A Comprehensive English Grammar

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LONGMA.N GROL'r LIMITED Lon gman HOUK, Burnt Mill, Harlo,", Euu CM20 2] E, England alld A UoXla l,J e;., ,,,paltlt . rll ","l~o'" rht World

I COH E NT S I pllgt P R E F AC E

Cl C,E, E cker $le ~ and J.M , [eke r';!e)' 1960



All rq:Il U rt ~ r\'td . f'; o ~Il of , II i" publi~a lio n m ~) be reprod uced , slored in II relrieval w sre m. or. r lll n~. mIll ed" In lln~ form 01 b y ll n~ mean... e"'dl"n~. me,~nical. p1'1010

.~ \ b'""cmj /lt llo/ OM A M Yl\

OJ, ! 'f dowl

_owuvIY -. xC.Tl12>-. ......

Wory'y ~

c.o~ t: ~

- - I ( j . I..\ S S I H C \1/ 0 S

It is most important to remember that words are classified into l'a rl ~ of speech accord ing 10 tlu-ir run ct tcn. that is ncconlmg to thr work t hat they do and not according to their form. There are in fact a grsar many words that can be two • • three or even more parts of speech arrording to the work they do. Take for example these sentences. -( I f lie came by a Yery k ISt train. -f~ ~ William ran very l p sl, ~3j. They are going to 7,:!!/ for t hree days; during that time t hey won 't eat a nything. ..(4)- At the end of his three day lfEl he will have a very light meal. In (r) f ast is an adjective, in (2) it is nn a,I\'('rl1, in (3) a verb, and in (4) a noun . Or note th e differing uses of wal, h in: ~ly fat her gave me a watch fo r my birrh.ln y I am going to waf,h a football ma tch . Hex is a geed Tcnfdl dog. Or of spring in: The sP,illg of my watch is broken. The dog tried to sp ring ever the gate t Jove sp,i n~ flowers. w ords like drink, look , smoke, ~as/', ~wim , J, i,,( . I,)' are aljgenerally used as verbs, bu t . especially in familiar ccnvcrsation , we pu t ' hI!l'( a' before t hem ('h:\\"e a drink. look, t ry, etc.'), and t hey become nouns. Words like shoulder, head, Jingtr, eye, elbow. hand , etc.. arc generally nouns: but we can 'shoulder our way' , 'head a football or a procession', 'fillger an object', 'tye a person ' , 'tlbt: ~~)r ~o,

I ' m Aust ri~n . (~ ) YI':'. he has (3) :io, only for I ke mon.ths. (-4 ) \ es. we go there eve ry yea L·(5) \ 'e::5 n~ him very well. (6) reo. he has a bad accen t ' (7). \ ea. I wen t .t here last :\Iay . (8) Yes, I saw heron t he ship. (9) She ~1~ t hat she was coming home next week (10) Because It IS such a cold day. VttI Ana lyse t he followi n ~ se ntences in t he tnanucr shown on page 10, (I ) Ur.lsht yellow daffodils can he seen in th e gardens II I spn ng. . .




.-l COlllp, dl (ffSit, ~ E uglull G,,,mnu' 0 _ dav (1) At w em blev last Satur a} a h u ndred thousand apectatoIS l~most exerting fl)Ol bal1 ~tcb . . • (J) All the st udent s in m (:las!> a re workin thIS D. year in order 0 pass their exammatlO I X Pick ou t the compleme nts in the following sentences .


! N O U N S : (I) KI NDS \

(1) Nelson was a sailor. (2) he fur fee:1s soft. (3) T he toOm looks clean and tidf ' (4) . Ie tlllk(6\U!&~ \t~~'k Owin~ the thunder (s That IS b e. easy lft~ rned ou t diif1cu tt· (7) He ~ent remai ke S01Unds s tupid to t 1BT1!l:at as W I as a e c" s c me (9) The man grew weiker ~Very gay. IloJ ~



th?i a ve worn m. (1l)!bey elected him President. I'l) tie caillcd) ire

~ ha.1t~

&eeii wcll..$QIn


man a thi~f. (I)) ~es his whisky neat , 14 M 'tW"m;tt ee a ppointed George capta'n of the team. (I S) Set t he people free. . \\n at is the difference between t he com ple ments In . 5enten ces

1 -1 0

and t hose



I I-IS · •

• •

:\ noun is t he name of anything: IHdlJ , COUIU,y, (ily, I1ell'y, Spai n, Pa ris, happiness, uhilet/ess, "wd, teem , All t hese are names of people, places or t h ings: all are nouns , ~ou n s may be classified logica lly into two main categories: -( I O~~C R 12 t( ~ H STk AC4 Concrete nouns are represented by sue wor s as ma,l, country, Henry , Spai", Paris, crotrd, 114m. Abstract nouns by such words as happi'lfH , ,,-hi/nUB, brau/.\'. health, Concrete n ~u!l s may be sub-d ivided into two categories, T he names ma ti, COIIIII ,)", cou l,ly, city can be applied t o an y man, any country. any cit y ; t hey are names tha t all men , countries, CIties share in common. They a re called jIhrksJBut Ilenry , George T1Iompson ,l Spaiu , Yorkshire, ans are not na mes t hat can be applied to any man, any count ry , a ny count y, a ny ci t y. They are names of a part icular man , a particular countr ,a ar ticular count y, a pa r ticular ci ty. They are called PROPEI NounS like boys. books . app t. . aur ink are 'uncountable ; like bread. glass, sand , stea:"t:;;'c~not be coun ted . they can they stand for subs tanCe5 these words. e.g. glass. PIlP".. stmlt, only be measured. Som~ ~ f text and with a dlfferent ,--_ 'count able In one con ' , . mer: etc can uo: \o l j " . 'uncoun table In ano ' . ' ' J m",amng, . of lass (Um 014n1ablt ). tit A glass (Countable) 15 ma(~e ~ble) at a wall made of slMlt . rIO You can throw a ,s~t ou c ) ' "" .:r , {Uncountable . ." (C tablt ). There is paper ( L nI have an evening paptr DUn bl ) oSe t oday. The food is packed countablt ) on ~he wall. The price of 'In (Ulltounla e r in ,inS (Countable). ....- ~ (Um oul'llablt) . 1 ga\"e the boy ->' The kettle is made of copra -s "> . f c ,J,pers (Countablt) . t -"'. ,; ..1", a ~r . " count able or uncountable; mos , \f ": "..Common nouns rna} be t om e persnttra nce. trut1l, are ,./ abstract nouns. e.g . helP'bl ~n~ have a plural torm, and uncount able.' Only countabee ~eceded in the singular by the P nly count able nouns can

An important ~amma

,,! .


y,lled · ~t et"w· I\ouns. . ' Nouns o f l h lt kind are son,et,m:':un lable a nd can be uted In t he


:;! l

mdefinite article (II, lUI), Proper nouns, since t hey are thr names of a particular person, place or thins , ar~ usually singular, but t hey are coun table and may at times be plur al. e.g, the Hi",alaj 'as, the Wes' I ndies. the S m iths; or in such a sentence as. 'There are three J ohns [i.e. three boys with thename J ohn )"1n my class.'

------e: ns, square. patience, bea uty, Bodmi'I, rivalry, mcc.tmg, crry t raffi c, noisiness, Hyd e Park, crowd. \Vh ~ch of the a bove words are ~UT CUll llJlUn noun s? Which are abst ract , which colledive? It 'John, co~e here! Will you come t o t he t heat re ,,'it h mer ' ~"~ lIch t h,e~tre ~ ' 'Covent Garden.' ' What's the opera? Tosc a Wh o wrote it ?' ' Puccini ' ' Wha t's t he p ~lce of t he t ickets ?' 'Sixt y-t wo pence.' 'Sor ry, I haven t t he money; I 've been bettin.t: too much recently . I lost a lot on t he Der by.' 'Oh r ou didn ' t back Crepello , then ]" ' No, worse luck!' • Pick out and classify t he nouns ill the abo ve l" l "S;'~ C. III \V~ ic h of th e followinG" nou ns are 'ccun table s' ;uul whICh a re ' u nccu n ta bles'j me.u, ,. WiS4 11Cil', ,AWllde" s~, fisA, cAuse, bll4"i P4,tJl, tree, .

In a number of compound nouns, especially those that.h,ave been in t he language a long t ime during which t he ongmal mea nin gs of t heir elemen t s have .becom e. obscured, t he vowel in one or oth er , and even occasiona lly In both, h as become shortened or otherwise modified, e .g . bred/ as: {'b rekb s t ] (_ break fast); shepherd ('Ie~) (_ sheep herd); /01ehead ['fori d] ( = fore hea d); cupboiud ['kAb id) ( _ cup board ); S unday ['SAnd i] (= su n day ); NeTJItrm ('nju :t n] (..: new town ); Portsmouth ('po : tsm~ e] ( _ port's mouth) ; lxmfire [ 'bonfai~] (ori gina lly fxme fi re); poa_,. ('pousbn.n] (_ pest man), etc.


Tll,£ GR .. uutA'IlCAL

Iruxcrrc xs



A n ou n may be u sed: -: • -{I}- As t he subject of a sentence , e g , Th e boy open ed t he d oor. -{2,. As the direct object of a v er b , e,g , I saw t he boy,



I V F onn abstract nouns from t hese words: proud , beau t iful, paren t , likely, cowa rd, tr a it or. Infan t , sane, courteous. you ng. \' (4) What is the correc t eollect ive noun for a n um ber of: (I) lions. (2) sheep. b ) people a t a football match , (4) wolves, (.5). elephants. (6) fish. (7) people in ch urch , (8) people hstenmg ~ a concert. (9) sailors on a shi p? (b) Supply the a ppropnate collec ti ve nou ns to complete the following ex pressions: aof stars, a o f oxen. a cards a of t rees, a 01 di~n.l e rl v of br igands, a people, a of hou nds, a _ 0 1 lh ips. a _ CUrIOS, a of books. a _ of aircra ft . V I \\'ha ~ q ual ~ties (expressed h y a bst ract nO llns) dn VIt5r. cW'rhrce words form their plural in -en. They are: d uM - , hildren: 0% - O%t n: broth,r - br"dhrm. T he usual plural of bro/her is, of course , broth, rs. B rethren , which was the usual plural un ti l the seven teen th century, is now used wi th the mean ing 'members of the same society or religious order ', • B ut R rn\ .. . . . . . .


See rJ'O ~gtls ] ') and 3 1.


.,. (I) sufferings. (2) care, trou ble (' to take pains with some thing '). { ,,,emises = (1) things assumed as true as basis for an argument . (2) buildings. quarters = (1) fourth parts. (2) lodgings . reJUNlJ =z (I ) recu rrences ('many happy relu"U'). (2) statistical details ('rrlunss of inco me for tax purposes'). /spectllcles7 ~ (I) sights; t hings seen. (2) glasses to aid sight . spirits (I) souls . (2) alcoholic liquors. (J) mental or moral attitude ('in high spir.ts').







J -

An interest ing peculi arity is the occasional use of the plural form to intensify th e meaning expressed by the singu lar or to suggest great quan tity or extent , e.g. the saMs of the desert; t he snOU's andf! osts of the Antarctic; the w;;u,.s of the lake; the J;;;;Vms above our heads; a walk througFi" th e U'OOlis; swayed between hopes and fellrs .




I \\'hieh of the alternatives in the following sentences

are correct? Give reasons. (I ) The com m itt ee wasjwere of t he opin ion t hat th e matter ~hould be dealt ..ith at o nce. (2) The crowd behaved iuelfjthem!oelves admirably . (J) The congregat ion ~jare no t n umerous tonight . b ut it /they seemsjseem t o be listening very attentively to t he sermon. (4} The staR wasjwere opposed. to any chan ge. (.5 ) The orchest ra ~jare playing tomorrow evening. (6) The whole herd rush ed headlong to its/t heir

de-st ruc t i, m .



I •



A CQmprdunsit'e English Grammar


II What is th,2 {l1~11 formff th e following nouns? .~.;.:J, - ~ 0 1 Q.nloo!ler"looker-on: tige!:lily ; woman teacher; moth-ball; majo'-:generaT;madam ; manservant; Jnanhofe: manai-arms. J ;" ";, ....... A III Wh at is wrong with t he following sen tences. and why? (1) I have come to perfect my knowledges of E nglish. (2) Can you give me any informat ions or advices on t his matter? (3) Th e news are good this evening. (..) I opened t he letter and it contained an important infonn ation. (.5) I went t o my doctor for an ad vice about my health, (6) I have several jackets, but only one trousers , (7) My pyjama is at t he laundry. I V Each of t hese words can have two different meanings. Ill ustra te this in sentences, sp irilS; It/ters; customs; f Ol'us; grounds; minutes. V Wh a t are t he plural forms of t he following:? gentleman, lady-in-wailing, stepson, watchman, tradeunion. VI H ow would you describe; • (I) Two m en na med Smith, (2 ) The two dau ght ers of Mr. J ones. (3) The wives of the two men in (I)? VII Give one word for the following: (1) The table on wh ich the games of (a) billiards, and (b) car ds are played . (2) One hal f of a pair o f trousers . (3) The place where t he game of bowls is played, (4) The board on which t he game oi, draughts is played. {s} An instrument for weighing groceries, etc. VIII Complete the following sentences with is, an, was, wen as appr opriate: (1) The clergy _ generally dr essed in black , (2) Greens a wholesome spring vegetable. (3) Whea t _ used to make flour. (4) The first innings of the Test match _ nearly di sastrous for t he English team, (.5 ) The Polilies of Aristo tle studied at Oxford. IX Comment fully on the mea ning and number of the following words, explaining differences of me aning be tween singular and plu ral forms wher e both exist: salts, alms, paper, quarter, spectacles, draught, effects, return, manner, glass, work, pain.




The ~' oncept ,of gt:n~er has nu grallllllatil.:aJ Junction in m odern English. H IS possible, however , t o group words into three cetegones according t o whether t hey can be replaced by th e pronoun s 'he'. 'she' or ' it' r espect ively , I n all but a few cases the se categories correspond t o t he ideas of 'm a le' 'female' and '.in an imate'. Animals are usually referred to by'the pronoun It, but may also be spoken of as ' he ' or 'she' according to t he ir se x. T hu s we have these categories ; O IASCu ETs < J

.( 'U- A t1J. n. y rn }(

N owu: (3) Gende'




girl woman madam

man sir King



father husband

wife :spinste!) +"wrse-~ JOare;. .......


CbiclleIoi) '-'.~~aJli0!.'Y

bull (coe¥)

/ .;.,

bUCk) ,...; ~..I

L,'U. ..

V'- v_; ~



...... :bOarJ

(1.)U,J:f....- ~


Queen Count ess mother

cow [}len:. ~

~,;.; ;

OF AD ]J',;CJ '''.ES FRO.


.In addition to the simple procedure just mentioned of using th~ sameforrn ~ith different gra,Jj.mat!CfI.valuesl~~lf function being understood from the context) there IS another method of forming ad jectives from other parts 01 spe ech . T hat is by the of a suffix; The principal suffixes used are -y, '*[y , -[ ul, -Jess. -ee . _o us,'_able, -some, -ie, -ed , -like, -al , -an, -ian, -ical, -ish, e.g.


(0 '




H Oll 'n

A dj ect ive

st orm friend har m care wood dan ger

stormy frie nd ly harmful careless wooden dangerous famous ' . honourable troublesome qua rrelsome Icelan dic 'atomic talented

fa me honour

trouble quarrel Icela nd atom talent

N Olm

good na ture child god





brute education America republic Shakespeare Edw ard his tory economy Turk girl


Adj ective

good natured ch ildlike! g odlike t bru tal educational American republican Sha kespearian Edwardian t historic( al) economic{al ) Turkis h girlish


", Many pa:-ticiples/ ~o th present a nd past . have all t he Jlaract~rlS~ ICS of adjectives, th us, they.can beused attributive! or pre~lcahvely; they can be modified by adverbs like n r Y too,. qUIte; ther Conn their comparat ive' bv adding lIIor~ 1~~ their superlative! by addin g most, e.g. •. .. . .

tOld, very amui~glst'ory. THat' book has made\~ tasting Impress,lon on my mmd, .Henry is a mor,e pro"li£1ii3 pupil th~ Richard , ~u t ohn IS the 1II0st p rom jsj~m all. He IS a never- at n help in time of tr~bl~; ~ flight from London to a ns In a small 'pla ne was a~ x pe rience. The.~ participles with purel y adjectival characteristic s are sometimes called PARTlCIPULS. T hough they have ex actly t h e



T I The adje,ctive childlike has a fayourable i~plicat ion . ego 'jnllocent'. he ad) ~tl~ e a s n OU:'lS sing u la r or pl ural: E ..,OpUIH; wid td; Ja paut u : ",ait'ldual: ntatJu H. (Ii) Use th e fo llo win g n ou ns a s a,ljc..:tiv es : Il a/hl ' ; gold; L onao»; ,iCI ; ""ly o" e, a' ly body . ( t ) T h e re is stran"e in his bch:i\"io ur t odav. (1) Is. t he re specially in tc r" t in;.: III the paper thOu mOtlll nl{ ? (3) X" t h e re's - - st:n ll iul-:. ( ~) T ite rI' 1"-ver}' Outstan ding in E nglish m mv • rass (5) _ valuable was taken b y t he b u rgl a rs. (6) - well-known III t he t heat re a tt e nd ed t hat lin t lll~ ht . (7) I 'm sure cle ve.rer t han he Will g et t he p rize. (8) \Vll.~ th ..re speCiall y well d re ssed a t the da nc e las t nlcht ? (9) - i nt ercsted in t he subjec t is in \ited to a tt cnd t h e

• 08

A Comp tth'ctmdf in a garden as big as t his He tried to move the piano into the othe r room himself. bu : could n't manage it. F inally , we may note examples like: Shakespeare himstlf (= even Shakespeare) neve r wrote a better line t han t hat . It was a portrait that Reynolds Itimstlf ( = no less a pa inter th an Reynolds) might have pa inted. 0

1:\ T EHROGAT1VE P RO:-; Ot: :-; S


The I nterrogative Pronouns are !i:h" (!i'hom , lrhose), !i'hid :, uhat , They are used in forming questions and the)' always precede the verb, e.g.

P r 0 1lQU Il $


W ho b roke tha t window ? W hich do you prefer , dry sherry or sweet sherry? W hat have y ou wri tten? . W hose arc t hese gloves? W ho(m) di d yo u sec

The interrogat ive pron ouns are inv ariable for gender .md I'l umbe r. So thc answe r t o the question ' Who brok e th " ,· be : ' H c!Iry ' (1 ... e ...and m. I'lSm li nt , Sillgula r) or: ' Henry dow . !TIa~· Fr,ec vcr!>s twice, o nce in t ra ns it ively a nd o nce refl exi vely: was h ; sha ve: d ress; move: bell a , 'e; stop. (b) F orm sente nces, usinl: th ese ver bs first no n, re flex ively a nd t ra nsitively a nd the n reflex ively: faru::y; a pply ; acquit ; e njoy; prove; se ttle; ackno....._ ledge; make; st rain; call; consider. 1\· Fill in t he blanks with pronouns e nding in -sell or -sl1l:ts , Sa y whe th er t hey a re empha tic or refle x ive, and , in the case of refl exive pronouns , wh e ther t hey a re direct or ind irec t objects: ( I) I sh all do the job - - . ( ~) The H eadmaster will ta ke th is part jcular lesson. (3 ) She stood admirin g _ in fron t 0 1 t he miTror, (4) Wh y don 't you go · b ) They think clever. (6) Loo k a fter , (1) We ga ve - - a lo t of tro u ble. (8) The Duke, piloting the p lane _ , took oft am idst lou d c heers. (~) The Duke took _ oft in hi gh dudgeon, (10) It's t ime ) UIl got a new coat .


" I n the fo llowing sentences stat e which -stlf prono ut:s are strongly s tressed and which a re not: ( I I Ko one WiL$ t here exce pt m )·self. .( ~) George s topped h imself just in t im e. 0 ) George 's Wife,wlint o n, b ut he him self stopped a nd stared . (4) The fa u.lt h~s in ou rsel ves, no t in ou r stars. (5) H e worked him self to death , (6) H e sha ves h im.self; he trus ts no barber. ( ) He shaves hi m self at nigh t to save ~lm e In t he r:;orning. (8) The Queen herself is no t at liberty t o do that. (9) ~I other lS no t feeling herself today, b ~ t I don't think she will do herself any good by worrym g. VI Com plete the following sent ences ",; th phrases cons isting of t li.e preposition ' b y' together with an em~h ~tl~ pronoun , or with an e m pha tic pro noun alo ne _ ", h ac h ever makes the better sense. (I ) Poo r Tim othy looks so lonely, si ttin g a U 1lI the com er, (2) Were you q uite wh ~ y ou un ~er . t ook t his wo rk ? I t is clear t ha t you don t .hk ~ t he !Ob. (3) W ere you q ui te in th e ch urch ? Didn t anyone co m e in to list en to you pla ying? (4) .D id Jamu do this work _ or di d h i! siste r help h Im)

Pronoun s

l ZJ

v Ii CO lls t ruc t sen tenc es t o illu s tra te t he use of emph as!z in ~. pro no uns i n t he sense of 'alone ', 'even ' and 'al50 , W here possible. gl" e t wo form s-e-w it h a nd without the preposition 'by',

v III Delin e th e -self p rono uns in t he follo\\;ng: ( I ) H e is himself a good player , but his son i ~ even better when he is really h im self. (z) Sh e m ade t hat d reM h e rself While she wa s living by her self. (3) Wh a t would yo u yours elf do in suc h ci rc umstanc es? (4) Es pecia lly if yo u h ad r-aused t hose circu m s ta nces ynurself. (5 ) The heirs q ua rre lled among t hemselves a bout t he te rms of the will .

I X Supply the interroga tive words necessary from a mo n~ the wo rds 11:4 0 , 11...11 0 111 , ",",ose, ldi~h, ti:IHII, to com plete the follow inl: sen te nces: (1) - a re you st udying at school? (~) _ is the q uickest ....ay fro m he re to t he Bank ? (3) _ is t he horse that wo n th e r ac e ? (4 ) - - d id vou m eet at th e party last nigh t ? (5) - - d o y o u tinl easier t o learn , Engl ish o r Germ an ? X Ask q uestions t o h ich t he following s ta te m ents a re anSVo'eTl (the key ord s in each a nswer a re in it alics. Only interrogative prono un s o r interroga tive ad jecth~ t o be used .) (I ) It was P eter th a t gave t he ne ws . h ) It w as P t tn they chose . (3) T hat is P eter ; t he o th er 00)' is h is bro ther , (4) It's a boo k: on " aflmd 1ai!lory t hat I'm read ing, (5) [ 'm s t udying .' I OOn n L anguages . (6) ..\1 O~f~d [ Umvers ity}. (1) T hose glo ves belo ng to m e. (SI Th is parcel is from Illy aunt. (9) H en ry "nd .u"r)' are Ge t ting m arried tomo rrow. ( 10) Henry a nd ~tarr are ,ettin, _ rrit d to mo rrow. ( II) Th a t 's .\fr. Sliwlldt,S. (n ) Tha t 's Ii kttv-bo:r. (131 T hat 's fh~ p ostrnlill. (14) Ch a rles is iJ p OSlotlllll . (15) I ' ll take Iht ytflou' O1Ie, (16) l t' l H t nry II l1d .\farY '$ u~ddi.,g that 's tak i n~ pla ce tomo rrow. (171 H e's shorl ll"d Il lbby , 1a1iJi a 5" rrdy mow$la d e, Ii u:adJle a nd a foul It mp t r. (t S) I lik e 'Ih rillers' best . XI Expr ess idioma ticall y by use o f ' wh a t ', 'who', or 'whic h ' th e word s in italics: ( I ) S haU IL't hlll'e a game of d a r ts ! (1) Le t 's look in th .. ~he paper to lin d ou t the fi l",s a nd p lay s U't mlghl itt In Lo ndon. (3) ~I y fathe r kn ows II good lhi llg u'hetl h,




CClllpr~h tlls ive


E nglish Grammar

stU ONe , (4) Do you know wMch rOfes

yo ~ ar~

re sp" .

li lldy p lQy i >lCJ (,5 ) One of t hese table na p kin S IS Yo urs

the ' ot her is mi ne ; I can n ol di sti >lguisA yours fr o';' InJne. XII Com ple te the follo wing se nten ces with inte rr oga nv, pronou ns or wi th idiom a tic ex pressions usmg m ten o. gan ve p rono uns. ( I ) _ _ made yo u t rus t h im .....ith all 0 at mo ney? (2) I ' m a b so lutely parched. - - a Pin t 0 1 beer) (3) I can 't re m em ber wha t yo u cal l it . It's a _ _ . Yo u know wbat I mean, don't you ? (,,1 T ho ot girls ar e so much alike th a t it " bard to tell- .~ _ . {,51 ''s - - ' is a re ference book contam mll; the names of important people. (6) - - t he n OI~ of tnffic outside a nd of typewriters in t he office, I can bard ly hear m yself speak. (7) ca n possib:y be knoc ki ng u la te u this ?

@lll s DEn SITE fjROSOU~f'J

This is a group containing the pronouns: some (-thing , -body, -01It'I) , any (-thing , -bod)', -one): all , '*' no (-th ing , -body , -one), n '"}' (-thin!: , -body , -enf), Gl~ anothf ' , mll,h, less , (01) fr.;, (OIl litJ!l4 l' )

(of .. ;"

"I.j .( lot rt) ~ ~nl.i~J wi ""

A Comp rt Mm iv. Engli:sJs Grammar II EXPTeN differently, using a r elative pr.onoun. (Indications to hel p you are sometimes given 10 brac kets.] (I) T his is an excellent film: I like it ~tteI than any other I have seen. (Use a auperlative.] (z) Someo ne is r inging you up t onigh t . "'ho? (3) You said something. ' '''baH (of) Did yow tell me that, or was it someone else. (Was it - ? ) . (s) Wh at you My matters less th an how you say It . (It is not .J III Supply the words missing Ircm the followi ng sen. tecces: (I ) The crowd. wu very angry. shou ted down th e • aker. (:) The lpectaton, _ wer~ " cry numerous, ~ld Dot al l find _tl. (3) The a udience, _ most entbusiutic. applauded the $OI015t. (of' Our viaiton we were very pleased to see. stayed until midnigh t . (5) He is one of the kindest me n --:- I have ever met. (6) Everything - - he SPttled ('oup:md .

I rregular verbs form their past tense and past participe generally by a change of vowel, e.g..cit'e - gave - ~iw1l ; j1y jlt:lll _ jltnr1I: eaJ - su - ealen, Some spelling changes should be noted in th e forma tion a past tense, present participle (and gerund): (a) Verbs ending in e add d only for the ir past tense, el dance _ danced ; love -loved. Th is e is emitted before .j", in the present part iciple and gerund, e.g , dan(ing , lov j"g, etc. I ~o lla. verb huadopted t ba I rregul&t conju gation since 'EngJish calllll Eng1aDd. The Regukr conj llgilti on has become the invariab le lD ethll4 of fann ing tll a Sim ple Put a nd Put Pa.rticip le wh enever ne .... ,~,. are called 1nto emte DCe. ' H iotoric&l ' grammaTla n~ div id e . erbo ,nltl the categor ies 'W eak ' and 'Strong', " 'h ich correspond in t he main 10 tbe categoril!l ' Regula r' and 'I rregular ' gh'en her e, btlt t here are ~Illl ve rbe wh ich ar e, .ty mologieally, 'Weak' b ut are no t 'Regular ' In I< m ilch .. t hey N Y. vo", el cha ngC!ll in for m ing t heir Pa~t Tense a ndf'll: Partlcipl. (e g. b" y _ />0.. , 111: , ,,11 - 10..,111: Iu d - Id .: lIid, - /s ld lIi 4d, ..), As this i, a p urely historical point and of no p ract ica l ,'~lu~ ~ t he for eiRD learn er "' ~ have clanified verbs not a5 'W.,,,k' a nd '~tro:ll but u ' Regular ' a nd ' Irregular' , 10


(bl Verb s that end in -ie change this t bef ' /0 die has the present participle dying. 0 -y uerore -lilt:; so (e), ~~bs th~t end in y preceded by a consonant change the

y to l

ore -e , e.g. marry - married; try _ t ried. (d) Th e final c~ms~man t .letter is doubled before -ed and _j il th~ consonan~ IS smgle, IS preceded by a single vowel lett:! and If the verb 1$ monosyllabic or stressed on the las t II bl ' e.g-. fi J -:- fitted; con1701_ r:ottf7()lled; stop _ stopped~1 \~r~ ending I? -J double the final consonant even when the las t s}'l1a~le IS . no~ stressed " e.g, t7avel - trat'elled; maroa _ marwild, also. kidnap - kidnapped; w()'fslliP _ !J;()'fshipped (I) The form from to Jingl (= to bu m eli htl ) . . ' . compare this with singing (from the ve rb to ~i1lJ. IS slngnng; (IR RECCLAR VE RBS)

The following are the principal parts f the i I arranged according to th eir meth ods of f~nru.ng e rrregu ar verbs past participle. Where tw o forms are 'v past tense an.d is the latter that is used adjectival ly. gJ. en , one marked - , It

P"Ullt Tense begin drink o n(

run shrink sing sink spring stink swrm

Past Trese

Past . .p Ie as p a' , ICl


[., )

began drank ran g

begun drunk , drunken er

' an

shrank ...g ...k sprang stank swam

rung run sh ru nk , sh runken- z

","g sunk, sunkenu sprung • stunk swum

X OTE S A l'i D EX .U IPl ES

~: ~: ~I~t"hk'in dm a~ had drunk a lot of wine. He was d'ull /..'


ra s"runk after being wash d Th 11 i'." checks of the man showed how ill he e s 7U II...-t ll

If Comprehensive English Grammar

14 6

3. The ship has surek wi th aU hands on board. In his gTOUfllh, there is a su"ken rose garden.

Prese"t Tem'

Plut TlXSe

[Aj cling . dig fung

hang sling slink Spin

st ick strike sting .-.ing

wm wnng


cboose treat

,, stand stood stood understand understood understood withstand withs tood withstood swell swelled swollen , S'welled 'J tread trod trodden, trod U work work ed worked, \\TOUght l ~ \ NOTE S AND EXAMPLE S)

(!) Cldd is more us ual clad in rags.

in till! passive, e.g. The poor man was

F.., bs

@ The


cu-l ",..



-" ]~]]. •




... >.....:::;t 'S



.,.-• i~~l;; § e .... C: .>l= "' ~


= '2'" =."..~ 5", ... -" s, 8..i :r ~~-"

... 8.."'''''


", :- .. u~

~ ]:3 ;; .c:


:l ". .. =: '" ... '"

... >, -= ;r; ; ec

~ ~

~" I;\C"" ,:,I. __ ,:,I. -"

='- C-- '-


" ,:,I. " " " lr" ll lr


t ;;; t;;;;;

" 2" ·Ul 2_2: :::; ';:... ;: ;; .i: -,. .::; >-

. ~



'" U ~

••< •


;; is .c: :r:'" ;'" _ >->


'Il,:,l. ~ > ~ rd •


I ccme to the class every day. She speaks French . H e al.....ays slups 'with his windows open . H e smokes t oo much. ..(b) For a gener al statement , or a prov erb , where no particular t ime is thought of, e.g. T he earth moves round the sun. Actions speak louder th an words.. The river 'Tweed sepa~ates England and Scotland. H is fami ly come from Wales. Shakespeare says: 'Neither a borrow er nor a lender be.'

=._ =.• ..>11 ..>II '- .>l " ... " .:.c,,!!. ,-


az ]


"::: ~"''''~ ..::;~ ...


.= · 1 *-~*-~ . , ;i~=..IC~ ~:.il -' 1 , ; ; ~ . ~ ~~ ~ l· il] ,.. - .. = .:l ~- -~ ~::. j -,' .~ ,,] ~::-~ " ~ ""



The Simple Present Tense is used: • -(a) F or a habitual , permanent or repeated action, e.g.

ot~ ~ ~ _=



OJ ? .


' ", -


- ,•

;: .:::; oj


'" $

......iJ 'S'"

:l :J ., >.


>' .t:.

,• "


A Comp, ehellsit'l English G, amma,

Vtt bs: (2) T ense

..(el In subordinate clauses of Time or Condition expressing . future action , e.g. q When you sa (NOT: •....ill see') Jack tomorr ow, remember m, to him. .

Unless he sends t he money before Friday, I shall consa:t my lawyer.

Don' t write unt il I tell you. I! you go to the party you will meet E lizabeth . -{d) Sometimes in giving the summary of a story, e.g.

'Bassanic want s to go to Belmont to woo Port ia. He

a 5 ~1

his friend Antonio, the merchant of Venice, to lend I:ir:-. money . Antonio says that he M.sPl 't any at the moment ur.:jJ his ships come t o port; but Shylock offers to lend him 3.00c ducats.' Th is could. of course, be told in the Simple Past Tense, but th e Simple Present is felt to be rather more dramatic. "", ) Sometimes to express a future action about which a decision has already been taken, e.g. H e sets sail t omorrow for New York , and comes back next month. My tr ain leaves at 6,3° , • The Thompsons arr ive at 7 o' clock this evening. • We att.uk at dawn. Th e ,:erbs used like this are frequently ones expressing com:ng or gorog. ..lj) In exclamatory sentences: H ere comes the bride! There g~s our train! Here they are! I THE S IMPLE PAST TEN slt f

The Simple Past (or Preterite) Tense is used: -(a) to express an action wholly comple ted at some point , or during some period , in tbe past, e.g. Peter arrived at our house yesterday. We lived at Bournemouth for six years. I tl"ent to the cinema last night .


The Simple Past Tense is usual w-it h .....ords or phrases that are t ime ind icators , e.g. )'estmJay , last u'U k , in 1956, or when the sentence is a question about time, e.g. When did you go there? What time was it .....hen you arrived ? -{b) in some conditional sentences, and sentences expressing 1 supposition , e.g.

If H enry worked he would pass the examinati on. If I were in your place I shou ld accept h is offer: H e act s as if he wanted to make trouble. I wish I had a garden like yours. Fred wishes he spoke F rench as well as you do. Su ppose I asktd you what you w ould like for a birt hday present . It's (high) t ime I weill . I'd rather you told me the tru th. It isn't as if we /mew the people well . It would be better if you went there you rself. Note that in all these sentences the Past Tense form indicates frequently both present time and future time. T he Past Tense form in t hese cases is not used to ind icate t ime at all bu t rather suppositions implying non-fulfilment or desirability, and would be more correctl y described as the Past Subj unctive.' It indicates t hat the subord inate clause does not ex press a fact. T his is known as the MODAL PRETERITE. This modal preterite is also used in the principal clause bu t only with t he prete rites of &all , may and rrill (i.e. clndd, Mighl, rtt>ulJ): • He could tell you a story that would mak e your hair stand on end . You might give the fellow a chance; he's doing his best; he might tum out a success. I would ask you to t hink carefully before you speak. [TilE FUT URE TF.NSJ]

The Future Tense is formed by using the auxiliaries Irill and shall. The origin al meaning of will w as 'to resolve' ; it denoted 1 Se-e page. 216,

u s.

3~O .


Verbs: (2) Tense

A Comprtlunsive E Piglish Grammar

volitio~ , ,T~e

original me~ng . of shall w~ 'to be Und neeesstry': It expressed obligation, compulsion , neeeSSit ~ I coost ~ain t. Th e verbs still retain some remn ants of t1 ~ meanmgs. tlt . One of the ma in causes of the d iffic ulty with shall and ' IS th at we use two verbs to express three tllings, viz . Volit~ obligation and fu turity. Moreover, the dist inction betu...~ th ese th ree concept ions cannot always be clear-cut ; fut - ~ may be tinged ....-ith volition , and volition is alm ost cert a't:;-ty take effect in the future ra ther than at the present moment.4

I 'Pure' Future! To express merely futurity uncoloured by anyone's indin tions or intentions, the norma l usage is shall for the tirst per~ singular and plural and wiU for all other perscns.! I shall you will he, she, it will

.....e shall you will they will

In conversation will is generally shortened to 'U, e.g. Ht'~, You'U, etc ., and the negat ive wiU not to tWP! 't. The Interregative is made by inversion. e.g. SMU 1? IViU the)"? •

-{jumeiii. 'Zis< ,~:" i::"{{ursday. I be tw ent y-one on

shall If we take the II o'clock train we shall be in Oxford at 12 -30.

I th ink it Ulill rain tomorr ow. Next year Chris tmas Day will be on a Tu esday. Y ou'll get wet if you go out withou t an umbrella. When shall I see you again? When UIill you be in London again? It looks as if Henry won't be in time for his train. In England l t he first person interrogative is almost alwa)1 S hall It though there ar e one or two exceptions, e.g. ,

, I n U.S.A., and to some degree ill Scot land and Ireland u~ 1I lor a.U three persons . • The usage is not the ""me in Scot land, Ireland a nd U.S.A

O/ur& EDgiish' do not refer n~t;MU~Y !o a n action or IU.t~ in the put: nor doe. ~e presen.t pamciple In a , .... ":""~"t WO~D, 'a n i~uli"l book" lignIfy a ny lime at a ll. I t .llI, howe-.e" con.Vt m cllt - now t hat the reader haa b«'n \I" T \lrk ey w at no t the Ofl l:lna l home of t" ' IrI)'J; and a modern " ,'ltdid4tr i. nut iI man who \\, e.. r. ll. ..·h ite robe! ,




Prep ositions ,wd 'Adverbial P,lTticles' 27

A Comprehe nsive E ngl ish GrillIl mar 8 He will come i1l5tMJ of me . The teacher stood in f rO"7lI of the class. H e said that fo r the s,Jke of peace and quiet. H enry sat OIl ,he back of th e room . What d id he say U'ilh r~arJ to my proposals?

It is almost impossible t~ j;ive all the meanings t hat prepositions help to convev. Origmally th ey denoted place or direction, ego He works aJ th e cotton factory . The boys ran to sch ool. .. _

The pri ncipal prepositions used to express IPL .-\c1J are: aboul, oabol.'t, oacYOSS, against , along, amO"7lg , at, by, befo~e. bthifld, belene, belU'alh, beside, between, be)'O"7lJ, doti"11 .jro1ll, H I . i n side, i nto, near , off, on, over , pa st , round , throu?~, t~ , toward s, u nder, underneath , up, and the 'grou p pre~sl~lons : at the back (front , side, top , bottom) of, at tile begl nnlllg oj, at the (lid of, away f rom , f ar f rom, i n [ront of, ill the middl~ of ,

out of.


f ..The preposi tions.to, i ll ordc ~ to , so as (0, hel p t o ex press l' U ItI'OS : th.cy arc u sed With an In finit ive. P urpose is cxpressc by or With a gerund, e.g. :\ hammer is used fo r k nocki,lg in nails. One of the chief funct ions of the preposition is to make, with rhe noun or pronoun that follows it , a phrase. This phrase is usually an adverb equivalen t , e.g. I looked through the u'illdoU', (PllIu) I sh all go t here 011 Friday . (Time) H e worked on a farm dllTing tIle holidolYs. (Tim..) H e spoke i n a lfllli t;oiu, (,l1a"'lcr) or an adjectivc equivalent, qualifying the preceding noun, e.g. The house ...· illl the big garden is :o.1r. Brown's. That is t he Tower of London. I received a tet ter fro m her. I do n 't like t he sound of a jtt engine, T h e ~e . are als? a number of words, h avi ng t he form of part iciples, wh ich act a s preposit ions. c.g. She said noth ing concerning him . What did he say Tega ,'dillg my proposals?

Man y of these are al so use d to express time relations, e.g. -1f;. _

I shall see him a/ four o'clock. • • • T he principal preposi tions u sed to help to expres:;(n~IElare: abof.t, after. at, by, before, betweell, during , fO.T , from, in, 01:. si nce, till. through, throughout , /0, at tlu beglnlllllg (tIId) o. a/ the time of, i n the m iddle (midst) of, dow n to, liP to. General! )" speaking, at"by, on indicate a pO!H of tim~, e c; at six. o'clock , by two 0 cloc k, on Tuesd ay , 011 the r yth 0, ~1 arc h .

The prepositions 4/a, before, b)' , In , sillee, till ~I' lltil) in~iicat ~ a PE RIOD of t ime, e.g. 11ft" Easter; before Chnstmas.. 1'1 t he m orn ing faft emoon !e\,ening, since five o'clock , u ,:[11 seven o'clock, . .. , . f' ,. The prepositions fo r, .luTi ng indicate ova...TlO:-; 0 time, e ~ He has been working f or t hree hours. He became ill Jllr i , J the night . (See also p. :,! QIJ.)


As h as been emph asized before in t his book, it is a mist ake

~ o aU.empt t~ s~at e what is the part of speech of any word in Isolation -. ThIS IS a matter t hat can be decided only by an

ex arnm a tron of the work a word is rioing .Consider , for example , • t he following: (a) T he boy came dou'" the tree. (b) The tree blew dOUln in the wind. (a) H e put the book on the table, (b) Put your coat on. (a) H enry came ~f()Te four o'clock. (b) I have explained th at point befoTe. (a) :o.lary is in the garden. (b) I opened the door, ami the cat walked in . \


A Compreh uisive Enghsh Grammar

P repositions

Obviously t he words italicized in the sentences marked (ai are di fferent in function from the corresponding words in th aw marked (b) . In the first case they are prepositions; in the secon.j t hey are adverbs and form AD \'ERB CO:'>IPLEME NTS.

1 d off is rather a rc haic . It is f" rmed fro m do off; the oppos it e is do" (= do {i.e . P" I) on ).

' Adl.'erl!i{/l P articles:


togrthcr. "lake after, millie at, make alt'I1Y witll. make for, make fr om , make lip, make off, lIlake off u'ilh, make out , 1II11k" out of. maliC over, make touards , suakc up fo r, 1//ake ut> to, etc , pili


Note, t oo, h ow often word s like t hese are at tached t o, and affec t t he meaning of, verbs. Consider, for example, the following: I will put out the ligh t. This has taken liP a lot of my time. The boy accide ntall y knocked 01'(( the ornament. T um on the gas. Take off your hat. All the se words (out, up, over. off. 011) are used In front of noun s or noun equivalents, but the y could go equally well elsewhere, c.g. I will put the light out. This h as taken a lot of my t ime up. The boy accidentally knocked the ornament over. Turn the gas 0 11. T ake your h at off. They are not showing the relationshi p between the nou n that follows them and any oth er word ip the sentence, the y belong much more closely to the verb. In fact most of these expressions cou ld be replaced by a single verb of. practically similar meaning, e.g. ,/ "', p ut out - extinguish; take liP - occupy, kn ock over - upset ; take off - doff.l There are a great many of these ' Phrasal Verbs' (i.e. verb + prepositio n or adverb) and a nwnber of verbs (usually the common est in t he language) may ha ve a do zen or more d iffere nt meanings accord ing to the adverb ial particle wh ich acc omp an ies the m, e.g . put down, pUI back, put f orward, pul in , Pllt into, Pllt up, put off. put on, put upon, put tiP wilh, put about, p ili across, Pllt away , put by , pul [ orth, put out , Pllt rOUlld, put through:

1I11 d

Some of the meanings are literal and th e meaning of the phrase may be ga thered from t he individual words tha t compose it, e.g. Put t he book up the re. The icc was broke n liP by the ice-plough, But vcry frequen tly the meaning is figurative and can only be learn ed by treating the combination as one uni t, e.g. Can you Plfl me liP for the night? (= accommodate) \ \'e have broken liP for two weeks ( = classes have finished for a two weeks' holiday) . In some cases the adverbial particle has become completely fused with the verb t o become an inseparable particle. In tha t ease it precedes it , e.g. ouinmnber, ot'erlook, upset. withsland. { TilE P OSTTIO S OF T HE PnEPOSITIO:; abOllt every single th ing. I go about the country a good rlcal and have seen many t hings. You will be warm enough if you move about. Don't rush about_ Go sl owly and quietly. This is not screwed down flrm ly ; it moves about when you touch it. I don't kn ow much Spanish ; just enough t o find my way about in Spain. There are a lot of men without work; they just stand about at street corn ers. You arc very untidy; you leave all yo ur books lying abollt instead of putting t hem away , Is :!\fiss Sm ith anyv..-here abOttt? H e tried to order rue about , but I soon t old h im he was not my maste r, There is about fz o difference between this car and that one . Richarrl plnv-, about in school instead of working. Th e ship is abort! to leave . ( AHOVE


\ Ve flew above the clouds. YOII can just sec our house a bove the trees, H enry's work is well abOl'e t he average. He was


A CompreJlellsive English Grammar

above George in the examination list. Brown 's business is nodoing well; he is finding it difficult to keep his he ad aoc:,; water (= to remain solvent). \Yilliam is above meannc.. (= h e wouldn't ever be mean). There were above 100 peo ple at t no meeting. I n t he above examples (in the examples a &oi f you can see the usage of 'above' . That car cost above £2 ,Ofo", Think about what I have told you; but, abcn'e all, dO:;'t breathe a word of it to Henry, [ ACROSS


The t ree had fa llen down Ilcross the railway line. Browr.', house is just across the road from us. You cross a cheque bv drawing t wo lines ecrcss it and writing /& Co'; lik~ tLl;, Unless there is a boat at the river edge you won' t he aLi, to get across. I rail across ( = met unexpectedly) our fri l;l, ~ Smith yesterday. ( AFT E R]

I'll see you after dinner. I ran after the boy but cou ld n't catch him, T hey came t o England alter us (= later t h an '.':e did ). Li fe is just one trouble after another. He goes on day afte r day, week af ter week wit hou t any change, You see I va, right af ter aU (= despite wha t you said) . I came here a t six o'clock and George came shortly after that. I'll try to pay y01: the money the week af ter ne xt. That's rio lise, I want it the day lif ter tom orr ow at the latest. If my wife goes away I« a week, who's going to look af ter me and the child ren? L l,'0 far ; kup it flp, You could sec there was someone a t home , the h ouse was all lit up . YOII ought to lodi up these jewels in a strong room. Some girls take longer to mal" up their minds than to malle liP their face. I can't buy that car just yet but


Prep ositions and 'Adllerbial Parti cles' A Convprehens ivc Englis h Gram mar

I am salling liP for it. He was very angr~' and tore liP the letter. Tie liP the dog; he might attack Smith's cat. Aft er di nner Susan washes up (the dish es). John h as m ade tiP a little song. Who h as used liP all my t oot hpast e? Harry 's parents died when he \\ES young and his aun t brought him lip , R i ng m e tip some ti~e tomorrow. You have got the story all mixed liP. H e t ur ne dthe box llpside dou:tl. It 's liP to )'ou (Colloqu ial = It is your duty) t o do your best . What arc yon up to? (Colloq uial = 'What arc you doing?' Usually lI"i t ~ \ the sugges tion that it is something wrcng.] I kTlOW you an , 7Ip to no good. What:s flP? (Colloquial or slaug = 'What' s the matter ?') Time's u]», (= You have no more time ncw)


I rimds ."'ilh him again. I have no palience wilh you , you are so stupid. j le wen t so fast I couldn't keep liP li'ilh hi m. H ow is he getting 011 wilh t he hook that he is wri ting? What's the matter with you? You don't look very well. It 's nothing to do wilh,you what I say. I don 't get Otl t'CTy lull U'ith George; yOU sec, T have lIoth ing in com mon wilh h im. If you have any cabbage plants to spare I could do ti'ith (= could usc) about fi fty . I'm just using this spade, but you ca n have it when I've datu wilh it. I'm not argui ng with you , I'm telling you. He is content 'Ii.'ith very little. In 1066 the E nglish fough t a great battle wilh tile Normans, I n 1805 England was at war 1dlh F rance.

\0 WITIllS ) ( WJ1" H \

Can -you come and star 7.£'illi me for a time, and bring yonr wife with you ? H ave you all brought your books with you ' Leave your ha ts and coats with t he attendant. III.' has bee-n with th at firm for a long t ime now. Compare this cheese lVllh th at and you will sec the difference, The box of eggs was marked 'W ilh Care'. It is with great pleasure that I give yon the prize. Orders for the new car came in wilh a rush. H e wcnr away with a smile ami a song, The t itl.e came in with gr eat speed. TV ith all his faults he was a kind-hearted fellow, I hope 111.' hasn't met with an accident . A man with plenty of mon ey has plen ty of friends. He walked along with his hat on tile back of his head. Sleep wi/II your windows open hut wi lli your mouth shu t. I 've brought my brother along with me t o help. lVilh rega rd to t hat business we spoke about, if you are going 0 11 It'ilh it I can perhaps help you. Lsce urith my eyes, hear u:ith my ears and smell willi my nose. Her eyes were filled witll tears and she was trembling with cold , I am not at all satisfied with your work. The cushion is filled widr feathers. Do you think this red tie goes '/i.'ilh my blue su it : You are always jinding fault with everything I do. I don't agree with you at aU about that. R omeo was deeply in tooc w ltll Juliet. He has quarrelled wilh George. I don' t know why be fell out (= quarr elled] with him but I hope he will soon mall,'

You must try to live with ill your income, H e lives u nthin Irve miles of London . Sh out if you want me; I shall be urilhit, he ar ing. The h ou se was painted green without and wi/hill. I shall be back again l£: ithi'f a year. \


He always goes abou t Id l1W1I1 a hat on , That was done 'withou t my help , 'I>,illlolit my knowledge and ieithont my consent. I will do th is job for you wilhollt fail (= for certai n) by tomorrow, You have been warned li mes enthout n umber abont the danger and still you don't take any notice. lie is, u:ithollt exception, the best pupil I have ever had . I can say that !iiilhOIlI fear of contradic tion . You haven 't time to pac k all those clothes; you will have to go wilhout them, Can you get into the room trithout breaking the lock? 'You can 't have omelettes without breaking eggs.' (Prot'erbia/ saying). I've gone U' itlwll t food for two days now. I've go ne irithont rating for two d ays now. If we can't a fford a new car, we shall have t o do u·'ith otll it. But a car is something I can' t do tt ithoHt . Of course I know you will work h ard ; that /!.()es ld /hoJit s(ly i ng. The}' left t he party u:ilhoul so muclt " s saying goodbye.

PT(pos jlio ,, ~

A CompreJutisive Ellglisli Grall/molr


EXE RCISES 1 Use each 01 t11 (' following (a) as a preposition , (h)

J. ~


adverb: 001:. if!. wp. about, afhr, k j prt , behi nd. (wir, rOllr:d, siller,

off. Ib ough. 11 Put in the preposit ions or adverbs that have been o m it ted:

t l) The man who spoke was standing me. (1) There are oth ers - - me who beheve that. (3) Pu t the two side. ("l E veryone was list ening books side Richard . (5) He lined here - - the years J~O and 1941. (6) T heir plans have com pletely broken . (7) ,T he soldiers carne in two - - t ....o. (8) That book was wntten - - D ickens. (9 ) That is a book - - Russia and the Russian people. (10) I ran - - t he t hief but could n' t

catc h him. (I I) He who is not for us is - - us. (12) He has wr it ten ten bocks and there IS not a singte good one them . (13) The mother divided t he apple - - t he two boys. (I.l) Who is look ing -:-- you? (I S) Jan is. very good E nglish. (16) lIe did that my Wishes. (17) I bought t hat the bu tch er's. (18) H e put his his back. (19) T ha t ought to cost t wo pe nce hands 0< - - the very most five pence, (20) I h oped it would be fine b ut it po ured a ll afternoon. (1I) :'Iy shoes a re made - -leather ; the bo x is mad to-- iron. (22)- I • can' t get this ri ng my finger. (2J) H e p ut the book the table a nd sat a chair. (24) H e has 10 ,000 men working - - hi m , (25) What country do you come ? (26) H e walked the room and sat hiS desk, (27) Ishan't be awa y long ; I ' ll be back - - , a .r~a r. (28) The ship rocked - - side to side. (29) I don t .h e to he debt; that is to be d anger. (Jo) It IS c?ld _ th is room now t hat the fire has gone . (31) " ,ou must make the best it. (32) The petrol is a ll runmng , (33) There are houses both ' turn the tap sides' - - t he street. (l 4) I bough t a bicyc,le -.i~ · (35) You must try to 1000k at it _ , my pomt of view. (j6) I sho uldn't be such a hu rry If I were you r min e went with me t o the p lace . (37) A friend Tower - - London . ( 8) Help me my coat. my (39) I went there - - busi ness; I han: to work hying. (... 0 ) - - reply _ your letter - - t he t yt h o f ne.ed Xovernber, we wish t o sta te lhat we arc a traveller - - t he London distric t If you will come

a'id 'Ad" eTbi'l[ Particles'


here - -- Saturday the t ath Apr il we t a n I:i\'e yOll ou r ideall t he subject and It will t hen depend _ you whe ther you accep t an d t ry t o ma ke a success _ It or whether - - t he contrary the whole mat ter 111L1!>t he considered as dennirelv _ . (41) Someone left a box the garden and I fell - - It t he dark. (.p) I stood the corner th e road and h undreds __ cars went - . (4 ) 1 \ \'a lk t he t own me and t hen we will come home a nd sit - - by th e fi re. (H ) I h ave been London - t h e zyt h J uly. (H I We went _ France-ou r way - - Spain. (~ 5) T his coa t is wet. Hold it t he tire a few minu tes. (47) That is t he first step - - gettmg t he matter cleared --:-. (-fS) I can 't use my office b usiness presen t; It is repair. (49) I had never had a lesson English until I tame London . (50) Th a t stream never dries even - - the m iddle - - sum mer. (5 1) Come a nd stay - - us a few days Christmas a nd bri ng you , (51) I did not approve h is ),our wife my consent. acti on an d what he d id was done _ (53) You don ' t need to pa y _ t he mon ey yo u borrowed , II - - once. The repaymen t ca n be spread _ a nn mber _ years . (5...) Drake sa iled t he world _ the reign - - Queen E lizabe th I, {55} I have been _ Engla nd - - six mont hs b ut have had lessons only _ April. (56) The motor boat cu t _ t he water - . n terri fic speed, (57) 1 live q uite close t h e chu rch; In fact nex t door it . (sll) It was oomewhere _ live o'clock - - th e a ll ernoon when he ca lled __ m,. (59) - - t he circums ta nces, I will not give you a ny extra work. (60) You could see - - a ~I anc e t here wa.. someone home; t he bo use was a ll lit - . 1 6 1) I like beef -;a mir.e t he nat ure 01 a sentence mare fully ma r be Int erested to rea d Charter 2, ' What is a Sen lence)" in Th Sr. " . I" " oj li"Kfl,li by C, C. Fri~ (Lon gma n s).


A Comprehm sive Etiglish Grammar

Sen/(tlu s 411,[

In compou nd sentences the subject or the a uxiliarv verb or both, may be omitted in the second sentence if they 'are t h ~ same as those in t he first sen te nce, e.g . He is sitting a nd (he is) listening to me. I'~u mu st come tomorrow and [you must) bring your book with you . ( C Ol IPLE X

S£~TE~cF.s l

Each of the sentences in a compound sen te nce ca n stand independently. But t here are some grou ps of words wh ich , even though they cont ain a fi nite verb, are not 'c om plete a nd independent hum an utte rances' a nd cannot stand a lone, for ex am ple: ,"'hich I uant; Ih,l! lie was li,d; whtn he saw a [ oliccman. These groupsof words, called su BORDI SAT E CLAUSES, do t he work of adj ectives, adve rbs or nouns (i.e. they can qualify nou ns or verbs or be the subjec t or object of a verb) in a larger urut which is called a COMP LE X SE :>o T IO :>oCE. A clause is a group of words wh ich include a finite verb, IS grammatically complete a nd self-contained , form s part of a se n te nce , but d oes not by itself make co mplete sense. A complex sentence consists of one or more of t hese subordinat e clauses a nd a M.U :S or PIU :>O CI P.-\ L clause. A principal clause is usually de fi ned ¥ 'a clause that can stand alone a nd makes complete sense by itself'. But this is not always true (as, for example, in sentence 2 bel ow), It might be better t o say th at t he principal clause is wh at is left of a complex sen tence when all the subord inate clauses have been t aken away. E xamples:

P,incipal Clause {~ I

[hat is the house (2 ) The man said {3J The thid ra n away

S'lbordinale Cla use


which I wa nt. that he was t ired . when he saw the policema n.

I n Sentence I the subordmate cla use qualifies the noun ho••s. and is an ADJ ECT IVE CU GS!:: .

I n Sentence 2 CLAUSE.

CI4lI S(.~


it is t he objec t of the verb said a nd is

In Sentence J It qua lities t h e ver b

' UI I

and is


a S OL'S


(;lA USE .

W~ en clauses of t~ e sa~e ty pe are joined by and or or, !he mtrod uct0!1:' conju nction , the subject and an auxilia ry \'frb may be e mitted If t he)' are the same as those in the fi rst

clause, es. If he ha~ come a nd seen m e 4'ld (it he had ) discussed t h e matter .wlth me, I sh ou ld have given h im my opinion, If IItJ will t-ome ,111t1 sec 111.' ur (if he will) write to I1W . .. ~ fter . you lmve written y our essay a nd after you have reVIsed It, you may hand it ill, E X EHCISES

I Construc t examples of ( I) a Simple Sen tence: (ul »ta tc men t, (h) o.''3 r,, tu ex press each Idea fully. . (I) ~~tu r a lly .(z ). Keep,left . (j)

What a bore. (..) ~ILl rder ! (,5) I \\0 whisk ie s, p-ease. (6) Oh no! (7) Really) (1:1) \V~i t . (9 ) o s . yes ? ( I?) J ust a moment . ( J I ) Full,up'. (12) :-;0 talklnj{. (13) Seats 1) 1\ top. ( I ..) Ridiculous (15) Oh, Illy head! I V I n vent '1"~ ''''' '' to" . and dow n t h e High Street, w here he co uld he seen by large n umb ers of the school. He wo uld ride a t fa ntastic speeds, as though his life were at stake; his sol e object , howeve r, was t o see how many electric li gh t bulb s he could break throu gh a n over_~encration of elec t ricity from the h u b d yn amo. The faster h e rode, the more success he had in breaking bulbs, N o boy I e ver k new w as q uit e so stup id , or , in his way, so mem orable , If he were no t so stup id, I' d say h e m ust now be a raci ng-motor ist ---or a n archaeologist! V Const r uct ten sentences each con ta ining all adverbi a l clause int roduced by a word or ex press ion fro m t he following list, a nd a t the e nsI of eaclcsentence name th l< kind of ad verbial clause it contains: as, t ho ugh , as soon as , fo r fear t ha t , however , seeing that , o n conditio n that, in order to, no m a tter , t he less ,' .. the less,


T W E :\ T Y - F O U I ~

[C O ~ D I TI OI\ :\ L


Condit iona l clauses a re of t form and meaning of t he \ \' ? kinds, dist ingllisllcd bv t h e between t hem is impor t a nt principal clau se, The difference

, T y pe

( T v pe I :



Coxo rnoxs \

represented by sentences like :

Z£:I;~~lo:::p~a;:I~~[\~2 s: ~\~:l~xamination ,

Unless the rain I! . h SlOps I sh all not g 0 for· a walk yOIl are n g t, t hen I am wrong, ' The position s of the clauses b if-cla u se is placed first it i~ r tt can e reversc~l, When t he '_ a lcr m ore em phat ic I will help him 1/ h e as ks m e. I won 't help h im u-nless he as ks tile He ti" wili d o t he work l! (P r Ol 'l·dcd Illal ' · lon condition Ihal) he has the


All these sentences ca nt' . di . be fulfilled , Thus the rain al~aa c~n ItlOl.l that mayor may not work or lie may not' y s oP. or it m ay not ; john may sent ences do not sa; ~~~tmay be right or ~ou may not . T he realized ; t hey do not st ate ~~ndltlOn \~'llJ or will not be will (or will not) work or thatl;o lC ra(lll WIll stop, t hat J ohn l conditions in t hese sentenc~s ar: , are ?r arde .no t) wrong. T Ill:' " open can m ons




many co m b!ma t rons . "conAdtgreat . of tenses m ay be'- u; cd III . open mons, e,g.


P resen t Tense in ',j'


If . t I am wrong. I You arc figh f you help me I wi ll help vcu.


T elise itj il lain clause Present Future

A Compr ehe1ls1u Eflglish Pre sent Tense in clause

FOlSe i n


•\[,1111 clU lI.I,'

If 1 get this right, I shall have answered every question correctl y . If what you say is right , t hen what I said was wrong. If you meet Henry , tell him I want to sec him . If vou sh ould' mee t Hcurv, tell him I want to sec him. If th e ~rounJ is very dry, don' t forge t to wa te r those plants. If he should come , please give him t his book. If you should be passing, do come and see us, If the train should be late, what will you do? ~

Future Perfe n Past I mperative

Impe rat ive



Present Past Future

Tense 11; .\ [aill c!,ws,'

remedy it , If you have done your work.you ma y go to the cinema.

Presen t


If you wou ld (It'01//d he so kind as t o/l('oIl1d be kind enough



' Th is SCrlterlCC should ) , ug ges ts t ll a " thc prc~'ious cue.

This could be expressed rat her more indircctjv diffidently or politely with u'ollld: -,

Imper ati ve

If I have made a mistake, I will try' t o

~ (",nh

If yO'll iritl sign this agreement , I ii'ill let you han the money

to) sign this agreemen t . I wi ll let you have the money at once

su.« clause

P resent Perfect T ense in 'If '-cli/llse

If ill is ~mlr poss ible in such rases if It is used to express not future time but willingness, e.g.

I mperative

The form with should (i.c. should + infini tive.wit h?ut to) ,is u sually used when some course of action is ~ o be env l sage~ 1)1 cer tain possible fu ture c i rc ums ~ anc es , It. IS thus most treque ntly employed when the mum clause'is a command or a question. Tense in Past Trnse in 'ij'-clause If I said that, I apologize. I f I sai d that, I was mistaken . If I made a mistake , I will try to remedy it.

G OTd T he f n tur e. Tense cannot be used in the If clause even when the meanmg IS future , e,g. J sha ll go for a wa lk If tIll' rain ,i'ilf 5t0 [1. (\\'IW SG) I sh all go for a wa lk if the rain slops. (RIGHT)

at or n-e. I mper ati ve




CO lld itiUJlIIl Clauses

G rlllllJlJ()r

rat Ile r mo rc ren Iv'I e pos'i ." b,I;'.\'.


The following arc ex amples of Hy pothet ical Conditions; If H en ry lu re here, he would know the answer, If I ha d the m Ol l e....., I would buy a new ca r, 'If w ishes tI'ere horses , beggars would ride .' If I If'ere King, you shoul d be Quoon .

III this type of sen tence, too. t he clauses may be reversed , e g. r would buy a new car If I had the money. ~ch sep t ences make a hypothesis which 'may be contrary to act or Ju st somethin g not t hough t of as a tact . 'If Henry \\'C1'e bere , . .' implies tha t he is not he re: 'If I had the moncv'

:mplies t hat I have no t the m oney . Or t hey may Imply a doubt: ,If J ohn wor ked hard he would pass the Examination' suggests , . , but I am do uhtful whether he wi ll work hard .' I ~ sen!ences of T ype II (Hy poth etic al Condi tio ns) th e past 'cbjunc t tve is used in tile 'if ' d am e and "Mild or shm'/d ·f t hl' nfillitivc arc used in the main clause. Sentences 01 t lLis kind aay refer to present time, past time or futnre time, )(P UI' SE NT T f\\J. j

If H m ry were here, he would kn ow th e answer. If I had the m Olley , I shoul d buy a new car.

A C01llp1ehmsivt English Gramm ar


If the grass needed cutting, I would cu t it. If the hat slIited me, I would buy it.

Despite the Modal Preterite terms were, had , needed, suited, the se sen tences express a pRES ENT condition (see page 161). They mean: ' If H enry were here sow .. .' 'I f I h ad the money sow . . .' 'If the grass needed cutting sow .. .', etc.

-(b)( PAST T[~I E\ He re are sentences expre ssing hypothe t ical condi t ions in the

past time. You will note that in these t here is usually an impl ied negative, ' If J ohn had worked h ard' (in th e PAST) 'he would have passed the ex aminati on.' (Im plied ,V egalive : . . but he didn 't work hard). 'If you had asked me' (in the l'AST) ' I woul d hll1'( helped you ', [". .. bu t you didn' t ask roe'} . 'If I had had the money' (some years ago) 'I wou ld have bought a bigger house' (. .. 'bu t 1 hadn't the money'). 'If the hat had suited me' (when 1 saw it in t he sh op yesterday) 'I would hat-·( bought i t.' ' I should never have done that work , if you had 1101 helped me .' 'If you had n't told me abou t It, 1 mighl never have gOlle t o

see it.' ..(Cl ! F UT U RE


The idea of fu tu rity in hypot hetical co ndi tions is often expres»cd by the same construc t ion as is used for the present , sometimes with a time adverb or phrase, e.g. If Richard worked hard next term , he would p ass the examination. If you went there , you would see wh at 1 mean. But futurity in the 'if'-c1ause is frequently expressed by uere infi nitive, e.g. to What would you say if I were 10 tell. you th at Mary is goin g to be married? If our train e ere to arrive punctually, we should have time to vis it your sister.


Co nditional Clau ses

35' \ V,e can sum . .rnarize the verb f arms in se n tenc es o f Hypo'" th e t lea I Con d ition like th is: """ v Verb i ll 'if ' claus e P l< ES J-::-': T TI)I E PAST


V frb in ,l! lI i 11 cl,lIIse

Simp !: P ast Ten se (or Su bjuncti ve)

uonld (ShOldd) I + Lo re infin iti n ',

Past Perfect Tense

'tI'ollld (sJwlIld) I hm'", past par ticiple.



A; foe P resen t T im e


(oft en with a t ime adverb or ph rase)

would (sho uld)' + bare infinitive .


weT(: to

+ bare





\ \'hen the if clause con tain I .. had or should it ca be S one 0 the a uxiliary verbs wen inversion of v~rb an~ CUb~ePtlaced by a clause without 'if' by ~ jec, e.g. W ere John here now (= if J ohn . explain the wh ole mat t were here now) he would W er. ere ou r t rain to a rrive p t II ti me to visit your sister. IInC ua y at I2-45 , we should have

~~~\~~.u (=

i/ you had) asked me, I

would have told you the

I will ,go , should it be (= if 'J it should be) neceSSll ry. . ~ ~ ormally $It.Q1· OUNS \

T he pro nouns and possessive adj ectives generally ch a nge as follows: D IR ECT

I , me

my, nunc

we, us you

our, ours your. yo urs


11e (sh e}, hi m (her) they, t hem th ey , them

his (he r). hers his the ir , the irs their, t heirs

Examp les:



I hring my book every day ; t he book on the desk rs /n in e.

He said that hl' brough t his book every day; the book on the desk was his. She said that she hrought 11,'r book c\'ery day; the hook on the des k was hers. They said that Ihey brough t their boo ks every dav: the book." on the desk were /l1f·in.

tve bring ow books every day; the books on the desk are oro-s.

0 ______ , ____





A Comp rehensiv e E nglish Gramma r

But t hese pronou ns and possessive adjectives ma y vary according to circumstance. Common sense will d~te rmlil e whic h pronouns should be used . F or examples consider t he following situations : TEACHER: John, y ou must bring your book t o t he class. WILLIAM (reporting this to someone else): The teacher t old John t hat he must bring his book to the class. WILLIA~1 (remin ding J ohn of the teacher's orders): T he teacher said that you must bring y our book t o the class. . J ORS (reporting what t he teacher had sai d): T he teac her said that I must bring my book to the class. ITITM'? T HE R CII ASGE S]

Words denoting 'nea rness' bec ome the corresponding word s denoting remoteness: this that t hose these here t here now then becomes before ago today t ha t day tomorrow t he next day the previous day: t he day before yesterday • • For example: DIREC T


I saw t he boy here in this room today . I will see these boys HOlI-'. I spoke to them yfsterday .

He said t h at he h ad seen t he boy there, in that room that day, He sa id he would see those bovs then. He h ad spuken t o th~m the day hefore, lie said tha t he would teach the same lesson the next day t ha t h e had t aught two days before.

I will teach the sa me lesson tomorrow that I taught t wo days ago.

Direct ami Indirect Speech DIRECT

I will do it hac a nd

1:>IlIRECT 1101I,lke, pYl'ja , S(A FF Rl c .... rE



B reath slopp ed by.' Lower lip against u pper lip . Tongue against teeth-ri dge. Back uf t U1l6tUl: against ruof of mouth

@ f



• v

e z




Br:ath only, the mouth ill position t articulate the foJlowing vowel. a



[r]. By speakers of RP., this sound is pronounced o.ll.zy before a ~'Ofi'el sound. It docs therefore not occur in words like card, u;orth, form [kard. w~:e, fo:m], in words like fathe r «car, lore pronounced III isolation ['fa:oo. nia, tot], or in the Oi l


T he Pronunciation of Ellglish

l, omprehenSwt t.ngtish Grammar

sentences: ' He was near the door'; 'He tore the pa per' . But [r] is pronounced in ' Father ate them'; 'far away': 'ncar and far' ; 'for e ver", since in these examples the words are pronounced without a break, and tr.e sound immediately following the let ter r is a vowel.

\\ 11.en a voiceless c on so~ an t closes the syllable, th ese vowels and dlph~h.ongs arc ve ry ht!le !onger th an other vowels in the same posltl?n. Thus t here 1S httle difference in the lw gth of the vowels m th e following pairs of words: btat [bitt], bit [bit]; f oot [hit], boot [hu :t]: short [jo rt], shot

[Jot]; bite [baitJ, bllt [b.\ t); reach Double consonants rarely occur within English words. EW'Jl when two consonan t letters are written (e.g. biller, banner, follo w), only a ~'i ngle consonant is pronounced, Do ubl e COI\ ' sonants mav. however. occur in compound words or where a word ending \\" it~ ,.,1. consonant is followed by a word beginning .....ith a similar conson ant. c.g. pm-knife [pen-naif], full lo.ld [Iul loud], bad dream [bad drirru]. In these circums tances a consonant of double length is pronounced. When tw o plosive consonants are brought t ogether in th is way, there is us ually only one explosion , bu t the sto p is held longer than for a single consn nant , e.g . bed time, big dog , sit dou-n, u'Jw! time.'

il1hiJ2Itht~0':ii All the diphthongs, and the vowels containing the 'lengti: mark' I :] in t heir phonetic symbol ' (i:, a:, 0 :, U:, at} m ay be given greater length in certain positions. T hese are (a) when they are followed by a t'oiud con sonant; (b) when they are in an open syll able at the end of the word . (Note th at these arc th e only vowel sounds wh ich can occur at the end of a '....ord in a stressed syllable.) T hus the vowel in: bee [bi t] and brad [bi:d j is longer than the vowel in beat [bi: ~ : . car [kai], card [kurd] is longer than the vowel in rart [kan]. SII :II [sot]. s!wrd [50:d] ts longer than that ill sought (so:t]. bow [bau]. bOlad [b uud] is longer than that in bOllt [baut]. play [plei], pl'J)!cd [pleid] i~ longer than that in plate [pki (

(9 VJtu /s

I The ,"'Owd ra j may abo be leng-then'l1~ECTED



Ir connected speech, words arc not treate d as separate uni ts thcv form themselves into intonation groups. I n each inton rtion group generally only one syllable, belonging to the word to which the speaker is giving most prominence, will have main stress ; the other words wi ll have their normal main s tresses weakened to secondary stres ses or will be completely unstressed. The words which are frequently uns tressed in spcech ! are the ar ticles, t he personal, possessive and relative proncuns, the parts of the verb "be" , auxiliary verbs immediately prec eding their main ver- bs, some con junct ions and some prepositions (except when final). So we say: 'Wh at are yo u 'th inki ng a,bout? He should have 'fi nished it 'earlier. He 'asked for his 'hat and 'coat.

1RHYT H"1 There is a strong tendency in English speech to make the stressed syllables occur at appro ximately regular interval s of time. Thus the three sentences in each of the following groups, t hough differing from each other in number of syllab les, t ake approximately the same time to say, because they ha ve the " sa me number of stressed syllables: J,

I 'saw t he 'car 'last 'night. I in'spcct cd the 'car 'yest erday 'evening. I should have in'spcctcd the 'vehicle 'yesterday 'en ning.

2. ' Please ' pass 'that 'book ' Kindly 'give me 'that 'book. 'Kindly pre'scot him with the 'oth er ' book , ':lbny of the se wo rds undergo chan ges i n t heir sou nds when un_

stressed. For t he 'w""k Ior ma ' sec D . Jone~, E"gluh P ro"o,,,,,u lg Dictionnry, "nll II , E. Palm.'r, A Gramm,, ' oj Sp"kcli L"C!i,h, sect ions ' 5 fi.

TIl Of F'ngl lsh ~i"~ 0 the freshness of th e assimila tum and sociai .,; . . cry. external an d internal , politicai If a ll other Willers of know] .d .t . lost , we could [dm ost rc -con t ecge ,I .out th e Normans were t "s _rue .. ' Ion 0 f the Jallgua&"c of t oda \ \' t 1e . times. fro m 'til un exammn., that the Norm . , }- : c should kn ow, for example • ans\\ eret lC ru lm" Tace for al .t 11 , ' p\ pr essing government C I ci"'" rnos a t 'i e words French origin It is t ru,ll:f lit It~g ~~;i!n!1 InCllt itself) are of words ki ll{; nIH! qf{ct:~, !o~~ Ie. o~m;j I1 S l~:ft thr- Sa xon lhrone, CrOWIl , roy al, stafe, ' COtlnl~l~d~::~ieb~:~,:l1Iep e . sOt.:relgl~ . d li k e. count, challcellor mtn i.I . ' . ' 11, il r I lI m e l1o, words ,arc .aJI .vor ..... m . an, '" s or , COlwell and m any other su ch . ·0 ton nrc such wo rd , COlirteous I t P I 'tc . ," . u t S ;lS IO I/O/I r, "lory


"b-orJ~ e~p~~~~;lg °t;I~' ~~~~~'t~;~:' ~~O~!~i,~';';~: ~'~~, cn,: