual links (e.g., in company campus areas, conference centers, airports) and represent an attractive way to set up computers networks in environments where cable installation is expensive or not feasible. These systems represent the coming together of two of the fastest-growing segments of the computer industry: LANs and mobile computing, thus recalling the attention of equipment manufacturers. This shows high potential and justifies the big attention paid to WLANs by equipment manufacturers. Today, IEEE 802.11 WLANs can be considered as a wireless version of Ethernet, which supports best-effort service. The mandatory part of the original 802.11 MAC is called distributed coordination function (DCF), and is based on carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA), offering no QoS guarantees. Typically, multimedia services such as VoIP or audio/video conferencing require specified bandwidth, delay, and jitter, but can tolerate some losses. However, in DCF mode, all mobile stations compete for the resources with the same priorities. There is no differentiation mechanism to guarantee bandwidth, packet delay, and jitter for high-priority mobile stations or multimedia flows. Even the optional polling-based point coordination function (PCF) cannot guarantee specific QoS values. The transmission time of a polled mobile station is difficult to control. A polled station is allowed to send a frame of any length between 0 and 2,346 bytes, which introduces the variation of transmission time. Furthermore, the physical layer rate of the polled station can change according to the varying channel status, so the transmission time is hard to predict. This makes a barrier to providing guaranteed QoS services for multimedia applications. The rapidly increasing interest in wireless networks supporting QoS has led the IEEE 802.11 Working Group to define a new supplement called 802.11e to the existing legacy 802.11 MAC sublayer.40 The new 802.11e MAC aims at expanding the 802.11 application domain, enabling the efficient support of multimedia applications. The new MAC protocol of the 802.11e is called the hybrid coordination function (HCF). This describes the ability to combine a contention channel access mechanism, referred to as enhanced distributed channel access (EDCA), and a pollingbased channel access mechanism, referred to as HCF-controlled channel access (HCCA). EDCA provides differentiated QoS services by introducing classification and prioritization among the different kinds of traffic, while HCCA provides parameterized QoS services to mobile stations based on their traffic specifications and QoS requirements. To perform this operation, the HCF has to incorporate a scheduling algorithm that decides how the available radio resources are allocated to the polled stations. This algorithm, usually referred to as the traffic scheduler, is one of the main research areas in 802.11e, as its operation can significantly affect the overall system performance. The traffic scheduler is now part of the 802.11e standard, and can thus serve as a product differentiator that should be carefully designed and implemented, as it is directly connected to the QoS provision capabilities of the

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system. In the open technical literature, only a limited number of 802.11e traffic schedulers have been proposed so far. The current approaches for supporting IP QoS over WLANs fall into the following categories: r Pure end-to-end. This category focuses on the end-to-end TCP operation and the relevant congestion-avoidance algorithms that must be implemented on end hosts to ensure transport stability. Furthermore, enhancements for fast recovery such as the TCP selective acknowledgment (SACK) option and NewReno are also recommended. r Explicit notification based. This category considers explicit notification from the network to determine when a loss is due to congestion, but, as expected, would require changes in the standard Internet protocols. r Proxy-based. Split connection TCP and Snoop are proxy-based approaches, applying the TCP error control schemes only on the last host of a connection. For this reason, they require the access point (AP) to act as a proxy for retransmissions. r Pure link layer. Pure link layer schemes are based on either retransmissions or coding overhead protection at the link layer—that is, automatic repeat request (ARQ) and forward error correction (FEC), respectively—so as to make errors invisible at the IP layer. The error control scheme applied is common to every IP flow irrespective of its QoS requirements. r Adaptive link layer. Finally, adaptive link layer architectures can adjust local error recovery mechanisms according to the application requirements (e.g., reliable flows vs. delay-sensitive) and/or channel conditions.

AD HOC NETWORKS AND MULTIMEDIA SERVICES IN WPANS Many WLANs of today need an infrastructure network that provides access to other networks and includes MAC. Ad hoc wireless networks do not need any infrastructure. In these systems mobile stations may act as a relay station in a multihop transmission environment from distant mobiles to base stations. Mobile stations will have the ability to support base station functionality. The network organization will be based on interference measurements by all mobile and base stations for automatic and dynamic network organization according to the actual interference and channel assignment situation for channel allocation of new connections and link optimization. These systems will play a complementary role to extend coverage for low power systems and for unlicensed applications. A central challenge in the design of ad hoc networks is the development of dynamic routing protocols that can efficiently find routes between two communication nodes. A Mobile Ad Hoc Networking (MANET) Working Group has been formed within the IETF to develop a routing framework for IP-based protocols in ad hoc networks. Another challenge is the design of proper MAC protocols for multimedia ad hoc networks.41 LANs without the need for an infrastructure and with a very limited coverage are being conceived for connecting different small devices in close proximity without expensive wiring and infrastructure. The area of interest could be the personal area around the individual using the device. This new emerging architecture is indicated

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as WPAN. The concept of personal area network refers to a space of small coverage (less than 10 m) around a person where ad hoc communication occurs, and is also referred to as personal operating space (POS). The network is aimed at interconnecting portable and mobile computing devices such as laptops, personal digital assistants (PDAs), peripherals, cellular phones, digital cameras, headsets, and other electronics devices.42 Starting with Bluetooth,43 WPANs became a major part of what we call heterogeneous network architectures, mainly due to their ability to offer flexible and efficient ad hoc communication in short ranges without the need of any fixed infrastructure. One of the main advances for multimedia applications in WPANs is ultrawideband (UWB) communications. The potential strength of the UWB radio technique lies in its use of extremely wide transmission bandwidths, which results in desirable capabilities, including accurate position location and ranging, lack of significant fading, high multiple access capability, covert communications, and possible easier material penetration. The UWB technology itself has been in use in military applications since the 1960s, based on exploiting the wideband property of UWB signals to extract precise timing/ranging information. However, recent Federal Communication Commission (FCC) regulations have paved the way for the development of commercial wireless communication networks based on UWB in the 3.1 to 10.6 GHz unlicensed band. Because of the restrictions on the transmit power, UWB communications are best suited for short-range communications, namely, sensor networks and WPANs. To focus standardization work in this technique, IEEE established subgroup IEEE 802.15.3a, within 802.15.3, to develop a standard for UWB WPANs. The goals for this new standard are data rates of up to 110 bps at 10 m, 200 Mbps at 4 m, and higher data rates at smaller distances. Based on those requirements, different proposals are being submitted to 802.15.3a. An important and open issue of UWB lies in the design of multiple access techniques and radio resource sharing schemes to support multimedia applications with different QoS requirements. One of the decisions that will have to be made is whether to adopt some of the multiple access approaches already being developed for other wireless networks, or to develop entirely new techniques. It remains to be seen whether the existing approaches offer the right capabilities for UWB applications.

MULTIMEDIA SERVICES OVER 3G NETWORKS Over the past few years, there have been major standardization activities undertaken in 3GPP and 3GPP2 for enabling multimedia services over 3G networks. The purpose of this activity has been to specify an IP-based multimedia core network, the IMS mentioned before, that can provide a standard IP-based interface to wireless IP terminals for accessing a vast range of multimedia services independently from the access technology. Figure 1.12 shows the IP multimedia subsystem network providing a standardized IP-based signaling for accessing multimedia services. The interface uses the SIP specified by IETF for multimedia session control (see RFC 3261). In addition, SIP is used as an interface between the IMS session control entities and the service platforms which run the multimedia applications. The initial goal of IMS was to enable the mobile operators to offer to their subscribers

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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Wireless Multimedia Communications Wireless IP terminals with IMS subsription Standardized signaling (SIP) for accessing services Services always on top of IP e.g. presence, instant messaging etc.

GPRS, EDGE, W-CDMA

AII-IP Core network (IMS)

UMTS PS bearer service Internet

NO standardized signaling for accessing services Wireless terminals without IMS subscription

Services could be on top pf IP

Enterprise network

Operator-specific packet switched services

FIGURE 1.12 IP multimedia subsystem network. Reproduced with permission from A. Salkintrizis and N. Passas, eds. Emerging Wireless Multimedia: Services and Technologies. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2005.

multimedia services based on and built on Internet applications, services, and protocols. Thus, IMS forms a single core network architecture that is globally available and can be accessed through a variety of technologies, such as mobile data networks, WLANs, fixed broadband (e.g., xDSL), and so on. No matter what technology is used to access IMS, the user always employs the same signaling protocols and accesses the same services. In a way, IMS allows mobile operators to offer popular Internet-like services, such as instant messaging, Internet telephony, and so on. IMS can offer the versatility to develop new applications quickly. In addition, IMS is global (identical across 3GPP and 3GPP2), and it is the first convergence between the mobile world and the IETF world. Multimedia messaging services are now emerging in 3G cellular networks, providing instant messaging by exploiting the SIP-enabled IMS domain. By combining the support of messaging with other IMS service capabilities, such as presence, new rich and enhanced messaging services for the end users can be created. The goal of 3G operators is to extend mobile messaging to the IMS, while also interoperating with the existing SMS, EMS, and MMS wireless messaging solutions, as well as SIP-based Internet messaging services. The SIP-based messaging service should support interoperability with the existing 3G messaging services SMS, EMS, and MMS, as well as enable development of new messaging services, such as instant messaging, chat, and so forth. It should be possible, in a standardized way, to create message groups (chat rooms) and address messages to a group of recipients as a whole, as well as to individual recipients. Additional standardized mechanisms are expected, in order to create and delete message groups, enable and authorize members to join and leave the group, and also to issue mass invitations to members of the group.

HYBRID MULTIMEDIA NETWORKS Efficient mobility management is considered to be one of the major factors toward seamless provision of multimedia applications across heterogeneous networks. Thus,

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a large number of solutions have been proposed in an attempt to tackle all the relevant technical issues. Of course, the ultimate goal is to realize a seamless multimedia environment. The high penetration of WLANs, and especially the higher data rates they offer, caused cellular operators to investigate the possibility of integrating them into their systems and support a wider range of services for their users. This integration led to hybrid multimedia systems. The design and implementation of these systems present many technical challenges, such as vertical handover support between, for example, WLAN and UMTS; unified AAA; and consistent QoS and security features. Despite the progress in WLAN/UMTS interworking standardization, up until now most attention has been paid to AAA interworking issues and less to mobility and QoS.44,45 Owing to the intrinsic differences in mobility management between UMTS and IP-based architectures, a mobility management scheme tailored to heterogeneous environments has to overcome technology-specific particulars and combine their characteristics. Based on the above scenarios, a number of proposals are aimed at offering some degree of seamless integration. Some of them focus on the general framework and the functionalities that these networks should provide for advanced mobile capabilities, using mobile IP as the basic tool for system integration. This has the advantage of simple implementation, with minimal enhancements on existing components, but at the expense of considerably larger handover execution time.

1.5

USERS’ PERSPECTIVES

Technical and economic trends, together with applications requirements, will drive the future of mobile communications. For example, a forecast of the mobile communications market for Japan is shown in Figure 1.13.27 In particular, the trend of mobile Internet that represents the main driver for multimedia applications is presented. It is expected by the UMTS Forum that in Europe in 2010 more than 90 million subscribers will use mobile multimedia services and will generate about 60 percent 500

80

400 Subscribers Terminals

60

300

40

200 Mobile Internet subscribers

20

0

2000

2003

2006 2009 Year

100

2012

FIGURE 1.13 Mobile communications market forecast for Japan.

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

2015

0

Number of Terminals (millions)

Number of Subscribers (millions)

100

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of the traffic in terms of transmitted bits. Additional frequency assignment will be necessary for 3G to accommodate the growing demand. The bandwidth to be added is assumed to be 160 MHz in 2010. However, the added bandwidth greatly depends on the growth ratio of traffic per subscriber. Therefore, the study of high-capacity cellular systems with improved spectrum efficiency and new band width is necessary to accommodate growing traffic in 2010 and beyond. Higher data rates and wireless Internet access are key components of the future mobile communications systems, but they are also actually key concepts in 3G systems. Data rates up to 8 Mbps will be possible without making any drastic change in the current standard. Future mobile communications systems should bring something more to the table than faster data or wireless Internet access. Something that we are missing today (even in 3G) is the flexible interoperability of various existing networks like cellular, cordless, WLAN-type, short connectivity, and wired systems. It will be a huge challenge to integrate the whole worldwide communication infrastructure into one transparent network allowing various ways to connect into it depending on the user’s needs, as well as the available access methods. The heterogeneity of various access methods can be overcome either by using multimode terminals and additional network services, or by creating a completely new network system that will implement the envisioned integration. The first option implies only further development of the existing networks and services and cannot be very flexible. The second option is more profound and can result in a more efficient utilization of networks and available spectrum. The creation of this new network requires a completely new design approach. So far, most of the existing systems have been designed in isolation without taking into account a possible interworking with other access technologies. This method of system design is mainly based on the traditional vertical approach to support a certain set of services with a particular technology. The UTRA concept has already combined the FDD and TDD components to support the different symmetrical and asymmetrical service needs in a spectrum-efficient way. This is the first step to a more horizontal approach,48 where different access technologies will be combined into a common platform to complement each other in an optimum way for different service requirements and environments. Due to the dominant role of IP-based data traffic, these access systems will be connected to a common, flexible, and seamless IP-based core network. This results in a lower infrastructure cost, faster provisioning of new features, and easy integration of new network elements, and could be supported by technologies like JAVA Virtual Machine and CORBA. The vision of the future network, including a variety of internetworking access systems, is shown in Figure 1.14. The mobility management will be part of a new media access system, and serve as the interface between the core network and the particular access technology to connect a user via a single number for different access systems to the network. Global roaming for all access technologies is required. The internetworking between these different access systems in terms of horizontal and vertical handover, and seamless services with service negotiation with respect to mobility, security, and QoS will be a key requirement. The last will be handled in the common media access system and the core network. Multimode terminals and new appliances are also key components needed to support these different access

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Introduction to Wireless Networking

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Services and applications Download channels New radio interface DAB DVB

Return channel e.g. GSM

Cellular GSM

Media access system

IMT-2000 UMTS

Short range connectivity

FIGURE 1.14

Wireline xDSL

IP core network

WLAN

Other entities

The network, including a variety of internetworking access systems.

technologies of the common platform seamlessly from the user perspective. These terminals may be adaptive, based on high signal processing power. Therefore, the concept of software-defined radio supported by software downloading can be a key technology in the future perspective. To make the vision of a system beyond 3G happen, many technical challenges have to be solved by extensive research activities at different layers. In spite of the 2 Mbps data rates achievable by 3G systems, the overall economic capacity of these systems can still be only a small fraction of the actual need of the seamless information mobility.

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

2 Convergence Technologies This chapter provides an overview of the key convergence technologies that offer many services from the network infrastructure point of view. After a short presentation of the next generation network (NGN) architecture, we deal with convergence technologies for third generation (3G) networks. This chapter also reviews technologies for 3G cellular wireless communication systems. Next, the third generation wideband code-division multiple access (WCDMA) standard has been enhanced to offer significantly increased performance for packet data and broadcast services through the introduction of high-speed downlink packet access (HSDPA), enhanced uplink, and multimedia broadcast multicast services (MBMS). Challenges in the migration to fourth generation (4G) mobile system conclude this chapter.

2.1 INTRODUCTION As a term, convergence has been coined by both the telecom and datacom industries. From a telecom perspective, it is the expansion of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) to offer many services on the single network infrastructure. For Internet advocates, it is the death of the PSTN as its role is largely replaced by technologies such as voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). In reality, the truth lies somewhere in the middle, and it is here that the cellular industry takes the best of both worlds to create an evolved network, where the goal is the delivery of effective services and applications to the end user, rather than focusing on a particular technology to drive this delivery. That said, the economy of scale and widespread acceptance of IP as a means of service delivery lead to it playing a central role in this process.1 The communications industry, particularly the cellular industry, is currently going through a state of enormous transition. Some years ago, many of the major cellular operators began deploying a network to support packet switched data services which will lead them to the 3G. This step to 3G involves a major change in the network infrastructure with the introduction of complex technologies such as asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), code division multiple access (CDMA), and the IP. For forward-looking operators, this transition also requires a clear, strategic transformation of their business model to grasp and maximize the benefits of the next generation’s lucrative revenue streams. An operator requires both a highly motivated staff with a substantial skill set, as well as comprehensive, dynamic information systems. Also crucial is a clear understanding of the role the operator will play in this new model on the continuum from mere provision of a bit-pipe, to an organization offering full Internet service provider (ISP) capabilities and value-added services. This revised business model needs to incorporate integrated solutions for charging and billing, 27

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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and provide a clear understanding of the new available revenue streams. Smooth convergence of network and telecommunications technologies and a proactive business strategy are fundamental to the success of the future mobile operator. Many telecom engineers have little experience with the new packet and IP technologies. To remain competitive, it is essential that they learn the new packet-switched skills quickly. The older circuit-switched skills will be required for a long time, as circuit switching is not expected to disappear overnight and will probably be around for decades. However, new network components for telecom networks will be based around packet-switched technology. Second generation (2G) cellular systems have been implemented commercially since the late 1980s. Since then, the systems have evolved dramatically in both size and reliability to achieve the level of quality subscribers expect of current networks. Mobile network operators have invested heavily in the technology and the infrastructure, and it is unreasonable to expect this to be simply discarded when a new 3G system is proposed. Large bandwidth, guaranteed quality of service, and ease of deployment coupled with great advancement in semiconductor technologies make this converged wireless system a very attractive solution for broadband service delivery. The key applications evolved from the advancement of broadband wireless and the underlying technologies, including broadband wireless mobile (3G wireless and 4G mobile), broadband wireless access, broadband wireless networking, as well as broadband satellite solutions, will surely dominate the whole communications market and therefore will improve the business model in many aspects. Convergence of broadband wireless mobile and access is the next topic in wireless communications. Fueled by many emerging technologies, including digital signal processing, software-definable radio, intelligent antennas, superconductor devices, as well as digital transceivers, the wireless system becomes more compact with limited hardware and more flexible and intelligent software elements. Reconfigurable and adaptive terminals and base stations help the system to be easily applied in wireless access applications. The compact hardware and very small portion of software (called the common air interface basic input-output system or CAIBIOS) will go the way the computer industry did in the past.2 Wireless mobile Internet will be the key application of the converged broadband wireless system. The terminal will be smart instead of dumb, compatible with mobile and access services including wireless multicasting as well as wireless trunking. This new wireless terminal will have the following features: r 90 percent of the traffic will be data r The security function will be enhanced (e.g., fingerprint chip embedded) r A voice recognition function will be enhanced; keypad or keyboard attachments, as well as wireless versions will be options r The terminal will support single and multiple users with various service options r The terminal will be fully adaptive and software-reconfigurable

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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As wireless communications evolve to this convergence, 4G mobile wireless communications (4G mobile) will be an ideal mode to support high-data rate connection from 2 to 20 Mbps based on the spectrum requirement for IMT-2000, as well as the coexistence of the current spectrum for broadband wireless access. This 4G mobile system’s vision aims at the following: r Providing a technological response to accelerated growth in demand for broadband wireless connectivity r Ensuring seamless services provisioning across a multitude of wireless systems and networks, from private to public, from indoor to wide area r Providing optimum delivery of the user’s wanted service via the most appropriate network available r Coping with the expected growth in Internet-based communications r Opening new spectrum frontiers Several important issues arise out of the convergence in mobile delivery of multimedia content. Among the regulatory issues are usage of spectrum, spectral coexistence of mobile phone and TV broadcasting services, and technical/operational parameters. Another issue would be to define the players in the chain and the player(s) or the licensee(s) regulators should address. Some interesting business issues are also emerging. Control of the revenue gathering system is an important matter. Most players would aim at gathering the revenue directly from the consumer but this is more easily said than done. Content, the business driver, needs its own set of regulations, customized to the new types of products catering to the lifestyle of mobile consumers, size and resolution of displays, battery consumption, and repurposing or redimensioning of archived content.

2.2 NEXT GENERATION NETWORK ARCHITECTURE The future wireless network is an open platform supporting multicarrier, multibandwidth, and multistandard air interfaces, with content-oriented bandwidth-on-demand (BoD) services dominant throughout the whole network. In this way, packetized transmission will go all the way from one wireless end terminal directly to another. Figure 2.1 shows this wireless network architecture. The major benefits of this architecture are that the network design is simplified and the system cost greatly reduced. The base transceiver system (BTS) is now a smart open platform with a basic broadband hardware pipe embedded with a CAIBIOS. Most functional modules of the system are software definable and reconfigurable. The packet switching is distributed in the broadband packet backbone (or core network, called packet-division multiplex, PDM). The wireless call processing, as well as other console processing, is handled in this network. The gateway (GW) acts as proxy for the core network and deals with any issues for the BTS, and the BTS is an open platform supporting various standards, optimized for full harmonization and convergence. The terminal (mobile station, MS) can be single user or multiuser oriented, supporting converged wireless applications.

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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Wireless Multimedia Communications C

B

A

D

E All IP net backbone

Client

Transaction server Billing server

MS

Agent

TE

Management server

BTS

Call_proc server MS Proxy GW Client MS

P D M

Agent

TE

Internet GW

BTS Proxy

MS

GW Packet switching

RTT Terminal

PSTN GW

Access network

Core network

FIGURE 2.1 Wireless network architecture model. Reproduced with permission from W. Lee. “Compact multidimensional broadband wireless: The convergence of wireless mobile and access,” IEEE Communications Magazine 38 (November 2000): 119–23.

Considering the signaling protocol, the client–server model is established between a wireless terminal and a core network. The BTS becomes the agent in both directions. This end-to-end direct signaling can ensure that the wireless terminal is smart and intelligent. Figure 2.2 shows the system protocol stack: (a) general protocol stack and (b) an example of support for wireless access applications. Different services—ATM, IP, synchronous transfer mode (STM), Motion Picture Experts Group (MPEG)—can be supported through a service convergence layer. To guarantee wireless quality of service (QoS) and high spectrum utilization, dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) is required through the medium access control (MAC) DBA sublayer, which improves the conventional layer architecture. The DBA scheduler is the core of the MAC. To realize dynamic resource allocation, this scheduler is essential for the broadband wireless link, which in general helps r r r r r

Support class of service offerings Provide agnostic support for all network protocols Eliminate the need for traffic shaping and user parameter control Eliminate end-to-end packet and/or cell delay variation Increase spectrum utilization

The transmission convergence layer handles various transmission modulations, error corrections, segmentations, and interface mappings of wireless mobile and access in the physical layer.

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Convergence Technologies

Packet

31

Circuit

Convergence layer MAC

Convergence layer

DBA sublayer

MAC

Convergence layer

Convergence layer

PHY

PHY Wireless link

DBA: Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (a)

IP LLC

Frame relay

Packet convergence

ATM

PSTN/STM

MPEG

ATM convergence

STM convergence

MPEG convergence

Bandwidth allocation control with API

MAC bandwidth allocation sublayer Physical layer (b)

FIGURE 2.2 (a), General protocol stack; (b), protocol examples. Reproduced with permission from W. Lee. “Compact multidimensional broadband wireless: The convergence of wireless mobile and access,” IEEE Communications Magazine 38 (November 2000): 119–23.

As telecommunications move into the twenty-first century, we are witnessing a move toward convergence of the traditional telephone networks such as the PSTN with the Internet. This convergence, along with changes in software technology (e.g., Java), will have a profound impact on the software deployed in the network. For example, with Internet telephony, switches are no longer large monolithic entities, but instead distributed pieces of hardware (e.g., routers and media gateways) with a softswitch core. One of the more prominent changes will be an opening up of the network. Application programming interfaces (APIs) will be available at many layers of the network, enabling more people to be involved in the service creation process. A demand will exist to make the converged network of the twenty-first century more like today’s Internet in terms of application and service creation capabilities. This will create a large challenge for the software architects of the converged network: they must make the network as secure and reliable as today’s PSTN, and provide the openness and programmability demanded by other networks.3 The NGN, as some call the future converged PSTN and Internet, will have a software architecture very different from that of today’s PSTN. The most popular concept for supporting voice over IP and interworking with the PSTN includes the use of a softswitch or call agent.

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

32

Wireless Multimedia Communications GUI

Java

Service definition and execution

- Service definition - Billing - Provisioning Costumer care and billing Network OSSs

Service programs

Service applets

TCAP/SS7 SCP Exec

SS7 gateway

Softswitch

Public signaling network

TCAP/SS7 ISUP/SS7

Exec MGCP

MGCP

SIP/MGCP Announcement server

Feature server Exec

Voice/IP/ATM SONET Residental gateway

Backbone network

PSTN Trunking gateway

FIGURE 2.3 An NGN with a VoIP architecture. Reproduced with permission from S. Maye and A. Umar. “The impact of network convergence on telecommunications software,” IEEE Communications Magazine 39 (January 2001): 78–84.

An NGN with a typical VoIP architecture is defined in Figure 2.3. In this architecture, we can see a centralized control entity, the softswitch, signals consumer end points via the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and/or Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP). MGCP is used to control trunking gateways that provide the physical interface between the packet-switched network and the PSTN. Finally, the softswitch communicates with the PSTN via the SS7 gateway, which converts transaction capability application part (TCAP) and integrated services digital network (ISDN) signaling user part (ISUP) over IP messages to TCAP and ISUP on the signaling system 7 (SS7) network. In addition, the softswitch also has interfaces to network operations systems (e.g., for provisioning and management), customer care and billing systems, service control points (SCPs) for real-time number translation and intelligent network service support, and feature servers that provide support for advanced intelligent services. In the NGN architecture, we see that software performs all the switching logic, and also is responsible for play out of announcements (e.g., “the number you have dialed …”), translation of phone numbers (e.g., for 800 calls and local number portability), and intelligent services (on the feature server). Service logic can be defined and executed by customers and/or third-party service creators/providers through APIs provided by the service provider through service applets (which can be constructed, e.g., through a visual programming environment). The services defined will execute in several places: on the SCP, on feature servers, in the softswitch, and in the customer/third-party service creator environment. These services will run in virtual partitioned execution environments (e.g., Java sandboxes) to protect the integrity of the network and its resources.

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Convergence Technologies

33

Laptops

Cellular phones

PDAs

Users

User integration

Security and access info

Customization information

Business layer Enterprise information integration

Enterprise resources

DB

App1

App2

External (trading partner) resources

App3

DB Local resources

FIGURE 2.4 Architectural framework for next generation applications. Reproduced with permission from S. Maye and A. Umar. “The impact of network convergence on telecommunications software,” IEEE Communications Magazine 39 (January 2001): 78–84.

Figure 2.4 shows an architectural view of next generation applications. This architectural framework consists of two integration layers that surround the business logic. The user integration layer takes into account the wide range of users with a diverse array of devices (laptops, Web browsers, personal digital assistants or PDAs, cellular phones) with which you communicate. The enterprise resource integration is used to connect to various local as well as remote (i.e., external trader) applications and databases. Note that both integration layers are triangular (i.e., the integration glue is thin in some cases but quite thick in others). For example, integration with Web-based applications requires less effort than a mainframe-based application. The integration effort also depends on whether you are interacting with local (i.e., within the same enterprise) or external applications. The two integration layers can greatly benefit from a converged network to minimize the development effort. This architecture must support applications that r Operate on an Internet scale (i.e., tens of thousands of users instead of hundreds) r Provide Internet connectivity (i.e., best-effort open Internet instead of a controlled local area network, LAN) r Support multiple customers that require security and load balancing between multiple customers r Allow multiple configurations (i.e., managing diverse user profiles and configurations) and provide high-volume infrastructure with scalable services to diverse populations

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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Wireless Multimedia Communications

r Support commercial service provision (i.e., measuring and billing for services) To satisfy these requirements, high telecommunications bandwidth and quick interconnection with multiple applications on the network are essential, among other things.

2.3 CONVERGENCE TECHNOLOGIES FOR 3G NETWORKS More than ever before in other industrial sectors, the mobile communication industry has seen tremendous advances during the past years. Up to the beginning of the 1990s, mobile communication had been seen mainly as a tool for business people. That changed with the introduction of the digital communication system, especially when it came to the success of the market in the second half of the 1990s. Building on the success of Global System for Mobile (GSM) in Europe, and especially its leadership over the technology in the United States, the European Commission decided to put in place the foundations for a similar 3G mobile communications system by establishing the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) Task Force in 1994 through the RACE Project.4–6 The main recommendations were published in the UMTS Task Force report (1996) and are summarized as follows: r UMTS standards must be open to global network operators and manufacturers r UMTS will offer a path from existing 2G digital systems GSM900, DCS1800, and DECT r Basic UMTS, for broadband needs up to 2 Mbps, will be available from 2002 r Full UMTS services and systems for mass market services will be available from 2005 The acronym UMTS was defined by the Task Force as: “UMTS, the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System; it will take the personal communications user into the new information society. It will deliver information, pictures, and graphics direct to people and provide them with access to the next generation of information-based services. It moves mobile and personal communications forward from 2G systems that are delivering mass market low-cost digital telecommunication services.” This definition is important because it defines the essential differences between 2G and 3G systems. UMTS will be a mobile communication system that can offer significant user benefits including high-quality wireless multimedia services to a convergent network of fixed, cellular, and satellite components. It will deliver information directly to users and provide them with access to new and innovative services and applications. It will offer mobile personalized communications to the mass market regardless of location, network, or terminal used. To better understand the 3G concept, the mobile communications space comprises four geographically distinct zones. These zones expand on the 2G principle of a cellular structure as shown in Figure 2.5. In the early days, mobile multimedia was mainly seen as a technological platform and much less as a complete new system with new services. A question often arises:

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Convergence Technologies

35

Zone 4: Global Zone 3: Suburban Zone 2: Urban Zone 1: In-building

Pico-cell Macro-cell

Micro-cell

World-cell

FIGURE 2.5 Four zone model of mobile communications.

What kind of new mobile services can we expect from UMTS? There are many opportunities which cannot yet be explained in detail because many of them are still in the development and trial stages. The opportunities of mobile multimedia broadband are presented in Figure 2.6. In terms of market penetration, the GSM/UMTS world is the most successful technology platform for 3G.

Entertainment

“I can do anything, any time, ... anywhere”

Inter-company communications Personal communications Collaborative applications Financial services Mobility enabled services

Information services Intelligent agents

Internet

Ubiquitous services

Interactive m-commerce Translation services

Telephony

Multimedia services Virtual corporations

FIGURE 2.6 Opportunities of mobile multimedia broadband.

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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Wireless Multimedia Communications

2.4 TECHNOLOGIES FOR 3G CELLULAR WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS 3G mobile communication systems based on the WCDMA and CDMA2000 radio access technologies have seen widespread deployment around the world. The applications supported by these commercial systems range from circuit-switched services, such as voice and video telephony, to packet-switched services, such as video streaming, e-mail, and file transfer. As more packet-based applications are invented and put into service, the need for better support for different QoS levels, higher spectral efficiency, and higher data rates for packet-switched services increases in order to further enhance the user experience while maintaining efficient use of the system resources. This need has resulted in the creation of CDMA2000 1x Evolution Data–Optimized (1xEV-DO) Revision 0 and Revision A by the 3GPP2 project, as well as the HSDPA and enhanced uplink (EUL) evolution of WCDMA in 3GPP. CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Revision 0 more than doubled the forward link spectral efficiency of CDMA2000 1x for packet data applications. It was developed to provide efficient support for asymmetric best-effort packet data. Since its first commercial deployment in 2002, market feedback has revealed that some popular packet data applications actually result in symmetric traffic and some stringent latency requirements. This has led to the development of CDMA2000 1x EV-DO Revision A, which includes significant improvements on the 1x EV-DO reverse link, including increased total sector throughput for best-effort applications, and shortened delay for applications with low-latency requirements. Similarly, 3G developed HSDPA to address the need for further improved WCDMA forward-link (downlink) packet data access, followed by the development of EUL to improve the corresponding reverse (uplink) performance and capabilities. Both 3GPP and 3GPP2 have also developed techniques to more efficiently support broadcast and multicast services as an integrated part of the 3G networks.7 Many of the developed evolution steps are still under different stages of implementation and testing. The drive for the 3G Partnership Project (3GPP) and 3GPP2 to continue to develop new technologies with even better performance and capabilities continues. 3GPP is considering continuous evolution of WCDMA, as well as more substantial steps as part of the so-called 3GPP long-term evolution (LTE). We now present key enhancements to CDMA2000 1x EV-DO systems. CDMA2000 is a registered trademark of the 3GPP2. CDMA2000 1x EV-DO Revision 0 (also referred to as DO Rev0) was driven by the design vision of a wide area–mobile wireless Ethernet.8 The result was a high-rate wireless packet data system with substantial improvement in downlink capacity and coverage over traditional CDMA2000 systems such as IS-95 and IS-2000. In addition to high throughput, DO Rev0 provides QoS support to enable operators to offer a variety of applications with different throughput and latency requirements. These improvements were accomplished through the use of large packet sizes encoded with low-rate turbocodes, transmitted using adaptive modulation and coding, downlink physical layer hybrid automatic repeat request (ARQ) and downlink multiuser diversity, together with antenna diversity at the receiver. DO Rev0 systems support per flow QoS on the downlink, and per terminal QoS on the uplink. A flow is a source with transmission

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Convergence Technologies

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requirements associated with an application such as video telephony, VoIP, gaming, Web browsing, and file transfer. Increasing demand for high-speed wireless Internet access has resulted in rapid growth of the number of CDMA2000 1x EV-DO users worldwide. Operators have observed a strong demand for applications such as VoIP, video telephony, wireless gaming, and push-to-talk (PTT), along with demand for downlink-intensive applications such as Web browsing and file transfer. These applications demand a system that can support large numbers of simultaneous users while meeting their desired latency requirements. In order to meet this demand, 3GPP2 approved enhancements to CDMA2000 1x EV-DO Revision 0. As in IS-95 and IS-2000 systems, the 1x EV-DO Revision 0 carriers are allocated the 1.25 MHz bandwidth and use a direct sequence (DS) spread waveform at 1.2288 Mchips/s. The fundamental timing unit for downlink transmissions is a 1.666-ms slot that contains the pilot and MAC channels, and a data portion that may contain the traffic or control channel. Unlike IS-2000, where a frame is 20 ms, a frame in 1x EV-DO Revision 0 is 26.66 ms.9 1x EV-DO Revision 0 uses a time-division multiplexed (TDM) downlink (transmitting to one user at a time). The traffic channel data rate used by the access network for transmission to an access terminal is determined by the data rate control (DRC) message previously sent by the access terminal on the uplink. The DRC indicates not only the data rate, but also the modulation, code rate, preamble length, and maximum number of slots required to achieve the desired physical layer error rate. 1x EV-DO Revision 0 introduced physical layer hybrid ARQ on the downlink. The access network transmits packets to an access terminal over multiple slots staggered in time. A three-slot separation between subpacket transmissions allows the access terminal (AT) to demodulate and decode the packet, and indicate to the access network whether or not the packet was successfully decoded. The 1x EV-DO Revision 0 downlink traffic channel is a shared medium that provides high peak rate transmission to active access terminals. Addressing on the shared channel is achieved by a MAC index that is used to identify data transmission from a sector to a particular access terminal. The CDMA2000 1x EV-DO Revision A system was standardized in March 2004 by 3GPP2 and the Telecommunication Industry Association (TIA) of North America. A 1x EV-DO Revision A network can provide downlink sector capacity of 1,500 kbps and uplink capacity of 500 kbps (two-way receive diversity), or 1,200 kbps (four-way receive diversity), with 16 active users per sector, using just 1.25 MHz of the spectrum. The enhancements offered by CDMA2000 1x EV-DO Revision A are as follows: r An uplink physical layer with hybrid ARQ higher-order modulation (quadrature phase shift keying, QPSK, and 8-PSK), higher peak rate (1.8 Mbps), and finer rate quantization r An uplink multiflow MAC with QoS support, comprehensive network control of spectral efficiency and latency trade-off for each application flow, and a more robust interference control mechanism that permits system operations at higher load

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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Wireless Multimedia Communications

r A downlink physical layer with higher peak rate (3.1 Mbps), finer rate quantization, and short packets for transmit delay reduction and improved link utilization r A downlink MAC layer that permits the access network to serve multiple users with the same physical layer packet, improving not only transmission latency but also packing efficiency r Rapid connection setup for applications that require instant connect use of shorter interpacket intervals and a higher rate access channel 1x EV-DO Revision A is designed to offer efficient support for both delay-sensitive and delay-tolerant applications. Features added to 1x EV-DO Revision A are short packets and multiuser packets on the downlink, and physical layer ARQ and multiflow reverse link MAC layer on the uplink. The inclusion of these features provides substantial improvement in the performance of delay-sensitive applications such as VoIP, gaming, and videotelephony. 1x EV-DO Revision A is fully compatible with 1x EV-DO Revision 0 networks. 1x EV-DO Revision A systems deliver high spectral efficiency, support large numbers of mobile users, provide performance comparable to toll-quality applications, support end-to-end QoS that allows operators to maximize revenue through tiered services, and provide comprehensive network control over terminal behavior. To conclude, the enhancements in 1x EV-DO Revision A provide significant gains in spectral efficiency and substantial improvement in QoS support relative to 1x EV-DO Revision 0. In particular, Revision A approximately doubles the reverse link spectral efficiency for best-effort packet applications requiring low latency (e.g., VoIP, videotelephony, wireless gaming, and PTT). 3GPP2 is taking a similar two-step approach by first developing CDMA2000 1x EV-DO Revision B to support even higher data rates by means of scalable bandwidth (multicarrier) techniques, followed by a longer-term evolution to be specified in Revision C. Air interface technologies that are considered for the long-term evolution and benchmarked against the performance of existing systems include multiple access schemes such as orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) and space-division multiple access (SDMA); advanced multiple antenna technologies such as receiver-diversity, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), and beamforming antennas; higher-order modulation schemes such as 64-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM); improved signal processing within the receiver such as interference cancellation; and powerful equalization techniques. The overall goal is to improve user experience by increasing the peak data rates and shortening the application delay, as well as reducing the cost for the operators by increasing the spectral efficiency and reducing the cost of network components. An evolutionary approach to system development and deployment enjoys the benefits of lower cost and faster time to market. Upgrading an existing network typically involves adding new channel cards and upgrading the system software, which is far less costly and time-consuming than building a new system from the ground up.

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Convergence Technologies

2.5

39

3G MOBILE COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS AND WCDMA

The 3G WCDMA standard has been enhanced to offer significantly increased performance for packet data and broadcast services through the introduction of HSDPA, enhanced uplink, and MBMS. The rapid widespread deployment of WCDMA and an increasing uptake of 3G services are raising expectations with regard to new services. Packet data services such as Web surfing and file transfer are already provided in the first release of WCDMA networks, release 99. Although this is a significant improvement compared to 2G networks, where such services have limited or no support, WCDMA is continuously evolving to provide even better performance. Release 5 of WCDMA, finalized in early 2002 and with products starting to appear, introduced improved support for downlink packet data, often referred to as HSDPA. In release 6, finalized early 2005, the packet data capabilities in the uplink (enhanced uplink) were improved. Release 6 also brought support for broadcast services through MBMS, enabling applications such as mobile TV. The path from WCDMA to WCDMA Evolved is illustrated in Figure 2.7. WCDMA has been evolving to meet the increasing demands for high-speed data access broadcast services. These two types of services have different characteristics, which influence the design of the enhancements. For high-speed data access, data typically arrives in bursts, posing rapidly varying requirements on the amount of radio resources required. The transmission is typically bidirectional and low delays are required for a good end-user experience. As the data is intended for a single user, feedback can be used to optimize the transmission parameters.

R99

Rel 4 WCDMA

Rel 5

Rel 6

WCDMA Evolved HSDPA

HSDPA – improved downlink packet data support - Reduced delays - 14 Mb/s peak data rate - ~3 × R99 capacity

Enhanced uplink MBMS

Enhanced uplink – improved uplink - Reduced delays - 5.76 Mb/s peak data rate - ~2 × R99 capacity

MBMS – multimedia broadcast multicast services - Introdustion on of (true) broadcast services (mobile TV)

FIGURE 2.7 The path from WCDMA to WCDMA Evolved. Reproduced with permission from S. Pakval et al., “Evolving 3G mobile systems: Broadband and broadcast services in WCDMA,” IEEE Communications Magazine 44 (February 2006): 68–74.

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Broadcast/multicast services carry data intended for multiple users. Consequently, user-specific adaptation of the transmission parameters is cumbersome and diversity not requiring feedback is crucial. Due to the unidirectional nature of broadcast data, low delays for transmission are not as important as for high-speed data access.

HIGH-SPEED DATA ACCESS To meet the requirement on low delays and rapid resource (re)allocation, the corresponding functionality must be located close to the air interface. In WCFMA this has been solved by locating the enhancement in the base station as part of additions to the MAC layer. Traditional cellular systems have typically allocated resources in a relatively static way, where the data rate for a user is changed slowly or not at all. This approach is efficient for applications with a relatively constant data rate such as voice. For data with a bursty nature and rapidly varying resource requirements, fast allocation of shared resources is more efficient. In WCDMA, the shared downlink resource consists of transmission power and channelization codes in node B (the base station), while in the uplink the shared radio resource is the interference at the base station. Fast scheduling is used to control allocation of the shared resource among users on a rapid basis. Additionally, fast hybrid ARQ with soft combining enables fast retransmission of erroneous data packets. A short transmission time interval (TTI) is also employed to reduce the delays and allow the other features to adapt rapidly. Similar principles are used for both HSDPA and enhanced uplink, although the fundamental differences between downlink and uplink must be accounted for. As an illustration, the architecture with HSDPA, enhanced uplink additions, and MBMS enhancements is shown in Figure 2.8. HSDPA, enhancement link, and MBMS can simultaneously be present in a single cell, although for illustrative purposes they are shown in different cells in the figure. A number of radio network controllers (RNCs) are connected to the core network. Each RNC controls one or several node Bs, which in turn communicate with the user equipment (UE). The radio link control (RLC) entity in the RNC is unchanged compared to previous versions of WCDMA; it provides ciphering and also guarantees lossless data delivery if the hybrid ARQ protocol fails, for example, at an HSDPA cell change, where the node B buffers are flushed. Some functionality has also been added to the existing MAC functionality in the RNC to support flow control between the RNC and node B for HSDPA, and reordering and selection combining for enhanced uplink. Furthermore, the RNC handles mobility, for example, channel switching when a user is moving from a cell where a previous release of WCDMA is used. The RNC is also responsible for the overall radio resource management, for example, setting limits on the amount of resources to be used for HSDPA and enhanced uplink.

HIGH-SPEED DOWNLINK PACKET ACCESS (HSDPA) A key characteristic of HSDPA is the use of shared-channel transmission. This implies that a certain fraction of the total downlink radio resources available within

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MBMS content Internet BM-SC Outer coding (MBMS) Core network

RNC Reordering (enhanced uplink) Node B Scheduling, hybrid ARQ (HSDPA, enhanced uplink)

FIGURE 2.8 Architecture with HSDPA and enhanced uplink additions, and MBMS enhancements. Reproduced with permission from S. Pakval et al., “Evolving 3G mobile systems: Broadband and broadcast services in WCDMA,” IEEE Communications Magazine 44 (February 2006): 68–74.

a cell can be seen as a common resource that is dynamically shared between users, primarily in the time domain. The use of shared-channel transmission, in WCDMA implemented through the high-speed downlink shared channel (HS-DSCH), enables the possibility to rapidly allocate a large amount of the downlink resources to a user when needed. The basic HS-DSCH code and time structure are illustrated in Figure 2.9. The HS-DSCH code resource consists of a number of codes of spreading factor SF = 16, and the number codes is configurable between 1 and 15. Codes not reserved for HS-DSCH transmission are used for other purposes (e.g., related control signaling, MBMS, and circuit-switched services such as voice). Allocation of the HS-DSCH code resource is done on a 2-ms TTI basis. The use of a short TTI reduces the overall delay and improves the tracking of fast channel variations exploited by the link adaptation and the channel-dependent scheduling as discussed below. Although the common code resource is shared primarily in the time domain, sharing in the code domain is also possible. The reasons are twofold: support of terminals not able to despread the full set of codes, and efficient support of small payloads (i.e., when the transmitted data does not require the full set of allocated HS-DSCH codes). In addition to being allocated a part of the overall code resource, a certain part of the total available cell power should also be allocated for HS-DSCH transmission. Note that the HS-DSCH is not power controlled but rate controlled. This allows the remaining power (after serving other, power-controlled channels) to be used for HS-DSCH transmission and enables efficient exploitation of the shared power resource.

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SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4 SF = 8 SF = 16

Channelization codes

Channelization codes used For HS-DSCH transmission (example) HS-DSCH TTI 2 ms

Time User #1

User #2

User #3

User #4

FIGURE 2.9 Code and time domain structure for HS-DSCH. Reproduced with permission from S. Pakval et al. “Evolving 3G mobile systems: Broadband and broadcast services in WCDMA,” IEEE Communications Magazine 44 (February 2006): 68–74.

Control signaling necessary for successful reception of the HS-DSCH at the terminal is carried on shared control channels. There is also a need for transmitting power-control commands for the uplink in the downlink. These are carried either on a conventional dedicated channel, which can also carry non-HS-DSCH services, or on a new type of dedicated channel introduced in release 6, optimized to carry power control commands only and reducing the code space required by up to a factor of 10. The scheduler is a key element and to a large extent determines the overall downlink performance, especially in a highly loaded network. In each TTI, the scheduler decides to which user(s) the HS-DSCH should be transmitted and, in close cooperation with the link-adaptation mechanism, at what data rate. A significant increase in capacity can be obtained if channel-dependent scheduling is used. Since the radio conditions for the users typically vary independently, at each point in time there is almost always a user whose channel quality is near its peak. The gain obtained by transmitting to users with favorable conditions is commonly known as multiuser diversity, and the gains are larger with larger channel variations and a larger number of users.11 A practical scheduler strategy exploits the short-term variations (e.g., due to multipath fading and fast interference variations) while maintaining some degree of longterm fairness between the users. In principle, the larger the long-term unfairness, the higher the cell capacity, and trade-off between the two is required. Additionally, traffic priorities should also be taken into account, for example, to prioritize streaming services before a file download. The scheduler algorithm is implementation specific.12

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The next key feature of HSDPA is hybrid ARQ with soft combining, which allows the terminal to rapidly request retransmission of an erroneously received transport block, essentially fine-tuning the effective code rate and compensating for errors made by the link adaptation mechanism. Closed-loop power control has been used in CDMA systems to combat the fading variations in the radio channel and to maintain a constant signal-to-noise ratio (Eb /N0). For services that can tolerate some jitter in the data rate, it is more efficient to control the signal-to-noise ratio by adjusting the data rate while keeping transmission power constant. This is known as link adaptation or rate adaptation. Link adaptation is implemented by adjusting the channel-coding rate, and selecting between QPSK and 16-QAM. Higher-order modulation such as 16-QAM makes more efficient use of bandwidth than QPSK, but requires greater received Eb /N0. Consequently, 16-QAM is mainly useful in advantageous channel conditions. In addition, the data rate also depends on the number of channelization codes assigned for HS-DSCH transmission in a TTI. The data rate is selected independently for each 2-ms TTI by node B, and the link-adaptation mechanism can therefore track rapid channel variations. Soft combining implies that the terminal does not discard soft information in case it cannot decode a data block as in traditional hybrid ARQ protocols, but combines soft information from previous transmission attempts with the current retransmission to increase the probability of successful decoding. Incremental redundancy (IR) is used as the basis for soft combining, that is, the retransmissions may contain parity bits not included in the original transmission. It is well known that IR can provide significant gains when the code rate for the initial transmission attempts is high, as the additional parity bits in the retransmission result in a lower overall coding rate. Thus, IR is mainly useful in band-limited situations, for example, when the terminal is close to the base station and the amount of channelization codes (and not the transmission power) limits the achievable data rate.

ENHANCED UPLINK The enhanced uplink relies on basic principles similar to those of the HSDPA downlink: scheduling and fast hybrid ARQ, implemented through an enhanced dedicated channel (E-DCH). The E-DCH is turbo-encoded and transmitted in a similar way as the DCH in previous releases. Simultaneous transmission on E-DCH and DCH is possible; the E-DCH is processed separately from the other channels. In addition to the 10-ms TTI found in earlier releases, the E-DCH supports a TTI of 2 ms, thus reducing the delays and allowing for fast adaptation of the transmission parameters. One transport block of data can be transmitted in each TTI; the size of the transport block depends on the available power and the limitations set by the scheduling mechanism in the node B. Multiple data flows with different priorities can be multiplexed onto the E-DCH to support mixed services. Unlike the downlink, the uplink is nonorthogonal and fast power control is therefore essential for the uplink to handle the near-far problem and to ensure coexistence with terminals and services not using the enhancements. The E-DCH is transmitted with a power offset relative to the power-controlled uplink control channel and, by

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adjusting the maximum allowed power offset, the scheduler can control the E-DCH data rate. Soft handover is supported for the E-DCH for two reasons: first, receiving the transmitted data in multiple cells adds a macro-diversity gain, and second, power control from multiple cells is required in order to limit the amount of interference generated in neighboring cells. For the E-DCH, the shared resource is the amount of tolerable interference, that is, the total received power at node B, and the purpose of the scheduler is to determine which terminals are allowed to transmit when and at what data rate. To efficiently support packet data services, the target is to allocate a large fraction of the shared resource to users momentarily requiring high data rates, while at the same time ensuring stable system operation by avoiding large interference peaks. The scheduling framework is based on scheduling grants sent by the node B scheduler to control the transmission activity, and scheduling requests sent to request resources. The scheduling grants control the maximum allowed E-DCH-topilot power ratio the terminal may use; a large grant implies the terminal may use a higher data rate but also contribute more to the interference level (noise rise) in the cell. Based on measurements of the (instantaneous) interference level, the scheduler controls the scheduling grant in each terminal to maintain the interference level in the cell at a desired target. Unlike HSDPA, where typically only a single user is addressed in each TTI, the implementation-specific uplink scheduling strategy in most cases will schedule multiple users in parallel. The reason for this is the significantly smaller transmit power of a terminal compared to a node B; a single terminal typically cannot utilize the full cell capacity on its own. Fast scheduling allows for a more relaxed connection admission strategy. A larger number of bursty high-rate packet-data users can be admitted to the system as the scheduling mechanisms can handle the situation when multiple users need to transmit in parallel. Without fast scheduling, the admission control would have to be more conservative and reverse a margin in the system in case of multiple users transmitting simultaneously. Hybrid ARQ with soft combining can be exploited not only to provide robustness against unpredictable interference, but also to improve the link efficiency to increase capacity and/or coverage. One possibility to provide a data rate of x Mbps is to transmit at x Mbps and set the transmission power to target a low error probability (on the order of a few percent) on the first transmission attempt. Alternatively, the same resulting data rate can be provided by transmitting using an n times higher data rate at an unchanged transmission power and multiple hybrid ARQ retransmissions.

MULTIPLE BROADCAST MULTICAST SERVICES In the past, cellular systems have mostly focused on the transmission of data intended for a single user and not on broadcast services. Broadcast networks, exemplified by radio and TV broadcasting networks, have on the other hand focused on covering very large areas and have offered limited or no possibilities for transmission of data intended for a single user. MBMS, introduced in Release 6, supports multicast/ broadcast services in a cellular system, thereby combining multicast and unicast

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transmissions within a single network. With MBMS, the same content is transmitted to multiple users in a unidirectional fashion, typically by multiple cells in order to cover the large area in which the service is provided. Broadcast and multicast describe different (although closely related) scenarios: In broadcast, a point-to-multipoint radio resource is set up in each cell as part of the MBMS broadcast area and all users subscribing to the broadcast service simultaneously receive the same transmitted signal. No tracking of users’ movements in the radio access network is performed and users can receive the content without notifying the network. Mobile TV is an example of a service that can be provided through MBMS broadcast. In multicast, users request to join a multicast group prior to receiving any data. Users’ movements are tracked and the radio resources are configured appropriately. Each cell in the MBMS multicast area may be configured for point-to-point or point-to-multipoint transmission. In sparsely populated cells with only one or a few users subscribing to MBMS, point-to-point transmission may be appropriate, while in cells with a larger number of users, point-to-multipoint transmission is better suited. Point-to-multipoint MBMS data transmission uses the forward access channel (FACH) with turbo-coding and QPSK modulation at a constant transmission power. Multiple services can be configured in a cell, either time multiplexed on one FACH or transmitted on separate channels.

2.6

3G PERSONAL COMMUNICATION SERVICES TECHNOLOGIES

3G personal communication services (PCS) are already offered in limited areas, and will be used more extensively in the future.14 3G PCS will convey multimedia traffic in mobile and wireless environments. UMTS and 3G PCS systems will gradually replace GSM. UMTS uses both WCDMA and hybrid time division multiple access (TDMA)/CDMA in the radio network.15,16 Since UMTS and most of the other PCS technologies are cellular architectures, they require a carefully designed and deployed infrastructure. Sometimes rapid deployment without extensive preplanning is needed. Tactical communication systems and networks used after disasters are examples of systems that require rapid deployment. In these systems, predeployment of a cellular infrastructure is often impossible. Therefore, infrastructureless routing algorithms and resource management schemes are needed to fulfill the rapid deployment requirement. Ad hoc techniques have been developed to route data packets between mobile terminals through an infrastructureless network. Many ad hoc routing techniques have been proposed in the literature.17 Available ad hoc routing algorithms, however, are not scalable enough to manage tens of thousands of nodes. Furthermore, they do not address the management of radio resources. Virtual cell layout (VCL) leverages both cellular and ad hoc paradigms to handle a large number of mobile terminals in a rapidly deployable network. In VCL, the communication area is tessellated with fixed-size hexagons. Each hexagon represents a

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VCL cell to which the available spectrum is assigned. Also, the CDMA codes are distributed among the fixed VCL cells. Hence, if a mobile access point can find out its geographic location, it can also determine the available set of carriers and codes without a need for a central topology database or a central resource manager.

2.7 CHALLENGES IN THE MIGRATION TO 4G MOBILE SYSTEM The step to be taken in order to arrive at the goal of 4G is called beyond 3G (B3G). In other words, B3G is heterogeneous systems and networks working together, while 4G is a new air interface. Within the rapid development of wireless communications networks, it is expected that 4G mobile systems will be launched within decades. 4G mobile systems focus on seamlessly integrating the existing wireless technologies including GSM, wireless LAN, and Bluetooth. Also, 4G systems will support comprehensive and personalized services, providing stable system performance and quality of service. Development of new wireless access technologies, services, and applications has been motivated by identifying future service needs, potentially available spectrum matching the capacity needs, and agreeing on the technical specifications to enable access to new services. This also has led to the emergence of a wide range of wireless digital transmission technologies and service platforms to comply with the new user needs requiring more capacity, support of multimedia traffic, extended support for mobility, and so on. This is the way, for instance, that GSM/GPRS/EDGE have been made available for wide-area mobile communications. On the path toward 4G, maximum range of service platforms and access infrastructures have to be ensured. 4G has to be seen as the next generation communication systems technology, which may include new wireless access technologies, but in any case will be able to provide a unified framework to both ends of the communication system.17 Different research programs have their own visions regarding 4G features and implementations. Some key features, mainly from the user’s point of view of 4G networks, are stated as follows: r r r r

High usability (anytime, anywhere, and with any technology) Support for multimedia services at low transmission cost Personalization Integrated services

First, 4G networks are all-IP-based heterogeneous networks that will allow users to use any system, at any time, anywhere. Users carrying an integrated terminal will be able to use a wide range of applications provided by multiple wireless networks. Second, 4G systems provide not only telecommunication services, but also data and multimedia services. To support multimedia applications, high data rate services with good system reliability must be provided. At the same time, a low per-bit transmission cost will be maintained. Third, personalized service will be provided by this new generation network. It is expected that when 4G services are launched, users in widely different locations, occupations, and economic classes will use the services.

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To meet the demands of these diverse users, service providers should design personal and customized services for them.18 Finally, 4G systems will also provide facilities for integrated services. Users will be able to use multiple services from any service provider at the same time. 4G wireless communication systems will be made up of different radio networks providing access to an IP version 6 (IPv6)-based network layer.19,20 Multimedia is expected to be a main application of 4G networks. However, multimedia streams can be sensitive to packet losses, which in turn can result in video artifacts. Such packet losses can often occur when there is an interruption to a connection as a user moves between autonomous networks. Cooperation of heterogeneous access networks (cellular and broadcast in particular) is an area that has been being investigated for some time through a number of projects, with the aim of setting up technical foundations, developing specific services and architectures, and addressing network management aspects.21 Most of the technical barriers have been identified, but new approaches are needed to adapt to the current regulatory and business context characterized by openness of systems, diversification of system actors, and the search for productive investment. Network cooperation is probably one of the main clues for addressing the 4G technological landscape, but it needs to be driven by a number of requirements that are meaningful from the technological viewpoint, as well as from regulatory and business ones. In recent years an excess of available technologies addressing killer applications has created probability issues for many companies, hence leading to the rethinking of requirements not only on the technical side, but also from the business and end-to-end perspectives. In parallel, there has been increasing interest in the push paradigm, in particular to groups of users supported by the spectrum efficiency of broadcast bearers, and the attractiveness of broadcast TV interactive services. The push toward an Information Society has motivated the development of new wireless access technologies, services, and applications. Moving toward 4G, wireless ad hoc networks receive growing interest due to users’ provisioning of mobility, usability of services, and seamless communications. In fading environments, ad hoc networks provide the opportunity to exploit variations in channel conditions and transmit to the user employing the current best channel. Wireless ad hoc networking has recently attracted growing interest, and has emerged as a key technology for next generation wireless networking. Devices enabling the wireless ad hoc networking paradigm are becoming smaller and cheaper, with lots of embedded capabilities delivering services seamlessly to end users and paving the path toward 4G. In a wireless ad hoc network a node sends or forwards packets to its neighboring nodes by accessing the shared wireless channel. A significant characteristic of a wireless channel is time-varying fading due to the existence of multiple transmission paths between a source and a destination. In practice, the channel quality among surrounding nodes can vary significantly for both mobile and stationary nodes. Any change in the line-of-sight path or any reflected path will affect the channel quality and hence change the data rate that is feasible with multirate networks. Although traditionally viewed as a source of unreliability

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that needs to be mitigated, recent research suggests exploiting the channel fluctuations opportunistically when and where the channel is strong. In wireless ad hoc networks there are two main classes of opportunistic transmission. The first is to exploit the time diversity of an individual link by adapting its transmit rate to the time-varying channel condition. The basic idea is to transmit more packets at higher rates when the channel condition is better. Exploiting multiuser diversity is another class of opportunistic transmission, which jointly leverages the time and spatial heterogeneity of channels to adjust rates. In wireless networks, a node may have packets destined to multiple neighboring nodes. Instantaneously selecting an on-peak receiver with the best channel condition improves system performance.22 However, most existing opportunistic transmission schemes do not consider the interaction among neighboring transmitters (i.e., a sender individually makes its local decision to maximize its own performance). It is hard to obtain the optimal overall system performance without leveraging node cooperation due to the following challenges. First, with a hidden terminal there is inequality in channel contention among nodes in wireless ad hoc networks, which can result in severe overall performance inefficiency. Second, with the shared wireless medium, co-channel interference has a deep impact on rate selection and flow scheduling in wireless ad hoc networks. Hence, neighboring transmitters should jointly determine the “onpeak” flows and their corresponding rate in a distributed way. Third, different QoS requirements of the system correspond to different optimization targets, for example, energy efficiency and throughput maximization, which call for different strategies. All these challenges require an efficient node cooperation mechanism to coordinate the transmissions among neighboring nodes. Energy efficiency is one of the key issues in wireless ad hoc networks because most mobile devices are battery operated. An effective way to achieve energy efficiency is to reduce the transmission power whenever possible. However, in a multirate enabled network, reducing transmission power may result in reduced transmission rate. Moreover, in a wireless ad hoc network, the hidden terminal phenomenon will cause one node to have smaller contention probability than another node (say, a node in the hidden position); hence, different nodes will have different probabilities of winning the channel access (we call this phenomenon inequality of channel access). The inequality of channel access can result in severe overall energy inefficiency. Thus, node cooperation in rate adaptation to achieve high overall energy efficiency is called for. One of the most important features of HSDPA is packet scheduling. The main goal of packet scheduling is to maximize system throughput while satisfying the QoS requirements of users. The packet scheduler determines to which user the shared channel transmission should be assigned at a given time. In HSDPA the packet scheduler can exploit short-term variations in the radio conditions of different users by selecting those with favorable instantaneous channel conditions for transmission, which is illustrated in Figure 2.10. This idea is based on the fact that good channel conditions allow for higher data rates (R) by using a higher-order modulation and coding schemes, thus resulting in increased system throughput.23,24 To quickly obtain up-to-date information on the channel conditions of different users, the functionality of the packet scheduler has been moved from the RNC

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Channel quality

Ri(t)

UE1

UE1 Scheduling UE3

UE2 UE2

UE3

UE1 UE3 UE3 UE1 UE2 Time

Served UE

FIGURE 2.10 The user channel quality for scheduling decisions. Reproduced with permission from B. A. Manthari, H. Hassanien, and N. Nasser. “Packet scheduling in 3.5G highspeed downlink packet access networks: Breadth and depth,” IEEE Network 21 (January/ February): 41–46.

in UMTS to the MAC high-speed (MAC-hs) sublayer at the node B as shown in Figure 2.11.25 The MAC-hs is a new sublayer added to the MAC layer at the node B in HSDPA in order to execute the packet scheduling algorithm. In addition, the minimum TTI (i.e., the time between two consecutive transmissions) has been reduced from 10 ms in UMTS Release 99 to 2 ms in Release 5 which includes HSDPA. This is because HSDPA allows the packet scheduler to better exploit the varying channel conditions of different users in its scheduling decisions and increase the granularity of the scheduling process. It should be noted that favoring users with good channel conditions may prevent those with bad channel conditions from being served. A good design of a scheduling algorithm not only should take into account maximization of the system throughput, but also should be fair to users who use the RLC MAC MAC-hs PHY

Node B RNC RLC MAC PHY

FIGURE 2.11 The MAC-hs at rate node B in HSDPA. Reproduced with permission from B. A. Manthari, H. Hassanien, and N. Nasser. “Packet scheduling in 3.5G high-speed downlink packet access networks: Breadth and depth,” IEEE Network 21 (January/February): 41–46.

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et da

Pack

CQI1

Internet MAC-hs

IP packets

Packet scheduler

User1

Packet data CQI2

Pa

cke

User2

td

ata

CQIN UserN

FIGURE 2.12 The packet scheduler model in HSDPA. Reproduced with permission from B. A. Manthari, H. Hassanien, H., and N. Nasser. “Packet scheduling in 3.5G high-speed downlink packet access networks: Breadth and depth,” IEEE Network 21 (January/February): 41–46.

same service and pay the same amount of money. That is, scheduling algorithms should balance the trade-off between maximizing throughput and fairness. We now briefly describe the packet scheduler model and how it works in HSDPA. As mentioned above, the packet scheduler for HSDPA is implemented at the MAC-hs layer of node B. Node B can serve N users simultaneously, N ≥ 1, and selects one transmission user in a slot of fixed time duration. Also, and without loss of generality, it is assumed that each user has one connection request. Thus, a node B maintains one queue for every user. The packet scheduler model in HSDPA is shown in Figure 2.12. Upon call arrival, the RLC layer receives traffic in the form of IP packets from higher layers. The packets are segmented into fixed-size protocol data units (PDUs). These PDUs are stored in the transmission queue of the corresponding user in a first-in/first-out fashion. Subsequently, the PDUs are transmitted to the appropriate mobile user according to the adopted scheduling discipline. The packet scheduler works as follows. During every TTI, each user regularly informs the node B of its channel quality condition by sending a report known as a channel quality indicator (CQI) in the uplink to the node B. The CQI contains information about the instantaneous channel quality of user. This information includes the size of the transport block the node B should send to the user, the number of simultaneous channel codes, and the type of modulation and coding schemes the user can support. Node B then selects the appropriate mobile user according to the adopted scheduling discipline and sends data to the selected user at the specified rates. The user is able to measure its current channel conditions by measuring the power of the received signal from the node B and then using a set of models to determine its current supportable data rates (i.e., the rates at which it can receive data from the node B given its current channel condition). Therefore, users with good channel conditions will enjoy potentially higher supportable data rates by using higher modulation and coding rates, whereas users with bad channel conditions will experience lower data rates instead of adjusting their transmission power.24,25

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HSDPA is designed to support non-real-time applications (interactive and background) and also to some extent real-time applications (streaming). Since real-time applications have different QoS constraints than non-real-time applications, the design of scheduling algorithms for real-time applications should be different from that for non-real-time applications. Therefore, scheduling algorithms can be classified into two groups: real-time (RT) and non-real-time (NRT) scheduling algorithms. In addition, scheduling algorithms within each group can be characterized by three factors26: r Scheduling frequency—The rate at which users are scheduled. Scheduling algorithms that make use of the channel conditions of users need to make decisions every TTI to better exploit fast variation of channel conditions and are therefore called fast scheduling algorithms. Other scheduling algorithms that do not make a decision every TTI are called slow scheduling algorithms. r Service order—The order in which users are served. For example, some scheduling algorithms schedule users based on their channel conditions, whereas others schedule them randomly. r Allocation method—The method of allocating resources. For instance, some scheduling algorithms provide the same data amount for all users per allocation interval, while others give all users the same time, code, or power per allocation interval.

2.8

CONCLUDING REMARKS

The converged network will be a vital component of the next generation applications currently being developed for a wide range of business situations. The demand for making the converged network of the twenty-first century more like today’s Internet will create a large challenge for the software architects of the converged network. 1x EV-DO Revision A is fully backward compatible with 1x EV-DO Revision 0 networks, and an upgrade involves only a change to the mobile station and base station. 1x EV-DO Revision A systems deliver high spectral efficiency, support large numbers of mobile users, provide performance comparable with toll-quality voice applications, and provide comprehensive network control over terminal behavior. With the recent evolution to the WCDMA standard, support for packet data and broadcast services has been considerably improved to meet future demands. Fast adaptation to rapidly varying traffic and channel conditions has been applied to WCDMA through HSDPA and enhanced uplink, thereby providing high data rates to cellular users. Similarly, by combining the transmissions from multiple sites, true broadcast services are possible in WCDMA with the introduction of MBMS. High-speed downlink packet access has been introduced in order to support high data rates beyond those that 3G/UMTS can offer. HSDPA promises a data rate of up to 10 Mbps, which allows support of new multimedia applications and improved QoS for already existing ones. HSDPA relies on new technologies to help achieve the high data rates it offers, among which is packet scheduling. The functionality of packet scheduling is crucial to the operation of HSDPA, since it controls the distribution of radio resources among mobile users.

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

3 Wireless Video This chapter surveys wireless video that has been commercialized recently or is expected to go to market in third-generation (3G) and beyond mobile networks, mainly covering the corresponding technologies. We present a general framework that takes into account multiple factors, including source coding, channel resource allocation, and error concealment, for the design of energy-efficient wireless video communication systems. This framework can take various forms and be applied to achieve the optimal trade-off between energy consumption and video delivery quality during wireless video transmission. This chapter also reviews rate control in streaming video over wireless, which is an important issue. We continue with a short presentation of content delivery technologies. The emphasis is on layer ½ technologies, as well as technologies above layer 2. This chapter concludes with the H.264/ AVC standard in the wireless video environment, together with a video coding and decoding algorithm, network integration, compression efficiency, error resilience, and bit error adaptivity. The applicability of all these encoding and network features depends on application, constraints such as the maximum tolerable delay, possibility of online encoding, and availability of feedback and cross-layer information.

3.1

INTRODUCTION

In the early 1990s, most of us could not have imagined the current popularity of multimedia communication over wireless networks. At the beginning of this century, we have experienced two mobile digital network generations: the second generation (2G), which brought us digital mobile communication, and the 3G, which is characterized by its ability to carry data at much higher rates, 2G–3G radio access networks include: r General packet radio service (GPRS) r Enhanced Data Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) Environment (EDGE) r Wideband code-division multiple access (W-CDMA), also known as Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) r High-speed downlink packet access (HSDPA) r CDMA2000 1x Evolution, Data-Only (1x EV-DO)1 3G cellular network diffusion seems to be advancing steadily. Mobile multimedia communication has taken off with 3G networks.2 Flat-rate pricing for unlimited access to data on 3G mobile networks is now becoming a common practice of operators. The combination of WiFi and 3G cellular networks will bring a realistic and comfortable solution beyond 3G, where 54 Mbps in hotspots and several hundred kilobits per second with wide coverage are available. 53

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Video communication through wireless channels is still a challenging problem due to the limitations in bandwidth and the presence of channel errors. Because many video services are originally coded at a high rate and without considering the different channel conditions that may be encountered later, a means to repurpose this content for delivering over a dynamic wireless channel is needed.3 Transmitting video over wireless channels from mobile devices has gained increased popularity in a wide range of applications. A major obstacle to these types of applications is the limited energy supply in mobile device batteries. For this reason, efficiently using energy is a critical issue in designing wireless video communication systems.4 Rate control is important to multimedia streaming applications in both wired and wireless networks. First, it results in full utilization of bottleneck links by ensuring that sending rates are not too low. Second, it prevents congestion collapse by ensuring that sending rates are not too aggressive.5 Most emerging and future mobile client devices will significantly differ from those used for speech communications only: handheld devices will be equipped with a color display and a camera, and have sufficient processing power to allow presentation, recording, and encoding/decoding of video sequences. In addition, emerging and future wireless systems will provide sufficient bit rates to support video communication applications. Nevertheless, bit rates will always be scarce in wireless transmission environments due to physical bandwidth and power limitations; thus, efficient video compression is required. Nowadays H.263 and MPEG-4 Visual Simple Profile are commonly used in handheld products, but it is foreseen that H.264/ AVC will be the video codec of choice for many video applications in the near future. The compression efficiency of the new standard outdoes prior standards roughly by at least a factor of two. Although compression efficiency is the major feature for a video codec to be successful in wireless transmission environments, it is also necessary that a standard provides means to be integrated easily into existing and future networks, as well as address the needs of different applications.7 This chapter starts with a short overview of video over wireless. Then, it seeks to describe an energy-efficient wireless communication system. A brief description of rate control in streaming video over wireless is also presented. Content delivery technologies including layer ½ technologies and techniques above layer 2 are also emphasized. An outline of the H.264/AVC standard in the wireless video environment concludes this chapter.

3.2 VIDEO OVER WIRELESS A wireless transmission system might delay, lose, or corrupt individual data units. The unavailability of a single data unit usually has significant impact on perceived quality due to spatiotemporal error propagation. In modern wireless system designs, data transmission is usually supplemented by additional information between the sender and the receivers, and within the respective entities. Abstract versions of available messages are included. The video encoder generates data units containing the compressed video stream, possibly stored in an encoder buffer before transmission. Abstract versions of available messages are included in Figure 3.1. In fact, this is an abstraction of an

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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55 Source significante informaton

Video encoder

Transport protocol sender

Encoder buffer

Channel state information Video feedback

Transport feedback

Buffer feedback Video decoder

Decoder buffer

Wireless transmission system

Transport protocol receiver

Error indication flag

FIGURE 3.1 An end-to-end video transmission system. Reproduced with permission from T. Stockhammer and M.M. Hannukesela, “H.264/Ave Video for wireless transmission.” IEEE Wavelength Communications 12 (August 2005): 6–13.

end-to-end video transmission system. Each processing and transmission step adds some delay which can be fixed, deterministic, or random. The encoder and decoder buffers allow compensating for variable bit rates produced by the encoder, as well as channel delay variations to keep the end-to-end delay constant and maintain the timeline at the decoder. If the initial play-out delay is not or cannot be too extensive, late data units are commonly treated as lost. In a typical video distribution scenario as shown in Figure 3.2, video content is captured, then immediately compressed and stored on a local networks. At this stage, compression efficiency of the video signal is most important as the content is usually encoded with relatively high quality and independently of any actual channel characteristics. We note that the heterogeneity of client networks makes it difficult for the encoder to adaptively encode the video contents for a wide degree of different channel conditions; this is especially true for wireless clients. Subsequently, for transmission over wireless or highly congested networks, the video bit stream first passes through a network node, such as mobile switch/base station or proxy Original input video Video encoder

Reconstructed output video Low-loss network

Wired network or storage

Video encoder

Low-loss network

Wireless receiver Video decoder

Error resilience Wireless or high transcoding congestion network

FIGURE 3.2 Video transmission scenario with error resilience transcoding. Reproduced with permission from A-Vetro, J. Xin and H. Sun, “Error resilience video transcoding for wireless communications.” IEEE Wireless Communications 12 (August 2005): 14–21.

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Analysis and control

Input video bitstream

Error resilience Video transcoder

Buffer

Channel coding

Output video bitstream

FIGURE 3.3 Error resilience video transcoding. Reproduced with permission from A Vetro, J.Xin and H. Sun. “Error resilience video transcoding for wireless communications,” IEEE Wieless Communications 12 (August 2005): 14–21.

server, which performs error resilience transcoding. In addition to satisfying rate constraints of the network and display or computational requirements of a terminal, the bit stream is transcoded so that an appropriate level of error resilience is injected in the bit stream. The optimal solution in the transcoder is one that yields the highest reconstructed video quality at the receiver.8 The process of error resilience video transcoding is not achieved by the addition of bits into the input bit stream to make the output bit stream more robust to errors. Such an approach is closer to conventional channel coding approaches in which some overhead channel bits are added to the source payload for protection and possible recovery. Rather, for the video source, a variety of strategies exist that affect the bit stream structure at different levels of the stream (e.g., slice vs. block level). Among the different techniques to localize data segments to reduce error propagation, are partitioning of the stream so that unequal error protection can be applied, or redundancy added to the stream to enable a more robust means of decoding. Error resilience transcoding of video based on analysis of the video bit stream, channel measurement, and buffer analysis is illustrated in Figure 3.3. From the source side, characteristics of the video bit stream are usually extracted to understand the structure of the encoded bit stream and begin building the end-to-end rate distortion model of the source, while from the network side, characteristics of the channel are obtained. Both the content and channel characteristics, as well as the current state of the buffer, are used to control the operation of the error resilience transcoder. It is also possible to jointly optimize the source and channel coding. The transcoding of stored video is not necessarily the same as that for live video. For example, preanalysis may be performed on stored video to gather useful information that may be used during the transcoding process. We focus now on some of the major conceptual components in a wireless video communication system shown in Figure 3.4. At the sender side, video packets are first generated by a video encoder, which performs compression by exploiting both temporal and spatial redundancies. After passing through the network protocol stack, transport packets are generated and then transmitted over a wireless channel that is lossy in nature. Therefore, the video sequence must be encoded in an errorresilient way that minimizes the effects of losses on the decoded video quality. The set of source coding parameters directly control video delivery quality; this includes prediction mode and quantization step size.

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Decoder concealment strategy

Channel state information

Controller

Video in

Video encoder

Transmitter Channel

Video out

Video decoder

Receiver

FIGURE 3.4 Conceptual components in wireless communication system.

To combat channel errors, forward error correction (FEC) may be applied at the lower layers such as the link and physical layers. In addition, at the physical layer, modulation modes and transmitter power may be able to be adjusted according to the changing channel conditions. Scheduling the transmission of each packet may also be an adaptable parameter. The functionality of the lower layer adaptations is indicated by the transmitter block. The set of channel parameters can be controlled at the transmitter. At the receiver, the demodulated bit stream is processed by the channel decoder, which performs error detection and/or correction. This functionality is represented by the receiver block. Corrupt packets are usually discarded by the receiver, and are therefore considered lost. In addition, packets that arrive at the receiver beyond their display deadlines are also treated as lost. This strict delay constraint is another important difference between video communications and many other data transmission applications. The video decoder then decompresses video packets and displays the resulting video frames in real time. The video decoder employs concealment techniques to mitigate the effects of packet losses. Here, the goal is to achieve the best video delivery while using a minimum amount of transmission energy. Wireless channels typically exhibit high variability in throughput, delay, and packet loss. Providing acceptable video quality in such an environment is a demanding task for the video encoder and decoder, as well as the communication and networking infrastructure. In each of these components, a number of coding and transmission parameters may be adapted based on source content and available channel state information (CSI). In addition, factors affecting transmission energy consumption include the power used for transmitting each bit, the modulation mode, and the channel coding rate at the link layer or physical layer. To save energy, those parameters should also be adapted to the video content and the CSI.

3.3 ENERGY-EFFICIENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEM In an increasing number of applications, video is transmitted to and from portable wireless devices such as cellular phones, laptop computers connected to wireless

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local area networks (WLANs), and cameras in surveillance and environmental tracking systems. For example, the dramatic increase in bandwidth brought by new technologies, such as the present 3G and emerging fourth generation (4G) wireless systems, and the IEEE802.11 WLAN standards, is beginning to enable video streaming capability in personal communications. Although wireless video communications is highly desirable in many applications, a major limitation in any wireless system is the fact that mobile devices typically depend on a battery with a limited energy supply. Such a limitation is especially a concern because of the high energy consumption rate in encoding and transmitting video bit streams. Thus, efficient use of energy becomes highly important, and sometimes the most critical part in the deployment of wireless video applications. To design an energy-efficient communication system, the first issue is to understand how energy is consumed in mobile devices. Generally speaking, energy in mobile devices is mainly used for computation, transmission, display, and driving the speakers. Among those, computation and transmission are the two largest energy consumers. During computation, energy is used to run the operating system software, and encode and decode the audio and video signals. During transmission, energy is used to transmit and receive the radio frequency (RF) audio and video signals. It should be acknowledged that computation has always been a critical concern in wireless communications. For example, energy-aware operating systems have been studied to efficiently manage energy consumption by adapting the system behavior and workload based on the available energy, job priority, and constraints. Computational energy consumption is especially a concern for video transmission, because motion estimation and compensation, forward and inverse discrete cosine transforms (DCTs), quantization, and other components in a video encoder all require a significant number of calculations.9 In energy consumption in computation, a power rate distortion model is proposed to study the optional trade-off among computational power, transmission rate, and video distortion.4 Advances in very large scale integration (VLSI) design and integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing technologies have led to ICs with higher and higher integration densities using less and less power. According to Moor’s law, the number of transistors on an IC doubles every 1.5 years. As a consequence, the energy consumed in computation is expected to become a less significant fraction of the total energy consumption. Therefore, focusing on the problem of how to encode a video source and send it to the base station in an energy-efficient way is very important. The goal is to minimize the amount of distortion at the receiver given a limited amount of transmission energy, or vice versa, to minimize the energy consumption while achieving a targeted video delivery quality. One difference between video transmission and more traditional data communications is that video packets are of different importance. To efficiently utilize energy, unequal error protection (UEP) is usually preferred (e.g., it is more efficient to use more power to provide more protection when transmitting the more important packets). This requires a cross-layer perspective,10 where the source and network layers are jointly considered. Specifically, the lower layers in a protocol stack, which directly control transmitter power, need to obtain knowledge of the importance level of each video packet from the video encoder, which is located at the application

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layer. On the other hand, it can also be beneficial if the source encoder is aware of the estimated CSI passed from the lower layers, and which channel parameters at the lower layers can be controlled, so that it can make smart decisions when selecting the source coding parameters to achieve the best video delivery quality. For this reason, joint consideration of video encoding and power control is a natural way to achieve the highest efficiency in transmission energy consumption.

3.4 STREAMING VIDEO OVER WIRELESS: RATE CONTROL A widely popular rate control scheme for streaming in wired networks is equationbased rate control, known as Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)-friendly rate control (TFRC). In TFRC the TCP-friendly rate is determined as a function of packet loss rate, round-trip time (RTT), and packet size to mimic the long-term steady performance of TCP.11 There are basically three advantages to rate control using TFRC. First, it can fully utilize bottleneck capacities while preventing congestion collapse. Second, it is fair to TCP flows, which are the dominant source of traffic on the Internet. Third, the TFRC results in small rate fluctuation, making it attractive for streaming applications that require constant video quality. The key assumption behind TCP and TFRC is that packet loss is a sign of congestion. In wireless networks, however, packet loss is dominated by physical channel errors, violating this key assumption. Neither TFRC nor TCP can distinguish between packet loss due to buffer overflow and that due to physical layer errors. There have been a number of efforts to improve the performance of TCP or TFRC over wireless.5 These approaches either hide end hosts from packet loss caused by wireless channel error, or provide end hosts the ability to distinguish between packet loss caused by congestion and that caused by wireless channel error. Snoop is a TCP-aware local retransmission link layer approach. A Snoop model resides on a router or base station on the last hop (i.e., the wireless link) and records a copy of every forwarded packet. Assuming a Snoop module can access TCP acknowledgment (ACK) packets from the TCP receiver, it looks into the ACK packets and carries out local retransmissions when a packet is corrupted by wireless channel errors. While doing the local retransmission, the ACK packet is suppressed and not forwarded to the TCP sender. These schemes can potentially be extended to TFRC in order to improve the performance by using a more complicated treatment of the ACK packets from the TRFC receiver.12–14 End-to-end statistics can be used to help detect congestion when a packet is lost.13,14 One-way delay can be associated with congestion in the sense that it monotonically increases if congestion occurs as a result of increased queuing delay, and remains constant otherwise. An end-to-end based approach can be used to facilitate streaming over wireless.5 Packet interarrival times and relative one-way delay are combined to differentiate between packet loss caused by congestion and that due to wireless channel errors. There are two key observations behind this approach: first, relative one-way delay increases monotonically if there is congestion; second, interarrival time is expected to increase if there is packet loss caused by wireless channel errors. Therefore, these two statistics can help differentiate between congestion and wireless errors. However, the high wireless

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error misclassification rate may result in underutilization of the wireless bandwidth. It is possible to use a similar approach to improve video streaming performance in the presence of wireless error, under the assumption that the wireless link is the bottleneck. Other schemes such as those in References 13 and 14 that use end-to-end statistics to detect congestion can also be combined with TFRC for rate control. The congestion detection scheme can be used to determine whether or not an observed packet loss is caused by congestion; TFRC can then take into account only those packet losses caused by congestion when adjusting the streaming rate. The disadvantage of end-to-end statistics-based approaches is that congestion detection schemes based on statistics are not sufficiently accurate, and require either cross-layer information or modifications to the transport protocol stack. Another alternative is to use non-loss-based rate control schemes. For instance, TCP Vegas,15 in its congestion avoidance stage, uses queuing delay as a measure of congestion, and hence could be designed not to be sensitive to any kind of packet loss, including that due to wireless channel error. It is also possible to enable routers with explicit congestion notification (ECN). As packet loss no longer corresponds to congestion, ECN-based rate control does not adjust sending rate upon observing a packet loss.

3.5 CONTENT DELIVERY TECHNOLOGIES Supporting technologies in light of wireless video communication, from physical layers to application layers, are discussed in this section. They are currently in use or planned in the near future.

LAYER ½ TECHNOLOGIES Adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) adaptively changes the level of modulation— binary phase shift keying (BPSK), quadrature PSK (QPSK), 8-PSK, 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), and so on, as well as the amount of redundancy for an error correction code. A higher level of modulation (e.g., 16-QAM) with no error correction code can be used by users with good signal quality (close to base station) to achieve higher bandwidth. A lower level of modulation (e.g., BPSK) with more redundancy for error correction is used by users with bad signal quality (in the cell edge) to keep the channel condition, but results in lower bandwidth. The idea is to limit the number of link errors by adjusting the dedicated bandwidth through AMC in general. W-CDMA also adjusts the spreading factor and number of multiplexing spreading codes. Regarding adaptive modulation, 1xEV-DO and WLAN have a similar strategy. Typically, the average bit error rate (BER) requirement is set beforehand, depending on the class of application. The adaptive modulation is applied to ensure the quality of service (QoS) that is evaluated directly by the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR), or indirectly measured by BER. Layer ½ transport control generally provides two distinct states, quasi-error-free and burst errors, during fading periods, when there is a large variation of bandwidth and delay. Possible wireless video delivery technologies are presented in Table 3.1. The bottom row shows the practical operational requirements recommended by 3G Partnership Project (3GPP), where PLR indicates the packet loss rate at the transport layer.

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TABLE 3.1 Possible Wireless Video Delivery Technologies

Layer Source coder (application layer)

Error resilience tools Network adaptation

End-to-end transport Layer-½ transport

Video Telephony Error concealment, feedback-based error control (Adaptive Intra Fresh) reversible VLC Resync marker Data partitioning

Selective ARQ (AL3) FEC (BER: 1e-4)

Packet Streaming

Messaging + Progressive Download

MBMS Data

Error concealment, feedback-based error control

Compression is essential

Point-to-point data repair

Slice interleaving, data partitioning, redundant pictures, packet scheduling, selective ARQ RTP/UDP+RTCP

Interleaving for progressive download

Interleaving for FEC above layer 2

Wireless-TCP/IP

FLUTE

FEC+ARQ (PLR: 1e-4)

FEC+ARQ (PLR: Bmax|6} ≈ ]e–6Bmax

(7.7)

where B(t) is the buffer occupancy at time t, Bmax is the maximum buffer size, ] is the probability that the buffer is not empty, and ]e–6Bmax is the approximate packet loss probability guarantee. Intuitively, this says that the effective capacity in Equation 7.6

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imposes a limit on the maximum amount of data that can be transmitted over the time-varying channel with the statistical QoS guarantee in Equation 7.7. The adaptive wireless channel modeling module and link-layer transmission module are application independent. They are installed at the wireless end system as a common platform to support a wide range of applications, not limited to video delivery. The advantages of such a design are universal applicability, modularity, and economy of scale. The mapping and adaptation module is application specific. It is designed to optimally match the video application layer and the underlying link-layer. Since the QoS measure at the video application layer (distortion and uninterrupted video service perceived by the end user) is not directly related to the QoS measure in the link layer (packet loss/delay probability), a mapping and adaptation mechanism must be in place to maximize application layer QoS with the time-varying available link layer transmission bandwidth. At the video application layer, each video packet is characterized based on its loss and delay properties, which contribute to the end-toend video quality and service. These video packets are then classified and optimally mapped to the classes of a link transmission module under the rate constraint. The video application layer and link layer are allowed to interact with each other and adapt along with the wireless channel condition. The objective of these interactions and adaptations is to find a satisfactory QoS trade-off so that each end user’s video service can be supported with available transmission resources.

7.3 CROSS-LAYER OPTIMIZATION In recent years the research focus has been to adapt existing algorithms and protocols for multimedia compression and transmission to the rapidly varying and often scarce resources of wireless networks.21 However, these solutions often do not provide adequate support for multimedia applications in crowded wireless networks, when interference is high, or stations are mobile. This is because the resource management, adaptation, and protection strategies available in the lower layers of the stack—the physical (PHY), MAC, and network/transport layers—are optimized without explicitly considering the specific characteristics of multimedia applications. Conversely, multimedia compression and streaming algorithms do not consider the mechanisms provided by the lower layers for error protection, scheduling, resource management, and so on. This layered optimization leads to a simple independent implementation, but results in suboptimal multimedia performance (objective and/or perceptual quality). Alternatively, under adverse conditions, wireless stations need to optimally adapt their multimedia compression and transmission strategies jointly across the protocols stack to guarantee a predetermined quality at the receiver.11 A layered architecture is a good candidate for a baseline design. Several optimization opportunities do present themselves through increased interaction across layers. Cross-layer design proposals explore a much richer interaction between parameters across layers. In evaluating these proposals, the trade-off between performance and architecture needs to be fundamentally considered. As noted above, the performance metrics of the two are different. The former is shorter term, the latter longer term. Thus,

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a particular cross-layer suggestion may yield an improvement in throughput or delay performance. To be weighed against this are longer-term considerations. The layered architecture and controlled interaction enable designers of protocols at a particular layer to work without worrying about the rest of the stack. Once the layers are broken through cross-layer interactions, this luxury is no longer available to the designer. The interaction can affect not only the layers concerned, but also other parts of the system. In some cases, the implementation itself may introduce dependencies that are not really essential to providing the functionality. It is important to consider the effect of the particular interaction on a remote, seemingly unrelated part of the stack. There could be disastrous unintended consequences on overall performance.

CROSS-LAYER WIRELESS TRANSMISSION Numerous solutions have been posed for efficient multimedia streaming over wireless networks. Potential solutions for robust wireless multimedia transmission over error-prone networks include application-layer packetization, (rate-distortion optimized) scheduling, joint source-channel coding, error resilience, and error concealment mechanisms.12–14 Transport issues for wireless multimedia transmission have been examined in References 15 through 17. At the PHY and MAC layers, significant gains have been reported by adopting cross-layer optimization, such as link adaptation, channel aware scheduling, and optimal power control. However, these contributions are aimed at improving throughput or reducing power consumption without taking into consideration multimedia content and traffic characteristics. Explicit consideration of multimedia characteristics and requirements can further enhance the important advances achieved in cross-layer design at the lower layers. Possible solutions and architectures for cross-layer optimized multimedia transmission have been proposed in References 5 and 11.

OPTIMIZATION STRATEGIES In wireless networks, multimedia streaming uses Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). In that way, the transport layer is less important for error protection and bandwidth adaptation. This can easily be extended to include other layers. Consider PHY, MAC, and application (APP) layers. Let Np, NM, and NA denote the number of adaptation and protection strategies available at the PHY, MAC, and APP layers, respectively. For example, the strategies PHYi, , i ‘{1, 2, …, Np}, may represent the various modulation and channel coding schemes existing for a particular WLAN standard. The strategies MACi, i‘{1,2,…, NM} correspond to different packetization, automatic repeat request (ARR), scheduling, admission control, and forward error correction (FEC) mechanisms. The strategies APPi, i‘{1,2,…, NA}, may include adaptation of video compression parameters packetization, traffic shaping, traffic prioritization, scheduling, ARQ and FEC mechanisms. We define the joint cross-layer strategies as

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S = (PHY1 …, PHYNp, MAC1, …, MACNM, …)

(7.8)

From Equation 7.8, it can be seen that there are N = NP × NM × NA possible joint design strategies. The cross-layer optimization problem seeks to find the optimal composite strategy represented by Sopt (x) = argS maxQ S(x)

(7.9)

This strategy results in the best (perceived/objective) multimedia quality Q subject to the following wireless station constraints: Delay S(x) ≤ Dmax

(7.10)

Power S(x) ≤ Powermax

(7.11)

as well as overall system constraints, such as fairness strategies and bandwidth allocation. Given the instantaneous channel condition x = (SNR, contention), maximum tolerable delay Dmax, and maximum power Powermax, we need to solve Equation 7.9 subject to the wireless station and system constraints. The conceptual block scheme of the proposed cross-layer optimization is given in Figure 7.7. Deriving analytical expressions for Q, Delay, and Power as functions of channel conditions is very challenging, since these functions are nondeterministic and nonlinear. Only worst-case or average values can be determined. Also, there are some dependencies between some of the strategies PHYi, MACi, and APPi. The algorithms and protocols at the various layers are often designed to optimize each layer independently and often have different objectives. Various layers operate

Input–multimedia (content characteristics, required QoS, etc.)

Different layers parameters (The degree of adaptability can be limited)

Optimize utility given constraints (Utility: video quality, power, system-wide network utilization, etc.)

Output (cross-layer adaptation strategy)

FIGURE 7.7 The block scheme of the cross-layer optimization.

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Station constraints (delay, power, etc.) System constraints (fairness, etc.)

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on different units of multimedia traffic and take as input different types of information. For example, the physical layer is concerned with symbols and depends on the channel characteristics. On the other hand, the application layer is concerned with semantics and dependence between flows and the multimedia content. The wireless channel conditions and multimedia content characteristics may change continuously, requiring constant updating of parameters. Finally, different practical considerations for the deployed wireless standard must be taken into account to perform the crosslayer optimization. The previously formulated cross-layer optimization problem can be solved using iterative optimization or decision tree approaches, where a group of strategies are optimized while keeping all other strategies fixed, and this process is repeated until convergence. For the optimization of each group of strategies, one can use derivative and nonderivative methods (e.g., linear and nonlinear programming). Because this is a complex multivariate optimization with inherent dependencies (across layers and among strategies), an important aspect of this optimization is determining the best procedure for obtaining the optimal strategy Sopt(x). This involves determining the initialization, grouping of strategies at different stages, a suitable order in which the strategies should be optimized, and even which parameters, strategies, and layers should be considered based on their impact on multimedia quality, delay, or power. The selected procedure determines the rate of convergence and the values at convergence. The rate of convergence is extremely important, since the dynamic nature of wireless channels requires rapidly converging solutions (this is illustrated in the example later). Depending on the multimedia application, wireless infrastructure, and flexibility of the adopted WLAN standards, different approaches can lead to optimal performance. A classification of the possible solutions is given in the next subsection.

CROSS-LAYER SOLUTIONS To obtain further insights into the principles that guide cross-layer design, the following cross-layer solutions have been proposed in Reference 4. Top-down approach. The higher layer optimizes the parameters and the strategies at the next lower layer. This cross-layer solution has been deployed in most existing systems, wherein the application dictates the MAC parameters and strategies, while the MAC selects the optimal PHY layer modulation scheme. Bottom-up approach. In this architecture the lower layer isolates the higher layers from losses and bandwidth variations. This cross-layer solution is not optimal for multimedia transmission, due to the incurred delays and unnecessary throughput reduction. Application-centric approach. The application layer optimizes the lower-layer parameters one at a time in either a bottom-up (starting from the PHY layer) or top-down manner, based on its requirements. However, this approach is not always efficient, as the application operates at slower timescales and coarser data granularities (multimedia flows or group of packets), and hence is not able to instantaneously adapt its performance to achieve an optimal level. MAC-centric approach. In this cross-layer technique the application layer passes its traffic information and requirements to the MAC, which decides which application layer packets/flows should be transmitted and at what QoS level. The

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disadvantage of this approach resides in the inability of the MAC layer to perform adaptive source channel coding trade-offs given the time-varying channel conditions and multimedia requirements. Integrated approach. The strategies to design a cross-layer architecture are determined jointly by all the OSI layers. Unfortunately, exhaustively trying all the possible strategies and their parameters in order to choose the composite strategy leading to the best quality performance is impractical due to the associated complexity. A possible solution to solve this complex cross-layer optimization problem in an integrated manner is to use learning and classification techniques.

7.4

CROSS-LAYER DESIGN APPROACHES FOR RESOURCE ALLOCATION AND MANAGEMENT

It is well known that 3G wireless networks, also called IMT2000, aim at providing multimedia mobile services and achieving a maximum bit rate of 2 Mbps. Researchers have been proposing how 3G networks will evolve to beyond 3G or fourth generation (4G) networks. To achieve a successful and profitable commercial market, network service designers and providers need to pay much attention to efficient utilization of radio resources. Although the available bandwidth is much larger in 3G and beyond networks (compared to 2G networks), it is still critical to efficiently utilize radio resources due to fast growth of the wireless subscriber population, increasing demand for new mobile multimedia services over wireless networks, and more stringent QoS requirements in terms of transmission accuracy, delay, jitter, throughput, and so on. To meet the anywhere and anytime concept, the future wireless network architecture is expected to converge into a heterogeneous, all-IP (Internet Protocol) architecture that includes different wireless access networks such as cellular networks, WLANs, and personal area networks (PANs, e.g., Bluetooth and ultra-wideband networks). It is well known that the success of today’s Internet has been based on independent and transparent protocol design in different layers, a traditional network design approach that defines a stack of protocol layers (OSI protocol stack). By using the services provided by the lower layer, each protocol layer deals with a specific task and provides transparent service to the layer above it. Such architecture allows the flexibility to modify or change the techniques in a protocol layer without significant impact on overall system design. However, this strict layering architecture may not be efficient for wireless networks when heterogeneous traffic is served over a wireless channel with limited and time-varying capacity and high BER. Efficiently utilizing the scarce radio resources with QoS provisioning requires a cross-layer joint design and optimization approach. Better performance can be obtained from information exchanges across protocol layers.

CDMA RESOURCE ALLOCATION One major challenge in multimedia services over CDMA cellular networks is QoS provisioning with efficient resource utilization. Compared to circuit-switched voice

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service in the 2G CDMA systems (i.e., IS-95), heterogeneous multimedia applications in future IP-based CDMA networks require a more complex QoS model and more sophisticated management of scarce radio resources. QoS can be classified according to its implementation in the networks, based on a hierarchy of four different levels: bit, packet, call, and application. Transmission accuracy, transmission rate (i.e., throughput), timeliness (i.e., delay and jitter), fairness, and user perceived quality are the main considerations in this classification. This classification also reflects the principle of QoS categories from the customer point of view. r Bit-level QoS. To ensure some degree of transmission accuracy, a maximum BER for each user is required. r Packet-level QoS. As real-time applications, such as voice over IP (VoIP) and videoconferencing, are delay-sensitive, each packet should be transmitted within a delay bound. On the other hand, data applications can tolerate delay to a certain degree, and throughput is a better QoS criterion. Each traffic type can also have a packet loss rate (PLR) requirement. r Call-level QoS. In a cellular system, a new (or handoff) call will be blocked (or dropped) if there is insufficient capacity. From the user’s point of view, handoff call dropping is more disturbing than new call blocking. Effective call admission control (CAC) is necessary to guarantee a blocking probability bound and a smaller dropping probability bound. r Application-level QoS. Bit- and packet-level QoS may not directly reflect service quality perceived by the end user. On the other hand, application layer perceived QoS parameters are more suitable to represent the servie seen by the end user, for example, the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) for video applications, and the end-to-end throughput for data applications provided by the responsive Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). To guarantee the bit- and packet-level QoS requirements of mobile stations (MSs), an effective link layer packet scheduling scheme with appropriate power allocation is necessary. Specifically, the power levels of all the MSs should be managed in such a way that each MS achieves the required bit energy to interference-plus-noise density ratio, and the transmissions from/to all the MSs should be controlled to meet the delay, jitter, throughput, and PLR requirements. A centralized scheduler at the base station (BS) benefits from more processing power and more available information than a distributed one. For the downlink, the BS has information on the traffic status of each MS. For the uplink, each MS needs to send a transmission request upon new packet arrivals and update its link status to the BS, as shown in Figure 7.8. The request and update information can be transmitted in a request channel, or piggybacked in the transmitted uplink packets to avoid possible contention in the request channel, and can be stored in the MS profile at the BS. The BS responds by broadcasting transmission decisions to MSs. To efficiently utilize scarce radio resources and achieve overall QoS satisfaction, cross-layer information is necessary. In traditional layering architecture, the link layer has statistical knowledge of the lower physical layer, such as the average channel capacity. However, to exploit the CDMA time-varying channel, it is better for

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Request and update Source

Scheduler

Buffer

Decision (rate, power, and time)

Transmitter (spreading)

Uplink transmission

MSs

Receiver (despreading)

BS

FIGURE 7.8 Scheduler for the uplink transmission. Reproduced with permission from H. Jiang and X. Shen. “Cross-layer design for resource allocation in 3G wireless networks and beyond,” IEEE Commun. Magazine 43 (December 2005): 120–26.

the link layer to have knowledge of instantaneous channel status. Also, to guarantee the application-level QoS, such as an acceptable visual quality of video services or a guaranteed TCP throughput of data services, the application or transport layer should be jointly designed with the link layer. In a five-layer reference model, Figure 7.9 shows three possible cross-layer information directions, from physical to link layer; from link to transport layer, and vice versa; and from link to application layer, and vice versa. This leads to three cross-layer design approaches: channelaware scheduling, TCP over CDMA wireless links, and joint video source/channel coding and power allocation, as discussed in the following. Channel-Aware Scheduling In a multiple access wireless network, the radio channel is normally characterized by time-varying fading. To exploit the time-varying characteristic, a kind of diversity (multiuser diversity) can be explored to improve system performance. The principle of multiuser diversity is that for a cellular system with multiple MSs having independent time-varying fading channels, it is very likely that there exists an MS with instantaneous received signal power close to its peak value. Overall resource Application Transport Network Link Physical

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

FIGURE 7.9 The cross-layer information for IP-based CDMA resource allocation.

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utilization can be maximized by providing service at any time only to the MS with the highest instantaneous channel quality. With the capability to support simultaneous transmissions in a CDMA system, multiuser diversity can be employed more effectively and flexibly than traditional channel-aware scheduling schemes for a TDMA system. An MS does not need to wait until it has the best channel quality among all MSs, but rather can transmit as long as its channel is good enough. It should be mentioned that for real-time traffic (e.g., voice or video) with a delay constraint, if an MS is in a bad channel state for a relatively long period, its packets will be discarded when multiuser diversity is employed, as the MS has to wait for a good channel state. Hence, it is challenging to apply multiuser diversity to real-time traffic. An effective way is to incorporate the packet delay in the scheduling decision. TCP over CDMA Wireless Links For data services, TCP guarantees error-free delivery. TCP was originally designed for wireline networks with a reliable physical layer, where packet loss mainly results from network congestion. In such networks TCP adjusts its sending rate based on the estimated network congestion status so as to achieve congestion control or avoidance. In a wireless environment, TCP performance can be degraded severely as it interprets losses due to unreliable wireless transmissions as signs of network congestion and invokes unnecessary congestion control. To improve TCP performance over the wireless links, several solutions have been proposed to alleviate the effects of noncongestion-related packet losses,2 among which snoop TCP and explicit loss notification (ELN) are based on cross-layer design. In snoop TCP, TCP layer knowledge is used by link layer schemes, while in ELN, the network layer takes advantage of cross-layer information from the physical layer. When a TCP connection is transmitted over CDMA cellular networks, further considerations are needed. First, CDMA capacity is interference limited, and TCP transmission from an MS generates interference to other MSs. It is desired to achieve acceptable TCP performance (e.g., a target throughput) and at the same time introduce minimum interference to other MSs (i.e., to require minimum low-layer resources). Second, power allocation and control in CDMA can lead to a controllable BER, which affects TCP performance. Joint Video Source/Channel Coding and Power Allocation Video transmission is an important component of multimedia services. Typical video applications include mobile videoconferencing, video streaming, and distance learning. Due to their real-time nature, video services typically require QoS guarantees such as a relatively large bandwidth and a stringent delay bound. For video services over a CDMA channel with limited capacity, an effective way is to pass source significance information (SSI) from the source coder in the application layer to the channel coder in the physical layer. More powerful FEC code (and therefore more overhead) can be used to protect more important information, while weaker FEC may be applied to less important information. Such joint source/ channel coding is a cross-layer approach called unequal error protection (UEP). UEP can easily be performed with Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes,

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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Reed-Solomon (RS) codes, and rate-compatible punctured convolutional (RCPC) codes with different coding rates for packets with different priorities. UEP can also be implemented by means of power allocation in CDMA systems; for example, transmission power can be managed so that a more important packet experiences a smaller error probability.19 In case of capacity shortage, UEP schemes can result in more graceful quality degradation (and thus smaller distortion, or higher PSNR) than equal error protection (EEP). Based on channel capacity, the optimal transmission rate and power allocation for packets of each priority can be found to minimize the average distortion of the received video by means of an optimization formulation over CDMA channels.20 It outperforms uniform power allocation, as it exploits the degree of freedom added by CDMA power allocation. Ability of a Video Codec to Adjust Its Source Coding Rates This flexibility can also be exploited to improve system performance. Consequently, it is desirable to employ a joint source/channel coding scheme that allocates bits for source and channel coders to minimize the end-to-end distortion under a given bandwidth constraint.21 With interference-limited capacity, it is important to take into account the power management in CDMA systems when designing the source and channel coding. More flexibility can be obtained when power allocation is considered jointly with source and/or channel coding. A large source coding rate can lead to low quantization distortion, and a high transmission accuracy level can achieve low channelerror-induced distortion. Transmission power consumption minimization can also be achieved in joint source/channel coding and power allocation schemes subject to acceptable video distortion.22 Apparently, when transmission power consumption is reduced, CDMA system capacity can be enlarged. However, the above optimization is complicated to achieve. The case is worse when time scheduling for multiplexed video traffic is implemented. Further investigation is necessary.

INTEGRATED VOICE-DATA A cross-layer design is often used to provide QoS for voice and data traffic in wireless cellular networks with a differentiated services (DiffServ) backbone. Optimal resource allocation problems for voice and data flows are formulated to guarantee prespecified QoS with minimal required resources. In the past decade, the Internet has started to penetrate into the wireless domain. It is now widely recognized that the 3G (and beyond) wireless mobile CDMA cellular networks are evolving into an all-IP architecture in order to provide broadband and seamless global access for various IP multimedia services. A major task in the establishment of such an all-IP platform is provisioning of QoS to different Internet applications. Recently, the DiffServ23 approach has emerged as an efficient and scalable solution to ensure QoS in future IP networks. As a class-based traffic management mechanism, DiffServ does not use per-flow resource reservation and per-flow signaling in core routers, which makes DiffServ scalable. Current research on DiffServ is mainly focused on the wireline network. The bottleneck for an end-to-end application across

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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a hybrid wireless/wireline domain is usually the link between the BS and the MS due to the limited radio resources and the varying characteristics of the radio channel. On the other hand, current MAC schemes24 in CDMA wireless systems usually provide priority to voice users. Voice traffic flows are scheduled for transmission first, while data traffic flows use the residual system capacity and are then differentiated from each other. So far, research on QoS support for data traffic is very limited. In References 25 and 26, two packet-switching scheduling schemes are proposed for wireless CDMA communications. Both are based on per-packet information, thus increasing the scheduling burden and system overhead. Furthermore, the QoS provisioning for data traffic in these two schemes is limited up to the link layer; that is, only physical layer QoS and link layer QoS are considered. Concerning the above issues, a cross-layer design scheme for wireless cellular networks with a DiffServ backbone to provide QoS to MBs is proposed in Reference 27. The proposed scheme combines the transport layer protocols and link layer resource allocation to both guarantee QoS requirements in the transport layer and achieve efficient resource utilization in the link layer. In what follows we consider a hybrid wireless/wireline IP-based network for providing multimedia traffic to MSs. The Internet backbone is DiffServ-based, and the wireless subnet is a wideband time-division (TD)/CDMA cellular system with frequency division duplexing (FDD). Multicode CDMA (MC-CDMA) is considered in the code domain. Figure 7.10 shows the stack architecture.27 It consists of an MS, BS, DiffServ Internet backbone, and correspondence node.    

  

  

  

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FIGURE 7.10 Protocol stack architecture in the hybrid wireless/wireline IP-based network. Reproduced with permission from H. Jiang and W. Zhuang. “Cross-layer resource allocation for integrated voice/data traffic in wireless cellular networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 5 (February 2006): 457–68.

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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In the DiffServ core network, packets are aggregately differentiated by different per-hop behaviors: expedited forwarding (EF) which is aimed at providing a connection of low loss, low delay and low jitter; and assured forwarding (AF),29 to provide a reliable connection with a target transmission rate, referred to as committed information rate (CIR), denoted by VCIR. Generally, in core networks, EF can be applied to voice/video conversation traffic with a stringent delay requirement, while data traffic can be serviced by AF. UDP is used for voice traffic in the system which does not use retransmissions to guarantee reliable delivery. UDP itself does not provide mechanisms to ensure timely delivery or other QoS guarantees, but relies on lower layer services to do so. When a voice user is on talk spurt, the UDP packets will be generated periodically. On the other hand, TCP can provide reliable end-to-end transmission over unreliable IP service which is suitable for the data traffic. Each transport layer (TCP or UDP) packet is segmented into a number of link layer units for transmission over the errorprone wireless link, and then reassembled at the BS. To interwork with the DiffServ backbone, the QoS requirement for voice traffic in the CDMA cellular network is guaranteed delay bound. If a UDP packet cannot be delivered to the BS within this bound, it will be dropped, and the dropping probability is bounded by PU,m (e.g., PU,m = 1%, a typical value for voice service). The QoS requirement for data service is the guaranteed transport layer throughput V (>VCIR) with a reliable end-to-end transmission. In traditional network models, the transport layer and link layer are designed separately and independently. This works well in wireline networks because of the highly reliable transmission provided by the optical fiber channels. However, in a wireless network, for various applications with different QoS requirements, different transport layer protocols have different impacts on lower layers. Hence, an independent link layer resource allocation strategy will not work well. More specifically, for data traffic over a wireless link, TCP dynamically adjusts the sending rate of TCP packets (which will be fed into the link layer transmission queue) according to the network congestion status (e.g., packet loss events and round trip delay). On the other hand, the wireless link layer resource allocation also affects the TCP performance, as it ultimately determines the TCP packet loss and transmission delay over the wireless link. That is, the TCP protocol and wireless link layer resource allocation interact with each other.

OFDM-BASED WIRELESS NETWORKS The allocation and management of resources are crucial for wireless networks, in which the scarce wireless spectral resources are shared by multiple users. In the current dominant layered networking architecture, each layer is designed and operated independently. However, wireless channels suffer from time-varying multipath fading; moreover, the statistical channel characteristics of different users are different. The suboptimality and inflexibility of this architecture result in inefficient resource use in wireless networks. We need an integrated adaptive design across different layers. Recently, the principles of multiuser downlink and MAC designs have been changed from the traditional point-to-point view to a multiuser network view. For

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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instance, channel-aware scheduling strategies are proposed to adaptively transmit data and dynamically assign wireless resources based on channel state information (CSI). The key idea is to choose one user with good channel conditions to transmit packets.30 Taking advantage of the independent channel variation across users, channel-aware scheduling can substantially improve network performance through multiuser diversity, the gain of which increases with the number of users. From a user point of view, packets are transmitted in a stochastic way in the system using channel-aware scheduling, which is also called opportunistic communications.31 Based on this concept, channel-aware dynamic packet scheduling is applied in 1x evolution (lxEV) for CDMA2000, and high-speed downlink packet access (HSDPA) for wideband CDMA. The growth of Internet data and multimedia applications requires high-speed transmission and efficient resource management. To avoid intersymbol interference (lSI), OFDM is desirable for high-speed wireless communications. OFDM-based systems are traditionally used to combat frequency-selective fading. From a resource allocation point of view, however, an OFDM system naturally has a potential for more efficient MAC since subcarriers can be assigned to different users.32,33 Another advantage of OFDM is that adaptive power allocation can be applied for further performance improvement. A cross-layer framework for the downlink resource management of IP-based OFDM wireless broadband networks is able to effectively enhance spectral efficiency and guarantee QoS built on a utility-optimization-based architecture. In this architecture, exploiting knowledge of the CSI and the characteristics of traffic, the network aims to maximize the total utility, which is used to capture the satisfaction levels of users. OFDM-based networks offer more degrees of flexibility resource management than do single-carrier networks. Taking advantage of knowledge of the CSI at the transmitter (BS), OFDM-based systems can employ the following adaptive resource allocation techniques:34 r Adaptive modulation and coding (AMC). The transmitter can send higher transmission rates over the subcarriers with better conditions to improve throughput and simultaneously ensure an acceptable BER at each subcarrier. Despite the use of AMC, deep fading at some subcarriers still leads to low channel capacity. r Dynamic subcarrier assignment (DSA). The base station dynamically assigns subcarriers according to CSI and/or QoS requirements. Channel characteristics for different users are almost mutually independent in multiuser environments—subcarriers experiencing deep fading for one user may not be in a deep fade for other users—therefore, each subcarrier could be in good condition for some users in a multiuser OFDM wireless network. In addition, frequency multiplexing provides fine granularity for resource allocation. r Adaptive power allocation (APA). The BS allocates different power levels to improve the performance of OFDM-based networks, which is called multiuser water filling.

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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Employing these adaptive techniques at each subcarrier results in large control overhead. In practice, subcarriers can be grouped into a cluster (subchannel) in which we apply adaptive techniques. The size of a cluster determines the resource granularity. Obviously, the resource allocation schemes or algorithms designed for a subcarrier-based adaptive OFDM system can be directly used in a cluster-based system. The major issue is how to effectively assign subcarriers and allocate power on the downlink of OFDM-based networks by exploiting knowledge of the CSI and the characteristics of traffic to improve spectral efficiency and guarantee diverse QoS. There are three main challenges for cross-layer design for resource management in OFDM-based networks: r DSA belongs to the matching or bin packing problems in discrete optimization. r Unlike a single-carrier network, a multicarrier network can serve multiple users at the same time; hence, the design of multicarrier scheduling for bursty traffic is a new and interesting problem. r The general relationships among spectral efficiency, fairness, and the stability property of wireless scheduling are not clear for wireless networks with time-varying fading. Addressing all the above problems is crucial for establishing high-speed efficient wireless Internet networks.

7.5

CONCLUDING REMARKS

A cross-layer design for real-time video streaming maintains a general layered structure and identifies the key parameters to be exchanged between adjacent layers. In this context, adaptive link layer techniques that adjust packet size, symbol rate, and constellation size according to channel conditions are used to improve link throughput, which in turn improves the achievable capacity region of the network. At the MAC and network layers joint allocation of capacity and flow optimize the supportable traffic rate significantly, and consequently can improve the end-toend video quality by a wide margin. Smart scheduling at the transport layer further protects the video stream from packet losses and ensures excessive network congestion. Knowledge of the video rate-distortion trade-off and latency requirement at the application layer is used to select the most appropriate source rate for video delivery. There is always a tendency, and in fact a need, to optimize performance in any system. This generally creates tension between performance and architecture. In the case of wireless networks, we currently see this tension manifesting itself in the current interest in cross-layer design. Cross-layer design creates interactions—some intended, others unintended. Dependency relations may need to be examined, and timescale separation may need to be enforced. The consequences of all such interactions need to be well understood, and theorems establishing stability may be needed. Proposers of cross-layer design must therefore consider totality of the design, including interactions with other layers, and also what other potential suggestions might be barred because they would

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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interact with the particular proposal being made. The long-term architectural value of the suggestions must also be considered. For a cross-layer QoS mapping architecture for video delivery in a wireless environment, there are several components that must be taken into account. These include a proposal of an adaptive QoS model that allows QoS parameters to be adaptively adjusted according to the time-varying wireless channel condition, interaction mechanisms between the priority network and video applications to provide proper QoS selection, and a resource management scheme to assign resources based on the QoS guarantee for each priority class under the time-varying wireless channel. Realistic integrated models for the delay, multimedia quality, and consumed power of various transmission strategies/protocols need to be developed. Moreover, in terms of multimedia quality, the benefits, of employing a cross-layer optimized framework for different multimedia applications with different delay sensitivities and loss tolerances still need to be quantified. In cross-layer design, the overall system performance can be improved by taking advantage of the available information across different layers. To achieve this, an appropriate signaling method is necessary. Recent research has provided preliminary results for cross-layer design over allIP CDMA networks. Further research efforts should include: r Joint source/channel coding and power allocation for multiplexed video services with time scheduling r Cross-layer design for DiffServ-based QoS r Cross-layer design for heterogeneous voice/video/data traffic (a cross-layer design approach usually focuses on a specific traffic type). For a CDMA network supporting heterogeneous voice/video/data traffic with different QoS requirements, it is critical to consider the trade-off among cross-layer approaches for different traffic types, and to achieve desired overall system performance with efficient resource utilization. In a multicell environment due to the intercell interference, the schedulers in different cells should not act independently, thus making the resource allocation much more complex. Resource management and scheduling in a wireless OFDM-based downlink can be used to serve multiple users and to support various applications based on a crosslayer approach.

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

8 Mobile Internet The goal of this chapter is to find a large audience and help stimulate further interest and research in the mobile Internet and related technologies. With the advance of wireless/mobile communication technologies, the market for mobile Internet is growing dramatically. For example, cellular networks have greatly increased the link bandwidth with recent standardization efforts on the Internet Protocol (IP) multimedia subsystem (IMS). Also, WiFi hotspot services-based IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks (WLANs) have been widely deployed in public spaces (airports, convention centers, cafes, etc). Furthermore, new wireless technologies (e.g., IEEE 802.16/20) are emerging. All of these techniques will accelerate the growth of the mobile Internet market. This chapter is organized as follows. First, we present and analyze related protocols for mobile Internet. Then, we review IP mobility and wireless LANs and wide area networks (WANs). Next, we describe IP mobility for cellular and heterogeneous mobile networks. After that, we continue with quantitative analysis of enhanced mobile Internet, together with scalable application-layer mobility protocol. We also review mobility and quality of service (QoS). A network architecture analysis for seamless mobility services concludes the chapter.

8.1

INTRODUCTION

The emerging mobile Internet will facilitate convergence of various wireless networks and protocols including WLANs and voice over IP (VoIP). New innovation will drive the incorporation of mechanisms that will allow seamless handoff over disparate networks, manage user mobility across heterogeneous networks and service providers, ensure such portability, and guarantee quality of service. A number of standards bodies such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), WiMAX, Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)/3GPP2, IEEE, Open Mobile Alliance (OMA), Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA), and Fixed Mobile Wireless Convergence Forum (FMWC) are in the forefront of the evolution of the next-generation wireless IP network architectures, protocols, and standards. Their efforts have led to the specification of infrastructure and radio access networks that are fundamentally different and must interoperate if service delivery is to be perceived as seamless by the end user. Besides the ever-changing technology, mergers and acquisitions have forced carriers to deal with the expense and complexity of operating heterogeneous wireless networks in different parts of the world. At the same time, traditional operators are faced with the challenges introduced by a new set of service providers, unburdened by legacy networks that carriers have inherited and developed over the years. The newcomers are exploiting the power of IP-based protocols to offer new services such as VoIP, data, video, messaging, push-to-talk, conferencing, and others using 211

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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peer-to-peer structures that overlie existing network structures and reduce them to bit pipe connectivity. In this chapter we explore and address numerous issues relevant to the evolving mobile Internet: cost, complexity, scalability, and design trade-offs. This topic also increases general understanding of the value of Internet-based solutions and evaluates how these solutions facilitate convergence of the mobile Internet to an appropriate Internet-based open mobile wireless architecture. Such an architecture will be flexible, capable of seamlessly delivering services to end devices over disparate wireless and wireline networks, and able to support all types of end user devices. The mobile Internet must allow for user mobility while maintaining IP connectivity between two mobile hosts with a minimum of latency. Protocols that facilitate user mobility are mobile IP (MIP) or mobile IP version 4 (MIPv4) and mobile IP version 6 (MIPv6). Besides catering to user mobility, the mobile Internet must incorporate handoff mechanisms at the IP layer that also work in cooperation with link layer handoff mechanisms. MIPv6 improves upon MIPv4 by eliminating triangular routing through incorporation of route optimization. Scalable mobility management is an integral part of the mobile Internet. While MIP protocols are designed to address mobility management in the mobile Internet, the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) offers an alternative mobility management strategy. With the proliferation of WiFi spots (WLANs) and implementation of wireless metropolitan area networks (WMANs), it is not surprising that activities have sprung up that propose integrating these new access networks with existing cellular networks (2G/2.5G/3G). Efforts under UMA and voice call continuity (VCC) are aimed at hybrid networks that seek to provide access to wireless networks via WiFi/ WLAN. The main idea is to converge what are considered traditional wireline services (Internet access, call forwarding, etc.). We will start with an overview of a set of IP-based mobility protocols because mobility support plays an important role in IP-based wireless networks for providing multimedia applications.

8.2

RELATED PROTOCOLS

Deployment of International Mobile Telephony (IMT) 2000 standards for 3G wireless networks gave existing 1G, 2G, and 2.5G operators the flexibility to evolve their networks (primarily designed for circuit-switched voice communications) to support skeleton multimedia transmissions with a nominal bit rate of 384 kbps (fast movers) to 2 Mbps (slow movers).1 Major efforts are under way to deliver applications and services to mobile nodes (MNs) over a packet switched access network that is heterogeneous with the Internet. So the current trend in mobile wireless network evaluation is directed toward an all-IP network.2 An end-to-end IP-based solution, referred to as fourth generation (4G) systems, combines mobility with multimedia rich content, high bit rate, and IP transport with support for QoS management and authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) security.3 Standards and related technologies are being developed to help early deployment of such systems and ensure interoperability between equipment from different manufacturers, thereby providing significant investment reductions compared to today’s third generation (3G) technologies.

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In addition, there will be licensing costs as well, since 4G will utilize frequencies believed to be in the public domain. Realizing commercially viable IP mobility support over the current wireless infrastructure remains a challenging research area.

TRADITIONAL MOBILITY MANAGEMENT Terminal mobility management in cellular networks consists of two components: location management and handoff management.4 Classification of mobility management is shown in Figure 8.1. Location management consists of two complementary operation—registration or location update (LU) and paging—to enable a network to discover the current point of attachment of an MN for information delivery. Handoff management enables a network to maintain a connection as an MN continues to move and change its point of attachment to the network. Tracking an MN is performed through registration/LU procedures in which an MN informs the network of its location at times triggered by movement, timer expiration, and so on. Locating an MN is performed through search procedures, when the network pages the MN. There is a trade-off between how closely the network tracks the current location of an MN versus the time and complexity required to locate an MN whose position is not precisely known. Handoff management in a cellular environment is normally performed in three steps: initiation, connection generation, and data flow control. Whenever an MN changes its point of attachment with a base station (BS), it sends a request to the current BS for handoff to the target BS for initiation. After initiation, control is handed over to the target BS by the current BS. The IP address of the MN also changes as it changes its point of attachment. This is connection generation. After obtaining a new address, data may be sent to that address, completing the task of data flow control. In a cellular environment, there are two kinds of handoff: intracell and intercell. Intracell handoff occurs when a user moving within a cell changes radio channels to minimize interchannel interference under the same BS. On the other hand, intercell handoff occurs when an MN moves into an adjacent cell and all of the MN connections are transformed to the new BS. Intercell handoff may be performed in two Terminal mobility management

Location management

Locations update (or registration)

Paging

Handoff management

Intracell

Intercell

Soft

FIGURE 8.1 Mobile management classification.

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Hard

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ways: soft and hard. If two BSs simultaneously handle the interchange between them while performing the handoff, it is a soft handoff with no discontinuity of connection. Soft handoff is achieved by proactively notifying the new BS before actual handoff. Thus, soft handoff minimizes packet loss, but delay incurred may be more. In hard handoff, one BS takes over from another in a relay mode, so delay and signaling are both minimized, but zero packet loss is not guaranteed. Connection may be off for a very small period during the take over. We can now move on to classifying the IP mobility protocols based on their level of operation from the architectural point of view.

IP MOBILITY PROTOCOL CLASSIFICATION Mobility of an MN in a network may be broadly classified into three categories: r Micromobolity (intrasubnet mobility)—movement within a subnet r Macromobolity (intradomain mobility)—movement across different subnets within a single domain r Global mobility (interdomain mobility)—movement across different domains in various geographical regions In general, the primary goal of mobility management is to ensure continuous and seamless connectivity between micro- and macromobility when occurring on a short timescale. Global mobility involves longer timescales, where the goal is to ensure that MNs can reestablish communication after a move rather than provide continuous connectivity. Mobile classification of protocols is shown in Figure 8.2. It gives a clear idea of which class of mobility each of the existing protocols aims to support. Because MobileIP (MIP) is generally targeted for global mobility, it introduces significant network overhead in terms of increased delay, packet loss, and signaling when MNs change their point of attachment very frequently within small geographical areas. To overcome these performance penalties, micro- and macromobility protocols offer fast and seamless handoff control and IP paging support for scalability and power saving. A complete overview of three such protocols, HAWAII, CellularIP (CIP), and Hierarchical MIP (HMIP), is given in Reference 5. Despite many apparent differences, the operational principle of the protocols is quite similar in complementing base MIP by providing local handoff control. Obviously, they are inefficient in handling interdomain LUs, and thus are unable to handle global reachability perfectly.6 Accordingly, TeleMIP and dynamic mobility agent (DMA)7 architecture are proposed to resolve this issue. Although targeted for micromobility, CIP uses MIP support for providing intradomain mobility management. So CIP,8 along with TIMIP,9 falls under micro- as well as macromobility. TeleMIP is strictly intradomain, as it cannot support either micromobility or global mobility. HAWAII and DMA can support macromobility as well as global mobility but cannot handle micromobility. MIP supports global mobility but fails to handle micro- or macromobility. HMIP and TR45.6 are two minor extensions

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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Mobility

Micro

Macro

CIP (1998)

TMIP (2001)

ReleMIP (2000)

HMIP TR45.6 (1996) (1996) Hawaii (1999) DMA (2000) HMIPv6 (2001)

Global

MIP (1996)

MIPv6 (2001)

Time (evolutionary path)

FIGURE 8.2 Mobile classification of protocols. Reproduced with permission from D. Saha et al. “Mobility support in IP: A survey of related protocols,” IEEE Network 18 (November/ December 2004): 34–40.

of MIP to support macromobility as well. As MIPv6 is now replacing MIP, HMIP is being augmented to HMIPv6, and they belong to their parent classes.

GLOBAL MOBILITY PROTOCOLS The function of MIP lies in the retention of a permanently assigned IP address (known as a home address) by MNs for application transparency. This is achieved by providing a care-of address (CoA) to an MN when it moves out of its home network (HN) to visit a foreign network (FN). While in an HN, the location of an MN is captured by its CoA assigned by a foreign agent (FA) in the FN. A home agent (HA) in the HN maintains a record of the current mobility binding (i.e., the association of the MN home address with its CoA during the remaining lifetime of that association). The HA intercepts every packet addressed to the MN home address and tunnels them to the MN at its current CoA. This is known as triangular routing. Once a correspondent node (CN) has learned the MN CoA, it may cache it and route its own packets to the MN directly, bypassing the HA completely. This is mainly done for route optimization as triangular routing suffers from various problems due to poor route selection, including increased impact of possible network partitions, increased load on the network, and increased delay in delivering packets. Route optimization can improve service quality but cannot eliminate poor performance when an MN moves while communicating with a distant CN. In this case the registration/LU delay contributes significantly to the handoff delay, leading to reduction in throughput. Also, frequent LUs incur extensive overhead for location cache management in route optimization.

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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The current IPv4 has only a 32-bit address size, which is not enough to support the addressing needed on the Internet. Since 1994, the IETF has been working on IPv6 to solve the limitations inherent in IPv4 in terms of addressing, routing, mobility support, and QoS provisioning. In IPv6, 128-bit addressing is used instead of the 32-bit addressing in IPv4. The increased IP address size allows the Internet to support more levels of addressing hierarchy, a much greater number of addressable nodes, and simpler autoconfiguration of addresses. IPv6 is considered the core protocol for next-generation IP networks.10,11 The network entitles of IPv6 for mobility support, MIPv612,13 is similar to that in MIPv4, except that MIPv6 does not have the concept of an FA. MIPv6, unlike MIPv4, uses an extensible packet header including both home address and CoA, along with the authentication header to simplify routing to the MN and perform route optimization in a secure manner. While discovery of a CoA is still required, an MN uses the stateless address autoconfiguration and neighbor discovery functions defined in IPv6 to acquire a colocated CoA of a foreign network in MIPv6. MIPv6 also uses the IP-within-IP tunneling approach to deliver data packets to an MN. If a CN knows the MN CoA, the CN could send data packets to the MN directly (i.e., source routing) using an IPv6 routing header. Otherwise, the data packets are routed to the associated HA, and then tunneled to the MN CoA (i.e., tunneling). Although MIPv6 uses almost the same terminologies as MIPv4 except for the absence of the FA, security management represents a big difference between them. In MIPv6 all nodes are expected to implement strong authentication and encryption functions. MIPv6 routing is shown in Figure 8.3. MIPv6 uses both tunneling and source routing to deliver data packets to destination MNs.14 Tunneling is the only option for MIPv4. With careful security management, optimized routing could be a solution for MIPv6. The increased number of MNs will cause increased signaling traffic due to mobility support. To improve the efficiency of mobility management, Hierarchical MIPv6 has been proposed.15 The basic idea is to use regional registration to reduce Correspondent node (CN)

Home agent

Packets from CN to MN

Packets from MN to CN

Tunneling

CN which knows the care-of address

Source routing Packets from MN to CN Mobile node (MN)

FIGURE 8.3 MIPv6 routing principle. Reproduced with permission from J. Li and H. H. Chen. “Mobility support for IP-based networks,” IEEE Commun. Magazine 43 (October 2005): 127–32.

© 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Mobile Internet

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 !       



        

FIGURE 8.4 Hierarchical IPv6. Reproduced with permission from J. Li and H. H. Chen. “Mobility support for IP-based networks,” IEEE Commun. Magazine 43 (October 2005): 127–32.

the overall registration signaling overhead and improve the QoS in handovers for mobile communications. Hierarchical MIPv6 is shown in Figure 8.4. With hierarchical MIPv6, the concept of a mobile anchor point (MAP) is introduced. An MAP handles mobility management for MNs within a network domain, including registration and handover. The MAP functions like a local HA. It receives data packets on behalf of MNs and tunnels the packets to the MN CoAs. An MN is assigned two CoAs, a regional one and a local one. The regional CoA is local to the MAP covered region. The local CoA is the same as an MN MIPv6 CoA; it is the address local to the node’s link. An MN communicates with its correspondent nodes via its regional CoA. It sends binding updates to CNs (assuming route optimization) only when the MN moves outside the MAP region. Otherwise, it only sends a binding update to the MAP to update its regional CoA (local CoA binding). All packets received by CNs will have the MN regional CoA as the source address; they will thus respond directly to this address. The MAP, on detecting packets sent to this CoA, will encapsulate and forward these packets to the MN at its local CoA. With the new addressing, hierarchical extensions, and security management, MIPv6 could make MNs available for peer-to-peer (P2P) services, a promising information service (e.g., easier file sharing), since MIPv6 lets MNs have static addresses even as they move around. Without static addressing, MNs have to communicate through a server, which violates the P2P technology’s specifications. In MIP and MIPv6, registration of the CoA naturally requires authentication. The registration in an HA must be initiated by the right MN and not by some other malicious node pretending to be the MN. A malicious node could cause the HA to alter its routing table with erroneous CoA information, and the MN would be unreachable to all incoming communications from the Internet. To secure the registration process,

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authentication is mandatory and performed by all HAs, MNs, and FAs for MIP and MIPv6. Generally, the mobility of MNs in IP-based networks is supported by dynamic network architectures and location management. The security consideration due to mobility for IP-based networks rises significantly. For traditional secure access of services from remote locations, such as Point-toPoint Protocol (PPP) connections, AAA exists. The concept of AAA was introduced by the IETF to support secure roaming of MNs in the wireless Internet.

GLOBAL MOBILITY/MACROMOBILITY PROTOCOLS For global mobility/macromobility protocol presentations, we will start with hierarchical MIP. We will then continue with wireless IP network architectures including TR45.6, HAWAII, dynamic mobility agent, and hierarchical mobile IPv6. As an extension of MIP, it employs a hierarchy of FAs to locally handle MIP registrations during macromobility. Registration messages establish tunnels between neighboring FSs along the path from the MN to a gateway FA (GFA). Packets addressed to the MN travel through this network tunnel. It defines a new node, called a packet data serving node (which contains an FA). Network access identifiers identify MNs in an FN. MNs send registration messages to FAs, which in turn interact with AAA servers residing in the FN (or use a broker network) for authentication with the HN. For macromobility, the scheme proposes to use dynamic HAs (DHAs) that reside in the serving network and are dynamically assigned by visited AAA servers. DHAs allow MNs to receive services from local access service providers while avoiding unnecessarily long routing. On top of using MIP for interdomain mobility, it supports a separate binding protocol to handle intradomain mobility. Four alternative setup schemes control handoff between access points. An appropriate scheme is selected depending on the service level agreement (or operator’s priorities among QoS parameters, e.g., eliminating packet loss, minimizing handoff latency, and maintaining packet ordering). It also uses IP multicasting to page idle MNs when incoming data packets arrive at an access network and no recent routing information is available. Path setup messages generate host-based routing information in tabulated form for MNs within a domain in some specific intermediate routers. The HA sends the encapsulated packets (after intercepting them) to the current border router of the MN. The border router, after decapsulating the packet, again encapsulates and sends it to a nearby intermediate router. This router then decapsulates and finally sends the packet to the MN. Dynamic mobile agent (DMA) architecture uses the Intradomain Mobility Management Protocol (IDMP) to manage macromobility and allows the use of multiple global binding protocols for maintaining global reachability. A new node called a mobility agent (MA), introduced at network-layer granularity, reduces the generation of global LUs. The MA is similar to the FA of MIP, except that it resides higher in the hierarchy (than individual subnets) and provides an MN with a stable point of attachment throughout the domain. Each FA must be associated with at least one MA in that domain. It also uses subnet agents (SAs) which interact with appropriate MAs to provide authentication. Here, an MN is associated with two current CoAs:

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r Global CoA (GCoA) resolves the location of the domain and remains unchanged as long as the MN stays in the current domain. r Local CoA (LCoA) identifies the MN’s present subnet of attachment (similar to CoA of MIP). LCoA has only local scope; an MN notifies the assigned MA of any change in its LCoA. When an MN first moves into a domain, it is given an LCoA and assigned to an MA. It registers with the designated MA for a GCoA. The MN can then use different global binding protocols to inform the appropriate CNs about this GCoA. Packets from a remote CN, tunneled (or directly transmitted) to the GCoA, are intercepted by the MA and then forwarded (by reencapsulation) to the MN LCoA. It is the same hierarchical extension to MIPv6 for locally handling MIPv6 registrations as hierarchical MIP is to MIP.

MACROMOBILITY PROTOCOLS TeleMIP two-level architecture uses the concept of the MA, and it is derived from the registration area-based location management scheme currently employed in cellular networks. An FN is divided into several subnets depending on its geographical location. Each subnet has at least one FA. Whenever an MN changes subnets, it contains a new local CoA (obtained from the FA using conventional MIP techniques) and subsequently informs the MA of this new local address binding. Under a load balancing scenario, MNs in a single subnet may be assigned to different MAs (using different hashing schemes). An MN will be assigned two CoAs: r A domain-specific CoA (similar to GCoA) from the public space that is unchanged as long as the MN stays within a specific domain or region. This is typically the address associated with the MA. r A subnet-specific CoA (similar to LCoA) for roaming in a partial subnet. This address may have only local scope and can be either the CoA of the FA or a locally valid colocated address. This address changes every time an MN changes its foreign subnet. When an MN enters a new domain, it will register the MA CoA with the HA during the initial LU process. The MA is thus aware of the exact (subnet-level) location of the MN and can consequently route the packet to the MN using a domain-specific routing protocol (without requiring source specific routing). As long as the MN is under the control of a single MA, the MN does not transmit any LUs to the HA. The architecture thus ensures the localization of all intradomain-mobility update messages within the domain.

MACRO/MICROMOBILITY PROTOCOLS Cellular IP (CIP) and terminal independent MIP (TIMIP) belong to macro/micromobility protocols.

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CIP supports local mobility (i.e., macro/micromobility) in a cellular network that consists of interconnected CIP nodes. Location management and handoff support are integrated with routing in CIP networks. An MN communicates to its HA with the local gateway’s address as the CoA. Consequently, after intercepting the packets from a CN, the HA sends them in encapsulated form to the MN gateway. The gateway decapsulates the packet and forwards it to the MN to minimize control messaging; regular data packets transmitted by MNs are used to refresh host location information. CIP monitors mobile-originated packets and maintains a distributed, hop-by-hop reverse path database used to route packets back to MNs. The loss of downlink packets when an MN roams between APs is reduced by a set of new handoff techniques. CIP tracks idle MNs in an efficient manner, so MNs do not have to update their location after each handoff. This extends battery life and reduces air interface traffic. It supports a fast security model based on special session keys, where BSs independently calculate keys. This eliminates the need for signaling in support of session key management, which would otherwise add additional delay to the handoff process. TIMIP is a combination of the principles of CIP, HAWAII, and MIP for micro/ macromobility scenarios. Here, the IP layer is coupled with layer 2 handoff mechanisms at the APs by means of a suitable interface that eliminates the need for special signaling between MNs and APs. Thus, MNs with legacy IP stacks have the same degree of mobility as MNs with mobility-aware IP stacks. Like CIP, refreshing of routing paths is performed only in the absence of any traffic. Like HAWAII, routing reconfiguration during handoff within a domain changes the routing tables of the access routers located in the shortest path between the new and old APs only. However, in order to support seamless handoff, TIMIP uses context transfer mechanisms compatible with those currently under discussion within the IETF SeaMoby group.

8.3

IP MOBILITY AND WIRELESS NETWORKS

WIRELESS LANS Wireless fidelity (WiFi) is a technology dominating all WLANs.16 The term WiFi has been used in general to refer to any type of 802.11 network (802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, and so on). The term has been promulgated by the WiFi Alliance. Any products tested and approved as WiFi Certified® by the WiFi Alliance are certified as interoperable with each other, even if they are from different manufacturers. This feature of WiFi technology allows device-level multivendor interoperability to support mobility. A user with WiFi Certified products can use any brand of AP with any other brand of client hardware that is also certified. Typically, any WiFi products using the same radio frequency (e.g., 2.4 GHz for 802.11b or 802.11g, 5 GHz for 802.11a) will work with one another, even if not WiFi Certified. Initially, WiFi networks were designed to extend enterprise networks. Nowadays, it is a requirement to extend WiFi broadband access to many public places such as universities, hotels, and conference centers. MIP can be a good solution for providing roaming services to WiFi networks, in which WiFi is viewed as a visited

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network. In this section we address IP mobility support for WLANs, including WiFi and Bluetooth. Traditional IP considers an entire WLAN as a single subnet, where IP addresses of all hosts have the same address prefix. Over a WLAN, mobility support is implemented through the use of dynamic IP address allocation provided by Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). When an MN remains in a WLAN that could be considered an FN (or subnet), it requests an IP address (i.e., CoA) for some period of time. The server returns an available IP address from a pool of addresses. If the IP address is configured successfully, the MN can communicate within the WLAN. DHCP-based mobility support is simple to implement. However, it cannot provide for the MN roaming across different WLANs, since the network connection can be achieved only within WLAN boundaries. For multimedia applications to MNs, it is important to implement multiple IP subnets across a common WLAN in order to make network management easier, to facilitate location-dependent services, and to decrease the spread of broadcast packets throughout the network. Therefore, with multiple subnets, MNs must be able to seamlessly roam from one subnet to another while traversing a network. WLAN APs provide support for roaming at the data link layer (ISO/OSI layer 2). Users automatically associate and reassociate with different APs as they move through a network. As MNs roam across subnets, though, there must be a mechanism at the IP/network layer (ISO/OSI layer 3) to ensure that a user device configured with a specific IP address can continue communications within the applications. Both MIPv4 and MIPv6 provide solutions to the problem by treating a WLAN as a subnet that may include several APs, as shown in Figure 8.5. To implement MIPv4 or MIPv6, two major components are needed: an MIP server and MIP client software. The MIP server will fully implement the MIP HA functionality, providing mobility management for MNs. The MIP server can generally also keep track of where, when, and for how long users utilize the roaming services. That data can then become the basis for accounting and billing. The registration of an MN CoA when the MN moves is implemented by MIP operation. When an MN moves across the boundary to another subnet during communication, the MIP network-level handoff process is performed. It initiates a handshake between the HA and the new FA (or the MN with colocated address for MIP, or the MN for MIPv6) at the medium access control (MAC) level. After completion of handoff, the data packets destined for the MN are tunneled by the HA to the new subnet, and then to the MN. Recently, the basic technical concept of WLANs has been extended to wireless WANs.

WIRELESS WANS Among the current wireless broadband WAN technologies, WiMAX is the most promising. It is based on the maturing IEEE 802.16 standard, which specifies the radio frequency technology for MANs and point-to-multipoint wireless networking. IEEE 802.16 divides its MAC layer into sublayers that support different transport

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Correspondent node (CN)

Home agent

Packets from CN to MN Home network

WLAN 1 (subnet 1)

AP

WLAN 2 (subnet 2) AP

AP

Roaming or handoff

FIGURE 8.5 IP mobility support for WLANs. Reproduced with permission from J. Li and H. H. Chen. “Mobility support for IP-based networks,” IEEE Commun. Magazine 43 (October 2005): 127–32.

technologies, including IPv4 and IPv6, Ethernet, and asynchronous transfer mode, which lets vendors use WiMAX no matter which transport technology they support. WiMAX extends the area coverage of WiFi. WiMAX provides fixed and mobile wireless broadband connectivity without the need for direct line of sight with a BS. In a typical cell radius deployment of 3 to 10 km, WiMAX systems are expected to deliver a capacity of up to 40 Mbps/channel for fixed and portable access applications. This provides enough bandwidth to simultaneously support hundreds of business clients with speedy connectivity, and thousands of residences with digital subscriber line (DSL) speed connectivity. Mobile network deployments are expected to provide up to 15 Mbps of capacity within a typical cell radius deployment of up to 3 km. Compared to WiFi, WiMAX networks are relatively large and can support more MNs. Although the early versions of IEEE 802.16a and 802.16d do not support interdomain mobility, IEEE 802.16e supports mobility at pedestrian speeds. WiMAX has begun adding IP mobility support in the IP/network layer.

CELLULAR AND HETEROGENEOUS MOBILE NETWORKS Cellular networks have been developed for voice telephony service using circuitswitched technology. They are usually complex and large in terms of their network scale and operational features, high-speed mobility, low data rate, and wide area coverage. Cellular networks are in the process of evolution. The aim of the process is to have an all-IP network architecture to provide high-bit-rate multimedia services including voice, video, and data. Multimedia services require multiple sessions over

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one physical channel which could be provided by packet-switched networks. The common protocol set for packet-switched networks is IP. The 3G cellular technologies include Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) and code-division multiple access 2000 (CDMA2000). The UMTS evolved from the Global System for Mobile (GSM) network in Europe, and CDMA2000 evolved from the CDMA One network which originated in the United States. Both CDMA2000 and UMTS were defined by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in the IMT-2000 framework. Based on the combination of circuit and packet switching, both CDMA2000 and UMTS combine mobile and IP technologies to provide personal communications and personalized content. A data session is established to carry IP packets between the network access server and the MN in both CDMA2000 and UMTS networks. Both networks use tunnels to support user mobility. However, the 3G networks including CDMA2000 and UMTS currently solve their mobility problems at the link layer (layer 2) only, not in the IP layer (layer 3). Several overlaid wireless networks including 3G networks, WLANs, and WWANs may exist over the same geographical area. Figure 8.6 shows IP mobility support with the provision of AAA and QoS control services. MIPv6 and its hierarchical mobility management extensions may provide a solution for internetwork mobility as well as intranetwork mobility. With hierarchical MIPv6, the MIPv6 protocols may manage global mobility while the MAP may handle local mobility. QoS and security considerations arise with mobility support. Network AAA Access server server

QoS server

Wireless Internet

Handoff and roaming by MIPv6

3G network Handoff, roaming WLAN 1 Handoff, roaming

Other wireless access network Handoff, roaming

FIGURE 8.6 IP mobility support for next generation heterogeneous mobile networks. Reproduced with permission from J. Li and H. H. Chen. “Mobility support for IP-based networks,” IEEE Commun. Magazine 43 (October 2005): 127–32.

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As the popularity of mobile computing grows, the associated protocols and their scalability are subject to match closer research. Namely, MIP relies heavily on the use of IP-to-IP tunneling, requiring 20 bytes of overhead for every packet routed to or from an MN, assuming inverse tunneling is enabled. Enhanced MIP (EMIP) was developed to eliminate the need for tunneling when providing services to mobile nodes.18 In what follows, we deal with qualitative analysis of EMIP.

8.4

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENHANCED MOBILE INTERNET

As the popularity of real-time traffic such as voice and video grows, mobile computing is also being used to facilitate these applications. MIP was developed to allow nodes to change location while maintaining network connectivity.19 Tunneling was an existing networking concept adopted as part of MIP for packet redirection. Although reusing existing networking technologies has benefits, tunneling has several drawbacks. The added overhead required for tunneling packets reduces the bandwidth available in the wired network. Scalability becomes a concern as the number of MNs increases and the tunneling overhead consumes available network bandwidth. MIP defines the HA and FA in order to facilitate an MN that maintains connectivity as it changes location. The FA assigns the MN a CoA while it resides in the FN. The MN then registers its CoA with the HA. After registration takes place, a tunnel is created between the HA and the FA. When a packet is sent to the MN from a CN, the packet is routed to the home network of the MN. The HA intercepts the packets and sends it through the tunnel to the CoA, which is typically the FA. When the FA receives the packet, it forwards the packet to the MN. IP-in-IP encapsulation must be supported by HAs and FAs for tunneling datagrams in MIP and is used as the tunneling mechanism in this research.20 For IP-in-IP encapsulation, the encapsulating IP header adds 20 bytes to the size of each packet in the tunnel. Often packets sent from the MN to a CN are routed back through the tunnel to the HA before reaching their destination. This process is called reverse tunneling, and can be used to prevent packet filtering and provide accounting information to the home network. Providing QoS with MIP has been researched using both integrated services and differentiated services techniques. Since the Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP), commonly used to provide QoS in wired networks, requires added overhead and complexity to work across a tunnel, several modifications have been proposed for RSVP with MIP.21–23 Network address translation (NAT) when applied at the edge of foreign tunnels does not work well with NAT.24 EMIP, developed to eliminate tunneling, uses the HA and the FA defined by MIP, and the same mechanisms for discovering the CoA and registering with the HA. EMIP differs from MIP in the way packets are redirected from the HA to the FA. A concept built on network address port translation (NAPT) is used the in place of tunnels.25 With EMIP, when the MN registers with the HA, a tunnel is not created between the HA and the FA. Instead, a mapping is created between the HA and the FA when each connection the MN communicates across is established. Mappings are created by intercepting packets to and from the MN at the HA and the FA. The HA and FA then exchange mapping requests and mapping reply messages containing the source

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Home agent

Intermediate router

Intermediate router

Intermediate router

Foreign agent

Corresponding node

Mobile node

FIGURE 8.7 Test network. Reproduced with permission from P. K. Bestand and R. Pendse. “Quantitative analysis of enhanced mobile IP,” IEEE Commun. Magazine 44 (June 2006): 66–72.

and destination IP and port addresses of the MN and the CN. The mobility agent that intercepts the packet also supplies a care-of port (CoP) that is used by the HA and the FA to identify the mapping. Once the mapping between the HA and the FA is established for a communication session, the mobility agents can redirect packets to and from the MN by modifying the IP and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or User Datagram Protocol (UDP) packet headers instead of using a tunnel. EMIP eliminates the tunneling overhead, replacing it with a one-time bandwidth overhead to exchange the mapping request and mapping reply packets. However, a delay is introduced with EMIP to buffer the first packet of each new communication in order to establish a mapping between the HA and FA. One example of the test network setup is shown in Figure 8.7. As the wireless/mobile technologies evolve, the market for mobile Internet is rapidly growing. To proliferate the mobile Internet market, scalable mobility support is a key question. In what follows, we introduce a Scalable Application-Layer Mobility Protocol (SAMP) that is based on P2P overlay networking and SIP.

8.5 SCALABLE APPLICATION-LAYER MOBILITY PROTOCOL To address the scalability problem, a number of schemes, such as a dynamic HA assignment mechanism, have been proposed.26 These approaches result in additional signaling overhead to learn the current end condition and to synchronize among multiple mobility agents. Furthermore, in the current mobile Internet architecture, it is not easy to design a self-organized and well-balanced mechanism among multiple mobility agents scattered across different network domains. Mobility management is one of the key issues to proliferate mobile Internet services, together with the scalability aspect of mobility management in mobile Internet services. A few types of mobility agents are employed for mobility management: an FA in MIPv4, an HA in MIPv4 and MIPv6, and a MAP in HMIPv6. These mobility

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agents play important roles in mobility management and packet routing. However, if a high burden of these tasks is concentrated on a single mobility agent, the mobility agent will suffer from the increased processing load. This results in a long response time and even a system failure. The overhead at the mobility agent may lead to service unavailability. Consequently, how to provide a scalable service by distributing the network traffic load (for mobility management and packet routing) among multiple mobility agents is an important design issue in mobile Internet services. SAMP is based on SIP and P2P overlay networking. These are briefly described.

SESSION INITIATION PROTOCOL SIP is an Internet standard protocol for initiating, modifying, and terminating an interactive multimedia session. The multimedia session involves various applications such as video, voice, instant messaging, and online games. Moreover, SIP is accepted as a call-control protocol in IMS. SIP can also be employed to support mobility at the application layer. SIP is an appropriate mobility solution especially for interactive multimedia applications that need an explicit signaling for session management. In addition, SIP allows users to maintain access to their services while moving (i.e., service mobility), and to maintain sessions while changing terminals (i.e., session mobility). A typical SIP architecture consists of SIP servers and user agents. SIP servers are classified into proxy, redirect, and registrar servers, depending on their functions. A proxy server relays received SIP messages to another SIP server or SIP user agents, whereas a redirect server performs redirection of received SIP messages. A registrar maintains location information to support mobility. On the other hand, user agents are classified into user agent client (UAC) and user agent server (UAS). Each user agent is identified by a SIP universal resource identifier (URI) that follows a form similar to an e-mail address. The UAC initiates a SIP session by sending an INVITE message, while the UAS responds with SIP reply messages that contain suitable status codes. Basically, the user agent registers its location at the registrar before establishing a SIP session.

P2P OVERLAY NETWORKING A P2P overlay network is a distributed network that relies on the computing power and bandwidth of peer nodes in the network. Unlike the client/server model, each node participates in the P2P overlay network as a peer with equal responsibility. In P2P overlay networks, since there is no central entity to control overall tasks, it has no role in these networks. Also, P2P overlay networks provide self-organization and load-balancing functions in a distributed manner. Another attractive feature is the technique used for locating and retrieving a desired item (e.g., a file in file-sharing applications). For more efficient locating/retrieving operations, a distributed hash table (DHT) has been introduced. The DHT is a decentralized and distributed system where all items and peer nodes are identified by unique keys. In the DHT, the ownership of keys is distributed among participating peer nodes and hence the peer nodes can efficiently route messages to the owner of any given key. Therefore, the

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DHT is scalable to a large number of nodes and can handle continual node arrivals and failures. These features enable the DHT to be widely accepted for large-scale P2P networking.

SCALABLE APPLICATION-LAYER MOBILITY ARCHITECTURE In SAMP architecture, each SIP server participates to form a P2P network. The SIP server acts as a peer node in a DHT. As previously mentioned, the DHT is a decentralized system where multiple keys are distributed among peer nodes. SAMP employs the DHT for location management in mobile Internet. A key in the DHT corresponds to the location information of an MN in SAMP and the keys are maintained at SIP servers. To join the DHT-based overlay network, the SIP servers should perform the functions of a registrar as well as proxy/redirect services. Hence, we define two SIP server modes: registrar and proxy (RP) mode and registrar and redirect (RR) mode. As its name implies, a SIP server in the RP mode handles SIP messages as a proxy server and also maintains location information as a registrar. Similarly, a SIP server in the RR mode redirects the received SIP messages and keeps track of the MN location information. In this section, we describe the SAMP operations by means of RP-mode SIP servers. Figure 8.8 shows an example of a session setup procedure in SAMP. First, a CN sends an INVITE message to SIP server 20, which is the corresponding anchor SIP server. Then, the invited message is forwarded to SIP server 4, that is, the home SIP server of the MN.27 Next, SIP server 4 relays the INVITE message to the MN anchor SIP server 12 and the MN receives the INVITE message from its anchor SIP server. Because SAMP is based on the P2P overlay network, a session setup procedure requires a Home SIP server

4

7 Anchor SIP server

20

12 16

INVITE: sip:[email protected] SIP/2.0 From:K.Park To: S.Pack

FIGURE 8.8 An example of a session establishment procedure in SAMP. Reproduced with permission from S. Pack and K. Park. “SAMP: Scalable application-layer mobility protocol,” IEEE Commun. Magazine 44 (June 2006): 86–92.

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number of lookups in peer SIP servers. This may lead to a long session setup latency. To reduce the session setup latency, SAMP can employ a two-tier scheme. The forthcoming convergence of cellular and wireless data networks is often manifested in an “all” approach in which all communications are based on an endto-end IP protocol framework. In what follows, we focus on major technical highlights of mobility and QoS management subsystems for converged networks. An enhanced IPv6 mobility platform architecture that provides mobility and QoS, as key drivers of all-IP-based networks, is also analyzed.

8.6

MOBILITY AND QOS

Previous works28,29 have proposed solutions that support seamless mobility based on IPv6. Although these works have shown that the basic concepts are viable, the DAIDALOS project architecture proposes an enhanced IPv6 mobility platform that provides mobility and QoS, as key drivers of the future all-IP-based 4G networks. Fast intra-end intertechnology handovers are a solution to the requirements of seamlessness. For next generation integrated systems, additional requirements are the optimization of resource usage, scalability for an increasing number of customers, and increased network flexibility. The DAIDALOS mobility architecture aims to provide an efficient and scalable integration of multiple network technologies with sustained QoS support. The simplified general view of the architecture is shown in Figure 8.9. The architectural design has a hierarchical structure. The network of each mobile operator consists of a core network (two such networks, from different operators, are represented in the figure) and a set of access networks. The access networks contain multiple access routers (ARs), with multiple radio APs each. The architecture supports multiple access technologies, including WLAN, WiMAX, TD-CDMA, and digital video broadcasting (DVB). Each access network is called a region. Resources in each region are independently managed by an access network QoS broker (QoSB-AN), thus providing a first scalability step. Resources in the core are managed by the core network QoS broker (QoSB-CN), which communicates for end-to-end QoS with the QoSB-ANs of the mobile operator’s networks as well as with the QoSB-CNs of the other operator’s networks. The architecture is based on widely accepted standards for mobility and QoS. Mobility is implemented by means of the MIPv6 protocol, with fast handover extensions,30 and QoS is based on the differentiated services (DiffServ) architecture.31 However, additional mechanisms that integrate and complement MIPv6 and DiffServ are needed to achieve the objective of providing QoS to mobile users while optimizing the overall performance. Such mechanisms have been designed in the architecture. Handover decisions in this architecture are sustained both by measurements of signal quality as well as QoS measures (such as load and resource availability). Handovers can be started either by the terminal or by the network. We refer to the former as a mobile-initiated handover (MIHO), and to the latter as a network-initiated handover (NIHO). Handover execution is improved with functions for maintaining quality during handovers, along with tight coupling with QoS functions.

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QoSB-CN Core network Mobile operator network MIPv6 Home agent Core network

QoSB-CN

Region

AR

QoSB-AN Access network AR

WLAN AP TD-CDMA DVP AP AP

QoSB-AN

AR WMAN AP

Access network AR

AR AR

WLAN AP TD-CDMA AP

FIGURE 8.9 Hierarchical structure of mobility and QoS architecture. Reproduced with permission from R. L. Aguiar et al. “Scalable QoS-aware mobility for future mobile operators,” IEEE Commun. Magazine 44 (June 2006): 95–102.

The enhanced functionalities of the architecture modules are described in Reference 29. The needed modules for functionalities are shown in Figure 8.10. They are organized according to physical location. Enhanced mobile-initiated handover decisions. Handover decisions in the case of an MIHO are enhanced with the objective of ensuring that, from all the possible AP candidates, the best one is chosen. The module responsible for the handover decision at the MT is intelligent interface selection (IIS). This module relies on the mobile terminal controller (MTC) to obtain the information it uses to make a decision. This includes signal quality measurements, obtained from the mobility abstraction layer (MAL), as well as QoS measures, such as the load of the APs, retrieved from the candidate APs. The latter information is obtained from the QoS abstraction layer (QAL) in the neighboring ARs, and conveyed by means of the candidate access router discovery (CARD) protocol32 to the MT. With this information, the target AP for the handover is chosen so that both signal strength and QoS requirements are met in the new AP, thus guaranteeing appropriate operation and service quality after the handover. Network-initiated handover functionality. The enhanced MIHO functionality ensures that handover decisions are taken optimally according to local information, but does not guarantee that the overall distribution of resources will be optimal from an operator perspective—which is essential for a realistic network. To achieve this,

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QoSB-AN

QoSB-CN

QoS-B engine

QoS-B engine

AM: Aggregation module ARM: Advanced router mechanism CARD: Candidate access router discovery CT: Context transfer D&M: Duplication and merging FHO: Fast handover IIS: Inteligent interface selection MAL: Mobility abstraction layer

PM

AR ARM

PA

AP AM

MT

MM

MTC

CARD

Card

QoSM

IIS

QAL

D&M

FHO

Bluetooth driver

WiMAX driver

QAL MAL

FHO

D&M

CT

TD-CDMA driver

WLAN driver

... TD-CDMA driver

WLAN driver

DVB driver

FIGURE 8.10 Architecture modules functionalities. Reproduced with permission from R. L. Aguiar et al. “Scalable QoS-aware mobility for future mobile operators,” IEEE Commun. Magazine 44 (June 2006): 95–102.

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QoSM

MM: Measurement module MTC: Mobile terminal controller PA: Performance attendant PM: Performance manager QAL: QoS abstraction layer QoSB: QoS broker QoSM: QoS manager

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NIHO support is required to allow for the optimization of the overall capacity by properly balancing load among the various APs of a region. For this purpose, the performance management (PM) module at the QoSB-AN collects information about the load of the different APs and the radio link quality between the MT and its candidate APs, and based on this information (eventually) reorganizes the wireless connections. Information on the load of the APs is obtained by the performance attendant (PA) modules at the APs, from their interface with the QAL, and delivered to the PM. Signal strength measurements are taken by the measurement modules, filtered out and aggregated by the aggregation module (AM), provided to the PA at the AR, and from there conveyed to the PM. Based on all this data, the PM then reorganizes the connections of all MTs for achieving optimized global performance. This reorganization takes into consideration QoS beyond the wireless access by means of the interaction between the PM and the QoSB engine at the QoSB-AN. The NIHO execution is then triggered by the communication between the QoSB and the fast handover (FHO) execution module at the AR, through the advanced router mechanism (ARM). Seamless handover execution. In the execution of a handover involving the old AR (oAR) and the new AR (nAR), it is required that continuity of communication be maintained. To perform a low-latency lossless handover, the fast handovers for MIPv6 protocol are enhanced with duplication and merging (D&M) functions. These functions improve performance by duplicating the packets addressed to the MT at the old AR to avoid packet loss. To set up the MT context in the nAR, the context transfer (CT) function is used to transfer the mobility-related state (including security information). Quality of service. QoS is based on the DiffServ architecture. Admission control and resource reservations are handled by the QoSBs, which act jointly to perform QoS reservations over an end-to-end path. QoS reservations at the routers are performed through the interaction between the QoSB engine at the QoSB-AN and the ARM module at the AR, which performs the reservation via the QoS manager (QoSM). Similarly, reservations in the wireless access part are also performed through the interaction between the QoSB engine at the QoSB-AN and the ARM module at the corresponding AR. The latter communicates with the QoSM, which communicates with the QAL at the AR. QoS reservations in the wireless access are then performed by the QAL modules at the AP and MT. Multiple technology support. The support of multiple technologies in the architecture is provided by means of a modular design based on the use of abstraction layers (ALs): the MAL and the QAL. These ALs interface with drivers of the different technologies and offer a unique interface to the upper-layer modules of the architecture, while hiding the specifics of the underlying technologies. The QAL offers a technology-independent interface for QoS functions, such as the setup of a QoS connection or the measurement of available resources in an AP. Similarly, the MAL offers a technology-independent interface for mobility-related functions such as the execution of a handover or measurement of signal strength received at the MT.

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8.7 SEAMLESS MOBILITY SERVICES: A NETWORK ARCHITECTURE Seamless mobility implies that the infrastructure transparently manages connectivity so that the use is always best connected. The user’s definition of best connected depends on cost, performance, location, or other factors. Several key technical and social drivers are contributing to the interest in seamless mobility. Device convergence, the consolidation of multiple functions into small portable devices with integrated cellular and WiFi-based WLAN interfaces, is a trend that is of interest to users in both the business and consumer environments. The goals of the network architecture are as follows: r Support services on existing devices, as well as next generation, multifunction, multiradio devices. r Align the work with the emerging IMS standards, allowing the solution to leverage industry investment in IMS.33 r Define a unified interface to the cellular network that provides a scalable, standards-based solution for seamless mobility. This interface should enable new services such as location-based services to also be supported within the same framework. r Use network intelligence and create standardized clients to take advantage of the architecture. r Provide operations, administration, maintenance, and provisioning (OAM&P) systems to support solution deployment. Seamless mobility is especially well suited to services delivered over IP. The project is challenging because it rides on top of several complex building blocks, each of which must be integrated.34 Figure 8.11 shows the building blocks for seamless mobility. A key decision is to treat an IMS-based infrastructure as the common service delivery platform to handle all call control and new service delivery. This approach is corrected because innovation in multimedia services is happening in areas of VoIP applications based on SIP applications. Interworking with the cellular network uses existing signaling system 7 (SS7) interfaces35 and is configured so that OAM&P

Applications and services Seamless mobility

Cellular

VoIP

Handsets

Wi-Fi

FIGURE 8.11 Building blocks for seamless mobility. Reproduced with permission from Ch. Kalmanek et al. “A network-based architecture for seamless mobility services,” IEEE Commun. Magazine 44 (June 2006): 103–9.

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all cells to and from cellular devices are routed to the IMS infrastructure for call control. Seamless mobility sits as a middleware layer on top of these building blocks with application services such as IP Centrex (central exchange), IP-PBX (private branch exchange), and so on riding on the top of the seamless mobility layer. There are a number of different approaches to provide seamless mobility services. These solutions can be grouped into three categories: enterprise or PBX-based solutions, cellular network-based solutions (such as UMA) and IP-network-based solutions. PBX-based seamless approaches utilize several techniques, such as virtual numbers (a solution for incoming calls that allows caller to reach a subscriber using find-me follow-me techniques), various two-stage dialing approaches, or software loaded on handsets to control their operations. The handset is an extension on the IP-PBX within the corporate WiFi network, allowing the user to roam the building or campus with full IP-PBX services. The advantage of this solution is that it leverages existing infrastructure on the IP-PBX. The dial plan and feature are familiar to enterprise users. However, IP-PBX solutions may not address the full range of seamless mobility requirements, and face challenges in scaled deployments. Also, this solution does not extend easily outside of the individual enterprise domain. One of the cellular network-based solutions is UMA. It delivers GSM and GPRS mobile services over unlicensed spectrum technologies like WiFi essentially by encapsulating GSM signaling in IP, and routing it to a gateway in the cellular network. UMA enables subscribers to roam, and supports handover between cellular networks and public/private WiFi networks using bimode handsets. One of the advantages of UMA is that subscribers receive the same user experience for both their cellular and WiFi mobile voice services as they transition between networks, but limited to the cellular experience. Another advantage for UMA is its standardization, which could help to promote widespread adoption and interoperability. The limitations are that many enterprise customers prefer enhanced features such as corporate dialing plans, coverage plans, voice mail, and other features. Additionally, UMA-based solutions may not integrate easily with other IP services or advancements in VoIP. UMA can be viewed as a near-term opportunity for cellular operators to bring WiFi-based access solutions to market. Another cellular-based solution emulates a traditional GSM visitor location register (VLR) for WiFi-based VoIP calls. The objective is to enable roaming between WiFi networks. A VoIP gateway emulates a serving mobile switching center (MSC) to register the IP interface of the phone and perform handoffs from/to the WiFi access domain using standard VLR techniques. In the long term, cellular providers will migrate to a 3G air interface capable of end-to-end VoIP with services enabled on the next generation service platform defined by the 3GPP, referred to as the IMS. This platform will support all users and provide a new generation of services in the future.

8.8

CONCLUDING REMARKS

The mobile Internet has emerged as a powerful paradigm promising to transform the way services are delivered to end users. The widespread growth of mobile wireless

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networks, applications, and services has ushered in the era of mobile computing, where handheld computing devices or terminals have become the predominant choice for users. MIP and MIPv6 are basic technologies for mobile networks. To improve the performance of mobile IPv6, the HMIPv6 can be used. IP-based wireless networks will become the core for future cellular networks. MIPv6 and its hierarchical mobility management extensions offer internetwork as well as intranetwork mobility. SAMP is based on P2P, overlay networking. SAMP is highly scalable compared to MIPv6 and HMIPv6. Moreover, because SAMP is based on an Internet Standard Protocol (ISP), SAMP can be easily implemented and extended from the existing infrastructures. SAMP is expected to play a key role in proliferating the mobile Internet as a scalable mobility solution. The IP-based architecture which integrates multiple technologies in a seamless environment is very flexible in terms of handover possibilities—that is, MIHO and NIHO, intra- and intertechnology—and is fully integrated with QoS support. The architecture is highly scalable both at mobility and QoS-support levels. Given the tremendous growth in mobile voice and data usage and the emergence of new multifunctions, there is an emerging interest in seamless mobility applications and services that provide service portability and application persistence across multiple network connections. Seamless mobility ultimately allows users to transparently access all of their data and services in a consistent method.

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toward 9 Evolution 4G Networks Fourth generation (4G) seems to be a very promising generation of wireless communications that will change people’s lives in the wireless world. There are many striking attractive features proposed for 4G which ensure a very high data rate, global roaming, and so on. New ideas are being introduced by researchers throughout the world, but new ideas introduce new challenges. There are several issues yet to be solved such as incorporating the mobile world into the Internet Protocol (IP)-based core network, establishing an efficient billing system, and perfecting smooth hand off mechanisms. The world is looking forward to the most intelligent technology that will connect the entire globe. 4G networks are expected to deliver more advanced visions, including improvements over the third generation (3G). These improvements include enhanced multimedia, smooth streaming video, universal access, and portability across all types of devices. Also, 4G enhancements are expected to include worldwide roaming capability. After an introductory discussion including migration to 4G mobile systems, as well as beyond 3G and toward 4G networks, we then discuss 4G technologies from the user’s perspective. The emphasis is on heterogeneous system integration and services. After that, we present all-IP 4G network architecture. Then, we outline the issues concerning quality of service (QoS) for 4G networks, QoS and end-to-end QoS support are included, as well. Next, we continue with security in 4G networks together with infrastructure security and secure handover between heterogeneous networks. Network operators’ security requirements conclude the chapter.

9.1

INTRODUCTION

4G is the latest in a series of wireless network technology families for personal communication systems that over the past four decades have produced movable, portable, and finally truly mobile personal communication (productivity, entertainment, etc.) companions and a rich collection of wireless services, as well. Each successive generation offers progressively higher quality and richer services (analog voice, digital voice, packetized data, text, audio, images, video, mobility, seamless roaming, etc.). A quick search on the Web reveals that over the years there have been many more service offerings announced than the four—three to be exact, as 4G is still in the definition/design phase—technology families. Explosive growth is expected in mobile communications over the next decade with higher speeds and larger capacities than those provided by 3G communications mobile systems. These features must be made available to meet the requirements for faster speeds and more diverse usage formats. Accordingly, studies are now being carried out 235

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to develop 4G mobile systems. 4G mobile communications involves a blend of concepts and technologies in the making. Some can be recognized as having been derived from 3G, whereas others involve new approaches to wireless mobile networks. Although second generation (2G) and 3G wireless technologies are well defined with mature and established standards efforts and strong industry backing guiding their deployment, 4G networks are not yet defined with respect to either underlying technology or network architecture. Nevertheless, by extrapolating from the previous generations, it is anticipated that 4G technologies will be all-IP based, able to support speeds of several tens of megabits per second (with some projections pointing at over 100 Mbps), which will enable high-quality multimedia services, and allow provision of seamless roaming across multiple access technologies. Quite often, 4G technologies are considered the high-speed IP-based glue that will integrate personal area network (PAN), local area network (LAN), metropolitan area network (MAN), and wide area network (WAN) wireless technologies under a common umbrella. This is certainly an ambitious objective, and to achieve it many technology-oriented as well as business-oriented (e.g., billing and subscriber ownership and management) hurdles need to be overcome. Interest in the 4G area is on the upswing with an increasing number of technical meetings and publications devoted entirely or in part to the topic. Driven by the need to address the aforementioned limitations of 3G wireless systems and support context-rich multimedia services and applications, 4G wireless systems are envisioned to provide high data rates in the downlink as well as the uplink direction. While 3G downlink data rates at the present time do not exceed 2 Mbps and 384 kbps at pedestrian and vehicular speeds, respectively, with a potential upgrade to 10 Mbps, 4G systems are expected to attain data rates of 20 Mbps or higher even at high speeds. Recent advances pertaining to the underlying networking, multiplexing, scheduling, and physical layer technologies have been making this realizable at a steady pace. In addition to providing high data rates, supporting global roaming and multiple classes of service with variable end-to-end QoS requirements across heterogeneous wireless systems, including cellular, satellite-based networks, and wireless LANs, are the key features of these emerging global systems. In 4G systems, the radio access network (RAN), as well as the core network, will be packet switched, and a pure end-to-end IP architecture is conceivable.1 In the presence of new stringent quantitative and qualitative QoS requirements, there are numerous challenges yet to be addressed before 4G networks come to full fruition. These challenges pertain not only to the (radio) access and serving strata, but also to the home and transport strata in current Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS)/3G wireless systems, those based on UMTS Release 6 and beyond. Honoring an end-to-end service level agreement across heterogeneous wireless networks, with variable physical, networking, and architectural characteristics and constraints, is worth investigating, but is extremely intricate and challenging. Devising novel schemes for distributed dynamic channel allocation (DDCA), call/connection admission control (CAC), and cross-layer adaptation, to mention a few, is of utmost importance. In terms of CAC for circuit-switched connections, and packet scheduling for packet-switched services, for example, limited interference/ power-based and threshold-based solutions have been adopted by most 2.5G and

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3G operators. New, adaptive, and possibly hybrid schemes are sought to optimally, or near optimally, control the radio access bearers for real-time and non-real-time traffic. Developing and utilizing sophisticated traffic engineering schemes to handle bursty traffic, random arrival and reading times, and the random number of packets per session in the case of packet connections will be instrumental to the success of 4G network technologies. Maintaining the QoS of the accepted real-time and nonreal-time sessions, without jeopardizing cellular and network coverage and capacity, is also essential to the success of such systems. We also anticipate that the emerging 4G-compliant systems will encompass novel multihop network architectures to enhance capacity, reduce power consumption, and enhance coverage and throughput. Consequently, near-optimal computationally inexpensive distributed schemes for channel assignment, resource allocation, and CAC ought to be developed. All access network technologies and stakeholders have their own security requirements and mechanisms, making the integration of multiple access technologies for simple networks a challenge. Security is one of the major technical challenges in vertical handover. Each network may deploy its own security mechanisms that are incompatible with others. Apart from that, seamless mobility sets time constraints on handovers. To provide seamless handover while maintaining the security level, it is preferable to transfer security context information from one network to another in a timely fashion. Security context contains the state of authentication and authorization, cryptography keys, and the like. It is used to support trust relations and to provide communication security for network/entities. The context is typically shared between a pair of network nodes or networks. To provide seamless mobility it is understandable that handover between networks either of heterogeneous technologies (vertical handover) or of different administrative domains must be seamless. Just as 3G networks are starting to establish a strong foothold in the industry, we are already witnessing unprecedented interest in the next generation of wireless technologies. Building on current trends in cellular-centric wireless technologies and seamlessly incorporating high-speed local and personal area networks, 4G technologies hold the promise of even more exciting personalized wireless broadband services. They will seamlessly integrate multiple access technologies and enduser devices, and offer true anywhere, anytime, and through-any-device services to highly mobile professionals and residential customers. To achieve these promises, 4G technologies have plenty of challenges to address.

9.2 MIGRATION TO 4G MOBILE SYSTEMS To migrate from current systems to 4G with the main features intact, we face a number of challenges. The main desired features of 4G are as follows: r High usability and global roaming. The end user terminals should be compatible with any technology, at any time, anywhere in the world. The basic idea is that the user should be able to take his mobile to any place; for

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example, from a place that uses code-division multiple access (CDMA) to another place that employs Global System for Mobile (GSM). r Multimedia support. The user should be able to receive high data rate multimedia services. This demands higher bandwidth and higher data rates. r Personalization. This means that any person should be able to access the service. The service providers should be able to provide customized services to different types of users. To achieve the desired features listed above researches have to solve some of the main challenges that 4G is facing. The main challenges are described below. r Multimode user terminal. To access different kinds of services and technologies, the user terminals should be able to configure themselves in different modes. This eliminates the need for multiple terminals. Adaptive techniques like smart antennas and software radio have been proposed for achieving terminal mobility. r Wireless system discovery and selection. The main idea behind this is that the user terminal should be able to select the desired wireless system. The system could be LAN, Global Positioning System (GPS), GSM, and so forth. One proposed solution for this is to use a software radio approach where the terminal scans for the best available network and then downloads the required software. r Terminal mobility. This is one of the biggest issues researchers are facing. Terminal mobility allows the user to roam across different geographical areas that use different technologies. There are two important issues related to terminal mobility. One is location management where the system has to locate the position of the mobile for providing service. Another important issue is handoff management. In the traditional mobile systems only horizontal handoff has to be performed, while in 4G systems both horizontal and vertical handoffs should be performed. r Personal mobility. Personal mobility deals with the mobility of the user rather than the user terminals. The idea behind this is, no matter where users are located and what device they are using, they should be able to access their messages. r Security and privacy. The existing security measures for wireless systems are inadequate for 4G systems. The existing security systems are designed for specific services. This does not provide flexibility for the users and, as flexibility is one of the main concerns for 4G, new security systems have to be introduced. r Fault tolerance. As we all know, fault tolerant systems are becoming more popular throughout the world. The existing wireless system structure has a treelike topology, and hence if one of the components suffers damage, the whole system goes down. This is not desirable in the case of 4G. Hence, one of the main issues is to design a fault tolerant system for 4G. r Billing system. 3G mostly follows a flat rate billing system where users are charged by a single operator for their usage according to call duration,

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transferred data, and so on. But in 4G wireless systems, the user might switch between different service providers and may use different services. In this case it is hard for both the users and service providers to deal with separate bills. Hence the operators have to design a billing architecture that provides a single bill to the user for all the services used. Moreover, the bill should be fair to all the users. It is convenient to discuss the challenges in the migration to 4G mobile systems and their proposed solutions by grouping them into three different aspects: mobile stations, system, and service. Table 9.1 shows a summary of key challenges and their proposed solutions.

9.3 BEYOND 3G AND TOWARD 4G NETWORKS In the last few decades, the telecommunications industry has become especially responsive to market demands for new services and capabilities. This has been particularly true of the wireless segment of the industry, which has seen vigorous growth from cordless phones and first-generation analog cellular networks through 2G digital networks, low-speed mobile data networks, paging systems, and now 3G technologies that provide improved voice quality and integration of data and voice services. It has always been difficult to predict the future of the wireless communications industry, but there are certain trends that one can discern and try to project.10 In what follows, we present some actual technologies.

WAN AND WLAN INTEGRATION With respect to the critical issues of spectrum allocation, 3G systems are operating in licensed bands where service providers must make investments to secure access to those licenses. On the other hand, WLANs and WPANs operate in unlicensed bands, where one does not need to purchase the spectrum, and where the user is unencumbered by regulatory rules and regulations. However, there is also no regulatory control of signal interface in the unlicensed bands, and thus connectivity and link performance can often be problematic. The last several years have witnessed a renewed interest and vigorous growth in the use of unlicensed-band systems. One possible migration path is the eventual integration of WANs with WLANs in unlicensed bands.

AD HOC NETWORKING Another important evolving technology is ad hoc networking, which uses a distributed network topology and has the capability for network reconfiguration without the need for a geographically fixed infrastructure. This technology was developed for military networking requirements but has found some applications in commercial voice and data services. The ad hoc networking topology is suitable, as an example, for rapid deployment of any wireless network in a mobile or fixed environment. In ad hoc networking, the network is reconfigurable and can operate without the need for a fixed infrastructure. This is sometimes referred to as distributed-network

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TABLE 9.1 Summary of Key Challenges and Their Proposed Solutions Key Challenges Multimode user terminals

Wireless system discovery

Wireless system selection

Terminal mobility

Network infrastructure and QoS support

Security

Fault tolerance and survivability

Mobile Station To design a single user terminal that can operate in different wireless networks, and overcome the design problems such as limitations in device size, cost, power consumption, and backward compatibilities to systems To discover available wireless systems by processing the signals sent from different wireless systems (with different access protocols that are incompatible with each other) Every wireless system has its unique characteristic and role; the proliferation of wireless technologies complicates the selection of the most suitable technology for a particular service at a particular time and place System To locate and update the locations of the terminals in various systems; also, to perform horizontal and vertical handoffs as required with minimum handover latency and packet loss To integrate the existing non-IP-based and IP-based systems, and to provide QoS guarantee for end-to-end services that involve different systems The heterogeneity of wireless networks complicates the security issue; dynamic reconfigurable, adaptive, and lightweight security mechanisms should be developed To minimize the failures and their potential impacts in any level of treelike topology in wireless networks

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Proposed Solutions A software radio approach can be used: the user terminal adapts itself to the wireless interfaces of the networks3.

User- or system-initiated discoveries with automatic download of software modules for different wireless systems The wireless system can be selected according to the best possible fit of user QoS requirements, available network resources, or user preferences4

Signaling schemes and fast handoff mechanisms are proposed in Ref. 5

A clear and comprehensive QoS scheme for UMTS system has been proposed6; this scheme also supports interworking with other common QoS technologies Modifications in existing security schemes may be applicable to heterogeneous systems; security handoff support for application sessions is also proposed4 Fault-tolerant architectures for heterogeneous networks and failure recovery protocols are proposed in Ref. 7

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TABLE 9.1 (CONTINUED) Summary of Key Challenges and Their Proposed Solutions Key Challenges Multioperators and billing system

Personal mobility

Service To collect, manage, and store the customers’ accounting information from multiple service providers; also, to bill the customers with simple but detailed information To provide seamless personal mobility to users without modifying the existing servers in heterogeneous systems

Proposed Solutions Various billing and accounting frameworks are proposed in Ref. 8

Personal mobility frameworks are proposed; most of them use mobile agents. but some do not9

Reproduced with permission from S. Y. Hui and K. H. Yeung, “Challenges in the migration to 4G mobile systems,” IEEE Commun. Magazine 41 (December 2003): 54–59.

topology. Such networks are used primarily in military communications, but have also found application in some commercial networks for voice and data transmission. Ad hoc networks may employ either single-hop (peer-to-peer) or multihop connectivity. By way of example, the 802.11 WLAN standards support single-hop peer-topeer ad hoc networking. When an 802.11 terminal is powered up, it first searches for a beacon signal transmitted by an access point or another terminal announcing the existence of an ad hoc network. If no beacon is detected, the terminal takes the responsibility of announcing the existence of an ad hoc network. Also, several other wireless technologies, such as the Personal Handyphone System (PHS) and the NEXTEL satellite network, utilize peer-to-peer push-to-talk communication to establish a connection between pairs of voice terminals. Important emerging areas for application of ad hoc networking technology include wireless PANs (WPANs). At present, the wireless industry differentiates WPANs from WLANs by their smaller signal coverage area, ad-hoc-only topology, low power consumption, plug-and-play architecture, and support of both voice and data devices. The earliest WPANs were BodyLANs, developed by the U.S. Department of Defense to connect sensors and communications devices carried by a soldier or attached to a soldier’s clothing. Commercial applications of the same technology can provide connectivity among laptops, notepads, and cellular phones carried by the business traveler.

INFRASTRUCTURE-BASED ACCESS TECHNOLOGIES In infrastructure-based broadband access, the network includes a fixed (wired) infrastructure that supports communication between mobile terminals and between mobile and fixed terminals. A typical example is a WLAN employing one or multiple access points (APs), with APs connected by a wired (typically cabled) backbone.

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Two mobile stations in the same AP coverage area will communicate through that AP, and wider area connectivity is supported by AP-to-AP communication over the wired backbone. A common example of infrastructure-based broadband access is a WLAN based on the popular IEEE 802.11b standard, operating in the 2.4 to 2.497 GHz band, providing broadband access to the Internet at data rates of 1, 2, 5.5, and 11 Mbps.

UWB AND S-T CODING It is clear that CDMA is emerging as the preferred transmission technology for 3G systems, providing enhanced voice quality and increased network capacity relative to 2G systems, while orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) has been adopted in WLANs operating at 5 GHz. It is safe to project that OFDM will continue to play an important role in the future of broadband wireless access. Other important emerging technologies include ultrawideband (UWB) communication and spacetime (S-T) coding. The UWB concept uses transmission of narrow noiselike pulses with spectrum extending over several gigahertz, and offers promise of supporting very large numbers of simultaneous users. The S-T coding concept was devised to improve performance and increase spectrum utilization efficiency on band-limited wireless channels by combining channel coding, modulation, transmitter diversity, and optional receiver antenna diversity.

LOCATION AWARENESS Another evolving technology is position location awareness, and there is particular interest now in indoor applications. Examples of how this technology can be beneficial include location of patients, medical professionals, and instrumentation in a hospital; location tracking of merchandise in a large warehouse; and tracking of systems and components in a large factory. Other potential applications include personnel location in military, firefighting, and disaster-recovery situations. It is expected that this technology will become an integral part of future wireless networks.

9.4 4G TECHNOLOGIES FROM THE USER’S POINT OF VIEW It was originally expected that 4G would follow sequentially after 3G and emerge as an ultra-high-speed broadband wireless network. For example in Asia, the Japanese operator NTT DoCoMo defines 4G by introducing the concept of mobile multimedia anytime, anywhere, to anyone; global mobility support; integrated wireless solution; and customized personal service (MAGIC), which mainly concentrates on public systems and envisions 4G as the extension of 3G cellular service. This view is referred to as the linear 4G vision and, in essence, focuses on a future 4G network that will generally have a cellular structure and will provide very high data rates (exceeding 100 Mbps). In general, the latter is also the main tendency in China and South Korea. Nevertheless, even if 4G is named as the successor of the previous generations, the future is not limited to cellular systems, and 4G should not be seen exclusively as a linear extension of 3G. In Europe, for example, the European Commission envisions

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User decision

ISO/OSI Layer

6

Speech global mobility security

5

Speech global mobility security IMS 4G technology

4 3 2 1

GSM network 2G

User Sensitivity

7

UTRAN 3G Generation

4G

FIGURE 9.1 Protocol layer innovations versus wireless generations. Reproduced with permission from S. Frattasi et al. “Defining 4G technology from the user’s perspective,” IEEE Network 20 (January/February 2006): 35–41.

that 4G will ensure seamless service provisioning across a multitude of wireless systems, and provide optimum delivery via the most appropriate (i.e., efficient) network available. This view is referred to as the concurrent 4G vision. However, it does not give us the underlying methodology that could justify such a broad definition.11 To define and solve relevant technical problems, the system-level perspective has to be envisioned and understood with a broader view, taking the user as its departing point. This user-centric approach can result in a beneficial method for identifying innovation topics at all the different protocol layers, and avoiding a potential in terms of service provisioning and user expectations. Protocol layer innovations versus wireless generations are shown in Figure 9.1. Novel technologies may have a significant and unpredictable impact on the user’s behavior and, consequently, their usage may change the emerging products. So, understanding users in general means understanding how they change as the society around them changes, and specifically, how they change through the interaction with the products that are introduced. In particular, if technological developers start from understanding human needs, they are more likely to accelerate the evolutionary development of useful technology. The payoff from technological innovations is that they support some human needs while minimizing the downside risks. Therefore, responsible analysis of technology opportunities will consider positive and negative outcomes, thus amplifying the potential benefits for society. Clearly, there is a need for a new approach, there is a need for contextual understanding, and there is a major methodological challenge in the design of the next generation of wireless mobile communication technologies. The top-down approach methodology focuses on a user-centric vision of the wireless world and consists of the following four stages:

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r Consideration of the user as a sociocultural person with subjective preferences and motivations, cultural background, customs, and habits. This leads to the identification of the user’s functional needs and expectations in terms of services and products. However, to interrelate sociocultural values and habits with functional needs is a sociological problem. r Reflection about the functional needs and expectations derived from step 1 in everyday life situations, where new services are significant assets for the user. In this way, fundamental but exemplary user scenarios are derived from sketches of people’s everyday lives. r Extrapolation and interrelation of the key features of 4G from the user scenarios assessed in step 2. They represent the basic pillars for a very relevant and pragmatic definition of the forthcoming technology. r Identification of the real technical step-up of 4G with respect to 3G by mapping the key features described in step 3 into advances in terms of system design, services, and devices. These technological developments are necessary to support the requirements of the different user scenarios defined in Step 2.

USER SCENARIOS User scenarios can be elaborated and listed as some sketches like: business on the move, smart shopping, mobile tourist guide, personalization transfer, and so forth. All the key features are referred to as the user-centric system, which is illustrated in Figure 9.2. Inspired by the heliocentric Copernican theory, the user is located in User sensitivity

User friendliness User

User personalization

Terminal heterogeneity

Network heterogeneity

Evolutionary design

Service personalization

Personalization transfer

FIGURE 9.2 The user-centric system. Reproduced with permission from S. Frattasi et al. “Defining 4G technology from the user’s perspective,” IEEE Network 20 (January/February 2006): 35–41.

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the center of the system, and the different key features defining 4G rotate around the user on orbits with a distance dependent on a user-sensitive scale. Therefore, the farther the planet is from the center of the system, the less sensitive to it the user is. The decrease of user sensitivity leads to a translation toward the technocentric system, where network heterogeneity has a much stronger impact than user friendliness. Furthermore, this kind of representation also shows the interdependency between key features; for example, service personalization is a satellite of terminal heterogeneity. The user-centric system demonstrates that it is mandatory in the design of 4G to focus on the upper layers (maximum user sensitivity) before improving or developing the lower ones. If a device is not user friendly, for example, the user cannot exploit it and have access to other features, such as user personalization. User Friendliness User friendliness exemplifies and minimizes the interaction between applications and users thanks to a well-designed transparency that allows the users and the terminals to naturally interact (e.g., the integration of new speech interfaces is a great step for achieving this goal). For instance, users can get traveling information in the most user-friendly way: text, audio, or video format. User Personalization User personalization refers to the way users can configure the operational mode of their device and preselect the content of the services chosen according to their preferences. Because every new technology is designed keeping in mind the principal aim to penetrate the mass market and to have a strong impact on people’s lifestyles, the new concepts introduced by 4G are based on the assumption that each user wants to be considered a distinct, valued customer who demands special treatment for his or her exclusive needs. Therefore, to embrace a large spectrum of customers, user personalization must be provided with high granularity, so that the huge amount of information is filtered according to the users’ choices. For example, users can receive targeted pop-up advertisements. The combination between user personalization and user friendliness provides users with easy management of the overall features of their devices and maximum exploitation of all the possible applications, thus conferring the right value to their expense. Terminal and Network Heterogeneity To be a step ahead of 3G, 4G must provide not only higher data rates but also a clear and tangible advantage in people’s everyday lives. Therefore, the success of 4G will depend on a combination of terminal heterogeneity and network heterogeneity. Terminal heterogeneity refers to the different types of terminals in terms of display size, energy consumption, portability/weight, complexity, and so forth. Network heterogeneity is related to the increasing heterogeneity of wireless networks due to the proliferation in the number of access technologies available (e.g., UMTS, WiMAX, WiFi, Bluetooth). These heterogeneous wireless access networks, shown in Figure 9.3, typically differ in terms of coverage, data rate, latency, and loss rate. Therefore, each of them is practically designed to support a different set of specific services and devices.

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GPS

DAB/DVB

Internet Wi-Fi WiMAX

UMTS

Multihop Bluetooth

Multihop

FIGURE 9.3 Heterogeneous wireless networks. Reproduced with permission from S. Frattasi et al. “Defining 4G technology from the user’s perspective,” IEEE Network 20 (January/February 2006): 35–41.

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Service Personalization 4G will encompass various types of terminals, which may have to provide services independently of their capabilities. To optimize the service presentation, tailoring content for end-user devices will be necessary. The capabilities of the terminal in use will determine whether or not new services are to be provisioned, so as to offer the best enjoyment to the user and prevent declining interest and elimination of a service offering. This concept is referred to as service personalization. It implicitly constrains the number of access technologies supportable by the user’s personal device. However, this limitation may be solved in two ways: by the development of devices with evolutionary design, and by means of a personalization transfer. Having the most adaptable device in terms of design can provide customers with the most complete application package, thus maximizing the number of services supported. The advantage for the customers is to buy a device on which they have the potential to get the right presentation for each service, freeing the device from its intrinsic restrictions. In a private environment, users can optimize the service presentation, thus exploiting the multiple terminals they have at their disposal. The several levels of dependency highlighted by the user-centric system definitely stress the fact that it is not feasible to design 4G starting from the access technology in order to satisfy the user’s requirements.

HETEROGENEOUS SYSTEMS INTEGRATION The real step-up of 4G with respect to 3G can be summarized with seamless integration of already existing and new networks, services, and terminals. The final goal is to satisfy ever-increasing user demands. The 4G coming generation will be able to allow complete interoperability among heterogeneous networks and associated technologies. Generational evolution from 2G to 4G is demonstrated in Figure 9.4. Although 2G has focused on full coverage for cellular systems offering only one technology, and 3G provides its services only in dedicated areas and introduces the concept of vertical handover through the coupling with WLAN systems, 4G will be a convergence platform extended to all the network layers. Hence, the user will be connected almost anywhere thanks to widespread coverage due to the exploiting of the various networks available. In particular, service provision will be granted with at least the same level of QoS when passing from one network’s support area to that of another. On the other hand, resource sharing among the various networks available will smooth the problem related to spectrum limitations relative to 3G.

HETEROGENEOUS SERVICES Apart from some soft additional emerging services (e.g., fast Internet connection, pop-up advertisements, etc.), there is still a lack of really new and distinct services that will enable new applications with tangible benefits for their users. Therefore, we envision the real advantage in terms of services that 4G will bring will be based on the integration of technologies designed to match the needs of different market segments.

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Distribution (e.g., DAB, DVB)

WMAN

WMAN

WLAN WPAN Wireless network shell

Distribution layer 2G Cellular layer (macro cells)

Cellular (e.g., GSM, UMTS)

Metropolitan network (e.g., 802.16, HiperMAN) Hot spot (e.g., 802.11, HiperLAN2) Personal network (e.g., Bluetooth, HiperPAN)

Cellular layer (micro cells) Vertical 4G handover

3G Metropolitan network layer

Hot spot layer

Wired (e.g., xDSL, CATV) Personal network layer Max mobility XXXX XXXXX XXXX max cell size Wired layer

Min mobility min cell size Network layers stack

Network layers coverage

FIGURE 9.4 Evolution from 2G to 4G. Reproduced with permission from S. Frattasi et al. “Defining 4G technology from the user’s perspective,” IEEE Network 20 (January/February 2006): 35–41.

Short-range wireless technologies, such as WiFi and Bluetooth, will enable machine-to-machine (M2M) communications. As an example, users sign up online to the waiting list, which sends them back the approximate waiting time. Also, users can transfer content to a publicly available larger display. In particular, from the sociological point of view, in the latter case, the private and public spheres are mixed. This recombination can result in the enhancement of public access such that access to displays will be as common as access to public telephone booths is nowadays. Short-range wireless technologies also open the possibility for cooperative communication strategies, which can provide better services at lower costs, thus maximizing the users’ profit. In this way, the technology increases the social cooperative behavior and empowers the consumer to make clever use of it. Hence, the user’s personal device is no longer a mere medium for transferring information, but a social medium that helps to build groups and friendships. Because 3G networks are not able to deliver multicast services efficiently or at a decent level of quality, the synergy of UMTS and digital audio/video broadcasting (DAB/DVB) will open the possibility to provide to mobile users interactive or ondemand services—so-called data casting—and audio and video streaming in a much more efficient way than using the point-to-point switched network. The embedding in the user terminal of a GPS receiver will offer the essential feature of location awareness, which is necessary to provide users with the most comprehensive and extensive level of information, thus bringing about a real revolution in terms of personalized services. The user terminal can hence provide not only location-based information, such as maps and directions to follow to reach a specific place, but also useful information relevant in time and space, such as pop-up advertisements concerning offers in shops nearby. However, GPS technology can

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only support outdoor localization. Indoor localization requires the cooperation of short-range wireless technologies. Finally, it is worth highlighting that although users are attracted by high data rates, they would certainly be even more attracted by useful services exploiting high data rates. The support of imaging and video, as well as high-quality audio, gives service providers (SPs) a myriad of possibilities for developing appealing applications. These features, blended with the support of high data rates, result in a particularly attractive combination. Indeed, in addition to an explosive increase in data traffic, we can expect changes to the typically assumed downlink–uplink traffic imbalance. Data transfer in the uplink direction is expected to increase considerably and, as a result of these trends, the mobile user will ultimately become a content provider (CP). In future wireless networks, the CP concept will broaden to encompass not only the conventional small- or middle-size business-oriented service companies, but also any single user, or group of users. Mobile CP will open a new chapter in service provision.

INTERWORKING DEVICES Because 4G is based on the integration of heterogeneous systems, the future trend of wireless devices will move toward multimode/reconfigurable devices and exploitation of interworking devices. The user terminal is able to access the core network by choosing one of the several access networks available, and to initiate the handoff between them without the need for network modification or interworking devices. This leads to the integration of different access technologies in the same device (multimodality) or to the use of the software-defined radio (SDR) (reconfigurability).14 For example, whereas the integration of Bluetooth in the user terminal will enable a personalization-transfer service, a built-in GPS receiver will allow users to utilize their personal devices as navigators just by plugging them in their cars, thereby lightening the number of needed devices. However, the reconfigurability of the user terminal could be a key aspect that would make the future of 4G technology as highly adaptable as possible to the various worldwide markets. To reduce the hardware embedded in the user terminal and the software complexity, the use of interworking devices is exploited. For example, consider the case of integrated AP performing the interworking between a WMAN technology and a WLAN technology, such as WiMAX and WiFi, respectively15: the WMAN is considered the backbone and the WLAN the distribution network; therefore, instead of integrating both technologies, the user terminal will only incorporate the WiFi card. The price to be paid for this relief is, therefore, increased system (infrastructure) complexity.

9.5 ALL-IP NETWORK All-IP network (AIPN) describes a longer-term vision for the 3GPP networks.16 For this work item, a feasibility study including user scenarios as well as the service requirements was created.17

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AIPN is a common IP-based network that provides IP-based network control and transport across and within multiple access systems. This includes the provision of IP-based mobility with a performance comparable to other cellular mobility mechanisms, independent of specific access or transport technologies. It is the aim of the AIPN to provide a seamless user experience for all services within and across the various access systems. AIPN will support a wide range of networking scenarios. These scenarios include a moving PAN receiving seamless service while handing over from a home WLAN to a city-owned hotspot service to the AIPN. Scenarios also include a virtual secure personal network where the AIPN provides the connection between different (sub) networks owned by the same user, providing access to the AIPN for the group of users that move together. The system architecture evolution (SAE) work item targets the timeframe between today’s 3G Partnership Project (3GPP) networks and AIPN, and a subset of the AIPN scenarios. The objective is the evolution of the 3GPP network to a higher-data-rate, lower-latency, packet-optimized system that supports multiple radio access networks and mobility between them.18,19 SAE covers the networking aspects of the 3GPP system. It is synchronized with a work item on the 3GPP RAN, which includes a new air interface technology targeting peak bit rates of up to 100 Mbps. In SAE, interworking with non-3GPP RANs is supported by a fundamental redesign of the 3GPP architecture, which includes an intersystem mobility anchor point. Mobility in 3GPP today is achieved by a 3GPP-specific protocol GTP (GPRS Tunneling Protocol). For intra-3GPP mobility, GTP will be maintained. However, to achieve mobility across heterogeneous access networks, the usage of native IP-based protocols (e.g., mobile IP) has been agreed upon. The challenge is to provide seamless service continuity and to maintain and support the same security, privacy, and charging capabilities available in today’s 3GPP system when moving between the different network types. Because a strong focus in the evolution of the 3GPP system is to also interwork with non-3GPP systems, for which it might become much harder to establish long-lived interworking agreements, the need for a dynamic mechanism or automatism such as network composition to enable interworking across heterogeneous networks arises. In the AIPN work item, PANs and personal networks (PNs) have been identified as new types of user-owned networks that need to be supported by and interwork with the AIPN network of the 3GPP operator. A separate work item has been initiated for the study of personal network management (PNM). The objective is specifying the service requirements on how to manage and connect devices of a single user that are forming a PN or PAN. As this is 3GPP, the focus of course is on management support by the 3GPP network.20

NETWORK COMPOSITION PROCEDURE Although the network composition concept is applicable to any kind of network, for this study item these results are considered in a 3GPP context and focus on user cases relevant to 3GPP operators. Feedback from 3GPP meanwhile resulted in updates and refinements of the continuing work in the ambient networks project.

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Today, 3GPP networks interwork with other networks. This means that userplane traffic is exchanged between these networks after configuring control-plane interworking. A concrete example of control-plane interworking is a roaming agreement between 3GPP networks. Another example is the WLAN–3GPP interworking defined in Reference 21, where a WLAN access network provides networks access to mobile nodes based on their 3GPP subscription. The concept of network composition enables dynamic interworking between networks, whereby interworking is achieved through a uniform procedure that enables interworking between the composing networks at the control plane level. As a result, network composition is a mechanism through which all kinds of interworking scenarios are independently involved so that control functionalities can be achieved. Network composition furthermore is a uniform procedure that allows dynamic establishment of interworking and interworking agreements among different networks. Network composition is also a uniform procedure. The composing networks may be of a rather heterogeneous nature, ranging from (for example) operator-owned 3GPP networks over PANs to third-party-operated access networks. The interworking enabled through network composition can be quite loose, as in the case of a dynamic roaming agreement. It can also be very tight, as in the case of the dynamic integration of a non-3GPP access network into the evolved 3GPP network. For 3GPP network operators, network composition is interesting for a number of reasons. For example, a dynamic, automated procedure for establishing network interworking saves costs compared to off-line configuration. Composition also allows operators’ networks to react quickly to changing resource demands by automatically extending network resources. Furthermore, the uniformity of the composition procedure is thought to also facilitate interworking with future and emerging network types and network technologies, with reduced standardization effort. The procedure for composing networks includes a number of phases denoted media sense, discovery/advertisement, security and internetworking establishment, composition agreement negotiation, and composition agreement realization. Some of these phases might be optional depending on the composition scenario, and they are not necessarily passed in a one-way fashion. User interaction in all of these phases is minimized. We therefore assume the network is configured with policies that determine how and when to compose. Figure 9.5 shows the basic flow diagram.22 In the first step, a network willing to compose must sense the physical or logical medium. Depending on the particular scenario, media sense may be performed in different ways. For instance, a new AP detects a beacon of the operator network to which it should attach, or a user device is switched on and searches for networks in its vicinity (i.e., a RAN or a PAN). The sensing also includes the case of discovering the link to a specific remote network (no physical vicinity); for example, when two operator networks that are to be connected discover each other, facilitating what is known as virtual composition. Depending on the situation, media sense is followed by either an advertisement or a discovery phase, or they could also be combined. These messages can be broadcasted or they can be sent as targeted composition queries. With active advertisements, a network can offer resources and control services to other networks. The advertisement message includes an identifier, possibly based

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Media sense

Discovery/advertisement

Security and internet working establishment

Composition agreement negotiation

Composition agreement realization

FIGURE 9.5 The basic flow diagram for the composition procedure. Reproduced with permission from C. Koppler et al. “Dynamic network composition for beyond 3G networks: A 3GPP viewpoint,” IEEE Network 21 (January–February 2007): 47–52.

on cryptographic techniques used by a network, which is included to bind the advertisement to a particular network, and may be authenticated and/or authorized at a later phase. Alternatively, the network may discover a particular resource or control service by either actively asking particular neighbors, or by listening to advertisements by other networks. The discovery/advertisement phase allows setting up a list of candidate networks and selecting one for composition. Two networks intending to compose need to establish basic security and internetworking connectivity. The identities of the networks might be authenticated and authorized using a trusted third party. Alternatively, the required trust relationship may be based on a preestablished shared secret or may even be opportunistic (e.g., the networks only make sure they keep communicating with the same network). At some point during this message exchange or immediately afterward, internetworking connectivity between the two networks is established. The next step of the composition procedure is the negotiation of a composition agreement (CA). The CA includes the policies to be followed in the composed network; the identifier of the composed network; how logical and physical resources are accessed, controlled, and/or shared between the composing networks; and so forth. Together with the framework agreement, the CA specifies the rights and duties of each composing party. For example, in the case of a moving network, the CA may settle that a mobile router23 performs mobility control toward the outside world on behalf of all mobile nodes in the moving network. In case of 3GPP–WLAN interworking, the CA may settle that the WLAN offers access to authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) services in the 3GPP network. Also, the CA should determine whether and how IP addresses may be reassigned. To speed the process, in certain environments the use of CA templates as well as the reuse of previously established CAs are envisioned.

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Where the CA includes commercial factors, the CA should be digitally signed by both networks to provide nonrepudiation. It is possible that the process of establishing a CA may involve increasing levels of authorization; for example, negotiation of certain resources and services may be authorized only once the two networks have agreed on the commercial aspects of the CA. The composition agreement realization phase represents the completion of the composition. During this phase, network elements are configured to reflect the CA, and each of the composing networks is configured to reflect the CA. Each of the composing networks must carry out the configuration of its own resources by updating their policies and control functions. In practice, for mobile nodes, this may mean in a moving network that they switch off their own 3GPP-based mobility control such that the mobile router can handle it on their behalf. The result of the network composition procedure is either a new network, an enlarged network (i.e., one network is absorbed into the other), or two interworking networks. Inside a composed network, if one or more of the networks decide to discontinue their interworking (which could be due, for example, to switch-off of one network, a node leaving coverage, etc.), decomposition takes place, which then also leads to the invalidation of the composition agreement.

ALL-IP 4G NETWORK ARCHITECTURE The overall 4G architecture is IP version 6 (IPv6)-based supporting seamless mobility between different access technologies. Mobility is a substantial problem in such an environment, because intertechnology handovers have to be supported. For example, Ethernet IEEE 802.3 can be targeted for wired access, WiFi IEEE 802.11b for WLAN access, and WCDMA, the radio interface of UMTS, for cellular access. With this diversity, mobility cannot be simply handled by the lower layers, but needs to be implemented at the network layer. An IPv6-based mechanism has to be used for interworking, and no technology-internal mechanisms for handover, either on the WLAN or on other technology, can be used. IPv6 mobility will handle handover between cells. The key entities of the general network architecture are as follows: r A user. a person or company with a service level agreement (SLA) contracted with an operator for a specific set of services. r A mobile terminal (MT). a terminal from which the user accesses services. r Access router (AR). the point of attachment to the network, which takes the name of radio gateway (RG) for wireless access (WCDMA or IEEE 802.11). r Paging agent (PA). entity responsible for locating the MT when it is in idle mode while there are packets to be delivered to it. r The AAA and charging (AAAC) system. entity responsible for service level management including accounting and charging. r Network management system (NMS). the entity responsible for managing and guaranteeing availability of resources in the core network, as well as overall network management and control.

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This network is capable of supporting multiple functions: r r r r r r

Interoperator information interchange for multiple-operator scenarios Confidentiality both of user traffic and of the network control information Mobility of users across multiple terminals Mobility of terminals across multiple technologies QoS level guarantees to traffic flows (aggregates) Monitoring and measurement functions, to collect information about network and service usage r Paging across multiple networks to ensure continuous accessibilty of users

9.6

QOS ISSUES FOR 4G NETWORKS

Wireless communications are currently experiencing a fast integration toward the beyond 3G (B3G)/4G era. This represents a generational change in wireless systems; they not only will be involved in noteworthy changes in technologies to augment their communication capability, but also will be characterized by demonstrating a keen interest in users more than technologies. New terms are rapidly coming into use24 that try to describe this novel approach to communications: individual-centric, user-centered, or ambient-aware communications. The common idea behind these terms is surely represented by a clear focus on (multimedia) services tailored to user needs, and personalized and ubiquitous access. Last but not least, B3G systems have been envisioned as an evolution and convergence of mobile communications systems and Internet technologies to offer a multitude of services over a variety of access technologies.25 Fundamental assumptions and requirements driving B3G/4G design are being tackled by the Wireless World Research Forum (WWRF), which is working on a series of white papers outlining B3G visions and roadmaps, architectural principles, research challenges, and candidate approaches. From the WWRF, a novel vision of a user always connected to the global communication infrastructure emerges. Future 4G mobile systems are envisioned to offer wireless services to a wide variety of mobile terminals ranging from cellular phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs) to laptops. This wide variety of mobile terminals is referred to as heterogeneous terminals. Heterogeneous terminals have various processing power, memory, storage space, battery life, and data rate capabilities. To use the spectrum efficiently, heterogeneous terminals in 4G should use the same spectrum in case the users are interested in the same devices. One solution is the use of multiple description coding (MDC), where the service information is split into multiple streams. MDC has the capability to split the information stream into multiple substreams, where each of the substreams can be decoded without the information carried by the neighboring substreams, and therefore have no dependencies to other substreams such as layered video coding. In a multicast scenario, high class terminals would receive a large number of streams, while low class terminals would go for a smaller number. Note that the substreams of the low class terminal are also received by the high class terminal. Therefore, the spectrum is used more efficiently. The quality at the receiver in terms of video size, frame rate, and so forth increases

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as the number of received descriptors increases. The flexibility of the bandwidth assigned to each descriptor, and the number of descriptors assigned to end users, makes MDC a very attractive coding scheme for 4G networks. The advantage of MDC is achieved at the expense of higher bandwidth usage due to the smaller video compression of the encoding process. Therefore, existing video traffic characterizations such as single and multiple layer coding, as presented in Reference 27, cannot be used for the evaluation of future wireless communication systems as they underestimate the bandwidth required. 4G wireless systems are expected to extend wireless service to high data rates in high-mobility environments. Developers need to do much more work to address end-to-end QoS. They may need to modify many existing QoS schemes, including admission control, dynamic resource reservation, and QoS renegotiation to support 4G users’ diverse QoS requirements. The overhead of implementing these QoS schemes at different levels requires careful evaluation. A wireless network could make its current QoS information available to all other wireless networks in either a distributed or centralized fashion so they can effectively use the available network resources. Additionally, deploying a global QoS scheme may support the diverse requirements of users with different mobility patterns. The effect of implementing a single QoS scheme across the networks instead of relying on each network’s QoS scheme requires study. QoS provisioning comprises data plane (mainly traffic control, e.g., classification and scheduling) and control plane (mainly admission control and QoS signaling) functions. Following the above exploration of mobility problems, we can identify the fundamental difference of QoS provisioning in all-IP 4G mobile networks from traditional, wired or wireless IP networks: whereas its resource control mechanisms can be similar to that of traditional networks, changing a location during the lifetime of a data flow introduces changed data path, thus requiring identifying the new path and installing new resource control parameters via path-coupled QoS signaling. Hence, the problem is how to apply any QoS signaling mechanism to achieve end-to-end resource setup in mobility scenarios. The current QoS signaling protocol, Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP), exhibits lack of intrinsic architectural flexibility in adapting to mobility requirements.28 Difficulties arise, for example, because of its inability to adapt to the introduction of mobility routing in the data plane encountered in 4G networks, which results in either solutions that are too complicated, or simply being unable to satisfy the needs.29,30 Availability of the network services anywhere, at anytime can be one of the key factors that attract individuals and institutions to the new network infrastructures, stimulate the development of telecommunications, and propel economies. This bold idea has already made its way into the telecommunication community, bringing new requirements for network design, and envisioning a change of the current model of providing services to customers. The emerging new communications paradigm assumes that a user will be able to access services independently of his or her location, in an almost transparent way, with the terminal able to pick the preferred access technology at the current location (ad hoc, wired, WLAN, or cellular), and move between technologies seamlessly, that is, without noticeable disruption.

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WLAN/3G GTW

UMTS

FIGURE 9.6 Cellular coverage connecting a moving WLAN to the Internet. Reproduced with permission from S. Pack et al. “Performance analysis of mobile hotspots with heterogeneous wireless links,” A. Lera et al. “End-to-end QoS provisioning in 4G with mobile hot spots,” IEEE Network (Sept.-Oct. 2005): 26–34.

Unified, secure, multiservice, and multiple-operator network architectures are now being developed in a context commonly referred to as B3G networks or, alternatively, 4G networks. The 4G concept supports the provisioning of multiple types of services, ranging from simple network access to complex multimedia virtual reality, including voice communication services, which are themselves a challenge in packet-based mobile communications environments. As a result of the heterogeneity of the access technologies, IPv6 is targeted as the common denominator across multiple access technologies, and makes the solution basically independent of the underlying technology—and therefore future proof. However, fitting such important concepts as support for QoS, AAAC, and mobility into the native Internet architecture poses numerous difficulties and is a real challenge. Networks in motion (NEMO) is one of the most interesting concepts emerging from the 3G/4G scenario. A NEMO consists of one or more mobile routers with a number of devices connected to it. It can change its point of attachment to other networks as it physically moves or changes in topology. Among NEMOs, so-called moving WLANs (m-WLANs) consist of a collection of wireless terminals carried by a platform in motion. Each m-WLAN communicates via wireless links with a fixed or wireless backbone through an anchor or master device. An example of cellular coverage connecting a moving WLAN to the Internet is presented in Figure 9.6.25 A group of users are traveling on public transport (a bus). Each user owns a terminal device equipped with a WLAN network interface card; only some terminals are equipped with a dual 3G-WLAN network card and act as gateways toward the 3G/ B3G network. During their wait at the bus station the travelers access the Internet through a public WLAN hotspot; when they get on the bus and leave the hotspot, they continue accessing the Internet through a multimode gateway provided in the mobile hotspot.

PROVIDING QUALITY OF SERVICE The design principle for QoS architecture was to have a structure which allows for a potentially scalable system that can maintain contracted levels of QoS. Eventually,

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especially if able to provide an equivalent to the Universal Telephone Service, it could possibly replace today’s telecommunications networks. Therefore, no specific network services should be presumed nor precluded, though the architecture should be optimized for a representative set of network services. Also, no special charging models should be imposed by the AAAC system, and the overall architecture must be able to support very restrictive network resource usage. In terms of services, applications that use voice over IP (VoIP), video streaming, web, e-mail access, and file transfer have completely different prerequisites, and the network should be able to differentiate their service. The scalability concerns favor a differentiated service (DiffServ) approach.32,33 This approach is based on the assumption that end-to-end QoS assurance is achieved by a concatenation of multiple managed entities. With such requirements, network resource control must be under the control of the network service provider. It has to be able to control every resource, and to grant or deny user and service access. This requirement calls for flexible and robust explicit connections admission control (CAC) mechanisms at the network edge, and the ability to take fast decisions on user requests. Service provisioning for 4G networks is based on separation of service and network management entities. We can define a service layer, which has its own interoperation mechanisms across different administrative domains (and can be mapped to the service provider concept), and a network layer, which has its own interoperation mechanism between network domains. An administrative domain may be composed of one or more technology domains. Service definitions are handled inside administrative domains, and service translation is done between administrative domains.34 Each domain has an entity responsible for handling user service aspects (the AAAC system), and at least one entity handling the network resource management aspects at the access level (the QoS broker). The AAAC system is the central point for AAA. When a mobile user enters the network, the AAAC is supposed to authenticate the user. Upon successful authentication, the AAAC sends to the QoS broker the relevant QoS policy information based on the SLA of the user, derived from his or her profile. From then, it is assumed that the AAAC has delegated resourcerelated management tied to a particular user to the QoS broker. However, two different network types have to be considered in terms of QoS: the core and the access. In the DiffServ approach, the core is basically managed per aggregate based on the network services, and not by user services. In that sense, core management is decoupled from the access. Service will be offered by the network operator independently of the user applications, but will be flexible enough to support them. The services may be unidirectional or bidirectional. In fact, the QoS architecture can support any type of network service, where the only limit is the level of management complexity expressed in terms of complexity of interaction between the QoS brokers, the AAAC systems, and the AR that the network provider is willing to support. Users will then subscribe to SLAs consisting of different offerings.

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END-TO-END QOS SUPPORT Three distinct situations arise in the QoS architecture: r Registration, when a user may only use network resources after authentication and authorization r Service authorization, when the user has to be authorized to use specific services r Handover, when there is a need to reallocate resources from one AR to another35 The registration process is initiated after a care-of address (CoA) is acquired by the MT via stateless autoconfiguration, avoiding duplicate address detection (DAD) by using unique layer-2 identifiers to create the interface identifier part of the IPv6 address. However, getting a CoA does not entitle the user to use resources, except for registration messages and emergency calls. The MT has to start the authentication process by exchanging the authentication information with the AAAC through the AR. Upon a successful authentication, the AAAC system will push the NVUP (network view of user profile) to both the QoS broker and the MT. One of the specific problems of IP mobility is assuring a constant level of QoS. User mobility can be assured by means of fast handover techniques in conjunction with context transfer between network elements (ARs–old and new QoS brokers). Building an all-IP architecture based on DiffServ introduces a problem of how to create per-domain services for transport of traffic aggregates with a given QoS. Perdomain services support data exchange by mixing traffic of different applications; therefore different aggregates are required to support delay-sensitive traffic and delay tolerant traffic, as well as inelastic, elastic, and network maintenance traffic. As applications generate traffic of different characteristics in terms of data rates, level of burstiness, packet size distribution, and because the operator needs to protect the infrastructure against congestion, it is very important that aggregate scheduling will be accompanied by: r Per-user rate limitation performed in the ingress routers (ARs) based on user profiles r Dimensioning and configuration of network resources to allow for a wide range of user needs and services r Resource management for edge-to-edge QoS To maintain resource utilization in the entire domain, the QoS broker is expected to know the demand, current utilization factors of all links based on incoming call parameters or on measurements, and on additional information such as a traffic load matrix. The real data traffic is provided by monitoring functions in the network, while traffic matrixes are induced on historical profiling (and with varying degrees of complexity). The QoS broker will then use this knowledge for admission control and resource provisioning. The mathematical formulations have the disadvantage of relying on the worst-case scenario, which leads to substantial overdimensioning.

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An architecture for supporting end-to-end QoS is able to support multiservice, multioperator environments handling complex multimedia services, with per user and per service differentiation, integrating mobility and AAAC aspects. The main elements are the MT, the ARs, and the QoS brokers.

9.7

SECURITY IN 4G NETWORKS

Security requirements of 3G networks have been widely studied in the literature. Different standards implement their security for their unique security requirements. For example, GSM provides highly secure voice communications among users. However, the existing security schemes for wireless systems are inadequate for 4G networks. The key concern in security designs for 4G networks is flexibility. As the existing security schemes are mainly designed for specific services, such as voice service, they may not be applicable to 4G environments that will consist of many heterogeneous systems. Moreover, the key sizes and encryption and decryption algorithms of existing schemes are also fixed. They become inflexible when applied to different technologies and devices (with varied capabilities, processing powers, and security needs). To design flexible security systems, some researchers are starting to consider reconfigurable security mechanisms. Security in 4G networks mainly involves authentication, confidentiality, integrity, and authorization for the access of network connectivity, and QoS resources for the MN flows. First, the MN needs to prove authorization and authenticate itself while roaming to a new provider’s networks. AAA protocols (such as Radius, COPS, or Diameter)36 provide a framework for such support, especially for control plane functions (including key establishment between the MN and AR, authenticating the MN with AAA server(s), and installing security policies in the MN or the AR data plane such as encryption, decryption, and filtering), but they are not well suited for mobility scenarios. There needs to be an efficient, scalable approach to address this. The Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)37 provides a flexible framework for extensible network access authentication and potentially could be useful. Second, when QoS is concerned, QoS requests need to be integrity protected, and moreover, before allocating QoS resources for an MN flow, authorization needs to be performed to avoid denial of service attacks. This requires a hop-by-hop way of dynamic key establishment between QoS-aware entities to be signaled on. Finally, most security concerns lie in network layer functions. Although security can also be provided by higher layers, the network layer provides privacy and data integrity between two communicating applications.38

INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY FOR FUTURE MOBILE NETWORKS The MNs in future will be open to different services and SPs. This will mean that the MN operator (MNO) will have trust relations with different networks and SPs. An MNO should not limit the services it provides to its users, whereas a LAN administrator can. A LAN administrator supports a limited set of users. Security features groups are defined by 3GPP. Each of these accomplishes certain security objectives.39–42 There are five security features groups:

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r Network access security. This comprises encryption of the data and the signaling data integrity. The serving network (SN) verifies the validity of the UMTS Subscriber Identity Module (USIM) and its entitlement to receive UMTS services, while the USIM verifies the authenticity of the network. When the SN requests security data from the home environment, the latter should verify that the former is a trusted network that can receive the requested data. Finally, the access network and the mobile equipment (ME) can communicate. This is known as authentication and key agreement (AKA). r Network domain security (NDS). This is a set of security features that enable nodes in the network provider domain to securely exchange the signaling data. r User domain security. Includes features within the USIM so that only authorized users, i.e., these who know the personal identification number (PIN), should be able to access the USIM. Some USIM data should be protected from being accessed by the user. r Application domain security. Includes security mechanisms for accessing the user profile data and IP security mechanisms to provide secure messaging between the network and the USIM. r Visibility and configurability of security. This feature enables users to inform themselves whether a security feature is in operation and whether the use and operation of a certain service should depend on the security feature. 3GPP also defines network access services for the IP multimedia core network subsystem, which is essentially an overlay over the packet-switched domain. A separate security association is required between the multimedia client and the IP multimedia core network subsystem before access is guaranteed to the multimedia services. There are four types of security domains that can be identified: r r r r

The user, which is also the subscriber of external parties or related parties The MNO Parties with which the MNO has a trust relation External parties with which the MNO has no trust relation

The purpose of introducing a domain model is to r Identify types of domains based on their security policy plus their relations and dependencies r Add an atomicity that helps maximize the number of possible combinations r Identify reference points (RPs) between the domains which can lead to implementations of interfaces and might be used as points of conformance or policy enforcement r Build a model that is simple but helpful to in understanding the interworking between domains

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Infrastructure Security Definition Mobile communication systems have a number of distinct characteristics and properties related to architecture and technologies. Some of these present challenges to developing network infrastructure security:43 r Flexibility/multifunctionality. Future mobile systems will provide not only voice, but also data and multimedia communications with seamless mobility over heterogeneous access technologies. New function modules and elements have to be installed in the network. Most of the subsystems will define their security architecture, but to be posed within one network, requirements on the infrastructure security must be soundly concluded. r Use standard technology. Unlike the present and former systems, the future mobile communication systems will adopt IP as the basic network technology, which is well studied and understood among a rather large and open engineering society—the Internet world. Therefore, many IP-based security threats in the Internet could be easily imported here. r Critical Services. More and more services that ease our daily lives and serve some critical missions will be created and provided over the future mobile communication systems. Users’ satisfaction and perhaps safety will be very dependent on the mobile systems, which could then be a target of malicious people/groups. To distinguish from other aspects of security, the goals of infrastructure security of mobile communication networks are identified as r Physical security of the network infrastructure including the nodes and the cables. r Access control to the network infrastructure nodes. r Protection of the infrastructure nodes against unauthorized access, for example, obtain administrator’s power by exploiting software flaws; theft of sensitive data, including network configurations and internal structure information that should be kept in secret, and other critical databases. r Protection of critical data against unintended (user mistakes) or intended changes (tampering), for example, erase/change of the critical network configurations and the databases of routers, servers, and other nodes. r Availability of the network infrastructure. r Protection of critical infrastructure nodes against denial of service (DoS) attacks. r Protection of critical communication media, including wireless link. r Security of network management signaling; infrastructure could be automatically maintained and managed, network management signaling must be secured (e.g., authentication, confidentiality, integrity, and antireplay, depending on the signaling). r Amenability to security management; infrastructure, including deployed security mechanisms, is subject to change. For the reliable enforcement of

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the security policies, the infrastructure security has to be capable of adapting according to OAM (operations and management) processes which are aiming for adequate security management. r Support of secure coupling to foreign networks; as the main characteristics of MNO domains is the openness to interoperate with various foreign domains, the network infrastructure security mechanisms have to support interoperability with user, CP/SP, and other MNO domains.

Infrastructure Security Requirements Based on the security goals, a nonexhaustive list of major requirements on infrastructure security is as follows: r All the elements of a communication network should be hardened so that it is resistant to various security attacks. Maintaining the latest update levels of network elements and their software is an essential part of any OAM concept applied in a network domain. r Critical infrastructure elements must be identified and well protected; the necessity of redundant elements should be carefully evaluated, for example, to still allow management during exceptional situations. r Information on the network’s internal structure, including the topology, the platform types, the distribution of functional elements, the capacities, and so on, or the customer data concerning location, service usage, usage pattern, account information, and so on, should be made available only to authorized parties and only to the extent that is actually required. Limited availability of this information reduces the knowledge about potential targets. r An intrusion detection system (IDS) should be deployed in the network to detect, monitor, and report security attacks, such as DoS and attacks that utilize system flaws, as well as any compromise of system security. r Fast response to security attacks and automatic recovery of security compromise must be provided to increase the probability of business continuity/ continuous operation, and to mitigate the effects of attacks. r The network should be easy to manage and realistic and realizable security policies must be developed. r Rapid couplings of the networks of different administrative domains must be secured (authentication, integrity, confidentiality, availability, and antireplay protection, etc.) against external attackers. r Mutual dependencies between the infrastructure security and new services to be created must be minimized. r Authenticity, confidentiality, integrity, antireplay protections for network management signaling shall be provided. r Interoperability between the administrative domains shall not compromise the security of any involved domain.

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SECURE HANDOVER BETWEEN HETEROGENEOUS NETWORKS Handover is a basic mobile network capability for dynamic support of terminal migration, while handover management is a process of initiating and ensuring a seamless and lossless handover of a mobile terminal from a region covered by one base station (BS) to another BS, which may belong to a different access network (AN). Handover procedures involve a set of protocols to notify all related entities of a particular connection which has been executed. In data networks, the mobile terminal is usually registered with a particular point of attachment. In mobile networks, an idle mobile terminal would have selected a particular BS that is serving the cell in which it is located. This is for the purpose of routing incoming data packets or voice calls appropriately. When the mobile terminal moves and executes a handover from one point of attachment to another, the old serving point of attachment has to be informed about the change. This is usually called disassociation. The mobile terminal must reassociate itself to the network with the new point of access. Other network entities involved in routing data packets to the mobile terminal or switching voice calls may be informed of the handover to seamlessly continue the ongoing connection or call. Depending on whether or not a new connection is created before breaking the old one, handovers can be classified into hard and seamless.44 They can be further classified from the technical point of view—change of basic service set (BSS)/AP, change of radio resource, change of technology—as well as from a demonstrative point of view—intradomain handover and inter-domain handover.45 Figure 9.7 gives an idea of wireless overlay networks. This is an environment where vertical handover (VHO) can take place.46 Considering different communication networks, some VHO senarios could be as follows: r At an office, between Ethernet and WLAN, both of which are parts of the company’s intranet, the session should not be interrupted (seamless handover) FIGURE 9.7 Regional area

Metropolitan area

Campus area packet relay

In-building area

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r At a hotspot, between cellular networks and WLAN of different network operators r In an urban area, between 3G (UMTS) and 2G (GSM) networks VHO is an important feature of B3G systems. Handover between UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) and GSM Edge Radio Access Network (GERAN) has been studied by 3GPP. Interworking between cellular network (UMTS) and WLAN has also been studied by 3GPP. The main intention is to extend 3GPP services and functionality to the WLAN access environment, thus leading to an assumption that WLAN is mainly operated as an extension to the 3GPP access network.47 Based on the above understanding, some requirements on seamless VHO from the security point of view can be concluded: r Unified authentication/security and billing r Ease of access to applications from all locations with acceptable QoS at all times r VHO must not compromise security of any involved access networks or mobile terminals; as a whole it should not compromise security of B3G systems r Trade-off between security and issues concerning performance and resource should be considered r VHO should be executed without user intervention, while also allowing users to configure which network he or she likes to use, perhaps based on the QoS and tariff Security Context Security context (SC) is used to support the trust relation of, and to provide communication security for, entities/nodes in distributed networks. Security related information such as authentication state, authorization results, cryptographic (session) keys, and algorithms, comprise the contents of SC. Usually SC is negotiated when creating a communication association and shared by two or more parties. When creating a new SC, authenticity and integrity of the information must be ensured, and confidentiality of some or all of the information is required.48 Trust between access networks (ANs), or an AN and a service provider network (SPN), should also be ensured by an SC that can be created either statistically or dynamically, and may have a comparably long lifetime. Some important parameters of security context are as follows: r Authentication state. Includes identifiers of the peer(s) with whom the context is shared, and the authentication results. In many cases, authorization, accounting (possibly later charging), and other security mechanisms make sense only when the other peer, or peers, are authenticated. This holds true not only for ANs, but also for MTs. r Authorization state. Access to each participant’s services and functions should be authorized by either itself or a third party. The authorization results are part of the context and can be dynamically updated.

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r Communication security parameters. To have confidentiality and/or integrity in a communication association, some cryptographic parameters, like keys and algorithms, must be established by both peers. These security parameters may be established during authentication. Security Context in Handover SC shared between an MT and an AN can be retained during a horizontal handover. Similar action can take place during VHO. Another way is to determine old SC with the serving network (SN) and create new SC with the target network (TN), which will be time-consuming. Security context transfer can be studied part by part. Authentical state includes whether other peers are authenticated. The SN may transfer this state to the TN if they trust each other. The SN may also transfer the authorization state to the TN. Questions are as follows: authorization may depend on technology of the AN (such as different QoS levels authorized for 3G cellular networks and WLANs), and network domains (e.g., is it a partner of SPN or not). Furthermore, the authorization state needs to be formalized and standardized to avoid misunderstanding between ANs. Security parameters are also transferable, especially for intrasystem handover; in the case of VHO this issue might be different. SC can be transferred through a wired connection, which is desirable when both the SN and TN’s BSs and APs are permanently installed in the area. Nevertheless, confidentiality and integrity of SC transfer must be ensured; otherwise both ANs and MT are in serious danger.

NETWORK OPERATORS’ SECURITY REQUIREMENTS Within the B3G environment, the role of the MNO is regarded as aggregating services and partner products beyond sole provisioning of connectivity. A successful MNO will play a central role in B3G while having “partnerships” with various participants of the value chain. This role of a mobile network operator is depicted in Figure 9.8. In this figure, “others” can be taken as any other business with which the MNO will have a partnership, this will be mainly to provide services; examples could be a travel agency or a consumer electronics manufacturer. SPs provide services such as roaming, while, as the name suggests, content providers provide content. Site owners will play an important role mainly for hotspot services. Manufacturers, on the other hand, can provide features for networks or terminals. Last but not least, individual users may appear in different roles, for example, in their role as employees, as private persons, or other specific roles. It is clear that most of the partners provide one type of service or another; in the future even users can provide services and play the role of content or service provider. Thus “service” is an important asset for an MNO. Without users there is no business; thus “users” are also an asset. Without a network and its elements one cannot provide any service to users; thus the “network” itself is also an asset. In other words, one can say that service is a tool of the MNO to generate profits from the customers—users are the (main) source of the value chain and the network is the platform to provide the services.

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Users

SPs etc.

Mobile network operator

Others

Manufacturers

Content provider

Site owners

FIGURE 9.8 Role of an MNO in B3G.

Figure 9.9 shows the envisioned role of operators in future communication systems and their assets. Based on this, the assets of the MNO are identified, and security requirements, to protect these assets, can be studied. Because the MNO is the main contact point for users, their security requirements on B3G systems should be carefully considered by the operator with support from other partners. Users’ security requirements, such as to protect their terminal and data from possible network attack, are regarded as part of operators’ requirements because of the direct influence on operators’ business when the requirements are not fulfilled. MNOs link different parties of the value chain. Thus MNOs have the responsibility to take care of party-specific (security) concerns, while balancing this with suitable security solutions to protect the MNO infrastructures. Only in this connection is there a chance to play a role among all participants of the value chain. To achieve a truly secure B3G system, requirements for overall systems should also be drawn, some of which are touched on in this chapter; however, it is a task for future research. Requirements from Users’ Perspective Because user satisfaction is crucial to MNOs, users’ security requirements must be regarded as one of the most important issues for them. Customers will be happy if they can get the service that they want, almost anywhere at any time at a good price and of the required quality. On the other hand, users’ security requirements should Operators’ objective: Coordination of B3G system Customer satisfaction Increased profit Object User

Tool Service

FIGURE 9.9 Network operators’ objective in B3G.

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be fulfilled—this is a basic prerequisite for MNOs. Any compromise of security that has an effect on users’ assets may finally turn out to be a serious problem for the business of an MNO. Users’ requirements of security on systems B3G can be categorized as follows: r Terminal security. Obviously the mobile terminal is an important asset of the user; requirements on terminal security include: r Access control (a mobile terminal can be activated and used only by an authorized user) r Virus-proof (terminal should be protected against viruses, network worms, etc.) r Theft prevention (stolen terminals should be blocked to access networks) r Communication and data privacy, includes: r Security of voice and data communications r Privacy of location, call setup information, user ID, call pattern, and so on r Service usage privacy (unauthorized partners must not know which services are used by any specific user, its usage pattern and volume, etc.). r Service provision security: r Service availability should be ensured to prevent or mitigate DoS attack r Security against fraudulent service providers r E-commerce/m-commerce security To secure users’ assets is part of the goal of security architecture of B3G systems. This is a task of, not only, MNOs, but also manufactures, regulatory bodies, and other participants in the future communication environment. Because of competition, the MNO will usually enhance its service provision (capacity, quality, variety, etc.) to satisfy its customers, possibly by cooperating with other business partners that can be SPs or other network operators. Security mechanisms and services should also be intelligible and easy to use. Besides the direct requirements from users, some requirements which are related to the operation stage should also be considered in system design. Security mechanisms should be either transparent to users, or sufficiently usable, without causing any difficulty or inconvenience for users. Simple operation is more preferable to users; otherwise the mechanism may fail because of users’ reluctance to use it. Security mechanisms should not impair service quality, otherwise business competence will be hindered and, more important, the mechanisms may be bypassed. Giving users the chance to choose between different levels of security through technical configuration may not be a good idea, because inappropriate configurations, which can happen for a large number of users, may be exploited by attackers, and normally leads to serious consequences for public relations. On the other hand, customer support, like education and consulting, are very expensive. Requirements from the Network’s Perspective Wireless access networks are different in terms of their general characteristics such as bandwidth, coverage, cost, QoS, and security. In the B3G era, we are talking

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about the principle of heterogeneity.51 Heterogeneous networks refer to a combination of different network technologies, and possibly opening the MNO “managed/ controlled” network to the Internet, which is not under the control of anyone. This, in addition to the general security requirements for a network, creates several new security issues. In the following we have presented issues related to networks of MNOs. r Secure attachment and detachment to/from the network must be provided. This is to prevent unauthorized users from accessing the network or making use of the connection of a detaching user. r Access control to various services or network elements must be provided by the operator. The allowed level/extent of access should also be decided. r Trust relationships should be built between different networks to which a user might move. This is applicable for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks. r The network must have a good accounting mechanism to charge users correctly; this is both for the benefit of the user as well as the MNO. r In general, the operator should have infrastructure security which prevents tampering of the network and its elements. This goes hand-in-hand with the requirement that the network should be able to identify the tampering, give an alarm, and heal automatically. r Reconfigurability is also a major issue for B3G networks. If network elements are reconfigurable, then it must happen in a secure fashion; the type of reconfiguring should also be correct, and reconfiguration must be in trusted hands. r DoS attack is easily possible in wireless medium, although not easy to prevent in current systems; methods should be sought for future systems to prevent such attacks. r Changes in wireless medium require adaptation in physical and MAC (medium access control) layers; this should not compromise security. r Rogue BSs are also a threat; to prevent this, the MNO should have mechanisms that will identify such BSs and thus protect the users. r MNOs should also watch out for service or content providers making illegal use of the network. r Lawful interception to fulfill the legal obligations. r Network must be installation and repair fraud resistant. r Operations and management of security solutions must be possible and relatively simple. r Extension of network should not lead to weakness in security. r Network architecture of B3G systems should not compromise the extensibility of security services. Requirements from the Service Providers’ Perspective Service and contents to the user can be provided by r MNO r SPs

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r Content providers r Other businesses r Site owners Some of the security requirements that arise here from the MNO point of view are as follows: r Service should be provided to the specified set of users (authentication), according to the agreed upon contractual obligation (authorization), and the usage should be accountable. r Rogue service or content providers can appear, and methods must be developed to deter them. r Secure access to services, from any partner, should be provided. The operator should take care that the SPs are correctly charged, or if the SP is paying the operator, then the operator should take care that it bills the SP correctly. Because cooperation with many other SPs is expected in future communication and service provision systems, nonrepudiation will be very important between operators and SPs to prevent and combat fraud. However, appropriate business models may be more efficient than technology based systems. In the future the number of network operators will increase, and thus a service that can be provided is openness, which will create a positive perception for users. Having openness brings forward several security requirements, level and builds trust among the operators.

9.8

CONCLUDING REMARKS

Migrating current systems to 4G presents enormous challenges. The challenges can be grouped into three aspects: mobile station, system, and service. There is much work to be done in the migration to 4G systems. Current systems must be implemented with a view to facilitate a seamless integration into 4G infrastructure. A great deal of literature has appeared presenting 4G as the ultimate boundary of wireless mobile communication without any limit to its potential, but this literature has not provided any practical design rules. A pragmatic definition of 4G that considers the user as the cornerstone of the design states that 4G will be a convergence platform providing clear advantages in terms of coverage, bandwidth, and power consumption. It will offer a variety of new heterogeneous services. All these characteristics will be supported by multimode/reconfigurable devices and the implementation of interworking ones. As a result of the increase in demand for speed, multimedia support, and other resources, the wireless world is looking forward to a new generation technology to replace 3G. This is where the 4G wireless communication comes into play. 4G wireless communication is expected to provide better speed, high capacity, lower cost, and IP-based services. The main aim of 4G wireless is to replace the current core technology with a single universal technology based on IP. Yet there are several

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challenges that inhibit the progress of 4G, and researchers throughout the world are contributing their ideas to solve these challenges. The following characteristics can be anticipated to define the 4G and service provision models: r Open access heterogeneity r Network access heterogeneity r Service branding Keeping in mind the above 4G characteristics, end-to-end service architectures should have the following desirable properties: r r r r r

Open service and resource allocation model Open capability negotiation and pricing model Trust management Collaborative service constellations Service fault tolerance

4G mobile communication networks are expected to provide all IP-based services for heterogeneous wireless access technologies, assisted by mobile IP to provide seamless Internet access for mobile users. Methodologies for QoS and security support in 4G networks integrate signaling with AAA services to guarantee the user applications, QoS requirements, and achieve efficient AAA. An integrated service and resource management approach is based on the cooperative association among QoS brokers, AAA, and charging systems. Seamless VHO is an important function of beyond 3G systems. Concept transfer can help support seamless VHO while maintaining the required security level. To summarize the security requirements, the following points should be carefully treated in research of 4G systems: r Provision of seamless mobility over heterogeneous networks with sufficient security but no apparent performance compromise r Mobility versus location privacy r Anonymity versus accountability r Assurance that services provided to users are trustworthy, because users will most probably complain to the MNO when they have a problem r Special terminal features and reconfigurability versus security (user may buy mobile devices directly from vendors instead of from operators—the issue here is security for heterogeneous devices) r Last but not least, we should not forget that human and software bugs can be the weakest link in security

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References WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS OVERVIEW 1. A. Goldsmith. Wireless Communications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. 2. V. H. McDonald. “The cellular concept,” Bell System Tech. J. 58 (January 1979): 15–41. 3. F. Abrishamkar and Z. Siveski. “PCS global mobile satellites,” IEEE Commun. Magazine 34 (September 1996): 132–36. 4. R. Ananasso and F. D. Priscoli. “The role of satellites in personal communication services,” Issues on Mobile Satellite Communications for Seamless PCS, IEEE J. Selected Areas in Commun. 11 (January 1993): 6–23. 5. Q. Bi, I. Zysman, and H. Menkes. “Wireless mobile communications at the start of the 21st century,” IEEE Commun. Magazine 39 (January 2001): 110–16. 6. K. R. Rao, Z. S. Bojkovic, and D. A. Milovanovic. Introduction to Multimedia Communications: Applications, Middleware, Networking. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2006. 7. Z. Bojkovic and D. Milovanovic. “Challenges in mobile multimedia requirements and technologies,” WSEAS Trans. on Signal Processing 1, no. 1 (October 2005): 37–78. 8. B. Al-Manthari, H. Hassanien, and N. Nasser. “Packet scheduling in 3.5G high-speed downlink packet access networks: breadth and depth,” IEEE Network 21 (January/ February 2007): 41–46. 9. A. J. Goldsmith and L. J. Greenstein. “A measurements-based model for predicting coverage areas of urban microcells,” IEEE Journal Selected Areas in Commun. 11 (September 1993): 1013–23. 10. A. Mehrotra. Cellular Radio: Analog and Digital Systems. Norwood, MA: Artech House, 1994. 11. J. E. Padgett, C. G. Gunther, and T. Hattori. “Overview of wireless personal communications,” IEEE Commun. Magazine 33 (January 1995): 28–41. 12. J. D. Vriendt et al. “Mobile network evolution: A revolution on the move,” IEEE Commun. Magazine 40, no.4 April 2002): 104–11. 13. W. Song, W. Zhang, and Y. Cheng. “Load balancing for cellular/WLAN integrated networks,” IEEE Network 21 (January/February 2007): 27–33.

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CHAPTER 2 CONVERGENCE TECHNOLOGIES 1. J. Bannister, P. Mather, and S. Coope. Convergence Technologies for 3G Networks: IP, UMTS, EGPRS and ATM. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2004. 2. W. W. Lu. “Compact multidimensional broadband wireless: The convergence of wireless mobile and access,” IEEE Communications Magazine 38 (November 2000): 119–23. 3. S. Maye and A. Umar. “The impact of network convergence on telecommunications software,” IEEE Communications Magazine 39 (January 2001): 78–84.

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4. www.umts-forum.org. 5. K. R. Rao, Z. S. Bojkovic, and D. A. Milovanovic. Introduction to Multimedia Communications: Applications, Middleware, Networking. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2006. 6. K. R. Rao, Z. S. Bojkovic, and D. A. Milovanovic. Multimedia Communication Systems: Techniques, Standards and Networks. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2002. 7. E. B. Dahlman and Y-Ch. Jou. “Evolving technologies for 3G cellular wireless communications systems,” IEEE Commun. Magazine 44 (February 2006): 62–64. 8. P. Bender et al. “CDMA/HDR: A bandwidth efficient high-speed data service for nomadic users,” IEEE Commun. Magazine 38 (July 2000): 75–87. 9. N. Bhushan et al. “CDMA 2000 1xEV-DO revision A: A physical layer and MAC layer overview,” IEEE Commun. Magazine 44 (February 2006): 75–87. 10. S. Pakval et al. “Evolving 3G mobile systems: Broadband and broadcast services in WCDMA,” IEEE Communications Magazine 44 (February 2006): 68–74. 11. P. Viswanatah et al. “Opportunistic beamforming using dumb antennas,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory 48, no.6 (June 2002): 1277–94. 12. A. Jolali et al. “Data throughput of CDMA HDR a high efficiency, high data rate personal communication wireless system,” in Proc. IEEE VCT, 1854–58, Tokyo, Japan, May 2000. 13. J. F. Cheng. “On the coding gain of incremental redundancy over chase combining,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom, 107–12, San Francisco, CA, December 2003. 14. A. Samunkic. “UMTS universal mobile telecommunications system: Development of standards for the third generation,” IEEE Trans. Vehic. Tech. 47 (November 1998): 1099–1104. 15. F. Akyyildiz et al. “Medium access control protocols for multimedia traffic in wireless networks,” IEEE Network 13 (July/August 1999): 39–47. 16. E. Dahlman et al. “UMTS/IMT2000 based on wideband CDMA,” IEEE Commun. Magazine 36 (September 1998): 70–81. 17. Z. Bojkovic, M. Stojanovic, and B. Milovanovic. “Current developments towards the 4G wireless system,” in Proc. Int. Conf TELSIX, 229–32, Nis, Serbia, September 2005. 18. Z. Bojkovic and B. Bakmaz. “Quality of service and security as frameworks towards next-generation wireless networks,” WSEAS Trans. Commun. 4, no. 4 (April 2005): 147–53. 19. D. Milovanovic and Z. Bojkovic. “Trends in multimedia over wireless broadband networks,” WSEAS Trans. on Commun. 4, no. 11 (November 2005): 1292–97. 20. B. Bakmaz and Z. Bojkovic. “Internet Protocol version 6 as backbone of heterogeneous networks” in Proc. IWSSIP, 255–59, Chalcida, Greece, September 2005. 21. S. Y. Hui and K. H. Yeung. “Challenges in the migration to 4G mobile systems,” IEEE Commun. Magazine 41 (December 2003): 54–59. 22. Q. Zhang et al. “Cooperative opportunistic transmission for wireless ad hoc networks,” IEEE Network 21 (January/February 2007): 14–20. 23. 3GPP TS 25.308. High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDA): Overall Description, Rel. 5, March 2003. 24. 3GPP TS25.214. Physical Layer Procedures, Rel. 5, N.5.5.0, June 2003. 25. B. A. Manthari, H. Hassanien, and N. Nasser. “Packet scheduling in 3.5G high-speed downlink packet access networks: Breadth and depth,” IEEE Network 21 (January/ February 2007): 41–46. 26. T. Kolding et al. “High speed downlink protocol access WCDMA evolution,” IEEE Vehic. Soc. News 50 (February 2003): 4–10.

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CHAPTER 3 WIRELESS VIDEO 1. M. Etoh and T. Yoshimura. “Advances in wireless video delivery,” Proc. of the IEEE 93 (January 2005): 111–22. 2. M. Etoh and T. Yoshimura. “Wireless video applications in 3G and beyond,” IEEE Wireless Commun. 12 (August 2005): 66–72. 3. A. Vetro, J. Xin, and H. Sun. “Error resilience video transcoding for wireless communications,” IEEE Wireless Commun. 12, no. 4 (August 2005): 14–21. 4. A. Katsaggelos et al. “Energy-efficient wireless video coding and delivery,” IEEE Wireless Commun. 12 (August 2005): 24–30. 5. M. Chen and A. Zakhor. “Rate control for streaming video over wireless,” IEEE Wireless Commun. 12 (August 2005): 32–41. 6. ITU Rec.H.264 ISO/IEC 14996-10. AVC, Advanced Video Coding for General Audiovisual Services, 2003. 7. T. Stockhammer and M. M. Hannuksela. “H.264/AVC video for wireless transmission,” IEEE Wireless Commun. 12 (August 2005): 6–13. 8. A. Vetro, C. Christopoulos, and H. Sun. “An overview of video transcoding architectures and techniques,” IEEE Signal Processing 20, (March 2003): 18–29. 9. K. R. Rao and P. Yip. Discrete Cosine Transform: Algorithms, Advantages, Applications. New York: Academic Press, 1990. 10. M. van der Schaar et al. “Adaptive cross-layer protection strategies for robust scalable video transmission over 802.11 WLANs,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Commun. 21 (December 2003): 1752–63. 11. W. Tan and A. Zakhor. “Real-time Internet video using error resilient scalable compression and TCP-friendly transport protocol,” IEEE Trans. Multimedia 1 (June 1999): 172–86. 12. K. Ratham and I. Mata. “WTCP: An efficient mechanism for improving wireless access to TCP services,” Int. Commun. Syst. 16 (February 2003): 47–62. 13. N. Samarawera. “Non-congestion packet loss detection for TCP error recovery using wireless links,” IEE Proc. Commun. 146, (August 1999): 222–30. 14. P. Sinha et al. “WTCP: A reliable transport protocol for wireless wide-area networks,” Wireless Networks 8, no. 2–3 (March–April 2002): 301–16. 15. L. S. Brakmo and L. L. Peterson. “TCP Vegas: End-to-end congestion control avoidance on a Global Internet,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Commun. 13, no. 8 (October 1995): 1465–80. 16. K. R. Rao and J. J. Hwang. Techniques and Standards for Image, Video and Audio Coding. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1996. 17. Z. S. Bojkovic and D. A. Milovanovic. “Audiovisual integration in multimedia communications based on MPEG-4 facial animation,” Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing 20 (May–June 2001): 311–39. 18. R. Talluri. “Error-resilient video coding in the ISO MEPG-4 standard,” IEEE Commun. Magazine 36, no. 6 (June 1998): 112–19. 19. G. Sullivan and T. Wiegand. “Video compression—From concepts to the H.264/AVC standard,” Proc. of the IEEE 93 (January 2005): 18–31. 20. T. Wiegand et al. “Overview of the H.264/AVC video coding standard,” IEEE Trans. CSVT 13 (July 2003): 560–76. 21. S. Wenger. “H.264/AVC over IP,” IEEE Trans. CSVT 13 (July 2003): 545–56. 22. T. Stockhamer, M. M. Hannuksela, and T. Wiegand. “H.264/AVC in wireless environment,” IEEE Trans. CSVT 13 (July 2003): 657–73. 23. H. Malwar et al. “Low complexity transform and quantization in H.264/AVC,” IEEE Trans. CSVT 13, no. 7 (July 2003): 598–603.

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24. D. Marfe, H. Schwarz, and T. Wiegand. “Context-adaptive binary arithmetic coding for H.264/AVC,” IEEE Trans. CSVT 13 (July 2003): 620–36. 25. J. Ribas-Corbera, P. A. Chou, and S. L. Regunathan. “A generalized hypothetical reference decoder for H.264/AVC,” IEEE Trans. CSVT 13 (July 2003): 674–87. 26. Y. W. Huang et al. “Analysis, fast algorithm and VLSI architecture design for H.264/ AVC intra-frame coding,” IEEE Trans. CSVT 15, no. 3 (March 2005): 378–401. 27. F. Pan et al. “Fast mode decision algorithm for intra-prediction in H.264/AVC,” IEEE Trans. CSVT 13 (July 2003): 813–22. 28. S. Kwan, A. Tamhankar, and K. R. Rao. “Overview of the H.264/MPEG-4 Part10,” Journal of Visual Commun. and Image Representation 17 (April 2006): 186–216. 29. S. Vanger et al. RTP Payload Format for H.264 Video, IETF RFC3984, February 2005. 30. T. Wiegand. “Rate-constrained coder control and compression of video coding standards,” IEEE Trans. CSVT 13 (July 2003): 688–703. 31. I. E. G. Richardson. H.264 and MPEG-4 Video Compression for Next-Generation Multimedia. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2003. 32. K. R. Rao, Z. S. Bojkovic, and D. A. Milovanovic. Introduction to Multimedia Communications: Applications, Middleware, Networking. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2006.

CHAPTER 4 WIRELESS MULTIMEDIA SERVICES AND APPLICATIONS 1. A. Salkintzis and N. Passas, eds. Emerging Wireless Multimedia: Services and Technologies. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2005. 2. D. Wu, Y. T. Hou, and Y.-Q. Zhang. “Transporting real-time video over the Internet: Challenges and approaches,” Proc. of the IEEE 88, no. 12 (December 2000): 1855–77. 3. Q. Zhang, W. Zhu, and Y.-Q. Zhang. “End-to-end QoS for video delivery over wireless Internet,” Proc. of the IEEE 93 (January 2005): 123–34. 4. J. Wroclawski. The Use of RSVP with IETF Integrated Services, RFC2210, September 1997. 5. D. Grossman. New Terminology and Classification for DiffServ, RFC3260, April 2002. 6. W. Li. “Overview of fine granularity scalability in MPEG-4 video standard,” IEEE Trans. CSVT 11, no. 3 (March 2001): 301–17. 7. F. Wu, S. Li, and Y.-Q. Zhang. “A framework for efficient progressive fine granularity scalable video coding,” IEEE Trans. CSVT 11 (March 2001): 332–44. 8. M. van der Schaar and H. Rodha. “Adaptive motion compensation fine-granular-scalability (AMC-FGS) for wireless video,” IEEE Trans. CSVT 12 (June 2002): 360–71. 9. K. D. Wong and V. K. Varma. “Supporting real-time IP multimedia services in UMTS,” IEEE Commun. Magazine 41 (November 2003): 148–55. 10. 3GPP TS22.140 v5.1.0 (2002–03). Stage 1 Multimedia Messaging Service (Release 5). 11. 3GPP TS23.060 v6.0.0 (2002–03). Generalized Packet Radio Service (GPRS), Service Description, Stage 2 (Release 6). 12. G. Camarillo and M.-A. Garcia-Martin. The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS), Merging the Internet and the Cellular Worlds. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2004. 13. J. Rosenberg et al. SIP: Session Initiation Protocol, RFC3261, June 2002. 14. K. R. Rao, Z. S. Bojkovic, and D. A. Milovanovic. Introduction to Multimedia Communication: Applications, Middleware, Networking. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2006. 15. M. Hundley and V. Jacobson. SDP: Session Description Protocol, RFC2327, April 1998.

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CHAPTER 5

WIRELESS NETWORKING STANDARDS

1. K. R. Rao, Z. S. Bojkovic, and D. Milovanovic. Introduction to Multimedia Communications: Applications, Middleware, Networking. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2006. 2. K. R. Rao, Z. S. Bojkovic, and D. Milovanovic. Multimedia Communication Systems: Techniques, Standards and Networking. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2002. 3. Z. Bojkovic, D. Milovanovic, and A. Samcovic. Multimedia communication systems: techniques, standards and networking, in Proc. Int. Workshop Trends and Recent Achievements in Information Technology, 19–41, Cluj Napoca, Romania, May 2002. 4. A. K. Salkintzis and N. Pasas, eds. Emerging Wireless Multimedia Services and Technologies. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 2005. 5. A. Ganz, Z. Ganz, and K. Wongthavarewat. Multimedia Wireless Network: Technologies, Standards and QoS. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2003. 6. A. Santamaria and F. J. Lopez-Hernandez. Wireless LAN Standards and Applications. Norwood, MA: Artech House, 2001. 7. WIANA, Wireless Networking Standards and Organizations, Wireless LAN Association, April 2002. http://www.wiana.org.

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CHAPTER 7 CROSS-LAYER WIRELESS MULTIMEDIA 1. W. Kumviaisek et al. “A cross-layer quality of service mapping architecture for video delivery in wireless networks,” IEEE J. Selected Areas Commun. 21 (December 2003): 1685–98. 2. A. Ortega and K. Ramchandran. “Rate distortions for image and video compression,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine 15 (October 2001): 23–50. 3. K. R. Rao, Z. S. Bojkovic, and D. A. Milovanovic. Multimedia Communication Systems: Techniques, Standards and Networks. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2002. 4. M. VanderShaar and S. Shankar. “Cross-layer wireless multimedia transmission: Challenges, principles and new paradigms,” IEEE Wireless Commun. 12 (August 2005): 50–58. 5. V. Kawadia and P. R. Kumar. “A cautionary perspective on cross-layer design,” IEEE Wireless Commun. 12 (February 2006): 3–11. 6. E. Salton et al. “Cross-layer design for ad hoc networks for real-time video streaming,” IEEE Wireless Commun. 12 (August 2005): 59–65. 7. S. Shakkottai, T. S. Rappaport, and P. C. Karlsson. “Cross-layer design for wireless networks,” IEEE Commun. Magazine 41 (October 2003): 74–80. 8. Q. Liu, Sh. Zhak, and G. B. Giannakis. “Cross-layer scheduling with perceived QoS guarantees in adaptive wireless networks,” IEEE J. Selected Areas Commun. 23 (May 2005): 1056–66. 9. H. Wang and N. Moayeri. “Finite state Markov channel—A useful model for radio communication channels,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Tech. 44 (February 1995): 163–71. 10. G. J. Sullivan and T. Wiegand. “Video compression—From concepts to the H.264/AVC standard,” Proc. of the IEEE 93 (January 2005): 18–31. 11. M. Johnson and L. Xiao. “Cross-layer optimization of wireless networks using nonlinear column generation,” IEEE Trans. on Wireless Commun. 5 (February 2006): 435–45. 12. Z. Bojkovic and D. Milovanovic. “H.264 video transmission over IEEE802.11 based wireless networks: QoS cross-layer optimization,” WSEAS Trans. on Communications 5 (September 2006): 1777–94. 13. Z. Bojkovic and D. Milovanovic. “Cross-layer quality of service for video wireless multimedia delivery: Some challenges and principles,” WSEAS Trans. on Communications 4 (January 2007): 17–22. 14. Z. Bojkovic and B. Bakmaz. “Need for cross-layer optimization in ad hoc networks for real-time video streaming,” in Proc. IWSSIP, 361–364, Budapest, Hungary, September 2006.

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15. B. Girod et al. “Advances in channel-adaptive video streaming,” Wireless Commun. and Mobile Comput. 2 (September 2002): 549–52. 16. R. Katz, “Adaptive and mobility in wireless information systems,” IEEE Pers. Commun. 1 (2nd qtr. 1994): 6–17. 17. D. Majumdar et al. “Multicast and unicast real-time video streaming over wireless LAN’s,” IEEE Trans. CSVT 12 (June 2002): 524–34. 18. H. Jiang and X. Shen. “Cross-layer design for resource allocation in 3G wireless networks and beyond,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 43 (December 2005): 120–26. 19. I. M. Kim and H. M. Kim. “Efficient power management schemes for video service in CDMA systems,” Electronics Letters 36 (June 2000): 1149–50. 20. S. Zhao, Z. Xiong, and X. Wang. “Joint error control and power allocation for video transmission over CDMA networks with multi user detection,” IEEE Trans. CSVT 12 (June 2002): 425–37. 21. L. P. Kondi, F. Ishliak, and A. K. Katsaggelos. “Joint source-channel coding for motion compensated DCT-based SNR scalable video,” IEEE Trans. Image Processing 11 (September 2002): 1043–52. 22. Q. Zhang et al. “Power-minimized bit allocation for video communication over wireless channels,” IEEE Trans. CSVT 12 (June 2002): 398–410. 23. S. Blake et al. An Architecture for Differentiated Services, IETF RFC 2475, December 1998. 24. T. K. Liu and J. A. Silvester. “Joint admission/congestion control for wireless CDMA systems supporting integrated services,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Commun. 16 (August 1998): 845–57. 25. I. F. Akyildiz, D. A. Levine, and I. Joe. “A slotted CDMA protocol with BER scheduling for wireless multimedia networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking 7 (April 1999): 146–58. 26. V. Huang and W. Zhuang. “QoS-oriented packet scheduling for wireless multimedia CDMA communications,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing 3 (January–February 2004): 73–85. 27. H. Jiang and W. Zhuang. “Cross-layer resource allocation for integrated voice/data traffic in wireless cellular networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 5 (February 2006): 457–68. 28. V. Jacobson, K. Nichols, and K. Poduri. An Expedited Forwarding PHB, IETF RFC 2598, June 1999. 29. J. Heinanen et al. Assured Forwarding PHB Group, IETF RFC 2597, June 1999. 30. P. Viswanath et al. “Opportunistic beamforming using clumb antennas,” IEEE Trans. Information Theory 48 (June 2002): 1277–94. 31. X. Liu, E. Chong, and N. Schroff. “Opportunistic transmission scheduling with resource-sharing constraints in wireless networks,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Commun. 19 (October 2001): 2053–64. 32. C. Y. Wong et al. “Multiuser OFDM with adaptive subcarrier, bit and power allocation,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Commun. 17 (October 1999): 1747–58. 33. J. Chuang and N. Sollenberger. “Beyond 3G: Wideband wireless data access based on OFDM and dynamic packet assignment,” IEEE Commun. Magazine 38 (July 2000): 78–87. 34. G. Song and Y. Li. “Utility-based resource allocation and scheduling in OFDMbased wireless broadband networks,” IEEE Commun. Magazine 43 (December 2005): 127–34.

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CHAPTER 8 MOBILE INTERNET 1. P. Stuckmon, The GSM Evolution—Mobile Packet Data Services. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2003. 2. P. Bhagwat, C. Perkins, and S. Tripathi. “Network layer mobility: An architecture and survey,” IEEE Pers. Commun. 3 (June 1996): 56–64. 3. I. F. Akylidiz et al. “Mobility management in current and future communications networks,” IEEE Network 12 (July/August 1998): 34–49. 4. D. Saha et al. “Mobility support in IP: A survey of related protocols,” IEEE Network 18 (November/December 2004): 34–40. 5. A. T. Campbell et al. “Comparison of IP micromobility protocols,” IEEE Wireless Commun. 9 (February 2002): 72–82. 6. T. B. Zahariadis et al. “Global roaming in next-generation networks,” IEEE Commun. Magazine 40 (February 2002): 145–51. 7. A. T. Campbell et al. “Design and performance of cellular IP networks,” IEEE Pers. Commun. 7 (August 2000): 42–49. 8. S. Dos et al. “TeleMIP: telecommunications-enhanced MIP architecture for fast intradomain mobility,” IEEE Pers. Commun. 7 (August 2000): 50–58. 9. A. Misra et al. “Autoconfiguration, registration and mobility management for pervasive computing,” IEEE Pers. Commun. 8 (August 2001): 24–31. 10. J. F. Huber. “Mobile next-generation networks,” IEEE Multimedia 11 (January–March 2004): 72–83. 11. P. Newman. “In search of the all-IP mobile network,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 42 (December 2004): 53–58. 12. C. E. Perkins. MobileIP: Design, Principles and Practices. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley Longman, 1998. 13. J. D. Solomon. MobileIP, the Internet Unplugged. Upper Saddle River, NJ: PrenticeHall, 1998. 14. J. Li and H. H. Chen. “Mobility support for IP-based networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 43 (October 2005): 127–32. 15. H. Solima et al. Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 Mobility Management, IETF Network working group, October 2004. 16. P. S. Henry and H. Luo. “WiFi: What’s next?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 40 (December 2002): 66–72. 17. I. F. Akyildiz, J. Xie, and S. Mohanty. “A survey of mobility management in nextgeneration all-IP-based wireless systems,” IEEE Wireless Commun. 11 (August 2004): 16–28. 18. P. K. Bestand and R. Pendse. “Quantitative analysis of enhanced mobile IP,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 44 (June 2006): 66–72. 19. C. Perkins. IP Mobility Support for IPv4, RFC3344, August 2002. 20. C. Perkings. IP Encapsulation within IP, RFC2003, October 1996. 21. A. K. Talukdar, B. R. Badrinath, and A. Acharya. “MRSVP: A resource reservation protocol for an integrated service network with mobile hosts,” Wireless Networks 7 (January–February 2001): 5–19. 22. C. Tseng, G. Lee, and R. Liu. “A hierarchical mobile RSVP protocol,” Wireless Networks 9 (March–April 2003): 95–102. 23. S. Paskalis et al. “An efficient RSVP-mobile IP interworking scheme,” Mobile Networks and Apps. 8 (June 2003): 197–207. 24. H. Levkowetz and S. Vaarala. Mobile IP Traversal of Network Address Translation (NAT) Devices, RFC3519, April 2003. 25. P. Srisuresh and K. Egevang. Traditional IP Network Address Translator (Traditional NAT), RFC3022, January 2001.

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26. D. Johnson, C. Perkins, and J. Arkko. Mobility Support in IPv6, RFC3775, June 2003. 27. S. Pack and K. Park. “SAMP: Scalable application-layer mobility protocol,” IEEE Commun. Magazine 44 (June 2006): 86–92. 28. J. Hillebrand et al. “Quality-of-service signaling up for next generation IP-based mobile networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 42 (June 2004): 72–79. 29. R. L. Aguiar et al. “Scalable QoS-aware mobility for future mobile operators,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 44 (June 2006): 95–102. 30. R. Koodli. Fast Handovers for Mobile IPv6, RFC4068, July 2005. 31. S. Blake et al. An Architecture for Differentiated Services, RFC2475, December 1998. 32. M. Liebsh et al. Candidate Access Router Discovery (CARD), RFC4066, July 2006. 33. G. Camarillo and M. A. Garcia-Martin. The 3G Multimedia Subsystem—Merging the Internet and the Cellular Worlds. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2004. 34. Ch. Kalmanek et al. “A network-based architecture for seamless mobility services,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 44 (June 2006): 103–9. 35. L. Dryburgh and J. Hewitt. Signaling System No. 7 (SS7/C7): Protocol, Architecture and Services. Cisco Press, 2004.

CHAPTER 9 EVOLUTION TOWARD 4G NETWORKS 1. A. M. Safwat and H. Mouftah, “4G network technologies for mobile telecommunications,” IEEE Network 19 (September–October 2005): 3–4. 2. S. Y. Hui and K. H. Yeung, “Challenges in the migration to 4G mobile systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 41 (December 2003): 54–59. 3. E. Buracchini. “The software concept,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 38 (September 2000): 138–43. 4. J. Al-Muhtadi, D. Mickunas, and R. Campbell. “A lightweight reconfigurable security mechanism for 3G/4G mobile devices,” IEEE Wireless Commun. 9 (April 2002): 60–65. 5. N. Montavont and T. Noel. “Handover management for mobile nodes in IPv6 networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 40 (August 2002): 38–43. 6. 3GPPTS 23.107 v5.9.0. Quality of Service (QoS): Concept and Architecture, August 2002. 7. D. Tipper et al. “Providing fault tolerance in wireless access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 40 (January 2002): 58–64. 8. F. Ghys and A. Vaaraniemi. “Component-based charging in a next-generation multimedia network,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 41 (January 2003): 99–102. 9. A. D. Stefano and C. Santoro. “NetChaser: Agent support for personal mobility,” IEEE Internet Comp. 4 (March/April 2000):74–79. 10. K. Pahlaven and A. H. Levesgne. Wireless Information Networks. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2005. 11. S. Frattasi et al. “Defining 4G technology from the user’s perspective,” IEEE Network 20 (January/February 2006): 35–41. 12. B. Scheiderman. Lenardo’s Laptop—Human Needs and the New Computing Technologies. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002. 13. http://kom.acu.ch/project/jade. 14. S. Y. Hui and K. H. Yeung. “Challenges in the migration to 4G mobile systems,” IEEE Commun. Magazine 41 (December 2003): 54–59. 15. S. Frattasi, E. Chanca, and B. Prasad. “An integrated AP for seamless interworking of existing WMAN and WLAN standards,” Kluwer/Springer WPC, Special issue in increasing efficiency in broadband fixed wireless access systems: from physical to network layer solutions, January 2006.

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