English Grammar In Use with Answers: A Self-study Reference and Practice Book for Intermediate Students of English

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English Grammar In Use with Answers: A Self-study Reference and Practice Book for Intermediate Students of English

English Grammar in Use A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate students of English with answers THIR

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English Grammar in Use

A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate students of English

with answers THIRD EDITION

Raymond Murphy ~ CAM B R ID G E

~ Ul\"IVERS ITY P R ESS

C A M RRI I>G F. UNIVE RS ITY r RE S S

Camb ridge, New York, Melbo urne, Madrid, Cape Tow n. Singapore, SilO Paulo Cambridge University Press T he Ed inburgh Building. Cambridge C Bl l RU, UK www.carob ridge.org Information o n this tide : ww w.cambridge.o rg/978052 153289 1

o Ca mbridge University Press 2004 This publication is in copyright. Subiecr to statutor y exception and to the provi sion s of releva nt collective licensing agreements. no reprod uct ion of an y part rna)' take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2004 7th printing 2005 Printed in Singapore by KHL Print ing Co Pte l td A cd y I'm I you've I didn 't etc . (short fo rms o r COll t r,;c ti o ,ts) rat her than I a m I yo u ha ve J did not etc . We also use these sho rt fo rms in informa l writ ing (for exa mple. a letter o r messa ge to a friend ), " 'hen we write sho rt fo rm s, we use a n apostrophe n for th e mi..sing lenertsj: I' m :: I a m vou 've e you bAH' didn't e di d nQf

5.2

List of sho rt fo rms: I I'm

'm = am

's :: is o r has ' re :: ar e ' ve :: ha n:' 'II :: wi ll 'd :: wo uld o r had

I

be's

I

she's

I

l' ve

h,'11 I,h,'11 1"11 he'd I she'd I'd

it's yo u'r e

you 've you 'll yo u' d

we 're we ' ve we' ll we 'd

they ' re they've t hey'll they'd

\ ca n he i.. or ha\ : a She's ill. 1= She is ill. I :J She's gone away", t= She ha\ gone) but let's :: let us: :::: l et 's go no w. (= l et u\ go t 'd can he would o r had : a I'd see a doctor if I were you. 1= I would see ) :J I'd never seen her before. ( = I had neve r seen ! \X'e use so me o f these sho rt fo rms (especia lly 's l after q uest io n wo rds (who/w ha t etc.I a nd afte r th a tfth erclh ere: who's what's wh e re's ho w's that's there's here's who'll th e re' ll who'd o Who 's rha r woman ove r th ere? t= who is) o What's ha ppened ? ( = what has I o Do yo u think th ere'll he many people at th e pa rt y? (= th ere will) \X'e a lso USl' ..ho rt forms (especia lly 's l a fter a no un : o Ca therine's go ing o ur tonight. (= Catherine is) o My best friend 's JUSt gor ma rried . ( = ~ I y best friend has) Yo u ca nnot use 'm I 's I 're I ' vc I 'II I 'd .H the en d o f a sent ence (beca use the verb is stressed in th is positio n): o ' Arc you tired ?' ' Yes, I a m.' l llOt Yes, I'm .j o Do yo u know where she is ? (1I0 t Do yo u know wh e re she's? ) 5.3

Xega rive sho rt forms isn 't aren't wasn't weren't

(= (= (= (=

ca n't wo n't shan't

(= ca nno t ] 1= will no t )

is not ) a re no t ) wa s not) werc not )

(= sha ll not )

don 't doesn't didn 't

t= do not ] 1= docs nor ) (= d id no t )

hav en't hasn't had n't

(= ha ve not ) (= has not) (= ha d not )

co uld n't wo uldn 't sho uld n't

(= could no t ) (= would not) (= should not )

mustn't need n't daren'i

(= m ust nor ) (= need no t ) t= da re not}

Xeganv e sho rt forms fo r is and are ca n he: he isn 't I she isn't I ir isn't o r he's not ! she's no t ! it 's not you a ren'l ! we a ren't I they a ren 't o r yo u' re not ! we're no t I t hey're no t

Spelling

----'6.1

No uns. verbs a nd adjectives ca n ha\"c the to llowing end ings: no un -+ · !. with she 'erh IJ lwJ ,-s• .I/so ('K.I 110

....f vice tuncounlJhk nou m - 08 ad\i~ 1+ 10 _•••md -,ngl S5e affo rd h tu ... J 54A, .\ 6.-\ afraid cu(J 13 L\ r ill ,1(r,li d soll/ol 5 I I) .4r.Ji.llo d" and .Jr"uJ oi. /wllg 66:\ after .J{t..., • prncnl ~, mrk I present pertece 2.B.-iS .J{1

already 1110 .J/f('.JJ~·

with rhe present perfec'l

T ~i l ion oi .Jl rt .JJ y J 10 a.Iw . ~ ...ition oi oil;', ) 110 ahhocgh 113 a ~s .JIII',I)'J d o

,11\l.J: tJ • I., •.. 6 .l e -lm .J: t J 011(11)'

J.JOe

.J' I.\'l l'h f'Tt !I.l-!l6 " " 1 ••. 01" ." 86

.J,,}, and "'J 86 C .111)' lof i 81'1 .I ,, ) ' and t ltl!tl' 89 E .J/I~' .. comp aratives 1068 ,m)' more I .I II)' IUl/gtT 1118 apo logis(' (to slJ"'t'I,,~i)' f i jT) 62. 132:\. 1358 apostrophe lin ..hort formsl :\ ppendi \ 5 apostroph e 5 (\1 8 1.8.lA appe ar (. tu ..• 1 548 appl~' li " TI I B e . approve (ui .. -iltg l 62 A . 13 5:\ :lan) I: Iques rion ta~ ) 52D arr ange (. to .. ,) 54:\• .l 6/\ arriv e (;/110111 126C a nid~ (.J{,JlJltbt) 69-78 .J/.JIJ 69-72 .J/.JII and 11..1' 72. 73:\

tb t 72-78 I IIIr Je/",01 C1O: , 74 cinldren I t ilt children ere. 75 thl ' with names 77- 78 a ~ 107. 116- 118 .JJ S" WI .JJ 2S ,o\- 8 .JS ..• .JS lin compa rative semen..:t'SJ J/(4/(.,])' 1 rUT I H C

a\lun i§hed .JJlfIIlisbrJ • to ... 6SC .JJfWlislJr ,/.JIIf,)' I30C

.

.J1 ( ti m~1

011 lil t' "lid

II I

.InJ

avoid ,. ·ing l 53. 56A a ware (of ) 13 1S awa y {ver b .. oIWoly) 137. 145 ha~k

inldllfJI/ the " .Jek 1140 verb .. /"'el.: 14 _~

bad l.JII I3IC ba~all:~ (unco unla hle nou nl 70 8

beca use 100 113B-C

bed lin bed 110 11t'd ) 74C, I14A. UM been 10 8A. 11 68 beento and gUIIl 'I' j 71> before

!rt fi!ft .. presenl simpl(' 25A !rrfiju' • omg 60B begin I. -;ng or 10 .,.1 S6C beginning Idl II" IJrginning ) 1218 being is and I" iJ bring) 4C believe (i,,) 136A

,I"

believed ( il ;s belit'ml ... I 45A be tter ID.l C

{,ad better JSA-B between (noun . /l('t 1('('('I1) 11 9E b lame 1358 bond bored and !rnrmg 98 bortJ It'lt'' I30C

born 0 I('.JJ "u'" ... J 44C both (n f) 119 /ro tb ... dlld 891> bo lll an d tI), .lINJl/llo( ... 1 134£ com pou nd nou ns (imed Icit/, J 30B di\f>tl~·'l'I't'I)~"'d(,I't.'f')·'lJillg

9O.-\--e ('I't'n· .lnJ (,old , 9 1 el't'~"Q>le ,lOd ('1·1.'1)· (mt' 9 1D

expect • tf) ... SS.-\ expect... d 'I f IS "."" (' inr In... furur... I q g"''' g ''' ! U 1( '111 !-I_!-! ' 1·,11 J.nJ sf..lll 11 D. l ! D I/'Ill J.nd guilt!: ,. , ! 3 l/'lff be ,1"lIIft ,julur... ..:untlnuous ' 14 ' I/"Iff 1'.II 'C' J.. n.' ,iururc J"C'rit'\.'1 ' ! 4 fUlure \\ IIh 11 ·1",'11. ,,- l"1":. 1 j . I IH. 115C. I I " B

c.

gener ous t+ prepo \ ition l IJ U:\ geogra phical names with JnJ wit hou t tbe -gerund see - i n~ ger g" 1

in the

pJ ~~i \ e

.... 0

g.·t 5"mo'tbl"~ .1" " 1' " 6C ~.-, 5.111.> l· f c. I-C 1"", ".Will!!, WI' ·, t' hill 'lII!! 1.'1c. I -C b.ll'l' to (and lI/"s l) 3 I b.I/'1' got to 3 10 I!.II 'I' so snetbing d 0 1l1' 46 II.J/'i"g (d Oli'" H D. 61lC !K.. with t he present simple- or C.lII 4D

I,,,~ + prC"iC'TII simpleIN.J~ .IlIJ uTsl, " I A

l!B

I hopr 50 1 1110/'1' 1101 5 I D Impr • 10 • • • 5·B., 56 .\ hoo.pital l/}()s,,'t.111 th.., 1105pit.lll -" 8. 125.\ .\n"Il"ficiln English Appen dix 7 00 '" abou t t » -illgl 60.\ how lon g .. . ? 1+ presenr ~rfn.-r l

11-1 1

53B. I..OB. 141.\

ho w lon l/. is it since .•• ; 11C

gO"11 JUIII!! and go " " tll.lO .i 68

go 0'" 139.-\.

s....,f

1400 . I.. IC going 10 :\ ppn1d i\ 3 g!. + inl1nili\"r 54-59

4S1)

.:om inu,>u\ inl1n iti"e (to 1Jt' d",,,g l

HB perin."'! intin ili\'e (10 I!.II"" do"l') H B. 58C in lini l i\~ aitr ! a queslioll word

540 \erl:>!. . ohjm • intiniti\'e 55 \ erk • infinili\r or -m.l{ 55-58

il'$ lime .. . 3.1C il'$ worth 1+ ·ill g ) 6JA jealous to!) 1.1 IA jU\ t ;/151 with the pre....nt perfect 7C ;/15/ i ll (.151" I I"" i/l5t'l5 116A i/l5/ hI tim r 1l2 A

keen (... 1) IJ 1C

' ''J' kr l'p O il

5.l. 56A. 141A

I.:I"I'P liP /w lth ...J 14J A I.: l'I"P .lll'd)' (from ..., 145B kind (ki"d of Sf>m",ml' ,., ,10 som r ,I1/JlJ: 1 1>t' kmd /.. 5 + ( , t! 1350. 136E. Ir.

I"O- H I anOl hl"l' 81C onJ~ tp< l'loirio n 0; '''11)'. 1 10

ORC'

neit her toft 89

m ake

n tlun~ '

adjecnv e

mllSllI't 31e. 32.-\ m llSt and sl10uld H

look fOTU '"rJ t l} 6OC, 62 A, 137B

liP

mflst + nou n - 5.'1. m ost ,ufl 1111 m"st in superlanve , l OS much rand m.1 /1\·) 69 C , 8m ild} /nf l 88 '

m"sf and e.", ·t 28 mlf$t and b","t' to 31

n o Ifm~er I mJ/ .•. oJ"y 10llger 111 B

so

oJl/

m U\ 1

'ill'",

louk

m O ~1

mncb + comparanve 106:\

11k... and C'i .. 3C cont muouc le n ~ " 30 heeng Id" 1/l'! 8 lC-O p.!\1 \im p!.: .and pr('\('f11 perfect 12-1 4 p.! ~1 \ Im p\(' .anel Pol \{ pttfn:t 15C p.!\1 \ im pk p.!"i'( 42C P;l ~

p,;~' p,;~'

in pa\..i\C' '>C'nfC'no:n 44 .\ uo",t f.. ..J.\·, for somttlm lg

IU8

6bD prepositions in relarive cla uses 9JC.96 A ;1//01 aft er 3 superlative I OXE lik t a nd olS 117 f"r and d llril1g 119 11" 120, 128 b,· a nd ""til 1208 olt/em lm llimc:l 111-122 Oil tmlt a nd ill ","e 121 A .Jt th t 1'11,1 and m t l1t' end 1228 ,;tloll /", lptrsi lio ni 123- 125 tololtl",lm to 126 ml,;tkm tor ber u\C"S 1 11 7

b,· c,;rlb,.bllSt1c.1 2S B

p.Jy lvcli: 14K pcopk 79 0 pC'riC'C1 ~ prN:n' pC'ri«t. pa\l

p«t",

perfect infinili, ( 110 ".JI 't J OIItI 4 J8 11'fIr l 7-8 pre-e m perfecr with this "" m llng. t"J" ,. e re. H8, 14 8 presen t perfect sim ple a nel con tm uous

10- 11

pr C\I.'nf perfec t w ith Im ll' I" ng. fur .\lId nnce 1 1-1 1 pr e\ent pt:rtl'.:t an d r'I ~ 1 sim pl... 11-1 4 rr(\(' nt pt°rfC'\.·t a nd ra ~f pt"ri l'l;f 15 B r r........n! pt:rtl-':I aller II'h /' 1I 1 .,B r re:\ent pcrtl'.:t pa\\i s'( 4J C r rf"II' in p,H sin' SC/ll('rlI.·tIl '"

U!.. ('

ss

wit h tilt" pro:-srn l sim pk or ".11/ 4 D tastr + adject ive 9 9(:

luch It"oJclJ in p.Jssi\ t" ..nII('f'I( \)

....a nt

warn

It's tim" ... 3 .\ (

II',/"r ~(}"'t'tllft' (/mll

coun table or uncountable noun

s"mclhl"g 55B u-urn someolle ol/,/IIOIII somc/hing

- 0.-\ timt.' an d 11IIIII1C 111.-\ tired Im ·.1 and tlrmg 98 011

tm'd o{ 13 IB to + intinitiv e infinitive

It "

I,,· , I "

U 4F was/w ere .'iD U',/S/U'/'Tt.' -ill8 (pasr co nt inuo us) uvuhrcre gWlIg /0

,/0 erc.t see

todo

to .!f>D an d were in if ....-nrcnccs 39C

U' ,IS!r I'l'f(' ,1/1/,· /I',I S

to 126 to + -I"g 6nc noun + to 1191)

w ast e (II',lsle t im e/III"' /I')', 0.1 rnlste o'- lime/money) 6.~( wea ther lllnCt>unlahll' eou n } 70 B

ad jective + 10 I JO.-\. 13 IC verb + to 13.!, U6D 100 and ('"w'gh 103 to p 1.11 tln'/op l 1.!4(

well 10 1:\ were rused with l/ht.'!s!Jelil ) .We.

tra nsla te If ro m/i ll t" 1 1 .~6B travel tuncoumable noun ! -O B trouble slnu-c Im,,/>/(' doi"g somcthm KI 63B tr y try + to ... o r -mg 5'7.-\ try fi li I 139 C trvon 140C C nt, polsr, fllmre, pa\~ i \' c ctc. w rlls not uscd in continuum rl'ose s 4A,6E, IDe. If>E, 17A liST of irregular mh~ Appendi x 1.4 pn.-scnr 'lIId I'.ISI I,'n",', Appl'nJix .! "l'rhs + ·ing ,mJ 'crt-· • : (inriniril l'! ,.-, ..

(>

201>

n an

w h at /1'11,11 in qUl.'srions II'h,l/ '-or? 6 4(

-1 9

W'Jl,lt ! (e:t.: c1am;lI io ns ) iIA-B /l'h, lt .IllJ /",rt jre[;ui ,'c o;buses) 9.!C. 9,m /l'I1 whom ;n qu",tions 49 C in relaliv c dauses 94 1\, 96A- R " lIJmll/t'!some of lI'llO'" 96 1~ whose lin rd,uiw d,w,,'s) '\I4A, 95 (\ wh y /l'1,y im 'flclitill 'f 1' ·K. 1.. , : 491) wh y in rl.'btil'l.' d ,HN " 'l4 t:

" ill : I-~~ ll'lll y,m: .! I C-D, J7A 11'/1/ and ;1.',/11 ll D,HD 11'/1/ and goi llg /0 23 will /1•• ,f oillg (futu re connnuous! 14 willIM/ ·!.' dane (future perfect ) 14 "'IN in if end wh t.'11 sentences 15, II S( will and U'f>llid J6 R, Appe ndix 4 will in the passive 4J A 0",,'/ ... , lI·ill \'till ? 52 D wil/ and other fueure forms ApPI.'ndlx 3 will and other modal verbs Appendix 4 w ish 4 1 11f'lsh I klll'II' ere. .19, 4 1 1 wish /,.1kml/l '/f etc. 40 C, 4\ /l'i s/, and Impt' 4 1A wish ... /1 '1111/.1 41 D with nou n + w ith 11 9E adjective + u-ith BOB- C, IJ 1C verb + sc -itls 1J6C without 1+ ·ill g) 60B wo m (= ,, ·/ll lIoll 2 1- 21 wo rd o rder "0.1",' s" ml'lJ,illg ,IfillI' 46 question s 49 ncganvc questions 49D embedd ed q uestions Hso you k llOIl' /I'/MI ... ?) 50A reponed questions SOB o rde r of adje cnves 99 verb and objec t rngcrhc r 109A place and nmc I0 9R position of adve rb s wit h the verb (" Iso, "I"',I\'s ere.I 110 word order wirh phrasal verbs I/llm Oil the lighl, 111 m it Oil erc.j

\J7( work uncounrnble noun 70 B,74C 11 'Ilrk oul 1398 worried (,ibmrt) U OB wo rse lOse WOt SI

rose

won h (il s U'lITIIJ + .i ngl 63A wou ld 36 l('Iwld and will 36B WOllld )'O ll ... ? 37A rmllld )" liI /ike? I'd lib, 37 E ll'lllrid in If sentences 38-40 lI'i511 ... ll'lwld 4 1D 1('11/11,1 /lk d /rll'elllilld Jm:fa + to ...

55 A, 5 8B-C 5SB, 59 8 ll'lllrid rather 59C-D ll',,,,/d an d othe r rno,bl verbs Appeu dix 4 wri te /I·rift.' 1/1 JJ 1A wr ite dow" 1411> rmllld />rc(cr

yet \'