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A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language

Randolph Quirk Sidney Greenbaum Geoffrey Leech Jan Svartvik Index by David Crystal Longman London and New York Prefa

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A COMPREHENSIVE GRAMMAR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE Randolph Quirk Sidney Greenbaum Geoffrey Leech Jan Svartvik Index by David Crystal

Longman London and New York

Preface

Longman Group Limited, Longman House, Burnt Mill, Harlow, Essex CM20 2JE. England and Associated Companies throughout the world. Published in the United States of America by Longman Inc., New York

0 Longman Group Limited 1985 AN rights reserved: no part of thispublication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system. or transmitted in anyform or by any means, electronic. mechanical,photocopying,recording, or otherwise. without theprior writtenpermissionof d e Publishers. First published 1985 Standard edition lSBN 0 582 51734 6 De luxe edition lSBN 0 582 96502 0 British Library Cataloguingin Publication Data A comprehensivegrammarof the English language. I. English language-Grammar-1950I. Quirk, Randolph 11. Crystal, David 428.2 PE1112

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ISBN 0-582-51734-6 Library of Congress Cataloguingin Publication Data A comprehensivegrammar of the English language. Bibliography:p. Includes index. 1. English language-Grammar-195. I. Quirk, Randolph. PE1106.C65 1985 428.2 84-27848 ISBN 0-582-51 734-6

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Set in APS 4 Times and Univers. Typeset, printed and bound in Great Britain by William Clowes Limited, Beccles and London.

Designed by Arthur Lockwood

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From the time when we started collaborating as a team in the 1960s, we envisaged not a grammar but a series of grammars. In 1972, there appeared the first volume in this series, A Grammar of Contemporary English (GCE). This was followed soon afterwards by two shorter works, A Communicative Grammar of English (CGE) and A University Grammar of English (UGE, published in the United States with the title A Concise Grammar of Contemporary English). These two were in part an abridgment of GCE, but what is more significant is that they were deliberately different both from the parent book and from each other. This is particularly obvious in the case of CGE, which looks at the whole grammar of the language from a semantic and communicative viewpoint. It is less obviously true of UGE,which follows the chapter divisions and in most cases the chapter titles of GCE, though in fact the abridgment was accompanied by a good deal of fresh thinking and radical revision. With A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, we attempt something much more ambitious: a culmination of our joint work, which results in a grammar that is considerably larger and richer than GCE and hence superordinate to it. Yet, as with our other volumes since GCE, it is also a grammar that incorporates our own further research on grammatical structure as well as the research of scholars world-wide who have contributed to the description of English and to developments in linguistic theory. It scarcely needs to be said that we take full collective responsibility for the contents of this book. But what does indeed need to be said is that it has been immeasurably improved as a result of the generous assistance that we have received, not least from our own students. We have benefited too from the perceptive attention that GCE, UGE, and CGE have received from reviewers throughout the world. But in addition to these scholars and writers, in addition also to the numerous scholars that we acknowledged in earlier prefaces, a further willing band of linguists put themselves generously at our disposal in giving detailed attention to earlier drafts of what has become A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. Some few have even undertaken the heavy task of giving a detailed critique of the entire book in such an earlier draft. For their searching work to this degree, we are especially indebted to John Algeo, R A Close, and Robert de Beaugrande, who between them produced hundreds of pages of invaluable comments. But we are grateful also to W N Francis and Bengt Jacobsson, who gave comparably generous and skilled attention to large parts of the book. Many other scholars have helped us with one or more individual chapters or with specific problems in the description of grammar. We list their names, but this can in no way convey our degree of gratitude or indicate the intellectual effort from which we have benefited: V Adams, B Altenberg, E Andersson, W-D Bald, D L Bolinger, J Coates, R Cureton, L Haegeman, R Ilson, S Johansson, H Kakehi (and his Kobe students), H Kinoshita, T

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Lavelle, B Lott, C F Meyer, T Nevalainen, W J Pepicello, G Stein, J Taglicht, J Thompson, G Tottie, T Waida, K Wales. The fact that some of these friends are among the most eminent experts in the world on American, British, and other varieties of English has contributed beyond measure to the confidence with which we assign such descriptive labels as 'AmE' and 'BrE'. Finally, we take great pleasure in making clear that David Crystal's role has extended far beyond what is indicated on the title page. He has not merely provided the detailed index which will make 'information retrieval' possible; in addition, in the course of this onerous and highly specialized task, he has contributed pervasively to the correction of error, the standardization of terminology, and the improvement of presentation. But this Preface would be sadly incomplete if we did not also record our gratitude to the grant-giving bodies whose financial help (over and above the support we have received from University College London, Lund University, the University of Lancaster, and the University of Wisconsin) has made our research and writing possible: the Leverhulme Trust, the Gulbenkian Foundation, the Social Science Research Council, the British Academy, the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation, and our publishers, the Longman Group. RQ SG GL JS February 1985

Contents

Preface

v

Pronunciation table Abbreviations and symbols

viii ix

1 The English language 2 A survey of English grammar

35

3

93

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Verbs and auxiliaries The semantics of the verb phrase Nouns and determiners Pronouns and numerals Adjectives and adverbs The semantics and grammar of adverbials Prepositions and prepositional phrases The simple sentence Sentence types and discourse functions Pro-forms and ellipsis Coordination The complex sentence Syntactic and semantic functions of subordinate clauses Complementation o f verbs and adjectives The noun phrase Theme, focus, and information processing From sentence t o text Appendix I

Word-formation

Appendix II Stress, rhythm, and intonation Appendix Ill Punctuation Bibliography Index

1

Pronunciation table

Abbreviations and symbols

A CONSONANTS VOICELESS

/P/

/t/

/k/ /f/ /g/ /S/

J /tJ/ /h/

A,

VOWELS

A, AmE aux BrE C C, CS eomp E -ed eM I

VOICED

pig ten cot fat thin soon fish cheap hot

/b/ /d/ /g/ /V/

6 /z/

/3/ /m/ /n/ /g/

/l/ /r/ /j/ /W/

big den got vat then zero pleasure jeep sum sun sung led red yet wet

/k/

111

M

/E/

/a:/

Id P:/ /U/ /U:/

1. 3 :

/a/ /er/ /au/

14

/au/

1311

l

/rar/ /ear/ /uar/ /erar/ /auar/ /aral/ /auar/ brar/

sheep ship bed bad calm Pot caught Put boot cut bird above day coal lie now boy here there poor player lower tire tower employer

iE

,.4.

I, 4

iM I/M -mg LOB M

mM NP 0 0, 0, obllg OP opt pass ph ph-pr Pr R

Syllabic consonants are indicated thus: g, /'/denotes the possibility (eg in AmE) of 'postvocalic r'. For indications of stress, intonation, and other prosodic features see App 11.

-S

9

:f i

S SEU StE SV SVA SVC SVO SVOO SVOC SVOA

adverbial object-related adverbial subject-related adverblal American English auxiliary British English complement object complement subject complement comparative end posltion of adverbial -ed participle form end-medial position of adverbial initial position of adverbial initial-end position of adverbial initial-med~alposition of adverbial initial or medial position of adverblal -ing participle form Lancaster-Oslo/Bergen corpus medial posit~onof adverbial medial-medial position of adverbial noun phrase object direct object indirect object obligatory operator optional passive phrasal verb phrasal-prepos~tionalverb preposit~onalverb regular variant (in Ch. 3) 3rd person singular present tense form subject Survey of English Usage Standard English subject +verb sub~ect verb adverbial subject verb + complement subject verb+object basic s tructures ~ subject +verb+ 2 objects subject+ verb+ object+complement subject verb +object+ adverbial

+ +

+

+

+

primary time-orientation (in Ch. 4) secondary time-orientation (in Ch. 4) tertiary time-orientation (in Ch. 4) verb past tense form of the verb (in Ch. 3) -edparticiple form of the verb (in Ch. 3) unacceptable tending to unacceptability, but not fully unacceptable native speakers unsure about acceptability native speakers differ in their reactions optional constituent comment (with examples); constituent boundaries; phonetic transcription style label (after examples); modified constituent (7.50); focused unit (8.1 16) free alternatives, as in:

}{

~ e c a m e {from ~' [1

contingent alternatives, as in:

[t{e] [E] does

/ 1/

New London York

best

alternatives (in examples) phonological transcription systematic correspondence between structures .c. no systematic correspondence between structures ellipsis marker, indicating grammatical omission A indicates possible semantic implication (in Ch. 19) A semantically equivalent f semantically nonequivalent a 'better ~ R h m aI r Capitals in examples indicate nuclear syllables, accents indicate intonation, raised verticals stress, and long verticals tone unit boundaries; for all conventions relating to prosody, see App 11.

I

The English language The English language today

The importance of English The use of English Native and second language Foreign language The demand for English The teaching of English School models of English The international character of English The future of English Standards of English Grammar and the study of language

Types of linguistic organization Sounds and spellings Lexicology, grammar, semantics, pragmatics The meanings of 'grammar' Syntax and inflections Rules and the native speaker The codification of rules Prescriptive grammar Grammar and other types of organization Varietiesof English

Types of variation Regional variation Social variation Standard English National standards of English British and American English Scotland, Ireland, Canada South Africa, Australia, New Zealand Pronunciation and standard English Varieties according to field of discourse Varieties according to medium Varieties according to attitude Varieties according to interference Creole and pidgin Relationships among variety types

The English language today

.39-40 .41

1.42

Variation within a variety Attitudes to variation Acceptability and frequency

3

The English language today The importance of English

1.1

English is generally acknowledged to be the world's most important language. It is perhaps worth glancing briefly at the basis for that evaluation. There are, after all, thousands of different languages in the world, and each will seem uniquely important to those who speakit as their native language, the language they acquired at their mother's knee. But there are more objective standards of ielative importance. One criterion is the number of speakers of the language. A second is the extent to which a language is geographically dispersed: in how many continents and countries is it used or is a knowledge of it necessary? A third is its functional load: how extensive is the range of purposes for which it is used? In particular, to what extent is it the medium for highly valued cultural manifestations such as a science or a literature? A fourth is the economic and political influence of the native speakers of the language.

1.2

If we restrict the first criterion to native speakers of the language, the number of speakers of English is more than 300 million, and English ranks well below Chinese (which has over three times that number of speakers). The second criterion, the geographical dispersal of the language, invites comparison with (for example) Hebrew, Latin, and Arabic as languages used in major world religions, though only Arabic has a substantial number of speakers. But the spread of English over most of the world as an international language is a unique phenomenon in the world's history: about 1500 million people -over a third of the world's population -live in countries where English has some official status or is one of the native languages, if not the dominant native language. By the third criterion, the great literatures of the Orient spring to mind, not to mention the languages of Tolstoy, Goethe, Cervantes, and Racine. But in addition to being the language of the still more distinguished Shakespeare, English leads as the primary medium for twentieth-century science and technology. The fourth criterion invokes Japanese, Russian, and German, for example, as languages of powerful, productive, and influential nations. But English is the language of the United. States, whose gross domestic product in 1980 was more than double that of its nearest competitor, Japan. No claim has here been made for the importance of English on the grounds of its quality as a language (the size of its vocabulary, its relative lack of inflections, the alleged flexibility of its syntax). The choice of an international language, or lingua franca, is never based on linguistic or aesthetic criteria but always on political, economic, and demographic ones.

Bibliographical note

The use of English

1.3

English is the world's most widely used language. A distinction is often made that depends on how the language is learned: as a natiue language (or mother tongue), acquired when the speaker is a young child (generally in the home), or as a nonnative language, acquired at some subsequent period. Overlapping with this distinction is that between its use as afirsf language, the primary

4 The English language

language of the speaker, and as an additional language. In some countries (particularly of course where it is the dominant native language), English is used principally for internal purposes as an intranational language, for speakers to communicate with other speakers of the same country; in other8 it serves chiefly as an international language, the medium of communication with speakers from other countries. One well-established categorization makes a three-way distinction between a native language, it second language, and a foreign language. As a foreign language English is used for international communication, but as a second language it is used chiefly for intranational purposes. We can distinguish five types of function for which English characteristically serves as a medium when it is a second language: (1) instrumental, for formal education; (2) regulative, for government administration and the law courts; (3) communicative, for interpersonal communication between individuals speaking different native languages; (4) occupational, bath intranationally and internationally for commerce and for science and technology; (5) creative, for nontechnical writings, such as fiction and political works. Note

1.4

[a] A bilingual child may have more than one native language, and a bilingual adult may be equally proficient in more than one first language. In some countries, English is one of two or more languages, and as a foreign language too it may be one of several that are known. [b] Although one's native language is usually also one's first language, it need not be. People may migrate to a country where a language different from their native tongue is spoken. If they become proficient in the new language and use it extensively, that nonnative language may become their first language, displacing the native tongue. Such displacement has occurred, for example, among Pakistanis in the United Kingdom and among Vietnamese In the United States. [C] Second-language writers in Southeast Asia and in East and West Africa are making important contributions to English literature. Their writings may Incorporate features characteristic of their second-languagevariety, including rhetorical and stylistic features, but they are generally addressed to, and read by, an international English readership. Native and second language English is spoken as a nativelanguage by more than 300 million people, most of them living in North America, the Britiyh Isles, Australia, New Zealand, the Caribbean, and South Africa. In several of these c~untries,English is not the sole language: the Quebec province of Canada is French-speaking, most South Africans speak Afrikaans or Bantu languages, and many Irish and Welsh people speak Celtic languages. But those whose native language is not English will have English as their second language for certain governmental, commercial, social, or educational activities within their own country. English is also a second language in many countries where only a small proportion of the people have English as their native language. In about twenty-five countries English has been legally designated as an official language: in about ten (such as Nigeria) it is the sole oficial language, and in some fifteen others (such as India) it shares that status with one or more other languages. Most of these countries are former British territories. Despite the association of the English language with the former colonial rulers, it has been retained for pragmatic reasons: where no one native language is generally acceptable, English is a neutral language that is politically acceptable, at least at the national level, for administrative and legal

The English language today

5

functions; and as an international language for science and technology it is desirable for higher education. English is an official language in countries of such divergent backgrounds as India, Nigeria, and Liberia, while in numerous other countries (Burma, Thailand, South Korea, and some Middle Eastern countries) it is used for higher education. In Sri Lanka, English at one time lost its official status, while retaining its social, cultural, and economic importance, but it has been reestablished as an official language; indeed, as a result of the increase in secondary education more people today learn English there than at any time during the colonial period. It has been estimated that English is a second language for well over 300 million people: the number of second-language speakers may soon exceed the number of native speakers, if it has not done so already. Note

1.5

The significance of English for higher education in second language countries is reflected in statistics for book publishing and literacy in 1981/82 in India. Indiaernerged as the world's th~rd largest publisher of books in English and forty-one per cent of titles produced lhere were in English, although only 2.3 per cent of the population were literate in English. But that tiny percentage represented 15 million people.

Foreign language Byforeign language we mean a language used by persons for communication across frontiers or with others who are not from their country: listening to broadcasts, reading books or newspapers, engaging in commerce or travel, for example. No language is more widely studied or used asa foreign language than English. The desire to learn it is at the present time immense and apparently insatiable. American organizations such as the United States Information Agency (USIA) and the Voice of America have played a notable role in recent years, in close and amicable liaison with the British Council, which provides support for English teaching both in the Commonwealth and in other countries throughout the world. The BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation), like the USIA, has notable radio and television facilities devoted to this purpose. Other English-speaking countries such as Australia also assume heavy responsibilities for teaching English as a foreign language. We shall look more closely in the next sections at the kind and degree of demand, but meantime the reasons for the demand have surely become clear. To put it bluntly, English is a top requirement of those seeking good jobs, and is often the language in which much of the business of good jobs is conducted. I t is needed for access to at least half of the world's scientific literature, and the most important scientificjournals are in English. It is thus intimately associated with technological and economic development and it is the principal language of international aid. The great manufacturing countries Germany and Japan use English as their principal advertising and sales medium; it is the language of automation and computer technology. Not only is it the universal language of international aviation, shipping, and sport, it is to a considerable degree the universal language of literacy and public communication. It is the major language of diplomacy, and is the most frequently used language both in the debates in the United Nations and in the general conduct of U N business.

6

Note

The English language

The English language today

[a] Some measure of the number and importance of publications in English is provided by the number o f translations of English books. In 1977 out o f a world total of 50 047 translations of books, 19 577 were from English. The nearest competitors were Russian (6771) and French (6054). [bl The pervasive influence of English has induced language academies or other languageplanning agencies in some countries to attempt to control the range of its functions and to prevent the acceptance of Englishisms (English loan words and loan translations) into their national languages, at least in official writing.

is commonly used as the medium for higher education, at least for scientific and technological subjects, even when it is not so used at the primary or secondary levels. Many students come from abroad for their higher and further education to English-speaking countries, where English is of course the medium for their studies. In 1979, there were 286 340 foreign students enrolled at the postsecondary level of education in the United States, 56 877 in the United Kingdom, and 32 148 in Canada (where some will have studied in Frenchspeaking institutions), apart from smaller numbers in other English-speaking countries. The country with the next highest figure after the United States was France, which had 112 042 foreign students in the same year.

The demand for English

1.6

The teaching of English The role of chief foreign language that French occupied for two centuries from about 1700 has been assumed by English-except of course in the English-speaking countries themselves, where French or (in the United States) Spanish is the foreign language most widely studied. Although patriotism obliges international organizations to devote far more resources to translation and interpreter services than reason would dictate, no senior post would be offered to a candidate deficient in English. The general equivalent of the nineteenth-century European 'finishing school' in French is perhaps the English-medium school organized through the state education system, and such institutions seem to be even more numerous in the Soviet Union and other East European countries than in countries to the West. There are also innumerable commercial institutions that teach English a t all levels and to all ages, both in non-English-speaking countries and in Englishspeaking countries. Most language learning, of course, takes place in the ordinary schools of the state educational system. The extent to which English is studied at the school level is shown in one analysis of the educational statistics for 112 countries where English is not a native language, but is either a foreign language or a second language. The study estimates that over 46 million primary school students and over 71 million secondary school students were in English classes in the early 1970s. These figures represent over 15 per cent of She primary school population and over 76 per cent of the secondary school population for those countries. I t is significant that English was the medium of instruction for 30 per cent of the primary school students and for nearly 16 per cent of the secondary school students. Estimated figures would have been far higher if statistics for all non-English-speaking countries had been included. (A notable exclusion from the study was the People's Republic of China.) Since the secondary school population is increasing at a rapid rate in the developing countries, we can expect that the number of English learners at the secondary level has increased very considerably since the early 1970s. Outside the primary and secondary schools, there are large numbers of students in institutions of higher and further education who are learning English for a variety of purposes: as the medium of the literature and culture of English-speaking countries; for access to scholarly and technological publications; to qualify as English teachers, translators, or interpreters; to improve their chances of employment or promotion in such areas as the tourist trade, international commerce, or international programmes for economic or military aid. In countries where it is a second language, English

7

1.7

Note

School models of English In countries where English is predominantly the native language, the form of written English taught in the schools is normally the STANDARD variety (cf 1.23), the variety associated with the educated users of the language in that country. However, it is now less usual than in the past for teachers to attempt to make the local spoken variety conform with some educated spoken norm. In countries where English is a nonnative language, the major models for both writing and speech have generally been the standard varieties of British and American English. The choice between them has depended on various factors: whether the country was formerly a British or a US colony; its proximity to Britain or the United States; which of the two had most influenced its economic, cultural, or scientific development; and current commercial or political relations. In some countries both American and British standard varieties are taught, sometimes in different institutions, . sometimes in the same institution. The situation has been changing in those countries where English is a second language, used extensively for intranational purposes in the absence of a commonly accepted national language. In countries such as India and Nigeria indigenous educated varieties are becoming institutionalized and are acquiring social acceptability. In the meantime, teachers in those countries are uncertain, or vary, about the norms to which their teaching should be geared: to those of the evolving local standard or to those of some external standard. Such uncertainties are analogous to the uncertainties among teachers in native-English countries over divided usages or prescriptive norms that differ from their own usage (cf 1.17). Where English is a foreign language, we may expect the American and British standard varieties to continue to be the major models, competing increasingly with the standard varieties of other countries such as Australia, in regions that are within the sphere of influence of those countries. Countries where English is a foreign language may develop, to some extent, independent prescriptive norms that are enshrined in handbooks and textbooks and that are reflected in examination questions.

The international character of English 1.8

English is preeminently the most international of languages. Though the name of the language may at once remind us of England, or we may associate

8

The English language

The English language today

the language w~ththe United States, one of the world's superpowers, English carries less implication of political or cultural specificity than any other living tongue (Spanish and French being also notable in this respect). At one and the same time, English serves the daily purposes of republics such as the United States and South Africa, sharply different in size, population, climate, economy, and national philosophy; and it serves an ancient realm such as the United Kingdom, as well as her widely scattered Commonwealth partners, themselves as different from each other as they are from Britain herself. But the cultural neutrality of English must not be pressed too far. The literal or metaphorical use of such expressions as case law throughout the English-speaking world reflects a common heritage in the legal system; and allusions to or quotations from Shakespeare, the Authorized (or King James) Version of the Bible, Gray's Elegy, Mark Twain, a sea shanty, a Negro spiritual, or a pop song - wittingly or not - testify similarly to a shared culture. The Continent can have its British meaning of 'continental Europe' in the United States and even in Australia and New Zealand. At other times, English equally reflects the independent and distinct culture of one or other of the English-speaking communities. When an Australian speaks of jbssicking something out ['searching for something'], the metaphor looks back to the desperate activity of reworking the diggings of someone else in the hope of finding gold that had been overlooked. When an American speaks of not getting to first base ['not achieving even initial success'], the metaphor concerns an equally culture-specific activity - the game of baseball. And when an Englishman says that something is not cricket ['unfair'], the allusion is also to a game that is by no means universal in the English-speaking countries. The future of English 1.9 Predictions -often gloomy - have been made about the future of English. It is worth considering the bases for such predictions with respect to the various uses of English. A single international language has long been thought to be the ideal for international communication. Artificially-constructed languages have never acquired sufficiently large numbers of adherents, although in principle such languages have the obvious advantage that they put all learners on the same footing (all are nonnative speakers), thereby not giving an advantage to speakers of any particular language. During the last few decades English has come closest to being the single international language, having achieved a greater world spread than any other language in recorded history. Yet in recent years doubts have arisen whether it will ever reach the ideal of the single international language or, indeed, whether its use as an international language will continue at the present level. One reason for the doubts has been the fear that national varieties of English are rapidly growing further apart and will finally separate into mutually incomprehensible languages. Fears have also been expressed that justifiable sensitivity to the child's right to use his native dialect (regional, socioeconomic, or ethnic) within a national variety might lead to the abandonment of a national standard dialect and hence to the further

-.

9

disintegration of English. The diversity in English is greatest in countries where English is a second language and therefore has to be taught. Since in those countries stddents are usually taught by teachers who are themselves not native speakers of English and who have inevitably acquired the language to varying degrees of adequacy, It is not eurprising that the standards of achievement are variable and subject to change. Some express concern about the excessive internal variability and the ill-acquired control of the language in such situations. Some fear the divisive effect of the emerging institutionalized varieties, which no longer look to native varieties for standards of acceptability. 1.10

While fears for the disintegration of English cannot be dismissed summarily, powerful forces are operating to preserve the unity of the language. Despite considerable dialectal differences within each national variety, the education systems have preserved the essential similarity of the national standards. The traditional spelling system generally ignores both the changes in pronunciation over time and the variations in pro~iunciationthrough space; despite its notorious vagaries, it is a unifying force in world English. Many factors are conducive to makihg differences in national varieties familiar and comprehensible: there is the influence of newspapers, magazines, and books on the written medium and of radio, television, and film on the spoken medium. Teachers and students can be made sensitive to, and tolerant of, language variation, and national examination systems can be made flexible enough to take account of variation. Despite a growing tolerance of nonstandard variation in speech, standard forms remain the norm for written English. The future of English as an international language has also been said to rest on the practicability of teaching the language, especially on a mass scale, to the level required for international usefulness, given the enormous expenditures required for the purpose. It is possible that as developing countries become richer they will be able to increase their expenditure on the teaching of English and raise the levels of teacher and student proficiency. At all events, programmes have been devised to restrict the goals of language learning, thereby allowing a more tealistic deployment of educational resources, as in the Teaching of English for Specific Purposes, for example for business or scientific communication. Following earlier attempts (such as 'Basic English') that were largely lexical, a proposal has also recently been made for constructing a simplified form of English (termed 'Nuclear English') that would contain a subset of the features of natural English; for example, modal auxiliaries such as can and may would be replaced by such paraphrases as be able to and be allowed to. The simplified form would be intelligible to speakers of any major national variety and could be expanded for specific purposes, for example for international maritime communication. The long-range continuance of English as a second language is also questionable in some countries. The eagerness for rapid technological advancement conflicts with the demands for the establishment of authentic links with past native traditions: objections to an official status for English and calls for its replacement by native languages are expressions of national pride and independence. Since a good command of English is usually restricted to an elite, we may expect political resentment against a minority

10

The English language

second language that brings benefits to those proficient in it. English is likely to be retained as an official language as long as no specific native language is politically acceptable to all, but we can expect that in at least some countries indigenous languages will become sufficiently dominant to acquire sole official status and eventually to displace English. In such cases English will gradually become recognized as a foreign language. However, irrespectiveof the degree of world influence exercised by the English-speaking countries themselves, English is likely to be retained generally as the medium for higher education as long as the major English-speakingcountries retain their economic and political status. 1.11

Note

Standards of English Complaints by native speakers that English is deteriorating or being corrupted reflect in the main a conservative resistance to change. Some language changes result in the loss of distinctions, but if a distinction is needed the loss will be compensated for. For example, in some regional varieties the distinction between the singular and plural meanings of you has been retained by the use of such expressions as you-all or you guys for the plural meanings (cf 6.12 Notes [a, bl). The introduction of specific new words or expressions (such as prioritize or interface) sometimes provokes violent indignation, often conveyed in ethical terms. Usually the objections to the innovations (or supposed innovations) reflect objections to their typical users. Some of the complaints relate to variants that are in divided usage among speakers of the standard variety; for example, graduated from and was graduated from in American English, or differentfrom and different to in British English. In yet other instances the forms are clearly recognized as unacceptable in the standard variety (such as the multiple negative in Idon't want no moneyfrom no one; cf 10.63 Note), though they may be acceptable in some nonstandard varieties. Relatively few points are at issue. They do not justify generalizationsabout the state of the language as a whole. Some native speakers claim that the use of the language is deteriorating. One charge is ethical: people are said to be abusing the language, more so than in the past, with intent to conceal,mislead, or deceive, generally through euphemism or obscure language. Usually, the accusation is directed principally against politicians, bureaucrats, and advertisers, but the abuse is felt to have an 'adverse effect on the language as such. Certainly, the contemporarymass media facilitate the rapid and widespread dissemination of such language abuses. The other charge is aesthetic or functional: people are said to be using the language less elegantly or less efficiently than in the recent past, a charge that is commonly directed against young people. The charge may or may not have some justification, but in any case is impossible to substantiate. Many variables inhibit the feasibility of making valid and reliable comparisons with earlier periods: for example, the phenomenal growth of the literate population and of the use of the written language. On standard and nonstandard English, c/ 1.22.On varietiesof standard English, cf 1.23ft:

Grammar and the study of language

11

Grammar and the study of language Types of linguistic organization

1.12

1.13

Sounds and spellings We claim that on the one hand there is a single English language (the grammar of which is the concern of this book), and that on the other hand there are recognizable varieties. Since these varieties can have reflexes in any of the types of organization that the linguist distinguishes, this is the point at which we should outline the types, one of which is grammar. When people speak, they emit a stream of sounds. We hear the sounds not as indefinitely variable in acoustic quality (however much they may be so in actual physical fact). Rather, we hear them as each corresponding to one of the very small set of sound units (in English, /p/, /l/, In/, /I/, ]a/, /S/ . . .) which can combine in certain ways and not in others. For example, in English we have spin but not *psin. (On the use of the asterisk and similar symbols, see 1.42.) We similarly observe patterns of stress and pitch. The rules for the organization of sound units (or phonemes) are studied in the branch of linguistics known as PHONOLOGY, while the physical propertiesof sounds and their manner of articulation are studied in PHONETICS. The other major method of linguistic communication is by writing; and for English as for many other languages an alphabetic writing system has been developed, the symbols related in the main to the individual sounds used in the language. Here again there is a closely structured organization which regards certain differences in shape as irrelevant and others (for example capitals versus lower case, ascenders to the left or right of a circle, eg: b versus 6)as significant. The studyof ORTHOGRAPHY (or more inclusively, GRAPHOLOGYor GRAPHEMICS) thus parallels the study of phonology in several wavs. Desvite the notorious oddities of English spelling, there are general principles: eg combinations of letters that English permits (tch, qu, ss, oo) and others that are disallowed (*pfx, *go) or have only restricted distribution (final v orj occurs only exceptionally as in Raj, spiv). Lexicology, grammar, semantics, pragmatics Just as the small set of arabic numerals can be combined to express in writing any natural numbers we like, however vast, so the small set of sounds and letters can be combined to express in speech and writing respectively an indefinitely large number of WORDS. These linguistic units enable people to refer to every object, action, and quality that members of a society wish to distinguish: in English, door, soap, indignation,find, stupefy, good, uncontrollable, and so on to a totalexceedingthe half million words listed in unabridged dictionaries. These units have a meaning and a structure (sometimes an obviously composite structure as in cases like uncontrollable) which relate them not only to the world outside language but to other words within the language (happy to happiness, unhappy, etc; good to bad, kind, etc; door to room, key, etc). The study of words is the business of LEXICOLOGY, but the regularities in their formation are similar in kind to the regularities of grammar and are closely connected to them (cf App I.1m. It is GRAMMAR

12

The English language

Grammar and thestudy of language

that is our primary concern in this book. Words must be combined into larger units, and grammar encompasses the complex set of rules specifying such combination. Meaning relations in the language system are the business of SEMANTICS, the study of meaning, and semantics therefore has relevance equally within lexicology and within grammar. Finally, the meaning of linguistic expressions when uttered within particular types of situation is dealt with in PRAGMATICS,which is concerned with the communicativeforce of linguistic utterances. Two terms are employed for the interconnection of grammar and the uses of grammar: TEXT LINGUISTICS and DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. All types of organization (but notably lexicology and grammar) enter into the structure of TEXTS, which constitute spoken and written discourse (cf Chapter 19).

1.15

To begin with, it is clear that the speaker cannot now be intending to restrict 'grammar' to inflections: rather the converse; it would seem to be used as a virtual synonym of 'syntax'. Secondly, the native speaker's comment probably owes a good deal to the fact that he does not feel the rules of his own language - rules that he has acquired unconsciously - to be at all constraining; and if ever he happens to be called on to explain one such rule to a foreigner he has very greatdifficulty. By contrast, the grammatical rules he learns for a foreign language seem much more,rigid and they also seem clearer because they have been actually soelled out to him in the learning process. But another important pointisrevealed i n this sentence. The distinction refers to 'grammar' not as the observed patterns in the use of French but as a codification of rules compiled by the French (especially by the Acadkmie Fran~aise)to show the French themselves how their language should be used. This is not grammar 'immanent' in a language (as our previous uses were, however much they differedin the types of pattern they referred to), but grammar as codified by grammarians: the Academy Grammar. There is no such Academy for the English language and so (our naive native speaker imagines) the English speaker has more 'freedom' in his usage.

Syntax and inRections The word 'grammar' has various meanings, and since grammar is the subject matter of this book we should explore the most common meanings of the word. We shall be using 'grammar' to include both SYNTAX and that aspect of MORPHOLOGY (the internal structureof words) that deals with INFLECTIONS (or ACCIDENCE). The fact that the past tense of buy is bought [inflection]and the fact that the interrogative form of He bought it is Did he buy it? [syntax] are therefore both equally the province of grammar. There is nothing technical about our usage in this respect: it corresponds to one of the common lay uses of the word in the ~n~lish-speaking yforli. A teacher may comment: --

---

John uses good grammar but his spelling is awful.

1.16

The comment shows that spelling is excluded from grammar; and if John wrote interloper where the context demanded interpreter, the teacher would say that he had used the wrong word, not that he had made a mistake in grammar. But in the education systems of the English-speaking countries, it is possible also to use the term 'grammar' loosely so as to include both spelling and lexicology. There is a further;use of 'grammar' that derives from a period in which the teaching of Latin gnd Greek was widespread. Since the aspect of Latin grammar on which teaching has traditionally concentrated is the paradigms (or model sets) of inflections, it made sense for the learner to say:

Jespersen wrote a good grammar, and so did Kruisinga. Did you bring your grammars? Naturally, too, the codification may refer to grammar in any of the senses already mentioned. The codification will also vary, however, according to the linguistic theory embraced by the authors, their idea of the nature of grammar rather than their statementof the grammar of a particular language : Chomsky developed a transformational grammar that differed considerably from earlier grammars.

This meaning of 'grammar' has continued to be used by lay native speakers. In effect, grammar is identified with inflections, so that nonspecialists may still speak of 'grammar and syntax', tacitly excluding the latter from the former. The termgrammar school (used in several English-speakingcountries, though not always with referenceto the same type of school) reflects the historical fact that certain schools concentrated at one time on the teaching of Latin and Greek. One sometimescomes upon the lay supposition that such schools do or should make a special effort to teach English grammar.

The codification of rules The 'codification' sense of grammar is readily identified with the specific codification by a specific grammarian: And this sense naturally leads to the concrete use as in:

Latin has a good deal of grammar, but English has hardly any.

Note

Rules and the native speaker Nor have we completed the inventory of meanings. The same native speaker, turning his attention from Latin, may comment:

French has a well-defined grammar, but in English we're free to speak as we like.

The meanings of 'grammar'

1.14

13

In the usage of many leading linguists, this last sense of grammar has returned to the catholicity that it had in the Greek tradition more than 2000 years ago, covering the whole field of language structure. Thus, in the framework of formal linguistics, some grammarians speak of 'the grammar' as embracing rules not only for syntax but for phonological, lexical, and semantic specification as well. Note

Accidents of intellectual history in the nineteenthcentury result in the fact that an old-fashioned

--

14

Varietiesof English 15

The English language

inflections in verbs and nouns (cf 3.5J 5.80). It is seen to bear on lexicology, for example, in the fact that some nouns and verbs differ only in the position of the stress (cf App 1.56):

Old High German grammar (or an Old English grammar) may well contain only inflections together with a detailed explanation of how the phonologicalsystem emerged.

1.17

Prescriptive grammar Finally we come to the use of 'grammar' in statementssuch as: It's bad grammar to end a sentence with a preposition. Here the term refers to a way of speaking or writing that is to be either preferred or avoided. Such statements pertain to PREsCRlPnVE GRAMMAR, a set of regulations that are based on what is evaluated as correct or incorrect in the standard varieties. Since we do not have an Academy of the English Language, there is no one set of regulations that could be considered 'authoritative'. Instead, evaluations are made by self-appointed authorities who, reflecting varying judgments of acceptability and appropriateness, often disagree. Authorities on USAGE, in this restricted sense, primarily deal with DISPUTED usage, a relatively small number of syntactic and lexical items that are controversial within the standard varieties. Their objections may persuade some to avoid certain usages, at least in their formal writina. Over the last two centuries prescriptive rules have accumulated into a prescriptive tradition for formal writing that is embodied (with some variation) in school textbooks and student reference handbooks, and in usage guides for the general public. As an occasional consequence of prescriptive pressures, some speakers have mistakenly extended particular prescriptive rules in an attempt to avoid mistakes. A classic instance of such HYPERCORRECTION is the use of whom as subject (cf 6.35 Note [a]). Others are the pseudo-subjunctive were as in I wonder ifhe were here and the use of the subjective pronoun I in the phrase between you and I. Our primary concern in this book is to describe the grammar of English. But we occasionally refer to the prescriptive tradition not only because it may lead to hypercorrection but also because it may affect attitudes towards particular uses that may in turn influence the preferences of some native speakers, at least in formal or more considered styles. It may lead some, for example, to replace their usual was by subjunctive were in I was strong enough, I would he/p you, or to replace who by whom in the teacher who Imost admired.

1.18

Grammar and other types of organization Progress towards a more explicit type ofgrammaticaidescription is inevitably slow and the whole field of grammar is likely to remain an area of interesting controversy. While theoretical problems are not the concern of this book, our treatment cannot be neutral on the issues that enliven current discussion. For example, we would not wish to assert the total independence of grammar from phonology on the one hand and lexicology or semantics on the other as was implied in the deliberate oversimplification of 1.12f: Phonology is seen to have a bearing on grammar even in small points such as the association of initial /d/ with demonstrativenessand conjunctions (this, then, though, etc, cf 2.37). More important are the phonological conditions for the -S and -ed

I

That is an 'insult. They may'in'sult me. But most obviously the interdependence of phonology and grammar is shown in focus processes (cf the connection between intonation and linear presentation: 18.2ff, 19.25fl, and in the fact that by merely altering the phonology one can distinguish sets of sentences like those quoted*in App 11.21. The interrelations of grammar, lexicology, and semantics are manifested in the semantic restrictions (cf 10.51) that permit [l] and [2], but not [la] and [2a] : Fear replaced indecision. *John replaced indecision. John hated indecision. *Fear hated indecision.

111 [lal [21

[2a1

The borderline between grammar and semantics is unclear, and linguists will draw the line variously. We shall not give guidance on such constraints in this book. Similarly, the borderline between grammar and pragmatics (and even more so between semantics and pragmatics) is unclear. Although we shall have occasion to refer to the kinds of intended speech behaviour (such as request and invitation)that may be conveyed through certain sentence types (cf particularly Chapter 1l), we shall not attempt a comprehensive account. But we shall attempt to give every indication of the meaning of the constructionswe discuss. Our general principle will be to regard grammar as accounting for constructionswheregreatestgeneralization ispossible, assigning to lexicology (and hence beyond the scope of this book) constructions on which least generalization can be formulated. In applying this principle we will necessarily make arbitrary decisionsalong the gradient from greatest to least generalization.

Varieties of English Types of variation 1.19 Having indicated how we may speak of different types of linguistic organization such as phonology, lexicology, and grammar, we may now return to the point we had reached at the beginning of 1.12. What are the varieties of English whose differing properties are realized through the several types of linguistic organization? Formulating a theoretical basis on which the varieties of any language can be described, interrelated, and studied is one of the prime concerns of the

16

The English language

Varieties of English

branch of language study called SOCIOLINGu~sTIcs. This discipline is far from having achieved complete answers, and all attempts are in some degree oversimplifications. We shall first consider five major types of variation. Any use of language necessarily involves variation within all five types, although for purposes of analysis we may abstract individual varieties (a relatedset of variation within one type). (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

Regional variation seems to be realized predominantly in phonology. That is, we generally recognize a different dialect from a speaker's pronunciation is alsodistinctive. or accent before we notice that the vocabulary (or LEXICON) Grammaticalvariation tends to be less extensive and certainlyless obtrusive. But all types of linguistic organization can readily enough be involved. A Lancashire man may be recognized by a Yorkshireman because he pronounces an /r/ after vowels as in stir or hurt. A middy is an Australian measure for beer - but it refers to a considerably bigger measure in Sydney than it does in Perth. Instead of Isaw it, a New Englander might say Isee it, a Pennsylvanian I seen it, and a Virginian either I seen it or lseed it, if they were speaking the rural nonstandard dialect of their locality, and the same forms characterize certain dialects within Britain too.

region (l .20f) social group (1.22ff) field of discourse (1.28) medium (l .29f) attitude (l .3lff)

The fist two types of variation relate primarily to the language user. People use a regional variety because they live in a region or have once lived in that region. Similarly, people use a social variety because of their afiiliation with a social group. These varieties are relatively permanent for the language user. At the same time, we should be aware that many people can communicate in more than one regional or social variety and can therefore (consciously or unconsciously) switch varieties according to the situation. And of course people move to other regions or change their social affiliations, and may then adopt a new regional or social variety. The last three types of variation relate to language use. People select the varieties according to the situation and the purpose of the communication. The field of discourse relates to the activity in which they are engaged; the medium may be spoken or written, generally depending on the proximity of the participants in the communication; and the attitude expressed through language is conditioned by the relationship of the participants in the particular situatiqn. A COMMON CORE or nucleus is present in all the varieties so that, however esoteric a variety may b q i t has running through it a set of grammatical and other characteristics that are present in all the others. It is this fact that justifies the application of the name 'English' to all the varieties. Note

We have conspicuously omitted variation in time, since this book is solely concerned with the grammar of present-day English. Variation in the contemporary language, however, reflects in part historical changd in progress. At any one period, older variants may coexist with newer variants, and some of khe newer variants may eventually become the sole forms.

1.20

Varieties according to region have a well-established label both in popular and technical use: DIALEW. Geographical dispersion is in fact the classic basis for linguistic variation, and in the course of time, with poor communicationsand relative remoteness, such dispersion results in dialects becoming so distinct that we regard them as different languages. This latter stage was long ago reached with the Germanic dialects that are now Dutch, English, German, Swedish, etc, but it has not been reached (and may not necessarily ever be reached, given the modem ease and range of communication) with the dialects of English that have resulted from the regional separation of communities within the British Isles and (since the voyages of exploration and settlement in Shakespeare's time) elsewhere in the world.

17

Note

[a] The attitude of native speakers of one dialect towards the dialects of other native speakers varies greatly, but, in general, dialects of rural and agricultural communities are regarded as more pleasant than dialects of large urban communities such as New Yorkor Birmingham. This is connected, of course, with social attitudes and the asshciation of city dialects with variation according to education and social standing ($1.22) rather than according to region. [b] Dialectologistsand sociolinguistsoften use the term 'dialect' for social varieties.

1.21

It is pointless to ask how many dialects of English there are: there are indefinitely many, depending on how detailed we wish to be in our observations. But they are of course more obviously numerous in long-settled Britain than in areas more recently settled by Europeans, such as North America or, still more recently, Australia and New Zealand. The degree of generality in our observation depends crucially upon our standpoint as well as upon our experience. An Englishman will hear an American Southerner primarily as an American, and only as a Southerner in addition if further subclassification is called for and if his experience of American English dialects enables him to make it. To an American the same speaker will be heard first as a Southerner and then (subject to similar conditions) as, say, a Virginian, and then perhaps as a Piedmont Virginian. One might suggest some broad dialectal divisions which are rather generally recognized. Within North America, most people would be able to distinguish Canadian, Northern, Midland, and Southern varieties of English. Within the British Isles, Irish, Scots, Northern, Midland, Welsh, Southwestern, and London varieties would be recognized with similar generality. Some of these - the English of Ireland and Scotland for example - would be recognized as such by many Americans and Australians too, while in Britain many people could make subdivisions: Ulster and Southern might be distinguished within Irish English, for example, and Yorkshire picked out as an important subdivision of Northern speech. British people can also, of course, distinguish North Americans from all others (though not usually Canadians from Americans), South Africans from Australians and New Zealanders (though mistakes are frequent), but not usually Australians from New Zealanders.

1.22

Within each of the dialects there is considerablevariation in speech according to education, socioeconomic group, and ethnic group. Some differences correlate with age and sex. Much (if not most) of the variation does not

Regional variation

Social variation

i

18 The English language

Varietiesof

involve categorical distinctions; rather it is a matter of the frequency with which certain linguistic features are found in the groups. There is an important polarity between uneducated and educated speech in which the former can be identified with the nonstandard regional dialect most completely and the latter moves away from regional usage to a form of English that cuts across regional boundaries. To revert to an example given in a previous section, a n outsider (who was not a skilled dialectologist) might not readily find a New Englander who said see for saw, a Pennsylvanian who said seen, and a Virginian who said seed. These are forms that tend to be replaced by saw with schooling, and in speaking to a stranger a dialect speaker would tend to use 'school' forms. On the other hand, there is no simple equation of regional and uneducated English. Just as educated English, I saw, cuts across regional boundaries, so do many features of uneducated use: a prominent example is the double negative as in I don't want no cake, which has been outlawed from all educated English by the prescriptive grammar tradition for over two hundred years but which continues to thrive as an emphatic form in uneducated speech wherever English is spoken. Educated English naturally tends to be given the additional vrestiee of government agencies, the professions, the political parties, the press, the law court, and the pulpit - anv institution which must attempt to address itself to apublic beyond the smallest dialectalcommunity. It is codified indictionaries, grammars, and guides to usage, and it is taught in the school system at all levels. It is almost exclusively the language of printed matter. Because educated English is thus accorded implicit social and political sanction, it and provided we remember comes to be referred to as STANDARDENGLISH, that this does not mean an English that has been formally standardized by official action, as weights and measures are standardized, the term is useful and appropriate. In contrast with standard English, forms that are especially associated with uneducated (rather than dialectal) use are generally called A

Note

open to considerable variation. Learned or formal publications, such as academic journals and school textbooks, prefer British spellings, while popular publications, such as newspapers, prefer American spelling. Individuals may use both variants according to situation, but sometimes randomly. One difference between the American and British subsystems of punctuation is that the general American practice is to put a period or comma inside closing quotation marks, which are usually double in American usage for the primary set: Thesign said "No smoking." A further orthographic point may cause Anglo-American misunderstanding: the numerical form of dates. In British (and European) practice 2/10/85 means '2 October 1985', but in American practice it means 'February 10, 1985'(cf6.66). In grammar and vocabulary, standard English presents somewhat less of amonolithic character, but evenso the world-wideagreement is extraordinary and -as has been suggested earlier - seems actually to be increasing under the impact of closer world communication and the spread of identical material and nonmaterial culture. The uniformity is especially close in neutral or formal styles of written English on subject matter not of obviously localized interest: in such circumstances one tan frequently go on for page after page without encountering a feature which would identify the English as belonging to one of the national standards (cf 1.28f).

- -

NONSTANDARD.

'Substandard' is sometimes used in place of 'nonstandard', but less commonly now than in the past.

S t a n d a r d English 1.23 The degree of acceptance of a single standard of English throughout the world, across a multiplicity of political and social systems, is a truly remarkable phenomenon: the more so since the extent of the uniformity involved has, if anything, increased in the present century. Uniformity is greatest in orthography, which is from most viewpoints the least important type of linguistic organization. Although printing houses in all Englishspeaking countries retain a tiny element of individual decision (eg: realize1 realise, judgmentljudgement), there is basically a single spelling and punctuation system throughout: with two minor subsystems. The one is the subsystem with British orientation (used in most English-speaking countries other than the United States), with distinctive forms in only a small class of words, colour, centre, leoelled, etc. The other is the American subsystem, color, center, leoeled, etc. Canadian spelling draws on both systems and is

English 19

National s t a n d a r d s of English 1.24

British and American English What we are calling national standards should be seen as distinct from the standard English which we have been discussing and which we should think of as being supranational, embracing what is common to all. Again, as with orthography, there are two national standards that are overwhelmingly predominant both in the number of distinctive usages and in the degree t o which these distinctions are institutionalized: American English (AmE) and British English (BrE). Grammatical differences are few and the most conspicuous are known to many users of both national standards: the fact that AmE has two past participles for get and BrE only one (cf 3.18), for example, and that in BrE either a singular or a plural verb may be used with a singular collective noun: The government {e:}

in favour of economic sanctions.

whereas in AmE a singular verb is required here. Some are less familiar, but are unlikely to hamper communication. For example, AmE may use the simple past in informal style in contexts where BrE normally requires the present perfective (cf 4.20 Note), as in: Suejust Sue's just finished her homework. And BrE tends to use the construction with should where AmE generally uses the present subjunctive (cf 14.24): I insisted that he

]

should take {lab

the documents with him.

.

,

.

20 The English language

Lexical examples are far more numerous, but many of these are familiar to users of both standards: for example, railway (BrE), railroad (AmE); tin (BrE), can (AmE); petrol ersorrwho r~ee(lc~(ed rrre, ie 111q r~rotlrer.

17.22

11~

this the { ~ ~ she~came? ~ e ) [7al

There is a tendency to favour nlhen or where if the antecedent is already the complement of a prepositional phrase, ie [8] rather than [gal (to avoid repetition of the preposition): nhen his son arrived. He died On the(fa~'{an ivl~icl~ his son arrived.

[!a1

This book is about a Bloomsbury 1sirnpI.v clorr't rc~cogrlize.['about a place I simply don't recognize; but I ought to recog~lizebecausc I know Bloomsbury and the book says it is Bloomsbury']

[sal t5bl

*This is rhe style he wrote it. This is the style he wrote it in.

1111

Another example:

However, after other nouns whichexpress adverbial-related meanings similar to reason and way, no that or zero construction without preposition is possible. Thus not [6] and [7] but only [6a] and [7a]:

Occasionally plural antecedentscan be met with, as in:

'11~.1v\'. 1,111

All this I gave up for the mother ~vhorlee(led r7rtJ. [I1 In [I], mother may be seen as having an appos~tionalrelation to a noun phrase whose head is a general noun such as l)ersorl, a,.comp;~n~cdby a r e l a t ~ v e clause as postmodifier:

The rare use of for which after reason strikes most people as clumsy and unnatural, while the reason why seems tautologous; there is general preference for zero [5a] or a nominal relative clause [5bl: the reason they came? B lhatl w h YtheY" m e ?

1111. V I ~ D ) CI C1 1

t7.1

Nonrestrictive relative clauses In nonrestrictive relative clauses, the most explicit formsof relative pronouns, ie the wh-series, are typically used. The relative pronoun can be subject, object, complement, or adverbial. Here is a survey of the dilferent forms for personal and nonpersonal antecedents: S: I spoke to D r Spolsky, *th(rt was unwilling to give further details. l :*{ has onlyjust bccn rcviewcd, was published a year ago.

i::I lvhorrr

0 : I spoke to D r Spolsky

0 :This excellent book,

was published a year ago.

l met after the inquest.

Freda has only just received for review,

1258 The noun phrase

I

Postmodification

, 11,hir.11 w;ls cnvclt~pctlin liy:. ;il wits cnvclopctl i n I'op. , 11dr(v1it was cnvclopctl in fog. , tt./~ir/lslic lias sltrdictl. ; she h;~sstutlicd I/I(,I)I. She read a paper on lamprcys , 11~11ich slic h;ls done rcscarcl~or,. ,or1 11~11ic.h she has tlonc rcscarch. : she h:ts tlonc rcsc;~rclio n r11or11. My brother, 11,hohits lived in A~ncric:~ sincc boyhood. can still speak fluent Italian. My brother can still speak fluent It:tlir~n,a~rrlIrc Ii;~slivctl in America sincc boyhood. My brother can still speak Italian ~lthurrghhe lias lived in America since boyhood.

[I!:: 11~1rk~h

C: Anna is a vegetarian,

C : She wrtnts low-calorie food,

{:/I;

I IC got lost o n Snowtlon

not.11~clsc is i t our kttnily.

}

1t~hic11 this vcgctrblccurry certainly i s

A : This is a tiew type of word processor, ( aburct 11~11ic.11 there has been so t i ~ t ~ cpublicity. h 11.11ic11 [:/~;t h e r e I;IS bccti so tni~chpi~hiici'yC I ~ O ~ I I .

}

As cat1 be seen, the choice of pro~iounsis restricted to ~c~l~n(m) and 11~hic11. Nonsubject n~ltois thought by many to be moreobjectionable in nonrestrictive than in restrictive clauses (cf17.14). Zero cannot occur, and that is very rare. With nonrestrictive relative clauses, we usually have a tone unit boundary, often accompanied by a pause, before the relative clause; and, often, a repetition at the end ofthe relative clause of the nuclear tone of the tone unit preceding the relative clause. In writing, nonrestrictive relatiollship is usually marked off by commas (cf App 111.19). Compare:

Note

WRITTEN:Then he met Mary, who inuited him to aparly. ~ bll~~ited him to a PAR^^( SPOKEN: Then he ]met M ~ R -Y who By contrast, with restrictive relative clauses, there is usually no tone unit boundary or pause before the relative clause; nor in writing is the relative clause separated by a comma from what precedes. Compare: WRITTEN: That's the girl (that) he nlet at theparty. SPOKEN: /That's the girl (thal) he rnet at the ~ i n t y l It must be emphasized that these are typical rather than obligatory prosodic features. The followingexample is exceptional in having a prosodic boundary before the relative clause though it is unquestionably restrictive: s l wtll lb~tlmatelyl- (wln but In the /LONG R ~ J N-~\these are ~ b ~ c ethat SUPPORTI from the mabor~tyof the people In thts c6uNtryI

17.23

Nonrestrlctlve relatlonshlp IS often semantically very slmtlar to coordtndt~on, wlth or wtthout conjunction (cf l 3 l j ) , or adverbldl subordlnatton (cf 15 1 7 j ) Both types are lndlcated by paraphrdses in the following examples

bv finite cli~uses 1259

17.24

A nonrestrictive interpretation is occ;~sion;~lly introduced hy IImf when ;I premod~licror determiner would make ;I rcstrictivc cl;~use;~bst~rd, but when 11.hic.11. on the otller h:tnd, might imply too parenthetic a relation: I looked at A4nry:c sodjirre, rlrnr I hnd once so p;~s.;ion;~tely luvcd. I61 I n [61 we seem to have an elliptic;~lform of a n appositive exprcsrion: 1 looked at Mnr)z's sndlncr.,o.hce rh~lfI had once so passionately loved. [&l] Here the appositive ufi~ccjustifiesthe rcstrictivcclausc that follows. Usually the use of nonrestrictive that shows that a writer h;ts muddled w11;lt he 1i;ls aftlntcdto set down, as in the followingexample from a serious ;~rticle: One of the most important recent dcvelopmcnts in neutral hydrogen studies of our G;llaxy has been thediscovery ofhigh velocities in thecentre and in regions i ~ i n t yfrom thc plane, tlfaatI I~avemcntioned. Despite the comma - and the corresponding prosodic separation i f this is read aloud (a separation that is essential ifplarfewerenot to be thought the antecedent Ihe;~d)- it seems likely that the writer originally wanted the relative clause to be restrictive, as i t could readily have been if placed earlier: . . . has been fhe~/i.~co~erj~ /h01 I have mentioned of high velocities . . . However, this position of the relative clause viol;ltes the rule that prcposition;~lpllrases precede relative clauses as postmodifiers,producing a rl~etoric;~lly unncccpk~blesentence (d.18.391).

Where the relative pronoun is a determinative in a noun phrase, there is again less choice than in restrictive clauses. Expressions with njhich tend to be uncommon except in formally precise writing. The preposition usually precedes which, and explicitness often extends to completion of the prepositional phrase by a general noun, locative or temporal, as the case may be (making which a relative determiner, cj'5.14): In 1960 he came to London, ill which city he has lived ever since.

[l] [21

, she invlted hrnl to a party

More commonly, we find where or wlrot instead of the 1r~l1ic11 expression :

. . . to London, where . . . . . . i n 1960, whet1 . . .

[lal a1?..[ This is a point at which there islittle distinction between adnominal relative

Postmodification by finiteclauses

1260 The noun phrase clauscs and adverbial clauses of place and timc in complex scntcnce structure I s.2sfr). Nolc l l ~ cpossil)lc v:~ri:iIi(~~is i l l wortl or(Icr will1 ,I/-I)V(IIIOIII~S (,SOIIIP, iro~/f. [I//,I)oth,ctc; rlik, (.slrolrlil) . .

17.27

Dcspitc tltc limited number of noun hcad types th:tt tnny hc postmodificd by :In ;tppositivc cl;tusc. tllc s~~pcrlici;~l sirnil:trily to rcl:ttivc cl:~uscpost~no~lilication can sometimes cause momentary dilliculty. Total ambiguity, however, bcforc anything is rare since so many factors of selection Il:lvc to hc i~~volvcd like [ l l c a n occur:

A report that he stole was ultimately sent to the police.

[I]

The two interpretations ('he stole a rcport' or 'the report was that he stole') depend upon the possibility that a report can bc a physical object or an abstraction (that is, nominalizing the verb report); upon steal being permissibly transitive or intransitive; and several other factors: made in place of sent, for example, would prevent the ambiguity (though it might not prevent the hearer or reader from having temporary difficulty). Nonrestrictive appositive clauses like [2] can less easily resemble relative clauses since, irrespective of nonrestrictiveness, they still involve the particle that, in sharp contrast with nonrestrictive relative clauses: This last fact, (namely) that that is obligatory, should be easy to remember.

l21

In illustrating the previous point, example [2] also illustrates the next point, (namely) that appositive indicatorsnan~elyorviz can be optionally introduced in the nonrestrictive appositions, as can that is (to say) or ie (cj'17.73). It also illustrates the fact that with this type of clause, the antecedent head noun may be freely premodified by adjectives and with a choice of determiners. It will be recalled that, with restrictive appositives, the was obligatory before fact, and it may now be added that the only adjectives admissible would be nonrestrictive in scope ( c - 17.3ff). Contrast 131, where the restrictive clause permits only the nonrestrictive adjective, with [3a], where the nonrestrictive clause permits a restrictive adjective: Tlze ugly fact that he was holding a gun indicated his guilt. Tlre nlore relevantfact, that the gun had not been fired, was curiously ignored. Note

L31 [h]

The nonrestrictive apposition may be closely related to a nonrestrictive relative clause (c/ appositive tvlr-interrogative clauscs, 15.5). Cornpitre:

Postmodification by nonfinite clauses 17.28

P o s t m o d i f i c a t i o n by -ing participle c l a u s e s I'ostlnoclification of tltc noun pliritsc is possihlc with :III rltrcc oSIhc nonfinire clause types: -ing participle, -et1 participle. and infinitive cl;~uscs. The corrcspondct~ccbetween -its cl;tc~scs;~ndrcl;itivc cl;lt~scsis lirnilcd t o those rel;ttive clauses in which the relative pronoun is suh.jcct:

{

/

The person lllo & ?,r:;

ropi~rtsis my collcrguc

The person t~~riting reports is my colleague. [la] The nonfinite clause 11~ritirgreports in [la] may be interpreted, according to the context, as equivalent to one of the more explicit versions in [I]. Other examples of postmodifying -irlg clauses: The dog barking next door sounded like a terrier. ['which rt.o.rhnrki~~g next door'] A tile falling froma roofshattered into fragments at his feet. ['whichjill from a roof] You should look for a man carryinga large r~tnbrella.['who 111iflbe carrying a large umbrella'] It must be emphasized that -ing forms in postmodifying clauses should not be seen as abbreviated progressive forms in relative clauses. Stative verbs, for instance, which cannot have the progressive in the finite verb phrase, can appear in participial form (cf 4.4, 14.19): This is a liquid with a taste resembli~lgthat of soapy water. ['which resembles'; not: '*which is resembling'] It was a mixture co?uisring of oil and vinegar. ['that consisted of'; not: '*that was consistingof'] '

t21

L31 In all instances, the antecedent head corresponds to the implicit subject of the nonfiniteclause. There is nononfinite postmodifier, therefore, corresponding directly to the relative clause in [I b], without recourse to the passive [Ic]: Reports that my colleag~teis u~ritirlgwill be discussed tomorrow. Reports being written by mycoIleagz~ewill be discussed tomorrow.

[I b] [Ic] There are sharp constraints upon aspect expression in the participle clauses used in postmodification. We have just noted that resenlbling in [2] (a taste resembling that of soapy water) obviously could not represent the progressive, and the neutralization of the aspectual contrast can further be seen in [4] in contrast with [4a]:

1

who is working behind the desk

Postmodific;~tionby nonfiniteclauscs

1264 The noun phrase

being repaired by that n~cchz~nic now . . . ri>/~oirr~rl hy I I i i ~ tmccli:~nicwhcn it Iirci~ks1l11wii. . . r ~ * / ~ ~ ~ iIII:II r ~ vI /I IlV~C IyI ~ I I I ~ KI I C I I I I C IIC lrfl , ,

1

1

1265

hchind thc dcsk l l ~ ci11i11l 1 */,,,~IIJ! l"orkirlg 11,or1< ;I!): 1

,

On thc loss ol' this ;~s(lcclual(1istil)cti1)11i l l nonlinitc vcl-l>11111:1scs. 1'13.50. Si~nilarlythe perl.ectivc aspect cannot usually bc expressed in the nonlinilc

cl:~usc.C'omparc (51and [5:1]: 'I'hc man nho 110.v I

I ~ t/11~ ~ Irr(l,rais

my I>rothcr.

?*The man houirig 118orrthe race is my brother.

151 [5n]

However, in a structure with an indcli~litcnoun phl.;lsc as hc;~tl,as in perfective aspect is more acceptable: ?Any person or persons Iiaving w~itrie,s.sedtlii~crtiackis undcr suspicion.

c61

The tense to be attributed to the -ing clause will usually be that of the finite clause in which the noun phrase occurs, especially if the noun phrase is object: Do you know the rnan talking to my sister? ['who is talking to my sister'] Did you know the niarz talkitig to tnysister? ['who was talking to my sister'] The tense of the nonfinite clause can also bc infcrrcd from thc context: The rnan sitting ,lest to her (now) was speaking on the radio (last night). ['who is sitting']

L71

In a sentence like [7], the tense of the -ing clause would be assumed to be the present tense [8], unless the context suggests otherwise, as in 184: [g1 to her ['who is sitting'] the rnan sitting next to her on that occasion ['who was sitting'] [8al In [9], the past tense was indicates the tense of being questioned and does not mean that he was no longer my brother, ie [9] = [9a]: L91 The man being questiorled by the police was my brother. [9al The man that was (being) questiotted by the police is my brother. Note

In some cases, -btg participles occur in frozen expressions wilh no rclntive clause alternative. ex: for

17.29

the rime being (not: '"for the time that is').

P o s t m o d i f i c a t i o n by -edp a r t i c i p l e c l a u s e s As with -ing clauses, there is corrcspondcnce only with relative clauses that have the relative pronoun as subject. The nonfinite -ed participle clause in 111 can be related to the finite relative clauses in [la]: [l1 The car (being) repaired by that mechanic . . . was (being) repaired The -ed participle clause [l] will be interpreted, according to the context, a s equivalent tooneof the finite clauses in [la]. Thus:

Other examples: i~ppc;~rcurtcl. . .' or, more prcciscly, 'that r r r q he,/i~rrritl. . .'] 131 The antecedent is always identical with the implied subject of the -ed postmodifying clause, as it is with the -ing construction. Also, postmodifying -ed and -ing participle cli~uscsLire both usu:~lly rcstrictivc (hut c:/' 17.341'). I-lowevcr, in thc case of the -c,(/ construction, the participle cotlccrncd is as firmly linked with the passive voice as that in thc -big construction is linked with the active. Since -ed participles can never be passive with intransitive verbs, there is no -ed postmodifier [4al corresponding exactly to the relative clause in [4]: The train wl~ichhas arrived atplatforni I is from York. ?*The train arriuedatpkatjorni I is from York.

c41 [W Exceptions occur wl~ercthe -e(lpilrliciple is prcccdcd hy ccrfi~in;~tlvcrhs,its in : The train recently arrived atplatjbrni I is from York. A man just gone to India {come from the rneeliIlg] "ld me about

[S]

This phenomenon is related to our ability also to premodify nouns with participles which, unless themselves premodified, can only postmodify. There are constraints on aspectual expression in -edpostmodifying clauses, though they are not identical with those for -ittg clauses. Unlike -ing clauses, -edclauses can indicate progressive aspect. A progressive contrast is possible, as in [6a], which reflects the aspectual contrast in [6]: was meant for tomorrow. Tile food

{z;";

[6]

I

eatell was meant for tomorrow.

As with -ing clauses, there is usually no perfective aspect in -ed clauses:

l

The food which has beet1 eotcri was m""" ?*The food having been ealerl

for tomorrow.

t6bl

P o s t m o d i f i c a t i o n by infinitive c l a u s e s 17.30 Unlike -iiig and -ed clauses, infinitive clauses as postmodifiers in noun phrases allow correspondences with relative clauses where the relative pronoun can be not only subject, but also object or adverbial and, to a limited extent, complement:

1266 The noun phrase

S: Thc man to hcplp yolr is Mr Johnson. ['who can help you'] 0 : 'l'hc Inan (/i~ryo~r) to .vc,rJis Mr .lohns~)n. ('wl~o(nl)you shoultl sec'] C:: -1.11~thing ui,ryorc) 10h,, thcsc tl;iys is a systcms analyst. ['the thing that pcoplc will try to bc thcsc days is a systclrls analyst'; l ~ o s i l i v ~ is more spccilic than thc lirst, and hcncc t l ~ c11sc~ I ' I ~ I Ia In Iintlici~tor ~ ~ ~ , that introtltcccs ;l morc spccilic opposilivc. Or is lcss co~nmonlyl~sctlthan tile other indicators, thtrt is (to sciy) ant1 irt orhcr ~tv)ril.s: The company commanrler, that is to say Captain Mc~cliso~t, assembled his men and announced their mission. M YI~c.st,/i.ic~~tcl, in other wortls Arl~m,wits licrc 1;1st night. My hestjiiertd was here last night - AIIIIN.

17.74 A scale of semantic relationships in strict nonrestrictive noun-phrase apposition

Although she was reluctant, although shefelt an urtderstandable hesztatron, she eventually agreed They had summo~tedhelp - called thepollce andfire brrgade She IS better, very much better, than she used to be

1309

An unusualpresertt was given to him for his birthday: a book on ethics. Note

l51

Thcrc are other grammatical cons(ructions which arc somewh;tt simil;~rto ;~ppositionin meaning. Compareexamples 131and [41with, rcspcctivcly,thc corrcl;~tivcs~rch. . . Ii.7~ PlOA. ~ We ;IISO find premodirying numbers and letters, particuli~rlyon signs likc I,'\ 2 Pl~~rfr~n~r. G Rbrk. ~ h e followingconstructions arc fully ;icccptahlc in onon~;~stic use: Number 3. No 3. (esp AmE) # 3 Chbiplcr)6, Class 2h, Fig(ure) B, Section 10, Table R, Type A There is no type (;I) with 11 delinitc detcr~nincrpo\sihle ill the li~ll(,winguse:

-

(Cii) Particularization PARTICULARIZATION is the marked form of inclusion and requires an explicit indicator which shows that the particularization has been chosen because it is in some way prominent:

(

'the number 1031 Are you in Nte~rher103?[NOT: Roonr 103? [NOT: 'the room 1031

The book contains some fascinatingpassages, notably an account oftheir trip to North Afiica. The children liked the atrimnls, particularly the monkeys. We want to invite a number oj'fiiends, especially Joat~andBetry.

17.88

Strict restrictive apposition There are three types of strict restrictive apposition of noun phrases. In type (a), the first appositive is preceded by a definite determiner (and possibly premodifier) and is more general than the second appositive: the number three that famous critic Paul Jones the year 2000 the soprano Janet Baker your brother George the novel 'Great Expectations' The type friend Anna usually implies criticism: Our friend Anna here doesn't think so, however.

Determiners are regok~rlyomitted in proper noun IISC. as is observed nor only in personal and geographical n;lrnes, but ;~lsoin, II~:ISL.S:III~I I ~ I ~ I I : I I O I ~ I C I ~ S I I I I C I I I ~ I .' I~I I I C ~ ~ O I lI ~ r : ~I Sr C O I I I ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ I ~ C I I I Io atUcclivas, not as ~iiotlilicrsol' no~~n-phr;~se Ilc:ltls. ; I S in I ~ C I I 'ri~o,l.vto Lurrrlc~n.Thus we have rocrc/s to LJII(/~III hul not ~/ircililii~.v to orrrs. Cotnp;lre now the I'ollowing p;~irs:

Al~lnl~~l:ll Illcrc is nolhinl! wren]! will1 lhis slrl~clnrc.Io :~voitltlisconlinllily. the ;~dverbialc;ul hc ~novctlto inili:~lposilioll: .rhis morning I lnct a r?rtrnccrrryinfi.(I h ~ e r/J(ITCC/. l~~ Further examples of discontinuities in noun-phrase structure are prcsenteci in 18.39J together with some discussion of the COnSeqUences for information processing. Noun-phrase rnodi[i~rswhich have their own complc1ncntatiOn Can often occupy alternative positions. The structure iseithcr continuous (noun head + adjective with complement) or discontinuous (adjective noun head adjective complement). We can distinguish the following types of complement :

+

the ka~~d.~orne man that she kissed thefirst man that she kissed a11cxtrcrorclirrorydiscovery thi~tI m;itlc an early discovery that I made The nio.rt recent play I know well is Bcclroonr Farce. The most recent play I've seen is Ifamlet.

+

L41 [h] The superficial resemblance within each pair must not prevent 11s from seeing that, in each case, the second member has an adverbial relation in what is a plausible corresponding sentence:

(a) Adjective with a prepositional phrase as complement (cf 17.58):

the m m was the{fir'' *han~lsonre}that

(b) Adjective with an infinitive clause as complement (d'16.75J):

a discovery that I made (c) Adjective in comparative degree with a comparative clause as complement (cf 15.638): a person more qualified

The play I Note

w i t h the following types it should be noted that alternative adjective position also entails change, compared with types (a-C), in the position of the indefinite article, such that it always immediately precedes the noun head.

(e) So + adjective

. 131 [3a] .

've seen

{

kissed

*extraordinary

]most

~ recently ~ is Hainlet. ~

~

Comparativesofadjectives with comparativeclause complements like [S] and 161can have as ad hoc 'compounds' the normally postponed comparative conslructions in [5;1] and [6a] (.jcctwill1 ;I known identity. The verb phr:lsc 1r.iI1d.c.irlL. is given somewhat lllore prominence, since ;~lll~ougli it is sc~n;~ntic;~lly congruent will1 the form o f thc question, it fro111'ollr' ~ I ~ I ) W I C < I ~ C is by no means wholly prcdict;~hlcin dc~~cctillg;ltIc11tiotl to M;~rv'sdecision. If', for example, the question had been 'When will Mary decide'!', the rcply might have beell:

18.4

She will delcide 'next W

She will do so /next W ~ E K ~

~ E K ~

The effect of prosodic prominence is to draw attcntion to the semantic unit within which the prominent syllable occurs (in this c;lse tlie verb phrase 1~;ll clecide) and hcncc to give that unit inrorm:~tionprominence. So ;ilso with the information climax in this example. Thc noun phrase, ne.rt ~veek,which realizes the adverbial, would have the main strcss on the hcad, week. It is therefore this syllable which carries the nuclear tone, though of course it is not the item week itself which is informationally prominent but the wliole adverbial next n~eek.Compare the parallel distribution of informiltion in the following examples, noting the relation between the prosodically prominent syllables and the informationally prominent se11iantic units:

The verb phrase in tliis case would have little more prominence than the subject. But the m;~inprolnincnce is givcn to the t i ~ n cadjunct, next vvec,k, and tliis prominence is conveyed by the intonation nucleus on the head noun ~vrek. Such prosodic data do not concern speech alone. If we had received the inquiry in writing and had scribbled the reply on paper also, 'She will decide next week' would have been given the prosodic values of our spoken response as the receiver glanced at the written message. And if the receiver were to read it aloud to a friend, it would normally be read with these prosodic values. If this were not so, our message might be distorted or replaced by some other that we had not intended, such as:

H e will delliver it on Tii~sdayl He should have relplied to my ~ k ~ t e r l

She will delciDE next week1

18.3

?'hough there is a one-for-one correspot~dcr~cebetwcen tone unit and information unit, the correspondence is lcss direct between prosodic prominence :lntl inli>rtn:tlion value. I'romincncc hy slrcss or inton:~lion is rc;~lizcdon a .~.vl/iiblc~, ;l unit that h;~sno ncccssary ccirrclation with meaning, let alone information v;~luc.This is thc c;lsc wit11 the stress on -c.iil~i n :

If, on the other hand, my letter had already been established in the context, it would no longer be appropriate to make the prepositional phrase informationally prominent. Instead, the nucleus would probably occur on replied and the adverbial might be lightened and abbreviated by pronominalization:

Information and communicative dynamism COMMUNICATIVE D Y N A M I S ~refers ~ to the variation in communicative va? as between different parts of an utterance. The subject, verb, and adjunct In:

He should have r e l s r l r ~

She will delcide 'next WEEK( were described in 18.2 as being uttered with sequentially increasing prominence, with the S conveying least information, the V rather more (for the reasons stated), and the A conveying most - as is natural since it conveys (or implies that it conveys) the information sought by the lvli-element of the question 'When (shall we know what Mary is going to do)?' A TONE UNIT is defined in Appendix 11.13 as a stretch of speech containing one intonation nucleus, and since each such nucleus serves to highlight a piece of information, it follows that a tone unit is coextensive with an INFORMATION UNIT. .. .

It is such circumstances that lead some to define end focus in terms of the (stressed syllable of the) last open-class lexical item of tlie last clause element (but cf 18.12 Note [a]). Note

.

18.5

the 'communicative dynamism' can range from very low [correspona~ngto weak stress, as with the subject she), through medium (corresponding to nonnuclear stress, as with the verb phrase, it~illdecide), to very strong stress . .adverbial, next week). And, (corresponding to intonation nucleus, as with the . c,...

I n ;ill the examples so far, the 'scm;intic units' identified by prosodic;~llypro~ninc~t sylll~bl~~ have ;tlso bccn gra~nmaticalutiits (V, A), hut tlic bro;lder term 'scm;lntic unit' is nccess:lry ;is ;I reminder th;tt the informationally prominent unit n c a l not be ;I synt;~cticclement: It was Ineither an ~iJ~ocraticl nor cnltircly a o6~ocr;ttic govcrnmentl (Sec furtltcr 18.15.)

Tone units and grammar Every sentence has at least one tonelinformalion unit, and it is usuill forsuch a unit to be coextensive with a grammatical unit. Sometimes this is the sentence itself, as in the example we have been considering: She will delcide 'next

W~EKI

But far more commonly, the tone unit corresponds within a sentence. This may be: accordance with the linear progression OS the ~ntormatlonunlt. lu put

11

grammatical unit

1358

Ttlome, focus, und inforrniltion p r o c ~ s ~ i r l ~

(a) An initially placed optional ndjunct (cf8.36). other than closed-class items:

18.6

(Aftermy i ~ ~ n e sIs\went l to P R ~ N C E ~ contrast: \Then I went to FRANCE! (h) An initially or fin;~llypl:lced disjunct or conjunct, especially when realized by $1polysyll;~bicitcm:

It will he noticed that, in each of thc c;lscs ~ncntioncdin 18.5, thc rcmnindcr ol'the scntcncc is both a tonc unit nntl ;I gr;~nim:~tic:~l unit: t l ~ cprcdic;~tcin (d), a well-formed clause in (a), (h), (c), and (I). An untidicr situation, with no one-to-one relation between tone units and major grammatical units, occurs when such items as those specilicd in (a), (h), and (c) are placed medially. The items concerned may then continue to be given prominence by an intonation nucleus, but - especially in conversational English - the resultant division of the sentence into tonc units will not correspond to the gr;~tnmaticalunits that wc fincl it uscl'ul to tlistinp~~ish ill this hook. 'l'l~us: (a') A sentence with medially placed optional adjunct:

(FRXNKI~~ it has bcen dis/GRAcEfilll Morelbver( the /chairman may not he w i ~ ~ i n g l It was dis/GRic~fuII (PRANKIYI

You /should by ~ b w hc l learning your ~ivingl (b') A sentence with mcdially placed disjunct or co~ljunct:

(C)An initially placed vocative:

It has (FRANKIY( bcen dis/GR,ic~fuI( The Ichairman 'may moreoverl lnot be w i ~ ~ i n g )

~JOHNI

are YOU \all R ~ G H T ~ I~octorlI'm \very A~xiousl

(c') A sentence with medially placed vocative:

A vocative in end position will also occupy a separate tone unit if it is given a rising nucleus, whether for politeness or to single out the addressee more specifically (cf App 11.15). following a different type of nucleus:

You lshould 'really JOHN1 be learning your Living1 A furthercommon circumstancein which toneunits and sentenceconstituents do not completely coincide is where a noun-phrase postmodification takes the form of a nonrestrictive clause or appositional structure. For example:

I'm lmuch sBrterlI~6ctorl But I (don't think you're R ~ G H T( M ~ AR~I

g l delservedly ~ ~ 6 s p e r o u s l The (Japa~EsElwhose \industry is r ~ ~ i v i nare I adlmire the JapaN~sElwhose lindustry is r ~ ~ i v i n g l IHarriet S M ~ T Hour ~ lnew Represe~tativel/comes from Alanimal JLetme 'introduce you to 'Harriet SM~TH(our JnewR c p r e s ~ ~ t a l i v e l

Contrast: Are you \all R ~ G H T'John1 I'm \very A ~ x i o u 'Doctor1 s

Contrast (cf 18.5 (d)):

(d) The subject, if this element is realized by a clause or a long noun phrase, especially one with postmodification (cf 17.lff, 17.61):

The IJapa'nese who 'live in r6kyol can [see Ka'buki 'theatre ~ ~ G u l a r l y l

\What we WANT^ is (plenty of RAIN( The (tall 'lady by the DOOR( (spoke to J ~ H N ( Contrast: \John 'spoke to the 'tall 'lady by the DOORI (e) A fronted object or complement (cf 18.208): Her IwRiringl I (find unin~k~ligible) (f) The coordinate clauses in a compound sentence, especially when the clauses have different subjects:

She (won the RACE( and he was de(~iGHred( They ( W ~ L K E Dthey ( ~ w ~ M they I lplayed G ~ L F I Contrast coordinated predicates and predications (cf 13.52f): H e \went out and 'slammed the DOOR( I have (seen them and 'offered my HELP^ On the segmentation of tone units, cf App 11.18.

18.7

Thegeneralizations made in18.5-6 provide only guidelines: no rigid rule can be made about the relation of grammatical to tone units or about the precise points a t which tone units will form their divisions. Since tone units constitute information units, they are by their very nature variable stretchesof language, readily adjustable to the demands of emphasis, grammatical complexity, speed of utterance, and other factors. For example, a sentence having a clausal object will generally form one tone unit, so long as all the elements are relatively short and simple. But if (i) we wish to highlight certain parts, or (ii) the length of the constituents goes beyond a certain point (very roughly, five or six words), the sentence will be split into two or more tonelinformation units: The (man 'said we could 'park HERE[ The lman SXID~we could lpark HERE^ The lman ~ S S ~ R Eus1D that we could \park our c d ~Illere l 'opposite the ~OTEL~

Prosodic aspects 136 1

1360 Theme, focus, and information processing

(h1Tlle nolion of 'givcn' and 'new' isr~l;~tcs Illc t w o pr~leb111' lc;~strind most communic;itive dynamism (c/18.3), such as Juoir and etdifi~~rril~l in: Ji>:!t~li!i(Is s e : ~ l o i ~ i~~~lif!e~lil~le. ~l I'llc ilrlll . w r , / # ~ r r is l ~ I I ~ ~ I I I I C 1,111 ~ I ; 18, I ~r~Ilir , I I ~ . I ~ L , Iw I I ~ > k l \ o \ v \ 111.11 111.111 .1(,11111, %1..11#1011. 11 i, lc~wi~rtls t l ~ c'given' pole, wli~lel'or IIIC Iie:lre~ !vI!u ~ I I W V Il!:tl ~ JO,IIISI!II'CIS I I C B I Ii~ ~ ~ t l i ~ i~ e~t~~~~i. rllily he nc;lrcr tlie 'ocw'polc. 1TIlie 11e;lrcr.011 lllr otl~er 1r:ll~l.is c~hligcil10 ;l\k .\Vlri, is Jc>;jn?'. the speaker kllows tI~:tt hc llas ~nisjuclgetl cvcri wh:lt Ilr : I \ L I I I I I P ~I O I ~ c.IIIO\I given'. ( ' , ~ l l l ~ > ~:,l\,,: ;!c

There are extreme cases where every single word can constitute a tone unit; thus, in cmphatic irritation, we might say:

18.8

Given and new information When we construct a message, it is a courtesy to the receiver, as well as a convenience for ourselves, to provide the point of thc mcssagc with enough context for this point to be both clearly idcntificd and unambiguously utitlcrstood, ;IS well :IS being pl;~cctl in ;I norm:~l lingt~isticfrnmcwork. T o return to the question at the beginning of 18.2: When shall we know what Mary is going todo? The answer might have been: We'll know next week. Here the unitalicized portion replicates material from the question; so far a s the receiver is concerned, it is entirely GIVEN.But as well as providing assurance that the answer is indeed attending to the question, it serves as a convenient introduction to the actual point of the message, the NEW information conveyed by rtext week. Of course, in this instance, the message would have been adequately comprehensible if it had been confined to the new information alone: Next week. But in 18.2, the answer we considered was: She will decide next week. The italicized portion again presents the main point of the message and the entirely new information, but the introduction is less obviously and directly 'given'. Nonetheless, it serves as the necessary background and by contrast with the 'new' information it is relatively 'given'. The subject she and the futurity expressed by will are indeed entirely given, and in replacing ~ v eand know by she and decide (with consequently increased communicative dynamism; cf18.3) we oblige the receiver to infer that if, as we might expect, WC learn of her decision when it is made, the new information - in the context of this specific given information - constitutes an adequate answer to the question.

1l:lvc y c ~ l l l l ~ r rlu l l 1111: 1lljco11 C X I I I ~ > ~ I ~ ~ (~< II( #I I (I ' n,*c(.i:~IIy ; ~ l i o ~ ~i lsl .I(.I:II~IIII 10 I ! ~ V C I I :III;for example (inSornm;~l): Time Wi\S w l ~ e nI'd have tackled it. [ = 'l'hcre w:hs (once) ;I t i n ~ c :l

- Thcrc mnst hc something Wrong. - Was thcre etlyonc in Ihc vicinity?

Typc S V A Was anyone in the vicinity'? 'Typc SV

.

N~OIIC W;IS w : ~ i l i ~ ~ ~ ! '~'IIL'IL' ,,

W ; I S 1 1 0 ,III(,

-.

w:~ilil~l,,.

-

Typc SVO Plenty of pcoplc ;trc gcttitlg promolion. There are plenty of people getting promotion.

- bulldozers I ~ ~ I I bulldozers A -

Type SVOC Two hnve been knocking the place flat. Tllcrc have two knocking thc pl;lcc flat Typc SVOA girl is putting the kettle on.

There's a girl putting the kettle on

Type SVOO Soniething is causing my friend distress. There's something causing my friend distress.

-

..

Passive versions of the correspondences are also to be noted: Type SVps A whole box has been stolen. Type SV,, C No shops will be left open.

-

There has been a whole box stolen. 18.46

- There'll be no shops left open.

The notional subject can be postponed (cj'18.31) if it is required to have focal prominence:

(i) It often determines concord, governing a singular form of the verb (cf 10.34fl) even when the following 'notional subject' is plural: Tllere's some people in the waiting room. (informal) occurs alongside: There are some people in the waiting room.

There was in the vicinity a helpful doctor. There'll be left open no single well-stocked shop. Especially in informal usage, there is an existential sentence with an -ed clause following the noun phrase:

(ii) It can act as subject in jws-no and tag questions: Is there any more soup? Therc's nothing wrong, is tlic,re? (iii) It can act as subject in infinitive and -;rig clauses: I don't want there to he arjy 1nis1111rlersta1r~Ii17g. He was disappointed at there heitig so little to do. Tliere Iiavinig bee11trouble over tlris in thepast, I want to treat the matter cautiously.

There's a parcel come for you. There's a book gone from my desk. There's a tree fallen across our driveway. There's a new history of Indonesia published. N~~~

~h~ rule that existential sentencesshould have an indefinite noun phrase as'notional subject' us from constructing sentences like *Tl~ercSIhe rrrorreJJirr rbe box from Tllc [email protected] (he bol, hi^ limitation can be waived, however, where the definite noun phrase conveys new information. in answerstoexistentiaI questions (actualor implied), such that the answer provides . . .. a specific (and hence definite) instance: A : Have we any loose cash i n thehouse? R. Wcll. the money i n the box over thcre . . -.., there's . A : Is there anyone coming to dinner? B: yes, there's Harry and there's also Mrs lones. compare also: m e r e are seueral arrirnals commonly depicted i n heraldry; for instance, there is the lion'.

.

The status o f existential there as subject The there of existential sentences differs from there as an introductory adverb in lacking stress, in carrying none of the locative meaning of the placeadjunct there, and in behaving in most ways like the subject of the clause, doubtless reflecting the structural dislocation from the basic clause types:

Note

[a1The absence oTlocative meaning is indicc~lcdby the ;lcccptability ofthe cxistcnlial scntcnce with herecooccurring with introductory rhert,: There's a screwdriver here. By conlrast, i~djunctrhercwit11inversion (~f18.23),;1sin~Thcrc'stl1cgirl~. would becontr;~dictor~ with an added here: "There's tile screwdriver here! (Bet d. ~THBRES tllc sc~Bwdrivcrl- IRigllt "HBREI [bl Existential rhrrccan be frontcd i n association with the type oflo-clause discussed in 18.36:

1406

Theme, focuu, and infor~r~alion procoosirl(l

two restrictions mentioned in 18.45: the verb need not be n form of the verb 1101 Ilc s ~ ~ l ? j c c t :

hr. ;~ntlilllll011g11there must he ;In indcli~lilcclc~ncnl,i f ncrtl

Sonictlii~~g kccps upsclling him. (C'/ 'So~ltcll~ing i h 1.cl1c;1tctlly upsctting him') 'I'hcre's something (tlii~t)kccps upsctting him. I'd like you to mcet some pcoplc. There's some pcoplc (that) I'tl likc you to Incct.

-

18.47

'Bare' existential sentences Apart from sentences related to basic clause types in the manncr dcscribcd in 18.45, we have to consider various other types of sentence introduced by existential /lrc,re. Among them is the 'bare' existcntial (somctimcs called 'ontological') sentence, which simply postulates the existence of some entity or entities. It has a simple clause structure /Ircrc+ be + indefinite noun phrase : There was a moment's silence. There's nothing to do. There was a sudden noise. There are numerous species of edible fungi. Undoubtedly, there is a God. ['God exists'] Is there any other business? [as spoken by the chairman at the end of a meeting] There must be a more direct route. Such sentences are perhaps to be explained as cases in which the final element is omitted as understood: There is a God (in the Universe). [ie now as always] Is there any other business (for the committee at this meeting)? There must be a more direct route (than the one we're discussing). Other sentences superficially like these are certainly to be so explained. For example, the sentence There'll be trouble, occurring on its own, implies a definite context: 'There'll be trouble at the matchlat the party', etc. Alternatively, it seems significant that many textual examples of 'bare' existentials comprise complexities that provide for the required double prominence. Compare such paraphrases of foregoing examples as: Edible fungi exist in numerous species. There was Isi~encefor a 'moment1 In 'There have always been wars', we have an SVA existential, though the A-element (always) is at M (cf 8.16); compare 'There have been wars in all pcriorls of history'.

18.48

Existential sentences with relative and infinitive clauses A more important additional type of existential sentence is that which consists of there + be + noun phrase + relative clause, and which resembles the cleft sentence (cf18.25, example [2]) in its rhetorical motivation. Such sentences can be related to sentences of orthodox clause types without the

[I l

L21 It is interesting that the rcl:~tivcpronoun r11c11 in chc 'anncx' cl;~usco f [ I ] can bc omittctl (cspcci;~llyin inli~rlnalusilgc) cvcn w l ~ c rit~ is suhjcct OS thc relative clause; something not permissible according to the norm;~lrulc for relative clause formation (cf17.15): Thcre's a man lives in China.

-

*I know ;I man lives in China. This omissibility is a sign of the special status within the main clause of the annex clause here, as in cleft sentences (c/ 18.28 Note). As with cleft sentences, we can have direrent tenses in the two parts of the sentence. Compare: There were some paintings that were admired by everyone. There are some planets that were discovered by the ancients The existential-with-relative construction is particularly common as a means of emphasizing a negative (cf Note below): There's nothing I can do about it. (- nothing rlrat/wlrich I can do) There was no way they could persuade her to try again. (- no way in which t h e y . . .) Compare, without this construction, 'They could persuade her b~no \ray to try. again.' Again, as with cleft sentences, WC can negate either part:

-

There was a student who didn't pass the exam. There wasn't a student who passed the exam.

[ = one failed] [= all failed]

But we can also negate both parts: There wasn't a student whodidn't pass the exam. [=all passed]

+

One may also mention a common existential sentence pattern there + h e noun phrase to infinitive clause, which is problematic to the extent that it cannot be directly related to the basic clause types of 10. lff':

+ +

There was no one for us to talk to. There's (always) plenty of housework to do. Such infinitive clauses are allied to relative clauses (cf17.9ff'),as we see on comparing: At last there was something to write home about. with the (stiffly formal) relative clause construction: At last there was something about which to write home.

Theme, focus. and informlion procewiny

1408

Where thc S is postponed (cf18.31) as in [Z], thcrc is less constr;lin~for the S to be indefinite, doubtless bccause the postponcmcnt ilsclf. inlplics the 'ncwncss't~l'lhc ilc111C O I I C C ~ I I C ~ I :

This typc of existential scntcncc somctimcs has a dclinitc noun phrase as nolion;~lsuhjcct (c/']8.45, Note [a]): 'I'hcrc's the III;III ttexl (Ioc~r10 col~siilrr. Note

0 1 1

18.49

'l'llcrc c:ltnc to his mind licr bc;~util't~l i ~ n dilltclligc~~t ktce.

Alsothercis ;l restricted i~liom;lticc~,nstr!lcliollcollsisli~~goflla~n~ -1- h? + l1eg;lllve -I- -ir!l:cl;lllsc: ' f l i c ~ eiw't a n y getting ;lw:ly frulll i t . I 1 1 el iI t~ I I I I l IIII, I ~ ~ ~ L ~ I I I : II ~I I~ I ~~ ~~ L~ . ~~ I I

If however the transitive verb is onc that Ibrms a V ((./'I h.SX), such scqucnccs arc I'l~lly:~cc.c.l~l;~l~lc:

I I ~ . ~ I ~ ~l4 ~ L ~ ~ c ~ I I . ~ ~ /

Existential sentences with verbs other than be The existential sentence has been described as 'presentative', in serving to hring sotncthing on to llic discours:ll stage deserving our attention. This sccmscspccially t1.11col';~r;~tllcrlcsscotn~no~~, 111t1rc lilcritry Iy~)c~ I ' c x ~ s I c I I I ~ ~ I ~ clause in which rhere is followcd by n vcrb other Ili:~nhi,:

Note

There rose in his imagination grand visions of a world empire. There exist a numbcr of similar medieval crosses in different parts of the country. There may come a time when the Western Nations will be less fortunate. Not long after this, there occurred a sudden revolution in public taste.

-

This construction, which may be related to other sentence forms by the simple correspondence S + V there + V + S (where S is usually indefinite), is equivalent in effect and style to subject-verb inversion after an initial adverbial (cf 18.23). Indeed, in all tlwre-existential sentences, there can be regarded as a 'dummy element', which, placed before the subject and verb, provides the necessary condition for inversion to take place. Grammatically, there is a subject, as we saw in 18.46 above and as we see again here with the operator inversion that takes place when the statement pattern is turned into a question, eg: Will there come a time . . . ? D i d there occur a sudden reoolzrtio?t

. . ..7

But the present construction requires some expansion of the rule given above. In the first place, the verb must be intransitive (exceptions are idiomatic or dubious; cf Note [a]), and of fairly general presentative meaning: verbs of motion (arrive, enter,pass, come, etc), of inception (enterge, spring up, etc), and of stance (live, remain, srarld, lie, etc); but cf 18.50. In the second place, while 'ontological' or 'bare' existcntials are commoner with these verbs than with be (eg: Theresprang up a wildgale), the normal sentence pattern concerned is SVA and the existential rule might be restated as follows (treating sprang up as a single verb unit and not as V A):

+

+

there V: + S + A there+V+A+S A there + V S

+

+

For example : There sprang up a wild gale that night. There sprang up that night a wild gale. That night there sprang up a wild gale.

[l] [2]

[3]

18.50

+ N multi-word

vcrb

[alTransitiveverbs in cx~stcntialsentencesarerare but \vould follow pattern 121nhove in having the S in end position: '?Therestruck 11ic;I S I I ( I C I ~ I I iclc:~. ((Y "I'l~cre st111ckIIIC i~ [;!l1 I I ~ : ~ I) I ('!) 'l'llcrc IIIFII :I~I~I(!SIC l n l lof~ rpronouns ; l r ~ i llltllcr h l l l ~ s t i t ~ ~ '1 lItcy c ~ ;tI111s . II:IVC :I c111i1vi ~*,r:~~~ltn:~tic:~l ft~nctioll,as c:lll be seen in the it;~lici/cdcx;~~lll,lcs in thc I'oll my c;lsc, r,r,r~x/rtt l ~ c underground, go/ another taxi, trrri~:c,clat my front door, rrr.vlrec/ in, and of coursegave my poor wife the shock of her life.

IL.,l l

We now have a very different diagram: +Thursday

Now

t.

...

nnnnnnnnnnnn~nn n

u

u

~

s

z

~

~

2~ s -i 2 ~z . 2~ L -+ z : y ~ * g : g ~ Z~ -.+ -a +m + " 3 : 5 + EL 2 .+ -,

-

+

~

~

~

~

+ Do ~ You want . . . 7.

Fig 19.40 Note

[a1 While a sequence of pg~stlenses implies sequential events if Illc lexical me~ning of' the verb mtlkcs this plausible as in [21, n sequence of past verbs with progressive aspect (c/'4.25fl) can imply simultaneity,as in (31: Ren6 raged with anger. Janel went out for thc even ..,,"g. (21 Reni. was raging with anger. Janet wasgoing out for the evening. I31 [bl Use of the past perfective can enable us to reverse the order or sentences in :I lcrt (cf4.24). Note the way in which 'Time One'lTIJprecedes T, in (41where T, prcccdcs T, in [S]: There was a sudden violent noise outside [T,].John telephoned tllc police [T,]. I41 John telc~lhonedthe police IT2].Tllcre h;l(l bcen :I sudden violenl naisr outside I'r,].

[S]

Tense complexits in narrative More usually, however, texts comprise much greater time-reference complexity than the examples in 19.39f show. They will have a mixture of state verbs and discrete-action verbs; the narrative will weave backwards and forwards, a mixture of tenses and aspects, of finite and nonfinite clatrses enablillg the narrator to depart from the linear sequence of historical order so as both to vary the presentation and to achieve different (cg dramatic) effects: I was reading Chaucer's Troil~tsthe othcr niaht, and it suddenly occurred to me to wonder what Chaucer expected) us to make of the fact that Criseyde

{ki.i)never even been in love. Surely this ,

whereas Troilus

is significant, yet I had never thought of it before.

~

~

w

u

1456

From sentence to text the original example [l], the past varimt was illso givcn, implying ;l retelling

wc jl,lvc the ctddlt~on.~l complrc.lt~onof w~thlnCI ndrrdtrve

.I

n.1rrctttvc dhout a narrative

of lllc story ('Wllcn 'rroilus lirstsrf~~~ C'riscytlc, sltc I I ~ I ~ I;lI witlow ~ ~ ~ c fi)r I ~ solllc

time').

C1l.tucer's tttne 19.42

F I 19 ~ 41d

I had forgotten that they dine very early and I arrived at an awkward moment for both them and me. I31 But there is a further use of the present tense: the so-called 'historic present' (cf 4.8). As well as occurring in rather mannered and forrnal prose of an oldfashioned tone, it is common in colloquial spoken narrative, especially at points of particular excitement. The time reference is unequivocally past. For example:

The account of the narrdtor's readrng and reflection 1s itself of some complexity wlth~na perlod m the past, a duratrve aCtIVItY (readll1g) Is represented as belog interrupted by a sudden thought But the thought had slgnlficance not merely at the tlme of thinking nor merely during the rest of the ~ a d m per~od, g tt IS represented as be~ngpermanentlyrefers s 1 g nonly 1 f i ctoThe the ') does not connote that appeal 10 the hearer (Surely now of the speaker and hearer, there 1s no room for some such adverbial as at present

It was on the Merritt Parkwayjust south oSNew Haven. I was driving along, half asleep, my mind miles away, and suddenly there was a screeching of brakes and I catch sight of a car that had been overtaking me apparently. Well, he doesn't. He pulls in behind me instead, and it's then that I notice a police car parked on the side.

*Surely thls IS at present s~gnlficant

Frg 19 41b

'A' represents the (unknown) per~oddur~ngwhich Crlseyde has been a widow when the poem begms, 'B' represents the longer period (ln effect, ~ ~ ~whole ~ life) l dur~ng ~ ~ which ' sTrollus has never been m love It will be noticed that In this commentary we have adopted the ‘timeless' vlew of the fiction ('when the poem begins, Cr~seydehas been a widow for Some time') In

- E

I tl~htkshc had undergonczrn opcr~~tion bct'orc I tnct her. [l 1 Troilus is totally fancy-free until he secs Criscydc. L21 A third type of present, 'habitual' (cJ.4.61, is common in ordrnary narrative, and it can readily cobccur with past tenses:

Chducer expects

The narrator 1s here uslng the present tense of tlmeiess reference (cf 4 2ff) It 1s the potentlaitty for such a use of the present that made us give the two p o ~ s l b l ~ l t l'Chaucer e~, expects7and 'Chaucer expected- The latter takes the hlstorlcal vlew. a comment on the poet as he wrote In the fourteenth century The former treats the Chaucer canon as timeless, permanently existing An analogou~choice ex~stsm referring to the fictl0n.l nlinatlve of Chaucer's poem

Special Uses o f oresent and nast We havescen that thcprcscnt tcnsccan cooccurin lextu;~lslructurc wilh two distinct types of time references: ordinary 'state prescnt' and universal 'state prcsenl' ('timclcss'; (:f4.5):

Note

In nonstandard speech, the reporting verb in narrative is often in Ihe historic present: 'Wheredid you put my coat?'he says. 'I never touched it.' I s;~ys.

[41 151

19.43 As well as being able to use the present tense to refer to the past, we can conversely use the past to refer to a narrator's 'now', exploiting that form of backshift that is referred to as free direct and indirect speech (cj'14.28, 14.35). Textual cohesion and congruity of reference are maintained by careful consistency of tense and aspect usage, present replaced by past, past by past perfective, even in the prolonged absence OSreminders to the hearertreader in the form of reporting verbs ('He reflected . . .', 'She said . . .'). In the following example, an entire paragraph coheres in this way, but the end of the preceding paragraph is quoted with the reporting verb (recalled) as a cue. The past with this verb is the normal past used by any narrator for the story that is being told and which is necessarily in the past for both narrator and hearerlreader. From this point onwards, however, the past refers to the recreated 'present' of the character whose reflections are recalled: they are reasonably referred to as occurring 'now' (the final word of the introductory paragraph), in a sentence which we reconstruct for ourselves as 'Well, what does it work out to now?'

14(;0

From liurituncoto It is often indeed a desire for witty brevity that leads to the use o f overecot~omicnlreductions. In a printed book review. ;tSter commenting on Swift's soyilig i~hout'llic natioll's rcprcscl~lcrs'111:1t' I wottltl It:l~lgIllern if I could', thc writer went 011:

in [7] a relative pronoun replaces the earlier noun-phrase subject (cf17.15). Finitlly, in [l 01, there is total omissio~lof the second subject (cf 13.12f). All eight of [3-101 provitle satisktctory collcrcncc of Illc two p:lrts. It is pcrh:tpsclosest in [IO], but only at thccost of muting the separate signilicance of the second part - in contrast to [3] and [4], I'or cx;~mplc,which insist 011 our considering the hegir~nittgof the argument on the onc hand as well as its restilt on the other hand. As we hsvc indicated above by means of the cross-references, all of these tlcviccs ;\re tlcscrihctl clscwhcrc in thc hook in tcrtns ol' gr:~tn~natic;~l rttlc. Here we have needed to add only some nolcs f'ro111 :I tcxlu;~lpoinl t~l'vicw. N~~~

~pronouns i nor~ appo\itive h noun ~ phr;~ses ~ arc restrictel~to rererring hack toprececiing nolm consider the poss~bilitythat the Arsi of Ihcorigin:~lsentences had been: [la] Theyargued b~tterlyover unilateral disarmament. ,his event, the determiners and pronouns in the latter part or the combined lcxt variants would have had sententia] reference, and all would have been acceptable with the exception of

The tliitlg is said bccattse he knows hc can't: Swil't clocsn't 'mci~n it', though he doesn't not mean if cither. Tlie old bards apparently both mcant it and ro1111.

131 .. Thc cllipsis :~licrt,o~r'tis clc;tr: 'l1:lng tllcln'. Thc wl-itcr inlclltls to cello Il)is in the liri:~Icou1~1which lie iti~licizcsit1 LIic IIOPU 0 1 t;~kinp11s h:~ck 10 [ I ~ c quotation from Swift. But at that distance the cllipsis is unsatisk~ctoril~ vague.

~

Note

version [IOI.

19.45

Limitations on pro-forms What is grammatically tolerable has to be mediated by what is textually tolerable. Consider the following use of do so as a pro-form (cf 12.23f): There was a certain beautiful girl who occasionally walked past our house. Whenever she didso, my brother would tease me.

[l]

19.46

If we expand upon the first sentence, didso is less appropriate: There was a certain beautiful girl who occasionally walked past our house. Nothing particularly surprising in itself. We lived on a pretty lane, lined with rather attractive gardens. Yet 114 whenever she did so . . .

Y ~ chase U the plane down the it is being B ~ I L T .

~ 6 ~ w a"iyget . to the airport while

l21

In place of it (which might refer to t/te plans, the runtvay, or tfre airport), a fuller anaphoric expression would have been clearer if less satisfactory in reducing the wit: the place

Discourse reference There are numerous signals marking the identity between what is being said and what has been said before. The grammar of anaphoric and cataphoric substitution has been presented in 12.13~'' We concentrate here on devices that have a special value in referring less to concrete entities than to constituents or aspects of discourse itself. The signals can be divided into two groups, distinguished by the type of unit they refer to: (a) sentence or clause reference signals (b) noun-phrase reference signals

Such relative remoteness of the relevant predication requires that we find a weightier substitute than do so and one that can more readily establish the backward link, even if our alternative is no more precise semantically than: [l a ] . . [Yet whenever] this occurred. . . (Cf 19.24). Again, where textual material puts identification of an antecedent even rnornentarily in doubt, a pro-form will be avoided -however 'grammatical'- and an alternative means of expression found. Consider the vagueness of the following hyperbole, contrasting one who is always very late for a flight with one who is always very early:

In the followinganecdote, the impact and wit ;!re primarily ;~chicvcdby thc ellipsis, b u t in p;irt also by the satisfying order adopted (c/ 19.68) in tlicnchievemenl orclitn;~xh?. mc;lnsol'a triadic structure(cJ'19.8): Prisoner:As God is my judge. l a m noi guilty. h10ge:He isn't; I AM; you RE! It is not uncommon to find rhetarical eKectivencss resling on such m:lnipul;~tion of the most ordinary grammatical items. Note the way in which o11r. and rlo are contrilsted in ;I speech by a British politician: We have to learn to be ~ N nation E or we sh~~ll become ~6 nation.

Many of them are adapted from their primary function of denoting temporal Some signal both or spatial succession, eg:for~ner,uboue, Itere, rl~qfollo~vi~tg. sentence/clause reference and noun-phrase reference. 19.47

Clausal reference Common signals for sentence or clause reference include: anaphoric and cataphoric: here, it, rhis anaphoric only: that, theforegoing (formal) cataphoric only: asfollows, the following, thus Anaphoric examples: Many years ago their wives quarrelled over some trivial matter, now long forgotten. But one word led to another and thc quarrel developed into a permanent rupture between them. T/I(I!'s why the two men never visit each other's houses. Many students never improve. Thcy get no advice and tlierefore they keep repeating the same mistakes. Irk a terrible shame.

[l1

(21

1462

From sentence to tcrt

instead of Students want to be shown connections hetwccn spending their time memorizing dates and formulas. Reflecting I/I~,Y, Ilic 1111ivily i \ t ~ t c , v i l ~:IW:IY ]~ [ ~ O I T I \:lrf~c s;tlrvcyc:o~lr5cs ;Illcl [>rc;tki1lg~ 1 1 ;lc;~cIc~llic ) ~ ~ ~ ~I ' C I~I ~ C S i l l O I C ~ L ' ~l 0 5ll0b85 1 1 [ 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ 5 131 relating to one another.

.Shr.'.~k,rrrrnr,rlo hi\rorl. hook. M'l,rrh \ i ~ g p c \ l \ lhrr Ic;)cllrr i i h:,vinl! \rrn,v ~ n l l l l c n ~ ~ r,,,

1111

cl1

them is why the two m e n .

..

\~lc~.ll~tlll.lll\ IIIC\L.IIIPLI

. I I I : I I ~ ~ I I ~ I I 1L 1 5 ~ .lhlll I L ' ~ c I I I I I ~ ! ' ~ ~ ~ I 1C0~ ~' ~ 1 1 1 1 ~ 1 1 1 1 ! 1 ~ ~

[')l

I ~ . . L.II.OIILI~II, . c ~ .(11\

.I,

(IO)

(Ill II?l

'1,)1,,,,,,1'

1iL.11,!, I ~ ~ , I . , ~ r : l I I v P

to ;I llllgl~iat~c ~lrscr~pt~t,~~ 01 11,

[C) 111 illf(lrmil1 spoke11I!ngli.sh. ~t.lin~c;tt~ Ir:~vcci~li~pll,)r~~ ~ C V ~ ~ C I I1,)1~,1 CC i t , 1jIC (jiI.CelO~,jCCl ork~loll.in ;I qocstion,orgrt,s\ill ;I directiie. or rcll in ;I r(;l~~,,,Cnl (Doyou) Know WHAT'! He won.( pay up. Guess WHAT, 1131 . . (1'11) Tell you W I I ~I'vc T :f o r g o ~ l e111c ~ ~kcvc!

[41

rci LJJ

)

ILI

111,

In some instances, we can replace the reference signal by a correspo~lding that-clause. For example, rltat in [ I ] could be said to refer to a that-clause which corresponds to the immediately receding clause:

. . . That the quarrel developed into a permanent rupture between

I I I ~ I V!hl,lt \ I . ..III .

I I1L.l. 111 11. I J ~ ~ ~ ~ I I I :III!.I \c.11 ~ I. ~I I .~ ~I~I I IC OI Ir t,l ~ c t .T ~ I CI,.\>.L\ I,,,I I I V Thol's ;I 1h11igI dirllhr ~'c~l'lc ~ l ~ ~ h l ) cI IrI iB ~I I ~I I;Ig~ I.,IIICCII r11,ir's~ v h z ~I tlike 10 +I:: ;I c11,tpwlx,e~~p,~, Irl, k O l l ~ c l w i \ c .118nl i \ I I \ ( . I ~ : ~ ~ ~ : ~ p l ~ o r i11c .(1111111 ~ l I y 111 111111,.1. 1 1 :11).111.,1 ~ 11,.,1 ( 1 1 1 I 71

C'i~t;~phoric cxamplcs: 7'lris should intcrcsr you, il.yo~1.r~ still kccrt O I I I>c,xil~g.'l'hc wi~rld heavyweight championship is going to be held in Chicago ncXl June, so you should bc able to watch it live. Here is the news. A diplomat was kidnapped last night in Lolldoll . . .[radio announcement] 11 never should have happened. He went out and left the baby unattcndetl. My arguments arens,fullo~w". .

l,,.,.

111 ~ l t ~ l ~ ~ t ~1 I . ~t ~l l. ~l ~n 1. ~1 ~ ~ 1~1 !1, 81t l~~ 1I I~ ~ 1 ~ ~ ~~ 1 ,~ I I ,

As was sirid in Cli;~pterIZour. . . . WC will.spet~Rof Ibis ill Ch;~ptcrNille

Less specificrefcrencc is 1n;ldc in tcrn>sofnhol I. (or corli,,r);lnd hclrr,~.(or /orrr in tile tcxt). ;Ind some spoken material of o rormill kind, such ;IS lectures. lnnkc si!nil;~rIISC ol.oh,r. a ~ i dhr,b,ll.. [cl In legal English rhc soid, rlie ( o ) l i , r ~ ~ ' ~ ~ ' n n ~: f~rnl kt l~r ~h ~~'/,W~,S~I;,/ ~< ~ ~ I , ;Ire o s c t ~Ibr an:lphllric relkrcncc, the I;lst two both as ;l prcmodilicr (.tRe ;~fi~rcnlcnliol~ecl prcrvi\io~i\'l;tnd ;IS ;I nolln phr;lse. 111 lllc I;ltlcr fuoction,Iliey w(~uldnorm;tlly rrfcr I,,;,ptcvio~lrrlolrir , , I , ~ ; I,,illl , ~ I~crhon;ll ~efcrenee.

[lal

In [2], on the other hand, it could be said to stand for the whole of the two preceding sentences. With cataphoric signals, the substitution might be inordinately long in practice. Certainly, here in [S] could refer forward to a . ... following d:lsco&se i f indeterminate length. The pro-form may refer back to most, rather than all, of the sentence or clause: [a] They will probably win the match. That will please my brother. The more likely interpretation of that is their winllil~g/he match with the omission of auxiliary and disjunct but that they willprobably win the mulch is also a possible interpretation. ~b~~~ and below are used fordiscourse reference to refer to units of varying length, and even to illustrations:

. . , the arguments given belorv [perhaps referring to ~ ~ v e r~entences] al . . . the question mentioned above . . . the picture above The diagrams below illustrate. . .

19.48

Formulaic utterance While deictic reference and elliptcd matter must, from a grammatical viewpoint, be recoverable (cf12.6/), discourse permits a good deal of vagueness. This seems to be actively cultivated in propaganda ancl other persuasive material, but it is especially colnmoll in informal conversation, not least in the semi-formulaic responses to cxprcssions 01. thanks. apology, inquiry, and the like. Consider how difficult it would be to specify the precise reference or the exact ellipsis in the following responses: A: Thank you very much. B: Not at all. Not a bit. Don't ~ncntionit. You're W E L C O ~(esp C . Am€) A : I'm terribly sorry. B : Not at all. Not a bit. It's nothing. A : I wonder if you'd mind coming end taking some dictation'! Of course Surely (esp AmE) , Mrs Stew;~rt.

i

[I1

L21

G~.ariitnaticaldevices A: Would you mind my asking if you've ever taken drugs, Mr l-loovcr? B: Ahsolutcly NOT. A : You wouldn't know o rortunc-teller around here, 1 st~pposc?

Such noun phrases Inay be discourse abstractions, and the hc2tds may either be idetitical as in [ l ] or nominalizations th;~tntltl lexical variation (c-/.19.22), as in [2]:

141 [S1

[61

Try ME.

In [5] the implication is that B knows one ('Try askitlg if I know one'); in [61, I3 is s;rying tIi;lt hc himsell. can tcll fortunes. In (41, otlly the context could clarib whether B is saying that Ilc ';~bsolutcly(dots) not (~nintl)',or th;~tit is ‘absolutely not' true that he has taken drugs. In [3], the formulnic response will do! is a conventional way of saying '1 113illdo as you request', and B has interpreted (correctly, of course) A's polite inquiry In [l] and . . as. a ,request. , .,~.. :" [Z], the reference of it, in Don't ~rre~ltior~ it, It's rlor/lrltg, IS aouorless allaphluLtb in some way. But in the first line of [7], it iscataplloric if almost equally , c. vague .-..l in its reference; the initial imperative is little Inore tnan an I I ~ I L J I I I I ~ I I attention-requestingsignal, amorc severe form of wliich includes a cataphoric llere : A: By the way, Cynthia. It's awful of me, I know. But would you be able to look after my dog while I'm away next week? B: (Now look) (Here), this is the third time you've left me with your dog.

[71

Within sentence sequences that are strictly alike from a gralnmatical point of view, a discourse pronoun can have sharply different reference: She hoped he would not mention her unfortunate marriage. It

7

IPATI~TPOIIE of him.

be very That

hi~iieoiiof him in a WAY, of course. .

,....

181 [Sal A

In [S], the reference is to the predication including the negatlve CHISnot mentioning the marriage would be courteous'). In [ h ] , the reference cxcludes the negative ('His mentioning the marriage would be courteous'). It is only the pragmatic implications of the hedging adverbial in a way and the concessive ofcourse that lead us to this interpretation. Note

An interestinguse of cataphoric it in textual structure is in the cleft sentence device (c/18.26/!): (91 It was at9.15 this morning that the government proclaimed a stateofemergency. tn, It on their way from the airport that Gillian dropped the bombshell. In carerully rtl"l ..was .-. casualtones,she asked him if he would agree ton divorce. . .. ., .,.. ....,.,

.^_

I: I'

Noun-phrase reference

the

this -these

. . that - those

1465

Shc sct Irp ;l hypolhcsis tI1~1tchcmo~hcr;~py dcs~roycdthc will to livc :IS wcll as thc unwantctl cclls. 771i.clg~x,ll~r~,si.s ;~Llractctltllc attcntion o f . . . Deconstructionism holds that knowlcdgc about litcraturc is strictly unattainable . . . T11i.s~locrri~r~, is ptrc,ling in scvcr;~l rcspccts.

[l]

121 It is not always certain, howcvcr, when such a rcfcrc~lccis to a prcvious noun cxprcsscd proposition. Thc phrase or is a nominaliz;~liono f a witlcr, cl;~l~sally text from which [Z] is quoted is a case in point. As presented in the abbreviated form of [Z], cloctritrc~secrns to rcfer back unambiguously to cleconstructio~risrnand be a lexical variant of it. But in the original, there are several lines where we have indicated the curtailment, and tllcse include the following:

We must therefore abandon the old-P~shioncdquest to discover what a given author was trying to communicate.

[2a] The reference of tlris cloctri17emust therefore include, not merely the specific but the speculated collscquence which the author abstract rleco~~srructionisnr, went on to state. A fuller version might therefore read: This doctrine of'deconstructio~lis,,,tr~rtltlrc need to ohrr~rclo~r rhc olcfoshionedqrtest . . . is puzzling in several respects.

[2b] When suclr is used, the intention is often to indicate disapproval (which may be sympathetic): We visited the Browns yesterday and heard their compl;tints about the condition of the house they live in. I never heard such a sorry tale. [31 . . . such a rigmarole. i3al . . . of such wretchedness. i3bl In [31 and [3al, the reference is primarily to the conrpl~br~s. [3a] lexically indicating impatience rather than sympathy; in [3b] the reference is rathcr to the condition, with an implication of the speaker's sympathy. Use of the.hrn7er and rhe lorter is largely confined to (rathcr for~llnl)nounphrase reference: We heard their complaints that no one caliic to visit them and also that their roof was leaking. I helped them over thr lc~iter[ie the complaint about the roof] and promised to let some friends know about thc..lbrtner[ie the complaint about loneliness].

L41 For broader reference, both phrases might be expandcd to include a noun head : They were upset that noone came to visit thc111and also that their ;tnd roof was leaking. I helped them over tlrc~lcrttc~r/)r~~l?lc.r,r promised to let some friends know about tI~c~,fortnr,r rn,,rp/r~i~~r.

[5]

1466

19.50

From sentence to text

tlle intlclinitc use is virtu;llly cxclutlctl. 'l.11~ s;l~nc;ll)plics to t l ~ cirltlcfi~~ite use oflhcj.; in fortnal styles, ~ I I O J[41 ~ ~wI oI ~ ~rl cdl t r o ~ ~ to l y thecouncil ;~uthoritics, wllcre inl'orn~:~Ilyi l is i i ~ o pl:~~~sil)lr r~ will1 i~~? IISC 131l;)

131

151 Here, we could have in AmE: Ono . . . hi,s . . . hc . . . h(, . . . Other indefinite pronouns such as o1ljJolle,over~~hocl!,ciln be li)llowctl by /I(,in hot11 A m E and IlrE, but this is vulnerable to thc ol>jcction ol. seeming to 11;tvc a mole orientation, while the use of tlrc,!, to refer back to thcse intlclinitcs is open to the objection of seeming ungrarnmatical in the switch from singular t o plural. It is therefore largely confined to spoken (especially informal) usage (cfalso 19.64).

S~rchis used more cotntnonly than so or t11((t whcn (as in this last cxa1111)le) the adjective accomp;lnies a noun phrase, but slrclr is followed by normal noun-phrase order: [3al . , . They haven't had s1rc11cr good r i r ~ ~forc years. Note the different implications when this, rhot, and so are used as intensifiers. Compare: Note

19.51

Personal pronouns As explained in 6.7,6.18, rvc has several possible noun-phrase references. In discourse, we are concerned chiefly with the 'inclusive' we (cj'4.58, as with the subject of the present sentence), and with the 'exclusive' we as in: [l1 Will you stay here while Ive go for a policema~l'! In formal writing, and frequently indeed in the present book, nJe'inclusive' and n3e'exclusive' can cooccur. The former cooccurs with verbs ilnplying shared knowledge (urrtlerstc~r~d, see, opprecicrle, elc), the latter with verbs of communication (si~y,stoic, write, etc). It would be possible to use both in the same sentence, though this would usually be avoided: L21 We see now why ~veexpressed rescrvatio~lsearlier.

.

In [2], the second we is exclusive, the first inclusive or even (as often) indefinite and roughly equivalent to the more formal orle or the rcuder. The indefinite use ofyou and the you of direct 2nd person address (cj'6.2f) can also cooccur. In [3], the first you is indefinite, the second makes direct address: In fourteenth-century England, you had a very poor chance of being taught to read, yonsee.

(31

Unlike the two uses of Ire, however, you is rather rare in formal writing and

19.52

There is a rurther and rare use orottc,perhaps to avoid tllc egoccn~ric~tyol'.l': A : Did you enjoy your school days? B: Well, onecan hardly remember; it's :III so lorlg ago.

161

Comparison Signals of comparison and contrast play a frequent part in providing textual coherence. Most can be regarded as involving ellipsis (d'12.l[f!j; 12.3 llj.). The most obvious comparison signal is found in adjectives and adverbs, whether in the inflected forms or in the periphrastic forms with r~rore,nrost, os, /~.Ys,least (cJ'7.748). If the basis of comparison (cf15.63) is not rnadc explicit in the clause, it must be inferred from the previous context: John took four hours to reach London. Bill, on the other hand, was driving nrorc .S/OII~/~~. Mary used to listen to records most of the time. Sally was u rrrore enthrrsiastic student. There were ten boys in the group. Bob was by far the host. Barbara dances beautifully. Jack dances rro l e ~ II.c//. s Gwen always hands in a well-constructed and intelligent paper. I'm afraid Joan doesn't cxpend us much effort and time on her papers.

[I1

L21 [31 141

l51 We can demonstrate the anaphoric reference by supplying the basis of comparison:

. . . more slowly tlmrz Jolrrt ((trorv). . . . a more enthusiastic student tlri~rtMar], (~~,os). . . . the best (of tlte terl boys) (br tltegro~rl~).

f

l

1466

From sentence to text

[h] 1 ~\\(c\\ ~ sr111rrr12~ir1~1r~1 (~~IIII.I*,~). . . , as Inucll clL,r( ;lntl tilnc 011 11cr11;11lcrsUS (;U'''/I( ~ ' \ p l ' l ~ / /I~'I' . ~ l ~ ~[S:\ t l popc2rs).

,,

,

110

MY dog is fotlrtccrl

On comparative clauscs. (:/'l 5.6.10: cxpressio~lsof similarity or tlilTcrcncc; these mny invdvc Lhc so too of equative end antithetic cot~jjuncts([:/'X.!37(/'). For cx;lmplc:

is ;in cntomologist. is ;I t~xvcllings;~lcs~n;i~l. works for ;l11 oil co~iip;~~ly. more about treating mosquito bitcs than anyone I've evcr met.

rcc~lv~bcl ~gets ) tell ~ t\ollnrs ~ ~ ;l week for pockct money. 171 sj111i1~1r ;~tiiount. .. ' , , , I . . : _ _ . I _ ...,'. Mrs Hayakawa complained that the rool 1c:lKcU ant1 tnc w l 1 l L ~ ~ J ~ v ~ fitted badly, so that the place was freezing cold. Her husballd rrti LYI complained likewise. Tom behaved himself at the party. However, the other boy had to [91 be sent home. [l01 John didn't like the car. He asked to see a [email protected] one.

T

My next-door ncighhour

[2] The second sentence of [2] might be preceded by Not .rrrrpri.sirlgb,, but this would seem appropriate only if we knew what an cntomologist was, or if we connected travelling salesmen or oil executives with cxpericnce of mosquitoridden areas. Preceding the second sentence will1 All the .vcrr~reor Not~er/rc~le,~s would obviously have very different implications. But the postulated inscrtio~lsin [I] and [2] would serve not only t o nlldge the hearer in the direction of adopting a particular attitudeor to let the hearer know something ofthespeaker'sattitudc: they would also indicate the nature of the connection between the two parts of each text. Without the adverbials, each text is presented as offering two pieces of information; in this spirit, the second parts might have read respectively:

We can display the basis of similarity or difference: [6al

.-%

L . .J

m-i

. . . and he sleeps in the kitchen. . . . H e got married last week to a fortner girlfriend of mine.

[lal Pal In other words, the connection is thematic only, in the sense of 19.12. With the adverbials inserted, the second part of each text is shown to be (as the original versions might chance to be blterpretedas being) specifically related to the preceding theme, either as a natural consequence or as a surprising paradox.

Certain lexical items are used in a quasi-grammatical way to express identity, similarity, dissimilarity, and difference. Expressions involving respectiue(/y), mutual(ly), conuersc(ly), opposite (-ly is rare), etc effect considerable neatness and economy in discourse:

W" !:,,!l

,j)qi~i'{ fit

Brahms and Verdi wrote orchestral and operatic music, respecticel]'. The chairman and the guest speaker expressed their mutual admiration. Mary told Harry to see him again. H e . . that .she , never wanted l.:++a.+."cG reciprocated, but wltn even glcatcl ubrrrr u r o u . I thought that Oregon had a greater rainfall than British ~ol;mbia, but Caroline says lhe opposlte. The textual role of adverbials

[ l 11

Note

[l21

Since o/'co~rsL.can hint a t incongruily (concession)it~steadof expressing [I] still be a well-lbrmed text as: MYdog is fourteen Years old and of course be is vcry liisky (still) (. though I tlljnk he's beginninn to show his ;IEC~. ,.. . This use ofo/ioarse commonly expresses supcrliciol ;tgrecmenl wit11 what 11;lspreceded while1101 at the same time hinting at :I more fundament;~l dis;~grcen;ent.For ex;~~~lpIe: The chairman is of course absolutely riglll to dr:~w ;attci~tionlo t l ~ eerror in my presen~ation.On the other hand. I woncler whcthcr Ile is not using this 1;lpse of mine to prevent discussion o f t h e serious issue involvcd, I31 Oll~er;idverbinls tllat can convey such in~plici~liona include o~l,,rirrc~lil.. c~,rro~,t/l.. ~C,t,hrk.,s~, tr~r~l~tle,liab~~, slrf/i~trbrn/l)r. Of tlicse, ~/o~ihrl~~s,s is p;lrlicul;~rly b:irbod. U

1131 . rl L'-,

h1

-

19.54 a particular attitude), and expressing the rclevant connecrlull

oI(I rncl A D E is vcry hisky.

Ill Givcn the appropri:ttc gcncral knowlctlgc, thc clloicc of1rrorrt1r.s or).c1ors will dclcrminc the aptness of ;rdvcrbi;~ls~ h ; might ~t bc inscrtctl at l l ~ citiscrtion sign: r!/'~nrrr.scor rrotrrroll~.o n Ihc one Iiantl : J.CI. .still, . s r ~ r l ~ r i s ;l~~r l~llO ~ ~on ~~/l the other. A furtllcr example:

Wllitc was the victi~nof a confidcncc trick. Rill was tricked

very differently.from the woy ir~br'llic/l Mrs Wl~itewas (tricked). . in the same way as Mrs Wltite (bras (tricked)). J , an amount similar to lshot To111receroes. , complained about the some things as Mrs Ilayakawo (co&/nined clbotct). the boy other than Torn. . . see one differentfrom the car he didrl't like.

]

lllO1lL1lS

u r ; r v * r r u v*,-

.

Responses in dialogue often begin with an adverbial which i~ldicatesthe direction of transition between what has just been said and what is about to be said. On transitional conjuncts, cj'8.137,8. 142.

1470 From sentence to text

(h) Progrc's.siort: According as the progression is locational. tcrnporal, or logical, atlverbi;lls both l~clptointlic;t~ctlic tlircclion i~ntlmark thcsuccessivc sl;~gcs.1'11r c x ; ~ n ~ p l c :

A : Th;lt man speaks extremely good English. 13 :

Wc'19\

1121 yet,

I

clllncs I'r~ln;I vill;~gcin Mon~oli;t.

l.'ir.~t~ boil tlic ricc in wcll-s;tllccl walcr: tIr:~iriit it~~~t~(,(Ii(rt(,lj.. hfi~.vt, warm tlie lightly buttered h;tsc ol';r srn;tll pie dish. Yotr 11l:ly 110tt. p ~ t tIltc rice in llic (lisli. 711r'll ;1(1(1 llic CIICI.\C. I O I I I : ~:11id IO o t ~ i o f'1'11~ ~ . 11ic is (I/ /(I,$Irc;t(ly 10 lic p111~ I !Ire I i~vc,lr.

In one sense, tlie content of U's rcspolisc is idcntic;tl whctlicr it hegills :is (I 1 or[2]. It prcscnts ;In ;tdtlitional faet ;ll,out tlic man, and without the ;idvcrbinl, It's I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I I I S W W11:tvc " I ~ I ~only I ;I ll1c111:11ic link will1 A's sl:ttcmcnt. Will1 cilhcr of tile advcrbinls iliscrtcd, liowcvcr, 13 is 111;lkitlg:I signiIi~:~~it C ~ I I I I I I C I I I11ot merely on the man but on the propensity of villagers in Mongoli;~to spcok good English. If he begins with Well, lie implies tlint it is an cst:tblishcd I':lct (Well, qj'corrrse.') that Mongolian villages provide excellent bases for learning English. If he begins with Yet, he implies that the man's good command of English was clespitc his Mongolian upbringing. Note

121 (c) C ~ ~ t ~ t ~ ~ ~ r tIti Iis~ frcqt~c~~lly i l i t j ~ : i~iiptirli~r~t to iii:trk the 111;1lcl1 or rl?isni;~tch bctwccr~~ W O P ~ I ~ text. ~ S OConsidc~.thc ~ ~ I prcsc~lccor absc~iccof(forcx;~nl~lc) so too in the following:

The ordinary saw is not easy to use. A A plane demands years of c;~rcfi~l pr:icticc.

The use of 1 ~ ~ is1 1itself context-depcndcnl, lhowcvcr. I t would hc pcrVcctly p1;luslblc to usC t~.rll in [l]as a vcry dilTercnl tra~isiliotl(IVc,ll. ,low!) so as to conn~itc'Wcll. 1'11 lcll you somclhillg surprising:he colncs from n villagc in Mongolia'. Such ;In ;~ntithclic-conccssiv~ 1r;insition (d.8.141)is implicit in the frequent note ol' reservalion struck by the use of 1 ~ 1 1 . Considera converse exch;lngc ol.rcm;trkson the same suhject : A : That m;ln is from Mongoli;~ B: ]. l , ::: IIC speaks cxtrctnc~y g o d bdifi. H ~ ~[ l a ] ~ ,[h] connote 'Despite that. . :.There is in fi~clno one-word ;idverhi;ll the rcl;ltionsllip o f t h e originzll [I]at [ l i l ] ; WC would have to rCSOrt to a fully cl;lusal to expression, as in: So that explains why he speaks,, , Now 1 unders~nd why] [b] Elliptical responses (cj.19.48)often contain an obligatory connective; for example (where in .141.inlonalion enables us to dispense wilh the useof an adverbiill): Have a good weekend! A: How nice to see you again!

(i:i

(

19.55

Similarly, a contrastive corijunct (c/ 8.141) such as variant of this examplc:

[a]

Adverbials as structural indicators The basic relational structures briefly outlincd in 19.17 depend rather heavily on adverbial pointers, especially when any great degree of complexity is involved. (a) General to pnrticulnr: Any of the following would usefully assist the relationship at the insert mark in the accompanying example:

131 tlta ot/tc,r hor~rlin ;I

The ordinary saw is not easy to use. A A hammer is sonictliing that any novice can handle. 19.56

[h]

Tlie different discourse strategies (d 19.18) will likcwise call Ibr differclit adverbial indicators. Tlie 'step' technique is simplest, following ;IS it does a progressive relation (cJ'19.17). With the 'chain', howcvcr, it is p;lrticul:~rly helpful to point to the existence and direction of transitions in the structure. Thus the illustrative text of 19.18 (ii) might have begun (though using adverbial linkage more densely than is usual or desirable): Hamlet poignantly represents tlie indecisions that plague us all. Admittedy, indecision is not tlie worst of our ills. Ittfleerl, in some ways decisiveness can be more damaging. At nry rote many people have come to grief that way . . .

[l1 In a text of 'stack'-like structure, the 'layers' may call for cnumeratio~i(,first, or the outset,ji~trrlnr~~erlrally: .secorrrll~,tfest, . . .; .stillritorc, irrt~~orrrrrtrl~~ . . .), but it is especially desirable to draw the hearer's attention to what is to be 1lr.st hrlt l?. 110 t111~011.~ regarded as the most crucial point: thus, (IN it! rrll,,fi~tnIl~~, lerrst (though this alliterative conjunct is too liackncyed Tor n rcsoundi~ig climax), it1 cot~clusiurr,and many others. The balance strategy, like the chain, requires adverbial pointers both to assist the sense of rhetorical balance and to ensure tlint the author's presuppositions match those of his audience. For example. in p1;tce of the travel illustration in 19.18 (iv), we might begin another like this:

I am always thrilled at the prospect of having a mid-winter break

for example thus even For example: Many of the audience became openly hostile. letter to the management next day.

011

A My uncle wrote a

[l1

in Switzerland. A Frequently, the weather is quite warrn . . . [2] It inight not be at all clear whether the second sentence of [2] contributed to the pleasure (vision of deckchairs) or was a counterhal;~ncingunwelcome aspect (poor weatller for skiing); in other words, we have lefl in;tdequ;tte indication of compatibility (cf19.17). For the balance strategy, we need to insert at the marked place some sucl~indicator as grrrrrtc~rl,crtlr~tittctllj~. trtre, q j

symmetry is imperfect in several respects. In [l], [2], and [4], w e have conjunctions (*rrtrd hrrt, *rrrltl,fi)r; but 13.Xff on ,/i)r). In 1.71, we 11;tve a coi~,j~~itcr (rrrfd.n~):(:/'l 3.1X/; X. 137//. M~rcover,itri~l:111(1 h111i ~ r cdisl~~ioiitio~liilly distinct, cttitl demanding in sonic rcspccts grcatcr structu~il similarity hctwccn the coortlinatctl p;irts. C'oinp;~rc:

course,, pcellso, etc. ~ o s frequently t the balanced movement is indicated by tllc items ON 1/11' OII(' l1(1,1d,or1 th(>O I I I C(If(trld), ~ but there is usually a goal

rcsenlbling that of tllc stack and so tlcinanding ;I filllll ~ iri oll (d 8.139).

~ l l l l l l i~l l~l i~;IS ~ l ~l(111

?*Thc rain has stoppcd cr~rtllct'sgo for ;I w;tlk. I51 Thc rain h;~sn'tstoppcd htit let's go for :I w;llk. I61 111this rcsl>cct>~ i l t I ~ ( ~ iWC i g lnor1n:iIly ~ l11i11kiil',11111~ I I K I /I[(/ ; I S c l i ~ s c rcl;~tc~l l~ converses, tile converse ol'hrrr is i i i I';icl .v,:

Coordination and subordination 19.57 I n 19.5/j; we pointed out that two uttcranccs gnvc thc im~rcssionof bcing tcxlu;llly ~.cl;ltcd,even when jux~;iposctl without any formill indicator of connection. Asyrldctic rcl;~tiol~ ol'this kinil, r~~orcovcr. r;iiscs Ihc cxl~c~l;lli~lll that the second utterance followed the lirst as an iconic rcprcscnt;~tiollof being in time or consequential in rcaso~ling- and oftcl1 both, as in : Ill He ate too much for dinner. He was ill the next day.

The rain has stopped (and) so let's go for ;I walk Thirdly and (from the viewpoint of text cohesion) most significantly, the symmetry is imperfect in that,/br is a much less frequently used connective than the other three. In other words, textual structure is resist~intto stating a consequence in advance of thc condition. In thc event of this order being dcsirablc, it is more usual to make the condition structur;llly subordinate to (rather than coordinate with) [he consequence:

A simple coordination (cf13.43fl) of the two not only links them more firlnly (since more formally); it can also enable us to show that a third utterance in the sequence is less closely linked to the second than the seconcl is to the first; and, further, that the first and second form a sub-unity which as a whole has a relation to the third: He ate too much for dinner and he was ill the next day. He decided to be less greedy in future.

L21

But since a result or conclusion seems in some sense more important than the factors leading to the iesult or conclusion, it is natural to seek a linguistic emblem of this hierarchical relation by subordinating one part to the other instead of coordinating the one with the other: Because he ate too much for dinner, he was ill the next day.

English has four monosyllabic connective items which semantically belong together as constituting a symmetry of two related subsystems: arid but so ,fbr

: what precedes is congruent (cf13.22/1')

l71

Since the rain has stopped, she's gone for a w;llk. Note

19.59

[XI

Thcrc is a furtlicr esyrnmctry in the h c t ~ I I L Iond ~ can suhsurnc the rule ol. Irs~(0 13.24) though the converse does not hold: He's sixty-twon~~dhc plays squxsh like ;I twcoiy-ye:ir old. [bl Whcrcns orld and or can be used to conjoin ZI sequence or scvcr:~l cl;~l~scs, h111 ;tnd /i,r c;ln conjoin only two(cf13.8/,13.18/). [a]

Pairs and triads One of the ways in which coordination is exploited in textual structure is to assist the desire for parallelism and balance (cj 19.7). For example: These terrorists have destroyed their own credibility. They resisted arrest and then they gave tl~emselvesup. They went o n a hunger strike and then they started taking food. Some of them claim that they are all nationalists and some of them claim that they are all opposed to natiotlalism.

[l1 We note that the last three sentences in [l], each with clauses coordinated by and, form a triad (cf 19.8), a rhetorical patter11 that seems to he especially attractive. Coordination achieves the seemingly impossible task of giving three units equal status and yet of making the tliird climactic: for c x a ~ n p l c :

: what precedes is incongrue~lt(cf13.32) : what follows is a consequence : what follows is a reason (ie what precedes is a consequence)

For example (er in the precetling sentence. In turn it looks forward to the corrcspot~dingtime-position adjunct, rllur ~ ~ i g h r (line 5, cf8.55). Byhreak/i,sf r b t ~ ~line i n 8 takes us to the next temporal point to be distinguished, and in line I0 (still within the span (c1.8.57) covered by breakfast time) the adjunct tlrerr links hack across an intervening sentence to the point at which the parents made the decision about staying home. For the rest, the progress of the narrative is managed without time adverbials, but it should be noted that the place adjunct tzear the scltool (line 22) is effectively temporal as well, marking the change of both place and time after the breakpat scene. In a similar way, within the background intermission of lines 12- 15, the direction adjuncts (cf8.39J) ro .scl~oolandho~nelook back to the time-duration adjunct allrlay, marking beginning and ending points (the urttil clauses of lines 141') of the 'all dav' soan. , a -. The course of the narrative depends in fact as much on plnce-sequences as on time-sequences. There are two polar locations, homc and school, and references to these are frequent: (slaj~)/ro17ie (line 9): (bring. . .)to sclmol (line 14); (u~etlt)Iionte (line 15); (go) 10 school (line 19); Neur tllc. school (line 22). Between these last two adjuncts, we find all the Iroj (line 21), which elliptically links both: 'all the way (to school)' and '(on the way) near the school'. Adverbial linkage is by no means limited to time and space. The second sentence begins with an adverbial verbless clause of respect (8.85; realized by the adjective bojilike) which is obviously linked to the comparable itcm that begins the text, As U cltild, yet in balanced contrast to it: according to traditional stereotypes, a girl is easily frightened, a boy is not. The focusing subjunct (cJ'8.116J) euen in line 6 links this clause with the previous one: 'not merely could she not be consoled, she could not ri.or be induced . . .' Another focusing subjunct, ~ I I / Jin J line 17, both helps linkage with the preceding clause and also underlines the contrast between them. There is a further contrast with the following clause that is again pointed by a focusing subjunct, too in line 18. The concessive conjunct (d.8.136f/.) Yet in lille 9 again provides a close link with what has imtnediately preceded, as does the inferential conjunct So in line 17. The additive conjunct as NII ad(iccd terror (line 18) links the although-clause back to the fearsome threat of line 16 as well as itself being lexically linked -rather obtrusively - to tlie object in the altholcgh-clause. The disjunct ohuious!~~(cf.8.1218.) in line 7 is interestingly equivocal in its relations (cf the discussion of the clause concerned; 19.77). 11 invites connection with the hearerlrcader ('You will think it obvious'), a s well as working as a disjunct with respect to the participants in the narrative

1502 From sentence to text

('WCthought it obvious'). But it Ii;~san ;~dtlitional, textual function, in w~irkili~r, :is :l11 iti[.crcnti;~I-s~~~n~ni~tivc conjl~nct with rcf'crc~icc to tllc S C ~ . ~ ~ ~ I I S I Ii I~~~S~S l > l ii ~l l . lI Il I C ~ ~ r e v i o S ~~~~ J IhI I . I I (( 1C1 ~ I : I I I ~ 'So. I . \ : o h v i o ~ ~ ~i ll y , must Iinvc bccn n niglitm;~re'. Although it is natural to think of adverbinls at I position in a clousc (1.1X. 141) ;IS Ii;~vin!!;I linking ~ r l cwit11 wh;~th;rs prcccc!ctl, ;~ntltlu~shcing t11 X I ~ I

~

~

In. . . N I : s p o k e n w i t h n a r r o w p i t c h r a n g e 4.

. . 9: s p o k e n b r e a t h i l y

.f.. .fis p o k e n loudly Note

La]

the prosodic poinlsof interest, attenlion might be l ~ r a w l l ,lle lligllcr proplrrtion of rise (two dozen) than of those ending ;I nlll (one llozcn), .rllis is i n contr;lsl to the two inrorm;ll convers;~tionsof 19.88 - 9 to ljngllistic l,s;lge i n gcncr:ll, where f;llling nuclei ;Ire lnorc tll;in twice ;IS I'rcqocnt ;IS ;III ,,ttler fiypcs :ldclcd t a g u l l l c rc,App ~ I1.l7). l l i ~ l ratio l of rises is partly ;I function of pcrstrn;~lslvlc ;lntl p:lrlly ~llnctioll style determilled by the occ;lsion: llle need to m:~licone's voice c;lrry ill ;l comp;lny, tile need to give tile impression of inviting IIIC ;~udicncc'sinterest (c,: ,,.',l/,]ill? 15) ;llld of s c c m i l l ~ dogmutic. In Part, however. the distribution rcllecls tile gc,lcr;ll rhclorjc;ll slructure or the 'prosodic Par;lWPh'. UP 10 line 15, the spci~kcris 1;llking ; I ~ O U~l~~~ :lssulnpt~ons wllich past planning hiid been b;lsed: from line 16, WC ;tre IOI'I OS tile i n ,vlljch tile ;lssumplions proved baseless: things h;lvc turned out lI.I,,,~,,O.it~~:!tt! c:!!~(.i!lj!i t I I I I ~ I P ~ ~ \ ~ c it, \ ~ It>ol!Ii~l:bl ~ ~ P illld i!vlreIr\,c~tIIIC \CS.O!I~I ]'.111. c l l i ~ r c

;ll,,~

:, ,,,,,,,

-

13: [.s/lecrkirlg t o U t h i r c l p ~ , c s o/>rcs,scrll ~~ II K c v i t l ' s

151 1

The

Telephone conversation ..~ -.- .. A a n d B a r e h u s b a n d and w i f e

respectively, b o t h aged b e t w e e n

(SEU:

the material is entirely unscripted

-

19.89

S.7.2d).

A s in 19.88,

spontaneous.

B: l ~ i s t c nI lM o t h e r ' s C L ~ C Ki s~l r u n n i n g T q u a r t e r o f an h o u r s ~ b wIl' v e I s l i g h t l y m o v c d i t t o a f ; ~ s t c r p o s i r i o n l b u t Iliow d o I~ n o v et h e HANDS[ d o e s Ithat

FACEJ ] s p r i n g ~ F F I

A: 1~61 1~61 y o u l l o o k on t l i e B ~ C K ~ B: t l i e / t h r e e l i t t l e brown sc~Bwthings1 A: [no NO] if (youj u s t ( w h i c h c l o c k d o you

MBANJ t h e e l ~ e c t r i oc n e ) B: t h e e l ~ ~ c t r i~cYl E A H ~

60 and 65 and

A : / u ~ ~ L L IYOU

FOUR^

four double l a n d m y c n ~ u i n y cl o n c e r n s t h e T G r e e k w o r d for ~ S ~ ~ E N T Jlliis E J is ;I ~ i l E s T i o n tJl i ; ~ t II:IVC I > C C I ~ :tskctl I I E R I ~ ~ ol'tls ill Illis r00111 b c i r i g Greek s c t ~ o l ; r r s )/knob+,111cT i ~ s w c r . )

FO HOOK i t \

I~kslI ' v e l d o n c TIIAT~a n d I've [~iiovcdi t to

B:

IWC

s l i g h l l y io ;I f l ; ~ s tp o s i ~ i o n l A : t o a "/PAST p o s i t i o ~ l l B:

IvksJ bcc;tusc

B : ll'vc

t t n 8 ~ u l ; t t c dit] 111 1 \ w a n 1 t o ' m o v c t h c ~H~NDS~I~I(~ A : lwcll I l ~ c r c ' s:I " ~ K N OI ~jc;in31 I sort of r c m c m h c r c x k c ~ l y b) u t it's B : /is t h e r e a k n o b ) A: I W ~ L L J t h e r e ' s l o b v i o u s l y mcalis o f ~ 0 l n it1 g y o u 1don.t h a v e to t a k e t h e F R ~ N Tof1 B : (61.111 Ihaven't been a b l e to IOCATE t h e K N ~ B ( / o k JI'll l h a v e a c l o s c r LOOK]

IDOUB~~~

m . . . m : s p e a k e r uses a very precise articulation

in'. . .111': s p o k e n rhythm

[a) Prosody is used to make hforlr~~r:scl~~ck in line l both new (as though it were predicative) and also the subject of a sentence. B uses a high booster in linc 16 to justify the Icxic;~lrepetition in the context o r A's appilrent obtuseness. Note also the booslers at (/(IS), knob (18). .salt N Bl )w A ~ i i s l l l Inine f o u r otlc w h i c h is t h e I s c l l b o ~ n u m b e r 1 / o r in t h e TkvEningl jdotrblc s e v e n t w o t i i n c - B I C ~ I N I ii I W i l d a ~ hNuh.lborl w h i c h is m y IpBRsonal n u m b e r 1 a n d . . . [two

THBNI

"TSOME

Note

IINIIIC

B : m y I n a n e is W a d o B ~ ~ J I W a t l ; t sSCHOOLI ll I w;tnt t o c o n t a c t M i s t e r T v i ~ ~ i n g Il -w i l l I p h o n c ; I ~ G A I N Ib c t w c c n

it's r/"l~Osingq ;I r l u o r t c r o f ; t n 1li)uRI

A : ( Y B A H ( / ~Tif u ~ YOU w a n t t o " T ~ 6 ~ u l a it1 te

. . . q : falsetto 171 . . . m : s p o k e n w i t h ' s p i k y '

5

in

a regular rhythm

C: / t h i s i s s i ~ o nni L e s s i n

SPEAK^^^ 1111 igood ~ i ) R N i n g l

TO you1 I Jhavea n u m b e r o f Q u i n i c s J o f J d i f c r e n t K ~ N D S J to / w h i c h I w o u l d T v e r y m u c h l i k e t h e A ~ s w e r lif l you could G ~ V Ei t 'to me1 l o v e r t h e ~ E ~ e p h o nllate e J t h i s b l o ~ ~ i n -g J Ifirst o f ALL^ /some T s m a l l a c a T ~ 6 M i QukRicsl c / i s the S P E L L ~ -Ion ~ ~ J the T ~ T L E)I~U c i I iJlor

20

i s i t I U TC li I1 DOUBLE il - Ithat i s t h e F ~ R S Tp o i t i t ) - J N ~ wtheJ )sEcond one) /is)/I w o u l d t l i k e t o h a v e the PACE R ~ P e r e n c e /lf r o m T ~ i s k y ' s lI H i s t o r y ' o f G r e e k L i r e r a t u r e J l w h e r e hc t t a l k s a b o u t c a l l e d m T k ~ i s t o n nl i .

..

m Note

a c1i;tr;tcter

. . . m : speaker a r t i c u l a t e s s l o w l y

lal The pecu1i;ir fci~torcsofnniedil~min which there ctln he no rc:iction frotn l l ~ c;~dclressce;ire the main reclson for the relative form;~lity;and c;~relhl;irlieuli~tiunIn lltesc s:tnlplcs ;IS c ~ m p ; ~ ~ c d wit11 tllose in 19.87- 89. This is lcss obvious in the cast of (. a,h(, ;~pp;irentlyknowr liom experience the degree of c1;irily ;~lt;~ined hy the rn;~chinci~ndwho riouhllc\s k ~ ~ o wtllc s ;~ctu;il person who will listen lo the recording in due course. B I Ieven ~ C s c c n ~ s t o;~\,oi(lusing co11tr;icted Sorms (1Arrr.c in 20, 1 ~wril(/in 21 :ind 26, rhrrr i . in ~ 25). ;tnrl we notice t l ~ euncc,lloclcti~lg;tnd contrasting afixcs can he better understood, we shall use broad semnntic catcgorics as Lhc basis OS presentation, offsetting by tncans of cross-refcrcncc tlie incvitnble disadvantages of this approach in oversimplifying thc description. Thc semantic basis IIIC:IIIS, OS C O I I ~ S C .I I I ; I ~ itcnls h;tvitlg :I sit~glc(i)rtli (('g:1r11-. or.rtth-) but distinct semantic or grammatical I'unctions will be give11twoor morc scparatc cnlrics. Only tlie chief aliixcs in productive use will be dealt with (subject to the words of caution in App I. l W),but from time to timc it will be convenient to make notes of comparison with rarcr or nonproductiv~itcms. Wherc thc item normally carries secondary or primary stress, the head form is marked accordingly (eg: ,NON-,'MINI-),and exceptions are noted in the main body of the entry. Pronunciation is given where it is thought necessary. Note

1.21

[

Though most prefixescannot occur as independentwords, they can on occasion be detached to cj'13.85. permit coordination,as in pre- ondpost-/rysrerect~~~~~p;

Prefixation

1.22

Negative prefixes ,A- (/eJ or lie/), AN- (especially before vowels), 'lacking in', 'lack of', combines with adjectives, as in amoral, asexual, anhydrous, and is found in some nouns (eg: a~larchy).Chiefly used in learned and scientific lexicon. Some items have the main stress on the prefix: 'anarclty, 'atheist /ell, 'atrophied

Id. (cf App 1.22) 'not', 'the converse of', combines with open-class items including verbs: eg: disobey, disloyal(ly), disortier (n), disuse (n), ciisu~lity, discontent (n). IN- (and variants IL- before /l/, IM- before labials, IR- before It/) 'not', 'the converse of', combines with adjectives of French and Latin origin, and is less common than un-; eg: incontplete. Cf also the noun inattet~tio~t. ,NON- 'not', combines (usu~llyhyphcnated) with nouns, adjectives, and openclass adverbs: eg: non-smoker; lion-perishable; rton-trivially. UN- 'not', 'the converse of' (but cf App I.22), combines fairly freely with adjectives and participles; g : unfair, unwise, unfirgettable; unassumi~tg,

1541

DIS-

Note

1.23

Reversative or privative prefixes DE- (/di:/) [i] 'reversing the action', combines fairly frecly with (especially denominal) verbs and deverbal nouns; g : decerttrcrlize,de/iost, clesegregate, de-escalate, denatior~alization; [ii] 'depriving of', combines fairly freely with verbs and devcrbal nouns (eg: decapitate, clejorestatio~~), including one or two items already connoting deprivation (eg: de~rtide,r/c/lnrtd). DIS- (cfApp 1.21) [i] 'reversing the action', combines fairly freely with verbs; eg: disconnect, disiidect, disown; in some cases with privative force, as in cjishearten, dispos.~ess; [ii] 'lacking', combines limitedly with denomilial adjectives; eg: disb~terested; discoloured (also verb discolotrr) refers to unwelcome change of colour. UN- (cf App 1.21) [i] 'reversing the action', combines fairly freely with verbs; eg: undo, untie, unzip, tutpack, unwrap; [ii] 'depriving of', 'releasing from', 'degrading', combines limitedly with nouns, turning them into verbs; thus ttriseat, trrthorse, totnlnsk, u11ma11. Both de- (pronounced Id[/) and dk- occur also in words tli;~t already had the prcfi~cswhen adopted into English; in such cases they frequentlg h~lveno me:~ning annlysable by ordinar)' users of English. Eg: depe110,discern. Pejorative prefixes ,MAL- 'badly', 'bad', combines with verbs, participles, adjectives, and abstract ~~mltrrrrririo~~. nouns; eg: mnltrent, mnlfbrmed, nmlo(lo,oti.r, r~rcrllirrtctio~~~ MIS- 'wrongly', 'astray', combines with verbs, participles, and abstract nouns; ~~tr:rlc.rrc/(i~tg): ~ ~ ~ B c o ~ l(n). rl~rct eg: ntiscalculote, mishear, mi.~fire,~~i,:s,i!fi,rt~l, ,PSEUDO- 'false', 'imitation', combines frecly with nouns and adjectives, eg: pseuclo-Cltristianity, psetrdo-classicisnt, pseuclo-htrellccttr~~I (11or adj); psetrrioscie~ltific. '

Affixation 1543 Nolc

La] Verbs prclixed hy ~>rol; ~ n dmir- tend tr, he gr;ld;lhlc; c/ 'lle vcry much ~n~\c;~lcul;~led lllc t i ~ n creilulrcd' hcsidc'?lle very much c;~lcul;~Icd . . .' 1111 1\0111 111 Iorlll i311d i n ~IC~:TCCOI I I I ~ C I ) C I I ~ C III cI x ~ c : ~ \,,I,,/~~ tc~~rnl~Ic\tI~~co~r~hillin~ ~ o l ~ l((,/ l s A p p l.OO),;I? is ~ ~ ~ stlggchted ~ t l ~ c t>y r 1 1 1 exi\lc~lcc ~ c b l Illc i111or111;tl ; ~ l ~ l ~ ~ c v/~>c,tl,/ i:~li~~~l (L3rE). ~:lt\pp1.74. [C] For lrlller prcfixcs will1 pcjo!:ltive o\ertollcs. scc NON- (App 1.21 Nulc [fll:ARctl-. OWR-. I I N I ) I : I IIYI'I:II~ - . : ~IAI?I> ~ < ~1.2'1).

1.24

,AIICH-

Notc

I'rrlixcs of drgrer or size 'sttprcnic', 'IIIOS~', colilbines l'rcely with nouns, chiclly with Iit~~nalt rrl'rrcncc (I,,:: rrrr~lr(lr~/~c~. rrrv.l~I~i,\hr~p). : I I I11su;llly ~ willl pc,joralivc clrcct ((:B: r~rr./r-t~!rr.t~~y, ~II,./I /r~.\,.i,%l, rlr,./~/~l,/ro,r.ll,~): 11111t. 1111. I~yl~Il(~ll~i will1 1 1 1 1 . ~ 1 . rclativcly ad lloc i ~ e m s o; r c l ~ r r ~i!.r ~ntl~ lisol;~lc(lc:lsc, with I I ~ O I I I I I I C I : I ~ ~ I , I I /a:k/;~ntlnorm;~llywith tllc prclix stressed. ,CO- 'joint(ly)'. 'on crlu:ll holing'. co~nhincsfrccly will1 notlns ;111tlvcrhs: coe(/uc(lti(~t1,co-/~e;r,CO-pilot;CO-r~ligiot~ist, col~(rhi/,C O O ~ ~ (~IISO C ~ ( CO-O)(').(/!(' ~ ~ ~ ~ BrE), co-opt, coordit~ote,coexist. 111 some nouns, the prefix is stressed: 'cotlrit~~r. ,HYI>KII- 'cxtrcmc' (soltlctilncs pcjor:~tivc. 'too'), co~llllincs freely will1 adjectives: Ityperset~sitiue,Itj~/)o.criticctl,Irj~~crcrctiue. 'MINI- 'little', combines freely (and especially informally) with nouns: ntiriitt~arket,mini-skirt, niitti-ccth; a rathcr contrived contrast is possible with 'ttin.vi- 'large' (tt1cr.r;-letrgtll) and lcss commonly 'riritli- 'medium'. In ad hoc collocations, the stress is often on the base: 'They started a mit~i(-)Ifuctory.' ,OUT- ((;/'/\pp 1.26) 'surpassitlg', co~nbincsfreely with nouns and intransitive verbs to form transitive vcrbs: outrlunlber, otttcla.s,s, orrtdistrttice, oritgrow, o~ttrttn,o~ttlive. ,OVER- 'excessive' (hence pejorative), combines freely with verbs and adiectives: overeat, ooere.stit~mte,overreact, ouerplav, ocersit~iplijy,over~vork; overconfident, ouerdrw.sed. In more locative senses, 'from above', it combines fairly freely with verbs (ouerJlo\v, overshadow); cfApp 1.26 Note [bl. , s u p 'below' (but cf also App 1.26 Notes [a] and [b]), combines with adjectives: suhcotiscious, suht~ormal. , s u p ~ ~ - ' m othan', r e 'very special' (but cfalso App I.26), combines freely with sttper.ser~sitive)and nouns (with prefix stressed, adjcctives (eg: .sril)err~otl~ral, 'super~norket,'superttrori, etc): 'on top', 'hierarchically superior', combines lcss freely with verbs (super-itttpose) and nouns ('superstructure). 'SUR-'over and above', combines with nouns and takes the stress: 'surcharge, '.sttrtar. ,ULTRA- 'extreme', 'beyond', combines freely with adjectives (hyperboles like ultra-ntodortt, ultra-coriseroatiue; technical items like ultrasot~ic,trltroviolet); and with nouns in technical usage, sometimes with the prefix stressed (ultrotiiicroscopic, 'ultrasoutirl, ullrrtcetitrijuge). ,UNDER- (cj'App 1.26 Note [b]) 'too little', combines freely with verbs and -ed participles (undercharge, roiderestimote, underplay; u~lrlerprivileged,underprovided), and correspondi~lgnouns (underprovisio~t);with the meaning 'subordinate', it combines less commonly with nouns (eg: tit~dermonuger). Several of these prefixeswere already incorpor;~tcdillto words bcforc they were adopted and

,CONTRA-'opposite', 'contrasting', combines with nouns, verbs, and denon,inal adjcctives: corirra~Ii,stit~ctiot~, cor~trtti~~~liccttr. corr/nr/irctrrc~l:with stress on the prcfix. 'corrtrct/k)~~*, 1iott11.IISU(I oI'tr:~lli~. ,c'OUN'mR-'against', 'in opposition to', comhi~lcswit11 vcrbs. ;~bstr;lctnouns, and denominal adjectives: co~u~ter-c.s/)ior~(tge, courlter-clock~v;.~e;but often with main stress on the prefix: 'co~rriterc~ct(also cortrrter'crct): 'cortr~terrerolrttioti, 'c~o~tnter.sitrk (verb). ,PRO- (/prau/) [il 'for', 'on the side of', combincs frcely with dcnominal adjcctives and nouns (mainly to form premodibi~lg;idjcctivcs), cg: /)rocoriurrrttrist,pro-Atncriccrtr, pro-.strr(lete,lt. [ii] 'on behalf of', 'deputizing for', combines fairly frcely with nouns, eg: pro-con.su1,pro-proaost. Note

[a/ Allli-(:lnlonym,pm-)suggeslssimply on;~ttiludcoSopposition, l v h i ~ c ~ ~ r l r r l n ~ r - s u ~ ~ c s l r : ~ u l i o ~ l in oppositiol~to or in response to a previous aclion. A corerrc.r~~~rsk ciln Ii~liepli~ceonly ilthcrC has ~llrcadyhcen ;In rrrrocl. Lbl In 'orlrihn(1y (exccplion;ll in bllving initial strcss).d.Gcrm;ln .~lrzril~iirl~cr, -h,r,/l, cloes not lllc ordinary sense of human or ilnim:itc body, but r;lthcr IIIC more tecl~~~ic;~l sc~lscol'.oyeet.:~s

in./i~reigr~ /JO~/;C~.V. [C]Where (;IS in the many :~doptcdw o r d s l i k c t ~ r ~ ~ ~ ~ i ~isbnot ~ ) p;~n:llysed nr;IS :I prclix, il is I I S U ; I I I ~ unslrcsscd, /pra/.

1.26

Locative prefixes These, like spatial prepositions (cf. 9.14[f), may extend thcir meaning metaphorically to abstract spheres. (cf'also App 1.27) 'front part or', 'front'. combincs fairly freely with nouns such as Yorcnrttl, 'jores/~ore,Ifbregrorirtd: 'jbrekg, ~/bret~orrre. ,INTER-'between', 'among', combinesfreely with denominaladiectives. verhs --. and nouns; eg: ittlertintiot~al,i~ttrrlit~eor, i n t c ~ r - c o r r t i ~ ~ ciritert~rhte ~ ~ ~ ~ ( ~ I , (v), ir~termarrj~,ititeru~en~r.With nouns, the product is chiefly used in premodification: (the) inter-t~,ar(years),(an) irlter-.sclrool (event), but c:l.also (with initial stress) 'Biterpla)~(n). ,SUB- (cj'also App 1.24) 'under', combines fairly frecly with adjectives, verbs, and nouns; eg: subriorttral; sublet, srrh(lit,i(lv,.srthcotl'troct, slth.rectio~r(,. l . . or '. ,. .), 'suh,~vay. 'FORE-

~

7

-.-9

.WO-)'old', chiefly in learned words likc polcogrc~pky,p~lco/il/li~. ,PALEO,PAN- 'all3, 'world-witlc', combines especially with nouns and ~ r e m o d i f ~ i n g

wo~l;IYc% c ~ ~11) 1'111'111 ~ ~ l~l ~ ~l l lyl 1:'/l'/O,S('ll/~l'. S ' ~ l ~ / l ~ K ~' /i lI ~l ,/Ir, ~ l ~ /new l ~ l l i(cn1s l ~ ~ ; :lrc I:ll.gcly ct~nccrncd will1 clccll.E-ADJECTIVAL SUI:FIXES, etc. For ex;tmplc. -fv,.v.sis :I 'tlc-;l(Ijccliv;~lI I ~ L I I st~llix' I ill that it I ~ r m snotllls Srot~i:~cljcclivcsSIIUII :IlI'11rtI1cr: ~ n d to spci~k 01' the tI~~.ivetI worcls I I I C I I I ~ C I V C S :IS DBNOMINAL, DEVERBAL, Ctc: gr(l~~~oll.~rlt~.s.s :l 'de-:ldjcctivill' li)I'tll;llion, The comp1ic:ttions that we nolctl with prclixcs, especially in tllc mixture of native and foreign, productive and nonproductive, arc paralleled with suttixes, but in some ways thcy are more scrious. It is truc that, while we cannot semantically link the prc- ol' ~lniti~ry i~(lt)pliollslikc /)ro/i,r with tI1e . . prollurtlvc llr('- ill /Jri,-/ri,trt, tl~cgr;~l~tlt~;ltic:ll 1 ' 1 l 1 ~ ~ l i ~ ) (~ ~~ i C) X~~ I I I I P ~ e , -(((~)~)ioll is rccogni~ablcas a noun cntling w1lc(llcr or not ~ . ~ ~ , ,posscsscs li~l~ a b;lse (lJ(J/iotl,( h ~ ~ l i o tor~cr/ir~rr.l~or~;~~~). r, It is true that, in contr;lst with the variability of stress in prcfixation, asunix is more oftcn an unstressed addition to a base. But unlike prefixation, suftixa(ion with originally foreign items is accompanied by strcss shifts and sound challgcs determined the foreign language concerned. Thus even where the spelling of the base remains constant, the stress dilTerences in sets like the following involve different vowel sounds; for example, in BrE, thegr(lprph element in the is Pronounced /a:/, /a/, and /a/respectively (cf 1.19): 'photograph pho'tography photo'graphic

-

--

Spelling as well as sound is affected in many sets; eg:

----

invade invasion; persuade persuasion, etc permit permission; admit admission, etc 'drama dra'matic, etc able a'bility, etc in'fer 'inference infe'rential, etc

-

A further problem is that while productive prefixes can generally combine with bases any origin, some of the originally foreign foreign bases, and there has traditionally been inhibition about formillg 'hybrids'. This has resulted in pairs of (for nouns and denominal adjectives that are formally distinct:

---

mind mental nose nasal mouth oral

(*mindal) (*nosal) (*mouthal)

sL1tlixes

no more th;ln $1gr;lmm;~~ic;~l role, they rvoull~ like gr:lnlm;llic~ll no place ill word-rornl;ltion.This indeed is boa, some lillguisls trcal tile ;Id,,crb -!I., and the line is not always clear. With -i11g,it should he well ;Is ;lppeilring in lexicalized deriv;ltives,it is illso used in entirely prellicpablc nol,,in;lliz;ltiolls; Cl.,7,51n, Nouns in are the 'verhal nouns'or 1 7.52fl (conlr;lst ~dCvcrbill3 nouns): flo~~led the pe~tyreguI;llions. -mcrcly l-lismcr~flo~tlbi~of reg~llations.. tllc petty

,

The situation is similar with agential -er, since for copulas like be, huac, beconie),a syntactic frame exisls in \,pllich

;l few .,.r form is

such

Affixation lloutcd the petty rcgul;ltions. ~ncrc/lo~~r~~r of petty rcg~ll;lliolls. 511~lixI , ~ ~ ; I , , , C lcxic:~~i,:~ti~,~~ i, I I C ~ C U : I ~ lhcl't~~c Y :l11-rr li1rr11;~li~~f~ we llclvc tlcilte,l .,,r ;l 11,,,111 ~,,ch;I frame ('Its i,, a /lr~~rrcrl. Altl1r,11~11rve 11;lve"l'hcy a,fllr'l~/ ( Mr, for example. Indeed, in much modern practice, abbreviation is out by means of word shortening without the use of periods: Or &c, d; UN, USA, PTO, for ex;lmple (cj 1.73). such abbreviationsas etc arc used sparingly in formal though RSVP with Or without periods is found almost only in formal use (on invitation cards), The abbreviation period is never followed by a though it may be followed by another mark.

and other specifiers of breaks bwak or anacoluth~nis indic~tedby a dash* but natuunlB this syntactic device belongs largely to informal writing: They gave him a prize for getting top marks - and a certificate as [l] well. L21 hoped that you -' His voice broke. [31 John wasn't altogether - I thought he seemed a little unhappy.

*

111.26

51

An analogous use of the dash is made to suppress (now obscenity ('Mr B-'; 'F- off'). Note

a name

Or

is also frequentiy expressed hy means of ellipsis Or suspension *Ots An unfinished replace the dash in 121 above, though perhaps giving or periods (normally three), which than an abrupt break. In formal writing*the *Ots the impression of trailing away lather indicate .,hat which it is unnecessary to specify*: Take a sequenceof prime numbers(l.3, S, 7,113 13, 17,. . .) and'consider ' ' ' or the omission of parts of quoted material: The review of the book stated, * ~ author h ~is enthusiastic at the Prospect Of 'ystems by televisionscreen. . .1can imaginegovernments whichyoucancallup~n~ormationon your such reference libraries an* their of the future being worried about the use on public opinion.' In AmE an additional fourth period indicates that the ellipsis coincides with the end Of sentence.

Lbl

is sometimes informally indicated by hyphens an* reduplication

Of

1637

Note

[a] Forthe

of numerical and mathematical expressions, cJ6,63fJ A dash (an en dash in print, c/ App III.5 Note [a]) is an abbreviating device for a sequence: pages [lead as 'pages fifteen to thirty-six'; in A ~ E for , inclusive numbering, as 'pages fifteen through thirty-six'] 1985-1995 9 a.m.-S 12-December 22 [also, BrE: September 12(h-December 22ndl Furtherabbreviation may be possible: 1985-95 pages I 15-17

[bl

letters:

.p.p.p-please t.t-try', his teeth chattered through fearand "ld. The same device is used to indicate prolongation of vowels: 'He-e-elp!'she cried.

Id] has the not use 0.k.

The apostrophe The apostrophe is most frequently used in serious writing to denote genitive singular and plural as in the girl's and the girls'; in speech these are from each other and from the nongenitive plural, In ordinary use, however, it also marks contractions in the verb phrase: etc. ~t is still very occasionally found marking the he's, can't, abbreviation at the beginning of such institutionalized clipped forms as in such or pu (cjApp 1.74). ~t is regularly used in o'clock, and it is e-er and o'er. In fiction or Casual writing it is poetic contractions used to indicate nonstandard or casual pronunciation in such forms as g'in', 1t is similarly used informally for contraction Of year .cos (BrE), and numbers, especially in figures; thus for 1984 we have 'B4. with items which The apostrophe is frequently used before the plural lack institutionalized spelling:

There are three i's in that word, the late 1990's is affixed without an apostrophe (1990s) if there is no But more often the danger of misreading (as there would be in example [l]). Note

The apostrophe is occasiona~~y used (especially in manuscript) for written abbreviations that do not represent abbreviations in speech, eg: profl'f~[pronunciation].

O.K.3 0 . k OK, and okay, while BrE prefers 0 , ~and . OKand does

Capitals

capitals

In addition to marking the beginning of a sentence, initial are used for proper nouns (cf 5.60R); for example, persons, places, works of literature, of the week, months of the year (but not usually the and the planets (but not the earth, the sun, or the moon), ~h~~ are used for a ~ ~ o s i t i o ntitles a l and descriptors and for status markers (cf 10.53) in vocative$: johnMills is a colonel. BUT He is colonel john ill^, These are the forms you wanted, Principal,

So

(but in AmE with periods at the ends of the abbreviations):

Those present included Mr Jones, Miss Graham, ~ ~ b i ~ , Willis, Professor Maisky, and Mrs ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ l , j . Initial capita1s are commonly used for the names of organizations and institutions:

!

the Home Office theEnvironmental Protection Agency

the Social Security System British Airways

1638 Appendix III p u n c t u a t i o n

Specification

the Mineworkers Union the Congressional Budget Ofice to lnnrk key w a r i i s ill fi,rm;~liiisaour~e, cspcci;1lly They arc occasionn~~y at the point where such words are introduced for the first time:

students andjor staff Rule A132 C:/'~llso App 111.28 N o l c [c], 3.

The next problem, that of Ultraviolet Radiation, is one On which c~,llsidcr:~\>Ic proyr~sshits llcen made. used in this book, is for tile wllolc wi)~'dL 0 hc Pl'i"tcll it' 'MA'.t2 An alternative, capitals for key words are a particular feature of legal CAPITALS

, ) jndicCltcsthe place t'l;ltcri:ll ill tllc I I I ~ I I X ~or I I I > c I wtlIC ~ ~lillrS ~ ~ is I,C illSCrICl,,

'

(b) A new line may specify the lbrmulaic termination o f a letter signatureOn a further new line. This convention requires a the ofthe formula ; ~ n d:l comm:l a t lllc end:

s

A line (often indented) is illso used to cacll in the structure postal addresses, except that city and state appear as One line in AmE Practice; again each line except the last may terminate a comma, but 'light punctuation' variant is :,lso possjb,c and is becoming more common : 26 Park Drive Portsmouth, RI 02480 USA

Capital letters also appear in the specification of many abbreviations, as 111.28, whether the items abbreviated are Proper nouns we saw in (where the use dinitial capitals is normal) or not, as usually in RSVP Or ('please turn over the page', (BrE)).

Note

Miscellaneous minor conventions

and may be grouped as (a) chiefly III.30 Lesser punctuation (b) formulaic: (a) I, parenthesized figures or letters commonly distinguish Parts Of an exposition, like the (a) and (b) in this section; a) and b), and a' and b., are common variants. 2. *he oblique stroke (also called 'slant', 'slash', 'solidus', 'virgule') is used to indicate abbreviation and also to Specify alternatives and subsectioning: the academic year 198516

is a lick (BrE) orchcck ( A ~ E )used to an or has acCeptcd It used in BrE to indici~tcthilt point is cxumplc, by a a student's paper). whereas in AmE it norm;jlly indicates In point is incorrect, and sometimes in AmE, the symbol x is used to indicate an incorrect point (read as 'cross'in BrE and as the name orthe letter+ in Or

;,

Ib1

a by a name by an obelisk (+) indicates that the person iscross dead,indicates a church dignitary. suffixing l' 'Iheword nun'be* is abbreviated asNo. and as # (AmE>,

be

M

,

53. Camden Gdns., London, N W ] 1 g ~ y , England.

['l The "'led

capitals or capitals throughout the word are commonly used in block language (lor

considered as names: ~ i fought with ~ Valour ~and was triumphant. ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ the letters i, j, and y were used to some extent interchangeably and it is In the Middle immodesty it complicated reasons of paleographical preference (rather than the egocentric Of the lst might suggest) that capital 1, itself an afternant of j, emerged as the regular person singular pronoun. a strong tradition for distinguishing capitals in tit'es, generally [dl houses short close?-class words (cf2.39): TOthe End of Time

the at

Yours sincerely, (esp &E) Sincerely yours, (esp A ~ E )

,,

example, telegrams, notices, headlines; cf 1 1.45fl). capitals are used in personificatian, thereby indicating that the words are

lacedraws special attention to an item,

4' In manuscriptsand typescripts o caret ( X or

The ~ ~Registrars~lnllsl receive ~ a Copy of~the Letter ~ together ~ with the Form of Renunciation. are sometimes used in light or facetious At opposite extreme, prominence for the words so writing to indicate spoken ,she w h o ~ ~Be Obeyed,' s t he growled ironically. must certainly sec the Man of the House,'she announced pompously' h ~ what ~ ddoYOU want?'he shouted.

Note

1639

! Bibliographical n o t e of punctuation practice aregiven in Meyer (198)); prentice-Hal, 239; 974), pp 99University of Chicago Press (19x2). pp 131-j5; and US Office pp 7-250: and of BrE practice in carey (1957): Hart (1974): and AmE and BrE conventions are compared in a finillchapter by John W,Clark in data b r a n AmEcorpus is cited from Mcyer (1983), Beaugrande pp 192-213, discusses the motives for

Bibliography

.,

.,.

Aarts, F. (1969)'On the Use of the Progressive and Non-Progressive Present with Future Reference in Present-DIYEnglish'. E~gli,shS t ~ r d i ~50. ~ s565 579 Aarts, F. (1971) 'On the Distributionof Noun-Phrase Types in English Clause Structure', Lingua 26, 252-264 Aarts, F. (1979) 'Time and Tense in English and Dutch: English Temporal since and its Dutch Equivalents', English Stlrdies 60,603-624 Aarts, F. and J. Aarts (1982) English Sytltactic Structures, Oxford: Pergamon Press Aarts, J. and J. P. Calbert (1979) Metaphor a ~ t dNon-Metaphor: The Sentatlticsof Adjective-Noun Combblations, Tubingen: Niemeyer Abberton, E. (1977) 'Nominal Group Premodification Structures', in Bald and llson (1977), 29-72 Abercrombie, D. (1967) Elements of General Phonetics, Edinburgh: University Press Abraham, W. (1978) (ed) Valence, Semantic Case, and Grantmatical Relations, Amsterdam: Benjamins Adamczewski, H. (1978) BE + ING dons la Gramnlaire de I'Anglais Contenlporain. Lille: Atelier Reproduction des Thises Adams, V. (1973) An introduction to Modertt E~tglishWord-Formotion, London : Longman Aijmer, K. (1972) Some Aspects ofPs~~chological Predicates bt English, Stockholm Studies in English 24, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell Aissen, J. (1972) 'Where Do Relative Clauses Come From?', in Syntaxand Sentantics, ed J . P. Kimball, 187-198, New York: Seminar Press Akimoto, M. (1983) Idiomaticity, Tokyo: Shinozaki Shorin Akmajian, A. and F. Heny (1975) An Introduction to the Principlesof Trattsjbrn~ational Syntax, Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press Alexander, D. and W. J. Kunz (1964) 'Some Classes of Verbs in English', Linguistic Research Project, Indiana University Alexander, D. and P. H. Matthews (1964)'Adjectives before That-Clauses in English', Linguistic Research Project, Indiana University Algeo, J. (1973) 0 t 1Defining the Proper Name, Gainesville: University of Florida Press Algeo, J. (1975) 'The Acronym and its Congeners', in The First LACUS Fprutn, edd A. and V. Makkai, Columbia, S. C.: Hornbeam Press Algeo, J. (1978)'TheTaxonomy of Word Making', Word 29,122-131 Algeo, J . (1980) 'Where Do All the New Words Come From?', American Speech 55, 264-277 Allen, R. L. (1961) 'The Classification of English Substitute Words', Getleral Linguistics 5, 7-20 Allen, R. L. (1966) The Verb System ofPreset~t-DayAnzericatr Etlglish, The Hague: Mouton Allerton, D. J. (1975)'Deletion and Proform Reduction', JourttalofLittguistics I I, 213-237 Allerton, D. J. (1978)'The Notion of Givenness and its Relation to Presuppositions and to Theme', Litlgua 44, 133-1 68 Allerton, D. J. (1979) Essetttials of Granmratical T/leory, London: Routledge Allerton, D. J. (1980) 'Grammatical Subject as a Psycholinguistic Category', Transactions of the Philological Society, 62-80 Allerton, D. J. (1982) Valency attd the English Verb, New York: Academic Press Allerton, D. J. and A. Cruttenden (1974)'English Sentence Adverbials: their Syntax and their Intonation in British English', Lingua 27, 1-29 Allerton, D. J . and A. Cruttenden (1976)'The Intonation of Medial and Final Sentence Adverbials in British English', Archiuum Linguisticum 7.29-59

1642 BibliograPhY

,

,

Blbllography

Allerton, D, J , and A, Cruttenden (l978)'Syntactic, ~lloculionar~~ Thematicand AttitudinalF~~~~~~ in the intonation of Adverbials', ~ o u r r r u l o f p r ~ g t n o t i 155-188 c~~, Allcr,,,ll~l), J , llllcl /I. (.r~~ccc~~clcn (1979) 'Three Rcaalns for Accenting jorlrllo~ irj'~i~rgt~isric.s 15. 4') 53 Altenberg, B, (1980)*Binominal~ p -ins a Thematic perspective: Genitivevs.i$ construction in 17th Century English', in Jacobson (1980b)x 149-172 Allcnhcrg,R , ( 1 982) nr1,ci.llirir,c0. tile of-~o~otrlrction: A SIU~IY!v~'~!'llt(lc~~~ vuria~iorl in /7111~ ~ , , l l l l/:,IKli.,~r, lr~ I . L ~ ~Sludie~ I , I i l l I:,r~y,lish(12. I . I I I I (~~ :~ l ~ ~ r ~ ~ l ' / ~ ~ ~ ~ ' ~ ~ Altcnberg, 8 , ( 1 9 8 4 ) ~Lillkilig ~ ~ ~ in ~ ~ p~o k~c nl;IIILI ~ r i n c ~{~~ulisll'. ~l S~l~lllll Li~tguisticu38, 20-69 ~ ~J , (1977) 011 d Case Crc~~nr~tar, ~ New ~ York:~Hllmanities ~ Press ~ , Anderson, S, R,(1976) .pro-sentcntial Forms and Their Implications for English sentence Structure', in McCawley (1976), 165-2°0 E, (1985) ol1verb C~nrplen~entutio~~ in Written E~lglisll,Lund Studies in ellglish 71, L U I Glceru~lILiher ~: E, (1974) ~ ~ ~ill (lle ( COrresponde~tce 1 ; ~ ~ ber~v~c~rr E~tglisAll~~o/l(l'io'~ o'tcl Ikc' N~~~ phrase (11E~~glisk Granrnrar, Li+: Universiti: Ardery, G, (1979) q-he Development of Coordinations in Child Language', Jolirllai verbal Lecrnlingand Verbal Behuvior 18,745-756 Amdt, H, and R, W , J~~~~~ (1981) 'An lnteractional ~inguistic~ o d eEveryday l ~ ~ ! Conversational Behaviour', Die Neueren Sprachen 80, 435-454 ~ ~ ~G, F. l (1957) d , Stress in English Words, Amsterdam: A r o n o ~M, , (1976) word For~nationin Generutiue Grumn7ar, Cambridge, Mass. : M.I.T. Press Austin, F, (1980) -'A crescent-shapedjewel of an island", Appositive Nouns in phrases Separated by of', E~lglishStudies 61,357-366 Austin, J , L, (1962) H ~to ~ DO Things ~ , 111itl1~ o r r l soxford: , University Press Auwera, J, vander (1980) (ed) The ~emarrticsof~eterminers,~ o n dGroom ~ ~ :'lm ~ ~E, (1967) ~ h'Hate, and Be in English Syntax', Lallguage 43, 462-485 Bach, E, (1968) .Nouns and Noun Phrases', in ~niuersalsin ~ingliisticTlleory, edd E. 1 Bach and R, T, H ~91-122, ~ New ~ York: ~ Holt, , Rinehart and Winston Bache, C. (1978) T } Order ~ ~ of Prenrodfiing Adjectiues in Presenf-Day Odense: University Press Bathe, C, (1982) s ~and Aktionsart: ~ ~ Towards ~ a semantic ~ t ~ i ~Jour~lal ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ of Linguistics 18,57-72 Abbreuiated Clous~sill E1lglish,Studia BBcklund,I, (1984) ~ ~ upsaliensia ~ l i 50,~Stockholm: ~ i Almqvist ~ ~ and Wiksell BBcklund,U, (1970) ~l~~~ ~ / / ~ ~ t i o n o f A d u Degree e r b ~ ~inf English, U!Jpsala English and AmericanTheses 1. BBcklund,U , (1981) Resfrictiue~djcctiue-~oun ~ollocatiorlsin ~tlgli~ll, UmeiStudies in the ~ ~ 23, ~ UmeB: ~ Acta ~ ~niversitatis i t i Umenis ~ ~ in Bailey, C,-J, N.and R. W. Shuy (1973) (edd) New Ways ofAnolyzing ~ , , ~ [ i $Washington, h, D.c.: Georgetown University Press Arbor: Bailey, R, W, and M. GGrIach (1 982) (edd) English as a World LU1lguage, university of Michigan Press Bald, w,-D, (1972) Srudien zu dell Kopulutiue~rVerbor des EnElfsckm, Uberblick" Bald, w,-D, (1975) 'Englische Intonation in Forschung und Lehre: ForumLinguisl;cum; Contribufionsto ~ppliedLirtguislics, 139-1633 Frankfurt: Lang Bald, W,-D, (1979) $ ~ ~ ~~ ~l ~ i- ~~ uhe s and t i o ~ntonation', ns in ~ ~ l i . s t e n 1979, t ~ g ed K, Schuhmann, 263-291, Berlin: Technische Universitat Bald, w,-D, (1979180) 'English Intonation and Politeness', StudioAnglica posnaniensia 11,93-101 Bald, W , - ~(1980) , 'someFunctions of yes and no in conversation', in G[eenbaum> 1 Leech, and Svartvik (1980). 178-191

i

1643

Bald, W.-D. (forthcoming) Which ONK ((mmeo) Bald, W.-D. and R. Ilson (1977) (edd) S1udie.s in E~tglishU,sc1gc, R ~ofa , ~ ~ Present-Da~Engli.~hCorpudfi~rLin,qui,s/ic ~ ~ : ~king ~ k f ~ ~ ~ : llllllls ilJI(1 l , j ~ ~ ~l il ,c 11611; t ) X , l 10.60; l L41 (prclx)"tio11)0.5.27;9.7, 5 8 ; 15.44 end-placed adverb 1.26; 8.14411; 13.7n noun phrase coordinator 13.57 use of 13.32 (-al,so)8.120: 10.4ln;(-er.. .) 19.59n;(- ji1r)6.27;9.10,59; (-nor) 13.1811; 18.2411;( - rhtir) 9.3n; 14.12; 15.44 see also: coordinator,doebr, evetl,tlor. sentence (connectivity) buy 3.15;(-/ionl) 18.31n;(- N c h e a ~ ) 16.45 by (adverb) 8.41 (particle) 16.2 (preposition) 3.65,75; 5.45,46; 7.70; 8.59,80;9.3,7,9,20,34, 37,39,49, 50.51,63; 15.2911; 17.43 (prepositional adverb) 9.66 -name 5.64n, 69 -phrase2.21; 3.65,71,75,76; 7.16; 9.39,50; 10.6, 1311; 16.411; 17.103; 1.40

camp (noun) 5.44 (verb) 9.37 eantpri.~5.44 ClltJ 3.411, 2 1, 39. 40.47, 72; 4.30, 49, 50, 51,52,53,54,57n960,61,63; 6.61; 8.103, 112, 116n; 11.511, 13,2811; 13.31; 14.22. 26; 15.48; (- nor) 9 7 : 3 . 4 1 ;( ' 3 ; 10.67; I I.Xn Canadian English l .23, 25 See also: regional English canals-names (classified) cancel 3.8 candelahra(,s)5.9511 ccintklrhrrott 5.95 candidly 8.124 canonical I. 16n cap ( ping it all) 15.18; (to if (all)) 8.137; 15.18 capableof4.52; 16.69,83 capital-tletter

-

captive, holdlkeep 16.46n cardinal numbers +numeral care(verb) 10.61n; 16.35; (- about) 16.35 ;(could

burn3.13; 16.21; (- do~vn)16.26n;

less)

-

(-Nof)9.11;(-1heby(e))8.137

see also: agent

careless 16.76 caret 111.30 Caribbean English 1.27 carry 10.24; 16.26 case(in -) 8.86; 9.66; 14.12; 15.34, 35n, 46-47,48; (inany -)8.137; (in-of)9.11, 12n; 15.3411, 35; (in -(that)) 15.38n; (in that -) 8.137; 15.32 case (markedlunmarked) 5.112; 6.5 seealso: accusative,common, dative, genitive, nominative, noun, oblique, participant, pronoun (objective, subjective)

C

calf(vs. veal) 5.4 call 16.26,44,46; (-for) 16.12, 14-28, 41;(- of) 16.4; (-on) 16.6, 13, 14,

cast (verb) 3.17 casual+ informal catalog(ue) (verb) 3.8 cata~hora4.11.13;5.31,32,34n, 58,64; 6.15,l7,19-21,28n,40,42n, 44; 8.7811; 10.2611; 12.6, 11,12, 1911; 13.9; 17.81; 19.46-48 see also: coreference.ellipsis,whar

16,28; (-up) 16.12, 16; (- upott) calling (role) 10.52; 11.17n see also: alarm calque 1.511 came3.19; (-st) 3.411

-

l',62n; (-for) 8.107; 16.5.28. 38, 41; (take -) 14.22; (take of) 16.7.58 careful 16.73,76; (- abour) 16.73; (be -) 14.22 careful- formal

cables 11.47

builr 3.13 bureau 5.99 bureaucratic language 1.28

-

i

3

! ,' ,t : f

catch (verb) 3.15; 4.27; 16.48,53; (-at) 9.46; (- on) 16.3, 1911.;(-.right ~ f ) lh.7.5X:(- I I ~ I O I I )10.29;(- up II,///I)16.29 categorial (zero article) 5.40 catenative 3. l n, 29,40,45n. 49,57; 4.66; 15.25.62; 16.38n.39n. 40; 18.46n ro,l/,5,7~ crirrxhf 3. 15 causative adverbial 8.7; 10.21; I 1,2411; 15.45-47; 17.4, 18-19.34.53, 84; 18.5111 mc;tning3.35, 76n; 7.2011; 8.9; 9.4gn; 10.4; 15.29,60; 16.78; 19.8; 1.42, 54,68 preposition 9.7, 14,43,44, 56 subordinator 8.145 see also:/or, verbs (semantic classification) cause (verb) 16.50 'cause 12.51n; 15.46-47; 111.27 causeleffect relationship 15.45-47 cause-purpose spectrum 9.43,44-47 causer, external 10.21-22.33 cease 16.38,39,40 cent 6.69 central-tadjective, adverbial,clause, coordinator, determiner, modal, passive, premodification. preposition, pronoun, verb 'ce~r( = except) 12.5111 terrain (emphasizer) 7.33.34, 35.43 (restrictive) 7.35 complementation of 16.71,72,73, 79 (be fo)4.66; (be rhat) 18.36; (for -) 8.100, 102; (make -) 16.45; (make that) 16.1711; (-of) 16.69 certah~l.v(disjunct)8.127, 128, 130, 133n, 145n; 19.5311 (response) 8.13011; l 1.4n (subjunct) 8.100, 102; 18.56n certfi 16.31, 44.46; (-as) 16.47 -ch nationality noun ending 5.56; 7.25 -cl1 verb base ending 3.9 chain (discourse strategy) 19.18,20,22, 56 chain relationships-tchoice relationships challenge (verb) 16.63 chamois 5.99 chance (verb) 16.34,38n (noun) 17.36; (byany -) 8.127 changeberb) 16.19; (- into) 16.22n

-

-

-

lndex 1683

1682 Index

change-+ English, phonological characterization 6.17% 34% 39; 10.8, 20, 21; 15.11,39; 17.11 characterize as 16.47 cjl~rjie16.57, 59; ( - ~ 0 9 . 4 6(bl-) ; 9.66; (it1 oj)9.l l ; ( - lvif/l)16.57 chassis 5.99 chat 9.60 chatter away 16.3, 12 cheat ( N l of 16.8 ,-heck (verb) 16.31.35; (-(up)on) 35 check (graphic) 111.30n checking-ttag cherub(im/s)5.101 chew at 9.46 chid(den) 3.16 ch;ef(adjective) 7.35; (- ly) 8.116; 17.73.87 chide(d) 3.16 child(ren) 5.85, 113 chime in 16.31n Chinaman 5.57 Chinese 5.57 choice vs. chain relationships 2.5-6, 12;

-

clause 2.3-4,7, 11,13-24,48n. 55; 3.64; 6.3, 16,24,38n, 44; 7.20, 48-49;8,134-135; 10.1-4; 11.32, 38,45-46,54,93; 12.13; 14.5,29; 15.57; 18.10, 11; 19.7,28; 11.15; 111.20 appended 11.19; 12.70; 13.2. iOn.X4, 94; 15.23 central vs. peripheral elements 2.13, 14-15, 17,27,60; 7.48-49; 8.36, 38,45; 12.44; 13.54; 15.18,20-21, 23; 11.16; 111.9 dependent +subordinate clause discourse reference 19.46-48 element 2.12-24,25,47; 3.65; 7.22, 48-49,50,53n; 8.1.88.92, 12l. 134; 10.1-33,51,52; 11.15,24,38, 54; 13.52,84; 14.1; 15.39,65,75; 16.66; 17.9-10,51-52,115n, 116; 8.4-6,9, 11,20; 111.9 elliptical 3.26,42n; 7.29; 8.60; 10.37; 12.28,59-65,68,70; 13.10% 32, 34-35.83-84,94-95; 14.2% 19, 41; 15,66n,72; 16.80; 17.17; 18.24; 111.9 independent vs. dependent 10.1; main vs. subordinate 14.2-4; 18.29 matrix7.52; 8.147; 12.69; 14.4; order4.24; 7.52; 8.17.22; 13.6-9, 18, 22-23; 14.13,37-41; 15.4n312, 20-23,25,28n, 29.32, 37,41. 44,47,49,50,53-62,74; 17.4.84; 18.20-25,321~59 position of elements 2.12-15, 17,457 50,55, 57; 3.37n; 6.32,38; 9.48; 10.17; 11.15,34,40; 15.42,51; 16.4, 44,,, 55,56n; 17.115n. 116; 8.9,13, 20-25,32n, 37-40; 111.8 pro- +pro-forms semantic role of 10.18-33; 18.10 sequence-+ clause (order) substitute-tpro-forms superordinate vs. subordinate 2.9; 10.1; 13.10n; 14.3 syntactic function of elements 10.5-17; 15.65; 16.66 types2.16-24, 32; 10.1-4, 17, 33; 14.7.9; 15.25,34,39,46-47; 439

circumstance clause 15.45-47,71 meaning 15.29,45,60 see also: that citation form 6.16 citations 17.90 ,ities-+names (classified) (verb) 12.2811: 15.54; 16.31, 38 claim editing 17.80 clatnourfor (verb) 16.38341 clarification 8.145; 12.4; 13.39, 57; 15.67; 17.17,63-64, 121;

class as 16.47 (adjective) 7.13; 1.3% vs. classical 1.3911 classic (noun) 7.13 classical 1.34; 11.4

clause [cont] 1.60-65 see also: abbreviated, absolute,adjective, ndjunct, adverb, adverbial,annex, appositive,circumstance, comment,

l

close [cont] (amplifier) 7.33 (prepositional adverb) 9.66 (- ly)7.8; ( - 10)7.70; 9.5, 10,20; 16.69; 19.34 ~~~~~lr~llive.cump:~rison.complemcnt. cll,,u, 16,19,26 Complcmcnlation,compound, closed class 2.34,39,40,41,42; 5.10, 12; concessive, conditionel,contingent, contrast, coordinate,copular, 6.1, 13,63;7.46;8.13,41n; 11.3, 45; 12.52; 17.97; 18.5,12n, 14,1711; declarative,disjunct,-ed participle, 19.24n, 33-35; 1.28, 52,58; embedding, exception, exclamatory, extraposition,final.finite,IF, 11.9-10; 111.29n imperative, indicative, infinitive,-ing, see also: adverb, premodification, initial, interrogative,intransitive, quantifier kernel, manner, medial, negative, closed condition+condition IIominal, nonfinite, nonrestrictive,nor, (hypothetical) object, parenthetic, participle, passive, closed system +closed class phrase, place, positive, clothes 5.77 postmodification, preference, clothing (vs. garment) 5.4 ~ r e ~ o ~ i pro-forms, t i ~ n , proportional, cloce(n) 3.15 Purpose, reason, relative, reported, c~o~~leafi/clouerleac'es 5.83n reporting, restrictive,result, resumptive, reversal, rhetorical,sentence, similarity, dubs 5.77 sifrce-,subject,subjunct, subordinate, flung 3.18 summative, supplementive, tag, c10 1.75 than-, that-, rite-, time, transitive, CO- 1.6, 17,24 verbless, wbcoalescence I.12n; 11.10 clean (adjective) 7.8, 82; 16.45 coastline+ names (classified) (adverb) 7.8; ( - ly) 7.8 coat-ofinluil5.102 (verb) 16.26 C.O.D. 1.75 clear (adjective) 16.72,73 cod 5.87 (emphasizer) 7.33,34,73 code 3.26 (make N -) 16.45 cadex 5.96 clearly (conjunct) 8.127, 128, 14511 codification+ rules (intensifier) 7.34 coercive+ verbs (semantic classification) (subjunct) 8.100 cleave(d) 3.15 cleft 3.1 5 object 8.7; 10.29,30,33 cleft sentence 2.59; 6.5, 17; 8.120; subject l0.29n 10.4411; 13.42n; 17.15; l8.12n. 21, cognition+verbs (semantic 25-30, 31; 19.48n; 11.15 classification) focus of 8.25,68,83,92, 102, 110, 113, cognomen 5.64n 120,121,134,135; 15.10n,20; coherence 19.2-3,28 16.36, 66 cohesion 19.2, 69-84 pseudo- 4.4; 7.2811; 10.4611; 14.6, 29; scaleof 3.69;9.12; 13.52; 16.3-4,s 15.8n,9, Ion, 15.66; 16.36,66; see also: discourse (connectivity) 18.25,29-30,31; 19.61 coinage 3.4; 1.2n,3.7,9, 15, 16 see also: that, shot, 113Iillo1,~vhere,H ~ O why , COi,lCjd;tlg19.36 clf~er7.36;(- at) 16.69; (- ly) 8.127 col- 1.6, 17,24n clich68.120; 15.53; 18.26n; 19.2411 cold 5.49n climb9.31; 10.27; (- up)9.31 collective gender 5.104, 108 clippers 5.76 noun 1.24;5.91n, 108, 111, 117, 118; clipping 12.31,51n; 1.12.73, 74; 111.27 6.16; 10.35.36.48n. 50; 17,10, 39, close (adjective) 7.8 109 , (adverb) 7.8 see also :we

Index 1685

1684 Index collc~gc5.44 collirle 16.19 collocation+ semantic (restrictions) colloquial 1.33; -t informal colon 6.66; 14.29; 17.77; I11.3,6, 10-11, 13, 16,21,28n colour (verb) (- N blue) 16.45 colour adjectives 7.45,46n; 13.68; 17.114 cant- 1.6, 17, 24n combinatory coordination 13.35,46, 59-60,64-75,79 ,sot uiso: apposition, coordination combining form 1.3, 15n, 17,23n, 28-29,32,57, 59,66,70 see also: compound come 3, 19; 4,45; 8,28,30, 45,47; 14.24n; 16.2n,19,21,23n, 24; ( - about) 16.34; (- across) 16.6, 53; ( - and . . .)8.30; 13.98;1.18n; ( - by) 16.6, 12; (- dolvn with) 16.29; ( - i~tto) 16.15;(-of) 16.1911;(-out) 16.19n; (- to)3.49; 16.19n; (-upon) 16.53 comfortable with 16.69 comfortably 8.103n ' conlfy I.74n comic(o0 1.3911 comitative 9.52; 10.32n comma 1.23; 2.15;6.63n,67n; 8.17.36144; 10.65; 13.11,16n, 52n; 14.29, 40; 15.49,54,74; 17.6,22,68,72+ 114; 18.20; 19.9,29; 11.20; 111.29 39 6-9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 16, 17,202 21, 22.30 correlative III.16,17-19,22 inverted+ quotation mark serial 111.6, 8,9 . see also: punctuation commai~d(verb) 16.32,59,63 command 4.42n; 8.50,91; 11.2% 3.29, 42,53; 18.19,57; 111.2311 seealso: directive, imperative commander-in-chiefs.102 commerlce 16.38,39 commendatory adjective 13.99 comment (verb) 16.31; (- on) 16.28 comment clause7,28; 8.133; 11.1In, 12; 12.2811, 3on, 6sn; 14.20,29, 36n; 15.53-56; 18.2011; 19.65 function as 11.44; 13.27; III.2On '

coniment [contl disjunct, "ttbjuacl.-+ rncl;llin~ui~lic comment see a1.w~:topic com'nen'dries 4'7' l''5o committed 4.51,66 cotnpron 7.8111; (iit -) 9.66; (bl with) 9.1 l ;(- ly) 8.65, 77 common cnsc5.112; 6.2; 15.12 core I./Y.31,40,42; 1.6 gender 5.104, 107; 6.9; 17.43n sce olro: noun Co~l~~itotls, tile 5.77 coilInlunicotc(about) 9.60; ( - 011)9.60; ( - to) 16.57 (classified)' verbs (semantic classification) 5'77 con'municative dynamism 8.28; 13.2211; 18.3, 8,9, 10, 12, 13,23,32,3611,38,43; 19.12 function 1.3; 2.46.57-59; 17.45, 109; 18.1 see also: genitive commutability 2.5,6 comp->comparative comparative absolute7.85; 17.97 adjective 7.1,2-4, 7, 11,23,42, 74-82,84-86,87; 9.62; 10.58,62; 1 2 . 2 7 , ~13.71,100; ~; 14.13n; 15.63; 16.23; 17.114, 122; 19.52 adverb7.83-86,87; 8.55; 13.100; 14,1611; 15.52n,63; 19.52 clause4,13n,53n;7.53,86; 8.48, 1 0 9 ~9.4; ; i0.61; 11.4311; 12.69;

-

-

14.20; 15.2,49,50n,63-75; 16,4711; 17.122; 18.24,41,42; 19.52 construction 3.4511; 4.28; 6.4.59; 7.56n, 85; 8.21 ;9.4; 12.35; 1 4 . 1 6 ~ 15.5111; 16.13, 17; 17.121 correlative 14.13 element 11.44; 15.63-75; 18.41 frequency of 7.82n implicit 7.85 item 15.64 premodification of 7.89 preposition9.5,20 quantifier5.24; 6.53; 10.66 syntactic function of 15.75 see also: again, as, coordinate,more, other

COJJlPRJ'e IV~J/J 16.57; (- d with) I 5.6gn ""Jl'~Jr/~~l)'J(I?v (IV(JY U/,/')-) 8.137; (h! -) 8.137i9.66; (In wirlt)9.11, 12 comparison 7.74-86; 8.78.89, l 10; 9.4; 11.44; 12.20,25n; 13.100, 103; 15.63-75; 18.23; 19.52 ambiguity in 15.67 basisof 7.82n.85,86; 9.7,62; 15.63; 19.52; 1.70 clz~useof 15.22, 50 ellipsis in 12,43,44,61,65n, 69; 15.64n. 66-67; 19.52 focus of 8.48n, 83, 102, 106, 113, 120 inflectional 7.1.2-4, 74-84, 85n,86, 89,90; 9.5,20; 10.58; 15.64; 19.52 irregular 7.75-78 multipletpartial contrasts 1 5.68 periphrastic 7.2,74-75,77,81-82, 83,86,89,90; 10.58; 15.64; 19.52 standard of 15.63- 75 seealso: absolute, article, clause, equivalence, excess, good, ill, /east, less, l/llle, maximizer, nonequivalence, ~ l d , snlall, sufficiency,verbs (semantic classification),I V ~ N compass(es) 5.7611 compass points 8.4111 contpatible (~vitk)16.69 compatibility 19.17,55-56.72 compel 16.50 compensation+structural compere with Nfor 16.17 compl~bt16.31,60; (-about) 16.28 complement adjective phrase as 2.24; 3.74; 7.9,29, 30; 8.94; 17.15; 18.27 adverbial as 10.11; I 6.20,24 clauseas 3.46n; 8.61n, 120; 9.58n; 15.1,4-15,47; 18.29, 30 compared to adverbial 2.18,60 element 2.13, 15, 17, 18,22,24,45 ; 3,6677; 5.37.42; 6.5,24,29,32; 7'23; 9'3,45,47; 10.1-5, 8, 1°, 18; 11.31; 12.20; 13.60; 14.9; 15.1-2, 64; 17.47; L65; 111.9 ellipsis9.65; 10.8n; 12.59; 16.4n; 17.55 identificatory 10.8,20,21,26,46n

.

object 2.17, 19; 7.2,20,22,33; 10.2-5,8, 10, 11, 18,20, 33; 11.15; 13.91; 15.1,4,8,15,61,62,65; 16.43-54,68; 18.21,27 positionof 10.8,20; 15.71,74; 18.5

Complcmcnl [cont] prcposi[iot,;~l2.26, 28; 5.1, 35; 6,3,23, 24,26,29,32,38,39; 7.14,23, 26n, 55, 68; 9passim; 10.6,48,66; 1 1.14, ISn, 18,31; 13.56,57n,81,93n; 15.1-8, 12, 18,59,64n, 65; 16.4n, 5, 14; 17.35,52,55; 18.21,36; 19.34; 1.70 prepositional phrase as 2.25; 10.10, 11 suhjcct2.16, 17, 19;6.3.4.23, 35;7.2, 14,20,22;8.28; 10.2-5,6,8, 10, 11, 16, 18, 20, 21,26,33, 3911; 1 I .IS, 38, 42n; 12.48-49,59; 13.56.92; 14.29; 15.1. 4- 15. 22. 39.47, 56. 62, 65, 71; 16.20-22,4611.68; 17.65,83; 18.21,29,30, 4511; 1.53 substitute+ pro-forms verb 10.14 vs. verbless clause 10.16 see also: adjective,adverb, adverbial, attribute, characterization, concord, coordinate, nominal clause, noun phrase, preposition, prepositional phrase. pro-forms, relative pronoun, reversal, subject complementation 2.16- 19,28,32; 8.78; 16.18-83; 17.2, 121-122; 18.41 by clause 3.7611; 4.29; 8.21; 12.64-65; 17.122 modification and 2.33,60 of adjective 2.32; 3.47n; 7.21,22,24, 25,27n, 39,50; 8.31,85; 9.1, 60-63; 11.18; 15.1-12,59; 16.44, 68-83; 17.56,58, 122; 18.42 of noun 16.84-85 verb 2.21, 32; 3.5;; 4.27,67n; 6.25% 7.53; 8.26,27.42n, 49,51, 75n;9.1,60-63; 10.2,4, 10, 11, 1% 23, 16; 12.34; 14.20,29; 15.18, 22,54n,59,61,62,64; 16.1-67; 17.33 zero 16.24 See also: cerlaill, complex transitive, copular, ditransitive, intransitive, modification,monotransitive, transitive comp/ete(adjective) 7.33; 8,106; (-l,,) 8.105- 109 completion+ verbs (semantic classification) completion of actlevent 2.15, 32; 4.25, 38-39; 9.17; 16.12; 17,5411; I.3Sn complex 2.4n; +coordination, determiner, finite phrase, noun phrase, preposition, pro-forms, sentence, subordinator, verb phrase, word

/

-

-_________-.?L---'

Index

1887

1686 Index

complex " d h ev e r b / ~ ~ n s t ~ c t i o n 2,16,18,22;3,51;6,25n;8,34n,37, 49, 76; 10.2-4, 8; 11.24n; l5.I0I1; 16.17,18,20,36,39n343-548553 64-67,84; 1.54 complementation,mOnotransitive collll,lcxi(y y r ; ~ m ~ ~ ~ i ~ l i c : ~ l colll17/iar~ce (in ~virh)9.1 1 composite-tname, pro-forms co~npound2.4n as clause clemcnts 1.343 61-65 partial 1.5911 p l ~ r ;of ~ l1.3111

.-

merning89,97n_12711; l3.l4; 14.14' 15.29,43.54n, 6 0 ; 19.59 prcposilion ').7. 56 ,,bordinator 8.145; 13.20 ,,eolso: os, conditi~nal-concessive. i/. illar, rli,,r,Rh, n 3 ~ , na~liilr, ~. n,llil.~r ,,,,l r . ~ l t , ~ , . ~ o , ~ ~ ; ( ~ o 143; -)8~~37~ 15.18 collc/r,sj~~rl, in 8.137 ; 19.56 c o n c ~ u s ~ v c - + v(semantic ~rb~ cl;~ssilication) concord gender6.24; 10.6-8,48-50; 16.39; 17.11 12, 13 gmmn~atical10.35-36,40-41.45. 48;

i

i I

I

'

condition [cont] indirect 15.33,35,38 negative 9 . 7 . 5 ~ 13.30: ; I 5.3511 cll'cn 14.1011. 2311.24, 2511; IJ.J~-.ZX secz also: future conditional adverbial 8.7, 13 C ~ ~ I ~ I S C / S3.46, ~ I ~h1~ ;C4.9,4?, I I C C43. 45.52n, 57,64; 6.60; 7.29; 8.127, 132, 145; 10.57,61; 11.15n,41; 13.30; 14.4, 13,20, 22-25, 27; 15.6, 20' 27' 32' 33-38939973;17'34; 18.24 meaning 8.9; 9.32; 10.61;I 1 . 2 9 ~ , 4 3 , 53n; 13.25, 37n,X3n; 14.40; 15.27, 28,29,44,46n, 52, 60; 17.4 rhetorical 15.37 seealso: i/; verb phrase conditional-concessive clause alternative 13.28n,94; 14.13, 18-20, 22,24n,41 universal 15,8n,41, 42 conducive question 8.9711; 11.6-8, 12, confer (aboutlon) 9.60

confidenrially 8.124 confine 10 16.7, 57 cor$rirn~ 16.31,35 c o n f l a t e d j article confbrnz 10 16.28 conformily(in lsirh) 9. 11, 63 congrarulare on 16.57 congraf~rlalions5.77 congratulations 11.54 co?ljecture(verb) 16.31 conjoin(t) 2.10; 13.49 equivalence of l l 2 1 ; 13.93,96 see also: coordination,eiltrer,nor ConJunct 2.1011, 15, 60; 7.49,51,54, 65; 8.24, 78n. 122n, 126,127,134-147, 148-153; 9.1,57,65,66; 10.9,64; 11.14, 15% 1811; 12.5,62; 13.3; 14.13939n; 15.17, 18,21n,23, 32; 18.5-6; 19.18.38.53-54; 111.17 conjunction vs. 7.51; 8.146; 13.6-8,

-

~ompulsory16.72

i

correlative use 8.145; 15.39 disjunct 8.127

critcria for 7.49; 8.134.. 135, 143 neg~tivc10.5811 p11sitionof~.15. 17. 23. 144, 1 4 7 ; 10.17; 18.5 6 scmandcs of 8.136- 142 synlaxof8.134-135. 147 ~cl~~h ;~dditive. rr: ;~ntilhctic.; ~ p p ~ , ~ i r i ~ ~ , u~,~irra.iivc, C(IIIII;I,IIVC, c l n , , , ~ l l , i l ~ c , ~ I * C OcL~ I~ It ~~ ~~ ~, ~ eC (iI IiI ;iI ~t IiVvC ,~ . inferential,listing,reformuIntory, reinforcing, lime. replacive, result, .W,,, s~~mmi~livc, Ir;~nsitiun;~t conjunction 1.18; 2.34.41 ; 4 . 1 5;~6,5; 7.51,54; 8.9,53; 9.1n, 2-4, 10; 12.5.44; 13l>r~,ssi~lr; I4 pcissinl; 15.5011; IX.II1; 111.22 coordinating+coordinator ellipsis 13.16- 17,79 process of 2.46

subordinnting-tsubordin;ltor SeeQ/.Yo:adjunct, adverb, conjunct, coordination, correlative, exclusive, preposition, lime cortnection (in wirh) 9.1 I connective devices 19.19-68 connectivity+asyndetic, covert, discourse, ellipsis, logical, prosody, punctuation, rhematic, sentence, stress, text, theme, time connotation 13.22 COn~ci0~~7.39; ( - of) 7.39; 16.69; (- rho0 7.39 corrsenr 10 16.28, 38 corlsequolce (as a -) 8.137; (in -) 8.137; (in of') 9. I I consequence (meaning) 8.140n; 13.23, 35; 15.45; 19.8 collseqlie~~~ly 8.137, 14311, 145 consider 10.1211; 15.19,54; 16.31, 35,39, 44.46, 50; ( - as) 16.47 considered (style)+ formal considering (conjunction) ( - (that)) 14.12 (preposition) 9.3,8.57 collslsr Q / ' ~ o14n . consonants 3.7, g, 44; 5.1 1.81 ; 7.79; 1.17,72; 111.4n conspire 16.3811 consla~lrly8.65.77 constituent clause+subordinate clause immediate/multiple/unitav 8.1 2.4-8;

-

-

obligatory 2.13, 18, 26, 30, 32, 33; 10.4; 12.34; 16.69

Index constituent [conlj structure2.3-10,48n; 6.20; 13.2, 16, 32,65; 14.2-4,37-41 ,~c~~olso coordinate constrain 16.50 consul-generalI. 18% 3 1n contact (noun) 1.56; (in lvlth) 9. I I (verb) 1.56 contcntl>ora~teorrs((v) 19.36 cor~re~t~~ororv . . 19.36 conrend 16.31 C O I I ~ E16.78; ~~ ( - rvilll) 16.69 content disjunct 7.28; 8.94. 100, 102n, 123,124, 125n.127-133, 149, 9.63; 10.66; 15.20-21,23,47,53, 57 contents 5.77 context. in 9.66 context 2.32-33,52,58; 3.1211; 6.40: 8.117; 11.3,45; 16.14; 19.1,3-4, 15,48 see also: linguistic,situationdl Contino~t,the 1.8 continents-tnames (classified) contingency adverbial 8.2, 7,49,59,86,87,92, 103,132; 9.55; 15.30 meaning 15.30-32,34,46; 17.5411 seeoho: causative, concessive, conditional, if; purpose, reason, result, lvhen, where contingenf (up)o~t16.69 contingent adjective clause 7.29 continual frequency-tcontinuou~ freauencv, cotrtinrrally4.2611; 8.65 continuative +coordination, relative clause continue 16.38,39,40; (10 -) 15.18 continuing 15.18 continuing-, verbs (semantic classification) continuous aspect-, progressive frequency 8.64,65,67 co~rtinuously8.65 continuum+ varieties of English contour+ intonation contra- 1.25 contraction+auxiliary, negative, phonological, prefix, pronoun, -S contrariwise8.137 contrary(onthe -) 8.137.144; 9 . 6 6 ~ 13.32; (- fo)9.10,66n; (to the -1 9.66n

-

~.

-

co,ltm,rr(by ) 8.137 ; 15.43 ; fl3(r)' ,/.~)8.137;(bt-)8.137; 15.43 contrast clause 15.32,43 menning 13.24. 3711; 15.31; 18.12, 16. 1711; i 9 . 1 7 , ~ see aho: binary contrastive conjunct 8,136, 137, 141; 19.56 src also: rocus, stress, ~vhere.~t'hilr,,n~lril.~l. VOll

contri/~uteto 16.28 contrive 16.38 convenient 16.80; ( - ly) 8.127 conventions in this book-tasterisk, bracketing, italics, parentheses, small capitals converse (noun) 19.52; ( - ly) 8.137; 19.52 converseness9.19, 32n; 15.27n; 18.31 conversion 2.38n; 1.3, 12, 15, 18, 30,42, 43-56 adjectivelnoun 7.13.24n; 12.55n; 17.51; 1.48 adjective/verb 1.50 direction of 1.44 formal modification in 1.56 full 1.45 minor types 1.52 nounladjective 7.14n; 1.51 nounlverb 1.1l , 49 partial7.13n; 1.45 phrasal 5.123; 17.111, 122n; 18.41; I.17,52,59 pronoun/noun 6.20n secondary 2.3211; 4.28; 5.5,6,7, 62-64.75; 10.4; 11.46; 1.53-55 verblnoun 17.51; 1.47 seealso: adjective, count, intransitive, manner, monotransitive,noncount, prefix, pronoun, word class, word-formation convey 16.31 co~ivictoJ'16.57 convince9.2; 15.54; 16.59; (- 0fl9.2; 16.57,59 cooccurrence-t adverbial co-op I. 12 coordinate adjective phrases l3.49,79 adjectives7.7,22,24; 8.31n; 13.20, 79,99, 100, 102; 17.58; 1.51n; 111.8 adjuncts 8.46.74

coordinate [cont] udvcrb phrascs 13.80 adverbials8.1 l, 120; 13.20, 50-51, 82 adverbs 13.80. 100, 101, 102; 111.8 antecedents 6.22 articles 13.7111,9511 ~ l a ~ ~ e c o n s t i t u e13.12n t s 13, 18, 20-21, 34.43-49.91-93 clauscs8.15, 30, 36, 9411, 140; 10.1,7n, 41; 11.18n,29n, 5311; 12.36,68; 13.16-17, 18, 20-21, 34, 48, 50-51, 52,53,57, 58,59,64, 89,90-95, 103n, 104; 14.2.29; 15.21n. 26.43, 57; 17.9; 18.5; 19.11, 81; 111.6-7, c 13, 3

S"

1689

coordlnete Icont] prcposil~onsland non-prcposi~ional construction 17.17 prcposition;~lphrase and adjective 9,111; 10.11 prepositional phrases 9.50n; 13.39.57, 69,81, 84; 111.8 prepositions9.9. 55n; 13.81, 101 pronouns 6.5, 22; 10.44.50 propcr n;imcs I2.18n question and statement 19.62 questions 19.59 reflexive and phrase 6.27 rel;~t~ve pronouns 13.84 sentences-+ sentence (connectivitv)

LL

comparatives 7.85 compounds I.59,70; 111.4 conjuncts 8.144n determiners 13.71, l00 finite vs. nonfinite clauses 13.50-51 genitives 13.72 genitives and possessive pronouns 13.74 imperative and statement 11.29n imperative clauses 13.52n interrogative words 13.84 masculine and feminine 6.9 modifiers 13.70 nominal expressions 13.75-76 nonfinite clauses 13.50-5 1 noun phrase constituents 13.64-76 noun phrases 5.12n,38; 6.5,22; 7.1 In; 8.40; 10.34n, 35,37-41; 12.45n,54,56,68; 13.39.49.56-63.

noun and adjective 7.1411; 13.6811 nouns 5.50; 9.42; 13.67, 102; I.51n , numerals 13.71, 102 participle and adjective 3.76 phrases 11.18n; 13.35, 104 possessive pronouns 13.73 postdeterminerand adjective 13.7111 postmodifiers 13.69: 17.61: I.5ln predicates 13.12, 35, 37, 48,52,53n, 55; 18.5; II1.7,8 predications 2.51,52n; 12.68; 13.21, 34,35,47-48,53,55; 18.5; III.7,8 prefixes 1.2011;III.5n premodifiers 10.38; 13.68; 17.114, 119: 111.8 prepositional adverbs 13.101 prepositional complements 13.69

subordinate clauses 13.14- 15, 18,35n, 50-51; 14.37-41; 15.411; 19.59 subordinators 13.83 verb phrases 13.21,78 verbless clauses 13.50 verbs 3.69; 4.15; 13.78.98 word-componenrs8.134; 13.85; 111.511 words 13.75 see 01x0~parelletism coordinating conjunction- coordinator coordination 2.10, 11.44; 8.138; 9.52; 10.5; 11.21; 12.1-5,43,44,45n,61, 68,69; 13p(1ssinr; 14.1-4; 16.13; 17.23,44, 65, 112; 19.7, 18,57-60, 66; 111.6-8. 12 abbreviations for 13.104 adverbial scope and 13.54-55 ambiguity in i3.16, 50, 55, 65, 67, 69, 70.75, 79; 17.61 appended 13.43,90,94, 17.80 complex 13.43. 5611. 90-93.96-97 conjunctionsand 13.10- 11, 18 continuative 13.101 correlative-t correlative (construction) expressive 13.98- 102 gradience 13.5-6, 18-19, 103 idiomatic 13.98- 102 ill-assorted 13.87-89 intensifying use of 13.100 interpolated 13.29,54n, 78,90, 92n, 95-97, 103; 111.19 iterative 13.78, 101; 16.3 levels of 13.58 mixed 13.38,82 multiple 13.16-17, 18,58 number and 13.66

1690 lndex

coordination [conll parenthetical 13.96n premodific:~tionand 17.105. 121 pscudo-8.30; 13.98--99;i.IXn quasi- 9.4; 10.40; 12.69; 13.19, 103; 14.1511; 15.64n,68 sem;lntic fenturcs of 13.3-4.47 -49 scqucncc in 13.8 9. 18. 22 23. 00. 73--74. H6 simple 13.43--89.96; 19.57 syntactic featuresol 13.6- 17.96 vs. subt)rclin;~tion2.60; 13.2 4. 18-19; 14.1 -4,40; 19.57 6 0 , 6 6 seeolso: apposition, asyndetic, combin;~tory,ellipsis,noun phrase. polysyndetic,segrcgatory, space. syndctic, time adverbial coordinative-+apposition coordinator 2.10,41,60; 7.52; 8.1 19, 138, 144, 146; 12.18; 13passim; 14.2,37-41; 15.44n,47,60; 17.23, 61, 114; 111.6-8, 10, 12, 13, l8 central 13.5, 18-19,36-37; 17.65; 19.58-59 frequency o r 19.58 quasi-+coordination (quasi-) semi- 13.19, 103 uses of 13.22-32 see also: but, conjunction, gapping. subordinator cop-+copula cope with 16.5 copula2.16n; 3.32,46n, 47n; 8.42; 10.10n, 16,20; 16.21,79; 17.26 current/resulting3.66; 16.21-23 ellipsis 15.71 copular ckause/sentence 2.22; 3.66; 5.37,42; 7.20.29:9.45: 10.8; 15.62; 16.17,

'

.

65 verb 2.16, 18.22; 3.68,74,76,77,78; 6.25n;7.3-4, 10, Iln, 14;8.28, 33, 42,82,84; 9.1n,47,48, 50n; 10.2, 11, 16, 18,21, 26; 15.55n,71, 74; 16.4n,21-24; 17.12211; 18.22; 1.54 verb, semantic function of 16.23 seeolso: intransitive, phrasal verb. prepositionalverb copulat~veverb-+copular verb cor- 1.6 cordtally 8.90 (-yours) 8.9111 core+common core, grammar

coreference 3.70; 4.13; 5.5,30,36; 6.9, 15, 17, 19,21,22n,23,24,25,27n, 30. 31, 32;8.133n; 10.7,48; 11.8; 12.411, 5,X 13. 19.24; 13.52 -53: 15.27n; 10.30, 79; 17.65, 6611. 77, 121; 18.52, 59; 19.44 S~~CO/.SO:pro-forms,plonoun, substitution r.orpom 5.03 sn't)3.36; (-for) 16.57;(- it) 12.10, 24-26; (-ne)3.16,36.38n; ( - I J O I ) ~ . ~ ~ ; (-n't) 3.36.37; 11.28-30; (- n.1 be)3.37n;(-so)2.51; 12.10, 12,20, 21,23-26; 19.45;(ro ing) 12.23n; ( - st) 3.4n; ( - th) 3.411; (-that) 12.10,24-26; (toso -) 12.23n; (will -) 8.100; (- without) 16.6 Doctor 10.53; 17.91 doer* agent does+do dogged 7.19 -dom 1.32 don't -t do dormant affix 3n d o t i p e r i o d , suspension double (predeterminer) 5.15, 18 double+genitive, marking, negative, preposition doubt (verb) 16,26, 31, 35 (-but) 16.31n; (,lo -)8,127n; 15,54; (-firl(asto)) 16.73; (- less) 8.127; 19.53n

-

I ~ ~ (past U P tense, dive) 3.16 dolvtl (adverb) 7.46.66; 8.41 (particle) 16.2 (preposition) 7.70; 9 . 7 , ~ ~ - 2 7 . 3 2 ; 19.32n (prepositional adverb) 9.66; 13.101 (- ~vi~/r) l l .42 dax~rthill8.41 dolvnrig/rt 7.56 downstairs7.1 1n,67, 70; 8.41 dow~tstreant8.4 1 downtoner adjective 7.33.45.87; 17.114

lndex 1697 1696 lndex

downtoner [cont] adverbial 7.56,62,87; 8.104, 107n~ 111-114; 10.62n,66; 11.21 position of 8.1 14 syntaxof 8.113 do~vn~vard(s) 8.41 clonlnu~ind8.41 dozer1 5.89 Dr 17.91; 111.28 drugonran 5.84n drank 3.19 draw3.16;(-11)3.16;(- out) 16.12; (-up) 16.26n (verb) 16.38, 39,40; (-,fil) 16.72 dream3.15; 16.31;(- edit) 3.15

8.108; 16.12 drive 3.16; 16.19,44,48, 50; (- n) 3.16 drop (verb) 4.27; 16.19 drove 3.16 drown (be ed) 3.68 drunk (verb) 3.19; (- witk).16.69 drunken (adjective) 3.19; 7.19

-

gender 5,104,106 number 5.16, 73n; 6.11,50,61 ; 13.39 see also: noun duck (noun) 5.87 due 15.5911; 16.79; ( - S ) 5.77 due to9,10; 14.14; 15.46n, 5911; 16.69; (be -) 3.47; 4.66

d\eell3.611,13; ( - l'(/) 3.611, 13; (up)on) 16.28 dwelt 3.611, 13 (/ye (vcrb) 3.7,9; ( - Npink) 16.45 dynamic.-,~djcctive,hut!c, noun. dynamic verb meaning dynamic verb meaning 2.43; 3.35,48, 66,76,77; 4.4,6,7. 14, 15, 22,257 27,28,29n, 30,31,32,33-35-45. 47; 8.42; 9.16,42; 10.14n, 18,20, s s n ; 11.24; 12.25-26; 13.23,78; 14.2211; 15.22,31,50,60n; 16.39, ( W

44; 17.95, 101; 18.51n;I.47 dynamism+communicative

E (= end position)+ final -e addition 3.7,9 loss 3.7,9; 1.17 mute 3.9, Ion; 5.81; 7.79 each (determiner) 5.14. 18; 6.45.49, 51; 8.52;9.41,58; 10.3711~43 (pronoun) 6.13,20,45,48,49,50, 9.58; 12.10, 17; 13.61 3.28; after pro-form use 12.10, 17 (- andevery) 13.71; (- other) 6.13, 31; 13.46,60 12.65; 16'71'79 eager7.39, ear/ier7.66, 83; 8.55,77; 19.36947n;

-ed (denominal) 1.30,38; 111.4 participle 3.2, 3-4,6-20,32, 33, 35, 36,38,40,49, 53.54, 55,56,64,76, 77;4.67: 7.15-19,47,58n, 81; 8.12711, 13111; 9.3, 17,5011; 13.9811; 16.69; 1.12, 24,65.69 participleclause 3.2;4.67; 8.5911, 6111, 125; 13.50; 14.6-7. 18, 19; 15.25, 30,31n,34,39.53.56.58-62;

16.14n, 20.49,54; 17.29, 33-35; 18.29,45 premodifying 17.100-103 with/without subject 14.6 sccalm: adjective -edl VS. -ed2 3.4, 6, 11-20 edge 5.120 Edited American English 1.24 seealso: claim, mistake, nuance, reference, 1vcI1 editorial we-. we educated use of English 1.7,20n, 22,27, 28.30, 34,36, 37; 5.5711; 111.1 -ee (adjective base ending) 7.79 (suffix) 1.34 -ee(d) spelling in verbs 3.9 EEC 1.75 e'er 111.27 -eer 1.33 eerily 8.13 1 effect -.cause effectedjresult (object) e.g. 8.137; 17.73,86; 1.75; 111.11 egg on 16.2n eh?11.11, 55 either (adverb) 10.60 (determiner) 5.13, 14, 16.73n; 6.61; 10.42,60; 13.5

(pronoun)6.13,45,48,59-61.62;

echo utterance 11.33-37 see also: exclamation, explicatory, question, recapitulato~,wh-

10.42,60; 12.10, 17 (subjunct) 8.116 multipleconjoins with 13.39-41 ; 15.4111 pro-form use 3.26; 10.5711; 12.10, 17 (- orteor theother) 10.60; (- . . .or) 10.41.44; 13.5.33-34.35.39-41, 68n,71; 15.611.41 eke out 16.21~12 elbow (verb) 16.48 elder7.76; 10.5111 eldest 7.76 elect (verb) 16.46,50; (-as) 16.47 electric(o1) I.39n electrocute 1.76

element-+adverbi;~l,clause, colnp;lr;~tive,complement, objcct, pushdown, subject. verb, ~vhcl//elt!e.s 5.83 elicitation experiment 1.42; 3.41n, 43n, 48n eligible 16.79 elision 3.45n; 1.33, 37.41 ; 11.10 elk 5.87 el1ip.si.s 5.97 ellipsis 2.52; 3.43,44; 6.5. 17; 8.152; 12.1-7, 10, 16n, 18,20n,21, 26,27, 29.31-70; 19.48,67; II1.26n anaphoric 5.31 ; 12.7.42-43,44,45, 5511.67 cataphoric 5.3211; 12.7,42-43,44, 45, 5411.55~67; 13.81 classification of 12.41-44 coordination and 12.45n. 55,68; 13.44-49,55,90; 111.5n criteria for 12.32-38 dialogue use 11.51; 18.1In final 12.44,45,46.54, 56,57,59,62, 68.69 formal type 12.41,44,45 functional type 12.41,43,44,53-70 general 7.55; 12.38,43,44,45n, 53-65,6(; 13.51n,53n, 56.95 indetermin$cy 12.32,38n initial 12.44,46, 52,57, 66, 68, 69 limits of 13.45-46 medial 12.23,44,48n, 50n, 52,58, 62, 64; 13.12,53n, 92-93 quasi- 5.124'6 29; 12,38,40,54n, 60, 62; 13.641 ' , sentence connectivity and 19.33, 44-45,60n situational 12.38,42,44,46-51, 5411, 63n special 12.43,44,66- 70 standard 12.8,38,40n, 60,68 strict 12.38, 39, 68 structural 12.38,42,44, 52,59n textual 7.24; 12.42-43.44.45 virtual 12.18,40, 54n weak 7.24; 12.38,46,65; 17.90 without speaker-change 11.52 see also: adjective, adverb phrase, adverbial, apposition,article, auxiliary, clause, comparison, complement. conjunction, copular, declarative, determiner,directive, exclamative, head, imperative,infinitive, initial, interrogative,if, modification,name, nonfinite,noun, noun phrase, object,

1698 lndex

lndex 1699

ellipsis [contl operator, postmodification, predicate, prctlicz~tion, prcmodific;~lion. preposition,prepositional pl~ruse. pro-forms,pronoun, question, recovcrability, relative clause, response, scntencc,stress, suhjcct, subordinate clin~rc,S I I I I ~ ) T < I ~ ~ ~ RI I~OITI ,> S ~ ~ I ~ I (ht8r(,, I~C~II. vtrl,,

l,,,,,

a,,/,-

else (concessive/inferential conjunct) 8.137, 144, 146; 13.28, 30 (po~tniodilier)6,37n,47:7.6Y; 17.57 (so~~wthltg - ) X.13Xn: ( - II'/IL~~I*) 8.41 ; 19.33 (= cnd-medial position)+medial etn- 1.30 'em 6.14n em d a s h i d a s h etnborrass ( - cd) 16.78; (-ing) 16.72 embedded clause +subordinate clause

multiple 2.8-9,5211; 14.37-41 phrase2.8; 5.121;6.24n; 8.118n; 13.2 see also: genitive, self-embedding embrace 6.31

force 3,25;9.63; 10.21n; 14,25; 15,54; III.2,23 see also: emphasis, verbs (semantic classification) emphasis 3.39n,72; 4.55; 5.16; 6.4211; 7.89; 8.91,95, 10911, 144; 10.6,7, 17,48,69; 11.8,15n,25,30n,52n; 12,19n,28n, 30,60; 13.5%42, 71, 101; 14.37; 15.28n,40,41,70.73; 18passim; 19.23n,34n, 65,96; II.I0,21; 111.25 emotive 18.16.55-57 see also: exclamation,negation, operator. positive, pronoun, reflexive,Stress emphasizer adjective 7.33-34,45,87; 17.1 14 adverbial 8.8,20; 18.55,56n cooccurrence restrictions 8.101 subjunet 8.96,99-103, 126n syntaxof 8.102 empty7.88n; (- of) 16.69 empty -t auxiliary (dummy), it (prop), theme

et!- 1.30 -et]7.37; 1.42, 50 (plural) 5.74. 85 participle - t - r ~p;~rticiplc / en dash +dash e~mhle16.50

English [cont] quality of l .2 school models of 1.7 second Ii~~iguugc 1.3, 6,7, 10,27, 34-35,36,38,41 speakers of l . l-2,4

cllahlcment-t (semantic cl;~ssilicnli~~r~) ~11chu111ed leirll Ih.(ld) enclitic 2.48; 3.23; 10 55-70; 11.7- 1 l, 22; 13.4211; 15.36 l ~ o s t p ~ ~5.123 sc~l ,ACV u/,so: ,,it (prop) explicatory echo 11.33,36 explicit-tapposition (marker) explicitness 1.29; 2.58; 7.8211, 85, 86; 8.10n, 5 Z 9 . 6 6 ; 12.4; 15.6411.7111; 17.8, 1°, 21,24,30, 33, 37.52, 61, 107-108, lI7, 120, 121,123 see also: apposition, postmodification explode 4.27 express (verb) 16.35 expression->diminisher expressive-tcoordination,repetition extensibility 2.7- 10 extensive-tcopular verb extent(tosome -) 8.105, 111, I 14-1 15; 10.60; 11.411; (to 1v11at-) 8.2511, 110n; 11.15n extent-tmeasure (phrase) external-tcauser, modality, negation extra- I.26n, 29 extralinguistic factors 4.1 l - 12; 5.27-29; 6.15,40,43; 12.6-7,12, 46; 15.38,68n; 17.66, 80; 18.9n see also: situational context

-

'

e.rtraordirtary 16.72 extraposition 18.33-36 clausal 3.70; 6.17; 7.2811; 8.128; 12.47; 15.4,6-7, 10, 12; 16.28, 30, 35,37,41,45,46,6011, 70,72,73, 79; 18.33-36,44n ofobject 3.70; 15.7; 16.34n; 18.35 ofsubject2.59; 14.39; 15.4,6,7, 10, 12; 16.18n, 34,38n, 59,60,72,73, 76,80,82, 83; 18.33-36,44n phrasal 18.3311 seealso: -irr~participle clause, if

-

~ ~ ( ~ l ;(~ up ~ to)( 16,9, ~ ~ 29 Juct 9.2; 17.26; (irr -) 9.511; 12.30; (1/1? (ll~at))14.14 factive disjunct factual 3.52; 15.49-50 s~eol.so:condition (open),counterpactual, vcrhs (scm;~nticcl;~ssificatio~) factualityorientation 19.15 fact~rolly8.127 fai16.59; 16.38; ( - to) 3.49 .firi/ing (preposition) 9.8 faitlt 7.38 fair 7.82; 8.100n; (B! all ?less) 8.125 ~ ~ i ~ l ~ 78.100-102 .56; j ~ i t l g ~ /yours8,91n /~, /lll(verb) 3.16; 16.2n, 19, 21 ;(,.back) 16.1911; ( - do11.11)16.21; (3.16;(- off) 16.19n;(-out) 16.3, 19n;(- througlr) 16.19n falling tone 8.135; 11.5n,7n, 8, 10, 12, 14,20,22,23, 28n,36, 37; 14.3611, 37; 15.5411; 17.86; 18.18; 19.9.26-27, 63,65; 11.12, 13, 1511, I8n; 111.23 fall-plus-rise tone 10,65; 18,8,,; 18.17-18,5911; 19.65; 11.15 fall-rise tone 4.53; 8.1 12, 14311; 10.52, 65; 11.25; 14.37; 18.16, 18; 19.26-27; 11.14, 15n fatniliar 1vit1116.69 familiar->informal, -S familiarity marker 1 , 7 4 ~77 , family +names (classified) fancy 16.31, 39 f a r (adjective) 7.75, 82, 83, 88 (adjunct)7.83; 8.41.48; 10.61n (subjunct) 7.90; 8.63n, 105: 10.62 (-0ndan'a~~op)7.90; ( a s - a s ) 9 . l l , 17; 14.12; (by -) 7.90; 8.105; 15.19; (-fionl) 18.31n;(ho1v-)8.3,48, 110n; 10.13; ll.lSn;(so-)8.62, 72: 19.36; (so -as) 15.19 see ~l~o:~ur~herle~r,jurt/~~'r/esr farewells 11.54 jarther 7.75, 83; 8.48 Jartlrcst 7.75, 83; 8.48n /hscirlate 16.26; ( - d) 16.78 -fashion 7.46: 1.4111 fast (adjective) 7.82; 1.41 (adverb) 7.6,83 J

~

-

-

(amplifier) 7.56n ( - e r . . . than) 15.52n

~

~

)

1702 Index

Index 1703

jirted 16.79 Furher 10.53 li1111onl16.35 Jir~irpus 5.99 fa~.olir(noun) (in -) 9.66; (it1 oJ') 9.1 1 (verb) 8.107 F111 1.75 ,/oitr ( /or (t11(1i))3.01 ; 15.48; (1 1 15.54 ,/i~(~.si/>le l 5.25 ,~~,1/3.18; 16.31;(- lip) 16.411 Jorhle 7.33 ji.ed(verh) 3.18; 6.25; 10.51n ji.e/ 3.15, 76; 4.29-30; 6.25n; 7.9; 10.23; 14.30; 16.21,22, 24% 26,31,50,52, 53,54 (-~sif)14.36;(1-) 15.54;(-like) 16.2411; (- oneser) 6.25

-

-

-

(present tense,.fell) 16.1911

.

female (gender) 1.26; 5.56, 57% 104-106, 109-111; 6.1,8-10,13, 14; 10.50; 1.3311 feminine gender* female suffix 1.33 usage 5.66n; 11.30,32; 19.65; 1.7611 see o1,so: coordinate feminism 6.10 festivals- names (classified) feoer 5.4911 few (determiner) 2.5411; 6.4% 59; 10.59; 12.39 (postdeterminer)5.23-24; 10.66; 13.7111; 15.9 (pronoun)2.54n; 6.48,62; 12.10: 17; 12.39 predicative use 5.23n pro-form use 12.10, 17 (a -) 5.23, 3811; 6.48,53,57,62; 10.35n, 59,6111; (- ai~dfarherween) 8.48; 13.7111; (-er) 5.24; 6.48,53; 10.66; 12.10, 17; (- est) 5.24; 6.4853; 12.10, 17;(too -)6.57 see also: less, leost ff 13.104n fictional narrative-+ present (fictional) field-tdiswurse (field OF) fighi(verb) 3.18; (- with) 9.53 figurative-tmetaphorical figuratively 8.124

figure (verb) 14.36; (-out) 16.12 fill(orit) 16.26n; (- up) 4.27 ,fi~lnl19.38 li11i11p ~ s i t i c l ~ ~ in clause 6.38-39; 7.29; 8.15~.21,22, 23.26, 35-38.43.44.47,49,5m9 56.60, 63. 65.66.73. 7711, 7Rn, 84 87. 00 92. 05, 07. OX. I O l n. 102. 105, I O X . 109, l l 111. 114, 110, 124. 144, 150-152; 10.9. 16, 17,63,64; 12.30n; 13.61n.91; 14.9; 15.49n; 18.5. I I; 19.6511;111.8. 17 -18.20 in sentence4.24; 8.14311; 10.52 53; 8-9, 18,55, 103; 11.25; 13.41~ 14.13, I6n,29, 37-41 ; 15.20-23, 25,2Xn,29, 37.41,43,47,49. 53-56,57n, 59-62.75; 18.5911 see brrt,ellipsis,initial, medial, .so Jinolly (adjunct) 8.55.72 (conjunct) 8.137; 19.37, 38,56 (and -) 8.144 find (verb) 3.18; 10.411; 16.26, 31,44,46, 50, 53, 54.57; (-for) 16.57; (-out) 16.4, 12.35; (- outabour)9.60; 16.35; (- strange) 16.45 fine (adjective) 7.8; ( - r) 7.85 (adverb) 7.8; (-/p) 7.8 (verb) 16.57 finish (verb)4.34; 16.40; (-UP) 16.12 finite clause 3.22,25.52; 6.5,25n; 7.20; 8.10n, 13,20n,23,24,30n, 53.86, 87, 124, 125, 130;9.3,4, 55; 10.6, 34,55, 57,5811; 11.40; 12.59; 13.35, 50; 14.5-9, 10-14, 18, 19.20-41 ; 15.1-3.4-9, 18-23, 34, 41n,42n7 46n, 48, 53,58,71,74n; 16.25,30-35, 50,61,64,66,73; 17.2.9-26. 29,31, 33,35,36,37,44,92-93; 18.32,33,54; 19.39,41,60; 111.18 verb2.49; 3.2,30,32,S2,59;4.17n; 11.37; 12.23, 26; 13.9211; 14.5.15, 20; 16.22,77 vs. nonfinitecriteria 3.2.30.52 see also: mrdinate, object. postmodification, subordinator,verb phrase finite phrase 3.21.52-57; 4.18n, 67; 8.12211;10.34; 17.28.54; 18.16 followed by nonfinite phrase 3.57 simple vs. complex 3.54-55,57 structure 3.54-55 finiteness scale 3.52,56

firm (amplifieradjective) 7.33,43 firms-names (classified) .fir,st (:ldjuncO 8.55, 72; 19.36 (conjuncl) 8.137, 13811, 143; 19.38,55, 56 (postdctcrrniner)5.34, 119; 6.63 - 64; 17.15. 32 ( il!rdli~rrrnosr)X. 14411;(at ) 19.38: ( - ! V ) 8.137, 13811; 19.38; (in /h word-formation hjjper- 1.24 hypcrholc 8.126; 16.4n; 18.55; 19.45; 1.24.76n ~~ypercorrection 1.17; 3.62n: 6.5. 35% 38n;8.81n;9.4; 15.511; 17.63n hypcrnynl 19.21. 24 l ~ y ~ ~ c r ~ ~ r (l ~ 2: ~7~ ~ i s l l l ~i~plicnation 6.6411.67; X.HL)n:13.102n; 16,1411; 17.58, 101, 108, 121, 122; 1.17,21,24, 27n,59; 11.6;111.3,4, 5 hypocoristic 1.65n, 77 hyponymy 19.24 hypotaxis 13.2; 14.2; 17.114, 116; 19.5n; 111.8 I1ypirt11~~si.s 5.97 hypothetical meaning 3.30,46.62: 4.62, 63n,64; 8.127; 11.13; 15.50; 16.40, 72n see a l , ~condition, ~: past, verbs (semantic classification) I ' ~ ~ 0 t h e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

I I (= initial position)+initial 'I' (= speaker) 14.8; 15.l811, 19n, 21 ; 19.39,64 16.2-6,8-11,14,18,27; 12.28~47-48; 14,22,27,36n; 1 5 . 3 7 ~ 5 4 19.51n, ; 77n; III.29n vs. me 1.17 (Xand-) 6.5; ( - 'da) 4.2311; ( - 'I1 be. . .) 15.37n

-ible7.21; 16.72; 1.40 -;~7.1,37,47;17.102;1.37,39,41;II.4 -;col 7.47; 1.37, 39 -ices plurals 5.96 -ics 5.75 ID 1.75 idea unit-> tone unit

--

ideally 8.127, 130n identification (apposition) 17.74,77-78 anticipated/postponed 17.78 see also: complement, that idenrijl (oneself) with 6.25

idiom [cont]

1711

im- 1.17,21

12211; 6.1711; 8.47n, 59n, 96; 9.26, 34,36,65,66n; 10.16n,23n, 43, 46n.47,58,60; 1 1.2411; 12.2Xn, 51, 6311,6511; 13.25,66n, 71,87; 14.25n; 15.36,53,64n, 68n; 16.3-9, l l, 12, 13-17,21,24n, 29, 58,6911; 17.37,57; IX.24n.48n,49; 19.6811, 0911;l,7, l7 semantic criteria for 16.12 semi- 16.12 seeal.~~: coordination,fixed phrase, modal, stereotyped iE (= initial-end position)-tinitial le8.137; 17.27,73;1.75; III.II - h 1.77 -ie verb base ending 3.9, 10 f2.60; 3.62; 4.45; 8.9,49; 13.18-19; 14.12,18-19;15.6,20,21,30,32-40

adjunct vs. disjunct 15.21 -clause 3.30n; 4.16,52n; 8.124, 125, 140, 147; 11.41; 12.63; 13.15, 25n, 28n,30; 14.18-19, 22,25; 15.6, 19n,20,32-40,48n; 16.31n,72n; 18.33n concessive 8.9 conditional 4.64; 8.9; 14.1211; 15.6,20, 32-38,40-41 contingent 15.30,39-40 frequency of 15.6 interrogative 14.12n; 15.6 (- andonly f ) 15.3511; ( - and when) 13.83n; 15.3511; (as -) 3.62; 9.4; (even -) 8.145; 15.32, 39-41 ; (- Irnay)4.53;(- I wereyou) 3.6211; 15.36; (-?tot) 13.103; 15.34; (-only) 11.41; 15.3511; (only --) 15.3511; ( - . . .or) 14.13; 15.6; (-80) 15.34;(-. . . the11)8.145; 14.13 see also: as, even, ho~v 1$T13.104n; 15.35n -ifu I.35,42 il- 1.17,21 i117.38, 77; 1.65; (- er) 7.83 comparison of 7.77 ill- 7.83 '

ill-assorted-tcoordination illnesses+ names (classified) illocutionary actlforce 11.3, 13, 16, 17, 20n, 22,41,42,53; 15.38 iM (= initial-medial position)-tmedial I/M (= initial or medial position)-tinitial

-in plurals 5.101 imaginative prose-binformative itnlr~ir1~~4.20; 12.211; 14.24. 30, 36: 16.31, 35.39.44.46. 50 immediate constituent+constituent immedi;1tesit~1ation4.1 1-12; 5.28 i r ~ s ~ r ~ ~ i l i i r t r;~clverh) ~ ~ ~ ( ( i8.55; ~ n c 15.27, 20: 19.37, 55 (conjunction) 14.12; 15.25.29 impnir 7.85n ;,)lpat;e,ll 16.78; ( - ,,,ith) 16.69 irnperatiae 3.59; 16.72 imperative clauselsentence 1.28; 2.1311, 46; 3.37n, 77n;4.64n; 6.24i7.41; 8.16.7711, 90-91,95, 102. 109, 1 18n, 130, 147; 10.6, 17,34; 11.1, 10, 13, 17,24-.30, 37,5411; 13.25,30,52n; 18.55; 11.13; II1.23n ellipsis analysis 12.46n first person 3.5111; 4.811; 6.7; 11.10, 13, 26-28 frequency of l l .27 illocutionary force of 8.47; 11.29 marker-do, don't, let's mood 3.51, 52,54,58 particle-tdo, let passive 11.24 perfective passive 11.24n persuasive 3.37; 18.55-56 progressive 1 1.24 quasi- 3.54n; 4.52n; 11.30n subject in 2.57; 10.6; 11.1,25,27; 12.4611; 13.5211; 15.54 verb2.57;3.2,4.4;6.25n; 11.40,43; 14.22,24; 16.33 seealso: command, coordinate, directive, frequency(temporal),negative imperfective 4.17 imperial+names (classified) impersonal+ it, subject (personal), you infpinge 3.9 implicature 11.4 inlplicit 16.72 implicit +comparative intplore 16.63 impl~~ 16.31 impolite+politeness in~portant16.72.82; (most in~possibilitj~ 17.36 in~possib/e16.72.80 impotent 16.79 imprecation-texpletive

-

(ly)) 7 . 2 ~ ~

lndex

1712 lndex improper 16.72 improve 4.27 in (adverb) 8.41

16.77 (prepositional adverb) 9.66 (-Nof)9.1l;(-Nivit/1)9.11; ( - that) 14.12 in- 1.17,21,26n, 36n -in I.47n -ill' (= -ing) 3.511 -in-law(s) 111.4 inalienable+ possession inanimatcness+agent, gender, noun, subject ina.smuc/tas 14.12; 15.46; 1.18 incense (verb) 16.26 inception-tverbs (semantic classification) incessantly 8.65, 77 incidentally 8.137, 142, 143 incite 16.63 inclination 17.36 inclined 16.79; (- to) 16.69 inclrrded 17.73,86 included clauseisubordinate clause included units-+punctuation including (preposition) 9.8; 17.34,73,86 inclusion (apposition) 17.74,85-87 inclusive-texclusive, or, our, we, your ir~compatible(with) 16.69 incomplete-tcompletion, question, sentence incontestably 8.127 incontrooertibl~~ 8.127 incorrectly 8.127 increase (verb) 7.8511; 16.19 incredibly 8.127 indeed (conjunct) 8.103n (disjunct) 8.127, 130n (subjunct)2.28; 7.57,60; 8.100, 101, 10311; 12.30; 18.55; 19.55 as response 8.130n indefinite- article, determiner, frequency, noun phrase, past, pro-forms, pronoun, subject inde$nitely 8.63 indentation 111.11,14,21, 30 reverse III.14n indention- indentation independent+clause, genitive, -ing participle clause, pronoun, subject

infinitive [cont] 25.33, 3611; 153,411, 6.8, 10-11, 12. 18,25, 34n. 44,46n,48,50,53, 56,58-60.65, 661~73,7411;16.20, 22.28, 36,38, 4/, 42,43,49, 50-52, 63,04- 67. (>X. 70. 73. 75 - 82, 83; 17.30-32,33-34,35--36,93, 122; 18.29.35-36, 53; 19.60; 111.17 clauseellipsis 12.64-65 marker- to object + 16.32,41,44,50,63 passive 15.73; 16.6311, 81; 17.31 pcrfective4.19,67; 14.34n; 16.76-77 progressive 4.46 split8.21; 12.2311; 18.4211 to- 3.2, 30,40,42,43,44,45,49.51, 70, 7711; 7.22; 8.21, 132; 9.55; 11.1311, 18,40,41; 12.231~64-65; 13.50-51,98, 103n; 14.6-8, 1311, 17,23n,33; 15.3,4n,6,8,10-11, 12, 18, 25, 34n,44,46n, 48,50,53, 54,56,58-60,65,66n, 73,7411; 16.17,20,22,28,31,36,4/, 42,

indeterminacy 2.1 l , 15,60-61; 4.66n; 8.24,96; 11.3; 12.18.26n; 14.36; 15.60; 17.33 ,sccrrl,vo:slnnlysis (multiple), i~pposition, ellipsis, gender, gradience, sentellcc i~~(li,.\.(l~.v) 5.96 index cntrics 111.17n indicate 14.2511; 16.31,35 indicative mood 3.37,52,55,58,59,62; 4.16n; 10.34.44,55n; 14.24-25; 15.36; 16.30,33, 50,59,70-73; I.40n indicator word 2.37 Cldices 5.96 i~rdipmnt7.39; 16.78 indirect offer 15.38 request 11.2911; 15.38 thought- indirect speech seealso: agency, anaphora, condition. direct, directive, exclamation, indirect speech, object, prepositional phrase. question, reason, statement indirect speech 3.30; 4.16,24n, 4811,5811, 60,61; 11.3,46n; 12.28; 14.28-34; 16.311~63 free 4.4811, 6011.61 ; 14.28,35; 19.43 indisputably 8.127 Indo-European 2.34; 3.1 1 indoors7.70; 8.41 indubitable 16.72 indubitably 8.127 induce 16.50 -ine 5.105 inequality +nonequivalence comparison inevitably 8.127 infer 16.31 inference, tentative 4.56,66 inferential conjunct 8,136,137,140, 144, 148 disjunct 13.30 relation 19.17 inferior 7.85 infinitive 3.2, 52,53,54, 55,56,59n; 15.36,52; 16.69n; 17.54n bare 3.2, 30,35,40,41,42,43,45; 4.3, 42,43,47,48,64; 7.39; 9.49; 10.55, 67,68n; 11.13, 16,40; 14.6, 15,16; 15.15,66n; 16.17,20,52,53,54; 18.29 clause2.22; 3.46n; 4.52; 6.24; 7.22; 8.21.30.86, 125, 128;9.2,3n, 6; 10.65; 12.23; 14.6-8,13n,15-17,

50-51,52,54,59,63,68,75-82;

18.29, 35-36; 19.60 vs. participle construction 16.40 wh-clause 12.63; 16.20, 35, 37,62,73 with/without subject 14.6, 16, 17, 33; 15.10,48n, 73; 16.20,36, 38,41, 80-82; 17.35-36 seealso: existential infix 1.18, 3111, 76n inflammable 1.2 1n inflection 1.14-15, 18;2.4, 7,35; 3.30, 50,62;4.3, 17n;5.104, 123;7.13, 23.74-86; 8.29,48n, 63n; 10,3411; 12.5511; 13.100; 15.75; 16.2; 1.3, 1611,17,31n,38,45,71 vs. derivation 1.31n,41 vs. preposition 5.123 seealso: adjective, adverb, comparison, genitive inflectional language 6.4 morpheme 1.2n influencing+ verbs (semantic classification) bform9.2; 16.59,61; (- about)9.60; (-of )9.2,60; 16.57 informal (vs. formal) 1.26.31-33- 37,38, 42; 11.49, 53; 17.124 constructions 1.24; 3.23, 30n,32n, 34, 36n,38,43,62,66; 4.13n,26n, 43, 46,521~6511; 5,17n,23,25,35n, /

I

1713

informal [cont] 5511,661~76,84n. 102; 6.3-5, 8.9, 12% 18,20, 21,2411, 31, 35, 38.4311, 52% 53,55n, 56,6411;1.7,8, 14.22, 29.56n.60.63.64. 70n.78n. 83; 8.21. 30.311i. 39.42n. 47. 52. 62. 65% 75% 7 6 , 7 8 , X 6 , 8 9 3 , 9 7 n , 98, 114,117n,119, 124n. 143, 146n; 9.3n,4.5,6,8, Ion, 16, 1811, 37.40, 41,44.58.60; 10.1On.l5,23n,27, 30.34.41 -45.50.55n. 60. 11.5, 8, 1 1 . 12, 1511. 18,24,26.28.32n, 34, 40,44,47.49,53-55; 12.11, 17.23, 27,29n,35,46,48n, Son, 51 n, 52, 61n,63n,64n,65n, 68; 13.7n, 12, 36,7211,741~88,91,94,98-99, 102, 103n, 104; 14.12- 13,23n, 26, 29n, 30n,36; 15.5n,6,9nS12, 15, 18, 22, 25, 34,3511, 3711.39-40.44, 46n,48, 50,54n, 57% 71.74; 16.3.9, 14n, 22.29; 17.1111, 12, 14-16. 19, 30, 44,46,47,57n, 60n,78,80, 111-112, 119; 18.20,22,27, 2811.30, 3 4 , 4 0 1 43,45,48,57-59; ~ 19.2, 18, 42-43,47n,48,50,51,59,60,61n, 62,63,65 pronunciation 3.45n, 51 ;6.1411, 52n, 69; 19.3411; 11.10; 111.5, 27 punctuation/spelling 3,3611,4511, 51 ; 6.14n;8.21;9.7; 17.47; 1.39;111.11, 20,241~26,27 vocabulary 3.16; 5.7,35n,49n, 57n, 77,78,90; 7.57n,61,89; 8.65, 100, 102n,105n,111,112,115,127,135, 137, 145; 10.30,53,60,62; 11.54; 13.103n; 14.12; 15.18; 16.3.21. 29. word-formation 1.16,18,24,29,34, 38,40n,41,46n, 47n,48n,51,52, 65n, 67,68,70,72,74,75,76n, 77 information processing8.1; 18passin1; 19.25, 61, 66-68 sequence and 19.68 structure8.14, 37. 151; 13.3:. 14.40: 15.28n; 18.40; 19.60n,83-84 unit 17.68,78n; 18.3-19; 19.27; 11.1 l , 16 value 8.47,87; I 1.36,45; 12.51-52; 17.102; 18.2-4 see also: communicative (dynamism), focus, given (vs. new), grammar, prosody

.

lndex 1715

1714 lndex informative vs. imaginative prose 3.73 itfrequently 8.65,70n, 77 inlrirlfie 3.9 -ittg participle 3.2, 3-5, 7-20.32, 33.36. 38,40,42,49, 53,54, 55,56; 4% 67;7.15-19.81; 12.2211; 15.12; 16.28n.77: 1.68.69 -blg p~lrticiplccl;luse 3.2. 4411;4.07; X . 13. 28, 59n, 6111, 7511, 125; ').I. 3.0, 38; 11.18,40; 12.23,65; 13.50-51: 14.6, 19; 15.3,12-14,25,34,39, 53, 56. S8 62; 16.411,20. 36. 38. 3') 40. 42.49.53, 68, 8.3; 17.28, 20.30. 33-34,35,36,64; 18.20,29,48n; 19.60 ambiguity with noun phrase 15.13-15 extraposed 18.34-35, 36n independent interpretation 16.39 premodification by 17.98-99 with/wit[lout sulljcct 9.38; 14.6, 1911; 15.12,75; 16.20,36, 38,39,42,83; 17.28-30; 19.60 see also: nominal clause -;rig suffix (denominal) 1.32 (deverba1)8.127, 133; 10.30n; 16.72; 17.53,54; 1.3, 16n, 31n,35,61-63, ingraliate onese/J(~vith)6.25 ingredient preposition9.7,61 inhabit 10.27n inherent-tadjective (inherent) initial (position) -end position 8.22,23, 35,47,49, 63, 90, 118; 18.9 in clause 3.23; 6.38-39,41; 7.29, 54; 8.15, 16,20,23,26, 35-38,43,44, 47,51,52,55,65,66,70,71,77n, 78,81,86,87,89-92,95,98, 101n2 109n, 112, 114, 118, 119,120, 121, 124,130,138n,143n, 144,146,147, 150-151;9.6,42,58; 10.17,58,59, 60n,64n,66; 11.1, 14% 19,31; 12.27n, 28-30; 13.11,36,38,84; 14.9; 15.5,7,42,71; 17.49-50,78; 18.5.9-10, 13, 19, 20-25,49,50, 58,59; 11.14; 111.17-18,20,22 in discourse 8.135, 142 in phrase 5.121; 13.41 . in sentence4.24; 6.2711; 8.147; 10.52-53; 11.25.49; 13.7-9, I8n, 54-55,103; 14.13n,16n,24n, 29% 38-41; 15.12,20-23,25,32,41,43, 47,50,53-56.59-62; 16.3811; 17.5, 34,122; 18.20-25,3311; 19.60n

initial [contl in word 1.3 letter 5.29,66,70,71n, 118; 10.53; 17.9111;19.75; 111.28, 29 or medial 8.20 words o~iiitted1 1.49 srr,o/,v,r:;idverhi;ll(fronting),ellipsis. Rn:ll. I'l,,llting,~~lucli:~l, preposition,r o , Slrcss i ~ ~ i ~1,1311 i : ~ ~ i ~ ~ ~ ~ i~ririrrl~' 8.55. 13811 initiator discourse 7.54; 11.1511 role lO,2lll i~tlrnt> 11,h-(wnrll) clausc/se~~le~~cc 2.4/1,49, 50; 3.21,24, 34,42,44,45,48n, 52; 4.5311.54; 6.37n. 59,60.69; 8.16, 68,77n,83, 103,109, 110, 124; 10.6; 11.1-2, 5-23.37,40: 12.63; 14.17,20; 15.3, 4.5-6,7,8,9, 12.49. 51. 54; 16.35, 3711; 18.33n; 19.62.65; 111.23-24 cllipsis in 12.4611,49.-50,63 meaning 2.56; 6.53 negativelpositive 8.97 pronoun- 111lr-(word) seeo/.~f~: coordinate, determiner, if; IVII-(question),ycJs-ttoquestion interrupted+discontinuous intervals,at ADJ9.41 itttestines 5.77 intimate-tinformal into9.7, 13, 15-16,26,32; 10.10n; 16.2 intonation 1.18: 2.15, 56: 5.374 39n; 6.33;7.63n;8.17,43. 100, 117, 124, 126n. 127n, 130% 14311; 10.16,52, 6 4 6 5 ; 11.22,56n; 13.47n,54,92, 96-97; 14.29. 37,41: 15.611, 20,21, 23,28n,49n,54,62,74; 17.68,72, 84,86, 112: 18.28,37,56,59n; 19.65: 11.1-2,8,11-20; 111.2 vs. music 11.2, 17 seealso: nucleus, punctuation, tone, tone-unit intrcr- 1.26n intranational +language intransitive construction/verb 2.16, 3211: 3.38, 68, 77n;4.34; 6.25n; 7.1 In, 15,55; 8.22n. 28,32,33,47,94; 9.46,47, 6511; 10.2-4, Ion, 1211, 16, 21, 22, 24.30; 11.46; 12.34; 15.811; 16.211, 3,4n,5,18-19,21,24,26,28, 3811, 75; 17.29,31.43, 102; 18.13, 32,43, 49; 1.24,42,50,65 conversion to copular 1.54 conversion to transitive 16.19; 1.54

1716 lndex intransitive [cant] pure 16.19 see ulsu: complcmentntion intrinsic-tmodality ir~tr~~rlrrc~, to 16.57 introductions 11.53.54 invariable form 2.35; 3. In, 44,50; 6.54 see ulsu: noun, plural, singular inl.oriuhlj8.65, 67-68 invariant --+tag incent 8.13811; 16.26 inversion 2.46; 9.40; 10.60n; 12.3311; 17.109; 18.22-24 subject-operator 2.50; 3.23,24,37,40, 47;4.53n;8.35,70,98, 112, 119, 120; 10.6,7n, 17,57,58,59,66; 11.1,S-23,31,34; 12.29-30,60; 13.36.38,40,42; 14.10, 13n, 20, 2511; 15.5, 34,36, 5011, 74; l8.22,24 subject-main verb 3.2411; 8.47; 10.26, 4311; 11.39; 12.27n,28; 14.29; 16.3; 17.7811;18.21,22,23,24n, 49-50 inverted commas-tquotation (marks) inaest irl 16.6 incitatior~17.36 invitations4.6411; 6.60; 11.3,4, 17,20n, 29,40,53 incite (verb) 16.63 inco11:e 16.39; (- d) 7.21 inward(s) 8.41 -ion 1.39; 11.4 -ious 1.39 ir- 9.5711; I.17,21 Irish English 1.25 see a/.su: regional English ironically 8.127 irony 4.6411; 5.3711; 8.70; 11.7n,34,54, 5511; 12.911; 15.38,54n; 17.57n, 112; 18.40,55; 19.47n,65,75; I.21n,32 irrutional16.72 irregurdless (of) 9.57n irregular+ comparison, plural, sentence, subordinate clause, verb irregulurly 8.65,70n, 77 irrespectiae(of) 9.10.5611; 15.39n; ( - whether) 15.4111 irrrrrieuubly 7.56 irritate(- d ) 16.71 ;(- ing) 16.72 is3.32; 12.48; 18.49~1;(- n'r) 3.32 see also: that -is nouns 5.97 -ise 1.42 -ish (adjectival) 5.56-57; 6.6411; 7.1,25; 17.102; I.15,38,70

lndex 1717 islands+ names (classified) -ism I.32,36 -is! 1.32,37 issrre (noun) 19.24n it i~rnhicnt->it (prop) anticipatory 2.59; 3.49n,70; 6.17; 8.128; 10.26n; 12.28,47-48; 14.6, 26; 15.3.25; 16.30,3411,45, 72, 73, 76.82. 83; 18.33--36,44n comment clause use 15.54-55 dummy/empty/expletive+it (prop) extrapositive+ it (anticipatory) impcrsonal8.91n; 16.59n introductory +it (prop) nonpersonal 5.104, 107- 111; 6.8, 14, 20 nonreferring-t it (prop) omission 11.50; 12.47-48 personal pronoun 3.38; 5.104,

J jrrggecl7.19 j[1il5.44 Jap:inesc 1.2; 1.13 jargon 1.28 Juycee 1.75 jeans 5.76 jerk buck 16.4 Jesus 5.1 14 jingles 1.72 jitters, the 5.49n job (vs. work) 5.4 joint+participation journalistic language 1.28 jubilr~rit1 6.78

junior 7.85 just (diminisher subjunct) 8.11 1 (emphasizer) 7.57; 8.100, 102 (restrictive subjunct) 5.17n; 8.100n, 116, 118, 120; 11.40; 15.20,27,29, 50

107-111;6.2,6,8,14,20,21,39;

9.9; 15.19n; 18.33n preparatory+;! (anticipatory) pro-form 7.29; 12.13,24-26,28; 15.3; 16.36; 19.47 prop6.17; 10.15,26, 33,5011; 12.47-48; 15.59; 18.25-30, 3311; 19.48n referring 6.16 stressed 6.16, 29 (- . . .all) 6.45; (-S) 5.14; 6.2,6, 14, 29; ( - self') 6.6, 14,23-28 Italian 5.100 italics 5.1 In; 9.7n, Ion; 14.29; 18.14; 11.21; I11.24,28 convention in this book 2.35; 3.111; 7.50 itch (verb) 4.29:,(/or) 16.38,41 -ire 1.37, 3911; 11.5 irerri of'5.7 item-tcomparative item subjunct 8.92-98 iterative 4.40; 12.1 sec ulsu: coordination its(elf') -t it -ily I. 14.36.39; 11.5 -ive 1.40 - i . ~nouns 5.96 -ize 1.2, 15, 35,42

.

(time subjunct) 8.98 (-us) 13.4211; 14.14;(-1y)8)8.127; (not . . .but) 9.4111 justify 16.39

-

kill (verb) 16.26 kilohertz 5.90 kilorrrc,rri, 1.66 kitid(- Iy) 7.9; 8.90-91 ; 11.2911; ( - qf) 5.6:7.56n.64:8.1 11, 113, 114, 126: 10.43 kind-noun kirrglj~7.9 kinship terms 5.66n ki.s.s(vcrb)6.31 ; 16.26 KL 1.75 kneel(ed) 3.15 kr1~4t3.15 knc,~~, 3.16 knickers 5.76 kr~~/c/k~ri~~es 5.83 krrock4.35; ( - 11ouln) 16.2611;( - N Jl?~iftg)16.17: (- N ,scrr.s~lc.s.s) 16.45 knon~3.16:4.4,29; 12.28,35,65; 14.30, 3611; 16.26,31,35,50,52; 17.112; 19.47n (. . . S) 15.54; (be n thut) 18.36; (-how to)4.52; ( I - ) 12.6511; 15.54; (-?I) 3.16; 7.83; (be rr (to)) 3.7611; (~vcN r1) 3.76n; (you -) 15.54; 19.17,65 knowledge-textralinguistic factors, shared knowledge knowledgeableabout 9.60; 16.69

-

-

-

-

L k (= thousorid) 6.65 karute 1.13 keen 7.9; 16.79; (- (up)ori) 16.69 keep3.15; 10.24; 16.2n,21,23, 24,26, 44,46,48; (- alvuyfrorn) 16.29; (- on) 16.40; ( - on o r . . . to) 16.5111; (-pacen~ith) 16.8,58; ( - quiet abolrt) 9.60; ( - tubson) 16.8; ( - up with) 16.29; (- Ving) kennels 5.91

kick (verb)4.27; (- at) 9.46

-/(syllabic) I.76n , -/doubling 3.8; 7.79 LA 1.75 lab 1.74 luck (verb) 3.68; 10.14; 16.27 ladies anrlgentlernen 19.65 1ud.v 19.65 luir13.16 lair1 3.16 lakes-+ names (classified) Lallans Scots 1.25 lurnb 5.4 Lancaster-Oslo/Bergen corpus 1.42; 3.3%; 6.4611;9,19n,21n,22n; 15.47 language- block, bureaucratic, creative, English, fixed word-order, foreign language, formal, inflectional, informal, instructional, instrumental, journalistic, learned, legal, literary, occupational,

lndex

1718 lndex

language [cont] printed, regulative, religious, bcictitilic, spoke11VS. writtell. st;ltid;ird. technic;~l languages+ names (classified) llrrge 7.88; (- /.v) 8.116 I;trger sittl;1tion4.11 ; 5.29 Irrr~c*.vl S . 34 lurvir(~)5.94 laser 1.75 last (conjunct) 8.1 37 (postdeterminer) 5.22,34,67, 119; 7.21;8.52; 9.40; 17.15, 32; 19.38 (time adjunct) 8.55,77n; 19.37 (verb) 8.51 ; 1 6 . 2 4 48 ~ (at -)9.ln,28; 19.55;(- blrtnot least) 8.14411; 19.56; ( - 11') 8.137; 19.38; ( - oj'all)8.137; ( - out) 16.12; (this/fkese -) 8.60n late (adjective) 7.8,36 (adverb) 7.8,83; 8.55n, 77 ( - ly) 7.8,70,83; 8.55,62,63; (of-) 7. ..7nn -.. later 7.70, 83; 8.55,72.77; 19.37.38, 4711; (-on) 8.5511 Latin 1.2, 14, 15; 4.1711; 5.82,91,93-96, 112, 123; 6.4; 7.21n,85; 9.7n; 13.104; 17.5411; 1.6, 14,21,28,39, 56,75; 11.4 see also: neo-classical latter 17.97; (the -) 19.49 laugh (vs. la~rghter)5.4 laugh (at) 9.46n, 63; ( - . . . ofl) 16.411; ( - . . . selfsick) 16.45n /oy(verb)3.10, 16;9.l6n; 16.19n,48; ( - down) 16.4n lay (past tense, lie) 3.16 -1e (base ending) 7.47,80,81 lead(verb) 3.18; 16.26,48,50 lea~~(ed/t) 3.15 leap(ed/t)3.15;9.31; (- ouer)9.31 l e a r ~3.13; 4.8; 16.31,35, 38; (-about) 9.60; 16.28;(-edl 03.13 learned(adjective) 3.13; 7.19 learned language 1.28 least (postdeterminer) 5.24: 7.78 (pronoun) 6.48.53; 12.10, 17 (subjunct)8.111, 113, 115 incomparison 7.74,82n, 83; 8.131; 19.52 vs. /ewes1 5.24 (at-)8.116;9.ln;(inthe-)8.lll; 10.62; ( - ofal/) 8.1 11

-

,

letter [cont] 75; III.l,4, Ion, 11, 14,21, 23, 25, 29,30 rcdi~pliciltion13.104n seealso: acronym, initial, silent letter-writing 10.53n; 11.47; 17.91n; 19.65,85; 111.2, 11,1411, 30 k.tfrr.v 5.77 level -tcoordin;ltion, liicrarcliy level tone 11.14, 1511, 18n lexcme+lexical, vocabulary lexical factors9.12; 12.2; 13.89; 16.21; 17.39; 18.1; 19.7; 11.16 hybrid+ word-formation item 2.35; see vocabulary linkage 19.19.21-24,2511, 33-35.72 morpheme I.2n recurrence 19.23 see also: genitive,prosody, verb lexicalization 17.8,51,96, 11 1; 1.8, 9-12, 13-15,36n,38,57,65 conditions on compounds 1.58 phrasal 9.12n; 1.1211, 16 sec also: conversion, relexicalization lexicography 2.3811 lexicology +grammar, vocabulary lexicon +vocabulary li~ble16.79;(-to)4.66;16.69 lib 1.12, 74 libretto 5.100 lice 5.84 licence/licerlse 1.56 lick N irrto sltape 16.8 lie (verb) 3.411, 10, 16; 4.27, 32.38; 10.24; 16.19,21,24; (-and. . .) 13.98; (-S[) 3.4n;(- lo~v)16.17 lieu,in9.66; (-of)9.11, 12x1, 13 & ' l (in a//. . . -) 8.62 lfe/lives 5.83

leoue(verb)3.15;4.45;9.45; 10.27; 16.19,44,46, 53, 54. 57; (- 11cfi)re) l6,15;(-0/f) 16,39;(-irr!O 16.12; ( N .vtrr~~rli~r~) 10.17; ( t(~[f;~r) 16.57 lectlrre nbourlo~~ 16.28 kd3.IR 1(:0(:~) 8.41 (p;\" tctisc, k . u ! ~ 3.15 .) let'+ branching, dislocation 59; legal language 1.28; 3.141~37% 4.58n;8.91n;9.12n. 38n,56; 11.3% 12,2011; 13.104n; 14.20; 15.36; 17.73; 19.23,47n, 6411; 111.29 lend3.13;(- to) 18.3111 length (dimension) 5.8; 17.1 14 (of structure)2.7-9; 7.81 ; 8.87, 150, 153; 17.115; 18.7; 19.47.68n; 111.17-18.20 see also: adjective,long, medial, noun phrase, prepositional phrase, short, subject, tone unit, vowel, word lengtke~t7.8511 lent 3.13 less (postdeterminer) 5.24 (preposition)9.8 (prdnoun) 6.48,53; 12.10, 17 in comparison 7.74,82n, 83,86: 8.131; 10.66; 13.100; 15.63-64, 69n, 71; 19.52 vs./ewer 5.24,53 (-er) 7.78,83; (nolnot (any) (. . .) than) 15.70; ( - ofa . . . than) 15.69n,7ln; (- so) 12.27; (- . . . than) 14.13; 15.63-64,70 -less 7.1;9.57n; I.5,38 Iesso17.85n lest 3.61; 8.86; F.12; 15.48 let (lexical) 3.17,51 ; 1l.26n; 16.52 (particle) 3.51,60; 11.26-29; 16.52n (- alone) 13.10311; (- cloivtl) 16.2611; ( - Nbe) 16.17;(- Ngo) 16.9, 17, 52n;(- on) 10.6111; 16.3111; (-out) 16.3ln, 34n secalso: directive, let's

-

-

-

-let I.15,33,77 let's3.51n;6.7, 18; 11.26,29,30n; 11.9; (-not) 3.51n; 11.3011; (- us) 3.5111; ( - yolr) 3.51n letter (alphabetic) 5.81; 8.138n. 143; 17.88n; 1II.3,28,29n capital5,29,60,66n, 70, 118; 8.13811; 10.53; 14.29; 17.91n; 19.75; 1.59,

l

!

ligllt (adjective) 7.8.88 (adverb) 7.8 (verb)3.18; (- ed)3.18 (in(the) of)9.11, 1211; 14.14; 15.46n; ( - ly) 7.8; (-upon) 16.5 light +punctuation

-

lightnirtg (verb) 3.511 like (conjunction) 8.79; 9.4; 14.12, 36, 50; 19.60n (particle) 16.2,22,24n (preposition) 6.27; 7.81 ; 8.79; 9.4.7, 9.48; 13.10311; 15.50n, 71; 17.3711

1718

like [cont] VS. 11.5' + U S (a~ldthe-) 13.104; (ifj~ou-) 4.52n; 8.126; 12.6511; ( - to) (tlppr(ixim:~tor) 8.1 12n; ~ l l ~ l ~ l ~ )/ 4,5811 ~/~~~~rl -like 1.3, 38 likely7.9,81n; 8.127; 14.36; 16.72, 79; (be to) 3.47,66; (n~ost/yuire/ very-)8.127 liketvise (conjunct) 8.137, 143 (subjunct)8.116 pro-form use 12.10,25n (do-) 12.10 liking+verbs (semantic classification) -lily 7.9; 1.41 limiting-trestrictive line (in -) 9.66; (in ~virh)9. l l line (dimension) 9.15, 17 linearity 18.3

-

-

-

linguistic context 6.1, 15,3811;7.30; 8.144n; 10.4; 11.38.41; 12.6-7,9,46; 14.8; 15.13,73; 17.8,46n, 80 organization 1.12-13, 18.27 seeaho: extralinguistic factors linguistics 1.12, 16, 18;2.4n; I.16n see also: textlinguistics linkers 13.6 see a1.90: discourse (connectivity), lexical linking verb-tcopular verb links 5.9 1 list 11.20; 17.86; 11.10, 13; 111.11, 23n I ~ S I 4.30; ~ N (- to)4.30; 10.23; 16.28,53 listing conjunct 8. 136, 137-138, 143; 15.18 lit 3.18 literal -> metaphorical literal/y (disjunct) 8.124, 130n (subjunct) 8.100, 126 literary language 1.28; 19.28 little (adjective) 5.24n; 7.88 (determiner) 6.59; 10.59 (frequency adjunct)8.65, 77 (minimizer) 8.11 1 - 113 (postdeterminer)5.23-24; 7.83; 10.66; 15.9 (pronoun) 6.48,53,62; 7.69; 12.10, 17; 17.15 comparison of 7.78,83 (a -) 5.23-24,38n;6.48,53,62; 7.56; 8.77,98, 11 1,114,115; 10.59,61n,

1722 Index

Index 1723

nraxi- 1.24 nruxinrize 7.8511 maximizer colnp;~risonoI'8. 106. I In niodilicationol'8.106. 1 I t ) subjunct 8,104,105-110 nmxirmtm 5.95 n~qv3.2 1. 39, 40, 5 1,60: 4.47, 49. 50, 5 1, 52. 5 3 , 54.00, 01.03; 0.01 ; H.103; I1,5n,Xn, 13. 39; 13.31; 14.2411.34; 15,40,48,55~;18.16, 24; (-0s we;;) 4.5311; (-not) 3.39; 10.67; (- n't) 3.23.39; 10.5511; 11.8n maybe 8.127 M.C. 1.75 nte6.2-6,s-11, 14, 1811,27 sec also: l meals+ names (classified) mean (verb) 3.15; 16.26, 31, 38,50; (1 -) 17.80 meaning vs. form 2.35n,38n, 41; 4.1 ; 13.47,51; 1.3, 9, 10, 15,20 meaning relations-+semantic (relations) seealso: absolute, abstract, additive, anticipatory, aspectual,causative, circumstance, concessive, conditional, consequence, contingency, contrast, derogatory, dimension, direction, genitive,grammar, hypothetical, inferential,-ing participle clause, instrumental, interrog:~tive,lexical, manner, matching, modal, negative, nonfinite, noun, object, outcome, passive, place, pragmatic, preposition, process, progressive, pronoun, purpose, putative. reason, reciprocal, repetition, resemblance, respect, result, semantic, some, subject, time, verb, verb phrase, word, word-class means (noun) 5.9 1 (by of)9.11; (byany -) 10.62; (by no -) 6.5011; (-of )9.11n

-

'

preposition 9.7,43,49 see also: noun, process meanslagentive spectrum 9.43,48-51 meant 3.15; (be to) 3.47 meantime8.137, 145; 19.36; (in the -) 8.137; 19.36 meanwhile 8.137, 14311, 145; 19.36; (in the -) 8.137; 19.36 measure adjective7.66

-

measure [cont] ;1dvcrbi:1I8,3,4,Y,48,57,63; 10.10, 60.66; 16.24n gcl~itivcof5.1 16: 17.38 phl;~se5.18, 3811:0.4111;7.88; L ) . J 2 ~ ~ . 35,64; 10.13, 14, 20n,27n, 35n; 13.102; 15.6411; 16.2711; 17.55, 108; 1.53 r,.vo/,s,r. I I O I I I I . p i ~ ~ l i l iVoC ~ I I >~H .( H C I I I I I I I I I C cI:~ssilici!lio~~) ntedi~~ 5.95n, 98n: 10.3411 medial cooccurrence 8.20 end- 8.19,20,23,60,84,90, 102, 114, 130 in cl;tusc 5.16; 7.27; 8.16 -18, 22, 23, 38,47,55,63, 65,71,78n, 8l.86, 90.91 -92,95,97,98, 102, 10311, 105, 107, 109, 114, 116% 117, 118, 119, 121, 124, 130, 146, 150-153; lO.L7,58n; 13.38,95; l8.6,41; 111.17-20 insentence 10.52; 11.811, 25; 13.55; 14.29,38-41; 15.22,25,47,53-56, 57n,60; 18.20n.59 initial- 8.18,20, 21,23,47,55,65, 102, 109n,114,130 long structure at 8.17 medial- 8.20 variants of 8.18-20 see also: ellipsis,final, initial medical(adjective) 7.13.37 (noun) 7.13 medium 5.95 medium 1.19,29-30, 36.42 meet3.18;6.31; 16.19,26 nremo 1.74 memorandum 5.95 mot 5 . 5 4 1 84; ~ 19.65 -men 5.56-57 -men[ 1.34

-

(make of) 16.8; (no1 10 -1 13.103n mercifully 8.127 mere 17.97;(-ly)8.111, 116, 118; (not ly) 8.120; (not ly . .but) 10.4111 merger6.2; 13.11; 17.33 Merriam-Webster Third International Dictionary 1.13n mess (around) 16.12; (make a -of) 16.7,8

-

-

.

Me,s.srs5.103 met 3.18 metalinguistic commcnt disjunct 8.8. 1 1 1. 126; 10.06: 11.24; 12.31; 15.38 (subjunct) 8.12011, 126 metanalysis 1.711~ metaphorical vs. literal 1.8; 3 . 1 4 ~16. 18; 5.12211;H.2.4.42n. 55. 1201; 0 . ISn. 1011.3.7. 33. 3911,61 ; 10.10. 11, 21,32n,47,511; 14.22: 16.3,4n, 5n, 12,14,24,29,48; 18.55; 1.7,12n,26 see also :preposition mclonymy 10.2111 nretrop01i.s 5.97 rne~vs5.91 mhm 7.56 mice 5.84 nricro- I.24n, 66 mid-Atlantic dialect 1.24 middle+ become, verb midi- 1.24 might 3.21,39,40;4.50,51,53,59-63, 65n; 8.103; 11.5n, 13; 14.20.23, 2411.34; 15.36,48,55n; 18.24; ( - as we11)4.53n; (- not) 3.39;

-

10.68; (- n't) 3.39; 10.68; 11.811 mighty (intensifier) 7.5611 mike 1.74 mildly 8.1 11 miller~nium5.95 million 5.89; 6.65 mind(verb) 10.6111; 16.26,35,39; (-you) 15.54; (ifyoudon't -) 8.12411; (to PRON -)9.63 mine6.2-6, 8-1 1, 14.29 mini- I.13n, IS, 17.24.77 minimal free form I.2n minimize 7.85n minimizer subjunct 8.104,111-114, 115; 11.21 negative 8.1 11-1 14 seealso: nonassertive minimum 5.95 minor 7.85 minor-tconversion, postmodification, punctuation, question minority 10.43n minus (preposition) 9.8 minute (noun) (- S) 5.77 (the (that)) 15.29n mis- 1.23 misbehave 8.10811

-

nti.scolc1~1arc 8.1 ORn nri.sco.st 3.17 ntisilexpectation, given New Zealand English 1.26 see also: regional English rre1v.s 5.75 news reporting 1.28; 3.73; 4.21 ; 14.2911; 18.26n; 19.34n seealso: broadcasting neivscast 1.76 newspapers+ names (classified) ne.xt(conjunct) 8.137; 19.18,38,55,56 (ordinal) 5.22, 34,67; 7.21; 8.52; 9.40; 17.15,32,57; 19.37, 38 (time adjunct) 8.55.72 (- to) 9.5, l0,20 -ng adjective base ending 7.80 -nge verb base ending 3.9 nice 16.76, 80; (-and. . .) 13.99 nightly 7.9; 8.64 niglrty I.74n ni16.64n no (determiner)2,54; 5.12, 13, ,4, 23; 6.45,59,62,64n;9.58; 10.42.58, 60,62,66; 12.18; 15.14.41 (intensifier) 10.60 reaction signal 7.54 response8.100, 13011; 10.55-70; 11.4-13; 13.102n vs. nor 10.58 (-. . .fro.. .) 11.4311; (- one)6.9, 45-47,62; 10.50,60 see also: doubt, n~orc No. 17.8811; III.30n

lndex

1728 lndex no- 2.54; 5.12; 6.13.45-47, G2 no article-->;~rticlc no-one -t tto(one) noblc (adjective/noun) 7.13 nobody 2.54; 6.9.45-47,62; 9.58; 10.43, 50,60 rrod (vcrh) 4.27.35 ttoisi, ohour/abrood 16.34n nomina16.1,23,46, 55; 7.45; 9.3 expression 12.16, 1911; 13.75-76 predicative-tnoun (predicative) see also: coordination nominal clause 4.6411; 7.53; 1 1.18n, 45; 12.20; 14.9,22; 15.2.3-16,25,65; 16.35,43,83n; 17.63, 112; 18.33.39 complement use 3.46n; 10.8 existential 15.16 -brg 3.49; 9.1 ; 16.47; 19.60 object use 3.62; 4.29; 10.7; 18.28 prepositional complement use 9.1 relative6.20.35n; 10.7, 34,38; 11.1811; 12.63;15.ln,2,3,511,8-9, 1211, 18,53,56; 17.9, 12, 18.20; 18.29.33n subject use 10.6, 15 that- 11.18; 13.50-51; 14.20,22,30; 15.54; 17.26; 18.2611; 16.16 vocative use 10.53 wh-9.1; 12.63; 13.50-51; 14.22 nominalization 1.28; 2.31n,43; 6.2411; 7.72-73;9.14; 10.25; 14.5; 15.13n, 14; 16.36,84; 17.26, 33,47,51-53; 18.43; 19.22,49;L26n, 31n,35,42, 44,71n nomitrally 8.127 nominative case 6.4 non- 1.15, 17,21; 111.4 nonagentive-t verbs (semantic classification) nonassertive adverb 10.60 context 3.42,43; 4.51; 5.23; 7.56n, 78, 86; 8.62, 107; 9.58; 10.57-70; 13.31; 15.14; 16.32n,35,39,61,71.73 determiner 6.45; 10.60 form 2.53-55; 5.14; 8.63n,69,97,98; 10.57-70; 11.6-7, 12, 13, 16, 17, 22,23, 28; 14.3611; 15.27,35,52,63, 73; 17.5; 18.24n minimizer 8.1 11- 114 pronoun 6.13.45-46,48,53,59-61, territoiy 2.53; 6.52 see also: assertive,determiner

nonattributive-) ;idjcctivc (predicative only) nonce-formation 2.4211; 8.8911; 17.1 1 l ; 1.5t1,15, 18,32,40n,41,49, 58,7111 noncommilted 4.5 1.66 nonconclusive-tverbs (semantic cl:~ssific;~tion) noncorrclative-tcorrelative, so, suclr, ihrough noncount conversion to count 1.53 indefinite article and 5.9n noun 2.30n; 4.4,7,34, 35; 5.2-9, 11, 13, 14, 17,23-25, 39,49n,52,54,58, 59,74, 75,8711, loon; 6.50,52; 7.14; 10.38, 42; 12.16, 19; 13.66.79; 15.7, 69-71,73; 17.54; 1.32, 35, 36,47 pronoun 6.41,45,49,53,61; 12.1811 see also: count nondefining-t nonrestrictive none 6.12,44n, 45,48,62, 6411; 10.42,58, 60; 12.10, 17, 18; (-the) 10.60 nonequivalence comparison 15.63, 71 -72,75 rronetheless 8.137, 145 nonfactual condition-tcondition (hypothetical) nonfinite clause 2.1311; 3.37n,40,52; 6.24n, 25n,31; 7.20; 8.13,20n, 29, 53,59, 61n,75n, 86,87,127n, 132; 9.3, 32n, 55; 10.1n. 6,34, 57,5811; 12.221~43-44;13.3511; 14.5-8, 10, 15-19; 15.1-3,lO-15, 18-19,30, 34,41,50,56,58-62; 16.25, 36-42, 49,64; 17.2,8,28-36, 37,54n,62, 92-93; 18.33-36,53-54,59; 19.38, 41,60; 111.18. clause ellipsis 12.67 forms 2.27; 3.2,32,36,40,45,47,48, 52; 4.55,66; 9.3; 10.34; 11.43; 12.23,26,49, 59; 14.5, 10; 16.17; 17.5411; 18.27 frequency of clauses 14.6 functions 3.30 phrase 3.2211,4911,52,53,56,57; 4.19, 67-68; 17.58 verb+nonfinite (forms) verb phrase, meaning in 4.67-68 with/withoutsubject 10.6; 14.7-8: 15.58-62; 16.36,49; 17.28-30 see also: coordinate,finite, not, object, postmodification, subordinator, verb

non/~(~mtttcrhle 1.21 n nongrkid;ihlc-->atUcctivc,adverb.

gradability, noun, verbs (semantic classification) nonhe;ided -> headed noninherent+;~djective (noninherent) nonlimiting >nonrcstrictivc nonlinguistic-textralinguistic Pactors nonnative-, English nonnegative forms 3.23,32,33, 36,39 nonparticipial +adjective nonpast +modal. present nonperfective 3.34;4.67; 8.61; 14.26; nonpersort 1.2 1n nonpersonal gender in noun 5.104,107-108,118n; 6.37;

33-34,36-39,41,42,45,47,49; 10.49-50; 16.15; 17.1 1-15,22,25 see also: agent, it, noun (personal),subject (personal) nonpredicative-tadjective (adjective only) nonprogressive construction 4.25-33, 46,67; 10.14; 17.7.9811; 18.43 see also: verb (stative meaning)

nonreflexive-tverb nonrestrictive clause 8.94n; 15.23,28n, 29; 18.6; 111.18, 19 modification 5.64; 6.20, 53; 13.79; 14.9; 15.2; 17.3,4-29,34,35,44, 48-50,58,65,94,95, 110, 115; 111.19 see also: adjective, adjunct, adverbial, apposition,postmodification, premodification, relative clause nonsentence 11.38,45,53-55 nonspecific-tspecific nonstandard 1.22, 37,41 construction 1.20; 3.32, 34n; 5.6711, 89n,llln;6.5, 18n,43n,55n;7.7, 56n, 83; 8.69; 9.4; 10.63n, 70; 12.2011; 13.7411; 14.29n; 16.2411; 17.91n, 112; 19.42n,63; 1.1811 orthography 3.36n, 44.4511.51 ; 12.47n,48n,49n, 5011; 14.2311; 17.47, 112 pronunciation 3.511; 111.27 vocabulary 3.17; 9.5711; 10.53; 19.65; I. 12,46n nor (coordinator) 10.41 ; 13.5, 18-20,40, 103; 111.6, 12

1729

nor [cont] (subjunct) 8.1 16. 119, 120; 12.29; 13.1 1.36.40; 18.24n pro-form use 3.26; 6.59; 12.29, 30n; 18.24 s c ~ rrlro: , o,rrl, hrrf, ncirhrr ttorrrtnll~~ 8.65, (17 60, 125; ( - .spi,rrkirg) 8.67n normntive +prescriptive north(ward(.c.))7.4611; 8.41 ; 9.66 not (particle) 2.34,48,50, 54; 3.22-24, 37,42n,45,47,51n, 58; 6.50n.59; 7.15n,22,56n;8.8,103, 113, 116n, 117, 120, 131; 10.54-70; 11.7.28; 12.64; 13.36-37,42; 15.36; 17.96; 11.9 clausal vs. phrasal 8.1 16n position in nonfinite clauses 14.6 position in questions 11.7 position with conjoins 13.42, 57 pro-form use 10.6611; 12.28; 13.57; 15.6411; 16.71n,72n (-a) 10.62; (-at all) 8.70; (and-. . .) 13.42n;(-. . .but) 10.4111;13.33; (-one) 10.62; (or -) 11.20; 15.6 see also: ecen, ecer, hal/,i/.just, much, negation, no, only,yrt notably 8.1 16; 17.73,87 notarypuhlic 5.102 note (verb) 16.31,35; (tcrke of) 16.58 nothitrg 2.54; 6.12,45,62; 10.60; 17.15 (numeral) 6.64n notice (noun) (take -of) 16.8, 58; (untilfirrther -) 8.59n (verb) 16.31,35,42n, 52.53 rtotfi 16.59 notional+concord, gender, grammar, passive, plural, subject notivirhstanditlg8.137, 145; 9.7, 56; 15.39n rtorigl~t6.64n nought (symbol) 6.64n noun 2.28,29, 34,35; 3.23, 59; 5passim; 6.1, 13; 7.33,86; 8.47, 54, 10311, 106n,133n;9.11; 10.511; 11.45; 14.24-25,32; 16.55-57; 18.13; 19.34-35; 11.5-6 -adjective combination 17.56, 59 affixation in 8.89; 1.21-49,51-53.56, 57,59-61.63-66,69-71 agent(ial/ive) 7.36.73; 17.7, 52,97; I.18n. 34,44,62,63,69,71 aggregate 1.32

-

1730 Index noun [contl animate 8.40; 9.52; 10.51 ; 16.73; 17.42; 1.64 ;~ltributivc+ noun (prc~nodilic~ltio~~ by) case 5.112-126 classes 5.2-9, 13, 118 cl;~usc- F no1ni11;llcl~nlsc col~~lnon 2.30; 5.2. 1 I , 20 .W, (1011. 61-64, 67, 69. 125; 10.53; 17.5; 1.53 compound 5.91, 102, 122x1; 17.59, 104- 106; I.19,61,71 ; 11.6; 111.4 countable+count (noun) dual class membership 5.2,4,58 dynamic 1.53 ellipsis of 7.24; 12.1911, 35n. 4511, 55-58 evaluative 10.53; 16.76; 18.13.59n eventive 8.76 general 5.7; 7.24.26; 8.39; 9.2; 10.43, 53; 11.18n; 15.8, 15; 17.24,26; 17.93; 18.13, 14n,30, 5911; 19.35; 11.7 gradable 7.14n; 8.101; 9.62; 10.58; 15.69n,70 head+noun phrase (head) human5.29n, 55; 10.51; 17.46; 1.27 human relevance 5.118 inanimate 5.104, 110, 11 1, 118; 6.16; 10.51; 14.22; 17.39,45; 1.4011.64 invariable 5.74.75-78 locative 5.1 18, 119; 17.24 mass-t noncount (noun) material 7.14; 17.116 meaning of 2.43; 6.1 1.47; 7.32,35,

'

means 17.116 measure 5.8, 89n modal 17.36 modification of 5.59,61,64 nongradable 7.63n; 10.58 parallel use of 5.12n, 50 partitive-tpartition pejorative 7.3611 personal 5.104-108,ll l , 117, 118; 6.9.37; 7.1711, 19.24.40; 16.66; 19.4711 predicative2.17n; 7.1411; 1.51 . premodification by 5.7n, 76; 7.12-14, 45,68; 17.2,94,104-109; 1.26.27, 51 proper2.30; 5.2, 17,29,60-72,74,75, 81,125;8.141; 17,5,33,46,76,88n, 89.91, 114; 18.15.28n; 19.32,34;

Index 1731 noun [cont] proper-common conversion 5.61 ; 1.5211, 53 cl~l;l~ltit;~tivc 5.18. 25. 89 - 90; 6.65; 10.3511;17.108 repeated 13.102 spatial 17.116: 1.18 slativc2.43; 17.95; 1.53 alcllivr ~ I ~ I I I I I I I ~ C T I I I I V P I ~ S ~ I I I I 1.53 lcrnpor;ll 5.14n. 17, I X . l I X : (1.52; 8.52,63; 9.38; 10.20n; 15.25n,26; 17.20n,24, 39; 1.38 uncountable-+ noncount (noun) variable 5.74 verbal 10.30; 15.12; 17.52-54; 1.3, 31n, 35,61-63 see nlso: nbslract, s affected see also: subjective oblig-tobligatory ob/igation17.36

obligation 3.31,46,48; 4.49,51,54,55, 56,58,65,66; 8.128; 10.67; 11.13; 14.23.25n; 15.5; I.40n. 54 ohligotory 16.72

oJ'(adjective) 10.1In (adverb) 8.41 (particle) 16.2 (preposition) 9.7, 15, 18

obligatory-tadjunct, adverbial, constituent verb oblige 16.50; (be et1 ro)3.40 oblique case 6.4, 1211; 9.3n

(prepositional adverb) 9.66 (-4)9.10 ofir (verb) 10.30; 16.38,56,57; ( - to) 16.56,57

oblique stroke 2.6; 6.66; 1,5911,7611; III.28n, 30

offer4.57,58,60,64n;6.6O;8.9ln; 11.3, 4,6n, 17, 29.53

observational+verbs (semantic classification) observe 16.31,35,52,53

,srcl. I ~ ~ C II I; IHI ~, I I I I I ~ O I I , pilragraph, prominence, punctuation, stress prospect (noun) 17.36 proli~sin15.3411 ~ ~ r i ~ t c ~ c 16.7, ~ t j r o57~ ! ~

F

pt~nclu;~tion [cont] grammar i~ntl8.38, 100, 117, 143n; 10.16: 13.1, 1611,171i.52n. 54.96; 14.20.40 11; 15.011.20.21.23, 2811; 17.68, 72,84. 112. 121; 18.34, 41; 19.9, I In; 111.2,7, 15 hicrilrchy 111.3. 1 1 . 13. 14, 16. 18.23 i ~ ~ c l ~ nI Il IrI~~ lIi lSl 111.?.'1. Ih 21. 22 liglll vs. Ilci~vy111.1 1.22.30

protest (verb) 16.31 proto- 1.29 proud 16.71 ; (- of) 16.69 prove 3.1111; 6.25; 14.25n; 16.21,22,31, 35,44,46,60; ( - d/ 11)3.1411; (- (onr.~~i/')(lo h(#))6.25 provc~ti~ncc atljcctivcs 7.42 seealso: names (nationalities)

minorconventions 111.30 prosody and 11.5211; 11.20 separation 111.2.3-21 specification 111.2,9,23-30 successive units in 111.3- IS, 22 .S(Y~II/,WI: A111ol.ici111 IK~~filiali, Hrilihh l~iplisl~, calo~~. colnln;l, dilsll, direct speech, formulae,hyphenation. informal, numeral, parentheses, period, semicolon, space (orlhographic)

-

pro-verb+ do (pro-fonn) proverb4.12;7.83; 11.43; 13.2511; 15.16; 1.7 prouide 16.4811. 57; ( - d(that))9.3; 14.12,14; 15.34,35n, 4411; (-for) 16.28,57; ( - . . .forlwith) 16.4811; (-with) 16.7,57 prouiding(that) 14.12, 14; 15.34.3511 proviso (with the thot) 15.3411 pro-X+ pro-forms proximity concord 10.34n,35,40-45; 15.16; 17.11 spatial 6.43 temporal 6.43; 15.26,29 proxy +pronoun prude~ttly8.127 pseud 1.23.74 pseudo- I. 15,23 pseudo+cleft, coordination, how, passive, subject, subjunctive psst 11.55n psycholinguistic factors 17.113; I.14n PTO III.28,29

-

!

1

public+verbs (semantic classification) public facilities-tnames (classified) publicly 7.47

ii

;

plotish/i~r16.57 pure (central adjective) 7.34 (emphasizer adjective) 7.33.34 (-Iy)8.116, l18 pure-tintransitive purportedlj~8.127 purpose ( - ly) 8.93; (on - ) 8.93 purpose adjunct 8.30.86, 132; 11.15n adverbial8.7; 10.10,21,24n; 17.33 clause 4.5311; 8.86; 14.131~ 24; 15.20, 48,72-73,75; 17.33 disjunct 8.9411 meaning8.9; 13.37n; 15.27.3411.49; 16.51 ; 1.621~65 npgative 3.61; 8.86; 15.46n,48 preposition 9.7, 32n, 42,45 seea1.so: cause,/or,if; so. rhar. until purs~io~~ce (ill of) 9.1211 pursltont to 9.10 push (ho~ire)16.4; (- Nopen) 16.45

-

pushdown element6.3511; 11.18; 15.411, 65,66n,68; 17.63; 18.20n,28 seealso: relative clause, whput 3:17; 8.126: 10.30; 16.211.48;

publishing+printed language pufl(a1ottg) 16.411; (- up) 16.19n punctual+verbs (semantic classification) punctuation 1.23; 11.4711; IlIpassim

(- about) l6.34n; (- across)

16.26n;(- at~endto)16.58;(-a stop to) 16.58; (- alstoy) 16.4; ( - b y ) 16.6; (- dowrr) 16.4; (-down to) 10.12n; 16.9;(- of) 16.4.2611.

connectivity 19.19,25,28-29.73-74 cooccurrence 111,3,16,24n correlative 111.3, 16 error 6.3111; 111.1611 frequency of III.3n, 7

39;(-011) 16.4;(-paidto) 16.17;

(- straig/lt) 16.17; (- N to rights) 16.8; (- up) 16.4; (- up to) 16.9;

(-up with) 10.1211; 16.9, 12, 13, 14, 29; (- . 3 17.80

.

I

1748 lndex

putative meaning 15.48-49 see also: should putt(ed) 3.19 puzzled 16.78; (-at) 16.69; (-as to) 16.73 pyjamas 5.76

qlra 9.7 quadrillion 6.63n quail (noun) 5.87 quality -+partition, verbs (semantic classification) quantifier 5.4, 16,38n,39; 6.45-48,51, 58; 7.83; 8.52,59,67, 71, 108,115, 118n; 9.40; 10.42-43,66; 11.711; 12.10, 17,7011; 15.9,69n; 17.31.59, 86n closed class 5.20,23-25 negative 6.62 open class 5.20,23,25; 6.53 position of 3.28,40 postposed 3.23n,28,40; 5.2311 scope of 3.72; 13.45.76, universal-+pronoun (universal) seealso: comparative,frequency, multal, paucal, superlative quantifying, quantitative, quantity+determiner, noun, partition, some quantity of 5.25 quarrel (verb) (about) 9.60; 16.28; (- with) 9.53; 16.28 quarterly 7.9; 8.64 quarters 5.77 quasi- 111.4 quasi-+auxiliary, coordination, ellipsis,

qlrest(in-of)9.11, 12 question2.45,46,48,50, 53; 3.37; 4.52, 55,58; 8.85,90,97, 102, 106, 125n, 146% 147; 10.8,55, 57,6811; 11.2.3, 4-23,29n,32; 13.47; 14.2511.29; 15.10n, 35,54; 16.15; 18.19,24, 2711.49.57; 19.32,47n, 61-63.66; abbreviated 11.1511, 16 alternative 11.4.20-21,53; 13.2811, 47n,94; 14.33 as directives 19.62

lndex 1749 question [cont] direct 6.37n; 8.15, 130; 9.6; 13.94; 14.35; 15.5, 38; 19.62 ccho2.5611; 11.12n,14n, 34-36; 14,1211,3311 elliptical 10.17; 11.20-21 incomplete 11.36n indirect 3.6211; 8.130, 147; 9.6; 14.33; 15.5,6; 16.61,63; 19.62 information- wh- (question) m:trk 11.2911; 111.1, 3, 14,20,23 minor 11.22-23 polar l l .5n reduced 2.5811; 3.37 seealso: conducive,coordinate, declarative, exclamatory, formulaic, interrogation,negative, nor, positive, ratiocinative, reason, reflective, response, rhetorical, tag, verbless, IVII-, ..*"~""

yE"-""

-

quick (adjective) 7.82; 16.77 (adverb) 7.83 (-er. . . than) 15.5211; (- ly) 7.88 quid 5.90 quiet 7.8ln quit(ted) 3.17; 16.39 quite (compromizer) 8.1 l l , 113, 114; 11.21 (diminisher) 3.76; 8.1 11; 10.62; 11.21 (maximizer) 8.96, 105 (modifier) 7.56,63,89; 8.77, l l In, 131,147; 10.62n (predeterminer) 5.1711; 6.53 as response 8.120n,130n ((not) aN) 6.5011; (-so) 8.13011 quotation III.lOn, 20n,21 marks 1.23; 14.29; 111.3, 20n,21,25 partial 14.29 seealso: direct speech quote, to 8.126

-

-

R (= regular variantl-tvariant -r base ending 7.80 races+names (classified) radar 1.75 radio+ broadcasting radius 5.93 ragged 7.19 rain (verb) 4.27; 10.26 raise (verb) 16.19n raising-+object

ran 3.19 rang 3.19 range-tnucleus, pitch rapid(1y) 7.6, 36 rarely 2.5411; 8.65,68,70,77,98; 10.59; 11.31 rore(verb) 8.108n; 16.44,46; (- as) 16.47; (alutly -) 8.137, 14311; (at allhe -of) 9.41 rather (boostcr) 3.76; 8.10511; 10.62 (compromizcr)7.56,89; 8.1 l l, 113, 114 (conjunct) 8.126, 137, 141, 143; 13.32 (predeterminer) 5.1711 as response 8.130n position of 7.56n (had -) 3.4511; 7.83; (or -) 17.73.80; (should -) 3.4511; (- than) 10.40; 12.69; 13.103; 14.15, 16, 1911; 15.52; (- . . .than) 13.42n; (would I'd -) 3.40,45-46,66; 7.83; 8.96; 10.6111; 15.52; 16.33 ratiocinative question 11.2311 ravioli 5.10011 re 9.7,57 re- I. 17,27 're 3.23,32 reach (verb) 10.27 reaction preposition 9.7.63 signal 7.54; 11.54 read (verb) 3.18; 15.54; 16.19,57; ( - about)9.60; 16.28; ( - to) 16.57 readily8.103n; (more . . . than) 15.5211 readiness 17.36 ready 16.79,81 ready-made phrases 1.7, 8n real(centra1 adjective) 7.34,8L (emphasizer adjective) 7.33,34,73 (intensifying adverb) 7.5611; I.46n really (disjunct) 8,127,13011 (intensifier) 7.56n,57 (subjunct) 8.23,96,99- 102, 109; 11.6; 18.55-56 real condition-tcondition (open) realization 2.6; 19.2 realize4.29; 14.30; 15.54; 16.31,35 reason (noun) 17.18-20 (verb) 16.31 (-able about) 16.69; (- ably) 8.127; (the (that)) 15.4611; (the why) 15.46n; 17.18.20 reason adjunct 8.55n,86; 11.1511

l

-

-

reason [cont] itdverbial8.7, 121, 140; 10.10 cl;luse7.53; 8.127, 132, 14311; 14.13; 15.20,21,45-.47 directlindircct 15.45 disjunct U. 14011, 143n frequency of clauses 15.47 meaning 13.23; 14.14; 15.28,34n, 55n.60; 17.18-20 preposition 9.7.43.44 question 11.15n,40 sec ulsu: us, since. bul~ile rebind 3.18 rebuild 3.13 recall (verb) 16.31. 39 recap(-piug) 15.18;(to -) 15.18 recapitulate(to -) 15.18 recapitulating 15.18 recapitulatory echo 11.33.34-35 recast 3.17 receiue4.27; 10.3211; 16.26; (-from) 18.3111 Received Pronunciation 1.27; 1.56 recenlly4.22; 7.70; 8.55,62,63,77 recipient intended vs. actual 9.46 object 10.33 preposition 9.7, 32,46; 10.10 role 2.23; 10.7n, 19,20n,23,30, 33; 16.56; 18.51-52 subject 10.23, 30, 33 reciprocal expression 13.46 pronoun 3.70; 6.13,31,54; 7.1111; 13.46; 19.1111 . pronoun frequency 6.3111 relationship 13.60; 18.3111 reckon 14.36, 16.31, 44,46,50; (as) 16.47 reclassification-tconversion recoenize 14.30: 16.31

record(verb) 16.35 re(-)couer 1.2711 recoverability 5.31; 8.129; 12.6-7,41, 42,44,45-52; 19.48; 1.9-10, 14 precise 12.33, 34, 36-38, 65 unique 12.6,38,40n; 14.28 verbatim 12.32 secalso: ellipsis, situational, structural, lextual recurrence 8.64,69; 15.26, 30, 34 see also: lexical recursion 17.1 15, 117, 120; 1.5711

1750 lndex

lndex 1751

redo 3.16 reduce to 16.7n reduced form-toperator, question, rc(l~~clion, rclulivc C ~ ~ I Isctilcn~c IHC, reduction phonological 3.23.3611; 9.9; 12.31,46, 4811,5011,6411; 14.2311; 17.1511; 11.9 svnt;1clic2.52.5Xn. 59: 12.1 5; 14.9. l211 ; l6.00 seealro. abbreviated clsuse, ellipsis, pro-forms redundancy 2.52; 3.71; 12.1-2.7; 13.71; 15.6n,46n, 73 reduplication 5.8111; 7.70n; 16.3 ,seeu/.ro: coordination(iterative),letter. particle reduplicative compound 1.72 reel back 16.3 refer to 16.28, 57 reference (bJwith to) 8.85; 9.11,57 reference+ amphora, cataphora, discourse, generic, near vs. distant, noun phrase, personal, place, pronoun, semantic, situational, specific, sporadic, time reference editing 17.80 rejerendum 5.95 referring+ it reflect 16.31,35; (- on) 16.35 reflective question 18.33n reflexive pronoun 3.70; 5.104; 6.5.6.8, 11, 12, 13, 14,20,23-28, 31,45,56; 8.125n; 10.6,7,8,48; 11.25; 16.39; 18.1In basic use 6.23.24-27 emphatic use 6.23,27,28, 30; 18.39 object 7.17n; 10.4,6; 16.7n, 45n,46, 5311; 1.54 optional 6.27 position of 6.28 , precedes subject 6.23n pro-form use 12.10 semi-emphatic use 6.27 see also: coordinate, verb (nonrcflexive, reflexive, semi-reflexive) reformulation (in apposition) 17.74,80 reformulatory conjunct 8.126, 136, 137,

-

.

refusal 17.36 refuse (verb) 16.38.57 regard (as) 16.47; (as S) 9.57; (in to) 9.11.57; (- S) 5.77; (with to)

-

--

regarding (preposition) 9.8,57 regi1rillevsof9.10,57n; 14.14; 15.3911; ( - ~vllcthcr)15.41n rc~i11ni11 I!ngIisli 1.1 l, 19, 20 21, 22 27, 36, 37, 41 ; 3.1411,23, 30n; 4.50, (144; 5.171~2311,5811, l l In; 6.12n, 27n, 67n; 7.56n, 5711:8.144n; 9.7n: lfl.IOn: 12.2211.30); I3.7n: 15.Sn. 71; IH.27 ,s~~p~rI.v~: A n ~ ~ r i c I~ritish i~~i. register+discourse (field of) regret4.6711; 8.107; 15.54; 16.33, 38, 39. 40; ( - tuhly) 8.127, 129; 9.63 regular+ noun, plural, verb rgtrlurly 8.65, 70n rcgul:~tivcI;~ngu;lgc1.3 reir~ilcer5.87 reinforcement 18.58-59 reinforcing conjunct B.L36,137-138, 148; 15.18 reinforcing pronoun 17.78 reject 16.26 rejected condition+condition (hypothetical) rejoice 16.33; (- at)9.63; 16.28 relater word 2.37 relatior~(irt -) 9.66; (in to) 9.11 ; (-S) 5.77 relational+ basic, genitive relational verb+ verb relationship 3.34 time adjunct 8.53, 72; 15.25, 26 time adverbial 4.22; 6.27n; 8.4, l l time subiunct 8.97

relative clause [cont] pushdown 6.3511; 17.63-64 reduccd 7.21.22, 24; 12.3511: 17.56. 66, 82. H3, 92 restrictive 5.64; 6.20, 33,47,53,61; 7.25,86; 10.61; 11.53; 14.14.20, 23n; 15.34n; 17.3-6.9.13-21.22. 22. 26 77: . ~, . .. . .IH . .78 -. . scntcnli;~l8.133; 13.27. 103n; 15.2, 29n,55, 56.57; 17.5, 9 telescoped 17.21 zero6.33-34; 11.53: 12.19. 5911; 14.20; 17.11, 13-20.22; 18.28 see also: existential,nominal clause. postmodilici~tion relative destination-tdestinetion relative determiner-tdeterminer relative pitch-tpitch relative pronoun 6.8, 11, 13,20,32-35, 36, 38; 7.53; 9.6; 10.44n.49,51; 14.20; 15.2,55,60, 66; 16.15; 17.9-25,63,66; 18.28,48 adverbial function 17.13-14, 17-20, 22,30, 34 complement function 17.11, 13- 14, 22,25, 30 neutral 6.34n object function 7.13-14, 15-16,22, 30-34 position6.32; 13.84; 18.28 prepositional complement function 17.13-14,16, 17,24; 18.28 subject function 17.13- 14,15, 22,

-

78-17

see olso: coordinate.that, wh- (pronoun), when, where, which, who, whom, wltose. 32-35,42; 7.22,24, 25; 9.6, 55; 10.ln,7n, 17,4311,4411; 11.1811; 12.4; 13.50-5'1,84; 14.3, 2211; 15.2, 8-9,25n,27n, 28n, 29n,31n, 3911, 44n,51, 57,7411; 16.6, 15, 16; 17.2-6,8, 9-25,26-34,37,61,76, 79,92; 18.48,53; 19.47n adnominal 6.3511; 15.2.8,57; 17.9-25, 34 continuative 15.57n elliptical 7.86 free+nominal clause (relative) independent-tnominal clause (relative) nonrestrictive 5.64; 6.33, 3511; 7.25, 27,29; 8.9411, 132; 13.10311; 15.57, 60-62; 17.3-6,9,13,21,22-25, 26-27, 33,66,8l; 19.4711; 111.19

! i

i

relativized predication 3.26 relator+place, time rellay/'relay 3. Ion relend 3.12n relevance-+current relexicalization 1.7111 reliant (up)on 16.69 relieue (- d ) 16.78; (of) 16.57 religiouslanguage 1.28; 3.411, 16; 6.7, 1211;7.70n; 9.711; 14.20; 15.3111; 11.10 relislt 16.39 reluctance, with 8.93 reluctant6.59; 16.79; (- ly) 8.93 relyon 16.28; (- . ..to) 16.5111 remain 10.16.24; 16.21,22,23,24; (-S) 5.77

remaining-) verbs (semantic classification) r~~rrnkc~ 3.13 rc,fnork (verb1 16.:11. 60: ( irhly) 8. 127 ret?rer,1bcr4.52n,6711; 15.54; 16.26, 31, 35.38,39.40; (ci~n/corrld-) 14.26n r~tttitlrl16.4811. 59. 61. 62. 63; ( - q f ) 5

l/, 7 57

r~~lttulc~ /rorfr 16.09 retlil 3.13 render 16.44 rcni/ezaotr.s5.99 rent (verb) 3.13: (- fromlto) 18.3111 repay 3. Ion riyecrt (vcrh) 16.31 ; ( - edly) 8.65 rel)ent 16.39 repetition expressive7.89; 12.411; 18.58; 19.23 meaning4.35n, 67; 14.27; 15.28 of forms 17.61 ; 19.72 see also: adjective, adverb, adverbial, coordination (iterative),determiner, emphasis, neuer, noun, verb repidginization 1.35 replacive conjunct 8,136,137, 141, 143, 146 reply . . (verb) 16.31 reply +response report (verb) 15.54; 16.26, 31,44,50,60; (- back) 16.31n;(- edly) 8.127 reported clause 14.28-35 request 8.91 seealso: directive (indirect). indirect (indirect) reporting clause4.60; 14.28-35, 54n; 18.20n, 23; 111.21 verb4.16; 14.28-35; 18.2011; 19.41n, 43 see also: news reporting represet~t8.108n repudiation 12.54,62,70; 13.32.42, 57, 94 repute(verb) 16.50; (- d) 3.68; (- d(y) 8.127 request (verb) 3.59; 16.32,63 request4.52n, 57,63,64n; 8.90-91, 100; 11.3,4, 13,20n,29,53; 19.62; III.23n seealso: indirect, reported require 14.2511; 16.26,32, 39,50; (- d ) 7.21; (- ment) 3.59

lndex 1763

1752 Index

reread 3.18 rerun 3.19 resemblance (meaning) 9.48 rescntble2.21n; 3.68; 4.27,28; 10.1411; 16.27 resort 16.39 reserve 16.57; (-for) 16.57 reset 3.17 resohrtiorl 3.59; 17.36 resolution (principle) 14.37; 18.32n resolrie 16.32; (-on) 16.38 resort to 16.28, 39 respect (verb) 16.26; (in all S) 8.105; (in of) 9.1 1, 12n,57; (in some S) 8.111, 114; (BJwith to)8.85; 9.11, 57 see also :respeclirrg respect adjunct 7.87; 8.28-31, 81,85,87,88 adverbial 8.2,5,6; 1.70 disjunct 8.123-124 meaning 8.9 preposition 9.7,8,57; 17.50 titlesof 10.53 see olso: for respecting (preposition) 9.8.57 respective 10.3711; 13.61,62;. 19.52; ( - ly) 10.3711; 13.60,61,63; 19.52 response 1.34; 3.26; 6.4; 8.79,91n, 9711, 100,114,130n; 11.4-23,40n, 4311, 54; 12.43,44; 14.29; 15.5,20,21n, 5411; 16.13; 18.19,59n; 19.26-27, 54,65; 11.12, 13 elliptical 11.7n; 12.61; 18.16; 19.2, 5411 see olso: hardly, indeed, negative, new, no. quite. rother, right, sure,yes responsibility 17.36 rest (verb) 16.21 restriction adverbial 8.8 restrictive claqse8.94n; 14.3711; 15.23 markers 17.32 modification 5.64; 6.42,47,61; 7.24; 12.19; 15.2, 34n; 17.3,4-29,34, 35, 44.48-50,94.95, 110, 1 15 see also: adjective, adverb, adverbial, apposition, nonrestrictiye, postmodification, prernodification, relative clause, subjunct restrictives 5.17n restring 3.18 result(asa-)8.137;(asa -of)9.11

-

- -

result adjunct 8.49.81, 10311 adverbial 7.20n; 8.7 attribute 10.8,20; 16.21,23,45 clause 8.132, 14011; 15.20, 25,4Y, 72-73,75 conjunct 8.136, 137,140. 144 meaning 3.1311, 38n,77; 4.22,33,39, 43; 7.16.20; 8.42, 108; 9.17; 10.24; 13.23; 15.27,45,74; 16.38n; 19.6011; 1.54 object 10.22.28, 33 preposition 9.7,28,30,32 prepositional adverb 9.66 subject 10.22 subordinator 8.146n see olso: before, copula,so, source, thot, urrril resultant, resultative, resulting, resultive+copula, result, verbs (semantic classification) resume 16.39 resumptive clause 15.57 retell 3.15 rethink 3.15 retort (verb) 16.31 retrospective-+ verbs (semantic classification) return (in -) 9.66; (in -for) 9. l l ; ( - N unopened) 16.45 returns 5.77 Rev 5.6611 reveal 16.3 1 reuerend 5.66n reversal clause 15.25.49, 54 subject/complement 10.20,46n reversative -+prefix reverse* indentation rewind 3.18 rewrite 3.16 rhematicconnection 19.14, 21,69 rheme+ theme rhetorical conditional clause 15.37 question 8.112; 11.2, 13,23,44; 19.63 style6.l9n, 20; 12,411,911; 13.87,94; 15.22; 17.23n, 80; 18.21,23,36n, 48,5911; 19.18, 29,471~59;II.2n, 10, 18; III.2,7, 8,24 see also: we rhinoceros I. 14 rhododendrorl1.14 rhythm 13.86; 17.115; 19.12.25; 11.1-3,

rhythm [cont] 10, 11, 18, 19; 111.2 typesof.13.86 .seeolso: foot, slrcss riches 5.77 rill(ded) 3.17 ridden 3.16 ride (verb) 3.16 ridicule 16.26 right (adjective) 7.81 (adjunct) 8.41 (conjunct) 8.135 (intensifier) 7.61 ; 15.27, 29; 16.3.4 parenthetic use 19.6511 response use 8. 100. 12011 (all -) 8.100, 102n; 13.10211; (- ly) 8.127, 129, 133n right-+branching, dislocation rigid -+ frozen (style) ring (ed) 3.19 ripen 4.27 rise(n) 3.16; 16.19 rise-fall tone 11.23, 37; 11.14, 15n rise-plus-fall tone 18.17- 18; 11.1411, 1511 rising tone 8.91, 135; 10.52; 11.5,8-12, 20,2211, 23,34,37,53; 14.37; 17.78, 86; 18.5, 16, 18,26n,59; 19.9, 26-27,65; 11.13, 15, 1811; 111.12 risk (noun) 17.36 (verb) 16.39 ritual 11.3n River 5.72; 17.89 rivers-tnames (classified) Road 5.69n roam (aboutlaround) 9.31 roar 9.4611; (- hoarse) 16.4511 rob(of) 16.7.57; (- Nof) 16.8 rock (amplifier) 7.5611 rode 3.16 role preposition 7.4, 7,48; 9.7 see olso: adjunct, adverbial, affected, agentive, attribute, calling,clause, initiator, opposition, participant, reclplent, sernantlc, unlque role of 5 42n ran Nfiat 16 45 Romance languages l.40,1.40 romp home 16.3 room (make -for) 16 58

roughly 8.124 round (adverb) 7.66n:. 8.41.52 . (particle) 16.2 (preposition) 7.70; 9.7,9,22,26-27 (prepositional adverb) 9.66 (alllright - ) 8.6311 round brackets-+brackets row (verb) 3.811 royal hoe-+ we RP-> Received Pronunciation RSVP111.28, 29 ruh(in) 16.3411; (- Ndry) 16.17 rule (noun) (as a -) 8.76 (verb) 16.26,32 rules codification of 1.15, 16 grammar 1.15-16; 7.47; 10.51; 19.44; 1.1.5 spelling 3.7- 10, 1 In; 6.6411; 7.47, 83 transformational 2.20 word-formation 1.5, 15 vs. tendencies 17.114; 111.7 seeolro: phonological, prescriptivisrn rumour (verb) 15.54; 16.50 run(verb) 3.19; 9.16n,45; 10.411; 16.21; ( - a n d . . .) 13.98; (-at) 9.46; (- away with) 16.29: (- down) 16.411;(-for) 16.28;(- outof) 16.12; ( - over) 16.6; (- through) 16.6n; (- to)9.46 rung 3.19 Russian 1.2,5n; 5.104, 112, 123; 8.9111 -ry 1.32

S S-+subject S10 (= raised object)-tobject (raised) -S 1.18 clipped forms use 1.74n contracted genitive 5.1 13-1 14; 6.47; 7.69; 13.72; 17.4311 contracted pronoun 6.14n doubling in verbs 3.8 familiarity marker 1.77 noun plural 5.74,80,81,83; 6.65; 7.2511; 10.3411; I.31n verb base endina 3.9

1754 lndex

lndex 1755

said 3.15.68; 14.29; 18.36; (it is -) 15.54; (that -) 8.127n,137; (the -) 19.47n soil ororrtrd 16.12 saist/.saith 4.2n sake(fi)r.. . -)5.114. 120;8.100; l I,4ln;(./i1r (t1lc3) (1/')9.ll, 1211;

srrltrwr~5.87 (

'

0/') 9.

l l l1

-

salt-cellar l. l4 salutation 10.5311; 19.65 same (restrictive adjective) 5.34; 7.35 (all the -) 8.137, 141; (be the -) 13.46;tdo the -) 12.10,20,25n; (rhc-) 7.6211; 12.10,20 sang3.19 sunk 3.19 sans 9.7 sat3.18 satisfied with 16.69 satisjL 16.26.59 save (conjunction) 15.34n (preposition) 9.8.58 (verb) 16.39,57 (-for) 16.57; (- that)9.3n; 14.12; 15.44; 16.28n sauings 5.77 saw (past tense, see) 3.16 saw(ed/n) 3.14 say3.4n,5n, 10, 15,68;4.8; 12.20,28; 14.29.33n,36n; 15.54; 16.26,31, 35,50,56,60; 18.23 in apposition 17.73,86 (can't/couldn't -) 14.3In; (not to -) 13.103;(-s)3.5n, 15; (-she/l/ you) 14.2911; (so to -) 8.126; (so they -) 12.2811; (they -) 15.54; (- to)8.129; 16.56,57 see also: that saying-tverbs (semantic classification) scale-tcohesion, finiteness, gender, gradience, institutionalization scales 5.76 scarcely 8.98, 111, 112, 114; 10.59; ( - . . .) 14.13 scaredof 16.69 scafls/scarves 5.83 scene-setting 8.15,38,47, 87; 18.26n; 19.68 school 5.44; 9.17 school+ English, grammar schwa vowel 11.9 scientific language 1.28; 3.73; 4.2511; 5.54n, 56,91,92; 6.18,63n, 64n, 65;

scientific language [cont] 8.4111, 137;9.7n; 15.59; 17.99, 124; 1.24,26,27n, 59n; 111.511, 1 l , 30 .sci.s,sor.s5.76 scope 2.55;+adverbial. coordination. discontinuous, interrogation, neg~ltion,numcr;ll, parlition. prc(lici~ti~~ri, pro-hr~ns,q t ~ ~ ~ n l i l i c r scort, (noun) 5.90 scorn (verb) 16.38 Scut(-c11/-S/-tislr)5.57n scotchtape (verb) 16.45n Scots English 1.25 see aI.so: regional English scrrrl,c N clcon 16.45 sea 5.44 search (it1 of) 9.1 1, 12 seas-tnames (classified) seasons+ names (classified) second (conjunct) 8.137, 143; 19.38 (numeral) 6.63-64 ( - ly) 8.137; 19.38,56; (- ofaN) 8.137 second-instance sentence 2.5611; 3.45; 4.5211; 8.70; 12.28n; 15.35; 16.39; 17.101, 104; 18.45n second language +English secondary -t conversion, stress, timeorientation, word class see2.4n; 3.16; 4.29-30; 8,12711; 10.23; 14.22,36n; 15.54; 16.26, 31, 35,48, 50,52, 53, 54 (-about) 16.39; (-as) 16.47; (-fit . . . to) 16.1711; (I-) 15.54; (- n) 3.16; ( - st) 3.4n; ( - through) 16.6; (-to it) 14.22; (you -) 15.54; 19.39,65 seeing(tha1) 8.145;9.3; 14.12, 14; 15.46; ( - . . .) 14.13 seeing-tverbs (semantic classification) seek 3.15; (-for) 16.38; (-out) 16.12 seem3.66n,76;4.29;7.3, 10, l l n , 14, 15; 8.42n; IO.lln; 12.28; 14.26, 36; 16,21,22,23,24n,34, 3811; 18.36 (can't/couldn't -) 14.36n ; ( ingly) 8.127; (it s) 15.54; 16.34n.60n; ( - to) 3.40.49; (-to be) 7.1 In seeming+ verbs (semantic classification) segregatory coordination 13.35,38,46, 59-63,64-75 seldom 6.59; 8.65,67,70,77,98; 10.59 selectional restrictions+semantic (restrictions)

sell= 1.29,62,68,69; 111.4 -sew-selves5.83; 6.5.6, l l , 23-28; 8.124; 12.10 sell-address 11.53 self-correction 2.511; 17.80 se'destr~rt I. 12, 7 1 sell-embedding 14.39 srr.nb,: c~nhctldi~ly sell 3.15; (- N clteap/t~e~v) 16.45; ( - to) .. . 18.3111 sellatape (verb) 16.45n -selves+ - s e r semantic blends 8.81 classification 2.46:. 3.21 :, 5.3: - .7.40-44, . . . .. 11.2-3; 13.87; 16.20; 17.74-87; I.20,21-30 criteria 2.33, 38, 39,42; 3.21.29; 5.3511; 7.4,40,45;8.28, 31,34,40, 61;10.4; 13.3-4,36,45,54; 13.86; 18.4; 1.2 implication 12.31,38; 19.19,20,21, 69,70-71 relations 2.20-23,40; 3.65; 6.33; 10.29; 17.73-74; 19.7; 1.58; 11.8 restrictions 1.18; 3.29; 7.56n; 10.16, 30,51; . 15.9, 16; 16.21.45; 17.31; 1.7,44, 57 role3.65n; 8.1,2-10,134-142, 144, 149; 10.5-9, 18-33; 14.511; 16.23 vs. referential 4.2 see also: adjective, adjunct, adverbial, apposition,clause, concord, conjunct,

-

-

-

3

semantics 1.13, 16, 18,42; 2.46n; 19.2-3; 111.2 semi- 1.28 semi-annually 8.64 semi-auxiliary -t auxiliary semicolon 14.40; 19.29,73; III.3,6,7, 10,11,12-13,16 semi-coord~nator-tcoordinator semi-formulaic-+ formulaic semi-given+given semi-lexical-tlexical semi-passive+passive semi-reflexive -t verb send3.13; 4.2611; 16.44,48,57; (-away for) 16.14; (- Npacking) 16.17; (-to) 16.57 senior 7.85 sense (verb) 16.31; (in the that) 14.14n

-

sensibly 8.127 sent 3.13 sent -+scnlence .sc*trletrc,c(to) 16.57 sentence 2.11,46n, 59; 14.1 - - 2 ;15.57: 18.5; 111.3 cl;~usevs. 2.411 ~ ~ l l l p2.4.'). l ~ x 11.44.46; 10.1, 55; I I.8n. l8n; 14passin1;17.24; 19.57 compound 2.4, l l, 46; 10.1; 11.38; 13passirn; 14.2-3; 18.5; 111.6-7 connectivity 2.44; 12.13; 13.44n; 19passin1 discourse reference 19.46-48 r~:.l..nl.mn.,l..~ I L A A . I n a" Y ~ O + V U I ~uLa r v.,", W , IY.LO, LY, 14 ellipsis 11.38,43; 13.52 -A

.....,.....,

oranhir iAmtit\r T I T 1

-.

Ir -nr --.1J c

incomplete II1.26n indeterminacy 2.1 1 irregular 11.38-52 multiple2.11; 10.1 ; 14passim premodification bv 17.74. 112 processes 2.46; 3.il reduced 2.46 sequence6.16,44; 12.13; 15.57; 19.3, 58 sim~le2.4,9,11,46-47: 3.2: 10.1.55 . . structure2.3-10; 10.1-4; 13.44n types 1.18; 2.46-59; l l passim unitswithin 7 1-10 unreduced 2.56n utterance vs. 2.46n '

~~

fragmentary, generic. imperative, initial, intcrrogative,medial, negative, noun phrase, parenthetic, secondinstance, statement, subordinateclause sentential analogues 1.60-65, 69n sentential relative clause-trelative clause separability 16.3 separate 4.27 separation-tpunctuation sequence-tadjcctive, adverb, auxiliary, clause informatinn (order),-17,coordination, mnrlnl -..-. ., , premodification, preposition, pronoun, sentence, tense, time, trladic sequent-t time (sequence) seraph(-S/-im)5.101

Index 1767

1766 lndex

serial comma-tcomma series 5.91 seriously 8.124, 130 serve 16.57; ( - f o r ) 16.38; (- N hot/ cold) 16.45; (- tolwith) 16.57 set ( n o u n ) ( - o f ) 10.43n (verb)3.17; 16.48; (UN-) 16.79; (-fire to) 16.58; (- Nfree) 16.45; ( - o u t ) 9.45; 16.38n; ( - to) 9.6611; ( - u p ) 16.4; (- (up)on)16.69 set expression+ fixed phrase SEU-tSurvey o f English Usage several (postdeterminer)5.23 (pronoun)6.13,57; 12.10, 17 severe (-ly) 8.105; (- (up)on) 16.69 se~v(ed/n)3.14; 4.27 sex-neutrality/bias 5.56, 105; 6.8, 10.56; 13.86n; 19.51 see also: pronoun sh 11.55 -sh (nationality noun ending) 5.56-57; 7.25 -sh (verb base ending) 3.9 shake3.16;(- Nloose)16.45;(-n13.16 s11aN 3.4n, 21,39,40; 4.37,42,47, 50, 5 1, 57,58,60,61,64,65; 11.13; 14.22, 27; 15.68n; 16.41 . with second/third-person subject 4.5811 (-not)3.39; 10.67; (- we16.7; 11.10, 13 see also: shalt, shan't, should shallow 7.88 shalt 3.411; 4.5811 shan't 3.23,39; 10.67 shared information-tgiven shared knowledge 5.27-29,36; 19.22n, 65 see also: verbs (semantic classification) sharp (adjective)7.8 (adverb) 7.8; (- ly) (amplifier)7.8,56 shot 3.17 shave 3.14n; 6.25; (- d ) 3.1411; 7.19; (- n) 3.1211, 1411; 7.19; (-oneself) 6.25 she 1.26;5.104-107, 109-111; 6.2-6, 8-11, 14, 18,20,38; 12.47; 17.11 s/he 5.105; 6.10; I.76n sheaflsheaves 5.83 shear(ed) 3.14 shears 5.76 sheaths 5.83 shed 3.17 sheep 5.87

sheep [cont] (VS.mlrtton) 5.4 shecr (cnipll;isizcr ;~djcctivc)7.33 shrlj/sl~elves5.83 sl~elv(ed/n) 3.14 shift+stress shine 3.18; 4.27 ship 5.1 1 In -ship 1.32 ships+ names (classified) shit 3.17 shock(verb) 16.26; (- e d ) 16.71; (- ing) 16.72 shod 3.18 shoe(J) 3.18 shone 3.18 shook 3.16 shoot 3.18; 4.27; (- at)9.46 shorn 3.14 short7.88; (in -) 8.125; (- ly) 7.6; 8.55; ( - o f ) 16.69 short structure 7.22; 8.17, 22% 23.47, 87; 15.4n; 17.16,82n, 115; 18.19, 40,43; 19.58; 11.611.7; III.I2,29n seealso: length, long structure shorts 5.76 shot (verb) 3.18 should 1.24; 3.4% 21,39,40; 4.49,50,51, 56,57,59-62,64,65; 8.103; 14.1611, 20,23; 15.36,48; 16.71n putative 3.59; 4.64; 8.128; 10.55n,61; 11.41; 14.24.25.33; 15.11,44n; 16.30,32,59,70-72; 17.26.35 (-not/ -n't)3.39; 10.68; 11.811; (- st) 3.411 see also: shall shout 9.46n; 16.3111;( - a t ) 16.14 show3.14; 14.251; 16.31,35,48,55,57,62; (- ed/ n) 3.14; (- to) 16.57,59 showbiz 1.74n shrunk 3.19 shred 3.17n shrewdly 8.127 shrimp 5.87 shrink 3.19; (-from) 16.39 shriue(d/n)3.16 shrove 3.16 shrunk(en)3.19; 7.19 shut 3.17 sibilance3.5,9,32n; 5.80.99, 114; 6.11, 29 sick7.3811; (- with) 16.69 sideways 8.41 signal (verb) 3.8; 16.60

-

signifcunrly 8.127 sign[fy 16.3 1 silcnt lcttcr 3.811;5.81 siNily 1.41 silly 16.72, 76 similar (he -) 13.46; (- to) 16.69, 18.3111 similarity clause 13.26; 14.20,22; 15.22, 50; 19.52 see also: as similarly (conjunct) 8.137 (subjunct)8.1 16, 119 pro-form use 12.10,25n simile 18.55 simple (emphasizer adjective) 7.33 simple-tadverb, aspect, coordination, finite phrase, noun phrase, past, perfective, preposition, present, progressive, sentence, subordinator, verb phrase, word simply (adjunct) 8. IOOn (diminisher subjunct) 8.1 1 1 (disjunct)8.100n, 124 (emphasizer subjunct) 8.100, 102 (focusingsubjunct) 8.1 16, 118, 120; 15.20 simultaneity +time simultaneous 19.36; (- ly) 8.55; 19.36 since (time adjunct) 8.55,60-61; 14.26; 19.37 (conjunction)8.55n,60-61; 9.3; 14.12, 19n, 21-22, 26; 15.20-21, 25,27,46-47 (content disjunct) 15.21 (preposition) 7.70; 8.55n,60; 9.3,7,9, 38,40; 11.1411; 15.25, 2911 (prepositional adverb) 9.66; 14.26 -clause8.60-61, 124, 132; 14.21-22, 26 frequency o f 8.60 introducing style disjunct 15.21 reason8.61n, 132; 14.13; 15.20.46-47 temporal 8.55, 60-61 ; 14.21-22; 15.20,25,27 (-

. . .)14.13;(ever-)14.14n,26,27n

sincerely, yours 8.91n sing 3.7, 19 singe 3.7,9 single (adjective)5.38; 6.47; 10.62 invariable 5.74, 7 5 ; 6.54 noun4.4,7,35;5.7,11,13,14,21,26, 29n,36,42,50,52-59,62,73-103,

singular [cont] 1OR;6.9. 16.21,23,50,52;7.14n; 8.39;0.12,41; 10.34,38,46,50; 13.46,60- 62, 66-71, 103; 15.69n, 7 3 ; 17.47, 108- 109, 11811;111.27 noun lacking 5.61 partitive 5.6, 7 , 8 pronoun 6.6,8,9,11-12, 14,38n,40, 41,42.45,46,47,49,51,56; 7.69; 10.49-50; 11.26: 19.13n; 111.29n subject 3.5911;10.34-43,50 verb3.2,32,52, 54,58, 62; 4.16n; 5.100n; 6.12; 9.52; 10.34-46; 13.94,95; 14.24; 15.9, 16,36; 18.46 se~,ulsu:concord, distributive, noun phrase, number, -S sink 3.19 Sioux 5.88 sir 10.53; 17.9111;19.65 Sir 5.66n; 17.9111 sit3.18; 4.27.32; 8.28,30n;9.16n; 10.24; 16.48; ( - a n d . . .) 13.98; ( - d o ~ s n4.27; ) 10.24 situotiorl 19.24n situation type 4.4,27-35; 10.18; 14.22n see also: verbs (semantic classification: dynamic, stative) situational context 6.1 ;7.30; 8.124n; 10.4,49; 11.29,49, 53; 12.9; 14.3311; 15.13, 7 3 ; 17.8; 19.33-34; 1.16 recoverability 12.6-7 reference4.1 1-12; 5.28, 3311; 6.15,40, 43,44; 12.11-12 see alsu: ellipsis, immediate, larger, past size-tdimension, potential size, prefix ski (verb) 3.10n skyward(s) 8.41 slocken o f 16.12 slacks 5.76 sluin 3.16 slum (verb) 16.21 slang 1.33;5.90; 10.46; 11.54; 17.112; 1.12, 16, 52, 77 slant/slash-toblique stroke slay3.16 sleep3.15; (- in) 16.15 slept 3.15 slew3.16 slide/slid 3.18; 9.16n slight 7.33; (in the est) 8.1 11 ; 10.62; (-ly)8,lIl sling3.18 slink 3.18

-

lndex

1768 Index

slip of the tongue 16.211 s1i1 (verb) 3.17 slow (adverb) 7.6; 1.16n (vcrh) 16.77 snrall 7.82,88 critnpi~rinon11r7.77 SIII;III c:11)it11Is~ C I I I V ~ I I I ~ C2,.\S; )II 3,111 small o b j e c t s ~ n a m e(classified) s st~rell(verb)3.13; 4.29-30; 7.9; 10.23; 16.21,24n,53;(-ed)3.13 smelt 3.13 smile at 9.46 .smite/.smitten 3.16 smog 1.76 smoke (verb) 16.19 smote 3.16 sn- words 1.7611 snap at 9.46 sneeze 4.27 snow (verb) 4.27; 10.26 so (conjunct) 7.52; 8.135, 137, 140, 143n, 144, 146, 148; 11.9; 12.2911; 13.5, 11, 12, 18-19; 15.49; 18.24; 19.58; 111.6, 12 (conjunction)8.86; 13.103; 14.12; 15.48 (intensifier) 6.53; 7.22, 89; 8.77, 83, 102, 105, 120, 148; 11.32; 12.10, 3011; 15.49, 74; 16.70; 17.96; 18.24, 57; 19.50 (process adverb) 12.10 end-placed conjunct 8.144n initial 12.28,29 noncotrelative 18.57 pro-form use 2.44; 3.26; 8.10n, 148; 12.10, 13,20-26,27-30; 15.5411, 5511; 16.30, 34,7111,7211; 18.23,24 purpose 8.86; 15.48 stressed 12.23n. 29 syntactic status of 12.261~30 (-as) 14.17;(-. . . as)7.74,86; 14.13; 15.71; (-as to) 15.48; ( - . . .asto) 17.122;(- beit) 12.27n; (just (that)) 15.34,35n; (- . . . (that)) 14.13; 15.49,74; (-too) 19.55 see also: do (so),even, if; less, many, more, much, say. so that, speak io that 14.12 (purposive) 13.8, 10; 15.20,48 (resultative) 8.14611; 13.5,8- 10, 12, 14,18-19,103; 15.20,49

-

soh our 16.411 soc 1.7411 social variation 1.19.22-27,41 s o c i ~ ~ l i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i ~ ll i, lcOc r41; i l c 1.13, r i : ~ If> sociolinguistics I. I9 soft 7.43; 16.81 sold 3.15 ,sol(,(i~Jicclivc)5.34: 7.35: ( - / v ) 8.116: 1 .'l 1

soli~17.81 n solid vs. open spacing 111.4 solidus+oblique stroke some (determiner) 2.54; 5.2, 14,23.45, 52,59-60; 9.40; 10.4311, 60; 12.18 (pronoun) 2.54; 6.13,46,48,52,54, 59-60; 10.42,60; 12.10, 15, 16, 17, 18; 15.9 quantitative meaning 5.39-40,64n stressed 5.1411;7.63; 12.18 unstressed 5.39; 6.6411; 12.18 zero article vs. 5.39-40 (- of) 6.48, 52 some- 2.54; 6.45-47,52; 10.60; 15.9 -same 1.2811, 3811 somebody2.54; 6.8,9, 13,45-47.59-60; 10.50,60 somchow7.46; 8.137,140, 147; 10.60 someone 6.9, 12,45-47,60; 10.50,60 someplace 10.60 something2.54; 6.8,45-47,59-60; 10.60 sometime 8.55; 10.66; 15.27; (-S) 2.54; 8.67,71,98; 10.60 somewl~at7.56,89; 8.77, 11 1, 115; 10.60 somewhere7.46; 8.41 ; 10.60 soon (adjunct) 7.70,83; 8.55; 15.29; 19.3611 (as-)3.45n;(as-as)4.13; 14.12, 18, 25,27; (-er) 3.4511; 7.83; 8.96; (-er than) 14.16; 15.52; (- est) 7.83;(no -erthatr) 14.13, 1811; 15.2511; (would er) 3.40;4.66 sorry9.2; 16.71; 19.17; (- ?) 11.3411; 19.17;(- abour)9.2; (- t o . . .) 15.54 sortof5.6;7.56n,64;8.111,113, 114, 126; 10.43 sought 3.15 sound (adjective) 7.36 (verb)4.28, 30; 7.9; 16.21,22,23,2411 (-as if) 14.36 source adjunct 8.39-48,85,149 adverbial 8.2 preposition 8.2,7,18; 9.7,47

-

source [cont] -result relation 17.106 sorrlh(~~ard(.s)) 7.4611; 8.41 ; 9.66 So11111A I ' C ~ ~1!11gIisl1 I I I I 1.26 see also: regional English South Asian English 1.34 see a1.so: regional English ,s,lll'(,~,l/fl)3, l4 sl'i~cc(orthogr;~pI~ic) ll1.1, 2. B, 4.9 space adverbial 2.18; 6.27; 8.2,3, 15% 22,37,39-50,55n,76,78n, 81,85, 86.94, 11711,143, 149,150, 151, 153;9.66; 10.10, 11; 12.62; 16.2-4; 18.50 ambiguity in 8.43 cooccurrence 8.42-46 coordination of 8.46 hierarchy 8.45.149 position of 8.47,87; 18.50 realization 8.40-41 syntax of 8.48 see also: direction, distance, existential, place, position space preposition->place spades 5.77 spaghetti 5.100n span (past tense, spin) 3.18 span 8.4,52-53,57-62; 9.37,39; 17.7 backward 8.4,53,60-62,121; 9.35 forward 8.4,53,58-59,62 Spanish l .6,8 spare 16.57; (-for) 16.57 spar 3.18 spate of 10.43n spatial-tnoun, proximity, space adverbial speak 3.16; 7.1711; (-about) 9.60; 16.28; (-of) 9.60; (-on) 16.28; (so to -) 8.126; 15.2111; (to of) 10.6211 speakerlhearer 1.42; 5.2711 see also: ellipsis, native, orientation speaking (. . -) 8.6711,89,125,126; 15.56; 17.80 speaking+ verbs (semantic classification) special+ ellipsis species 5.9 1 specific (restrictive adjective) 7.35 Specific Purposes-+English specific vs. nonspecific reference 5.26, 27-51,55n,56-58; 6.15,60n; 7.22, 23;8.42n,46, 54,78,85,98; 10.60; 11.1811; 12.35; 15.8,9,31; 17.5,39, 76,77,92,99; 18.45n, 50

-

.

1769

.s~~i~(~i/ic~rlly (conjunct) 8.137 (subjunct) 8.1 16 spccilic:~Iion punclu~lion .~yr.~~lrrck:s 5.76 spectrrrt~r5.95 sped 3.18 speccl1 llcl ~,,lhll;j,s(J, 52; 4,7, 0511; l/,.?; 14.28; 15.33. 38.45; 16.3011, 31,63 -related disjunct 8.89n seealso: direct speech, indirect speech, reported, spoken vs. written. verbs (semanticclassification) .sl~eerl(ed)(up) 3.18 spccd -P tempo spell(ed) 3.13 spelling 1.10, 12, 23; 2.37-38, 4511,5411; 3 . 4 6n, ~ 7- 10, 12, 13n,20,39n, 44; 5.11,70,81,83,99, 114;6.46,58, 64; 7.47, 79,80,83; 8.137; 9.5n,7, 13, 1511; 10.22; 11.14n,55; 12.5111; 15.911; 16.69n, 8311; 1.3, 14, 17,21n, 3 1 , 4 0 141n, ~ 42,56,59; III.4n, 27, 2911 informal 3.36nS45n,51; 8.21 ; 12.47n, 48n,49n,50n,51n; 14,2311,2911; 17.47, 112;1.18,74n phonetic 1.2711 pronunciation 1.2711; 11.55n seealso: American English, British English, rules spelt 3.13 spendlspent3.13 spill(ed) 3.13 spilt 3.13 spin 3.18 spirits 5.77 spil (vs. spat/spitled) 3.18 spite(in of)8.86;9.11,56; 14.14; 15.3911; (in ofthatlit all) 8.137; (-of)9.11 split 3.17 split-tgenitive, infinitive, word spoil(ed/t) 3.13 spoke(n) 3.16 spoken vs. written language 1.7, 10,12, 17,19,23,29-30,37,38,41,42; 3.23,33,36n, 39n,45n,73; 4.49; 5.113;6.10, 18, 19,23n,63n; 7.29;

- -

8.13,21,23,35,58,117-119,126.

137,138n. 144; 10.35,36,40,43, 52x1; 11.7,29n,40,51.53; 12.4, 19, 46, 50n,52; 13.1,28,39-40,88,91, 94,96; 14.29,40; 15.35n, 36,53;

1760 lndex

Index 1761

spoken vs. written language [cont] 16.30; 17.6,21,43n, 63.68,72, 73, 78,80,113,119,124;18.1-2,11,

75: 1.27n,41; 11.9, 16,20-21; II1.l-2,5,27n statistical differences 8.13; 17.124 In sooonfull.3 , , sporadic reference 5.33,43-49, 125 spork 1.76 spot (verb) 16.53 sprang 3.19 spread 3.17 spring3.19; 16.21 sprung 3.19 spun 3.18 spy (verb) 16.53 square brackets 111.2011 -st 3.4n stack (discourse strategy) 19.18.28, 56,69 stacks of5.25n stadium 5.95 stage 5.44 stairs 5.77 stammering 111.2611 stance-tverbs (semantic classification) stand(verb)3.18; 4.27,32,38; 8.28; 9.1611; 10.24; 16.21,24,48;(- and

statement 2.46,58n;4.52n; I l passim; 12.47; 16.3011; 18.10, 19,57; 19.32, 4711; 111.23 indircct 3.5911; 11.31; 14.33; 15.54; 16.31,59-60,63 .. .. . S(~COI.YO: cooruln;lte, alrectlve states-inames (classified) stative-adjective, have, noun, stative verb meaning stative verb meaning 3.34, 66,68, 76; 4.4. 5,611, 22, 26-27-31, 32, 33,44, 52n,67;7.18;8.42,82, 149;9.16, 24n,27-30,32,42; 10.14, 18,20, 23,24,55; 11.24; 12.25.35; 13.23, 78; 14.19,26,27n; 15.60n; 16.21-24, 39,44,50, 53,54; 17.28, 101; 18.5111; 1.47 statusmarker 10.53; 111.29 stay (verb) 10.24; 16.21,22n, 23, 24 StE (= Standard English)-tstandard stead+instead steal 3.16 stem 2.4,37; 16.12; I.2,4; 11.4 morpheme 1.211 see also: base step, out of5.51 steps 5.77 step (discourse strategy) 19.18,56,69 -sterI.33

16.29 standard

stereotype0 3.04; U.YL,ILLII,I L W ,I L ~ , 127n, 14411; 10.15n,61n; 11.38.40, --

national 1.24-26,34, 36,37 preposition 9.7.62 . - .. . ... . English, nonstandard stank 3.19 star (verb) 3 7

-

-

a -) 8.137; (get ed) 3.6611; (to (with)) 8.137; 15.18

t

state, stattve) statal -t passwe state (verb) 16 31.60 state, state, stative)

-.

....

..

see orso: nxeu pnrase stick (verb) 3.18 .. .

\-".._

(cnnlunct) 8.137, 141, 143-146 (subjunct) 8 97,98 (- andall) 8 137, (better -) 8 147,

stimulus p r e p o s ~ r ~ o n r43, . ~ ,J I , 03; sting 3.18 ..

st~pulate16.32 strpulatron (with the stole(n) 3.16 stood 3.18

-

that) 15.34n

IU.IU

stoop 3.7 StOp3.7;4.27, 34; l1.47n; 16.19,26,38n, 39,40,42; (-and. .) 13.98 straig/rt (adverb) 16.3 stranding2.51; 3.26,45n; 6.4; 12.10,40, 55.59% 60-64; 15.66n; 16.14 see also: preposition (deferred) strange 16.82; ( - ly)8.127, 131 strata 5.95n.98n strategy -*discourse stratutn(s) 5.95 strength (on the of) 9.11 stress 1.12; 19.25; 11.1-9, 10-11, 18; 111.2 compounds and 5.120.122n; 6.47; 17.104-106; 1.3, 58,59, 61-70; 11.6-8 connected speech and 11.7- 10,21 contrastive II.9;-tfocus (contrastive) emphaticlheavy 11.22; 15.71; 18.3, 14; 11.3.8 even7.14 fixed vs. movable 11.4 initial ellipsis and 12.51 multi-word verbs and 9.65; 16.6, 16 noun phrase premodification 17.104-106, 109, 114; 11.6-9 position in words 7.79; 8.55; 19.68; I.14n, 19,26,34: 37, 39.40, 56,74, 76; 11.3-5 primary vs. secondary 1.19,20,21,25, 59,68; 11.3 shift 1.18; 7.47; 9.9; 1.19,27,31,35, 36,4011.56; II.6.8n -timed rhythm 11.1 vs. unstressed form 3.8, 23, 32.39; 4.53,57; 5.2, 14n,23, 38,39,63; 6.27% 28,5011,5211; 7.14, 32,56n,

.

-

62,63,81;8.111,116;12.15,23,24,

40,46,50,64; 17.26; 18.3-19,46; 19.3411;I.19,24,30, 33,42n see also: any, article, focus, intonation,ir, nucleus, preposition,pronoun, so, some, that strew(ed/n) 3.14 stricken (adjective) 3.18 strict-tapposition, ellipsis strictly 8.124 strid(den) 3.16 stride (verb) 3.16 strike(verb) 3.18; (-as) 10.14; 16.4611; (it smethat) 16.34n, 59n strikingly (amplifier) 7.56 string (verb) 3.18

-

strive(d1n) 3.16; (-for) 16.38 strode 3.16 strokc-toblique strong (adjcctive) 7.9n,80,88 (amplifier adjective) 7.33, 34 (- ly)7.9n; 8.105, 109 strove 3.16 struck 3.18 structural ambiguity (of complex sentence) 14.41 compensation 18.43 description 2.12, 55; 1.8 recoverability 12.6-7 .se~nIso:ellipsis, parallelism structure word* word (grammatical) struggle (with . . .for) 16.17 strung 3.18 stuck 3.18 study (verb) 16.26 stung 3.1 8 stunk 3.19 style 8.79 -style 7.46; L41n style 1.31 constraints 8.66; 13.96-97; 17.62, 105.109 disjunct8.123-126, 127n, 128, 12911, 130,143,149; 14,2111,3911; 15.18n, 20-21,23,33,38,45,46, 53,56,59 manual 111.4 indirect libre-tindirect speech (free) seealso: block, frozen, rhetorical suasive-tverbs (semantic classification) sub-tsubordinate sub- (degree) 1.24 . (locative) 1.26 subaudibility 17.15 subject (adjective) 7.39; (- to) 7.39 (verb) (- to) 16.57 subject affected 10.21-22,23,30,33; 18.32 animate4.34; 10.19; 16.26 anticipatory* it (anticipatory) -attachment 8.127n, 152; 15.58-59 clause2.59; 10.26n,37,46n; 15.1-15, 56; 16.3811; 18.4,29,32-36 discontinuous 3.28,13.94 element 2.13,21,24,25,45,47, 50; 3.56,65,66,69;4.811: 6.3-5, 23-27, 29,30, 31,32,35,41,50; 7.22,23, 27,29; 8.16, 18,49, 117, 119, 120, 127, 129;9.6; 10.1-5,6, 7-11, 16n, 17-26,27,28,30,33,56; 1 1.15,22, 31; 12.25,50,61; 13.3511,52-53,56,

1762 lndox

subject [cont] 57,92,94,95,97, 103; 14.511, 14; 15.1-15,52.54.65.67;16.7,14, 1811,19, 08 0 0 , 43. 70, 75, X I ;

17.47,83-84, 11511, 124; 18.3,5, 10, 16, 19,20n, 27, 32,45-54, 59; 19.8, 35; I.60,61,64. 65; 111.7,9, 21 cllipsis K.20n; 1 1.40. 4811; 12.43 44, 46-49,67; 13.12-13, 19,21,92n; 15.58-62,66, 71 ; 17.17; 111.7 empty -s if (prop) first-person 4.26n, 42, 54, 55, 58,64; 8.122, 124, 134, 143, 151; 11.8n, 13, 41 inanimate 4.34; 10.21 indefinite 6.24n; 7.3911; 10.35,42-43; 14.8; 15.73; 16.39, 79, 80; 18.45-49 independence of auxiliary/operator 3.29,40.42n. 47.49 length 11.7; 15.'5ni17.20n; 18.40,43; 11.20; 111.9 meaning (in conversion) 1.47 notional vs. grammatical 14.8; 18.45-48, 52 personal vs. nonpersonal 4.43; 6.24n; 8.90,94,129; 9.49; 14.3611; 16.42; 18.36n -plus-complement construction 11.44 positionof 2.14; 4.30; 10.6,20,43n; 11.41; 12.29 postponed 10.2611; 16.70; 18.33 pronoun8.47,71; 11.8-11,41,44; 14.8,29; 15.10; 16.3, 36; 18.10,23n, 24,26n prop-tit (prop) pseudo- 10.34n quasi- 10.43n realization of 2.24; 10.6 semantic propertiesof 10.6, 19-26,33 stranded 6.4 syntactic function of 10.6 temporal 10.33 territory 6.5, 35 understood 6.24; 7.27,29 seealso: adjunct, adverb phrase, adverbial, cognate, complement, compound, concord, coordinate, directive, disjunct, -ed, eventive, extraposition, imperative, infinitive, -ing participle clause, instrumental, inversion, locative, must, nominal clause, nonfinite, noun phrase, plural, prepositional phrase, recipient, reflexive, relative pronoun, result, reversal, singular, subjunct, time, time adverbial,verbless, vocative '

,

Index

subject matter 1.23,28 preposition 9.7,60 suhjcctive C I I H C r ~ I ~ G I I I I I I (%~~I!jecliv~ III li~rrl~) genitive 5.1 16; 6.2411; l0.20n; 17.41-43,47,51, 11511 -objective polarity 8.5, 7; 17.1 15 ~~~l!jccts n:lmcs subjunct2.15, 60; 7.49; 11.24, 2511,37,X5, 88-120, 121, 126,129n, 13511; 9.1, 9; 14.39n; 15.69,71; 19.53; 1.7111 clausal 13.15; 15.17, 19,21n, 23 distinguished from adjunct 8.88.90, 92n,95,98n general 8.93-95 position of 8.89-92,95, 97,98, 116, 117-119 restrictive 8.100n, I l l , 116-18, 120; 9.5811 subject-oriented 8.78,92-95, 109n, 129,148, 149 syntaxof8.102, 110,113,120 see also: additive, amplifier, approximator, booster, compromizer, courtesy, diminisher, duration, emphasizer, exclusive, focusing,formulaic, frequency,intensifying,item, maximizer, minimizer. modality, narrow orientation, particularizer, posilion, predication, relationship, time adverbial,verb phrase, viewpoint, volition, wide orientation subjunctive frequency of 14.24 mandative 3.58,59; 4.64; 14.24, 33-34; 16.30, 33,70; 17.26 mood 3.32n, 37n,52,54,58-62; 10.34,44,55n; 11.38-39; 14.23-25, 34; 15.34n, 41n,42n, 50; 16.59,63; 17.35 optative 3.51 ; 11.39; 14.34 passive 3.58 past-tsubjunctive (were-) vresent 1.24: 3.2.52.58.61: 14.24425: 15.36, &n,'48 pseudo- 1.17; 3.62n quasi- 4.53n, 64n uses of3.59-61; 14.24n were- 1.17; 3.58,62;4.16n,64; 14.23, 24,34; 15.36; 16.30,33 see also: formulaic, negative submit 16.31 subordinate clause 2.9,25,45; 3.56,58, 61;4.9,13,16, 19,45,47,53n,62, '

subordin;~teclause [cont] 64;6.37n;7.27-30; 8.13, 15,22,75, 106, 130. 141, 143, 144.145, 147; L).~l;10.1,57,04,65;1I.IH1i,OX,40;

12.34,43,45,65,69; 13.2,9-10, 14-15.18-19,83,84; 14pussbt; I5 pussirtr; 18.20n,27n,45n; I').XI X2 cllipsisof 15.68; 19.6011 as irregular sentence 11.41 positionsof 14.38-41 semantic functions of 15.24-56 syntactic functionsof 15.1-23 verb phrase in 14.21-27 seealso: adverbial, clause, coordinate, nonfinite subordinating conjunction+suhordinator subordination 2.9, 11,44; 6.19; 11.43; 12.1; 13.2-4, 18-19, 103; 14passim; 15passim; 19.5n, 7, 57-60 formal indicators 14.10-20 multiple 14.37-41 see also: coordination subordinator 2.9,41,44,45,60; 6.4; 7.29,52-53; 8.145; 9.3,55; 13.2-4, 5-10, 13-16, 18-19,103; I4passim; 15passim; 17.26; III.I8 complex 9.3n, 1211; 14.11, 12, 14; 15.46,48-49; 16.2811; I!12 correlative 14.11, 13 ellipsis 7.29; 13.14,50; 14.24n finite clause 14.12-14 marginal 14.14 nonfinite clause 14.15-19 simple 14.12 verbless clause 14.18 seealso: causative, concessive,condition, coordinate, correlative, manner, purpose, result, time sub-paragraph -> paragraph subsequent 19.37; (- to) 9.10 subsequently(adjunct) 8.55,62,72,77; 19.37 (conjunct) 8.137 subsidiary* focus substance preposition 9.7,61 substandard-+ nonstandard substitute clause-tclause substitute form-+ pro-form substitution 2.5-6,46; 3.26; 12.5,8-20; 18.33-36

1763

substitution [cont] vs. coreference 12.8 Vs. cllipvis 12.8, 1911. 38. .?V 40. 54n, 57 sccalsu: noun phrase, pro-forms,pronoun succeeditrg 19.37 successive units +punctuation s v ~ . /iclclcrrni~~cr) l 2.44; 1 1.32: 18.57 (inlensilicr) 15.49; 16.70; 17.96 (predeterminer) 5.15, 1711; 6.44n; 7.63; 12.10, 11; 15.74; 19.50 (pronoun) 6.44n; 12.10 noncorrelative 18.57 (-as) 14.13; 17.73,86;(- . . .as) 15.7411; 17.77n; (- that) 14.12; 1549,7411; ( - . . . that) 14.13; 15.49,74 suddenly 19.37 sufficiency comparison 15.63, 72-75 suficier~t15.73; 16.81;(- Iy) 7.85; 8.111, 113,115; 15.73 suffix(ation)2.4, 35; 3.811, 12; 5.105; 1.2-3,6, 17, 18, 19, 30,31-42, 57, 64 adjective 7.1, 15, 37,79,82n; 1.37, 38-40 adverb 7.46,71; 8.41 ;1.41 noun 1.32-37 pejorative 1.32,33,37,38n, 42 phrasal 5.123; 13.72 pronoun 6.1 1, 12n, 23 verb 3.12-20; I.42,50 zero I. 16n, 43n see also: agent, alveolar, de-adjectival, denominal, derivation, deverbal, feminine,-itig, nasal suggest 14.25n; 16.31,32, 60; (- to) 16.62 suit (verb) 3.68; 10.14; 16.27 suitcase (vs. luggage) 5.4 sunt (in -) 8.137; (- ing tcp) 15.18; (to up)8.137; 15.18 summarize, to 8.137; 15.18 summarizing 15.18 summation-tplural summative clause 15.57 conjunct 8,136,137,139, 144, 148; 15.18; 19.18,27 summon 16.50 sung 3.19 sunk 3.19 sunken (adjective) 3.1211, 19 super- (degree) 1.24 (locative) 1.26

-

1764 Index superficially 8.127 superior 7.85 superlative adjective5.34, 119; 6.64; 7.1,2-4,7, 21-,26,62,74-82,84,86; 8.21,61n; 17.15,32,97; 18.4511 adverb 7.83 frequency of 7.82n premodification of 7.90 quantifier 5.24; 6.53 sccolso: genilive supernatural beings+names (classified) superordinate+clause, hierarchy superuenirtg 19.37 supervisor I.24n supplementive clause adjective 3.47n; 7.10,27-28,29n adverbial 15.60-62 subjectless l5.61,71 suppletion 3.12 supply 16.56; (- for/to/with) 16.57 strpporr (verb) 16.26 support -+ do support preposition 9.7, 53 suppose 3.62; 4.29,64n; 11.8n,41; 12.28; 14.22,24,30; 15.54; 16.31,33,44,

( I - ) 15.54; (1 -so) 12.65n; (- dly) supposbtg(that) 11.41; 14.12, 14; 15.34, 38n supposition (on the that) 15.34n sur- 1.24 sure (adjective) 7.33; 8.100n; 16.71,73,

-

(intensifier) 7.5611; I.46n (subjunct) 8.100 as response 8.100 (be -) 12.28,65; 15.54; 18.36; (be to) 4.47,66; 16.79; (far -) 8.100,102; (make -) 16.45; (make that) 16.17n surely (disjunct) 7.5611; 8.127, 12811 (subjunct) 8,100,102 susface 5.120 surface dimension 9.15,17,25 surmise (verb) 14.36 surname 5.61,66 surprise (verb) 9.2; 16.26 surprised7.33; 16.78; (-at) 9.2.63; (- by) 9.63 surprising 16.72,82; (- ly) 8.127, 129, 131,133n

-

.

-

surround 10.27; (- in& 5.77 Survey of English Usage 1.42; 3.39; 7.8211; &In, 13,15n,21n, 23,58,60, 117; 11.5n, 1411; 15.47; 17.124; 19.10, 12, 87-90; 111.7 suspect (verb) 15.54; 16.31 suspenders 5.76 suspension dots III.26n suspiciotr.sly 8.127 slvcrm 3.19 swerrr3.l6; 16.31, 38 swear(ed) 3.17 sweep 3.15; (- Nclean) 16.45 swell(eci) (adjectivelverb) 3.14 swept 3.15 swim 3.19;9.16n, 31; 10.27 s~virte5.87 swittg (verb) 3.18; (- Nopen) 16.45 switch (down/ofl/up) 16.4; (- on) 16.4.6 s~vollen(adjective) 3.14; (verb) 3.14 swore/sivorn3.16 swum 3.19 swung 3.18 syllabic form 3.5n,33n syllable 18.4,11; 19.68; 11.3-10, 18-19 division 111.4 loss 12.31, 51n see also: duration syllabus5.93 symbols 8.138n see also: currency, mathematical,nought symposium 5.95 synchronic -+diachronic syncope 9.13n syncretism 6.2 syndetic coordination 13.1, 17,68,79; 19.11, 14, 69; 111.8 synonymy 2.38; 12.35.37; 17.80; 1.1 synopsis 5.97 syntactically bound clause-tsubordinate clause syntagmatic relationships 2.5-6; 1.13 syntax 1.14-16,42; 2.7, 33,37; 4.47; 6.46; 7.41; 8.48,77; 10.5; 13.4; 16.16; 17.44,66-67,92 vs. morphology 4.17 vs. semantics+grammar see also: adjective,adjunct, adverb, adverbial, 4mplifier. auxiliary,clause, comparative,conjunct, coordination, disjunct, downtoner, emphasizer, genitive, negation, object, prepositional phrase, prepositional verb, process, reduction, so, space, subject, subjunct, subordinateclause, time adverbial '

synthesis 5.97 systematic correspondences -+corrcspondcnces systems 5.77

T T , +time-orientation (primary) T, -P time-orientation (sccondary) T, -+ time-orientation (tertiary) t + transitive -t doubling in verbs 3.8 tableau 5.99 taboo 11.54; 15.3711; 1.16 tag abbreviating 13.104 amplificatory 17.78; 18.20.59 checking 10.57 clause 11.34 e x c l a m a t o ~1 4 . 1 2 ~17.68n; 18.59n invariant 1.34; 11.11 noun phrase 11.44; 18.34,59 question3.37.44; 4.5811; 6.7.9; 10.6, 50n,57-59,66,70; 11.7.8-11, 12n, 22,25,26n, 2811.38, 53; 12.47; 13.2; 14.35,3611; 15.54n; 19.63,65n; 11.13 see also: assumption, negative tail (intonation)+ tone unit take 3.16; 10.30; 16.2n, 24n, 26,47n, 50; 18.43; (- aslfor) 16.47; ( - in) 16.4; (- it that. . .) 16.3411; (- n) 3.16; (- n with) 16.69; (- off)4.27; 16.21~3; (- our on) 16.9; (- to) 16.28; (- up) 16.39 see also: account, advantage, care, note, notice. place. pride talk 4.27; 16.48; (- about) 9.60; ( - of) 9.60; 16.14;(- toNaboutN) 16.17 tall 7.66,88 tantamoqrtt (to) 7.39 tap 4.27 target preposition 9.7,43, 46 task (vs. work) 5.4 taste (verb)4.29-30; 10.23; 16.21.24n taught 3.15 tautology 8.124, 144, 146, 149; 17.1$,20 taxi 1.7411 TB 1.75 teach 3.15; 16.55,57,59,62,63; (-about) 9.60; (- to) 16.57 teaching* English tear(verb) 3.16

technical language 1.28 see also: scientific language tcclrr~lccrllj~ 8.127 -tcert6.64; 11.10, 13 teeth 5.84 r~lc-1.29, 76n telecast 3.17; 1.76 telegraphese 12.52; III.29n telescoped-relative clause t~,kr!i,rir~~t 5.33 tclcvision-t broadcasting telex 1.76 re113.15;4.8;9.2; 12.28; 14.3311; 15.54; 16.35,55,56, 57, 59, 61, 62, 63; 19.47n: ( - ahotrt)9.2,60; 16.56,57; (cart't/coaldrt't ) 14.31n ;(- of) 9 2 6 0 ; (-off) 16.2611; (- to) 16.57 telly I. 74 temperature 5.49n temperature 9.32n tentpo 5.100 tempo 15.53; 18.7, 17n; 19.27; 11.2, 10, 19 temporal -as, before, frequency, if: names (classified), noun, position, proximity, since, subject, time, verb, until, ~vhert,while, ~vhilst temp0ra~jly8.63 temporariness 4.25,26,29,32, 37, 38 see also: institutionalization 'temporary'vs, 'permanent9 modification 7.10, l In, 21,27,38, 5811; 17.7,57-58,63,95, 98- 102, 105,114; 18.45n tend to 3.49; 4.66 tendencies+rules tense 2.49,57; 3.31,40,42n, 44.50, 52,56, 58; 4.1.2-17,25,36; 11.24; 13.2311; 14.8,27n, 30; 15.26,54,58n, 68; 17.28,31; 18.16,48, 51; 19.7-8.78 compound 4.17n narrative structure and 19.39-43 sequence 14.31-34; 19.39 unmarked 4.2 see o/.so: aspect, backshifting,future, past, present, time, time adverbial tentativeness 3.30; 4.16,28,29, 37,49, 50,53,56,57,58n, 62,63,64n, 66; 8.140; 14.23,25n; 15.36, 54; 19.61 -1eria 1.3211,76 terminological issues 2.4n. 1311, 14n, 16, 17n,29,35, 38,41,43,44, 46,5211, 53;3.2n,49n,65;4.1,2,3, 17.66; 5.27n,112;8.104, 13411; 10.ln,7n,

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Index 1787

1768 Index

terminological issues [cont] 9n; 11.211; 12.6; 14,211,411; 15.1211, 5911: 16.18; 17.5411; 19.2, 511;1.2n,3 t~~rmitru,~ 5.93 ternts (it1 of) 9.1 l terrible at 16.69 terriltly (amplifier)7.56; 8.105 tcrrilscrlivc, oldect, premodification zone, subject testify 16.31 -[er 1.2811 lext 1.13; 19passbn; 11.21 connectivity 8.134, 145; 19pussim illuslrstion of 19.69-90 linguistics 1.13 see also: adverbial,asyndetic,final, grammar,initial, orientation textual recoverability 12.6-7, 12,35,37 seealso: ellipsis, recoverability th- (initial sound) l . 18; 2.37 -th (final sound) 5.83 (suffix) 3.411; 6.63-64; I.5.16n than (conjunction) 3.4511;6.4; 7.76; 9.4; 14.13; 15.52n, 63-75 (preposition) 6.4.27; 9.4,7; 15.6411, 66n, 68 similarity to pronoun 15.66 than-clause 7.82, 84-86; 8.48; 15.63-75; 16.68,74 thank (for) 16.7.57; ( - Nfor) 16.8; (-/U/) 16.71,78;(-fully)8.127, 129;(-s)5.77;8.91; (- sto)8.91; 9.10;(- you)8.91 thanks 11.54; 12.34 that (conjunction) 8.86; 12.6; 14.12,20; 15.39,47,54 (determiner) 3.38; 4.1111; 5.14; 8.39; 9.40; 17.46 (intensifier) 7.56n,89; 12.10, 17; 15.74; 19.50 (pronoun) 6.1 1, 13, 16,40-44; 10.50n; 12.10, 19.24-26,6411 (relative). 5.3711: . 6.13.33-35; 12.19; . 14.20; 17.9, 1 1 - 2 1 . 2 3 ~26; 18.28.48 -clause 2.22; 3.42n,59; 4.27,45,53; 7.28;8.49,68, 120, 128;9.2; 11.811, 39.41 ; 12.28.65; 13.14; 14.22n, 24-25.33.36; 15.3-5, 10, 11, 12, 46n,74; 16.20,24n, 28,30-32, 34-35,38n,41,43,45,50,59-61, 63.68.70-72,73,78,79,82; 17.122; 18.35-36; 19.47

-

.

that [cont] circumstantial 15.47 cleft sentence use 18.28-29 c(,nccssive 15.30 degree 6.4111 disparaging 5.6311 identificatory 6.3411 pro-i'orm~~so 12.8. 10. 12, l.?. 10. ?'I 20. 2x11,.1011;15.3; 19.47,40 purpose 8.86; 15.48n resultative 15.49 stressed 5.63n zero 12.52; 14.20,3011; 15.4.49n,54, 74; 16.30,34; 17.11, 14-20,22,63; 18.28 (. -) 14.12.-13; (otld -) 19.47n; (at - ) 17.80;(do(just) -) 12.10; (forall-)81137;(in -)9.3n, 12n; 15.46; 16.2811; (- is (tosay)) 8.137, 139; 15.18; 17.27,73, 75-81,86, 92; 111.13; (like -) 8.78n; 12.27; 16.70; (- 'S. . .) 15.8; (- which) 6.42; 17.12 see also: nominal clause, say, so that the-article (definite), exclamatory body parts and 5.35 -clause 11.4311; 15.30,51 discourse reference 19.49 logical 5.34 possessive pronoun or 5.35 (- . . . the)7.82n; 14.13; 15.30,SI see also: exclamatory thee+ thou-forms their5.14,23n; 6.2-6,s-11, 14,29; (-s)6.2-6,s-11, 14.29 them 6.2-6,s- 11, 14; 10.3611 thematization 9.6; 17.50 theme8.15; 10.6; #.l-2,9,10-54; 1.58,59,70, 76; 11.16 connecting function 17.45; 19.12-13, 21,22,53, 69 dummy/empty 18.25-30.44.49, 51 fronting I5.lOn; 18.36 marked 18.10n, 16, 19,20-24,58 onset 18.10, 19 related to focus 18.9 unmarked 18.9 vs. rheme 18.911, 12n,38,40; 19.12,

..

then (additive conjunct) 8.23, 137, 143, 148 (adjunct)4.1 In; 6.43; 7.70; 8.55,72, 87, 144, 148; 13.12; 19.36,37

then [cont] (antithetic conjunct) 8.137, 141, 143. 146.14H; 11.15n (cnumerative co~ijuncl)8.137, 143, 148; 19.18,38, 55; 111.12 (inferential conjunct) 8.135, 137, 140. 143. 144. 148; 15.32 ( S I I I I I I I I : C(II!~IIIIC~) I ~ ~ V C H. 137, 143, I 1 H premodil'ying 7.611 pro-form use 2.44; 8.10n,55; 12.10, 11 (- agubt) 8.146; (hy/trtltil/upto -) 19.36; (justlright -) 8.98 see also: bcjore, the~tce19.33; (-forward) 19.3711 th~oreticiclly8. 127 there (adverb) 3.23; 4.1 In; 6.43; 7.67, 70; 8.41,48; 18.46; 19.33,64n; 11.21 adverbial vs. existential 18.46 omission 11.50 pro-formuse 2.44; 8.10n.41; 12.10, 11 (- . . . be)8.47; 18.23; (in -)9.ln sec also: existential thereabouts 6.6411; 8.41 thereafter 19.37n therefore7.46; 8.144, 145; 13.19 (resultive conjunct) 8.137,140n (summative conjunct) 8.137 thereupon 19.3711 these (determiner) 5.14; 10.4311; 14.30 (pronoun)6.11, 13.40-44; 12.10 pro-fonnuse 12.8, 10; 19.49 thesis 5.97 tltey5.104, 108; 6.2-6.8-11, 14,20,21; 10.36n.50; 12.47; 15.54; 19.51 (- . . . all/bath) 6.45 thick 7.66, 82,88 thieflthieues 5.83 thin 7.82,88 thh~e+ tholc-forms tlring(noun) 2.4411; 7.26; 17.57~1;(a -) (minimizer) 8.1 12; 10.62; (Jorone/another -) 8.137 -thing 3.38; 5.12; 6.46-47; 7.21.69; 17.57 think3.15; 4.27.29; 12.28; 14.36; 15.54; 16.31,35,44,46,50; (-about) 9.60; 16.28; (Idon'! -) 15,5411: (-odd) 16.45; (- of) 9.60; 16.14, 28; (to (that)) 11.41 thinking-+verbs (semantic classification) third (conjunct) 8.137 (fraction) 6.67 (numeral) 6.63-64; 19.38

-

this (determiner) 3.38; 4, I In; 5.13, 14, 63n;8.39: 9.40; 14.30; 17.46 (inlcllsilicr) 19.50 (pronoun) 6.1 l . 13, 16,40-44; 10.5011; 12.10; 19.6411 pro-form use 12.8, 10, 12,13; 19.47,49 (like - ) 16.70 t/l/t/li~r19.3.1 thorurrgl~8.106; ( - Iy) 8.105. 106 those (determiner) 5.14; 6.4211.62; 10.43 (pronoun)6.l l. 13,40-44; 7.24; 12.10, 19 pro-form use 12.8, 10, 19; 19.49 ( - that) 12.1911; ( - nto) 12.19 tltitrf-li)rms3.411:6.12. 14n; 10.44n thorg11(conjunct) 8.134, 137, 143, 144, 146 (conjunction) 3.62; 8.143, 145; 13.711; 14.12, 18-20,24; 15.21.39-40 (content disjunct) 15.21 (style disjunct) 15.21 concessive 14.2411;15.39-40 ( - . . .) 14.13;(as-)3.62; 9.4; 14.12, 17-19,24; 15.50; 16.2411; (even-) 8.145; 14.13,24n; 15.39-40 see also: althougl~ thoug/~t3.15 thousand 5.89; 6.65 thrice 3.16 threw 8.64 thrice(d/tl) 3.16 through (adverb) 7.66n; 8.41, 52 (particle) 16.2 (preposition) 7.70; 9.7,9,22,25,27, 29,32,36-37.50; 14.1911; 111.2811 (prepositional adverb) 9.66 correlative vs. noncorrelative 8.59 (all -) 8.6311; 9.36; (right - ) 8.63n througholrt 8.41,48; 9.7,29,36,66; 19.36 tltroue 3.16 throw (verb) 3.16; 16.26.57; (- aboctt) 16.4; (-at) 9.46; (- n) 3.16; ( - 10) 9.46; 16.57 thnt 9.7 thrust 3.17 thus (appositional conjunct) 8.137 (resultive conjunct)8.137, 144: 19.55 (summative conjunct) 8.137, 144; 19.56 pro-formuse 2.44; 8.10n, 7811; 12.10: 19.47 tly(se!f)+ thou-forms tick (graphic) 111.3011 tickle (verb) 4.29 tidal 7.37 tie (verb) 3.10

1768 lndex

lndex

tight 7.82 t i ~ h t5.76 .~ tigon 1.76 till(conjunction) 8.55n,58; 14.12; 15.25 (preposition) 7.70; 8.5511, 58,59,62; 9.7,37,38; 11.14n; 15.27, 2911 postposed 8.5911 vs. unti18.58 tinre (along -) 10.6111; 15.27.29; (at some -) 8.55; (at thesome -)8.137, 143; (before that -) 8.72; (hjl the (that)) . .. 8.59: (everv . , (that)) . ,. 14.14; 15.2811, (from - t o -)9.41; (in -) 8.59; (in ashort - ) 8.55n; (it's (that)) 14.2411; (or1 -) 8.59; (onamore -) 8.65n; (throughout the (that)) 15.2811; (lip to . . -) 8.72 see also: rimes ime (temporal) adjective 7.36 adjunct, adverb, adverbial4 time adverb(ia1) after 8.55; 15.26,29; 19.35,37 anterior4.18-19,21, 24,67; 8.55; 14.2611; 15.26.27; 19.35,36 clause4.8.24.42; 10.26; 13,14; 14.4, 21,22,24n, 26-27; 15.20,25-30, 32; 17.34 conjunction4.13,24,45; 7.53; 8.145; 14.121~22;15.25-30,31 connectivity 19.8, 17 daylnight 5.46; 6.66; 111.2811 frame4.2, 7, 14, 18, 19,20,24,36,46; 8.57 inclusion 4.36 meaning (in compounds) 1.63 period vs. point 9.34,40; 14.26 preposition 9.7, S, 14, 32,33-42,64; 17.17 reference 2.18; 3.30,40, 42; 4.2-16, 66; 6.17,43; 7.73; 8.9, 75,9711; 10.2011; 11.18n; 14.30-35; 15.811, 25-31,34,46, 5211; 16.40; 17.106, 114; 19.15.35-38 relators 19.31,35-38 sequence 4.15,24,36; 8.72: 13.23.77: 15 45,60,19 35,36-38,40-41,46, 55, 19 57 s~multaneous13 2311.14 27n, 15 26, 28,19 35,36,40n subject 10 25.26 subord~nator-tttme (conjunct~on) vs tense 4 2

-

-

-

.

time (temporal) [cont] see nlso: duration. frequency, future, noun. pusl, position, prelix, present, relationship,span, time adverbial, limeorienlation, ~vlten time adverb(ia1) 2.45; 4.13, 22,23,47, 5211, 57; 7.9, 10,67, 70; 8.2,4, 15 adjunct 8.37,42n,51-77, ll7n, 121, 125n, 143,149,150,151,153; 9.66; 10.10, 18, 33,60,61n, 66; 11.24; 12.62; 14.14; 15.6811; 16.24; 17.7, 18-20,24,55, 122; 18.26n,27; 11.21 conjunct 8.136,137,142 coordiniition of 8.74 hierarchy 8.149 position of 8.73,87 pro-form use 12.10 realization 8.52-54 subject-[object-related 8.76 subjunct 8.67n,69,97-98, 143 syntax of 8.77 tense and 8.75 see aho: duration, frequency,position, relationship,span time-orientation 4.14, 18-20,23,24,36, 40,4311; 8.4,55 primary 4.14,19,24,40 secondary 4.14, 19,24,36,40 tertiary 4.24 times (noun) 8.52 (predeterminer)5.15,IB; 15.71n (preposition) 9.8 ( N (a)) 8.64,66; (how niarry -) 8.64, 66 timeless-tpresent, ~vill Timestyle 5.42n tinge (verb) 3.9 -lion I.39n tip (verb) 16.50 tired oJ'16.69 titles (book, etc)8.85n; 10.34n; 12.52; 13.60; 17.90; III.29n (personal) 5.42n, 66; 10.53; 17.82n; 111.28 apposition and 5.64n. 66; 17.88, 90-91, 105; 111.29 seealso: numeral, rcspect, your tmesls 18 5911, I 7611 to (conjunct~on)+order (~nfin~tlve marker) 2 34,3 53.9 3211, l1 46,12 64,6511.15 66n, 16 28n,66 (prepostt~on)2 23,3 7 6 , s 59.9 7, 10, 15-17,26,32,37,45,46,51,63, 10 7,16 28n,39,57-63,69, l8 38

-

'

to [cont] (prepositional adverb) 9,6611 -clause-+infinitive focuson infinitive 18.14 ( - andfro) 9.66n see also: ought toasts 11.54 today 6.43; 7.70; 8.55;9.40; 10.15n together 9.66; 16.2; (- with) 9.10 token, by the same 8.137 told 3.15; (Z'm -) 15.54 tomorrow6.43; 7.70; 8.55,75; 9.40 tone* falling, fall-plus-rise, fall-rise, intonation, level, nucleus, rise-fall, rise-plus-fall, rising tone of voice 11.17 toneunit8.36,91, 116, 135;9.9; 11.9, 25; 14.37; 15.53; 17.6, 120; 18.1-19,41;11.11, 16-19; 111.18 boundary 8.38; 10.52,66n; 13.1, 16n, 92.97; 14.41; 17.22,68,72; 11.20; 111.9 grammar of 11.16 length 18.711; 11.16 onset 12.46; 18.10, 19; 11.11 tail 9.9; 10.52; 15.5411; 16.16; 18.5911; 11.15 loflgs5.76 tonight 7.10,70; 8.55 loo (conjunct) 8.137, 13811; 12.251 (intensifier) 6.53,57,59; 7.22,56,57n, 85; 10.62n; 15.63, 73,74; 16.75n; 17.122 (subjunct) 3.26; 8.1 16, 119, 120; 10.60; 12.29 see a1,so: much took 3.16 tools-tnames (classified) tooth/teeth 5.84 top(on -)9.13n, 19,66; 16.2; (on -of) 9.11,19; 16.2;(on-ofita11)8.137; (to itaN)8.137 topiclcomment 2.47; 10.6; 18.9n tore/torn 3.16 -1ory 1.3211 total (adjective) 7.21,33,73; 8.106 (adverb) 7.56 (- ly) 8 96,105, 106 touch (down) l6 3 touching (prepos~t~on) 9 8, 57 tough 16 80.18 36n tough-movement l8 36n toward(s) 7 70,9 7,17,26,16 69 town 5 44

-

1

!

I k

1

1769

towns+names (classified) traditional-tgrnmmar truJJic (verb) 3.8 tragic 16.72; (- ally) 8.127 trans- 1.26 transcription+phonological, prosody transferred -t negation transformations 2.20 transitional actlevent-tverbs (semantic classification) transitional conjunct 8.136, 137, 142; 19.54n:, -. 11.21 -. transitive construction[verb 2.16, 32n; 3.2n,38,49.66n, 67,68, 70; 4.27; 6.25;7.16,21; 8.2211, 32.33; 9.31, 47,6511; 10.2-4, 14,21, 24; 11.26n, 46; 12.34; 15.8n,54,73; 16.2n,4,7, 17,19,20,25-63,75,80; 17.43; 18.32,43,49; 1.24, 30,40,42,49, 50,54 see also: complementation, complex, do, intransitive translation I.Sn, 6; 17.80 transpire 15.54; 16.34 transport+ names (classified) transposition 2.46 travel 3 3 ; ( - ogue) 1.76 tread 3.16 treat (verb) 15.2211; 16.48; (-- as) 16.47; (-.to) 16.57 tree diagram 2.3 tri- 1.28 triadic sequence 19.8,45n, 59,69; III.6n,8 tricky 16.80 . trillion 6.6311 trisyllabic-tadjective trod(den) 3.16 troops 5177 tropics 5.77 trouble (verb) 16.26 trousers 5.76 true 7.33, 34,43, 73; 8.145n; 15.54; 16.72; 19.56 truly (disjunct) 8.124, 12511, 130n (subjunct) 7.34.5611 (vours -) 8.9111 truncated+abbrev~ated, reduction trunks 5 76 truthvalue3 6 5 , s 6.8, 112, 123, 127, 10 66.15 6n, 18 1 truth-focus~ngparaphrase 8 3 6 truthfully 8 124, 12711, 130n truths 5 83

1770 lndex

try 8.30; 14.23; 16.38,39,40; (-and . . .)8.30; 13.98; I.l8n turho- 1.66 turn (vcrb)5.42n;9.31 ; 10.27; 16.19.21, 23, 24, 44; (- doan) 16.4; ( - into) 16.2211; (- 08) 16.4,26n; ( - on) 16.4,bn; (- 0110 16.21, 22, 34. 3811; ( - r ~ ~/i~r) i t 16.29;( - 1111110) 3.40; ( rtvl) 4.27; ( ro1111l1) 'J,3 l ; ( - to) 9.6611; ( - traitor) l6.17n, 22; (- turtle) 16.1711; (- up) 16.3, 4, 12 turn, in 5.51 rut-rut 11.55 TV5.33; 1.75 'rwet,n 9.7n tweezers 5.76 twice (adjunct) 8.64 (predeterminer) 5.15,18; 15.7111 (-a) 8.64 'twixt 9.7n two 5.16; 6.50n -ty 6.64 typeof5.6; 10.43 typical+partition typography +graphology

-

-

-uble 1.40 UFO 1.75 ug11 1 l .55 uh-(h)uh 11.55 ulti&tum 5.95 ultra- 1.24 -um nouns 5.95 umpteen 5.2511 un- (negative) 7.81;9.50n; 1.13, 15,21,

-

(privative) 1.22,40n unable 16.79; (be to) 3.47; 4.68 unacceptability-+acceptability unarguably 8.127 unattached clause/participle 8.152;

.

unawareof16.73 unbelieoably (amplifier) 7.56 unbend 3.13 ' unbind 3.18 unbroken 7.1511 uncertain (of) 16.73 unclear (about) 16.73

lndex 1771

-.

uncountable noncount unrlecided(ab~~ut) 16.73 unrl~~niahlv 8.127; 19.53n unil(,r (:l(lvcrh)7.46: 8.41 (particle) 16.2 (preposition) 7.70; 9.7, 19.23-24,32 (prepositional adverb) 9.66 11!1,1vr-L24. 20 1111~1~~rl~i~l .\. l7 ~ r n ~ k r ~ ~ . s(verb) r i t ~ ~8.10811 ~~te ~rrulerJi~ot 8.41 undergo 3.19 ralderground 8.41 underlining 5.1 In; 111.25 underlying structure-*clause ror~l~~rncrrrh (adverb) 7.70; 8.41 (preposition) 9.7, IY,23-24 (prepositional adverb) 9.66 underrate 8.10811 understand3.18; 4.8, 29, 5211; 15.54; 16.26,31,50; (-ably) 8.127, 129, 133n understood +presupposition undertake3.16; 16.38 underwrite 3.16 undies 1.74n undo 3.16 undoubtedly 8.127, 12811, 131; 19.53n uneasy with 16.69 uneducated -t educated UNESCO 1.75 unexpected 7.15n unexpectedly 8.127, 131; (most -) 13111 unexoectedness 10.66 unfreeze 3.16 unget-at-able I. l8n,40n ungrammaticality+acceptability unhappily 8.127 ' uni- 1.28 unintenrionally 8.93 uniqrre 7.411; 10.51n; ( - ly) 7.4n unique denotation 5.29,32,34, 36, 56,60,61, 64,70; 10.53; 17.5 role 5.42 see also: recoverability unit-+ information, tone unitary-tconstituent. participation unite 16.19 United States Information Agency 1.5 universal* adjective, conditionalconcessive determiner, frequency, pronoun, tag

lotiuersity 5.4411 university -+names (classified) r~nj~i,~/Iy 8,127 rrrrk~lon~~~ 16.73 unless 14.12, 18-19; 15.20, 34, 35n,44; (- . . .) 14.13; (- and until) 13.83 rrrrlikr 9.7. 48: ( - 11))16.72 1111li11ketl PIIHYII~ICI~C I I I I / ~ I C8.~ l27 /(I~ unnrake 3.13 unmarked-tarticle, case, gender, marked, modality, person, plural, pronoun, tense, theme unnatural (not ly) 8.127, 12811 unpleasant 16.80 1olrl1101iJied16.79 unqtie.stionab~v8.127 unreal condition-+condition (hypothetical) unreaso~mbly8.127, 131 unreduced +sentence unrelated participle+unattached unstressed form +stress unsure (of) 16.73 until(conjunction) 8.55n, 58; 9.3; 14.12, 18-19; 15.20,25,27n (preposition) 7.70; 8.55n,58,59,62; 9.3, 7, 37-38; 11.14n; 15.27.29n postposed 8.59n purposive 15.27n resultative 15.20,27n temporal 15.27n vs. till 8.58 unto 9.7n untrue 16.72 unusually 8.131 unwefl 7.38 unwilling(be to) 3.47; (- ly) 8.93; (- ness) 17.36 unwind3.18 unwise 16.76; (- Iy)8.127, 131 unwritten 7.15n up (adverb) 8.41 (particle) 16.2, 12 (preposition) 7.70; 9.7,26,27,32,37; 19.32n (prepositional adverb) 9.66; 13.101 (verb) 13.9811 (-and. . .) 13.9811; (- to) 8.59,62; 9.10,37; (- with) 11.42 see also :time uphill 8.41

-

-

l

i I

l

upon (particle) 16.2

u p o ~[cont] ~ (preposition)9.7, 1311;16.69 ri11p~r7.85n;17.97; ( - nro.vt) 7.R2n upper-c;isc ,c:~pit;~l upset (adjective) 16.71 (verb) 3.17; 16.26 1ipa1rrir.s7.10. 6711. 70: 8.41 !I/>.\I~,YIIII K4 l I I / I I I ~ I I7,4011: ~ ~ ( , \ )8.41 ;( - tu ) 9 , 1 o -we (adjective base ending) 7.81 urge (verb) 16.32.63 us 6.2-11, 14, 1811; 11.26n; 11.9 -us nouns 5.93 usage criticized 1.17; 3.57; 5.1 In, 24,2511, 95n,YXn; 6.5,43n;8.21; 9.4,6, 5711; 11.1411; 12.17,23n, 36; 13.39-40, 88,96; 14.13n,23n; 15.12,46n,50n, 59; 16.41n,42,69n,74; 17.14-17,22, 61 -64,11811: 18,1411,2611, 27n,49n; 19.34n,50,51,60n,64n; 1.42,76 divided 1.7, 11, 17,39; 5.2211, 125; 6.5,63n; 8.106; 12.25-26; 15.71n; 111.4, 8 variation in 1.19-42; 2.49; 3.42n, 43n, 4811; 4.23n, 47,5811,6311; 5.35, 37,40,59,70,75,76,83, 87, 11 1 ; 6.12n,56; 7.14n,31,64; 8.111; 9.4011; 10.1In, 1411; 11.7, 1511.30; 12.62n; 13.72-74,8749; 14.36; 15.20, 23.25; 16.19n;I.33n,41n, 51n; II.5n,6 seeolso: adjective,adverbial, American, British, concord, feminine. formal. informal,legal, male, negation, nonstandard, numeral, only, politeness, pronoun, religious, scientific, standard use (verb)9.46; 16.26; (-as) 16.47; (make of) 16.58; (-up) 16.12 use(d) to (marginal modal) 3.30,40,41, 44;4.15,57,66; 8.21; 11.8n; 12.64; ( - be)4.13n;(had-)3.44n used to (adjectival) 16.69n, 83 useless 16.83 vs. use 2.59 usual occurrence 8.65,67 usually8.65,67-71,77, 12511 utter (adjective) 7.33, 34.68; 8.106

-

(- ly) 7.34, 87; 8.105, 106 utterance-+echo, formulaic, sentence

lndex 1773

1772 Index

valency 16.18n see alro: complement~tion valuables 5.77 volue (verb) 8.107 value-tcommunicative. information value-judgment disjunct 8.123, 127 variable* noun variance(at -) 9.66; (at with) 9.1 1 variation attitudes to 1.41 free 1.39; 5.52 see also: usage varietiesof English 1.7,9-11, 12, 17, 19-41; 3.511; 19.85-90 continuum of 1.35,39 relationships among 1.36-38 variation within 1.39-41 seealso: attitude, discourse (fieldof). interference,medium, regional, social, standard 've 3.23,34 veal (vs. calf) 5.4

-

venture (verb) 16.38 verb 2.13,24,35; 3 passim; 4passim; 7.38-39,56n,73;8.64,96;9.8,31; IOpassim; 13.78,97; 14.5, 10, 24-25; 15.54.65; 17.51; 18.3.10, 13.27, 32.43; 1.60-63; 11.5-6; III.9,21 affixation in 1.21-27,30-35,37,38,

centrality of 2.13 classes2.16,41; 3.1,12-20; 10.1-3 constraints (on passive) 3.68 contraction-tauxiliary (contracted) copulative->copular ellipsis2.15n; 3.23.26; 11.37; 12.4, 43.59-60,92-93; 14.10; 15.66; 18.41; 11.8 equative+copular fu112.29; 3.1,2-20 intensive+copular intermediate function 3.40-51 irregular 3.2,3, 5,611, 11-20 irregular (alphabetical index) 3.20 lexical+verb (full)

verb [cont] linking-tcopulnr main 2.16, 28-29; 3.1 middle 3.68; 10.14; 16.27 morphology 3.2-6, 11 -20 multi-word 2.36,61; 3.45-46; 10.12; 16.2-17,20,51n; 18.49 nonprogressive+verb (stative mcaning) nonreflexive 6.25 obligatoriness of 2.13 -particle combination* verb (multiword) positionof 2.13, 14 prinx~ry2.29, 34,41; 3.1, 2,4n, 5n, 13, 21,30,31-38,47 reflexive 6.25, 2711; 16.2411,57 regular3.2-10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18,19,32n relational 10.14,2411 repeated 13.101 semi-reflexive 6.25 sensesof 2.13n,41 -verb combination 16.17 see also: active, adjective,auxiliary,base form, catenative, complement, complementation, complex transitive, concord,conversion, coordinate, copula, copular, de-adjectival,denominal, ditransitive, existential,finite, homonymy, imperative,instr,Umental, intransitive, inversion, modal, monotransitive,negation, nOnfinite, number, passive, performative, person, phrasal verb, plural, preposition, prepositional verb, principal parts, pro-forms, reporting, -S,singular, situation-types,stress, subjunctive, sufix, tense, transitive, voice verbs (semantic classification) accomplishment 4.27, 33-34, 39; activity 4.27,33-34; 10.2411; 12.22; 19.40-41; agentive 3.38,49; 4.27, 30,33-34,35,43; 10.23; 11.15n; 12.25-26; 16.23,54; arranging 8.49,75n, 76; aspectua14.66; 16.39, 40; assumption8.63n; 12.28; attitudinal3.68; 4.29; 8.63n, 101, 104-105,107; 12.25; becoming 16.23; beginning 16.40; being 3.68; 4.31; belief 8.6311; 12.28; 16.50; bodily sensation 4.29; causative 3.6611; 9.1611; 10.22,23; 11.42; 16.48,51,54; coercive 16.52,53; cognition 8.101; 10.23; 14.31;

verbs (semantic classification) [cont] co~nmunication4.8; 19.51; comparison 7.8511; completion 3.7711; compulsion 16.51 ; conclusive 3.66; 4.22,25, 27,33,35, 39; 17.10l; continuing l6.40;current 3.78; 16.44; declarative 16.44; direction 15.22; 16.23n;durative4.27, 33-34,38; 8.58; 9.37-38,3911; 14.26-27; 15.25,27; 16.23; emotive 4.29; 10.23; 16.30,33, 39,40; enablement 16.51 ;encounter 16.53; ending 16.40; event l l.15n; existential 15.62; expecting 8.49, 7511.76; f:lctual 16.30-31,44,50; frequentative 1.7611; general evaluation 8.1 10; goings-on 4.27, 33-34; gradable7.85n; 8.21, 101, 107n, 108,111 ; 11.15n; I.23n; having3.68; 4.31; hearing 16.52; hypothesis 16.30.33; inception 18.49; influencing 16.51 ; intellectual state 4.29; 16.31,44; liking 16.41; locative 16.24; making

verbs4.27,2829,31;8.3; (semantic classification) [cant] 16.2n; 19.41; suasivc 14.2511; 16.30, 31.32; thinking 12.65; 14.29-30; 16.31; transitional actlevent 4.27.33.35, 44n, 45; volitional 3.68; 4.16.29; 12.2411; 16.32,44,54; wanting 8.49, 75n,76; 15.10; 16.41 recolso: dynamic verhmcaning. stative verb meaning verb phrase 2.24,25,26,27-28; 3.1-2, 21,63, 64; 10.5,12; 12.5911; 18.13; 11.16 conditionnl clause 15.36 constituent order in 3.21. 27-28 finite vs. nonfinite 3.21-22.52-53: 4.1811, 19,67-68; 8.122n meanings of 4passim simplevs. complex 3.21,33, 54-56; 4.17; 10.55; 13.47 structure 3.27,40,45,52-57; 4.66; 7.16; 8.16,126n subjunct 8.96 see olso: coordinate, passive, subordinate

9.61; measure 10.13; mental state 4.16,52n; momentary actlevent 4.27,33,35,67; 8.58,66,69; 9.37; motion 3.77n; 7.10; 8.3,29,42,50, 76;9.16n,22-30; IO.IOn; 11.42; 16,2n, 23n, 48; 49; negative meaning 10.59; nonagentive 4.27, 30,33-35; nonconclusive 4.27, 33-34; nongradable 8.101, 108, 115; observational 16.4211; occurrence 16.3811; opinion 14.36; owning 8.49; perception 4.29,30, 52n, 67; 7.9; 10.23; 14.36; 16.52, 53,54; permission 16.51 ; placing 8.49,76; posture 3.7711; 8.28; private 4.29; 16.31-32, 50; process 4.27,31n, 33-34,39; 12.25; 16.23; public 16.31-33.50; punctual 4.27, 33,35,38; 10.2411; 14.27; 17.53; quality 4.27,28; remaining 16.23;

clause verbal noun -t noun verbatim-trecoverability verbless

result(ative/ing) 3.78; 4.22; 10.16; 16.44,51,54; retrospective 16.40; saying8.49,75n, 76; 12.28,65;

vermin 5.78 versus 9.7 vertebra 5.94

II.2ln; seeing 16.52; seeming19.51 16.23, 24n, 3811; shared knowledge ;

very (adjective) (adverb) 3.74;7.35 6.30,53,62n; 7.2-4,

speaking4.7,25n; 8.63n, 122, 124, 128, 143; 9.46n; 14.29-30; 15.13, 21,54; 15.59; 16.31; 19.4711; speech act 4.7; 16.31,44,50; stance 4.27, 32; 10.24; 18.231~49-50;state

clau~e2.13n;7.27; 8.13,53,91, 122% 132; 9.55; 10.6,16,58n; 11.43-44; 12.43-44,67; 13.25,30n; 14.5, 9, 15, 18; 15.16,25,30,31n, 34. 39,40, 41,50,58-62,71; 16.22n.65; 17.63, 83-84; 18.23n.44n; III.17,18 exclamation 11.10,40n introductions 11.53 preposed 10.16n question 8.13011; 11.41,44 withlwithout subject 10.6; 14.9,25; 15.34,58-62 see olso: complement,compound, existential,subordinator

11,15n,16-18,50,56n,57n,60,89, 8.48n, 77,91,96, 103, 106, 131, 90; 13311; 9.4,50n, 63; 10.ln. 62n; 17.58.97-98 see also: much

lndex

1774 lndex veto (verb) 3.9 via 9.7 Vicar 10.52 r1h?.- l. 1 7, 29 vic3.10 vielv(verb) 15.19;(in-of)9.11, 57; 15.4611 viewpoint suhjunct 7.59.60.65; 8 . 2 5 1 ~ 89, 127; 15.19,2111 ciukntly 8.105, 109 VIP 1.75 virgule 111.30 virtual +ellipsis virtrmlly8.11l, 114, 126 virtue (by of) 9.1 1; 15.46n virt~toso5.100 vis-a-vis9.7 ttisit 10.2711; 16.26; (- inlivith) 10.2711 uital16.72,82 viz8.137; 17.27; 1.7511; 111.11 vocabulary 1.20, 23-27,28, 31 ; 2.7, 13n, 35-38; 3.1n,4; 5.120; 6.1211, 15; 8.10n;9.65; 10.51; 18.4; 19.21,68; I.1,7, 12, 1311; 11.8; 111.4 seealso: American English, British English, formal,informal, lexical, nonstandard vocative 5.1211; 10.441~52-53;11.25, 41,53; 14.35; 17.12n,91n; 18.5-6, 17,5911; 111.11, 19, 23n,29 vs. subject 11.25 see also: man, nominal clause, noun phrase,

-

YOU

voice 2.21; 3.21,31,56, 63-78; 15.75; 16.6711; 18.32; I.40.69n marked 19.79 see also: active, passive Voice of America 1.S voicing3.5,6, 11, 13, 15; 5.74, 80,83, 114; 1.27.56 uoidof 9.10 volition3.31,46;4.42,46,49, 51, 53n, 57,58,60,62,63,65, 66; 10.21; 11.13; 14.22,23; 16.79 subjunct8.93-95; 10.21,24n see also: verbs (semanticclassification) volume (prosodic)+loudness volume dimension 5.8; 9.15, 17,25 voluntarily 8.93 vortex 5.96 .vote (verb) 16.32,46,50 uow(verb) 16.31, 38 vowels 3.5, 6, 7.8-20,32, 39,44; 5.11, 80;7.79,81;1.17, 19, 31, 33,36,37,

vowels [contl 56,64,66, 72; 111.4n,26n sec also: gr;~dation tsv '1.7 vulg4r--t fractions

bvages 5.77 wait (verb) 16.19, 3811; (-around) 16.12; (-for) 16.41 wake(n) 3.16 see olsi~:owake walk 9,1611,6611; 10.27; 16.19 ulannct 3.5 1 ; 12.49n, 64n want4.29; 7.83; 8.107; 10.10n, 5111; 15.8, 9, Ion; 16.26, 38, 39,41, 44, 54; (fur/Jrom of) 9. I l ; (- to) 3.51; 12.4911 wanting (preposition) 9.8 wanting+ verbs (semantic classification) -ward(s)7.46; 8.41 ;1.41 warn 16.31,56, 59,62; (-of) 16.56,57 warnings 11.53, 54; 15.38 was 3.32.62; 4 . 1 3 1 ~1611,6111; 18.4911; 11.9; ( - n't) 3.32; to) 3.46; 15.36 wash (verb) 16.26; (- oneser) 6.25 WASP 1.75 watch (verb) 16.26,52,53, 54 wax(verb) 16.21 way 8.39, 79; 17.18-20; (alo~tg-) 10,6111;(by of)9.11; (bythe -) 8.137, 142, 143; (every which -) 8.39; (in any/no -) 10.60,62; (in the same -) 8.137; (in what -) 8.2511, 78; ((in)that -18.78; (- of)9.lln; (no -) 10.62; (that -) 12.27; (which -) 8.3, 10 waylay 3. Ion -ways 7.46; 1.41 we6.2-11, 14,18,21; 11.2611; 14.22,27 authorial6.11, 18; 15.18n collective 6.7 editorial 6. I8 ellipsis 12.48 exclusive4.58;6.7; 11.13; 19.51 generic 6.18; 8.143; 10.50 inclusive4.58; 6.7, 18, 21; 11.13; 19.51,64 rhetorical 6.18.21 royal 6.181~23

-

(2

-

weak 7.88 weak -tapposition, ellipsis, reduced rorm >I'I'IIIIOII (vn. IJ~)ISS) 5.4 wear 3.16; 10.24 weather 5.9n ~veaue(d)3.16 ll~ll(il~i1) /)3 l 7 a'c~kly7.9; 8.64 itjeep 3.15 weight (dimension) 5.8 weight (semantic)+end-weight, semantic (criteria) welcome (adjective) 16.79 well (adjective) 7.9n. 38, 77 (conjunct) 8.23, 135 (initiator)7.54; 11.41; 13.102n; 19.541~65 (intensifier) 3.7611; 7.1 1, 16n, 61 ;8.96, 103,105, 10911 (simple adverb) 7.46 claim editing use 17.80 comparison of 7.77,83 (-and truly) 13.9911; (as -) 3.45n; 8.116, 119; 10.60;(as as)9.58; 10.40; 13.103; 14.1911; 19.60n; (how -) 8.25; (less -) 7.77; (may/ might (just) as -) 4.53n; (oh -) 7.54; (- then) 7.54; (very -)7.11 see also: known well- 7.17,83 went 3.12, 19 wept 3.15 were3.32;4.13n, 16n, 6111; 10.44; 14.20; 18.49n; (asit -)3.62n; 15.2111; ( - n't) 3.32; (- to) 3.46; 15.36 see also: subjunctive werl 3.4n wesl(ward(s)) 7.46n; 8.41; 9.66 wet(ted) 3.17 whadjective 2.45 adverb2.45;7.11n, 53,69; 10.10, 13; 16.15 clause6.36-39; 9.1-3; 14.33; 15.5,6, 51; 16.20,31n,35,61,68, 73; 17.93; 18.28-30 clause ellipsis 12.63-65 determiner 2.45; 5.14; 6.35n echo question 11.34-36 element 2.50.55; 6.32-39; 7.30; 8.15; 10.6,7n, 17,34; 11.1.14-19,23, 31-32; 14.10,20; 15.2,4n, 5-9,42, 65; 18.10,20n, 27-30

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1776

wh- [cont] fronting 10.711; 11.19, 34; 15.42; 18.28 .30 I ~ I I I I I ~ ~ ~ I C C I E I I I11.19; ~ I ~ I S 15.5n pro-forms and 2.45 pronoun 2.37,45; 5.104-1 I 1;6.2, 12, 13.32-35.36-39.45; 7.69; 9.6; 14.20; 10.711:16.15: 17.9. 11-25 pushtlown clclllcnt I I . 18. 3 1 ; I X.20n question 2.48,50, 57; 3.2411;5.28; 6.36-39;7.11n,66;8.3,4,25,48, 59n, 60,63,64,66, 78, 79, 80, 86, 100, 110,113, 115, 11811; 9.6,36,44, 45,48,49; 10.6.711, 10-13, 17,61; 11.1,4, 14-19.20,23,31, 33-36, 40,44,53; 12.50n,63; 14.33; 15.5, 20,42,64,66; 16.14,15,16, 2611, 66; 18.10.59n; 11.12, 13; 111.23 word 2.37,45,50,54n, 55,57; 5.28; 6.32-39; 7.53,64; 8.1 18n;9.43,58; 10.17; 11.14-19,31-32,34-36; 12.63; 13.14; 14.20; 15.5-9,42; 16.16; 17.57,65; 18.28-30 see also: coordinate, infinitive, interrogative,nominal clause, pro-forms wharJs/wharves 5.83 what (conjunction) I0.46n; 14.20; 15.9, 15 (exclamatory) 2.57; 10.17; l 1.1, 31-32; 15.7.74; 16.35n; 18.57 (initiator) l 1.15n (interrogative determiner) 5.14.28; 6.36-39.62; 10.34; 15.7-9; 16.1511 (interrogative pronoun) 3.38; 6.12, 36-37.39; 7.64; 8.25, 80, 115; 10.6, 7n, 12, 13,34n; 11.14-19,34-36; 14.29; 15.7-8; 16.15,26n, 66; 18.5911; 19.47n (noun) 11.34 (predeterminer) 5.15, 1711; 7.63; 15.7 (relative pronoun) 6.3511.42; 15.8-9, 56.57; 17.12 (ad hoc verb) 11.34 cataphoric reference of 19.4711 . in pseudo-cleft sentence 18.30 (-about) 11.40; (-about it) 11.40n; ( - cha) 12.5011; (- . . for)8.86; 9.45; (- if) 11.40,41; (- . .like) 11.15n;(-ofit?) ll.40n;(-S) 11.34;(so- ?) 11.40n;(- though) 11.40; (- with. .) 15.4611; (. with) 8.80 whatever (interrogative determiner) 6.3511; 10.34; 15.8 (conjunction) 14.20; 15.9

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..

.

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lndex 1777

1776 lndex

whatever [cont] (postmodifier) 6.62n; 10.62 (relative pronoun) 6.35n; 17.12 whotsoever6.62n; 10.62; 14.20 when (conjunction)4.24,45; 7.53; 8.49,53; 9.3; 10.65; 14.12, 18-20,27; 15.20, 23,25,27,30, 34,39-40; 18.33n (interroeative) . . 4.13;. 7.53; 8.4.9.25, 55,59n,60; 10.10; 11.14-19; 16.15; 18.59n (relative) 7.53; 15.2911; 17.17- 18, 20, 24; 19.36 concessive 15.20,39-40 contingent 15.30,34 in pseudo-cleft sentence 18.30 tempora17.53; 8.53; 10.65; 15.25,27, 34; 18.33n 'time'- 8.4, 55; 9.40 (nosooner.. . -) 14.13; (by -) 15.57; (even -) 15.40; (from -) 15.57; (since -) 8.4,60; 9.ln; 15.57; (- . . . then) 14.13n; (till -) 8.4, 59n; (ur~til-) 8.5911; 15.57 see also: as, euen, i/ wllence8.3n; 14.12n; l5.31n,57 wheneuer8.53,64; 11.1411; 14.12, 18-20, 27n; 15.25,27,30, 34.42, where (conjunction) 7.53; 8.40; 14.12, 18, 20; 15.30-31.34 (interrogative) 7.1 In, 53.64; 8.3,9, 25; 10.10, 11; 11.14-19; 16.15.61; (relative) 7.53; 15.8; 17.17-20,24;

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contingent 15.30,31,34 contrastive 15.31 in pseudo-cleft sentence 18.30 place 7.53; 15.31,42 (- . . .for) 9.43.; (-from) 8.3; (- . . .there) 14.1311; (- to) 8.3 -where7.21,69; 8.48; 17.57 whereofier 15.57n whereas 14.12; 15.31, 32, 39-40,43 whereat 14.1211; 15.5711 wherefore 14.1211; 15.5711 wheresoever 14.20 whereto 7.46; 14.12 whereupon 7.46; 14.12; 15.57; 19.3711 wherever8.40; 14.13,18,20; 15.30-31, 34,42 wherewith 15.57 whether 11.18n; 12.63; 13.28n; 14.1211; 15.6; 16.31n, 37n,61 (-. . .or) 14.17-19; 15.6,41-42

which (interrogative determiner) 5.14, 28; 6.3511.36-39; 8.39; 16.1511 (interrogative pronoun) 5.104, 107--110;6.36-39; 11.14-19 (relative determiner) 5.14; 6.35n (relalivc pronoun) 5.104, 107-1 10; 6.8.32-34,36,39,42; 10.36n,49, 50; 14.20; 15.8-9,55.57; 17.11-25; 18.28; 19.47n as pro-form 7.53n (or -)7.53; ( A J -~) 17.18; ((in) woy)8.1O;(of-)6.34; 17.14 whichever (determiner) S . 14: 6.3511 (pronoun) 6.3511; 14.20; 17.12 while (conjunction)4.13; 8.61, 145; 14.12, 18-19; 15.20,23,25,26,32, 39-40,43,46 (preposition) 9.7n concessive 8.145; 15.20,32,39-40 contrastive 15.32,43 reason 15.46 temporal 8.61, 145; 15.20,25,26,46 (- . . .) 14:13;(a -)8.77 wltilst 14.12, 18- 19,25,26,39-40 concessive 8.145; 15.39-40 contrastive 15.43 temporal 15.25,26 whimper (verb) 16.3111 whisper (verb) 16.3111 whisper 11.2 whither8.3n; 14.12n; 15.3111 who (interrogative pronoun) 5.104-109; 6.2, 12,36-38; 7.64; 8.25,80; 10.6n,7n, 3411; 11.14-19,34; 15.5n; 16.15; 18.59n (relative pronoun) 5.104-109; 6.2.8, 32-35; 10.36n,49,50; 14.20; 15.8-9; 17.11;23; 18.28 as pro-form 7.53n in cleft sentence 18.28-30 ( - . . .for) 9.45 see also: wltom whodunit 17.112 whoever 6.3511; 11.1411; 14.20; 15.5n, 8n, 42; 17.12 whole 5.7, 17; 6.50; 7.35n; 9.42 whole-part relation 17.106 wholly 7.47; 1.41 whom (interrogativepronoun)6.2, 36-38; 8.25,80; 11.14-19; 15.511; 16.15 (relative pronoun) 6.2,8,32-35; 10.36n,49; 14.20; 15.8-9; 17.11-23; 18.28

whom [cont] as pro-form 7.53n vs. who 1.17;6.5n,35; 17.14 (of-)6.34n; (to -)6.35; 10.711 whomever 14.20; 15.5n,8n whont.socver 14.20 whose (interrogative determiner) 5.14; 6.36 (interrogative pronoun) 6.2,36-38; 11.14-19 (relative determiner) 5.14 (relative pronoun) 6.2,33-34, 38; 10.49;~14.20;17.11-23; 18.28-30 whosoever 14.20 why (conjunct) l l . 15n (conjunction) 7.53; 14.20; 15.5,46n (initiator)7.54; 11.15n,41 (interrogative) 7.53,64; 8.9,25,86; 9.43,44,45; 10.10; 11.14-19,40; 12.63; 16.15; 18.59n (relative)7.53; 15.8; 17.18 in pseudo-cleft sentence 18.30 (-don't Ilwe) 11.17; (- don'tyou)

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11.17,2511,30n;(-doyou)ll.l6; (-ever) 11.14n; (- ncha) 3.3611; (-not) 11.15n, 17; 12.63; (-then) 8.135 wicked7.19,8ln wide (adjective) 7.8,66,82,88 (adverb) 7.8.5611 ( - ly) 7.8 wide +pitch wide orientation subjunct 8.88,89-91 widow(er) 5.105 wifelwives 5.83 wilfully 8.93 will(auxiliary) 3.4n, 21,39,40,47; 4.3, 8n,37,42,43n,45n, 46,47,49,50, 51,57,58,60,61,63,64,65; 6.61; 10.67,68; 11.10,28n; 12.47; 13.25; 14.22,26-27; 15.55n.6811; 18.56; 11.9 (noun) 17.36 timeless 4.57 (-do) 8.100; 19.48; (- have) 14.26; (ifyou -) 8.126; (.- not) 3.39 see also: do, won't, would willing 12.65; 16.71,79; (be to) 3.40, 47,66; 7.39; 16.79; (- ly) 8.93; (- ness) 4.57,61; 8.94; 17.36 wilt 3.4n win (verb) 3.18; 16.19,26; (- over) 16.26n wind(verb)3.18; (- up) 16.21,22

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I.,

wipe Ncleon 16.45 wise 16.76; ( - ly)8.127-129, 13311 -wise7.46: 8.89; 1.1611, l7,4/ wish (verb) 3.62; 4.29,64n; 10.5111; 12.65; 14.3611; 15.8,9,54; 16.33, 38, 41,44,46,48, 56,57 ( - p r ) 16.15,28; ( I (that)) 14.2311 wit (to -1 17.73 wit11(conjunction) 8.86, 132; 9.55; 14.9, 15.17; 15.34,41.46,60n; 18.54 (particle) 16.2 (preposition) 2.23; 3.75,76; 8.40,80; 9.4,7, 10,20,29,43,48,49-50.51, 52-53,55,61; 11.42; 13.103; 16.15, 60,69; 17.37 (along -) 9.4 withdraw 3.16 withhold3.18 within (adverb) 7.70; 8.41 (preposition) 9.7, 15n, 55n (prepositional adverb) 9.66 without (adverb) 7.70 (conjunction) 8.132; 9.55; 14.12n,15, 17; 15.34,41, 6011; 18.54 (preposition) 9.7,49,52,53,55; 13.8111; 16.6 (prepositional adverb) 9.66 withstand 3.18 wits 5.77 woke(n) 3.16 wolfiivolvrs5.83 woman 5.54n. 60n.102; 19.65 womonlwomen 5.84 woman- 5.102; L33n wolmort 5. 105 . won 3.18 wonder (verb) 4.29; 16.33.35; (I-) 15.5411 won't3.23,39; 11.811, 10; 12.47; 14.22 see also: will wont 16.79 woodcock5.87 wooden 7.43 word, a 10.62 words, in other (appositional/contrastive/ inferential conjunct) 8.137, 139, 141,144; 17.75-81,86 word 1.13;2.3,7,35,48n; 12.31; 18.15; 19.26; 111.1, 3 , 5 complex vs. phrase 1.18 complex vs. simple 8.10n; I.3,4, 14 grammatical 2.35,39; 1.1211 grammatical form of2.38n integrity of I.12n length 13.86

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