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Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual

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BUILDING SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND RETROFIT MANUAL

SHEET METAL AND AIR CONDITIONING CONTRACTORS' NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, INC.

SMACNA Technical Manual Registration Card for Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual 1st Edition

Complete and return the card below to SMACNA to receive updated information for this technical manual.

BUILDING SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND RETROFIT MANUAL

FIRST EDITION - OCTOBER 1995

SHEET METAL AND AIR CONDITIONING CONTRACTORS' NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, INC. 4201 Lafayette Center Drive Chantilly, VA 22021

BUILDING SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND RETROFIT MANUAL ©SMACNA 1995 All Rights Reserved

by

SHEET METAL AND AIR CONDITIONING CONTRACTORS' NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, INC. 4201 Lafayette Center Drive Chantilly, VA 22021 Printed in the U.S.A. FIRST EDITION - OCTOBER 1995

Except as allowed in the Notices to Users, no part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrievable system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

FOREWORD As the industry changed over the last 10 years, and the changes coming on the horizon, the SMACNA contractor needs to be equipped to meet the challenge. New construction is only one part of the opportunities that are out there for the contractor. Opportunities in other parts of the industry are available and the Building Services Committee wanted to bring a general treatment of a variety of services which may be provided by the SMACNA contractor. These services are generally those provided by the contractor in the building aftermarket area. Material in the old Retrofit manual, along with opportunities in the service; duct cleaning; refrigerant reclamation; testing, adjusting, and balancing; indoor air quality and commissioning are a few of the areas that provide opportunities for the contractor. The Committee wanted to provide a manual which would serve to point out these opportunities to the Contractor.

INTRODUCTION The purpose of this manual is to introduce the SMACNA contractor to a variety of HVAC aftermarket business opportunities which will allow them to expand their business into other areas. While not all topics included in this manual are strictly within the commonly understood definition of the HVAC aftermarket, all are conceptually applicable to the existing building community. The intent of this manual is to provide the SMACNA contractor an overview of a variety of business opportunities, allowing the contractor to select those which might provide the greatest return on investment consistent with market forces in the local area. The topics to be presented are as follows: * Marketing Aftermarket Services * Energy Management Retrofit * HVAC Systems Testing, Adjusting and Balancing * Indoor Air Quality * HVAC System Commissioning/Recommissioning * Duct Cleaning * Duct System Analysis * System Operation and Maintenance * CFC/HCFC Retrofit It is not the intent of this manual to present these topics in depth. It is intended that the manual present a general description of each topic with guidelines explaining the general knowledge or expertise required to pursue the various options. Once a reader determines that they wish to pursue a topic in more depth, they are directed to other manuals or publications which are listed at the end of each chapter for a comprehensive discussion of the topic. SMACNA currently has manuals dealing in depth with the topics noted above and these topics are discussed herein. A chapter is devoted to dealing with the marketing approaches to HVAC aftermarket services, with each individual chapter in turn will address marketing/sales concepts pertinent to the specific chapter topic. SHEET METAL AND AIR CONDITIONING CONTRACTORS' NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, INC.

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

iii

BUILDING SERVICES COMMITTEE Jack Desmond, Chairman Cox Engineering Company Brighton, MA

Richard Cramer II Dee Cramer, Inc. Flint, MI

Michael J. Fritch Fritch Heating & Cooling, Inc. Peoria, IL

W. Jim Holt Dial One AssociatedAir Conditioning and Refrigeration Santa Clara, CA

Robert H. McDermott, P.E. R. H. McDermott Corp. New York, NY

Robert J. Wasilewski, Staff SMACNA, Inc. Chantilly, VA

FORMER COMMITTEE MEMBERS AND OTHER CONTRIBUTIONS Kevin Gill McCusker-Gill, Inc. Weymouth, MA

George Kukla Air Systems Balancing Rochester, NY

Gerard L. Iacouzze, Consultant GLI Associates Bowie, MD

iv

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

NOTICE TO USERS OF THIS PUBLICATION 1. ACCEPTANCE This document or publication is prepared for voluntary acceptance and use within the limitations of application defined herein, and otherwise as those adopting it or applying it deem appropriate. It is not a safety standard. Its application for a specific project is contingent on a designer or other authority defining a specific use. SMACNA has no power or authority to police or enforce compliance with the contents of this document or publication and it has no role in any representations by other parties that specific components are, in fact, in compliance with it. 2. AMENDMENTS The Association may, from time to time, issue formal interpretations or interim amendments, which can be of significance between successive editions. 3. PROPRIETARY PRODUCTS SMACNA encourages technological development in the interest of improving the industry for the public benefit. SMACNA, does not, however, endorse individual manufacturers or products.

4.

FORMAL INTERPRETATION-

A formal interpretation of the literal text herein or the intent of the technical committee associated with the document or publication is obtainable only on the basis of written petition, addressed to the committee and sent to the Association's national office in Chantilly, Virginia, and subsequent receipt of a written response signifying the approval of the chairperson of the committee. In the event that the petitioner has a substantive disagreement with the interpretation, an appeal may be filed with the Technical Resources Committee which has technical oversight responsibility. The request must pertain to a specifically identified portion of the document that does not involve published text which provides the requested information. In considering such requests, the Association will not review or judge products or components as being in compliance with the document or publication. Oral and written interpretations otherwise obtained from anyone affiliated with the Association are unofficial. This procedure does not prevent any committee chairperson, member of the committee, or staff liaison from expressing an opinion on a provision within the document, provided that such person clearly states that the opinion is personal and does not represent an official act of the association in any way, and it should not be relied on as such. The Board of Directors of SMACNA shall have final authority for interpretation of th is standard with such rules of procedures as they may adopt for processing same.

5.

APPLICATION

Any Standards contained in this publication were developed using reliable engineering principles and research plus consultation with, and information obtained from, manufacturers, users, testing laboratories, and others having specialized experience. They are subject to revision as further experience and investigation may show is necessary or desirable. Construction and products that comply with these Standards will not necessarily be acceptable if, when examined and tested, they are found to have other features which impair the result contemplated by these requirements. The Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors' National Association and other contributors assume no responsibility and accept no liability for the application of the principles or techniques contained in this publication. Authorities considering adoption of any standards contained herein should review all federal, state, local and contract regulations to specific installations. 6. REPRINT PERMISSION Nonexclusive, royalty-free permission is granted to government and private sector specifying authorities to reproduce only any construction details found herein in their specifications and contract drawings prepared for receipt of bids on new construction and renovation work within the Untied States and its territories, provided that the material copied is unaltered in substance and that the reproducer assumes all liability for the specific application, including errors in reproduction. 7. THE SMACNA LOGO The SMACNA logo is registered as a membership identification mark. The Association prescribes acceptable use of the logo and expressly forbids the use of it to represent anything other than possession of membership. Possession of membership and use of the logo in no way constitutes or reflects SMACNA approval of any product, method, or component. Furthermore, compliance of any such item with standards published or recognized by SMACNA is not indicated by presence of the logo.

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual

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First Edition

v

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD

.................... iii

CHAPTER 3

BUILDING SERVICE COMMITTEE ...... iv

HVAC SYSTEMS TESTING, ADJUSTING AND BALANCING

NOTICE TO USERS .................

v

3.1

INTRODUCTION

TABLE OF CONTENTS .............

vii

3.2

SCOPE OF TAB WORK ......... 3.1

3.3

TAB PROCEDURES ............ 3.6

3.4

TAB INSTRUMENTATION

3.5

TAB REPORTS .............

3.6

SPECIFIC EXPERTISE AND MATERIALS REQUIRED ....... 3.11

CHAPTER 1 1.1

MARKETING AFTERMARKET SERVICES

INTRODUCTION

.............. 3.1

....... 3.7

.............. 1.1 . 3.10

1.2

TIME MANAGEMENT ........... 1.3

1.3

MARKETING TECHNIQUES ......1.8

1.4

IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL CUSTOMERS ...............1.11

3.7

SPECIFIC MARKETING TECHNIQUES ............... 3.12

1.5

FINANCIAL PAYBACK ANALYSIS BASICS ..................1.16

3.8

PUMPS AND HYDRONIC SYSTEMS ..................

REFERENCES ............... 1.24

3.9

1.6

3.16

FUME HOOD/CLEAN ROOM TAB . 3.17

3.10 REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS .... 3.18

CHAPTER 2

ENERGY MANAGEMENT RETROFIT

3.11 FINANCIAL PAYBACK ANALYSIS ..................

3.18

2.1

INTRODUCTION

.............. 2.1

2.2

ENERGY MANAGEMENT OPPORTUNITIES ............. 2.4

CHAPTER 4

2.3

THE ENERGY AUDIT ........... 2.5

4.1

INTRODUCTION

2.4

PERFORMANCE IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION ........... 2.14

4.2

IAQ CONCERNS .............. 4.1

4.3

IAQ STANDARDS

2.5

BUILDING SYSTEMS .......... 2.17 4.4

2.6

SPECIFIC EXPERTISE

IAQ VERSUS ENERGY CONSERVATION .............. 4.1

4.5

OCCUPANT RESPONSE/ LIABILITY CONCERNS .......... 4.2

4.6

IAQ AUDIT ................... 4.2

4.7

IAQ CONTROL

3.12 REFERENCES ............... 3.19

AND MATERIALS REQUIRED

.............. 4.1

............. 4.1

... 2.22

2.7

SPECIFIC MARKETING TECHNIQUES ............... 2.24

2.8

FINANCIAL PAYBACK ANALYSIS .................. 2.30

2.9

INDOOR AIR QUALITY

............... 4.3

REFERENCES ............... 2.31

Building Systems and Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

vii

4.8

SPECIFIC EXPERTISE AND MATERIALS REQUIRED ........ 4.3

4.9

SPECIFIC MARKETING TECHNIQUES ................ 4.4

6.8

REFERENCES ................ 6.6

CHAPTER 7

4.10 FINANCIAL PAYBACK ANALYSIS ...................

DUCT SYSTEM ANALYSIS

7.1

INTRODUCTION ..............

7.2

SYSTEM SURVEY ............. 7.1

7.3

DUCT TESTING ............... 7.2

7.4

DESIRED PERFORMANCELEAKAGE RATES ............. 7.3

7.5

SPECIFIC EXPERTISE AND MATERIALS REQUIRED ........ 7.6

7.6

SPECIFIC MARKETING TECHNIQUES ................ 7.7

7.7

FINANCIAL PAYBACK ANALYSIS ...................

7.1

4.4

4.11 REFERENCES ................ 4.6 CHAPTER 5

BUILDING SYSTEMS COMMISSIONINGI RE-COMMISSIONING

5.1

INTRODUCTION

5.2

OVERVIEW OF THE PROCESS .. . 5.2

5.3

LEVELS OF COMMISSIONING .... 5.2

5.4

RE-COMMISSIONING

5.5

SPECIFIC EXPERTISE AND MATERIALS REQUIRED ........5.5

.............. 5.1

7.8

5.6

SPECIFIC MARKETING TECHNIQUES ................5.6

5.7

FINANCIAL PAYBACK ANALYSIS ...................5.7

5.8

7.8

.......... 5.3 REFERENCES ................ 7.9

CHAPTER 8

SYSTEM OPERATION, MAINTENANCE, AND CFC/HCFC

8.1

INTRODUCTION .............. 8.1

8.2

SYSTEM OPERATION ANALYSIS ...................

8.2

REFERENCES ................5.7

CHAPTER 6

8.3

SYSTEM MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS .............. 8.3

DUCT CLEANING

6.1

INTRODUCTION

..............6.1

8.4

OUTSOURCING OF BUILDING MAINTENANCE .............. 8.10

6.2

DIRTY DUCTWORK PROBLEMS PERCEIVED OR REAL ..........6.1

8.5

CFC/HCFC RETROFIT CONSIDERATIONS ........... 8.11

IAQ AND RE-COMMISSIONING CONSIDERATIONS ........ 6.2

8.6

SPECIFIC EXPERTISE AND MATERIALS REQUIRED ....... 8.15

8.7

SPECIFIC MARKETING TECHNIQUES FOR SYSTEM OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE .............. 8.16

6.3 6.4

DUCT CONDITION SURVEYS .... 6.2

6.5

SPECIFIC EXPERTISE AND MATERIALS REQUIRED ........6.3

6.6

SPECIFIC MARKETING TECHNIQUES ................6.4

8.8

FINANCIAL PAYBACK ANALYSIS ...................6.5

CFC/HCFC RETROFIT MARKET TECHNIQUES ............. .. 8.17

8.9

FINANCIAL PAYBACK ANALYSIS ..................

6.7

viii

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

8.18

8.10 REFERENCES ............... 8.19 CHAPTER 9

GLOSSARY

CHAPTER 10

INDEX

Building Systems and Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

ix

CHAPTER 1

MARKETING AFTERMARKET SERVICES

CHAPTER 1 1.1

INTRODUCTION

The object of this manual is to give the contractor the tools necessary to market and secure business opportunities in the aftermarket services sector. Many contractors can and should be exploring these fields of new business which can be a major factor in the future success of a firm. Firms looking to expand their business base are finding it a necessity to explore new markets. Over the last several years new opportunities have come on the scene for a number of reasons. Forces in the building industry have changed the way buildings and building systems are designed, built, maintained, commissioned, and retrofitted. These forces range from government controls, to owner requirement, to new product developments. As the volume of buildings age in place, the opportunity to pursue aftermarket services grows. For example, just in the energy management retrofit field, sales are projected to be approximately 13 billion dollars by the mid 90's. This chapter is devoted to giving the contractor the tools necessary to sell aftermarket services. Marketing techniques that are discussed are basic to any of the services and each technique is provided to set a foundation for the other chapters. A list of marketing references is also provided. Marketing these services is built on common components such as sales techniques and how to identify potential customers. Each of these components are to be expanded for the aftermarket services of:

MARKETING AFTERMARKET SERVICES *

CFC\HCFC Retrofit

But for now let's get back to marketing basics. Most people understand what is meant by "sales" and "selling" but far fewer understand what "marketing" is. And some are even somewhat frightened by the topic. And yet, if one takes a broad view of "marketing," there is really nothing to be concerned about. More importantly, it is something that everybody in the organization (from the president to the secretary and from the accountant to the foreperson in the field) does, subconsciously, every day of the year!! There are numerous definitions of marketing. For example, one developed by the American Marketing Association defined marketing as: "The process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives." And it is a good definition. However, for the purposes of this manual, let's use a broader and more down-to-earth definition: "Marketing is everything you do as part of your regular day-to-day business activities to ensure that customers both purchase your products or services and are satisfied with the resulting relationship with your firm."

*

Energy Management Retrofit

The key point here is that everything is a part of the company's marketing.

*

HVAC Systems Testing, Adjusting and Balancing

What is included in everything? Look at the following list of ten activities:

*

Indoor Air Quality

*

*

HVAC System Commissioning/ Recommissioning

*

*

Duct Cleaning

*

Duct System Analysis

*

System Operation and Maintenance

* * * * * *

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual

Talking with a potential customer to determine their needs. Writing a letter to a potential customer following a meeting. Advertising services in a local magazine. Putting together and submitting a bid. Arranging for a work crew to be on site and on time. Handling a change order. Sending a truck out to a site. Resolving a billing problem.

*

First Edition

1.1

· Demonstrating the completed project to the customer. * Entertaining a customer at the local ballpark. In the broad sense, all of these activities are part of marketing. Why? Because they bring the company into contact (either directly or indirectly) with the customer... and every time the company "touches base" with the customer, they are communicating with them. And that is really what marketing is all about. It is communication!! Now, in order to feel comfortable with marketing (in particular as it relates to company image), one must understand communications ... and to do

this, one needs to ask two questions: 1.

What is the company trying to do when communicating?

2. What influences the communications?

*

Remind . . . too often even one's best

customers forget that the company exists . . . the "out of sight, out of mind" syndrome. And finally: *

Reassure . . . ensure that the customer

feels that they made the right decision in selecting the use of company services. Sometimes, these goals conflict with each other. More often, however, one of them is vitally important and the others are of lesser concern. For example, if the potential customer has never heard of the company and the services that are offered, then the key objective of the communication is to inform. Until they know what the company offers, it is very difficult to move on to identifying their needs and persuading them to use the company's services.

effectiveness of

1.1.2

What influences the effectiveness of our communications?

Let's look at each of these in turn:

1.1.1

What is the company trying to do when communicating?

A wide variety of factors influence the overall effectiveness of a communication. For example: ·

A company normally aims to achieve one or more of a number of different objectives or goals when communicating with potential and existing customers:

communication is made (e.g. a personal conversation will often be far more effective than a registered letter). ·

*

Increase awareness . . . this may be

· Correct erroneous impressions . . . too

.

.

.

how

often

a

Timeliness . . . how appropriate is the

timing of the communication (e.g. a quote that arrives when you are preparing a bid is far more effective than one which arrives two days after you have submitted it).

often customers have incorrect or inappropriate ideas about the company and its services. *

Frequency

communication is delivered (e.g. a regular quarterly newsletter is normally far more effective than one mailed every five years).

anything from letting potential customers know that the company exists to make an existing customer aware of a specific service or capability that is offered. *

Manner . . . the way in which the

Assist with problems . . . help the

potential customer identify and/or resolve the nature of the problem and explore alternative solutions. *

Persuade . . . motivate the customer or

potential customer to take action . . . specifically to use the services.

1.2

*

Tone

.

.

.

whether

or

not

the

communication is a friendly and positive one (e.g. a friendly "win-win" approach usually produces better results than a "win-lose"). Now, to go back to the beginning of this Chapter, the point being made was that, in the organization,

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

everybody is involved in marketing the firm's services whether they realize it or not. Why? Because everybody who communicates (in any way) with existing and potential customers is, in effect, "marketing" the company.

1.2

TIME MANAGEMENT

Marketing of building systems analysis and retrofit services will take time and planning. One should not be deterred by the amount of time that will be necessary to develop the market for a particular service. Many companies fail because they are not setting realistic goals and plans for developing a specific service. A company that fails to plan, is on the road to failure. Therefore, look at the big picture and plan for success. Here are some important items to ask when starting out: 1.

What is the mission or goal?

2.

What is the action plan?

3.

Are there yearly, quarterly, monthly and weekly goals?

4.

How are the goals measured?

5.

What market research is required?

1.2.1

or larger role. Profits from a niche mission in the industry can be used to increase your market share or used to expand the mission into other services in the industry. Size of the operation, the type of service provided, quality of service, pricing, and commitment are all characteristics of a place in the industry.

What is the mission?

A company must ask itself this question at the beginning before forging ahead. If the mission is to expand services into a particular area, or several areas, then the company needs to visualize the mission. Keep in mind that an over extended, or "pie in the sky" vision of the mission will only result in failure. Be realistic in setting the mission and be reasonable in expectations. Remember one must learn to walk before running. Desired financial results can be a driving force of the mission for this new market. This is what is called profit. A most recognized motivation by companies, since without it no one could survive. Former SMACNA president George Welsch said during his acceptance speech, "Profit is not a four letter word. It is the reason why we are in business." Is the mission for new business to mark out a place in the industry? 'If this is the case, then the company needs to consider if it will seek a niche

A company needs to have as part of its mission a strong leaning toward change if it is to seek new markets. This may -be obvious but the entire company may not be "tuned in" to change. Therefore, it is up to the company leadership to bring all in line with the mission which is for change. This change is to direct all factions to support the mission which is the new market service to be provided. Some in a company will resist any change, saying that " . . . well we always did it that way". But the company leadership needs to convince others in the firm that change is necessary for growth and that the new mission is to benefit all in the long run. As the market changes, the company needs to change or be left behind. One other mission may be to change the competitive position. Most contractors are historically locked into the bid and spec type of business, and a mission to break out of this mold and start into a new market using a leadership position may be required. For example, why not consider being the prime lead contractor and using others as subcontracting entities. About 65 percent of all the "mechanical work" on a job is done by the sheet metal/air conditioning contractor, while the remainder, mostly piping work, is only about 35 percent of most construction jobs. By subcontracting directly with the sheet metal/air conditioning contractor, building owners and general contractors will save money on some of the most important work in the life of a building. The cost-savings of working directly with the sheet metal contractor is quite compelling for building owners and general contractors operating under tight budget constraints. This might be one way to fulfill the competitive mission by using a team approach. Again, the leadership role for this mission will require a more aggressive approach than what was done in the past. More information about this concept will be discussed later. To change the company's image to foster new market services is a realistic mission. If this is the mission, then does the company want a long range image or a short one? Most would say, a long

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual

*

First Edition

1.3

one. Two main elements, build up a company's image, namely its corporate behavior and its visual appearance. However, a better answer is that every thing adds to or detracts from the image of a company. Admittedly, sometimes a firm does something which is highly visible and extremely successful. Most of the time it takes time for a company to develop an image. As mentioned earlier, the process of change takes time and the image development also takes time. Therefore, when moving into new markets plan for the positive image to grow with time. Do not be discouraged with the mission, since whatever is decided, will take time and planning to develop new markets. 1.2.2

What is the action plan?

Once the company leadership determines the mission, then it must develop a plan or more specifically a marketing plan. What are the elements of a marketing plan? Who and how is the plan made? The plan is one of the most important parts of the marketing process and will be the blue print for the company to follow to meet its mission. Let's look at the development of a marketing plan and it's major elements. What is the service that the company plans to provide? This is a basic element which needs to be identified. In addition to the ongoing business, is the company going to market; energy management retrofit; HVAC systems; TAB; indoor air quality, etc? The plan which must be written, needs to address this question. Only the company can answer this question and it must be based on the goal or mission. Other chapters of this manual will discuss the various options available for marketing services and after reading them the company may have a better idea of what markets to pursue. Who is the customer or the market? If the company is to provide a service, well then who does the company provide it too? How many potential customers are out there and how does the company find them? Defining the customer that can use the company's services, is basic to the marketing plan. A profile of the customer should be made to determine what to look for and how to qualify the typical customer. Specific techniques shall be explored in later parts of this manual for identifying the customer. In order to help in identifying a customer, one must determine who 1.4

has a need for the service that is being proposed. They may be existing customers or unidentified prospects with the potential to become customers. What areas or locations are the customers? In order to "scope out" the customer, the marketing plan should determine the customer location. Are the goals that the company sets and the market, going to take you out of the metropolitan area? Is the company willing or able to market to customers in the next town, county, state, or country? Is the area, that the plan purposes, large enough to support the services that the company wants to market? Demographics, which is the science of vital and social statistics, is a tool which can be used to focus the marketing plan on the question of location of the customer. Several sources of statistics are the government, trade associations, magazines, etc. These are helpful in defining and developing a profile of the customer for the plan. What is the price or value of the service? A marketing plan must account for profit as was mentioned earlier since that is the driving force of the business. A company will have fixed expenses and overhead to contend with plus cost items. A price or value of the service must make room for profit and cover cost. Since the company will not be working in a vacuum, the effect of competition on the price and the volume of the market that the company is going after will impact the value of the service. Keep in mind that these markets are going to take the company out of the bid and spec market, so a new pricing philosophy will prevail. In order to get into a market, the plan may want to consider a reduced profit margin to allow for market penetration. What promotion is required? In a pure sense, promotion is the communication of the service to the intended market. A marketing plan should contain a promotion plan and spell out how the company intends to communicate. There are various ways of communicating or promoting the service to the market. Advertising, public relations, direct selling, mailing, seminars, literature, etc are examples of various means to promote the service to the market. Each of these and others are to be discussed in detail later in this manual, but the point is that a definite conscientious effort must go into planning in the marketing plan. Promotion is communication, but communication is a complete process or cycle. The source of the communication or sender is the company and the medium is one or several of the

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

items mentioned above. At the other end of the cycle is the market or customer that is influenced. Once the customer receives the promotional message, then for the cycle to be complete, the company needs to be given feedback. This feedback is necessary and permits the company to determine if the message is being received by the customer and if there are needs, clarifications, more information required, etc. So to have a meaningful promotion, make sure the marketing plan has a two way communication method set up between customer and the company. What is the time cycle? This subject was touched upon earlier, but now let's look at the time cycle as part of the marketing plan. In developing a marketing plan one needs to account for the time necessary to implement the mission. From the start to the finish, it will take time to achieve the goals of the mission. A forecast of how long it will take to achieve the goals must be set. In other words, once the goal is set, then how long to achieve the goal. Each marketing plan needs to set a time limit for the cycle. So what does a time cycle consist of for this marketing plan? The cycle consist of the time needed to research the market, identify prospects, identify projects, contact the prospect, make the appointment, determine the needs, develop a proposal, present the proposal, close the order, perform the services or service, get paid, get the letter of reference, and get a referral. This sounds like a lot of items but all items are necessary. In order to get one closed order, may take many presentations to prospects in the market. An improvement in "batting average" in these markets will depend on the sales effort put forth and the persistence of the company. Be optimistic and realistic when determining the time cycle that is to be used in the marketing plan. Where does the service fit into the market? A company's service must fit into a particular market or part of a market. Just as an example, a retrofit business could service a metropolitan area with office buildings and other commercial structures. A marketing plan for a particular service should "scope out" where the service is an advantageous fit. Another way to say it, where is your company's niche? Do you direct the service into an area where there is strong competition, or start in a less competitive area? Is the company going to compete for the big projects or go for the smaller ones? These are just a few of the questions that are to be considered when preparing the marketing plan as it relates to where the

service fits into the market. Unless this is done, the business will go blindly along with out direction. 1.2.3

Are there yearly, quarterly, monthly and weekly goals?

A goal is defined by the dictionary as "that toward which effort is directed; aim or end". In any walk of life, goals are the things that people strive for. Back in the late 60's the USA achieved a goal to put a man on the moon. This goal was set in the early 60's and it was pursued for almost 10 years. Without setting a goal, this achievement could not have happened. C.C. Hartman states that "goals stimulate invention, innovation, and most of all, optimism Having goals intensifies and enthusiasm. desire, determination, drive, motivation, persistence, action and performance." A company planning to embark on a mission to increase it's market in a new service business is going to have to set goals. Goals can be yearly, quarterly, monthly and weekly and will depend on the tasks at hand. From the bottom to the top of the company, goals are set for marketing the services of the contractor. A company director or officer may have a goal to increase market share by 5% and a salesperson's goal may be to call on 25 new prospect per month. Sales for a sector of the market, can be set based on a goal. Maintaining a goal, helps to keep the marketing effort going in the right direction. Writing the goals out and posting them in conspicuous places is essential, because the constant reminder of a goal will help to reinforce ones objectives and keep you on target. A large task in your marketing scheme may appear as insurmountable; however, the setting of proper goals can meet the challenge. What is meant by "proper goals"? First, divide the task into smaller parts and set a goal for each of the smaller parts. As each part is achieved, one is completing smaller tasks of a much larger goal and after a number of the smaller goals are reached then the larger goal will not look so insurmountable. In other words, the sum of the smaller goals equals the large goal. Planning will be necessary for a goal to be achieved and the objectives met. From the perspective of the company, the marketing goals are set at the top management levels and filtered down to the sales management, salespeople, sales support, and others in the

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company. In this way each department is working toward the goals and each feels a part of the team that is all working together to achieve the goal. Team-work is a good way of subdividing the goal so that each part of the company can focus on their part. In this way, as was mentioned earlier, the goal is broken down into smaller parts and the larger goal is achieved through a team effort. But a goal is just one part of the strategy, and let's look at the other part. 1.2.4

How are goals measured?

A company can and should have goals for directing its marketing plan. But something is missing, how are the goals measured in terms of determining if they have been met? The basic rule here is to set some means of measurement. Let's take the example used in the previous section of landing a man on the moon by the end of the decade. The goal was clear and the time frame set to achieve this goal. In the setting of goals for the marketing of a new service, one must indicate a measurement of time, money, percentage of the market, number of new prospects, etc. A salesperson has about 2000

hours per year to contact prospects and one of their goals might be to contact 50 prospects per month. Another person may have a goal to secure $120,000 of new business in a year and they have decided to break the goal into smaller units of $10,000 per month. In order to secure this amount of business, they realize that it will be necessary to contact a large number of prospects. So they set a goal to make 12 presentations per week which they feel will generate the necessary sales to meet the goal for the month. During the time that they are working on a goal, there should be progress checks of how well the goal is being met. Are there enough contacts being made, are the telephone calls yielding results, does the prospect list continue to grow, and are the presentations leading to closed contracts. These are just some of the questions that need to be asked of the goal/measurement process. Visual goals and a measurement of the goal can be used to motivate marketing people. For example, a board posted in a conspicuous place in the office listing the persons name, the goal, and the measurement of the goal can be a inspiring force. The chart below is an example of what can be done.

Table 1-1 Sales Goals

Another way for visualizing the goal/measurement concept is to use the "temperature" type of chart that shows the goal; the location of the present point on the chart and the end point time. Goals can be tracked by reports, meetings, visual aids, weekly, monthly, and yearly tracking. So to recap, set the goal and provide for a way to measure progress. Linking the goal/measurement concept is the way to provide a true determination of whether the marketing plan is being implemented. 1.2.5

1.6

What market research is required?

Before embarking on providing new services to the industry, a company needs to research the market. What research is required is a basic question that a company must ask. But before looking at that question, let's listen to what R.A. Gustavson said in his findings of why contractors fail: *

"Management wasn't 100% committed.

·

Not enough internal support or commitment to training-technical sales.

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*

No clearly defined marketing program and little, if any market analysis before plunging into the marketplace.

*

We didn't realize it took such an enormous sales effort to close the deals."

These comments come from the perspective of the energy management field but they are appropriate for marketing any of the services mentioned in this manual. What should the market research cover? Here are the basic areas: 1.

What is the service?

2.

Is there a need for the service?

3.

What is the competition?

4.

Does the service company's business?

5.

How does the service differ from the competition?

6.

What will it take to make a profit?

7.

What is the market willing to pay for the service?

8.

What is the market potential?

9.

Will the government have an effect on the need for the service?

10.

What is the projected growth for the new service?

complement

the

Well, it appears from the above list, that the research covers a broad spectrum of issues. Frankly, a contractor who does not ask these questions before pursuing a new service is just kidding oneself and asking for trouble. A brief look at the research questions is in order and a more detailed look later in the manual will be made. First, what is the service? This manual looks at seven different services from energy management retrofit to system operation and maintenance/CFC/HCFC retrofit. The contractor must select the service or services to provide. Is there a need for the service? Obviously select a

service for which there is a need. For the particular service selected, what is the competition? The service will have to compete against the competition, or is there any competition in the area selected? The company may want to look at a niche service where the competition is not strong. Furthermore, does the service complement the company's business? There may be existing services that are a natural Look for transition into the new service. customers where this complement is present. How does the service differ from the competition? At the first look, the service appears the same, but is the company adding some additional value to the customer that the competition is not. Research the question of "what will it take to make a profit?". Unless the company can answer this question, it has no business getting into the new service. Another related question is, what type of commitment does the company have to making a profit? In question seven, the research needs to determine what the market is willing to pay for the service and if this price is going to bring the company profits now or in the near future. You can have the best service but if no one can afford to buy it, then this is a "no go" position. Market potential for the new service is important and should be researched to determine the magnitude of the market. Will the market potential be $2,500 or $25,000,000 for this service. So the research needs to uncover this potential. In some services, the local, state, or federal government can and does have an effect on the For example, the need for the service. CFC/HCFC law can and has generated millions of dollars in needed retrofit services. In another example, indoor air quality is a government motivated service potential. The last item is the projected growth for a service and it is a question similar to question eight. Let's take the case for CFC/HCFC retrofit service. Market research in this area could reveal 100's of millions of dollars in projected growth to replace/retrofit refrigeration equipment. To recap the subject of market research, a company must do the necessary research before getting into the new service. Answering the ten questions on market research should tell the company whether or not it is going in the right direction.

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1.3

MARKETING TECHNIQUES

There are some basic techniques that are used in marketing a service. Techniques are merely the strategy used to reach the goal of making a contact. A good salesperson uses the basic techniques along with knowledge of the prospect, the market and service. Marketing techniques are divided into five basic areas. Namely, these techniques are customer interest; interest development; qualifying; proposal preparation; and closing the order. A detailed look at each of these is to follow and they form a complete process from beginning to end. Once these five techniques are mastered, a salesperson is "on the road" to success in meeting and exceeding their goals. 1.3.1

Customer Interest

When considering the production of a newsletter, there are a number of questions that should be asked. For example: *

How often should the newsletter be issued? Frequency and consistency is important ... once a year doesn't do any good. Once a month requires a continuing production effort. Studies suggest that four to six times a year is appropriate.

*

Who is going to physically handle the production? Even if it is decided to use an external service, somebody internally will have to spend time pulling together the necessary materials.

*

What should the newsletter contain? It should certainly include articles of sufficient interest to external customers so that they feel that it adds to or helps their knowledge of either their industry or business in general. They are not likely, for example, to be interested in the fact that the wife of the sales manager gave birth to a bouncing boy!! It should also include stories which emphasize the goals, professional attitudes, and expertise of the company.

One of the fastest techniques is to get the new service out to the current customers. Reaching the current customer base is very easy and it is a cost effective technique. Expanding your services to the current customers allows the contractor to introduce the new service in a manner that is easily controllable. There is a ready source of existing clients to market the new service and this is covered in section 1.4.1 Existing Clients. 1.3.2

Interest Development

Interest development is a strategy that generates attention toward the company. Increase the company's visibility and interest will develop. How is interest developed? Some of the ways to develop interest are news letters, surveys, seminars, and new releases. Newsletters In contrast to brochures (which are designed primarily to inform), a newsletter is intended to both inform and motivate to action. To a far greater extent, you are trying to get the recipient's attention. A newsletter may be the logical way to both build up company image and keep in touch with the market. Why? Because, in a newsletter, one can provide information and insights and thus reinforce the professional image. More importantly, through a newsletter, one can keep in touch with the customer base, or prospects on a regular basis and with different individuals within their organization.

1.8

NOTE: If it is to be both an internal newsletter as well as one going to customers, then separate it into two sections. *

How professional should it be? This is a difficult question. The company is not in the business of publishing a magazine and they want it to reinforce the image (as a professional company), not detract from it. Fortunately, in these days of desktop publishing, you should be able to easily generate a product which creates a strong and professional image.

A newsletter done well has the advantage (compared to a brochure) that it is normally relatively inexpensive and thus can be given to people at varying levels within the customer's organization. However, it is important to make sure that it is cost-effective. If one sends out 10,000 pieces costing 60 cents each (including postage) and gets a 1.2% response rate (not unusual) then one will

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

have spent $6,000 to generate 120 potential customers. If the conversion rate is only 1 in 10 of those that respond, the company will have generated only 12 actual customers ... and thus will have to generate $500 profit from each customer just to break even!! Surveys Now let's look at the survey as a means of developing interest in the company. Develop a survey to measure the interest for a particular service. In this way, the people who respond are not being given the "hard sell" and the company is receiving indications of only those who are interested. This type of response focuses on those that are really interested. If they were not interested one would not have heard from them. Provide a survey that is short and to the point. Keep the questions basic and the total survey should be not longer than one page with a return self addressed stamped envelope. Another way to get the completed survey back is to have the questions on the front and when the sheet is folded the return address and postage is on the back. Provide a copy of the company brochure. In the cover letter that is sent out, offer to send the results of the survey to the prospects. The survey will give your company credibility, new prospects, develop interest, and the results may be of interest to others in the industry. Seminars A seminar is a very good way to develop interest in the company. Remember to keep it free to the prospect, and the material presented is of an informational nature. The emphasis here is educational and you want the attendees to develop an interest in your company and the services provided. This is not a sales presentation but an educational seminar. Send out invitations to the event and then follow up with confirmations for those responding. Locate a convenient meeting room in a local hotel, or college, or you may want to consider using a room in the company offices. Keep the seminar brief and to the point and permit ample time for questions and answers. Seminar presenters can be from the staff, suppliers, consultants, and utility companies. After the seminar call the prospects to see how they liked the seminar and try to set an appointment. Seminars can also be used in conjunction with trade shows, and the subject of trade shows is to be covered later.

News Releases Generating interest with the news release is a tool that works. A new service, a new business, and a highly successful project are all news that can generate interest in the company. Prepare the double-spaced release on company letterhead with a headline and keep it to 1 or 2 pages at a maximum. Indicate who to contact in the release for more information and a photograph can also be included. Send the release to the editor of local newspapers, trade journals, TV and radio stations and other publications. Also send copies to prospects and customers. After the release is published send a letter and a copy of the newspaper story to prospects, customers, associates, suppliers and business organizations. One technique that is not recommended is cold calling which is the least profitable. Noted marketing speaker Greg Hoyle does not recommend this type of marketing as noted in his SMACNA convention presentation.

1.3.3

Qualifying

When talking about qualifying as a marketing technique, what is meant? The process by which a prospect is judged to determine if they are a good opportunity for achieving the mission is qualifying. Or in other words, can the company make a profit by providing the service to the prospect. A key element here is the judging process. Here are some factors to consider, when judging if a prospect is good. When trying to qualify a potential prospect, determine if the prospect has a need for the service. A few probing questions can determine if there is a need for the service. Existing customers who have not yet used the new service are potential prospects. Talk to them and inquire about their needs. One way to draw out whether there is a need, is to ask if they have ever used a similar service. They may have and had a bad experience, or may have never used the service.

Qualify the need of the prospect, then proceed to the next step which is related to the solution. The need is qualified but the next question is, can This is an your company meet the need?

important point since now the "ball is in your court." Compare the prospect's need with the ability to provide a solution. Do not overlook this

point because now the company is at a junction in

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the qualification process. If the company can provide the service (the solution) being requested, then proceed with the process. Inquire of the prospect if they are the person that would make the final decision. If not, then find out who that person is. Once the decision maker is identified, then determine if the funds are available for the project. Sometimes the need is there, but the funds are not available now. The prospect may be just "scoping" out the project and trying to budget for future needs. Qualify if the need is futuristic or presently required. In cases when the prospect says, ". . . well I just want to

budget for future planning", then take this into consideration. Be cautious since these are the best opportunities and spend time working with the prospect up to a point. Let the prospect know that you will follow up with them in the future. Whether the need is a present one or future, the prospect's ability to pay should also be qualified. Credit checks should be made of the prospect to determine if they are a good risk. 1.3.4

*

The written proposal should contain basic elements since the salesperson may or may not be there to present it. At times the salesperson may be thinking that alone with the prospect they could present the proposal to the prospect's upper management or board. Obviously if this is permitted, then the salesperson can make the best case for the work. However, the prospect can take the salesperson out of the picture by saying that the prospect has to present the proposal to the firm. So now the object is to prepare a proposal which speaks for the contractor and the company. Here are the elements of a written proposal that "speaks for the contractor". *

A cover letter with a summary of the solution being proposed. Include an appreciation for the opportunity to provide the proposal.

*

Review the need as you see it and the negative aspects of continued use of the present conditions.

*

Provide the solution to the need with the benefits, and features. Indicate how the solution meets the need and provides a positive result.

*

Detail what is to be delivered, the schedule of events, payment terms and conditions.

*

Explain the return on investment.

*

Make a positive request for the order.

*

Thank them for the opportunity to provide the proposal.

Proposal Preparation

As part of the marketing process, one is required at times to use the written proposal technique. This technique is used and recommended when the customer or prospect requires something in writing. In a complex service business such as building systems analysis and retrofit, a written proposal has benefits to the contractor. The following list provides some of the important benefits of a written proposal: *

Customer knows specifically what is to be provided and delivered. Verbal commitments are clarified and reduce the chance for misunderstanding of needs.

*

Provides a professional appearance and stature for the company and one as the sales professional.

*

Projects that one has nothing to hide.

*

Sets the company apart from the competition.

*

Establishes a reference base as to what the need is and how the company meets the need with a solution.

1.10

It represents the company if the presentation is made by the prospect to others (i.e. board of directors) in the prospect's company.

Put the proposal in a binder with the cover letter. If the prospect requests that the proposal be mailed, attempt to present it to them in person and ask again to make the presentation. If the salesperson gets turned down, offer to be available during the time prospect's people are going to meet. Offer a few tips to the prospect in selling

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

the proposal to their management. Ask the prospect to read the proposal and distribute copies to the management team. Also provide the prospect with enough copies for all members of his management team. Many of the proposals that will be prepared can be patterned after a previous one. Why "reinvent" the wheel each time a proposal is needed. Some offices will have standard proposals and standard paragraphs from which to build a good comprehensive proposal. 1.3.5

Closing the Order

The last step of the sale is the close. This is the accumulation of all previous steps and brings all the work up to this point to a head. In order to get the desired result, ask the question that gets what you want. For example, after asking the question wait for an answer, or in other words, keep your mouth shut! This puts the prospect in the position to make the next move. A good open-ended question rather than a statement is what is required for the close. What is an openended question? Questions that start with where, when, who, what, and how are the type needed at this time. A closed end question will, in most instants, end in a straight no answer, therefore avoid them. Ask for the purchase order number or have them sign the proposal and one is assured of the business. Once this happens proceed with providing the service.

1.4

IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL CUSTOMERS

Prospects are potential customers and without prospects there is no business. How are potential customers identified, and where are they found? There are seven areas that can generate potential customer and each of these are to be explored. They consist of existing clients; unidentified prospects; marketing; public relations; direct selling; direct mail; and advertising. 1.4.1

Existing Clients

Existing clients are one of the best sources of potential customers since they know the salesperson and the company. These clients who

are, satisfied with the services provided are a logical choice. Ask the client to provide leads, or letters of recommendations. Use these tools to build the prospect list. Let the client know if additional services are provided. Ask them to upgrade services or if they have additional needs. Unsolicited proposals can be made to existing clients based on a familiarity with past needs. Most clients belong to associations which are collections of other firms similar to the client. Try to become involved in the clients trade association activities. Volunteer to talk to the members on an educational level and ask the client to introduce you to the programs chairperson of the association. Normally, these chairpersons are looking for people to put on programs for the monthly meeting. Other non-competitive firms that serve the client are also sources of customers. The client's banker, suppliers, engineer, accountant, lawyer and others are all good candidates for leads. 1.4.2

Unidentified Prospects

What are unidentified prospects? The unidentified prospect is a potential customer; however, they are not known presently. These prospects need to be identified to determine what the needs are, readiness, ability and authority to purchase. Sources of unidentified prospects are found in real estate agencies, property management firms, and large tenants for office buildings. BOMA (Building Owners and Managers Association) Real Estate Journal is a good source for prospects. Utilities are another source of prospects such as gas, electric, water, sewer, and telephone companies. Manufacturers of all different types are around from heavy industry to light manufacturing. Government which has a large sector of the building market is a prime candidate. Federal, state, county, city and town governments provide a vast source of unidentified prospects. Just look at the number of counties with over 3,000 nationwide. In the government arena, there are the civilian and military prospects that can be a potential source. If interested in performing overseas work, the federal government has a number of civilian and military installations. Both private and public schools, colleges, and universities have prospects which are unidentified. These campuses have one or more buildings and

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building systems were prospects can be cultivated. Besides all these, there are medical facilities in both the private and public area. Here are few specific sources for prospects: 1.

The SIC or Standard Industrial Classification is a listing of businesses in the USA developed by the U.S. Government's Department of Commerce. It list industries into 12 major divisions with subdivisions and it can be used to determine the type of industry, whether it is a new industry, and pinpoints prospects in a specific field. The Office of Management and Budget(O.M.B.) publishes this manual through the U.S. Government Printing Office.

2.

Edward Burnette Consultants Inc. of Englewood, N.J. publishes a mailing list catalog and is another source for SIC codes.

3.

The American Business List Inc. of Omaha, NE has a free listing of businesses.

In summary, the amount of sources for unidentified prospects for identifying potential customers is vast. It just takes time to focus on the areas that the company wants to pursue. 1.4.3

Marketing

Marketing as a tool for identifying potential customers has been looked at in part earlier, but let's examine several new ideas. The use of speeches, trade associations, and trade shows are all sources of getting in front of new customers. Speeches Offering to speak before trade and business groups is one way to market your company and it's services. Model the speech toward the audience and the theme that is set for the meeting. Talk to the organizers and see if they will permit the handing out of literature and brochures. Have copies of the speech available at the time for distribution to the attendees. Some organizations such as ASHRAE are very careful and do not permit commercial literature to be distributed at the time of the speech. When in doubt check with the group's program committee chairperson. After 1.12

the presentation request a list of the attendees including their names, address and telephone numbers since this will be a source of customers. Association Membership Contact an allied association or join an association like SMACNA to broaden the contact base. It also helps to belong to increase the company's credibility. Many of these associations have libraries that they make materials available to members and non-members alike. Trade Shows Now let's look at the trade show as a source of identifying potential customers. Trade shows can be expensive and a poor return on the investment in marketing your company if it is done wrong. However, the trade show takes planning and the planning starts before the show starts. Keep the booth neat and the booth sign direct and to the point. Make the booth so that the prospect wants to visit. Items like free food and drinks belong in the hospitality suite not the trade booth and keep control of "freebies" or it will get out of hand. Practice the presentation that will be used in the booth and remember that the prospect spends only five minutes on average at any booth. Before the prospect leaves the booth get the name, address, company, telephone number, type of business, interests, and the name of the decision maker. People putting trade shows on can help with some of this information and normally provide name tags. Trade show sponsors also provide in many cases name tags that can be run through credit card type machines at the booth. This gives you the basic information and the rest can be noted on the information sheet. Those prospects that appear to be interested in the services can be invited back to the hospitality suite or invite them to the company facility at a later time. Keep a professional image when on booth duty since the company's image will be on the line. Just think of the booth as a show room and the people and items in the booth are on display similar to a store show window. As people walk by they are looking at you and the booth and hopefully they are attracted to stop in for a visit. Do not group up with other employees in the booth, and be well groomed and stand erect. Keep the questions in the What, When, Where, Who, and How mode since they will be more likely

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

to produce complete information from the prospect. The object here is to get qualified prospects. Using the qualified leads generated from the trade show, call and ask for an appointment. Thank the person for the opportunity to meet with them and set the time and day for the appointment.

*

news conferences are best held at industry wide conventions normally attended by the trade press. News conferences are an opportunity to introduce a product or service.

*

speeches or educational/technicalsessions presented at trade associations for engineers, building owners, and general contractors establishes your company as a visible, professional, knowledgeableplayer in the industry. Ideal people to deliver speeches are the chief executive officer, engineer, or industry spokesperson.

*

annual reports can be expensive, slick presentations of corporate accomplishments or they can be a moderately priced brochure which is another opportunity to talk about the type and quality work the company performs.

The trade show is a source of prospects and should be considered as a marketing tool. Prospects can become customers if pursued correctly.

1.4.4

Public Relations

Public relations is a viable product that generates goodwill, enhances the company's reputation and credibility, and services to inform the industry or general public about the company and its activities, new products, and services. For example, news releases; an article written and placed in a trade or professional journal; various advertisements; newsletters; trade show participation; association membership; speeches; and seminars can be forms of public relations. In a practical sense, anything used to market your company is a public relations product. However, the bona fide public relations product must be part of an integrated marketing plan. This includes the following: *

news release on any company service, product, job, meeting, or event.

*

feature articles placed in industry or related trade journals.

*

events coverage in local, regional or national, i.e., interview with the chief executive or industry spokesperson by local newspapers or broadcast media during an annual convention or exhibit.

*

*

print and/or broadcast advertising in conjunction with a convention, exhibit, or other key industry wide event. This would primarily involve local media in the convention city. house advertisement campaigns. These can be developed for all corporate products and services. Each product or service could have an advertisement in several different sizes for multiple uses.

1.4.5

Direct Selling

Most of the selling that goes on is direct selling or in a face to face arena. This is the best type of selling environment especially if the one who makes the buying decision is present. When thinking about all the effort that was made to get to this point, do not "drop the ball" now. Here is the chance to show off the company, the proposed solution to the customer's need and the opportunity to close the sale. The call should be planned out; objectives set and Here are four basic the desired results. objectives: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Get positive attention. Communicate with the prospect. Present the benefits and features of the proposal. Prepare ahead for objections.

A card or notes can be used to make sure all the items noted are covered. Remember to use the tools of the trade when selling direct. These tools are the appointmentbook, calling cards, brochures, videos, charts, pricing, pad, recommendations, case histories just to name a few. Experts say that over 80 percent of the communication or learning comes from seeing and around 10 percent from hearing. If you have photographs, slides, charts, graphs, and other visuals as part of the

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presentation it will go far to help in the selling process. In this day of computers, companies have developed short and object directed presentations that can run on the prospect's computer or the portable laptop computer. Make sure the computer that is used is compatible with the software demo diskette. In using brochures, try to keep the prospect focused on you rather than the brochure. Information in the brochure should be familiar to the salesperson and make the brochure support you. Use it like any other prop.

*

*

Attractive to the eye - the major problem is getting the recipient to open and look at the mailing. Clean and professional - again, try to create an image ... and thus the crisper

and more professional the better. *

Well written - poor use of language, spelling errors, etc. do not normally improve the chances of success.

*

Cost effective - many dollars can be spent on each piece. However, expect that the vast majority will end up in the garbage unread.

At times the salesperson may have to sell to a committee or group of people from the customer's office. In this situation, plan for the event and keep calm. Plan the presentation so that the concerns are addressed of each member of the group. In order to do this, get the names and ranks of the people before the meeting and ask the contact to brief you on each person in the group before hand. Make the presentation and then hand out the copies to each of the group. Have enough time for questions and use visuals and prop cards when possible. Try to remember names, so that one can respond to the person by name when discussing the proposal. Complete the presentation with a request for the action you want them to take. They probably will make a decision after meeting with the salesperson and communicate the results through the contact.

If there is a relatively small target market such as 200 customers or potential customers, then a mailing may well be appropriate. Why? Because these firms and the individuals running them are far more likely to be aware of the firm and the services it offers. However, if introducing a new product, service or capability, then a mailing may make sense if it is followed up by a personal visit and discussion.

1.4.6

1.4.7

Direct Mail

In contrast to brochures (which are designed primarily to inform), a mailing is intended to both inform and motivate to action. To a far greater extent, one is trying to get the recipient's attention. Let's look at mailings such as a letter or brochure generally sent out in the hope of generating new customers. The subject chosen will depend very much on the target market and the budget. In general, bear in mind that mailings (whether they are to the general public or to businesses) generate an extremely small response rate. They are regarded as junk mail and largely ignored. However, if marketing the services to the general public then this may well be a highly appropriate means of generating new business ... since your

major marketing need is to make the customer aware of the services offered. The key points to bear in mind are that the mailings should be: 1.14

It is well advised to use the services of a professional in this field. There are numerous tricks to improving the response rate and the mailing that looks great may, in fact, not be as effective as one designed by an expert.

Advertising

Advertising and public relations are often considered in the same breath ... and yet they are very different. Advertising is where you pay money to place your advertisement such as a magazine or newspaper or on the radio or television. Public relations, by contrast, is generally free (unless you choose to pay an agency to generate opportunities) and emphasizes materials which are given to the newspapers, magazines, etc. (as newsworthy) to reinforce your company's image. The three questions you need to answer with respect to advertising are: *

To advertise?

*

Where to advertise?

*

What should the advertising emphasize?

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

1.4.7.1 To Advertise? This depends on three main factors: *

The size and nature of the target market. The larger the market for the services (i.e. the greater the number of potential customers), the more advertising makes sense. And it makes far more sense if one is dealing with consumers as opposed to industrial or commercial clients. Quite obviously, if there are only ten customers for the services, then visit with each individually. On the other hand, if there are a million or so, then advertise.

*

The familiarity of the client base with the services and capabilities. Advertising also makes sense if one is dealing with a relatively unsophisticated client base. They need assistance. However, if it is a very sophisticated client base (i.e. one which seeks out possible suppliers) then the advertising may well be wasted.

*

The financial resources. If one can afford to advertise, in whatever format, then it may make sense to do so. A small firm seeking customers may be forced to advertise to gain visibility to attract business while a larger, well-established firm may choose to advertise to reinforce its image as a successful, community-minded firm.

1.4.7.2 Where to Advertise? This depends very largely on the nature of the customer base. Let us start with the Yellow Pages. As indicated earlier, a large, well-established firm is unlikely to have a substantial advertisement since they will probably assume that the sort of customers they want to work with would look for potential suppliers in the telephone book!! On the other hand, that may be exactly where the average homeowner would look for assistance when installing air conditioning . . . and a half page advertisement might prove extremely effective for a firm in that field. Advertising in newspapers also makes sense if one is aiming at the general public. This, after all, is the major approach taken by retail stores. However, this is an extremely nonselective

audience and one may well prefer to advertise in one or more trade magazines. To make sure that an investment is cost-effective, be prepared to advertise on a regular basis. One or two advertisements (however large) will not normally produce dramatic results. Build up a pattern of advertisement so that potential customers become accustomed to the firm's name. A lengthy series of advertisements can, of course, be expensive and look at it in terms of the potential customers. Are there enough readers of the specific magazine who (a) need the service or system you are offering and (b) might purchase from you? If there are, then the advertisement may well be cost-effective. Some firms run such advertisements not so much because of their potential for generating new clients but in order to reinforce their image (with existing customers) as an industry leader. Advertising in non-trade publications (e.g. in the local city magazine or in the program for the local symphony) are not likely to generate business leads. It will be very difficult to confirm that they do. What they do, is to provide the opportunity to build up its image as a supporter of the community and to say something about the company's philosophies of doing business. Radio and television advertising are rarely attractive for the average small- to medium-sized firm. Television, in particular, is only appropriate for very large firms or a small firm with a large number of potential customers. Radio is more economical but, once again, probably makes sense only if dealing with homeowners making a major investment, rather than commercial customers.

1.4.7.3 What should emphasize?

the

advertising

The emphasis of the advertising will depend very much upon what one is trying to achieve. Normally, when turning on the television set, the advertiser is trying to get one to (a) purchase something, (b) remember the existence of something, or (c) create a general image for the company. For example, if attempting to generate sales leads then, clearly focus on offering something which will get the customer's attention. Car dealerships emphasize style, price, financing and other shortterm offers in an attempt to stimulate business. The advertisement (using whatever media) has to

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1.15

motivate the customer to action. By contrast, Coca Cola or Kellogg's Corn Flakes are not attempting to sell the specific product but to reinforce the awareness of the existence of the product. And yet other firms are concerned purely with building up their image. In what are referred to as institutional advertisements, they merely try to ensure that the listener or viewer considers the company in a positive light.

an existing system with a new system, and to determine which of two or more alternative new systems provides the best benefit. To determine whether it would be more advisable to retain existing equipment or obtain new, more efficient equipment, the following factors must be considered: (a)

Advertising can be an effective adjunct to the other marketing efforts and it can build up or reinforce the company's image. However, the point that needs to be recognized is that it can be cost-effective only (a) if having identified a specific and large market segment and can send a message which is sufficiently strong to pull in business or (b) the objective is to reinforce and broaden an existing strong image. 1.5

FINANCIAL PAYBACK ANALYSIS BASICS

(b) (c) (d)

(e) (f) (g) (h)

Maintenance savings to be obtained by installing the new equipment. Operating and energy cost savings to be obtained by installing the new equipment. Salvage value of old equipment. Capital cost of new equipment including legal fees, design professional fees, installation charges, cost of equipment, etc. Costs of financing. Changes in property taxes as a result of installing new equipment. Income tax factors. Changes in rental income as a result of

installing new equipment. Each of the several aftermarket services that are to be explored in this manual include a section dealing with the subject of financial payback. Financial payback analysis is a necessary marketing tool that the contractor needs to understand. Customers need to be shown how a service can benefit them in terms of return on investment. These basic principles are provided so that the contractor will gain an understanding of how to build a case for supporting the service being proposed. The contractor must be able to explain to the owner in terms of how long a service benefit will payback. Most owners measure the cost benefit of a service in terms of years to payback. Each owner has their own ideas as to how many years an investment should payback. The contractor must be knowledgeable in determining the payback of their proposal. 1.5.1

If it can be shown on a purely monetary basis that installation of new equipment will result in savings, obviously it should be considered strongly. But more than monetary factors should be considered. One must also take into account the ease of maintenance and possibly the ability to do away with certain positions; possible lowered number of tenant complaints, greater reliability, and so on. When utilizing benefit/cost analysis to select between two systems, a simple formula can be used to determine if the additional initial costs of the more expensive system are merited in light of long-term cost factors. The result is a benefit/cost ratio which, if it exceeds 1, indicates that extra initial expenses will result in long-term savings, as shown in the example immediately below.

BenefitlCost Analysis

Benefit/cost analysis can be utilized in two ways: to determine whether it is worthwhile to replace

1.16

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

Retrofit Proposal Present Annual New Annual Item

Description of Change

Energy Cost

Energy Cost

Cost Difference Investment

Figure 1-1 Retrofit Proposal

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1.17

Total First Cost System A Total First Cost System B System B exceeds System A by Annual Operating, Maintenance and Energy Cost, System A $ 1,600 Annual Operating, Maintenance and Energy Cost, System B 1,000 System A exceeds System B by

$18,000 20,000 $2,000

system B, although initially more costly, should provide more long-term savings.

1.5.2

$ 600

Assuming a 20-year useful life for each system and a 10% interest rate, the capital recovery factor (a factor that, multiplied by the total loan amount or total principal, yields the annual payment necessary to repay debt) can be computed from Table 1-2. In this case, it would be 0.11746. Given this, amortization cost for additional capital investment of system B would be 0.11746 x $2,000 or $234.92. Therefore, the benefit/cost ratio for system B would be: annual savings $600.00 Amort. cost $234.92

2.55

Because the benefit/cost ratio exceeds 1,

Payback Period Analysis

Failure to consider cost of debt service is the most common error made when making a pay-back period analysis. One cannot say, for example, that an initial capital investment of $50,000 which results in an annual maintenance and operation savings of $10,000 has a payback period of five years. To do so would ignore the fact that interest must be paid on the loan, or that - if no loan is involved - the money used would otherwise be earning interest. A simple graph has been provided in Figure 1-2 to indicate payback periods. As can be seen, the vertical axis is based on the ratio of C (initial cost of a system) over S (annual maintenance and operating cost savings). The horizontal axis shows the payback period in years. Each curve represents a different rate of interest. Thus, assuming an initial investment of $3,000 and annual operating and maintenance saving of $600 (which will be applied to repaying the loan), the result is a C/S ratio of 5 which, at 10% interest, results in payback period of a little more than seven years.

TABLE 1-2 CAPITAL RECOVERY FACTORS

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Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

If more accuracy is required, Equation 1-1 can be used: Equation 1-1

where: C = capital cost S = annual operating and maintenance savings r = interest rate n = number of years to achieve payback

1.5.3

Present Worth Analysis

Present worth analysis centers on the time value of money. X dollars now is not worth as much as X dollars tomorrow.

Figure 1-2 Payback Period the end of that year the dollar would be worth $1.10. Thus, assuming a 10% interest rate, we can say that $1.10 received one year from now has a present worth of $1.

Assume, for example, that you invest $1 at 10% interest compounded annually for one year. At

TABLE 1-3 PRESENT VALUE OF $1 RECEIVED ANNUALLY FOR N YEARS

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To determine the present worth of money to be received in the future, one must discount future dollars on the basis of what they could be earning doing something else. In other words, $1.10 one year from now has a present worth of $1 assuming that the next best investment would earn 10%. If all that we could do was 5%, though, then $1.10 received one year from now would be worth $1.05 today. The computation is simple. To determine future value, multiply by unity plus the percentage rate of interest. $1 invested at 10% annual interest compounded annually will be worth $1.10 in one year (1 x 1.1); $1.21 at the end of two years (1.1 x 1.1), $1.33 after three years (1.21 x 1.1) and so on.

To determine present worth of $1 one year from now, assuming one could get a 10% investment, you divide by unity plus 10%, so, $1 one year from now discounted by the next best investment - in this case 10% - would be worth only 91 cents, or 1 - 1.1. The value of one dollar received two years from now, discounting again at a 10% rate, would be 83 cents, or 1 + (1.1 - 1.1), and so on,

owners can make a capital investment either by investing in something that will yield interest or other income, or they can make an investment in something which will result in cost avoidance. The amount of interest which the owner could obtain from an alternate investment is considered the next best investment. In other words, assuming that he can earn 10%, then 10% becomes the rate for the next best investment and is the discount rate that is used to determine present of any alternate use for the money. Obviously, the retrofit team has to determine what the prevailing discount rate is. Assuming a piece of equipment with a 20-year life, the predicted value of $1 after 20 years is $8.51 at 10% discount rate. Accordingly the present worth of $5,000 annual savings to be generated by the piece of equipment is 8.51 x $5,000, or $42,550; more than double the initial cost of the equipment. This calculation, of course, fails to take into consideration the rising cost of energy. As energy costs escalate, the value of the energy conserved, and cost avoided, likewise increases.

as shown here. Years 1 2

Present Value of $1 at 10% 0.91 0.83

3

0.75

4 5

0.68 0.62

In the same manner, you can calculate the present value of $1 per year received each year for a number of years. Years (N) 1 2 3

Present Value of $1 Received annually for "N" Years at 10% 0.91 1.74 2.49

These figures are obtained simply by adding present values together. Thus, the present value of one dollar one year from now plus another dollar two years from now is equal to 0.91 and 0.73, or $1.74. What all this means essentially is this. Building

1.20

PWF (present worth factor) is used to evaluate the present worth of energy savings to be achieved, including consideration of the increasing cost of energy. The three elements of PWF are: * discount rate (D); * economic life (L), and * average annual rate of energy price increase over the lifetime of the equipment (P). When the discount rate, or the rate of return for the next best investment (D), is equal to the average annual rate of energy price increase (P), the PWF - or present worth factor - is equal to

the economic life of the equipment, or When D = P, PWF = L

In other words, if average annual savings on a piece of equipment with a life expectancy of 20 years is $5,000, and the discount rate of 10% is equal to the estimated average rate of energy price increase, the present worth of savings is $100,000 derived as follows: When D = P, PWF = L L- 20

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

Annual Savings = $5,000 PWF = 20

in the calculations, determine current cost of operation and maintenance (O&M), estimated rate

Present value of savings = PWF x Savings

of increase, and - as a result - the present worth

= 20 x $5,000 = $100,000

When the discount rate D does not equal annual savings, Equation 1-2 can be used to determine present worth or refer to Table 1-4.

of these costs based on the PWF. For example, assuming that a 20-year life for the piece of equipment, and a 10% discount TABLE 1-4 PRESENT WORTH FACTORS (AT 10% DISCOUNT RATE) Economic Life

Equation 1-2

To see how this works, consider the following figures: D = 10% P= 6%

L = 5 years

rate, and assuming that cost of O&M is $1,000 per year and is expected to increase at 4% per year, it can be seen that the present worth of O&M costs are $11,690 or $1,000 times the PWF of 11.69 from Table 1-4. In the event that O&M costs will not rise on a regular average rate, for example, because the machine has to have a major overhaul every five years, the present worth of O&M can be derived accurately only by evaluating the present worth of O&M for each year it will be in effect, and adding them all up together. To determine present worth for any given year, use Equation 1-3. Equation 1-3

It should be noted, of course, that this particular set of figures is based on a 10% discount rate. Using the example given so far - $20,000 piece of equipment that will generate an initial $5,000 per year savings and which has a 20-year lifetime, and assuming a 10% discount rate, it is seen that the present worth of savings with a 6% annual energy cost increase is $69,350, derived by multiplying initial savings by a present worth factor or PWF of 13.87. For an 8% annual energy price increase, use the PWF of 16.59 and obtain the present worth of savings of $82,950. 1.5.4

Operating and Maintenance Costs

To include the cost of operation and maintenance

1.5.5

Life-Cycle Costing

All too often, first cost has preoccupied the minds of both the owner and designer, causing them to neglect giving proper consideration to system life and operating cost. A system that is inexpensive to buy may be expensive to operate and maintain. With inflation, construction costs have escalated. The cost of money and energy continue to increase

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1.21

dramatically, but not always in the same proportion. These factors have created a more rational and factual approach to the real costs of a system, by analyzing both owning and operating costs over a fixed time period (life-cycle costs).

* 1. 2. 3. 4.

Life-cycle costing is defined by the Federal

* Insurance

Taxes Property or real estate taxes. Personnel payroll taxes. Building management personal property taxes. Other building taxes.

Government to mean " . . . the total costs of

owning, operating, and maintaining a building over its economic life, including its fuel and energy costs, determined on the basis of a systematic evaluation and comparison of alternative building systems." An Executive Order directs federal agencies to consider in their building plans only those energy conservationimprovementswhichare cost-effective based on a life-cycle cost approach, and further directs agencies to give the highest priority to the most cost-effective projects. Life-cycle costing is a generally accepted means, in both public and private arenas, of recognizing the sum total of all costs (and benefits) associated with a project during its estimated lifetime. During its more than 20 years of existence and application, life-cycle cost techniques have evolved from simple manual calculations to complex computerized operations requiring vast data bases. 1.5.5.1. Basic Procedures Listed below are basic procedures for performing a life-cycle cost analysis: * * * * * *

Identify the alternative approaches to achieve the objective. Establish a time frame for the analysis. Identify the cost parameters to be considered in the analysis. Convert costs and savings occurring at different times to a common time. Determine the cost-effectiveness of the alternatives. Analyze the results for sensitivity to the initial assumptions.

(b) ANNUAL OPERATING COST * 1. 2. 3.

Annual Energy Costs Energy and fuel costs. Water charges. Sewer charges.

* 1. 2. 3.

Annual Maintenance Costs Maintenance contracts. General housekeeping costs. Labor and material for replacing worn parts and filters. Chemicals and cleaning compounds. Costs of refrigerant, oil and grease. Cleaning & painting. Testing Waste disposal.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

* Operators: The annual wages of building engineers and/or operators should not be included as part of maintenance, but entered as a separate cost item. 1.5.5.2. Life-Cycle Examples When considering life-cycles, especially those in excess of 10 or 20 years, the most significant element in the life-cycle cost becomes the inflation and escalation factors that are used, to a point where they overshadow the basis for the analysis which are hopefully the facts that exist today. Thus life-cycle costing becomes a juggling of assumptions regarding things that may or may not happen in the future which is made even worse by the compounding of those assumptions over a long period of time.

(a) ANNUAL OWNING COST

It is possible to make a life-cycle cost analysis show anything that the user wants to prove, simply by juggling the assumptions.

* Initial Costs: The amortization period must be determined in which the initial costs are to be recovered and converted by use of a capital recovery factor (CRF) into an equivalent annual cost (See Table 1-2).

One example of a life-cycle cost analysis for a conservative private taxpayingcorporationis shown in Table 1-5. This analysis was made on six energy related alternatives in the construction of a new building. Each alternative has a first cost and an

1.22

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

annual energy cost associated with it. In the lifecycle cost calculations the cost of oil was assumed to escalate at 15% per year, while the cost of electricity was assumed to escalate at 8% per year, resulting in the life cycle costs shown. For each of the alternatives the energy budget was calculated. Note that the system that has the lowest first cost does not have the highest energy consumption. Note that the system that has the lowest life-cycle cost does not have the lowest energy consumption. Further, if another equally valid assumption were made such as that the escalation in the cost of both oil and electricity would be 10% per year, then the life-cycle cost would change rather substantially. The first cost would not change, nor would the annual energy cost, nor would the energy budget. In all probability not only would the life-cycle cost change substantially, but the

order of the life-cycle costs would also change, further distorting the relationship between energy consumption and life-cycle cost (Table 1-6). Another example is shown in Figure 1-3. This Figure shows the data used by the U.S. Government in connection with the procurement of a large new building for the Social Security Administration in Baltimore, Maryland in 1976. Prior to the bidding on the first cost, each bidder was asked to submit details on the energy related portions of the building that they were proposing. This data was evaluated by an independent firm on behalf of the Government and life-cycle energy costs established. Each bidder was informed of the calculated life-cycle energy cost and was told that the award of the contract would go to the firm whose sum total of first cost plus life energy cost was the lowest.

TABLE 1-5 SUMMARY OF LIFE-CYCLE COSTS

TABLE 1-6 INCREMENTAL SUMMARY OF LIFE-CYCLE COSTS

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1.23

Figure 1-3 Life-Cycle Costs

($ in millions)

Note:

Data by the U.S. Govemment in connection with the

procurement of a large new building for the Social Security Administration in Baltimore, Maryland.

It can be seen that the award of the contract was made to the "A" Company - "B" Company Joint Venture in the amount of $37,500,000. It also turns out that the low bidder not only had the lowest first cost but also had the lowest life-cycle energy cost. This example shows the fallacy of the life-cycle cost method, because in this example the lowest life-cycle cost also turned out to be the lowest first cost, which is contrary to the general thinking on life-cycle costing. Often life-cycle costing is used as a gimmick by promoters of high priced "goodies" that would not otherwise be considered. By making assumptions as to what is going to happen in the future and using the life-cycle cost technique, these high priced items tend to look more attractive than they would otherwise look using any other economic analysis technique. While life-cycle cost analyses can be considered for the purpose of making judgments on alternatives to be selected, life-cycle cost should not be used as the ultimate decision making tool. 1.5.6

Conclusion

The most significant concern in making the energy and economic analyses associated with energy audits becomes that of the professional judgment to be utilized in determining the degree of engineering precision necessary. This degree of precision will be different in just about every situation encountered. Generalized analyses and rules of thumb cannot be utilized for making energy and economic analyses. All too often they are incorrect. The world of 1.24

buildings is made up of exceptions to the rule. As one example, The Department of Energy in cooperation with the American Association of School Administrators selected 10 elementary schools across the country. They hired several of the top consulting engineering firms in the country and gave them good fees to do detailed computerized energy audits in each of these schools. They were told to recommend anything and everything that had a payback of 12 years or less, which turns out to be a simple payback of about 20 years. That creates a climate for big capital investment. Then the Department of Energy funded all those recommendations. One of the Department of Energy laboratories instrumentedthese buildings to measure how much energy was actually saved by implementing all these items. In their audits, the Engineers predicted that the heating energy savings would be 37%, but the actual measured heating energy savings was 15%. The Engineers predicted that the electric energy savings would be 18%, but the actual measured electric energy savings was four tenths of 1%, for all schools combined. With a 20 year payback and no limit on capital investment, it is generally accepted that it is possible to save 37% of the heating energy an 18% of the electric energy in schools. Those are the kinds of numbers that people throw around from podiums in Congress. However, these people fail to look at what the meters show. In the report evaluating this project the biggest chapter was on the subject of "excuses" for why the predicted savings were not achieved. Those excuses centered around the people that occupy the buildings, because we do not yet have the equations or computer programs that describe how people use buildings. It is necessary for the energy auditor o use professional judgment to make responsible estimates that are realistic and can be achieved on the meter. 1.6

REFERENCES

1.6.1

Matthews, W.E., Marketing and Company Image. SMACNA Inc., Chantilly, Virginia, 1st. Ed., 1990

1.6.2

Hanchette, DA., "FMI Management Letter Explains Cold Calling Sales Plan." SNIPS, p. 24 July 1989.

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

1.6.3

Connor, D., Increasing Revenue from Your Clients. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, New York, 1st Ed., 1989.

1.6.8

Carnegie, D., How to Win Friends and Influence People. Gulf & Western Corp., New York, New York, 1st. Ed, 1936.

1.6.4

Taylor, R.F., Back to Basic Selling. Prentice Hall Press, New York, New York, 1st. Ed., 1988.

1.6.9

Schwartz, D.J. The Magic of Thinking Big. Gulf & Western Corp., New York, New York, 3rd. Ed, 1982.

1.6.5

Cundiff, E.W., Fundamentals of Modern Marketing Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 4th., 1985.

1.6.10

Gandolfo, J. How to Make Big Money Selling. Harper & Row, New York, New York, 1st Ed, 1984.

1.6.6

Hartman, C.C., 100 Tips on Marketing & Selling Your Consulting & Professional Services. C.C. Hartman, Beltsville, Maryland, 1st Ed., 1987.

1.6.11

Hopkins, T. How to Master the Art of Selling. Warner Books, 1st Ed, 1982.

1.6.12

Ziglar, Z. Secrets of Closing the Sale. Fleming H. Revell Co., Old Tappen, New Jersey 1st. Ed, 1984.

1.6.13

SMACNA Retrofit of Building Energy Systems and Processes, SMACNA Inc., Chantilly, Virginia 1st Ed., 1982.

1.6.7

Gustavson, R.A., The Business of Energy Management-Doing it Right and Making Money at It. Gannam/Jubat Publishing, Inc., Brea, California, 1st Ed., 1990.

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

1.25

CHAPTER 2

ENERGY MANAGEMENT RETROFIT

ENERGY MANAGEMENT RETROFIT

CHAPTER 2 2.1

INTRODUCTION

2.1.1

Building Energy Consumption

If an attempt to achieve energy conservation and energy management by use of the retrofit of building systems is to be successful, it must be made in full light of the many factors which affect energy consumption. Unless these factors are known and understood, changes made may result in achievements far short of expectations or may actually do more harm than good. Energy use in buildings is determined, basically, by climatic conditions of the area in which the building is located and the working environment and business equipment required by tenants. Neither of these factors is capable of any significant modification. Prior to 1973, the United States enjoyed the lowest relative energy costs in its history, having seen the price of electricity, for example, continuously decline since its introduction at the beginning of the century. Consequently, it was not surprising to see commercial buildings designed without constraints on energy consumption. The rapidly growing awareness of the finite nature of our energy supplies has brought about, for the most part, a change in design philosophy. The concurrent increasing cost of energy has done even more to alert building owners to the need for energy efficient buildings. However, the less efficient existing building stock is being replaced at a rate of only 2-3% per year, guaranteeing that a very large number of energy inefficient buildings will be in use for many years. DOE in its latest survey "Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992" underscores opportunities for contractors in existing buildings. Many businesses and institutions are starting to look to retrofitting for economic survival without governmental help. Current statistics lead to the prediction that the building and building systems retrofit industry will involve many billions of dollars over the next decade. Unlike conventional new construction where the SMACNA Contractor receives a small portion of the total contract award as a subcontractor, the retrofit market will allow them to become the prime contractor.

Each building will require a careful examination of its architectural characteristics and its mechanical systems before specific retrofit work can be recommended. Energy use patterns are also quite significant, and a detailed review of them will frequently reveal potential changes which will save energy without affecting the functions of the building or the comfort of its occupants. Nevertheless, certain universal approaches to the retrofit business exist which should be understood by Retrofit Contractors. The efficiency of energy use is determined by the three basic systems which comprise any functioning building. These are: *

Energized systems, such as those required for heating, cooling, lighting, ventilation, conveyance,business equipment operation, and so on;

* Nonenergized systems, such as floors, ceilings, walls, roof, windows (glazing), etc., and; * Human systems, comprising maintenance, operating and management personnel as well as tenants and other users. Each of these systems is capable of modification which can lead to a significant savings of energy. Because energized systems are those which utilize energy directly, however, the natural tendency is to concentrate energy conservation efforts in that area. To do so would be a mistake, however, because the efficiency of the equipment involved depends on numerous other factors. Effective energy systems retrofit requires that the entire pattern of energy consumption be analyzed so that changes made will be integrated into the system in full light of the interrelationships which exist and the various effect which will occur. Accordingly, the Retrofit Contractor must have a basic understanding of certain critical factors and the way in which they interact.

2.1.2

Heat Gain and Loss Factors

To start, the Retrofit Contractor should not think of heating and cooling simply in terms of adding or removing heat from the inside air to achieve a given temperature. To do so would ignore what

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2.1

really is involved in heating and cooling, namely, compensating either for heat loss or heat gain in a building. By visualizing heating and cooling in this light, it becomes evident that modification to heating and cooling can be directed at the heating and cooling system itself, as well as those factors which contribute to heat loss and heat gain. Heat loss and heat gain usually occur simultaneously in a building, although one usually far outweighs the other depending on the season involved. A building usually undergoes substantial heat loss during the heating season and substantial heat gain during the cooling season. Although climatic conditions - temperature, humidity, wind, solar radiation - are essentially responsible for this effect, the impact of these conditions can be modified substantially, as well be discussed. The factors which influence heat gain and heat loss are as follows: * Infiltration: Infiltration involves passage of outside air into the building through apertures such as cracks around windows and door jambs, doors left open, damper blades, etc. The amount of infiltration depends on the impact of the wind on the building and the integrity of construction. In large multistory buildings, infiltration is increased due to a stack effect which occurs when warmer air which is lighter - rises to the upper portions of the building. During the heating season, infiltration contributes to heat loss because cold infiltrated air must be heated to maintain desired comfort conditions. During the cooling season, infiltration contributes to heat gain because the warmer infiltrated air must be cooled to maintain desired comfort conditions. * Transmission: Transmission refers to the amount of heat transmitted into the building or from it through the various components of the building envelope, including exterior walls, windows, and doors; roof; floor, etc. Transmission contributes to heat gain or heat loss depending upon the difference between indoor and outdoor temperature in accordance with the basic principal of heat flow which states that heat always is conducted from an area of higher temperature to an area of lower temperature. Thus, during the heating season, indoor heat is transmitted through the walls to the exterior. During the cooling season, heat is transmitted inside. The rate of the

2.2

transmission depends upon the composition of the various materials utilized in construction of the building envelope, wind speed and temperature differences. * Ventilation: As with infiltration and transmission, ventilation contributes to heat gain or heat loss (and humidification/ dehumidification) depending upon the season involved. The ventilation system provides a building with fresh air by exchanging inside air for outside air. The rate of exchange is measured in cubic feet per minute (CFM). During the heating season, unconditioned cold air is brought into the building while an equivalent volume of warm air is exhausted. During the cooling season, cooled air is exhausted while warm air is brought in. Obviously, the greater the rate of ventilation, and the greater the difference between outside and inside temperature, the more energy will be consumed by the heating or cooling system to compensate for the heat gain or heat loss involved. * Lighting: Lighting contributes to a building's heat gain in direct proportion to the wattage of the lamps involved. The heat gain involved is sometimes beneficial during the heating season in that the heat from light sources supplements the heating system. During the cooling season, however, the cooling system must compensate for the heat of light. * Solar Heat: Solar heat, like the heat of light, contributes to heat gain throughout the year. The specific effect of solar heat depends on the geographical area involved, the intensity and direction of the rays, the materials which comprise the building envelope, the color and texture of exterior walls and roof, extent and type of solar controls, available shading, localized reflective surfaces, etc. * Equipment: Virtually all powered equipment including business machines, cooling equipment, appliances, building systems equipment, etc., contributes to heat gain because their motors or other elements generate heat. * Occupants: The number of people in a building or in a given area of a building can create a significant heat gain because human

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

beings give heat to room air whenever the temperature around them is below 98.6°F (36.6°C). They also contribute to moisture content of air through perspiration and exhalation. A building's total heat loss is equivalent to the amount of heat which the heating system must add to a given space in a given time to maintain a given temperature. The total heat gain is the amount of heat which the cooling system must remove from a given space in a given time to maintain a given temperature. In almost all cases, those factors which contribute negatively to heat loss and heat gain can be modified to a greater or lesser extent. Modification can reduce the load placed on heating and cooling equipment and so the energy required for the equipment's operation. Accordingly, while setting the thermostat to a lower or higher temperature than otherwise would be maintained may achieve savings, reliance on this technique alone could obscure the fact that additional savings could be achieved by modifying other factors, regardless of what temperature is desired. 2.1.3

System Modifications

Modifying heat gain/heat loss factors is not the only method available for reducing the amount of heating and cooling energy required. Adjustment and modification of the heating and cooling equipment itself can achieve substantial economies. It has been shown, for example, that heating and cooling systems of even the most modern buildings often have extensive inefficiencies, usually due to faulty installation, maintenance or operation. Correction of these inefficiencies - which will not require any significant expense - can result in substantial energy savings. Other modifications also can be made. Time clocks can be added to achieve automatic night and weekend setback for certain pieces of equipment. Controls can be added to regulate ventilation equipment more efficiently. New devices can be installed to transfer heat or cooling from exhaust air to incoming air, and control the amount of make-up air. In all cases, however, all modifications must be made in light of the various building systems involved and their effect upon each other. For example, certain energy conserving devices and techniques cannot be used because they may cause

malfunctions of tenant-required equipment, such as computers. Likewise, while the amount of lighting in a given area can be reduced permanently, the extent of reduction depends on the tasks being performed in the spaces involved, the type of persons performing the work, the ability to move desks and other furnishings to take advantage of available light in a move effective manner, the color and texture of walls, and so on. Similarly, more effective maintenance cannot be achieved unless elements of the human systems are in tune. Maintenance personnel are not likely to establish new, effective maintenance procedures unless they have direction from management. Nor are new operating procedures likely to have continuing effect unless those in charge of building operation are continually willing to do the work, and management is willing and able to continually monitor the effectiveness of the work. Human systems also can have an impact on tenant requirements, not so much in terms of changing requirements, but rather in terms of modifying the way in which systems are used to meet requirements. In other words, tenants can be encouraged to turn off lights when a room is unoccupied; to close all exterior doors securely; to close windows when heating or cooling systems are in operation, etc. 2.1.4.

The Retrofit Contractor

According to a well-known design engineer, "There is lots of talk about energy conservation, and 'retrofit' is a wonderful word which only a few understand and to which hardly anyone is paying attention." SMACNA Contractors can spend a great deal of time talking about retrofit, answering inquiries, chasing leads - all without earning a profit. Most of the larger companies and industries, that could be potential customers, have made some "cosmetic" energy conservation moves which do not involve large capital expenditures. Some of these potential customers have installed a limited amount of energy recovery equipment or have made changes (retrofit) to existing facilities or systems only when the cost payback period was extremely short. However, there ultimately will be a tremendous retrofit and energy conservation market as energy and fuel prices continue to escalate. Many SMACNA Contractors that do design and build

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work already are into retrofit work, especially that concerning HVAC systems. Most are reluctant to "go all the way", i.e., act as the prime contractor and contract for a turn-key energy conservation retrofit job including the electrical work and building envelope. This is because they historically have been subcontractors. It is hard to argue with success, but . . many SMACNA contractors need

to become Retrofit Contractors if they are to prosper. This chapter has been developed as a guide to the total retrofit job and to the many possibilities that exist in energy conservation related fiends. To obtain a better understanding initially of systems outside the HVAC field, the Retrofit Contractor might team-up with other contractors and engineers until the necessary degree of expertise is developed. However, throughout this chapter, the use of "retrofit team" and "Retrofit Contractor" will be more or less interchangeable, but for the most part, the "retrofit team" will mean the technicians working on the job, instead of a team of contractors and engineers. 2.2

ENERGY MANAGEMENT OPPORTUNITIES

buildings were built before 1980. Those that claim that the energy management opportunities are in larger builds would be shocked to see that the survey showed that over 55 percent of the buildings had less that 5000 square feet (465m2). From the geographical perspective, the South had the largest percentage of buildings followed by the Midwest, West, and Northeast. When looking at the split between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas the percentage were 64 to 36 percent for exiting commercial buildings. Owner occupied buildings represent over 66 percent; with 12.5 percent government owned; 17 percent nonowner occupied; and a 4 percent vacancy. Of the government buildings, nearly 72 percent were local government which amount to 431,000. If a contractor was interested in the government market, the local government buildings would be a good source of business. Looking at the stock of existing commercial buildings from the mechanical perspective, the survey found just over 59 percent of the buildings were fully heated and nearly 35 percent were fully cooled. Further examination of the survey reveals that whether the contractor goes for heating or cooling equipment retrofit, the stock of existing older commercial buildings with heating and cooling systems is vast. This potential is available and waiting to be cultivated. Ducted air systems represent the largest number of buildings for cooling. Refrigeration and water heating equipment are found in 20 and 73 percent respectively of the buildings.

This part of the market has been characterized by strong growth over the years and the outlook for the future looks even better for the retrofit contractor. As building owners adjust for the over abundance of larger number of newer buildings, they find that the older buildings must be upgraded. The upgrading is related to both the building exterior and building systems. A recent survey by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) of existing buildings revealed building characteristics and energy profiles. This survey which is called "Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992" characterized existing commercial buildings and the potential for the retrofit.

Looking at the mix of energy sources that are used in existing buildings, finds that natural gas is used the most in primary space heating. From the cooling perspective, electricity is used the most. It was interesting to find that both electric and natural gas water heating in existing commercial buildings was nearly the same from the number of buildings.

As of 1992, there were 4,800,000 commercial buildings in the U.S. with an increase in total buildings in this area of 6.1 percent since the last survey in 1989. From the square foot basis, the mercantile and service category and the office category each represent about 18 percent which is the largest of all categories. From the stand point of largest percent by the number of buildings, the mercantile and service category had nearly 26 percent. Nearly 80 percent of the commercial

The survey found that the larger the building the more likely it was found to have conservation or energy management features. Newer buildings were found to have more energy management and control systems than older ones. But, the older buildings had used shell improvements such as insulation and improved windows. Demand side management programs were used by only seven percent of the buildings. These programs which are offered by electric and gas utilities represented

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Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

only four percent of all buildings which indicates that three percent of the programs were nonutility. The potential for demand side management systems is great for the commercial building based on this study. By the mid 90's, it is predicted that the energy management and retrofit business could reach the mid teens in the billions of dollars. The contractor must seize the opportunity that is out there.

2.3

THE ENERGY AUDIT

In order to provide an energy audit, there is a need for obtaining initial cooperation. There hardly is an owner or manager unwilling to save costs on the operation of his building, but they have to be shown how energy can be conserved, and they must be convinced that whatever investments they make will carry a reasonable rate of return or payback. Producing dollars and cents estimates will take some time and analysis, based on energy consumption data, and measurements or observations in the building. Most building owners will hesitate to contract for any energy audit without having some idea of the potential outcome. The owner also should be assured that all proposals, made from the energy audit for the ensuring retrofit work, will be evaluated economically to show expected payback periods. 2.3.1.

Obtaining Initial Cooperation

Once the word to proceed with a complete energy audit is given by the owner, it is most important to obtain the confidence and support of the building manager, the operating and maintenance personnel, the clerical staff, and any building tenants. The manager, having the responsibility as the go-between of the owner and the operating personnel, must realize the objectives of the conservation program and be committed to its execution if it is to be successful. The manager will also hold down the barriers against the "outside" people of the retrofit team. The building employees should be made to understand the contribution of conservation and, in turn, that this conservation will increase profits and thus affect their jobs. The Retrofit Contractor or retrofit team, on the other hand, must evaluate conservation efforts to minimize effects on the people using the building, and with the building manager, arrive at acceptable comfort and lighting requirements.

This is needed not only to obtain the commitment and assistance required for initial tasks, but also to lay the foundation for the cooperation which will be needed in actual implementation of the full retrofit program. To fragment authority at the top is to confuse the lines of authority and communication stemming from above. This could affect adversely the coordination and cooperation required to implement and continue the program in an effective, expeditious manner. * Owner: Cooperation must be obtained from the owner. While the owner is likely to approve in principle any attempt to conserve energy and energy costs, they may balk at having to outlay initial funds for a professional survey as suggested by this manual. The owner, therefore, must be shown the benefits which will accrue. The owner must be convinced that the expenditure of funds will be a wise investment, especially since some of the most effective energy conservation measures are those which require no capital investment. In certain cases it may be necessary to '"jump the gun" a bit and prepare an Energy Management Form (discussed in the following section) which may indicate that the energy consumption of his building is comparatively high. * Manager: The building manager must be committed to the retrofit program, and must believe firmly in its effectiveness. If they do not, then the direction which must come from them will not be what is required. The manager has the difficult responsibility of being between the owner, who wants results, and the operating and maintenance personnel, who in many cases will be producing the results. The manager must strive to develop an overall spirit of cooperation, therefore, and to take those actions which are necessary to maintain this spirit throughout the energy audit A testing program and the retrofit work. conducted to determine the effectiveness of this manual showed that, when building management rather than the operating engineer alone directs the program, far more areas of concern are addressed and potential savings are expanded accordingly. * Maintenance and Operating Personnel: It is especially important to obtain the cooperation of maintenance and operating personnel early in the project. They are the ones who, in large measure, will be implementing many of the changes which will be required. In most cases,

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these changes will mean altering what have become habits over many years. Perhaps even more important, some operating and maintenance personnel tend to regard initial energy audit procedures as a questioning of their capability. Experience has shown that, when an outside person is brought in to conduct an initial survey, they often are met with hostility and evasiveness. It may be advisable to explain the undertaking not so much in terms of "doing things better," but rather in terms of "doing things differently." An effort should be made to convince operating and maintenance personnel of the great contribution they can make to energy conservation; that energy conservation can affect profitability, and that profitability can affect all jobs. In some cases, of course, union agreements in force define specifically who is responsible for what, hours of employment, and related factors. When it is found that such agreements will be counterproductive to the goal of energy conservation, an effort should be made to work with the union involved to establish fair and equitable modifications to agreements which will help make maximum energy savings possible. * Clerical Staff: Clerical staff, or whoever is involved in developing base year data for establishment of base year EUI (discussed in the following section), must cooperate to the fullest. They must be willing to spend the extra time which may be required to find all the data required and to be sure that it is accurate. The importance of their contribution must be shown to them. This same attention to detail will be required later during implementation of the retrofit work and when data must be collected and reported on a monthly basis. * Tenants: It usually will not be necessary to obtain the cooperation of tenants during the initial phase of energy audit operations unless the data required only can be obtained from them. As the project progresses, however, tenants will become more and more involved, beginning usually with conduct of the survey, more frequent inspections of facilities, requests for operational modifications, etc. In certain cases prevailing lease agreements may set certain standards which cover matters such as energy consumption and payment, lighting levels to be provided, heating, cooling conditions to be maintained, and so on. When a lease such as this will limit the degree of energy and energy dollar

2.6

savings possible, every effort should be made to work with the lessee to make modifications to lease requirements - including costs, when appropriate - that will make application of the retrofit work more effective. It should be stressed that modification to be made will not in most cases change system performance. As examples, a lighting system can be kept highly effective - in some cases can be made even more effective although certain lamps and/or luminaries are removed. Likewise, heating and cooling energy requirements can be reduced substantially without altering the customary temperature in the space involved. The Retrofit Contractor may find it advisable, once owner cooperation and commitment are assured, to have the manager call together all staff personnel including clerical assistants and operating and maintenance personnel - to explain the undertaking on which they are about to embark; the contribution which can be made to the overall national goals of energy self-sufficiency, and the goals which can be achieved in terms of energy cost savings. 2.3.2.

Setting Conservation Goal

Virtually all tasks that are undertaken have goals to provide direction, have a means to measure results, and have guidance for redirection of efforts. The most generally accepted way of doing this is to state goals in terms of reductions of energy use over previous levels. To do this, of course, it is necessary to establish exactly what the previous levels were. Research undertaken by several associations and the Department of Energy (DOE) has shown that an effective way of stating previous levels is in terms of BTUs per gross conditioned square foot, which is called the Energy Utilization Index, or EUI. The instrument used to collect the data required is the Energy Management Form. The form can become a very valuable component of an energy management program because it is applicable to more than goal-setting and monitoring. Additional applications of the completed form will assist in areas such as: * * * *

Direction of Effort Basis for Comparison Rate Savings Estimating

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Operational Overview

The Energy Management Form normally is based on a 12-month period. It is suggested for ease of data collection and analysis that a previous calendar year be utilized as the base. Although any 12-month period will do - preferably a 12month period during which energy conservation measures were not undertaken - the calendar year approach will eliminate potential confusion in data collection and reporting. Initial data can come either from the owner's records (assuming utility bill receipts are retained) or from those of the utility companies involved. The completed Energy Management Form with base-year data will give an overview of the energy consumption patterns of the building. The initial energy conservation goal can now be established. Experience has shown that the initial goal can be set in terms of a quantity, for example, a 10% or 12% reduction. (Note that the reduction is in terms of energy usage and not energy costs. It is very possible to reduce consumption but still see energy costs rise with high rate increases. The quantity selected should not be simply "picked from a hat." It should be a realistic, preliminary amount made in light of business objectives, economics, financial resources, personnel resources, existing methods of building operation and maintenance, and existing uses of energy and potential for conservation. Once the building survey is complete, the energy conservation goal can become more specific. As already mentioned, it is difficult to compare energy consumption from one year to the next without taking into consideration those varying climatological factors - temperature, wind, humidity, precipitation, cloud cover, etc. - which have an impact primarily on a building's heating, ventilating and cooling system. What is needed, obviously, is some means whereby climatological factors can be indexed and then integrated with consumption data so energy consumption in the base year, or during a portion of the base year, can be compared to a subsequent year or period on the basis of identical climatological conditions. Although a substantial amount of research is going on to develop some type of simple conversion factor or easily utilized tables and charts, none now exists. As a result, one of two methods can be used which will result in a reasonable basis for

comparison. The first method is to contact the local utility company. In most cases material on climatic factors is readily available utilizing the degree day method - adjusted for local conditions. Members of the utility's energy management staff can review data concerning the building and give a reasonably accurate appraisal of how the EUI data can be adjusted for the impact of weather. The second method, which can be used in conjunction with the first, requires the gathering of historical energy consumption data on the building for approximately the past five years. Obtain data on heating and cooling degree days for the area of the building for the same period from the National Climatic Center, Asheville, North Carolina. Analyze the relationship between heating and cooling degree days (and other weather factors) and energy consumption in the building (assuming that the HVAC system, load and operating and maintenance practices have remained relatively unchanged over the period under review). The more detailed the review, the more accurate the adjustments to the data can be. The Building Survey

2.3.3.

A building survey and "walk-through" (primary energy audit) is absolutely fundamental to the successful development and implementation of an energy systems retrofit program. It is essential that the survey be made by a team who knows exactly what they are looking for and who can present findings in an unbiased manner. The retrofit team that conducts the survey should obtain a copy of the architectural, mechanical and electrical design drawings and specifications to familiarize themselves with the building's configuration and design as well as electrical and mechanical systems and equipment layout, operation and control. If such drawings are not available, it may be necessary to develop single-line diagrams of existing mechanical and electrical systems. The team also should be given access to any written maintenance and operating procedures manuals supplied by equipment manufacturers or original building design professionals. They also should be familiar with utility rate schedules as well as any materials which relate to any planned building modernization programs and their applications.

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Once the retrofit team has familiarized themselves with the various building systems and equipment data, the next step is to conduct a walk-through survey. Obviously, if the building is not owneroccupied, it first will be necessary to obtain the approval and full cooperation of tenants. Whenever a possible change is such that a significant capital outlay is involved, and/or that the retrofitting possibly may result in closing a portion of the building for a period of time, or an action of similar impact, it is suggested strongly that the action be justified by means of a feasibility study. Such studies will provide the full, in-depth information required to base a decision on all relevant facts. While the retrofitting opportunities which are subject to feasibility studies may be mentioned in a report, the feasibility study itself usually is far more detailed and prepared subsequent to review of the initial study, in full light of other alternatives which exist. The walk-through or primary audit is intentionally time limited to a day or two. Two sets of items are compiled; recommendations and "maybe's" or "what if's."

When developing recommendations

only those items that are clearcut in terms of being both energy effective and cost effective are considered. Some typical ones include things like using smaller light bulbs, night setback thermostats, or time clocks. The recommendations will include things where there are no arguments, that everybody knows works well and that are both cost and energy effective. Inevitably it turns out in a walk-through audit that the list of "what if's" or "maybe's" is frequently longer than the list of recommendations. The best return can be realized for the time, effort and money spent in a walk-through audit. Table 2-1 shows estimates of the time it takes for the retrofit team to do a walk-through audit, broken down into two broad categories; a small simple building and a large complex building.

TABLE 2-1 Time Estimates For Walk Through Audits

A detailed or secondary energy audit may also be called a "crawl-through" audit. The first item for the retrofit team is a more detailed energy use evaluation, which should include looking at hourly energy data available from the utility company. Then start with a walk-through audit to become familiar with the building and its systems, and examine the building construction plans and whatever other information is available, such as shop drawings, operator's logs, operating manuals, design plans, especially looking at the mechanical systems, the areas that they serve and the manner in which they are controlled. Then start examining the building and its systems carefully. This is what takes a lot of time. Keep in mind4the relationship between the performance of what-is being looked at and the consumption that has been established in the energy use evaluation. Where something appears to be done efficiently, or where the energy consumption is small, don't waste a lot of time. But where there appears to be potential waste or better ways of doing things, that's where the time and effort should be spent. Next it is necessary to determine the energy savings and the cost associated with each possibility. These calculations can be done either manually, by using a computer program or by guessing. Experienced energy auditors are finding more and more that they use computer programs less and less, because the precision is not needed. So much of estimating energy use and energy savings in buildings is based upon judgement and

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guessing of things like hours of operation. The use of the computer with all of its accuracy does not improve the accuracy of the energy estimates. The place for the computer in evaluating energy use in buildings is where there are very complex situations to evaluate, like cooling tower performance, or where there may be a long list of things to evaluate, because it's simply quicker and cheaper to use a computer than it is to do it manually. Probably over 90% of the energy audits done in existing buildings do not use a computer. The calculation of savings is done manually with relatively simple, straightforward techniques. It hardly pays to be anymore precise than this. So even though calculations can be made to within a few percent with engineering data, assumptions on the use of a building are only to within 10 to 20%. Therefore one cannot say that Item A is better than Item B because it has a shorter calculated payback. Hence, grouping recommendations in payback categories provides all of the precision necessary or attainable. Most building owners are quite willing to implement the no cost items, the quick payback items, and even some of the moderate cost items. It turns out to be worthwhile to take a one year pause or breather after implementing those things, since the quantity of energy that is really going to be saved can vary considerably, depending how good the estimates were, and depending upon how the building is used. Let the energy use of the building "settle down" and make a reevaluation of the more expensive items. It may well turn out that the actual amount of energy saved is much greater than predicted, making the potential savings from the high priced items much less and therefore not as worthwhile as originally thought. However, the retrofit team must follow up on the energy audit implementation by keeping track of energy use. Most utility companies will, with the owner's permission, send duplicate copies of utility bills every month. By plotting this data on an appropriate chart, it is possible to quickly and accurately see exactly how well the building is doing. That is the only way to find out what the answers are. An annual review of the energy performance, once changes have been implemented, will tend to confirm or deny the assumptions and calculations in the audit, thus improving the auditor's ability to make other projections of energy use.

In trying to compare the different types of energy audits that are used, it is necessary to know the cost to perform and the time involved in the audit, the energy savings that can be achieved and the capital cost that results from the recommendations of the audit. Some studies have been made to look at the effectiveness of different types of audits. One study looked at the walk-through audit, the generalized audit and the detailed audit. Generally speaking, the walk-through audit gives the building owner the biggest return for the audit dollar spent and the time spent. In a walk-through audit the cost is small and the energy cost savings per dollar spent are the most dramatic. For the largest energy savings, the detailed comprehensive energy audit provides the greatest savings. The return on the audit cost is not quite as great, it is still substantial and in most instances worthwhile. In order to maximize savings in comparison with cost, some audits end up somewhere between walk-through and detailed, in order to give the building owner enough information to establish an energy program and set up priorities for what they should accomplish. Few if any energy programs are accomplished in one fell swoop, like building a building. They take time, from months to years. Virtually all of the successful energy programs are continuing programs, not one shot. One law virtually all audits follow, is the "Law of Diminishing Returns." It seems that many auditors have forgotten about it. So one of the key pieces of information that is necessary when doing an energy audit for the financial benefit for the building owner, is a statement of how long that owner wants to wait to get his money back. Having determined that, it is possible to put together the most cost effective group of changes and modifications, all of which individually and collectively meet the criteria. The type of energy audit that should be used will depend on the relative energy performance of the building. If a building has very high energy consumption relative to the norm, probably a walkthrough audit should be done first in order to catch all of the obvious wastes of energy. The contractor should recommend a package of improvements that will give the best return on investment to the owner. This type of package will sell to owners and look for a maximum return to the owner rather than a maximum cost to the

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owner.

2.3.5.

However, in the Pacific Northwest where electricity is still around 50 a kilowatt hour and an all electric building has low or moderate energy consumption compared to the norm, the benefits resulting from an audit will tend to be small. But if that same building were located in New York City, where electricity is 100 to 120 a kilowatt hour, the likelihood of being able to achieve cost effective modifications is much better.

The Retrofit Contractor now must perform an analysis of the survey to identify actions which can be taken to effect energy conservation, provide details on those which are most feasible, and provide general information about those which probably will not be undertaken for a while, such as addition of heat recover equipment, etc.

2.3.4.

(a) Determine where energy inefficiencies and waste now exist.

Data Base

Examine existing documents for information, and in any event, make a thorough survey within the building of the mechanical and electrical systems which consume fuel or electricity. Determine their operating characteristics, physical condition, control sequences, materials of construction, capacity, size, and performance. Make an estimate of the amount of energy used annually by each of the subsystems. For a more accurate determination of energy use, equipment must be monitored and tested. Assume a mid-range rate of energy consumption and a regular program of starts, stops, and partloaded performance for each month to produce an estimate of the monthly and annual Btu and kWh for operation of equipment. This procedure will result in a more accurate budget of monthly and annual consumption for the following:

Using the Audit Data

The following can be used as guidelines:

(b) If a given piece of equipment is operating poorly, determine why. Is it because it needs adjustment, repair or replacement? Is not being maintained well? Is being operated improperly? (c) Determine where systems can be modified in accordancewith guidelines provided to achieve greater energy efficiency. In so doing, consider how the modifications should be made and what the effect will be on other systems related to it directly or indirectly. (d) Determine the problems which are likely to occur through implementation of actions, in terms of energized systems, nonenergized systems, human systems, tenant relationships, etc.

(a) Heat Energy to Provide: * Domestic Hot Water * Process and Comfort Heat

(e) Establish the cost of each alternative and the possible amount of time it will take to implement it from start to finish.

(b) Electric Energy to Serve: * Chillers * Illumination, Interior * Illumination, Exterior * Air Handling Motors * Fluid Handling Motors * Transportation Motors * Appliances and Process Devices * Miscellaneous

(f) Establish the amount of energy and/or money that will be saved if each item is implemented.

Compare the results from the computer or hand calculations with the preliminary assessment of use by each subsystem. Reassign existing energy use to subsystems as a data base for measuring the improved performance after completion of the retrofit work. 2.10

It is not possible to tell the retrofit team what their priorities should be because only they know the criteria which must be used as the basis for establishing them. Compounding the problem is the fact that criteria will be modified by existing conditions. For example, it would seem logical to say that an immediate priority would be to adjust, repair, or replace all faulty equipment, controls, and so on. But this may be a waste of time and expense if the piece of equipment involved should be replaced, or if the whole system should be modified, perhaps to the extent that the faulty piece of equipment would be unnecessary. In other words, in establishing priorities, all practical

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actions possible must be looked at to determine which alternatives will be most effective in light of the interrelationships which exist.

at all possible, initial contact and occasional continuing contact should be made in person. Follow-up contact can be made by telephone.

Cost, of course, is one of the essential priorities, but the way in which the subject can be approached depends, to a great degree, on an owner's attitude and financial position.

Experience has shown that maintenance and operating functions generally are carried out in a less-than-effective manner. This often is due not so much to the quality of labor, but rather to lack of knowledge of specific system and equipment capabilities; performance characteristics, available time and operating, maintenance and control procedures. In many cases, for example, a maintenance person or operating engineer will carry out a function in a certain way because "that's the way the person before me explained it," and "the person before" got it from the one before them, and so on, each providing instruction perhaps in a one- or two-day period, with each instruction being subject to faults of memory.

2.3.6.

Initialing the Retrofit Project

After the project is accepted by the owner, the owner first must be advised what specifically is to be done to effect energy conservation. This includes allocation of resources (manpower, money, etc.), development of policies and procedures to be followed, assignment of specific accountable responsibilities, obtaining cooperation of operating personnel and tenants, determining what changes need to be made to operating and maintenance procedures and schedules, noting which equipment is to be repaired, adjusted or replaced, and so on. Then prepare a master schedule which shows exactly what will be happening. Assign competent personnel to the various functions. Examine what is prepared for possible conflicts, such as having something scheduled during the week when it would interfere with the owner's business operations. Reschedule to avoid conflicts. Do not expect everything to run smoothly. There are bound to be problems; schedules not met; people who fail to do what they were supposed to, etc. By having a master schedule, however, you will be able to make adjustments relatively easily. As time moves on, you also will be able to develop even more specific monthly schedules, most of which will contain routine procedures refined through experience. (a) Obtaining Personnel Cooperation Methods for obtaining cooperation of personnel have been discussed earlier in this chapter. It cannot be emphasized enough, however, that all personnel involved must be reminded of the tremendous contribution they can make to the overall program. In working with specific individuals, however, gear the approach to the personality of the person involved. In most cases the retrofit team will find that some minor planning of the way in which an individual is approached will help to obtain his cooperation. If

To obtain full cooperation from personnel, and to help them turn their willingness to be of assistance into positive action, determine how they perform their functions now and where specific instruction is needed. Guidance is available from numerous equipment manufacturers who can sources: provide operating and maintenance manuals; pertinent publications and magazines; various manufacturer and supplier-sponsored courses; contractor- or engineer-prepared operating and maintenance instructions if none can be obtained elsewhere; specific maintenance schedules which spell out exactly what must be done and when, etc. Simply put, the retrofit team can obtain more cooperation from a person if he is not being frustrated by the fact that he does not have the specific tools and knowledge required to achieve the goals that are set. (b) Obtaining Tenant Cooperation Obtaining cooperation from tenants also was discussed briefly, because little is required through performance of a survey and related steps. In actual implementation, however, tenant cooperation can be of significant benefit. At the least the retrofit team will want tenants to cooperate to the point of permitting entrance for Greater routine inspection purposes. understanding will be required to obtain their cooperation in matters such as turning off equipment and lighting when not in use, closing securely all doors leading to the exterior, and related matters which involve, primarily, correction of wasteful habits. Even more effort will be

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required to obtain cooperation when certain operating changes are made or requested, such as lowering the thermostat during the heating season and raising it during the cooling season; requesting that stairways are used for one flight trips or having elevators stop on alternate floors only, turning off water fountains, etc. If in the past the owners communications with tenants was only to tell them to stop doing something which should not be done or to inform them of a rent increase, obviously it will be more difficult to obtain cooperation now. It is suggested the retrofit team first establish which changes will involve tenants, either directly or indirectly. Begin discussion with an explanation of the changes, expected energy cost savings and what the organization is preparing to do. Emphasize that many of the undertakings will require tenant cooperation. Identify each change which will affect tenants and explain what type effect is involved. Try to be as flexible as possible, especially when the items concerned are of relatively low priority. Where items are important, however, try to be as firm as possible. Under no circumstances should one merely send a letter stating that a given change will be made (whether the tenant likes it or not) and that the tenant can help by doing thus and so. Personal contact is essential. An explanation of what is being done is essential to the completion of the retrofit project. 2.3.7

Monitoring the Retrofit Program

Monitoring the retrofit program involves two distinct types of effort. The first type of effort consists of monitoring changes implemented in terms of the quality of implementation. If maintenance schedules need to be revised, for example, have the owner check with maintenance personnel to ensure that they can handle the revised schedule. Check on equipment being maintained to ensure that maintenance is being performed well. In essence, this is doing nothing more than following procedures of good management - making sure that those responsible for carrying out specific functions carry them out in the most effective manner. All changes implemented should be noted on the proper forms. Duplicate copies of operating and maintenance manuals and schedules and related information also should be kept on file should

2.12

replacement become necessary. The same holds for cost and inspection records. The second type of effort concerns monitoring the effectiveness of the program itself in terms of energy consumption. This can be done easiest through use of energy management forms. These forms will provide information on the entire system and on certain subsystems if the subsystem involved is the only subsystem which utilizes a certain form of energy. For example, if coal is used only for heating purposes, the amount of energy utilized for heating can be determined exactly by referring to coal consumption records. In most cases, however, subsystem information cannot be extracted easily from the energy management forms, nor is there any great need that subsystem information be determined precisely. If, however, it is felt that it is imperative to determine exactly how much energy specific subsystems consume, such as lighting, elevators, heating, cooling, etc., such information can be obtained either through temporary metering or conducting an empirical survey. Temporary metering involves actual metering of power being supplied by the various electrical feeders to the subsystems thereby establishing how much energy each subsystem utilizes. In more contemporary buildings, where individual subsystems are suppliedpower independently, such metering is a relatively simple undertaking. For older buildings, however, which typically have several systems operating from one feeder, the task is far more difficult, if not practically impossible. Even when contemporary buildings are involved, however, the cost of temporary metering although as mentioned a relatively simple task can be very high. The alternative to temporary metering is an empirical survey wherein the retrofit team surveys the building and its various subsystems to establish data on all connected loads, their usage and load factors, to determine subsystem energy consumption. The larger the building involved, the more difficult and expensive the task becomes. In either case, investment in subsystem monitoring will result in the ability to know which systems utilize energy; the ability to recapture energy costs or a portion of them from tenants and provides added incentive for tenants to cooperate in a program of energy conservation. While expense is involved, the exact amount required can be

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

determined only through preliminary investigation. In some cases, the payback period may be short enough to warrant immediate adoption of such an approach. The monitoring process, and the informationwhich results from it, should be utilized to keep the retrofit program as effective as possible by making improvements where data suggests improvement can be made. In addition, it is suggested that the program be made as permanent a part of the building management function as possible. This effort would include holding periodic meetings with building and management personnel to keep them abreast of accomplishments, setbacks, future planning, and so on as well as to request information and ideas which would benefit the program. Tenants should be treated in a similar manner to help ensure their involvement with the program and their continued willingness to make those efforts required to achieve conservation of energy.

2.3.8

Sell the Audit Rather Than Give it Away

Audits are a collection of time and effort on the part of the contractor and the building owner. The auditor has spent time and money on the audit depending on the type of building and building systems. From the building owner's perspective, they have spent time and directed their personnel to work with the auditors to collect the necessary data. Whether the audit was a "walk" through or detailed audit, the time range could be for example any where from a few hours to several days. Add to this, the cost of developing an audit report can increase the time spent on this project.

Now consider selling the audit rather than giving it away. The reason here is that if you give something away it is non considered worth anything. The cost of the audit with a report is relatively not expensive as compared to the potential energy savings. If the building owner agrees to proceed with the implementation of the recommendations, then roll the cost of the audit into the project. The audit in the eyes of the customer should be made to have value and it does. Prior to the audit, the prospect had only a subjective view of the building systems but after the audit that changed. A value was added to the

building owners understanding of the systems via the audit.

2.3.9

Computerized Credibility

Printouts

Lend

There are many situations where the Retrofit Contractor could evaluate energy conservation in existing buildings through use of simulation-type computer programs. Generally, these programs are most effective in larger buildings with more complex mechanical and electrical systems. Buildings under 25,000 to 50,000 square feet (2322 to 4644m2) do not usually justify this approach. For smaller, simpler buildings, the more traditional manual analytic approach to energy analysis should suffice. The major advantages to computer simulation include the ability to: * * * *

Handle complex situations. Evaluate many alternatives. Evaluate concepts which could have both positive and/or negative energy impacts. Predict the relative magnitude of energy use.

Once simulation of a building has been made, it becomes a simple matter to evaluate any number of alternatives such as changes in control settings, occupancy, equipment performance, and so forth. Computer simulation programs do not do anything that the Retrofit Contractor cannot do with an electronic calculator. There are a wide variety of programs available with widely varying costs, degrees of complexity, and easy of use. (a) General Procedure The first thing is to obtain whatever energy consumption data is available for a 2 or more year period. This data only tells what went into the building on a gross basis. It is nearly impossible to determine when and how the energy was used and what it was used for, unless there is extensive submetering. In many existing buildings it may be necessary and desirable to install such meters, even if for just a few days in order to determine when and where the energy is going. It is also necessary to determine the thermal and electrical character of the building and its energy consuming systems as a function of ambient

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conditions, time, and occupancy. Most computer programs give you the ability to utilize as much detailed information as one can get on the building and its mechanical and electrical systems. Probably the most difficult information to obtain is on the occupancy of the building. Since most of the energy analysis computer programs simulate the building on an hourly basis for a one year period, it is necessary to know how the building is used for each of those 8,760 hours. This frequently means going through the entire building during days, nights, and weekends to see what energy-consuming systems are being used and to what degree. Weather data for use in the simulation should be selected. Usually a year of actual hour-by-hour weather data is used. It is recommended that a procedure for selecting a "test weather year", or the actual weather data for the year for which energy consumption data is available may be chosen. Where the energy consuming nature of the building is such that it is dependent on weather information not usually sensed, such as entropy, or cloud cover, the selection of weather data can be a significant factor. Examples where this is important include buildings that have large expanses of glass and those that use large quantities of outside air. For those buildings whose energy use is primarily a function of ambient dry bulb temperatures, such as housing, the selection of weather data is not nearly so critical.

building, then use an energy biased towards systems. 2.

The amount of money that is to be spent for computer calculations must be determined. The cost of computer time and data compiling varies widely from program to program, and is not related necessarily to program complexity. The Retrofit Contractor should obtain estimates of run time from the program author.

3.

The Retrofit Contractor should check inhouse capabilities. Some programs are only available for use on in-house computers while others can be used either in-house or as remote batch or time sharing. Still others are limited to use only on the author's computer operated by the author's personnel. Obtain information on program application and availability from program authors.

4.

There are a number of computer programs that the contractor can use such as DOE 2, NEMI, BLAST, TRACE, ELITE, and E20-II to name a few. Refer to the ASHRAE Journal's HVAC & R Software Directory for a listing of programs.

2.4

PERFORMANCE IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION

(b) Program Selection The choice of a computer program must be made on the basis of the Retrofit Contractor's needs, his expertise, and his in-house capabilities. The following items should help to establish these facts: 1.

The Retrofit Contractor must determine the degree of sophistication that is required. If the problem is to evaluate various system designs, then the appropriate design program will suffice and the choice should be limited strictly to programs dealing with the particular type of system. If the problem is to evaluate energy use of alternative building shapes and construction, then use an energy program biased towards buildings. Conversely, if the problem is to evaluate various system reactions in a given 2.14

In the performance identification and evaluation stage the contractor is to provide HVAC, lighting and electric system field checks. In addition the domestic hot water is checked along with other systems such elevators, escalator, etc. Environmental and safety considerations along with building codes and standards are investigated. 2.4.1.

HVAC System Field Checks

In order to evaluate the operation of any HVAC system, its operational data must be collected and compared with established efficiency parameters accepted by the industry. This will require a number of field measurements and inspections of the present system to determine if it matches the installation drawings and to obtain the actual operational levels. Faults in the installation, design, or application of the system to the

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

requirements of the building may be found. This type of inspection also may point to maintenance and operational procedures that will need to be changed to allow the system to operate at its maximum efficiency. In other words the Retrofit Contractor must find out what they have to work with, whether the system has the ability to meet the load demands and what is needed to improve its operational level. It is important that the information for this survey be factual and accurate. Exact readings of actual operating conditions will be the most important part of any evaluation of the HVAC system. From these readings and inspections, important decisions will be made. In some cases considerable amounts of money may be involved if equipment is replaced, upgraded, or altered to achieve the ultimate energy conservation goal. After the Retrofit Contractor has evaluated their initial inspection and operational data, they should recommend to the owner what changes are necessary to operate the systems at an acceptable energy consumption level before the recommended retrofit work is started. The initial data will be used again to re-evaluate the system after all work is complete, to prove to the owner that what has been done has accomplished the objectives. The final operational study again must be as factual and complete as the initial one, because at this point the owner will be able to compare the amount of energy used before and after the retrofit project. A complete balancing and adjusting of the system also will be necessary after the retrofit work to properly fine tune the system to the various requirements of individual occupancy and space uses of the building. In most cases improvements to the building structure will have decreased the loads in various areas which will effect the required amount of heating or cooling. 2.4.2.

Lights and Checks

Electric

System

Field

quantity of illumination required to perform their various tasks and functions. Before undertaking any change, the Retrofit Contractor must recognize that a lighting system is just that - a system. Its many elements all are inter-related with one another, just as the lighting system itself is inter-related with other systems in the building. While energy can be conserved by properly removing lamps and luminaries, realize that such action should be taken only after the entire system has been analyzed and all options evaluated. While conservation of energy is important, it must be achieved in a manner consistent with other requirements, including those of productivity and visual comfort, aesthetics, and all federal, state, and local codes and ordinances. Moreover, it is especially important to recognize that major alterations to a lighting system can have a significant impact on heating and cooling systems, most of which were designed to consider the amount of heat given off by the lighting system as originally designed. Utilities have different rate structures and, in many cases, more than one may be applicable to the building or buildings in question. However, the utility does not automatically bill the customer at the most favorable rate. In other words, if a new rate structure has been instituted since the building was built, and if a new rate can be used in the building it will be up to the Retrofit Contractor to investigate and determine whether or not the new rate is more favorable. The utility will tell you, but only if you ask. As a result, it is suggested that the Retrofit Contractor gather all information pertaining to purchased utilities, especially the electric utility. In many cases, it will be discovered that a more favorable rate is available or can be made available, errors in billing have been made, meters are not working properly, or that other situations and circumstances exist which can be changed to attain reductions in the costs of energy. 2.4.3.

Most existing lighting systems were designed within the restrictions of initial cost economies, without knowledge about final space use and subdivision, and without benefit of relatively recent developments and research findings in the field. For this reason, there exists significant potential for the modification of lighting systems that can reduce substantially the energy consumed by the lighting system (and associated costs) while still providing building occupants with the quality and

Domestic Hot Water

Heat losses from uninsulated hot water system distribution piping (or heat gains from uninsulated chilled water system distribution piping) can be substantial. The magnitude of these losses depends on the temperature difference between the exposed pipe and the ambient air surrounding the pipe, the pipe size, and the length of the system piping.

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Exposed domestic hot water piping in basements and equipment rooms is relatively simple to insulate. Piping in ceiling spaces may also be readily accessible by removing ceiling panels. Preferably, the entire piping system should be insulated, but inaccessible portions may be left bare provided that they are a small percentage of the total system piping. The loss of heat from the domestic hot water storage tank must be offset continuously by the addition of heat to maintain a ready supply of hot water. This heat loss occurs 24 hours per day whether the building is occupied or not. Insulate bare tanks and apply additional insulation to tanks as needed. Applicable codes should be checked to determine acceptability of various insulation materials. Also consider using larger storage tanks with a peak load avoidance control. Storage tanks should be sized to retain a hot water supply sufficient to tide the building over the peak power usage hours. The size is determined by the expected demand over the 4 to 6 or more peak hours as defined by the utility. Consider the use of separate hot water heaters to replace either a central circulation system, or a separate hot water heater for summer generation of domestic hot water where the heating system boilers provide the primary heat for the domestic hot water system. Also review the HVAC systems to determine the availability of waste heat that could be used with some type of heat recovery exchanger to generate domestic hot water. Many areas of the building can use very low temperature hot water in contrast to kitchen areas where higher temperature hot water is needed. 2.4.4.

Comfort Chilled and Hot Water

These systems are made up of components which need to be evaluated before a proposal can be made to the building owner. Performance identification of comfort chilled and hot water systems gives the contractor the information needed to prepare the proposal. These inspections provide the contractor an opportunity to survey the equipment and system to determine what is needed. Any comfort chilled or hot water system will require that the piping, pumps, chillers, cooling towers, heat exchangers, and boilers be checked. Measurement of system parameters is a basic requirement for the contractor and they are also

2.16

looking at how the systems are operated. Temperature control equipment must also be reviewed to determine what are the points of operation. After the systems are evaluated based on the initial inspection, then recommendations should be made to the owner. There should be a comparison of energy usage before and after the system retrofit is made. Along with the changes made, the systems needed to be re-balanced. 2.4.5.

Other Systems

Other systems need to be checked such as elevators and escalators for potential energy conservation options. Also, there are many energy conservation opportunities when thermal storage systems are coupled with conventional heating and cooling systems. This merger provides a means toward the conservation of energy and capital investment. Solar energy obviously has tremendous potential because the energy is free. Unfortunately, the systems required to harness that energy are not free, and in retrofit work, the existing building often does not lend itself to the installation of solar systems. Because the initial investment required to install a solar energy system is significantly higher than that required for conventional systems, special care is necessary to insure that life-cycle cost economics are determined accurately. Finally, an alternative to purchased utility power, is on-site or cogeneration electrical power generation using generators driven by combustion turbines or engines. For an on-site power plant to qualify as a total energy plant, the heat energy that normally is lost when electricity is being generated must be recovered and put to useful work.

2.4.6.

Environmental Considerations

and

Safety

As the energy retrofit program progresses it inevitably will begin to interface with any building or plant pollution control program, and certain energy conservation changes will affect the safety and health conditions in the buildings. In the vast majority of cases, retrofit work will enhance the pollution control for a manufacturing facility, and many energy savings steps have been instigated under pollution control programs. In a few cases, however, retrofit changes may create a local pollution problem if the appropriate measures are not taken as the changes are made. Insofar as

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

energy conservation work usually results in better control of processes, better insulation of equipment and piping with the elimination of hot surfaces, and containment of energy losses in escaping hot fluids, there may be a real gain in plant safety.

2.4.7.

Building Codes and Standards

Whenever retrofit work is implemented, specific and careful consideration must be given to the various local or state codes, occupational regulations pertaining to health and safety, and laws and ordinances or directives which regulate building construction, operation, maintenance, repair and use. The following information should be useful in understanding and determining specific building regulations applicable to any retrofit work undertaken in any particular building. Building Regulations are diverse and complex and they are enforced by many regulatory agencies at different levels of township, city, county, state and federal government. Depending on the size of the jurisdiction, the delegation of authorities, administrative practices and technical expertise available, responsibility and enforcement may be well defined or regulations may be loosely applied. In some instances, building regulations may be vague, they may contradict each other and they may be outmoded. Often, regulations adopt other regulations by reference, frequently with some modifications or exceptions. Some regulations have stipulated requirements that indirectly, adversely effect energy conservation, while other, more recent regulations specifically address energy The variety of jurisdictions, conservation. regulations, procedures and interpretations makes compliance complicated and without uniformity. Yet, with a general understanding of building regulation law and a general knowledge of how, when and by whom these regulations are applied, owners, managers and tenants can be assisted by achieving compliance and energy conservation. Building regulations are sets of legal requirements having to do with the physical structure of new and existing buildings. These regulations are adopted to accomplish and promote the public health, safety and general welfare. There is a recognized principle in the regulation of private property that every person ought to use his property so as not to injure that of his neighbor and that private

interests must be subordinated to the general interest of the community. The authority to promulgate and enforce regulations lies with each state. In many instances, that authority has been delegated to other jurisdictions within a state townships, cities, counties. The effectiveness of the control which building regulations have over the construction, occupancy, operation, maintenance, repair and alteration of buildings largely depends upon issuing permits and licenses, and upon inspections. Buildings can be subject to inspections at any time. Permits and licenses are often, but not always, required. A structure, including all the systems within it, is required to comply with the regulations in force at the time it is erected. In most circumstances, it is not required that buildings or systems be changed every time building regulations are revised. A newly installed or modified system will be required to conform to current regulations. When a structure undergoes major remodeling or renovation, the entire building and all systems within it may be required to comply with current regulations. In general, the duty to comply rests with the one in possession and in control, or the one who undertakes the planning and construction. An owner cannot evade his duty to comply by leasing the building. A building owner or managing agent can insist a tenant make corrections to conform to building regulations, but the ultimate responsibility lies with the owner and his agents. Building regulations may provide that a licensed architect or engineer certify conformity with the regulations. Where defects of construction or departures from construction plans are in violation of building regulations because of the architect's or engineer's lack of skill in preparing plans or negligence in supervision, the architect or engineer is liable and responsible. Where such violations are solely the fault of a construction contractor, that contractor is responsible. 2.5

BUILDING SYSTEMS

The retrofit of building systems cuts across many facets that provide potential for the contractor. An examination of each of these areas revealed opportunities for suggesting retrofits to building owners. The building systems that need to be considered are:

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* Building Structure * HVAC * Domestic Water * Computer Facilities * Commercial Refrigeration * Sound and Vibration * Energy Recovery * Control and Monitoring * Electrical 2.5.1

Envelope

Nationwide, the systems that consume the most energy in order of magnitude are: * * * * *

Heating and Ventilating; Lighting; Air Conditioning (cooling); Equipment and Process; and Domestic Hot Water.

However, dependingupon the climate, the building construction, use and mode of operation, and the type, control and efficiency of the mechanical and electrical equipment, the relative order of magnitude of energy use among the first three systems will change. Reducing the heating and cooling loads in a building allows a similar reduction in the amount of energy that is necessary to provide comfort conditions in the building. The building envelope and the heating and cooling load calculations therefore shouldbe examined carefully to determine whether improvements can be made to reduce the heating and cooling requirements. Many buildings were built with appearance as the major design function at a time when energy costs were extremely low. Improvements are not only possible, but necessary to reduce the energy transmission values of the building envelope and to adjust them to the point at which decided savings can be made on the energy requirements of the building. The amount of energy required for domestic hot water is significant in hospitals, housing, and athletic or cooking facilities. In many areas of the country, the amount of energy to heat water is second only to space heating in the north and air conditioning in the south. Religious buildings and public halls which frequently include meeting rooms, offices, and school facilities, are most likely to consume energy in the same pattern as office buildings in the same 2.18

geographic location; but in smaller quantities per square foot of floor area because of usage levels. In those retail stores with high levels of general illumination and display lighting and/or a large niumber of commercial refrigeration units, the electrical load is the greatest consumer of energy. In climatic zones with mild climates, the seasonal cooling load may be larger than the seasonal heating load and may even consume more energy depending upon the respective efficiencies of each system. In office buildings, schools and retail stores in this zone, the electrical load for lighting, which is relatively independent of climate, may exceed either heating or cooling. Buildings used for only a few hours per week, however, may consume more energy for heating unless indoor temperatures are set back during unoccupied periods. In cold climates, heating usually consumes the most energy per year in office buildings and schools with lighting and then cooling next. For retail stores in that zone, the most likely order of energy use is lighting - heating - cooling, or lighting - cooling - heating. Generally in this

zone, heating consumes the most energy for religious buildings or other buildings used only a few hours per week. Over all zones, heating and cooling are the greatest energy usage followed by electricity. In the mid-range climates, the order of magnitude of energy by systems largely depends upon the type of mechanical and electrical systems and the characteristics of the building structure in which they are installed. The energy required for industrial buildings, exclusive of process loads, is generally similar in all zones to commercial buildings. 2.5.2

HVAC Systems

Section 2.4 - "Performance Identification and Evaluation" discussed a complete performance evaluation of the mechanical systems in a building. In this case, the Retrofit Contractor now should know how much energy is being consumed to produce the amount of cooling, heating, domestic hot water, lighting, and general building services that the building in its present condition requires along with the efficiency of each portion. The first part of this section then discussed the building

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

envelope modifications that could be made to reduce the exterior heat gains and losses.

in existing buildings.

If the present HVAC systems are to be retained, then each part of the HVAC system performance should be examined carefully. The supply air fans should be producing an airflow sufficient to handle the sensible heat requirements of the cooling load calculation. The leaving air temperatures from the coils should be adequate to handle the heating, cooling, and dehumidifying loads. Cooling towers and air cooled condensers should be able to reject sufficient heat to keep head pressures of the refrigeration systems to reasonable levels so that the compressors can operate with lowest amount of electrical energy input. Economizer systems should be adjusted correctly to provide the right mixture of outside and return air to effectively cool the space under all conditions. All temperature controls should be calibrated and set to the point of greatest system efficiency. If a'good HVAC system is equated to a fine symphony orchestra, it can have the best musicians, each playing his own part of the music with the greatest proficiency, but unless they all play together and in the correct order with exact timing, the entire performance could be a disaster.

interrelationship between systems must be carefully

In each building, the existing conditions and

So it is with the HVAC systems of a building. All parts and sections must be operating in harmony with each other to produce the required effect. With these facts in mind and after the necessary energy audits, the Retrofit Contractor now should have all of the data required to improve the HVAC systems by adjusting, retrofitting, or total replacement of all or part of each system and/or its components to achieve maximum energy efficiency.

2.5.3

Electrical Systems

The relative amounts of energy generally used in buildings for lighting compared to the amounts used for each of the other purposes is discussed below, but the relative amounts for any specific building vary, and hence the magnitude of potential savings also varies widely. Nationally, about 22 - 38% of all electrical energy generated is used for lighting. Lighting in office buildings accounts for approximately 30 - 40% and retail stores consume an additional 40 - 50% of the lighting energy. However, lighting actually accounts for a greater percentage of total energy use since the heat generated from lighting in buildings contributes to the cooling load as well, and can account for as much as 60% of this load

examined and understood in order to determine the full potential for energy conservation due to modification and operation of the electric lighting system. For instance, for each kWh reduction in lighting energy, there could be a reduction of an additional 1/2 kWh (1.8MJ) for cooling systems using electric refrigeration, plus some savings in the air and water distribution systems, for a total reduction of 1-1/2 kWh (5.4MJ) or more when the lighting and air conditioning loads occur simultaneously. Although the reduction in lighting also reduces the amount of heat gain available in the heating season, heat can be supplied more efficiently by the heating system than by the lighting system. An energy conservation and retrofit program for lighting involves two major distinct, but related areas: (1) Reducing annual energy consumption; and (2) Reducing peak loads. All of the energy conservation measures outlined in the text will result in lower costs for electric consumption throughout the entire year, however, reducing the peak lighting demands which are likely to occur simultaneously with other peak electrical demand produces additional cost savings through lower established demand where such charges are included in the utility rate structure. The amount of electric power used within a building, measured in kilowatt hours (kWh) (MJ), depends upon: (1) the demands of the systems which use power to supply the "building" load (lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, domestic hot water, commercial refrigeration, elevators, escalators, business machinery, communications systems, cooking, snow melting and other processes), (2) the power losses of the conversion and distribution systems which supply those loads, and (3) the characteristics of the electric service and distribution systems.

2.5.4

Domestic Water Systems

The amount of energy consumed in heating hot water is about 4% of the annual energy used in most large commercial buildings. In smaller commercial buildings, the percentage is smaller. However, in facilities which include restaurants, cafeterias and especially laundromats, the percentage of energy for hot water compared to

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other systems will be greater. If domestic hot water is heated by the same boiler which heats the building, and if the load is only 10% or 20% of the total boiler load in those months when the building is heated, the energy used in the fall and in summer months for domestic hot water may be considerably higher than in the winter as the boiler will be operating at low part load efficiency. The opportunities to conserve energy for heating domestic hot water can be summarized as follows:

cooling load may only vary ±5% from the average requirements through the summer and winter operations, due to the diminished effect of "skin" losses. Because of this constant and higher than normal requirement for cooling, the computer environment offers an excellent opportunity for energy savings through retrofit and replacement. There are steps which can be taken to ensure no more energy than necessary is used to support computer operations. 2.5.6

(a) Reduce the load: * decrease the quantity of domestic hot water used. * lower the temperature of the domestic hot water. (b) Reduce the system losses: * repair leaks and insulate piping and tanks * reduce recirculating pump operating time (c) Increase the efficiency of the domestic hot water generator. 2.5.5

Computer Facilities

Recent research shows that buildings with significant computer installations frequently consume as much as 1.5 and more times the amount of energy consumed by buildings without such installations. Modern computer facilities operate continuously throughout the year. While the computer equipment itself obviously consumes energy, researchers feel that the primary reason for the high energy consumption rate is the extent to which the computer support facilities and equipment are in use. Typically, computer operations extend into periods when a building would otherwise be unoccupied ... evening, late evening, early morning, weekends, etc. and in some cases, computer operations continue around the clock. Unless separate heating and cooling systems were installed just for the computer room operation, the building systems required to support computer equipment and personnel - HVAC, lighting, service (in very large operations), elevators and other systems . . . also must be operational and therefore consume energy. Nominal cooling loads of 120 btuh per square foot (379 w/m2) created by the data processing equipment and lighting loads create an almost constant annual load. This actual

2.20

Commercial Refrigeration

Commercial refrigeration systems account for as much as 50% of the total annual energy consumption in some supermarkets and slaughter houses, and a significant amount of the energy consumed in cafeterias and restaurants. The actual energy usage is analogous to usage by air conditioning systems; total quantity depends upon the "product" load, (the equivalent to the cooling system's "building" load), the distribution load, and the seasonal efficiency of the primary conversion equipment, which in this case consists of the compressors. The "product" load is a function of the mass of the materials to be cooled, the temperature difference between the refrigeratedmaterials and the ambient conditions prior to refrigeration and the period of time that the conditions are maintained. The "distribution" load is a function of the performance of the refrigeration distribution system (refrigeration, piping, valves, and controls) and the performance (seasonal efficiency) of the refrigerators, cold display cases, and other cold storage boxes. The performance of the compressors is contingent upon the condition and operating mode of the evaporator, condensers, motors and drives and the performance of the air-cooled condensers. Primary cooling equipment and commercial refrigeration systems may have common energy conservation opportunities. Since commercial refrigeration units must operate at suction (evaporator) temperatures lower than those of evaporators of air conditioners they use more energy per ton of refrigeration produced (the COP is lower). Because the commercial refrigeration system operates for the entire year,

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

and conditions must be maintained for 24 hours per day, any measures to increase the COP will be even more productive per ton (kw) of refrigeration than equivalent measures for improving the COP of air conditioning systems. A supermarket, with a 150 ton (528 kw) air conditioning system driven by a 150 HP motor (112 kw) could have 200 tons (704kw) of installed commercial refrigeration consuming from 2 to 6 times as much energy as the air conditioning system. Some retrofit on energy conservation measures are included in this subsection, but the Retrofit Contractor usually can find many more ideas in articles found in the trade press and engineering journals. 2.5.7

Sound and Vibration

Sound and vibration is a science that, more and more, the Retrofit Contractor must be able to cope with. In the SMACNA "HVAC Systems Duct Design" manual is a treatment of how to deal with noise and vibration in duct systems. The NEBB "Study Course for Measuring Sound and Vibration" covers the basics in how to measure and understand sound and vibration as it relates to HVAC systems. This subsection is intended to be used only as a guideline to remind everyone involved in retrofit work that the treatment of noise and vibration must be considered and/or integrated into all of the changes proposed to the client. For more indepth information, SMACNA and NEBB publications should be reviewed. 2.5.8

Energy Recovery

Whenever air (a gas) is being exhausted from the confines of a space at a temperature different than that of the environment, it is very probable that energy is being wasted. Additional air must be brought back into the space to fill the void. When the space contains people, the replacement air should be distributed at a comfortable temperature. Often this requires the addition or removal of heat from the replacement air. When an industrial process exhaust system is used, the replacement gas (or air) is usually heated to the process temperature. Air is exhausted from a space because of contaminants. The most obvious of these

contaminants is carbon dioxide and moisture. Both are the result of the presence of people and combustion. There are many other contaminants that exist within an exhaust gas. The most common are dust, grease, sulfur dioxide and chlorine. It is desirable to remove energy from exhaust gases and transfer this energy to the incoming airstream while simultaneously keeping the pollutants in the exhaust system. Therefore, it is necessary to place some form of barrier, one resistant to pollutants but not resistant to energy transfer, between the exhaust and replacement gas streams. To make this energy transfer, a large amount of surface area (approximately 0.5 square feet of material per cfm [0.098m2/L/S] of gas) must be used. To obtain that amount of surface in a reasonable volume, the gases must exit and return through a series of relatively small passageways. This results in gas pressure losses and the possibility of contaminant entrapment within the confines of the energy recovery device. Many different heat exchanger designs and systems have emerged in an attempt to satisfy all the requirements. Any energy recovery device installed in an exhaust duct may be susceptible to fouling to some degree, depending upon the nature of the contaminants in the exhaust stream, and upon the dewpoint of the flowing gas. If allowed to continue, fouling will decrease the heat transfer performance. Also, air flow may be impeded which, in the case of paint ovens, could result in increasing solvent concentrations and in buildings, increased carbon dioxide above safe and acceptable levels. Therefore, pre-filters are recommended unless other economical methods of cleaning the recovery device are used. If filters are used, the filter placement should be upstream of the energy recovery unit and is recommended for both air streams. While low to medium efficiency filters will generally be sufficient, high efficiency filtering may be recommended downstream of the unit when outdoor air is being supplied to a critical area (such as an industrial white room, or hospital operating rooms). Manometers and alarm contacts may be furnished for dirty filter indication. In selecting a recovery system, the Retrofit Contractor must be aware of corrosion, contamination, pollutants, noxious gases, odors, etc., that might affect the heat transfer or be

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2.21

detrimental to the desired system. These conditions may affect heat transfer by particles blocking one of the equipment airstreams, by equipment failure due to total corrosion or breakdown of the materials of construction, or by contamination of one of the airstreams or transfer fluids. Filters are recommended for both airstreams unless other methods such as washdown equipment or access for manual cleaning are provided. Most manufacturers will rate the recovery efficiency on new equipment. The Retrofit Contractor must instruct the owner or operator that energy recovery equipment be maintained in an efficient operating status, and that the necessary filtration and/or access to do so is provided.

2.5.9

Control and Monitoring Systems

Systems control and monitoring can be broken down into three basic areas consisting of energy use reduction; verification procedures; and equipment. In the first area, the Retrofit Contractor can recommend several energy use reductions and these consist of operation and maintenance programs; timers; control systems; and computer systems. Operation and maintenance is real basic in providing opportunities for the reduction of energy for a building. Recommendations for successful O & M programs should be proposed by the Retrofit Contractor and include the following objectives: * * *

Planning the efficient use of interior space. Maximizing the efficiency of energy use equipment. Operating buildings to minimize energy use.

Timers are amount the most effective local controls to reduce energy consumption because they are based on the simple and obvious principle of turning off energy systems when they are not needed and turning them down to deliver no more energy than required at any operating point. There are numerous control systems and local controls designed to reduce energy use, that can be used as stand-alone or integrated into computer systems or Energy Monitoring and Control Systems (EMCS). The growing complexity of HVAC systems and the cost of energy have spurred the

2.22

design of more sophisticated HVAC controls systems in buildings. In recent years, computers and microprocessors have been used in building control systems. Such EMCS systems permit close supervision of building conditions. The advantages of EMCS have resulted in a demand for these systems in numerous new and existing buildings and building complexes. The contractor who is familiar or becomes familiar with EMCS is in a position to take advantage of opportunities in the retrofit arena. In order to verify program performance recommended by the contractor, an effective energy management program requires the monitoring and reporting of energy consumption. Metering and recording; record checks; "spot" checks; and in-house personnel reports are all ways that the contractor can expand opportunities for a share of this market. The equipment suppliers of programmable controls; EMCS's; and meters should become familiar to the Retrofit Contractor, if they are to recommend and use this equipment.

2.6

SPECIFIC

EXPERTISE

AND

MATERIALS REQUIRED In order to be successful in this business a contractor needs a basic expertise, or be able to put together a team that has the expertise. The idea here is that the Retrofit Contractor is the lead person in the energy management retrofit. Previously, it was shown that the building systems that go into a building are diverse and wide ranging. With this diversity, the contractor needs to be able to have expertise in all these areas, or be able to field a team with the expertise. Initially, there should be a sales force to seek out the opportunities in the retrofit market. This sales force needs to be trained in marketing and sales and be knowledgeable in the fields being pursued. These people are the "point" for the organization and should be highly skilled and motivated. Energy audit personnel are required to obtain the information so that a proposal can be made. Some companies require their salespeople to perform the energy audit to obtain the information needed to develop the proposal. In more complex systems the sales person is provided with more technical help to conduct the audit. If your company does not have the technical help on staff, then it must go outside the firm. This is part of the process of partnering or outsourcing for the

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

needed expertise. Once this audit information is available and the needs of the customer are put together, then the proposal can be created. Technical help maybe required to develop the proposal; and, there must be expertise available. Contacts with architects, engineers, estimators, manufacturers, supplies, and other contractors should be in place and ready to respond to your request for assistance. Once the proposal which is based on the audit is developed, then the salesperson can make the presentation to the client. Keep in mind that the needs were determined by meeting with the prospect and then having the expertise via the audit to get further details. With a skilled sales presentation comes the closing of the sale and the order. Chapter one discussed the elements of the proposal. After the order is secured, the Retrofit Contractor now has to provide the service or equipment contracted with the customer. Depending on what was promised, the company must have the expertise to deliver on the terms of the contract. In house capabilities may cover part or all of the contract but that depends on the firm. If the company does not have the expertise in-house, then there should be strong ties to others who can provide the services as subcontractors to the contractor. Obviously, these subcontracting relationships must be developed prior to the engagement for services. Mechanical, electrical, structural, and architectural services are a sample of the expertise that should be available to the Retrofit Contractor via the partnering mode of operation. The bottom line here is ... if one does not have the expertise to handle the job, have someone in the wings who can be called upon. Having partnering or outsourcingpotential extends the expertise of the company without the overhead of these organizations. However, if the company wants to have the in-house capabilities of the various trades, then it will have to be able to support this overhead with enough sales. As a company grows it's business, then the growth can support these trades.

perform energy audits. In the process of going through a building it has been found that the most effective use of the auditors time is when they can move around with their hands free. The more important thing is to have access to the keys to all the different rooms in the building. It is recommended that the retrofit team use an electrician's tool belt with pouches that can hold small items. Another important item is a small tape recorder with a separate microphone for dictating comments. This can prove to be useful for such things as reading off information from the building plans, or timing the operation of an air compressor or cooling tower fan. But having ready access to small tools and equipment without having to stop or go back somewhere and having hands free to enable climbing and crawling through the building allows an energy audit, either detailed or walk-through, to be done much more effectively. Table 2-2 Equipment Available to the Retrofit Team Temperature Recorder Humidity Recorder Psychrometer Ammeter Recording Ammeter Airflow Measuring Devices Waterflow Measuring Devices Tachometer Infrared Thermography Surface Pryometer Amp Meter/Power Factor Meter Recording Watt Meter The retrofit team should have access to larger and/or more sophisticated equipment, in the event that in going through the building they identify things that require further examination or measurement. It is then possible to efficiently arrange to have this equipment placed in the locations where needed without wasting time or money.

Besides expertise, a company needs to have the equipment to do the work. Equipment requirements are found in the audit, the systems evaluation, and the fabrication and installation phases of the retrofit process.

In the performance identification and evaluation section we looked at various systems that could be retrofitted. Each of these systems require measurement instrumentation. This instrumentation will depend on the system; however, they can be characterized as air or hydronic HVAC systems.

Table 2-2 shows the kinds of equipment used to

Instrumentation such as the pitot tube and

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2.23

manometer, anemometer, magnehelic, and hoods \for the airflow side are a sample. On the hydronic side, there are flow meters, mano-meters, and pressure gages. Temperature measuring instruments such as thermometers, pyrometers, sling psychrometers, and rotational instruments like electronic or chronometric tachometers are going to be used. On the electrical side, voltammeters, wattmeters, and multimeters are required. A computer is also a piece of equipment that the Retrofit Contractor will find helpful in preparing proposals, record keeping, system analysis, and general all round usefulness. From the fabrication and installation perspective the Retrofit Contractor will have the fabrication machinery to build the system. If they do not have this machinery, they have to rely on other suppliers to provide the necessary finished product. Whether the Retrofit Contractor fabricates the system or not, they are going to have to install the new or modified system components. Here again, they may have to go outside to find an installer of the components that are beyond their expertise. Partnering in the fabrication and installation of the retrofits is a vital part of the business. A contractor may find it more profitable to outsource the fabrication and installation of the retrofit, rather than commit to large out lays for fabrication equipment and personnel. Whether it is expertise or materials the Retrofit Contractor must be ready to provide them. This means having the capability in-house or going outside to meet the challenges in these areas. 2.7

SPECIFIC MARKETING TECHNIQUES

Back in chapter one general techniques were covered for building system analysis and retrofit. Now we will cover the more specific techniques for the energy management retrofit. 2.7.1.

Retrofit Contracting as a Business

The discussion in this section was developed by Eugene W. Balogh, Ph.D. and is reprinted with his permission with some minor editing. The business of selling energy conservation retrofit work has become potentially profitable because of three interwoven factors which are not necessarily a part of other facets of the construction business. These factors are: 2.24

(a) With the rapidly increasing cost of energy, the market for energy conservation & retrofit work has become enormous. In the building retrofit market alone, a recent study found that there were 25 billion square feet (2.3 billion square meters) of existing structures that were obsolete based on today's availability and cost of energy. (b) Energy retrofit work can be sold to clients who are not actively thinking about doing any construction work at the present time. They are not, therefore, out talking to competitors of the Retrofit Contractor, nor are there Dodge Reports out about the project. (c) On energy retrofit work, the Retrofit Contractor can price on the basis of energy savings rather than on the basis of the costs of the work. This means that an "energy savings" job which will save $1,000 a month in energy can be rather easily sold for about $12,000, or a one years simple payback, even though the actual cost in labor and material is only $4,000 or $5,000. Some things are happening in the marketplace which are highly important to the contractor interested in the retrofit market. The use of energy in the U.S. increased 50% from 1960 to 1970. Although the rate of increase was lowered after the OPEC nations changed the world market costs of energy and attempted to regulate the world consumption of oil, the normal growth of the United States will continue to keep the use of energy on an upward curve. At the same time the use of energy has been increasing, the price of most forms of energy also has been increasing at an almost astronomical rate. With government deregulation, ultimately all forms of energy will be competitive in costs. One of the significant effects of this increase in both energy usage and energy cost is that as the usage of the energy and the cost of energy have increased, energy conservation and retrofit of systems has become not only more and more affordable, but has become almost an economic necessity. Although the retrofit market potential is both enormous and highly profitable, it has proven to be a difficult business to enter for many contractors. Some of the reasons for this difficulty lie in the nature of competitive industry, and some of the reasons lie with the marketing approach

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

used by contractors to enter this business. Looking first at the general nature of competitive industry, most firms operate on a "management by crisis" basis. That is, they focus most of their daily attention on overcoming their "today's" problems and have little time or energy left over to really come to grips with tomorrow's potential problems or savings. To illustrate this point, a contractor client was called into an industrial plant to get the outside lighting back into service. While there, the contractor's foreperson looked over the plant's substation and reported that it was badly in need of maintenance that would probably cause the plant to have some serious problems within the next year or so. The answer from the plant people was simply, "Look, just get our outside lights back into operation. We'll deal with the substation's problems when and if they occur." This industrial plant is an excellent example of management by crisis. They have only the time and energy to focus on today's problem even though tomorrow's problem could have been handled today at a far lower cost in down time and service. What all this points to is that first, energy, like inflation, is not only a serious problem, it is a problem which is here to stay. Contractors can either agonize over its presence, or can see this problem as a double opportunity: *

*

First, to be of service to the economy to expand into a potentially very profitable field of business. Second, energy conservation and retrofit work must be marketed, and marketed correctly in order to overcome the innate problems of resistance to face tomorrow's problems, today.

Once having decided to expand into the energy conservation business, from a marketing viewpoint, this business should be looked on as a complete business rather than a partial business. By marketing energy management and/or retrofitwork as a complete business, look at the entire energy retrofit job to be done, not just one facet of the job. To clarify this point, a Retrofit Contractor is similar to a general contractor in that he engineers, estimates and constructs that portion of

the job that lies within his trade. He then obtains bids on those portions of the job lying within other trades. As hard as one wants to look, it is not written anywhere that general contractors, and only general contractors, should be able to subcontract portions of the job and then make a profit on both the work they do themselves as well as the work they subcontract out to the other trades. In many cases, they do nothing with their own forces, but act only as a broker by taking bids from subcontractors on all of the work. The correct marketing approach to energy retrofit work is that the Retrofit Contractor becomes the "prime contractor" or the "general contractor" in the energy conservation field. Under this concept, the Retrofit Contractor, when surveying a job, would make a detailed study of the job from the standpoint of his own craft trades, and with a minimum amount of additional knowledge and training, would also make a generalized survey of certain key areas in other craft areas to determine if potential savings were obtainable in these areas. Or as stated previously, the contractor could assemble a "Retrofit Team" by working with a key group of other contractors, but the Retrofit Contractor is the "prime contractor". In either case, if the Retrofit Contractor found that potential energy savings were obtainable in these other craft areas, one would call upon these contractors with whom they had an arrangement, and ask them to look over the job in detail and submit a bid to them on a subcontract basis. Under the concept, the Retrofit Contractor making the initial survey would become a contractor in their own craft area and a "prime contractor" or "general contractor' in other craft areas. Under this concept two things would be accomplished. *

*

The contractor making the survey would make a profit both on their own work and on the work they brokered to their subcontractors. The time needed to prospect for good energy savings prospects, survey their facility, and then prepare and sell an energy savings proposal would be more effectively and profitably used if spread across all craft areas rather than just one area.

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2.25

A book entitled "PROFITABLE CONSTRUCTION SALES" has been developed by Dr. E. W. Balogh to focus on selling in the construction industry and the business and the sales aspects of the energy retrofit business. A Retrofit Contractor can concentrate their efforts on certain highly saleable and profitable areas of energy savings an subsequently, maximize their sales and the profits that are taken out of the energy savings business. To accomplish this, the Retrofit Contractor should focus on nine specific factors (taken from "Profitable Construction Sales"):

be made, and, conversely, where the contractor who understands the energy savings market can focus their efforts and maximize their profits. (a) Reducing the amount the client is paying for energy use. (b) Reducing the hours of energy usage. (c) Reducing the amount of energy lost from the building. (d) Using more efficient lighting systems. (e) Using more efficient heating systems. (f) Using more efficient air conditioning systems. (g) Using more efficient controls.

2.7.1.1. Prospecting Investigate methods of prospecting for good, profitable energy retrofit prospects. Qualify these prospects by sorting out which are the most saleable and profitable to spend time on. Develop an effective and systematic method of calling on the best prospects. 2.7.1.2. Preparing for the Sales Call Prepare to make a successful sales call on a good energy retrofit prospect. Study the energy retrofit prospect. Study the energy savings systems and/or devices which are both highly profitable and at the same time, highly saleable. Learn what it is in human nature that causes different people to buy what they buy and reject what they reject. Channel your thinking your sales presentation directly to why people buy. 2.7.1.3

Selling the Walk-Through or Primary Audit

Learn how to call upon an energy retrofit prospect and how to sell them on the benefits of making a walk-through or primary audit of their facility. 2.7.1.4 Making the Walk-Through or Primary Audit

Learn how to make a walk-through or primary energy audit, which in a few hours for small facilities and a day or so for larger facilities, will accurately point out the major energy problems, potential energy savings and potential profits one can expect if the right kind of proposal is developed and the job sold property. A recent seminar on energy management pointed out the seven areas where most energy savings can 2.26

These then, are the seven areas which should be covered in any energy savings or retrofit audit. 2.7.1.5. Estimating the Energy Savings

Determine the present energy costs and estimate the future costs based on the installation of the energy retrofit systems or devices you propose. 2.7.1.6

Developing the Energy Savings or Retrofit Proposal

Focus on how to make the energy savings or retrofit proposal specific enough to secure the business, yet vague enough to guard against being used by a prospect to pedal your concepts and ideas to competitors in order to get a lower price. 2.7.1.7. How to Overcome Stalls and Objections Look into what a customer stall or objection really is, how it can happen to you, and what you can do next time to first, prevent it from happening and second, to overcome it once it does happen. 2.7.1.8. Closing Sales Look into what a "sales close" is, and how you can become far more effective in closing sales than perhaps you ever realized. 2.7.1.9

Selling the Retrofit Proposal

Selling is the key to the energy retrofit business. Look at selling, and focus on how to actually sell the energy savings or retrofit proposal. Specifically, sell the benefits of energy savings, overcome the client's stalls and objections to giving the order, and close the sale and get the order. 2.7.2

Prospecting Business

for

Energy

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

Retrofit

Prospecting is defined as finding potential customers. How does the Retrofit Contractor determine exactly who the potentially best prospects are for energy savings business? Exactly what type of prospect is it with whom the contractor will be able to do best in relation to the ease of selling energy savings or retrofit work, and to the amount of profit one will make from the work done for the prospect? Since energy retrofit work can and should be priced on the amount of energy saved rather than actual costs, and since there are only seven areas of greatest energy savings, the best prospect is one who: (a) Is paying more per unit of energy used. (b) Is using their energy more hours than necessary. (c) Is losing some part of their energy. (d) Has inefficient systems of: * Air Conditioning * Heating * Lighting (e) Has ineffective controls. There are five simple truths of selling energy savings: 1. The Retrofit Contractor can have the best energy savings package in the world, but without a good prospect to buy it, it can't be sold. 2. The Retrofit Contractor can have the best energy savings presentation in the world, but without a prospect to talk to, the sale cannot be closed. 3. Prospecting is the heart of selling an energy retrofit job. More salespeople and companies will drop out of the energy retrofit business each year because they fail to prospect properly. 4. The Retrofit Contractor can actually determine which energy savings prospects will be easiest to sell and the most potentially profitable. 5. If the Retrofit Contractor knows the proper techniques of prospecting, and if they have a prospecting attitude, one can and will successfully find the kinds of customers for energy savings which are best for them. 2.7.3.

Preparing for the Sales Call

There is a very important thing the Retrofit Contractor does before they actually call on the prospect. They prepare extremely well and with great deliberation for the sales call. Let's look first at the necessity of a Retrofit Contractor really knowing,what they are selling. By knowing what they are selling, that is, they must know the function, the energy efficiency, the cost and the potential savings of the energy savings or retrofit concepts and/or devices that they will present to the prospects. Like a boot going through basic training, they must know the energy saving concepts and devices that they are selling well enough to take them apart and put them back together blindfolded. Because the Retrofit Contractor knows what they are selling, they show the confidence and will be looked upon with confidence by their prospects. However, if by some chance, they do not know the energy savings concepts and devices they are selling as well as they should, then they must take the time and expend the effort necessary to correct that situation, because a professional salesperson prepares extremely well and with great deliberation for the sales call. Unless they have prepared themselves well with regard to gaining the knowledge of what they are selling, they are building a career on sand and it just won't stand up over the long pull. What does the Retrofit Contractor have to sell? Theoretically, any change to a system, machine, engine, device, etc., that results in less use of energy is an energy savings device and part of the retrofit concept. From this theoretical standpoint, there is an almost unlimited universe of things that can be sold. However, from a more practical standpoint, if one was entering the energy business to be successful, then they should look to focusing their attention on those energy savings concepts and devices which on the one hand are easiest to sell, and on the other hand, are most profitable to sell. By easiest to sell, it is meant a system or device that either through common knowledge, or with a logical and limited explanation, the prospect will see and agree with the benefit to them of reduced energy costs. By most profitable, it is meant the systems or

devices which can save the most energy for the prospect, and for which the Retrofit Contractor

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2.27

can, therefore, realize the best return. Using this philosophy of easiest and most profitable to sell, the "perfect" energy savings device or retrofit system is one, the customer already is aware of and which will recover their entire investment in one day. Although the Retrofit Contractor may not be able to find the "perfect" energy savings device or retrofit system, the closer they can come to the philosophically "perfect" system, the easier the system or device will be to sell and the more profit they will make on the sale. With this philosophy in mind, the first job of a Retrofit Contractor is to determine which systems or devices are both easy and highly profitable for them to sell to their type of clients. These systems or devices should share two things in common: * That the energy savings are easy to demonstrate. * That with a payout of the initial investment in under one year, they are highly desirable by the prospect and highly profitable to the Retrofit Contractor. Go back to what was said about the Retrofit Contractor really knowing what they are selling. They must know the function, energy efficiency, the cost, and the potential savings of each of the energy saving devices or retrofit systems they sell. At no time, was it implied that the Retrofit Contractor must know every detail about how to engineer, operate, estimate, or install all of the energy retrofit systems or devices they sell. The Retrofit Contractor, by knowing the function, energy wastage, cost and potential savings of the energy savings devices or retrofit systems is well prepared to accomplish the first job of an energy savings salesperson. They are prepared to make an Energy Savings Audit. For ethical, legal, and marketing reasons this Energy Savings Audit should be designated as a WALK-THROUGH or PRIMARY AUDIT. The reasoning behind describing the Energy Savings Audit as a primary audit as follows:

however, what probably will be audited will be the normally highest energy offenders. (b) By describing the "Energy Savings Audit" as a walk-through or primary audit, it would now be reasonable to assume that the primary aspects of their energy picture is to be audited. In reality that is exactly what is to be done. (c) By performing a successful primary audit today, the door is now open to perform a "Detailed" or "Secondary Audit" in the future to sell the additional energy savings devices or retrofit systems to this prospect. The first job of the Retrofit Contractor or their energy retrofit team, then, is to make a walkthrough or primary audit. In order to accomplish this job properly, the salesperson must be able to accurately identify energy systems or devices which they or the team believe are wasting energy. Upon being armed with the entire package, the Retrofit Contractor is then prepared to sell the prospect. Armed with a comprehensive bid, developed by capable technicians in their crafts, and their knowledge of the function, energy wastage, cost, and savings involved, the salesperson is now in an excellent position to close the order. At the beginning of this subsection it was stated that in order to assure consistent success, the Retrofit Contractor must set aside the time necessary and expend the effort required to prepare extremely well. What is meant by being well prepared is: * The Retrofit Contractor knows what they are selling and its benefits backward and forward. * The Retrofit Contractor knows more about the prospect's systems than the prospect knows about themselves. * The Retrofit Contractor knows the psychology of why people buy. * The Retrofit Contractor has trained to use this knowledge of what to say and how to say it, in order to get the prospect to buy. * The Retrofit Contractor has developed a successful sales attitude, that is, the determination not to be put off, but to keep pressing toward the sale.

(a) If the audit were described as a pure "Energy Savings Audit", the prospect could reasonably assume, and rightly so, that every aspect of the energy picture is to be audited. In reality,

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Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

2.7.4.

Selling the Walk-Through or Primary Energy Audit

When you - the Retrofit Contractor actually are ready to begin selling energy savings, the selling sequence is: (a) Calling a good prospect on the telephone and selling them on giving you an appointment to come out and discuss energy savings and its benefits with them. (b) Calling on the prospect and: * Discussing the concept of a walk-through or primary energy audit. * Selling the prospect on your conducting a walk-through or primary audit of his facilities. * Getting copies of their utility bills (Electric, Gas, Water). * Making a preliminary walk-through of their facility (not to be confused with the walk-through energy audit). (c) Sending the prospect a letter either advising them that based on your preliminary analysis (walk-through) there appeared to be potential energy savings and reminding them of the date and time that you will conduct a primary energy audit of their facility, or advising them that on the basis of your preliminary analysis, there was little if any energy savings available and a walk-through or primary energy audit was not warranted. (d) Making the walk-through or primary energy audit (if warranted by the preliminary analysis). (e) Developing an energy retrofit proposal. (f) Presenting the energy retrofit proposal and closing the order for the job. It is extremely important to keep this selling sequence in perspective if we are to meet our objective of closing energy retrofit sales successfully. Each part of the sales sequence has its own subobjectives or goals and it is important to keep these sub-objectives or goals clearly in mind if you expect to keep the overall sales sequence moving progressively toward that all-important close.

1. Calling the prospect on the

To sell them on meeting with you to

telephone. 2. Calling personally on the prospect.

discuss energy savings. To sell them on your performing a walkthrough or primary energy audit. 3. Sending the proTo reassure them about spect a follow-up the audit and confirm letter. the date of the audit. 4. Making the walk- To find out exactly through or primary what the prospect's energy audit. needs for energy savings or retrofit systems and devices are. 5. Developing the To create a selling proposal. tool to help you close them on some highly profitable work. 6. Selling the propo- To close the sale. sal. Starting first with the telephone call to the prospect, it should be remembered that you are not trying to sell them on your making an energy savings audit. How could you logically do that since, at this point, you haven't seen their facility, nor know what the present and future energy needs are. Your objective here is to sell them something you can be successful in selling them. Your objective is to sell them on meeting with you to discuss energy savings and to explore if you might be of service to them. Selling the prospect on a meeting to discuss energy savings is important to both the prospect and to you. From the prospect's point of view, you, the Retrofit Contractor, will be discussing their problems and exploring possible ways to correct or reduce those problems. From your point of view, you can hardly lose. On the one hand, you have a golden opportunity to secure some energy savings business, and in addition, you have an equally golden opportunity to meet a new prospect and to prepare the way for construction or retrofit work as their future needs may require. Selling this prospect on a meeting to discuss energy savings will depend in a large part on your attitude toward asking for the meeting and closing them on meeting with you. Attitude here is all important. A closing attitude is a habit of thinking no matter what the prospect believes starting out, they are going to end up buying from you. Just speaking the above words is not enough,

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2.29

because closing statements are not being discussed here; it is about closing attitude. The Retrofit Contractor must have an attitude which is a strong, conscious "belief system" in unison with an equally strong, unconscious "belief system." When you have this kind of an attitude toward selling a meeting to discuss energy savings or retrofit, you will sell more meetings with more good prospects than you can find the time to attend.

(b) Knowledge of Sales Techniques An in-depth discussion of the various sales techniques that can be used to present a proposal in the most saleable manner, can be found in Chapter VII, "The Sales Call," of the book "PROFITABLE CONSTRUCTION SALES." A normal sales presentation format for use in an energy savings presentation is the "Retrofit Proposal", Figure 2-1. (c) Summary

At the time of the initial meeting with the prospect, the different parts of the sales call and how they fit together must be analyzed. A canned sales call in which everything is memorized must not be used. On the other hand, a salesperson should cover all the points that they want to cover in some organized way. As an example of this, a sample sales call outline has been prepared for selling a primary energy audit. This outline is not intended to be a word by word program of what you should say to a client. It is intended to be a sample of how a sales call could be made on a client in order to sell a walk-through or primary energy audit.

In closing, retrofit of buildings and building systems to conserve energy should become one of the five or six booming businesses of the 1990's. SMACNA Contractors are on the cutting edge of change that will sweep this new business of energy savings and retrofit work into our lives with a force that has not been seen since the automobile burst on the American scene in the 1920's, air conditioning in the 1930's and 1940's, and television in the 1950's. No other type of contracting business is in a better position to do this type of work, because SMACNA Contractors have the basic skills, tools, and know-how.

2.7.5

So if you want to increase your sales and profits, now is the time to prepare yourself to become a prime Retrofit Contractor.

Selling the Energy Retrofit Proposal

In selling the Energy Retrofit Proposal, two things are usually necessary. (a) A proposal which clearly outlines what changes you are recommending, the investment necessary to make the changes and the annualized savings resulting from that change. (b) A knowledge of the sales techniques used to present a proposal in a saleable manner. (a) The Proposal A proposal could cover one item only, such as installing a Load Shedding System in a motel, or it could cover several items such as controls, economizers, cleaning coils, etc. However many items you cover, one good rule to follow is, Don't give them too many specifics. Giving too many specifics only invites them to compare.

2.30

2.8

FINANCIAL PAYBACK ANALYSIS

Energy management retrofit must be presented to the owner or prospect in a way that permits an intelligent decision. The contractor should recommend a package of improvements that will give the best return on investment to the owner. This type of package will sell to owners and look for a maximum return to the owner rather than a maximum cost to the owner. Using the basics in Section 1.5, the contractor needs to present an energy management retrofit proposal that will payback to the owner in a time frame consistent with the owner's goal and limits. With the cost of the retrofit and the annual savings a ratio is determined and knowing the interest rate then a years to payback can be result.

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

2.9

REFERENCES

2.9.3

2.9.1

Retrofit of Building Energy Systems and Processes. SMACNA, Chantilly, Virginia, 1st Ed., 1982.

U.S. Department of Energy, Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992(DOE/EIA0246(92). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1st Ed., 1992.

2.9.4

Balogh, E.W., Profitable Construction Sales, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan.

2.9.2

Gustavason, R.A., The Business of Energy Management - Doing it Right and Making Money at It. Gannam/Kubat Publishing, Inc., Brea, California, 1st Ed., 1990.

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2.31

CHAPTER 3

HVAC SYSTEM TESTING ADJUSTING AND BALANCING

CHAPTER 3 3.1

HVAC SYSTEM TESTING, ADJUSTING AND BALANCING

INTRODUCTION

In this chapter the business of HVAC systems testing, adjusting and balancing (TAB) is to be explored. This is a market which the contractor can find profitable and it will open up other opportunities in the aftermarket business. Both new and existing buildings are candidates for the contractor since they contain air, hydronic (water) Additionally, and refrigeration systems. opportunities exist for contractors in fume hood/clean room applications. A background knowledge in the use of TAB measurement instrumentation and procedures is presented along with reports. Specific expertise and materials needed to enter this business is covered along with Energy specific marketing techniques. savings/comfort aspects of TAB in existing buildings are presented. The use of independent contractors for new construction is also covered.

3.2

SCOPE OF TAB WORK

3.2.1.

Introduction

TAB - testing, adjusting, and balancing of environmental systems - is the final step in the long process of design through construction of a system or systems which will produce the design objectives. The environment with which TAB is concerned is the combination of temperature, humidity, filtering, and sometimes pressure within the physical space which is artificially treated to produce desired dr required comfort conditions. The environment may be produced for people or machines, processes or products, laboratories or libraries, for which it is either desirable or necessary to maintain artificial living conditions. The system or combination of systems which produce the environment is the conglomeration of equipment, pipes, wires, ducts and other accessories located within or remote and concealed from the conditioned space. The system(s) is generally designed for man as the primary occupant of the space. However, occupants may be computers, animals, vegetables, books, art treasures, etc. Whatever or whoever the primary occupant may be, the environmental system is

designed for them, and any other occupant is obliged to accept the conditions. Although theoretically possible, few systems provide the desired end results automatically upon startup of the installation. The many variations between calculated requirements and actual results, between design loads and standard equipment capacities, between theoretical perfection and actual construction, all contribute to the need to determine what the system does compared to the system's potential and to subsequent adjustments to eliminate the differences. TAB fills this gap by placing the systems in the optimum operating condition designed for the project. In the TAB process: * Testing is the process of determining if the installed equipment and materials meet the specified design performance conditions. * Adjusting is the process of setting the controlled variables at the desired operational conditions. * Balancing is the process of providing the proper distribution of fluid flow quantities, thus assuring proper design heat transfer. The combination of testing, adjusting, and balancing, when properly performed, results in environmental conditions which best satisfy the original design and the comfort of the prime occupant. An additional consideration often overlooked, assuming adequate design, the TAB process will produce the most economical operating conditions, because the system is closer to its potential. 3.2.1.1.

TAB Team

There has always been a need for TAB of systems (even fireplaces have adjustable dampers), and as man finds it necessary to expand the environment to space and the oceans, the systems will become more and more complicated and the need for TAB will increase. At times and under some conditions such as in a constant laboratory or clean rooms environment, TAB is not only necessary but critical.

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3.1

Herein, the people performing TAB work are identified as technicians, even though they may also be known by other designations. The TAB technician is the individual who does the physical labor of testing, adjusting, and balancing. They use the instruments, climb the ladders, adjust the dampers and valves, read the results and fill out the forms. Their performance is part of the "debugging" process required at the completion of construction of any project. It is imperative, therefore, that the TAB technician be a highly skilled and qualified individual. TAB technicians must use their ability, skill and experience to analyze the data which they obtain to inform the designer regarding the outcome of the designed environment. It should be obvious that this work cannot be entrusted to an untrained individual or even an instrument reader. A minimum investment of time and money will make an instrument reader of almost anyone with reasonable intelligence. But this will not produce a technician who can interpret results and exercise the judgment necessary to make corrections within the scope of contractual obligations, to advise of design deficiencies, or perhaps come to the conclusion that the system cannot be balanced. Surely a qualified technician is skilled beyond any instrument reader. The management that recognizes this fact is doing itself a favor, often an economic one. 3.2.1.2.

General Requirements

The requirements for proper TAB begin with the knowledge, education and experience of the technician. The first physical step in the TAB process is the preparation. Without the knowledge of the physical installation and planning, even the most brilliant technician is doomed to uncertain success and perhaps failure. The engineer would not have proceeded with the design, nor the contractors with the installation without planning and preparation. It is impossible to understand how TAB can be contemplated without planning and preparation, if for no other reason than the financial one. It is imperative that this planning and preparation begin long before TAB. All parties will benefit, including the balancing firm, if a major problem such as a design error can be determined

3.2

before starting the retrofit work. TAB management should recognize the benefits of determining beforehand that a system as initially designed is deficient in such a way that balancing must be inadequately performed or impossible to accomplish. Even more elementary, no one would deliberately send a TAB team to an installation that was not completed and ready to be tested. Communications is a TAB requirementthroughout the entire project, from contract signing to final payment. Internal communication is required between TAB technician and TAB management to clarify contractual obligations and to prevent wasted effort. A mutual understanding of the abilities and responsibilities of each will increase harmony and minimize duplication of effort. Necessary communication will be reduced to that which is required for the technician to advise management of results and problems, and for management to assist the technician through difficulties by providing a solution to the problems. External communication between representatives of the balancing firm and the owner, architect, designer, engineer, contractor(s), suppliers, operator, maintenance personnel and occupants is even more difficult. Misconceptions regarding what TAB can do, will cause numerous difficulties for the technicians and management of the TAB firm. Knowledgeable communication must utilize terms with which each is familiar, either technical or nontechnical. This will ease the psychological and technical barriers and confidence in the TAB firm will be strengthened. This communication is even more critical since poor performance by some firms has eroded confidence in TAB. There is a need for recognition and acceptance of responsibility. Recognition of responsibility is simply reading the contract. Acceptance of responsibilityis more serious and the consequences are far reaching. One consequence is directly connected with the reputation and acceptability of the TAB firm, a matter often overlooked in testing, adjusting, and balancing a single project. The reputation and acceptance of the entire TAB industry depends on the client's perception of individual TAB firms. The possibility of the "rotten apple" causing difficulties for responsible firms is a real one in every type of business. It is especially true in TAB. The solution is to promote in the industry recognition and acceptance of responsibilities. There is no better place to begin than in each firm with each individual in either the

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

Technical Aspects

management or technical aspects of TAB.

3.2.1.3.

TAB responsibility extends beyond the physical performance of TAB itself. The owner, architect, designer, engineer, contractor, supplier, operator, maintenance personnel and occupant each have a responsibility and there are times when it is extremely difficult to make each recognize and exercise their own. The dilemma often causes the feeling that there is a united front determined to place unwarranted blame on the TAB personnel and services. There is no solution to this problem. Acceptance of one's own liability helps, along with a clear contractual definition of responsibility.

The positive technical aspects of TAB are generally summarized in the definition which requires that an acceptable environment be provided for the prime occupant within the limits of the design concept and execution. The negative aspects may only be determined by inference and an investigation of the limitations forced upon the TAB process. Both in professional and nonprofessional categories, TAB is not able to solve all problems and cannot generally produce conditions beyond the ability of the systems to perform.

Responsibility and confidence will be strengthened by performance of TAB services in accordance with the SMACNA manual; Within the design intent, as indicated by the contract plans and specifications, such performance standards will assure the recipient of the TAB services that the work will be properly performed within specified SMACNA procedures and that deficient work will be corrected. The TAB services must not be allowed to become a shelter for design deficiencies. The TAB portions of the project must not become responsible for conditions which testing, adjusting and balancing will not be able to correct and which rightfully are a part of the actual design or installation.

It is necessary initially to design a system which can be tested, adjusted and balanced! The more complicated a system is, the greater the need for TAB. Provisions for TAB should be made in the design. The design needs to provide proper measuring stations or devices. Space should be provided for the necessary upstream and downstream conditions so that accurate readings can be obtained.

TAB cannot guarantee such things as temperature and humidity since TAB has no control over the capacity of the system to perform. Neither can TAB guarantee minimum duct air leakage since it has no control over the duct installation. TAB can test, adjust and balance the system as it exists after completion of the retrofit work within the ability of the system to perform. If the system cannot perform, it should not become the TAB contractor's responsibility to make the corrections. The specified TAB procedures and the contract to do the work must define the scope of the work as only testing, adjusting and balancing. TAB work will be performed within the specification and contract framework.

3.2.1.4.

Specifications

The specification of TAB work is no less important. Adequate thought given to the contract requirements regarding TAB will result in a specification which is stronger and enforceable. In addition, it is important that the specifications for equipment, materials and construction should provide the performance details and restrictions which will allow system TAB. For example, it is unrealistic to require total fan air flow to be reported equal to the summation of outlet air quantities if the specification for duct work does not limit the air leakage. It is equally unrealistic to specify a balancing report requiring water flow quantities in any of the piping if permanent flow measuring devices or stations are not also specified. To specify a catchall that requires the TAB firm to provide all required instruments without the ability to install or use them, or to provide all "required" TAB equipment, is again tempting the TAB firm to falsify reports. If the specification is enforced and the TAB firm makes the necessary installation, the owner will be penalized by the excessive cost. Practical provision of the basic devices and measuring stations during design is infinitely less expensive.

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3.3

3.2.1.5.

Design

If the need for TAB is recognized by the designer and specifier, then there is an obligation to design TAB into the project. There is a strong possibility that by designing for TAB the designer and/or engineer are indicating that they recognize the need for the TAB service, or that they know enough about what TAB is or how it is performed. Assuming that provision will be made in the design to perform the TAB, it is necessary to recognize that there are practical limits in providing for and performing this service. Beginning with the initial system calculation, it must be remembered that design of environmental systems is based on concept criteria which are limits themselves and do not continuously exist during system operation. The calculated design loads are only fixed peaks which the system may be required to accommodate at times but which are seldom experienced concurrently. The calculations and factors used within them are generally reinforced by safety factors which may differ among designers. They are added from experience or "in case," but they are seldom exact. Diversity factors are used, especially for central system loads, which are generally selected on an experience basis. The selected sizes of equipment, piping, ductwork and other system components are most often a compromise between the calculated load requirements and the standard sizes available. Usually the selection is made toward the next larger size rather than the next smaller one. Piping in particular is unique in that it is selected with an age factor built in, producing higher initial flow rates than design requires. 3.2.1.6.

Construction

Before retrofit, it is common practice for the installing contractor to make substitutions because of the nature of "open bidding" and "or equal" specifications. This introduces a new dimension because ranges of equipment sizes do not always match from manufacturer to manufacturer. There is no tendency to oversize equipment in this process, after all the bidding is usually competitive, but workmanship is another dimension introduced and involves the comparison between design calculations and equipment capacity. During retrofit it is impossible to control

3.4

workmanship to guarantee that the installation will be entirely free of obstructions to flow or that pressure testing ductwork will eliminate leakage. Voltages cannot be guaranteed to be exact upon startup and during operation. Summer or winter, low voltage conditions may occur which change the ability of motors to perform. These are only a few examples of practical facts, not criticism. It is reasonable to expect results from TAB to be no more accurate than the system design and installation. Because of the limitations imposed during these two phases, TAB must be as accurate as possible within practical limits.

3.2.1.7.

Instrumentation

Two extremely important factors limiting TAB have not been considered and are often more serious than any of the ones previously noted: instrument readability and accuracy.

Even when particular instruments and methods are specified the inherent accuracy limits of the instruments restricts the accuracy of their results. Add the need for periodic calibration, the difficulty experienced in reading scales in cramped spaces, and human error in the observations and it should be obvious that the results are of more use in a comparative way than as absolute values. TAB within practical limits is further limited by the instruments available for the work. Accuracy must be recognized as relative when design, installation and TAB are viewed. Limiting factors do exist and the entire subject must be a practical application of all disciplines to produce the optimum but unavoidably imperfect end result. To require air balance of plus or minus 5% when the construction allows 20 - 30% leakage is an example of ignoring this premise and insisting upon the impossible. When the system is operating and the space occupied, the final determination of success is satisfaction of the prime occupant. Since all creatures and things do not react exactly the same way, it is impossible by dictating design conditions to satisfy all. It is possible to provide conditions which satisfy the majority and the result of this compromise is to keep complaints to a minimum. To produce results which will satisfy this condition of an acceptable environment has been the only

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

reason for the combined efforts of all who have been a part of the project from original concept through TAB and occupancy. If it is accepted that this is the purpose of the individual and collective efforts and that it is not possible to satisfy every occupant all of the time, then it should follow that the efforts must be collective with the resulting advantages to be gained by all. Unfortunately, because many people, including designers, are not familiar with what TAB is supposed to be and what it can do, there is a tendency at times to expect impossible miracles or to attempt to place unwarranted blame. At the same time, there are instances when the TAB personnel attempt to slough off their own responsibilities by using a difficult balancing situation as an excuse. The final performance of the systems and the resulting environment must be everyone's goal. To make that goal more readily attainable, cooperation is required from beginning to end. 3.2.2

Fans and Air Handling Systems

There are three basic families of fans centrifugal, axial, and combinations of both. Centrifugal fans come in three types namely, forward curved, backward inclined and airfoil. Axial fans may be divided into three groups, propeller, tube axial and vane axial. Combination fans are variations of both centrifugal and axial fans. Fan construction is characterized by class, nomenclature, and drives. Fan airflow volume, total and static pressure, outlet velocity, velocity pressure, brake power, and tip speed are characteristics familiar to TAB technicians. Additionally, fan system curves, operating point, law relationships, and density are also encountered in TAB work. Knowing how a fan is tested in the laboratory will help in understanding how fans operate in the field. Air handling systems are going to be part of the TAB work that is encountered in the field and the contractor needs to know about this part of the business. An air system is defined as a system that provides total sensible and latent cooling in the cold air supplied by the system. No additional cooling is required at the terminal units. Heating may be accomplished by the same air stream, either from the central system or at the terminal devices. In some applications, heating is accomplished by a separate air, water, steam, or electric heating system. In the TAB field there are

two basic air systems: single-path and dual-path. Knowing the basics of good air system duct design will allow the TAB technician to determine if HVAC systems can be balanced properly, in addition to helping solve routine problems while balancing. On new construction, and with a good background in duct system design, TAB technicians will be able to recognize where problems exist and what can be done to correct them before retrofit work has progressed to the point where changes are difficult to make. This assumes that the TAB contractor is also the installing contractor. There are times that the TAB contractor comes on the scene after the installing contractor. The TAB technician must know how duct systems are designed in order to troubleshoot problem jobs. The ductwork is seldom installed exactly as shown. Even if it is, and calculations are painstakingly made in accordance with all tables and charts, the actual total system losses can vary from the design losses. Generally, balancing a system adds additional losses to the system total or static pressure losses when compared to a system with all dampers wide open. 3.2.3

Air Distribution Devices

Air distribution devices are basic to all air systems whether they are ducts, terminal boxes, variable air volume boxes or terminal outlets. Obviously, the technician is to be knowledgeable about these devices. Ductwork is basic to the air system and it is the conduit that the air travels through from air handling device to the terminal unit. An air terminal box or terminal unit is a device that controls the volume of conditioned air introduced into a space or zone from the HVAC air duct system. These devices can add to the duct system leakage problem, as they may leak as much as 5 percent. The air terminal box can provide for the function of pressure, airflow rate, temperature, or air blending. This function can be accomplished either manually or automatically. Another air distribution device is the variable air volume (vav) terminal box which controls the amount of air volume into a space. Other airflow devices are pressure reducing valves or air valves; supply outlet throttling units; and volume dampers. Room air distribution supply air outlets, distributing ceilings, return air and inlets are all air distribution devices that the technician will be coming into contact.

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Whether its' fans, air handling systems, or air distribution devices, the TAB contractor needs to have trained and knowledgeable technicians. 3.3

TAB PROCEDURES

3.3.1

Preliminary Procedures

Since testing, adjusting and balancing (TAB) of HVAC systems can best be accomplished by following systematic procedure, the entire TAB process should be thoroughly organized and planned by the TAB contractor. All activities including the organization, procurement of required test instrumentationand the actual system balancing should be scheduled as soon as practical after the contract to do the TAB work has been consummated. Since buildings space loads often vary with each change of season and since space temperature levels are a significant factor in TAB work, the total system, which includes both the air and hydronic portions of the system, must be balanced along with all satellite systems (such as exhaust systems operating independently in the same conditioned space). Before starting, it is necessary to obtain all applicable plans and contract documents including change orders, approved shop drawings and equipment submittals. Performance data, including fan and pump curves, should be obtained for all HVAC equipment. After all preliminary data has been collected, a study of each HVAC system may be performed. Review the project drawings, schematics, and details to insure that all necessary balancing devices such as volume dampers and balancing valves are provided to facilitate the balancing procedure. Prepare a schedule and plan of attack for the TAB work. After completing initial planning, proceed with the work. If the TAB contractor is only doing TAB work, the installing contractor has responsibility for assuring satisfactory startup procedureshave been achieved. 3.3.2

General Air System Procedures

Preliminary TAB procedures having been done and checked prior to the actual testing, adjusting and balancing of the HVAC systems on the job, then the next step is the general air system TAB procedures. System startup requires that the fan, dampers, flow/pressure, damper settings be checked. A fan test is run to check volume of air being moved and the system airflow is checked. A 3.6

comparison is made of any system deficiencies in airflow between actual results and the specified performance of the fan. Basic air system balancing procedures will determine if the air flow is within ±10 percent of the design air quantities and the terminal outlet in the circuit with the greatest resistance shall be fully open. The step wise method or proportional balancing (ratio) method can be used. 3.3.3

Procedures for Specific Air Systems

The TAB procedures for basic air systems noted above are the foundation for the testing, adjusting and balancing of any air distribution system. There are, however, certain different or additional procedures that should be used when balancing other than single duct, constant volume air systems. Specific procedures for the following systems are available: * * * * *

Variable air volume (VAV) Multizone Dual duct Induction unit Process exhaust

Even though some of the duct systems noted above are considered obsolete by the HVAC industry, the TAB firm may encounter them when rebalancing or retrofitting systems in older buildings. 3.3.4

Hydronic System Procedures

The best possible method for flow measurement of hydronic systems cannot be determined without reviewing the systems. There are five basic methods available for measuring the flow quantity in a piping system: * * * * *

With flow meters, With calibrated balancing valves, Using the equipment pressure loss, By heat transfer, and Using pump curves.

It is preferable to balance hydronic systems by direct flow measurement. This balance approach is very accurate because it eliminates compounding errors introduce by the temperature difference procedures. Balancingby direct flow measurement allows the pump to be matched to the actual system requirements (pump impeller trim). Proper instrumentation and good pre-planning is needed.

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

Water flow instrumentation must be installed during construction of the piping system; they can consist of all or a combination of the following: * * * *

System components used as flow meterscontrol valves, terminal units, chillers, etc. Flow meters- venture, orifice plate, and pitot tube. Pumps Flow limiting devices and balancing devices.

System circumstance often dictates a combination of flow and temperature balance. In many cases, it may not be economically sound or even necessary to install flow indicating devices at every terminal. For example, in reheat, induction, and radiation systems, temperature readings can be used to set the flow. Branch piping and risers should still be set with primary flow measuring devices. The water balance is undertaken using all the pressure measuring methods available and verified by total heat transfer using air and water temperature readings. The pressure readings provide the necessary accuracy for a good balance only if verified by a heat balance. Basic hydronic system procedures can only start after the preliminary TAB procedures are completed. Confirm that these preliminary procedures have been completed and check lists prepared. Do not attempt to balance a hydronic system before the installation has been completed and all of the air systems have been balanced. Basic preliminary procedures apply to all hydronic systems. After these procedures are checked, the system balancing procedures start and the system is started. Pump and system flow is checked and recorded. Piping system balancing requires proper procedures, a procedure (or system) may be required to be broken down into several steps that correspond to the source, outlet and piping. All of the balancing procedures have two things in common:

(a)

Balancing of a forced circulation system starts at the pump. Pump testing and adjusting must be done prior to any adjustments to system piping or terminal units.

(b)

System terminal units are maintained in the full flow position (i.e. control valves open to coil and closed to bypass) during the entire balancing procedure.

Balancing specific systems is based on the preliminary procedures first, then the specific hydronic component. All equipment such as boiler, chillers, compressors, etc., shall be started by, and operated under, the supervision of the responsible contractor or the designated authority. Chilled and/or hot water equipment; cooling tower systems; boilers; and heat exchangers/converters all have specific procedures for hydronic balancing. The TAB contractor will be required also to balance variable volume flow; primary-secondary and summer-winter systems. 3.4

TAB INSTRUMENTATION

Instruments for the measurement of airflow, waterflow, rotation, temperature and electricity are the tools of the trade of the TAB technician. The TAB contractor must make an investment in these instruments if they are going to be in this business. Many instruments are available to accomplish TAB tasks and gather TAB data and information. In addition, new electronic multipurpose instruments that are capable of providing more than one reading, such as airflow and temperature, as well as other electronic types are available. Many of these new instruments are reliable and accurate. Instrumentation for air and hydronic balancing is shown in Table 3-1. Instruments for air balancing are shown in Table 3-2, and Table 3-3 shows instruments for hydronic balancing.

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

3.7

TABLE 3-1 Instrumentation for Air &Hydronic Balancing

*If used, mechanical/electronic instrumentation requires compliance with calibration dates noted. TABLE 3-2 Instruments for Air Balancing

3.8

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

TABLE 3-3 Instruments for Hydronic Balancing

* If used, mechanical/electronic instrument requires compliance with calibration dates noted.

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3.9

Here is a more specific break down of instruments: Airflow

Hvdronic

Rotation

Temperature

Electrical

Manometer (u-tube)

Manometer (u-tube)

Tachometer, chronometric

Thermometers, glass tube

voltammeter

Manometer Inclined/Ver.

Pressure gauge, calibrated

Contact Tachometer (digital)

Dial Thermometers

Electronic (digital) Manometer

Pressure gauge, differential

Optical Tachometer photo tach.

Thermocouple Thermometers

Electronic Tachometer (stroboscope)

Electronic Thermometers

Dual Function Tachometer

Psychrometers

Pitot Tube Pressure Ga. (magnehelic) Anemometer, Rotating Vane Electronic Rotating Vane Anemometer

Electronic Thermohygrometers

Anemometer, Deflecting Vane Thermal Anemometer Flow Measur'g Hood Smoke Devices The advent of microprocessor based controls has created the need for individuals working within the TAB industry to become familiar with computer and digital communication technology to access and adjust setpoints, or "variables", of a system. For hydronic flow measuring the contractor should be familiar with venturi tube and orifice plates; annular flow indicators; and calibrated balancing valves. Air balancing with orifice plates is another method that is used in the field.

3.10

3.5

TAB REPORTS

The proper use of the TAB report forms by contractors, both as work sheets and as a final report of operating conditions, will provide the best method of insuring that testing, adjusting and balancing is being correctly, systematically and effectively performed. SMACNA TAB Report Forms are protected by copyright law and any unauthorized use by non-members may prove to be illegal.

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

Preliminary TAB procedures, design and manufacturer's data should be entered on applicable report forms during the initial planning stages for TAB. This step coupled with proper instruction of the TAB team by the use of these forms as work sheets will facilitate production and enhance the final results. Accuracy in preparing the final report forms is important for several reasons: *

They provide a permanent record of system operating conditions after the last adjustments have been made.

*

They confirm that the prescribed TAB procedures have been executed.

*

They will serve as a handy reference that can be used by the owner for maintenance.

*

They provide the system designer with a system operational check and would serve as an aid in diagnosing problem areas.

Copies of the typical forms are found in the SMACNA TAB manual.

3.6

SPECIFIC EXPERTISE AND MATERIALS REQUIRED

It is true that TAB is a technical subject and process. It is equally true that in the performance of the technical work, TAB technicians and management personally or indirectly come in contact with many people. They are often required to meet with the engineer and perhaps the architect, owner and tenant. Their reports are reviewed by the engineer and perhaps the owner or his representatives. The TAB work performed is constantly available to the owner's representatives and the tenants. If the performance of the TAB work is uncomplicated by problems and the resulting environment is acceptable to the inhabitants, the reports are accepted. It is often said that any project which begins poorly or with difficulty will end the same way, only becoming worse as it progresses. Beginning even before construction, technical planning has already been indicated as a mandatory condition for successful TAB. It is equally important to plan

the psychological approach to TAB from the earliest states. Another factor of importance in this public relations process is the elimination of what may be termed loose talk. By nature every human has a desire to impress his fellow man and at times little consideration is given to the consequences. There is a critical need to curb this instinct in TAB because of the distinct possibility of digging ones' own professional grave. The technician and his firm are sure to suffer, whether it is the embarrassment or wasted time caused an engineer by a casual, unwarranted or incompetent criticism of the system design, or an offhand remark by the TAB technician that they are unable to produce the proper air flow in an occupied space. There are times when the most positive sales approach is to be a good listener. The impression made win be favorable and lasting. Public relations and sales do not stop when personal contact is over. If anything they become more difficult. In a personal meeting there is the opportunity for each side to size up the other, to note inflection and facial expression and to be able to present evidence in favor of one's argument. These advantages disappear when the communication takes the form of a report. The facts and interpretations are permanent and have none of the personal feeling which is available orally. Consequently, the TAB technician or manager should decide first what they would consider acceptable and then prepare the material in a useful way. A poorly presented report may be in trouble even if the material is technically correct. There should be no doubt that TAB is needed. There is no question that there is an equal need for qualified individuals and companies to provide this service. The means by which individuals and companies present themselves, their work and the tools they use require serious consideration. With the initial assumption that there is a responsible commitment to fulfill the contractual obligations of TAB, certain basic matters automatically follow, including: *

Knowledge of systems and their operation are the keystone to successful

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3.11

performance. *

TAB field experience coupled with knowledge provides more than half of the basic perquisites.

*

The ability to prepare a formal presentation and interpretation of data is an absolute necessity.

*

The ability to present oneself with a confident but not overbearing manner is a requirement often overlooked or ignored.

The individuals and companies able to offer this complete service will perform with reliability, instill confidence in the clients, promote future business and, with the increased efficiency that comes from professionalism and good management, will be able to reduce wasted time and materials. It is also hoped that in addition to the probability of decreasing financial expenditure, there might even be an increase in financial gain. It takes time to work incompetently. Increased efficiency through knowledge can produce competent performances in many cases in the same or less time. To enter this business the contractor should have an understanding of these goals: (a)

Promotion of an awareness of the importance and complexities of TAB from original project conception, through design and construction, to the final physical process of TAB and occupancy of the installation.

(b)

Presentation of methods for the TAB process.

(c)

Providing technical data and references useful or imperative to the understanding of systems, but not to the extent of actual design.

(d)

Stimulation to promote high standards of performance by intelligent interpretation of tabulated data.

(e)

Establishing recognition of the various responsibilities of owner, architect, engineer, contractor and TAB personnel.

The TAB technician is the person in charge of the

3.12

TAB work being done on the environmental or HVAC system. This person can be the SMACNA Contractor doing the work, one of the principals of the firm, or a designated employee. Under the certified program of the National Environmental Balancing Bureau (NEBB), this person would be a qualified NEBB Supervisor. After observing TAB procedures on a complicated TAB job, that TAB technician must be a highly skilled and knowledgeable person. This person must know the fundamentals of airflow, hydronic flow, refrigeration and electricity; be familiar with all types of HVAC equipment, HVAC systems, temperature control systems, and refrigeration systems; know how to take pressure, temperature and flow measurements; and be able to perform effective troubleshooting. The days of balancing using a wet finger and cigarette smoke are long gone! There are many TAB jobs that can be done by one person. However, some HVAC systems need more than one person or a TAB team to complete the work in a reasonable time period. Many of the local Joint Apprentice Training Programs have TAB courses, some NEBB Chapters have TAB training programs, and the National Training Fund (NTF) has a Certified Technician Training Program. NEBB also has TAB home study courses.

From the materials stand point the contractor that enters this business will be equipped with the proper instrumentation. This instrumentation must be calibrated and it has to be on hand ready for the technician. In addition, the contractor will need the proper forms to record the TAB information and communicate that information through the report. 3.7

SPECIFIC MARKETING TECHNIQUES

All of the techniques mentioned in Chapter 1 are applicable to TAB. With regard to qualifying the client, the TAB contractor should look for potential customers from the list of previous installations. This assumes that the TAB contractor is also performing system installations. If the installation was made more that 5 years ago, there is a good chance that TAB work is needed. Even in systems that were not installed by the contractor, one would find qualified opportunities

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for TAB work. The use of the energy audit is a good way of determining the needs for TAB work and will qualify many potential customers. On new construction, even if one is not the installing contractor, the TAB contractor can offer such services. In this case, try to qualify from the stand point of being an independent and objective entity. In order words, you are trying to qualify potential customers who are looking for an independent TAB contractor. The following are some management and public relations perspectives for marketing TAB services. 3.7.1.

Introduction

Testing, adjusting, and balancing is a service profession as well as a technical one; and, consequently, it often requires apractical approach to accomplish desirable results. It is just as important to understand something about people to perform TAB properly as it is to understand systems and their operation. Unfortunately, the subject of people and how to deal with them is one which can require years of academic study. The limited space available here could not begin to provide such subject depth. Fortunately, on the other hand, the subject may be approached to a great extent from the standpoint of common sense. Continued association and experience with people provides the classroom for a constantly improving and stronger relationship. Much of the information learned in this way is often all too obvious when specifically pointed out but becomes lost in the day-to-day frustration of personal desires. There will not be a great deal of information presented here which is new to the reader but, by emphasizing certain commonly known facts, it is expected that the TAB process will be smoother and more efficient from the initial approach to the final acceptance of any specific project. 3.7.2.

Final Purpose of TAB

To better appreciate this point of view, consider the real purposes of TAB. By the processes of instrument reading, adjusting of system components, interpretation of results, solving technical problems, and final balancing as closely as possible to the design conditions, the installation is intended to provide maximum satisfaction to the occupants. This in fact is what the designer had in mind when he originally designed the installation.

In environmental systems, where most of the occupants are people, there is no verbal complaint from the system; all such complaints stem from the occupants or the other individuals responsible for the creation, use and operation of the installation, and all of these are people. 3.7.3.

People and TAB

There are two basic groups of people involved in this matter. There is the "customer" group and the TAB group. The customer group consists basically of the owner, architect, engineer, and occupant. The TAB group consists of the TAB organization of management and technician. The customer group is in reality no different than any other customer including the TAB people when they are "buying." There is a desire for the best product at the lowest cost. During the buying process, as much investigation as possible is made into the product being considered but often total understanding of the product is not possible. In TAB this is especially true of the occupant who may have the mistaken impression that the resulting installation will be perfect. Because customers seldom have any TAB background, there is often misunderstanding regarding the limitation of the product. Once the product is purchased, this characteristicbecomesobvious, and such misunderstandings or supposed imperfections may cause considerable unpleasantness and irritation. From the standpoint of the seller, in this case the TAB organization, such a viewpoint is unreasonable and initial frictions may be exaggerated out of all proportion. From time to time it would be well for TAB personnel to imagine themselves in the position of these customers and make an evaluation of what their own reactions might be in the same circumstances. Equally important, but practically impossible to accomplish, would be to find some way to get the "customer" to place himself in the position of the TAB personnel! Since the TAB people have the knowledge of system capability it will most often be necessary for them to take the steps required to promote harmony, especially in view of the fact that one or more of these customers has control over the approval and payment of invoices. The TAB group must often sell themselves and

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their product. Since one of the basic conditions for successful selling is knowing the product, the need to understand systems and system function is not only a matter of improved technical results but an extremely important source of improved communication and sales. There is no better way to catch and hold designers attention and gain their respect than to be able to discuss the matter intelligently in their own language. This can often overcome the human tendency to brush off serious discussions with someone who is "uninformed" or The key to a who "doesn't understand." satisfactory relationship, therefore is communication. 3.7.4.

The Role of Management

A TAB manager may be considered as an individual who is ultimately responsible for the performance but who relies on the technician to accomplish the physical work. The manager's contacts may be with owner, architect or engineer, and always with the technician. The technician's contacts may be with the occupant, sometimes the architect and/or engineer, and always with the manager. The only guaranteed common contact of manager and technician is between themselves. Managers, then, must manage the projects and the technicians. They must coordinate and supervise the work in such a way that they will achieve the goals of the company as well as the customer. Management techniques must be based on technical knowledge and recognition and understanding of the intricacies of human relationships. 3.7.5.

Management and Customer

With regard to the customer, there is the responsibility of the business image and public relations. The TAB manager should cultivate a reputation as a competent, knowledgeable, straightforward businessperson who has a strong sense of contractual obligation and responsibility. One must avoid impulsiveness, deviousness, slipshod methods, and just-get-by tactics. The image and reputation of the TAB organization will be formed by the quality of work performed; the respect of all business associates outside and inside their own company; the satisfaction of professionals, owners, occupants building maintenance staff, and all clients; and by prudent use of publicity. In the event that the company 3.14

performs other work or services than TAB, one must recognize that TAB work will have an affect on the overall reputation. Since the TAB crew is one of the last to leave the project, they are in a position to leave a lasting impression. This impression can promote the company image by a display of courtesy, knowledge, and tact by the test crew. Promotion of company reputation can be greatly enhanced by proper execution of TAB work. The ability to advertise as a reputable TAB company can have advantageous results in other facets of the functions of the business. The contract and its fulfillment, as well as being legal obligations, must be included in the relationship with the customer. Part of the contact with the customer may be in the contractual negotiations when the extremely important first impression, easy to establish and almost impossible to change, will be made. Even if the contract is handledwithoutface-to-faceencounter,the success of the TAB project and perhaps a long standing good reputation are at stake. Management personnel at the TAB supervisory level as well as other administrators must be familiar with all of the provisions of the contract. Many will contain American Institute of Architect or other standard provisions. Many will be prepared by attorneys without any technical knowledge of the work to be performed. Many will contain provisions which may be physically -difficult or impossible to meet. At times it is possible to elect not to submit a bid or perhaps to negotiate revisions, but at other times the undesirable items must be accepted. These difficulties should be known at the earliest moment in order to take whatever corrective measures may be possible. Contracts generally require that all work be of good quality, free from faults and defects, and in conformance with contract documents. Warranties are commonly included to cover this and, in addition, may require that the installation be free from defects in materials and workmanship for some time period such as one year. A performance bond may also be required. These obligations are primary. If the customer abuses provisions of the warranty it is possible that the TAB organization might provide free maintenance for the length of the

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warranty. The terms of the warranty should therefore be as definitive as possible. On the other hand, the TAB company may successfully solicit a maintenance contract for a period of a year or more and thus acquire a potentiallyprofitable addition to the business and at the same time avoid some of the difficulties normally attending TAB work.

SMACNA or ASHRAE standards is not required by the contract to make the installation any better than the standards. On the other hand, the contractor is not always in a position to police a project to maintain even the quality of workmanship intended by the standards. If the contractor is not the TAB company, any control which might have been maintained is totally lost.

3.7.6.

Low velocity or low pressure construction may leak considerably even when reasonably wellconstructed. If the designer would build this additional air quantity into the system, there might be some hope. Unfortunately, in this case if the ductwork were tight, the plus 5% condition could be exceeded, perhaps leading to similar difficulties on the high side.

Tolerances

Specifications and contracts often establish air balancing tolerances acceptable for the installation. This point is one which deserves special scrutiny by the TAB manager. The purpose is to force the TAB technician to perform the work accurately. However, the tolerances established are sometimes unrealistic and impossible to attain. Balancing within plus or minus 10% of the design air quantities is a reasonable goal as long as there is understanding that special cases may require further flexibility. Of course, if a figure is established as a limit and stated in the contract, any further deviation from the design conditions may not be possible to negotiate. When it is known that such flexibility cannot be negotiated, there is some question whether TAB management should even consider preparing an estimate or negotiating such a contract. Part of the decision must be based on the amount of control the TAB company has over the physical construction and installation. On occasion, the tolerance is required to be plus or minus 5%. This small a deviation is generally unrealistic; and if maintained as a contract requirement, the decision to enter into such a legal obligation will bear heavily on this point alone. High velocity systems which are normally required to be pressure tested might be balanced to this tolerance. Low velocity (low pressure) systems which have not been specified with similar testable construction can be considered as impossible to balance to this limit. The author of the plus or minus 5% tolerance overlooks the possible separation of contractual obligations of installer and balancer and the limits of the system, construction methods, instruments, and people involved. Standard duct construction for low velocity installations is not designed for such a limit. A contractor installing ductwork to specified

Added to the construction difficulty is the fact that even AMCA rated fans are allowed a plus or minus 5% tolerance. Furthermore, plus or minus 5% error is acceptable even for a newly calibrated velometer; and, even in the use of the pitot tube, such deviations may occur because of the poor location of the traverse position available. Perhaps the most difficult variation to evaluate is the human error. It has been proved that individuals are prone to read instruments consistently high or low, but no figures are placed on the percentages. Locations in the system which are difficult to reach from a safety standpoint, such as taking measurements on top of a high ladder, have a tendency to increase human error. The combination of these circumstances makes compliance with stringent limitations a matter of luck rather than performance. Again, negotiation with the purpose of establishing ground rules for acceptable results are much more useful and more likely to satisfy design requirements. Insistence upon extremely limited conditions could tempt the TAB company to submit false reports which can lead to additional problems. 3.7.7.

Conclusion

The facets of TAB public relations are infinite, and the roles played by manager and technician defy total definition. Testing, adjusting and balancing are obviously technical subjects. The performance of TAB is technical and personal. The personal aspect concerns communication,

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human relations, public relations, psychology, and a great deal of common sense and sensitivity. Difficult as it may be, the TAB person will understand the role better by mentally placing himself in the position of the customer and asking the question, "What would I expect?" 3.8

PUMPS AND HYDRONIC SYSTEMS

In order to provide TAB services the contractor will need an understanding of pumps and hydronic systems. Pumps which move water around a piping system must be studied by the TAB technician so that not only all of its unique characteristics are known, but that the pump has been applied properly within the system. With an in-depth understanding of pumps and their relationship to HVAC systems, it becomes easy for the TAB technician to apply proper balancing procedures in the correct sequence when on the job. Pumps usually are direct driven by being coupled to the shaft of the motor, and their speed is not changed unless a variable speed drive or motor is used. If the pump speed can be changed, the volume of liquid that is pumped will vary directly as the speed. The pressure or head imposed within the piping system will vary as the square of the rpm. The power required to run the pump will vary as the cube of the rpm. In most HVAC systems, it usually is not possible to vary the speed of the pump to produce the required fluid flow. However, the impeller of the pump can be changed to one of a different diameter, within limits. Changing the diameter of the impeller has the same effect as changing pump speed. From the pump laws: * * *

The volume (gallons per minute (liters per second)) varies directly with the impeller diameter, The pressure or head within the system varies directly as the square of the impeller diameter, The horsepower or power required varies directly as the cube of the impeller diameter.

It is more efficient to change the pump impeller size than to throttle a pump (using a discharge valve) to change the rate of flow.

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Centrifugal pumps used in the heating and air conditioning industry can be defined by the type of impeller, number of impellers, type of casing, method of connection to driver, and mounting position. Two types of pumps are used, single suction and double suction. Most centrifugal pumps in HVAC work are single suction type. Pumps also may have single or multiple impellers. When they have multiple impellers, they are called multistage pumps. The purpose of a pump for HVAC work is to establish fluid flow and produce sufficient pressure to overcome the resistance of a system and the system components at the design flow rate. When working with pumps, the word "head" is often used to define pressure. The discharge pressure is greater than the inlet pressure of the pump. In establishing head, the impeller produces a lower or relatively negative pressure on the suction side. Pump performance characteristics are presented in graphical curves or tabular form in the same manner as fans. However, pump curves usually, are available, and performance tables are not; which is contrary to the situation with fan data. The result is a relatively quick visual pump selection to determine the consequences of system pressure changes. TAB technicians should be familiar with the pump curves and know the difference between open and closed systems. Gauges should be located as close to the pump flanges as possible to eliminate the effect of pipe friction, fittings, valves, and other obstructions. A pump curve which is a plot of head in feet (meters) versus flow rate in gallons per minute (liters/second) does not require correction for temperature or density. Density does increase the pump power requirements. Hydronic heating and cooling sources that a TAB contractor will come in contact with are boilers, heat exchangers, water chillers, and heat pumps. Terminal heating and cooling units are numerous and they are classified in several ways. Basically, they are classified as natural or forced convection; radiation; or mixing of each type. Here are a few of the terminal units that will be encountered in the field: * * *

Baseboard and fin tube radiation Unit ventilators Fan coil and induction units

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Unit heaters

A hydronic or all water system is one in which hot or chilled water is used to convey heat to or from a conditioned space or process through piping connecting a boiler, water heater, or chiller with suitable terminal heat transfer units located at the space or process. All water systems may be classified by temperature; generation of flow; pressurization; piping arrangement, and pumping arrangement. In terms of flow generation, hot water heating systems are of two types (1) the gravity system in which circulation of water is due to the difference in weight between the supply and return water columns of any circuit or system; and (2) the forced system in which a pump, usually driven by an electric motor, maintains the necessary flow. Water systems can be either oncethrough or recirculating systems. Water systems that need to be understood by the TAB contractor are low, medium, or high temperature on the heating side. On the cooling side there are chilled water systems and dual temperature systems. In terms of piping classifications, there are small and large systems. Normally, small piping systems are characterized as series loop; one-pipe; two-pipe reverse return; and two-pipe direct return. Large piping systems are classified as two-pipe direct return or reverse return; three-pipe or four pipe. This might sound like a lot of variations, but the contractor will come across one or more of these in a project. A steam system does not need to be balanced nor can it be balanced manually in the true sense that air and hydronic systems need to be tested, adjusted and balanced. However, the TAB contractor needs to have a working knowledge of steam systems and their relationships to air and hydronic systems. 3.9

FUME HOOD/CLEAN ROOM TAB

The industry has two areas that provide additional opportunities for TAB contractors, fume hoods and clean rooms. An industry definition for a clean room is "a specially constructed, enclosed area environmentally controlled with respect to airborne particulates, temperature, humidity, air flow patterns, air motion, and lighting." A fume hood is "a ventilated enclosed work space intended to capture, contain and exhaust fumes, vapors, and particulate matter generated inside the enclosure".

3.9.1

OSHA Regulations

The Occupational Safety and Health Agency (OSHA), regulates standards for air quality within the workplace. They also set standards of safety and health for the industrial work environment. 3.9.2

Environmental Safety Concerns

It should be realized that the TAB contractor may not be trained for special cleanroom work that requires special safety training. The TAB contractor should therefore implement a safety awareness program covering environmental hazards, education, respiratory guards, and general safety as related to fume hoods/clean rooms environments. Decontamination, test, and certification of biocontainment cabinetry and facilities is just one example of work that takes special safety training. Each TAB company should have as a minimum, a written document or manual of common hazards encountered in this type of work and use this manual in their training program. Additionally, the company should appoint a safety person who is responsible for training, developing a safety program and implementing the program and training. This safety person should update the programs and procedures on a regular basis. 3.9.3

System Testing/Analysis

In testing of fume hoods, a smoke candle test should be made to ensure that vapors do not escape. Velocity checks are made at the open door of a hood that have constant face velocity. When balancing in laboratories that have hoods, study the drawings and note the airflow and pressure differential between different areas and rooms. Flow control, spillage, and face velocity are the basic performance characteristics of hoods. National Environmental Balancing Bureau (NEBB) states that "two basic types of tests for cleanroom systems are employed to properly evaluate a facility: initial performance tests and operational monitoring. The initial performance tests may result in corrections of problems within the system and, therefore, are normally conducted before occupancy of the facility. However, a cleanroom facility cannot be fully evaluated until it has performed under full occupancy and the process to be performed within it is operational. Thus, the techniques for conducting initial performance tests and operational monitoring are

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similar". HEPA filters used in these systems are tested before and after installation. Tests for external contamination must be performed and when this is satisfactory, then the internal contamination is tested. Internal contamination testing is performed at "critical areas within the facility" according to NEBB. This internal testing of the cleanroom should be performed during operation and when occupied. Light scattering particle counters are used to determine the extent of the internal contamination. Hot wire anemometers or velometers can be used to determine velocity gradient and air patterns in the cleanroom. NEBB, further notes that other tests such as "temperature and humidity gradients, lighting level, and sound and vibration levels" are required to determine cleanroom performance. 3.9.4

Desired/Regulated Performance

What is the desired/regulated performance of the hood/clean room system? Going back to the definition of cleanroom, we find that the room has a controlled environment. Each of the elements of the environment are to be regulated to some level of performance. The cleanroom may be required to achieve a level of pressurization, or temperature, or humidity, air motion, lighting or class of cleanliness. For example the designer may have set a class 1,000 level for cleanliness. The TAB contractor would have to test to determine if this performance was being met in the cleanroom. Class levels are defined by the Federal Standard No. 209D-"Clean Room and Work Station Requirements, Controlled Environment". These levels are the allowable particle size per cubic foot

and range from 1 to 100,000 Class with particles from 0.1 to 5.0 microns or micrometers. 3.10

REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS

There is no testing and balancing work for refrigeration systems, but TAB contractors must be familiar with them since they affect the work that must be done. The lack of "cooling" can affect TAB work, therefore, the contractor should be familiar with the common problems. These common problems and many other conditions which may occur do not necessarily cause immediate loss of cooling. However, if any are apparent during TAB work, nuisance calls may be avoided by bringing the condition to the attention of the responsible parties.

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The basic refrigeration cycle which consists of a pump (compressor), the heat rejector (condenser), the metering device (capillary tube, thermal expansion valve, float valve), and the heat absorber (evaporator, chiller, cooler, direct expansion coil) is a concept that the contractor must be familiar with. This familiarity will help when working with the TAB process for the rest of the building systems. A discussion about refrigerants will be made in a later chapter. 3.11

FINANCIAL PAYBACK ANALYSIS

Much of the financial payback analysis discussed in Section 1.5 also applies here for TAB contracting. Payback deals with three basic items, namely savings per year; the initial outlay; and interest rate. From these parameters the payback can be calculated using the equation in Section 1.5. 3.11.1 Energy Savings/Comfort (Existing Buildings) If a potential customer with an existing building can be shown a positive payback analysis, it may result in a contract for services. The TAB contractor will first have to inquire from the customer, what they consider a reasonable payback period. Once known, then it can be determined if there is a potential for achieving this payback. For example, let's say that by rebalancing the HVAC system of this existing building, it can be shown that the energy savings would be significant. This determination could be made by an energy audit showing probable sources of energy waste. Using the annual energy savings in dollars per year; the initial investment in dollars; and the interest rate in percent, the years to payback using the equation from Section 1.5 can be determined. If this payback period is within the potential customers range, then there is a good chance for the TAB contractor to close the order. From another point of view, let's say that the audit determines that the existing systems level of comfort can be improved if a re-balancing is done. Then this benefit would have to show a cost savings to the building owner. This might be difficult. The contractor would have to relate the benefit of "better comfort" to cost savings because perhaps the tenant turnover rate is reduced, or the benefit results in better employee productivity. Then it is just a matter of calculating the payback using the savings per year brought about by the

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better comfort in place of the energy savings used previously. These are just two examples of how the TAB contractor could analyze the payback to help close a sale. Now let's examine the rebalance view point.

result in obtaining the balancing work after the purchase. Once the new owner is "locked" in then try to negotiate a long term contract for periodic rebalancing with a more frequent interval of rebalance. This rebalancing could be keyed into a new tenant, or a major change in space utilization.

3.11.2 Rebalance Every Five Years Keeping our focus on the opportunities in existing building systems, a contractor should realize that buildings and building systems change over the life of a building. These changes may be caused by renovations, tenant demands, energy cost, equipment aging, etc. Some building systems may have never been balanced in the first place. There are few buildings in existence that have not experienced changes in internal loads since they were designed and built. These buildings should be rebalanced to achieve maximum operating efficiency and comfort. Many buildings require rebalancing twice each year with seasonal change from heating to cooling or the reverse. A five year rebalance contract of existing building systems can be a viable option to the contractor, if the owner can be shown the advantages and a reasonable payback period. When a building is being sold is a good time to approach the owner or prospective buyer with rebalancing. The new prospective owner can be approached with the prospect of an energy audit of the building and the potential for rebalancing to enhance the property. Once the building is purchased, then the work for the rebalancing could take place. In other words, provide a service to the prospective buyer that will

3.12

REFERENCES

3.12.1 HVAC Systems Testing, Adjusting & Balancing. SMACNA, Chantilly, Virginia, 2nd Ed., 1993. 3.12.2 Procedural Standards for Testing, Adjusting, Balancing of Environmental Systems. NEBB, Rockville, Maryland, 5th Ed., 1991. 3.12.3 Bevirt, W.D., Environmental Systems Technology. NEBB, Rockville, Maryland, 1st Ed., 1984. 3.12.4 Procedural Standards for Certified Testing of Cleanrooms. NEBB, Rockville, Maryland, 1st Ed., 1988. 3.12.5 HVAC Applications Handbook. ASHRAE, Atlanta, Georgia, 1991. 3.12.6 Eads, W.G., Testing, Balancing and Adjusting of Environmental Systems. SMACNA, Chantilly, Virginia, 1st Ed., 1974.

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CHAPTER 4

INDOOR AIR QUALITY

CHAPTER 4 4.1

INTRODUCTION

Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) work, although somewhat related to testing, adjusting and balancing (TAB) work, will be totally new to many SMACNA heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) Contractors. Some HVAC contractors believe that they have no need to be involved with IAQ. These statements are so far from the truth, because research has shown that over fifty percent of so-called "sick buildings" have an outdoor air ventilation deficiency problem that should be "familiar territory"to HVAC contractors. The new work for SMACNA Contractors will be the monitoring and sampling of the indoor air pollutants and becoming associated with an industrial hygienist and/or a laboratory. Mechanical ventilation took the place of opening windows to achieve the dissipation of internally generated contaminants. The building of "tight buildings" started by the first so-called "energy crisis" in the early 1970's, created indoor air pollution problems by reducing building ventilation requirements and sealing in the pollutants. Generally, indoor air quality (IAQ) may be defined as the nature of air that affects the health and well-being of occupants. 4.2

INDOOR AIR QUALITY

IAQ CONCERNS

Back in 1981 the National Research Council published the findings of a report that showed four basic reasons for increasing concerns about indoor air quality: * Energy conservation efforts have tended to reduce the amount of ventilation available to dilute indoor contaminants to acceptable concentrations. * Techniques for measuring occupant exposure to contaminants at low concentration have improved. * Widespread sources of contaminants exist indoors and outdoors. * Awareness by the general public of the impact of indoor air quality on health and

well-being has increased. Understanding of the importance of indoor air quality has increased significantly during the last decade. Demographic studies have shown that current United States of America populations typically spend up to 90 percent of their lives indoors. Lawyers and law suits have concentrated on IAQ cases which increased liability cost to building owners and managers. Studies indicate that indoor concentrations of contaminants are frequently higher than corresponding outdoor values. Thus, exposures to indoor contaminants may have more impact on public health and well being than outdoor exposures.

4.3

IAQ STANDARDS

The standard that is used currently is ASHRAE Standard 62-1989, "Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality" plus the 1990 addendum 62a1990. This standard was developed over the years going back to 1973. The stated purpose of the current ASHRAE standard is to specify minimum ventilation rates and indoor air quality that will be acceptable to human occupants and are intended to minimize the potential for adverse health effects. In order to try to achieve a balance between acceptable indoor air quality and minimizing energy consumption Standard 62-1989 has retained both the "ventilation rate procedure" and the "air quality procedure" for ventilation design. The standard also specifies requirements for ventilation design documentation to be provided for system operation.

4.4

IAQ VERSUS ENERGY CONSERVATION

Energy conservation efforts have resulted in tighter and better insulated buildings, reduced capacities of HVAC systems, and control strategies that minimize air movement in occupied spaces. These efforts have frequently resulted in elevated levels of contaminants traditionally considered innocuous. This condition of poor indoor air quality has become know as "Sick Building Syndrome". Off gases or particulate from sources

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such as synthetic building material, cleaning fluids, environmental tobacco smoke, copy machines, and biological organisms have intensified the concern for acceptable IAQ. And, as methods of detection have improved, awareness of possible health effects of long-term exposures to low-level concentrations of the many indoor contaminants has increased.

savings that may be realized by decreases in energy, maintenance or other operating costs may be counterproductive. Occupant exposures can result in increased claims against insurance policies or increased litigation. These claims result in lost income and higher insurance premiums not to mention reduced gross production.

4.5 OCCUPANT CONCERNS

4.5.2

4.5.1

RESPONSE/LIABILITY

Occupant response

When an IAQ complaint is received from an occupant, it could be real (actual) or imagined (perceived). Complaints, comfort demands, and productivity are three areas that can be sources of occupant responses to air quality concerns. There are three categories of complaints about poor air quality: * Perceptible physical stressors as they relate to the building systems (e.g., odorous contaminants, heat, irritating glare, noise. * Nonperceptible physical stressors (e.g., radon, odorless gases, inert particulates(asbestos, glass fibers)), * Perceptible nonphysical stressors (e.g., job related stress, job satisfaction) Imagined or perceptible physical stressors are usually the easiest to mitigate through operational changes or physical modifications to building systems. Nonperceptible physical stressors are more difficult to control because there existence must first be determined through utilization of appropriate instrumentation. The third category, perceptible nonphysical stressors, may be the most difficult to resolve because social or psychological solutions may be required. Comfort demands are centered around the four senses of smell, sound, thermal, and visual. Satisfy these and the comfort complaints are reduced. Another area is productivity. When occupants are exposed to conditions that may result in illness or discomfort, not only is their health at risk, but productivity may also be compromised. If these exposures result in an increase in absenteeism, any

4.2

Liability Concerns

Increased public awareness regarding health and safety risks associated with certain exposures has been the primary cause for professionals being held responsible. The proliferation of health and safety standards has caused an increase in litigation. Because of the enormous claims that have been filed and often awarded, substantial changes have occurred in the manner by which buildings are designed and operated. Because of the high cost of liability insurance for architects and engineers, standard architectural contracts push the responsibility for building performance to others. Building owners, facility managers, and equipment and appliance manufacturers are now being held liable for the health and safety of occupants. Workman's compensation claims; employee walk-outs; classaction suits; and lease agreement violation have all been subjects of recent litigation involving "building related illness" or "sick building syndrome". Thus, professional liability and fear of litigation have become significant drivers to provide and maintain acceptable indoor air quality in residential and commercial buildings. 4.6

IAQ AUDIT

Typical investigation teams should include an HVAC system engineer and an industrial hygienist, although other professionals (such as physician or non-physician epidemiologist) have been included as well. On the initial building site investigation it is not necessary to involve an industrial hygienist at the outset. If it is determined at a later date that one is needed, they can be brought on to the team. Preliminary information, initial site visits, evaluation criteria and follow-up site visits are the basis for the audit.

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

Preliminary information for the audit can be furnished by the owners. Owners can provide documentation of complaints and they can advise the contractor of where the complaints are coming from. In addition, the owners should be contacted for copies of blue prints, diagrams, and specifications of the building and building HVAC systems. Ask the owners if they have conducted any interviews with the building occupants. If this interview information is available, it will be helpful in performing the audit. The IAQ audit begins with the walk-through survey. A walk-through survey of the building is essential to ensure that information collected by interview and/or questionnaire is accurate. A walk-through survey of the building is also helpful to assess the overall condition of the building and to determine that systems are functioning properly. Start sampling first thing in the morning for carbon dioxide (CO2). Other samplings are taken at mid-day and just before people leave at the end of the day. Additionally, temperature and humidity should be checked along with measurement of airflow at air outlets and return air grilles. Interpretation of results will depend on what was found during the sampling. Additional evaluation of point sources of contaminants may be necessary. If point sources such as copy machines, blue print machines, solvent, etc., are suspected to be causing the problem, the assistance of an industrial hygienist may be necessary. General recommendationscould include additional outdoor ventilation; elimination or control of chemical contaminants; or elimination or control of microbial contaminants. Additional outdoor ventilation air has been shown to be the single most effective method of correcting and preventing problems and minimizing complaints related to poor indoor air quality.

4.7

IAQ CONTROL

The control of IAQ problems can be resolved in some cases by the use of HVAC systems. Ventilation systems are necessary and vital for controlling indoor air quality. However, these systems can be the source of IAQ problems at times if they are not maintained. The IAQ contractor can find opportunities to expand their business base by providing services to maintain, balance, test, and install HVAC systems. Dilution

of indoor air by the use of ventilation is commonly found in rest rooms and laboratories. Another solution to IAQ problems is the use of filtration equipment. This equipment can be used to filter recirculated air which removes unwanted contaminants and provides for energy savings. Particulate, panel, media, adsorption, air washers, and electronic air cleaners are all examples of various types of filtration equipment that the IAQ contractor can recommend and install.

4.8 SPECIFIC EXPERTISE AND MATERIALS

REQUIRED As was noted earlier, the field of IAQ is a "natural" for the SMACNA contractor who presently has most of the expertise and materials to enter this market. Past work with HVAC systems may have already put the contractor in the IAQ market without realizing it. Projects that resulted from the efforts of others, may have used the services of the HVAC contractor to solve a IAQ problem. If the contractor is being used by others in the industry to solve building system problems, why not be the "point" or leader in performing this work rather than the subcontractor. Building a team under the direction of the SMACNA contractor is not an unrealistic goal. Let's look at the expertise and materials needed to enter this market.

4.8.1

Specific Expertise

A contractor who is involved in HVAC business has the expertise to bring to this business. Expertise in fabrication and installation of HVAC systems is prime in establishing a presents in this area. HVAC experience with design, maintenance, retrofitting, and testing, adjusting, and balancing (TAB) work are all good credentials needed to enter this field. Of the fields noted above, the TAB field would somewhat relate to IAQ. Knowledge of HVAC components and systems are essential and the SMACNA contractor has a distinct advantage in these areas over others in the field. Other expertise which the contractor needs or should have access to are physicians, industrial hygienists, lighting consultants, acoustians, testing laboratories, and non-physician epidemiologist. All of the team members are familiar except for a few.

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4.3

The epidemiologist is one who deals with the medicine of epidemic diseases and the industrial hygienists is one who is skilled in the science of exposure characterization or industrial hygiene. In the past the industrial hygienist was thought to only work in an industrial plant setting, but now they are also needed in non-plant buildings (i.e. offices, school, commercial). Depending on the complexity of the problem, it may or may not be necessary to call in expert help, such as an industrial hygienist, or epidemiologist but it is wise to have these team members available. 4.8.2

Materials Needed

Besides the normal equipment and materials needed for HVAC work, there should be instrumentation available to perform the IAQ audit. Many of these instruments are the same that are used for TAB work. Instruments that measure the contaminant gases that might be found in buildings such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide are available. The infrared analyzer equipped with long path optical cells is one such instrument. The instrument requires infrequent calibration and has the requisite sensitivity for all gases. Other instruments such as the portable gas chromatographs are used to monitor volatile organic compounds on the site. These instruments are rather sophisticated, calibration is difficult, and expensive. More sophisticated instrumentation is better used by the expert of the team and these experts normally have such tools of their trade. Particulate samples collected at the site can be carefully packaged, identified and delivered to a laboratory for chemical analysis. Here again the contractor calls upon another member of the team to provide the materials and equipment needed to solve the lAQ problem. 4.9 SPECIFIC MARKETING TECHNIQUES In Section 1.3, marketing techniques were discussed that were applicable to all markets in the manual. One of the first things that a contractor who wants to get into this market must do is to dedicate sales people to this effort. Make the potential customers aware of your expertise in this area and use the other team members as sources of customers. An industrial hygienist might have contacts with new customers but does not have the experience and know how in the HVAC side of the problem. Joint ventures with other team 4.4

members can be put together in a marketing approach to potential customers. Make building owners aware of your interest in this field and keep in contact with previous customers who have given you work on HVAC systems. Look for opportunities that blend improved environmental quality and reduce energy consumption. One technique, is to use an existing TAB or maintenance contract to get into the IAQ market. Propose to an owner that you are currently providing services, to permit an IAQ walk through. By doing this you are looking for opportunities for developing a proposal of services. On new buildings, offer the services as a final check up from the LAQ stand point. This check up can be presented to the owner as an advantage that can be used to attract new tenants, reduce insurance premiums, ward off employee concerns, and reduce workman's compensation claims. Try to get owners to require their architect's to specify required IAQ services as a final part of the building process. For existing buildings that are under going renovation, provide an unsolicited proposal for an IAQ check. You may be bidding on normal HVAC work for the existing building, so why not propose IAQ services. 4.10

FINANCIAL PAYBACK ANALYSIS

In Section 1.5, a discussion of financial payback is made and the information presented is applicable to the LAQ field. Two areas are to be discussed on how energy conservation and occupant complaint/comfort can be shown to be advantageous to building owners. 4.10.1 Energy Conservation The four steps to improve IAQ ventilation rates while conserving energy are: (a) Evaluate the ventilating system to determine: 1. Present IAQ ventilation rates. 2. General and specific system air movement performance. (b) Modify the system as needed to: 1. Conform to acceptable IAQ ventilation rates.

Building.Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

2.

Operate as efficiently and cost effective as possible.

(c) Maintain the HVAC system after IAQ ventilation rate modifications to: 1. Ensure that the system remains in good operating condition. 2. Ensure that the system operates as close to the design setpoints as possible. (d) Monitor the IAQ ventilation rates on a regular schedule to: 1. Ensure compliance with regulations and guidelines. 2. Ensure that energy usage is minimized. Ventilating systems may be mechanical. If the mechanical ventilation systems are used, then provisions should be made for the measurement of air flow quantities, system static pressure and electrical power to ensure compliance with changing IAQ regulations and guidelines. Also, monitor the systems to determine if they are operating at maximum efficiency. In order to evaluate and determine the condition of the ventilation system, a verification of system performance should be made on a recurrent basis. This verification procedures should include a determination of the present ventilation rates and a general system evaluation. To be able to determine the operation and performance of the ventilation system, the amount of outside air will need to be measured. And, depending on the type of system, return air and supply air quantities may also be needed. As part of the evaluation procedure, measurements of the rotational speed and the air pressures at the fan and power measurements on the fan motor to include current, voltage and power factor will also be needed. If it is determined that the ventilation rates are not adequate, then the system will need modification to bring the rates up to acceptable levels. If it is found that the ventilation rates are excessive, then modifications to the system to bring the rates down to acceptable levels are likely to reduce the system's energy usage. Modifications of the system to increase or decrease ventilation rates may include changes to the fan, ductwork and control system. The use of energy recovery ventilation systems should be considered for energy conservation purposes in meeting ventilation requirements.

IAQ can be affected by the quality of the maintenance and by the materials, products, and procedures used in operating and maintaining the ventilating system. All HVAC equipment should be inspected on a regular schedule. It is important that the inspections be thorough and that all the equipment is checked. Most equipment manufacturersprovide recommendedmaintenance schedules for their products. As equipment is modified, e.g., components or systems ate added, removed, or replace, it is important that any and all changes in the system equipment or components, or the function, capacity, operation, or operating schedule of the system be documented. Monitor the IAQ ventilation rates on a regular schedule and compare them to the building design goals, ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 guidelines, and national, state and local building codes. Make adjustments as necessary. Ventilation rates greater than required amounts, should be reduced to lower system operating costs. Excessive ventilation rates increase the system's energy usage due to increased fan horsepower to move the air through the system. Also, energy is wasted by the additional operation of the heating and cooling equipment to condition the extra and unnecessary amount of ventilation air. Use a discounted analysis between two systems and estimate the cost of each plus the operating cost of each. An owner will select the system that has the lower first cost and operating cost. If the first cost of one system is higher than the other but the operating cost is lower, then the owner will have to see a satisfactory rate of return. In other words, the extra first cost must be offset by the reduced operating cost. Remember that the first cost of an item is paid once plus interest, but the operating cost goes on for the life of the system. Savings in operating cost such as utilities will have an impact over the years.

4.10.2 Occupant Complaint/Comfort Occupant complaints or comfort as noted earlier in Section 4.5 have an impact on the building owner. Whether it is an IAQ problem that effects production, employees, health, stress levels, workman's compensation claims, litigation, or tenants cost the owner money. If the IAQ contractor can provide a solution to the "sick building", then they are in a position to save the owner money. The cost of the solution (capital

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

4.5

investment), savings per year, and the owners expectations for a reasonable payback period are needed to do the analysis. If the capital investment to annual savings ratio is determined and the interest rate defined, then the payback period results. A payback period (years) within the owners limits should be a "close" for the proposal. The owner resolves the problem with the building, and the contractor provides the service, which is a win-win situation for all.

4.11

REFERENCES

4.11.1

Indoor Air Quality. SMACNA, Chantilly, Virginia, 2nd Ed.,1993.

4.11.2

HVAC Applications Handbook. ASHRAE, Atlanta, Georgia, 1991.

4.11.3

Industrial Ventilation. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1994.

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

CHAPTER 5

BUILDING SYSTEMS COMMISSIONING/ RE-COMMISSIONING

CHAPTER 5 5.1

BUILDING SYSTEMS COMMISSIONING/RE-COMMISSIONING

INTRODUCTION

Commissioning may be defined as : "the process of advancing systems from a state of static physical completion to a state of full, demonstrated and documented working order, according to design requirements, during which time the owner's operating staff are instructed in correct systems operation and maintenance." Contractors who understand HVAC commissioning and recommissioning will be in a position to sell its use to owners, designers and others. This chapter is to review both types of commissioning and point out the opportunities in this market. Over the years, buildings and their services have gradually become both more complex and much more varied. At one time, systems were simple with few controls (mostly manual), and were very similar from building to building. After installation, a simple equipment start-up by the contractor was often all that was needed. The equipment, and the system, either worked or it did not. If it did not, diagnosis and correction was usually obvious and quick. Today, there is a wide range of equipment and systems used for building HVAC. These systems are often complex, particularly in their controls. They have come about in order to meet a whole series of conflicting pressures: capital cost constraints; more stringent building codes (particularly with respect to smoke control); higher energy costs; energy conservation standards and codes: and occupant demands for better comfort and good indoor air quality. 5.1.1

Why Commissioning?

The primary purpose of commissioning is to obtain a building whose service systems function in all respects according to design intent, and to meet the needs of the occupants. To achieve this, it is essential to implement a commissioning process in which functional and environmental performance is tested, verified, and documented prior to occupancy; and is maintained during occupancy. If modern building systems are going to function properly, they must be designed competently and then installed correctly. On the installation side, this means checking that all aspects of the installation

are complete before startup. Once started, system operation must be checked and verified in detail. Building operators must be familiarized with all aspects of the operation of the systems. Without instruction, operators will often not have this knowledge. In addition, due to smaller safety factors and more demanding occupants in today's buildings, there is less margin for error if things are not just right. Building owners and operators must be provided with usable documentation on inspection, services and maintenance requirements, and be instructed on the importance of carrying them out. An effective, ongoing service and maintenance program is essential for achieving efficient system performance, providing occupant comfort, and extending equipment life. The contractor has traditionally had the responsibility of providing a complete and fully In essence, "fully functioning installation. functioning" also means "fully commissioned". Thus, the traditional responsibility includes all the activities involved in planning the commissioning process and implementing it on site. Commissioning should remain as part of the contractors responsibility. 5.1.2

Quality Management

Commissioning is essentially a quality process. Quality is built into a product, and it is not achieved by trying to fix problems after they have occurred. In other fields, it has been discovered that a quality product does not need to cost more to produce. Both process and attitude changes were necessary to achieve the goal of quality products. SMACNA is convinced that commissioning, as an integral part of the design and construction process, is one of the means of raising the quality of the HVAC systems contractors turn over to owners. If commissioning is planned and carried out properly, this increase in quality can be achieved with a reduction in construction cost. In other words, the costs of undertaking the commissioning process are more than offset by efficiencies in other areas. Nevertheless, where a comprehensive commissioning process is required of the contractor, the specifications must clearly define the work required.

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5.1

Only when the process and scope of the commissioning work are defined will the contractor be able to bid the job fairly. A quality management approach, incorporating a commissioning process has the potential to produce a better product for the customer at a reduced overall cost. OVERVIEW OF THE PROCESS

5.2

There is really only one commissioning process. However, it must be applied to a very wide range of projects and systems. In order to be practical and economically justifiable, commissioning must be organized to accomplish its desirable results at a cost which is consistent with the value of the particular project. In other words, commissioning must be carried out with an acceptable labor hours commitment. The value of a project, and the appropriate time and cost commitment will depend on:

to verify and accept the results. Contractor commissioning has advantages:

* Maintains traditional owner/designer/ contractor contractual relationship, specifically that the contractor is responsible for providing a totally complete and functional installation according to the contract documents * Emphasizes and rewards the integrity and competence of contractors * Still permits the owner through it's Commissioning Authority to make sure requirements are met, and good contractors will stand out above the less competent ones 5.3

LEVELS OF COMMISSIONING

The size of the project,

*

The complexity of systems, and their controls, being commissioned,

*

The degree of controls interface between different systems,

·

Level 1 - basic

*

The existence of acceptance test procedures mandated by code or regulation,

·

Level 2 - comprehensive

The owner's commissioning requirements.

*

Level 3 - critical systems

There are two organizational options for commissioning. In one, the owner plans and carries it out, either with his own staff or by hiring a commissioning agency to do so. The owner's agent is usually independent and could also oversee the design besides the construction. The second option for commissioning could be termed contractor commissioning. Under this option, the contractor plans and carries out the commissioning process, either with a properly skilled group of their own staff or by a commissioning agency acting as a specialist subcontractor. The owner, if they have specific commissioning requirements in the contract, will have their own CommissioningAuthority to oversee the process and

5.2

following

* Provides for total quality management

*

*

the

The wide variation in project size, complexity, critical or highly specialized systems, and owner requirements requires the defining of the commissioning process in terms of different "levels" of commissioning. Three different levels of commissioning are:

In Level 1, basic commissioning will be carried out by the contractor during the construction and acceptance phases of the project. Level 1 commissioning is intended to: * Ensure the contractor meets a basic contractual requirement to produce a complete and fully functional installation, in accordance with the contract documents. * Help the contractor plan, organize and coordinate that part of the work related to completing the installation, getting equipment and systems started properly, safely and on schedule. · Ensure that systems operation, including all

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

control sequences, are checked out and that functional performance as specified is achieved in all respects. *

Identify problems as they arise, and provide a mechanism for getting them corrected by whoever is responsible, with followup to prevent them getting forgotten.

*

Provide documentation identifying that system installation and operation is according to requirements.

*

Ensure the contractor will be able to operate the equipment and systems to demonstrate system performance and functionality according to contract requirements to the designer or owner if so requested by the designer or owner. And to do this to any degree of detail requested.

*

Provide a framework for giving training and demonstrations in correct systems operation to the owner's operating staff, and for providing instructions and recommendations concerning the maintenance program for the completed systems.

*

Carry out both all of the foregoing in the most efficient manner possible, and without increasing overall contractor costs for the project (even though it is recognized there will be some cost for the commissioning process itself).

For a contractor committed to quality, Level 1 commissioning should be carried out whether or not there is any explicit commissioning requirements imposed on the contractor by the owner or the designer in the contract. In Level 2, the major differences between Level 1 and Level 2 commissioning are the following:

*

May well include more detailed commissioning at the zone terminal level.

*

Will likely require more commissioning attention to interfaces between the HVAC systems and systems installed under other divisions of the work (for example, fire alarm or security).

This level applies where the owner mandates commissioningrequirements based either on his own policies and standards or on the owners acceptance of recommendations. Level 3 commissioning is the most detailed and exhaustive application of the commissioning process. It is carried out in those facilities for which correctly functioning and performing systems are extremely important. In some cases there are specific owner, code or regulatory requirements. An example of this level would be specific room/corridor pressure relationships in a laboratory which must be maintained during all normal lab operations. Tests might include monitoring supply/exhaust air flows and room/corridorpressures while fume hood sashes are operated and the lab entrance door is opened and closed.

RE-COMMISSIONING

5.4

Re-commissioning will be authorized by a building owner who has become aware of the benefits of this process. So it behooves the contractor to make the owner aware of the causes of operating problems, occupant complaints, or avoidable cost via the recommissioning. It can then provide the means to plan, carry out, and commission corrective measures. Problems which can be identified and corrected via re-commissioning: *

Incorrect HVAC systems function

*

Preparations for Level 2 will start in the predesign or design stages of the project.

*

Inefficient HVAC systems operation and energy waste

*

More formal and comprehensive documentation requirements. Designer and owner review of the Commissioning Plan should take place.

*

Zoning and layout of HVAC systems do not match current occupancy or usage

*

Comfort needs of occupants not being met

*

Indoor air quality problems

*

Excessive and complaints

*

Tend to have more comprehensive pre-start, start-up, and functional performance checks and This is linked to the enhanced tests. documentation requirements for Level 2 commissioning.

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

persistent

occupant

5.3

*

Difficulty attracting or retaining tenants, leading to vacancy and lost revenue

control adjustments or physical modifications to provide adequate outside air are indicated.

A prospective owner may also be interested in the problem identification phase of re-commissioning. The survey can reveal valuable insight into the condition and capabilities of the HVAC systems in the building.

IAQ investigations often require special knowledge. If the surveys indicate the possibility of significant IAQ problems, the commissioning agent should recommend that the owner retain an IAQ specialist for this aspect of the work. The commissioning agent should not undertake this unless staff with the requisite expertise and credentials are available.

In re-commissioning, the major pre-investigation requires that the necessary data about the existing installation be assembled. Once the data is available, the planning and execution of the recommissioning process is similar to Level 2. This type of work is particularly relevant to contractors because if they are doing service and maintenance work in the building, they may be aware of conditions justifying some degree of recommissioning, and be in a position to make recommissioning proposals to the owner for consideration. 5.4.1

Bring Existing Buildings Up to Current Standards

Existing building systems offer a potential challenge for re-commissioning contractors. Building owners who may or may not be the original owner, that are interested in bringing the fire safety, life safety, automatic backup, or occupant safety up to current standards; are potential customers. The survey can uncover where the existing building does not come up to current standards. For example in the energy aspects of building systems, one can find out where the systems can be improved to bring the energy consumption to current standards. 5.4.2

Improve IAQ

Indoor air quality (IAQ) and adequate outside air ventilation are both critical concerns for many owners. Re-commissioning must address basic IAQ even in the absence of any specific IAQ complaints from occupants. If any IAQ concerns have been raised, a detailed IAQ evaluation will be even more important. The present occupancy should be confirmed, contaminant sources (if any) identified, control of contaminants evaluated, the required outside air ventilation amount determined from ASHRAE Standard 62 or applicable regulations, and that amount compared to the minimum outside air ventilation quantity shown on the existing drawings or other documentation, and confirmed by TAB results. If actual outside air requirements are greater than those being provided, then either

5.4

5.4.3

Improve Comfort

Modifications will be required when the demands of the current use or occupancy of the building, or spaces within it are not capable of being met by the HVAC systems as currently installed, adjusted or operated. Comfort complaints for improvements of the HVAC system should be a signal for a recommissioning survey. Modifications may be as simple as controls adjustments or adjustments to air and water flow rates. In such cases, the necessary work is usually authorized quickly, and then the recommissioning tests proceed. Finally, if the comfort shortcomings are significant, the requirement may be for more major renovations, even complete system replacement under some extreme circumstances. 5.4.4

Building Surveys

When complete installation and operational documentation is available, the Commissioning Agent is fortunate indeed. However, the existing documentation may not be up to date. Surveys are needed to determine the accuracy of the existing documentation. Obtain the owners go ahead before going forward with the survey, since it is consuming and costly. Nevertheless, accurate data on existing conditions is critical to the success of any re-commissioning work, so the survey scope of work must be sufficient to confirm accuracy and, if necessary, to update existing documentation to reflect current conditions. If the documentation does not exist, then the survey must be taken to get the data needed to create the documentation. In the cases where the survey confirms the documentation, then the information that was confirmed needs to be recorded. Then, any future re-commissioning will have a record of when the specific documentation accuracy was last confirmed.

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual ·First Edition

Drawings should be checked against actual conditions of the HVAC systems, building envelope, and major air handling equipment and primary air distribution ducting.

5.4.5

Recommended Modifications

After the survey is made, modifications may be requiredbefore the re-commissioning can take place. Some of the modifications could be relatively simple and inexpensive such as adjusting or fine tuning. The necessary work is usually authorized quickly, and then the re-commissioning tests proceed. If the shortcomings are significant, the requirements for modifications could be major renovations. Once the survey, documentation and analysis work, is completed then the estimate of the cost of the recommendations is made. It is then up to the owner to decide how much of this work to authorize. In most cases, the approved modifications should be carried out before the final re-commissioning tests are done.

5.5

The ideal commissioning agent will have most or all of the following qualifications, experience and skills: *

A good knowledge of a wide variety of HVAC equipment and systems is important. This knowledge needs to include an understanding of the design basics behind each system, and how each is typically controlled in order to perform as designed. It will probably be obtained from technical school, relevant National Energy Management Institute (NEMI) or National Training Fund (NTF) training programs, manufacturers' technical training programs, or design office experience.

*

Experience in either the engineering or the installation and field testing of controls systems for a range of HVAC systems is also needed. Knowledge of controls is important to overall system function and is closely related to HVAC systems knowledge.

*

Training and experience in testing, adjusting, and balancing (TAB) of air and hydronic systems will prove valuable in on-site work.

*

Good writing and documentation skills are essential for a number of commissioning tasks. First, for preparation of an understandable and useful Commissioning Plan which incorporates all the steps required, in the correct order. Second, for producing useful commissioning meeting minutes. Third, for documenting test results as they are obtained. A knowledge of how to use computers for some of these tasks is becoming essential for productivity, record keeping, effective use of master lists, and selecting information to send to those who need it.

*

Planning and organizational skills tie in with the writing and documentation skills just described. The ability to plan ahead and visualize the steps which must be taken in order to have a successful commissioning process is critical. This would include an ability to focus on the details of what must be done while at the same time being able to organize those details into a coherent plan, which contractors can understand

SPECIFIC EXPERTISE AND MATERIALS REQUIRED

Contractor commissioning takes expertise and materials to enter this market. These items range from the very basic to the complex. Contractors have to be prepared to retain external commissioning agencies, or to develop the required expertise internally, in order to undertake HVAC systems commissioning.

5.5.1

The commissioning agency's function may be carried out by a separately retained company specializing in commissioning work or by properly skilled staff of the contractor carrying out the work.

Expertise

The commissioning agent is defined as the persons or company responsible for carrying out the detailed planning and implementation of the commissioning or re-commissioning process. It is important to recognize that the commissioning agent's role is usually carried out by a team, rarely by one person, except on very small projects. Usually, the commissioning agent's responsibilities occur during the construction phase of a project. However, in situations where the commissioning agent is appointed during the design or pre-design (program) phases, they may have input with respect to the planning of the commissioning process at those earlier times. In particular, this includes coordinating and documenting the on-site tests described in the commissioning plan.

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

5.5

and follow on the jobsite, while not losing track of the overall goal. These skills would also include an ability to prioritize, communicate to those involved, and follow through on required corrective actions.

which is quality management of the commissioning process.

* Excellent communications skills, with everyone involved in the project, are necessary. These skills are important because the jobsite effectiveness of the commissioning agent often depends on good working relationships in order to achieve the needed cooperation. Previous jobsite experience and a considerable degree of maturity in conflict resolution are helpful in this regard, all targeted towards eliciting real cooperation and effective progress to project completion.

On commissioning new construction, the contractor must make sure that the specification permits the use of the contractor as the commissioning agent. Architects and owners that prepare these commissioning specifications for new construction should be approached by the sales team person and they should be sold on the idea of using the contractor as the commissioning agent. Technical marketing to these architects and owners should be a part of every sales persons responsibilities. Copies of the SMACNA sample specifications shown in the Commissioning Manual should be made available to specification writers during the design and specification phase of the project.

It will be clear from the foregoing, that relatively few individuals will have all the skills and experience outlined. For this reason, a team approach will often be the most effective way for a commissioning agent to implement the commissioning process, with each member contributing some of the skills needed. It is important to remember, however, that commissioning is primarily an organizational and planning task. Therefore, those skills are as essential to commissioning as the technical knowledge concerning the systems being commissioned. 5.5.2

SPECIFIC MARKETING TECHNIQUES

All the basic marketing techniques discussed earlier are applicable to commissioning or recommissioning. A dedicated and knowledgeable sales force is required if one is to succeed in this market. The team that the contractor puts together of fabricators, schedulers, technical, selected experts, surveyors, and sales should know the central theme 5.6

Commissioning New Construction

Invite architects, engineers, and owners to your Chapter meetings and ask them to participate in joint programs that foster the commissioning process and show the value of this service. Also, contractors participation in programs and trade shows sponsored by architects, engineers, and owner groups should be encouraged by the contractors firm. By this joint participation, the contractor learns the needs of the other groups and their cooperation is enhanced for the future.

Materials

Besides the normal office equipment, the contractor will need a computer to track and keep records. Basic tools mentioned in the TAB chapter are used and should be owned or available to the contractor. Alibrary of manufacturer catalogs on various HVAC equipment helps when surveying a project for either commissioning or re-commissioning. To record the information, a set of forms and check lists for various levels of commissioning similar to the ones in the SMACNA HVAC Systems Commissioning Manual - 1st edition appendix are recommended. 5.6

5.6.1

Besides selling the concept of commissioning, the marketing effort must sell the concept of permitting the contractor to retain the responsibility for a "fully functioning" which means a "fully commissioned" building. The traditional responsibility includes all the activities involved in planning the commissioning process and implementing it on site. 5.6.2

Re-commissioning Existing Buildings

Those contractors doing service and maintenance work on HVAC systems in existing buildings may be aware of conditions justifying some degree of recommissioning and be in a position to make recommissioning proposals to the owner for consideration. This is a natural marketing technique and the contractor in this position should take advantage of the opportunity. It you are not in this position, then contact the owner and offer to provide a survey of the building HVAC systems to determine the needs. Once the survey is completed then develop a proposal for re-commissioning the system and make recommendations for any changes

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

necessary to get the system up to standards. Contractors who are performing TAB work on existing buildings should look for re-commissioning needs of owners. Once the TAB work is nearing completion inquire if there are any plans for recommissioning the building. Also inquire if there are persistent occupant complaints of "too hot", "too cold", "stuffy", or other related complaints. This could be a sign of insufficient capacity if the system was balanced correctly. An engineer from the contractors office or an engineer on the contractor's team can perform a heating and cooling load analysis and compare this to the existing capacity. If the existing capacity is not enough, prepare a proposal for up grading the system. As part of the proposal recommend that re-commissioning be included. It is important to note that re-commissioning will be driven not by its cost, but by the savings opportunities identified in the initial surveys leading to the decision to proceed

5.7

Existing Buildings - Identify Problems, Cost Avoidance, Occupant Comfort

Re-commissioning an existing building will be authorized by a building owner who has become aware of the benefits of this process. Recommissioning can identify causes of operating problems, occupant complaints, or avoidable cost. Correcting any or all of these items will save the owner in the long run. This savings, the cost of the re-commissioning and the interest rate yields the payback period using the equation in Section 1.5. Keep in mind that the owner wants to maintain the existing building so as to avoid cost. Any problem that can be resolved must be cost justified to the owners expectations. An occupant comfort compliant that goes unresolved can lead to a possible loss of a tenant resulting in a loss in rents. This condition can be resolved by the contractor, but the solution must be shown to be cost justified to the owners. A payback period within the owner's time frame is a sure "bet" to result in a contract.

5.8

REFERENCES

5.8.1

HVAC Systems Commissioning Manual. SMACNA, Chantilly, Virginia, 1st Ed., 1994

5.8.2

Sterling, E. M. & Collett, C. W., "The Building Commissioning/Quality Assurance Process in North America." ASHRAE Journal, Vol. 36, No. 10, pp 32-36. 1994.

5.8.3

Elovitz, K.M. et. al., "Designing for Commissioning." ASHRAE Journal, Vol. 36, No. 10, pp 40-47. 1994.

5.8.4

Dunn, W. A. & Whittaker J., "Building Systems Commissioning and Total Quality Management." ASHRAE Journal, Vol. 36, No. 9, pp 37-43. 1994.

5.8.5

Levermore, G.J. et. al, "Commissioning Building Energy Management System." ASHRAE Journal, Vol. 36, No. 9, pp 44-48. 1994.

FINANCIAL PAYBACK ANALYSIS

When calculating the payback of the commissioning process keep in mind that owner's expectations as to what is a reasonable payback period must be known. Why even go through an analysis if it produces a payback period well beyond the owners limits.

5.7.1

5.7.2

New Construction - Project Quality

Commissioning is essentially a quality process. The owner of a new building looks at how soon they can get into it. But getting into it is only part of the story. If the building is an office type, there are hopefully tenants waiting to get in and settled. If the new building is a factory, the manufacturer can be loosing money each day the building is not producing product. So the question is ... is the cost of commissioning more than offset by the savings of occupying a new building that is truly ready? Use the equation from Section 1.5 to determine the payback period. Calculate the ratio of commissioning cost to annual savings and with the given interest rate determine the payback period.

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

5.7

CHAPTER 6

DUCT CLEANING

CHAPTER 6 6.1

DUCT CLEANING

INTRODUCTION

An area of opportunity for the contractor is the duct cleaning business. This business is closely related to other areas that the contractor is familiar with in the HVAC field. Indoor air quality (IAQ), re-commissioning,testing, adjusting, and balancing (TAB), and energy management are all related businesses that tie into duct cleaning. Duct cleaning is becoming more than just driving up with the vacuum cleaner. It requires knowledge in cleaning, sanitizing, deodorizing, analyzing, marketing, partnering, and systems. What equipment and expertise is required to perform in this business? Building owners and occupants are becoming more aware of the environment around them. What was acceptable yesterday is not acceptable today. As the building envelope tighten after the 1970's energy conservation measures, people became more aware of the environment and especially the building environment. Building materials, furnishings, climate control systems, climate, construction features, and occupants all contributed to the indoor environment. There are four basic elements to dealing with the duct cleaning to resolve environmental problems. A source must be identified to determine if the problem is from the HVAC system, the building, the outside or combinations of several of these. Occupants are the end receiver of the problem and the duct system can be the path that the contaminants take to get to the occupied space. Duct cleaning is a dynamic aspect of the industry that is changing every day. Having the skills and know how to identify the problem and provide a suggested solution, is going to be required if the contractor is going to build this part of the business. A following of satisfied customers is only going to come about by showing that one can provide the service or have people and organizations that one can partner with to resolve the needs of the building owner.

6.2

DIRTY DUCTWORK PERCEIVED OR REAL

PROBLEMS-

the environment? This is a question that might be raised when the building owner gets a complaint from a tenant. How is the building owner to sort this type of complaint out? This is where the HVAC contractor can be of assistance to help in sorting out the source of the problem. Ducts are only one part of an HVAC system along with fans, filters, inlets, outlets, coils, drain pans, humidity control devices, mixing chambers, and heating and cooling equipment. Each component should be kept clean and in working order and later in this chapter we will deal with the cleaning process. Contaminants other than dust can build up in duct systems but the contractor must be knowledgeable to determine what they are. Biological contaminants that foster mold, microbiological organisms, and fungi growth can be found in the duct or other system components. A contractor must be equipped to recognize these biological contaminants before a course of action can be recommended. This is were the contractor will have to have someone on staff or an outside source who is knowledgeable to determine what is found in the HVAC components. Normally, this investigation will require the services of a laboratory skilled in biological determinations. More information on laboratory investigation is going to be discussed later in the chapter. Return air passages can be ducted and nonducted (i.e. ceiling space above). Pollutants can enter the system in these nonducted areas and be the source of the contamination. Therefore, look for contamination sources from outside the HVAC system. Building walls that separate various spaces in a building may have not been properly installed in the building. Improper room pressurization can result from building partitions or walls that were not installed correctly. This imbalance in pressure can be causing contaminants to spill over into other parts of the building and drawn into the HVAC system. In investigating the complaints of dirty duct, make sure the "big picture" is taken into consideration. The ductwork is only one part of the overall picture; therefore, do not discount any part of the building, building systems, and outside air in making a determination to find the source of the contaminant, or odor. SMACNA's IAQ manual offers building and HVAC systems checklists.

Is the ductwork the real cause of a problem with

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

6.1

6.3

IAQ AND RE-COMMISSIONING CONSIDERATIONS

When consideringthe duct cleaning business, think of indoor air quality (IAQ) since the two compliment each other. The IAQ survey may indicate the need for duct cleaning along with other HVAC system component changes. A contractor who is in the IAQ part of the business should give carefully consideration to duct cleaning since it is a natural transition. Having the expertise and skills to provide the duct cleaning service will open opportunities for increased business. Why not devote a part of the operation to duct cleaning? Being involved with the IAQ audit will give one first hand information about the duct system. This opportunity identifies one need of the building owner which must be filled and if not by the company, then by someone else. Some contractors elect to subcontract out the duct cleaning under their control and as part of the IAQ service. If one goes with the subcontracting method, have a good quality contractor who has the expertise to perform the needed service under one's control. In this way, the IAQ contractor gets to provide the service and fill the customers need but also gets a "piece of the action". If a contractor specializes in duct cleaning, then one should consider becoming associated with IAQ contractors since they will be one's customers. This idea will be discussed later in the chapter. The duct cleaning contractor needs to look for other sources for customers to increase the base of work, such as energy auditing. Energy auditing and duct cleaning can be a source of mutual benefit to both contractors. Another related area to duct cleaning is the recommissioning of existing building systems. Contractors who are involved in re-commissioning will find that the systems are in need of duct cleaning as part of the re-commissioning process. A natural lead into duct cleaning should be kept in mind when looking for re-commissioning building systems. Consideration should also be given to partnering with subcontractors who perform duct cleaning as their expertise and the recommissioning contractor expertise compliment each other. Those contractors with duct cleaning expertise can be a source of potential business for the contractor involved in other aftermarket business. Try to cultivate relationships with other contractors who 6.2

can provide work or leads to new customers. These contractors are in a better position if they use each others skills to foster the growth in business for one another. 6.4

DUCT CONDITION SURVEYS

Before any proposals for duct cleaning services can be made a survey of the duct system must be made. This should include a through review from air inlets, air handling units, ductwork, outlets, and return air path. In order to do this effectively, samplings should be taken inside the air handling units, and ductwork if there are signs of problems. These samples need to be placed in sterile containers for delivery to a testing laboratory. This laboratory should be independent from the duct cleaning company. Each sample is tested to determine levels of debris, mold, and bacteria. Some duct cleaning contractors will also recommend that there be an evaluation of the operating performance of the existing system prior to duct cleaning. This service which is usually done by a testing, adjusting and balancing (TAB) contractor is to establish the baseline of the performance of the system. Here again is an opportunity for additional work for the contractor or his TAB subcontractor. In the survey of the duct system, there should be provisions for photographs of the interior of the ductwork and air handling units. Still photos or video taping have been used. In smaller areas some contractors have used fiber optic boroscope equipment connected to a 35mm camera. When using fiber optic equipment a light source is required to illuminate the duct interior. The results of the survey including the laboratory reports, photographs, and recommendations are included in the report. Basically, the contractor is presenting to the building owner the needs as demonstrated by the findings. This report really sets the stage for the contractor to discuss with the owner the next step. Options for the owner can be as follows: *

Do nothing

*

Request a formal proposal to correct the conditions

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

*

Set up a maintenance program

*

Use the report for future actions

The report may suggest that nothing is required at this time, and the owner can keep the report on file for future reference. An owner could use the report to attract new tenants or keep the old ones. In most cases the report could be used to control unsubstantiated claims by tenants regarding IAQ concerns.

Duct cleaning surveys are important to the SMACNA contractor in that they provide opportunities to expand business in several areas that are related to the HVAC business. They should be used to the fullest extent possible when pursuing rehab work. Particle measurement and air movement baseline reports can be used to show conditions before the survey and after the resulting work.

6.5 A survey might show that the ductwork needs to be cleaned and also repaired. This introduces two opportunities for new business. A contractor must decide if they get the work to perform the duct repair themselves or subcontract it out. In most cases the SMACNA contractor will elect to provide the repairs themselves and then perform or subcontract out the duct cleaning. This is were the contractor must have in place the mechanism for performing the needed work in a timely fashion. So it behooves the contractor to have in place the subcontractors, or other partnering groups to perform the work. The initial survey could have been performed by a subcontractor working under the direction of the SMACNA contractor and who is going to be involved in completing the work. From another perspective the survey may have found the ductwork in such a terrible condition that repair and cleaning would not be recommended to the owner since it would not be worth it. In this case the entire system or section of the ductwork may require replacement which the SMACNA contractor can provide. A building owner should be given the alternatives for a replaced duct system. One of these alternatives can be a totally redesigned duct system which would give the contractor the opportunity to broaden his business base. The new design can try to incorporate energy conservation, limited leakage, and acoustical improvements if this is what is indicated by the survey. This starts to get away from the duct cleaning but the contractor needs to be multi-faceted in today's market place. A second alternative is to replace the existing ductwork. And, a third alternative is the replacement of the duct system with a different shape duct such as rectangular for round or round for rectangular. This alternative would have to be justified to the owner.

SPECIFIC EXPERTISE MATERIALS REQUIRED

AND

Before pursuing this type of market, a company needs to have the expertise and materials necessary for success. There are several levels of expertise that are required to address this market and without them a contractor is asking for trouble. On the other side are the materials and equipment needed for performing the duct survey and cleaning.

6.5.1

Expertise

Duct cleaning is a field that requires knowledge and expertise. As the field grows and new research is presented the contractor must be in a position to learn what is required. There must be a commitment from top management down to establish a team of qualified and dedicated people. Sales people need to be trained and knowledgeable since they will be on the "front lines" and they are the first contact with the potential customer. Obviously, these sales people must know duct cleaning and the associated HVAC disciplines that interface with this business. These interfaces will require a knowledge of ductwork, HVAC systems, IAQ, leakage, energy management, and basic sales skills. Duct cleaning surveys requires technicians knowledgeable in sample taking, interior duct and air handling investigations, duct construction, use of survey equipment, and knowledge of HVAC systems and components. A supervisor of the technicians will have to know the technicians job plus project planning and coordination. The supervisor should be familiar with reading blue prints and mechanical drawings of the systems being surveyed or cleaned. Your supervisor must be familiar with the various standards in the industry such as the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62-1989 "Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air

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6.3

Quality" which features: * * * * · *

A definition of acceptable air quality A discussion of ventilation effectiveness The recommendation of the use of source control through isolation and local exhaust of contaminants Recommendations for the use of heat recovery ventilation A guideline for allowable carbon dioxide levels Appendices listing suggested possible guidelines for common indoor pollutants

ASHRAE Standard 55-1992 "Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy" is another important document. A company contemplating entering this business should have an expertise or be able to call upon people knowledgeable in the area of hazardous. Testinglaboratoriesand/or industrial hygienists are two sources for this know how. Other team members that need to be available to the duct cleaning contractor are filtration experts, TAB people, physicians, and IAQ experts. Since IAQ will not be solved by duct cleaning alone, the supervisor needs to know when to call upon other team members to solve a problem. The U.S. Environmental ProtectionAgency (EPA) publishes "Building Air Quality" which is a guide written for building owners and managers, but the duct cleaning company should be familiar with it's contents. One other expertise that a duct cleaning company needs is in the area of health and safety. There should be a person who is responsible for maintaining and updating a safety program for the company. In addition this person should provide company training in the area of safety, and the use of safety equipment. All applicable federal, state, and local health and safety requirements should be followedby the company. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards should be followed. 6.5.2

Materials

What are the materials and equipment necessary to enter this market? This is the other half of the story and without these there is no duct cleaning. First, the survey of the duct system requires the use of sampling containers, access doors for

6.4

sampling points, and templates for sampling. Pictures of the internal parts of the duct system may require a fiber optic boroscope, illuminating devices, and a 35mm camera that goes with the scope. For the larger areas such as the air handling units and larger ducts a regular video or 35mm camera is acceptable. The contractor supplies filters, vacuums, brushes, HEPA filter collection devices, cleaning agents, paint, scrapers, and debris storage containers. Material safety data sheets (MSDS) shall also be required for any chemicals used on the project. All respiratory protection equipment for workers will be supplies by the contractor. Spray wash equipment and steamers may have to be used. HEPA filters used in collection devices are selected for the application. Polyethylene sheeting and tape are needed at times to construct barrier walls. If sanitizer chemicals are used they should be EPA registered. 6.6

SPECIFIC MARKETING TECHNIQUES

Marketing of duct cleaning will take specific techniques, but keep in mind that some of the basic techniques discussed in Chapter 1 also apply here. The idea of partnering with contractors already in this business is an avenue which the SMACNA contractor should consider. This idea was briefly mentioned earlier and it is offered here. If a firm is performing HVAC retrofit services to existing building owners, they are in a position to search out new opportunities that are related to the ongoing work. Site surveys for IAQ, TAB, recommissioning and energy conservation are all avenues to discovering the opportunities for duct cleaning. Subcontracting out the duct cleaning to a firm currently in the business puts the SMACNA contractor in the lead position and the contact point to the owner. This method of marketing duct cleaning permits the contractor to concentrate on those other areas of specialization while still permitting contracting opportunities in the duct cleaning area. In marketing duct cleaning, the contractor tries to market the idea of total indoor air quality of which duct cleaning is a part. In evaluating a building and its systems, the contractor is looking for opportunities to provide services. Duct cleaning may or may not be required but the system evaluation will determine if there is a need.

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

The best way to determine if the ductwork needs to be cleaned is by first evaluating the air flow via an air flow report and secondly by a determination of the particle count in the system. The initial survey should check items such as outside air intakes, status of equipment, ductwork, coils, dampers, etc. Also check the current operating and maintenance practices of the owner. Besides HVAC equipment, check the occupancy usage and how the building spaces are used. Equipment, materials, and people in the occupied spaces can contribute to the need for duct cleaning. Further investigations should see if the HVAC system is out of balance which can cause insufficient amounts of outside air reaching a space. This can have an effect on the indoor air quality and require more than just duct cleaning. In preparing a preliminary or baseline report the contractor is establishing a "before" condition for the owner. This report will take time and cost the contractor; therefore, it is not uncommon to charge a fee. The report provides the owner with the facts as found at the time of the survey or inspection. Current customers can be the first source of business in this area. Commercial buildings of all types are candidates for the marketing of the duct cleaning business. Owner occupied buildings and leased buildings are prime candidates. Try to convince the owners that an on going program of prevention and maintenance is in their best interest in the long run. The following are some building types for new business: * * * * * *

Offices Schools Hotels Medical and Hospital Centers Renovation or New Construction Shopping Centers

Each of these types of buildings provides opportunities for duct cleaning. In marketing the services of the company, M.A. Price recommends that "the first sales pitch should be aimed at the decision makers. The following is a list of decision makers: President, General Managers, Property Managers, Facility Managers, Hospital Administrators, and Personnel Directors.

with the target personnel." This is good advice and the contractor's sales force will have to become familiar with these people. Use the inspection or baseline report as a tool in the sales presentation to the decision maker. Show them the "before" conditions and what is being recommended. If this is the first time that the customer is being contacted, try to convince them that an inspection or baseline report needs to be done before any recommendations can be made. Contractors with broad based experience in IAQ, TAB, and systems analysis should build on these skills. The customer needs to know that the contractor is able to provide not only duct cleaning but all the other services that may be required. Explain to owners the benefits of a clean, well balanced, and well maintained building system. If the owner realizes that the service has a benefit to them, they will retain the contractor. Having a building that was inspected and found to be in good condition is a marketing tool for the owner to attract new tenants or keep the present ones. After the owner is convinced and the work is performed, provide a report of the "after" condition of the building. This report should include the particles count and the air movement for the system. This is a way of "closing the circle" for the customer and proving that the services were indeed corrective and complete.

6.7

FINANCIAL PAYBACK ANALYSIS

Building owners or managers can be shown that the benefits of duct cleaning can justify its cost. Other items such as IAQ, TAB, and energy auditing could be discussed and these items linked to duct cleaning. A combination of duct cleaning and one or more of these other items might be cost justified. Each owner will have their opinion of what is a reasonable payback period. Additionally, the owner will be looking for positive results in spending money to have the ductwork cleaned. These results could mean less complaints from tenants, lower maintenance costs, reductions in energy cost, etc. Back in Section 1.5, the relationship for determining payback was covered and this also applies here. Just as a review, the payback period in years is determined from the ratio of the cost of the investment to savings and the interest rate.

It is essential to make a face-to-face presentation

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

6.5

6.7.1

Lower Maintenance Costs

Performing duct cleaning will impact the cost of maintenance on the building in the form of lower costs. Maintenance cost reductions are benefits that the owner welcomes. These benefits can result from duct cleaning in the form of reduced requirements for painting; reduction of fire hazards; increased energy conservation; and less requirements for filter replacement. Removing debris from the duct has all these potential savings for the owner. Most of these savings are on going and the owner is going to be responsive if they can be shown a reasonable payback on their investment. So the determination of the payback must be based on the owners expectations of a reasonable payback period. The ratio of the cost of the duct cleaning to the savings from the reduction in maintenance cost and the interest rate results in the payback period. Compare the resulting payback period and if it is equal to or less than the owners period, then the chances are the owner will go with the proposal. 6.7.2

the owner must consider the cost of duct cleaning to resolve this problem. Is the cost of the duct cleaning worth it to the owner or employer versus claims from the employees? Another related area is the cost of litigation caused by worker claims about the building air environment. In today's litigious climate, do the owners want the cost associated with defending themselves? Therefore, the cost justification for duct cleaning can be equated to the payback period and determined using the relationship noted above. Some other areas for consideration are reduced worker productivity; and absenteeism. What is the cost to the employer if the worker is less productive, or the production is reduced because of dirty ducts? Only the employer will know the full cost impact of this on the business. Employee absenteeism is also costing the employer and this cost will continue unless the ductwork related problem is solved by duct cleaning. Again this goes back to payback but the cost of the duct cleaning can be far less than the loss production, absenteeism and worker productivity loss.

Improved IAQ - Fewer Occupant Complaints

How much is it worth to an owner to have fewer occupant complaints? Well, if the occupants move out of the building because their legitimate complaints fall on deaf ears, then the owner losses money. In areas such as computer rooms, high tech buildings, and where IAQ is prime, then the occupant complaints could result in costly results if not corrected. The cost justification of having the ductwork cleaned, results in less complaints by occupants. And happy occupants are better workers and better tenants. So from the owner's perspective, the duct cleaning cost must provide a payback that will off set the potential loss of rent from the tenants. As before, the cost ratio of the duct cleaning cost to savings from potential loss rental spaces and the interest rate yields the payback period. Based on what the owner's expectations are for a payback time, the analysis must equal or be below this time.

6.8

REFERENCES

6.8.1

Mintz, A.J., et. al., "Information Presented on How to Promote, Price and Conduct Cleaning of Air Ducts", SNIPS, Vol.63, No. 6, pp.30-32. 1994.

6.8.2

Gerhard, D.S., Duct Cleaning Business Manual. Air Purifying Systems Inc., Reading, Pennsylvania, 1st Ed., 1991.

6.8.3

Price, MA., et. al., " Marketing Duct Cleaning Services by Creating a Partnership with Building Owners and Managers". Duc Tales, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 20-27, 1994.

6.8.4

Indoor Air Quality, SMACNA Inc., Chantilly, Virginia, 2nd Ed., 1993.

6.7.3

6.8.5

Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality-Standard 62-1989, ASHRAE, Atlanta, Georgia, 2nd Ed., 1989.

6.8.6

"Information Presented on How Fiber Glass Ducts or Liner May Be Cleaned", SNIPS, p.28, August, 1994.

Identify Other System Problems

When looking at other considerations for justifying the cost of duct cleaning to owners and building managers, there comes to mind the following considerations. If, at issue is, the cost of claims brought about by workers who have complained about the quality of the air in the building, then 6.6

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

CHAPTER 7

DUCT SYSTEM ANALYSIS

CHAPTER 7 7.1

INTRODUCTION

Duct system analysis is a part of the HVAC market that contractors need to investigate. It has potential for increasing the business that is available to the contractor and offers the building owner a needed service. In the existing building market alone, the opportunity for duct system analysis is great and it ties into other related field such as Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) and Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing (TAB). The key is to get to the decision maker who may be the owner or the building manager and discuss the need for a system survey of the duct system. This will open up the door for the contractor and permit an opportunity to show the owner-what you have found out about the duct systems. Duct testing can be part of the service to determine duct leakage and system performance. From this point the contractor is in a position to determine what the system needs are and the best way to propose corrective action to the owner. Additionally, the contractor will be in a position to tie into other services that are needed. This chapter will look at the expertise, materials and equipment that are needed to enter this market. Various marketing techniques for duct repair/ sealing are to be covered and tie into the IAQ and TAB work. Consideration of the financial payback is also an aspect of this market.

7.2

SYSTEM SURVEY

One of the basic elements of the duct system analysis is the system survey. Building owners or managers need to be convinced that this is the starting point of your service. This survey should convince the owner that their problems of building comfort and necessity to reduce the cost of energy are linked directly to an upgrade of the mechanical equipment. Recognition of their problems should sell them on the idea of a survey. A supply duct system is made up of outside air louvers, dampers, access doors, filters, cooling and heating coils, supply fan, sound traps, plenums, supply duct, terminal devices, flexible duct, diffusers, registers & grilles, return air path, fan, relief and return dampers. A preliminary analysis of the air and water flows is essential to

DUCT SYSTEM ANALYSIS understand how the fan systems are performing. It is recommended to obtain, if possible, the asbuilt or design drawings of the system. This will help in identifying components and give the survey team a better idea of the overall system. If these are not available, then schematic drawings will have to be made from the survey investigation. To the trained eye, a visual inspection will identify restrictive conditions in the air and water systems. The use of cameras and boroscopes are useful to document problem areas. These devices were noted in Chapter 6 on Duct Cleaning. Outside air louvers: Is the screen clogged? Is there enough free area through the louver to accommodate adequate air flows, or is it too restrictive? If the louvers are too small, rain and snow can enter the building. Mixing dampers: When the dampers are closed, are they leaking? When the dampers are open, are they restrictive to air flow (undersized)? Normal velocities are 1000 FPM or less. Access doors: Check for leakage around access doors. Filters: Are the filters dirty? Are they the correct size for air flow? Static pressure measurements across the filters can indicate any problems. Normal values are 500 FPM or less. Coils: Are the coils clogged or are they clean? Static pressure measurements across the coils will indicate if they are dirty. The air flow should always pass through the fins of the coil. Check for bypass. Normal velocities for cooling coils is 500 FPM or less. Supply fans: A VAV system could have inlet vanes on the supply fan to control the amount of air flow. An alternative approach is to remove the restrictive inlet vanes and control the fan with a variable frequency drive. Verify classification of fan. Sound traps: Sound traps are highly restrictive. Static pressure measurements across the sound traps may indicate restrictions. Sometimes removal is necessary to provide adequate air flow. (May require some other less restrictive sound

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7.1

treatment). Plenums: Plenums can cause turbulence. Turbulence means efficiency loss. If possible, correct problems by using ductwork and the proper take offs. Supply duct: Is the ductwork sized correctly for the required CFM? Look for bad fittings that may cause restrictions and turbulence in the air flow. Check joints for air leakage. Are fire and smoke dampers operating properly? Terminal devices: i.e. VAV units. Check for damper leakage, air quantities and overall performance of operators. Flexible duct: Look for air leakage. Disconnected or ruptured flexes are common. Is there a restricted path from the terminal box to the diffuser? Flexible duct over five feet can be restrictive, especially when used as an elbow. Diffusers: Are diffusers sized properly for the required air flow? Excessive noise is caused by too much air flow. Check for air leakage around the diffusers and registers. Control devices: Check calibration. Properly calibrated devices provide better system performance. Return air path: Is the air path of adequate size? Return fan: Check to see if return static pressure tracks with supply air static. Excessive building static pressure indicates fan system problems. If the supply fan has a frequency drive so should the return fan. Record all findings and the location of the observations using the system drawings if available. Duct testing to determine performance levels is the next step in the process. 7.3

DUCT TESTING

When surveying a duct system it is necessary to know the condition of the air delivery components. Visual inspection can only tell the inspector part of the story; therefore, duct system testing is required to analyze the performance. In an existing building it becomes difficult to test the duct system since the ductwork can be concealed or difficult to 7.2

reach. Duct testing for either new or existing buildings with duct systems is two fold. One is the testing of individual components, and the other is the testing of the duct itself. In the first case each duct system component is tested for pressure drop performance. For example, the coil in the duct will have a certain pressure drop which might be shown on the drawings. Abasic pressure drop measurement can be made with a pitot tube and manometer across this device. These instruments were noted in the section dealing with TAB work. If the component has a pressure drop greater than what is shown on the drawings, then this will be an area for increased fan horsepower since the system resistance (pressure) has increased. Another example would be to measure the pressure drop across a duct fitting or combination of closely coupled fittings and compare this to standard values as found in SMACNA's Duct Design Manual, or ASHRAE Handbooks. All increases in pressure from design or as built conditions only adds to the demise of the duct system performance. Pressure measurements taken across the fan will give the accumulative effect of all the components that are connected in the system. These results can be compared to the original performance to see if the fan pressure is at the design condition as shown on the drawings and in the equipment schedules. The duct analysis testing should also determine the volume of air flowing across the fan to see if it is up to specifications. This can be done by measuring the duct velocity using the pitot tube and manometer as noted in SMACNA's TAB manual. With the velocity measured and by determining the area of the duct, the air volume flow rate can be determined by multiplying the average velocity by the duct cross sectional area. Once this is done, then a comparison can be made between measured volume flow and the specified air flow. If there is a deficiency, then it must be determined where the problem is. Investigate the fan performance from the manufacturerspublished literature, or compare the fan rpm, horsepower and current draw to the drawings and/or specifications. If the fan is delivering the required volume air flow and pressure, then further duct testing is required if the various zones or rooms served by this fan are being deprived of the air flow. Duct testing to determine where the airflow is

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

going is the other part of the required investigation and survey. A duct leakage test is used to measure the available volume air flow. In new buildings under construction, this test is not difficult to conduct, but in existing buildings the test can be difficult depending on access to the ductwork. In the next section the duct leakage test and leakage performance ratings will be examined. 7.4

It is practical to relate leakage to duct surface area. Although rates of loss per foot of seam, per diameter of hole or per dimension of crack can be evaluated, duct surface area is the simplest parameter by which to evaluate system leakage. Furthermore, research (in Europe and independently in the United States) has led to the conclusion that within acceptable tolerances, a duct surface leakage factor can be identified by the following relationship:

DESIRED PERFORMANCE LEAKAGE RATES

Equation 7-1 F =

The determination of the leakage rate of a duct system is a basic test that is common in the industry. Duct leakage reduces the air quantities at terminal points unless the total air quantity is adjusted to compensate. Leakage should be considered a transmission loss in duct systems, and the farther air is conveyed the greater the loss will be. Key variables that affect the amount of leakage are: * Static pressure, not velocity pressure. (The higher the pressure the more leakage will occur.) * The amount of duct (the more duct the more opportunity for leakage there will be). * The openings in the duct surface (the major contributors are joints and seams although access doors, rod penetrations and fastener penetrations also contribute). * Workmanship (poor workmanship undermines the best construction standards).

CLPN where

F is a leak rate per unit of duct surface area (typically cfm/100 s.f. (I/s/100 m2))

CL is a constant P is static pressure (typically in inches water gage (Pa)) N is an exponent (most typically it is 0.65 but in some cases it is 0.5 to 0.9) Figure 7-1 illustrates the above relationship. The SMACNA Leakage Classifications are based on this leakage factor relationship. Whether the designer uses the rates identified or prefers other constants, it is practical to evaluate leakage by this method. Applicable leakage classes are shown in Table 7-1.

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

7.3

TABLE 7-1 APPLICABLE LEAKAGE CLASSES

NOTES:

5.

Leakage Class (CL) is defined as being the leakage rate (CFM/100 S.F.(I/s/100 m2) divided

1.

Leakage classes in Table 7-1 apply when the designer does not designate other limits and has specified Seal Class C for 1/2" and 1" w.g. (125, 250 Pa). See text on sealing in the HVAC-DSC manual.

2.

Unsealed rectangular metal duct may follow Leakage Class 48.

3.

Fibrous glass duct may follow Leakage Class 6 (at 2" w.g. (500 Pa) or less).

4.

Although Seal Class A or B might be assigned for lower pressures, the leakage class achieved may not conform to those associated with the higher pressure. Other construction details influence results.

7.4

by p65 where P is the static (IN. W.G.(Pa)). When P is numerically equal to 1" the leakage rate is CL. See Figure 7-1. 6.

The duct pressure classification is not the fan static pressure nor the external static pressure (on an HVAC unit) unless the system designer has made such an assignment in his contract documents. Unless construction class is otherwise specified it means a static pressure classification in the SMACNA HVAC-DCS. Those classifications pertain to maximum operating pressure in the duct as follows:

0.5" w.g. maximum 0.6" to 2" w.g. maximum 1.1" to 2" w.g. maximum 2.1" to 3" w.g. maximum 3.1" to 4" w.g. maximum 4.1" to 6" w.g. maximum 6.1" to 10" w.g. maximum

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

Let's now look at the general procedures for leakage testing as shown in the "HVAC Air Duct Leakage Test Manual".

*

*

Precautions for leak testing:

Conventional leak testing is based on positive pressure mode analysis. It involves inserting temporary plugs (plates, sheets, balloons, bags, etc.) in openings in a section of duct and connecting a blower and a flowmeter to the specimen in such a manner that pressurizing the specimen will cause all air escaping from the specimen to pass through the flowmeter. Figure 7-2 is typical of one type of test set-up.

*

Select a test pressure not in excess of the pressure class rating of the duct set-up.

*

Calculate the allowable or allocated leakage using leakage factors related to the duct surface area.

*

Select a limited section of duct for which the estimated leakage will not exceed the capacity of the test apparatus.

*

Connect the blower and flowmeter to the duct section and provide temporary seals at all open ends of the ductwork.

*

To prevent overpressurizing of the ducts, start the blower with the variable inlet damper Controlling pressure carefully, closed. pressurize the duct section to the required level.

*

Read the flowmeter and compare the leakage in cfm per square foot (L/s per m) with the allowable rate determined above. If it meets the allowable rate proceed to the next section. If it does not meet the allowable rate, then: e Inspect the pressurized duct (and all connections between the flowmeter and the duct) for all sensible leaks. A smoke bomb test may be used to identify actual leak sources. If necessary apply a soap solution to locate small leaks. se Identify all audible and other significant leaks. If the first pressurization failed to develop the required test pressure level and significant leak sites were not discovered, consider the following alternatives: divide the specimen being tested into smaller segments or use larger test apparatus.

Complete test reports and, if required, obtain witness' signature and remove temporary blanks and seals.

* Verify that an adequate and matched electric power source is available for the test apparatus. * Determine that the capacity of the test apparatus is suitable for the amount of duct to be tested. * Consider acquiring experience with leakage rates in the type of construction used before formally conducting field tests. This is especially advisable if the contractor has little experience with testing, is attempting to meet allowable rates much lower than normal, is including equipment in the test or is dealing with unfamiliar duct construction. * Isolate equipment (fans, in-line flanged coils, volume regulating boxes, etc.) from tested ductwork. The system designer should have independently accounted for leakage in equipment; however, look for equipment leakage before testing duct. * Anticipate difficulty with any test of ductwork that is not sealed. * Do not overpressurize ducts. Provide pressure control or pressure relief if test apparatus behavior is unfamiliar; e.g., start test apparatus with flow restricted and gradually build up pressure. * Do not test uncured seals (in new construction). * Prepare carefully when testing in cold weather. Low temperature influences the effectiveness of sealants and gaskets. * Conduct required tests before external insulation is applied and before ducts are concealed by building enclosures (in new construction). * Do not overlook leakage potential at access doors. * Do not leave test apparatus unattended. * Avoid panic by informing occupants and

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7.5

bystanders when you will conduct smoke tests. * Avoid excessive blanking, consistent with industry practice, by testing prior to installation of collars for room air terminals (in new construction). * Take testing seriously; work sequence, work duration and costs can be significantly affected. Duct performance deficiencies present an opportunity to the contractor for additional business which comes from survey work. This survey uncovers a number of duct system needs that can be corrected by the contractor. It is just a matter of discovering the needs and bringing it to the attention of the decision maker. 7.5

SPECIFIC EXPERTISE MATERIALS REQUIRED

AND

What expertise and materials are needed to enter this market? On the expertise side of the business, a contractor should have a general knowledge of ducted systems and the components that make up a system. Survey skills are needed as was discussed earlier and the ability to recognize damaged duct and duct system components. During the survey

the technician must be able to use the tools that are required and know when to use what tool or instrument. Many of the instruments mentioned in the TAB section can be used to analyze the duct system via the survey. As was seen in the duct testing section, the contractor will have to know how to use leakage testing equipment. Usage of this equipment is described in the SMACNA "HVAC Air Duct Leakage Test Manual" which the contractor should make sure his technicians are familiar. Another important expertise is the ability to use and understand the various TAB instruments used in the TAB business. Again contractors should reference SMACNA's TAB Manual for information on these instruments. Also, the knowledge to correct the duct system and get it back to a "as designed" condition is a skill that will be required. This is where the contractor with his knowledge of the HVAC duct construction standards will be able to provide the needed service to the building owner. If one does not have for example the knowledge of what are the duct sealing requirements, then how can one provide a corrective service? This is where duct construction standards know how, using SMACNA's Table 7-2 "Duct Sealing Requirements" from the HVAC Duct Construction Standards - Metal and Flexible Manual come into play.

TABLE 7-2 DUCT SEALING REQUIREMENTS

If the contractor is using duct system analysis to tie into Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), then one should be

7.6

familiar with this SMACNA standard as was mentioned earlier in Chapter 4. Duct system

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

analysis will require at times a knowledge of duct design principles and the various design parameters. A good source for this is the SMACNA HVAC Duct System Design and the home study course. The course covers airflow fundamentals and provides detailed instructions on duct system pressures and how to handle both friction and dynamic losses in the system. Fans are covered and the various duct sizing and selection methods are included, that take into account fitting selection based on fitting loss coefficients. All this might seem unnecessary but the contractor or someone on the staff needs to know about duct design if you are going to be in this business. Systems can and are very complex at times and the more knowledge about all aspects of duct systems will make the job easier and more profitable. Besides expertise, the contractor entering this business needs to have or be able to get the necessary equipment to be successful. TAB instrumentation mentioned earlier is going to be used and this should be on hand and available. For example, manometer, boroscopes, camera, pitot tubes, amp meter, velometers, rpm measuring devices and counters are just a few of the instrumentation needed. Some of these instruments will require periodic calibration and maintenance and a good source of information for this is the SMACNA TAB Manual. Regarding duct leakage testing, it was shown before that a leakage test kit or leakage test meter apparatus will be required. Depending on the size of the duct systems being inspected, a contractor might need several different size test rigs. Other materials that will be helpful to the business is a computer and software to analyze the duct systems that are encountered in the field. There may be no "as built" or design drawings for a building duct system, so it will be up to the contractor to develop schematic drawings which are helpful in analyzing the system. Once these drawings are available the computer software can be used to estimate the original system performance. In some cases it might to advantageous to model the existing duct system with the software and use this to trouble shoot. Once this is completed it can show specific problem areas such as fittings that produce high pressure loss. A survey team can be directed to investigate those areas of the duct system that show up in the analysis. This can save time and money for the contractor to be able to pin point the problem fast and then attack the problem with the solution. One last point on materials is to use the various forms that are available in the above

mentioned SMACNA manuals to record and report information about the duct systems and components. So the key is to have the proper tools, instruments, and materials and the expertise to use them to provide the duct system analysis to the owner. But what are the techniques that are needed to market these skills is the subject of the next section.

7.6

SPECIFIC MARKETING TECHNIQUES

When trying to market in this area, what are the techniques that are available to the contractor? Recalling the information from Chapter 1, these are the basics that also apply here. The management from the top down, needs to be committed to providing quality duct system analysis. This means that the sales force, in the broad sense, is the entire company dedicated to the goal of providing quality service because without that all is lost. Sales people who are in the field are on the front lines meeting prospective customers. These people represent the company and they must be trained in both sales and service. Whether the building type is commercial, school, industrial, or hospital the marketing for the duct repair/sealing business must be directed to the decision makers since they are the ones who control the budget and the money. Starting with these contacts sets the stage even if you get referred to someone below the main person. Try to convince the person that you are dealing with to agree to a preliminary survey and have them budget for this part of the service. The preliminary survey, which should be at a reasonable fee, permits the salesperson to get an opportunity to review the overall system or part of a system. Try during discussions with the prospect to draw out their needs. If one is successful in convincing the prospect to have the preliminary survey, then write the contract so that there is a clause that continues your survey from year to year unless canceled by the owner. In this way, you can contact the customer each year to remind them that the annual survey is due soon and the date of the survey can be set. Try to keep the cost of the preliminary survey reasonable from year to year since one does not want to scare off the customer. Some years one will find that no work is required and report this to the owner in the report. The customer can use this report to satisfy upper management, or tenants that might be

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7.7

complaining. Let's now examine two areas of the duct system analysis that tie into this business. Tie into IAQ Analysis

7.6.1

When performing the duct system analysis, the survey will be the "eyes and ears" for the contractor to determine what ,if any, of the needs are for the duct system. Granted the purpose of the survey is to find opportunities for duct repair and sealing but since the system is being reviewed, why not look for other opportunities. One area that ties into duct system analysis is the IAQ field. Since the survey team, whether partnering or not, is there reviewing the duct system and keep an eye out for IAQ problems and needs. Many of the instruments that are being used for the duct system analysis are also used in IAQ survey work. Train the people to look for these opportunities when at the site. Even if the company is not in the specific field of IAQ; have subcontractors or partner companies available that can be called in to advise you. If there is truly a need for service, bring it to the attention of the owner or building manager Make when the report is submitted. recommendations to the customer in the report for solving the problem and use the contacts with IAQ partners to broaden your company's credibility. This works well when you do not have the expertise in a particular area, but know enough to call in other team members that do have the experience. Of course if the company has experience with IAQ, then call in your own people. In working in the partnering setting, set up an understanding that your company will provide reciprocating assistance to the partner. In order words, offer your experts to the IAQ firm for their survey work. When meeting with the prospect about duct system analysis, try to probe into areas that relate to your particular field. By asking questions, try to draw out problems or symptoms that the owner has This type of experience with the system. questioning is leading the prospect but they are trying to force them to recall conditions that may have occurred over time. 7.6.2

Tie into TAB Work

Another marketing technique is to consider the partnering arrangement with firms that do TAB work. Recall that the instrumentation used for TAB work is similar to the duct system analysis work. In the area of surveying the duct system, a 7.8

contractor will learn that the system is in need of TAB service after they solve the duct damage or sealing problems. If the firm is not in this field, then it would be to the company's advantage to have an arrangement with a TAB partner. This arrangement broadens the company base of business and provides a launching platform for new business. Keep in mind that your customer has confidence in the company since they are providing the solutions for the duct problems. Now the customer needs further service which the company can provide through a partnering arrangement. This is certainly a win-win arrangement for all concerned. The owner does not have to start over again with another contractor and they can work through your company which gives the owner one contact point and one point of responsibility. The partner wins because they get the TAB service work and they did not have to start from the beginning with the prospect since your company "paved" the way. Your company wins because now they have a happy customer who thinks of the company as a broad based firm, and the partner likes the firm for getting the business for them. So the idea of tying in other services with the duct system analysis, has many beneficial features, one of which is that your company is now in control and in the lead. 7.7

FINANCIAL PAYBACK ANALYSIS

When considering the duct system analysis business, as was the case with other retrofit work, the owner needs to justify the service being contemplated. Here again the owner's needs are the prime objective and it is up to the contractor to meet or exceed those needs. From a financial perspective, most owners are going to look at your proposed service from the business end. Using the analysis tools that were covered in Section 1.5 let's examine several cases. 7.7.1

Increased Occupant Comfort

Why would an owner or building manager care about increased occupant comfort? Well, if the occupant is an employee of the owner, then the comfort of the employee is important for a number of reasons. For example, the productivity of the employee can be affected by the comfort of the space. This productivity or lack thereof, can and does affect the owner's business in a number of ways. Loss productivity for one will cost the owner

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

in the long run and absenteeism is another cost that would be possible. Therefore, the cost of a duct repair service to maintain or correct a problem that has an affect on occupant comfort is in the owner's interest. A duct problem that say is causing an IAQ problem also can affect occupant comfort and the occupant could be a tenant who is thinking of moving to another building to get away from the owners problem. The loss of a tenant is certainly going to hurt the owner's profit picture. So why not approach the owner with a proposal to solve the problem? But the owner is going to think in terms of a payback on their investment based on a fixed period of time. Knowing the owner's requirements, develop an analysis using the cost ratio of investment cost to savings potential along with the interest rate to arrive at a payback period. This period should be equal to or less than the owner's requirement. Another way to look at this question of increased occupant comfort from a duct system analysis is to present to the owner that a regular check or preliminary review of the system will save him cost in the long run. In other words, pay a little now rather than incur larger potential cost later. 7.7.2

to show a payback period within the owner's requirements. 7.7.3

As was mentioned in the previous section, the cost of energy savings in fan horsepower must be such that the cost of the duct system improvements will payback within the owner's time frame. A duct system that is leaking more than the design requirements is going to be a problem for the building manager, tenants, and owner. It is up to the contractor to explain and show that the leakage is going to have a direct affect on the bottom line. Here again the contractor must talk in terms that will get the owner's attention. Most owners want to be shown the justification and payback for the suggested corrective action. In the case of fan horsepower, the electricity savings from reduced energy is going to save now and in the future. As electric rates continue to go up, the owner will save even more with all things being equal. 7.8

REFERENCES

7.8.1

HVAC Air Duct Leakage Test Manual, SMACNA Inc., Chantilly, Virginia, 1st Ed., 1985.

7.8.2

HVAC Duct Construction Standards Metal and Flexible, SMACNA Inc., Chantilly, Virginia, 1st Ed., 1985.

7.8.3

HVAC Systems-Duct Design, SMACNA Inc., Chantilly, Virginia, 3rd Ed., 1990.

7.8.4

Indoor Air Quality, SMACNA Inc., Chantilly, Virginia, 2nd Ed., 1993.

7.8.5

HVAC Systems-Testing, Adjusting and Balancing, SMACNA Inc., Chantilly, Virginia, 2nd Ed., 1993.

7.8.6

Fundamentals Handbook, Atlanta, Georgia, 1993.

7.8.7

Fibrous Glass Duct Construction Standards, SMACNA Inc., Chantilly, Virginia, 6th Ed., 1992.

7.8.8

HVAC Duct Systems Inspection Guide, SMACNA Inc., Chantilly , Virginia, lst., 1989.

Improved Acoustics

Another aspect of the benefits of a duct system analysis is the improved acoustics that can result. In cases where the ductwork sound lining was damaged, or where sound attenuators were not working as designed, the contractor can propose corrective action. This action can be to replace the damaged ductwork with new lined sections or replace the sound attenuators with more up to date equipment. The cost of these features must balance with the benefit to the owner. Well, what benefit will the owner consider? Damaged duct liner besides causing reduction in acoustical performance can increase occupant complaints because of more noise in the occupied space. Additionally it can mean increased fan horsepower requirements because of rough duct surfaces and clogged filters. Sound attenuators can also cause additional resistance to flow in the ductwork and affect fan horsepower. Complaints about particles of the duct liner entering the space can also cause unwanted cost to the owners for defending himself against claims. Here again we see that the cost of the contractor's services for correcting the problems and the cost savings to the owner along with the interest rate results in a payback period determination. The object, as was shown with the previous example of increased occupant comfort, is

Energy Savings in Fan Horsepower

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

ASHRAE,

7.9

7.10

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

7.11

CHAPTER 8

SYSTEM OPERATION, MAINTENANCE, AND CFC/HCFC

CHAPTER 8 8.1

SYSTEM OPERATION, MAINTENANCE, AND CFC/HCFC

INTRODUCTION

Building system analysis and retrofit offers the contractor another opportunity for expanding the base of business. This opportunity is in the system operation, maintenance, and CFC/HCFC retrofit business and this is a potentially vast area when considering that most of the potential buildings out there are existing. These existing buildings must be maintained if their owners are going to occupy them with some reasonable level of comfort and control over system operation and maintenance cost. As was mentioned earlier in this manual, the existing building market offers the greatest potential for new business. Increases in energy cost, CFC/HCFC phaseout, demands for indoor air quality, inefficient equipment, and comfort considerations are driving the HVAC and refrigeration markets. Those contractors who look to the future are recognizing that to stay in business, one must explore new markets. In the case of systems operation and maintenance, this is an on going area that will continue as long as buildings and building systems exist.

contractor to become involved if they are not already. Potential chiller replacement and retrofit is on a fast track given the pace of regulations and mandates. Alliances with manufacturers of chillers and others are noted. A discussion of the expertise and materials that are needed to enter this field, and the marketing techniques that can be used with existing and new customers are discussed. Financial considerations that owners should consider such as repair, replace, or retrofit are noted. Alliance with local utilities can provide the owner and contractor with opportunities for win-win situations to occur. Operation and maintenance (O&M) programs can effect significant energy use reduction with little or no investment cost. A successful O&M program should be proposed by the contractor and include the following objectives: * * *

Planning the efficient use of interior space. Maximizing the efficiency of energy use equipment. Operating buildings to minimize energy use.

With over 4.8 million existing buildings reported by DOE in their latest survey in commercial buildings alone, there has got to be the market for these services. With the recently passed General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade or GATT as it is called, the horizon for expanded business looks bright.

A preventive maintenance (PM) program should be developed to maintain efficient operation of building systems and equipment, in order to guarantee that their performance does not degrade or diminish over time.

In this chapter, an examination of system operation analysis and maintenance requirements is made. What are the environmental conditions in the building and occupant considerations? Regarding maintenance, there is a discussion on inspection, TAB, cleaning and records.

Preventive maintenance can be responsible for reducing maintenance costs, providing the effort is not wasted on equipment where (1) normal expected life without PM exceeds requirements or (2) replacement of noncritical items is cheaper than the cost of periodic inspections and maintenance.

Another aspect of system operation and maintenance is the outsourcing of building maintenance. In this area of the market, building owner's and managers are prime candidates to approach for getting them to contract out these services. Various contracting agreements and contracts are available for meeting this demand. One dynamic area of the market is the CFC/HCFC retrofit with opportunities for the

In essence, there are may factors to be considered in determining the proper levels of PM. Energy use, age, condition, severity of service, criticality, utilization, reliability, compliance with standards, manufacturers' recommendations, etc., should be taken into account. Due to the variability of these factors, there are no exact standards that can be employed to measure cost effectiveness absolutely. However, the ratio of increased energy cost plus breakdown repair cost to PM costs is a good

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8.1

indicator of the adequacy of the existing PM effort. 8.2

SYSTEM OPERATION ANALYSIS

A systems operation analysis looks at the ways that a building system is operated and equipment adjustments that can be made to satisfy the occupants comfort and still provide energy conservation and minimize maintenance. In order to evaluate the operation of any HVAC system, its operational data must be collected and compared with established efficiency parameters accepted by the industry. This will require a number of field measurements and inspections of the present system to determine if it matches the installation drawings and to obtain the actual operational levels. Faults in the installation , design or application of the system to the requirement of the building may be found. This type of review also may point to maintenance and operational procedures that will need to be changed to allow the system to operate at its maximum efficiency. In other words the contractor must find out what they have to work with, and whether the system has the ability to meet the load demands and what is needed to improve its operational level. It is important that the information for this review be factual and accurate. Exact readings of actual operating conditions will be the most important part of any evaluation of the HVAC system. From these readings, reviews, and utility billing important decisions will be made-. -In some cases considerable investments may be involve- if equipment is replaced, upgraded, or altered to achieve the goal. Back in Section 2.4, the performance and evaluation was covered for these systems. 8.2.1

Environmental Conditions within the Building

The investigation of the operation of the building systems will reveal if the systems are meeting the demands that they were designed to satisfy. One cannot disregard the fact that physical comfort affects a person's mental attitude as well as job performance; and that is the basic reason for providing comfort heating and cooling systems. Yet, energy can be conserved by the use of warmer clothing at lower temperature settings (winter) and less clothing at higher settings (summer) without

8.2

deterioration of this comfort. Conclusions reached after many years of research state that in the region between 3 inches (76 mm) above the floor to 72 inches (1829 mm) above the floor at least 2 feet (610 mm) from any wall the following conditions are desirable: * Dry bulb temperature should be between Summer - 73 - 81°F (22 - 27C) Winter - 68 - 75.5°F (20 - 24°C),

* Relative humidity (RH) should be between 40 and 60 percent, * Air motion should be grater than 10 feet per minute (0.05 m/s) but should not exceed 45 feet per minute (0.23 m/s). Other unusual conditions can cause deviation from these figures, but one could reasonably justify 77°F (25°C) and 60% RH in the summer and 73°F (22°C) and 30% RH in the winter. Researchers conclude that when "proper clothing" is worn, the upper temperature limit can be extended to 81°F (27°C) and the lower limit can be dropped to 68°F (20°C), but not to 650F (18°C). (The 81°F and 68°F (27, 20°C) figures are operating temperatures not design temperatures.) For a short period, the Federal Government (and some local areas) mandated 65°F (18°C) as the maximum winter indoor setting. As was quickly proved, comfort cannot be legislated! According to ASHRAE Standard 55-1992 "Thermal Environment Conditions for Human Occupancy", they say that the best temperature range is when at lest 80% of the sedentary or near sedentary occupants will find the environment thermally acceptable. After the contractor has reviewed the conditions, equipment and operational data, they should recommend to the owner what changes are necessary to operate the systems at an acceptable energy level to maintain the environment and minimize energy. Initial data and observations of the conditions in the building will be used to compare the environment after the changes are made. These changes are to satisfy the goal of maintaining the environmental conditions with the least amount of energy and minimizing maintenance.

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

8.2.2

Occupant Complaints

When analyzing the system operation, it would be a good idea to consider the occupant and any complaints that they have. Setting up a line of communication with the occupant will pay dividends since this is where the needs are expressed about the comfort level. System operators are usually on the "front lines" of occupant complaints and they can tell the contractor a lot about the system. If an occupant complains that their space is too cold or too hot and measurements reveal that the space is outside of the ASHRAE comfort range, then the system operation needs review and examination. Usually if the local operator makes some adjustment and the problem persist, then the owner will have to go outside for assistance. This is where the contractor can provide a service but they must be "plugged in" to the owner or his operations people. As was seen earlier in this manual, the owner needs to pay attention to occupant complaints since they can and do have large ripple affects. There have been times when tenants have contacted contractors directly about the thermal conditions in a building. They were trying to build a case for convincing the owner to make the necessary changes to meet their demands. Contractors looking to broaden their market would be wise to contact larger tenants with the hope of finding opportunities for providing services. However, a word of caution here since one does not want to alienate an owner that may control and manage a number of buildings in your service area. A situation where the owner, tenant and the contractor could sit down in a mutual arrangement to resolve the complaints is the best scenario.

8.3

SYSTEM MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS

Maintenance is defined in the dictionary as the act of maintaining or state of being maintained. Building systems of HVAC and refrigeration equipment are complex and will require maintenance. This is just a fact of life that the owner must face and the contractor must recognize as potential business. Buildings and building systems are new at the start but like all things they break down and need repair or replacement. A good preventive maintenance program can conserve energy and save money as well as extend the life of the building equipment and systems. As

most building owners have not had the personnel to properly implement preventive maintenance programs, they depend on specialized service or contractor organizations. Many owners or tenants wait until an equipment breakdown occurs before initiating any maintenance procedures (which can become quite costly). Therefore, a good scheduled maintenance program should be used by all building owners. A preventive maintenance program for the initial operation of the systems of a project should be presented as a separate contract (with renewal options) with the original project construction documents. The owner could then renew the maintenance contract with the project contractors on a yearly basis, or negotiate new contracts with other qualified contractors. Energy conservation begins with good system design and ends with good system operation and qualified maintenance. Maintenance programs come in four different types, namely * * * *

Predictive, Programmed, Preventive, and Unscheduled.

The most common and unwanted is the unscheduled type that is basically the unplanned and crisis management type. This obviously must be rejected since it only leads to more problems in the long run. Owners who operate in this mode are good candidates for new business. Predictive maintenance is a type that is new and is based on statistical methods. With the age of computers, software packages are becoming available that will track maintenance requirements and provide tracking for predicting problems before they occur. Direct digital components in the HVAC and refrigeration equipment permits the use of this method. Programmed maintenance looks at the equipment over time and the necessity to program in replacement as the equipments useful life approaches. Manpower, budgets, and planning are all combined to effect an end result with positive control of the maintenance. The last program is the preventive maintenance which is the most common and it results in the proper operation and utilization of equipment for

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8.3

it's normal life. Equipment is cared for in a systematic manner that results in few "surprises". 8.3.1

spaces. Repair insulation where it is in need. (If the boiler or furnace casing is 10-15% warmer than room temperature, radiation loss could be 10% or more of the capacity of the unit.)

Inspections

Whether the system is new or an old one the system maintenance must include inspection. What is inspection? Basically it is the viewing of the equipment to determine if it is working properly and that there are no deficiencies. Inspections can be seasonal for the winter, spring, summer, and fall, or they can be set up for specific times based on equipment manufacturer recommendations. Another type of inspection can be set up based on the history of the equipment so that equipment that requires more maintenance can be inspected more often. In the commissioning of new systems the SMACNA Commissioning Manual provides sample forms for the pre-start-up and start-up inspection of various parts of the HVAC equipment found in building systems. These forms are intended as a guide and they are intended to be for any building type. Re-commissioning of existing buildings can also use these forms. Specific inspection for the primary heating and cooling equipment; and duct and hydronic systems are important to the overall system maintenance. Primary heating equipment suggested measures for inspection are listed below.

*

Check for and seal air leaks between sections of cast iron boilers to improve combustion efficiency.

*

If the combustion efficiency is at a maximum but stack temperatures are still too high (over 450°F (230°C)), install baffles or turbulators to improve heat transfer. Consult the boiler manufacturer.

*

Seal all combustion chamber air leaks, especially around doors, frames, and inspection ports.

*

Maintain the lowest possible steam pressure suitable for supplying radiation coils.

*

Vary the steam pressure in accordance with the space heating or process demands. Steam pressures can be reduced most of the year. Standby losses are reduced as pressures are reduced.

*

Maintain the lowest possible hot water temperature which will meet space or domestic hot water needs.

*

In the absence of indoor-outdoor modulating controls, raise or lower operating temperature (for hot water systems) to conform to indoor-outdoor conditions. For example, operate a boiler at 120°F (48°C), with outdoor temperature at 60°F (15°C) and raise the level to 160°F (70°C) when it is 20°F (-6.6°C) outdoors.

8.3.1.1. Primary Heating Equipment *

Clean and scrape fire-sides to remove soot and scale.

·

Clean water-sides, remove built-up scale.

·

Provide water treatment.

·

Scrape scale from steam drum.

*

Clean air-sides, remove soot, and scrape scale in forced warm air and hot air furnaces.

*

Clean filters regularly in gravity and forced warm air units.

*

Maintain water level or pressure to radiators or coils on the highest level of the building.

Shut down hot air furnaces completely when building is not occupied and there is no danger of freezing.

*

Set operating aquastats on steam and hot water boilers to 100°F (37°C), during shutdown periods.

·

Insulate units which are in unheated spaces, on roofs, or in air conditioned

·

8.4

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

*

Schedule boiler blowdown on an asneeded basis rather than on a fixed timetable. Smaller and more frequent blowdown quantities are preferable to larger quantities and less frequent blowdown. Note: Be sure that boiler blowdown procedures adhere to specifications outlined by the manufacturer, the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors (of Columbus, Ohio), and local codes. With few exceptions it is illegal, and in all cases undesirable, to discharge boiler blowdown directly to a sanitary sewer.

*

Use warm exhaust air from adjacent areas, or from the ceiling of the boiler rooms, to preheat combustion air.

*

Use chemical fuel additives to reduce the flashpoint temperature of fuel oil, especially #4 and #6 oils. Proper chemical treatment will reduce soot deposit on #2 oil systems also.

*

Interlock combustion air intake with burner operations; maintain prepurge and postpurge as required for some burners.

·

Seal all air leaks into natural draft chimneys, especially where flue pipe or breeching enters the wall.

*

Adjust oil burner efficiencies to achieve proper stack temperature, CO2 and excess air settings. Adjust setting to provide a maximum of 400° to 500°F (202 to 257°C) of stack temperature and a minimum of 10% carbon dioxide at full load conditions. Excess air through a boiler can waste 10% to 30% of the fuel.

*

*

Repair or rebuild oil burner combustion chambers to the correct size for providing optimum efficiency at 90% of the full load firing rate. Construct chambers with bricks of the refractory type. (Incorrect matching of burner and combustion chamber and broken brickwork can result in losses of 10% to 20%.) Turn off gas pilots for furnaces, boilers, and space heaters during the non-heating months and during long unoccupied periods.

*

Provide an automatic draft damper control to reduce the heat loss through the breeching (smoke pipe) when the gas or oil burner is not in operation. Adjust draft-control with combustion testing equipment to match the firing rate.

*

Adjusting the firing rate of gas or oil burners at too high a rate will cause short cycling and excessive fuel consumption. Too low a rate will require constant operation and inadequate heat will be delivered to the spaces. If the boiler is oversized, adjust the firing rate to the building load, not the boiler.

*

If there is more than one boiler, operate only one up to its maximum load before bringing other boilers on the line. It is inefficient to operate two or more boilers at very low capacity to carry part loads.

*

Provide combustion air from the outside directly into the burner compartment of the heating unit or directly into the primary air intake of the burner. On large burners this duct should be fitted with a motorized damper that is energized and open only during the operation of the burner. Combustion inside any building increases the infiltration of outside air into the building which results in an addition to the heat loss of the structure.

Regarding primary cooling equipment the following measures are suggested for the maintenance program. Inspection of many of the items mentioned also will provide some idea about the effectiveness of the maintenance program now in effect and the condition of the equipment, some of which may need adjustment, repair or replacement. 8.3.1.2. Primary Cooling Equipment Piping and Controls: *

Inspect moisture-liquid indicator on a regular basis. If the color of the

refrigerant indicates "wet," it means there is moisture in the system. This is a particularly critical problem because it can

cause improper operation or costly damage. Also, if there are bubbles in the

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

8.5

refrigerant flow as seen through the moisture-liquid indicator, it may indicate that the system is low on refrigerant. Add refrigerant if necessary and only after inspection and repairing equipment for possible refrigerant leakage.

such as continuous running or frequent stopping and starting, either of which may indicate inefficient operation. Determine the cause and, if necessary, correct. *

Observe the noise made by the compressor. If it seems to be excessively noisy, it may be a sign of a loose drive coupling or excessive vibration, or defected valves or bearing. Tighten compressor and motor on the base.

*

Use a leak detector to check for refrigerant and oil leaks around shaft seal, sight glasses, valves and at pipe joints to equipment, valves, dryer changes and instrumentation. *

Check all compressor joints for leakage.

*

Inspect equipment for any visual changes such as oil spots on connections or on the floor under equipment.

*

Inspect the liquid line leaving the strainer. If it feels cooler than the liquid line entering the strainer, it is clogged. If it is very badly clogged, sweat or frost may be visible at the strainer outlet. Clean as required.

Inspect instrumentation frequently to ensure that operating oil pressure and temperature agree with manufacturer's specifications.

*

Check system crankcase heater.

*

Air-Cooled Condenser:

*

Observe the noise made by the system. Any unusual sounds could indicate a problem. Determine cause and correct.

*

Check fan for vibration and keep fan belt drive and motor properly aligned and lubricated.

*

Establish what normal operating pressures and temperatures for the system should be. Check all gauges frequently to ensure that design conditions are being met. Increased system pressure may be due to dirty condensers, which will decrease system efficiency. High discharge temperatures often are caused by defective or broken compressor valves.

*

Inspect refrigeration piping connections to the condenser coil for tightness. Repair all leaks.

*

Keep condenser coil face clean to permit proper air flow.

*

Determine if hot air is being bypassed from the fan outlet to the coil inlet.

*

Inspect tension and alignment of all belts and adjust as necessary.

*

Where applicable, lubricate motor bearings and all moving parts according to manufacturer's recommendations.

*

Inspect insulation on suction and liquid lines.

*

Evaporative Condenser: *

Inspect piping joints and seal all leaks.

*

Remove all dirt from the coil surface by washing it down with high velocity water jets or a nylon brush.

*

Inspect air inlet screen, spray nozzle or water distribution holes, and pump screen. Clean as necessary.

*

Use water treatment techniques if local water supply leaves surface deposits on the coil, or in the condenser.

Check superheat setting of thermal expansion valve.

Compressor: *

Look for unusual compressor operation 8.6

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual ·First Edition

Follow guidelines for fan and pump maintenance.

*

Inspect for evidence of clogging. Service equipment in accordance with manufacturer's specifications.

*

Check purge unit for emission, discharge, pressure and amperage.

*

Log chiller operation (pressures and temperatures).

Water-Cooled Condenser: Clean condenser shell and tubes by rod out with a suitable brush and flushing out with clean water. Chemical cleaning also is possible and insure that water is treated. Cooling Towers: *

Perform chemical test to determine if solid concentrations are being reduced to an acceptable level.

*

Check overflow pipe clearance for proper operating water level.

*

Check fan by listening for any unusual noise or vibration. Inspect condition of V-belt. Align fan and motor as necessary.

Absorption Equipment: *

Clean strainer and seal tank on a regular basis.

*

Lubricate flow valves on a regular basis.

*

Follow manufacturer's instructions for proper maintenance.

Self-Contained Units: (Windows and through-thewall units; heat pump, etc.)

*

Follow guidelines for fan maintenance.

*

Clean evaporator and condenser coils.

*

Keep the tower clean to minimize both air and water pressure drop.

*

Keep air intake louvers, filters and controls clean.

*

Clean intake strainer.

*

Keep airflow from units unrestricted.

*

Determine if there is air bypass from tower outlet back to inlet. If so, bypass may be reduced through addition of baffles or higher discharge stack.

*

Caulk openings between unit and windows or wall frames. Check voltage. Full power voltage is essential for proper operation.

*

Inspect spray nozzles of towers for proper performance. Clean nozzles and pans as necessary. Inspect tower fill and for cleanliness.

*

*

Inspect gravity distributed tower for even water depth in distribution basins.

*

Follow applicable guidelines suggested for compressor, air-cooled condenser and fans.

Fans:

*

Monitor effectiveness of any water treatment program which may be underway.

Chillers: *

Chiller evaporator must be kept clean. Inspect on a regular basis. Clean and treat as necessary.

* *

Lubricate bearings Keep fan belt drive and motor properly aligned and lubricated. Check rotation and speed. Check for vibration. Inspect and clean. Check dampers mounted on inlet and discharge. Check speed control.

* * * * *

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Pumps:

* * * * * *

Lubricate bearings Check rotation and speed. Check for vibration. Check alignment and coupling. Clean as needed. Check inlet and outlet pressures.

Motors: * * * * *

Check voltage and amperage. Check wires. Check mountings. Tighten terminals. Check resistance with a megger.

Air Handlers: * * * * * *

Check and clean fan, coils, and filters. Inspect humidifier. Check dampers and linkage. Check motor. Check controls. Check drain pans and drains.

Vibration Isolators: *

Check for free movement.

VAV Boxes: * * * *

Inspect room control (thermostat). Check damper settings. Check duct connection tightness. Check min/max position.

* * * * * *

Check circuit load sensing controls. Check starters and contractors. Check relays, thermostats. Check dampers and damper motors. Check contacts. Check wire connections.

Electronic: * * * * * *

Check equipment by cycling. Check transmission signaler. Check sensing points. Check programmer clocks and controllers. Inspect microprocessors. Check DDC controller.

Duct system inspection was covered in part in Chapters 6 and 7. Additional information is contained in SMACNA's HVAC Duct Systems Inspection Guide. Another way to look at system maintenance inspections is by seasons. Each season can concentrate on those items that are primary for that time of the year. For example freezing weather could include boiler and piping; compressor air systems; air conditioning and refrigerating systems; pressure vessel vents; relief valves; and mechanical equipment. Winter maintenance inspection for centrifugal chillers can include purge unit, starter and control panel, leak test machine, compressor, condenser, final leak test, and spring start-up. In the spring, there would be specific equipment that would be inspected and at the end of the summer season another inspection and a fall inspection to complete the yearly cycle.

8.3.1.3. Control Systems 8.3.2 Pneumatic:

* * * * * *

Check air compressor, belts, and oil. Check pressure. Check tubing for leaks. Check controlled devices and sensors. Check air dryer. Check oil and water separator, and tank drain.

Electrical: * *

Check controlled devices and sensors. Check and inspect water and air sensing temperature controls. 8.8

Adjustments/Calibration/ Rebalancing

Along with an inspection of the various systems, the contractor is going to find conditions that require adjustment, calibration or rebalancing. These are all necessary to keep a dynamic building system running smoothly and performing as designed. Many of the items mentioned under inspection may need one or all of the requirements. A fan belt may need adjustment, a thermostat calibration or a duct or pipe system rebalanced. Information in the TAB Chapter 3 provides the general background for performing the necessary work and the SMACNA TAB Manual provides more in-depth information.

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

8.3.3

Cleaning

One of the most important maintenance requirements is cleaning and maintaining clean components in the system. Unclean components can reduce equipment performance and efficiency. It just makes good common sense to maintain the system in a clean condition. Recall the duct cleaning section that was discussed earlier and the reduction in air flow that dirty ducts can have on the system. Reduced air flow can cause the comfort conditions in a space to change beyond the acceptable range and cause occupant complaints. Filters, ductwork, coils, boilers, chillers, condensers, piping and pumps, and cooling towers are just a few of the components that can be effected by cleaning. IAQ problems can also be avoided when cleaning is part of the system maintenance requirements. Owners can be convinced of the importance of cleaning, if they are shown the consequences of a dirty system in terms of the cost of operation and possible effects on the environment in the building. From the contractors perspective the cleaning of building systems is just another opportunity for increased market share. Look for this need and fill it for the building owner or management. 8.3.4

Replacement Components

of

Defective/Worn

Even with inspections, adjustments, calibration, rebalancing and cleaning, a building system is going to require replacement of defective and worn components. This provides the contractor with yet another opportunity for providing a needed service. Preventive maintenance will extend the life of equipment, but the parts wear out in time. Owners may balk at preventive maintenance, but in the long run it pays off with more reliable and dependable equipment. Some companies would rather not pay for the ongoing maintenance now, but in the "big" picture they pay later and at greater expense. Contractors would do well to establish a long term relationship with the owner or management for providing services to replace components since sooner or later someone will get this work. 8.3.5

Documentation/Records/Logs

When providing system maintenance, whether it is

inspection, cleaning, adjusting, oiling, replacement of parts, or rebalancing there needs to be a system of tracking. The tracking can be documentation, records, reports, or logs. By maintaining these records, the owner and servicing contractor can provide a history of the maintenance performed on a system or individual component. Records also provide a chronology for someone to follow for trouble shooting problems, proving that the work was done, and in some instance resolving disputes. Insurance and warrantee matters can also be served when trying to reconstruct what was done to the system and when it was done. In other words, the when, what, who, how, where, and why about the system can be determined. Logs provide a way of tracking periodic maintenance checks and help in determining if things where done. Recalling back to the discussion on commissioning and re-commissioning, we found that the forms in the SMACNA Commissioning Manual provided a type of record. These can be used by the maintenance people along with the other records to get a picture of what has been done to the system. Also, the records tell one what has not been done to the system. Comprehensive operation and maintenance manuals should exist for all systems since they provide a documentation for service. The manuals should describe the design intent of the systems, capacities of mechanical and electrical components of the systems, the modes of operation of each system under varying cooling and heating load conditions. The operating efficiencies of each major component should be described under varying load conditions. All maintenance procedures and frequencies should be detailed in order that the operating personnel maintain the equipment as efficiently as possible. The manuals should include schematic and piping diagrams of the systems and equipment and electrical and control system diagrams. Maintenance frequencies and details regarding methods and materials for all mechanical and electrical equipment should be a part of the manuals. In addition, the equipment schematic drawings and electrical and control drawings, along with operating instructions, should be posted on each major piece of equipment. This also would be of considerable help to the contractor's service personnel.

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8.9

8.4

OUTSOURCING

OF

BUILDING

MAINTENANCE

type are set up on a yearly arrangement with the option for either party to renew.

8.4.1 . Inspection Agreements

8.4.2

There are several ways that a building owner or manager can provide maintenance for the HVAC and refrigeration system. One is to perform the work with in-house people or outsource to a contractor using an inspection agreement. The inspection agreement is a contract between building owner and the inspecting contractor.

In this type of arrangement, the contractor will provide the needed services for the building manager at a specified hourly rate and the cost of materials. Some contracts for example indicate an hourly rate for regular time and an overtime rate which could be defined as evenings, weekends and holidays. The cost of materials is billed to the customer in addition to the hourly rate.

A contract for inspection services needs to have the following basic provisions: * What will be inspected. * How it will be inspected. * Who will inspect it. * When will it be inspected. * Where will it be inspected. * What will be excluded. * Cost for the inspection. * How often will it be inspected. * What is the term of the contract. This may sound like a lot of items, but the parties are better served if these are spelled out in advance. Misunderstandings and miscommunications are averted if there is a clear document.

Time and material contracts may be part of a service agreement where a base line of service is provided for a fixed fee of say so many dollars per year. For this amount the contractor will provide a service that is spelled out in terms of what, when, where, who, how and why. There can be a clause that will "kick in" the time and material charges noted above if say the prearranged limit on emergency service time is exceeded. The contract could state that any items to upgrade the equipment or scheduled repairs needed to keep the equipment in good working condition can be costed out. A price quote is then given to the building manager or owner for approval before the start of work. In this way the owner is not forced to accept the extra work unless they agree with the contractor. There are many variations to these contracts but this is basically the type that is referred to as time and materials. 8.4.3

The contractor can stipulate that if during the inspection period components are found to be in need of repair, replacement, adjustment, or other needed services that a report of the findings be made in the recommendations and the cost of these findings. These types of agreements are good from the owners perspective since they are not obligated to go ahead with the solution. The service work can be awarded to whomever they want. However, the contractor is in a better position since they can usually convince the owner to give them the work and eliminate the owner having to search for a contractor. If the owner insists that someone else perform the service than your firm, then it would be to the contractor's advantage to recommend an associate firm which you have worked with before. Contracts of this

8.10

Service Contracts Time-Material

Full Service Agreement

In this arrangement the owner and the contractor agree to a set fee for service and it covers the components that are specified. The full service covers the entire service, parts and labor. If there is a problem, then the contractor is called and the problem is solved. Preventive maintenance is provided on a regular basis and the so called emergency call is taken care of by the contractor. In some instance, this agreement is like an insurance policy with the service contractor as the insurer. There are cases where insurance companies are involved with the coverage. The items which are costly should be excluded from this type of contract and they should be explicitly noted. The level of repair that equipment needs to be in prior to contract start up should be in writing to avoid future conflict.

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

8.5

CFC/HCFC RETROFIT CONSIDERATIONS

8.5.1

EPA Mandated CFC/HCFC Phaseout

require contact during installation. Any work which could reasonably release refrigerants into the atmosphere requires EPA certification of the technician performing the work.

(Check Federal, State and Local Regulations.)

8.5.2

Refrigerants used in air conditioning and refrigeration equipment are changing because of studies that certain refrigerants when released into the atmosphere cause a depletion of the ozone layer over the earth. The depletion takes place when the CFC is broken up by the sun's ultraviolet rays and it releases chlorine atoms which damages the ozone layer. The ozone layer is reported to provide a filter for incoming ultraviolet rays from the sun. If the rays reach a person, then they may be harmed.

Substitute or alternative refrigerants are those that will take the place of those that are scheduled to be phased out. CFC or chlorofluorocarbon has chlorine as part of its make up and HCFC or hydrochloro-fluorocarbon has a hydrogen atom. HFC has a hydrogen atom but no chlorine and HC which are hydrocarbon refrigerants have no chlorine or fluorine.

The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Air Act has mandated that the production of CFC's be banded by December 31, 1995. Refrigerants R-11, R-12, R-500, R-502 and Halon along with others are included in this band. Also, HCFC's are to be phased out by the year 2030; therefore, common refrigerants R-22, R123 will be affected. Additionally, the act prohibits the venting of CFC and HCFC based refrigerants after July 1, 1992 and so called safe refrigerants as HFC R-134a can not be vented after November 15, 1995. There are stiff fines such as a $25,000 per day per violation for intentional venting, improper disposing or releasing to the atmosphere. Contractors are required to recover, reclaim, or recycle CFC, HCFC, and HFC refrigerants when servicing or maintaining equipment. Contractors have to account and record for all refrigerants bought, sold, recovered and re-claimed. And, when repair work will require that the system be opened, then the removed refrigerant must be recovered. The idea is that the CFC, HCFC, and HFC will be better managed while they are being mandated out of existence and cause less ozone depletion. Contractors and building owners are responsible for keeping records of the refrigerants used on equipment which hold 50 lbs (23 kg) or more and they could be requested to produce these records if EPA comes in the door for an investigation. Technicians working for owners or contractors are required to be EPA certified in order to purchase refrigerants used in servicing and purchased in bulk or in equipment that

HFC/HCFC Substitutes

The listed refrigerants in Table 8-1 fall into several classes. Compatibility with lubricants, phase-out date for production, and near twin capabilities. The most common refrigerants in use currently are: R-12, R-500, R-114, R-11 Centrifugal, R-12 High Temperature Refrigeration, R-502 Low Temper-ature Refrigeration and R-22 Air Conditioning. Currently the phase-out production dates for the above except R-22 is December, 1995, while R-22 is 2020. This will help to explain the high number of replacements being manufactured (by the 10 manufacturers represented) to replace R-12 and R502. Therefore, many of the blends are near twins manufactured by different companies. The refrigerants on the left of Table 8-1 are all CFC based except R-22, which is an HCFC. The new refrigerants (blends) which are mostly HCFC based with many different chemicals blended in (except CFC's) have various capabilities to carry oil and return it back to the compressor (miscible). Some of the blends can still be used with mineral oil which has been standard for years. Most, however, must use synthetic oil (sikylbensene) to perform to compressor manufacturer needs. Usually (see manufacturer's guidelines) synthetic oil can be added to an existing, partially drained system which had contained mineral oil as long as the mineral oil residual does not exceed 50% to 80%. The new refrigerants which are HFC's cannot tolerate high percentages of mineral oil. To accomplish removal of up to 95% of mineral oil, several flushes with the existing refrigerant and alkylbenzene are usually needed (see manufacturer's guidelines).

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual

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8.11

Cautions: 1. It should be noted that when refilling the system with the polyoleater lubricant that this lubricant is hygroscopic and therefore will tend to attract moisture if left open too long a period of time.

refrigerant will boil off then during off cycles, the more components will leak first requiring a complete recovery and destruction of the remaining refrigerant, and complete refilling with new refrigerant.

2. Additionally, the new blends are not azeotropic and if a leak develops in a location where the

8.12

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

TABLE 8-1

Refrigerants Listing (as of April, 1995)

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

8.13

Contractors should consider that actual efficiencies with HCFC-123 can be five percent lower and capacity reductions of 20 percent for equipment retrofits. Using HCFC-123 in new chillers finds that the efficiency only drops to 2 percent and the capacity drops to 3 percent. Retrofitting CFC-11 chillers with HFC-134a requires replacement of parts besides the refrigerant. HFC-134a use in place of CFC-12 for medium pressure refrigerants has shown that they can be better and may require an impeller size change and/or speed change. Absorption chillers that use either ammonia or lithium bromide are available to the building owner as substitutes; however, the first cost can be high. Utility rebates which will be discussed later are an option for using these types of chillers. Continued use, conversions, and new chillers are available to the building owner but decisions along these lines will take careful study and consultation with manufacturers, contractors and engineers. 8.5.3

Refrigerant Prices - Present and Projected

This is a subject that is changing every day as this issue unwinds before us. Of course as demand goes up and supply goes down the price will change dramatically. Those refrigerants that are being phased out will increase in price and once production is stopped the available supply will be reduced. One may be able to get better prices based on larger quantities. Price changes are inevitable and market forces are going to change today's prices. Governmental excise tax escalation is sure to impact the price as will the availability. As time goes on and those newer refrigerants come into greater demand and greater production, the prices should fall in a free market society. Competition should also bring prices down. The only certain thing is that change is inevitable. 8.5.4

Chiller Potential for Retrofit/Replacement

Well with all this change, what are the prospects for the contractor? Are retrofits or replacements going to be the norm? ASHRAE in their September, 1994 Journal stated that " . . . more

than 100,000 chillers worldwide on R-ll and R-12 that are in operation, it is estimated that only 3,000 have been retrofitted to R-123 and R-134a. 8.14

.Global chiller manufacturing capacity is insufficient to retrofit or replace all the remaining chillers before the complete production phaseout of CFC's by the end of 1995." This should not surprise those who are in the field on a daily basis. The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) which provides the government with real property service through their Pubic Buildings Service has approximately 147 million square feet under federal control and management and a additional 113 million square feet of leased building space. With 404,000 tons of large chiller capacity the government claims that 80 percent of this tonnage is equipped with CFC equipment. This potential is great when you consider that the average age of a federal building is more than 40 years old. GSA reports that it requested from Congress a budget of $104 million in 1995 alone and the federal budget year starts in October 1, 1994. A three to five year plan is scheduled for the phase in of the project. Regarding chiller retrofits the following should be considered when proposing this course of action: *

Check for safety requirementsfor venting, oxygen sensors, refrigerant sensors, mechanical equipment room changes, and local codes and regulations. ASHRAE Standard 15 "Safety Code for Mechanical Refrigeration" and equipment manufactures should be consulted.

*

Changes in refrigerants may also require changes in chiller parts such as O-rings, impellers, gears and motors. Check with the manufacturer.

*

Check with the chiller manufacturer regarding efficiency and capacity changes when new refrigerants are used.

*

Check requirements for possible changes in pumps, cooling towers, and other related components.

There is and will continue to be a great potential for contractors in the retrofit market. However, one should be advised to stay abreast of the changes that are happening and continue to keep their skills sharp.

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

In the replacement of chillers the contractor can expect the potential to continue to grow and provide opportunity. From the owners perspective the replacement of chillers is going to cause some concern since this is a major capital expense. Contractors should stress the following benefits to owners for new chillers: *

Energy savings potential from increased efficiency.

*

Reduced new and warrantee service cost.

*

Increased reliability.

*

Reduced peak electricity.

demand

loads

·

Possible utility company rebates.

*

Able to meet changed building loads.

*

Comply with environmental concerns.

*

Building is more attractive for sale.

8.6

SPECIFIC EXPERTISE MATERIALS REQUIRED

8.6.1

Service Personnel

on

When considering the past several years and all the changes in the industry, the contractor is in a better position for new and expanded markets. The potential in replacement and retrofit is greater than the new building market at the present time. With the right team, the contractor should be able to increase his market share. 8.5.5

who can provide advise on the required changes needed and the resulting capacity and efficiency. The contractor may need information about the old chillers that the manufacturer can supply since they can search the old records. A manufacturer on new equipment can be called in to start-up and check out the new chiller. Manufacturers want to be helpful to the contractor since they are the customer and the contractor is the key to the building owner. So it makes sense for the contractor and manufacturer to be on the same team in order to attack the market.

Alliance with Chiller Manufacturers

As the opportunities for new markets in the retrofit and replacement business become apparent, the contractor should try to build alliances with the chiller manufacturers. These manufacturers can provide assistance and guidance in the selection of options to present to the owner. Considerations of whether to go to a rebuild or a new chiller will require careful analysis and study. If the contractor and manufacture establish a partnering arrangement, then each can contribute to the common goal to expand their market share. Manufacturers offer training and service assistance to the contractor and a manufacturer can sometimes provide information about the Contractors customers existing equipment. considering to rebuild a customers chiller for a new refrigerant are directed to the manufacturer

AND

System operation and maintenance requires a dedicated team of people who are knowledgeable and driven. Service personnel must be trained, starting with the sales force that goes out to meet the customer to the technicians that install or service the equipment. The need for trained personnel engaged in service operations and maintenance activities has been growing with the increasing complexity of building equipment and control systems. It is important that operating personnel be fully trained in the operation of all mechanical and electrical systems in order to operate and maintain the building efficiently. Training of personnel in the operation and maintenance of HVAC control systems should be The complexity of electrical, considered. electronic, and pneumatic control systems and VAV used in many multizone configurations must be fully understood by maintenance personnel so that systems can be checked and calibrated, and components replaced as required. Boiler plant operation and maintenance training should also be planned, including such topics as principles of combustion, measuring combustion efficiency, boiler and feed water control systems, water treatment systems, boiler maintenance, etc. With the advent of energy monitoring and control systems (EMCS), new skills are required for maintenance personnel, including electronic/ electrical equipment maintenance, programming and systems operation.

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

8.15

Proper service maintenance requires skilled personnel, perhaps at higher labor rates which can often be offset by lower operating costs. For example, proper operation can reduce the energy for heating and air conditioning. Technicians using refrigerants in service activities have to be trained and EPA certified. Service technicians will have to know how to handle refrigerants and operate recycling and recovery equipment. As the CFC's/HCFC's are phased out the contractor will have to become familiar with the replacement refrigerants, and their implementation requirements. Management will have to employ people who can analyze the service needs of the customer and make recommendations. Inspection of existing building systems and components know how will have to be available so that proposals for service can be made. At times the contractor will find the need to partner with manufacturers, IAQ specialist, and TAB people in order to propose a solution to the building management or owner. Alliances with these other groups are meant to foster a wide ranging image for the contractor and provide people who can be called in when they are needed. The service contractor must show to the owner that he is capable and knowledgeable in providing the service. Contractors will have to be familiar with EPA guidelines for leaks as shown in Table 8-2. Table 8-2 Leakage Rates

directing and training his personnel. With the recent changes in refrigerants and the governmental requirements, a safety awareness must be instituted and this can not be just lip service. It goes without saying that safety conscious companies are going to be better off in the long run. Education is needed, therefore, contact the manufacturer for engineered retrofits. 8.6.2

Tools/Equipment

Contractors in this market will certainly have to be equipped with the latest recovery, recycling, and leak detection equipment. This is especially true in light of the refrigerant changes mandated by the EPA, state, and local regulators. Refrigerant storage, handling, shipping, labeling and cleaning all require an increase cost to the contractor along with record keeping. Each service truck will have to be equipped to handle these refrigerants and recovery devices available. Contractors should have access to reclaim equipment and a laboratory or a reclaimer who's laboratory certifies to ARI700 Standards of Purity. Instrumentation used to service the equipment such as temperature, pressure, humidity and air and water flow are going to be required. TAB instrumentation mentioned in Chapter 3 and IAQ equipment from Chapter 4 are going to be used. Duct cleaning devises such as brushes, vacuums and cleaners are also required. See Chapter 6 on Duct Cleaning. Computer hardware and software can be helpful in tracking service agreements and work orders. Many software packages available today are customized for service work. They basically provide and integrate virtually all HVAC service management functions. Service call entry, dispatching, invoice/costing, maintenance agreements, and parts inventory are just a few of these features. A full array of business analysis reports are also available with these software packages. Some programs also print the parts that were used for the service and then omit them when printing the invoice. Software is even available to help track refrigerants. These packages track service technician usage, different users and detailed service records.

*Repairs must take place within 30 days. 8.7 Since safety is always a concern, the contractor should have a person responsible for planning,

8.16

SPECIFIC MARKETING TECHNIQUES FOR SYSTEM OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

8.7.1

Existing Customer Base

In view of the nature of the business, system operation and maintenance will continue to be required. All the marketing techniques mentioned in the first chapter are also relevant here. Recall the number of chillers that were reported by ASHRAE that have to be changed and the federal governments program for GSA are all potential customers. Basic service business techniques for existing customers is to keep your company name in front of the customer. If you are in TAB, or IAQ service work and have provided services for a customer, try to look for opportunities when Talk to the building providing that work. operations people and facilities management about basic service work. Ask who presently does their service and the next time the present contract is coming due ask if you can provide a proposal. If you are working with other subcontractors who have expertise in a related area, ask them to join you to present a proposal to the customer. Remember that alliances with manufacturers and other contractors can give your the marketing edge that is needed. Stress to the building owner the value of preventive maintenance service and build on your relationship. Owners are looking for ways to cut cost and your service might be more advantageous than for them to provide their own. The service contract can be used as a marketing technique from the stand point that it provides the owner with a fixed cost for their service during a period of a year. The owner must be made to realize that the cost of this service provides a value which they could not provide by themselves.

8.7.2

Specialty Applications (Low and Medium Temperature, Supermarket, etc.)

Service work in the specialty applications area is more of a niche business that requires a focused effort. A contractor will have to prove themselves to the building management. This type of business requires that the customer have total commitment from the contractor. With the value of the products in a store or warehouse, the owner wants a service organization that is dedicated to their account. The contractor may want to consider devoting a sector of their service business exclusively to a specialty service. The building

owner should be shown that one is serious about getting and maintaining this business. A trial demonstrationproject is one way to break into this specialty business.

8.8

CFC/HCFC RETROFIT TECHNIQUES

MARKET

In view of the refrigerant phase out of CFC's and eventually HCFC's, all existing customers with cooling equipment that now use these refrigerants are candidates for increased service or retrofit business. All the marketing techniques mentioned in the first chapter are also relevant here. Recall the number of chillers that were reported by ASHRAE that have to be changed or retrofitted. Contractors should look to building alliances with manufacturers of chillers. These manufacturers can be part of the contractors team when approaching prospective customers or existing ones. Existing customers need to be educated on the changes in the requirements for handling refrigerants and the mandates set by the Federal government specifically EPA. In educating the existing customer, the contractor is going to be in a better position to serve the needs of that customer. Once it is explained to the customer what is being required of the industry in regard to the CFC/HCFC issue, the customer will be more receptive to giving you the work. Explain the impact on the contractor and the impact on the owner. This prepares the customer for any future work that may be required to comply with the new rules. Since the contractor who is presently servicing an owner knows the equipment, the contractor is in a better position to make recommendations to the owner. A marketing technique for getting the owner to make a decision is to present the alternatives of a suggested project. For example, give the owner the opportunity to choose between repairing the present equipment or replacing with This is where the totally new equipment. relationship with the chiller manufacturer comes into play. Ask the manufacturer to provide information on the cost of replacing the chiller versus rebuilding the old chiller. Whether dealing with new customers or existing ones, the contractor should look for other allies to help in the marketing of their services. One ally is the utility. Utilities can provide in some cases rebates or incentives to the building owner for

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replacing old equipment with new more efficient equipment that operate with the new refrigerants. New chiller equipment that use HCFC-123 and HFC-134A is available. Chiller manufacturers and utilities are glad to work with the contractor to set up a "win-win" situation. Getting back to education, many building owners are not aware of the new requirements when it comes to CFC/HCFC issues. This may seem hard for a contractor to believe, but there are potential customers out there that need service. One technique to get new customers is to contact potential customers and offer to inspect their facility and then make recommendations. You would be surprised to find how many owners do not know what they have and just wait until something breaks.

8.9

FINANCIAL PAYBACK ANALYSIS

8.9.1

Repair/Replace/Retrofit Decision

Building owners relate to service work the way they relate to other building service, in that they want to justify the expenditure. Therefore, the contractor must be equipped to demonstrate the payback period to be within the customer's expectations. Whether it is repair, replacement, or retrofit service, the same holds true, so meet the payback requirements. Just to review, the payback period is determined by the ratio of the investment cost to savings and the interest rate as was discussed in Section 1.5. Your proposed investment and the projected savings to the owner must result in a payback period that falls within the customer's requirement. Different owners have different ideas as to what this period is. A building owner who depends on the service to protect the equipment from a failure which would stop production or cause productivity to drop is going to value this savings versus the cost of the investment. 8.9.2

System

Energy

Consumption

Improvements Energy consumption is an on going part of any building system and the savings that can be shown will certainly get the attention of the building owner or manager. Services that can save energy are going to have to be justified and result in a favorable payback. Let's take the case of a new

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more efficient chiller that will replace a CFC model. By replacing the chiller, the owner will save a certain amount of energy each year. Taking the cost of this investment and the annual savings per year along with the interest rate determine the payback period. Present this to the owner, but make sure that the payback period is within the customers limits.

8.9.3

Alliance with Local Utilities on Subsidized Programs for New Equipment

In recent years utilities have experienced the fact that energy demands are out striding energy capacity. Building new energy plants to meet this demand has been difficult because of environmental demands and other considerations. In an attempt to manage more productively the energy that they have, utilities especially in the electric field have come forth with demand side management programs. These programs are trying to encourage energy users, their customer, to use more efficient equipment and to use it during low demand times of the day. They have developed a number of rebates as incentives for utility customers to make changes in the way they use energy. Rebates come in the form of cash incentives for customers to purchase the new more efficient equipment. Rebates have been given for new chillers, boilers, furnaces, water heaters, new roof insulation, and new more efficient lighting fixtures to mention just a few. Lets see how the contractor might take advantage of this to secure more business. For example, the contractor meets with a local church and explains that the new refrigerants used in the latest design of chiller will save the church in electric utility cost over the years. They explain that the new chillers are more efficient and that they know that the local electricity company is providing rebates for making the change. The church was not going to change the chillers but in view of the rebate they are now considering it. The contractor prepares the analysis that shows the cost of the new chillers less the rebate amount from the utility, calculates the savings per year in electricity cost and determines the cost to savings ratio. With this ratio and the interest rate, the payback period is determined and present to the church. This is how these incentives are made to work for the contractor and it produces a "win-win" situation for all concerned. The utility company gets a

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

reduced demand on their service line, the church gets their new chillers at a reduced cost and saves energy, and the contractor gets the new business.

8.10

REFERENCES

8.10.1

Miro, C.R. & Cox, J.E., "Montreal Protocol Assessment in Nairobi", ASHRAE Journal, September, 1994, pp.22.

8.10.2

General Catalog, Grainger, Lincolnshire, Illinois, 385 Ed., 1994.

8.10.3

Calm, J.M., "Alternative Refrigerants: Challenges, Opportunities", Heating Piping Air Conditioning, pp. 1-10, September, 1991.

8.10.4

8.10.5

Hayner, A.M. "Refrigerant Management", Engineered Systems, Vol.11, No. 10, pp. 38-39, 1994. McKew, H., "Indispensable Maintenance Tools", Engineered Systems, Vol. 11, No. 11, pp. 6, 1994.

8.10.6

Conservation Guidelines, Energy SMACNA, Inc. Chantilly, Virginia, 1 st. Ed., 1984.

8.10.7

Indoor Air Quality, SMACNA, Chantilly, Virginia, 2nd. Ed., 1993.

8.10.8

HVAC Systems Test, Adjusting & Balancing, SMACNA, Inc., Chantilly, Virginia, 2nd. Ed., 1993.

8.10.9

Retrofit of Building Energy Systems and Processes, SMACNA, Inc. Chantilly, Virginia, 1st. Ed., 1982.

8.10.10 Refrigeration Handbook, Atlanta, Georgia, 1994.

Inc.

ASHRAE.

Applications Handbook, 8.10.11 HVAC ASHRAE. Atlanta, Georgia, 1991 8.10.12 Standard 15-1989 Safety Code for Mechanical Refrigeration, ASHRAE. Atlanta, Georgia, 1989. 8.10.13 Thorne, H.,"EPA Certification Update", SNIPS, Vol. 63, No.5, pp 24, 1994.

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CHAPTER 9

GLOSSARY

GLOSSARY

CHAPTER 9 A Acoustics: The science of sound. Advertising: A method of communication by paying money to place a notice about the company and it's services. Advertising can be via magazines, newspapers, television or radio. Air Flow: The movement of air caused by mechanical or non-mechanical means. Fans would be an example of a mechanical means and natural ventilation a non-mechanical. Ammeter: An instrument that measures electrical amps. Annual Owning Cost: The cost of the initial loan; taxes; insurance; energy; maintenance and operation of a building. ASHRAE: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers is a trade association. Audit: An investigation to determine the conditions of a building system and its' components. Audits are the basis of a proposal for work to be performed.

Coefficient of Performance (COP), Heat Pump: The ratio of the compressor heating effect (heat pump) to the rate of energy input to the shaft of the compressor, in consistent units, in a complete heat pump, under designated operating conditions. Cold Call: A marketing technique in which the salesperson goes to the potential customers office with the hope of meeting with the customer even though the salesperson has no set appointment. Commercial Refrigeration: Cooling equipment serving non-people loads. Commissioning: The process of advancing systems from a state of static physical completion to a state of full, demonstrated and documented working order, according to design requirements, during which time the owner's operating staff are instructed in correct systems operation and maintenance. Communications: Conveying information to the customer to inform, and tell about the service. Advertising, promotions, public relations, direct selling, mailing, seminars and literature are examples of various means to communicate. Cost Avoidance: Usually an investment made now, that will prevent spending money later.

B D BOMA: The Building Owners and Managers Association is a trade group of building owners and managers. Building Regulations: Laws controlling all aspects of buildings from what type are permitted to the materials used in them. Building Thermal Lag: A delay in the effect of the energy absorbed by a building and the time it takes for that energy to be off set by a building system. An example would be a lag between the time the building absorbs the solar energy to the time the chiller responds with cold water production. C

Dehumidification: The condensation of water vapor from air by cooling below the dewpoint or removal of water vapor from air by chemical or physical methods. Demand Side Management: The control of energy systems to minimize cost and demand for energy. Demographics: The science of vital and social statistics that is used as a tool that can be used to focus the marketing plan on the question of location of the customer. Dewpoint Temperature: The temperature at which moist air becomes saturated(100% relative humidity) with water vapor when cooled at constant pressure.

Climatic Zones: Regions with similar weather conditions.

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Direct Mail: A marketing technique in which information about a company is mailed to the potential customer with the hope of informing and motivating to action. Direct Selling: This is selling face to face and the salesperson meets directly with the customer. Discount Rate: Is a rate of return on an investment. Domestic Hot Water: Potable hot water as distinguished from hot water used for building space heating.

HEPA Filter: High Efficiency Particulate Air Filter is a throwaway extended media, dry-type of filter in a rigid frame having a minimum particle collection efficiency of 99.97 percent for 0.3 micron thermally generated dioctyl phthalate (D.O.P.) or acceptable alternative particles, and a maximum clean-filter pressure drop of 1.0 inch water gauge, when tested at rated airflow capacity. Humidification: The process by which moisture is added to the space. Hydronics: The transmission of liquids through pipes and pumps for delivery of heating and cooling with liquids.

Diversity Factor: A term used to describe the ratio of block load to the summation of individual room loads. E

Industrial Hygienist: One who is knowledgeable in workplace cleanliness.

Economy Cycle: A system of controls to bring about a savings in the use of energy.

Infiltration: Air flowing into a building as through a wall, crack, etc.

Energy Audit: An accounting for how energy is used in a building system.

Infrared Thermography: The analysis and measurement of heat loss from buildings using infrared equipment.

Energy Management: The process of allocation of energy in building systems and equipment. EMCS: Energy monitoring and control systems are computer and microprocessor devices that measure energy usage in building systems and control the systems that use the energy. Epidemiologist: One who studies medical epidemic diseases. EUI: Energy utilization Index is a way of showing the previous level of energy in terms of BTUs per gross conditioned square foot (kJ/square meters).

K Kilowatt: 1000 watts. Abbreviated: kW. Kilowatt-Hour: A measure of electrical energy consumption 1000 watts being consumed per hour. Abbreviated: kWh(MJ). L Life-Cycle Costing: The total cost of owning, operating, and maintaining a building over its economic life. M

G GPM: Gallons per minutes is a term that describes the amount of fluid normally water that flows in a minute through a pipe. Goals: These are targets that a person goes after. They stimulate a person and provide motivation. H Heat Recovery: Regaining energy that was going to be wasted. 9.2

Manometer: An instrument for measuring pressure, especially a U-tube partially filled with a liquid, usually water, mercury, or a light oil, so constructed that the amount of displacement of the liquid indicates the pressure being exerted on the instrument. Marketing: Everything done as part of the regular day-to-day business activities to ensure that customers both purchase products or services and are satisfiedwith the resulting relationshipwith the firm.

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

MSDS: Material Safety Data Sheets are descriptions of products and how they are to be handled in a safe manner.

judged to determine if they are a good opportunity for achieving the mission or goal. R

N NEMI: The National Energy Management Institute is an organization of contractors dedicated to the advancement of energy conservation. NTF: The National Training Fund is a joint organization of sheet metal contractors (management) and workers (union) dedicated to the advancement of the sheet metal industry via education and training. O OSHA: The Occupational Safety and Health Agency is a federal government agency that regulates the standards for safety and health in the workplace.

Reset Schedules: A listing of processes of automatically adjusting the control point of a given controller to compensate for changes in another variable. Retrofit: The act of changing a building system to improve it's performance. S Seasonal Efficiency: The total quantity of energy delivered or removed in BTUs divided by the total energy input over an entire season. Set Back: A reduction in a quantity for purposes of control such as temperature set back on a thermostat.

P Payback: The return on investment is what the building owner receives for making a decision to spend money for an improvement to the building system. Payback is usually expressed in years. Present Worth: This centers on the time value of money. Prime Contractor: One who leads the project and over sees subcontractors.

SIC: Standard Industrial Classification is a listing of businesses in the USA developed by the U.S. Government's Department of Commerce. Sick Building: The term associated with poor indoor air quality. "Skin" Losses: Thermal losses through the building perimeter.

Proposal: A written document which tells the customer what is going to be provided, a time frame, and the cost of the service.

Solar Energy: The photon energy originating from the sun's radiation in the wavelength region from 0.3 to 2.4 micrometer; the radiant energy of the sun, whether it be direct, diffuse or reflected radiation.

Pyrometer: A temperature.

Sound: What is audible to the ear.

device that measures surface T

Psychrometer: An instrument for ascertaining the humidity or hygrometric state of the atmosphere. Public Relations: A way of communication in which a company tries to project an image of success and professionalism. Materials about the company may be given to newspapers, magazines or others who are in a position to distribute the information. Q Qualifying: The process by which a prospect is

Tachometer: An instrument used to measure the speed at which a shaft or wheel is turning. The speed is usually determined in revolutions per minute (rpm). Thermostat: An instrument which responds to changes in temperature and which directly or indirectly controls temperature. Transmission: The amount of heat transmitted into the building or from it through the various components such as wall, windows, roof and doors.

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V Ventilation: The process of supplying or removing air, by natural or mechanical means, to or from any space. Such air may or may not have been conditioned. Vibration: A back and forth motion.

9.4

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual * First Edition

CHAPTER 10

INDEX

CHAPTER 10 Acoustics ........................ 7.9 Action plan ....................... 1.4 Adjusting ........................ 3.1 Advertising ............... 1.4, 1.14, 1.15 AMCA ......................... 3.15 American Marketing Association ...... . 1.1 Annual owning cost ................ 1.22 ARI ........................... 8.16 ASHRAE .............. 1.12, 4.1, 5.4, 6.3 ..................... 6.4, 8.2, 8.13 Associations ..................... 1.12 Audit .................... 2.10, 2.28, 4.2 Balancing ........................ 3.1 BOMA ......................... 1.11 Brochures ........................ 1.8 Building characteristics .................. 2.4 codes .................... 2.17, 5.1 commercial ................ . 6.5 envelope ..................... 2.18 existing .................... 5.4, 5.6 owners ....................... 6.1 regulations ................... 2.17 survey ..................... 2.7, 5.4 walk through ................ 2.7, 2.9 Business retrofit ...................... 2.27 Calibration ....................... 8.8 Capital cost ...................... 1.19 Capital recovery factors ............. 1.18 Certification ..................... 8.16 CFC/HCFC ................. 1.1, 8.17 Chiller .......................... 8.14 Cleaning ......................... 8.9 Clean room ...................... 3.17 Clients .......................... 1.11 Closing ..................... 1.11, 2.26 Codes ........................... 5.1 Cold calling ....................... 1.9 Comfort ......................... 5.4 Commissioning construction ................... 5.6 levels ........................ 5.2 maintenance ................... 8.9 manual ....................... 8.4 Communication ................. 1.2, 3.2 Components ...................... 8.9 Computer ............ 2.9, 2.13, 2.14, 2.20 Contaminants ..................... 6.1 Contracts ........................ 8.10 Controls ........................ 2.22 Cooling .......................... 8.5

INDEX Costing .................. 1.21, 1.22, 6.6 Cover letter ...................... 1.10 Customer ................ 1.4, 1.11, 8.17 Data base ....................... 2.10 DOE ..................... 1.24, 2.4, 8.1 Domestic hot water ................ 2.15 Duct Analysis .................... 1.1 Duct cleaning ................... 1.1, 6.1 leakage ....................... 7.1 sealing ....................... 7.6 supply ....................... 7.2 survey ..................... 6.2, 7.1 testing ....................... 7.2 Electrical systems ...................... 2.19 Energy audit ...................... 2.5, 2.9 conservation ................... 4.4 consumption ................... 2.1 electric ...................... 2.10 heat ........................ 2.10 management ................ 1.1, 2.4 recovery ..................... 2.21 saving .................... 2.26, 7.9 Environmental conditions ..................... 8.2 considerations ................. 2.16 safety ....................... 3.17 EPA ........................ 6.4, 8.11 Equipment audit ........................ 2.23 Expertise commissioning ................. 5.5 duct cleaning .................. 6.3 duct system analysis ............. 7.6 energy management ............ 2.22 IAQ ......................... 4.3 system operation/maintenance ..... 8.15 TAB ........................ 3.11 Facilities computer .................... 2.20 Field checks ..................... 2.14 Financial ............ 1.16, 2.30, 3.18, 4.4 .................. 5.7, 6.5, 7.8, 8.18 First cost ........................ 1.18 Federal government ......... 1.12, 1.22, 8.2 Feedback ......................... 1.5 Fume hood ...................... 3.17 Goal ...................... 1.5, 1.6, 2.6 Halon .......................... 8.11 Hard sell ......................... 1.9

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Heating ................... ....... 8.4 HEPA ......... .............. 6.4

Hydronic ........................ 3.16 IAQ analysis ....................... 7.8 audit ......................... 4.2 concerns ...................... 4.1 duct analysis ................ 7.1, 7.6 duct cleaning ................... 6.1 liability ....................... 4.2 manual ....................... 6.1 occupants .................. 4.2, 6.6 standards ..................... 4.1 Image .......................... 1.13 Indoor Air Quality .............. 1.1, 5.4 Inspection ................. 8.4, 8.8, 8.9 Interest ......................... 1.19 Investment ...................... 1.18 Leakage .......................... 7.3 Leakage class ...................... 7.4 Leakage rates .................... 8.16 Life cycle .................... 1.21, 1.22 Lights .......................... 2.15 Load distribution ................... 2.20 product ...................... 2.20 Maintenance ................... 1.1, 8.1 Magazine ........................ 1.14 Manual ..........................7.5 Manufacturers .................... 8.15 Market ................... 1.4, 1.5, 5.1 Marketing ..... 1.1, 1.5, 1.7, 1.12, 2.22, 2.24 ...........3.12, 4.4, 5.6, 6.4, 7.7, 8.16 NEBB ...................... 2.21, 3.17 NEMI ...........................5.5 Newsletter ........................ 1.8 Newspaper ....................... 1.14 News release ...................... 1.9 NTF ......... ........... 5.5 Occupant .................. 4.5, 6.1, 8.3 Operation ........................ 1.1 OSHA .......................3.17, 6.4 Ozone .......................... 8.11 Payback ............. 1.16, 2.30, 3.18, 4.4 ..................5.7, 6.5, 7.8, 8.18 Payback period ................... 1.18 Plan marketing ..................... 1.4 proposal ..................... 1.10 Pollutants ........................ 6.1 Present worth analysis .......... 1.19, 1.21 Price ......... .......... 1.4, 8.14 Promotion ....................... 1.4 Proposal ......... 1.10, 1.17, 2.26, 2.30, 5.6 Prospecting ...................... 2.26 10.2

Prospects ........................ 1.12 Prospect sources .................. 1.12 Public relations ................ 1.4, 1.13 Publications ...................... 1.15 Pumps .......................... 3.16 Quality ...................5.1, 5.7, 6.4 Qualifying ........................ 1.9 Radio .....................1.9, 1.14 Research ....................1.6, 1.7 Rebalance ....................... 3.19 Re-commissioning . . 5.1, 5.3, 5.6, 6.2, 8.4, 8.9

Records .......................... 8.9 References .......... 1.24, 2.31, 3.19, 4.6 ..................5.7, 6.6, 7.9, 8.19 Refrigerants cautions ..................... 8.12 listing ....................... 8.13 retrofit ...................... 8.17 substitutes .................... 8.11 types ........................ 8.11 Refrigeration certification ................... 8.16 commercial ................... 2.20 recovery ..................... 8.11 systems ...................... 3.18 Retrofit ................. 1.17, 2.11, 8.11 Retrofit contractor .. 2.1, 2.3, 2.14, 2.25, 2.27 Safety consideration ................. 2.16 environmental ................. 3.17 OSHA ...................... 3.17 Sales calls ................... 2.26, 2.27 closing ...................... 2.26 objections .................... 2.26 pitch ....................... 6.5 stall ......................... 2.26 Service .......................... 8.10 Selling audit ................ 2.13, 2.26, 2.29 direct ................ 1.4, 1.13, 1.14 indoor air quality ............... 4.1 literature ...................... 1.4 mail ......................... 1.4 retrofit ...................... 2.24 Seminars ...................... 1.4, 1.9 Sound ......... .......... 2.21, 7.1 Standards building .................... 2.17 energy conservation ............. 5.1 IAQ ......................... 4.1 thermal ................... 6.4, 8.2 ventilation ................. 5.4, 6.3 Subcontractor ..................... 2.1 Supermarket ..................... 8.17

Building Systems Analysis and Retrofit Manual · First Edition

Survey ................. 2.4, 2.7, 6.2, 7.1 Systems building ..................... 2.17 8.1 CFC/HCFC ................... domestic water ................ 2.19 electrical ..................... 2.19 2.18 HVAC ...................... maintenance modifications ........ 2.3 operation ..................... 8.1 others ....................... 2.16 TAB air devices .................... 3.5 aspects ....................... 3.3 design ..................... 3.4, 7.1 duct cleaning .................. 6.1 fans ......................... 3.5 hoods ....................... 3.17 instrumentation .......... 3.4, 3.7, 3.8 marketing .................... 3.12 manual .................... 7.2, 7.7 procedures .................... 3.6 requirements .................. 3.2

3.3 specification ................... 5.5 training ....................... 3.15 tolerances .................... Techniques ............ 1.8, 2.24, 3.12, 4.4 .................. 5.6, 6.4, 7.7, 8.16 Tenant ......................... 2.11 Testing ........................ 3.1, 7.5 1.9, 1.14 T.V. ........................ Time cycle ......................... 1.5 estimates ..................... 2.8 management .................. 1.3 1.12 Tools ........................... Trade show ...................... 1.12 Utilities .................. 8.1, 8.17, 8.18 Ventilation ....................... 6.3 Vibration ........................ 2.21 Water chilled ....................... 2.16 domestic ..................... 2.15 hot ......................... 2.16 Yellow pages ..................... 1.15

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SHEET METAL AND AIR CONDITIONING CONTRACTORS' NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, INC.