Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook, Eighth Edition

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Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook, Eighth Edition

Copyright © 2008, 1997, 1984, 1973, 1963, 1950, 1941, 1934 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Manuf

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Copyright © 2008, 1997, 1984, 1973, 1963, 1950, 1941, 1934 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 0-07-154208-6 The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: 0-07-151124-5. All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. Where such designations appear in this book, they have been printed with initial caps. McGraw-Hill eBooks are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate training programs. For more information, please contact George Hoare, Special Sales, at [email protected] or (212) 904-4069. TERMS OF USE This is a copyrighted work and The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (“McGraw-Hill”) and its licensors reserve all rights in and to the work. Use of this work is subject to these terms. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976 and the right to store and retrieve one copy of the work, you may not decompile, disassemble, reverse engineer, reproduce, modify, create derivative works based upon, transmit, distribute, disseminate, sell, publish or sublicense the work or any part of it without McGraw-Hill’s prior consent. You may use the work for your own noncommercial and personal use; any other use of the work is strictly prohibited. Your right to use the work may be terminated if you fail to comply with these terms. THE WORK IS PROVIDED “AS IS.” McGRAW-HILL AND ITS LICENSORS MAKE NO GUARANTEES OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE ACCURACY, ADEQUACY OR COMPLETENESS OF OR RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM USING THE WORK, INCLUDING ANY INFORMATION THAT CAN BE ACCESSED THROUGH THE WORK VIA HYPERLINK OR OTHERWISE, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. McGraw-Hill and its licensors do not warrant or guarantee that the functions contained in the work will meet your requirements or that its operation will be uninterrupted or error free. Neither McGraw-Hill nor its licensors shall be liable to you or anyone else for any inaccuracy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for any damages resulting therefrom. McGraw-Hill has no responsibility for the content of any information accessed through the work. Under no circumstances shall McGraw-Hill and/or its licensors be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, punitive, consequential or similar damages that result from the use of or inability to use the work, even if any of them has been advised of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of liability shall apply to any claim or cause whatsoever whether such claim or cause arises in contract, tort or otherwise. DOI: 10.1036/0071511245

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Section 1

Conversion Factors and Mathematical Symbols*

James O. Maloney, Ph.D., P.E. Emeritus Professor of Chemical Engineering, University of Kansas; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineering; Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science; Member, American Chemical Society; Member, American Society for Engineering Education

Table 1-1 Table 1-2a Table 1-2b Table 1-3 Table 1-4 Table 1-5 Table 1-6 Table 1-7 Table 1-8

CONVERSION FACTORS SI Base and Supplementary Quantities and Units. . . . . . . Derived Units of SI that Have Special Names. . . . . . . . . . Additional Common Derived Units of SI . . . . . . . . . . . . . SI Prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conversion Factors: U.S. Customary and Commonly Used Units to SI Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metric Conversion Factors as Exact Numerical Multiples of SI Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alphabetical Listing of Common Conversions . . . . . . . . . Common Units and Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kinematic-Viscosity Conversion Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . .

1-2 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-3 1-12 1-14 1-17 1-17

Table 1-9 Values of the Gas-Law Constant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 1-10 United States Customary System of Weights and Measures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 1-11 Temperature Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 1-12 Greek Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 1-13 Specific Gravity, Degrees Baumé, Degrees API, Degrees Twaddell, Pounds per Gallon, Pounds per Cubic Foot . . . Table 1-14 Fundamental Physical Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1-17 1-18 1-18 1-18 1-19 1-20

CONVERSION OF VALUES FROM U.S. CUSTOMARY UNITS TO SI UNITS

*Much of the material was taken from Sec. 1. of the fifth edition. The contribution of Cecil H. Chilton in developing that material is acknowledged. 1-1

Copyright © 2008, 1997, 1984, 1973, 1963, 1950, 1941, 1934 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

TABLE 1-1

SI Base and Supplementary Quantities and Units

Quantity or “dimension” Base quantity or “dimension” length mass time electric current thermodynamic temperature amount of substance luminous intensity Supplementary quantity or “dimension” plane angle solid angle

SI unit

SI unit symbol (“abbreviation”); Use roman (upright) type

meter kilogram second ampere kelvin mole* candela

m kg s A K mol cd

radian steradian

rad sr

*When the mole is used, the elementary entities must be specified; they may be atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, other particles, or specified groups of such particles.

TABLE 1-2a

Derived Units of SI that Have Special Names Quantity

Unit

Symbol

Formula

frequency (of a periodic phenomenon) force pressure, stress energy, work, quantity of heat power, radiant flux quantity of electricity, electric charge electric potential, potential difference, electromotive force capacitance electric resistance conductance magnetic flux magnetic-flux density inductance luminous flux illuminance activity (of radionuclides) absorbed dose

hertz newton pascal joule watt coulomb volt

Hz N Pa J W C V

l/s (kg⋅m)/s2 N/m2 N⋅m J/s A⋅s W/A

farad ohm siemens weber tesla henry lumen lux becquerel gray

F Ω S Wb T H lm lx Bq Gy

C/V V/A A/V V⋅s Wb/m2 Wb/A cd⋅sr lm/m2 l/s J/kg

TABLE 1-2b

Additional Common Derived Units of SI

Quantity

Unit

acceleration angular acceleration angular velocity area concentration (of amount of substance) current density density, mass electric-charge density electric-field strength electric-flux density energy density entropy heat capacity heat-flux density, irradiance luminance magnetic-field strength molar energy molar entropy molar-heat capacity moment of force permeability permittivity radiance

meter per second squared radian per second squared radian per second square meter mole per cubic meter

m/s2 rad/s2 rad/s m2 mol/m3

ampere per square meter kilogram per cubic meter coulomb per cubic meter volt per meter coulomb per square meter joule per cubic meter joule per kelvin joule per kelvin watt per square meter

A/m2 kg/m3 C/m3 V/m C/m2 J/m3 J/K J/K W/m2

candela per square meter ampere per meter joule per mole joule per mole-kelvin joule per mole-kelvin newton-meter henry per meter farad per meter watt per square-metersteradian watt per steradian joule per kilogram-kelvin joule per kilogram joule per kilogram-kelvin cubic meter per kilogram newton per meter watt per meter-kelvin meter per second pascal-second square meter per second cubic meter 1 per meter

cd/m2 A/m J/mol J/(mol⋅K) J/(mol⋅K) N⋅m H/m F/m W/(m2⋅sr)

radiant intensity specific-heat capacity specific energy specific entropy specific volume surface tension thermal conductivity velocity viscosity, dynamic viscosity, kinematic volume wave number

TABLE 1-3

W/sr J/(kg⋅K) J/kg J/(kg⋅K) m3/kg N/m W/(m⋅K) m/s Pa⋅s m2/s m3 1/m

SI Prefixes

Multiplication factor

Prefix

Symbol

000 = 1018 000 = 1015 000 = 1012 000 = 109 000 = 106 000 = 103 100 = 102 10 = 101 0.1 = 10−1 0.01 = 10−2 0.001 = 10−3 0.000 001 = 10−6 0.000 000 001 = 10−9 0.000 000 000 001 = 10−12 0.000 000 000 000 001 = 10−15 0.000 000 000 000 000 001 = 10−18

exa peta tera giga mega kilo hecto* deka* deci* centi milli micro nano pico femto atto

E P T G M k h da d c m µ n p f a

1 000 000 000 1 000 000 1 000 1

000 000 000 000 1

000 000 000 000 000 1

*Generally to be avoided.

1-2

Symbol

TABLE 1-4

Conversion Factors: U.S. Customary and Commonly Used Units to SI Units Customary or commonly used unit

Quantity

SI unit

Alternate SI unit

Conversion factor; multiply customary unit by factor to obtain SI unit

Space,† time Length

naut mi mi chain link fathom yd ft

1.852* E + 00 1.609 344* E + 00 2.011 68* E + 01 2.011 68* E − 01 1.828 8* E + 00 9.144* E − 01 3.048* E − 01 3.048* E + 01 2.54* E + 01 2.54 E + 00 2.54* E + 01

in in mil

km km m m m m m cm mm cm µm

Length/length

ft/mi

m/km

1.893 939 E − 01

Length/volume

ft/U.S. gal ft/ft3 ft/bbl

m/m3 m/m3 m/m3

8.051 964 E + 01 1.076 391 E + 01 1.917 134 E + 00

Area

mi2 section acre ha yd2 ft2 in2

km2 ha ha m2 m2 m2 mm2 cm2

2.589 988 E + 00 2.589 988 E + 02 4.046 856 E − 01 1.000 000* E + 04 8.361 274 E − 01 9.290 304* E − 02 6.451 6* E + 02 6.451 6* E + 00

Area/volume

ft2/in3 ft2/ft3

m2/cm3 m2/m3

5.699 291 E − 03 3.280 840 E + 00

Volume

cubem acre⋅ft

km3 m3 ha⋅m m3 m3 m3 dm3 m3 dm3 m3 dm3 dm3 dm3 dm3 cm3 cm3 cm3

4.168 182 1.233 482 1.233 482 7.645 549 1.589 873 2.831 685 2.831 685 4.546 092 4.546 092 3.785 412 3.785 412 1.136 523 9.463 529 4.731 765 2.841 307 2.957 353 1.638 706

yd3 bbl (42 U.S. gal) ft3 U.K. gal U.S. gal U.K. qt U.S. qt U.S. pt U.K. fl oz U.S. fl oz in3

L L L L L L

E + 00 E + 03 E − 01 E − 01 E − 01 E − 02 E + 01 E − 03 E + 00 E − 03 E + 00 E + 00 E − 01 E − 01 E + 01 E + 01 E + 01

Volume/length (linear displacement)

bbl/in bbl/ft ft3/ft U.S. gal/ft

m3m m3/m m3/m m3/m L/m

6.259 342 E + 00 5.216 119 E − 01 9.290 304* E − 02 1.241 933 E − 02 1.241 933 E + 01

Plane angle

rad deg (°) min (′) sec (″)

rad rad rad rad

1 1.745 329 E − 02 2.908 882 E − 04 4.848 137 E − 06

Solid angle

sr

sr

1

Time

year week h

a d s min s h ns

1 7.0* 3.6* 6.0* 6.0* 1.666 667 1

E + 00 E + 03 E + 01 E + 01 E − 02

1.016 047 9.071 847 5.080 234 4.535 924 4.535 924 3.110 348 2.834 952 6.479 891

E + 00 E − 01 E + 01 E + 01 E − 01 E + 01 E + 01 E + 01

min mµs Mass, amount of substance Mass

U.K. ton U.S. ton U.K. cwt U.S. cwt lbm oz (troy) oz (av) gr

Mg Mg kg kg kg g g mg

t t

1-3

TABLE 1-4

Conversion Factors: U.S. Customary and Commonly Used Units to SI Units (Continued) Customary or commonly used unit

Quantity Amount of substance

lbm⋅mol std m3(0°C, 1 atm) std ft3 (60°F, 1 atm)

SI unit

Alternate SI unit

Conversion factor; multiply customary unit by factor to obtain SI unit 4.535 924 E − 01 4.461 58 E − 02 1.195 30 E − 03

kmol kmol kmol

Enthalpy, calorific value, heat, entropy, heat capacity Calorific value, enthalpy (mass basis)

Btu/lbm cal/g cal/lbm

MJ/kg kJ/kg kWh/kg kJ/kg J/kg

Caloric value, enthalpy (mole basis)

kcal/(g⋅mol) Btu/(lb⋅mol)

kJ/kmol kJ/kmol

Calorific value (volume basis—solids and liquids)

Btu/U.S. gal

MJ/m3 kJ/m3 kWh/m3 MJ/m3 kJ/m3 kWh/m3 MJ/m3 kJ/m3 kWh/m3 MJ/m3 kJ/m3

kJ/dm3

Btu/U.K. gal Btu/ft3

cal/mL (ft⋅lbf)/U.S. gal

J/g J/g

2.326 000 2.326 000 6.461 112 4.184* 9.224 141

E − 03 E + 00 E − 04 E + 00 E + 00

4.184* E + 03 2.326 000 E + 00

kJ/dm3 kJ/dm3

2.787 163 2.787 163 7.742 119 2.320 800 2.320 800 6.446 667 3.725 895 3.725 895 1.034 971 4.184* 3.581 692

E − 01 E + 02 E − 02 E − 01 E + 02 E − 02 E − 02 E + 01 E − 02 E + 00 E − 01

Calorific value (volume basis—gases)

cal/mL kcal/m3 Btu/ft3

kJ/m3 kJ/m3 kJ/m3 kWh/m3

J/dm3 J/dm3 J/dm3

4.184* 4.184* 3.725 895 1.034 971

E + 03 E + 00 E + 01 E − 02

Specific entropy

Btu/(lbm⋅°R) cal/(g⋅K) kcal/(kg⋅°C)

kJ/(kg⋅K) kJ/(kg⋅K) kJ/(kg⋅K)

J/(g⋅K) J/(g⋅K) J/(g⋅K)

4.186 8* 4.184* 4.184*

E + 00 E + 00 E + 00

Specific-heat capacity (mass basis)

kWh/(kg⋅°C) Btu/(lbm⋅°F) kcal/(kg⋅°C)

kJ/(kg⋅K) kJ/(kg⋅K) kJ/(kg⋅K)

J/(g⋅K) J/(g⋅K) J/(g⋅K)

3.6* 4.186 8* 4.184*

E + 03 E + 00 E + 00

Specific-heat capacity (mole basis)

Btu/(lb⋅mol⋅°F) cal/(g⋅mol⋅°C)

kJ/(kmol⋅K) kJ/(kmol⋅K)

4.186 8* 4.184*

E + 00 E + 00

Temperature (absolute)

°R K

K K

5/9 1

Temperature (traditional)

°F

°C

5/9(°F − 32)

Temperature (difference)

°F

K, °C

5/9

Pressure

atm (760 mmHg at 0°C or 14,696 psi)

µmHg (0°C) µ bar mmHg = torr (0°C) cmH2O (4°C) lbf/ft2 (psf) mHg (0°C) bar dyn/cm2

MPa kPa bar MPa kPa MPa kPa bar kPa kPa kPa kPa kPa Pa Pa Pa

1.013 250* E − 01 1.013 250* E + 02 1.013 250* E + 00 1.0* E − 01 1.0* E + 02 6.894 757 E − 03 6.894 757 E + 00 6.894 757 E − 02 3.376 85 E + 00 2.488 4 E − 01 1.333 224 E − 01 9.806 38 E − 02 4.788 026 E − 02 1.333 224 E − 01 1.0* E + 05 1.0* E − 01

Vacuum, draft

inHg (60°F) inH2O (39.2°F) inH2O (60°F) mmHg (0°C) = torr cmH2O (4°C)

kPa kPa kPa kPa kPa

3.376 85 2.490 82 2.488 4 1.333 224 9.806 38

E + 00 E − 01 E − 01 E − 01 E − 02

Liquid head

ft in

m mm cm

3.048* 2.54* 2.54*

E − 01 E + 01 E + 00

Pressure drop/length

psi/ft

kPa/m

2.262 059 E + 01

Temperature, pressure, vacuum

bar mmHg (0°C) = torr

1-4

TABLE 1-4

Conversion Factors: U.S. Customary and Commonly Used Units to SI Units (Continued) Customary or commonly used unit

Quantity

SI unit

Alternate SI unit

Conversion factor; multiply customary unit by factor to obtain SI unit

Density, specific volume, concentration, dosage kg/m3 g/m3 kg/m3 g/cm3 kg/m3 kg/m3 g/cm3 kg/m3 kg/m3

1.601 846 1.601 846 1.198 264 1.198 264 9.977 633 1.601 846 1.601 846 1.0* 1.601 846

E + 01 E + 04 E + 02 E − 01 E + 01 E + 01 E − 02 E + 03 E + 01

ft /lbm U.K. gal/lbm U.S. gal/lbm

m3/kg m3/g dm3/kg dm3/kg dm3/kg

6.242 796 6.242 796 6.242 796 1.002 242 8.345 404

E − 02 E − 05 E + 01 E + 01 E + 00

Specific volume (mole basis)

L/(g⋅mol) ft3/(lb⋅mol)

m3/kmol m3/kmol

1 6.242 796 E − 02

Specific volume

bbl/U.S. ton bbl/U.K. ton

m3/t m3/t

1.752 535 E − 01 1.564 763 E − 01

Yield

bbl/U.S. ton bbl/U.K. ton U.S. gal/U.S. ton U.S. gal/U.K. ton

dm3/t dm3/t dm3/t dm3/t

Concentration (mass/mass)

wt % wt ppm

kg/kg g/kg mg/kg

lbm/bbl g/U.S. gal g/U.K. gal lbm/1000 U.S. gal lbm/1000 U.K. gal gr/U.S. gal gr/ft3 lbm/1000 bbl mg/U.S. gal gr/100 ft3

kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 g/m3 g/m3 g/m3 mg/m3 g/m3 g/m3 mg/m3

ft3/ft3 bbl/(acre⋅ft) vol% U.K. gal/ft3 U.S. gal/ft3 mL/U.S. gal mL/U.K. gal vol ppm U.K. gal/1000 bbl U.S. gal/1000 bbl U.K. pt/1000 bbl

m3/m3 m3/m3 m3/m3 dm3/m3 dm3/m3 dm3/m3 dm3/m3 cm3/m3 dm3/m3 cm3/m3 cm3/m3 cm3/m3

Concentration (mole/volume)

(lb⋅mol)/U.S. gal (lb⋅mol)/U.K. gal (lb⋅mol)/ft3 std ft3 (60°F, 1 atm)/bbl

kmol/m3 kmol/m3 kmol/m3 kmol/m3

Concentration (volume/mole)

U.S. gal/1000 std ft3 (60°F/60°F) bbl/million std ft3 (60°F/60°F)

dm3/kmol dm3/kmol

Throughput (mass basis)

U.K. ton/year U.S. ton/year U.K. ton/day

Density

lbm/ft3 lbm/U.S. gal lbm/U.K. gal lbm/ft3 g/cm3 lbm/ft3

Specific volume

ft3/lbm 3

Concentration (mass/volume)

Concentration (volume/volume)

cm3/g cm3/g

L/t L/t L/t L/t

g/dm3 g/L mg/dm3 mg/dm3 mg/dm3 mg/dm3 mg/dm3

L/m3 L/m3 L/m3 L/m3 L/m3

L/kmol L/kmol

1.752 535 1.564 763 4.172 702 3.725 627

E + 02 E + 02 E + 00 E + 00

1.0* 1.0* 1

E − 02 E + 01

2.853 010 2.641 720 2.199 692 1.198 264 9.977 633 1.711 806 2.288 351 2.853 010 2.641 720 2.288 351

E + 00 E − 01 E − 01 E + 02 E + 01 E + 01 E + 03 E + 00 E − 01 E + 01

1 1.288 931 1.0* 1.605 437 1.336 806 2.641 720 2.199 692 1 1.0* 2.859 403 2.380 952 3.574 253

E − 04 E − 02 E + 02 E + 02 E − 01 E − 01 E − 03 E + 01 E + 01 E + 00

1.198 264 9.977 644 1.601 846 7.518 21

E + 02 E + 01 E + 01 E − 03

3.166 91 1.330 10

E + 00 E − 01

1.016 047 9.071 847 1.016 047 4.233 529 9.071 847 3.779 936 1.016 047 9.071 847 4.535 924

E + 00 E − 01 E + 00 E − 02 E − 01 E − 02 E + 00 E − 01 E − 01

Facility throughput, capacity

U.S. ton/day U.K. ton/h U.S. ton/h lbm/h

t/a t/a t/d t/h t/d t/h t/h t/h kg/h

1-5

TABLE 1-4

Conversion Factors: U.S. Customary and Commonly Used Units to SI Units (Continued) Customary or commonly used unit

Quantity Throughput (volume basis)

bbl/day 3

ft /day bbl/h ft3/h U.K. gal/h U.S. gal/h U.K. gal/min U.S. gal/min

SI unit

Alternate SI unit

Conversion factor; multiply customary unit by factor to obtain SI unit E + 01 E − 01 E − 03 E − 01 E − 02 E − 03 E − 03 E − 03 E − 03 E − 01 E − 02 E − 01 E − 02

t/a m3/d m3/h m3/h m3/h m3/h L/s m3/h L/s m3/h L/s m3/h L/s

5.803 036 1.589 873 1.179 869 1.589 873 2.831 685 4.546 092 1.262 803 3.785 412 1.051 503 2.727 655 7.576 819 2.271 247 6.309 020

kmol/h kmol/s

4.535 924 E − 01 1.259 979 E − 04

Throughput (mole basis)

(lbm⋅mol)/h

Flow rate (mass basis)

U.K. ton/min U.S. ton/min U.K. ton/h U.S. ton/h U.K. ton/day U.S. ton/day million lbm/year U.K. ton/year U.S. ton/year lbm/s lbm/min lbm/h

kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s

1.693 412 1.511 974 2.822 353 2.519 958 1.175 980 1.049 982 5.249 912 3.221 864 2.876 664 4.535 924 7.559 873 1.259 979

E + 01 E + 01 E − 01 E − 01 E − 02 E − 02 E + 00 E − 05 E − 05 E − 01 E − 03 E − 04

Flow rate (volume basis)

bbl/day

U.K. gal/h U.S. gal/h U.K. gal/min U.S. gal/min ft3/min ft3/s

m3/d L/s m3/d L/s m3/s L/s m3/s L/s dm3/s dm3/s dm3/s dm3/s dm3/s dm3/s

1.589 873 1.840 131 2.831 685 3.277 413 4.416 314 4.416 314 7.865 791 7.865 791 1.262 803 1.051 503 7.576 820 6.309 020 4.719 474 2.831 685

E − 01 E − 03 E − 02 E − 04 E − 05 E − 02 E − 06 E − 03 E − 03 E − 03 E − 02 E − 02 E − 01 E + 01

Flow rate (mole basis)

(lb⋅mol)/s (lb⋅mol)/h million scf/D

kmol/s kmol/s kmol/s

4.535 924 E − 01 1.259 979 E − 04 1.383 45 E − 02

Flow rate/length (mass basis)

lbm/(s⋅ft) lbm/(h⋅ft)

kg/(s⋅m) kg/(s⋅m)

1.488 164 E + 00 4.133 789 E − 04

Flow rate/length (volume basis)

U.K. gal/(min⋅ft) U.S. gal/(min⋅ft) U.K. gal/(h⋅in) U.S. gal/(h⋅in) U.K. gal/(h⋅ft) U.S. gal/(h⋅ft)

m2/s m2/s m2/s m2/s m2/s m2/s

Flow rate/area (mass basis)

lbm/(s⋅ft2) lbm/(h⋅ft2)

kg/(s⋅m2) kg/(s⋅m2)

Flow rate/area (volume basis)

ft3/(s⋅ft2) ft3/(min⋅ft2) U.K. gal/(h⋅in2) U.S. gal/(h⋅in2) U.K. gal/(min⋅ft2) U.S. gal/(min⋅ft2) U.K. gal/(h⋅ft2) U.S. gal/(h⋅ft2)

m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s

Flow rate

3

ft /day bbl/h ft3/h

1-6

L/s L/s L/s L/s L/s L/s

m3/(s⋅m) m3/(s⋅m) m3/(s⋅m) m3/(s⋅m) m3/(s⋅m) m3/(s⋅m)

2.485 833 2.069 888 4.971 667 4.139 776 4.143 055 3.449 814

E − 04 E − 04 E − 05 E − 05 E − 06 E − 06

4.882 428 E + 00 1.356 230 E − 03 m3/(s⋅m2) m3/(s⋅m2) m3/(s⋅m2) m3/(s⋅m2) m3/(s⋅m2) m3/(s⋅m2) m3/(s⋅m2) m3/(s⋅m2)

3.048* 5.08* 1.957 349 1.629 833 8.155 621 6.790 972 1.359 270 1.131 829

E − 01 E − 03 E − 03 E − 03 E − 04 E − 04 E − 05 E − 05

TABLE 1-4

Conversion Factors: U.S. Customary and Commonly Used Units to SI Units (Continued) Customary or commonly used unit

Quantity

SI unit

Alternate SI unit

Conversion factor; multiply customary unit by factor to obtain SI unit

Energy, work, power Energy, work

therm

E + 02 E + 05 E + 01 E + 01 E + 00 E + 03 E − 01 E + 00 E + 03 E − 01 E + 00 E + 03 E + 00 E − 04 E + 00 E − 04 E + 00 E − 03 E − 03 E − 03 E − 03 E − 05 E − 07

kcal cal ft⋅lbf lbf⋅ft J (lbf⋅ft2)/s2 erg

MJ kJ kWh MJ MJ kJ kWh MJ kJ kWh MJ kJ kJ kWh kJ kWh kJ kJ kJ kJ kJ kJ J

1.055 056 1.055 056 2.930 711 1.431 744 2.684 520 2.684 520 7.456 999 2.647 780 2.647 780 7.354 999 3.6* 3.6* 1.899 101 5.275 280 1.055 056 2.930 711 4.184* 4.184* 1.355 818 1.355 818 1.0* 4.214 011 1.0*

Impact energy

kgf⋅m lbf⋅ft

J J

9.806 650* E + 00 1.355 818 E + 00

Surface energy

erg/cm2

mJ/m2

1.0*

Specific-impact energy

(kgf⋅m)/cm2 (lbf⋅ft)/in2

J/cm2 J/cm2

9.806 650* E − 02 2.101 522 E − 03

Power

million Btu/h ton of refrigeration Btu/s kW hydraulic horsepower—hhp hp (electric) hp [(550 ft⋅lbf)/s] ch or CV Btu/min (ft⋅lbf)/s kcal/h Btu/h (ft⋅lbf)/min

MW kW kW kW kW kW kW kW kW kW W W W

2.930 711 3.516 853 1.055 056 1 7.460 43 7.46* 7.456 999 7.354 999 1.758 427 1.355 818 1.162 222 2.930 711 2.259 697

Power/area

Btu/(s⋅ft2) cal/(h⋅cm2) Btu/(h⋅ft2)

kW/m2 kW/m2 kW/m2

1.135 653 E + 01 1.162 222 E − 02 3.154 591 E − 03

Heat-release rate, mixing power

hp/ft3 cal/(h⋅cm3) Btu/(s⋅ft3) Btu/(h⋅ft3)

kW/m3 kW/m3 kW/m3 kW/m3

2.633 414 1.162 222 3.725 895 1.034 971

Cooling duty (machinery)

Btu/(bhp⋅h)

W/kW

Specific fuel consumption (mass basis)

lbm/(hp⋅h)

mg/J kg/kWh

kg/MJ

1.689 659 E − 01 6.082 774 E − 01

Specific fuel consumption (volume basis)

m3/kWh U.S. gal/(hp⋅h) U.K. pt/(hp⋅h)

dm3/MJ dm3/MJ dm3/MJ

mm3/J mm3/J mm3/J

2.777 778 E + 02 1.410 089 E + 00 2.116 806 E − 01

Fuel consumption

U.K. gal/mi U.S. gal/mi mi/U.S. gal mi/U.K. gal

dm3/100 km dm3/100 km km/dm3 km/dm3

L/100 km L/100 km km/L km/L

2.824 807 2.352 146 4.251 437 3.540 064

U.S. tonf⋅mi hp⋅h ch⋅h or CV⋅h kWh Chu Btu

E + 00

E − 01 E + 00 E + 00 E − 01 E − 01 E − 01 E − 01 E − 02 E − 03 E + 00 E − 01 E − 02

E + 01 E + 00 E + 01 E − 02

3.930 148 E − 01

E + 02 E + 02 E − 01 E − 01

1-7

TABLE 1-4

Conversion Factors: U.S. Customary and Commonly Used Units to SI Units (Continued) Customary or commonly used unit

Quantity

SI unit

Alternate SI unit

Conversion factor; multiply customary unit by factor to obtain SI unit

in/s in/min

km/h km/h m/s cm/s m/s mm/s mm/s m/d mm/s mm/s

1.852* E + 00 1.609 344* E + 00 3.048* E − 01 3.048* E + 01 5.08* E − 03 8.466 667 E − 02 3.527 778 E − 03 3.048* E − 01 2.54* E + 01 4.233 333 E − 01

Corrosion rate

in/year (ipy) mil/year

mm/a mm/a

2.54* 2.54*

Rotational frequency

r/min

r/s rad/s

1.666 667 E − 02 1.047 198 E − 01

Acceleration (linear)

ft/s2

m/s2 cm/s2

3.048* 3.048*

Acceleration (rotational)

rpm/s

rad/s2

1.047 198 E − 01

Momentum

(lbm⋅ft)/s

(kg⋅m)/s

1.382 550 E − 01

Force

U.K. tonf U.S. tonf kgf (kp) lbf dyn

kN kN N N mN

9.964 016 E + 00 8.896 443 E + 00 9.806 650* E + 00 4.448 222 E + 00 1.0 E − 02

Bending moment, torque

U.S. tonf⋅ft kgf⋅m lbf⋅ft lbf⋅in

kN⋅m N⋅m N⋅m N⋅m

2.711 636 E + 00 9.806 650* E + 00 1.355 818 E + 00 1.129 848 E − 01

Bending moment/length

(lbf⋅ft)/in (lbf⋅in)/in

(N⋅m)/m (N⋅m)/m

5.337 866 E + 01 4.448 222 E + 00

Moment of inertia

lbm⋅ft2

Velocity (linear), speed

knot mi/h ft/s ft/min ft/h ft/day

MPa MPa MPa MPa kPa Pa

E − 01 E + 01

4.214 011 E − 02

kg⋅m2 2

E + 01 E − 02

N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2

1.378 951 E + 01 9.806 650* E + 00 9.576 052 E − 02 6.894 757 E − 03 4.788 026 E − 02 1.0* E − 01

Stress

U.S. tonf/in kgf/mm2 U.S. tonf/ft2 lbf/in2 (psi) lbf/ft2 (psf) dyn/cm2

Mass/length

lbm/ft

kg/m

1.488 164 E + 00

Mass/area structural loading, bearing capacity (mass basis)

U.S. ton/ft2 lbm/ft2

Mg/m2 kg/m2

9.764 855 E + 00 4.882 428 E + 00

Diffusivity

ft2/s m2/s ft2/h

m2/s mm2/s m2/s

9.290 304* E − 02 1.0* E + 06 2.580 64* E − 05

Thermal resistance

(°C⋅m2⋅h)/kcal (°F⋅ft2⋅h)/Btu

(K⋅m2)/kW (K⋅m2)/kW

8.604 208 E + 02 1.761 102 E + 02

Heat flux

Btu/(h⋅ft2)

kW/m2

3.154 591 E − 03

Thermal conductivity

(cal⋅cm)/(s⋅cm2⋅°C) (Btu⋅ft)/(h⋅ft2⋅°F)

W/(m⋅K) W/(m⋅K) (kJ⋅m)/(h⋅m2⋅K) W/(m⋅K) W/(m⋅K) W/(m⋅K)

4.184* 1.730 735 6.230 646 1.162 222 1.442 279 1.162 222

E + 02 E + 00 E + 00 E + 00 E − 01 E − 01

kW/(m2⋅K) kW/(m2⋅K) kW/(m2⋅K) kW/(m2⋅K) kJ/(h⋅m2⋅K) kW/(m2⋅K) kW/(m2⋅K)

4.184* 2.044 175 1.162 222 5.678 263 2.044 175 5.678 263 1.162 222

E + 01 E + 01 E − 02 E − 03 E + 01 E − 03 E − 03

Miscellaneous transport properties

(kcal⋅m)/(h⋅m2⋅°C) (Btu⋅in)/(h⋅ft2⋅°F) (cal⋅cm)/(h⋅cm2⋅°C) Heat-transfer coefficient

cal/(s⋅cm2⋅°C) Btu/(s⋅ft2⋅°F) cal/(h⋅cm2⋅°C) Btu/(h⋅ft2⋅°F) Btu/(h⋅ft2⋅°R) kcal/(h⋅m2⋅°C)

1-8

TABLE 1-4

Conversion Factors: U.S. Customary and Commonly Used Units to SI Units (Continued) Customary or commonly used unit

Quantity

SI unit

Alternate SI unit

kW/(m3⋅K) kW/(m3⋅K)

Conversion factor; multiply customary unit by factor to obtain SI unit

Volumetric heat-transfer coefficient

Btu/(s⋅ft3⋅°F) Btu/(h⋅ft3⋅°F)

6.706 611 E + 01 1.862 947 E − 02

Surface tension

dyn/cm

mN/m

Viscosity (dynamic)

(lbf⋅s)/in2 (lbf⋅s)/ft2 (kgf⋅s)/m2 lbm/(ft⋅s) (dyn⋅s)/cm2 cP lbm/(ft⋅h)

Pa⋅s Pa⋅s Pa⋅s Pa⋅s Pa⋅s Pa⋅s Pa⋅s

Viscosity (kinematic)

ft2/s in2/s m2/h ft2/h cSt

m2/s mm2/s mm2/s m2/s mm2/s

9.290 304* E − 02 6.451 6* E + 02 2.777 778 E + 02 2.580 64* E − 05 1

Permeability

darcy millidarcy

µm2 µm2

9.869 233 E − 01 9.869 233 E − 04

Thermal flux

Btu/(h⋅ft2) Btu/(s⋅ft2) cal/(s⋅cm2)

W/m2 W/m2 W/m2

3.152 1.135 4.184

E + 00 E + 04 E + 04

Mass-transfer coefficient

(lb⋅mol)/[h⋅ft2(lb⋅mol/ft3)] (g⋅mol)/[s⋅m2(g⋅mol/L)]

m/s m/s

8.467 1.0

E − 05 E + 01

Admittance

S

S

1

Capacitance

µF

µF

1

Charge density

C/mm3

C/mm3

1

Conductance

S

S S

1 1

S/m  /m  m /m

S/m S/m mS/m

1 1 1

Current density

A/mm2

A/mm2

1

Displacement

C/cm2

C/cm2

1

Electric charge

C

C

1

Electric current

A

A

1

Electric-dipole moment

C⋅m

C⋅m

1

1 (N⋅s)/m2 (N⋅s)/m2 (N⋅s)/m2 (N⋅s)/m2 (N⋅s)/m2 (N⋅s)/m2 (N⋅s)/m2

6.894 757 E + 03 4.788 026 E + 01 9.806 650* E + 00 1.488 164 E + 00 1.0* E − 01 1.0* E − 03 4.133 789 E − 04

Electricity, magnetism

Conductivity

(mho)

Electric-field strength

V/m

V/m

1

Electric flux

C

C

1

Electric polarization

C/cm2

C/cm2

1

Electric potential

V mV

V mV

1 1

Electromagnetic moment

A⋅m2

A⋅m2

1

Electromotive force

V

V

1

Flux of displacement

C

C

1

Frequency

cycles/s

Hz

1

Impedance





1

Linear-current density

A/mm

A/mm

1

Magnetic-dipole moment

Wb⋅m

Wb⋅m

1

Magnetic-field strength

A/mm Oe gamma

A/mm A/m A/m

1 7.957 747 E + 01 7.957 747 E − 04

Magnetic flux

mWb

mWb

1

1-9

TABLE 1-4

Conversion Factors: U.S. Customary and Commonly Used Units to SI Units (Continued) Customary or commonly used unit

Quantity Magnetic-flux density

mT G gamma

SI unit mT T nT

Alternate SI unit

Conversion factor; multiply customary unit by factor to obtain SI unit 1 1.0* 1

Magnetic induction

mT

mT

1

Magnetic moment

A⋅m2

A⋅m2

1

Magnetic polarization

mT

mT

1

Magnetic potential difference

A

A

1

Magnetic-vector potential

Wb/mm

Wb/mm

1

Magnetization

A/mm

A/mm

1

Modulus of admittance

S

S

1

Modulus of impedance





1

Mutual inductance

H

H

1

Permeability

µH/m

µH/m

1

E − 04

Permeance

H

H

1

Permittivity

µF/m

µF/m

1

Potential difference

V

V

1

Quantity of electricity

C

C

1

Reactance





1

Reluctance

H−1

H−1

1

Resistance





1

Resistivity

Ω⋅cm Ω⋅m

Ω⋅cm Ω⋅m

1 1

Self-inductance

mH

mH

1

Surface density of change

mC/m2

mC/m2

1

Susceptance

S

S

1

Volume density of charge

C/mm3

C/mm3

1

Absorbed dose

rad

Gy

1.0*

Acoustical energy

J

J

1

Acoustical intensity

W/cm2

W/m2

1.0*

Acoustical power

W

W

1

Sound pressure

N/m2

N/m2

1.0*

Illuminance

fc

lx

1.076 391 E + 01

Illumination

fc

lx

1.076 391 E + 01

Irradiance

W/m2

W/m2

1

Light exposure

fc⋅s

lx⋅s

1.076 391 E + 01

Luminance

cd/m2

cd/m2

1

Acoustics, light, radiation

Luminous efficacy

lm/W

lm/W

1

Luminous exitance

lm/m2

lm/m2

1

Luminous flux

lm

lm

1

Luminous intensity

cd

cd

1

Radiance

W/m2⋅sr

W/m2⋅sr

1

Radiant energy

J

J

1

Radiant flux

W

W

1

Radiant intensity

W/sr

W/sr

1

Radiant power

W

W

1

1-10

E − 02 E + 04

TABLE 1-4

Conversion Factors: U.S. Customary and Commonly Used Units to SI Units (Concluded) Customary or commonly used unit

Quantity

SI unit

Alternate SI unit

Conversion factor; multiply customary unit by factor to obtain SI unit

Wavelength

Å

nm

1.0*

E − 01

Capture unit

10−3 cm−1

m−1

E + 01

m−1

m−1

1.0* 1 1

Ci

Bq

3.7*

E + 10

Radioactivity

10−3 cm−1

*An asterisk indicates that the conversion factor is exact. † Conversion factors for length, area, and volume are based on the international foot. The international foot is longer by 2 parts in 1 million than the U.S. Survey foot (land-measurement use). NOTE: The following unit symbols are used in the table: Unit symbol

Name

Unit symbol

A a Bq C cd Ci d °C ° dyn F fc G g gr Gy H h ha Hz J K L, ᐉ, l

ampere annum (year) becquerel coulomb candela curie day degree Celsius degree dyne farad footcandle gauss gram grain gray henry hour hectare hertz joule kelvin liter

lm lx m min ′ N naut mi Oe Ω Pa rad r S s ″ sr St T t V W Wb

NOTE:

Name lumen lux meter minute minute newton U.S. nautical mile oersted ohm pascal radian revolution siemens second second steradian stokes tesla tonne volt watt weber

Copyright SPE-AIME, The SI Metric System of Units and SPE’s Tentative Metric Standard, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Dallas, 1977.

1-11

TABLE 1-5

Metric Conversion Factors as Exact Numerical Multiples of SI Units

The first two digits of each numerical entry represent a power of 10. For example, the entry “−02 2.54” expresses the fact that 1 in = 2.54 × 10−2 m. To convert from abampere abcoulomb abfarad abhenry abmho abohm abvolt acre ampere (international of 1948) angstrom are astronomical unit atmosphere bar barn barrel (petroleum 42 gal) barye British thermal unit (ISO/ TC 12) British thermal unit (International Steam Table) British thermal unit (mean) British thermal unit (thermochemical) British thermal unit (39°F) British thermal unit (60°F) bushel (U.S.) cable caliber calorie (International Steam Table) calorie (mean) calorie (thermochemical) calorie (15°C) calorie (20°C) calorie (kilogram, International Steam Table) calorie (kilogram, mean) calorie (kilogram, thermochemical) carat (metric) Celsius (temperature) centimeter of mercury (0°C) centimeter of water (4°C) chain (engineer’s) chain (surveyor’s or Gunter’s) circular mil cord coulomb (international of 1948) cubit cup curie day (mean solar) day (sidereal) degree (angle) denier (international) dram (avoirdupois) dram (troy or apothecary) dram (U.S. fluid) dyne electron volt erg Fahrenheit (temperature)

Multiply by

To convert from

To

Multiply by

ampere coulomb farad henry mho ohm volt meter2 ampere

To

+01 1.00 +01 1.00 +09 1.00 −09 1.00 +09 1.00 −09 1.00 −08 1.00 +03 4.046 856 −01 9.998 35

meter meter2 meter newton/meter2 newton/meter2 meter2 meter3 newton/meter2 joule

−10 1.00 +02 1.00 +11 1.495 978 +05 1.013 25 +05 1.00 −28 1.00 −01 1.589 873 −01 1.00 +03 1.055 06

joule

+03 1.055 04

joule joule

+03 1.055 87 +03 1.054 350

joule joule meter3 meter meter joule

+03 1.059 67 +03 1.054 68 −02 3.523 907 +02 2.194 56 −04 2.54 +00 4.1868

joule joule joule joule joule

+00 4.190 02 +00 4.184 +00 4.185 80 +00 4.181 90 +03 4.186 8

joule joule

+03 4.190 02 +03 4.184

kilogram kelvin newton/meter2 newton/meter2 meter meter

−04 2.00 tK = tc + 273.15 +03 1.333 22 +01 9.806 38 +01 3.048 +01 2.011 68

meter3 meter meter newton/meter2 lumen/meter2 candela/meter2 meter meter/second2 meter3 meter3 meter3 tesla tesla ampere turn meter3 meter3 degree (angular) radian kilogram kilogram meter meter2 henry meter3 watt watt watt watt watt watt second (mean solar) second (mean solar) kilogram kilogram meter newton/meter2 newton/meter2 newton/meter2 newton/meter2 joule 1/meter joule

−05 2.957 352 −01 3.048 −01 3.048 006 +03 2.988 98 +01 1.076 391 +00 3.426 259 +02 2.011 68 −02 1.00 −03 4.546 087 −03 4.404 883 −03 3.785 411 −09 1.00 −04 1.00 −01 7.957 747 −04 1.420 652 −04 1.182 941 −01 9.00 −02 1.570 796 −05 6.479 891 −03 1.00 −01 1.016 +04 1.00 +00 1.000 495 −01 2.384 809 +02 7.456 998 +03 9.809 50 +02 7.46 +02 7.354 99 +02 7.457 +02 7.460 43 +03 3.60 +03 3.590 170 +01 5.080 234 +01 4.535 923 −02 2.54 +03 3.386 389 +03 3.376 85 +02 2.490 82 +02 2.4884 +00 1.000 165 +02 1.00 +03 4.186 74

meter2 meter3 coulomb

−10 5.067 074 +00 3.624 556 −01 9.998 35

meter meter3 disintegration/second second (mean solar) second (mean solar) radian kilogram/meter kilogram kilogram meter3 newton joule joule kelvin

fluid ounce (U.S.) foot foot (U.S. survey) foot of water (39.2°F) footcandle footlambert furlong gal (galileo) gallon (U.K. liquid) gallon (U.S. dry) gallon (U.S. liquid) gamma gauss gilbert gill (U.K.) gill (U.S.) grad grad grain gram hand hectare henry (international of 1948) hogshead (U.S.) horsepower (550 ft lbf/s) horsepower (boiler) horsepower (electric) horsepower (metric) horsepower (U.K.) horsepower (water) hour (mean solar) hour (sidereal) hundredweight (long) hundredweight (short) inch inch of mercury (32°F) inch of mercury (60°F) inch of water (39.2°F) inch of water (60°F) joule (international of 1948) kayser kilocalorie (International Steam Table) kilocalorie (mean) kilocalorie (thermochemical) kilogram mass kilogram-force (kgf) kilopond-force kip knot (international) lambert lambert langley lbf (pound-force, avoirdupois) lbm (pound-mass, avoirdupois) league (British nautical) league (international nautical) league (statute) light-year link (engineer’s) link (surveyor’s or Gunter’s) liter lux maxwell meter micrometer mil mile (U.S. statute) mile (U.K. nautical) mile (international nautical) mile (U.S. nautical) millibar millimeter of mercury (0°C)

joule joule kilogram newton newton newton meter/second candela/meter2 candela/meter2 joule/meter2 newton

+03 4.190 02 +03 4.184 +00 1.00 +00 9.806 65 +00 9.806 65 +03 4.448 221 −01 5.144 444 +04 1/π +03 3.183 098 +04 4.184 +00 4.448 221

kilogram

−01 4.535 923

meter meter

+03 5.559 552 +03 5.556

meter meter meter meter meter3 lumen/meter2 weber wavelengths Kr 86 meter meter meter meter meter meter newton/meter2 newton/meter2

+03 4.828 032 +15 9.460 55 −01 3.048 −01 2.011 68 −03 1.00 +00 1.00 −08 1.00 +06 1.650 763 −06 1.00 −05 2.54 +03 1.609 344 +03 1.853 184 +03 1.852 +03 1.852 +02 1.00 +02 1.333 224

Fahrenheit (temperature)

Celsius

farad (international of 1948) faraday (based on carbon 12) faraday (chemical) faraday (physical) fathom fermi (femtometer)

farad coulomb

−01 4.572 −04 2.365 882 +10 3.70 +04 8.64 +04 8.616 409 −02 1.745 329 −07 1.111 111 −03 1.771 845 −03 3.887 934 −06 3.696 691 −05 1.00 −19 1.602 10 −07 1.00 tK = (5/9)(tF + 459.67) tc = (5/9)(tF − 32) −01 9.995 05 +04 9.648 70

coulomb coulomb meter meter

+04 9.649 57 +04 9.652 19 +00 1.828 8 −15 1.00

1-12

TABLE 1-5

Metric Conversion Factors as Exact Numerical Multiples of SI Units (Concluded)

The first two digits of each numerical entry represent a power of 10. For example, the entry “−02 2.54” expresses the fact that 1 in = 2.54 × 10−2. To convert from minute (angle) minute (mean solar) minute (sidereal) month (mean calendar) nautical mile (international) nautical mile (U.S.) nautical mile (U.K.) oersted ohm (international of 1948) ounce-force (avoirdupois) ounce-mass (avoirdupois) ounce-mass (troy or apothecary) ounce (U.S. fluid) pace parsec pascal peck (U.S.) pennyweight perch phot pica (printer’s) pint (U.S. dry) pint (U.S. liquid) point (printer’s) poise pole pound-force (lbf avoirdupois) pound-mass (lbm avoirdupois) pound-mass (troy or apothecary) poundal quart (U.S. dry) quart (U.S. liquid) rad (radiation dose absorbed) Rankine (temperature) rayleigh (rate of photon emission) rhe rod roentgen rutherford second (angle)

To

Multiply by

radian second (mean solar) second (mean solar) second (mean solar) meter meter meter ampere/meter ohm newton kilogram kilogram meter3 meter meter newton/meter2 meter3 kilogram meter lumen/meter2 meter meter3 meter3 meter (newton-second)/meter2 meter newton

−04 2.908 882 +01 6.00 +01 5.983 617 +06 2.628 +03 1.852 +03 1.852 +03 1.853 184 +01 7.957 747 +00 1.000 495 −01 2.780 138 −02 2.834 952 −02 3.110 347 −05 2.957 352 −01 7.62 +16 3.083 74 +00 1.00 −03 8.809 767 −03 1.555 173 +00 5.0292 +04 1.00 −03 4.217 517 −04 5.506 104 −04 4.731 764 −04 3.514 598 −01 1.00 +00 5.0292 +00 4.448 221

kilogram

−01 4.535 923

kilogram

−01 3.732 417

newton meter3 meter3 joule/kilogram

−01 1.382 549 −03 1.101 220 −04 9.463 529 −02 1.00

kelvin 1/second-meter2

tK = (5/9)tR +10 1.00

meter2/(newtonsecond) meter coulomb/kilogram disintegration/second radian

+01 1.00 +00 5.0292 −04 2.579 76 +06 1.00 −06 4.848 136

To

Multiply by

second (ephemeris) second (mean solar)

To convert from

second second (ephemeris)

second (sidereal) section scruple (apothecary) shake skein slug span statampere statcoulomb statfarad stathenry statmho statohm statute mile (U.S.) statvolt stere stilb stoke tablespoon teaspoon ton (assay) ton (long) ton (metric) ton (nuclear equivalent of TNT) ton (register) ton (short, 2000 lb) tonne torr (0°C) township unit pole volt (international of 1948) watt (international of 1948) yard year (calendar) year (sidereal) year (tropical) year 1900, tropical, Jan., day 0, hour 12 year 1900, tropical, Jan., day 0, hour 12

second (mean solar) meter2 kilogram second meter kilogram meter ampere coulomb farad henry mho ohm meter volt meter3 candela/meter2 meter2/second meter3 meter3 kilogram kilogram kilogram joule meter3 kilogram kilogram newton/meter2 meter2 weber volt watt meter second (mean solar) second (mean solar) second (mean solar) second (ephemeris)

+00 1.000 000 Consult American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac −01 9.972 695 +06 2.589 988 −03 1.295 978 −08 1.00 +02 1.097 28 +01 1.459 390 −01 2.286 −10 3.335 640 −10 3.335 640 −12 1.112 650 +11 8.987 554 −12 1.112 650 +11 8.987 554 +03 1.609 344 +02 2.997 925 +00 1.00 +04 1.00 −04 1.00 −05 1.478 676 −06 4.928 921 −02 2.916 666 +03 1.016 046 +03 1.00 +09 4.20 +00 2.831 684 +02 9.071 847 +03 1.00 +02 1.333 22 +07 9.323 957 −07 1.256 637 +00 1.000 330 +00 1.000 165 −01 9.144 +07 3.1536 +07 3.155 815 +07 3.155 692 +07 3.155 692

second

+07 3.155 692

1-13

1-14 TABLE 1-6

Alphabetical Listing of Common Conversions

To convert from Acres Acres Acres Acre-feet Ampere-hours (absolute) Angstrom units Angstrom units Angstrom units Atmospheres Atmospheres Atmospheres Atmospheres Atmospheres Atmospheres Atmospheres Atmospheres Bags (cement) Barrels (cement) Barrels (oil) Barrels (oil) Barrels (U.S. liquid) Barrels (U.S. liquid) Barrels per day Bars Bars Bars Board feet Boiler horsepower Boiler horsepower B.t.u. B.t.u. B.t.u. B.t.u. B.t.u. B.t.u. B.t.u. B.t.u. B.t.u. B.t.u. B.t.u. per cubic foot B.t.u. per hour B.t.u. per minute B.t.u. per pound B.t.u. per pound per degree Fahrenheit B.t.u. per pound per degree Fahrenheit B.t.u. per second B.t.u. per square foot per hour B.t.u. per square foot per minute B.t.u. per square foot per second for a temperature gradient of 1°F. per inch

To

Multiply by

Square feet Square meters Square miles Cubic meters Coulombs (absolute) Inches Meters Microns Millimeters of mercury at 32°F Dynes per square centimeter Newtons per square meter Feet of water at 39.1°F Grams per square centimeter Inches of mercury at 32°F Pounds per square foot Pounds per square inch Pounds (cement) Pounds (cement) Cubic meters Gallons Cubic meters Gallons Gallons per minute Atmospheres Newtons per square meter Pounds per square inch Cubic feet B.t.u. per hour Kilowatts Calories (gram) Centigrade heat units (c.h.u. or p.c.u.) Foot-pounds Horsepower-hours Joules Liter-atmospheres Pounds carbon to CO2 Pounds water evaporated from and at 212°F Cubic foot-atmospheres Kilowatt-hours Joules per cubic meter Watts Horsepower Joules per kilogram Calories per gram per degree centigrade Joules per kilogram per degree Kelvin Watts Joules per square meter per second Kilowatts per square foot Calories, gram (15°C.), per square centimeter per second for a temperature gradient of 1°C. per centimeter

43,560 4074 0.001563 1233 3600 3.937 × 10−9 1 × 10−10 1 × 10−4 760 1.0133 × 106 101,325 33.90 1033.3 29.921 2116.3 14.696 94 376 0.15899 42 0.11924 31.5 0.02917 0.9869 1 × 105 14.504 1⁄12 33,480 9.803 252 0.55556 777.9 3.929 × 10−4 1055.1 10.41 6.88 × 10−5 0.001036 0.3676 2.930 × 10−4 37,260 0.29307 0.02357 2326 1 4186.8 1054.4 3.1546 0.1758 1.2405

To convert from Drams (avoirdupois) Dynes Ergs Faradays Fathoms Feet Feet per minute Feet per minute Feet per (second)2 Feet of water at 39.2°F. Foot-poundals Foot-poundals Foot-poundals Foot-pounds Foot-pounds Foot-pounds Foot-pounds Foot-pounds Foot-pounds Foot-pounds force Foot-pounds per second Foot-pounds per second Furlongs Gallons (U.S. liquid) Gallons Gallons Gallons Gallons Gallons Gallons per minute Gallons per minute Grains Grains Grains per cubic foot Grains per gallon Grams Grams Grams Grams Grams Grams Grams per cubic centimeter Grams per cubic centimeter Grams per liter Grams per liter Grams per square centimeter Grams per square centimeter Hectares Hectares Horsepower (British) Horsepower (British) Horsepower (British) Horsepower (British) Horsepower (British)

To Grams Newtons Joules Coulombs (abs.) Feet Meters Centimeters per second Miles per hour Meters per (second)2 Newtons per square meter B.t.u. Joules Liter-atmospheres B.t.u. Calories, gram Foot-poundals Horsepower-hours Kilowatt-hours Liter-atmospheres Joules Horsepower Kilowatts Miles Barrels (U.S. liquid) Cubic meters Cubic feet Gallons (Imperial) Liters Ounces (U.S. fluid) Cubic feet per hour Cubic feet per second Grams Pounds Grams per cubic meter Parts per million Drams (avoirdupois) Drams (troy) Grains Kilograms Pounds (avoirdupois) Pounds (troy) Pounds per cubic foot Pounds per gallon Grains per gallon Pounds per cubic foot Pounds per square foot Pounds per square inch Acres Square meters B.t.u. per minute B.t.u. per hour Foot-pounds per minute Foot-pounds per second Watts

Multiply by 1.7719 1 × 10−5 1 × 10−7 96,500 6 0.3048 0.5080 0.011364 0.3048 2989 3.995 × 10−5 0.04214 4.159 × 10−4 0.0012856 0.3239 32.174 5.051 × 10−7 3.766 × 10−7 0.013381 1.3558 0.0018182 0.0013558 0.125 0.03175 0.003785 0.13368 0.8327 3.785 128 8.021 0.002228 0.06480 1⁄ 7000 2.2884 17.118 0.5644 0.2572 15.432 0.001 0.0022046 0.002679 62.43 8.345 58.42 0.0624 2.0482 0.014223 2.471 10,000 42.42 2545 33,000 550 745.7

B.t.u. (60°F.) per degree Fahrenheit Bushels (U.S. dry) Bushels (U.S. dry) Calories, gram Calories, gram Calories, gram Calories, gram Calories, gram Calories, gram, per gram per degree C. Calories, kilogram Calories, kilogram per second Candle power (spherical) Carats (metric) Centigrade heat units Centimeters Centimeters Centimeters Centimeters Centimeters Centimeters of mercury at 0°C. Centimeters of mercury at 0°C. Centimeters of mercury at 0°C Centimeters of mercury at 0°C. Centimeters of mercury at 0°C. Centimeters per second Centimeters of water at 4°C. Centistokes Circular mils Circular mils Circular mils Cords Cubic centimeters Cubic centimeters Cubic centimeters Cubic centimeters Cubic feet Cubic feet Cubic feet Cubic feet Cubic feet Cubic feet Cubic foot-atmospheres Cubic foot-atmospheres Cubic feet of water (60°F.) Cubic feet per minute Cubic feet per minute Cubic feet per second Cubic feet per second Cubic inches Cubic yards Curies Curies Degrees Drams (apothecaries’ or troy)

Calories per degree centigrade Cubic feet Cubic meters B.t.u. Foot-pounds Joules Liter-atmospheres Horsepower-hours Joules per kilogram per degree Kelvin Kilowatt-hours Kilowatts Lumens Grams B.t.u. Angstrom units Feet Inches Meters Microns Atmospheres Feet of water at 39.1°F. Newtons per square meter Pounds per square foot Pounds per square inch Feet per minute Newtons per square meter Square meters per second Square centimeters Square inches Square mils Cubic feet Cubic feet Gallons Ounces (U.S. fluid) Quarts (U.S. fluid) Bushels (U.S.) Cubic centimeters Cubic meters Cubic yards Gallons Liters Foot-pounds Liter-atmospheres Pounds Cubic centimeters per second Gallons per second Gallons per minute Million gallons per day Cubic meters Cubic meters Disintegrations per minute Coulombs per minute Radians Grams

453.6 1.2444 0.03524 3.968 × 10−3 3.087 4.1868 4.130 × 10−2 1.5591 × 10−6 4186.8 0.0011626 4.185 12.556 0.2 1.8 1 × 108 0.03281 0.3937 0.01 10,000 0.013158 0.4460 1333.2 27.845 0.19337 1.9685 98.064 1 × 10−6 5.067 × 10−6 7.854 × 10−7 0.7854 128 3.532 × 10−5 2.6417 × 10−4 0.03381 0.0010567 0.8036 28,317 0.028317 0.03704 7.481 28.316 2116.3 28.316 62.37 472.0 0.1247 448.8 0.64632 1.6387 × 10−5 0.76456 2.2 × 1012 1.1 × 1012 0.017453 3.888

Horsepower (British) Horsepower (British) Horsepower (British) Horsepower (metric) Horsepower (metric) Hours (mean solar) Inches Inches of mercury at 60°F Inches of water at 60°F Joules (absolute) Joules (absolute) Joules (absolute) Joules (absolute) Joules (absolute) Joules (absolute) Kilocalories Kilograms Kilograms force Kilograms per square centimeter Kilometers Kilowatt-hours Kilowatt-hours Kilowatts Knots (international) Knots (nautical miles per hour) Lamberts Liter-atmospheres Liter-atmospheres Liters Liters Liters Lumens Micromicrons Microns Microns Miles (nautical) Miles (nautical) Miles Miles Miles per hour Miles per hour Milliliters Millimeters Millimeters of mercury at 0°C. Millimicrons Mils Mils Minims (U.S.) Minutes (angle) Minutes (mean solar) Newtons Ounces (avoirdupois) Ounces (avoirdupois) Ounces (U.S. fluid) Ounces (troy)

Horsepower (metric) Pounds carbon to CO2 per hour Pounds water evaporated per hour at 212°F Foot-pounds per second Kilogram-meters per second Seconds Meters Newtons per square meter Newtons per square meter B.t.u. (mean) Calories, gram (mean) Cubic foot-atmospheres Foot-pounds Kilowatt-hours Liter-atmospheres Joules Pounds (avoirdupois) Newtons Pounds per square inch Miles B.t.u. Foot-pounds Horsepower Meters per second Miles per hour Candles per square inch Cubic foot-atmospheres Foot-pounds Cubic feet Cubic meters Gallons Watts Microns Angstrom units Meters Feet Miles (U.S. statute) Feet Meters Feet per second Meters per second Cubic centimeters Meters Newtons per square meter Microns Inches Meters Cubic centimeters Radians Seconds Kilograms Kilograms Ounces (troy) Cubic meters Ounces (apothecaries’)

1.0139 0.175 2.64 542.47 75.0 3600 0.0254 3376.9 248.84 9.480 × 10−4 0.2389 0.3485 0.7376 2.7778 × 10−7 0.009869 4186.8 2.2046 9.807 14.223 0.6214 3414 2.6552 × 106 1.3410 0.5144 1.1516 2.054 0.03532 74.74 0.03532 0.001 0.26418 0.001496 −6 1 × 10 1 × 104 1 × 10−6 6080 1.1516 5280 1609.3 1.4667 0.4470 1 0.001 133.32 0.001 0.001 2.54 × 10−5 0.06161 2.909 × 10−4 60 0.10197 0.02835 0.9115 2.957 × 10−5 1.000

1-15

1-16

TABLE 1-6

Alphabetical Listing of Common Conversions (Concluded)

To convert from Pints (U.S. liquid) Poundals Pounds (avoirdupois) Pounds (avoirdupois) Pounds (avoirdupois) Pounds per cubic foot Pounds per cubic foot Pounds per square foot Pounds per square foot Pounds per square inch Pounds per square inch Pounds per square inch Pounds force Pounds force per square foot Pounds water evaporated from and at 212°F. Pound-centigrade units (p.c.u.) Quarts (U.S. liquid) Radians Revolutions per minute Seconds (angle) Slugs Slugs Slugs

To Cubic meters Newtons Grains Kilograms Pounds (troy) Grams per cubic centimeter Kilograms per cubic meter Atmospheres Kilograms per square meter Atmospheres Kilograms per square centimeter Newtons per square meter Newtons Newtons per square meter Horsepower-hours B.t.u. Cubic meters Degrees Radians per second Radians Gee pounds Kilograms Pounds

Multiply by 4.732 × 10−4 0.13826 7000 0.45359 1.2153 0.016018 16.018 4.725 × 10−4 4.882 0.06805 0.07031 6894.8 4.4482 47.88 0.379 1.8 9.464 × 10−4 57.30 0.10472 4.848 × 10−6 1 14.594 32.17

To convert from Square centimeters Square feet Square feet per hour Square inches Square inches Square yards Stokes Tons (long) Tons (long) Tons (metric) Tons (metric) Tons (metric) Tons (short) Tons (short) Tons (refrigeration) Tons (British shipping) Tons (U.S. shipping) Torr (mm. mercury, 0°C.) Watts Watts Watts Watt-hours Yards

To Square feet Square meters Square meters per second Square centimeters Square meters Square meters Square meters per second Kilograms Pounds Kilograms Pounds Tons (short) Kilograms Pounds B.t.u. per hour Cubic feet Cubic feet Newtons per square meter B.t.u. per hour Joules per second Kilogram-meters per second Joules Meters

Multiply by 0.0010764 0.0929 2.581 × 10−5 6.452 6.452 × 10−4 0.8361 1 × 10−4 1016 2240 1000 2204.6 1.1023 907.18 2000 12,000 42.00 40.00 133.32 3.413 1 0.10197 3600 0.9144

TABLE 1-7 Mass (M)

Length (L)

Common Units and Conversion Factors* 1 pound mass = 453.5924 grams = 0.45359 kilograms = 7000 grains 1 slug = 32.174 pounds mass 1 ton (short) = 2000 pounds mass 1 ton (long) = 2240 pounds mass 1 ton (metric) = 1000 kilograms = 2204.62 pounds mass 1 pound mole = 453.59 gram moles = 30.480 centimeters = 0.3048 meters 1 inch = 2.54 centimeters = 0.0254 meters 1 mile (U.S.) = 1.60935 kilometers 1 yard = 0.9144 meters 1 foot

Area (L2)

Volume (L3)

1 square foot = 929.0304 square centimeters = 0.09290304 square meters 1 square inch = 6.4516 square centimeters 1 square yard = 0.836127 square meters 1 cubic foot

1 gallon Time (θ)

= 28,316.85 cubic centimeters = 0.02831685 cubic meters = 28.31685 liters = 7.481 gallons (U.S.) = 3.7853 liters = 231 cubic inches

1 hour = 60 minutes = 3600 seconds Temperature (T) 1 centigrade or Celsius degree = 1.8 Fahrenheit degree Temperature, Kelvin = T°C + 273.15 Temperature, Rankine = T°F + 459.7 Temperature, Fahrenheit = 9/5 T°C + 32 Temperature, centigrade or Celsius = 5/9 (T°F − 32) Temperature, Rankine = 1.8 T K Force (F) 1 pound force = 444,822.2 dynes = 4.448222 Newtons = 32.174 poundals 2 Pressure (F/L ) Normal atmospheric pressure

1 atm = 760 millimeters of mercury at 0°C (density 13.5951 g/cm3) = 29.921 inches of mercury at 32°F = 14.696 pounds force/square inch = 33.899 feet of water at 39.1°F = 1.01325 × 106 dynes/square centimeter = 1.01325 × 105 Newtons/square meter Density (M/L3) 1 pound mass/cubic foot = 0.01601846 grams/cubic centimeter = 16.01846 kilogram/cubic meter Energy (H or FL) 1 British thermal unit = 251.98 calories = 1054.4 joules = 777.97 foot-pounds force = 10.409 liter-atmospheres = 0.2930 watt-hour Diffusivity (L2/θ) 1 square foot/hour = 0.258 cm2/s = 2.58 × 10−5 m2/s Viscosity (M/Lθ) 1 pound mass/foot hour = 0.00413 g/cm s 0.000413 kg/m s 1 centipoise = 0.01 poise = 0.01 g/cm s = 0.001 kg/m s = 0.000672 lbm/ft s = 0.0000209 lbfs/ft2 2 Thermal conductivity [H/θL (T/L)] 2 1 Btu/hr ft (°F/ft) = 0.00413 cal/s cm2 (°C/cm) = 1.728 J/s m2 (°C/m) Heat transfer coefficient 1 Btu/hr ft2 °F = 5.678 J/s m2 °C Heat capacity (H/MT) 1 Btu/lbm °F = 1 cal/g °C = 4184 J/kg °C Gas constant 1.987 Btu/lbm mole °R = 1.987 cal/mol K = 82.057 atm cm3/mol K = 0.7302 atm ft3/lb mole °F = 10.73 (lbf /in.2) (ft3)/lb mole °R = 1545 (lbf /ft2) (ft3)/lb mole °R = 8.314 (N/m2) (m3)/mol K Gravitational acceleration g = 9.8066 m/s2 = 32.174 ft/s2

NOTE:

U.S. customary units, or British units, on left and SI units on right. *Adapted from Faust et al., Principles of Unit Operations, John Wiley and Sons, 1980.

TABLE 1-8

Kinematic-Viscosity Conversion Formulas

Viscosity scale Saybolt Universal Saybolt Furol Redwood No. 1 Redwood Admiralty Engler

Range of t, sec 32 < t < 100 t > 100 25 < t < 40 t > 40 34 < t < 100 t > 100

Kinematic viscosity, stokes 0.00226t − 1.95/t 0.00220t − 1.35/t 0.0224t − 1.84/t 0.0216t − 0.60/t 0.00260t − 1.79/t 0.00247t − 0.50/t 0.027t − 20/t 0.00147t − 3.74/t

TABLE 1-9 Temp. scale

Values of the Gas-Law Constant Press. units

Vol. units

Kelvin atm. atm. mm. Hg bar kg/cm2 atm mm Hg

cm3 liters liters liters liters ft3 ft3

atm in Hg mm Hg lb/in2abs lb/ft2abs

ft3 ft3 ft3 ft3 ft3

Rankine

Wt. units

Energy units*

R

g-moles g-moles g-moles g-moles g-moles g-moles g-moles g-moles lb-moles lb-moles lb-moles lb-moles lb-moles lb-moles lb-moles lb-moles lb-moles lb-moles lb-moles

calories joules (abs) joules (int) atm cm3 atm liters mm Hg-liters bar-liters kg/(cm2)(liters) atm-ft3 mm Hg-ft3 chu or pcu Btu hp-hr kw-hr atm-ft3 in Hg-ft3 mm Hg-ft3 (lb)(ft3)/in2 ft-lb

1.9872 8.3144 8.3130 82.057 0.08205 62.361 0.08314 0.08478 1.314 998.9 1.9872 1.9872 0.0007805 0.0005819 0.7302 21.85 555.0 10.73 1545.0

*Energy units are the product of pressure units and volume units. 1-17

TABLE 1-10 United States Customary System of Weights and Measures Linear Measure 12 inches (in) or (″) = 1 foot (ft) or (′) 3 feet = 1 yard (yd) 16.5 feet = 1 rod (rd) 5.5 yards

 

5280 feet = 1 mile (mi) 320 rods 1 mil = 0.001 inch Nautical:

Square Measure 144 sq. inches (sq. in) or (in ) or (ⵧ″) = 1 sq. foot (ft2) or (ⵧ′) 9 sq. feet (ft2) (ⵧ′) = 1 sq. yard (yd2) 30.25 sq. yards = 1 sq. rod, pole, or perch 10 sq. chains 160 sq. rods = = 1 acre 43,560 sq. ft 640 acres = 1 sq. mile = 1 section 1 circular inch (area of circle of 1 inch diameter) = 0.7854 sq. inch 1 sq. inch = 1.2732 circular inch 1 circular mil = area of circle of 0.001 inch diameter 1,000,000 circular mils = 1 circular inch 2



Circular Measure 60 seconds (″) (sec) = 1 minute (min) or (′) 60 minutes (′) = 1 degree (°) 90 degrees (°) = 1 quadrant 360 degrees (°) = 1 circumference = 1 radian (rad.) 57.29578 degrees = 57° 17′ 44.81″



Volume Measure Solid:

1728 cubic in (cu. in) (in3) = 1 cubic foot (cu. ft)(ft3) 27 cu. ft = 1 cubic yard (cu. yd) Dry Measure: 2 pints = 1 quart 8 quarts = 1 peck 4 pecks = 1 bushel 1 United States Winchester bushel = 2150.42 cubic inches Liquid: 4 gills = 1 pint (pt) 2 pints = 1 quart (qt) 4 quarts = 1 gallon (gal) 7.4805 gallons = 1 cubic foot Apothecaries’ Liquid: 60 minims (min. or ) = 1 fluid dram or drachm 8 drams ( ) = 1 fluid ounce 16 ounces (oz. ) = 1 pint Avoirdupois Weight 16 drams = 437.5 grains = 1 ounce (oz) 16 ounces = 7000 grains = 1 pound (lb) 100 pounds = 1 hundredweight (cwt) 2000 pounds = 1 short ton: 2240 pounds = 1 long ton Troy Weight 24 grains = 1 pennyweight (dwt) 20 pennyweights = 1 ounce (oz) 12 ounces = 1 pound (lb) Apothecaries’ Weight 20 grains (gr) = 1 scruple ( ) 3 scruples = 1 dram ( ) 8 drams = 1 ounce ( ) 12 ounces = 1 pound (lb)

1-18

Temperature Conversion Formulas

°F = (°C × 5/9) + 32 °C = (°F − 32) × 5/9 °R = °F + 459.69 °K = °C + 273.15 °K = °R × 5/9 Temperature difference, T °F = °C × 9/5 NOTE: An extensive table of temperature conversions may be found in the sixth edition of the Handbook (Table 1-12).

6080.2 feet = 1 nautical mile 6 feet = 1 fathom 120 fathoms = 1 cable length 1 knot = 1 nautical mile per hour 60 nautical miles = 1° of latitude



TABLE 1-11

TABLE 1-12 Alpha Beta Gamma Delta Epsilon Zeta Eta Theta Iota Kappa Lambda Mu

Greek Alphabet

= Α, α = A, a = Β, β = B, b = Γ, γ = G, g = ∆, δ = D, d = Ε, ε = E, e = Ζ, ζ = Z, z = Η, η = E, e = Θ, θ = Th, th = Ι,  = I, i = Κ, κ = K, k = Λ, λ = L, l = Μ, µ = M, m

Nu Xi Omicron Pi Rho Sigma Tau Upsilon Phi Chi Psi Omega

= Ν, ν = N, n = Ξ, ξ = X, x = Ο, ο = O, o = Π, π = P, p = Ρ, ρ = R, r = Σ, σ = S, s = Τ, τ = T, t = , υ = U, u = Φ, φ = Ph, ph = Χ, χ = Ch, ch = Ψ, ψ = Ps, ps = Ω, ω = O, o

TABLE 1-13

Specific Gravity, Degrees Baumé, Degrees API, Degrees Twaddell, Pounds per Gallon, Pounds per Cubic Foot* 145 140 sp gr 60°/60°F − 1 141.5 °Bé = 145 −  (heavier than H2O); °Bé =  − 130 (lighter than H2O); °Tw =  °API =  − 131.5 sp gr sp gr 0.005 sp gr Lb per gal at 60°F wt in air

Lb per ft3 at 60°F wt in air

Sp gr 60°/ 60°

°Bé

104.33 102.38 100.47 98.58 96.73

4.9929 5.0346 5.0763 5.1180 5.1597

37.350 37.662 37.973 38.285 38.597

0.700 .705 .710 .715 .720

70.00 68.58 67.18 65.80 64.44

94.00 92.22 90.47 88.75 87.05

94.90 93.10 91.33 89.59 87.88

5.2014 5.2431 5.2848 5.3265 5.3682

39.910 39.222 39.534 39.845 40.157

.725 .730 .735 .740 .745

.650 .655 .660 .665 .670

85.38 83.74 82.12 80.53 78.96

86.19 84.53 82.89 81.28 79.69

5.4098 5.4515 5.4932 5.5349 5.5766

40.468 40.780 41.092 41.404 41.716

.675 .680 .685 .690 .695

77.41 75.88 74.38 72.90 71.44

78.13 76.59 75.07 73.57 72.10

5.6183 5.6600 5.7017 5.7434 5.7851

42.028 42.340 42.652 42.963 43.275

Lb per ft3 at 60°F wt in air

Sp gr 60°/ 60°

°Bé

Sp gr 60°/ 60°

°Bé

°API

0.600 .605 .610 .615 .620

103.33 101.40 99.51 97.64 95.81

.625 .630 .635 .640 .645

°API

Lb per gal at 60°F wt in air

Lb per ft3 at 60°F wt in air

Sp gr 60°/ 60°

°Bé

°API

70.64 69.21 67.80 66.40 65.03

5.8268 5.8685 5.9101 5.9518 5.9935

43.587 43.899 44.211 44.523 44.834

0.800 .805 .810 .815 .820

45.00 43.91 42.84 41.78 40.73

45.38 44.28 43.19 42.12 41.06

63.10 61.78 60.48 59.19 57.92

63.67 62.34 61.02 59.72 58.43

6.0352 6.0769 6.1186 6.1603 6.2020

45.146 45.458 45.770 46.082 46.394

.825 .830 .835 .840 .845

39.70 38.67 37.66 36.67 35.68

.750 .755 .760 .765 .770

56.67 55.43 54.21 53.01 51.82

57.17 55.92 54.68 53.47 52.27

6.2437 6.2854 6.3271 6.3688 6.4104

46.706 47.018 47.330 47.642 47.953

.850 .855 .860 .865 .870

.775 .780 .785 .790 .795

50.65 49.49 48.34 47.22 46.10

51.08 49.91 48.75 47.61 46.49

6.4521 6.4938 6.5355 6.5772 6.6189

47.265 48.577 48.889 49.201 49.513

.875 .880 .885 .890 .895

Lb per ft3 at 60°F wt in air

Sp gr 60°/ 60°

Lb per gal at 60°F wt in air

Lb per ft3 at 60°F wt in air

Sp gr 60°/ 60°

°Bé

°API

Lb per gal at 60°F wt in air

6.6606 6.7023 6.7440 6.7857 6.8274

49.825 50.137 50.448 50.760 51.072

0.900 .905 .910 .915 .920

25.56 24.70 23.85 23.01 22.17

25.72 24.85 23.99 23.14 22.30

7.4944 7.5361 7.5777 7.6194 7.6612

56.062 56.374 56.685 56.997 57.310

40.02 38.98 37.96 36.95 35.96

6.8691 6.9108 6.9525 6.9941 7.0358

51.384 51.696 52.008 52.320 52.632

.925 .930 .935 .940 .945

21.35 20.54 19.73 18.94 18.15

21.47 20.65 19.84 19.03 18.24

7.7029 7.7446 7.7863 7.8280 7.8697

57.622 57.934 58.246 58.557 58.869

34.71 33.74 32.79 31.85 30.92

34.97 34.00 33.03 32.08 31.14

7.0775 7.1192 7.1609 7.2026 7.2443

52.943 53.255 53.567 53.879 54.191

.950 .955 .960 .965 .970

17.37 16.60 15.83 15.08 14.33

17.45 16.67 15.90 15.13 14.38

7.9114 7.9531 7.9947 8.0364 8.0780

59.181 59.493 59.805 60.117 60.428

30.00 29.09 28.19 27.30 26.42

30.21 29.30 28.39 27.49 26.60

7.2860 7.3277 7.3694 7.4111 7.4528

54.503 54.815 55.127 55.438 55.750

.975 .980 .985 .990 .995 1.000

13.59 12.86 12.13 11.41 10.70 10.00

13.63 12.89 12.15 11.43 10.71 10.00

8.1197 8.1615 8.2032 8.2449 8.2866 8.3283

60.740 61.052 61.364 61.676 61.988 62.300 Lb per ft3 at 60°F. wt. in air

°Tw

Lb per gal at 60°F wt in air

°Tw

Lb per gal at 60°F wt in air

°Bé

°Tw

Lb per gal at 60°F wt in air

°Bé

°Tw

Lb per gal at 60°F wt in air

1.005 1.010 1.015 1.020 1.025

0.72 1.44 2.14 2.84 3.54

1 2 3 4 5

8.3700 8.4117 8.4534 8.4950 8.5367

62.612 62.924 63.236 63.547 63.859

1.255 1.260 1.265 1.270 1.275

29.46 29.92 30.38 30.83 31.27

51 52 53 54 55

10.4546 10.4963 10.5380 10.5797 10.6214

78.206 78.518 78.830 79.141 79.453

1.505 1.510 1.515 1.520 1.525

48.65 48.97 49.29 49.61 49.92

101 102 103 104 105

12.5392 12.5809 12.6226 12.6643 12.7060

93.800 94.112 94.424 94.735 95.047

1.755 1.760 1.765 1.770 1.775

62.38 62.61 62.85 63.08 63.31

151 152 153 154 155

14.6238 14.6655 14.7072 14.7489 14.7906

109.394 109.705 110.017 110.329 110.641

1.030 1.035 1.040 1.045 1.050

4.22 4.90 5.58 6.24 6.91

6 7 8 9 10

8.5784 8.6201 8.6618 8.7035 8.7452

64.171 64.483 64.795 65.107 65.419

1.280 1.285 1.290 1.295 1.300

31.72 32.16 32.60 33.03 33.46

56 57 58 59 60

10.6630 10.7047 10.7464 10.7881 10.8298

79.765 80.077 80.389 80.701 81.013

1.530 1.535 1.540 1.545 1.550

50.23 50.54 50.84 51.15 51.45

106 107 108 109 110

12.7477 12.7894 12.8310 12.8727 12.9144

95.359 95.671 95.983 96.295 96.606

1.780 1.785 1.790 1.795 1.800

63.54 63.77 63.99 64.22 64.44

156 157 158 159 160

14.8323 14.8740 14.9157 14.9574 14.9990

110.953 111.265 111.577 111.889 112.200

1.055 1.060 1.065 1.070 1.075

7.56 8.21 8.85 9.49 10.12

11 12 13 14 15

8.7869 8.8286 8.8703 8.9120 8.9537

65.731 66.042 66.354 66.666 66.978

1.305 1.310 1.315 1.320 1.325

33.89 34.31 34.73 35.15 35.57

61 62 63 64 65

10.8715 10.9132 10.9549 10.9966 11.0383

81.325 81.636 81.948 82.260 82.572

1.555 1.560 1.565 1.570 1.575

51.75 52.05 52.35 52.64 52.94

111 112 113 114 115

12.9561 12.9978 13.0395 13.0812 13.1229

96.918 97.230 97.542 97.854 98.166

1.805 1.810 1.815 1.820 1.825

64.67 64.89 65.11 65.33 65.55

161 162 163 164 165

15.0407 15.0824 15.1241 15.1658 15.2075

112.512 112.824 113.136 113.448 113.760

1.080 1.085 1.090 1.095 1.100

10.74 11.36 11.97 12.58 13.18

16 17 18 19 20

8.9954 9.0371 9.0787 9.1204 9.1621

67.290 67.602 67.914 68.226 68.537

1.330 1.335 1.340 1.345 1.350

35.98 36.39 36.79 37.19 37.59

66 67 68 69 70

11.0800 11.1217 11.1634 11.2051 11.2467

82.884 83.196 83.508 83.820 84.131

1.580 1.585 1.590 1.595 1.600

53.23 53.52 53.81 54.09 54.38

116 117 118 119 120

13.1646 13.2063 13.2480 13.2897 13.3313

98.478 98.790 99.102 99.414 99.725

1.830 1.835 1.840 1.845 1.850

65.77 65.98 66.20 66.41 66.62

166 167 168 169 170

15.2492 15.2909 15.3326 15.3743 15.4160

114.072 114.384 114.696 115.007 115.318

1.105 1.110 1.115 1.120 1.125

13.78 14.37 14.96 15.54 16.11

21 22 23 24 25

9.2038 9.2455 9.2872 9.3289 9.3706

68.849 69.161 69.473 69.785 70.097

1.355 1.360 1.365 1.370 1.375

37.99 38.38 38.77 39.16 39.55

71 72 73 74 75

11.2884 11.3301 11.3718 11.4135 11.4552

84.443 84.755 85.067 85.379 85.691

1.605 1.610 1.615 1.620 1.625

54.66 54.94 55.22 55.49 55.77

121 122 123 124 125

13.3730 13.4147 13.4564 13.4981 13.5398

100.037 100.349 100.661 100.973 101.285

1.855 1.860 1.865 1.870 1.875

66.83 67.04 67.25 67.46 67.67

171 172 173 174 175

15.4577 15.4993 15.5410 15.5827 15.6244

115.630 115.943 116.255 116.567 116.879

1.130 1.135 1.140 1.145 1.150

16.68 17.25 17.81 18.36 18.91

26 27 28 29 30

9.4123 9.4540 9.4957 9.5374 9.5790

70.409 70.721 71.032 71.344 71.656

1.380 1.385 1.390 1.395 1.400

39.93 40.31 40.68 41.06 41.43

76 77 78 79 80

11.4969 11.5386 11.5803 11.6220 11.6637

86.003 86.315 86.626 86.938 87.250

1.630 1.635 1.640 1.645 1.650

56.04 56.32 56.59 56.85 57.12

126 127 128 129 130

13.5815 13.6232 13.6649 13.7066 13.7483

101.597 101.909 102.220 102.532 102.844

1.880 1.885 1.890 1.895 1.900

67.87 68.08 68.28 68.48 68.68

176 177 178 179 180

15.6661 15.7078 15.7495 15.7912 15.8329

117.191 117.503 117.814 118.126 118.438

1.155 1.160 1.165 1.170 1.175

19.46 20.00 20.54 21.07 21.60

31 32 33 34 35

9.6207 9.6624 9.7041 9.7458 9.7875

71.968 72.280 72.592 72.904 73.216

1.405 1.410 1.415 1.420 1.425

41.80 42.16 42.53 42.89 43.25

81 82 83 84 85

11.7054 11.7471 11.7888 11.8304 11.8721

87.562 87.874 88.186 88.498 88.810

1.655 1.660 1.665 1.670 1.675

57.39 57.65 57.91 58.17 58.43

131 132 133 134 135

13.7900 13.8317 13.8734 13.9150 13.9567

103.156 103.468 103.780 104.092 104.404

1.905 1.910 1.915 1.920 1.925

68.88 69.08 69.28 69.48 69.68

181 182 183 184 185

15.8746 15.9163 15.9580 15.9996 16.0413

118.740 119.062 119.374 119.686 119.998

1.180 1.185 1.190 1.195 1.200

22.12 22.64 23.15 23.66 24.17

36 37 38 39 40

9.8292 9.8709 9.9126 9.9543 9.9960

73.528 73.840 74.151 74.463 74.775

1.430 1.435 1.440 1.445 1.450

43.60 43.95 44.31 44.65 45.00

86 87 88 89 90

11.9138 11.9555 11.9972 12.0389 12.0806

89.121 89.433 89.745 90.057 90.369

1.680 1.685 1.690 1.695 1.700

58.69 58.95 59.20 59.45 59.71

136 137 138 139 140

13.9984 14.0401 14.0818 14.1235 14.1652

104.715 105.027 105.339 105.651 105.963

1.930 1.935 1.940 1.945 1.950

69.87 70.06 70.26 70.45 70.64

186 187 188 189 190

16.0830 16.1247 16.1664 16.2081 16.2498

120.309 120.621 120.933 121.245 121.557

1.205 1.210 1.215 1.220 1.225

24.67 25.17 25.66 26.15 26.63

41 42 43 44 45

10.0377 10.0793 10.1210 10.1627 10.2044

75.087 75.399 75.711 76.022 76.334

1.455 1.460 1.465 1.470 1.475

45.34 45.68 46.02 46.36 46.69

91 92 93 94 95

12.1223 12.1640 12.2057 12.2473 12.2890

90.681 90.993 91.305 91.616 91.928

1.705 1.710 1.715 1.720 1.725

59.96 60.20 60.45 60.70 60.94

141 142 143 144 145

14.2069 14.2486 14.2903 14.3320 14.3737

106.275 106.587 106.899 107.210 107.522

1.955 1.960 1.965 1.970 1.975

70.83 71.02 71.21 71.40 71.58

191 192 193 194 195

16.2915 16.3332 16.3749 16.4166 16.4583

121.869 122.181 122.493 122.804 123.116

1.230 1.235 1.240 1.245 1.250

27.11 27.59 28.06 28.53 29.00

46 47 48 49 50

10.2461 10.2878 10.3295 10.3712 10.4129

76.646 76.958 77.270 77.582 77.894

1.480 1.485 1.490 1.495 1.500

47.03 47.36 47.68 48.01 48.33

96 97 98 99 100

12.3307 12.3724 12.4141 12.4558 12.4975

92.240 92.552 92.864 93.176 93.488

1.730 1.735 1.740 1.745 1.750

61.18 61.34 61.67 61.91 62.14

146 147 148 149 150

14.4153 14.4570 14.4987 14.5404 14.5821

107.834 108.146 108.458 108.770 109.082

1.980 1.985 1.990 1.995 2.000

71.77 71.95 72.14 72.32 72.50

196 197 198 199 200

16.5000 16.5417 16.5833 16.6250 16.6667

123.428 123.740 124.052 124.364 124.676

Sp gr 60°/ 60°

°Bé

Lb per ft3 at 60°F wt in air

Sp gr 60°/ 60°

Lb per ft3 at 60°F. wt. in air

*Prepared by Lewis V. Judson, Ph.D., Chief of Length Section of National Bureau of Standards with the advice and assistance of E. L. Peffer, B.S., A.M., late Chief of Capacity and Density Section, National Bureau of Standards.

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TABLE 1-14

Fundamental Physical Constants

1 sec = 1.00273791 sidereal seconds g0 = 9.80665 m/sec2 1 liter = 0.001 cu. m 1 atm = 101,325 newtons/sq m 1 mm Hg (pressure) = (1⁄ 760) atm = 133.3224 newtons/sq m 1 int ohm = 1.000495  0.000015 abs ohm 1 int amp = 0.999835  0.000025 abs amp 1 int coul = 0.999835  0.000025 abs coul 1 int volt = 1.000330  0.000029 abs volt 1 int watt = 1.000165  0.000052 abs watt 1 int joule = 1.000165  0.000052 abs joule T0°C = 273.150  0.010°K (PV)0°CP=0 = (RT)0°C = 2271.16  0.04 abs joule/mole = 22,414.6  0.4 cu. cm atm/mole = 22.4146  0.0004 liter atm/mole R = 8.31439  0.00034 abs joule/deg mole = 1.98719  0.00013 cal/deg mole = 82.0567  0.0034 cu. cm atm/deg mole = 0.0820567  0.0000034 liter atm/deg mole ln 10 = 2.302585 R ln 10 = 19.14460  0.00078 abs joule/deg mole = 4.57567  0.00030 cal/deg mole N = (6.02283  0.0022) × 1023/mole h = (6.6242  0.0044) × 10−34 joule sec c = (2.99776  0.00008) × 108 m/sec (h2/8π2k) = (4.0258  0.0037) × 10−39 g sq cm deg (h/8π2c) = (2.7986  0.0018) × 10−39 g cm Z = Nhc = 11.9600  0.0036 abs joule cm/mole = 2.85851  0.0009 cal cm/mole (Z/R) = (hc/k) = c2 = 1.43847  0.00045 cm deg Ᏺ = 96,501.2  10.0 int coul/g-equiv or int joule/int volt g-equiv = 96,485.3  10.0 abs coul/g-equiv or abs joule/abs volt g-equiv = 23,068.1  2.4 cal/int volt g-equiv = 23,060.5  2.4 cal/abs volt g-equiv e = (1.60199  0.00060) × 10−19 abs coul = (1.60199  0.00060) × 10−20 abs emu = (4.80239  0.00180) × 10−10 abs esu 1 int electron-volt/molecule = 96,501.2  10 int joule/mole = 23,068.1  2.4 cal/mole 1 abs electron-volt/molecule = 96,485.3  10. abs joule/mole = 23,060.5  2.4 cal/mole 1 int electron-volt = (1.60252  0.00060) × 10−12 erg 1 abs electron-volt = (1.60199  0.00060) × 10−12 erg hc = (1.23916  0.00032) × 10−4 int electron-volt cm = (1.23957  0.00032) × 10−4 abs electron-volt cm k = (8.61442  0.00100) × 10−5 int electron-volt/deg = (8.61727  0.00100) × 10−5 abs electron-volt/deg = (R/N) = (1.38048  0.00050) × 10−23 joule/deg 1 IT cal = (1⁄ 860) = 0.00116279 int watt-hr = 4.18605 int joule = 4.18674 abs joule = 1.000654 cal 1 cal = 4.1840 abs joule = 4.1833 int joule = 41.2929  0.0020 cu. cm atm = 0.0412929  0.0000020 liter atm 1 IT cal/g = 1.8 Btu/lb 1 Btu = 251.996 IT cal = 0.293018 int watt-hr = 1054.866 int joule = 1055.040 abs joule = 252.161 cal 1 horsepower = 550 ft-lb (wt)/sec = 745.578 int watt = 745.70 abs watt 1 in = (1/0.3937) = 2.54 cm 1 ft = 0.304800610 m 1 lb = 453.5924277 g 1 gal = 231 cu. in = 0.133680555 cu. ft = 3.785412 × 10−3 cu. m = 3.785412 liter

1-20

sec = mean solar second Definition: g0 = standard gravity Definition: atm = standard atmosphere mm Hg (pressure) = standard millimeter mercury int = international; abs = absolute amp = ampere coul = coulomb

Absolute temperature of the ice point, 0°C PV product for ideal gas at 0°C R = gas constant per mole

ln = natural logarithm (base e) N = Avogadro number h = Planck constant c = velocity of light Constant in rotational partition function of gases Constant relating wave number and moment of inertia Z = constant relating wave number and energy per mole c2 = second radiation constant Ᏺ = Faraday constant

e = electronic charge

Constant relating wave number and energy per molecule k = Boltzmann constant Definition of IT cal: IT = International steam tables cal = thermochemical calorie Definition: cal = thermochemical calorie

Definition of Btu: Btu = IT British Thermal Unit

cal = thermochemical calorie Definition of horsepower (mechanical): lb (wt) = weight of 1 lb at standard gravity Definition of in: in = U.S. inch ft = U.S. foot (1 ft = 12 in) Definition; lb = avoirdupois pound Definition; gal = U.S. gallon

CONVERSION OF VALUES FROM U.S. CUSTOMARY UNITS TO SI UNITS American engineers are probably more familiar with the magnitude of physical entities in U.S. customary units than in SI units. Consequently, errors made in the conversion from one set of units to the other may go undetected. The following six examples will show how to convert the elements in six dimensionless groups. Proper conversions will result in the same numerical value for the dimensionless number. The dimensionless numbers used as examples are the Reynolds, Prandtl, Nusselt, Grashof, Schmidt, and Archimedes numbers. Table 1-7 provides a number of useful conversion factors. To make a conversion of an element in U.S. customary units to SI units, one multiplies the value of the U.S. customary unit, found on the left side in the table, by the equivalent value on the right side. For example, to convert 10 British thermal units to joules, one multiplies 10 by 1054.4 to obtain 10544 joules. In each example, the initial values of the factors are expressed in U.S. customary units, and the dimensionless value is calculated. Then the factors are converted to SI units, and the dimensionless value is recalculated. The two dimensionless values will be approximately the same. (Small variations occur due to the number of significant figures carried in the solution.)

Example 1. Calculation of a Reynolds Number DVρ NRe =  µ

U.S. customary units D = 3 in. = 3⁄12 ft V = 6 ft/s ρ = 0.08 lbm/ft3 µ = 0.015 cp = (0.015)(0.000672) lbm/ft⋅s

(3/12)(6)(0.08) NRe =  = 11,904 (0.015)(0.000672) SI units D = (3)(0.0254) m V = (6)(0.3048) m/s ρ = (0.08)(16.018) kg/m3 µ = (0.015)(0.001) kg/m⋅s

(Difference due to rounding)

Example 4. Calculation of a Grashof Number NGr = L3ρ2gβ(∆T)/µ2 U.S. Customary units L = 3 ft ρ = 0.0725 lbm/ft3 g = 32.174 ft/s2 β = 0.00168/°R ∆T = 99 °R µ = 0.019 centipoise = 0.019 × 0.000672 lbm/ft⋅s = 1.277 × 10−5 lbm/ft⋅s (33) (0.0725)2(32.174) (0.00168) (99) = 4.66 × 109 NGr =  (1.277 × 10−5)2 SI units L = (3)(0.3048) = 0.9144 m ρ = (0.0725)(16.018) = 1.1613 kg/m3 g = 9.807 m/s2 β = (0.00168)/(1.8) = 0.000933/°K ∆T = (99)(1.8) = 178.2 °K µ = (0.019)(0.001) = 1.9 × 10−5 kg/m⋅s (0.9144)3(1.1613)2(9.807)(0.000933)(178.2) = 4.66 × 109 NGr =  (1.9 × 10−5)2

Example 5. Calculation of a Schmidt Number µ NSc =  ρD

(3 × 0.0254) (6 × 0.3048) (0.08 × 16.018) NRe =  = 11,904 (0.015) (0.001)

Example 2. Calculation of a Prandtl Number Cp µ NPr =  k U.S. customary units γp = 0.47 Btu/lbm °F µ = 15 centipoise = (15) (0.000672) (3600) lbm/ft⋅hr k = 0.065 Btu/hr⋅ft2 (°F/ft) (0.47) (15 × 0.000672 × 3600) NPr =  = 262.4 0.065 SI units γ = (0.47)(4184) J/kg °C µ = (15)(0.001) kg/m⋅s k = (0.065)(1.728) J/s⋅m2 (°C/m) (0.47) (4184) (15) (0.001) NPr =  = 262.6 (0.065) (1.728) (Difference due to rounding)

Example 3. Calculation of a Nusselt Number hD NNu =  k U.S. customary units h = 200 Btu/hr⋅ft2⋅°F D = 1.5 in. = 1.5/12 ft k = 0.07 Btu/hr⋅ft2 (°F/ft) (200)(1.5/12) NNu =  = 357.1 0.07 SI units h = (200)(5.678) J/(s⋅m2⋅°C) D = (1.5)(0.0254) m k = (0.07)(1.728) J/s⋅m2 (°C/m)

(200) (5.678) (1.5) (0.0254) NNu =  = 357.7 (0.07) (1.728)

U.S. customary units µ = 0.02 centipoise = (0.02)(2.42) lbm/ft⋅hr ρ = 0.08 lbm/ft3 D = 1.0 ft2/hr (diffusivity) (0.02) (2.42) NSc =  = 0.605 (0.08)(1.0) SI units µ = (0.02)(0.001) kg/m⋅s ρ = (0.08)(16.02) kg/m2 D = (1.0)(2.58 × 10−5) m2/s (0.02) (0.001) = 0.605 NSc =  (0.08)(16.02)(1.0) (2.58 × 10−5)

Example 6. Calculation of an Archimedes Number d 3ρf(ρp − ρf)g NAr =  µ2 U.S. customary units d = 2 mm = 2/[(1000)(0.3048)] = 0.00656 ft ρf = 0.0175 lbm/ft3 ρp = 168.5 lbm/ft3 g = 32.174 ft/s2 µ = 0.04 centipoise = 0.04 × 0.000672 = 2.688−5 lbm/ft⋅s (0.00656)3 (0.0175) (168.5 − 0.017) (32.174) = 37,064 NAr =  (2.688 × 10−5)2 SI units d = 2/1000 m ρp = 168.5 × 16.02 = 2699.37 kg/m3 ρf = 0.0175 × 16.02 = 0.2804 g/m3 g = 9.807 m/s2 µ = 0.04 × 0.001 = 4 × 10−5 kg/m⋅s (2/1000)3 (0.2804) (2699.37 − 0.28) (9.807) = 37,118 NAr =  (4 × 10−5)2 (Difference due to rounding)

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Section 2

Physical and Chemical Data*

Bruce E. Poling Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Toledo (Physical and Chemical Data) George H. Thomson AIChE Design Institute for Physical Properties (Physical and Chemical Data) Daniel G. Friend National Institute of Standards and Technology (Physical and Chemical Data) Richard L. Rowley Department of Chemical Engineering, Brigham Young University (Prediction and Correlation of Physical Properties) W. Vincent Wilding Department of Chemical Engineering, Brigham Young University (Prediction and Correlation of Physical Properties)

2-10

GENERAL REFERENCES

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-65

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES Tables 2-1 2-2

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physical Properties of Organic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES Units Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-3 Vapor Pressure of Water Ice from 0 to −40 °C . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 Vapor Pressure of Supercooled Liquid Water from 0 to −40 °C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5 Vapor Pressure (MPa) of Liquid Water from 0 to 100 °C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6 Substances in Tables 2-8, 2-32, 2-141, 2-150, 2-153, 2-155, 2-156, 2-179, 2-312, 2-313, 2-314, and 2-315 Sorted by Chemical Family . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7 Formula Index of Substances in Tables 2-8, 2-32, 2-141, 2-150, 2-153, 2-155, 2-156, 2-179, 2-312, 2-313, 2-314, and 2-315 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8 Vapor Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Liquids, ln P = C1 + C2/T + C3 ln T + C4 T C5, P in Pa . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9 Vapor Pressures of Inorganic Compounds, up to 1 atm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-7 2-28

2-48 2-48 2-48 2-48 2-48 2-49 2-52 2-55 2-61

VAPOR PRESSURES OF SOLUTIONS Units Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-11 Partial Pressures of Water over Aqueous Solutions of HCl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12 Partial Pressures of HCl over Aqueous Solutions of HCl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vapor Pressures of H3PO4 Aqueous: Partial Pressure of H2O Vapor (Fig. 2-1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vapor Pressures of H3PO4 Aqueous: Weight of H2O in Saturated Air (Fig. 2-2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13 Partial Pressures of H2O and SO2 over Aqueous Solutions of Sulfur Dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14 Water Partial Pressure, bar, over Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15 Sulfur Trioxide Partial Pressure, bar, over Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16 Sulfuric Acid Partial Pressure, bar, over Aqueous Sulfuric Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17 Total Pressure, bar, of Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions . . . . . . 2-18 Partial Pressures of HNO3 and H2O over Aqueous Solutions of HNO3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19 Partial Pressures of H2O and HBr over Aqueous Solutions of HBr at 20 to 55 °C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-80 2-80 2-80 2-81 2-81 2-81 2-82 2-84 2-86 2-87 2-88 2-89

*Contribution in part of the National Institute of Standards and Technology; not subject to copyright in the United States. 2-1

Copyright © 2008, 1997, 1984, 1973, 1963, 1950, 1941, 1934 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

2-2 2-20 2-21 2-22

2-23 2-24 2-25 2-26 2-27 2-28 2-29

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA Partial Pressures of HI over Aqueous Solutions of HI at 25 °C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vapor Pressures of the System: Water-Sulfuric Acid-Nitric Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total Vapor Pressures of Aqueous Solutions of CH3COOH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vapor Pressure of Aqueous Diethylene Glycol Solutions (Fig. 2-3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partial Pressure of H2O over Aqueous Solutions of NH3 (psia) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mole Percentages of H2O over Aqueous Solutions of NH3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partial Pressures of NH3 over Aqueous Solutions of NH3 (psia) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total Vapor Pressures of Aqueous Solutions of NH3 (psia) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partial Pressures of H2O over Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Carbonate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partial Pressures of H2O and CH3OH over Aqueous Solutions of Methyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partial Pressures of H2O over Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Hydroxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-89 2-89 2-89 2-89 2-90 2-91 2-92 2-93 2-94 2-94 2-94

WATER-VAPOR CONTENT OF GASES Chart for Gases at High Pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Content of Air (Fig. 2-4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-95 2-95

DENSITIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES Tables 2-30 2-31 2-32

Density (kg/m3) of Saturated Liquid Water from the Triple Point to the Critical Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Density (kg/m3) of Mercury from 0 to 350°C . . . . . . . . . . . . Densities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids (mol/dm3) . . . . .

2-96 2-97 2-98

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS INORGANIC SOLUTIONS AT 1 ATM Units and Units Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-104 Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-104 Tables 2-33 Aluminum Sulfate [Al2(SO4)3] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-104 2-34 Ammonia (NH3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-104 2-35 Ammonium Acetate (CH3COONH4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-104 2-36 Ammonium Bichromate [(NH4)2Cr2O7] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-104 2-37 Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-104 2-38 Ammonium Chromate [(NH4)2CrO4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-104 2-39 Ammonium Nitrate (NH4NO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-104 2-40 Ammonium Sulfate [(NH4)2SO4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-104 2-41 Arsenic Acid (H3AsO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-104 2-42 Barium Chloride (BaCl2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-105 2-43 Cadmium Nitrate [Cd(NO3)2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-105 2-44 Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-105 2-45 Calcium Hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-105 2-46 Calcium Hypochlorite (CaOCl2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-105 2-47 Calcium Nitrate [Ca(NO3)2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-105 2-48 Chromic Acid (CrO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-105 2-49 Chromium Chloride (CrCl3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-105 2-50 Copper Nitrate [Cu(NO3)2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-105 2-51 Copper Sulfate (CuSO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-105 2-52 Cuprous Chloride (CuCl2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-105 2-53 Ferric Chloride (FeCl3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-105 2-54 Ferric Sulfate [Fe2(SO4)3] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-106 2-55 Ferric Nitrate [Fe(NO3)3] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-106 2-56 Ferrous Sulfate (FeSO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-106 2-57 Hydrogen Bromide (HBr) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-106 2-58 Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-106 2-59 Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-106 2-60 Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-106 2-61 Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-106 2-62 Hydrofluosilic Acid (H2SiF6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-106 2-63 Magnesium Chloride (MgCl2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-106 2-64 Magnesium Sulfate (MgSO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-106 2-65 Nickel Chloride (NiCl2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-106 2-66 Nickel Nitrate [Ni(NO3)2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-106 2-67 Nickel Sulfate (NiSO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-106 2-68 Nitric Acid (HNO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-107 2-69 Perchloric Acid (HClO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-108 2-70 Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-108 2-71 Potassium Bicarbonate (KHCO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-108 2-72 Potassium Bromide (KBr) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-108

2-73 2-74 2-75 2-76 2-77 2-78 2-79 2-80 2-81 2-82 2-83 2-84 2-85 2-86 2-87 2-88 2-89 2-90 2-91 2-92 2-93 2-94 2-95 2-96 2-97 2-98 2-99 2-100 2-101 2-102 2-103 2-104 2-105 2-106 2-107

Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Potassium Chromate (K2CrO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Potassium Chlorate (KClO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Potassium Chloride (KCl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Potassium Chrome Alum [K2Cr2(SO4)4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Potassium Nitrate (KNO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Potassium Dichromate (K2Cr2O7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Potassium Sulfate (K2SO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Potassium Sulfite (K2SO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Acetate (NaC2H3O2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Arsenate (Na3AsO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Bichromate (Na2Cr2O7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Bromide (NaBr) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Formate (HCOONa) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Chlorate (NaClO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Chloride (NaCl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Chromate (Na2CrO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Nitrate (NaNO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Nitrite (NaNO2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Silicates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Sulfate (Na2SO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Sulfide (Na2S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Sulfite (Na2SO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Thiosulfate Pentahydrate (Na2S2O3 ⋅5H2O) . . . . . . Stannic Chloride (SnCl4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stannous Chloride (SnCl2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Zinc Bromide (ZnBr2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Zinc Chloride (ZnCl2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Zinc Nitrate [Zn(NO3)2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Zinc Sulfate (ZnSO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS ORGANIC SOLUTIONS Units and Units Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-108 Formic Acid (HCOOH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-109 Acetic Acid (CH3COOH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-110 Oxalic Acid (H2C2O4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-111 Methyl Alcohol (CH3OH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-112 Ethyl Alcohol (C2H5OH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-113 Densities of Mixtures of C2H5OH and H2O at 20°C . . . . . 2-114 Specific Gravity {60°/60°F [(15.56°/15.56°C)]} of Mixtures by Volume of C2H5OH and H2O . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-115 n-Propyl Alcohol (C3H7OH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-116 Isopropyl Alcohol (C3H7OH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-117 Glycerol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-118 Hydrazine (N2H4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-119 Densities of Aqueous Solutions of Miscellaneous Organic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-109 2-109 2-109 2-109 2-109 2-109 2-109 2-109 2-109 2-109 2-109 2-109 2-109 2-109 2-109 2-110 2-110 2-110 2-110 2-110 2-110 2-110 2-110 2-111 2-111 2-111 2-111 2-111 2-111 2-111 2-112 2-114 2-114 2-114 2-114

2-114 2-114 2-115 2-116 2-116 2-117 2-118 2-119 2-120 2-120 2-121 2-121 2-122

DENSITIES OF MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS Tables 2-120 2-121

Approximate Specific Gravities and Densities of Miscellaneous Solids and Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Density (kg/m3) of Selected Elements as a Function of Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

SOLUBILITIES Units Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-122 Solubilities of Inorganic Compounds in Water at Various Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-123 Solubility as a Function of Temperature and Henry’s Constant at 25°C for Gases in Water . . . . . . . . . . 2-124 Henry’s Constant H for Various Compounds in Water at 25°C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-125 Henry’s Constant H for Various Compounds in Water at 25°C from Infinite Dilution Activity Coefficients . . . . . . 2-126 Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-127 Ammonia-Water at 10 and 20°C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-128 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-129 Carbonyl Sulfide (COS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-130 Chlorine (Cl2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-131 Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-124 2-125

2-125 2-126 2-130 2-130 2-131 2-131 2-131 2-131 2-131 2-132 2-132

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA 2-132 2-133 2-134

Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partial Vapor Pressure of Sulfur Dioxide over Water, mmHg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

THERMAL EXPANSION Units Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermal Expansion of Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-135 Linear Expansion of the Solid Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-136 Linear Expansion of Miscellaneous Substances . . . . . . . . . 2-137 Volume Expansion of Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-138 Volume Expansion of Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JOULE-THOMSON EFFECT Units Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-139 Additional References Available for the Joule-Thomson Coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-140 Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus in Reduced Coordinates (Tr = T/Tc; Pr = P/Pc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CRITICAL CONSTANTS Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-141 Critical Constants and Acentric Factors of Inorganic and Organic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COMPRESSIBILITIES Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Units conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-142 Composition of Selected Refrigerant Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . 2-143 Compressibility Factors for R 407A (Klea 60) . . . . . . . . . . 2-144 Compressibility Factors for R 407B (Klea 61) . . . . . . . . . . 2-145 Compressibilities of Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-146 Compressibilities of Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LATENT HEATS Units Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-147 Heats of Fusion and Vaporization of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-148 Heats of Fusion of Miscellaneous Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-149 Heats of Fusion of Organic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-150 Heats of Vaporization of Inorganic and Organic Liquids (J/kmol) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SPECIFIC HEATS OF PURE COMPOUNDS Units Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-151 Heat Capacities of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-152 Specific Heat [kJ/(kg⋅K)] of Selected Elements . . . . . . . . . 2-153 Heat Capacities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids [J/(kmol⋅K)] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-154 Specific Heats of Organic Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-155 Heat Capacity at Constant Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Compounds in the Ideal Gas State Fit to a Polynomial Cp [J/(kmol⋅K)] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-156 Heat Capacity at Constant Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Compounds in the Ideal Gas State Fit to Hyperbolic Functions Cp [J/(kmol⋅K)] . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-157 Cp/Cv: Ratios of Specific Heats of Gases at 1 atm Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SPECIFIC HEATS OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Units Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-158 Acetic Acid (at 38°C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-159 Ammonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-160 Aniline (at 20°C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-161 Copper Sulfate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-132 2-132 2-133

2-133 2-133 2-133 2-134 2-135 2-136 2-136

2-162 2-163 2-164 2-165 2-166 2-167 2-168 2-169 2-170 2-171 2-172 2-173 2-174 2-175

Ethyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glycerol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrochloric Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Methyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nitric Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Phosphoric Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Potassium Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Potassium Hydroxide (at 19°C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Normal Propyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Carbonate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Hydroxide (at 20°C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sulfuric Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Zinc Sulfate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-3 2-183 2-183 2-183 2-183 2-183 2-183 2-184 2-184 2-184 2-184 2-184 2-184 2-184 2-184

SPECIFIC HEATS OF MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS 2-137 2-137

Tables 2-176 2-177

Specific Heats of Miscellaneous Liquids and Solids . . . . . . Oils (Animal, Vegetable, Mineral Oils) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-143 2-143

PROPERTIES OF FORMATION AND COMBUSTION REACTIONS Units Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-178 Heats and Free Energies of Formation of Inorganic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-179 Enthalpies and Gibbs Energies of Formation, Entropies, and Net Enthalpies of Combustion of Inorganic and Organic Compounds at 298.15 K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-180 Ideal Gas Sensible Enthalpies, hT − h298 (kJ/kmol), of Combustion Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-181 Ideal Gas Entropies s°, kJ/(kmol⋅K), of Combustion Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-143 2-143 2-143 2-144 2-144

Tables 2-182 2-183

2-137

2-138 2-138

2-144 2-145 2-147 2-148 2-150

2-156 2-156 2-156 2-164 2-165 2-171 2-174 2-176 2-182

2-183 2-183 2-183 2-183 2-183 2-183

2-185 2-185

2-185 2-186 2-195 2-201 2-202

HEATS OF SOLUTION Heats of Solution of Inorganic Compounds in Water . . . . . Heats of Solution of Organic Compounds in Water (at Infinite Dilution and Approximately Room Temperature) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES Explanation of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Units Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-184 List of Substances for Which Thermodynamic Property Tables Were Generated from NIST Standard Reference Database 23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-185 Thermodynamic Properties of Acetone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-186 Saturated Acetylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-187 Thermodynamic Properties of Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Dry Air (Fig. 2-5) . . . . . . . 2-188 Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air, Moist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-189 Thermodynamic Properties of Ammonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Ammonia (Fig. 2-6) . . . . . Enthalpy-Concentration Diagram for Aqueous Ammonia (Fig. 2-7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-190 Thermodynamic Properties of Argon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-191 Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium Data for the ArgonNitrogen-Oxygen System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-192 Thermodynamic Properties of the International Standard Atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-193 Thermodynamic Properties of Benzene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-194 Saturated Bromine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-195 Thermodynamic Properties of Butane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-196 Thermodynamic Properties of 1-Butene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-197 Thermodynamic Properties of cis-2-Butene . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-198 Thermodynamic Properties of trans-2-Butene . . . . . . . . . . 2-199 Thermodynamic Properties of Carbon Dioxide . . . . . . . . . 2-200 Thermodynamic Properties of Carbon Monoxide . . . . . . . Temperature-Entropy Diagram for Carbon Monoxide (Fig. 2-8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-201 Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Carbon Tetrachloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-203 2-206

2-207 2-207 2-207 2-207

2-208 2-209 2-210 2-211 2-215 2-216 2-216 2-217 2-219 2-220 2-221 2-224 2-228 2-229 2-231 2-232 2-234 2-236 2-238 2-240 2-242 2-244 2-245

2-4 Tables 2-202 2-203 2-204 2-205

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

Saturated Carbon Tetrafluoride (R14) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of Carbonyl Sulfide . . . . . . . . Saturated Cesium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Chlorine . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for Chlorine (Fig. 2-9) . . 2-206 Saturated Chloroform (R20) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-207 Thermodynamic Properties of Cyclohexane . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-208 Thermodynamic Properties of Decane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-209 Thermodynamic Properties of Deuterium Oxide (Heavy Water) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-210 Thermodynamic Properties of 2,2-Dimethylpropane (Neopentane) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-211 Saturated Diphenyl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-212 Thermodynamic Properties of Dodecane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-213 Thermodynamic Properties of Ethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-214 Thermodynamic Properties of Ethanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy-Concentration Diagram for Aqueous Ethyl Alcohol (Fig. 2-10) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-215 Thermodynamic Properties of Ethylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-216 Thermodynamic Properties of Fluorine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-217 Flutec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-218 Halon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-219 Thermodynamic Properties of Helium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-220 Thermodynamic Properties of Heptane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-221 Thermodynamic Properties of Hexane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-222 Saturated Hydrazine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-223 Thermodynamic Properties of Normal Hydrogen . . . . . . . 2-224 Thermodynamic Properties of para-Hydrogen . . . . . . . . . . 2-225 Saturated Hydrogen Peroxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-226 Thermodynamic Properties of Hydrogen Sulfide . . . . . . . . Enthalpy-Concentration Diagram for Aqueous Hydrogen Chloride at 1 atm (Fig. 2-11) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-227 Thermodynamic Properties of Isobutane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-228 Thermodynamic Properties of Isobutene (2-Methyl 1-Propene) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-229 Thermodynamic Properties of Krypton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-230 Saturated Lithium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-231 Lithium Bromide—Water Solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-232 Saturated Mercury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for Mercury (Fig. 2-12) . 2-233 Thermodynamic Properties of Methane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-234 Thermodynamic Properties of Methanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-235 Thermodynamic Properties of 2-Methyl Butane (Isopentane) 2-236 Thermodynamic Properties of 2-Methyl Pentane (Isohexane) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-237 Saturated Methyl Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-238 Thermodynamic Properties of Neon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-239 Thermodynamic Properties of Nitrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Nitrogen (Fig. 2-13) . . . . . 2-240 Saturated Nitrogen Tetroxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-241 Thermodynamic Properties of Nitrogen Trifluoride . . . . . 2-242 Thermodynamic Properties of Nitrous Oxide . . . . . . . . . . . Mollier Diagram for Nitrous Oxide (Fig. 2-14). . . . . . . . . . 2-243 Thermodynamic Properties of Nonane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-244 Thermodynamic Properties of Octane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-245 Thermodynamic Properties of Oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Oxygen (Fig. 2-15) . . . . . . Enthalpy-Concentration Diagram for Oxygen-Nitrogen Mixture at 1 atm (Fig. 2-16). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-246 Thermodynamic Properties of Pentane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-247 Saturated Potassium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mollier Diagram for Potassium (Fig. 2-17) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-248 Thermodynamic Properties of Propane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-249 Thermodynamic Properties of Propylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-250 Thermodynamic Properties of R-11, Trichlorofluoromethane Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Refrigerant 11 (Fig. 2-18) 2-251 Thermodynamic Properties of R-12, Dichlorodifluoromethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Refrigerant 12 (Fig. 2-19) 2-252 Thermodynamic Properties of R-13, Chlorotrifluoromethane Refrigerant 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Refrigerant 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-253 Saturated Refrigerant 13B1, Bromotrifluoromethane . . . . . 2-254 Saturated Refrigerant 21, Dichlorofluoromethane . . . . . . . . 2-255 Thermodynamic Properties of R-22, Chlorodifluoromethane Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Refrigerant 22 (Fig. 2-20) . 2-256 Thermodynamic Properties of R-23, Trifluoromethane . . . . 2-257 Thermodynamic Properties of R-32, Difluoromethane . . . . Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Refrigerant 32 (Fig. 2-21) .

2-245 2-246 2-248 2-249 2-250 2-251 2-252 2-254 2-256 2-258 2-260 2-261 2-263 2-265 2-267 2-268 2-270 2-271 2-271 2-272 2-274 2-276 2-278 2-279 2-281 2-282 2-283 2-285 2-286 2-288 2-290 2-292 2-292 2-293 2-295 2-296 2-298 2-300 2-302 2-304 2-305 2-307 2-309 2-310 2-311 2-313 2-315 2-316 2-318 2-320 2-322 2-323 2-324 2-326 2-326 2-327 2-329 2-331 2-333 2-334 2-336 2-337 2-339 2-339 2-339 2-339 2-340 2-342 2-343 2-345 2-347

2-258 2-259 2-260 2-261 2-262

2-263 2-264 2-265 2-266 2-267 2-268 2-269 2-270 2-271 2-272 2-273 2-274 2-275

2-276 2-277 2-278 2-279 2-280 2-281 2-282 2-283 2-284 2-285 2-286 2-287 2-288 2-289 2-290 2-291 2-292 2-293 2-294 2-295 2-296 2-297 2-298 2-299

2-300 2-301 2-302 2-303 2-304 2-305 2-306 2-307 2-308 2-309

Thermodynamic Properties of R-41, Fluoromethane . . . . . Saturated R-401A (SUVA MP 39) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-401A (SUVA MP 39) at Atmospheric Pressure . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of Saturated R-407A (Klea 60) Thermodynamic Properties of Saturated R-407B (Klea 61) Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for R-407A (Klea 60) (Fig. 2-22) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for R-407B (Klea 61) (Fig. 2-23). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated R-404A (SUVA HP 62) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-404A (SUVA HP 62) at Atmospheric Pressure . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for Refrigerant 123 Saturated R-401B (SUVA MP 66) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-401B (SUVA MP 66) at Atmospheric Pressure . . . . . . . . . Saturated R-402A (SUVA HP 80) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-402A (SUVA HP 80) at Atmospheric Pressure . . . . . . . . . Saturated R-402B (SUVA HP 81) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-402B (SUVA HP 81) at Atmospheric Pressure . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of R-113, 1,1, 2-Trichlorotrifluoroethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of R-114, 1, 2-Dichlorotetrafluoroethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 115, Chloropentafluoroethane . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of R-116, Hexafluoroethane . . Thermodynamic Properties of R-123, 2,2-Dichloro-1,1,1-Trifluoroethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for Refrigerant 123 (Fig. 2-24) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of R-124, 2-Chloro-1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of R-125, Pentafluoroethane . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for Refrigerant 125 (Fig. 2-25). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of R-134a, 1,1,1,2Tetrafluoroethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Refrigerant 134a (Fig. 2-26) Thermodynamic Properties of R-141b, 1,1-Dichloro-1Fluoroethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of R-142b, 1-Chloro-1,1Difluoroethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of R-143a, 1,1,1-Trifluoroethane Thermodynamic Properties of R-152a, 1,1-Difluoroethane . Saturated Refrigerant 216a, 1,3-Dichloro-1,1,2,2,3,3Hexafluoropropane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of R-218, Octafluoropropane . . Thermodynamic Properties of R-227ea, 1,1,1,2,3,3,3Heptafluoropropane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 245cb 1,1,1,2,2-Pentafluoropropane . Refrigerant RC 318, Octafluorocyclobutane . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of R-404A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of R-407C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Refrigerant 407C (Fig. 2-27) Thermodynamic Properties of R-410A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 502 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 503 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 504 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of Refrigerant 507 . . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of R-507A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Rubidium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Seawater . . . . . . . . Saturated Sodium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mollier Diagram for Sodium (Fig. 2-28) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy-Concentration Diagram for Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide at 1 atm (Fig. 2-29) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of Sulfur Dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of Sulfur Hexafluoride . . . . . . . Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) (Fig. 2-30) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated SUVA AC 9000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy-Concentration Diagram for Aqueous Sulfuric Acid at 1 atm (Fig. 2-31) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of Toluene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Solid/Vapor Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of Water Substance along the Melting Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of Xenon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surface Tension (N/m) of Saturated Liquid Refrigerants . . Surface Tension σ (dyn/cm) of Various Liquids . . . . . . . . . .

2-348 2-350 2-350 2-351 2-351 2-352 2-353 2-354 2-354 2-355 2-355 2-355 2-356 2-356 2-356 2-357 2-359 2-361 2-362 2-365 2-366 2-367 2-369 2-371 2-372 2-374 2-375 2-377 2-379 2-381 2-383 2-384 2-386 2-388 2-388 2-389 2-391 2-393 2-394 2-396 2-396 2-397 2-397 2-397 2-398 2-400 2-400 2-401 2-402 2-403 2-404 2-406 2-408 2-409 2-409 2-410 2-412 2-413 2-416 2-417 2-419 2-419

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA TRANSPORT PROPERTIES Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Units Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-310 Velocity of Sound (m/s) in Gaseous Refrigerants at Atmospheric Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-311 Velocity of Sound (m/s) in Saturated Liquid Refrigerants . . 2-312 Vapor Viscosity of Inorganic and Organic Substances (Pas) 2-313 Viscosity of Inorganic and Organic Liquids (Pas) . . . . . . . . 2-314 Vapor Thermal Conductivity of Inorganic and Organic Substances [W/(mK)] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-315 Thermal Conductivity of Inorganic and Organic Liquids [W/(mK)] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-316 Transport Properties of Selected Gases at Atmospheric Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-317 Lower and Upper Flammability Limits, Flash Point, and Autoignition Temperature for Selected Hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-318 Viscosities of Liquids: Coordinates for Use with Fig. 2-32 . . Nomograph for Viscosities of Liquids at 1 atm (Fig. 2-32) . . Tables 2-319 Viscosity of Sucrose Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nomograph for Thermal Conductivity of Organic Liquids (Fig. 2-33) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-320 Thermal Conductivity Nomograph Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . 2-321 Prandtl Number of Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-322 Prandtl Number of Liquid Refrigerants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-323 Thermophysical Properties of Miscellaneous Saturated Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-324 Diffusivities of Pairs of Gases and Vapors (1 atm) . . . . . . . . 2-325 Diffusivities in Liquids (25°C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-326 Thermal Conductivities of Some Building and Insulating Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-327 Thermal-Conductivity-Temperature for Metals . . . . . . . . . . 2-328 Thermal Conductivity of Chromium Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-329 Thermal Conductivity of Some Alloys at High Temperature 2-330 Thermal Conductivities of Some Materials for Refrigeration and Building Insulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-331 Thermal Conductivities of Insulating Materials at High Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-332 Thermal Conductivities of Insulating Materials at Moderate Temperatures (Nusselt) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-333 Thermal Conductivities of Insulating Materials at Low Temperatures (Gröber) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-334 Thermal Diffusivity (m2/s) of Selected Elements . . . . . . . . . 2-335 Thermophysical Properties of Selected Nonmetallic Solid Substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-420 2-420 2-420 2-420 2-420 2-421 2-427 2-433 2-439 2-445 2-446 2-448 2-449 2-450 2-450 2-450 2-451 2-451 2-452 2-454 2-456 2-459 2-460 2-461 2-461 2-461 2-461 2-462 2-462 2-462 2-463

PREDICTION AND CORRELATION OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-463 Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-464 Classification of Estimation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-467 Theory and Empirical Extension of Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-467 Corresponding States (CS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-467 Group Contributions (GC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-467 Computational Chemistry (CC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-468 Empirical QSPR Correlations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-468 Molecular Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-468 Physical Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-468 Critical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-468 Tables 2-336 Ambrose Group Contributions for Critical Constants . . . . . 2-469 2-337 Joback Group Contributions for Critical Constants . . . . . . . 2-470 Normal Melting Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-471 Normal Boiling Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-471 2-338 Fedors Method Atomic and Structural Contributions . . . . . 2-471 2-339 First-Order Groups and Their Contributions for Melting Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-472 2-340 Second-Order Groups and Their Contributions for Melting Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-472 Characterizing and Correlating Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-473

2-341 Group Contributions for the Nannoolal Method for Normal Boiling Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-342 Intermolecular Interaction Corrections for the Nannoolal et al. Method for Normal Boiling Point . . . . . . . Vapor Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermal Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy of Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-343 Domalski-Hearing Group Contribution Values for Standard State Thermal Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Entropy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gibbs’ Energy of Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Latent Enthalpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy of Vaporization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy of Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy of Sublimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-344 Cs (CH) Group Values for Chickos Estimation of ∆Hfus . 2-345 Ct (Functional) Group Values for Chickos Estimation of ∆Hfus Heat Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-346 Group Contributions and Corrections for ∆Hsub . . . . . . . . . Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-347 Benson and CHETAH Group Contributions for Ideal Gas Heat Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-348 Liquid Heat Capacity Group Parameters for Ruzicka-Domalski Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-349 Group Values and Nonlinear Correction Terms for Estimation of Solid Heat Capacity with the Goodman et al. Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-350 Element Contributions to Solid Heat Capacity for the Modified Kopp’s Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-351 Simple Fluid Compressibility Factors Z(0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-352 Acentric Deviations Z(1) from the Simple Fluid Compressibility Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-353 Constants for the Two Reference Fluids Used in Lee-Kesler Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-354 Relationships for Eq. (2-66) for Common Cubic EoS . . . . . Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-355 Reichenberg Group Contribution Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquid Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-356 Group Contributions for the Hsu et al. Method . . . . . . . . . . 2-357 UNIFAC-VISCO Group Interaction Parameters αmn . . . . . . Thermal Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-358 Correlation Parameters for Baroncini et al. Method for Estimation of Thermal Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-359 Sastri-Rao Group Contributions for Liquid Thermal Conductivity at the Normal Boiling Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquid Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pure Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquid Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-360 Knotts Group Contributions for the Parachor in Estimating Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flammability Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-361 Group Contributions for Pintar Flammability Limits Method for Organic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-362 Group Contributions for Pintar Flammability Limits Method for Inorganic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-363 Group Contributions for Pintar Autoignition Temperature Method for Organic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-364 Group Contributions for Pintar Autoignition Temperature Method for Inorganic Compounds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-5

2-474 2-476 2-477 2-477 2-478 2-478 2-478 2-479 2-485 2-486 2-486 2-486 2-487 2-488 2-488 2-488 2-489 2-489 2-489 2-490 2-491 2-495 2-496 2-497 2-497 2-497 2-498 2-498 2-500 2-501 2-502 2-502 2-503 2-503 2-504 2-504 2-505 2-506 2-506 2-507 2-509 2-509 2-510 2-510 2-511 2-511 2-512 2-513 2-513 2-514 2-514 2-515 2-516 2-516 2-517 2-517

GENERAL REFERENCES Considerations of reader interest, space availability, the system or systems of units employed, copyright considerations, etc., have all influenced the revision of material in previous editions for the present edition. Reference is made at numerous places to various specialized works and, when appropriate, to more general works. A listing of general works may be useful to readers in need of further information.

ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals, SI edition, ASHRAE, Atlanta, 2005; Benedek, P., and F. Olti, Computer-Aided Chemical Thermodynamics of Gases and Liquids, Wiley, New York, 1985; Brule, M. R., L. L. Lee, and K. E. Starling, Chem. Eng., 86, 25, Nov. 19, 1979, pp. 155–164; Cox, J. D., and G. Pilcher, Thermochemistry of Organic and Organometallic Compounds, Academic Press, New York, 1970; Cox, J. D., D. D. Wagman, and V. A. Medvedev, CODATA Key Values for Thermodynamics, Hemisphere Publishing Corp., New York, 1989; Daubert, T. E., R. P. Danner, H. M. Sibel, and C. C. Stebbins, Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals: Data Compilation, Taylor & Francis, Washington, 1997; Domalski, E. S., and E. D. Hearing, Heat capacities and entropies of organic compounds in the condensed phase, vol. 3, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 25(1):1–525, Jan-Feb 1996; Dykyj, J., and M. Repas, Saturated vapor pressures of organic compounds, Veda, Bratislava, 1979 (Slovak); Dykyj, J., M. Repas, and J. Svoboda, Saturated vapor pressures of organic compounds, Veda, Bratislava, 1984 (Slovak); Glushko, V. P., Ed., Thermal Constants of Compounds, Issues I–X., Moscow, 1965–1982 (Russian only); Gmehling, J., Azeotropic Data, 2 vols., VCH Weinheim, Germany, 1994; Gmehling, J., and U. Onken, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data Collection, Dechema Chemistry Data Series, Frankfurt, 1977–1978; International Data Series, Selected Data on Mixtures, Series A: Thermodynamics Research Center, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo.; Kaye, S. M., Encyclopedia of Explosives and Related Items, U.S. Army R&D command, Dover, N.J., 1980; King, M. B., Phase Equilibrium in Mixtures, Pergamon, Oxford, 1969; Landolt-Boernstein, Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology (New Series), http://www.springeronline.com/sgw/cda/frontpage/0,11855,4-10113-295859-0,00.html; Lide, D. R., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 86th ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 2005; Lyman, W. J., W. F. Reehl, and D. H. Rosenblatt, Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990; Majer, V., and V. Svoboda, Enthalpies of Vaporization of Organic Compounds: A Critical Review and Data Compilation, Blackwell Science, 1985; Majer V., V. Svoboda, and J. Pick, Heats of Vaporization of Fluids, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1989 (general discussion); Marsh, K. N., Recommended Reference Materials for the Realization of Physicochemical Properties, Blackwell Science, 1987; NIST-IUPAC Solubility Data Series, Pergamon Press, http://www.iupac.org/publications/ci/1999/march/solubility.html; Ohse, R. W., and H. von Tippelskirch, High Temp.—High Press., 9:367–385, 1977; Ohse, R. W., Handbook of Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Alkali Metals, Blackwell Science Pubs., Oxford, England, 1985; Pedley, J. B., R. D. Naylor, and S. P. Kirby, Thermochemical Data of Organic Compounds, Chapman and Hall, New York, 1986; Physical Property Data for the Design Engineer, Hemisphere, New York, 1989; Poling, B. E., J. M. Prausnitz, and J. P. O’Connell, The Properties of

2-6

Gases and Liquids, 5th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 2001; Rothman, D, et al., Max Planck Inst. f. Stromungsforschung, Ber 6, 1978; Smith, B. D., and R. Srivastava, Thermodynamic Data for Pure Compounds, Part A: Hydrocarbons and Ketones, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1986, Physical sciences data 25, http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/bookseriesdescription.librarians/BS_PSD/description; Sterbacek, Z., B. Biskup, and P. Tausk, Calculation of Properties Using Corresponding States Methods, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1979; Stull, D. R., E. F. Westrum, and G. C. Sink, The Chemical Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, Wiley, New York, 1969; TRC Thermodynamic Tables—Hydrocarbons, Thermodynamics Research Center, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo.; TRC Thermodynamic Tables—NonHydrocarbons, Thermodynamics Research Center, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo.; Young, D. A., “Phase Diagrams of the Elements,” UCRL Rep. 51902, 1975 republished in expanded form by the University of California Press, 1991; Zabransky, M., V. Ruzicka, Jr., V. Majer, and E. S. Domalski, Heat Capacity of Liquids: Critical Review and Recommended Values, J. Phy. Chem. Ref. Data, Monograph No. 6, 1996. CRITICAL DATA ARE COMPILED IN:

Ambrose, D., “Vapor-Liquid Critical Properties,” N. P. L. Teddington, Middlesex, Rep. 107, 1980; Kudchaker, A. P., G. H. Alani, and B. J. Zwolinski, Chem. Revs. 68:659–735, 1968; Matthews, J. F., Chem. Revs. 72:71–100, 1972; Simmrock, K., R. Janowsky, and A. Ohnsorge, Critical Data of Pure Substances, Parts 1 and 2, Dechema Chemistry Data Series, 1986; Other recent references for critical data can be found in Lide, D. R., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 86th ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 2005. PUBLICATIONS ON THERMOCHEMISTRY

Pedley, J. B., Thermochemical Data and Structures of Organic Compounds, 1, Thermodynamic Research Center, Texas A&M Univ., 1994 (976 pp., 3000 cpds.); Frenkel, M., et al., Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds in the Gas State, 2 vols., Thermodynamic Research Center, Texas A&M Univ., 1994 (1825 pp., 2000 cpds.); Barin, I., Thermochemical Data of Pure Substances, 2 vols., 2d ed., VCH Weinheim, Germany, 1993 (1834 pp., 2400 substances); Gurvich, L.V., et al., Thermodynamic Properties of Individual Substances, 3 vols., 4th ed., Hemisphere, New York, 1989, 1990, and 1993 (2520 pp.); Lide, D. R., and G. W. A. Milne, Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds, 7 vols., 3d ed., Chemical Rubber, Miami, 1993 (7000 pp.); Daubert, T. E., et al., Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals: Data Compilation, extant 1995, Taylor & Francis, Bristol, Pa., 1995; Database 11, NIST, Gaithersburg, Md. U.S. Bureau of Mines publications include Bulletins 584, 1960 (232 pp.); 592, 1961 (149 pp.); 595, 1961 (68 pp.); 654, 1970 (26 pp.); Chase, M. W., et al., JANAF Thermochemical Tables, 3d ed., J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 14 suppl 1., 1986 (1896 pp.); Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data is available online at http://listserv. nd.edu/cgi-bin/wa?A2=ind0501&L=pamnet&F=&S=&P=8490 and at http://www.nist.gov/srd/reprints.htm

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES TABLE 2-1

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds* Abbreviations Used in the Table

a., acid A., specific gravity with reference to air = 1 abs., absolute ac., acetic acid act., acetone al., 95 percent ethyl alcohol alk, alkali (i.e., aq. NaOH or KOH) am., amyl (C5H11) amor., amorphous anh., anhydrous aq., aqueous or water aq. reg., aqua regia

atm., atmosphere or 760 mm. of mercury pressure bk., black brn., brown bz., benzene c., cold cb., cubic cc, cubic centimeter chl., chloroform col., colorless or white conc., concentrated cr., crystals or crystalline d., decomposes D., specific gravity with reference to hydrogen = 1

d. 50, decomposes at 50°C; 50 d., melts at 50°C with decomposition delq., deliquescent dil., dilute dk., dark eff., effloresces or efflorescent et., ethyl ether expl., explodes gel., gelatinous gly., glycerol (glycerin) gn., green h., hot hex., hexagonal

hyg., hygroscopic i., insoluble ign., ignites lq., liquid lt., light m. al., methyl alcohol mn., monoclinic nd., needles NH3, liquid ammonia NH4OH, ammonium hydroxide solution oct., octahedral or., orange pd., powder

Formula weights are based upon the International Atomic Weights in “Atomic Weights of the Elements 2001,” Pure Appl. Chem., 75, 1107, 2003, and are computed to the nearest hundredth. Refractive index, where given for a uniaxial crystal, is for the ordinary (ω) ray; where given for a biaxial crystal, the index given is for the median (β) value. Unless otherwise specified, the index is given for the sodium D-line (λ = 589.3 mµ). Specific gravity values are given at room temperatures (15 to 20 °C) unless otherwise indicated by the small figures which follow the value: thus, “5.6 18° 4 ” indicates a specific gravity of 5.6 for the substance at 18 °C referred to water at 4°C. In this table the values for the specific gravity of gases are given with reference to air (A) = 1, or hydrogen (D) = 1. Melting point is recorded in a certain case as “82 d.” and in some other case as “d. 82,” the distinction being made in this manner to indicate that the former is a melting point with decomposition at 82°C, while in the latter decomposition only occurs at 82 °C. Where a value such as “−2H2O, 82” is given it indicates loss of 2 moles of water per formula weight of the compound at a temperature of 82 °C. Boiling point is given at atmospheric pressure (760 mm. of mercury) unless otherwise indicated; thus, “8215 mm.” indicates the boiling point is 82°C when the pressure is 15 mm.

Name Aluminum acetate, normal acetate, basic bromide bromide carbide chloride chloride fluoride (fluellite) fluoride hydroxide nitrate nitride oxide oxide (corundum) phosphate

Formula

Formula weight

Color, crystalline form and refractive index

Al Al(C2H3O2)3 Al(OH)(C2H3O2)2 AlBr3 AlBr36H2O Al4C3 AlCl3

26.98 204.11 162.08 266.69 374.78 143.96 133.34

silv., cb. wh. pd. wh., amor. trig. col., delq. cr. yel., hex., 2.70 wh., delq., hex.

AlCl3·6H2O AlF3H2O Al2F67H2O Al(OH)3 Al(NO3)39H2O Al2N2 Al2O3 Al2O3 AlPO4

241.43 101.99 294.06 78.00 375.13 81.98 101.96 101.96 121.95

col., delq., trig., 1.560 col., rhb., 1.490 wh., cr. pd. wh., mn. rhb., delq. yel., hex. col., hex., 1.67–8 wh., trig., 1.768 col., hex.

pl., plates pr., prisms or prismatic pyr., pyridine rhb., rhombic (orthorhombic) s., soluble satd., saturated sl., slightly soln., solution subl., sublimes sulf., sulfides tart. a., tartaric acid tet., tetragonal tr., transition tri., triclinic

trig., trigonal v., very vac., in vacuo vl., violet volt., volatile or volatilizes wh., white yel., yellow ∞, soluble in all proportions , greater than 42, about or near 42 −3H2O, 100, loses 3 moles of water per formula weight at 100°C

Solubility is given in parts by weight (of the formula shown at the extreme left) per 100 parts by weight of the solvent; the small superscript indicates the temperature. In the case of gases the solubility is often expressed in some manner as “510° cc” which indicates that at 10 °C, 5 cc. of the gas are soluble in 100 g of the solvent. The symbols of the common mineral acids: H2SO4, HNO3, HCl, etc., represent dilute aqueous solutions of these acids. See also special tables on Solubility. REFERENCES: The information given in this table has been collected mainly from the following sources: Mellor, A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, Longmans, New York, 1922. Abegg, Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie, S. Hirzel, Leipzig, 1905. Gmelin-Kraut, Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie, 7th ed., Carl Winter, Heidelberg; 8th ed., Verlag Chemie, Berlin, 1924. Friend, Textbook of Inorganic Chemistry, Griffin, London, 1914. Winchell, Microscopic Character of Artificial Inorganic Solid Substances or Artificial Minerals, Wiley, New York, 1931. International Critical Tables, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1926. Tables annuelles internationales de constants et donnes numeriques, McGraw-Hill, New York. Annual Tables of Physical Constants and Numerical Data, National Research Council, Princeton, N.J., 1943. Comey and Hahn, A Dictionary of Chemical Solubilities, Macmillan, New York, 1921. Seidell, Solubilities of Inorganic and Metal Organic Compounds, Van Nostrand, New York, 1940.

Specific gravity 2.7020° 3.01 25° 4 2.95 2.44 25° 4 2.17 2.42 3.05 3.99 4.00 2.59

25° 4

Melting point, °C 660 d. 200 d. 97.5 d. 100 d. >2200 1945.2atm. d. −4H2O, 120 −2H2O, 300 73 21504atm. 1999 to 2032 1999 to 2032

Boiling point, °C 2056 268 752mm

182.7 ; subl. 178 −6H2O, 250 d. 134 d. >1400 2210

Solubility in 100 parts Cold water i. s. i. s. s. d. to CH4 69.8715° 400 sl. s. i. 0.00010418° v. s. d. slowly i. i. i.

Hot water i. d.

Other reagents s. HCl, H2SO4, alk.

s. d.

s.a.; i. NH4 salts s.al., act., CS2 s. al., CS2 s. a.; i. act. s. et., chl., CCl4; i. bz.

v. s.

50 al.; s. et.

s.

sl. s. i. v. s. d. i. i. i.

2-7

*By N. A. Lange, Ph.D., Handbook Publishers, Inc., Sandusky, Ohio. Abridged from table of Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds in Lange’s Handbook of Chemistry.

s. a., alk.; i. a. s. al., CS2 s. alk. d. v. sl. s. a., alk. v. sl. s. a., alk. s. a., alk.; i. ac.

2-8

TABLE 2-1

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued)

Name Aluminum (Cont.) potassium silicate (muscovite)

Formula

Formula weight

Color, crystalline form and refractive index

Specific gravity

Melting point, °C

Boiling point, °C

Solubility in 100 parts Cold water

3Al2O3K2O6SiO2· 2H2O Al2O3K2O6SiO2 AlK(C4H4O6)2 AlF33NaF Al2O3Na2O6SiO2 Al2(SO4)3 Al2(SO4)3(NH4)2SO4 24H2O Cr2(SO4)3(NH4)2SO4 24H2O Fe2(SO4)3(NH4)2SO4 24H2O Al2(SO4)3K2SO4 24H2O Cr2(SO4)3K2SO4 24H2O Al2(SO4)3Na2SO4 24H2O NH3

796.61

mn., 1.590

2.9

d.

i.

556.66 362.22 209.94 524.44 342.15 906.66

col., mn., 1.524 col. wh., mn., 1.3389 col., tri., 1.529 wh. cr. col., oct., 1.4594

2.56

1450 (1150)

2.90 2.61 2.71 1.64 20° 4

1000 1100 d. 770 93.5

i. s. sl. s. i. 31.30° 3.90°

17.03

col. gas, 1.325 (lq.)

77.08 337.09 79.06 97.94 114.10 157.13

wh., hyg. cr. pl. mn. or rhb., 1.5358 col., cb., 1.7108 col. pl. wh. cr.

272.21

wh.

chloride (salammoniac) chloroplatinate chloroplatinite chlorostannate chromate cyanide dichromate ferrocyanide fluoride fluoride, acid formate

NH4C2H3O2 NH4CNAu(CN)3H2O NH4HCO3 NH4Br (NH4)2CO3H2O NH4HCO3 NH2CO2NH4‡ (NH4)2CO3 2NH4HCO3H2O NH4Cl (NH4)2PtCl6 (NH4)2PtCl4 (NH4)2SnCl6 (NH4)2CrO4 NH4CN (NH4)2Cr2O7 (NH4)4Fe(CN)66H2O NH4F NH4FHF HCO2NH4

53.49 443.87 372.97 367.50 152.07 44.06 252.06 392.19 37.04 57.04 63.06

wh., cb., 1.639, 1.6426 yel., cb. tet. pink., cb. yel., mn. col., cb. or., mn. mn. wh., hex. wh., rhb., 1.390 col., mn., delq.

hydrosulfide hydroxide molybdate molybdate, heptanitrate (α), stable −16° to 32° nitrate (β), stable 32° to 84°

NH4HS NH4OH (NH4)2MoO4 (NH4)6Mo7O244H2O‡ NH4NO3 NH4NO3

51.11 35.05 196.01 1235.86 80.04 80.04

col., rhb. in soln. only mn. col., mn. col., tet., 1.611 col., rhb. or mn.

nitrite osmochloride oxalate oxalate, acid perchlorate persulfate phosphate, monobasic

NH4NO2 (NH4)2OsCl6 (NH4)2C2O4H2O NH4HC2O4H2O NH4ClO4 (NH4)2S2O8 NH4H2PO4

64.04 439.02 142.11 125.08 117.49 228.20 115.03

wh. nd. cb. col., rhb. col., trimetric col., rhb., 1.4833 wh., mn., 1.5016 col., tet., 1.5246

potassium silicate (orthoclase) Aluminum potassium tartrate sodium fluoride (cryolite) sodium silicate sulfate Alum, ammonium (tschermigite) ammonium chrome ammonium iron potassium (kalinite) potassium chrome sodium Ammonia† Ammonium acetate auricyanide bicarbonate bromide carbonate carbonate, carbamate carbonate, sesqui-

956.69 964.38

gn. or vl., oct., 1.4842

1.72

100 d.

vl., oct., 1.485

1.71

948.78

col., mn., 1.4564

1.76 26° 4

92

998.81

red or gn., cb., 1.4814

1.83

89

916.56

col., oct., 1.4388

−20H2O, 120; −24H2O, 200

1.675

−79°

0.817 0.5971 (A) 1.073 1.573 2.327 15° 4

2.4 1.91712° 0.79100° (A) 2.15 12° 2.21 12 1.266

25°

21.2

5.7 °

i. al. s. al. i. al.

93°

50 0°

61

i. HCl d. a.



0

20

i. al. 45°

106.4

121.7



96°

i. al.

−77.7

−33.4

89.9

7.4

14.820° al.; s. et.

114 d. 200 d. 35–60 subl. 542 d. 58 subl.

d.

1484° s. 11.90° 6810° 10015° 2515°

v. s. 2730° 145.6100°

s. al.; sl. s. act. i. al. i. al. s. al., et., act. i. al., CS2, NH3

2015°

5049°

29.40° 0.715° s. 33.315° 40.530° s. 47.230° s. v. s. v. s. 1020°

77.3100° 1.25100° v. s.

s. NH3; sl. s. al., m. al. 0.005 al.

d. v. s. v. s. d.

sl. s. act., NH3; i. al. s. al. s. al.; i. act. i. al. s. al.; i. NH3

53180°

s. al.

d. 1.5317° 3.065

i. 89100° ∞ 100°

124 −18H2O, 64.5

Other reagents

s.

25°

40

20° 4

Hot water

d. 350 d. d.

subl. 520

d. 180 36 d. 185 d. 114–116 d.

2.27

d.

1.66 25° 4 1.725 25° 4

169.6

1.69 2.93 20° 4 1.501 1.556 1.95 1.98 1.803 19° 4

expl.

d. 180; subl. in vac. subl. 120

d. 210 d. 210

v. s. s. d. 4425° 118.30° 365.835°

241.830° 58080°

s.

d. 0°

d. d. d. 120

6765°

2.5 s. 10.90° 58.20° 22.70°

s. al. d.

11.850° 100°

46.9 d. 173.2100°

i. al., NH3 i. al. 3.820° al., 17.120° m. al.; v. s. NH3 s. al. sl. s. al.; i. NH3 220° al.; s. act.; i. et. i. ac.

phosphate, dibasic phosphate, metaAmmonium phosphomolybdate silicofluoride sulfamate sulfate (mascagnite) sulfate, acid sulfide sulfide, pentasulfite sulfite, acid tartrate thiocyanate vanadate, metaAntimony

(NH4)2HPO4 (NH4)4P4O12 (NH4)3PO412MoO3 3H2O (?) (NH4)2SiF6 NH4SO3NH2 (NH4)2SO4 NH4HSO4 (NH4)2S (NH4)2S5 (NH4)2SO3H2O NH4HSO3 (NH4)2C4H4O6 NH4CNS NH4VO3 Sb

132.06 388.04 1930.39 178.15 114.12 132.14 115.11 68.14 196.40 134.16 99.11 184.15 76.12 116.98 121.76

col., mn., 1.53 col., mn. yel.

13115° s. 0.0315°

1.619 2.21 d. 2.01

i.

s. alk.; i. al., HNO3

55.5 35750° 103.3100°

s. al.; i. act.

1380

18.5 1340° 70.60° 100 v. s. s. 10012° s. 450° 1200° 0.4418° i.

∞72°

1.41 2.03 12° 4 1.60 1.305 2.326 6.68425°

d. d. d. 149.6 d. 630.5 73.4

220.2

601.60°

1570

v. sl. s.

1.78

132 235 d. 146.9 d.

subl. d. 160

17.5°

cb., 1.3696 col. pl. col., rhb., 1.5230 col., rhb., 1.480 yel.-wh. or.-red pr. col., mn. rhb. col., mn. col., mn., 1.685 col. cr. tin wh., trig.

1.769 20° 4

i. act.

490

d. 170

i. al., act., CS2 v. sl. s. al.; i. act. 12025° NH3 i. al., act.

60°

87 17020° 3.0570° i.

sl. s. al. s. al., act., NH3, SO2 i. al., NH4Cl s. aq. reg., h. conc. H2SO4 s. al., HCl, HBr, H2C4H4O6 s. HCl, KOH, H2C4H4O6

chloride, tri- (butter of antimony)* oxide, tri- (valentinite) oxide, tri- (senarmontite) sulfide, tri- (stibnite)

SbCl3

228.12

col., rhb., delq.

3.14 20° 4

Sb2O3 Sb2O3 Sb2S3

291.52 291.52 339.72

rhb., 2.35 cb., 2.087 bk., rhb., 4.046

5.67 5.2 4.64

656 652 550

0.00017

d.

sulfide, pentatelluride, triAntimonyl potassium tartrate (tartar emetic) sulfate, normal sulfate, basic Argon

Sb2S5 Sb2Te3

403.85 626.32

golden gray

4.1200°

−2S, 135 629

i.

i.

(SbO)KC4H4O6aH2O (SbO)2SO4 (SbO)2SO4Sb2(OH)4 Ar

333.94 371.58 683.20 39.95

wh., rhb. wh. pd. wh. pd. col. gas

2.60 4.89

−aH2O, 100 −189.2

−185.7

35.7100° d. d. 2.2350° cc

s. gly.; i. al.

Arsenic (crystalline) (α) Arsenic (black) (β)

As4 As4

299.69 299.69

met., hex. bk., amor.

1.65−288°; 1.402−185.7°; 1.38 (A) 5.72714° 4.720°

5.268.7° d. i. 5.60° cc

81436atm.

subl. 615

i. i.

i. i.

Arsenic (yellow)(γ) acid, orthoacid, metaacid, pyropentoxide sulfide, di- (realgar)

As4 H3AsO4aH2O HAsO3 H4As2O7 As2O5 As2S2

299.69 150.95 123.93 265.87 229.84 213.97

yel., cb. col., hyg. wh., hyg. col. wh., amor. red, mn., 2.68

2.020° 2.0–2.5

s. HNO3 s. HNO3, aq. reg., aq. Cl2, h. alk.

d. 358 35.5 d. d. 206

−H2O, 160

50 H3AsO4 H3AsO4 76.7100° d.

s. alk.

d. 565

16.7 d. to form d. to form 59.50° i.

s. alk., al. s. K2S, NaHCO3

sulfide, pentaArsenious chloride (butter of arsenic) hydride (arsine) oxide (arsenolite) oxide (claudetite) oxide

As2S5

310.17

yel.

d. 500

0.0001360°

i.

s. HNO3, alk.

AsCl3 AsH3 As2O3 As2O3 As2O3

181.28 77.95 197.84 197.84 197.84

oily lq. col. gas col., cb., fibrous, 1.755 col., mn., 1.92 amor. or vitreous

130 −55; d. 230

d. 20 cc sl. s. sl. s. 1.210°

d. sl. s. sl. s. sl. s. 2.9340°

Auric chloride

AuCl32H2O

339.36

or. cr.

v. s.

v. s.

cyanide Aurous chloride cyanide Cf. also under Gold Barium acetate acetate bromide

Au(CN)36H2O AuCl AuCN

383.11 232.42 222.98

yel. cr. yel. cr.

7.4

v. s. d. i.

v. s. d. i.

s. HCl, HBr, PCl3 sl. s. alk. i. al., et. i. al., et. s. HCl, alk., Na2CO3; i. al., et. s. HCl, al., et.; sl. s. NH3 s. al. s. HCl, HBr; d. al. s. KCN; i. al., et.

Ba Ba(C2H3O2)2 Ba(C2H3O2)2H2O BaBr2

137.33 255.42 273.43 297.14

silv. met. col. wh., tri. pr., 1.517 col.

3.5 2.468 2.19 4.781 24° 4

d. 58.80° 7530°(anh.) 980°

d. 75.0100° 7940°(anh.) 149100°

2-9

*Usually the solution. †See special tables. ‡Usual commercial form.

4.086 (α)3.50619°; (β)3.25419° lq. 2.163 2.695 (A) 3.865 25° 4 3.85 3.738

(α)tr. 267; (β)307 −18 −113.5 subl. subl. 315

sl. s. 18°

d. d. 50 AuCl3, 170 d.

d. 290

850

1140

−H2O, 41 847

d.

s. HCl; alk., NH4HS, K2S; i. ac. s. HCl, alk., NH4HS

5.1515° gly. 2425° cc al.

s. a.; d. al. i. al. v. s. m. al.; v. sl. s. act.

2-10

TABLE 2-1

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued)

Name Barium (Cont.) bromide carbonate (witherite) carbonate (α) carbonate (β) Barium chlorate chlorate chloride chloride chloride hydroxide hydroxide nitrate (nitrobarite) oxalate oxide peroxide peroxide phosphate, monobasic phosphate, dibasic phosphate, tribasic phosphate, pyrosilicofluoride sulfate (barite, barytes) sulfide, monosulfide, trisulfide, tetraBeryllium (glucinum) Bismuth carbonate, subchloride, dichloride, trinitrate nitrate, suboxide, trioxide, trioxide, trioxychloride

Formula

Formula weight

Color, crystalline form and refractive index

Specific gravity

Melting point, °C

BaBr22H2O BaCO3 BaCO3 BaCO3 Ba(ClO3)2 Ba(ClO3)2H2O* BaCl2 BaCl2 BaCl22H2O† Ba(OH)2 Ba(OH)28H2O Ba(NO3)2 BaC2O4 BaO

333.17 197.34 197.34 197.34 304.23 322.24 208.23 208.23 244.26 171.34 315.46 261.34 225.35 153.33

col., mn., 1.7266 wh., rhb., 1.676 wh., hex. wh. col. col., mn., 1.577 col., mn., 1.7361 col., cb. col., mn., 1.646 col., mn. col., mn., 1.5017 col., cb., 1.572 wh. cr. col., cb., 1.98

BaO2* BaO28H2O BaH4(PO4)2 BaHPO4 Ba3(PO4)2 Ba2P2O7 BaSiF6 BaSO4

169.33 313.45 331.30 233.31 601.92 448.60 279.40 233.39

gray or wh. pd. pearly sc. tri. wh., rhb. nd., 1.635 wh., cb. wh., rhb. pr. col., rhb., 1.636

BaS BaS3 BaS42H2O Be(Gl) Bi

169.39 233.52 301.62 9.01 208.98

Bi2O3CO2H2O BiCl2(?) BiCl3* Bi(NO3)35H2O BiONO3H2O Bi2O3 Bi2O3 Bi2O3 BiOCl

527.98 279.89 315.34 485.07 305.00 465.96 465.96 465.96 260.43

col., cb., 2.155 yel.-gn. red, rhb. gray, met., hex. silv. wh. or reddish, hex. wh. pd. bk. nd. wh. cr. col., tri. hex. pl. yel., rhb. yel., tet. yel., cb. wh., amor.

6.86 4.86 4.75 2.82 4.92815° 8.9 8.55 8.20 7.7215°

d. 163 230 d. 30 d. 260 820 860 tr. 704

3.69 4.29

3.179 3.856 24° 4 3.097 24° 4 4.495 16° 2.188 3.24428° 2.658 5.72 4.958 4°

2.9 4.16515° 4.116° 3.920° 4.27915° 4.49915°

Boiling point, °C

−2H2O, 100 tr. 811 to α tr. 982 to β 174090atm 414 d. 120 tr. 925 962 −2H2O, 100

d. d. 1450

77.9 592

−8H2O, 550 d.

1923

2.988 1.816 9.8020°

d. 400 d. 200 1284 271

Other reagents

v. s. 0.0065100°

s. al. s. a.; i. al.

0.002218° 20.350° s. 310°

0.0065100° 84.880° s. 59100°

s. a.; i. al.

76.8100° 101.480°

sl. s. HCl, HNO3; i. al.

2000

39.30° 1.670° 5.615° 5.00° 0.00168° 1.50°

d. d. d.

tr. to mn. 1149

v. sl. s. 0.168 d. 0.015 i. 0.01 0.02617° 0.0001150°

0.09100° 0.00028530°

2767 1450

d. s. 4115° i. i.

d. s. v. s. sl. s. d. i.

i. d. d. d. i. i. i. i. sl. s.

i.

i. i. i. i. sl. s.

2.660°

40.2100°

1560 1560

4.2515° 20°

Hot water

v. s. 0.002218°

−O, 800 −8H2O, 100

1580 d.

Solubility in 100 parts Cold water

d. 300 447 −5H2O, 80 1900

34.2100° 0.002424° 90.880°

sl. s. al., act. sl. s. HCl, HNO3; i. al.

v. sl. s. al.; i. et. sl. s. a.; i. al. s. a., NH4Cl; i. al. s. HCl, HNO3, abs. al.; i. NH3, act. s. dil. a.; i. act. s. dil. a.; i. al., et., act. s. a. s. a., NH4 salts s. a. s. a., NH4 salts sl. s. HCl, NH4Cl; i. al. s. conc. H2SO4; 0.006, 3% HCl d. HCl; i. al. i. al., CS2 s. dil. a., alk. s. aq. reg., conc. H2SO4, HNO3 s. a. s. al. 4219° act.; s. a.; i. al. s. a. s. a. s. a. s. a. s. a.; i. act., NH3, H2C4H4O6 22.220° gly., 0.2425° et.; s. al. s. HNO3; i. al.

Boric acid

H3BO3

61.83

wh., tri.

1.43515°

185 d.

Boron

B

10.81

2.32

2300

2550

i.

i.

carbide oxide oxide (sassolite) Bromic acid Bromine

B4C B2O3 B2O33H2O HBrO3 Br2

55.25 69.62 123.67 128.91 159.81

gray or bk., amor. or mn. bk. cr. col. glass, 1.459 tri., 1.456 col.; in soln. only rhb., or red lq.

2.54 1.85 1.49

2450 577 d. d. 100 −7.2

>3500 >1500

i. 1.10° sl. s. v. s. 4.220°

i. 15.7100° s. d. 3.1330°

i. a. s. a., al., gly.

hydrate Cadmium acetate acetate carbonate

Br210H2O Cd Cd(C2H3O2)2 Cd(C2H3O2)22H2O* CdCO3

339.96 112.41 230.50 266.53 172.42

red, oct. silv. met., hex. col. col., mn. wh., trig.

8.6520° 2.341 2.01 4.2584°

d. 6.8 320.9 256 −H2O, 130 d. 200 d. 300 350 59.4

132

d. 900–1000 d. 1000 tr. 108 tr. 41.5

3.6720° 2.765

tr. 4 1750100atm 810 d. 1600 1551

3.353 25° 4 2.93 25° 2.711 4 2.152 15° 4

760 d. 825 1339103atm. 772

1810

1.6817°

29.92 −2H2O, 130

−6H2O, 200 −4H2O, 185

1.7 3.18020° 2.015 1.7 2.2

2.872 3.3 2.36 1.82 2.6317° 2.2334° 2.24° 2.2 3.32 2.220 16° 4 2.306 16° 4 3.14 2.82 3.09 2.25 2.5115° 2.905 2.915 2.96

subl. in N2, 980 1200  30

>1600

1330 d. d. 675 −H2O, 580 d. −2H2O, 200 −3H2O, 100

−8H2O, 100 −H2O, 100 d. 1670 975 1230

2850 expl. 275 d. 200

>1600 1540 tr. 1190 to α 1450(mn.)

180100°

76.50° s. 114.20° s. 350−5° 0.000001 d. 520° d.

60.8100° s. 127.660° s.

0.01325° 1250° 0.001220°† 0.001425° 59.50° s. v. s. 0.08518° s. d. s. 0.001618° 16.10° d. 0.1850° delq.; d. i. 10.5

32659.5° i. i.

Colloidal d. 45.580° i. 312105° 0.002100° 0.002100° 347260° s. v. s. 0.09626° d. 15090° 0.001726° 18.4100 0.077100° d. ∞

2.0515° m. al. s. a.; NH4OH, KCN s. a., NH4 salts; i. alk. v. s. a. s. al., NH3; i. HNO3 s. a., NH4 salts; i. alk. s. a., NH4 salts; i. alk. d. a., alk. i.act., NH3 i. al. i. al. i. al. s. a.; v. s. NH4OH s, a.; sl. s. al. sl. s. al. s. HCl s. dil. a. s. al., act.; sl. s. NH3 s. a., NH4Cl s. a., NH4Cl s. al. s. al. s. al. 0.006518° al. i. al. sl. s. a. i. al., et. d. a.; i. bz. s. NH4Cl d. a. s. HCl, H4P2O6 ∞h. al.; i. et.

18°

d. 730–760 1391 561 42.7 900 d. −H2O, 200 2570

16820° 0.024718° 0.0002625° 109.70° 2150° i. i.

tr. 1193 to rhb.

0.032 i. 1020° 2660° d. 770° 0.0006713° i. Forms Ca(OH)2 sl. s. 0.0224.5° 0.0025 i. i. sl. s. d. 0.009517° 0.29820°

i. 376151° v. s. d. 41790° 0.001495° i. d. d. 0.075100° d. i.

0.1619100°

1415° al.; s. amyl al., NH3 s. dil. a.; i. abs. al. s. 90% al. s. a.; i. ac. s. a.; i. ac s. a.; i. al. s. a. d.; i. al., et. s. a.; i. al., ac. i. a. s. a. s. a.; i. NH4Cl s. dil. a.; i. al., et. s. HCl s. a., Na2S2O3, NH4 salts

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued)

TABLE 2-1

2-12

Name Calcium (Cont.) sulfate (gypsum) sulfhydrate sulfide (oldhamite) sulfite tartrate thiocyanate thiosulfate tungstate (scheelite) Carbon, cf. table of organic compounds Carbon, amorphous Carbon, diamond Carbon, graphite dioxide disulfide

Formula

172.17

col., mn., 1.5226

Ca(SH)26H2O CaS CaSO32H2O CaC4H4O64H2O Ca(CNS)23H2O CaS2O36H2O CaWO4

214.32 72.14 156.17 260.21 210.29 260.30 287.92

col. pr. col., cb. wh., cr., 1.595 col., rhb. wh., delq. cr. col., tri., 1.56 wh., tet., 1.9200

C C C CO2

12.01 12.01 12.01 44.01

bk., amor. col., cb., 2.4195 bk., hex. col. gas

CS2

76.14

col. lq.

CO

oxychloride (phosgene) oxysulfide

COCl2 COS C3O2 CSCl2 2CeO23H2O Ce(OH)(NO3)33H2O CeO2 Ce(SO4)24H2O Ce

28.01

98.92 60.08 68.03 114.98 398.28 397.18 172.11 404.30 140.12

Cerous sulfate sulfate Cesium Chloric acid Chlorine

Ce2(SO4)3 Ce2(SO4)38H2O Cs HClO37H2O Cl2

568.42 712.54 132.91 210.57 70.91

hydrate Chloroplatinic acid Chlorostannic acid Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acetate chloride chloride fluoride hydroxide

Cl28H2O H2PtCl66H2O H2SnCl66H2O HOSO2Cl Cr2(C2H3O2)62H2O CrCl3 CrCl36H2O* CrF3 Cr(OH)3

215.03 517.90 441.54 116.52 494.29 158.36 266.45 108.99 103.02

Cr(OH)32H2O Cr(NO3)39H2O* Cr(NO3)37aH2O Cr2O3 Cr2(SO4)3 Cr2(SO4)35H2O Cr2(SO4)315H2O Cr2(SO4)318H2O Cr2S3

139.05 400.15 373.13 151.99 392.18 482.26 662.41 716.46 200.19

hydroxide nitrate nitrate oxide sulfate sulfate sulfate sulfate sulfide

Color, crystalline form and refractive index

CaSO42H2O

monoxide

suboxide thionyl chloride Ceric hydroxide hydroxynitrate oxide sulfate Cerium

Formula weight

col., poisonous, odorless gas poisonous gas gas gas yel.-red lq. yel., gelatinous red, mn. wh. or pa. yel., cb. yel., rhb. steel gray, cb. or hex. wh., mn. or rhb. tri. silv. met., hex. lq. rhb., or gn.-yel. gas rhb. red-brn., delq. delq. col. lq. gn. pink, trig. vl. or gn., hex. pl. gn., rhb. gn. or blue, gelatinous gn. purple pr. purple, mn. dark gn., hex. rose pd. gn. vl. vl., cb., 1.564 brn.-bk. pd.

Specific gravity 2.32

Melting point, °C

Boiling point, °C

−1aH2O, 128

−2H2O, 163

d. 15

2.815°

−2H2O, 100 d.

d. 650

Solubility in 100 parts Cold water

Hot water

0.2230°

0.25750°

v. s. d. 0.004318° 0.0370° s. 71.29° 0.2

v. s. d. 0.002790° 0.2285° v. s. d.

Other reagents s. a., gly., Na2S2O3, NH4 salts s. al. s. a. s. H2SO3 sl. s. al. v. s. al. i. al. s. NH4Cl; i. a.

1.87316° 6.06

d.

1.8–2.1 3.5120° 2.2620° lq. 1.101−87°; 1.53 (A); solid 1.56−79° 22° lq. 1.261 20 ; 2.63 (A) lq. 0.814−195° 4 ; 0.968 (A) 1.392 19° 4 lq. 1.24−87°; 2.10 (A) lq. 1.1140° 1.50915°

>3500 >3500 >3500 −56.65.2atm.

4200 4200 4200 subl. −78.5

i. i. i. 179.70° cc

i. i. i. 90.120° cc

i. a., alk. i. a., alk. i. a., alk. s. a., alk.

−108.6

46.3

0.20°

0.01450°

s. al.; et.

−207

−192

0.00440°; 3.50° cc

0.001850° 2.3220° cc

s. al., Cu2Cl2

−104 −138.2

8.2756mm −50.2760mm

v. s. sl. d. 1330° cc

d. 40.330° cc

s. ac., CCl4, bs.; d.a. v. s. alk., al.

−107

7761mm 73.5

d.

s. et. s. a.; sl. s. alk. carb.; i. alk

7.3 3.91 6.920° cb.; 6.7 hex. 3.91 2.88617° 1.9020° 1.28214.2° lq. 1.56−33.6°; 2.490° (A) 1.23 2.431 1.97128° 1.78725°

1950 645

5.21 3.012 1.86717° 1.722° 3.7719°

i.



−8H2O, 630 28.5 1000

d.

−2H2O, 100 36.5 100 1900

d. 100 d.

100

−10H2O, 100 −12H2O, 100

−S, 1350

18.98 250° d. v. s. 1.460°; 31010° cc s. v. s. s. d. s. i.§ v. s. d. i. i. i. s. s. i. i.† s. s. 12020° i.

Slowly oxidized 0.4100° 7.640°

s. H2SO4, HCl s. dil. H2SO4 s. dil. a.; i. al.

s. a., al., NH3 0.57 ; 17730° cc 30°

v. s.

sl. s.

i. s. s. i. d. 67° d. d.

s. alk. s. alk. s. al., et. d. al.; i. CS2 4.7615° m. al. i. a., act., CS2 s. al.; i. et. sl. s. a.; i. al., NH3 s. a., alk.; sl. s. NH3 s. a., alk. s. a., alk., al., act. sl. s. a. i. a. s. al., H2SO4 sl. s. al. s. al. s. h. HNO3

Chromium trioxide (chromic acid) Chromous chloride hydroxide oxide sulfate sulfide (daubrelite) Chromyl chloride Cobalt carbonyl sulfide, diCobaltic chloride chloride, dichro chloride, luteo chloride, praseo Cobaltic chloride, purpureo chloride, roseo hydroxide oxide sulfate sulfide Cobalto-cobaltic oxide Cobaltous acetate chloride chloride nitrate oxide sulfate sulfate

Cr

52.00

gray, met., cb.

CrO3 CrCl2 Cr(OH)2 CrO CrSO47H2O CrS CrO2Cl2 Co Co(CO)4 CoS2 CoCl3 Co(NH3)3Cl3H2O Co(NH3)6Cl3 Co(NH3)4Cl3H2O Co(NH3)5Cl3 Co(NH3)5Cl3H2O Co(OH)3 Co2O3 Co2(SO4)3 Co2S3 Co3O4 Co(C2H3O2)24H2O CoCl2 CoCl26H2O* Co(NO3)26H2O

99.99 122.90 86.01 68.00 274.17 84.06 154.90 58.93 170.97 123.06 165.29 234.40 267.48 251.43 250.44 268.46 109.96 165.86 406.05 214.06 240.80 249.08 129.84 237.93 291.03

red, rhb. wh., delq. yel.-brn. bk. pd. blue bk. pd. dark red lq. silv. met., cb. or. cr. bk., cb. red cr.

CoO CoSO4 CoSO4H2O

74.93 155.00 173.01

brn., cb. red pd. red pd., mn.(?), 1.639 red, mn., 1.483 brn. nd. yel.-red met., cb.

or., mn. gn., rhb. rhb. brick red bk. bk. blue cr. bk. cr. bk., cb. red-vl., mn., 1.542 blue cr. red, mn. red, mn., 1.4

7.1 2.70 2.75

1615

d. 3.97 1.92 8.920° 1.7318° 4.269 2.94 1.701620° 1.847 25° 1.819 25

1550 −96.5 1480 51

5.18

d. 100 −1aH2O, 100 d. 900

4.8 6.07 1.705318.7° 3.356 25° 1.924 25 25° 1.883 25

−4H2O, 140 subl. 86 1100 1083

−7H2O, 420

115

240 d.

1.98

d. 110

1.81 3.88

d. 150 d. 220

ammonium sulfate carbonate, basic (azurite)

CuSO44NH3H2O 2CuCO3Cu(OH)2

245.75 344.67

blue, tet., 1.670, 1.744 blue, rhb. blue, mn., 1.758

carbonate, basic (malachite) chloride (eriochalcite)

CuCO3Cu(OH)2 CuCl2

221.12 134.45

dark gn., mn., 1.875 brn.-yel. pd.

3.9 3.054

d. 498

chloride chromate, basic cyanide dichromate ferricyanide ferrocyanide formate hydroxide lactate nitrate nitrate

CuCl22H2O CuCrO42CuO2H2O Cu(CN)2 CuCr2O72H2O Cu3[Fe(CN)6]2 Cu2Fe(CN)67H2O Cu(HCO2)2 Cu(OH)2 Cu(C3H5O3)22H2O Cu(NO3)23H2O* Cu(NO3)26H2O

170.48 374.66 115.58 315.56 614.54 465.15 153.58 97.56 277.72 241.60 295.65

gn., rhb., 1.684 yel.-brn. yel.-gn. bk., tri. yel.-gn. red-brn. blue, mn. blue, gelatinous dark blue, mn. blue, delq. blue, rhb.

2.3922.4° 2.28618°

−2H2O, 110 −2H2O, 260 d. −2H2O, 100

1.831 3.368

−H2O

2.0473.9° 2.074

114.5 −3H2O, 26.4

*Usual commercial form. †Also a soluble modification.

277.47

dark gn., mn. gn.

117.6 2900 d. 52

subl.

ammonium chloride

281.10 91.00 63.55 181.63 199.65 1013.79

i.

i. 0°

197 d.

CoSO47H2O* CoS Cu Cu(C2H3O2)2 Cu(C2H3O2)2H2O (CuOAs2O3)3 Cu(C2H3O2)2* CuCl22NH4Cl2H2O

sulfate (biebeorite) sulfide (syeporite) Copper Cupric acetate acetate aceto-arsenite (Paris green)

2200

1049 −6H2O, 110 d.

164.9 v. s. d. i. 12.350 i. d. i. i. i. s. s. 4.260° v. s. 0.2320° 16.120° i. i. d. i. i. s. 457° 116.50° 84.030°(anh.) i. 25.60° s.

2300

−HNO3, 170

206.7 v. s. i.

i. d.

s. HCl, dil. H2SO4; i. HNO3 s. H2SO4, al., et. sl. s. al.; i. et. s. conc. a. i. dil. HNO3 sl. s. al. v. s. a. s. et. s. a. s. al., et., CS2 s. HNO3, aq. reg.

s. 12.7446.5° 1.03146.5° 24.8716° i. i. i. s. 10596° 17780° 334.990° (anh.) i. 83100° s.

s. a.; al. i. al., NH4OH s. a.; i. al. i. al. sl. s. HCl s. a.; i. al. s. a. s. H2SO4 d. a. s. H2SO4; i. HCl, HNO3 s. a., al. 31 al.; 8.6 act. v. s. et., act. 10012.5° al.; s. act.; sl. s. NH3 s. a., NH4OH; i. al. 1.0418° m. al.; i. NH8

3380° 0.0003818° i. s. 7.2 i.

s.

20

7 al.; s. et.; gly. s. a., NH4OH

33.80°

99.380°

s. a.

18.05 i.

d. d.

i. 70.70°

d. 107.9100°

i. al. s. NH4OH, h. aq. NaHCO3 s. KCN; 0.03 aq. CO 5315° al.; 6815° m. al.

110.40° i. i. sl. s. i. i. 12.5 i. 16.7 38140° 243.70°

192.4100°

21.5°

Forms Cu2Cl2 993 d.

100°

i.

d. i. d. d. 45100° 66680° ∞

2.58° al. s. a., aq. reg. s. HNO3, h. H2SO4

s. al.; et., NH4Cl s. HNO3, NH4OH s. KCN, C5H5N s. a.; NH4OH s. NH4OH; i. HCl s. NH4OH; i. a., NH8 0.25 al. s. a., NH4OH, KCN, al. sl. s. al. 10012.5° al. s. al.

2-13

2-14

TABLE 2-1

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued) Formula weight

Color, crystalline form and refractive index

CuO CuO CuCl22CuO4H2O Cu3P2 CuSO4

79.55 79.55 365.60 252.59 159.61

CuSO45H2O* CuS

249.69 95.61

tartate Cuprous ammonium iodide carbonate chloride (nantokite) cyanide

CuC4H4O63H2O CuINH4IH2O Cu2CO3 Cu2Cl2 Cu2(CN)2

265.66 353.41 187.10 198.00 179.13

bk., cb. bk., tri., 2.63 blue-gn. bk. gn.-wh., rhb., 1.733 blue, tri., 1.5368 blue, hex. or mn., 1.45 1 gn. pd. rhb. pl. yel. wh., cb., 1.973 wh., mn.

ferricyanide ferrocyanide fluoride hydroxide oxide (cuprite) Cuprous phosphide sulfide (chalcocite) sulfide Cyanogen

Cu3Fe(CN)6 Cu4Fe(CN)6 Cu2F2 CuOH Cu2O Cu6P2 Cu2S Cu2S C2N2

402.59 466.13 165.09 80.55 143.09 443.22 159.16 159.16 52.03

brn.-red brn.-red red cr. yel. red, cb., 2.705 gray-bk. bk., rhb. bk., cb. poisonous gas

Fe(OH)(C2H3O2)2

190.94

brn., amor.

Name Cupric acetate (Cont.) oxide (paramelaconite) oxide (tenorite) oxychloride phosphide sulfate (hydrocyanite) sulfate (blue vitriol or chalcanthite) sulfide (covellite)

Cyanogen compounds, cf. table of organic compounds Ferric acetate, basic ammonium sulfate, cf. Alum chloride (molysite) chloride ferrocyanide (Prussian blue) hydroxide lactate nitrate oxide (hematite) sulfate sulfate (coquimbite) Ferroso-ferric chloride ferricyanide (Prussian green) oxide (magnetite; magnetic iron oxide) oxide, hydrated Ferrous ammonium sulfate

Formula

Specific gravity 6.40 6.45

Melting point, °C

6.35 3.60615°

d. 1026 d. 1026 −3H2O, 140 d. d. >600

2.286 15.6° 4 4.6

−4H2O, 110 tr. 103

4.4 3.53 2.9

d. 422 474.5

3.4 6.0 6.4 to 6.8 5.6 5.80 lq. 0.866−17.2°; 1.806 (A)

−O, 1800

1100 1130 −34.4

−20.5

2.804

282 37 d.

Fe(OH)3 Fe(C3H5O3)3 Fe(NO3)36H2O Fe2O3

106.87 323.06 349.95 159.69

red-brn. brn., amor., delq. rhb., delq. red or bk., trig., 3.042 rhb., 1.814 yel., trig. yel., delq. gn. bk., cb., 2.42

3.4 to 3.9

−1aH2O, 500

303.59 392.14

chloride (lawrencite) chloroplatinate ferricyanide (Turnbull’s blue) ferrocyanide formate hydroxide nitrate oxide

FePtCl66H2O Fe3[Fe(CN)6]2 Fe2Fe(CN)6 Fe(HCO2)22H2O Fe(OH)2 Fe(NO3)26H2O FeO

571.73 591.43 323.64 181.91 89.86 287.95 71.84

126.75

bk. blue-gn., mn., 1.4915 gn.-yel., hex., 1.567 yel., hex. dark blue blue-wh., amor.

i. i. i. i. 14.30°

Hot water i. i. 75.4100°

s. a.; KCN, NH4Cl s. a., KCN, NH4Cl s. a. s. HNO3; i. HCl i. al.

24.30° 0.00003318°

205100°

1.18° al. s. HNO3, KCN

0.0215° d. i. 1.5225° i.

0.1485°

s. a., KOH s. NH4I s. a., NH4OH s. HCl, NH4OH, al. s. KCN, HCl, NH4OH; sl. s. NH3 s. NH4OH; i. HCl s. NH4OH; i. NH4Cl s. HF, HCl, HNO3; i. al. s. a., NH4OH s. HCl, NH4Cl, NH4OH s. HNO3; i. HCl s. HNO3, NH4OH; i. act. s. HNO3, NH4OH; i. act. 230020° cc al.; 50018° cc et.

i. i. i. i. i. i. 0.000518° 0.000518° 45020° cc

i. i.

i. i.

s. a.; al. 0°

100°

v. s. al.; et. +HCl s. al., act., gly. s. HCl, conc. H2SO4; i. al., et. s. a.; i. al., et. i. et. s. al., act. s. HCl

535.8 ∞ d.

i. v. s. 1500° i.

i. v. s. ∞ d. d. s.

5.2

d. 50 d. 180 1538 d.

sl. s. 440 s. i. i.

i.

s. d. h. HCl i. al.

1.864

d. d.

i. 180°

i. 10075°

s. a. i. al.

64.410°

105.7100°

100 al.; s. act.; i. et.

v. s. i. i. sl. s. 0.00067 2000° i.

v. s.

20°

1.684 5.12

35 1560 d.

3.09718° 2.1

d. 480

2.7

d.

delq.

2.714 d. 3.4 5.7

315 280

Other reagents

74.4 2460° i.

d. lt. gn. cr. bk.

subl. 1100

Solubility in 100 parts Cold water

i. 11°

bk.-brn., hex. delq. red-yel., delq. dark blue

Fe3O44H2O FeSO4(NH4)2SO4 6H2O FeCl2

1366 d.

908 −aH2O, 360 1235

162.20 270.30 859.23

399.88 562.02 775.43 1662.61 231.53

Forms CuO, 650 −5H2O, 250 d. 220

d.

FeCl3 FeCl36H2O* Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3

Fe2(SO4)3 Fe2(SO4)39H2O FeCl22FeCl318H2O Fe′′′ 4 Fe′′ 3 [Fe(CN)6]6 Fe3O4

Boiling point, °C

60.5 1420

i. H2SO4, NH3 s. abs. al.

i. dil. a., al.

30025° i.

s. a., NH4Cl s. a.; i. alk.

phosphate (vivianite) silicate sulfate (siderotilate) sulfate (copperas) sulfide cf. also under iron Fluoboric acid Fluorine

Fe3(PO4)28H2O

501.60

FeSiO3 FeSO45H2O FeSO47H2O* FeS

131.93 241.98 278.01 87.91

blue, mn., 1.592, 1.603 mn. gn., tri., 1.536 blue-gn., mn. bk., hex.

1550

s. 14950°

i. al. i. al. s. a.; i. NH3

−223

130 d. −187

∞ d.



s. al.

s.

s.

s.

s.

i. s.

i.

s. aq. reg., KCN; i. a. s. aq. reg., KCN; i. a.

0.970° cc ∞ s. ∞ v. s. s. 174.910° v. s. v. s. 3.05522° ∞ 4250010° cc ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ 2210°

1.0850° cc ∞

Absorbed by Pt s. al.

∞ v. s. v. s. v. s.

∞ al.; i. et. sl. s. al. s. al.

144.09 157.25 309.44

yel. met., cb. blue to vl.

19.3

1063

2600

12.1 0.1368 (A) 1.011 15° 4

>1700 3200(?) −268.9 113.5

Au Au

196.97 196.97

Hf He N2H4 N2H42HCO2H N2H4H2O N2H4HCl N2H42HCl N2H4HNO3 N2H42HNO3 N2H4aH2SO4 N2H4H2SO4 HN3 HI HIH2O HI2H2O HI3H2O HI4H2O HBr HBrH2O

178.49 4.00 32.05 124.10 50.06 68.51 104.97 95.06 158.07 81.08 130.12 43.03 127.91 145.93 163.94 181.96 199.97 80.91 98.93

hex. col. gas col. lq. cb. col. yel. lq. wh., cb. cr. nd. delq. pl. rhb. col. lq. col. gas col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. gas; 1.325 (lq.) col. lq.

Hydrobromic acid Hydrobromic acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrocyanic acid (prussic acid)

HBr (47.8% in H2O) HBr2H2O HCl† HCl (45.2% in H2O) HCl2H2O HCl3H2O HCN

80.91 118.96 36.46 36.46 72.49 90.51 27.03

Hydrofluoric acid Hydrofluoric acid Hydrogen

HF HF (35.35% in H2O) H2

20.01 20.01 2.02

col. lq. wh. cr. col. gas; 1.256 (lq.) col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. poisonous gas or col. lq., 1.254 gas or col. lq. col. lq. col. gas or cb.

H2O2‡ H2Se H2S NH2OH NH2OHHCl NH2OHHNO3 NH2OHaH2SO4

34.01 80.98 34.08 33.03 69.49 96.04 82.07

2-15

*Usual commercial form. †Usual commercial form about 31 percent. ‡Usual commercial forms 3 or 30 percent.

delq. cr.

col. lq., 1.333 col. gas col. gas rhb., delq. col., mn. col. cr. col., mn.

20°

1.0321° 1.42

1.378 4.40° (A) 1.715°

2.710° (A) 1.78 1.486 2.11−15° 1.2680° (A) 1.48 1.46 −18.3° 4 18°

0.697

0.98813.6° 1.15 lq. 0.0709−252.7° 0.06948 (A) 1.438 20° 4 2.12−42° 1.1895 (A) 1.3518° 1.6717°

s. a.; i. ac.

s. 32.80° 0.00061618°

H2SiF6 Gd GaBr3

lq. 1.51−187°; 1.3115° (A)

i.

−5H2O, 300 −7H2O, 300 d.

87.81 38.00

col. lq. gn.-yel. gas

i. 64 1193

HBF4 F2

Fluosilicic acid Gadolinium Gallium bromide Glucinum cf. Beryllium Gold Gold, colloidal Gold salts cf. under Auric and Aurous Hafnium Helium Hydrazine formate hydrate hydrochloride hydrochloride, dinitrate nitrate, disulfate sulfate Hydrazoic acid (azoimide) Hydriodic acid Hydriodic acid Hydriodic acid Hydriodic acid Hydriodic acid Hydrobromic acid Hydrobromic acid

peroxide selenide sulfide Hydroxylamine hydrochloride nitrate sulfate

2.58 3.5 2.2 1.89914.8° 4.84

198 70.7 104 85 254 −80 −50.8 −43 −48 −36.5 −86

−11 −111 −15.35 0 −24.4 −14 −83 −35 −259.1 −0.89 −64 −82.9 34 151 48 170 d.

118.5739.5mm subl. 140 d. 37 −35.5 127774mm

−67

d. d. 26

∞ s. 82.30° ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

19.4 120 −252.7

∞ 0° to 19.4° v. s. 2.10° cc

126 −85

760mm

151.4 −42 −59.6 56.522mm d. d. 560

>4800

83.93 119.98 119.98 647.44

yel.-gray, oct. yel., rhb. yel., cb. hex.

6.1 20° 4 4.87 5.0 4.6 20° 4

d. d.

i. 0.00049 0.0005 i.

i.

tr. 450 1171 d. >700

Kr La Pb

83.80 138.91 207.20

col. gas lead gray silv. met., cb.

2.818 (A) 6.1520° 20° 11.337 20

−169 826 327.5

−151.8 1800 1620

11.050° cc d. i.

3.5760° cc

Pb(C2H3O2)2 Pb(C2H3O2)23H2O† Pb(C2H3O2)210H2O Pb2(C2H3O2)3OH Pb(C2H3O2)2 Pb(OH)2H2O Pb(C2H3O2)2 2Pb(OH)2 PbH4(AsO4)2 PbHAsO4 Pb(AsO3)2 Pb2As2O7 PbN6 PbBr2

325.29 379.33 505.44 608.54 584.52

wh. cr. wh., mn. wh., rhb. wh. wh. nd.

3.251 20° 4 2.55 1.689

280 −3H2O, 75 22

807.72

wh. nd.

489.07 347.13 453.04 676.24 291.24 367.01

tri., 1.82 wh., mn., 1.9097 hex. rhb., 2.03 col. nd. col., rhb.

4.46 5.94 6.4215° 15° 6.85 15

253.81 333.81 1120.66 192.22 55.85 55.85 55.85 55.85 55.85 179.55 195.90 125.70

15°

3000

102.5760mm

d. 140 d. >200

−H2O, 280

6.66

802 expl. 350 373

918

22150° 200100° s.

5.55

18.2

d. 0.05100° 4.75100°

0.0001120°

d. i. 3.34100° i. i. 18100° d.

i.

267.21

wh., rhb., 2.0763

6.6

d. 315

2PbCO3Pb(OH)2† PbCl2 PbCrO4 PbCrO4PbO Pb(HCO2)2 3PbOH2O Pb(NO3)2

775.63 278.11 323.19 546.39 297.23 687.61 331.21

6.14 5.80 6.12

d. 400 501 844

4.56 7.592 4.53

d. 190 −H2O, 130 d. 470

i. 0.6730° 0.00000720° i. 1.616° 0.014 38.80°

oxide, suboxide, mono- (litharge)

Pb2O PbO

430.40 223.20

wh., hex. wh., rhb., 2.2172 yel., mn., 2.42 or.-yel. nd. wh., rhb. cb. col., cb. or mn., 1.7815 bk., amor. yel., tet.

8.34 9.53

d. red heat 888

i. 0.006818°

oxide, mono (massicotite)

PbO

223.20

yel., rhb., 2.61

s. a. v. s. 87% al.; i. abs. al. et., chl. s. al., KI, et. i. abs. al., et., chl. sl. s. aq. reg., aq. Cl2 s. a.; i. alk. s. a.; i. alk. s. a.; i. alk. s. a.; i. alk. s. a.; i. alk. s. a. s. al., H2SO4, alk. s. HCl, H2SO4 i. aq. reg. i. dil. a. i. dil. a.

sl. s. al., bz. s. a. s. HNO3; i. c. HCl, H2SO4 s. gly.; v. sl. s. al. s. gly.; sl. s. al. sl. s. al. s. al.

d. i. d. i. i. 0.45540°

PbCO3

8.0

i.

19.70° 45.6415° s. v. s. v. s.

carbonate (cerussite) carbonate, basic (hydrocerussite; white lead) chloride (cotunnite) chromate (crocoite) chromate, basic formate hydroxide nitrate

954760mm d.

i. i. i. i. i. i. i.

Other reagents

sl. s.

138.8100°

s. al. s. HNO3 s. HNO3, NaOH s. HNO3 s. HCl, HNO3; i. sc. v. s. ac.; i. NH4OH s. a., KBr.; sl. s. NH3; i. al. s. a., alk.; i. NH3, al. s. ac.; sl. s. aq. CO2 sl. s. dil. HCl, NH3, i. al. s. a., alk.; i. NH3, ac. s. a., alk. i. al. s. a., alk. 8.822° al. s. a., alk. s. alk., PbAc, NH4Cl, CaCl2

oxide, mono-

PbO

223.20

amor.

9.2 to 9.5

oxide, red (minium) oxide, sesquioxide, di- (plattnerite) silicate sulfate (anglesite)

Pb3O4 Pb2O3 PbO2 PbSiO3 PbSO4

685.60 462.40 239.20 283.28 303.26

9.1

Pb(HSO4)2 H2O PbSO4PbO PbS Pb(CNS)2 Li LiC7H5O2 LiBr

419.36 526.46 239.27 323.36 6.94 128.05 86.85

LiBr2H2O Li2CO3 LiCl

122.88 73.89 42.39

citrate fluoride formate hydride hydroxide hydroxide nitrate nitrate oxide phosphate, monobasic phosphate, tribasic phosphate, tribasic salicylate sulfate sulfate sulfate, acid Lutecium Magnesium acetate acetate aluminate (spinel)

Li3C6H5O74H2O LiF LiHCO2H2O LiH LiOH LiOHH2O LiNO3 LiNO33H2O Li2O LiH2PO4 Li3PO4 Li3PO412H2O LiC7H5O3 Li2SO4 Li2SO4H2O† LiHSO4 Lu Mg Mg(C2H3O2)2 Mg(C2H3O2)24H2O† MgO·Al2O3

281.98 25.94 69.97 7.95 23.95 41.96 68.95 122.99 29.88 103.93 115.79 331.98 144.05 109.94 127.96 104.01 174.97 24.31 142.39 214.45 142.26

red, amor. red-yel., amor. brn., tet., 2.229 col., mn., 1.961 wh., mn. or rhb., 1.8823 cr. col., mn. lead gray, cb., 3.912 col., mn. silv. met. cb. wh. leaflets wh., delq., cb., 1.784 wh. pr. col., mn., 1.567 wh., delq., cb., 1.662 wh. cr. wh., cb., 1.3915 col., rhb. wh., cb. wh. cr. col., mn. col., trig., 1.735 col. col., 1.644 col. wh., rhb. wh., trig. col. col., mn., 1.465 col., mn., 1.477 pr.

ammonium chloride ammonium phosphate (struvite) ammonium sulfate (boussingaultite) benzoate carbonate (magnesite) carbonate (nesquehonite) carbonate, basic (hydromagnesite) Magnesium chloride (chloromagnesite) chloride (bischofite) hydroxide (brucite) nitride oxide (magnesia; periclase) perchlorate

MgCl2NH4Cl6H2O MgNH4PO46H2O

256.79 245.41

MgSO4(NH4)2SO4 6H2O Mg(C7H5O2)23H2O MgCO3 MgCO33H2O 3MgCO3Mg(OH)23H2O

360.60

col., mn.

320.58 84.31 138.36 365.31

wh. pd. wh., trig. 1.700 col., rhb., 1.501 wh., rhb., 1.530

95.21

sulfate, acid sulfate, basic (lanarkite) sulfide (galena) thiocyanate Lithium benzoate bromide bromide carbonate chloride

2-17

*See also a table of alloys. †Usual commercial form.

MgCl2 MgCl26H2O† Mg(OH)2 Mg3N2 MgO Mg(ClO4)2†

203.30 58.32 100.93 40.30 223.21

i.

i.

d. 500 d. 360 d. 290 766

i. i. i. i.

i. i. i.

1336  5

3.464 25° 4

547

1265

0.00280° 0.000118° 0.004418° 0.0000918° 0.0520° d. 3325° 1430° (2H2O)

0.005640°

6.92 7.5 3.82 0.5320°

1170 d. 977 1120 d. 190 186

2.110° 2.068 25° 4

44 618 614

d. 1360

24620° 1.540° 670°

9.375 6.49 6.2

2.29521.5° 1.46 0.820 2.54 1.83 2.38 2.013 25° 4

d. 870 −H2O, 94 680 445 261 29.88

1670 925 d. subl. 100 837 100 d. 860 −H2O, 130 170.5

silv. met., hex. wh. wh., mn. pr., 1.491 col. cb., 1.718–23

1.7420° 1.42 1.454 3.6

651 323 80 2135

wh., rhb., delq. col., rhb., 1.496

1.456 1.715

−4H2O, 195 d. 100

1.72

>120

16.86

130

4.525° (anh.) 0.0106 0.151819° 0.04

s.

3.037 1.852 2.16

−3H2O, 110 d. 350 −H2O, 100 d.

d. 0.011

s. act. s. a., aq. CO2; i. act., NH3 s. a., aq. CO2 s. a., NH4 salts; i. al.

col., hex., 1.675

2.32525°

712

1412

52.80°

73100°

50 al.

wh., delq., mn., 1.507 wh., trig., 1.5617 gn.-yel., amor. col., cb., 1.7364 wh., delq.

1.56 2.4

118 d. d. d. 2800 d.

d.

2810° 0.000918° i. 0.00062 99.625°

918100°

50 al. s. NH4 salts, dil. a. s. a.; i. al. s. a., NH4 salts; i. al. 2425 al., 51.825° m. al.; 0.29 et.

2.461 2.53717.5° 1.645

3.65 2.6025°

1110

0.03418° v. sl. s. 12826° 35.340° 43.60° d.

v. sl. s. v. sl. s.

i. v. s. v. s. i.

sl. s. d. v. s. v. s.

16.7 0.02310°

s. 0.019580°



3600

29.9100° 35100°

s. a., NH4Cl; i. act. v. s. al. i. act., 80% al. i. 80% al. s. a., NH4 salts 5.2515° m. al. v. s. al. v. sl. s. dil. HCl; i. dil. HNO3 s. a.; i. al.

100°

d. v. s.

2-18

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued)

TABLE 2-1

Name

Formula

Formula weight

Magnesium chloride (Cont.) peroxide phosphate, pyrophosphate, pyropotassium chloride (carnallite) potassium sulfate (picromerite) silicofluoride sodium chloride sulfate sulfate (epsom salt; epsomite) Manganese acetate acetate carbonate (rhodocrosite)

MgO2 Mg2P2O7 Mg2P2O73H2O MgCl2KCl6H2O MgSO4K2SO46H2O MgSiF66H2O MgCl2NaClH2O MgSO4 MgSO47H2O* Mn Mn(C2H3O2)2 Mn(C2H3O2)24H2O* MnCO3

56.30 222.55 276.60 277.85 402.72 274.47 171.67 120.37 246.47 54.94 173.03 245.09 114.95

wh. pd. col., mn., 1.604 wh., amor. delq., rhb., 1.475 mn., 1.4629 col., trig., 1.3439 col. col. col., rhb., 1.4554 gray-pink met.

chloride (scacchite) chloride

MnCl2 MnCl24H2O*

125.84 197.91

chloride, perhydroxide (ous) (pyrochroite) hydroxide (ic) (manganite) nitrate oxide (ous) (manganosite) oxide (ic) oxide, di- (pyrolusite; polianite) sulfate (ous) sulfate (ous) (szmikite)

MnCl4 Mn(OH)2 Mn2O3H2O Mn(NO3)26H2O MnO Mn2O3 MnO2*

196.75 88.95 175.89 287.04 70.94 157.87 86.94

rose, delq., cb. rose red, delq., mn. 1.575 gn. wh., trig. brn., rhb., 2.24 rose red, mn. gray-gn., cb., 2.16 brn.-bk., cb. bk., rhb.

MnSO4 MnSO4H2O

151.00 169.02

red-wh. pa. pink, mn., 1.595

sulfate (ous)

MnSO42H2O

187.03

2.52615°

sulfate (ous)

MnSO43H2O

205.05

2.35615°

sulfate (ous)

MnSO44H2O*

223.06

sulfate (ous)

MnSO45H2O

sulfate (ous)

MnSO46H2O

259.09

sulfate (ous)

MnSO47H2O

277.11

pink, mn. or rhb.

2.092

sulfate (ic)

Mn2(SO4)3

398.06

gn., delq. cr.

3.24

Mercuric acetate bromide carbonate, basic chloride (corrosive sublimate) fulminate hydroxide oxide (montroydite) oxychloride (kleinite) silicofluoride, basic sulfate sulfate, basic (turpeth) Mercurous acetate bromide carbonate

Hg(C2H3O2)2 HgBr2 HgCO32HgO HgCl2 Hg(CNO)2 Hg(OH)2 HgO HgCl23HgO HgSiF6HgO3H2O HgSO4 HgSO42HgO HgC2H3O2 HgBr Hg2CO3

241.08

318.68 360.40 693.78 271.50 284.62 234.60 216.59 921.26 613.30 296.65 729.83 259.63 280.49 461.19

Color, crystalline form and refractive index

pa. pink, mn. rose, trig., 1.817

pink, rhb. or mn., 1.518 pink, tri., 1.508

wh. pl. wh., rhb. brn.-red wh., rhb., 1.859 cb. yel. or red, rhb., 2.5 yel., hex. yel. nd. wh., rhb. yel., tet. wh. sc. wh., tet. yel. pd.

Specific gravity

Melting point, °C

2.59822° 2.56 1.60 19.4° 4 2.15 17.5° 1.788 4

expl. 275 1383 −3H2O, 100 265 d. 72 d.

2.66 1.68 7.220° 1.74 20° 4 1.589 3.125

1185 70 d. 1260

2.977 25° 4 2.01

650 58.0

3.25818° 3.258 1.8221° 5.18 4.81 5.026

d. d. 25.8 1650 −0, 1080 −0, >230

3.235 2.87

700 Stable 57 to 117 Stable 40 to 57 Stable 30 to 40 Stable 18 to 30 Stable 8 to 18 Stable −5 to +8 Stable −10 to −5; 19 d. d. 160

2.107 15°

2.103

d. 237

5.44 4.42

277 expl. −H2O, 175 d. 100 d. 260

6.47 6.44 7.307

d. d. subl. 345 d. 130

Solubility in 100 parts Cold water

Hot water

Other reagents

i. i. i. 64.519° d. 19.260° 64.817.5° s. 26.90° 72.40° d. s. s. 0.006525°

i. i. sl. s. d. 81.775° s. s. 68.3100° 17840°

63.40° 1518°

123.8100° ∞

s. al., m. al. s. aq. CO2, dil. a.; l. NH3, al. s. al.; i. et., NH3 s. al.; i. et.

129.5

s. 0.00220° i. 4260° i. i. i.

s. i. i. ∞ i. i. i.

s. al., et. s. a., NH4 salts; i. alk. s. h. H2SO4 v. s. al. s. a., NH4Cl s. a.; i. act. s. HCl; i. HNO3, act.

d. 850

530° 98.4748°

7350° 79.77100°

s. al.; i. et.

85.2735°

106.855°

74.225°

99.3157°

13616°

16950°

1900

d.

3.270 6.053

11.14 7.93

Boiling point, °C

1190 −H2O, 106; −4H2O, 200

−4H2O, 450



200



2479°

142 204 −7H2O, 280

25114°

v. s.

d.

304

25 0.520° i. 3.60° sl. s. i. 0.005225° i. d. d. 0.005 0.7513° 7 × 10−9 i.

d. HF s. al. s. al. s. dil. a.

i. al.

35°

1760°

10°

322

s. 64.550°

s. a. s. a.; i. alk. s. a.; i. al. d. al.

100°

100 25100°

61.3100° i. 0.041100° d. 0.167100° d. i. d.

s. HCl, dil. H2SO4; l. conc. H2SO4, HNO3 s. al. sl. d. 25.20° al.; v. sl. s. et. s. aq. CO2, NH4Cl 3325° 99% al.; 33 et. s. NH4OH, al. s. a. s. a.; i. al. s. HCl s. a. s. a.; i. al., act., NH8 s. a.; i. al. s. H2SO4, HNO3; i. al. s. a.; i. al., act. s. NH4Cl

HgCl

236.04

wh., tet., 1.9733

7.150

302

383.7

0.00140°

0.000743°

iodide nitrate Mercurous oxide

HgI HgNO3H2O Hg2O

327.49 280.61 417.18

yel., tet. wh. mn. bk.

7.70 4.7853.9° 9.8

290 d. 70 d. 100

subl. 140; 310d. expl.

2 × 10−8 v. s. i.

v. sl. s. d. 0.0007

sulfate Mercury† Molybdenum

Hg2SO4 Hg Mo

497.24 200.59 95.94

wh., mn. silv. lq. or hex.(?) gray, cb.

7.56 13.54620° 10.2

d. −38.87 2620  10

0.05516.5° i. i.

0.092100° i. i.

MoCl2

166.85

yel., amor.

3.714 25° 4

d.

i.

i.

3.578 25° 4

d.

chloride (calomel)

chloride, dichloride, tri-

MoCl3

202.30

dark red pd.

chloride, tetra-

MoCl4

237.75

brn., delq.

chloride, pentaoxide, tri- (molybdite) sulfide, di- (molybdenite) sulfide, trisulfide, tetraMolybdic acid Molybdic acid Neodymium Neon Neptunium Nickel

MoCl5 MoO3 MoS2 MoS3 MoS4 H2MoO4 H2MoO4H2O Nd Ne 239

273.21 143.94 160.07 192.14 224.20 161.95 161.95 144.24 20.18

Np Ni

239.05 58.69 176.78 291.18 394.99

carbonyl chloride chloride

Ni(C2H3O2)2 NiCl2NH4Cl6H2O NiSO4(NH4)2SO4 6H2O Ni(BrO3)26H2O NiBr2 NiBr23H2O NiBr26NH3 NiPtBr66H2O NiCO3 2NiCO33Ni(OH)2 4H2O Ni(CO)4 NiCl2 NiCl26H2O*

chloride, ammonia cyanide dimethylglyoxime

NiCl26NH3 Ni(CN)24H2O NiC8H14O4N4

231.78 182.79 288.91

formate hydroxide (ic) hydroxide (ous) nitrate nitrate, ammonia oxide, mono- (bunsenite) potassium cyanide sulfate

Ni(HCO2)22H2O Ni(OH)3 Ni(OH)2dH2O Ni(NO3)26H2O Ni(NO3)24NH32H2O NiO Ni(CN)22KCNH2O NiSO4

184.76 109.72 97.21 290.79 286.86 74.69 258.97 154.76

acetate ammonium chloride ammonium sulfate bromate bromide bromide bromide, ammonia bromoplatinate carbonate carbonate, basic

2-19

*Usual commercial form. †See also Tables 2-28 and 2-280.

422.59 218.50 272.55 320.68 841.29 118.70 587.59 170.73 129.60 237.69

bk. cr. col., rhb. bk., hex., 4.7 red-brn. brn. pd. yel-wh., hex. yel., mn. yellowish col. gas

2.928 25° 4 19.5°

4.50 4.80114°

3.12415° 6.920° lq. 1.204−245.9° 0.674 (A)

1.145° cc

s. lq. O2, al., act., bz.

i.

s. dil. HNO3; sl. s. H2SO4, HCl; i. NH3 i. al.

d.

d.

s.

d.

194

268

s.

795 1185 d. d. d. 115 −H2O, 70 840 −248.67

subl.

−2H2O, 200 −245.9

d. 18°

0.107 i. sl. s. i. v. sl. s. 0.13318° d. 2.60° cc 238

Produced by Neutron bombardment of U 1452 2900 i.

8.9020

gn. pr. gn., delq., mn. blue-gn., mn., 1.5007 gn., cb. yel., delq. gn., delq. vl. pd. trig. lt. gn., rhb. lt. gn.

1.798 1.645 1.923

d.

2.575 4.64 28° 4

lq. yel., delq. gn., delq., mn., 1.57

1.3117° 3.544

gn. pl. scarlet red cr.

2.10679° i. s. i. sl. s. 2.1370°

i.

volt.

silv. met., cb.

1.837 3.715

356.9 3700

s. aq. reg., Hg(NO3)2; sl. s. HNO3, HCl; i. al., etc. s. KI; i. al. s. HNO3; i. al., et. s. h. ac.; i. alk., dil. HCl, NH3 s. H2SO4, HNO3 s. HNO3; i. HCl s. h. conc. H2SO4; i. HCl, HF, NH3, dil. H2SO4, Hg s. HCl, H2SO4, NH4OH, al., et. s. HNO3, H2SO4; v. sl. s. al., et. s. HNO3, H2SO4; sl. s. al., et. s. HNO3, H2SO4; i. abs. al., et. s. a., NH4OH s. H2SO4, aq. reg. s. alk. sulfides s. alk. sulfides; i. NH3 s. NH4OH, H2SO4; i. NH s. a., NH4OH, NH4, salts

16.6 15025° 2.53.5°

v. s. 39.288°

v. sl. s. (NH4)2SO4

d. d. −3H2O, 200

28 112.80° 1999° v. s.

156100° 316100° d.

s. NH4OH s. al., et., NH4OH s. al., et., NH4OH i. c. NH4OH

d. d.

0.009325° i.

i. d.

s. a. s. a., NH4 salts

0.0189.8° 53.80° 180

i. 87.6100° v. s.

s. aq. reg., HNO3, al., et. s. NH4OH, al.; i. NH3 v. s. al.

s. i. i.

d. i. i.

s. NH4OH; i. al. s. KCN; i. dil. KCl s. abs. al., a.; i. ac., NH4OH

i. v. sl. s. ∞56.7°

s. a., NH4OH, NH4Cl s. a., NH4OH; i. alk. s. NH4OH; i. abs. al. i. al. s. a., NH4OH d. a. i. al., et., act.

−25 subl.

43751mm 973

−4H2O, 200 subl. 250

d.

gn. cr. bk. lt. gn. gn., mn.

2.154 4.36 2.05

d. d. d. 56.7

gn.-bk., cb., 2.37 red yel., mn. yel., cb.

7.45 1.87511° 3.68

Forms Ni2O3 at 400 −H2O, 100 −SO3, 840

136.7

s. i. v. sl. s. 243.00° v. s. i. s. 27.20°

i. 76.7100°

2-20

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued)

TABLE 2-1

Name

Formula

Formula weight

Color, crystalline form and refractive index gn. mn. or blue, tet., 1.5109 gn., rhb., 1.4893 col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col., rhb. col. gas or cb. cr.

Nickel (Cont.) sulfate

NiSO46H2O*

262.85

sulfate (morenosite) Nitric acid Nitric acid Nitric acid Nitro acid sulfite Nitrogen

NiSO47H2O HNO3 HNO3H2O HNO33H2O NO2HSO3 N2

280.86 63.01 81.03 117.06 127.08 28.01

Nitrogen oxide, mono- (ous)

N2O

44.01

oxide, di- (ic)

NO or (NO)2

oxide, tri-

N2O3

30.01 60.01 76.01

oxide, tetra- (per- or di-)

NO2 or (NO2)2

col. gas col. gas

N2O5

46.01 92.01 108.01

red-brn. gas or blue lq. or solid yel. lq., col. solid, red-brn. gas wh., rhb.

oxybromide oxychloride

NOBr NOCl

109.91 65.46

brn. lq. red-yel. lq. or gas

Nitroxyl chloride Osmium chloride, dichloride, trichloride, tetraOxygen

NO2Cl Os OsCl2 OsCl3 OsCl4 O2

81.46 190.23 261.14 296.59 332.04 32.00

yel.-brn. gas blue, hex. gn., delq. brn., cb. red-yel. nd. col. gas or hex. solid

Ozone

O3

48.00

Palladium

Pd

106.42

silv. met., cb.

PdBr2 PdCl2 PdCl22H2O Pd(CN)2

266.23 177.33 213.36 158.45

brn. brn., cb. brn. pr. yel.

213.85 211.39 100.46 118.47 136.49

met. red or yel., tet. unstable, col. lq fairly stable nd. stable lq., col.

Periodic acid Periodic acid Permanganic acid Permolybdic acid Persulfuric acid Phosphamic acid Phosphatomolybdic acid Phosphine

Pd2H Pd(NH3)2Cl2 HClO4 HClO4H2O HClO42H2O* 73.6% anh. HIO4 HIO42H2O HMnO4 HMoO42H2O H2S2O8 PONH2(OH)2 H7P(Mo2O7)628H2O PH3

Phosphonium chloride

PH4Cl

oxide, penta-

bromide (ous) chloride chloride cyanide hydride Palladous dichlorodiammine Perchloric acid Perchloric acid Perchloric acid

191.91 227.94 119.94 196.98 194.14 97.01 2365.71 34.00 70.46

col. gas

wh. cr. delq., mn. exists only in solution wh. cr. hyg. cr. cb. yel. cb. col. gas wh., cb.

Specific gravity 2.07 1.948 1.502

Melting point, °C

Boiling point, °C

Solubility in 100 parts Cold water

tr. 53.3

−6H2O, 280

13150°

98–100 −42 −38 −18.5 73 d. −209.86

−6H2O, 103 86



1.026−252.5° 0.808−195.8° 12.50° (D) lq. 1.226−89° −102.3 1.530 (A) −150.2° lq. 1.269 −161 1.0367 (A) 1.4472° −102

−195.8 −90.7

130.520° cc

60.8224° cc 0.0100°

7.34 cc s.

−9.3

21.3

d.

1.63

30

47

s.

>1.0 1.417−12° 2.31 (A) lq. 1.3214° 22.4820°

−55.5 −64.5

−2 −5.5

d. d.

5300

1.14 1.426−252.5° 1.1053 (A) 1.71−183° 3.03−80° 1.658 (A) 12.020° 111550°

s. al. expl. with al. d. al. d. al. s. H2SO4 sl. s. al. s. H2SO4, al. 26.6 cc al.; 3.5 cc H2SO4; s. aq. FeSO4 s. a., et. s. HNO3, H2SO4, chl., CS2

Forms HNO3 s. fuming H2SO4

−183

−251

−112

0.4940° cc

060° cc

s. oil turp., oil cinn.

1555

2200

i.

i.

i. s. s. i.

i. s. s. i.

s. aq. reg., h. H2SO4; i. NH3 s. HBr s. HCl, act., al. s. HCl, act., al. s. HCN, KCN, NH4OH; i. dil. a.

d.

lq. 0.746−90° 1.146 (A)

v. s. NH4OH, al.

−218.4

500 d.

11.06 2.5 1.768 22° 4 1.88 25° 1.71 4



1.5520° cc

Other reagents

d i. s. d. sl. s. s. d. 4.890° cc

d. 560–600 −188°

30°

117.8 ∞ ∞ ∞

3.5

18°

280100°

63.5 ∞ ∞ 263−20° d. 2.350° cc

−151

1.44820°

Hot water

i.

2.630° cc 1.7100° cc

sl. s. aq. reg., HNO3; i. NH3 s. NaCl, al., et. s. a., alk., al.; sl. s. et. s. HCl, al. sl. s. al., s. fused Ag

d. −112 50 −17.8

1618mm d. 200

d. 138 d. 110

subl. 110

s. s. s. v. s.

1950 2450 >1300 1200 58 26 50 220

s. KOH sl. s. al.; i. et. 0.130° al.; i. et. v. s. NH3; sl. s. al.

s. al., et. 0.10520° m. al.; i. et. s. H2SO4; d. al. i. al. i. al. sl. s. al. i. al. s. a. i. al. s. al., et. i. al. i. al. i. al., act., CS2 s. al., gly.; i. et. sl. s. al.; i. NH3 i. abs. al. sl. s. al. s. a., alk.; i. al., ac. 20.822° act.; s. al. i. al.

d. d. +H2 7020° 510° cc

s. 8.560° cc

3440 12.5

Other reagents

d. a. s. al. i. HF, HCl; s. H2SO4; HNO3 sl. s. aq. reg., a. v. sl. s. alk.; i. aq. reg., a. s. HCl, al.; i. et. s. a., al.

i. i.

700

i. i. v. s. d.

>2700

i. i.

i. i.

sl. s. aq. reg., a.

2400 260 205 688 688

130030° v. s. i. i.

∞60°

s. H2SO4; d. al.; i. NH3

i. i.

s. CS2, H2SO4, CH2I2 s. CS2, H2SO4

Selenium Selenous acid Silicic acid, metaSilicic acid, orthoSilicon, crystalline

Se8 H2SeO3 H2SiO3 H4SiO4 Si

631.68 128.97 78.10 96.11 28.09

steel gray hex. amor., 1.41 amor. gray, cb., 3.736

4.825° 3.004 15° 4 2.1–2.3 17° 1.576 2.420°

cr. brn., amor. blue-bk., trig., 2.654 lf. or lq. col., fuming lq., 1.412 gas col. gas iridescent, amor. col., cb. or tet., 1.487

217 d.

688

2600

i. 900° i. sl. s. i.

i. 40090° i. sl. s. i.

1420

2.0–2.5

2600

i.

i.

2 3.17 1.580° 1.50

>2700 −1 −70

2600 subl. 2200 144760mm 57.6

i. i. d. d.

i. i.

3.57 (A) lq. 0.68−185° 2.2 2.32

−95.7 −185 1600–1750 1710

−651810mm −112760mm subl. 1750 2230

v. s. d. i. i. i.

Silicon, graphitic

Si

Silicon, amorphous carbide chloride, trichloride, tetra-

Si SiC Si2Cl6 SiCl4

28.09 40.10 268.89 169.90

SiF4 SiH4 SiO2xH2O SiO2

104.08 32.12

SiO2 SiO2 SiO2 Ag AgBr

60.08 60.08 60.08 107.87 187.77

hex., 1.5442 trig., rhb., 1.469 silv. met., cb. pa. yel., cb., 2.252

2.20 2.65020° 2.26 10.520° 6.473 25° 4

tr. 315 d. 741

d., −H2O

75

−10H2O, 200

17.5°

2-23

bromate bromide bromide

NaBrO3 NaBr NaBr2H2O

150.89 102.89 138.92

col., cb. col., cb., 1.6412 col., mn.

3.339 3.20517.5° 2.176

381 755 50.7

carbonate (soda ash) carbonate

Na2CO3 Na2CO3H2O

105.99 124.00

2.533 1.55

851 −H2O, 100

carbonate carbonate (sal soda)

Na2CO37H2O Na2CO310H2O

232.10 286.14

wh. pd., 1.535 wh., rhb., 1.506– 1.509 rhb. or trig. wh., mn., 1.425

1.51 1.46

d. 35.1

*Usual commercial form.

−3H2O, 120

−7H2O, 100 −12H2O, 100

0.00002220° 1220° d., forms NaOH 46.520° v. s. s. d. 16.7 0.03112.8° 26.717° s. 6115° 5.590.1° v. s. 62.525° 6.90° 3.720° 500° sl. s. 1.30° 2262° (anh.)

i. i. i. i.

952100° 170100° v. s. v. s. 100

s. HF; i. alk. s. HF; i. alk. s. HF; i. alk. s. HNO3, h. H2SO4; i. alk. 0.5118° NH4OH; s. KCN, Na2S2O3 s. NH4OH, Na2S2O3; i. al. s. NH4OH, KCN; sl. s. HCl s. NH4OH, KCN, HNO3 s. gly.; v. sl. s. al. i. bz.; d. al. 2.118° al. 7.825° abs. al. i. al. d. al. i. al. sl. s. al., NH4 salts; i. ac. 1.67 al., 5015° gly. sl. s. al. sl. s. al. 2.325°, 8.378° al. i. al.

1390

27.5 9020° 79.50° (anh.)

d.

7.10° s. s. 21.50°

s. 23830°



s. HNO3, al., et. i. al., et.; d. KOH s. HF, h. alk., fused CaCl2 s. HF; i. alk.

v. s. 140.730° 76.9100° 16.460° s. 100100° s. 8.7940° 52.3100° (anh.) 20.380° (anh.) 90.9100° 121100° 118.380° (anh.) 48.5104° s.

1.30.5 (anh).

i. CS2; s. H2SO4 v. s. al.; i. NH3 s. alk.; i. NH4Cl s. alk.; i. NH4Cl s. HNO3 + HF, Ag; sl. s. Pb, Zn; i. HF s. HNO3 + HF, fused alk.; i. HF. s. HF, KOH s. fused alk.; i. a. d. alk. d. conc. H2SO4, al.

d. al.; i. NH3 i. al., act. i. al. s. gly.; i. abs. al. i. al. sl. s. al. sl. s. al. i. al., et. s. gly.; i. al., et. i. al.

2-24

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued)

TABLE 2-1

Name Sodium ammonium phosphate (Cont.) carbonate, sesqui- (trona) chlorate

Formula

Na3H(CO3)22H2O NaClO3

Formula weight

226.03 106.44

Color, crystalline form and refractive index

Specific gravity

chloride chromate chromate citrate cyanide dichromate

NaCl Na2CrO4 Na2CrO410H2O 2Na3C6H5O711H2O NaCN Na2Cr2O72H2O

58.44 161.97 342.13 714.31 49.01 298.00

ferricyanide ferrocyanide

Na3Fe(CN)6H2O Na4Fe(CN)610H2O

298.93 484.06

red, delq. yel., mn.

1.458

fluoride (villiaumite) formate hydride

NaF NaHCO2 NaH

tet., 1.3258 wh., mn. silv. nd., 1.470

2.79 1.919 0.92

992 253 d. 800

hydrosulfide hydrosulfide hydrosulfite hydroxide hydroxide hypochlorite iodide iodide lactate nitrate (soda niter) nitrite

NaSH2H2O NaSH3H2O Na2S2O42H2O NaOH NaOH3aH2O NaOCl NaI* NaI2H2O NaC3H5O3 NaNO3 NaNO2

2.130

d. 22 d. 318.4 15.5 d. 651

1300

2.257 2.1680°

d. 308 271

d. 380 d. 320

oxide

Na2O

2.27

subl.

perborate perchlorate perchlorate peroxide peroxide phosphate, monobasic phosphate, monobasic phosphate, dibasic phosphate, dibasic phosphate, tribasic phosphate, tribasic phosphate, metaphosphate, pyrophosphate, pyrophosphate (pyrodisodium) phosphate (pyrodisodium) potassium tartrate silicate, metaSodium silicate, metasilicate, orthosilicofluoride stannate sulfate (thenardite) sulfate

NaBO3H2O NaClO4 NaClO4H2O Na2O2* Na2O28H2O NaH2PO4H2O* NaH2PO42H2O Na2HPO47H2O Na2HPO412H2O Na3PO4 Na3PO412H2O* Na4P4O12 Na4P2O7* Na4P2O710H2O Na2H2P2O7 Na2H2P2O76H2O NaKC4H4O64H2O Na2SiO3 Na2SiO39H2O Na4SiO4 Na2SiF6 Na2SnO33H2O Na2SO4 Na2SO4

92.09 110.11 210.14 40.00 103.05 74.44 149.89 185.92 112.06 84.99 69.00 61.98 99.81 122.44 140.46 77.98 222.10 137.99 156.01 268.07 358.14 163.94 380.12 407.85 265.90 446.06 221.94 330.03 282.22 122.06 284.20 184.04 188.06 266.73 142.04 142.04

col., delq., nd. rhb. col. cr. wh., delq. mn. pa. yel., in soln. only col., cb., 1.7745 col., mn. col., amor. col., trig., 1.5874 pa. yel., rhb. wh., delq. wh. pd. rhb., 1.4617 hex. yel.-wh. pd. wh., hex. col., rhb., 1.4852 col., rhb., 1.4629 col., mn., 1.4424 col., mn., 1.4361 wh. wh., trig., 1.4458 col. wh. mn., 1.4525 col., mn., 1.510 col., mn., 1.4645 rhb., 1.493 col., rhb., 1.520 rhb. col., hex., 1.530 wh., hex., 1.312 hex. tablets col., rhb., 1.477 col., mn.

2.163 2.723 1.483 1.857 23.5° 4 18°

2.52

3.6670° 2.448

2.02 2.805 2.040 1.91 1.679 1.52 2.53717.5° 1.62 2.476 2.45 1.82 1.862 1.848 1.790

2.679 2.698

d. 248

Boiling point, °C

wh., mn., 1.5073 wh., cb., or trig., 1.5151 col., cb., 1.5443 yel., rhb. yel., delq., mn. wh., rhb. wh., cb., 1.452 red, mn., 1.6994

41.99 68.01 24.00

2.112 2.49015°

Melting point, °C

800.4 392 19.9 −11H2O, 150 563.7 −2H2O, 84.6; 356 (anh.)

d. 40 482 d. d. 130 d. d. 30 −H2O, 100 60 d. 34.6 1340 73.4 616 d. 988 d. d. 220 70 to 80 1088 47 1018 d. d. 140 tr. 100 to mn. tr. 500 to hex.

d. 1413 d. 1496 d. 400

Solubility in 100 parts Cold water

130° 790°

42100° 230100° 0°

1390

d. 200 −12H2O, 180 −11H2O, 100

−4H2O, 215 −6H2O, 100

100°

35.7 320° v. s. 9125° 4810° 2380°

39.8 126100° ∞ 250100° 8235° 50880°

18.90° 17.920° (anh.)

67100° 6398.5° (anh.) 5100° 160100°

40° 440° d. d.

Hot water

s. s. 2220° 420° s. 260° 158.70° v. s. v. s. 730° 72.10°

s. s. d. 347100° v. s. 15856° 302100° v. s. v. s. 180100° 163.2100°

Forms NaOH sl. s. 1700° 20915° s. d. s. d. 710° 91.10° 18540° 4.30° 4.50° 28.315° s. 2.260° 5.40° 4.50° 6.90° 260° s. v. s. s. 0.440° 500° 50° 48.840°

d. 320100° 28450° d. d. 39083° 30840° 2000100° 76.730° 77100° ∞ s. 4596° 93100° 2140° 3640° 6626° s. d. v. s. s. 2.45100° 6750° 42100° 42.5100°

Other reagents

s. al. sl. s. al.; i. conc. HCl sl. s. al. i. al. s. NH3; sl. s. al. i. al. i. al. v. sl. s. al. sl. s. al.; i. et. i. bz., CS2, CCl4, NH3; s. molten metal s. al.; d. a. s. al.; d. a. i. al. v. s. al., et., gly.; i. act. v. s. al., act. v. s. NH3 s. al.; i. et. s. NH3; sl. s. gly., al. 0.320° et.; 0.3 abs. al.; 4.420° m. al.; v. s. NH3 d. al. s. gly., alk. s. al.; 51 m. al.; 52 act.; i. et. s. al. s. dil. a. i. al. i. al. i. CS2 s. a., alk. d. a. i. al., NH3 sl. s. al. i. Na or K salts, al. 2918°, aN NaOH i. al. i. al., act. i. al. d. HI; s. H2SO4

sulfate sulfate sulfate (Glauber’s salt) sulfide, monosulfide, tetrasulfide, pentasulfite sulfite tartrate thiocyanate thiosulfate thiosulfate (hypo) tungstate tungstate tungstate, parauranate vanadate vanadate, pyroStannic chloride

Na2SO4 Na2SO47H2O Na2SO410H2O Na2S Na2S4 Na2S5 Na2SO3 Na2SO37H2O Na2C4H4O62H2O NaCNS Na2S2O3 Na2S2O35H2O* Na2WO4 Na2WO42H2O* Na6W7O2416H2O Na2UO4 Na3VO416H2O Na4V2O7 SnCl4

142.04 268.15 322.19 78.04 174.24 206.30 126.04 252.15 230.08 81.07 158.11 248.18 293.82 329.85 2097.05 348.01 472.15 305.84 260.52

col., hex. tet. col., mn., 1.396 pink or wh., amor. yel., cb. yel. hex. pr., 1.565 mn. rhb. delq., rhb., 1.625 mn. mn. pr., 1.5079 wh., rhb. wh., rhb. wh., tri. yel. col. nd. hex. col., fuming lq.

884 1.464 1.856 2.633 15° 4 1.561 1.818

2.226

866 (anh.) 654 −30.2

7.0

1127

215.5 246.8 37.7 −SO2, 360 800

sulfate

Sn(SO4)22H2O

346.87

col., delq., hex.

SnBr2 SnCl2 SnCl22H2O* SnSO4 Sr

278.52 189.62 225.65 214.77 87.62

yel., rhb. wh., rhb. wh., tri. wh. cr. silv. met.

5.1217°

acetate carbonate (strontianite) chloride chloride hydroxide hydroxide

Sr(C2H3O2)2 SrCO3 SrCl2 SrCl26H2O* Sr(OH)2 Sr(OH)28H2O*

205.71 147.63 158.53 266.62 121.63 265.76

wh. cr. wh., rhb., 1.664 wh., cb., 1.6499 wh., rhb., 1.5364 wh., delq. col., tet., 1.499

2.099 3.70 3.052 1.93317° 3.625 1.90

nitrate nitrate oxide (strontia)

Sr(NO3)2* Sr(NO3)24H2O SrO

211.63 283.69 103.62

col., cb., 1.5878 wh., mn. col., cb., 1.870

2.986 2.2 4.7

SrO2 SrO28H2O SrSO4 Sr(HSO4)2 NH2SO3H S S8 S8 S2Br2 S2Cl2 SCl2 SCl4 SO2

119.62 263.74 183.68 281.76 97.09 32.07 256.52 256.52 223.94 135.04 102.97 173.88 64.06

wh. pd. wh. cr. col., rhb., 1.6237 col., granular wh., rhb. pa. yel. pd., 2.0–2.9 pa. yel., mn. pa. yel., rhb. red, fuming lq. red-yel. lq. dark red fuming lq. yel.-brn. lq. col. gas

oxide, tri-(α)

2-25

oxide, tri-(β) Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid *Usual commercial form.

SO3 (SO3)2 H2SO4* H2SO4H2O

80.06 160.13 98.08 116.09

col. pr. col., silky, nd. col., viscous lq. pr. or lq.

d.

d. 48.0 692 −2H2O, 100 −16H2O, 300

150.71

peroxide peroxide sulfate (celestite) sulfate, acid Sulfamic acid Sulfur, amorphous Sulfur, monoclinic Sulfur, rhombic Sulfur bromide, monochloride, monochloride, dichloride, tetraoxide, di-

275 251.8 d. −7H2O, 150

1.667 1.685 4.179 3.245 3.98714°

SnO2

Stannous bromide chloride chloride (tin salt) sulfate Strontium

−10H2O, 100

287

oxide (cassiterite)

wh., tet., 1.9968

32.4

2.7115.5° 2.6

3.96 2.03 12° 4 2.046 1.96 2.07 2.635 1.687 1.621 15° 15 lq., 1.4340°; 2.264 (A) lq., 1.923; 2.75 (A) 1.9720° 1.834 18° 4 1.842 15° 4

149760atm 873 −4H2O, 61 375 −7H2O in dry air 570

114.1

620 623 d. 1150 d. −CO2, 1350 −6H2O, 100

19.420° 44.90° 3615° 15.410° s. s. 13.90° 34.72° 296° 11010° 500° 74.70° 57.580° 880° 8 i. v. s. s. s.

45.360° 202.626° 41234° 57.390° s. s. 28.384° 67.818° 6643° 225100° 23180° 301.860° 97100° 123.5100° d. i. d.

i.

i.

v. s.

d.

s. 83.90° 118.70° 1919° d.

d. 269.815° ∞ 18100° Forms Sr(OH)2 36.497° 0.065100° 100.8100° 19840° 21.83100° 47.7100°

36.90° 0.001118° 43.50° 1040° 0.410° 0.900°

d. −8H2O, 100 1580 d. d. 205 d. 120 119.0 112.8 −46 −80 −78 −30 −75.5

444.6 444.6 444.6 540.18mm 138 59 d. > −20 −10.0

400° 62.20° Forms Sr(OH)2 0.00820° 0.01820° 0.01130° d. 200° i. i. i. d. d. d. d. 22.80°

16.83

44.6

d.

50 10.49 8.62

d. 340 290

Forms H2SO4 ∞ ∞

2430 d.

d.

i. al. sl. s. al.; i. et. s. al. s. al. i. al., NH i. al. i. al. v. s. al. s. NH3; v. sl. s. al. sl. s. NH3; i. a., al. s. alk. carb., dil. a. i. al. i. al. s. abs. al., act., NH3; s. ∞ CS2 s. conc. H2SO4; i. alk.; NH4OH, NH3 s. dil. H2SO4, HCl; d. abs. al. s. C6H5N s. alk., abs. al., et. s. tart. a., alk., al. s. H2SO4 s. al., a. 0.2615° m. al. s. a., NH4 salts, aq. CO2 v. sl. s. act., abs. al.; i. NH3 s. NH4Cl s. NH4Cl; i. act.

10089° 12420°

s. NH3; 0.012 abs. al. i. HNO3 sl. s. al.; i. et.

d. d. 0.011432°

s. al., NH4Cl; i. act. s. al.; i. NH4OH sl. s. a.; i. dil. H2SO4, al. 1470° H2SO4 sl. s. al., act.; i. et. sl. s. CS2 s. CS2, al. 240°, 18155° CS2

4070° i. i. i.

s. CS2, et., bz. d. al. 4.550°

s. H2SO4; al., ac. s. H2SO4

∞ ∞

s. H2SO4 d. al. d. al.

2-26

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Concluded)

TABLE 2-1

Name

Formula

Formula weight

Color, crystalline form and refractive index

Specific gravity

Melting point, °C

Boiling point, °C

Solubility in 100 parts Cold water

Hot water

H2SO42H2O H2S2O7 SO2Cl2 SOBr2 SOCl2 Ta

134.11 178.14 134.97 207.87 118.97 180.95

col. lq. cr. col. lq. or.-yel. lq. col. lq. bk.-gray, cb.

1.650 40° 1.920° 1.667 20° 4 2.6818° 1.638 16.6

−38.9 35 −54.1 −50 −104.5 2850

167 d. 69.1760mm 6840mm 78.8 >4100

∞ d. d. d. d. i.

i.

Tellurium

Te

127.60

met., hex.

(α) 6.24; (β) 6.00

452

1390

i.

i.

Terbium Thallium acetate chloride, monochloride, sesquichloride, trichloride, trisulfate (ic) sulfate (ous) sulfate, acid Thio, cf. sulfo or sulfur Thorium

Tb Tl TlC2H3O2 TlCl Tl2Cl3 TlCl3 TlCl34H2O Tl2(SO4)37H2O Tl2SO4 TlHSO4

158.93 204.38 263.43 239.84 515.13 310.74 382.80 823.06 504.83 301.45

blue-wh., tet. silky nd. wh., cb. yel., hex. hex. pl. nd. lf. col., rhb., 1.8671 trimorphous

11.85 3.68 7.00 5.9

303.5 110 430 400–500 25 37 −6H2O, 200 632 115 d.

1650

i. v. s. 0.210° 0.2615° v. s. 86.217° d. 2.700°

i.

Th

232.04

cb.

11.2

1845

>3000

i.

i.

oxide, di- (thorianite) sulfate sulfate Thulium Tin

ThO2 Th(SO4)2 Th(SO4)29H2O Tm Sn

264.04 424.16 586.30 168.93 118.71

wh., cb.

>2800

4400

mn. pr.

9.69 4.22517° 2.77

silv. met., tet.

7.31

231.85

2260

i. 0.740° sl. s. i. i.

5.2250° sl. s. i. i.

Tin

Sn

118.71

gray, cb.

5.750

Stable −163 to +18

2260

i.

i.

Tin salts, cf. stannic and stannous Titanic acid

H2TiO3

97.88

wh. pd.

i.

i.

i. d.

d.

s. s. i.

s. d. i.

i.

i.

i.

i.

s. H2SO4, alk. s. h. conc. KOH; sl. s. NH3, HNO3, aq. reg. s. F2; i. a. s. h. HNO3; sl. s. HCl, H2SO4 s. alk.; i. a. s. HF, alk., NH3

Ti TiCl2

47.87 118.77

dark gray, cb. bk., delq.

chloride, trichloride, tetraoxide, di- (anatase)

TiCl3 TiCl4* TiO2

154.23 189.68 79.87

oxide, di- (brookite)

TiO2

79.87

oxide, di- (rutile)

TiO2

79.87

Titanium chloride, di-

6.77

17.5°

4.50

806 d. d. −4H2O, 100 d. d.

d. al. d. al. s. ac.; d. al. s. bz., CS2, CCl4; d. act. s. bz., chl. s. fused alk., HF; i. HCl, HNO3, H2SO4 s. H2SO4, HNO3, KCN, KOH, aq. reg.; i. CS2

100°

1.8 1.9100° d. d. 18.45100°

>3000

W

183.84

vl., delq. col. lq. brn. or bk., tet., 2.534–2.564 brn. or bk., rhb., 2.586 col. if pure, tet., 2.615 gray-bk., cb.

19.3

3370

5900

i.

i.

WC W2C

195.85 379.69

gray pd., cb. iron gray

15.718° 16.0618°

2777 2877

6000 6000

i. i.

i. i.

oxide, triTungstic acid (tungstite)

WO3 H2WO4

231.84 249.85

yel., rhb. yel., rhb. 2.24

7.16 5.5

i. i.

i. sl. s.

Uranic acid

H2UO4

304.04

yel. pd.

5.92615°

Uranium carbide oxide, di- (uraninite)

U U2C3 UO2

238.03 512.09 270.03

wh. cr. cr. bk., rhb.

18.485 13° 4 11.28 10.9

>2130 −aH2O, 100; 1473 −H2O, 250 to 300 1133 2400 2176

Tungsten carbide carbide

lq., 1.726 3.84

136.4

4.17 4.26

1640 d.

s. HNO3, H2SO4; i. NH3 v. s. al. sl. s. HCl; i. al., NH4OH s. al., et. s. al., et. s. dil. H2SO4 v. sl. s. dil. H2SO4

−9H2O, 400

1800 Unstable in air d. 440 −30



Other reagents

Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid, pyroSulfuric oxychloride Sulfurous oxybromide oxychloride Tantalum

1800 expl. 212 >420 1437

3.74 15° 4 3.28 15° 4 2.072 15° 4 1.96616.5° 4.087 4.102 25° 4

d. 740 d. 238 −5H2O, 70 tr. 39 1850150atm tr. 1020

4.04 6.4 5.49 5.73

−2aH2O, 100 1700 2700

18°

624 −6H2O, 105

1100

−7H2O, 280 subl. 1185

d. 200 >2900 4300

0.0005 0.0005218° 4300°

sl. s.

324.5 0.0004218° 0.0004218° 0.0022 i. i.

∞36.4°

420° s. s. 115.20° 0.0006918° i.

61100° 89.5100° s. 653.6100° i. i.

sl. s. al.; s. gly.

i. 0.16 i. i. i.

i. d. i. i. i.

v. s. a.; i. ac. s. H2SO3, NH4OH; i. al. s. HF, aq. reg.; sl. s. a. s. H2SO4, HF s. H2SO4, HF

510100°

i. NH4OH; d. a. s. dil. a.

sl. s. al.; i. act.; NH3 sl. s. al.; i. act.; NH3 v. s. a.; i. ac. s. a.

2-28

TABLE 2-2

Physical Properties of Organic Compounds* Abbreviations Used in the Table

(A), density referred to air al., ethyl alcohol amor., amorphous aq., aqua, water brn., brown bz., benzene c., cubic cc., cubic centimeter chl., chloroform col., colorless

cr., crystalline d., decomposes d-, dextrorotatory dl-, dextro-laevorotatory et., ethyl ether expl., explodes gn., green h., hot hex., hexagonal

i-, iso-, containing the group (CH3)2CHi., insoluble ign., ignites l-, laevorotatory lf., leaflets lq., liquid m-, meta mn., monoclinic n-, normal

are usually referred to water at 4°C, e.g., 1.02895/4 a density of 1.028 at 95° C referred to water at 4° C, the 4 being omitted when it is not clear whether the reference is to water at 4°C or at the temperature indicated by the upper figure. The melting and boiling points given have been selected from available data as probably the most accurate. The solubility is given in grams of the substance in 100 of the solvent. In the case of gases, the solubility is often expressed in some manner as “510 cc.” which indicates that, at 10°C, 5 cc. of the gas are soluble in 100 of the solvent.

This table of the physical properties includes the organic compounds of most general interest. For the properties of other organic compounds, reference must be made to larger tables in Lange’s Handbook of Chemistry (Handbook Publishers), Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (Chemical Rubber Publishing Co.), Van Nostrand’s Chemical Annual, International Critical Tables (McGraw-Hill), and similar works. The molecular weights are based on the atomic weight values in “Atomic weights of the Elements 2001,” PURE Appl. Chem., 75, 1107, 2003. The densities are given for the temperature indicated and Name Abietic acid Acenaphthene Acetal Acet-aldehyde -aldehyde, par-aldehyde ammonia -amide -anilide -phenetidide (o-) (m-) -toluidide (o-) (p-) Acetic acid anhydride nitrile Acetone Acetonyl urea Acetophenone benzoyl hydride Acetyl-chloride -phenylenediamine (-p) Acetylene dichloride (cis) (trans) Aconitic acid Acridine Acrolein ethylene aldehyde Acrylic acid nitrile Adipic acid amide nitrile Adrenaline (1-) (3,4,1) Alanine (α) (dl-) Aldol acetaldol Alizarin Allyl alcohol bromide chloride thiocyanate (i) thiourea Aluminum ethoxide Amino-anthraquinone (α) (β) -azobenzene -benzoic acid (m-) (p-)

Synonym sylvic acid, abietinic acid naphthylene ethylene acetaldehyde diethylacetal ethanal paraldehyde ethanamide antifebrin o-ethoxyacetanilide acetyl-m-phenetidine N-tolylacetamide N-tolylacetamide ethanoic acid, vinegar acid acetyl oxide, acetic oxide methyl cyanide propanone, dimethyl ketone dimethyl hydantoin methyl-phenyl ketone ethanoyl chloride amino-acetanilide (p) ethyne; ethine 1,2-dichloroethene dioform equisetic acid; citridic acid acrylic aldehyde, propenal propenoic acid vinyl cyanide hexandioc acid, adipinic acid tetramethylene 1-suprarenine 2-hydroxybutyraldehyde Anthraquinoic acid propen-1-ol-3,propenyl alcohol 3-bromo-propene-1 3-chloro-propene-1 mustard oil thiosinamide

aminodracylic acid

v. s., very soluble v. sl. s., very slightly soluble wh., white yel., yellow (+), right rotation >, greater than C6H4 CH2:CHCHO CH2:CHCO2H CH2:CHCN (CH2CH2CO2H)2 (CH2CH2CONH2)2 (CH2CH2CN)2 C6H3(OH)2(CHOHCH2NHCH3) CH3CH(NH2)CO2H CH3CH(OH)CH2COH C6H4(CO)2C6H2(OH)2 CH2:CHCH2OH CH2:CHCH2Br CH2:CHCH2Cl CH2:CHCH2NCS CH2:CHCH2NHCSNH2 Al(OCH2CH3)3 C6H4(CO)2C6H3NH2 C6H4(CO)2C6H3NH2 C6H5N:NC6H4NH2 H2NC6H4CO2H H2NC6H4CO2H

302.45 154.21 118.17 44.05 132.16 61.08 59.07 135.16 179.22 179.22 149.19 149.19 60.05 102.09 41.05 58.08 128.13 120.15 78.50 150.18 26.04 96.94 96.94 174.11 179.22 56.06 72.06 53.06 146.14 144.17 108.14 183.20 89.09 88.11 240.21 58.08 120.98 76.52 99.15 116.18 162.16 223.23 223.23 197.24 137.14 137.14

lf. rhb./al. lq. col. lq. col. cr. col. cr. col. cr. rhb./al. lf./al. lf./al. rhb. rhb. or mn. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. tri./al. lf. col. lq. nd./aq. col. gas col. lq. col. lq. cr./aq. rhb./aq. al. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. mn. pr. cr. pd. col. oil col. pd. nd./aq. col. lq. red rhb. col. lq. lq. col. lq. col. oil col. pr. pd. red nd. red nd. yel. mn. nd./aq. mn. pr.

Specific gravity 1.06995/95 0.82122/4 0.78318/4 0.99420/4 1.159 1.214 1.16815 1.21215 1.04920/4 1.08220/4 0.78320/4 0.79220/4 1.03315/15 1.10520/4 (A) 0.906 1.29115/4 1.26515/4 0.84120/4 1.06216/4 0.81120 1.36025/4 19/19

0.951

1.10320/4 0.85420/4 1.39820/4 0.93820/4 1.01320/4 1.21920/20 1.14220/0

1.5114°

Melting point, °C 182 95 −123.5 10.5–12 97 81(69.4) 113–4 79 96–7 110 153 16.7 −73 −41 −94.6 175 20.5 −112.0 162 −81.5891 −80.5 −50 192 d. 110–1 −87.7 12–13 −82 151–3 226–7 1 d. 207–11 295 d. 289–90 −129 −119.4 −136.4 −80 77–8 150–60 256 302 126–7 173–4 187–8

Boiling point, °C 278–9 102.2 20.2 124.4752 100–10 d. 222 305 >250 296 306–7 118.1 139.6 81.6–2.0 56.5 subl. 202.3749 51–2 −84760 60.3 48.4 346 52.5 141–2 78–9 26510 295 subl. >200 8320 430 96.6 70–1753 44.6 152 200–510 subl. subl. 225120

Solubility in 100 parts Water

Alcohol

Ether

i. i. 625 ∞ 1213 v. s. s. 0.56 i. sl. s. 0.8619 0.0922 ∞ 12 c. ∞ ∞ s. i. d. s. h. 100 cc.18 0.3520 0.6320 3315 sl. s. h. 40 ∞ s. 1.415 0.412 v. sl. s. 0.0320 2217 ∞ 0.03100 ∞ i. 175

pr. mn. pr. rhb./et. col. lq.

1.2315 1.26615/4 1.19915/4 1.00125/6

95 121.7 42 −12.9

1.02220/4

1.385 4 1.123 20/4 1.09815/15 1.096 20/4 1.089 55/55 0.990 22/4 1.25 27/4

1.18715/4 1.438 20/4

1.54315/4

1.20320/4 1.248 20/20 1.035 20/20 1.046 20/4 1.341 1.314 0.879 20/4

−135 −139 −124 22.5 143 −6.2 198 d. 190 d. 73–4 184.2 2.5 5.2 100 d. 251.5 400740 348 d. 249.2 360 190.7

Water

520 s. 2.320 s. s.

2-31

Benzoin (dl-) Benzophenone Benzotrichloride Benzoyl-benzoic acid (o-) -chloride -peroxide Benzyl acetate alcohol amine aniline benzoate butyrate chloride ether formate propionate Berberonic acid (2-,4-,5-) Biuret Borneol (dl-) (d- or l-) (iso-) Bornyl acetate (d-) Bromo-aniline (p-) -benzene -camphor (3-)(d-) -diphenyl (p-) -naphthalene (α-) (β-) -phenol (o-) (m-) (p-) -styrene (ω)(1) (2) -toluene (o-) (m-) (p-) Bromoform Butadiene (1-,2-) (1-,3-) Butadienyl acetylene Butane (i-) Butyl acetate (n-) (s-) (i-) (tert-) alcohol (n-) (s-) (i-) (tert-) amine (n-) (s-) (i-) (t-) p-aminophenol (N)(n) (N)(i-) aniline (n-) (i-) arsonic acid (n-) benzoate (n-) (i-) bromide (n-) (s-) (i-) (t-) butyrate (n-)(n-) (n-)(i-) (i-)(i-) caproate carbamate (i-) cellosolve (n-)

diphenyl ketone phenyl chloroform

phenyl carbinol ω-amino toluene phenyl-benzylamine ω-chlorotoluene dibenzyl ether

allophanamide

phenyl bromide α-bromocamphor α-naphthyl bromide β-naphthyl bromide

o-tolyl bromide tribromo-methane methyl-allene erythrene diethyl trimethyl-methane

butanol-1 butanol-2 2-methyl-propanol-1 2-methyl-propanol-2

1-bromo-butane 2-bromo-butane 1-Br-2-Me-propane 2-Br-2-Me-propane

2-BuO-ethanol-1

C6H5COCHOHC6H5 C6H5COC6H5 C6H5CCl3 C6H5COC6H4CO2HH2O C6H5COCl (C6H5CO)2O2 CH3CO2CH2C6H5 C6H5CH2OH C6H5CH2NH2 C6H5CH2NHC6H5 C6H5CO2CH2C6H5 C2H5CH2CO2CH2C6H5 C6H5CH2Cl (C6H5CH2)2O HCO2CH2C6H5 C2H5CO2CH2C6H5 C5H2N(CO2H)32H2O NH(CONH2)2 C10H17OH C10H17OH C10H17OH CH3CO2C10H17 BrC6H4NH2 C6H5Br BrC10H15O BrC6H4C6H5 C10H7Br C10H7Br BrC6H4OH BrC6H4OH BrC6H4OH C6H5CH:CHBr C6H5CH:CHBr CH3C6H4Br CH3C6H4Br CH3C6H4Br CHBr3 CH3CH:C:CH2 CH2:CHCH:CH2 CH2:(CH)2:CHC⯗CH CH3CH2CH2CH3 (CH3)2CHCH3 CH3CO2(CH2)2C2H5 CH3CO2CH(CH3)C2H5 CH3CO2CH2CH(CH3)2 CH3CO2C(CH3)3 C2H5CH2CH2OH C2H5CH(OH)CH3 (CH3)2CHCH2OH (CH3)3COH C2H5CH2CH2NH2 C2H5CH(NH2)CH3 (CH3)2CHCH2NH2 (CH3)3CNH2 C4H9NHC6H4OH C4H9NHC6H4OH C4H9NHC6H5 C4H9NHC6H5 C4H9AsO(OH)2 C6H5CO2C4H9 C6H5CO2C4H9 C2H5CH2CH2Br C2H5CH(Br)CH3 (CH3)2CHCH2Br (CH3)3CBr C2H5CH2CO2CH2CH2C2H5 C2H5CH2CO2CH2CH(CH3)2 (CH3)2CHCO2CH2CH(CH3)2 CH3(CH2)4CO2C4H9 NH2CO2CH2CH(CH3)2 C4H9OCH2CH2OH

212.24 182.22 195.47 244.24 140.57 242.23 150.17 108.14 107.15 183.25 212.24 178.23 126.58 198.26 136.15 164.20 247.16 103.08 154.25 154.25 154.25 196.29 172.02 157.01 231.13 233.10 207.07 207.07 173.01 173.01 173.01 183.05 183.05 171.03 171.03 171.03 252.73 54.09 54.09 78.11 58.12 58.12 116.16 116.16 116.16 116.16 74.12 74.12 74.12 74.12 73.14 73.14 73.14 73.14 165.23 165.23 149.23 149.23 182.05 178.23 178.23 137.02 137.02 137.02 137.02 144.21 144.21 144.21 172.26 117.15 118.17

mn. col. rhb. col. lq. tri./aq. col. lq. rhb./et. col. lq. col. lq. lq. mn. pr. nd. col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. lq. tri. nd./al. col. cr. col. cr. col. cr. rhb./pet. rhb. col. lq. cr. cr./al. col. oil lf./al. col. lq. cr. tet. cr. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. cr./al. col. lq. lq. col. gas col. lq. col. gas col. gas col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. oil col. lf. col. oil col. oil lq. lq. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lf. col. lq.

1.08354 1.38014 1.21220/4 1.05717 1.04320/4 0.98220/4 1.065 25/25 1.1220/4 1.01616/18 1.100 20/20 1.03616 1.08123 1.03616/17 20/4

1.011 1.01120/4 15

0.991 1.820 1.495 20/4 1.449 20/4 1.48220/4 1.605 0 1.55380 1.588 80 1.42220/4 1.427 20/4 1.42220/4 1.410 20/4 1.390 20/4 2.890 20/4 0.62120/4 0.773 20/4 0.600 0.600 0.882 20 0.865 25/4 0.87120/4 0.866 20/4 0.810 20/4 0.808 20/4 0.80517.5 0.779 26 0.739 25/4 0.724 20/4 0.73220/20 0.69818/4

133–7 48.5 −4.75 93(128) −0.5 108 d. −51.5 −15.3 37–8 21 238–40 −39 3.6 243 192–3 d. 210.5 208–9 212 29 63–4 −30.6 77–8 90–1 5–6 59 5.6 32–3 63.5 7 −7.5 −28 −39.8 28.5 8–9 −108.9 −135 −145 −76.3 −98.9 −79.9 −114.7 −108 25.5 −50 −104 −85 −67.5 71 79

0.940 20/4 1.005 25/25 0.997 25/25 1.277 20/4 1.25125/4 1.258 25/4 1.21120/4 0.87220/20 0.86318/4 0.875 0/4 0.8820/0 0.95676/4 0.90320/4

158–9 −22 −112.4 −112 −118.5 −16.2 −80.7 65

344768 305.4 220.7 197.2 expl. 213.5 204.7 184.5 306750 323–4 i. 179.4 295–8 202–3747 220–2 subl. 212–3 226–7 156.2 274 310 281.1 281–2 194–5 236–7 238 221 10826 181.8 183.7 184–5 150.5 18–9 −4.41 83–6 −0.6 −10 125 740 112744 118 95–6760 117 99.5 107–8 82.9 77.8 66772 68–9 45.2 235720 231–2 249–50 241.5 101.6 91.3 91.5 73.3 165.7736 156.9 148–9 204.3 206–7 171.2

v. sl. s. i. i. sl. s. d. i. i. 417 ∞ i. i. v. s. i. i. i. i. v. sl. s. 1.30 v. sl. s. v. sl. s. i. i. i. c. i. i. i. i. i. s. 1.415 i. i. i. i. i. 0.1 c. i. i. i. i. i. 0.7 i. 0.625 i. 915 12.520 1015 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ i. i. i. 0.0115 s. i. i. 0.0616 i. 0.0618 i. i. i. i. i. i. ∞

s. h. 6.515 s.

sl. s. 1513 s.

d. h. s. h. ∞ ∞ ∞

∞ s. ∞ ∞ ∞ s. ∞

∞ v. s. ∞ s. h. s.

∞ s. ∞

sl. s. h. s.

i.

v. s.

v. s.

s. v. s. s. 2026 s. s. 620 s. s. v. s. ∞ ∞ s. s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞

s. v. s. ∞ v. s. 34 25 ∞ v. s. ∞ s. v. s. ∞ ∞ ∞25 s. ∞25 ∞ ∞ ∞

s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

v. s. v. s. s. s. ∞ ∞

v. s. v. s. i. s. ∞ ∞

∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

s. ∞

s. ∞

2-32

TABLE 2-2

Physical Properties of Organic Compounds (Continued)

Name chloride (n-) (s-) (i-) (t-) dimethylbenzene (t-)(1-,3-,5-) formate (n-) (s-) (i-) furoate (n-) iodide (n-) (s-) (i-) (t-) lactate (n-) mercaptan (n-) (i-) (t-) methacrylate (n-) (i-) phenol (p-)(t-) propionate (n-) (s-) (i-) stearate (n-) (i-) iso-thiocyanate (n-) (i-) (s-)(d-) (t-) valerate (n-)(n-) (i-)(n-) (i-)(s-) (i-)(i-) Butylene (α-) (β-) Butyraldehyde (n-) (i-) Butyric acid (n-) (i-) amide (n-) (i-) anhydride (n-) (i-) anilide (n-) Caffeic acid (3-,4-) Caffeine Camphene (dl-) (d- or l-) Camphor (d-) Camphoric acid (d-) Cantharidine Capric acid Caproic acid (n-) (i-) Caprylic acid (n-) Carbazole Carbitol Carbon disulfide monoxide suboxide tetrabromide tetrachloride tetrafluoride Carbonyl sulfide Carminic acid Carvacrol (1-,2-,4-)

Synonym 1-chloro-butane 2-chloro-butane 1-Cl2-2-Me-propane 2-Cl2-2-Me-propane

1-iodo-butane 2-iodo-butane 1-iodo-2-Me-propane 2-iodo-2-Me-propane butanthiol-1 2-Me-propanthiol-1

butyl mustard oil iso-Bu mustard oil

butene-1 butene-2 2-Me-propanol butanoic acid 2-Me-propanoic acid n-butyramide iso-butyramide n-butyranilide

decanoic acid hexanoic acid 2-Me-pentanoic-5 acid octanoic acid diphenylenelimine, dibenzopyrrole diethylene glycol mono-Et ether

tetrabromomethane tetrachloromethane tetrafluoromethane

Formula C2H5CH2CH2Cl C2H5CHClCH3 (CH3)2CHCH2Cl (CH3)3CCl (CH3)3CC6H3:(CH3)2 HCO2CH2CH2C2H5 HCO2CH(CH3)C2H5 HCO2CH2CH(CH3)2 OC4H3CO2C4H9 C2H5CH2CH2I C2H5CHICH3 (CH3)2CHCH2I (CH3)3CI CH3CH(OH)CO2C4H9 C2H5CH2CH2SH (CH3)2CHCH2SH (CH3)3CSH CH2:C(CH3)CO2C4H9 CH2:C(CH3)CO2C4H9 (CH3)3CC6H4OH C2H5CO2C4H9 C2H5CO2C4H9 C2H5CO2C4H9 CH3(CH2)16CO2C4H9 CH3(CH2)16CO2C4H9 C2H5CH2CH2N:CS (CH3)2CHCH2N:CS C4H9N:CS (CH3)3CN:CS CH3(CH2)3CO2(CH2)3CH3 (CH3)2CHCH2CO2(CH2)3CH3 (CH3)2CHCH2CO2C4H9 C4H9CO2C4H9 C2H5CH:CH2 CH3CH:CHCH3 CH3CH2CH2CHO (CH3)2CHCHO C2H5CH2CO2H (CH3)2CHCO2H C2H5CH2CONH2 (CH3)2CHCONH2 (C2H5CH2CO)2O [(CH3)2CHCO]2O C3H7CONHC6H5 (HO)2C6H3C2H2CO2H C8H10O2N4H2O C10H16 C10H16 C10H16O C8H14(CO2H)2 C10H12O4 CH3(CH2)8CO2H CH3(CH2)4CO2H (CH3)2CH(CH2)2CO2H CH3(CH2)6CO2H (C6H4)2NH C2H5O(CH2)2O(CH2)2OH CS2 CO OC:C:CO CBr4 CCl4 CF4 COS C22H20O13 CH3C6H3(OH)CH(CH3)2

Formula weight 92.57 92.57 92.57 92.57 162.27 102.13 102.13 102.13 168.19 184.02 184.02 184.02 184.02 146.18 90.19 90.19 90.19 142.20 142.20 150.22 130.18 130.18 130.18 340.58 340.58 115.20 115.20 115.20 115.20 158.24 158.24 158.24 158.24 56.11 56.11 72.11 72.11 88.11 88.11 87.12 87.12 158.19 158.19 163.22 180.16 212.21 136.23 136.23 152.23 200.23 196.20 172.26 116.16 116.16 144.21 167.21 134.17 76.14 28.01 68.03 331.63 153.82 88.00 60.08 492.39 150.22

Form and color

Specific gravity

Melting point, °C

Boiling point, °C

col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. lq. lq. col. lq. lq. lq. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. lq. lq. lq. nd./aq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. wax lq. lq. lq. lq. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. gas col. gas col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. rhb. mn. pl. col. lq. col. lq. mn. pr. yel./aq. nd./al. cr. cr. trig. mn. cr. col. nd. oily lq. col. oil col. lf. lf. col. lq. col. lq. col. gas gas col. mn. col. lq. gas col. gas red pd. col. lq.

0.887 20 0.87120/4 0.88415 0.84715

−123.1 −131 −131.2 −26.5

77.9763 67.8767 68.9 51–2 200–2147 106.9 97 98.2 118–2025 129.9 118–9 120 99 75–66 97–8 88 65–7 155 155 236–8 146 132.5 136.8 220–525

0.9110 0.88220/4 0.885 20/4 1.056 20/4 1.617 20/4 1.595 20 1.606 20/4 1.370 19/15 0.968 0.837 25/4 0.836 20/4 0.889 15.6 0.889 15.6 0.908 112/4 0.88315 0.866 20/4 0.888 0/4 0.855 25/25 0.95611 0.96414/4 0.943 20/4 0.91910 0.87015/4 0.862 25/4 0.848 20/4 0.8740/4 0.69 20/4

0.817 0.79420/4 0.96420/4 0.949 20/4 1.032 1.013 0.968 20/20 0.950 25/4 1.134 1.2319 0.82278 0.845 50/4 0.999 9/9 1.186 0.889 87 0.922 20/4 0.925 20/4 0.910 20/4 0.990 20/20 1.263 20/4 0.81−195/4 1.1140 3.42 1.595 20/4 1.24−87 0.977 20/4

−95.3 −103.5 −104 −90.7 −34 −116

CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > CH2 CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > CHOH CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > CO (CH2CH2CH:)2 CH3CO2C6H11 CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > CHNH2 CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > CHBr CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > CHCl CH2 < (CH:CH)2 > CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > < (CH2CH2)2 > CO < CH2CH2CH2 > CH3C6H4CH(CH3)2 CH3C6H4CH(CH3)2 CH3C6H4CH(CH3)2 [SCH2CH(NH2)CO2H]2 C6H6(OH)6 C10H18 C10H18 CH3(CH2)8CH3 CH3(CH2)8CH2OH (C6H10O5)x (CH3)2C(OH)CH2COCH3 H2NC6H4COC6H4NH2 H2NC6H4NHC6H4NH2 H2NC6H4CH2C6H4NH2 (H2NC6H4NH)2CO [(CH3)2CHCH2CH2]2NH (C2H5CH2CH2CH2)2O [(CH3)2CH(CH2)2]2O [(CH3)2CHCH2CH2]2CO C6H4(CO2C5H11)2 C6H4(CO2C5H11)2 (HOCHCO2C5H11)2 [NH2(OCH3)C6H3]2 C6H5N:NNHC6H5 C7H7N:NNHC7H7 CH2:N2

Formula weight 164.16 164.16 146.14 118.13 149.15 113.12 138.16 137.18 108.14 108.14 108.14 212.24 212.24 212.24 86.09 86.09 70.09 120.19 164.20 135.21 42.04 43.02 85.06 52.03 105.92 61.47 165.10 56.11 98.19 84.16 100.16 98.14 82.14 142.20 99.17 163.06 118.60 66.10 70.13 84.12 42.08 134.22 134.22 134.22 240.30 180.16 138.25 138.25 142.28 158.28 162.14 116.16 212.25 199.25 198.26 242.28 157.30 158.28 158.28 170.29 306.40 306.40 290.35 244.29 197.24 225.29 42.04

Form and color nd./aq. cr./aq. rhb./et. oil mn./aq. mn. pr. nd./pet. cr. lq. pr. lq. cr. cr. col. mn. nd. col. lq. col. lq. tri. lq. col. nd. gas col. lq. col. gas nd. gas mn./aq. col. gas oil col. lq. col. nd. col. oil lq. oil col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. oil col. oil col. gas col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. pl. mn./aq. lq. lq. col. lq. col. oil amor. lq. yel. nd. lf./aq. nd./aq. cr. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. yel. oil col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lf. yel. lf. or. cr. gas

Specific gravity

0.93520/4 1.07815/15 1.09220/20 20/4

1.048 1.03420/4 1.03520/4

0.96479.7 1.03115/4 0.85320/20 0.86220/4 1.1624 0.953 1.07348/4 1.1400 0.86617 2.01520/4 1.2220 1.7680/4 0.7030/4 0.81020/4 0.77920/4 0.96220/4 0.94719/4 0.81020/4 0.9850/4 0.86520/0 1.32420/20 0.97718/4 0.80519/4 0.74520/4 0.94820 0.720−79 0.87520/4 0.86220 0.85720/4 1.752 0.89518/4 0.87220/4 0.7302 0.83020/4 1.038 0.93125

0.76721/4 0.77420/4 0.77720/4 0.82125/4

Melting point, °C

Boiling point, °C

207–8 206–7 d. 70

Hg(CN)2 Hg(ONC)2aH2O (CH3)2C:CHCOCH3 C6H3(CH3)3 H2NC6H4SO3H CH4

Formula weight 144.21 102.17 102.17 102.17 130.18 194.27 179.17 155.15 180.16 90.08 27.03 110.11 122.12 213.23 145.16 145.16 262.26 264.28 117.15 133.15 204.01 220.01 393.73 192.30 192.30 206.32 147.13 68.12 42.04 427.34 90.08 162.14 144.13 360.31 200.32 338.61 186.33 323.44 267.34 143.19 131.17 116.12 136.23 154.25 196.29 280.45 116.07 98.06 134.09 134.09 104.06 360.31 152.15 182.17 180.16 270.45 342.17 156.27 167.25 119.21 252.62 293.63 98.14 120.19 173.19 16.04

Form and color

Specific gravity

col. lq. col. lq. lq. lq. lq. col. nd. rhb. lf./aq. cr./aq. syrup lq. cr. nd./aq. pr./al. pr./al. pr. cr. gray lf./aq. yel. pr. col. lq. nd./aq. yel. hex. col. oil col. oil col. oil yel. red col. lq. col. gas cr. hyg. yel. oil tri./al. col. rhb. col. nd. pl. lf. col. lq. col. lq. lq. cr. lf. lq. col. oil col. lq. yel. oil mn. cr. col. cr. col. cr. col. tri. col. nd. rhb./aq. col. rhb. rhb. col. pl. nd./al. col. cr. nd. cr. cr. cr./aq. lq. col. lq. col. nd. gas

0.890 0/0 0.820 20/20 0.821 20/0 0.809 20/4 0.898 0 1.371 20/4

0.697 18 1.332 15 1.129 130

1.35

25/4

1.824 1.857 112 4.008 17 0.930 20 0.944 20 0.939 20

Melting point, °C −51.6 −14 −107 68–70 187–8 d. 287 175–80 −12 170.3 116–7 135 199–200 75–6 390–2 52 85 −28.5 93–4 119

0.681 20/4

200–1 −120 −151

1.249 15/4

16.8

0.862 10/4 1.525 20 0.869 50/4 0.809 69/4 0.831 24/4 1.659 18/4 1.995 20/4 1.086 20 1.29318 1.140 20/20 0.842 20/4 0.868 20 0.895 20 0.903 18/4 1.609 1.5 1.601 20/4 1.595 20/4 1.631 15 1.540 17 1.300 20/4 1.489 20/4 1.539 20/4 0.853 60

124.5 202 48(44) 69–70 24 −136 −27.5 9–10 295 33.5 −96.9

15/15

0.890 1.4220/4 1.50 4.003 22 4.4 0.858 20/4 0.865 20/4

0.415 −164

−9.5 130.5 57–60 128–9 99–100 130–5 d. d. 118.1 166 132 60–1 286–8 42–3 179 106 d. 320 expl. −59 −45(−52) d. −182.6

Boiling point, °C 169.2 157.2 120–1 123762 153.6 1797 d. d. 25–6 285730 subl. d. subl. 266.6752 subl. 253–4 110 188.6 d. subl. 136.117 14018 14416 subl. 34 −56 12214 d. 250 255757 d. 225100 255–9 152291 110760 261–3 subl. 245–6 177 198–200 220762 d. 229–3016 135 d. 202 150 d. 140 d. d. 290–53 227100 d. 212 d.

130750 164.8 −161.4

Solubility in 100 parts Water i. 0.620 v. sl. s. v. sl. s. 0.05 0.420 s. s. h. ∞ 615 1.3831 v. sl. s. h. s. h. v. sl. s. c. i. i. s. h. s. 0.03420 sl. s. 0.0125 sl. s. sl. s. v. sl. s. s. h. i. d. 7.220 ∞ v. sl. s. v. sl. s. 1710 i. i. i. i. i. sl. s. 2.218 v. s. i. v. sl. s. v. sl. s. i. 7925 16.380 14426 v. s. 13816 10825 1620 1314 24817 i. v. s. 0.04 c. i. 1.660 12.515 0.0712 320 i. 215 0.420 cc.

Alcohol

Ether

v. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ v. s. s. h. v. sl. s. v. s.

v. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s. 0.2518 i. sl. s.

∞ v. s.

∞ v. s.

s. v. s. s. i. s. s. h. s. s. v. s. 1.517 ∞ ∞ v. s. v. s. h. ∞ d.

s. v. s. sl. s. i. s. s. s. ∞ v. s. 13.625 ∞ ∞ v. s. sl. s. ∞ s.

∞ s. v. sl. s. c. i. s. i. c. s. sl. s. ∞ ∞

∞ s.

s. ∞ ∞ ∞

v. s. ∞ s. ∞ ∞ 7030

v. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ 825

v. s. v. s. 4225 v. sl. s. c. s. 0.0114 v. sl. s. 3228 v. s. v. s. s.

v. s. 8.415 815 i. s. i. i. v. s.

s. ∞ s. v. sl. s. 4720 cc.

i. s.

v. s. sl. s.

∞ ∞ v. sl. s. 10410 cc.

2-41

Methoxy-methoxyethanol Methyl acetate acrylic acid (α-) alcohol -amine -amine hydrochloride aniline anthracene (α-) (β-) anthranilate (o-) anthraquinone (2-) benzoate benzylaniline bromide butyrate (n-) (i-) caprate caproate (n-) caprylate cellosolve chloride chloroacetate chloroformate cinnamate cyclohexane ethyl carbonate ethyl ketone ethyl oxalate formate furoate glucamine glycolate heptoate hypochlorite iodide lactate laurate mercaptan methacrylate myristate naphthalene (α-) (β-) nitrate nitrite nonyl ketone (n-) oleate orange palmitate phosphine propionate propyl ketone (n-) salicylate (o-) stearate toluate (o-) (m-) (p-) Methyl toluidine (o-) (m-) (p-) valerate (n-) (i-) vinyl ketone Methylal Methylene-bis-(phenyl-4-isocyanate) bromide chloride dianiline iodide Michler’s hydrol (p-,p′-) ketone Morphine Mucic acid

CH3(OCH2)2CH2OH CH3CO2CH3 CH2:C(CH3)CO2H CH3OH CH3NH2 CH3NH2HCl C6H5NHCH3 C6H4:(CH)2:C6H3CH3 C6H4:(CH)2:C6H3CH3 NH2C6H4CO2CH3 C6H4:(CO)2:C6H3CH3 C6H5CO2CH3 C6H5N(CH3)CH2C6H5 CH3Br CH3(CH2)2CO2CH3 (CH3)2CHCO2CH3 CH3(CH2)8CO2CH3 CH3(CH2)4CO2CH3 CH3(CH2)6CO2CH3 CH3OCH2CH2OH CH3Cl ClCH2CO2CH3 ClCO2CH3 C6H5CH:CHCO2CH3 CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > CHCH3 CH3OCOOC2H5 CH3.COC2H5 CH3OCOCO2C2H5 HCO2CH3 C4H3OCO2CH3 CH2OH(CHOH)4CH2NHCH3 HOCH2CO2CH3 CH3(CH2)5CO2CH3 ClOCH3 CH3I CH3CH(OH)CO2CH3 CH3(CH2)10CO2CH3 CH3SH CH2:C(CH3)CO2CH3 CH3(CH2)12CO2CH3 C10H7CH3 C10H7CH3 CH3ONO2 CH3ONO CH3(CH2)8COCH3 C17H33CO2CH3 (CH3)2NC6H4N2C6H4SO3Na CH3(CH2)14CO2CH3 CH3PH2 CH3CH2CO2CH3 CH3COCH2CH2CH3 HOC6H4CO2CH3 CH3(CH2)16CO2CH3 CH3C6H4CO2CH3 CH3C6H4CO2CH3 CH3C6H4CO2CH3 CH3C6H4NHCH3 CH3C6H4NHCH3 CH3C6H4NHCH3 CH3(CH2)3CO2CH3 (CH3)2CHCH2CO2CH3 CH3COCH:CH2 HCH(OCH3)2 (OCNC6H4)2CH2 CH2Br2 CH2Cl2 (C6H5NH)2CH2 CH2I2 [(CH3)2NC6H4]2CHOH [(CH3)2NC6H4]2CO C17H19O3NH2O (CHOHCHOHCO2H)2

106.12 74.08 86.09 32.04 31.06 67.52 107.15 192.26 192.26 151.16 222.24 136.15 197.28 94.94 102.13 102.13 186.29 130.18 158.24 76.09 50.49 108.52 94.50 162.19 98.19 104.10 72.11 132.11 60.05 126.11 195.21 90.08 144.21 66.49 141.94 104.10 214.34 48.11 100.12 242.40 142.20 142.20 77.04 61.04 170.29 296.49 327.33 270.45 48.02 88.11 86.13 152.15 298.50 150.17 150.17 150.17 121.18 121.18 121.18 116.16 116.16 70.09 76.09 250.25 173.83 84.93 198.26 267.84 270.37 268.35 303.35 210.14

lq. col. lq. pr. col. lq. col. gas pl./al. lq. lf./al. col. lf. col. lq. col. nd. col. lq. lq. gas col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. gas col. lq. col. lq. cr. col. lq. lq. col. lq. lq. lq. col. lq. lq. lq. gas col. lq. lq. lq. gas lq. cr./al. oil mn. lq. gas col. oil oil red pd. col. cr. gas col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. cr. col. lq. col. lq. cr. lq. lq. lq. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. cr. col. lq. gn. lf./al. pr./al. pd.

1.038 25 0.924 20/4 1.015 20/4 0.792 20/4 0.699 −11 1.23 0.989 20/4 1.047 99.4 1.181 0/4 1.168 19/4 1.087 25/25 1.732 0/0 0.898 20/4 0.891 20/4 0.904 0/0 0.887 18 0.965 20/4 0.952 0 1.236 20/4 1.236 15 1.042 36/0 0.769 20/4 1.002 27 0.805 20/4 1.156 0/0 0.974 20/4 1.179 21/4

250 125 46–9 69–70 50 111–2

300 >300 278–80 285–6

1.077 100/4 1.224 4 1.217 4

1.123 25/25 1.061 98/4

250.5100 16715 217.9

300.8 306.1 subl.

d.

1.18 1.009 20/4

1.207 156 1.211 156 1.442 15 1.43 1.437 14 1.254 20/4 1.233 20

1.205 18/4 1.575 4/4 1.494 4/4 1.550 22/4

89/4

1.240 1.067 20/4 1.179 20/4 1.313 17 1.44

NH C5H4NCH3 C5H4NCH3 C5H4NCH3 HOC6H2(NH2)(NO2)2 HOC6H2(NO2)3 ClC6H2(NO2)3 [(CH3)2COH]2 CH3COC(CH3)3 C10H16 C10H17Cl C10H16O CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > NH HO2CCH < (CH2CH2)2 > NH (CH2)5CS2HHN(CH2)5 CH3CH2CH3 CH3CH2CO2H CH3CH2CHO (CH3CH2CO)2O CH3CO2CH2CH2CH3 CH3CO2CH(CH3)2 CH3CH2CH2OH (CH3)2CHOH CH3CH2CH2NH2 (CH3)2CHNH2 C6H5NHCH2CH2CH3 C6H5CO2CH2CH2CH3 C6H5CO2CH(CH3)2 CH3CH2CH2Br (CH3)2CHBr C2H5CH2CO2CH2C2H5 (CH3)2CHCO2CH2C2H5 C2H5CH2CO2CH(CH3)2 (CH3)2CHCO2CH(CH3)2 CH3CH2CH2Cl (CH3)2CHCl HCO2CH2CH2CH3 HCO2CH(CH3)2 C4H3OCO2C3H7 CH3CH(OH)CO2CH2C2H5 CH3CH(OH)CO2CH(CH3)2 CH3CH2CH2SH (CH3)2CHSH C2H5CO2CH2C2H5 C2H5CO2CH(CH3)2 (CH3)2CHCNS CH3(CH2)3CO2CH2C2H5 (CH3)2CHCH2CO2C3H7 (CH3)2CHCH2CO2C3H7 CH3CH:CH2 CH3CHBrCH2Br CH3CHClCH2OH CH3CHClCH2Cl CH3CH(OH)CH2OH CH3(CHCH2)O (HO)2C6H3CO2HH2O

Formula weight

Form and color

108.14 108.14 108.14 162.14 138.21 98.92 166.13 166.13 148.12 128.13 134.13 147.13 93.13 93.13 93.13 199.12 229.10 247.55 118.17 100.16 136.23 172.69 152.23 85.15 129.16 232.43 44.10 74.08 58.08 130.14 102.13 102.13 60.10 60.10 59.11 59.11 135.21 164.20 164.20 122.99 122.99 130.18 130.18 130.18 130.18 78.54 78.54 88.11 88.11 154.16 132.16 132.16 76.16 76.16 116.16 116.16 101.17 144.21 144.21 144.21 42.08 201.89 94.54 112.99 76.09 58.08 172.14

lf./aq. rhb. mn. rhb. yel. pr. gas mn./aq. nd./aq. rhb. cr. nd./aq. cr./et. col. lq. col. lq. lq. red nd. yel. rhb. yel. mn. col. nd. col. lq. col. lq. lf. lq. lq. cr. cr. gas col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. gas col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. oil col. lq. nd./aq.

Specific gravity 1.139 15/15 0.885 20/4 1.392 19/4 1.593 20/4 1.527

4

1.164 99/4 0.950 15/4 0.961 15/4 0.957 15/4 1.763 20/4 1.797 20 0.967 15 0.800 16 0.878 20/4 0.953 20/20 0.860 20/4 1.13 0.585 −45/4 0.992 20/4 0.807 20/4 1.012 20/4 0.886 20/4 0.874 20/20 0.804 20/4 0.78920/4 0.718 20/20 0.694 15/4 0.949 18 1.021 25/25 1.010 25/25 1.353 20/4 1.310 20/4 0.879 15 0.884 0/4 0.865 18 0.869 0/4 0.890 20/4 0.859 20 0.901 20/4 0.873 20/4 1.075 26/4 0.836 25/4 0.809 25/4 0.883 20/4 0.893 0 0.963 20 0.874 15 0.863 20/4 0.854 17 0.609 −47/4 1.933 20/4 1.103 20 1.159 20/20 1.040 19.4 0.831 20/20 1.542 4/4

Melting point, °C

Boiling point, °C

103–4 62.8 140 117 28 −104 208 330 130.8 141 73(65) 238 −70

256–8 284–7 267 subl. 197.2743 8.2756 d. subl. 284.5

169 121.8 83 43(38) −52.5 −55 131–2 −9 264 175 −187.1 −22 −81 −45 −92.5 −73.4 −127 −85.8 −83 −101 −51.6 −109.9 −89 −95.2

−122.8 −117 −92.9

−112 −130.7 −76 −70.7 −185 −55.5

CH < (CHCH)2 > N C6H4(OH)2 C6H3(OH)3 CO < (CHCH)2 > O < (CH:CH)2 > NH < (CH2CH2)2 > NH < (CHCH2)2 > NH CH3COCO2H C21H20O112H2O CH3C9H6N C9H7N C9H7N C6H4CH:C(OH)N:C(OH) CO < (CHCH)2 > CO HOC10H5(SO3)2Ca HOC10H5(SO3K)2 HOC10H5(SO3Na)2 C18H32O165H2O C6H4(OH)2 C18H18 CH3(CHOH)4CHOH2O C17H32(OH)CO2H C20H21ON3 C20H16O3 C6H4(CO)(SO2) > NH CH2:CHCH2C6H3:O2CH2 CH3CH:CHC6H3:O2CH2 HOC6H4CO2H HOC6H4CHO HOC6H4CH2OH (HOC10H6SO3)2Ca5H2O HOC10H6SO3K HOC10H6SO3Na NH2CONHNH2 NH2CONHNH3Cl CH3C8H6N CH3ONa [CH2OH(CHOH)2]2 C6H12O6 (C6H10O5)x CH3(CH2)16CO2H CH3(CH2)16CONH2 C6H5CH:CH2 HO2C(CH2)6CO2H HO2C(CH2)2CO2H C12H22O11 H2NC6H4SO3H C10H16 (CHOHCO2H)2 (CHOHCO2H)2H2O (CHOHCO2H)2 CH(OH)(CO2H)2aH2O C6H4(CO2H)2 C10H20O2H2O C10H18O C10H18O CH3CO2C10H17 Br2CHCHBr2 Br3CCH2Br Cl2CHCHCl2 Cl3CCH2Cl Cl2C:CCl2 CH3(CH2)22CH3 CH3(CH2)12CH3 [(C2H5)2NCS]2S2

154.25 152.23 68.08 70.09 84.08 202.25 80.09 79.10 110.11 126.11 96.08 67.09 71.12 69.11 88.06 484.41 143.19 129.16 129.16 161.16 108.09 342.36 380.48 348.26 594.51 110.11 234.34 182.17 298.46 319.40 304.34 183.18 162.19 162.19 138.12 122.12 124.14 576.60 262.32 246.21 75.07 111.53 131.17 54.02 182.17 180.16 162.14 284.48 283.49 104.15 174.19 118.09 342.30 173.19 136.23 150.09 168.10 150.09 129.07 166.13 190.28 154.25 154.25 196.29 345.65 345.65 167.85 167.85 165.83 338.65 198.39 296.54

col. lq. col. lq. nd./et. lq. nd. yel. pr. lq. col. lq. nd./aq. nd. cr. lq. lq. lq. col. lq. yel. nd. lq. lq. pl. cr. yel. mn. cr. cr. cr. cr./aq. col. rhb. lf./al. col. mn. lq. col. nd. red lf. mn. col. mn. col. lq. mn. col. oil rhb./aq. cr. cr. cr. pr./al. pr. lf. pd. cr. rhb. amor. mn. col. cr. col. lq. nd./aq. col. mn. col. mn. col. cr. lq. cr. tri. mn. pr./aq. cr. rhb. col. cr. col. cr. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. cr. col. lq. cr.

0.911 20/4 0.932 20/20 70 1.277 0/4 1.107 20/4 0.982 20/4 1.344 4 1.453 4 1.190 40.3 0.948 20/4 0.852 22.5 0.910 20/4 1.267 20/4 1.059 20/4 1.095 20 1.099 21/4 1.318 20/4

1.465 0 1.272 15 1.1316 1.47120/4 0.954 16

1.100 20/4 1.122 20/4 1.443 20/4 1.153 25/4 1.161 25

1.654 15 1.5021 0.847 69.3 0.903 20/4 1.266 25/4 1.572 25/4 1.588 15 0.863 20/4 1.737 1.697 20/4 1.760 20/4 1.510 0.935 15 0.935 20/20 0.966 20/4 2.964 20/4 2.875 20/4 1.600 20/4 1.588 20/4 1.624 15/4 0.779 51/4 0.765 20/4 1.17

165 149-50 −8 −42 104-5 133-4 32.5

13.6 182-5 −1 −15 24.6 237 115.7

119 110.7 98-9 126 4-5 186 d. 308-10 d. 225-8 11.2 6-7 159 -7 86-7

96 173 d. 95 d. 300 110-2 165 d. 70-1 108-9 −31 140-4 189-90 170-86 d. d. > 280 159-60 205-6 168-70 d. 155-8 subl. 117 38-40 35 < −50 −1.0 0 −36 −19 51.1 5.5 70

86-9 10 224754 186-8 144 subl. d. >360 208 115-6 240-5 309 215-7 131 87-8 90-1 165 244-5750 237.1747 240.5763 subl.

d. 130 276.5 390-4 226-810 subl. 233-4 252-3 21120 196.5 subl.

265-6755

291110 25112 145-6 279100 235 d. 176-7 d. subl. d. 219-21 218-9752 220 d. 15154 10413 146.3 129-30 120.8 324 252.5

v. sl. s. i. s. ∞ s. i. ∞ ∞ 45.120 40 13 v. sl. s. i. ∞ v. s. ∞ 0.04 20 v. sl. s. 6 sl. s. v. sl. s. sl. s. h. 30.6 25 29.5 25 25.2 25 14.3 20 14712 i. 60.8 21 i. v. sl. s. 0.1225 0.4 25 i. i. 0.223 1.7 86 6.615 4.7620 3.4625 6.2925 v. s. v. s. 0.05 c. d. v. s. 5517 i. 0.0325 i. v. sl. s. 0.1416 6.820 1790 0.810 12015 20.620 13920 v. s. 0.001 c. 0.415 i. i. i. i. 0.2920 i. 0.0220 i. i.

∞ s. ∞ v. s. 3 h. s. ∞ v. s. s. s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ s. ∞ s.

0.120 v. s. 69 h.

∞ s. sl. s. v. sl. s. v. s. s. s. v. s. s. v. s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ sl. s. s. ∞ s. s.

∞ sl. s. v. s. h. 3.1 c. s. ∞ 4915 ∞ v. s.

v. s. v. s. h. i. ∞ i. sl. s. 1.05 c. ∞ ∞ 5115 ∞ v. s.

v. s. sl. s. s.

i. i. s.

v. s. h. sl. s. i. 220 s. h. ∞ s. 9.915 0.9 v. sl. s.

i. 6g s. h: ∞ 0.815 1.215 i. v. sl. s.

20 2515 v. s. sl. s. h. 1015 v. s. v. s. 20 ∞ s. ∞ ∞ ∞ v. s.

0.09 0.415 i. i. 115 v. s. v. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s. v. s.

2-46

TABLE 2-2

Physical Properties of Organic Compounds (Concluded) Name

Tetrafluoro-ethylene Tetrahydro-furan -furfuryl alcohol -pyran Tetralin Tetramethyl-thiuram disulfide Tetryl (2-,4-,6-) Theobromine Thio-acetic acid -aniline (4-, 4′-) -carbanilide -naphthol (β-) -phenol -salicylic acid (o-) -urea Thiophene Thymol (5-,2-,1-) Tolidine (0-)(3-,3′-,4-,4′-) Toluene sulfonic acid (o-) (p-) sulfonic amide (p-) sulfonic chloride (p-) Toluic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Toluidine (o-) (m-) (p-) hydrochloride (o-) sulfonic acid (1-,2-,3-) Toluylenediamine (1-,2-,4-) Tolylene diisocyanate (1-,2-,4-) Trehalose Triamylamine (n-) (i-) Tributyl-amine (n-) phosphite Trichloro-acetic acid -benzene (s-)(1-,3-,5-) -ethane (1-,1-,1-) -ethylene -phenol Tricosane (n-) Tricresyl phosphate (o-) Tridecane (n-) Triethanol amine Triethyl-amine -benzene (1-,3-,5-) (1-,2-,4-) borate citrate Triethylene glycol Trifluoro-chloromethane -chloroethylene -trichloroethane Trimethoxybutane (1-,3-,3-) Trimethylamine Trimethylene bromide chloride glycol Trinitro-benzene (1-,3-,5-) -benzoic acid (2-,4-,6-) -tert-butylxylene -naphthalene (α-)(1-,3-,5-) (β-)(1-,3-,8-) (γ-)(1-,4-,5-)

Formula F2C:CF2 CH2(CH2)2CH2O C4H7OCH2OH CH2(CH2)3CH2O C6H4CH2(CH2)2CH2 [(CH3)2NCS]2S2 (NO2)3C6H2N(CH3)NO2 C7H8O2N4 CH3COSH (NH2C6H4)2S (C6H5NH)2CS C10H7SH C6H5SH HSC6H4CO2H NH2CSNH2 < (CH:CH)2 > S (CH3)(C3H7)C6H3OH [CH3(NH2)C6H3]2 C6H5CH3 CH3C6H4SO3H2H2O CH3C6H4SO3HH2O CH3C6H4SO2NH2 CH3C6H4SO2Cl CH3C6H4CO2H CH3C6H4CO2H CH3C6H4CO2H CH3C6H4NH2 CH3C6H4NH2 CH3C6H4NH2 CH3C6H4NH3Cl CH3(NH2)C6H3SO3H CH3C6H3(NH2)2 CH3C6H3(NCO)2 C12H22O112H2O [CH3(CH2)3CH2]3N [(CH3)2CH(CH2)2]3N [CH3(CH2)2CH2]3N [CH3(CH2)3O]3P Cl3CCO2H C6H3Cl3 Cl3CCH3 Cl2C:CHCl Cl3C6H2OH CH3(CH2)21CH3 OP(OC6H4CH3)3 CH3(CH2)11CH3 (HOCH2CH2)3N (CH3CH2)3N (C2H5)3C6H3 (C2H5)3C6H3 B(OCH2CH3)3 HOC3H4(CO2C2H5)3 (CH2OCH2CH2OH)2 CF3Cl F2C:CFCl Cl2CFCClF2 CH2(OCH3)CH2C(OCH3)2CH3 (CH3)3N BrCH2CH2CH2Br ClCH2CH2CH2Cl HOCH2CH2CH2OH C6H3(NO2)3 (NO2)3C6H2CO2H (NO2)3C6(CH3)2C4H9 C10H5(NO2)3 C10H5(NO2)3 C10H5(NO2)3

Formula weight

Form and color

Specific gravity

Melting point, °C

Boiling point, °C

100.02 72.11 102.13 86.13 132.20 240.43 287.14 180.16 76.12 216.30 228.31 160.24 110.18 154.19 76.12 84.14 150.22 212.29 92.14 208.23 190.22 171.22 190.65 136.15 136.15 136.15 107.15 107.15 107.15 143.61 187.22 122.17 174.16 378.33 227.43 227.43 185.35 250.31 163.39 181.45 133.40 131.39 197.45 324.63 368.36 184.36 149.19 101.19 162.27 162.27 145.99 276.28 150.17 104.46 116.47 187.38 148.20 59.11 201.89 112.99 76.09 213.10 257.11 297.26 263.16 263.16 263.16

gas col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. cr. yel. mn. rhb. yel. lq. nd./aq. rhb./al. cr./al. col. lq. yel. nd. rhb./al. col. lq. cr. lf. col. lq. cr. mn. mn. tri. cr./aq. pr./aq. cr./aq. col. lq. col. lq. cr. mn. pr. cr. rhb. lq. rhb./al. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. cr. nd. lq. col. lq. nd. lf. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. oil lq. lq. lq. oil col. lq. gas gas lq. lq. gas lq. lq. oil col. rhb. rhb./aq. nd./al. rhb. cr./al. yel. cr.

1.58−78 0.88821/4 1.05020/4 0.88120/4 0.97318/4 1.29 1.5719

−142.5 −65

−76.3 65-6 177-8743 88 206764

10

1.074 1.324

1.07423/4 1.40520/4 1.07015/4 0.97225/25 0.86620/4

1.062115/4 1.054112/4 0.99920/4 0.98920/4 1.04620/4

1.2328

−31 155-6 130.5 330 < −17 108 154 81 164 180-2 −30 51.5 128-9 −95 d. 104-5 137 69 104-5 110-1 179-80 −16.3 −31.5 44-5 218-20 99

expl. 93 d. 286-8 168-9 subl. d. 84 232752 110.8 128.80 146-70 134.510 259751 263 274-5 199.7 203.3 200.3 242 283-5 134.520

97 20/4

0.786 0.77820/20 0.92520/4 1.61746/15 26/4

1.325 1.46620/20 1.49075/4 0.77948/4 0.75720/4 1.12620/20 0.72920/20 0.86120/4 0.88217/4 0.86420/20 1.13720/4 1.12520/20 1.726−130 1.57620/4 0.932 0.662 −5 1.987 15/4 1.201 15 1.060 20/4 1.688 20/4

58 63.5 −73 68-9 47.7 −6.2 20-1 −114.8

−5 −182 −157.5 −35 −124 −34.4 121 210-20 d. 110 122-3 218-9 148-9

240-5 235 216.5761 122-312 195.5754 208.5764 74.1 87.2 246 23415 234 277-9150 89.4 215 217-8755 120 294 290 −80 −27.9 47.6 63-525 3.5 167.5 123-5 214 d.

Solubility in 100 parts Water 0.0130 s. ∞ s. i. i. i. 0.0615 s. sl. s. h. i. v. sl. s. v. sl. s. sl. s. h. 9.213 i. 0.0919 v. sl. s. 0.0516 v. s. v. s. 0.29 i. 2.17100 1.6100 1.3100 1.525 sl. s. 0.7421 s. 0.9711 s. h. d. s. h. i. i. i. i. 12025 i. i. 0.125 0.0925 i. i. i. ∞ ∞ > 190 i. i. d. i. ∞ d. i. d. 4119 0.1730 0.2725 ∞ 0.0315 2.0524 i. i. 0.02100 i.

Alcohol

Ether

s. ∞

s. ∞

s.

s.

s. h. 0.06 c. ∞ s. v. s. v. s. v. s. s. s. s. v. s. s. s. s. s. 7.45 s. v. s. v. s. v. s. ∞ ∞ v. s. sl. s.

s. 0.03 h. ∞ s. v. s. v. s. ∞ sl. s. v. s. s. ∞

s. v. s. v. s. ∞ ∞ v. s.

s. d. sl. s. h.

s. i.

s.



s. sl. s. ∞ ∞ v. s.

s. ∞ ∞ v. s.

v. s. ∞ ∞ s. s.

v. s. sl. s. ∞ s. s.

∞ ∞

∞ v. sl. s.





s. s. s. ∞ 1.918

s. s. s. 1.518

sl. s. s. 0.0523 0.1119

0.1315 0.419

s.

-phenol (2-,3-,6-) -toluene (β-)(2-,3-,4-) (γ-)(2-,4-,5-) (α-)(2-,4-,6-) Trional Triphenyl-arsine carbinol guanidine (α-) methane methyl phosphate Tripropylamine (n-) Undecane (n-) Urea nitrate Uric acid Valeric acid (n-) (i-) aldehyde (n-) (i-) amide (n-) (i-) Vanillic acid (3-,4-,1-) alcohol (3-,4-,1-) hyl-thiuram disulfide Vanillin (3-,4-,1-) Veratrole (o-) Vinyl acetate (poly-) acetic acid acetylene alcohol (poly-) chloride propionate Xylene (o-) (m-) (p-) sulfonic acid (1-,4-,2-) Xylidine (1:2)(3-) (1:2)(4-) (1:3)(2-) (1:3)(4-) (1:3)(5-) (1:4)(2-) Xylose (l-)(+) Xylylene dichloride (p-) Zinc diethyl dimethyl dimethyl-dithiocarbamate NOTE:

°F = 9⁄5 °C + 32.

(NO2)3C6H2OH CH3C6H2(NO2)3 CH3C6H2(NO2)3 CH3C6H3(NO2)3 (C2H5SO2C2H4)2 (C6H5)3As (C6H5)3COH C6H5N:C(NHC6H5)2 (C6H5)3CH (C6H5)3C . . . OP(OC6H5)3 (CH3CH2CH2)3N CH3(CH2)9CH3 H2NCONH2 CO(NH2)2HNO3 C5H4O3N4 C2H5CH2CH2CO2H (CH3)2CHCH2CO2H C2H5CH2CH2CHO (CH3)2CHCH2CHO C2H5CH2CH2CONH2 (CH3)2CHCH2CONH2 CH3O(OH)C6H3CO2H CH3O(OH)C6H3CH2OH [(C2H5)2NCS]2S2 CH3O(OH)C6H3CHO C6H4(OCH3)2 CH3CO2CH:CH2 (CH3CO2CH:CH2)x CH2:CHCH2CO2H CH2:CHC:CH CH2:CHOH (CH2:CHOH)x CH2:CHCl C2H5CO2CH:CH2 C6H4(CH3)2 C6H4(CH3)2 C6H4(CH3)2 (CH3)2C6H3SO3H2H2O (CH3)2C6H3NH2 (CH3)2C6H3NH2 (CH3)2C6H3NH2 (CH3)2C6H3NH2 (CH3)2C6H3NH2 (CH3)2C6H3NH2 CH2OH(CHOH)3CHO C6H4(CH2Cl)2 Zn(CH2CH3)2 Zn(CH3)2 Zn[S2CN(CH3)2]2

229.10 227.13 227.13 227.13 242.36 306.23 260.33 287.36 244.33 243.32 326.28 143.27 156.31 60.06 123.07 168.11 102.13 102.13 86.13 86.13 101.15 101.15 168.15 154.16 296.54 152.15 138.16 86.09 (86.09) 86.09 52.07 44.05 (44.05) 62.50 100.12 106.17 106.17 106.17 222.26 121.18 121.18 121.18 121.18 121.18 121.18 150.13 175.06 123.53 95.48 305.84

nd. cr. yel. pl. cr./al. pl./al. pl. cr. rhb./al. cr. col. cr. pr./al. col. lq. col. lq. col. pr. col. mn. cr. col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. mn. pl. mn. nd./aq. mn./aq. cr. mn. cr. col. lq. col. lq. gas gas lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lf. lq. pr. lq. lq. oil oil nd. mn. col. lq. col. lq.

1.620 20/4 1.620 20/4 1.654 1.199 85/4 1.306 1.188 20/4 1.13 1.014 99/4 1.206 58/4 0.757 20/4 0.741 20/4 1.335 20/4 1.893 20 0.939 20/4 0.931 20/20 0.819 11 0.803 17 1.023 0.965 20/4 1.17 1.056 1.091 15/15 0.932 20/4 1.1920 1.013 15/15 0.705 1.5

117-8 112 104 80.8 76 59-60 162.5 144-5 93.4 145-7 49-50 −93.5 −25.6 132.7 152 d. d. −34.5 −37.6 −92 −51 106 135-7 207 115 70 81-2 22.5 < −60 100-25 −39

1.320 0.908 25/25

d. >200 −160

0.881 20/4 0.867 17/4 0.861 20/4

−25 −47.4 13.2 86 < −15 49-50

0.991 15 1.076 17.5 0.980 15 0.978 20/4 0.972 20/4 0.979 21/4 1.535 0 1.417 0 1.182 18 1.386 11 2.0040/4

15.5 153-4 100.5 −28 −40 248-50

expl. expl. expl. d. >360 >360 d. 359754 d. 24511 156.5 194.5 d. 187 176 103.4 92.5 232 subl. d. 285 207.1 72-3 163 5.5 −12 93-5 144 139.3 138.5 1490.1 223 224-6 216-7 213-4 221-2 215789 240-5 d. 118 46

s. h. i. i. 0.0120 0.315 i. i. i. i. i. i. v. sl. s. i. 10017 v. s. h. 0.06 h. 3.316 4.220 v. sl. s. sl. s. v. s. s. 0.1214 v. s. h. i. 114 v. sl. s. 220 i. s. 0.670.6 s. sl. s. v. sl. s. i. i. i. s. v. sl. s. v. sl. s. v. sl. s. v. sl. s. v. sl. s. v. sl. s. 11720 i. d. d. i.

v. s. sl. s. c. s. h. 1.522 50 s. v. s. 40 v. s. h. sl. s. h. 15525 ∞ ∞ 2020 s. i. ∞ ∞ s. s. v. s. s. v. s. v. s.

v. s. s. v. s. 533 6.615 v. s. v. s.

v. s. ∞ ∞ sl. s.

v. s. s. ∞

v. s. s. ∞





v. s.

i. ∞ ∞ s. s. v. s. s. v. s. v. s.

s.

v. s.

s. s. s.

∞ ∞ v. s.

s.

s.

v. sl. s. s. d. d.

i. v. sl. s.

2-47

2-48

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES TABLE 2-3

Vapor Pressure of Water Ice from 0 to −40 ⬚C

Vapor pressure t, ºC mmHg 0 −0.5 −1.0 −1.5 −2.0 −2.5 −3.0 −3.5 −4.0 −4.5 −5.0 −5.5 −6.0 −6.5 −7.0 −7.5 −8.0 −8.5 −9.0 −9.5 −10.0 −10.5 −11.0 −11.5 −12.0 −12.5 −13.0

4.584 4.399 4.220 4.049 3.883 3.724 3.571 3.423 3.281 3.145 3.013 2.887 2.766 2.649 2.537 2.429 2.325 2.225 2.130 2.038 1.949 1.865 1.783 1.705 1.630 1.558 1.489

Vapor pressure

UNITS CONVERSIONS

Vapor pressure

kPa

t, ºC

mmHg

kPa

t, ºC

mmHg

kPa

0.6112 0.5865 0.5627 0.5398 0.5177 0.4965 0.4761 0.4564 0.4375 0.4193 0.4018 0.3849 0.3687 0.3532 0.3382 0.3238 0.3100 0.2967 0.2839 0.2717 0.2599 0.2486 0.2377 0.2273 0.2173 0.2077 0.1985

−13.5 −14.0 −14.5 −15.0 −15.5 −16.0 −16.5 −17.0 −17.5 −18.0 −18.5 −19.0 −19.5 −20.0 −20.5 −21.0 −21.5 −22.0 −22.5 −23.0 −23.5 −24.0 −24.5 −25.0 −25.5 −26.0 −26.5

1.423 1.359 1.298 1.240 1.184 1.130 1.079 1.029 0.9822 0.9370 0.8937 0.8522 0.8125 0.7745 0.7381 0.7034 0.6701 0.6383 0.6078 0.5787 0.5509 0.5243 0.4989 0.4747 0.4515 0.4294 0.4083

0.1897 0.1812 0.1731 0.1653 0.1578 0.1507 0.1438 0.1372 0.1310 0.1249 0.1191 0.1136 0.1083 0.1033 0.09841 0.09377 0.08934 0.08510 0.08104 0.07716 0.07345 0.06991 0.06652 0.06329 0.06020 0.05725 0.05443

−27.0 −27.5 −28.0 −28.5 −29.0 −29.5 −30.0 −30.5 −31.0 −31.5 −32.0 −32.5 −33.0 −33.5 −34.0 −34.5 −35.0 −35.5 −36.0 −36.5 −37.0 −37.5 −38.0 −38.5 −39.0 −39.5 −40.0

0.3881 0.3688 0.3505 0.3330 0.3162 0.3003 0.2851 0.2706 0.2568 0.2437 0.2311 0.2192 0.2078 0.1970 0.1867 0.1769 0.1676 0.1587 0.1503 0.1423 0.1347 0.1274 0.1206 0.1140 0.1078 0.1019 0.0963

0.05174 0.04918 0.04673 0.04439 0.04216 0.04004 0.03801 0.03608 0.03424 0.03249 0.03082 0.02923 0.02771 0.02627 0.02490 0.02359 0.02235 0.02116 0.02004 0.01897 0.01796 0.01699 0.01607 0.01520 0.01437 0.01359 0.01284

SOURCE: Formulation of Wagner, Saul, and Pruss, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 23, 515 (1994), implemented in Harvey, Peskin, and Klein, NIST/ASME Steam Properties, NIST Standard Reference Database 10, Version 2.2, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 2000. This source provides data down to 190 K (−83.15 ºC). A formula extending to 110 K may be found in Murphy and Koop, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 131, 1539 (2005).

TABLE 2-4 Vapor Pressure of Supercooled Liquid Water from 0 to −40 ⬚C* Vapor pressure t, ºC mmHg 0 −0.5 −1.0 −1.5 −2.0 −2.5 −3.0 −3.5 −4.0 −4.5 −5.0 −5.5 −6.0 −6.5 −7.0 −7.5 −8.0 −8.5 −9.0 −9.5 −10.0 −10.5 −11.0 −11.5 −12.0 −12.5 −13.0

4.584 4.421 4.262 4.108 3.959 3.816 3.676 3.542 3.411 3.285 3.163 3.046 2.932 2.822 2.715 2.612 2.513 2.417 2.324 2.235 2.149 2.065 1.985 1.907 1.832 1.760 1.690

Vapor pressure

Vapor pressure

kPa

t, ºC

mmHg

kPa

t, ºC

mmHg

kPa

0.6112 0.5894 0.5682 0.5477 0.5279 0.5087 0.4901 0.4722 0.4548 0.4380 0.4218 0.4061 0.3909 0.3762 0.3620 0.3483 0.3351 0.3223 0.3099 0.2980 0.2865 0.2753 0.2646 0.2542 0.2442 0.2346 0.2253

−13.5 −14.0 −14.5 −15.0 −15.5 −16.0 −16.5 −17.0 −17.5 −18.0 −18.5 −19.0 −19.5 −20.0 −20.5 −21.0 −21.5 −22.0 −22.5 −23.0 −23.5 −24.0 −24.5 −25.0 −25.5 −26.0 −26.5

1.623 1.558 1.495 1.435 1.377 1.321 1.267 1.215 1.165 1.117 1.070 1.026 0.9827 0.9414 0.9016 0.8633 0.8265 0.7911 0.7571 0.7244 0.6930 0.6628 0.6337 0.6059 0.5791 0.5534 0.5288

0.2163 0.2077 0.1993 0.1913 0.1836 0.1761 0.1689 0.1620 0.1553 0.1489 0.1427 0.1367 0.1310 0.1255 0.1202 0.1151 0.1102 0.1055 0.1009 0.0965 0.0923 0.08836 0.08449 0.08078 0.07721 0.07379 0.07050

−27.0 −27.5 −28.0 −28.5 −29.0 −29.5 −30.0 −30.5 −31.0 −31.5 −32.0 −32.5 −33.0 −33.5 −34.0 −34.5 −35.0 −35.5 −36.0 −36.5 −37.0 −37.5 −38.0 −38.5 −39.0 −39.5 −40.0

0.5051 0.4824 0.4606 0.4397 0.4197 0.4005 0.3820 0.3644 0.3475 0.3313 0.3158 0.3009 0.2867 0.2731 0.2600 0.2476 0.2356 0.2242 0.2133 0.2029 0.1929 0.1834 0.1743 0.1656 0.1573 0.1494 0.1419

0.06734 0.06431 0.06141 0.05862 0.05595 0.05339 0.05094 0.04858 0.04633 0.04417 0.04210 0.04012 0.03822 0.03640 0.03467 0.03300 0.03141 0.02989 0.02844 0.02705 0.02572 0.02445 0.02324 0.02208 0.02098 0.01992 0.01891

*SOURCE: Murphy and Koop, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 131, 1539 (2005). The formula in the reference extends down to 123 K (-150.15 ºC), although in practice pure liquid water cannot be supercooled below about 235 K.

For this subsection, the following units conversions are applicable: °F = 9⁄5 °C + 32. To convert millimeters of mercury to pounds-force per square inch, multiply by 0.01934. ADDITIONAL REFERENCES Additional vapor-pressure data may be found in major thermodynamic property databases, such as those produced by the AIChE’s DIPPER program (www.aiche.org/dippr/), NIST’s Thermodynamics Research Center (trc.nist.gov), the Dortmund Databank (www.ddbst.de), and the Physical Property Data Service (www.ppds.co.uk). Additional sources include the NIST Chemistry Webbook (webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/); Boublik, Fried, and Hala, The Vapor Pressures of Pure Substances, 2d ed., Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1984; Poling, Prausnitz, and O’Connell, The Properties of Gases and Liquids, 5th ed., McGrawHill, New York, 2001; Vapor Pressure of Chemicals (Subvolumes A, B, and C), vol. IV/20 in Landolt-Bornstein: Numerical Data nad Functional Relationships in Science and Technology—New Series, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999–2001. The most recent work on water may be found at The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam website http://iapws.org.

TABLE 2-5 Vapor Pressure (MPa) of Liquid Water from 0 to 100°C t, °C 0.01 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

Pvp, MPa

t, °C

Pvp, MPa

t, °C

Pvp, MPa

0.00061165 0.00065709 0.00070599 0.00075808 0.00081355 0.00087258 0.00093536 0.0010021 0.0010730 0.0011483 0.0012282 0.0013130 0.0014028 0.0014981 0.0015990 0.0017058 0.0018188 0.0019384 0.0020647 0.0021983 0.0023393 0.0024882 0.0026453 0.0028111 0.0029858 0.0031699 0.0033639 0.0035681 0.0037831 0.0040092 0.0042470 0.0044969 0.0047596 0.0050354

34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67

0.0053251 0.0056290 0.0059479 0.0062823 0.0066328 0.0070002 0.0073849 0.0077878 0.0082096 0.0086508 0.0091124 0.0095950 0.010099 0.010627 0.011177 0.011752 0.012352 0.012978 0.013631 0.014312 0.015022 0.015762 0.016533 0.017336 0.018171 0.019041 0.019946 0.020888 0.021867 0.022885 0.023943 0.025042 0.026183 0.027368

68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

0.028599 0.029876 0.031201 0.032575 0.034000 0.035478 0.037009 0.038595 0.040239 0.041941 0.043703 0.045527 0.047414 0.049367 0.051387 0.053476 0.055635 0.057867 0.060173 0.062556 0.065017 0.067558 0.070182 0.072890 0.075684 0.078568 0.081541 0.084608 0.087771 0.091030 0.094390 0.097852 0.10142

From E. W. Lemmon, M. O. McLinden, and D. G. Friend, “Thermophysical Properties of Fluid Systems” in NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69, Eds. P. J. Linstrom and W. G. Mallard, June 2005, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md. (http://webbook.nist.gov) and Wagner, W., and A., Pruss, “The IAPWS Formulation 1995 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Ordinary Water Substance for General and Scientific Use,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 31(2):387–535, 2002. The website mentioned above allows users to generate their own tables of thermodynamic properties. The user can select the units as well as the temperatures and/or pressures for which properties are to be generated. The results can be then be copied into spreadsheets or other files.

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES

2-49

TABLE 2-6 Substances in Tables 2-8, 2-32, 2-141, 2-150, 2-153, 2-155, 2-156, 2-179, 2-312, 2-313, 2-314, and 2-315 Sorted by Chemical Family Name

Cmpd. No.

Formula

Paraffins Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Hexane Heptane Octane Nonane Decane Undecane Dodecane Tridecane Tetradecane Pentadecane Hexadecane Heptadecane Octadecane Nonadecane Eicosane 2-Methylpropane 2-Methylbutane 2,3-Dimethylbutane 2-Methylpentane 2,3-Dimethylpentane 2,2,3,3-Tetramethylbutane 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane Cyclopropane Cyclobutane Cyclopentane Cyclohexane Methylcyclopentane Ethylcyclopentane Methylcyclohexane 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane cis-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane trans-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclohexane

193 125 295 31 279 171 160 265 256 74 336 123 327 319 277 169 158 263 254 124 236 202 107 234 114 323 332 333 71 64 69 65 217 134 213 108 109 110 133

CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22 C11H24 C12H26 C13H28 C14H30 C15H32 C16H34 C17H36 C18H38 C19H40 C20H42 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C3H6 C4H8 C5H10 C6H12 C6H12 C7H14 C7H14 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16

1-Octyne 1-Nonyne 1-Decyne Methyl acetylene Vinyl acetylene Dimethyl acetylene 2-Methyl -1-butene-3-yne 3-Methyl-1-butyne

135 305 36 37 38 70 285 68 177 166 271 260 77 238 205 206 218 219 298 294 29 30 201

C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C5H8 C5H10 C6H10 C6H12 C7H14 C8H16 C9H18 C10H20 C4H8 C5H10 C5H10 C6H10 C6H10 C9H14 C3H4 C4H6 C4H6 C5H8

Ketones

7 43 288 289 178 180 181 168

C2H2 C4H6 C5H8 C5H8 C6H10 C6H10 C6H10 C7H12

Olefins Ethylene Propylene 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene Cyclopentene 1-Pentene Cyclohexene 1-Hexene 1-Heptene 1-Octene 1-Nonene 1-Decene 2-Methyl propene 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene 1-Methylcyclopentene 3-Methylcyclopentene Propenylcyclohexene Propadiene 1,2-Butadiene 1,3-Butadiene 3-Methyl-1,2-butadiene Acetylenes Acetylene 1-Butyne 1-Pentyne 2-Pentyne 3-Hexyne 1-Hexyne 2-Hexyne 1-Heptyne

Name

Cmpd. No.

Formula

Acetylenes 273 262 79 197 339 105 207 210

C8H14 C9H16 C10H18 C3H4 C4H4 C4H6 C5H6 C5H8

16 325 312 129 343 344 345 243 62 304 330 331 246 321 40 24 290 318

C6H6 C7H8 C8H8 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C9H10 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C10H8 C10H12 C10H14 C12H10 C14H10 C18H14

153 1 299 44 278 170 159 264 255 73

CH2O C2H4O C3H6O C4H8O C5H10O C6H12O C7H14O C8H16O C9H18O C10H20O

8 5 222 229 283 284 310 67 144 175 176 226 102 164 165 269 270 20

C3H4O C3H6O C4H8O C5H10O C5H10O C5H10O C6H4O2 C6H10O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12O C7H14O C7H14O C7H14O C8H16O C8H16O C13H10O

156 324 320 322

C4H4O C4H4S C4H8O C4H8S

14 25 52 80 149

Ar Br2 Cl2 D2 F2

Aromatics Benzene Toluene Styrene Ethylbenzene m-Xylene o-Xylene p-Xylene alpha-Methyl styrene Cumene Propylbenzene 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene Naphthalene 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene Butylbenzene Biphenyl Phenanthrene o-Terphenyl Aldehydes Formaldehyde Acetaldehyde Propionaldehyde Butyraldehyde Pentanal Hexanal Heptanal Octanal Nonanal Decanal

Acrolein Acetone Methylethyl ketone Methylisopropyl ketone 2-Pentanone 3-Pentanone Quinone Cyclohexanone Ethylisopropyl ketone 2-Hexanone 3-Hexanone Methylisobutyl ketone Diisopropyl ketone 3-Heptanone 2-Heptanone 2-Octanone 3-Octanone Benzophenone Heterocyclics Furan Thiophene Tetrahydrofuran Tetrahydrothiophene Elements Argon Bromine Chlorine Deuterium Fluorine

2-50

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-6 Substances in Tables 2-8, 2-32, 2-141, 2-150, 2-153, 2-155, 2-156, 2-179, 2-312, 2-313, 2-314, and 2-315 Sorted by Chemical Family (Continued) Name

Cmpd. No.

Formula

Elements Hydrogen Helium-4 Nitrogen Neon Oxygen

183 157 249 247 275

H2 He N2 Ne O2

194 126 296 297 34 35 281 282 66 173 174 162 163 267 268 258 259 76 337 237 204 21 214 215 216 137 309 32 33

CH4O C2H6O C3H8O C3H8O C4H10O C4H10O C5H12O C5H12O C6H12O C6H14O C6H14O C7H16O C7H16O C8H18O C8H18O C9H20O C9H20O C10H22O C11H24O C4H10O C5H12O C7H8O C7H14O C7H14O C7H14O C2H6O2 C3H8O2 C4H10O2 C4H10O2

291 59 60 61

C6H6O C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O

112 245 221 120 95 240 228 103 208 225 244 147 143 104 101 235 13 84 142 22 121

C2H6O C3H6O C3H8O C4H8O2 C4H10O C4H10O C4H10O C4H10O2 C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O2 C6H14O C6H14O C7H8O C8H18O C8H18O C9H12O C12H10O

155 274 3 9 191 300

CH2O2 C2H2O4 C2H4O2 C3H4O2 C3H4O4 C3H6O2

Alcohols Methanol Ethanol 1-Propanol 2-Propanol 1-Butanol 2-Butanol 1-Pentanol 2-Pentanol Cyclohexanol 1-Hexanol 2-Hexanol 1-Heptanol 2-Heptanol 1-Octanol 2-Octanol 1-Nonanol 2-Nonanol 1-Decanol 1-Undecanol 2-Methyl-2-propanol 3-Methyl-1-butanol Benzyl alcohol 1-Methylcyclohexanol cis-2-Methylcyclohexanol trans-2-Methylcyclohexanol Ethylene glycol 1,2-Propylene glycol 1,2-Butanediol 1,3-Butanediol Phenols Phenol m-Cresol o-Cresol p-Cresol Ethers Dimethyl ether Methyl vinyl ether Methylethyl ether 1,4-Dioxane Diethyl ether Methylpropyl ether Methylisopropyl ether 1,1-Dimethoxyethane Methylbutyl ether Methylisobutyl ether Methyl tert-butyl ether Ethylpropyl ether Ethylisopropyl ether 1,2-Dimethoxypropane Di-isopropyl ether Methyl pentyl ether Anisole Dibutyl ether Ethylhexyl ether Benzyl ethyl ether Diphenyl ether Acids Formic acid Oxalic acid Acetic acid Acrylic acid Malonic acid Propionic acid

Name

Cmpd. No.

Formula

Methacrylic acid Acetic anhydride Succinic acid Butyric acid Isobutyric acid 2-Methylbutanoic acid Pentanoic acid 2-Ethyl butanoic acid Hexanoic acid Benzoic acid Heptanoic acid Phthalic anhydride Terephthalic acid 2-Ethyl hexanoic acid Octanoic acid 2-Methyloctanoic acid Nonanoic acid Decanoic acid

192 4 313 45 189 203 280 131 172 18 161 293 317 141 266 233 257 75

C4H6O2 C4H6O3 C4H6O4 C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C6H12O2 C6H12O2 C7H6O2 C7H14O2 C8H4O3 C8H6O4 C8H16O2 C8H16O2 C9H18O2 C9H18O2 C10H20O2

224 140 196 198 338 127 239 306 232 146 211 302 39 132 200 130 115 119

C2H4O2 C3H6O2 C3H6O2 C4H6O2 C4H6O2 C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C5H8O2 C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C6H12O2 C6H12O2 C8H8O2 C9H10O2 C10H10O4 C10H10O4

199 138 106 128 136 190 303 329 94 93 100 122 328

CH5N C2H5N C2H7N C2H7N C2H8N2 C3H9N C3H9N C3H9N C4H11N C4H11NO2 C6H15N C6H15N C6H15N

154 2 113 195 15

CH3NO C2H5NO C3H7NO C3H7NO C7H7NO

6 63 10 301 46 19

C2H3N C2N2 C3H3N C3H5N C4H7N C7H5N

251 248

CH3NO2 C2H5NO2

Acids

Esters Methyl formate Ethyl formate Methyl acetate Methyl acrylate Vinyl acetate Ethyl acetate Methyl propionate Propyl formate Methyl methacrylate Ethyl propionate Methyl butyrate Propyl acetate Butyl acetate Ethyl butyrate Methyl benzoate Ethyl benzoate Dimethyl phthalate Dimethyl terephthalate Amines Methyl amine Ethyleneimine Dimethyl amine Ethyl amine Ethylenediamine Isopropyl amine Propyl amine Trimethyl amine Diethyl amine Diethanol amine Di-isopropyl amine Dipropyl amine Triethyl amine Amides Formamide Acetamide N,N-Dimethyl formamide N-Methyl acetamide Benzamide Nitriles Acetonitrile Cyanogen Acrylonitrile Propionitrile Butyronitrile Benzonitrile Nitro Compounds Nitromethane Nitroethane

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES

2-51

TABLE 2-6 Substances in Tables 2-8, 2-32, 2-141, 2-150, 2-153, 2-155, 2-156, 2-179, 2-312, 2-313, 2-314, and 2-315 Sorted by Chemical Family (Concluded) Name

Cmpd. No.

Formula

1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene

334 335

C6H3N3O6 C7H5N3O6

227 292

C2H3NO C7H5NO

231 145 308 307 41 42 287 286 17 72 179 23 167 272 261 78

CH4S C2H6S C3H8S C3H8S C4H10S C4H10S C5H12S C5H12S C6H6S C6H12S C6H14S C7H8S C7H16S C8H18S C9H20S C10H22S

117 111 223 96 230 241 209

C2H6S C2H6S2 C3H8S C4H10S C4H10S C4H10S C5H12S

50 51 55 83 90 99 28 56 152 340 326 81 82 88

CCl4 CF4 CHCl3 CH2Br2 CH2Cl2 CH2F2 CH3Br CH3Cl CH3F C2H3Cl C2H3Cl3 C2H4Br2 C2H4Br2 C2H4Cl2

Isocyanates Methyl isocyanate Phenyl isocyanate Mercaptans Methyl mercaptan Ethyl mercaptan Propyl mercaptan 2-Propyl mercaptan Butyl mercaptan sec-Butyl mercaptan Pentyl mercaptan 2-Pentyl mercaptan Benzenethiol Cyclohexyl mercaptan Hexyl mercaptan Benzyl mercaptan Heptyl mercaptan Octyl mercaptan Nonyl mercaptan Decyl mercaptan Sulfides Dimethyl sulfide Dimethyl disulfide Methylethyl sulfide Diethyl sulfide Methylisopropyl sulfide Methylpropyl sulfide Methylbutyl sulfide

Cmpd. No.

Formula

1,2-Dichloroethane 1,1-Difluoroethane 1,2-Difluoroethane Bromoethane Chloroethane Fluoroethane 1,1-Dichloropropane 1,2-Dichloropropane 1-Chloropropane 2-Chloropropane m-Dichlorobenzene o-Dichlorobenzene p-Dichlorobenzene Bromobenzene Chlorobenzene Fluorobenzene

89 97 98 27 54 151 91 92 57 58 85 86 87 26 53 150

C2H4Cl2 C2H4F2 C2H4F2 C2H5Br C2H5Cl C2H5F C3H6Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H5Br C6H5Cl C6H5F

242 212 220 341 148 116 311

CH6Si CH5ClSi CH4Cl2Si C2H3Cl3Si C2H5Cl3Si C2H8Si F4Si

186 49 47 48 250 315 184 185 187 188 12 182 253 252 314 276 316

CHN CO CO2 CS2 F3N F6S HBr HCl HF H2S H3N H4N2 NO N2O O2S O3 O3S

11 139 118 342

Mixture C2H4O C2H6OS H2O

Silanes Methylsilane Methylchlorosilane Methyldichlorosilane Vinyl trichlorosilane Ethyltrichlorosilane Dimethylsilane Silicon tetrafluoride Light Gases

Halogenated Hydrocarbons Carbon tetrachloride Carbon tetrafluoride Chloroform Dibromomethane Dichloromethane Difluoromethane Bromomethane Chloromethane Fluoromethane Vinyl chloride 1,1,2-Trichloroethane 1,1-Dibromoethane 1,2-Dibromoethane 1,1-Dichloroethane

Name Halogenated Hydrocarbons

Nitro Compounds

Hydrogen cyanide Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Nitrogen trifluoride Sulfur hexafluoride Hydrogen bromide Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen sulfide Ammonia Hydrazine Nitric oxide Nitrous oxide Sulfur dioxide Ozone Sulfur trioxide Others Air Ethylene oxide Dimethyl sulfoxide Water

2-52

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-7 Formula Index of Substances in Tables 2-8, 2-32, 2-141, 2-150, 2-153, 2-155, 2-156, 2-179, 2-312, 2-313, 2-314, and 2-315 Formula

No.

Name

Formula

No.

Name

Ar Br2 CCl4 CF4 CHCl3 CHN CH2Br2 CH2Cl2 CH2F2 CH2O CH2O2 CH3Br CH3Cl CH3F CH3NO CH3NO2 CH4 CH4Cl2Si CH4O CH4S CH5ClSi CH5N CH6Si CO CO2 CS2 C2H2 C2H2O4 C2H3Cl C2H3Cl3 C2H3Cl3Si C2H3N C2H3NO C2H4 C2H4Br2 C2H4Br2 C2H4Cl2 C2H4Cl2 C2H4F2 C2H4F2 C2H4O C2H4O C2H4O2 C2H4O2 C2H5Br C2H5Cl C2H5Cl3Si C2H5F C2H5N C2H5NO C2H5NO2 C2H6 C2H6O C2H6O C2H6O2 C2H6OS C2H6S C2H6S C2H6S2 C2H7N C2H7N C2H8N2 C2H8Si C2N2 C3H3N C3H4 C3H4 C3H4O C3H4O2 C3H4O4 C3H5N C3H6 C3H6 C3H6Cl2

11 14 25 50 51 55 186 83 90 99 153 155 28 56 152 154 251 193 220 194 231 212 199 242 49 47 48 7 274 340 326 341 6 227 135 81 82 88 89 97 98 1 139 3 224 27 54 148 151 138 2 248 125 112 126 137 118 117 145 111 106 128 136 116 63 10 197 294 8 9 191 301 71 305 91

Air Argon Bromine Carbon tetrachloride Carbon tetrafluoride Chloroform Hydrogen cyanide Dibromomethane Dichloromethane Difluoromethane Formaldehyde Formic acid Bromomethane Chloromethane Fluoromethane Formamide Nitromethane Methane Methyldichlorosilane Methanol Methyl mercaptan Methylchlorosilane Methyl amine Methylsilane Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Acetylene Oxalic acid Vinyl chloride 1,1,2-Trichloroethane Vinyl trichlorosilane Acetonitrile Methyl Isocyanate Ethylene 1,1-Dibromoethane 1,2-Dibromoethane 1,1-Dichloroethane 1,2-Dichloroethane 1,1-Difluoroethane 1,2-Difluoroethane Acetaldehyde Ethylene oxide Acetic acid Methyl formate Bromoethane Chloroethane Ethyltrichlorosilane Fluoroethane Ethyleneimine Acetamide Nitroethane Ethane Dimethyl ether Ethanol Ethylene glycol Dimethyl sulfoxide Dimethyl sulfide Ethyl mercaptan Dimethyl disulfide Dimethyl amine Ethyl amine Ethylenediamine Dimethylsilane Cyanogen Acrylonitrile Methyl acetylene Propadiene Acrolein Acrylic acid Malonic acid Propionitrile Cyclopropane Propylene 1,1-Dichloropropane

C3H6Cl2 C3H6O C3H6O C3H6O C3H6O2 C3H6O2 C3H6O2 C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C3H7NO C3H7NO C3H8 C3H8O C3H8O C3H8O C3H8O2 C3H8S C3H8S C3H8S C3H9N C3H9N C3H9N C4H4 C4H4O C4H4S C4H6 C4H6 C4H6 C4H6 C4H6O2 C4H6O2 C4H6O2 C4H6O3 C4H6O4 C4H7N C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8O C4H8O C4H8O C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C4H8S C4H10 C4H10 C4H10O C4H10O C4H10O C4H10O C4H10O C4H10O C4H10O2 C4H10O2 C4H10O2 C4H10S C4H10S C4H10S C4H10S C4H10S C4H11N C4H11NO2 C5H6 C5H8 C5H8 C5H8 C5H8 C5H8 C5H8O2

92 5 245 299 140 196 300 57 58 113 195 295 221 296 297 309 223 308 307 190 303 329 339 156 324 29 30 43 105 192 198 338 4 313 46 36 37 38 64 238 44 222 320 45 120 127 189 239 306 322 31 236 34 35 95 237 240 228 32 33 103 41 42 96 230 241 94 93 207 70 201 210 288 289 232

1,2-Dichloropropane Acetone Methyl vinyl ether Propionaldehyde Ethyl formate Methyl acetate Propionic acid 1-Chloropropane 2-Chloropropane N,N-Dimethyl formamide N-Methyl acetamide Propane Methylethyl ether 1-Propanol 2-Propanol 1,2-Propylene glycol Methylethyl sulfide Propyl mercaptan 2-Propyl mercaptan Isopropyl amine Propyl amine Trimethyl amine Vinyl acetylene Furan Thiophene 1,2-Butadiene 1,3-Butadiene 1-Butyne Dimethyl acetylene Methacrylic acid Methyl acrylate Vinyl acetate Acetic anhydride Succinic acid Butyronitrile 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene Cyclobutane 2-Methyl propene Butyraldehyde Methylethyl ketone Tetrahydrofuran Butyric acid 1,4-Dioxane Ethyl acetate Isobutyric acid Methyl propionate Propyl formate Tetrahydrothiophene Butane 2-Methylpropane 1-Butanol 2-Butanol Diethyl ether 2-Methyl-2-propanol Methylpropyl ether Methylisopropyl ether 1,2-Butanediol 1,3-Butanediol 1,1-Dimethoxyethane Butyl mercaptan sec-Butyl mercaptan Diethyl sulfide Methylisopropyl sulfide Methylpropyl sulfide Diethyl amine Diethanol amine 2-Methyl-1-butene-3-yne Cyclopentene 3-Methyl-1,2-butadiene 3-Methyl-1-butyne 1-Pentyne 2-Pentyne Methyl methacrylate

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES

2-53

TABLE 2-7 Formula Index of Substances in Tables 2-8, 2-32, 2-141, 2-150, 2-153, 2-155, 2-156, 2-179, 2-312, 2-313, 2-314, and 2-315 (Continued) Formula

No.

Name

Formula

No.

Name

C5H10 C5H10 C5H10 C5H10 C5H10O C5H10O C5H10O C5H10O C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C5H12 C5H12 C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O2 C5H12S C5H12S C5H12S C6H3N3O6 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4O2 C6H5Br C6H5Cl C6H5F C6H6 C6H6O C6H6S C6H10 C6H10 C6H10 C6H10 C6H10 C6H10 C6H10O C6H12 C6H12 C6H12 C6H12O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12O2 C6H12O2 C6H12O2 C6H12O2 C6H12S C6H14 C6H14 C6H14 C6H14O C6H14O C6H14O C6H14O C6H14S C6H15N C6H15N C6H15N C7H5N C7H5N3O6 C7H5NO C7H6O2 C7H7NO

69 205 206 285 229 278 283 284 146 203 211 280 302 202 279 143 147 204 208 225 244 281 282 104 209 286 287 334 85 86 87 310 26 53 150 16 291 17 218 68 178 180 181 219 67 65 177 217 66 144 170 175 176 226 39 131 132 172 72 107 171 234 101 173 174 235 179 100 122 328 19 335 292 18 15

Cyclopentane 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene 1-Pentene Methylisopropyl ketone Pentanal 2-Pentanone 3-Pentanone Ethyl propionate 2-Methylbutanoic acid Methyl butyrate Pentanoic acid Propyl acetate 2-Methylbutane Pentane Ethylisopropyl ether Ethylpropyl ether 3-Methyl-1-butanol Methylbutyl ether Methylisobutyl ether Methyl tert-butyl ether 1-Pentanol 2-Pentanol 1,2-Dimethoxypropane Methylbutyl sulfide 2-Pentyl mercaptan Pentyl mercaptan 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene m-Dichlorobenzene o-Dichlorobenzene p-Dichlorobenzene Quinone Bromobenzene Chlorobenzene Fluorobenzene Benzene Phenol Benzenethiol 1-Methylcyclopentene Cyclohexene 3-Hexyne 1-Hexyne 2-Hexyne 3-Methylcyclopentene Cyclohexanone Cyclohexane 1-Hexene Methylcyclopentane Cyclohexanol Ethylisopropyl ketone Hexanal 2-Hexanone 3-Hexanone Methylisobutyl ketone Butyl acetate 2-Ethyl butanoic acid Ethyl butyrate Hexanoic acid Cyclohexyl mercaptan 2,3-Dimethylbutane Hexane 2-Methylpentane Di-isopropyl ether 1-Hexanol 2-Hexanol Methyl pentyl ether Hexyl mercaptan Di-isopropyl amine Dipropyl amine Triethyl amine Benzonitrile 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Phenyl isocyanate Benzoic acid Benzamide

C7H8 C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O C7H8S C7H12 C7H14 C7H14 C7H14 C7H14O C7H14O C7H14O C7H14O C7H14O C7H14O C7H14O C7H14O2 C7H16 C7H16 C7H16O C7H16O C7H16S C8H4O3 C8H6O4 C8H8 C8H8O2 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C8H14 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16O C8H16O C8H16O C8H16O2 C8H16O2 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18O C8H18O C8H18O C8H18O C8H18S C9H10 C9H10O2 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12O C9H14 C9H16 C9H18 C9H18O C9H18O2 C9H18O2 C9H20 C9H20O C9H20O C9H20S C10H8 C10H10O4 C10H10O4 C10H12 C10H14 C10H18

325 13 21 59 60 61 23 168 134 166 213 102 159 164 165 214 215 216 161 114 160 162 163 167 293 317 312 200 129 343 344 345 273 108 109 110 133 271 264 269 270 141 266 265 323 332 333 84 142 267 268 272 243 130 62 304 330 331 22 298 262 260 255 233 257 256 258 259 261 246 115 119 321 40 79

Toluene Anisole Benzyl alcohol m-Cresol o-Cresol p-Cresol Benzyl mercaptan 1-Heptyne Ethylcyclopentane 1-Heptene Methylcyclohexane Di-isopropyl ketone Heptanal 3-Heptanone 2-Heptanone 1-Methylcyclohexanol cis-2-Methylcyclohexanol trans-2-Methylcyclohexanol Heptanoic acid 2,3-Dimethylpentane Heptane 1-Heptanol 2-Heptanol Heptyl mercaptan Phthalic anhydride Terephthalic acid Styrene Methyl benzoate Ethylbenzene m-Xylene o-Xylene p-Xylene 1-Octyne 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane cis-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane trans-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclohexane 1-Octene Octanal 2-Octanone 3-Octanone 2-Ethyl hexanoic acid Octanoic acid Octane 2,2,3,3-Tetramethylbutane 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane Dibutyl ether Ethylhexyl ether 1-Octanol 2-Octanol Octyl mercaptan alpha-Methyl styrene Ethyl benzoate Cumene Propylbenzene 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene Benzyl ethyl ether Propenylcyclohexene 1-Nonyne 1-Nonene Nonanal 2-Methyloctanoic acid Nonanoic acid Nonane 1-Nonanol 2-Nonanol Nonyl mercaptan Naphthalene Dimethyl phthalate Dimethyl terephthalate 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene Butylbenzene 1-Decyne

2-54

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-7 Formula Index of Substances in Tables 2-8, 2-32, 2-141, 2-150, 2-153, 2-155, 2-156, 2-179, 2-312, 2-313, 2-314, and 2-315 (Concluded) Formula

No.

Name

Formula

No.

Name

C10H20 C10H20O C10H20O2 C10H22 C10H22O C10H22S C11H24 C11H24O C12H10 C12H10O C12H26 C13H10O C13H28 C14H10 C14H30 C15H32 C16H34 C17H36 C18H14 C18H38 C19H40 C20H42 Cl2

77 73 75 74 76 78 336 337 24 121 123 20 327 290 319 277 169 158 318 263 254 124 52

1-Decene Decanal Decanoic acid Decane 1-Decanol Decyl mercaptan Undecane 1-Undecanol Biphenyl Diphenyl ether Dodecane Benzophenone Tridecane Phenanthrene Tetradecane Pentadecane Hexadecane Heptadecane o-Terphenyl Octadecane Nonadecane Eicosane Chlorine

D2 F2 F3N F4Si F6S HBr HCl HF H2 H2O H2S H3N H4N2 He NO N2 N2O Ne O2 O2S O3 O3S

80 149 250 311 315 184 185 187 183 342 188 12 182 157 253 249 252 247 275 314 276 316

Deuterium Fluorine Nitrogen trifluoride Silicon tetrafluoride Sulfur hexafluoride Hydrogen bromide Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen Water Hydrogen sulfide Ammonia Hydrazine Helium-4 Nitric oxide Nitrogen Nitrous oxide Neon Oxygen Sulfur dioxide Ozone Sulfur trioxide

TABLE 2-8

Vapor Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Liquids, ln P = C1 + C2/T + C3 ln T + C4 T C5, P in Pa

2-55

No.

Name

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetonitrile Acetylene Acrolein Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Air Ammonia Anisole Argon Benzamide Benzene Benzenethiol Benzoic acid Benzonitrile Benzophenone Benzyl alcohol Benzyl ethyl ether Benzyl mercaptan Biphenyl Bromine Bromobenzene Bromoethane Bromomethane 1,2-Butadiene 1,3-Butadiene Butane 1,2-Butanediol 1,3-Butanediol 1-Butanol 2-Butanol 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene Butyl acetate Butylbenzene Butyl mercaptan sec-Butyl mercaptan 1-Butyne Butyraldehyde Butyric acid Butyronitrile Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbon tetrafluoride Chlorine Chlorobenzene Chloroethane Chloroform Chloromethane 1-Chloropropane 2-Chloropropane m-Cresol o-Cresol

Formula C2H4O C2H5NO C2H4O2 C4H6O3 C3H6O C2H3N C2H2 C3H4O C3H4O2 C3H3N Mixture H3N C7H8O Ar C7H7NO C6H6 C6H6S C7H6O2 C7H5N C13H10O C7H8O C9H12O C7H8S C12H10 Br2 C6H5Br C2H5Br CH3Br C4H6 C4H6 C4H10 C4H10O2 C4H10O2 C4H10O C4H10O C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C6H12O2 C10H14 C4H10S C4H10S C4H6 C4H8O C4H8O2 C4H7N CO2 CS2 CO CCl4 CF4 Cl2 C6H5Cl C2H5Cl CHCl3 CH3Cl C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C7H8O C7H8O

CAS no. 75-07-0 60-35-5 64-19-7 108-24-7 67-64-1 75-05-8 74-86-2 107-02-8 79-10-7 107-13-1 132259-10-0 7664-41-7 100-66-3 7440-37-1 55-21-0 71-43-2 108-98-5 65-85-0 100-47-0 119-61-9 100-51-6 539-30-0 100-53-8 92-52-4 7726-95-6 108-86-1 74-96-4 74-83-9 590-19-2 106-99-0 106-97-8 584-03-2 107-88-0 71-36-3 78-92-2 106-98-9 590-18-1 624-64-6 123-86-4 104-51-8 109-79-5 513-53-1 107-00-6 123-72-8 107-92-6 109-74-0 124-38-9 75-15-0 630-08-0 56-23-5 75-73-0 7782-50-5 108-90-7 75-00-3 67-66-3 74-87-3 540-54-5 75-29-6 108-39-4 95-48-7

C1 193.69 125.81 53.27 100.95 69.006 58.302 39.63 138.4 46.745 87.604 21.662 90.483 128.06 42.127 85.474 83.107 77.765 88.513 138.5 88.404 100.68 68.541 118.02 77.314 108.26 63.749 62.217 72.586 39.714 75.572 66.343 103.28 123.22 106.295 114.68 51.836 72.541 71.704 122.82 101.22 65.382 60.649 77.004 99.33 93.815 66.32 140.54 67.114 45.698 78.441 61.89 71.334 54.144 65.988 146.43 64.697 79.24 46.854 95.403 210.88

C2 −8,036.7 −12,376 −6,304.5 −8,873.2 −5,599.6 −5,385.6 −2,552.2 −7,122.7 −6,587.1 −6,392.7 −692.39 −4,669.7 −9,307.7 −1,093.1 −11,932 −6,486.2 −8,455.1 −11,829 −11,195 −11,769 −11,059 −7,886.2 −10,527 −9,910.4 −6,592 −7,130.2 −5,113.3 −4,698.6 −3,769.9 −4,621.9 −4,363.2 −11,548 −12,620 −9,866.4 −9,850.2 −4,019.2 −4,691.2 −4,563.1 −9,253.2 −9,255.4 −6,262.4 −5,785.9 −5,054.5 −7,083.6 −9,942.2 −6,714.9 −4,735 −4,820.4 −1,076.6 −6,128.1 −2,296.3 −3,855 −6,244.4 −4,661.3 −7,792.3 −4,048.1 −5,718.8 −4,445.5 −10,581 −13,928

C3 −29.502 −14.589 −4.2985 −11.451 −7.0985 −5.4954 −2.78 −19.638 −3.2208 −10.101 −0.392 −11.607 −16.693 −4.1425 −8.3348 −9.2194 −7.7404 −8.6826 −17.085 −8.9014 −10.709 −6.5804 −13.91 −7.5079 −14.16 −5.879 −5.9761 −7.9966 −2.6407 −8.5323 −7.046 −10.925 −13.986 −11.655 −12.963 −4.5229 −7.9776 −7.9053 −14.99 −11.538 −6.2585 −5.6113 −8.5665 −11.733 −9.8019 −6.3087 −21.268 −7.5303 −4.8814 −8.5766 −7.086 −8.5171 −4.5343 −6.8586 −20.614 −6.8066 −8.789 −3.6533 −10.004 −29.483

C4

C5

Tmin, K

P at Tmin

Tmax, K

P at Tmax

4.3678E-02 5.0824E-06 8.8865E-18 6.1316E-06 6.2237E-06 5.3634E-06 2.3930E-16 2.6447E-02 5.2253E-07 1.0891E-05 4.7574E-03 1.7194E-02 1.4919E-02 5.7254E-05 1.2850E-18 6.9844E-06 4.3089E-18 2.3248E-19 9.5641E-06 1.9334E-18 3.0582E-18 2.4285E-06 6.4794E-06 2.2385E-18 1.6043E-02 5.2136E-18 4.7174E-17 1.1553E-05 6.9379E-18 1.2269E-05 9.4509E-06 4.2560E-18 3.9260E-06 1.0832E-17 1.8738E-17 4.8833E-17 1.0368E-05 1.1319E-05 1.0470E-05 5.9208E-06 1.4943E-17 1.5877E-17 1.0161E-05 1.0027E-05 9.3124E-18 1.3516E-17 4.0909E-02 9.1695E-03 7.5673E-05 6.8465E-06 3.4687E-05 1.2378E-02 4.7030E-18 7.9404E-06 2.4578E-02 1.0371E-05 8.4486E-06 1.3260E-17 4.3032E-18 2.5182E-02

1 2 6 2 2 2 6 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 6 2 6 6 2 6 6 2 2 6 1 6 6 2 6 2 2 6 2 6 6 6 2 2 2 2 6 6 2 2 6 6 1 1 2 2 2 1 6 2 1 2 2 6 6 1

150.15 353.33 289.81 200.15 178.45 229.32 192.4 185.45 286.15 189.63 59.15 195.41 235.65 83.78 403 278.68 258.27 395.45 260.4 321.35 257.85 275.65 243.95 342.2 265.85 242.43 154.55 179.47 136.95 164.25 134.86 220 196.15 183.85 158.45 87.8 134.26 167.62 199.65 185.3 157.46 133.02 147.43 176.75 267.95 161.25 216.58 161.11 68.15 250.33 89.56 172.12 227.95 134.8 207.15 175.43 150.35 155.97 285.39 304.19

3.23E−01 3.36E+02 1.28E+03 2.20E−02 2.79E+00 1.87E+02 1.27E+05 1.03E+01 2.57E+02 3.68E+00 5.64E+03 6.11E+03 2.45E+00 6.87E+04 3.55E+02 4.76E+03 7.68E+00 7.96E+02 3.08E+00 1.49E+00 1.88E−01 2.31E+01 2.98E−01 9.42E+01 5.85E+03 7.84E+00 3.72E−01 1.95E+02 4.47E−01 6.92E+01 6.74E−01 2.93E−04 3.74E−07 2.90E−04 1.95E−06 6.94E−07 2.72E−01 7.45E+01 8.17E−02 1.54E−04 2.35E−03 3.40E−05 1.18E+00 3.17E−01 6.78E+00 6.18E−04 5.19E+05 1.49E+00 1.54E+04 1.12E+03 1.08E+02 1.37E+03 8.45E+00 1.25E−01 5.25E+01 8.71E+02 6.96E−02 9.08E−01 5.86E+00 6.53E+01

466 761 591.95 606 508.2 545.5 308.3 506 615 535 132.45 405.65 645.6 150.86 824 562.05 689 751 699.35 830 720.15 662 718 773 584.15 670.15 503.8 467 452 425 425.12 680 676 563.1 535.9 419.5 435.5 428.6 575.4 660.5 570.1 554 440 537.2 615.7 582.25 304.21 552 132.92 556.35 227.51 417.15 632.35 460.35 536.4 416.25 503.15 489 705.85 697.55

5.565E+06 6.569E+06 5.739E+06 3.970E+06 4.709E+06 4.852E+06 6.106E+06 5.020E+06 5.661E+06 4.480E+06 3.793E+06 1.130E+07 4.273E+06 4.896E+06 5.047E+06 4.875E+06 4.728E+06 4.469E+06 4.243E+06 3.357E+06 4.372E+06 3.113E+06 4.074E+06 3.407E+06 1.028E+07 4.520E+06 6.290E+06 7.997E+06 4.361E+06 4.303E+06 3.770E+06 5.202E+06 4.033E+06 4.401E+06 4.182E+06 4.021E+06 4.238E+06 4.100E+06 3.087E+06 2.882E+06 3.973E+06 4.060E+06 4.599E+06 4.323E+06 4.071E+06 3.787E+06 7.390E+06 8.041E+06 3.494E+06 4.544E+06 3.742E+06 7.793E+06 4.529E+06 5.327E+06 5.554E+06 6.691E+06 4.581E+06 4.510E+06 4.522E+06 5.058E+06

2-56

TABLE 2-8

Vapor Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Liquids, ln P = C1 + C2/T + C3 ln T + C4 T C5, P in Pa (Continued)

No.

Name

Formula

CAS no.

C1

61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120

p-Cresol Cumene Cyanogen Cyclobutane Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanone Cyclohexene Cyclopentane Cyclopentene Cyclopropane Cyclohexyl mercaptan Decanal Decane Decanoic acid 1-Decanol 1-Decene Decyl mercaptan 1-Decyne Deuterium 1,1-Dibromoethane 1,2-Dibromoethane Dibromomethane Dibutyl ether m-Dichlorobenzene o-Dichlorobenzene p-Dichlorobenzene 1,1-Dichloroethane 1,2-Dichloroethane Dichloromethane 1,1-Dichloropropane 1,2-Dichloropropane Diethanol amine Diethyl amine Diethyl ether Diethyl sulfide 1,1-Difluoroethane 1,2-Difluoroethane Difluoromethane Di-isopropyl amine Di-isopropyl ether Di-isopropyl ketone 1,1-Dimethoxyethane 1,2-Dimethoxypropane Dimethyl acetylene Dimethyl amine 2,3-Dimethylbutane 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane cis-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane trans-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane Dimethyl disulfide Dimethyl ether N,N-Dimethyl formamide 2,3-Dimethylpentane Dimethyl phthalate Dimethylsilane Dimethyl sulfide Dimethyl sulfoxide Dimethyl terephthalate 1,4-Dioxane

C7H8O C9H12 C2N2 C4H8 C6H12 C6H12O C6H10O C6H10 C5H10 C5H8 C3H6 C6H12S C10H20O C10H22 C10H20O2 C10H22O C10H20 C10H22S C10H18 D2 C2H4Br2 C2H4Br2 CH2Br2 C8H18O C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C2H4Cl2 C2H4Cl2 CH2Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C4H11NO2 C4H11N C4H10O C4H10S C2H4F2 C2H4F2 CH2F2 C6H15N C6H14O C7H14O C4H10O2 C5H12O2 C4H6 C2H7N C6H14 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C2H6S2 C2H6O C3H7NO C7H16 C10H10O4 C2H8Si C2H6S C2H6OS C10H10O4 C4H8O2

106-44-5 98-82-8 460-19-5 287-23-0 110-82-7 108-93-0 108-94-1 110-83-8 287-92-3 142-29-0 75-19-4 1569-69-3 112-31-2 124-18-5 334-48-5 112-30-1 872-05-9 143-10-2 764-93-2 7782-39-0 557-91-5 106-93-4 74-95-3 142-96-1 541-73-1 95-50-1 106-46-7 75-34-3 107-06-2 75-09-2 78-99-9 78-87-5 111-42-2 109-89-7 60-29-7 352-93-2 75-37-6 624-72-6 75-10-5 108-18-9 108-20-3 565-80-0 534-15-6 7778-85-0 503-17-3 124-40-3 79-29-8 590-66-9 2207-01-4 6876-23-9 624-92-0 115-10-6 68-12-2 565-59-3 131-11-3 1111-74-6 75-18-3 67-68-5 120-61-6 123-91-1

118.53 102.81 81.565 85.899 51.087 189.19 85.424 88.184 66.341 67.952 40.608 85.146 201.64 112.73 123.36 156.239 68.401 91.91 142.94 18.947 62.711 43.751 86.295 72.227 53.187 77.105 88.31 66.611 92.355 101.6 83.495 65.955 106.38 49.314 136.9 46.705 73.491 84.625 69.132 462.84 41.631 50.868 53.637 62.097 66.592 71.738 77.161 81.184 78.952 78.429 81.045 44.704 82.762 78.335 72.517 63.08 84.39 56.273 43.541 44.494

C2 −11,957 −8,674.6 −4,808.9 −4,884.4 −5,226.4 −14,337 −7,944.4 −6,624.9 −5,198.5 −5,187.5 −3,179.6 −7,843.7 −15,133 −9,749.6 −14,680 −15,212 −7,776.9 −10,565 −11,119 −154.47 −6,503.5 −5,587.7 −7,010.3 −7,537.6 −6,827.5 −8,111.1 −8,463.4 −5,493.1 −6,920.4 −6,541.6 −6,661.4 −6,015.6 −13,714 −4,949 −6,954.3 −5,177.4 −4,385.9 −5,217.4 −3,847.7 −18,227 −4,668.7 −6,036.5 −5,251.2 −6,174.9 −4,999.8 −5,302 −5,691.1 −6,927 −7,075.4 −6,882.1 −6,941.3 −3,525.6 −7,955.5 −6,348.7 −10,415 −4,062.3 −5,740.6 −7,620.6 −8,204.8 −5,406.7

C3

C4

C5

Tmin, K

P at Tmin

Tmax, K

P at Tmax

−13.293 −11.922 −9.3748 −10.883 −4.2278 −24.148 −9.2862 −10.059 −6.8103 −7.0785 −2.8937 −9.2982 −26.264 −13.245 −13.474 −18.424 −6.4637 −9.5957 −17.818 −0.5723 −5.7669 −3.0891 −9.5972 −7.0596 −4.3233 −7.8886 −9.6308 −6.7301 −10.651 −12.247 −9.2386 −6.5509 −11.06 −3.9256 −19.254 −3.5985 −8.1851 −9.871 −7.5868 −73.734 −2.8551 −4.066 −4.5649 −5.715 −6.8387 −7.3324 −8.501 −8.8498 −8.4344 −8.4129 −8.777 −3.4444 −8.8038 −8.5105 −6.755 −6.425 −9.6454 −4.6279 −2.7519 −3.1287

8.6988E-18 7.0048E-06 1.3901E-05 1.4934E-02 9.7554E-18 1.0740E-05 4.9957E-06 8.2566E-06 6.1930E-06 6.8165E-06 5.6131E-17 5.1788E-06 1.4625E-05 7.1266E-06 1.9491E-18 8.5006E-18 6.3750E-18 5.7028E-18 1.1020E-05 3.8899E-02 1.0427E-06 8.2664E-07 6.7794E-06 9.1442E-18 2.3112E-18 2.7267E-06 4.5833E-06 5.3579E-06 9.1426E-06 1.2311E-05 6.7652E-06 4.3172E-06 3.2645E-18 9.1978E-18 2.4508E-02 1.7147E-06 1.2978E-05 1.3050E-05 1.5065E-05 9.2794E-02 6.3693E-04 1.1326E-06 1.6754E-17 1.2323E-17 6.6793E-06 6.4200E-17 8.0325E-06 5.4580E-06 4.5035E-06 4.9831E-06 5.5501E-06 5.4574E-17 4.2431E-06 6.4311E-06 1.3269E-06 1.5115E-16 1.0073E-05 4.3819E-07 1.0466E-18 2.8913E-18

6 2 2 1 6 2 2 2 2 2 6 2 2 2 6 6 6 6 2 1 2 2 2 6 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 6 6 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 6 6 2 6 2 2 2 2 2 6 2 2 2 6 2 2 6 6

307.93 177.14 245.25 182.48 279.69 296.6 242 169.67 179.28 138.13 145.59 189.64 267.15 243.51 304.55 280.05 206.89 247.56 229.15 18.73 210.15 282.85 220.6 175.3 248.39 256.15 326.14 176.19 237.49 178.01 200 172.71 301.15 223.35 156.85 169.20 154.56 215 136.95 176.85 187.65 204.81 159.95 226.1 240.91 180.96 145.19 239.66 223.16 184.99 188.44 131.65 212.72 160 274.18 122.93 174.88 291.67 413.8 284.95

3.45E+01 4.71E−04 7.39E+04 1.80E+02 5.36E+03 7.65E+01 6.80E+00 1.04E−01 9.07E+00 1.28E−02 7.80E+01 8.24E−03 4.86E−01 1.39E+00 1.50E−01 1.51E−01 2.59E−02 2.59E−02 1.60E−01 1.72E+04 2.64E+00 7.53E+02 2.13E+01 7.14E−04 6.41E+00 6.49E+00 1.23E+03 2.21E+00 2.37E+02 5.93E+00 4.52E+00 8.25E−02 1.02E−01 3.74E+02 3.95E−01 9.93E−02 6.45E+01 2.83E+03 5.43E+01 4.47E−03 6.86E+00 8.21E−01 9.45E−02 4.50E+01 6.12E+03 7.56E+01 1.52E−02 6.06E+01 6.41E+00 8.04E−02 2.07E−01 3.05E+00 1.95E−01 1.26E−02 3.72E−02 4.15E−01 7.86E+00 5.02E+01 1.26E+03 2.53E+03

704.65 631 400.15 459.93 553.8 650.1 653 560.4 511.7 507 398 664 674.2 617.7 722.1 688 616.6 696 619.85 38.35 628 650.15 611 584.1 683.95 705 684.75 523 561.6 510 560 572 736.6 496.6 466.7 557.15 386.44 445 351.255 523.1 500.05 576 507.8 543 473.2 437.2 500 591.15 606.15 596.15 615 400.1 649.6 537.3 766 402 503.04 729 772 587

5.151E+06 3.226E+06 5.961E+06 4.991E+06 4.094E+06 4.265E+06 3.989E+06 4.392E+06 4.513E+06 4.799E+06 5.494E+06 3.970E+06 2.599E+06 2.091E+06 2.233E+06 2.309E+06 2.223E+06 2.130E+06 2.363E+06 1.663E+06 6.034E+06 5.375E+06 7.170E+06 2.459E+06 4.070E+06 4.074E+06 4.070E+06 5.106E+06 5.318E+06 6.093E+06 4.239E+06 4.232E+06 4.260E+06 3.674E+06 3.641E+06 3.961E+06 4.507E+06 4.372E+06 5.760E+06 3.199E+06 2.869E+06 3.017E+06 3.773E+06 3.447E+06 4.870E+06 5.258E+06 3.130E+06 2.939E+06 2.939E+06 2.938E+06 5.363E+06 5.274E+06 4.365E+06 2.882E+06 2.780E+06 3.561E+06 5.533E+06 5.648E+06 2.778E+06 5.158E+06

2-57

121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183

Diphenyl ether Dipropyl amine Dodecane Eicosane Ethane Ethanol Ethyl acetate Ethyl amine Ethylbenzene Ethyl benzoate 2-Ethyl butanoic acid Ethyl butyrate Ethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclopentane Ethylene Ethylenediamine Ethylene glycol Ethyleneimine Ethylene oxide Ethyl formate 2-Ethyl hexanoic acid Ethylhexyl ether Ethylisopropyl ether Ethylisopropyl ketone Ethyl mercaptan Ethyl propionate Ethylpropyl ether Ethyltrichlorosilane Fluorine Fluorobenzene Fluoroethane Fluoromethane Formaldehyde Formamide Formic acid Furan Helium-4 Heptadecane Heptanal Heptane Heptanoic acid 1-Heptanol 2-Heptanol 3-Heptanone 2-Heptanone 1-Heptene Heptyl mercaptan 1-Heptyne Hexadecane Hexanal Hexane Hexanoic acid 1-Hexanol 2-Hexanol 2-Hexanone 3-Hexanone 1-Hexene 3-Hexyne Hexyl mercaptan 1-Hexyne 2-Hexyne Hydrazine Hydrogen

C12H10O C6H15N C12H26 C20H42 C2H6 C2H6O C4H8O2 C2H7N C8H10 C9H10O2 C6H12O2 C6H12O2 C8H16 C7H14 C2H4 C2H8N2 C2H6O2 C2H5N C2H4O C3H6O2 C8H16O2 C8H18O C5H12O C6H12O C2H6S C5H10O2 C5H12O C2H5Cl3Si F2 C6H5F C2H5F CH3F CH2O CH3NO CH2O2 C4H4O He C17H36 C7H14O C7H16 C7H14O2 C7H16O C7H16O C7H14O C7H14O C7H14 C7H16S C7H12 C16H34 C6H12O C6H14 C6H12O2 C6H14O C6H14O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12 C6H10 C6H14S C6H10 C6H10 H4N2 H2

101-84-8 142-84-7 112-40-3 112-95-8 74-84-0 64-17-5 141-78-6 75-04-7 100-41-4 93-89-0 88-09-5 105-54-4 1678-91-7 1640-89-7 74-85-1 107-15-3 107-21-1 151-56-4 75-21-8 109-94-4 149-57-5 5756-43-4 625-54-7 565-69-5 75-08-1 105-37-3 628-32-0 115-21-9 7782-41-4 462-06-6 353-36-6 593-53-3 50-00-0 75-12-7 64-18-6 110-00-9 7440-59-7 629-78-7 111-71-7 142-82-5 111-14-8 111-70-6 543-49-7 106-35-4 110-43-0 592-76-7 1639-09-4 628-71-7 544-76-3 66-25-1 110-54-3 142-62-1 111-27-3 626-93-7 591-78-6 589-38-8 592-41-6 928-49-4 111-31-9 693-02-7 764-35-2 302-01-2 1333-74-0

59.969 54 137.47 203.66 51.857 73.304 66.824 81.56 89.063 52.923 90.464 57.661 80.208 88.671 53.963 73.51 84.09 66.51 91.944 73.833 117.52 77.523 57.723 57.459 65.551 105.64 86.898 62.614 42.393 51.915 56.639 59.123 101.51 100.3 50.323 74.738 11.533 156.95 92.252 87.829 120.47 147.41 124.23 78.463 75.494 65.922 79.858 59.083 156.06 81.507 104.65 114.05 135.421 109.42 107.44 73.155 51.024 47.091 68.467 133.2 123.71 76.858 12.69

−8,585.5 −6,018.5 −11,976 −19,441 −2,598.7 −7,122.3 −6,227.6 −5,596.9 −7,733.7 −7,531.7 −10,243 −6,346.5 −7,203.2 −7,012.7 −2,443 −7,572.7 −10,411 −6,019.2 −5,293.4 −5,817 −12,991 −7,978.8 −5,236.9 −6,356.8 −5,027.4 −8,007 −6,646.4 −6,148.2 −1,103.3 −5,439 −3,576.5 −3,043.7 −4,917.2 −10,763 −5,378.2 −5,417 −8.99 −15,557 −8,349 −6,996.4 −13,106 −13,466 −11,637 −8,077.2 −7,896.5 −6,189 −8,501.8 −6,031.8 −15,015 −7,776.8 −6,995.5 −12,332 −12,288 −10,449 −8,528.6 −7,242.9 −4,986.4 −5,104 −7,390.5 −7,492.9 −7,639 −7,245.2 −94.896

−5.1538 −4.4981 −16.698 −25.525 −5.1283 −7.1424 −6.41 −9.0779 −9.917 −4.2347 −9.2836 −5.032 −8.6023 −10.045 −5.5643 −7.1435 −8.1976 −6.3332 −11.682 −7.809 −12.895 −7.7757 −5.2136 −4.9545 −6.6853 −12.477 −9.5758 −5.84 −4.1203 −4.2896 −5.5801 −6.1845 −13.765 −10.946 −4.203 −8.0636 0.6724 −18.966 −10.274 −9.8802 −13.31 −17.353 −14.148 −7.9062 −7.5047 −6.3629 −8.1043 −5.3072 −18.941 −8.4516 −12.702 −12.45 −15.732 −12.051 −12.679 −7.2569 −4.2463 −3.6371 −6.5456 −18.405 −16.451 −8.22 1.1125

1.9983E-18 9.9684E-18 8.0906E-06 8.8382E-06 1.4913E-05 2.8853E-06 1.7914E-17 8.7920E-06 5.9860E-06 1.1835E-06 5.2573E-18 8.2534E-18 4.5901E-06 7.4578E-06 1.9079E-05 1.2124E-17 1.6536E-18 1.0394E-17 1.4902E-02 6.3200E-06 6.1306E-18 1.0076E-17 2.2998E-17 5.2015E-18 6.3208E-06 9.0000E-06 5.9615E-17 1.0900E-17 5.7815E-05 8.7527E-18 9.8969E-06 1.6637E-05 2.2031E-02 3.8503E-06 3.4697E-06 7.4700E-06 2.7430E-01 6.4559E-06 5.9252E-06 7.2099E-06 5.8384E-18 1.1284E-17 6.9486E-17 8.0521E-18 8.9130E-18 2.0091E-17 8.1501E-18 1.4357E-17 6.8172E-06 1.5143E-17 1.2381E-05 5.6253E-18 1.2701E-17 2.6122E-46 8.4606E-06 1.2741E-17 1.6768E-17 5.1621E-04 7.7611E-18 2.2062E-02 1.6495E-02 6.1557E-03 3.2915E-04

6 6 2 2 2 2 6 2 2 2 6 6 2 2 2 6 6 6 1 2 6 6 6 6 2 2 6 6 2 6 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 6 6 5.7 6 6 6 6 6 2 6 2 6 6 16 2 6 6 1 6 1 1 1 2

300.03 210.15 263.57 309.58 90.35 159.05 189.6 192.15 178.2 238.45 258.15 175.15 161.84 134.71 104 284.29 260.15 195.2 160.65 193.55 235 180 140 204.15 125.26 199.25 145.65 167.55 53.48 230.94 129.95 131.35 181.15 275.6 281.45 187.55 1.76 295.13 229.8 182.57 265.83 239.15 230 234.15 238.15 154.12 229.92 192.22 291.31 217.15 177.83 269.25 228.55 223 217.35 217.5 133.39 170.05 192.62 141.25 183.65 274.69 13.95

7.09E+00 3.69E+00 6.15E−01 9.26E−03 1.13E+00 4.96E−04 1.43E+00 1.52E+02 3.91E−03 1.69E−01 4.63E−01 1.04E−02 3.57E−04 3.71E−06 1.26E+02 6.78E+02 2.19E−01 9.71E+00 7.79E+00 1.81E+01 2.86E−04 7.60E−04 4.31E−03 9.70E−01 1.14E−03 7.80E−01 1.61E−03 1.85E−02 2.53E+02 1.51E+02 8.37E+00 4.33E+02 8.87E+02 1.04E+00 2.40E+03 5.00E+01 1.46E+03 4.65E−02 1.45E+00 1.83E−01 4.34E−02 1.95E−02 3.68E−02 2.30E+00 3.54E+00 1.86E−03 3.05E−01 8.15E−01 9.23E−02 1.25E+00 9.02E−01 2.43E−01 2.25E−02 7.44E−02 1.45E+00 2.22E+00 7.96E−04 2.20E−01 1.31E−02 3.92E−04 5.40E−01 4.08E+02 7.21E+03

766.8 550 658 768 305.32 514 523.3 456.15 617.15 698 655 571 609.15 569.5 282.34 593 720 537 469.15 508.4 674.6 583 489 567 499.15 546 500.23 559.95 144.12 560.09 375.31 317.42 408 771 588 490.15 5.2 736 616.8 540.2 677.3 632.3 608.3 606.6 611.4 537.4 645 547 723 591 507.6 660.2 611.3 585.3 587.61 582.82 504 544 623 516.2 549 653.15 33.19

3.097E+06 3.111E+06 1.822E+06 1.175E+06 4.852E+06 6.109E+06 3.850E+06 5.594E+06 3.590E+06 3.203E+06 3.403E+06 2.935E+06 3.041E+06 3.412E+06 5.032E+06 6.290E+06 8.257E+06 6.850E+06 7.255E+06 4.708E+06 2.788E+06 2.460E+06 3.415E+06 3.293E+06 5.492E+06 3.337E+06 3.372E+06 3.320E+06 5.167E+06 4.544E+06 5.006E+06 5.875E+06 6.594E+06 7.751E+06 5.807E+06 5.550E+06 2.285E+05 1.344E+06 3.155E+06 2.719E+06 3.039E+06 3.013E+06 2.995E+06 2.919E+06 2.946E+06 2.921E+06 2.772E+06 3.209E+06 1.411E+06 3.461E+06 3.045E+06 3.284E+06 3.441E+06 3.298E+06 3.286E+06 3.322E+06 3.212E+06 3.540E+06 3.079E+06 3.635E+06 3.530E+06 1.473E+07 1.315E+06

2-58

TABLE 2-8

Vapor Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Liquids, ln P = C1 + C2/T + C3 ln T + C4 T C5, P in Pa (Continued)

No.

Name

Formula

CAS no.

C1

184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242

Hydrogen bromide Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen cyanide Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen sulfide Isobutyric acid Isopropyl amine Malonic acid Methacrylic acid Methane Methanol N-Methyl acetamide Methyl acetate Methyl acetylene Methyl acrylate Methyl amine Methyl benzoate 3-Methyl-1,2-butadiene 2-Methylbutane 2-Methylbutanoic acid 3-Methyl-1-butanol 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene 2-Methyl-1-butene-3-yne Methylbutyl ether Methylbutyl sulfide 3-Methyl-1-butyne Methyl butyrate Methylchlorosilane Methylcyclohexane 1-Methylcyclohexanol cis-2-Methylcyclohexanol trans-2-Methylcyclohexanol Methylcyclopentane 1-Methylcyclopentene 3-Methylcyclopentene Methyldichlorosilane Methylethyl ether Methylethyl ketone Methylethyl sulfide Methyl formate Methylisobutyl ether Methylisobutyl ketone Methyl Isocyanate Methylisopropyl ether Methylisopropyl ketone Methylisopropyl sulfide Methyl mercaptan Methyl methacrylate 2-Methyloctanoic acid 2-Methylpentane Methyl pentyl ether 2-Methylpropane 2-Methyl-2-propanol 2-Methyl propene Methyl propionate Methylpropyl ether Methylpropyl sulfide Methylsilane

HBr HCl CHN HF H2S C4H8O2 C3H9N C3H4O4 C4H6O2 CH4 CH4O C3H7NO C3H6O2 C3H4 C4H6O2 CH5N C8H8O2 C5H8 C5H12 C5H10O2 C5H12O C5H10 C5H10 C5H6 C5H12O C5H12S C5H8 C5H10O2 CH5ClSi C7H14 C7H14O C7H14O C7H14O C6H12 C6H10 C6H10 CH4Cl2Si C3H8O C4H8O C3H8S C2H4O2 C5H12O C6H12O C2H3NO C4H10O C5H10O C4H10S CH4S C5H8O2 C9H18O2 C6H14 C6H14O C4H10 C4H10O C4H8 C4H8O2 C4H10O C4H10S CH6Si

10035-10-6 7647-01-0 74-90-8 7664-39-3 7783-06-4 79-31-2 75-31-0 141-82-2 79-41-4 74-82-8 67-56-1 79-16-3 79-20-9 74-99-7 96-33-3 74-89-5 93-58-3 598-25-4 78-78-4 116-53-0 123-51-3 563-46-2 513-35-9 78-80-8 628-28-4 628-29-5 598-23-2 623-42-7 993-00-0 108-87-2 590-67-0 7443-70-1 7443-52-9 96-37-7 693-89-0 1120-62-3 75-54-7 540-67-0 78-93-3 624-89-5 107-31-3 625-44-5 108-10-1 624-83-9 598-53-8 563-80-4 1551-21-9 74-93-1 80-62-6 3004-93-1 107-83-5 628-80-8 75-28-5 75-65-0 115-11-7 554-12-1 557-17-5 3877-15-4 992-94-9

29.315 104.27 36.75 59.544 85.584 110.38 136.66 122.92 109.53 39.205 82.718 79.128 61.267 50.242 107.69 75.206 84.828 66.575 71.308 85.383 121.85 93.131 83.927 95.453 60.164 96.344 69.459 71.87 95.984 92.684 134.63 125.1 54.179 55.368 52.732 52.601 79.788 78.586 72.698 79.07 77.184 57.984 80.503 57.612 53.867 45.242 52.82 54.15 107.36 105.7 53.579 61.907 108.43 172.27 78.01 70.717 67.942 83.711 37.205

C2 −2,424.5 −3,731.2 −3,927.1 −4,143.8 −3,839.9 −10,540 −7,201.5 −16,258 −10,410 −1,324.4 −6,904.5 −9,523.9 −5,618.6 −3,811.9 −7,027.2 −5,082.8 −9,334.7 −5,213.4 −4,976 −9,575.4 −10,976 −5,525.4 −5,640.5 −5,448.8 −5,621.7 −7,856.3 −5,250 −6,885.7 −5,401.7 −7,080.8 −10,682 −10,288 −7,477.2 −5,149.8 −5,286.9 −5,120.3 −5,420 −5,176.3 −6,143.6 −6,114.1 −5,606.1 −5,339.6 −7,421.8 −5,197.9 −4,701 −5,324.4 −5,437.7 −4,337.7 −8,085.3 −12,458 −5,041.2 −6,188.9 −5,039.9 −11,589 −4,634.1 −6,439.7 −5,419.1 −6,786.9 −2,590.3

C3

C4

C5

Tmin, K

P at Tmin

Tmax, K

P at Tmax

−1.1354 −15.047 −2.1245 −6.1764 −11.199 −12.262 −18.934 −13.113 −12.289 −3.4366 −8.8622 −7.7355 −5.6473 −4.2526 −13.916 −8.0919 −8.7063 −6.7693 −7.7169 −8.6164 −13.869 −11.852 −9.6453 −12.384 −5.53 −11.058 −7.1125 −7.0944 −11.829 −10.695 −16.511 −15.157 −4.22 −5.0136 −4.4509 −4.4554 −9.0702 −8.7501 −7.5779 −8.631 −8.392 −5.2362 −8.379 −5.1269 −4.7052 −3.2551 −4.442 −4.8127 −12.72 −11.234 −4.6404 −5.706 −15.012 −22.113 −8.9575 −6.9845 −6.8067 −9.2526 −2.5993

2.3806E-18 3.1340E-02 3.8948E-17 1.4161E-05 1.8848E-02 1.4310E-17 2.2255E-02 2.0609E-18 3.1990E-06 3.1019E-05 7.4664E-06 3.1616E-18 2.1080E-17 6.5326E-17 1.5185E-02 8.1130E-06 6.1723E-18 4.8106E-06 8.7271E-06 5.6124E-18 1.4283E-17 1.4205E-02 1.1121E-05 1.5643E-02 1.8629E-17 7.3080E-06 7.9289E-17 1.4903E-17 1.8092E-05 8.1366E-06 8.4427E-06 1.0918E-05 3.5225E-18 3.2220E-06 1.0883E-17 1.3288E-17 1.1489E-05 9.1727E-06 5.6476E-06 6.5333E-06 7.8468E-06 2.0767E-17 1.8114E-17 2.1702E-17 2.8791E-17 3.0363E-18 9.5103E-18 4.5000E-17 8.3307E-06 4.4629E-18 1.9443E-17 1.1767E-17 2.2725E-02 1.3703E-05 1.3413E-05 2.0129E-17 4.7778E-17 6.6666E-06 6.0508E-06

6 1 6 2 1 6 1 6 2 2 2 6 6 6 1 2 6 2 2 6 6 1 2 1 6 2 6 6 2 2 2 2 6 2 6 6 2 2 2 2 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 6 6 6 1 2 2 6 6 2 2

185.15 158.97 259.83 189.79 187.68 227.15 177.95 407.95 288.15 90.69 175.47 301.15 175.15 170.45 196.32 179.69 260.75 159.53 113.25 193 155.95 135.58 139.39 160.15 157.48 175.3 183.45 187.35 139.05 146.58 299.15 280.15 269.15 130.73 146.62 115 182.55 160 186.48 167.23 174.15 150 189.15 256.15 127.93 180.15 171.64 150.18 224.95 240 119.55 176 113.54 298.97 132.81 185.65 133.97 160.17 116.34

2.95E+04 1.35E+04 1.87E+04 3.37E+02 2.29E+04 7.82E−02 7.73E+00 7.03E+01 5.86E+01 1.17E+04 1.11E−01 2.86E+01 1.02E+00 4.15E+02 4.07E+00 1.77E+02 1.81E+00 7.28E−01 1.21E−04 6.94E−05 8.67E−09 2.05E−02 1.94E−02 2.92E+00 2.99E−02 4.61E−03 4.36E+01 1.34E−01 4.12E−01 1.52E−04 2.57E+02 4.56E+01 1.62E+01 2.25E−04 3.98E−03 2.12E−06 2.58E+01 7.85E+00 1.39E+00 2.25E−01 6.88E+00 2.13E−02 6.99E−02 7.28E+03 3.32E−03 2.95E−01 1.80E−01 3.15E+00 1.91E+01 4.19E−04 2.07E−05 6.33E−02 1.21E−02 5.88E+03 6.45E−01 6.34E−01 2.90E−03 4.26E−03 1.43E+01

363.15 324.65 456.65 461.15 373.53 605 471.85 805 662 190.56 512.5 718 506.55 402.4 536 430.05 693 490 460.4 643 577.2 465 470 492 512.74 593 463.2 554.5 442 572.1 686 614 617 532.7 542 526 483 437.8 535.5 533 487.2 497 574.6 488 464.48 553.4 553.1 469.95 566 694 497.7 546.49 407.8 506.2 417.9 530.6 476.25 565 352.5

8.463E+06 8.356E+06 5.353E+06 6.487E+06 8.999E+06 3.683E+06 4.540E+06 5.652E+06 4.812E+06 4.590E+06 8.146E+06 4.997E+06 4.695E+06 5.619E+06 4.277E+06 7.414E+06 3.590E+06 3.831E+06 3.366E+06 3.887E+06 3.916E+06 3.465E+06 3.394E+06 4.469E+06 3.377E+06 3.464E+06 4.199E+06 3.480E+06 4.170E+06 3.486E+06 3.994E+06 3.808E+06 3.767E+06 3.759E+06 4.130E+06 4.129E+06 3.964E+06 4.433E+06 4.120E+06 4.261E+06 5.983E+06 3.416E+06 3.272E+06 5.480E+06 3.764E+06 3.792E+06 4.022E+06 7.231E+06 3.674E+06 2.545E+06 3.044E+06 3.041E+06 3.630E+06 3.957E+06 4.004E+06 4.028E+06 3.802E+06 3.972E+06 4.702E+06

2-59

243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305

-Methyl styrene Methyl tert-butyl ether Methyl vinyl ether Naphthalene Neon Nitroethane Nitrogen Nitrogen trifluoride Nitromethane Nitrous oxide Nitric oxide Nonadecane Nonanal Nonane Nonanoic acid 1-Nonanol 2-Nonanol 1-Nonene Nonyl mercaptan 1-Nonyne Octadecane Octanal Octane Octanoic acid 1-Octanol 2-Octanol 2-Octanone 3-Octanone 1-Octene Octyl mercaptan 1-Octyne Oxalic acid Oxygen Ozone Pentadecane Pentanal Pentane Pentanoic acid 1-Pentanol 2-Pentanol 2-Pentanone 3-Pentanone 1-Pentene 2-Pentyl mercaptan Pentyl mercaptan 1-Pentyne 2-Pentyne Phenanthrene Phenol Phenyl isocyanate Phthalic anhydride Propadiene Propane 1-Propanol 2-Propanol Propenylcyclohexene Propionaldehyde Propionic acid Propionitrile Propyl acetate Propyl amine Propylbenzene Propylene

C9H10 C5H12O C3H6O C10H8 Ne C2H5NO2 N2 F3N CH3NO2 N2O NO C19H40 C9H18O C9H20 C9H18O2 C9H20O C9H20O C9H18 C9H20S C9H16 C18H38 C8H16O C8H18 C8H16O2 C8H18O C8H18O C8H16O C8H16O C8H16 C8H18S C8H14 C2H2O4 O2 O3 C15H32 C5H10O C5H12 C5H10O2 C5H12O C5H12O C5H10O C5H10O C5H10 C5H12S C5H12S C5H8 C5H8 C14H10 C6H6O C7H5NO C8H4O3 C3H4 C3H8 C3H8O C3H8O C9H14 C3H6O C3H6O2 C3H5N C5H10O2 C3H9N C9H12 C3H6

98-83-9 1634-04-4 107-25-5 91-20-3 7440-01-9 79-24-3 7727-37-9 7783-54-2 75-52-5 10024-97-2 10102-43-9 629-92-5 124-19-6 111-84-2 112-05-0 143-08-8 628-99-9 124-11-8 1455-21-6 3452-09-3 593-45-3 124-13-0 111-65-9 124-07-2 111-87-5 123-96-6 111-13-7 106-68-3 111-66-0 111-88-6 629-05-0 144-62-7 7782-44-7 10028-15-6 629-62-9 110-62-3 109-66-0 109-52-4 71-41-0 6032-29-7 107-87-9 96-22-0 109-67-1 2084-19-7 110-66-7 627-19-0 627-21-4 85-01-8 108-95-2 103-71-9 85-44-9 463-49-0 74-98-6 71-23-8 67-63-0 13511-13-2 123-38-6 79-09-4 107-12-0 109-60-4 107-10-8 103-65-1 115-07-1

56.485 57.1511 51.085 62.964 29.755 75.632 58.282 68.149 57.278 96.512 72.974 182.54 337.71 109.35 137.6 162.854 146.46 63.313 106.2 114.77 157.68 83.601 96.084 140.16 144.111 133.41 63.775 72.382 74.936 78.368 64.612 122.04 51.245 40.067 135.57 149.58 78.741 101.7 114.748 122.26 84.635 44.286 46.994 58.985 67.309 82.805 137.29 72.958 95.444 86.779 126.5 57.069 59.078 84.6642 96.094 64.268 80.581 54.552 82.699 115.16 58.398 91.379 43.905

−6,954.2 −5,201.7 −4,271 −8,137.5 −271.06 −7,202.3 −1,084.1 −2,257.9 −6,089 −4,045 −2,650 −17,897 −18,506 −9,030.4 −14,948 −15,205 −13,813 −7,040.4 −10,982 −9,430.8 −16,093 −8,865.8 −7,900.2 −14,813 −13,667 −12,630 −7,711.3 −8,054.8 −7,155.9 −8,855.4 −6,802.5 −16,050 −1,200.2 −2,204.8 −13,478 −8,890 −5,420.3 −10,955 −10,643 −10,774 −7,078.4 −5,415.1 −4,289.5 −6,193.1 −6,880.8 −5,683.8 −7,447.1 −10,943 −10,113 −8,101.8 −12,551 −3,682.7 −3,492.6 −8,307.2 −8,575.4 −7,298.9 −5,896.1 −7,149.4 −6,703.5 −8,433.9 −5,312.7 −8,276.8 −3,097.8

−4.7889 −5.1429 −4.307 −5.6317 −2.6081 −7.6464 −8.3144 −8.9118 −4.9821 −12.277 −8.261 −22.498 −50.224 −12.882 −15.618 −19.424 −17.158 −5.8055 −11.696 −13.631 −18.954 −8.5711 −11.003 −16.004 −16.826 −15.369 −5.7359 −7.0002 −7.5843 −7.8202 −6.0261 −12.986 −6.4361 −2.9351 −16.022 −20.697 −8.8253 −10.829 −12.858 −13.943 −9.3 −3.0913 −3.7345 −5.2746 −6.4449 −9.4301 −19.01 −6.7902 −10.09 −9.5303 −15.002 −5.5662 −6.0669 −8.5767 −10.292 −5.9109 −8.9301 −4.2769 −9.1506 −13.934 −5.2876 −10.176 −3.4425

2.7753E-18 1.6529E-17 3.0530E-17 2.2675E-18 5.2700E-04 1.8250E-17 4.4127E-02 2.3233E-02 1.2154E-17 2.8860E-05 9.7000E-15 7.4008E-06 4.7345E-02 7.8544E-06 5.5660E-18 1.0722E-17 8.6279E-40 7.5753E-18 8.8955E-18 8.1918E-06 5.9272E-06 7.9446E-18 7.1802E-06 6.4239E-18 9.3666E-18 2.9939E-41 3.0902E-18 5.8276E-18 1.7106E-17 5.6629E-18 1.1013E-17 2.0871E-18 2.8405E-02 7.7520E-16 5.6136E-06 2.2101E-02 9.6171E-06 7.1880E-18 1.2491E-17 1.0700E-42 6.2702E-06 1.8580E-18 2.5424E-17 7.3986E-18 1.0148E-17 1.0767E-05 2.1415E-02 1.0850E-18 6.7603E-18 6.1367E-06 7.7521E-06 6.5133E-06 1.0919E-05 7.5091E-18 1.6665E-17 4.8482E-18 8.2236E-06 1.1843E-18 7.5424E-06 1.0346E-05 1.9913E-06 5.6240E-06 9.9989E-17

6 6 6 6 2 6 1 1 6 2 6 2 1 2 6 6 14 6 6 2 2 6 2 6 6 14 6 6 6 6 6 6 1 6 2 1 2 6 6 15 2 6 6 6 6 2 1 6 6 2 2 2 2 6 6 6 2 6 2 2 2 2 6

249.95 164.55 151.15 353.43 24.56 183.63 63.15 66.46 244.6 182.3 109.5 305.04 255.15 219.66 285.55 268.15 238.15 191.91 253.05 223.15 301.31 246 216.38 289.65 257.65 241.55 252.85 255.55 171.45 223.95 193.55 462.65 54.36 80.15 283.07 182 143.42 239.15 195.56 200 196.29 234.18 108.02 160.75 197.45 167.45 163.83 372.38 314.06 243.15 404.15 136.87 85.47 146.95 185.26 199 170 252.45 180.26 178.15 188.36 173.55 87.89

9.23E+00 4.93E−01 3.37E+00 9.91E+02 4.38E+04 3.18E-02 1.25E+04 1.86E−01 1.47E+02 8.69E+04 2.20E+04 1.59E−02 3.42E−01 4.31E−01 4.71E−02 8.55E−02 4.32E−03 2.04E−02 1.47E−01 4.50E−01 3.39E−02 1.46E+00 2.11E+00 1.83E−01 9.60E−02 4.04E−02 4.68E+00 7.84E+00 2.98E−03 3.05E−02 1.04E−01 2.15E+03 1.48E+02 7.35E−01 1.29E−01 5.23E−02 6.86E−02 3.28E−02 5.48E−04 4.15E−03 7.52E−01 7.34E+01 3.70E−05 1.77E−03 2.01E−01 2.40E+00 2.05E−01 2.93E+01 1.88E+02 4.33E+00 7.90E+02 1.83E+01 1.68E−04 4.28E−07 1.95E−02 2.48E−02 1.31E+00 1.31E+01 1.69E−01 1.71E−02 1.30E+01 1.81E−04 1.17E−03

654 497.1 437 748.4 44.4 593 126.2 234 588.15 309.57 180.15 758 658 594.6 710.7 670.9 649.5 593.1 681 598.05 747 638.9 568.7 694.26 652.3 629.8 632.7 627.7 566.9 667.3 574 804 154.58 261 708 566.1 469.7 639.16 588.1 561 561.08 560.95 464.8 584.3 598 481.2 519 869 694.25 653 791 394 369.83 536.8 508.3 636 504.4 600.81 564.4 549.73 496.95 638.35 364.85

3.341E+06 3.285E+06 4.583E+06 4.069E+06 2.665E+06 5.159E+06 3.391E+06 4.500E+06 6.309E+06 7.278E+06 6.516E+06 1.208E+06 2.743E+06 2.305E+06 2.502E+06 2.522E+06 2.551E+06 2.427E+06 2.330E+06 2.620E+06 1.256E+06 2.951E+06 2.467E+06 2.761E+06 2.782E+06 2.754E+06 2.647E+06 2.705E+06 2.663E+06 2.523E+06 2.880E+06 7.060E+06 5.021E+06 5.566E+06 1.474E+06 3.969E+06 3.364E+06 3.589E+06 3.896E+06 3.709E+06 3.706E+06 3.699E+06 3.562E+06 3.537E+06 3.474E+06 4.170E+06 4.020E+06 2.902E+06 6.059E+06 4.063E+06 4.734E+06 5.218E+06 4.214E+06 5.170E+06 4.783E+06 3.130E+06 4.919E+06 4.608E+06 4.191E+06 3.366E+06 4.738E+06 3.202E+06 4.599E+06

2-60 TABLE 2-8

Vapor Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Liquids, ln P = C1 + C2/T + C3 ln T + C4 T C5, P in Pa (Concluded)

No.

Name

Formula

CAS no.

306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345

Propyl formate 2-Propyl mercaptan Propyl mercaptan 1,2-Propylene glycol Quinone Silicon tetrafluoride Styrene Succinic acid Sulfur dioxide Sulfur hexafluoride Sulfur trioxide Terephthalic acid o-Terphenyl Tetradecane Tetrahydrofuran 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene Tetrahydrothiophene 2,2,3,3-Tetramethylbutane Thiophene Toluene 1,1,2-Trichloroethane Tridecane Triethyl amine Trimethyl amine 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Undecane 1-Undecanol Vinyl acetate Vinyl acetylene Vinyl chloride Vinyl trichlorosilane Water m-Xylene o-Xylene p-Xylene

C4H8O2 C3H8S C3H8S C3H8O2 C6H4O2 F4Si C8H8 C4H6O4 O2S F6S O3S C8H6O4 C18H14 C14H30 C4H8O C10H12 C4H8S C8H18 C4H4S C7H8 C2H3Cl3 C13H28 C6H15N C3H9N C9H12 C9H12 C8H18 C8H18 C6H3N3O6 C7H5N3O6 C11H24 C11H24O C4H6O2 C4H4 C2H3Cl C2H3Cl3Si H2O C8H10 C8H10 C8H10

110-74-7 75-33-2 107-03-9 57-55-6 106-51-4 7783-61-1 100-42-5 110-15-6 7446-09-5 2551-62-4 7446-11-9 100-21-0 84-15-1 629-59-4 109-99-9 119-64-2 110-01-0 594-82-1 110-02-1 108-88-3 79-00-5 629-50-5 121-44-8 75-50-3 526-73-8 95-63-6 540-84-1 560-21-4 99-35-4 118-96-7 1120-21-4 112-42-5 108-05-4 689-97-4 75-01-4 75-94-5 7732-18-5 108-38-3 95-47-6 106-42-3

C1 104.08 60.43 62.165 212.8 48.651 272.85 105.93 128.65 47.365 29.16 180.99 248.72 110.52 140.47 54.898 137.23 75.881 57.963 93.193 76.945 54.153 137.45 56.55 134.68 78.341 85.301 84.912 83.105 506.33 302 131 182.571 57.406 55.682 91.432 54.571 73.649 85.099 90.405 88.72

C2

C3

C4

C5

Tmin, K

P at Tmin

Tmax, K

P at Tmax

−7,535.9 −5,276.9 −5,624 −15,420 −7,289.5 −9,548.9 −8,685.9 −16,958 −4,084.5 −2,383.6 −12,060 −32,238 −14,045 −13,231 −5,305.4 −10,620 −6,910.6 −5,901.5 −7,001.5 −6,729.8 −6,041.8 −12,549 −5,681.9 −6,055.8 −8,019.8 −8,215.9 −6,722.2 −6,903.7 −37,483 −24,324 −11,143 −17,112 −5,702.8 −4,439.3 −5,141.7 −5,561.5 −7,258.2 −7,615.9 −7,955.2 −7,741.2

−12.348 −5.6572 −5.8595 −28.109 −3.4453 −40.089 −12.42 −13.872 −3.6469 −1.1342 −22.839 −30.009 −11.861 −16.859 −4.7627 −17.908 −7.9499 −5.2048 −10.738 −8.179 −4.5383 −16.543 −4.9815 −19.415 −8.1458 −9.2166 −9.5157 −9.1858 −69.22 −40.13 −15.855 −22.125 −5.0307 −5.0136 −10.981 −4.712 −7.3037 −9.3072 −10.086 −9.8693

9.6020E−06 2.6039E−17 2.0597E−17 2.1564E−05 1.0068E−18 6.3699E−15 7.5583E−06 2.1559E−18 1.7990E−17

2 6 6 2 6 6 2 6 6

7.2350E−17 4.7950E−06 2.2121E−18 6.5877E−06 1.4291E−17 1.4506E−02 4.4315E−06 9.1301E−18 8.2308E−06 5.3017E−06 4.9833E−18 7.1275E−06 1.2363E−17 2.8619E−02 3.8971E−06 4.7979E−06 7.2244E−06 6.4703E−06 2.7381E−05 1.7403E−05 8.1871E−06 1.12835E−17 1.1042E−17 1.9650E−17 1.4318E−05 1.0702E−17 4.1653E−06 5.5643E−06 5.9594E−06 6.0770E−06

6 2 6 2 6 1 2 6 2 2 6 2 6 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 6 6 6 2 6 2 2 2 2

180.25 142.61 159.95 213.15 388.85 186.35 242.54 460.65 197.67 223.15 289.95 700.15 329.35 279.01 164.65 237.38 176.99 373.96 234.94 178.18 236.5 267.76 158.45 156.08 247.79 229.33 165.78 172.22 398.4 354 247.57 288.45 180.35 173.15 119.36 178.35 273.16 225.3 247.98 286.41

2.11E−01 9.73E−03 6.51E−02 9.29E−05 1.17E+04 2.21E+05 1.06E+01 8.85E+02 1.67E+03 2.30E+05 2.09E+04 4.57E+03 4.14E−01 2.53E−01 1.96E−01 1.33E−01 1.54E−02 8.69E+04 1.86E+02 4.75E−02 4.47E+01 2.51E−01 1.06E−02 9.92E+00 3.71E+00 6.93E−01 1.71E−02 1.68E−02 8.50E+00 9.36E−01 4.08E−01 1.26E−01 7.06E−01 6.69E+01 1.92E−02 3.54E−01 6.11E+02 3.18E+00 2.18E+01 5.76E+02

538 517 536.6 626 683 259 636 806 430.75 318.69 490.85 1113 857 693 540.15 720 631.95 568 579.35 591.75 602 675 535.15 433.25 664.5 649.1 543.8 573.5 846 828 639 703.9 519.13 454 432 543.15 647.096 617 630.3 616.2

4.031E+06 4.752E+06 4.627E+06 6.041E+06 5.925E+06 3.748E+06 3.823E+06 4.727E+06 7.860E+06 3.771E+06 8.192E+06 3.943E+06 2.974E+06 1.569E+06 5.203E+06 3.624E+06 5.117E+06 2.871E+06 5.702E+06 4.080E+06 4.447E+06 1.679E+06 3.037E+06 4.102E+06 3.447E+06 3.212E+06 2.550E+06 2.812E+06 3.410E+06 3.019E+06 1.949E+06 2.120E+06 3.930E+06 4.887E+06 5.750E+06 3.058E+06 2.193E+07 3.528E+06 3.741E+06 3.501E+06

Vapor pressure Ps is calculated by

Ps = exp(C1 + C2/T + C3 ln T + C4T C5) where Ps is in Pa and T is in K. All substances are listed by chemical family in Table 2-6 and by formula in Table 2-7. Values in this table were taken from the Design Institute for Physical Properties (DIPPR) of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), copyright 2007 AIChE and reproduced with permission of AIChE and of the DIPPR Evaluated Process Design Data Project Steering Committee. Their source should be cited as R. L. Rowley, W. V. Wilding, J. L. Oscarson, Y. Yang, N. A. Zundel, T. E. Daubert, R. P. Danner, DIPPR® Data Compilation of Pure Chemical Properties, Design Institute for Physical Properties, AIChE, New York (2007). The number of digits provided for values at Tmin and Tmax was chosen for uniformity of appearance and formatting; these do not represent the uncertainties of the physical quantities, but are the result of calculations from the standard thermophysical property formulations within a fixed format.

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES TABLE 2-9

2-61

Vapor Pressures of Inorganic Compounds, up to 1 atm* Compound

Pressure, mmHg 1

Name Aluminum borohydride bromide chloride fluoride iodide oxide Ammonia heavy Ammonium bromide carbamate chloride cyanide hydrogen sulfide iodide Antimony tribromide trichloride pentachloride triiodide trioxide Argon Arsenic Arsenic tribromide trichloride trifluoride pentafluoride trioxide Arsine Barium Beryllium borohydride bromide chloride iodide Bismuth tribromide trichloride Diborane hydrobromide Borine carbonyl triamine Boron hydrides dihydrodecaborane dihydrodiborane dihydropentaborane tetrahydropentaborane tetrahydrotetraborane Boron tribromide trichloride trifluoride Bromine pentafluoride Cadmium chloride fluoride iodide oxide Calcium Carbon (graphite) dioxide disulfide monoxide oxyselenide oxysulfide selenosulfide subsulfide tetrabromide tetrachloride tetrafluoride Cesium bromide chloride fluoride iodide

5

10

20

Al Al(BH4)3 AlBr3 Al2Cl6 AlF3 AlI3 Al2O3 NH3 ND3 NH4Br N2H6CO2 NH4Cl NH4CN NH4HS NH4I Sb SbBr3 SbCl3 SbCl5 SbI3 Sb4O6 A As AsBr3 AsCl3 AsF3 AsF5 As2O3 AsH3 Ba Be(BH4)2 BeBr2 BeCl2 BeI2 Bi BiBr3 BiCl3 B2H5Br BH3CO B3N3H6 B10H14 B2H6 B5H9 B5H11 B4H10 BBr3 BCl3 BF3 Br2 BrF5 Cd CdCl2 CdF2 CdI2 CdO Ca C CO2 CS2 CO COSe COS CSeS C3S2 CBr4 CCl4 CF4 Cs CsBr CsCl CsF CsI

40

60

100

200

400

760

Melting point, °C

1749 −3.9 176.1 152.0 1422 294.5 2665 −68.4 −67.4 320.0 26.7 271.5 −0.5 0.0 331.8 1223 203.5 143.3 114.1 303.5 957 −200.5 518 145.2 70.9 13.2 −84.3 332.5 −98.0 1301 58.6 405 411 411 1271 360 343 −29.0 −95.3 +4.0

1844 +11.2 199.8 161.8 1457 322.0 2766 −57.0 −57.0 345.3 37.2 293.2 +9.6 +10.5 355.8 1288 225.7 165.9

1947 28.1 227.0 171.6 1496 354.0 2874 −45.4 −45.4 370.8 48.0 316.5 20.5 21.8 381.0 1364 250.2 192.2

2056 45.9 256.3 180.2 1537 385.5 2977 −33.6 −33.4 396.0 58.3 337.8 31.7 33.3 404.9 1440 275.0 219.0

660 −64. 97. 192.4 1040

333.8 1085 −195.6 548 167.7 89.2 26.7 −75.5 370.0 −87.2 1403 69.0 427 435 435 1319 392 372 −15.4 −85.5 18.5

368.5 1242 −190.6 579 193.6 109.7 41.4 −64.0 412.2 −75.2 1518 79.7 451 461 461 1370 425 405 0.0 −74.8 34.3

401.0 1425 −185.6 610 220.0 130.4 56.3 −52.8 457.2 −62.1 1638 90.0 474 487 487 1420 461 441 +16.3 −64.0 50.6

142.3 −120.9 +9.6 20.1 −28.1 33.5 −32.4 −123.0 +9.3 −4.5 611 797 1486 640 1341 1207 4373 −100.2 −5.1 −205.7 −61.7 −85.9 28.3 109.9 119.7 23.0 −150.7 509 1072 1069 1025 1055

163.8 −111.2 24.6 34.8 −14.0 50.3 −18.9 −115.9 24.3 +9.9 658 847 1561 688 1409 1288 4516 −93.0 +10.4 −201.3 −49.8 −75.0 45.7 130.8 139.7 38.3 −143.6 561 1140 1139 1092 1124

−99.6 40.8 51.2 +0.8 70.0 −3.6 −108.3 41.0 25.7 711 908 1651 742 1484 1388 4660 −85.7 28.0 −196.3 −35.6 −62.7 65.2

−86.5 58.1 67.0 16.1 91.7 +12.7 −100.7 58.2 40.4 765 967 1751 796 1559 1487 4827 −78.2 46.5 −191.3 −21.9 −49.9 85.6

163.5 57.8 −135.5 624 1221 1217 1170 1200

189.5 76.7 −127.7 690 1300 1300 1251 1280

Temperature, °C

Formula 1284 81.3 100.0 1238 178.0 2148 −109.1

1421 −52.2 103.8 116.4 1298 207.7 2306 −97.5

1487 −42.9 118.0 123.8 1324 225.8 2385 −91.9

1555 −32.5 134.0 131.8 1350 244.2 2465 −85.8

1635 −20.9 150.6 139.9 1378 265.0 2549 −79.2

198.3 −26.1 160.4 −50.6 −51.1 210.9 886 93.9 49.2 22.7 163.6 574 −218.2 372 41.8 −11.4

234.5 −10.4 193.8 −35.7 −36.0 247.0 984 126.0 71.4 48.6 203.8 626 −213.9 416 70.6 +11.7

252.0 −2.9 209.8 −28.6 −28.7 263.5 1033 142.7 85.2 61.8 223.5 666 −210.9 437 85.2 +23.5

270.6 +5.3 226.1 −20.9 −20.8 282.8 1084 158.3 100.6 75.8 244.8 729 −207.9 459 101.3 36.0

−117.9 212.5 −142.6

−108.0 242.6 −130.8 984 19.8 325 328 322 1099 261 242 −75.3 −127.3 −45.0

−103.1 259.7 −124.7 1049 28.1 342 346 341 1136 282 264 −66.3 −121.1 −35.3

−98.0 279.2 −117.7 1120 36.8 361 365 361 1177 305 287 −56.4 −114.1 −25.0

290.0 14.0 245.0 −12.6 −12.3 302.8 1141 177.4 117.8 91.0 267.8 812 −204.9 483 118.7 50.0 −2.5 −92.4 299.2 −110.2 1195 46.2 379 384 382 1217 327 311 −45.4 −106.6 −13.2

1684 −13.4 161.7 145.4 1398 277.8 2599 −74.3 −74.0 303.8 19.6 256.2 −7.4 −7.0 316.0 1176 188.1 128.3 101.0 282.5 873 −202.9 498 130.0 58.7 +4.2 −88.5 310.3 −104.8 1240 51.7 390 395 394 1240 340 324 −38.2 −101.9 −5.8

3586 −134.3 −73.8 −222.0 −117.1 −132.4 −47.3 14.0

80.8 −149.5 −40.4 −29.9 −73.1 −20.4 −75.2 −145.4 −32.8 −51.0 455 618 1231 481 1100 926 3828 −124.4 −54.3 −217.2 −102.3 −119.8 −26.5 41.2

90.2 −144.3 −30.7 −19.9 −64.3 −10.1 −66.9 −141.3 −25.0 −41.9 484 656 1286 512 1149 983 3946 −119.5 −44.7 −215.0 −95.0 −113.3 −16.0 54.9

100.0 −138.5 −20.0 −9.2 −54.8 +1.5 −57.9 −136.4 −16.8 −32.0 516 695 1344 546 1200 1046 4069 −114.4 −34.3 −212.8 −86.3 −106.0 −4.4 69.3

−50.0 −184.6 279 748 744 712 738

−30.0 −174.1 341 838 837 798 828

−19.6 −169.3 375 887 884 844 873

−8.2 −164.3 409 938 934 893 923

117.4 −131.6 −8.0 +2.7 −44.3 14.0 −47.8 −131.0 −8.0 −21.0 553 736 1400 584 1257 1111 4196 −108.6 −22.5 −210.0 −76.4 −98.3 +8.6 85.6 96.3 +4.3 −158.8 449 993 989 947 976

127.8 −127.2 −0.4 10.2 −37.4 22.1 −41.2 −127.6 −0.6 −14.0 578 762 1436 608 1295 1152 4273 −104.8 −15.3 −208.1 −70.2 −93.0 17.0 96.0 106.3 12.3 −155.4 474 1026 1023 980 1009

+1.0 289 291 283 1021 −93.3 −139.2 −63.0 60.0 −159.7 −50.2 −90.9 −41.4 −91.5 −154.6 −48.7 −69.3 394 1112 416 1000

*Compiled from the extended tables published by D. R. Stull in Ind. Eng. Chem., 39, 517 (1947).

2050 −77.7 −74.0 520 36 630.5 96.6 73.4 2.8 167 656 −189.2 814 −18 −5.9 −79.8 312.8 −116.3 850 123 490 405 488 271 218 230 −104.2 −137.0 −58.2 99.6 −169 −47.0 −119.9 −45 −107 −126.8 −7.3 −61.4 320.9 568 520 385 851 −57.5 −110.8 −205.0 −138.8 −75.2 +0.4 90.1 −22.6 −183.7 28.5 636 646 683 621

2-62

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-9

Vapor Pressures of Inorganic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued) Compound

Pressure, mmHg 1

Name Chlorine fluoride trifluoride monoxide dioxide heptoxide Chlorosulfonic acid Chromium carbonyl oxychloride Cobalt chloride nitrosyl tricarbonyl Columbium fluoride Copper Cuprous bromide chloride iodide Cyanogen bromide chloride fluoride Deuterium cyanide Fluorine oxide Germanium bromide chloride hydride Trichlorogermane Tetramethylgermane Digermane Trigermane Gold Helium para-Hydrogen Hydrogen bromide chloride cyanide fluoride iodide oxide (water) sulfide disulfide selenide telluride Iodine heptafluoride Iron pentacarbonyl Ferric chloride Ferrous chloride Krypton Lead bromide chloride fluoride iodide oxide sulfide Lithium bromide chloride fluoride iodide Magnesium chloride Manganese chloride Mercury Mercuric bromide chloride iodide Molybdenum hexafluoride oxide

5

10

20

Cl2 ClF ClF3 Cl2O ClO2 Cl2O7 HSO3Cl Cr Cr(CO)6 CrO2Cl2 CoCl2 Co(CO)3NO CbF5 Cu Cu2Br2 Cu2Cl2 Cu2I2 C2N2 CNBr CNCl CNF DCN F2 F2O GeBr4 GeCl4 GeH4 GeHCl3 Ge(CH3)4 Ge2H6 Ge3H8 Au He H2 HBr HCl HCN H2F2 HI H2O H2S HSSH H2Se H2Te I2 IF7 Fe Fe(CO)5 Fe2Cl6 FeCl2 Kr Pb PbBr2 PbCl2 PbF2 PbI2 PbO PbS Li LiBr LiCl LiF LiI Mg MgCl2 Mn MnCl2 Hg HgBr2 HgCl2 HgI2 Mo MoF6 MoO3

40

60

100

200

400

760

Melting point, °C

−71.7 −120.8 −34.7 −39.4 −29.4 29.1 105.3 2139 108.0 58.0 843 29.0 148.5 2207 951 960 907 −51.8 22.6 −24.9 −97.0 −17.5 −202.7 −165.8 113.2 27.5 −120.3 26.5 −6.3 −20.3 47.9 2521 −270.3 −257.9 −97.7 −114.0 −17.8 −28.2 −72.1 51.6 −91.6 22.0 −74.2 −45.7 116.5 −31.9 2360 50.3 272.5 842 −171.8 1421 745 784 1080 701 1265 1108 1097 1076 1129 1425 993 909 1142 1792 960 261.7 237.8 237.0 261.8 4109 −8.0 955

−60.2 −114.4 −20.7 −26.5 −17.8 44.6 120.0 2243 121.8 75.2 904 44.4 172.2 2325 1052 1077 1018 −42.6 33.8 −14.1 −89.2 −5.4 −198.3 −159.0 135.4 44.4 −111.2 41.6 +8.8 −4.7 67.0 2657 −269.8 −256.3 −88.1 −105.2 −5.3 −13.2 −60.3 66.5 −82.3 35.3 −65.2 −32.4 137.3 −20.7 2475 68.0 285.0 897 −165.9 1519 796 833 1144 750 1330 1160 1178 1147 1203 1503 1049 967 1223 1900 1028 290.7 262.7 256.5 291.0 4322 +4.1 1014

−47.3 −107.0 −4.9 −12.5 −4.0 62.2 136.1 2361 137.2 95.2 974 62.0 198.0 2465 1189 1249 1158 −33.0 46.0 −2.3 −80.5 +10.0 −193.2 −151.9 161.6 63.8 −100.2 58.3 26.0 +13.3 88.6 2807 −269.3 −254.5 −78.0 −95.3 +10.2 +2.5 −48.3 83.0 −71.8 49.6 −53.6 −17.2 159.8 −8.3 2605 86.1 298.0 961 −159.0 1630 856 893 1219 807 1402 1221 1273 1226 1290 1591 1110 1034 1316 2029 1108 323.0 290.0 275.5 324.2 4553 17.2 1082

−33.8 −100.5 +11.5 +2.2 +11.1 78.8 151.0 2482 151.0 117.1 1050 80.0 225.0 2595 1355 1490 1336 −21.0 61.5 +13.1 −72.6 26.2 −187.9 −144.6 189.0 84.0 −88.9 75.0 44.0 31.5 110.8 2966 −268.6 −252.5 −66.5 −84.8 25.9 19.7 −35.1 100.0 −60.4 64.0 −41.1 −2.0 183.0 +4.0 2735 105.0 319.0 1026 −152.0 1744 914 954 1293 872 1472 1281 1372 1310 1382 1681 1171 1107 1418 2151 1190 357.0 319.0 304.0 354.0 4804 36.0 1151

−100.7 −145 −83 −116 −59 −91 −80 1615

Temperature, °C

Formula −118.0 −98.5

−106.7 −143.4 −80.4 −81.6

−45.3 32.0 1616 36.0 −18.4

−23.8 53.5 1768 58.0 +3.2

1628 572 546 −95.8 −35.7 −76.7 −134.4 −68.9 −223.0 −196.1 −45.0 −163.0 −41.3 −73.2 −88.7 −36.9 1869 −271.7 −263.3 −138.8 −150.8 −71.0 −123.3 −17.3 −134.3 −43.2 −115.3 −96.4 38.7 −87.0 1787 194.0 −199.3 973 513 547 479 943 852 723 748 783 1047 723 621 778 1292 126.2 136.5 136.2 157.5 3102 −65.5 734

1795 666 645 610 −83.2 −18.3 −61.4 −123.8 −54.0 −216.9 −186.6 43.3 −24.9 −151.0 −22.3 −54.6 −69.8 −12.8 2059 −271.5 −261.9 −127.4 −140.7 −55.3 −74.7 −109.6 +1.2 −122.4 −24.4 −103.4 −82.4 62.2 −70.7 1957 −6.5 221.8 −191.3 1099 578 615 861 540 1039 928 838 840 880 1156 802 702 877 1434 736 164.8 165.3 166.0 189.2 3393 −49.0 785

−101.6 −139.0 −71.8 −73.1 −59.0 −13.2 64.0 1845 68.3 13.8

−93.3 −134.3 −62.3 −64.3 −51.2 −2.1 75.3 1928 79.5 25.7

86.3 1879 718 702 656 −76.8 −10.0 −53.8 −118.5 −46.7 −214.1 −182.3 56.8 −15.0 −145.3 −13.0 −45.2 −60.1 −0.9 2154 −271.3 −261.3 −121.8 −135.6 −47.7 −65.8 −102.3 11.2 −116.3 −15.2 −97.9 −75.4 73.2 −63.0 2039 +4.6 235.5 700 −187.2 1162 610 648 904 571 1085 975 881 888 932 1211 841 743 930 1505 778 184.0 179.8 180.2 204.5 3535 −40.8 814

−1.3 103.0 1970 777 766 716 −70.1 −1.0 −46.1 −112.8 −38.8 −211.0 −177.8 71.8 −4.1 −139.2 −3.0 −35.0 −49.9 +11.8 2256 −271.1 −260.4 −115.4 −130.0 −39.7 −56.0 −94.5 22.1 −109.7 −5.1 −91.8 −67.8 84.7 −54.5 2128 16.7 246.0 737 −182.9 1234 646 684 950 605 1134 1005 940 939 987 1270 883 789 988 1583 825 204.6 194.3 195.8 220.0 3690 −32.0 851

−84.5 −128.8 −51.3 −54.3 −42.8 +10.3 87.6 2013 91.2 38.5 770 +11.0 121.5 2067 844 838 786 −62.7 +8.6 −37.5 −106.4 −30.1 −207.7 −173.0 88.1 +8.0 −131.6 +8.8 −23.4 −38.2 26.3 2363 −270.7 −259.6 −108.3 −123.8 −30.9 −45.0 −85.6 34.0 −102.3 +6.0 −84.7 −59.1 97.5 −45.3 2224 30.3 256.8 779 −178.4 1309 686 725 1003 644 1189 1048 1003 994 1045 1333 927 838 1050 1666 879 228.8 211.5 212.5 238.2 3859 −22.1 892

−79.0 −125.3 −44.1 −48.0 −37.2 +18.2 95.2 2067 98.3 46.7 801 18.5 133.2 2127 887 886 836 −57.9 14.7 −32.1 −102.3 −24.7 −205.6 −170.0 98.8 16.2 −126.7 16.2 −16.2 −30.7 35.5 2431 −270.6 −258.9 −103.8 −119.6 −25.1 −37.9 −79.8 41.5 −97.9 12.8 −80.2 −53.7 105.4 −39.4 2283 39.1 263.7 805 −175.7 1358 711 750 1036 668 1222 1074 1042 1028 1081 1372 955 868 1088 1720 913 242.0 221.0 222.2 249.0 3964 −16.2 917

735 −11 75.5 1083 504 422 605 −34.4 58 −6.5 −12 −223 −223.9 26.1 −49.5 −165 −71.1 −88 −109 −105.6 1063 −259.1 −87.0 −114.3 −13.2 −83.7 −50.9 0.0 −85.5 −89.7 −64 −49.0 112.9 5.5 1535 −21 304 −156.7 327.5 373 501 855 402 890 1114 186 547 614 870 446 651 712 1260 650 −38.9 237 277 259 2622 17 795

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES

TABLE 2-9

2-63

Vapor Pressures of Inorganic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued) Compound

Pressure, mmHg 1

Name Neon Nickel carbonyl chloride Nitrogen Nitric oxide Nitrogen dioxide Nitrogen pentoxide Nitrous oxide Nitrosyl chloride fluoride Osmium tetroxide (yellow) (white) Oxygen Ozone Phosgene Phosphorus (yellow) (violet) tribromide trichloride pentachloride Phosphine Phosphonium bromide chloride iodide Phosphorus trioxide pentoxide oxychloride thiobromide thiochloride Platinum Potassium bromide chloride fluoride hydroxide iodide Radon Rhenium heptoxide Rubidium bromide chloride fluoride iodide Selenium dioxide hexafluoride oxychloride tetrachloride Silicon dioxide tetrachloride tetrafluoride Trichlorofluorosilane Iodosilane Diiodosilane Disiloxan Trisilane Trisilazane Tetrasilane Octachlorotrisilane Hexachlorodisiloxane Hexachlorodisilane Tribromosilane Trichlorosilane Trifluorosilane Dibromosilane Difluorosilane Monobromosilane Monochlorosilane Monofluorosilane Tribromofluorosilane Dichlorodifluorosilane Trifluorobromosilane

5

10

20

Ne Ni Ni(CO)4 NiCl2 N2 NO NO2 N2O5 N2O NOCl NOF OsO4 OsO4 O2 O3 COCl2 P P PBr3 PCl3 PCl5 PH3 PH4Br PH4Cl PH4I P4O6 P4O10 POCl3 PSBr3 PSCl3 Pt K KBr KCl KF KOH KI Rn Re2O7 Rb RbBr RbCl RbF RbI Se SeO2 SeF6 SeOCl2 SeCl4 Si SiO2 SiCl4 SiF4 SiFCl3 SiH3I SiH2I2 (SiH3)2O Si3H8 (SiH3)3N Si4H10 Si3Cl3 (SiCl3)2O Si2Cl6 SiHBr3 SiHCl3 SiHF3 SiH2Br2 SiH2F2 SiH3Br SiH3Cl SiH3F SiFBr3 SiF2Cl2 SiF3Br

40

60

100

200

400

760

Melting point, °C

−251.0 2364 −6.0 866 −209.7 −166.0 −14.7 7.4 −110.3 −46.3 −88.8 71.5 71.5 −198.8 −141.0 −35.6 197.3 349 103.6 21.0 117.0 −118.8 7.4 −52.0 29.3 108.3 510 47.4 126.3 63.8 3714 586 1137 1164 1245 1064 1080 −99.0 289.0 514 1114 1133 1168 1072 554 258.0 −73.9 118.0 147.5 2083 1969 +5.4 −113.3 −33.2 −4.4 79.4 −55.9 +1.6 −1.1 47.4 146.0 75.4 85.4 51.6 −16.4 −118.7 14.1 −107.3 −42.3 −68.5 −122.4 28.6 −70.3

−249.7 2473 +8.8 904 −205.6 −162.3 −5.0 15.6 −103.6 −34.0 −79.2 89.5 89.5 −194.0 −132.6 −22.3 222.7 370 125.2 37.6 131.3 −109.4 17.6 −44.0 39.9 129.0 532 65.0 141.8 82.0 3923 643 1212 1239 1323 1142 1152 −87.7 307.0 563 1186 1207 1239 1141 594 277.0 −64.8 134.6 161.0 2151 2053 21.0 −170.2 −19.3 +10.7 101.8 −43.5 17.8 +14.0 63.6 166.2 92.5 102.2 70.2 −1.8 −111.3 31.6 −98.3 −28.6 −57.0 −115.2 45.7 −58.0 −69.8

−248.1 2603 25.8 945 −200.9 −156.8 +8.0 24.4 −96.2 −20.3 −68.2 109.3 109.3 −188.8 −122.5 −7.6 251.0 391 149.7 56.9 147.2 −98.3 28.0 −35.4 51.6 150.3 556 84.3 157.8 102.3 4169 708 1297 1322 1411 1233 1238 −75.0 336.0 620 1267 1294 1322 1223 637 297.7 −55.2 151.7 176.4 2220 2141 38.4 −100.7 −4.0 27.9 125.5 −29.3 35.5 31.0 81.7 189.5 113.6 120.6 90.2 +14.5 −102.8 50.7 −87.6 −13.3 −44.5 −106.8 64.6 −45.0 −55.9

−246.0 2732 42.5 987 −195.8 −151.7 21.0 32.4 −85.5 −6.4 −56.0 130.0 130.0 −183.1 −111.1 +8.3 280.0 417 175.3 74.2 162.0 −87.5 38.3 −27.0 62.3 173.1 591 105.1 175.0 124.0 4407 774 1383 1407 1502 1327 1324 −61.8 362.4 679 1352 1381 1408 1304 680 317.0 −45.8 168.0 191.5 2287 2227 56.8 −94.8 +12.2 45.4 149.5 −15.4 53.1 48.7 100.0 211.4 135.6 139.0 111.8 31.8 −95.0 70.5 −77.8 +2.4 −30.4 −98.0 83.8 −31.8 −41.7

−248.7 1452 −25 1001 −210.0 −161 −9.3 30 −90.9 −64.5 −134 56 42 −218.7 −251 −104 44.1 590 −40 −111.8

Temperature, °C

Formula −257.3 1810

−255.5 1979

−254.6 2057

−253.7 2143

671 −226.1 −184.5 −55.6 −36.8 −143.4

731 −221.3 −180.6 −42.7 −23.0 −133.4

759 −219.1 −178.2 −36.7 −16.7 −128.7

789 −216.8 −175.3 −30.4 −10.0 −124.0

−132.0 3.2 −5.6 −219.1 −180.4 −92.9 76.6 237 7.8 −51.6 55.5

−120.3 22.0 +15.6 −213.4 −168.6 −77.0 111.2 271 34.4 −31.5 74.0

−114.3 31.3 26.0 −210.6 −163.2 −69.3 128.0 287 47.8 −21.3 83.2

−107.8 41.0 37.4 −207.5 −157.2 −60.3 146.2 306 62.4 −10.2 92.5

−43.7 −91.0 −25.2 384

−28.5 −79.6 −9.0 39.7 424

50.0 −18.3 2730 341 795 821 885 719 745 −144.2 212.5 297 781 792 921 748 356 157.0 −118.6 34.8 74.0 1724

72.4 +4.6 3007 408 892 919 988 814 840 −132.4 237.5 358 876 887 982 839 413 187.7 −105.2 59.8 96.3 1835

−63.4 −144.0 −92.6

−44.1 −134.8 −76.4 −53.0 3.8 −95.8 −49.7 −49.9 −6.2 74.7 17.8 27.4 −8.0 −62.6 −142.7 −40.0 −136.0 −85.7 −104.3 −145.5 −25.4 −110.5

−21.2 −74.0 −1.1 53.0 442 2.0 83.6 16.1 3146 443 940 968 1039 863 887 −126.3 248.0 389 923 937 1016 884 442 202.5 −98.9 71.9 107.4 1888 1732 −34.4 −130.4 −68.3 −47.7 18.0 −88.2 −40.0 −40.4 +4.3 89.3 29.4 38.8 +3.4 −53.4 −138.2 −29.4 −130.4 −77.3 −97.7 −141.2 −15.1 −102.9

−13.3 −68.0 +7.3 67.8 462 13.6 95.5 29.0 3302 483 994 1020 1096 918 938 −119.2 261.0 422 975 990 1052 935 473 217.5 −92.3 84.2 118.1 1942 1798 −24.0 −125.9 −59.0 −33.4 34.1 −79.8 −29.0 −30.0 15.8 104.2 41.5 51.5 16.0 −43.8 −132.9 −18.0 −124.3 −68.3 −90.1 −136.3 −3.7 −94.5

−112.5 −68.9 −68.7 −27.7 46.3 −5.0 +4.0 −30.5 −80.7 −152.0 −60.9 −146.7 −117.8 −153.0 −46.1 −124.7

−252.6 2234 −23.0 821 −214.0 −171.7 −23.9 −2.9 −118.3 −60.2 −100.3 51.7 50.5 −204.1 −150.7 −50.3 166.7 323 79.0 +2.3 102.5 −129.4 −5.0 −61.5 16.1 84.0 481 27.3 108.0 42.7 3469 524 1050 1078 1156 976 995 −111.3 272.0 459 1031 1047 1096 991 506 234.1 −84.7 98.0 130.1 2000 1867 −12.1 −120.8 −48.8 −21.8 52.6 −70.4 −16.9 −18.5 28.4 121.5 55.2 65.3 30.0 −32.9 −127.3 −5.2 −117.6 −57.8 −81.8 −130.8 +9.2 −85.0

−251.9 2289 −15.9 840 −212.3 −168.9 −19.9 +1.8 −114.9 −54.2 −95.7 59.4 59.4 −201.9 −146.7 −44.0 179.8 334 89.8 10.2 108.3 −125.0 +0.3 −57.3 21.9 94.2 493 35.8 116.0 51.8 3574 550 1087 1115 1193 1013 1030 −106.2 280.0 482 1066 1084 1123 1026 527 244.6 −80.0 106.5 137.8 2036 1911 −4.8 −117.5 −42.2 −14.3 64.0 −64.2 −9.0 −11.0 36.6 132.0 63.8 73.9 39.2 −25.8 −123.7 +3.2 −113.3 −51.1 −76.0 −127.2 17.4 −78.6

−132.5 −28.5 22.5 569 2 38 −36.2 1755 62.3 730 790 880 380 723 −71 296 38.5 682 715 760 642 217 340 −34.7 8.5 1420 1710 −68.8 −90 −120.8 −57.0 −1.0 −144.2 −117.2 −105.7 −93.6 −33.2 −1.2 −73.5 −126.6 −131.4 −70.2 −93.9 −82.5 −139.7 −70.5

2-64

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-9

Vapor Pressures of Inorganic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Concluded) Compound

Pressure, mmHg 1

Name Trifluorochlorosilane Hexafluorodisilane Dichlorofluorobromosilane Dibromochlorofluorosilane Silane Disilane Silver chloride iodide Sodium bromide chloride cyanide fluoride hydroxide iodide Strontium Strontium oxide Sulfur monochloride hexafluoride Sulfuryl chloride Sulfur dioxide trioxide (α) trioxide (β) trioxide (γ) Tellurium chloride fluoride Thallium Thallous bromide chloride iodide Thionyl bromide Thionyl chloride Tin Stannic bromide Stannous chloride Stannic chloride iodide hydride Tin tetramethyl trimethyl-ethyl trimethyl-propyl Titanium chloride Tungsten Tungsten hexafluoride Uranium hexafluoride Vanadyl trichloride Xenon Zinc chloride fluoride diethyl Zirconium bromide chloride iodide

5

10

20

SiF3Cl Si2F6 SiFCl2Br SiFClBr2 SiH4 Si2H6 Ag AgCl AgI Na NaBr NaCl NaCN NaF NaOH NaI Sr SrO S S2Cl2 SF6 SO2Cl2 SO2 SO3 SO3 SO3 Te TeCl4 TeF6 Tl TlBr TlCl TlI SOBr2 SOCl2 Sn SnBr4 SnCl2 SnCl4 SnI4 SnH4 Sn(CH3)4 Sn(CH3)3·C2H5 Sn(CH3)3·C3H7 TiCl4 W WF6 UF6 VOCl3 Xe Zn ZnCl2 ZnF2 Zn(C2H5)2 ZrBr4 ZrCl4 ZrI4

40

100

200

400

760

Melting point, °C

−108.2 −46.7 −29.0 −4.7 −146.3 −66.4 1795 1242 1152 662 1099 1169 1156 1403 1057 1039 1057

−101.7 −41.7 −19.5 +6.3 −140.5 −57.5 1865 1297 1210 701 1148 1220 1214 1455 1111 1083 1111

−91.7 −34.2 −3.2 23.0 −131.6 −44.6 1971 1379 1297 758 1220 1296 1302 1531 1192 1150 1192

−81.0 −26.4 +15.4 43.0 −122.0 −29.0 2090 1467 1400 823 1304 1379 1401 1617 1286 1225 1285

−70.0 −18.9 35.4 59.5 −111.5 −14.3 2212 1564 1506 892 1392 1465 1497 1704 1378 1304 1384

305.5 63.2 −96.8 +7.2 −54.6 +4.0 8.0 21.4 789 287 −73.8 1143 621 612 631 68.3 10.4 1903 116.2 467 43.5 234.2 −96.6 11.7 38.4 57.5 58.0 5007 −27.5 10.4 49.8 −137.7 700 584 1207 47.2 289 268 355

327.2 75.3 −90.9 17.8 −46.9 10.5 14.3 28.0 838 304 −67.9 1196 653 645 663 80.6 21.4 1968 131.0 493 54.7 254.2 −89.2 22.8 50.0 69.8 71.0 5168 −20.3 18.2 62.5 −132.8 736 610 1254 59.1 301 279 369

359.7 93.5 −82.3 33.7 −35.4 20.5 23.7 35.8 910 330 −57.3 1274 703 694 712 99.0 37.9 2063 152.8 533 72.0 283.5 −78.0 39.8 67.3 88.0 90.5 5403 −10.0 30.0 82.0 −125.4 788 648 1329 77.0 318 295 389

399.6 115.4 −72.6 51.3 −23.0 32.6 32.6 44.0 997 360 −48.2 1364 759 748 763 119.2 56.5 2169 177.7 577 92.1 315.5 −65.2 58.5 87.6 109.6 112.7 5666 +1.2 42.7 103.5 −117.1 844 689 1417 97.3 337 312 409

444.6 138.0 −63.5 69.2 −10.0 44.8 44.8 51.6 1087 392 −38.6 1457 819 807 823 139.5 75.4 2270 204.7 623 113.0 348.0 −52.3 78.0 108.8 131.7 136.0 5927 17.3 55.7 127.2 −108.0 907 732 1497 118.0 357 331 431

−142 −18.6 −112.3 −99.3 −185 −132.6 960.5 455 552 97.5 755 800 564 992 318 651 800 2430 112.8 −80 −50.2 −54.1 −73.2 16.8 32.3 62.1 452 224 −37.8 3035 460 430 440 −52.2 −104.5 231.9 31.0 246.8 −30.2 144.5 −149.9

60

Temperature, °C

Formula −144.0 −81.0 −86.5 −65.2 −179.3 −114.8 1357 912 820 439 806 865 817 1077 739 767 2068 183.8 −7.4 −132.7 −95.5 −39.0 −34.0 −15.3 520 −111.3 825 440 −6.7 −52.9 1492 316 −22.7 −140.0 −51.3 −30.0 −12.0 −13.9 3990 −71.4 −38.8 −23.2 −168.5 487 428 970 −22.4 207 190 264

−133.0 −68.8 −68.4 −45.5 −168.6 −99.3 1500 1019 927 511 903 967 928 1186 843 857 847 2198 223.0 +15.7 −120.6 −35.1 −83.0 −23.7 −19.2 −2.0 605 −98.8 931 490 487 502 +18.4 −32.4 1634 58.3 366 −1.0 156.0 −125.8 −31.0 −7.6 +10.7 +9.4 4337 −56.5 −22.0 +0.2 −158.2 558 481 1055 0.0 237 217 297

−127.0 −63.1 −59.0 −35.6 −163.0 −91.4 1575 1074 983 549 952 1017 983 1240 897 903 898 2262 243.8 27.5 −114.7 −24.8 −76.8 −16.5 −12.3 +4.3 650 233 −92.4 983 522 517 531 31.0 −21.9 1703 72.7 391 +10.0 175.8 −118.5 −20.6 +3.8 21.8 21.3 4507 −49.2 −13.8 12.2 −152.8 593 508 1086 +11.7 250 230 311

−120.5 −57.0 −48.8 −24.5 −156.9 −82.7 1658 1134 1045 589 1005 1072 1046 1300 953 952 953 2333 264.7 40.0 −108.4 −13.4 −69.7 −9.1 −4.9 11.1 697 253 −86.0 1040 559 550 567 44.1 −10.5 1777 88.1 420 22.0 196.2 −111.2 −9.3 16.1 34.0 34.2 4690 −41.5 −5.2 26.6 −147.1 632 536 1129 24.2 266 243 329

−112.8 −50.6 −37.0 −12.0 −150.3 −72.8 1743 1200 1111 633 1063 1131 1115 1363 1017 1005 1018 2410 288.3 54.1 −101.5 −1.0 −60.5 −1.0 +3.2 17.9 753 273 −78.4 1103 598 589 607 58.8 +2.2 1855 105.5 450 35.2 218.8 −102.3 +3.5 30.0 48.5 48.4 4886 −33.0 +4.4 40.0 −141.2 673 566 1175 38.0 281 259 344

−30 3370 −0.5 69.2 −111.6 419.4 365 872 −28 450 437 499

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES TABLE 2-10

2-65

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm* Pressure, mmHg Compound

1

Name

Formula

Acenaphthalene Acetal Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetanilide Acetic acid anhydride Acetone Acetonitrile Acetophenone Acetyl chloride Acetylene Acridine Acrolein (2-propenal) Acrylic acid Adipic acid Allene (propadiene) Allyl alcohol (propen-1-ol-3) chloride (3-chloropropene) isopropyl ether isothiocyanate n-propyl ether 4-Allylveratrole iso-Amyl acetate n-Amyl alcohol iso-Amyl alcohol sec-Amyl alcohol (2-pentanol) tert-Amyl alcohol sec-Amylbenzene iso-Amyl benzoate bromide (1-bromo-3-methylbutane) n-butyrate formate iodide (1-iodo-3-methylbutane) isobutyrate Amyl isopropionate iso-Amyl isovalerate n-Amyl levulinate iso-Amyl levulinate nitrate 4-tert-Amylphenol Anethole Angelonitrile Aniline 2-Anilinoethanol Anisaldehyde o-Anisidine (2-methoxyaniline) Anthracene Anthraquinone Azelaic acid Azelaldehyde Azobenzene Benzal chloride (α,α-Dichlorotoluene) Benzaldehyde Benzanthrone Benzene Benzenesulfonylchloride Benzil Benzoic acid anhydride Benzoin Benzonitrile Benzophenone Benzotrichloride (α,α,α-Trichlorotoluene) Benzotrifluoride (α,α,α-Trifluorotoluene) Benzoyl bromide chloride nitrile Benzyl acetate alcohol

C12H10 C6H14O2 C2H4O C2H5NO C8H9NO C2H4O2 C4H6O3 C3H6O C2H3N C8H8O C2H3OCl C2H2 C13H9N C3H4O C3H4O2 C6H10O4 C3H4 C3H6O C3H5Cl C6H12O C4H5NS C6H12O C11H14O2 C7H14O2 C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C11H16 C12H16O2 C5H11Br C9H18O2 C6H12O2 C5H11I C9H18O2 C8H16O2 C10H20O2 C10H18O3 C10H18O3 C5H11NO3 C11H16O C10H12O C5H7N C6H7N C8H11NO C8H8O2 C7H9NO C14H10 C14H8O2 C9H16O4 C9H18O C12H10N2 C7H6Cl2 C7H6O C17H10O C6H6 C6H5ClO2S C14H10O2 C7H6O2 C14H10O3 C14H12O2 C7H5N C13H10O C7H5Cl3 C7H5F3 C7H5BrO C7H5ClO C8H5NO C9H10O2 C7H8O

5

10

20

114.8 −2.3 −65.1 92.0 146.6 +6.3 24.8 −40.5 −26.6 64.0 −35.0 −133.0 165.8 −46.0 27.3 191.0 −108.0 +0.2 −52.0 −23.1 +25.3 −18.2 113.9 +23.7 34.7 30.9 22.1 +7.2 55.8 104.5 +2.1 47.1 +5.4 +21.9 40.1 33.7 54.4 110.0 104.0 28.8 109.8 91.6 +15.0 57.9 134.3 102.6 88.0 173.5 219.4 210.4 58.4 135.7 64.0 50.1 274.5 −19.6 96.5 165.2 119.5 180.0 170.2 55.3 141.7 73.7 −10.3 75.4 59.1 71.7 73.4 80.8

131.2 +8.0 −56.8 105.0 162.0 17.5 36.0 −31.1 −16.3 78.0 −27.6 −128.2 184.0 −36.7 39.0 205.5 −101.0 10.5 −42.9 −12.9 38.3 −7.9 127.0 35.2 44.9 40.8 32.2 17.2 69.2 121.6 13.6 59.9 17.1 34.1 52.8 46.3 68.6 124.0 118.8 40.3 125.5 106.0 28.0 69.4 149.6 117.8 101.7 187.2 234.2 225.5 71.6 151.5 78.7 62.0 297.2 −11.5 112.0 183.0 132.1 198.0 188.1 69.2 157.6 87.6 −0.4 89.8 73.0 85.5 87.6 92.6

148.7 19.6 −47.8 120.0 180.0 29.9 48.3 −20.8 −5.0 92.4 −19.6 −122.8 203.5 −26.3 52.0 222.0 −93.4 21.7 −32.8 −1.8 52.1 +3.7 142.8 47.8 55.8 51.7 42.6 27.9 83.8 139.7 26.1 74.0 30.0 47.6 66.6 60.0 83.8 139.7 134.4 53.5 142.3 121.8 41.0 82.0 165.7 133.5 116.1 201.9 248.3 242.4 85.0 168.3 94.3 75.0 322.5 −2.6 129.0 202.8 146.7 218.0 207.0 83.4 175.8 102.7 12.2 105.4 87.6 100.2 102.3 105.8

40

60

100

200

400

760

197.5 50.1 −22.6 158.0 227.2 63.0 82.2 +7.7 27.0 133.6 +3.2 −107.9 256.0 +2.5 86.1 265.0 −72.5 50.0 −4.5 29.0 89.5 35.8 183.7 83.2 85.8 80.7 70.7 55.3 124.1 186.8 60.4 113.1 65.4 84.4 104.4 97.6 125.1 180.5 177.0 88.6 189.0 164.2 77.5 119.9 209.5 176.7 155.2 250.0 285.0 286.5 123.0 216.0 138.3 112.5 390.0 26.1 174.5 255.8 186.2 270.4 258.0 123.5 224.4 144.3 45.3 147.7 128.0 141.0 144.0 141.7

222.1 66.3 −10.0 178.3 250.5 80.0 100.0 22.7 43.7 154.2 16.1 −100.3 284.0 17.5 103.3 287.8 −61.3 64.5 10.4 44.3 108.0 52.6 204.0 101.3 102.0 95.8 85.7 69.7 145.2 210.2 78.7 133.2 83.2 103.8 124.2 117.3 146.1 203.1 198.1 106.7 213.0 186.1 96.3 140.1 230.6 199.0 175.3 279.0 314.6 309.6 142.1 240.0 160.7 131.7 426.5 42.2 198.0 283.5 205.8 299.1 284.4 144.1 249.8 165.6 62.5 169.2 149.5 161.3 165.5 160.0

250.0 84.0 +4.9 200.0 277.0 99.0 119.8 39.5 62.5 178.0 32.0 −92.0 314.3 34.5 122.0 312.5 −48.5 80.2 27.5 61.7 129.8 71.4 226.2 121.5 119.8 113.7 102.3 85.7 168.0 235.8 99.4 155.3 102.7 125.8 146.0 138.4 169.5 227.4 222.7 126.5 239.5 210.5 117.7 161.9 254.5 223.0 197.3 310.2 346.2 332.8 163.4 266.1 187.0 154.1

277.5 102.2 20.2 222.0 303.8 118.1 139.6 56.5 81.8 202.4 50.8 −84.0 346.0 52.5 141.0 337.5 −35.0 96.6 44.6 79.5 150.7 90.5 248.0 142.0 137.8 130.6 119.7 101.7 193.0 262.0 120.4 178.6 123.3 148.2 168.8 160.2 194.0 253.2 247.9 147.5 266.0 235.3 140.0 184.4 279.6 248.0 218.5 342.0 379.9 356.5 185.0 293.0 214.0 179.0

60.6 224.0 314.3 227.0 328.8 313.5 166.7 276.8 189.2 82.0 193.7 172.8 185.0 189.0 183.0

80.1 251.5 347.0 249.2 360.0 343.0 190.6 305.4 213.5 102.2 218.5 197.2 208.0 213.5 204.7

Temperature, °C −23.0 −81.5 65.0 114.0 −17.2 1.7 −59.4 −47.0 37.1 −50.0 −142.9 129.4 −64.5 +3.5 159.5 −120.6 −20.0 −70.0 −43.7 −2.0 −39.0 85.0 0.0 +13.6 +10.0 +1.5 −12.9 29.0 72.0 −20.4 21.2 −17.5 −2.5 14.8 +8.5 27.0 81.3 75.6 +5.2 62.6 −8.0 34.8 104.0 73.2 61.0 145.0 190.0 178.3 33.3 103.5 35.4 26.2 225.0 −36.7 65.9 128.4 96.0 143.8 135.6 28.2 108.2 45.8 −32.0 47.0 32.1 44.5 45.0 58.0

168.2 31.9 −37.8 135.8 199.6 43.0 62.1 −9.4 +7.7 109.4 −10.4 −116.7 224.2 −15.0 66.2 240.5 −85.2 33.4 −21.2 +10.9 67.4 16.4 158.3 62.1 68.0 63.4 54.1 38.8 100.0 158.3 39.8 90.0 44.0 62.3 81.8 75.5 100.6 155.8 151.7 67.6 160.3 139.3 55.8 96.7 183.7 150.5 132.0 217.5 264.3 260.0 100.2 187.9 112.1 90.1 350.0 +7.6 147.7 224.5 162.6 239.8 227.6 99.6 195.7 119.8 25.7 122.6 103.8 116.6 119.6 119.8

181.2 39.8 −31.4 145.8 211.8 51.7 70.8 −2.0 15.9 119.8 −4.5 −112.8 238.7 −7.5 75.0 251.0 −78.8 40.3 −14.1 18.7 76.2 25.0 169.6 71.0 75.5 71.0 61.5 46.0 110.4 171.4 48.7 99.8 53.3 71.9 91.7 85.2 110.3 165.2 162.6 76.3 172.6 149.8 65.2 106.0 194.0 161.7 142.1 231.8 273.3 271.8 110.0 199.8 123.4 99.6 368.8 15.4 158.2 238.2 172.8 252.7 241.7 109.8 208.2 130.0 34.0 133.4 114.7 127.0 129.8 129.3

Melting point, °C 95 −123.5 81 113.5 16.7 −73 −94.6 −41 20.5 −112.0 −81.5 110.5 −87.7 14 152 −136 −129 −136.4 −80

−117.2 −11.9

93 22.5 −6.2 2.5 5.2 217.5 286 106.5 68 −16.1 −26 174 +5.5 14.5 95 121.7 42 132 −12.9 48.5 −21.2 −29.3 0 −0.5 33.5 −51.5 −15.3

*Compiled from the extended tables published by D. R. Stull in Ind. Eng. Chem., 39, 517 (1947). For information on fuels see Hibbard, N.A.C.A. Research Mem. E56I21, 1956. For methane see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960.

2-66

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-10

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued) Pressure, mmHg Compound Name

Benzylamine Benzyl bromide (α-bromotoluene) chloride (α-chlorotoluene) cinnamate Benzyldichlorosilane Benzyl ethyl ether phenyl ether isothiocyanate Biphenyl 1-Biphenyloxy-2,3-epoxypropane d-Bornyl acetate Bornyl n-butyrate formate isobutyrate propionate Brassidic acid Bromoacetic acid 4-Bromoanisole Bromobenzene 4-Bromobiphenyl 1-Bromo-2-butanol 1-Bromo-2-butanone cis-1-Bromo-1-butene trans-1-Bromo-1-butene 2-Bromo-1-butene cis-2-Bromo-2-butene trans-2-Bromo-2-butene 1,4-Bromochlorobenzene 1-Bromo-1-chloroethane 1-Bromo-2-chloroethane 2-Bromo-4,6-dichlorophenol 1-Bromo-4-ethyl benzene (2-Bromoethyl)-benzene 2-Bromoethyl 2-chloroethyl ether (2-Bromoethyl)-cyclohexane 1-Bromoethylene Bromoform (tribromomethane) 1-Bromonaphthalene 2-Bromo-4-phenylphenol 3-Bromopyridine 2-Bromotoluene 3-Bromotoluene 4-Bromotoluene 3-Bromo-2,4,6-trichlorophenol 2-Bromo-1,4-xylene 1,2-Butadiene (methyl allene) 1,3-Butadiene n-Butane iso-Butane (2-methylpropane) 1,3-Butanediol 1,2,3-Butanetriol 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene 3-Butenenitrile iso-Butyl acetate n-Butyl acrylate alcohol iso-Butyl alcohol sec-Butyl alcohol tert-Butyl alcohol iso-Butyl amine n-Butylbenzene iso-Butylbenzene sec-Butylbenzene tert-Butylbenzene iso-Butyl benzoate n-Butyl bromide (1-bromobutane) iso-Butyl n-butyrate carbamate Butyl carbitol (diethylene glycol butyl ether) n-Butyl chloride (1-chlorobutane) iso-Butyl chloride

1

5

10

20

29.0 32.2 22.0 173.8 45.3 26.0 95.4 79.5 70.6 135.3 46.9 74.0 47.0 70.0 64.6 209.6 54.7 48.8 +2.9 98.0 23.7 +6.2 −44.0 −38.4 −47.3 −39.0 −45.0 32.0 −36.0 −28.8 84.0 30.4 48.0 36.5 38.7 −95.4

70.0

54.8 59.6 47.8 206.3 70.2 52.0 127.7 107.8 101.8 169.9 75.7 103.4 74.8 99.8 93.7 241.7 81.6 77.8 27.8 133.7 45.4 30.0 −23.2 −17.0 −27.0 −17.9 −24.1 59.5 −18.0 −7.0 115.6 42.5 76.2 63.2 66.6 −77.8 22.0 117.5 135.4 42.0 49.7 50.8 47.5 146.2 65.0 −72.7 −87.6 −85.7 −94.1 67.5 132.0 −89.4 −81.1 −84.0 +2.9 +1.4 +23.5 +20.0 +11.6 +7.2 −3.0 −31.0 48.8 40.5 44.2 39.0 93.6 −11.2 30.0 83.7 95.7

67.7 73.4 60.8 221.5 83.2 65.0 144.0 121.8 117.0 187.2 90.2 118.0 89.3 114.0 108.0 256.0 94.1 91.9 40.0 150.6 55.8 41.8 −12.8 −6.4 −16.8 −7.2 −13.8 72.7 −9.4 +4.1 130.8 74.0 90.5 76.3 80.5 −68.8 34.0 133.6 152.3 55.2 62.3 64.0 61.1 163.2 78.8 −64.2 −79.7 −77.8 −86.4 85.3 146.0 −81.6 −73.4 −76.3 14.1 12.8 35.5 30.2 21.7 16.9 +5.5 −21.0 62.0 53.7 57.0 51.7 108.6 −0.3 42.2 96.4 107.8

81.8 88.3 75.0 239.3 96.7 79.6 160.7 137.0 134.2 205.8 106.0 133.8 104.0 130.0 123.7 272.9 108.2 107.8 53.8 169.8 67.2 54.2 −1.4 +5.4 −5.3 +4.6 −2.4 87.8 0.0 16.0 147.7 90.2 105.8 90.8 95.8 −58.8 48.0 150.2 171.8 69.1 76.0 78.1 75.2 181.8 94.0 −54.9 −71.0 −68.9 −77.9 100.0 161.0 −73.0 −64.6 −67.5 26.6 25.5 48.6 41.5 32.4 27.3 14.3 −10.3 76.3 67.8 70.6 65.6 124.2 +11.6 56.1 110.1 120.5

97.3 104.8 90.7 255.8 111.8 95.4 180.1 153.0 152.5 226.3 123.7 150.7 121.2 147.2 140.4 290.0 124.0 125.0 68.6 190.8 79.5 68.2 +11.5 18.4 +7.2 17.7 +10.5 103.8 +10.4 29.7 165.8 108.5 123.2 106.6 113.0 −48.1 63.6 170.2 193.8 84.1 91.0 93.9 91.8 200.5 110.6 −44.3 −61.3 −59.1 −68.4 117.4 178.0 −63.4 −54.7 −57.6 40.0 39.2 63.4 53.4 44.1 38.1 24.5 +1.3 92.4 83.3 86.2 80.8 141.8 24.8 71.7 125.3 135.5

C4H9Cl C4H9Cl

−49.0 −53.8

−28.9 −34.3

−18.6 −24.5

−7.4 −13.8

+5.0 −1.9

60

100

200

400

760

107.3 115.6 100.5 267.0 121.3 105.5 192.6 163.8 165.2 239.7 135.7 161.8 131.7 157.6 151.2 301.5 133.8 136.0 78.1 204.5 87.0 77.3 19.8 27.2 15.4 26.2 18.7 114.8 17.0 38.0 177.6 121.0 133.8 116.4 123.7 −41.2 73.4 183.5 207.0 94.1 100.0 104.1 102.3 213.0 121.6 −37.5 −55.1 −52.8 −62.4 127.5 188.0 −57.2 −48.4 −51.3 48.8 48.0 72.6 60.3 51.7 45.2 31.0 8.8 102.6 93.3 96.0 90.6 152.0 33.4 81.3 134.6 146.0

120.0 129.8 114.2 281.5 133.5 118.9 209.2 177.7 180.7 255.0 149.8 176.4 145.8 172.2 165.7 316.2 146.3 150.1 90.8 221.8 97.6 89.2 30.8 38.1 26.3 37.5 29.9 128.0 28.0 49.5 193.2 135.5 148.2 129.8 138.0 −31.9 85.9 198.8 224.5 107.8 112.0 117.8 116.4 229.3 135.7 −28.3 −46.8 −44.2 −54.1 141.2 202.5 −48.9 −39.8 −42.7 60.2 59.7 85.1 70.1 61.5 54.1 39.8 18.8 116.2 107.0 109.5 103.8 166.4 44.7 94.0 147.2 159.8

140.0 150.8 134.0 303.8 152.0 139.6 233.2 198.0 204.2 280.4 172.0 198.0 166.4 194.2 187.5 336.8 165.8 172.7 110.1 248.2 112.1 107.0 47.8 55.7 42.8 54.5 46.5 149.5 44.7 66.8 216.5 156.5 169.8 150.0 160.0 −17.2 106.1 224.2 251.0 127.7 133.6 138.0 137.4 253.0 156.4 −14.2 −33.9 −31.2 −41.5 161.0 222.0 −36.2 −26.8 −29.7 78.0 77.6 104.0 84.3 75.9 67.9 52.7 32.0 136.9 127.2 128.8 123.7 188.2 62.0 113.9 165.7 181.2

161.3 175.2 155.8 326.7 173.0 161.5 259.8 220.4 229.4 309.8 197.5 222.2 190.2 218.2 211.2 359.6 186.7 197.5 132.3 277.7 128.3 126.3 66.8 75.0 61.9 74.0 66.0 172.6 63.4 86.0 242.0 182.0 194.0 172.3 186.2 −1.1 127.9 252.0 280.2 150.0 157.3 160.0 160.2 278.0 181.0 +1.8 −19.3 −16.3 −27.1 183.8 243.5 −21.7 −12.0 −14.8 98.0 97.5 125.2 100.8 91.4 83.9 68.0 50.7 159.2 149.6 150.3 145.8 212.8 81.7 135.7 186.0 205.0

184.5 198.5 179.4 350.0 194.3 185.0 287.0 243.0 254.9 340.0 223.0 247.0 214.0 243.0 235.0 382.5 208.0 223.0 156.2 310.0 145.0 147.0 86.2 94.7 81.0 93.9 85.5 196.9 82.7 106.7 268.0 206.0 219.0 195.8 213.0 +15.8 150.5 281.1 311.0 173.4 181.8 183.7 184.5 305.8 206.7 18.5 −4.5 −0.5 −11.7 206.5 264.0 −6.3 +3.7 +0.9 119.0 118.0 147.4 117.5 108.0 99.5 82.9 68.6 183.1 172.8 173.5 168.5 237.0 101.6 156.9 206.5 231.2

13.0 +5.9

24.0 16.0

40.0 32.0

58.8 50.0

77.8 68.9

Temperature, °C

Formula C7H9N C7H7Br C7H7Cl C16H14O2 C7H8Cl2Si C9H12O C13H12O C8H7NS C12H10 C15H14O2 C12H20O2 C14H24O2 C11H18O2 C14H24O2 C13H22O2 C22H42O2 C2H3BrO2 C7H7BrO C6H5Br C12H9Br C4H9BrO C4H7BrO C4H7Br C4H7Br C4H7Br C4H7Br C4H7Br C6H4BrCl C2H4BrCl C2H4BrCl C6H3BrCl2O C8H9Br C8H9Br C4H8BrClO C8H15Br C2H3Br CHBr3 C10H7Br C12H9BrO C5H4BrN C7H7Br C7H7Br C7H7Br C6H2BrCl3O C8H9Br C4H6 C4H6 C4H10 C4H10 C4H10O2 C4H10O3 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C4H5N C6H12O2 C7H12O2 C4H10O C4H10O C4H10O C4H10O C4H11N C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C11H14O2 C4H9Br C8H16O2 C5H11NO2 C8H18O3

40

84.2 100.0 16.8 24.4 14.8 10.3 112.4 37.5 −89.0 −102.8 −101.5 −109.2 22.2 102.0 −104.8 −96.4 −99.4 −19.6 −21.2 −0.5 −1.2 −9.0 −12.2 −20.4 −50.0 22.7 14.1 18.6 13.0 64.0 −33.0 +4.6

Melting point, °C −4 −39 39

69.5 29

61.5 49.5 12.5 −30.7 90.5

−100.3 −133.4 −111.2 −114.6 16.6 −16.6 68 −45.0

−138 8.5 5.5 95 −28 39.8 28.5 +9.5 −108.9 −135 −145 77 −130 −138.9 −105.4 −98.9 −64.6 −79.9 −108 −114.7 25.3 −85.0 −88.0 −51.5 −75.5 −58 −112.4 65 −123.1 −131.2

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES TABLE 2-10

2-67

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued) Pressure, mmHg Compound Name

Formula

sec-Butyl chloride (2-Chlorobutane) tert-Butyl chloride sec-Butyl chloroacetate 2-tert-Butyl-4-cresol 4-tert-Butyl-2-cresol iso-Butyl dichloroacetate 2,3-Butylene glycol (2,3-butanediol) 2-Butyl-2-ethylbutane-1,3-diol 2-tert-Butyl-4-ethylphenol n-Butyl formate iso-Butyl formate sec-Butyl formate sec-Butyl glycolate iso-Butyl iodide (1-iodo-2-methylpropane) isobutyrate isovalerate levulinate naphthylketone (1-isovaleronaphthone) 2-sec-Butylphenol 2-tert-Butylphenol 4-iso-Butylphenol 4-sec-Butylphenol 4-tert-Butylphenol 2-(4-tert-Butylphenoxy)ethyl acetate 4-tert-Butylphenyl dichlorophosphate

C4H9Cl C4H9Cl C6H11ClO2 C11H16O C11H16O C6H10Cl2O2 C4H10O2 C10H22O2 C12H15O C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C6H12O3 C4H9I C8H16O2 C9H18O2 C9H16O3 C15H16O C10H14O C10H14O C10H14O C10H14O C10H14O C14H20O3 C10H13Cl2 O2P C11H14O C7H14O2 C12H18O C12H18O C12H18O C12H18O C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C4H7N C11H14O C10H16 C10H16O2 C10H16O C10H19N C10H20O C10H20O2 C6H12O2 C6H12O2 C6H10O2 C6H11N C8H18O C8H16O C8H16O2 C8H15N C12H9N CO2 CS2 CO COSe COS CBr4 CCl4 CF4 C10H14O C10H14O C10H12O2 C2HCl3O C2H3Cl3O2

tert-Butyl phenyl ketone (pivalophenone) iso-Butyl propionate 4-tert-Butyl-2,5-xylenol 4-tert-Butyl-2,6-xylenol 6-tert-Butyl-2,4-xylenol 6-tert-Butyl-3,4-xylenol Butyric acid iso-Butyric acid Butyronitrile iso-Valerophenone Camphene Campholenic acid d-Camphor Camphylamine Capraldehyde Capric acid n-Caproic acid iso-Caproic acid iso-Caprolactone Capronitrile Capryl alcohol (2-octanol) Caprylaldehyde Caprylic acid (octanoic acid) Caprylonitrile Carbazole Carbon dioxide disulfide monoxide oxyselenide (carbonyl selenide) oxysulfide (carbonyl sulfide) tetrabromide tetrachloride tetrafluoride Carvacrol Carvone Chavibetol Chloral (trichloroacetaldehyde) hydrate (trichloroacetaldehyde hydrate) Chloranil Chloroacetic acid anhydride 2-Chloroaniline 3-Chloroaniline 4-Chloroaniline Chlorobenzene 2-Chlorobenzotrichloride (2-α,α,α-tetrachlorotoluene)

C6Cl4O2 C2H3ClO2 C4H4Cl2O3 C6H6ClN C6H6ClN C6H6ClN C6H5Cl C7H4Cl4

1

5

10

20

−60.2

−39.8

−29.2

−17.7

17.0 70.0 74.3 28.6 44.0 94.1 76.3 −26.4 −32.7 −34.4 28.3 −17.0 +4.1 16.0 65.0 136.0 57.4 56.6 72.1 71.4 70.0 118.0 96.0

41.8 98.0 103.7 54.3 68.4 122.6 106.2 −4.7 −11.4 −13.3 53.6 +5.8 28.0 41.2 92.1 167.9 86.0 84.2 100.9 100.5 99.2 150.0 129.6

54.6 112.0 118.0 67.5 80.3 136.8 121.0 +6.1 −0.8 −3.1 66.0 17.0 39.9 53.8 105.9 184.0 100.8 98.1 115.5 114.8 114.0 165.8 146.0

57.8 −2.3 88.2 74.0 70.3 83.9 25.5 14.7 −20.0 58.3

85.7 +20.9 119.8 103.9 100.2 113.6 49.8 39.3 +2.1 87.0

97.6 41.5 45.3 51.9 125.0 71.4 66.2 38.3 9.2 32.8 73.4 92.3 43.0

40

60

100

200

400

760

31.5 +14.6 124.1 187.8 197.8 139.2 145.6 212.0 200.3 67.9 60.0 56.8 135.5 81.0 106.3 124.8 181.8 269.7 179.7 173.8 192.1 194.3 191.5 250.3 240.0

50.0 32.6 146.0 210.0 221.8 160.0 164.0 233.5 223.8 86.2 79.0 75.2 155.6 100.3 126.3 146.4 205.5 294.0 203.8 196.3 214.7 217.6 214.0 277.6 268.2

68.0 51.0 167.8 232.6 247.0 183.0 182.0 255.0 247.8 106.0 98.2 93.6 177.5 120.4 147.5 168.7 229.9 320.0 228.0 219.5 237.0 242.1 238.0 304.4 299.0

Temperature, °C

Melting point, °C

68.2 127.2 134.0 81.4 93.4 151.2 137.0 18.0 +11.0 +8.4 79.8 29.8 52.4 67.7 120.2 201.6 116.1 113.0 130.3 130.3 129.5 183.3 164.0

−5.0 −19.0 83.6 143.9 150.8 96.7 107.8 167.8 154.0 31.6 24.1 21.3 94.2 42.8 67.2 82.7 136.2 219.7 133.4 129.2 147.2 147.8 146.0 201.5 184.3

+3.4 −11.4 93.0 153.7 161.7 106.6 116.3 178.0 165.4 39.8 32.4 29.6 104.0 51.8 75.9 92.4 147.0 231.5 143.9 140.0 157.0 157.9 156.0 212.8 197.2

14.2 −1.0 105.5 167.0 176.2 119.8 127.8 191.9 179.0 51.0 43.4 40.2 116.4 63.5 88.0 105.2 160.2 246.7 157.3 153.5 171.2 172.4 170.2 228.0 214.3

125.7 68.6 74.0 78.8 142.0 89.5 83.0 66.4 34.6 57.6 92.0 114.1 67.6

99.0 32.3 135.0 119.0 115.0 127.0 61.5 51.2 13.4 101.4 47.2 139.8 82.3 83.7 92.0 152.2 99.5 94.0 80.3 47.5 70.0 101.2 124.0 80.4

114.3 44.8 151.0 135.0 131.0 143.0 74.0 64.0 25.7 116.8 60.4 153.9 97.5 97.6 106.3 165.0 111.8 107.0 95.7 61.7 83.3 110.2 136.4 94.6

130.4 58.5 169.8 152.2 148.5 159.7 88.0 77.8 38.4 133.8 75.7 170.0 114.0 112.5 122.2 179.9 125.0 120.4 112.3 76.9 98.0 120.0 150.6 110.6

−134.3 −73.8 −222.0 −117.1 −132.4

−124.4 −54.3 −217.2 −102.3 −119.8

−119.5 −44.7 −215.0 −95.0 −113.3

−114.4 −34.3 −212.8 −86.3 −106.0

−50.0 −184.6 70.0 57.4 83.6 −37.8 −9.8

−30.0 −174.1 98.4 86.1 113.3 −16.0 +10.0

−19.6 −169.3 113.2 100.4 127.0 −5.0 19.5

−8.2 −164.3 127.9 116.1 143.2 +7.2 29.2

−108.6 −22.5 −210.0 −76.4 −98.3 96.3 +4.3 −158.8 145.2 133.0 159.8 20.2 39.7

140.8 67.6 180.3 163.6 158.2 170.0 96.5 86.3 47.3 144.6 85.0 180.0 124.0 122.0 132.0 189.8 133.3 129.6 123.2 86.8 107.4 126.0 160.0 121.2 248.2 −104.8 −15.3 −208.1 −70.2 −93.0 106.3 12.3 −155.4 155.3 143.8 170.7 29.1 46.2

154.0 79.5 195.0 176.0 172.0 184.0 108.0 98.0 59.0 158.0 97.9 193.7 138.0 134.6 145.3 200.0 144.0 141.4 137.2 99.8 119.8 133.9 172.2 134.8 265.0 −100.2 −5.1 −205.7 −61.7 −85.9 119.7 23.0 −150.7 169.7 157.3 185.5 40.2 55.0

70.7 43.0 67.2 46.3 63.5 59.3 −13.0

89.3 68.3 94.1 72.3 89.8 87.9 +10.6

97.8 81.0 108.0 84.8 102.0 102.1 22.2

106.4 94.2 122.4 99.2 116.7 117.8 35.3

116.1 109.2 138.2 115.6 133.6 135.0 49.7

122.0 118.3 148.0 125.7 144.1 145.8 58.3

129.5 130.7 159.8 139.5 158.0 159.9 70.7

140.3 149.0 177.8 160.0 179.5 182.3 89.4

151.3 169.0 197.0 183.7 203.5 206.6 110.0

162.6 189.5 217.0 208.8 228.5 230.5 132.2

290 61.2 46 0 −10.4 70.5 −45.2

69.0

101.8

117.9

135.8

155.0

167.8

185.0

208.0

233.0

262.1

28.7

175.0 197.7 220.0 97.0 116.4 136.8 217.5 241.3 265.3 196.0 217.8 239.8 192.3 214.2 236.5 204.5 226.7 249.5 125.5 144.5 163.5 115.8 134.5 154.5 76.7 96.8 117.5 180.1 204.2 228.0 117.5 138.7 160.5 212.7 234.0 256.0 157.9 182.0 209.2 153.0 173.8 195.0 164.8 186.3 208.5 217.1 240.3 268.4 160.8 181.0 202.0 158.3 181.0 207.7 157.8 182.1 207.0 119.7 141.0 163.7 138.0 157.5 178.5 145.4 156.5 168.5 190.3 213.9 237.5 155.2 179.5 204.5 292.5 323.0 354.8 −93.0 −85.7 −78.2 +10.4 28.0 46.5 −201.3 −196.3 −191.3 −49.8 −35.6 −21.9 −75.0 −62.7 −49.9 139.7 163.5 189.5 38.3 57.8 76.7 −143.6 −135.5 −127.7 191.2 213.8 237.0 179.6 203.5 227.5 206.8 229.8 254.0 57.8 77.5 97.7 68.0 82.1 96.2

−131.3 −26.5

22.5

−95.3 −90.7 −80.7

99

−71

−74 −47 50 178.5 31.5 −1.5 −35 −38.6 16 244.8 −57.5 −110.8 −205.0 −138.8 90.1 −22.6 −183.7 +0.5 −57 51.7

2-68

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-10

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued) Pressure, mmHg Compound Name

2-Chlorobenzotrifluoride (2-chloro-α,α,α-trifluorotoluene) 2-Chlorobiphenyl 4-Chlorobiphenyl α-Chlorocrotonic acid Chlorodifluoromethane Chlorodimethylphenylsilane 1-Chloro-2-ethoxybenzene 2-(2-Chloroethoxy) ethanol bis-2-Chloroethyl acetacetal 1-Chloro-2-ethylbenzene 1-Chloro-3-ethylbenzene 1-Chloro-4-ethylbenzene 2-Chloroethyl chloroacetate 2-Chloroethyl 2-chloroisopropyl ether 2-Chloroethyl 2-chloropropyl ether 2-Chloroethyl α-methylbenzyl ether Chloroform (trichloromethane) 1-Chloronaphthalene 4-Chlorophenethyl alcohol 2-Chlorophenol 3-Chlorophenol 4-Chlorophenol 2-Chloro-3-phenylphenol 2-Chloro-6-phenylphenol Chloropicrin (trichloronitromethane) 1-Chloropropene 2-Chloropyridine 3-Chlorostyrene 4-Chlorostyrene 1-Chlorotetradecane 2-Chlorotoluene 3-Chlorotoluene 4-Chlorotoluene Chlorotriethylsilane 1-Chloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethylene Chlorotrifluoromethane Chlorotrimethylsilane trans-Cinnamic acid Cinnamyl alcohol Cinnamylaldehyde Citraconic anhydride cis-α-Citral d-Citronellal Citronellic acid Citronellol Citronellyl acetate Coumarin o-Cresol (2-cresol; 2-methylphenol) m-Cresol (3-cresol; 3-methylphenol) p-Cresol (4-cresol; 4-methylphenol) cis-Crotonic acid trans-Crotonic acid cis-Crotononitrile trans-Crotononitrile Cumene 4-Cumidene Cuminal Cuminyl alcohol 2-Cyano-2-n-butyl acetate Cyanogen bromide chloride iodide Cyclobutane Cyclobutene Cyclohexane Cyclohexaneethanol Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanone 2-Cyclohexyl-4,6-dinitrophenol Cyclopentane Cyclopropane Cymene

1

5

10

20

60

100

200

400

760

88.3 197.0 212.5 155.9 −76.4 124.7 141.8 139.5 150.7 110.0 113.6 116.0 140.0 115.8 125.6 164.8 10.4 180.4 188.1 106.0 143.0 150.0 237.0 237.1 53.8 −15.1 104.6 121.2 122.0 215.5 94.7 96.3 96.6 82.3 −66.7 −111.7 +6.0 232.4 177.8 177.7 145.4 160.0 140.1 195.4 159.8 161.0 216.5 127.4 138.0 140.0 116.3 128.0 50.1 62.8 88.1 158.0 160.0 176.2 133.8 −51.8 22.6 −24.9 97.6 −32.8 −41.2 25.5 142.7 103.7 90.4 229.0 −1.3 −70.0 110.8

108.3 219.6 237.8 173.8 −65.8 145.5 162.0 157.2 169.8 130.2 133.8 137.0 159.8 135.7 146.3 186.3 25.9 204.2 210.0 126.4 164.8 172.0 261.3 261.6 71.8 +1.3 125.0 142.2 143.5 240.3 115.0 116.6 117.1 101.6 −55.0 −102.5 21.9 253.3 199.8 199.3 165.8 181.8 160.0 214.5 179.8 178.8 240.0 146.7 157.3 157.3 133.9 146.0 68.0 81.1 107.3 180.0 182.8 197.9 152.2 −42.6 33.8 −14.1 111.5 −18.9 −27.8 42.0 161.7 121.7 110.3 248.7 +13.8 −59.1 131.4

130.0 243.8 264.5 193.2 −53.6 168.6 185.5 176.5 190.5 152.2 156.7 159.8 182.2 156.5 169.8 210.8 42.7 230.8 234.5 149.8 188.7 196.0 289.4 289.5 91.8 18.0 147.7 165.7 166.0 267.5 137.1 139.7 139.8 123.6 −41.7 −92.7 39.4 276.7 224.6 222.4 189.8 205.0 183.8 236.6 201.0 197.8 264.7 168.4 179.0 179.4 152.2 165.5 88.0 101.5 129.2 203.2 206.7 221.7 173.4 −33.0 46.0 −2.3 126.1 −3.4 −12.2 60.8 183.5 141.4 132.5 269.8 31.0 −46.9 153.5

152.2 267.5 292.9 212.0 −40.8 193.5 208.0 196.0 212.6 177.6 181.1 184.3 205.0 180.0 194.1 235.0 61.3 259.3 259.3 174.5 214.0 220.0 317.5 317.0 111.9 37.0 170.2 190.0 191.0 296.0 159.3 162.3 162.3 146.3 −27.9 −81.2 57.9 300.0 250.0 246.0 213.5 228.0 206.5 257.0 221.5 217.0 291.0 190.8 202.8 201.8 171.9 185.0 108.0 122.8 152.4 227.0 232.0 246.6 195.2 −21.0 61.5 +13.1 141.1 +12.9 +2.4 80.7 205.4 161.0 155.6 291.5 49.3 −33.5 177.2

Temperature, °C

Formula C7H4ClF3 C12H9Cl C12H9Cl C4H5ClO2 CHClF2 C8H11ClSi C8H9ClO C4H9ClO2 C6H12Cl2O2 C8H9Cl C8H9Cl C8H9Cl C4H6Cl2O2 C5H10Cl2O C5H10Cl2O C10H13ClO CHCl3 C10H7Cl C8H9ClO C6H5ClO C6H5ClO C6H5ClO C12H9ClO C12H9ClO CCl3NO2 C3H5Cl C5H4ClN C8H7Cl C8H7Cl C14H29Cl C7H7Cl C7H7Cl C7H7Cl C6H15ClSi C2ClF3 CClF3 C3H9ClSi C9H8O2 C9H10O C9H8O C5H4O3 C10H16O C10H18O C10H18O2 C10H20O C12H22O2 C9H6O2 C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O C4H6O2 C4H6O2 C4H5N C4H5N C9H12 C9H13N C10H12O C10H14O C7H11NO2 C2N2 CBrN CClN CIN C4H8 C4H6 C6H12 C8H16O C6H12O C6H10O C12H14N2O5 C5H10 C3H6 C10H14

40

0.0 89.3 96.4 70.0 −122.8 29.8 45.8 53.0 56.2 17.2 18.6 19.2 46.0 24.7 29.8 62.3 −58.0 80.6 84.0 12.1 44.2 49.8 118.0 119.8 −25.5 −81.3 13.3 25.3 28.0 98.5 +5.4 +4.8 +5.5 −4.9 −116.0 −149.5 −62.8 127.5 72.6 76.1 47.1 61.7 44.0 99.5 66.4 74.7 106.0 38.2 52.0 53.0 33.5

24.7 109.8 129.8 95.6 −110.2 56.7 72.8 78.3 83.7 43.0 45.2 46.4 72.1 50.1 56.5 91.4 −39.1 104.8 114.3 38.2 72.0 78.2 152.2 153.7 −3.3 −63.4 38.8 51.3 54.5 131.8 30.6 30.3 31.0 +19.8 −102.5 −139.2 −43.6 157.8 102.5 105.8 74.8 90.0 71.4 127.3 93.6 100.2 137.8 64.0 76.0 76.5 57.4

−29.0 −19.5 +2.9 60.0 58.0 74.2 42.0 −95.8 −35.7 −76.7 25.2 −92.0 −99.1 −45.3 50.4 21.0 +1.4 132.8 −68.0 −116.8 17.3

−7.1 +3.5 26.8 88.2 87.3 103.7 68.7 −83.2 −18.3 −61.4 47.2 −76.0 −83.4 −25.4 77.2 44.0 26.4 161.8 −49.6 −104.2 43.9

37.1 134.7 146.0 108.0 −103.7 70.0 86.5 90.7 97.6 56.1 58.1 60.0 86.0 63.0 70.0 106.0 −29.7 118.6 129.0 51.2 86.1 92.2 169.7 170.7 +7.8 −54.1 51.7 65.2 67.5 148.2 43.2 43.2 43.8 32.0 −95.9 −134.1 −34.0 173.0 117.8 120.0 88.9 103.9 84.8 141.4 107.0 113.0 153.4 76.7 87.8 88.6 69.0 80.0 +4.0 15.0 38.3 102.2 102.0 118.0 82.0 −76.8 −10.0 −53.8 57.7 −67.9 −75.4 −15.9 90.0 56.0 38.7 175.9 −40.4 −97.5 57.0

50.6 151.2 164.0 121.2 −96.5 84.7 101.5 104.1 112.2 70.3 73.0 75.5 100.0 77.2 84.8 121.8 −19.0 134.4 145.0 65.9 101.7 108.1 186.7 189.8 20.0 −44.0 65.8 80.0 82.0 166.2 56.9 57.4 57.8 45.5 −88.2 −128.5 −23.2 189.5 133.7 135.7 103.8 119.4 99.8 155.6 121.5 126.0 170.0 90.5 101.4 102.3 82.0 93.0 16.4 27.8 51.5 117.8 117.9 133.8 96.2 −70.1 −1.0 −46.1 68.6 −58.7 −66.6 −5.0 104.0 68.8 52.5 191.2 −30.1 −90.3 71.1

65.9 169.9 183.8 135.6 −88.6 101.2 117.8 118.4 127.8 86.2 89.2 91.8 116.0 92.4 101.5 139.6 −7.1 153.2 162.0 82.0 118.0 125.0 207.4 208.2 33.8 −32.7 81.7 96.5 98.0 187.0 72.0 73.0 73.5 60.2 −79.7 −121.9 −11.4 207.1 151.0 152.2 120.3 135.9 116.1 171.9 137.2 140.5 189.0 105.8 116.0 117.7 96.0 107.8 30.0 41.8 66.1 134.2 135.2 150.3 111.8 −62.7 +8.6 −37.5 80.3 −48.4 −56.4 +6.7 119.8 83.0 67.8 206.7 −18.6 −82.3 87.0

75.4 182.1 196.0 144.4 −83.4 111.5 127.8 127.5 138.0 96.4 99.6 102.0 126.2 102.2 111.8 150.0 +0.5 165.6 173.5 92.0 129.4 136.1 219.6 220.0 42.3 −25.1 91.6 107.2 108.5 199.8 81.8 83.2 83.3 69.5 −74.1 −117.3 −4.0 217.8 162.0 163.7 131.3 146.3 126.2 182.1 147.2 149.7 200.5 115.5 125.8 127.0 104.5 116.7 38.5 50.9 75.4 145.0 146.0 161.7 121.5 −57.9 14.7 −32.1 88.0 −41.8 −50.0 14.7 129.8 91.8 77.5 216.0 −11.3 −77.0 97.2

Melting point, °C −6.0 34 75.5 −160

−80.2 −53.3 −62.6

−63.5 −20 7 32.5 42 +6 −64 −99.0 −15.0 +0.9 +7.3 −157.5 133 33 −7.5

70 30.8 10.9 35.5 15.5 72 −96.0

−34.4 58 −6.5 −50 +6.6 23.9 −45.0 −93.7 −126.6 −68.2

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES TABLE 2-10

2-69

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued) Pressure, mmHg Compound Name

cis-Decalin trans-Decalin Decane Decan-2-one 1-Decene Decyl alcohol Decyltrimethylsilane Dehydroacetic acid Desoxybenzoin Diacetamide Diacetylene (1,3-butadiyne) Diallyldichlorosilane Diallyl sulfide Diisoamyl ether oxalate sulfide Dibenzylamine Dibenzyl ketone (1,3-diphenyl2-propanone) 1,4-Dibromobenzene 1,2-Dibromobutane dl-2,3-Dibromobutane meso-2,3-Dibromobutane 1,2-Dibromodecane Di(2-bromoethyl) ether α,β-Dibromomaleic anhydride 1,2-Dibromo-2-methylpropane 1,3-Dibromo-2-methylpropane 1,2-Dibromopentane 1,2-Dibromopropane 1,3-Dibromopropane 2,3-Dibromopropene 2,3-Dibromo-1-propanol Diisobutylamine 2,6-Ditert-butyl-4-cresol 4,6-Ditert-butyl-2-cresol 4,6-Ditert-butyl-3-cresol 2,6-Ditert-butyl-4-ethylphenol 4,6-Ditert-butyl-3-ethylphenol Diisobutyl oxalate 2,4-Ditert-butylphenol Dibutyl phthalate sulfide Diisobutyl d-tartrate Dicarvacryl-mono-(6-chloro-2-xenyl) phosphate Dicarvacryl-2-tolyl phosphate Dichloroacetic acid 1,2-Dichlorobenzene 1,3-Dichlorobenzene 1,4-Dichlorobenzene 1,2-Dichlorobutane 2,3-Dichlorobutane 1,2-Dichloro-1,2-difluoroethylene Dichlorodifluoromethane Dichlorodiphenyl silane Dichlorodiisopropyl ether Di(2-chloroethoxy) methane Dichloroethoxymethylsilane 1,2-Dichloro-3-ethylbenzene 1,2-Dichloro-4-ethylbenzene 1,4-Dichloro-2-ethylbenzene cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene trans-1,2-Dichloro ethylene Di(2-chloroethyl) ether Dichlorofluoromethane 1,5-Dichlorohexamethyltrisiloxane Dichloromethylphenylsilane 1,1-Dichloro-2-methylpropane 1,2-Dichloro-2-methylpropane 1,3-Dichloro-2-methylpropane 2,4-Dichlorophenol 2,6-Dichlorophenol

1

5

10

20

22.5 −0.8 16.5 44.2 14.7 69.5 67.4 91.7 123.3 70.0 −82.5 +9.5 −9.5 18.6 85.4 43.0 118.3 125.5

50.1 +30.6 42.3 71.9 40.3 97.3 96.4 122.0 156.2 95.0 −68.0 34.8 +14.4 44.3 116.0 73.0 149.8 159.8

64.2 47.2 55.7 85.8 53.7 111.3 111.0 137.3 173.5 108.0 −61.2 47.4 26.6 57.0 131.4 87.6 165.6 177.6

79.8 65.3 69.8 100.7 67.8 125.8 126.5 153.0 192.0 122.6 −53.8 61.3 39.7 70.7 147.7 102.7 182.2 195.7

97.2 85.7 85.5 117.1 83.3 142.1 144.0 171.0 212.0 138.2 −45.9 76.4 54.2 86.3 165.7 120.0 200.2 216.6

C6H4Br2 61.0 C4H8Br2 7.5 C4H8Br2 +5.0 C4H8Br2 +1.5 C10H20Br2 95.7 C4H8Br2O 47.7 C4H2Br2O3 50.0 C4H8Br2 −28.8 C4H8Br2 14.0 C5H10Br2 19.8 C3H6Br2 −7.0 C3H6Br2 +9.7 C3H4Br2 −6.0 C3H6Br2O 57.0 C8H19N −5.1 C15H24O 85.8 C15H24O 86.2 C15H24O 103.7 C16H26O 89.1 C16H26O 111.5 C10H18O4 63.2 C14H22O 84.5 C16H22O4 148.2 C8H18S +21.7 C12H22O6 117.8 C32H34ClO4P 204.2

79.3 33.2 30.0 26.6 123.6 75.3 78.0 −3.0 40.0 45.4 +17.3 35.4 +17.9 84.5 +18.4 116.2 117.3 135.2 121.4 142.6 91.2 115.4 182.1 51.8 151.8 234.5

87.7 46.1 41.6 39.3 137.3 88.5 92.0 +10.5 53.0 58.0 29.4 48.0 30.0 98.2 30.6 131.0 132.4 150.0 137.0 157.4 105.3 130.0 198.2 66.4 169.0 249.3

103.6 60.0 56.4 53.2 151.0 103.6 106.7 25.7 67.5 72.0 42.3 62.1 43.2 113.5 43.7 147.0 149.0 167.0 154.0 174.0 120.3 146.0 216.2 80.5 188.0 264.5

C27H33O4P 180.2 C2H2Cl2O2 44.0 C6H4Cl2 20.0 C6H4Cl2 12.1 C6H4Cl2 C4H8Cl2 −23.6 C4H8Cl2 −25.2 C2Cl2F2 −82.0 CCl2F2 −118.5 C12H10Cl2Si 109.6 C6H12Cl2O 29.6 C5H10Cl2O2 53.0 C8H8Cl2OSi −33.8 C8H8Cl2 46.0 C8H8Cl2 47.0 C8H8Cl2 38.5 C2H2Cl2 −58.4 C2H2Cl2 −65.4 C4H8Cl2O 23.5 CHCl2F −91.3 C6H18Cl2 26.0 O2Si3 C7H8Cl2Si 35.7 C4H8Cl2 −31.0 C4H8Cl2 −25.8 C4H8Cl2 −3.0 53.0 C6H4Cl2O C6H4Cl2O 59.5

209.3 69.8 46.0 39.0 −0.3 −3.0 −65.6 −104.6 142.4 55.2 80.4 −12.1 75.0 77.2 68.0 −39.2 −47.2 49.3 −75.5 52.0

221.8 82.6 59.1 52.0 54.8 +11.5 +8.5 −57.3 −97.8 158.0 68.2 94.0 −1.3 90.0 92.3 83.2 −29.9 −38.0 62.0 −67.5 65.1

63.5 −8.4 −4.2 +20.6 80.0 87.6

77.4 +2.6 +6.7 32.0 92.8 101.0

60

Melting point, °C

100

200

400

760

108.0 98.4 95.5 127.8 93.5 152.0 154.3 181.5 224.5 148.0 −41.0 86.3 63.7 96.0 177.0 130.6 212.2 229.4

123.2 114.6 108.6 142.0 106.5 165.8 169.5 197.5 241.3 160.6 −34.0 99.7 75.8 109.6 192.2 145.3 227.3 246.6

145.4 136.2 128.4 163.2 126.7 186.2 191.0 219.5 265.2 180.8 −20.9 119.4 94.8 129.0 215.0 166.4 249.8 272.3

169.9 160.1 150.6 186.7 149.2 208.8 215.5 244.5 293.0 202.0 −6.1 142.0 116.1 150.3 240.0 191.0 274.3 301.7

194.6 186.7 174.1 211.0 172.0 231.0 240.0 269.0 321.0 223.0 +9.7 165.3 138.6 173.4 265.0 216.0 300.0 330.5

−43.3 −30.7 −29.7 +3.5

120.8 76.0 72.0 68.0 167.4 119.8 123.5 42.3 83.5 87.4 57.2 77.8 57.8 129.8 57.8 164.1 167.4 185.3 172.1 192.3 137.5 164.3 235.8 96.0 208.5 280.5

131.6 86.0 82.0 78.0 177.5 130.0 133.8 53.7 93.7 97.4 66.4 87.8 67.0 140.0 67.0 175.2 179.0 196.1 183.9 204.4 147.8 175.8 247.8 105.8 221.6 290.7

146.5 99.8 95.3 91.7 190.2 144.0 147.7 68.8 107.4 110.1 78.7 101.3 79.5 153.0 79.2 190.0 194.0 211.0 198.0 218.0 161.8 190.0 263.7 118.6 239.5 304.9

168.5 120.2 115.7 111.8 209.6 165.0 168.0 92.1 117.8 130.2 97.8 121.7 98.0 173.8 97.6 212.8 217.5 233.0 220.0 241.7 183.5 212.5 287.0 138.0 264.7 323.8

192.5 143.5 138.0 134.2 229.8 188.0 192.0 119.8 150.6 151.8 118.5 144.1 119.5 196.0 118.0 237.6 243.4 257.1 244.0 264.6 205.8 237.0 313.5 159.0 294.0 342.0

218.6 166.3 160.5 157.3 250.4 212.5 215.0 149.0 174.6 175.0 141.6 167.5 141.2 219.0 139.5 262.5 269.3 282.0 268.6 290.0 229.5 260.8 340.0 182.0 324.0 361.0

87.5 −64.5

237.0 96.3 73.4 66.2 69.2 24.5 21.2 −48.3 −90.1 176.0 82.2 109.5 +11.3 105.9 109.6 99.8 −19.4 −28.0 76.0 −58.6 79.0

251.5 111.8 89.4 82.0 84.8 37.7 35.0 −38.2 −81.6 195.5 97.3 125.5 24.4 123.8 127.5 118.0 −7.9 −17.0 91.5 −48.8 94.8

260.3 121.5 99.5 92.2 95.2 47.8 43.9 −31.8 −76.1 207.5 106.9 135.8 32.6 135.0 139.0 129.0 −0.5 −10.0 101.5 −42.6 105.0

272.5 134.0 112.9 105.0 108.4 60.2 56.0 −23.0 −68.6 223.8 119.7 149.6 44.1 149.8 153.3 144.0 +9.5 −0.2 114.5 −33.9 118.2

290.0 152.3 133.4 125.9 128.3 79.7 74.0 −10.0 −57.0 248.0 139.0 170.0 61.0 172.0 176.0 166.2 24.6 +14.3 134.0 −20.9 138.3

309.8 173.7 155.8 149.0 150.2 100.8 94.2 +5.0 −43.9 275.5 159.8 192.0 80.3 197.0 201.7 191.5 41.0 30.8 155.4 −6.2 160.2

330.0 194.4 179.0 173.0 173.9 123.5 116.0 20.9 −29.8 304.0 182.7 215.0 100.6 222.1 226.6 216.3 59.0 47.8 178.5 +8.9 184.0

92.4 14.6 18.7 44.8 107.7 115.5

109.5 28.2 32.0 58.6 123.4 131.6

120.0 37.0 40.2 67.5 133.5 141.8

134.2 48.2 51.7 78.8 146.0 154.6

155.5 65.8 68.9 96.1 165.2 175.5

180.2 85.4 87.8 115.4 187.5 197.7

205.5 106.0 108.0 135.0 210.0 220.0

Temperature, °C

Formula C10H18 C10H18 C10H22 C10H20O C10H20 C10H22O C13H30Si C8H8O4 C14H12O C4H7NO2 C4H2 C6H10Cl2Si C6H10S C10H22O C12H22O4 C10H22S C14H15N C15H14O

40

+7 60 78.5 −34.9 −83

−26 34.5

−34.5

−70.3 −55.5 −34.4 −70

−79.7 73.5

9.7 −17.6 −24.2 53.0 −80.4 −112

−40.8 −76.4 −61.2 −80.5 −50.0 −135 −53.0

45.0

2-70

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-10

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued) Pressure, mmHg Compound Name

α,α-Dichlorophenylacetonitrile Dichlorophenylarsine 1,2-Dichloropropane 2,3-Dichlorostyrene 2,4-Dichlorostyrene 2,5-Dichlorostyrene 2,6-Dichlorostyrene 3,4-Dichlorostyrene 3,5-Dichlorostyrene 1,2-Dichlorotetraethylbenzene 1,4-Dichlorotetraethylbenzene 1,2-Dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane Dichloro-4-tolylsilane 3,4-Dichloro-α,α,α-trifluorotoluene Dicyclopentadiene Diethoxydimethylsilane Diethoxydiphenylsilane Diethyl adipate Diethylamine N-Diethylaniline Diethyl arsanilate 1,2-Diethylbenzene 1,3-Diethylbenzene 1,4-Diethylbenzene Diethyl carbonate cis-Diethyl citraconate Diethyl dioxosuccinate Diethylene glycol Diethyleneglycol-bis-chloroacetate Diethylene glycol dimethyl ether Di(2-methoxyethyl) ether glycol ethyl ether Diethyl ether ethylmalonate fumarate glutarate Diethylhexadecylamine Diethyl itaconate ketone (3-pentanone) malate maleate malonate mesaconate oxalate phthalate sebacate 2,5-Diethylstyrene Diethyl succinate isosuccinate sulfate sulfide sulfite d-Diethyl tartrate dl-Diethyl tartrate 3,5-Diethyltoluene Diethylzinc 1-Dihydrocarvone Dihydrocitronellol 1,4-Dihydroxyanthraquinone Dimethylacetylene (2-butyne) Dimethylamine N,N-Dimethylaniline Dimethyl arsanilate Di(α-methylbenzyl) ether 2,2-Dimethylbutane 2,3-Dimethylbutane Dimethyl citraconate 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane cis-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane trans-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane trans-1,3-Dimethylcyclohexane cis-1,3-Dimethylcyclohexane cis-1,4-Dimethylcyclohexane trans-1,4-Dimethylcyclohexane

1

5

10

20

56.0 61.8 −38.5 61.0 53.5 55.5 47.8 57.2 53.5 105.6 91.7 −95.4 46.2 11.0 −19.1 111.5 74.0

84.0 100.0 −17.0 90.1 82.2 83.9 75.7 86.0 82.2 138.7 126.1 −80.0 71.7 38.3 34.1 +2.4 142.8 106.6

49.7

78.0

98.1 116.0 −6.1 104.6 97.4 98.2 90.0 100.4 97.4 155.0 143.8 −72.3 84.2 52.2 47.6 13.3 157.6 123.0 −33.0 91.9

113.8 133.1 +6.0 120.5 111.8 114.0 105.5 116.2 111.8 172.5 162.0 −63.5 97.8 67.3 62.0 25.3 174.3 138.3 −22.6 107.2

130.0 151.0 19.4 137.8 129.2 131.0 122.4 133.7 129.2 192.2 183.2 −53.7 113.2 84.0 77.9 38.0 193.2 154.6 −11.3 123.6

38.0 22.3 20.7 20.7 −10.1 59.8 70.0 91.8 148.3

62.6 48.7 46.8 47.1 +12.3 88.3 98.0 120.0 180.0

74.8 62.0 59.9 60.3 23.8 103.0 112.0 133.8 195.8

88.0 76.4 74.5 74.7 36.0 118.2 126.8 148.0 212.0

C6H14O3 C6H14O3 C4H10O C9H16O4 C8H12O4 C9H16O4 C20H43N C9H14O4 C5H10O C8H14O5 C8H12O4 C7H12O4 C9H14O4 C6H10O4 C12H14O4 C14H26O4 C12H16 C8H14O4 C8H14O4 C4H10O4S C4H10S C4H10O3S C8H14O6 C8H14O6 C11H16 C4H10Zn C10H16O C10H22O C14H8O4 C4H6 C2H7N C8H11N C8H12AsNO3 C16H18O C6H14 C6H14 C7H10O4 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16

13.0 45.3 −74.3 50.8 53.2 65.6 139.8 51.3 −12.7 80.7 57.3 40.0 62.8 47.4 108.8 125.3 49.7 54.6 39.8 47.0 −39.6 10.0 102.0 100.0 34.0 −22.4 46.6 68.0 196.7 −73.0 −87.7 29.5 15.0 96.7 −69.3 −63.6 50.8 −24.4 −15.9 −21.1 −19.4 −22.7 −20.0 −24.3

37.6 72.0 −56.9 77.8 81.2 94.7 175.8 80.2 +7.5 110.4 85.6 67.5 91.0 71.8 140.7 156.2 78.4 83.0 66.7 74.0 −18.6 34.2 133.0 131.7 61.5 0.0 75.5 91.7 239.8 −57.9 −72.2 56.3 39.6 128.3 −50.7 −44.5 78.2 −1.4 +7.3 +1.7 +3.4 0.0 +3.2 −1.7

50.0 85.8 −48.1 91.6 95.3 109.7 194.0 95.2 17.2 125.3 100.0 81.3 105.3 83.8 156.0 172.1 92.6 96.6 80.0 87.7 −8.0 46.4 148.0 147.2 75.3 +11.7 90.0 103.0 259.8 −50.5 −64.6 70.0 51.8 144.0 −41.5 −34.9 91.8 +10.3 18.4 13.0 14.9 +11.2 14.5 +10.1

63.0 100.3 −38.5 106.0 110.2 125.4 213.5 111.0 27.9 141.2 115.3 95.9 120.3 96.8 173.6 189.8 108.5 111.7 94.7 102.1 +3.5 59.7 164.2 163.8 90.2 24.2 106.0 115.0 282.0 −42.5 −56.0 84.8 65.0 160.3 −31.1 −24.1 106.5 23.0 31.1 25.6 27.4 23.6 27.1 22.6

60

100

200

400

760

141.0 163.2 28.0 149.0 140.0 142.0 133.3 144.6 140.0 204.8 195.8 −47.5 122.6 95.0 88.0 46.3 205.0 165.8 −4.0 133.8

154.5 178.9 39.4 163.5 153.8 155.8 147.6 158.2 153.8 220.7 212.0 −39.1 135.5 109.2 101.7 57.6 220.0 179.0 +6.0 147.3

176.2 202.8 57.0 185.7 176.0 178.0 169.0 181.5 176.0 245.6 238.5 −26.3 153.5 129.0 121.8 74.2 243.8 198.2 21.0 168.2

199.5 228.8 76.0 210.0 200.0 202.5 193.5 205.7 200.0 272.8 265.8 −12.0 175.2 150.5 144.2 93.2 259.7 219.1 38.0 192.4

223.5 256.5 96.8 235.0 225.0 227.0 217.0 230.0 225.0 302.0 296.5 +3.5 196.3 172.8 166.6 113.5 296.0 240.0 55.5 215.5

102.6 92.5 90.4 91.1 49.5 135.7 143.8 164.3 229.0

111.8 102.6 100.7 101.3 57.9 146.2 153.7 174.0 239.5

123.8 116.2 114.4 115.3 69.7 160.0 167.7 187.5 252.0

141.9 136.7 134.8 136.1 86.5 182.3 188.0 207.0 271.5

161.0 159.0 156.9 159.0 105.8 206.5 210.8 226.5 291.8

181.0 183.5 181.1 183.8 125.8 230.3 233.5 244.8 313.0

77.5 116.7 27.7 122.4 126.7 142.8 235.0 128.2 39.4 157.8 131.8 113.3 137.3 110.6 192.1 207.5 125.8 127.8 111.0 118.0 16.1 74.2 182.3 181.7 107.0 38.0 123.7 127.6 307.4 −33.9 −46.7 101.6 79.7 179.6 −19.5 −12.4 122.6 37.3 45.3 39.7 41.4 37.5 41.1 36.5

86.8 126.8 −21.8 132.4 137.7 153.2 248.5 139.9 46.7 169.0 142.4 123.0 147.9 119.7 204.1 218.4 136.8 138.2 121.4 128.6 24.2 83.8 194.0 193.2 117.7 47.2 134.7 136.7 323.3 −27.8 −40.7 111.9 88.6 191.5 −12.1 −4.9 132.7 45.7 54.4 48.7 50.4 46.4 50.1 45.4

99.5 140.3 −11.5 146.0 151.1 167.8 265.5 154.3 56.2 183.9 156.0 136.2 161.6 130.8 219.5 234.4 151.0 151.1 134.8 142.5 35.0 96.3 208.5 208.0 131.7 59.1 149.7 145.9 344.5 −18.8 −32.6 125.8 101.0 206.8 −2.0 +5.4 145.8 57.9 66.8 61.0 62.5 58.5 62.3 57.6

118.0 159.0 +2.2 166.0 172.2 189.5 292.8 177.5 70.6 205.3 177.8 155.5 183.2 147.9 243.0 255.8 173.2 171.7 155.1 162.5 51.3 115.8 230.4 230.0 152.4 77.0 171.8 160.2 377.8 −5.0 −20.4 146.5 119.8 229.7 +13.4 21.1 165.8 76.2 85.6 79.6 81.0 76.9 80.8 76.0

138.5 180.3 17.9 188.7 195.8 212.8 324.6 203.1 86.3 229.5 201.7 176.8 205.8 166.2 267.5 280.3 198.0 193.8 177.7 185.5 69.7 137.0 254.8 254.3 176.5 97.3 197.0 176.8 413.0 +10.6 −7.1 169.2 140.3 254.8 31.0 39.0 188.0 97.2 107.0 100.9 102.1 97.8 101.9 97.0

159.8 201.9 34.6 211.5 218.5 237.0 355.0 227.9 102.7 253.4 225.0 198.9 229.0 185.7 294.0 305.5 223.0 216.5 201.3 209.5 88.0 159.0 280.0 280.0 200.7 118.0 223.0 193.5 450.0 27.2 +7.4 193.1 160.5 281.0 49.7 58.0 210.5 119.5 129.7 123.4 124.4 120.1 124.3 119.3

Temperature, °C

Formula C8H5Cl2N C6H5AsCl2 C3H6Cl2 C8H6Cl2 C8H6Cl2 C8H6Cl2 C8H6Cl2 C8H6Cl2 C8H6Cl2 C14H20Cl2 C14H20Cl2 C2Cl2F4 C7H8Cl2Si C7H3Cl2F3 C10H8 C6H16O2Si C16H20O2Si C10H18O4 C4H11N C10H15N C10H16As NO3 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C5H10O3 C9H14O4 C8H10O6 C4H10O3 C8H12Cl2O5

40

Melting point, °C

−94 −12.1 32.9 −21 −38.9 −34.4 −31.4 −83.9 −43.2 −43

−116.3 +0.6

−42 −49.8 −40.6 1.3 −20.8 −25.0 −99.5 17 −28 194 −32.5 −96 +2.5 −99.8 −128.2 −34 −50.0 −88.0 −92.0 −76.2 −87.4 −36.9

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES TABLE 2-10

2-71

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued) Pressure, mmHg Compound Name

Dimethyl ether 2,2-Dimethylhexane 2,3-Dimethylhexane 2,4-Dimethylhexane 2,5-Dimethylhexane 3,3-Dimethylhexane 3,4-Dimethylhexane Dimethyl itaconate 1-Dimethyl malate Dimethyl maleate malonate trans-Dimethyl mesaconate 2,7-Dimethyloctane Dimethyl oxalate 2,2-Dimethylpentane 2,3-Dimethylpentane 2,4-Dimethylpentane 3,3-Dimethylpentane 2,3-Dimethylphenol (2,3-xylenol) 2,4-Dimethylphenol (2,4-xylenol) 2,5-Dimethylphenol (2,5-xylenol) 3,4-Dimethylphenol (3,4-xylenol) 3,5-Dimethylphenol (3,5-xylenol) Dimethylphenylsilane Dimethyl phthalate 3,5-Dimethyl-1,2-pyrone 4,6-Dimethylresorcinol Dimethyl sebacate 2,4-Dimethylstyrene 2,5-Dimethylstyrene α,α-Dimethylsuccinic anhydride Dimethyl sulfide d-Dimethyl tartrate dl-Dimethyl tartrate N,N-Dimethyl-2-toluidine N,N-Dimethyl-4-toluidine Di(nitrosomethyl) amine Diosphenol 1,4-Dioxane Dipentene Diphenylamine Diphenyl carbinol (benzhydrol) chlorophosphate disulfide 1,2-Diphenylethane (dibenzyl) Diphenyl ether 1,1-Diphenylethylene trans-Diphenylethylene 1,1-Diphenylhydrazine Diphenylmethane Diphenyl sulfide Diphenyl-2-tolyl thiophosphate 1,2-Dipropoxyethane 1,2-Diisopropylbenzene 1,3-Diisopropylbenzene Dipropylene glycol Dipropyleneglycol monobutyl ether isopropyl ether Di-n-propyl ether Diisopropyl ether Di-n-propyl ketone (4-heptanone) Di-n-propyl oxalate Diisopropyl oxalate Di-n-propyl succinate Di-n-propyl d-tartrate Diisopropyl d-tartrate Divinyl acetylene (1,5-hexadiene-3-yne) 1,3-Divinylbenzene Docosane n-Dodecane 1-Dodecene n-Dodecyl alcohol Dodecylamine Dodecyltrimethylsilane Elaidic acid

1

5

10

20

−115.7 −29.7 −23.0 −26.9 −26.7 −25.8 −22.1 69.3 75.4 45.7 35.0 46.8 +6.3 20.0 −49.0 −42.0 −48.0 −45.9 56.0 51.8 51.8 66.2 62.0 +5.3 100.3 78.6 49.0 104.0 34.2 29.0 61.4 −75.6 102.1 100.4 28.8 50.1 +3.2 66.7 −35.8 14.0 108.3 110.0 121.5 131.6 86.8 66.1 87.4 113.2 126.0 76.0 96.1 159.7 −38.8 40.0 34.7 73.8 64.7 46.0 −43.3 −57.0 23.0 53.4 43.2 77.5 115.6 103.7 −45.1 32.7 157.8 47.8 47.2 91.0 82.8 91.2 171.3

−101.1 −7.9 −1.1 −5.3 −5.5 −4.4 +0.2 94.0 104.0 73.0 59.8 74.0 30.5 44.0 −28.7 −20.8 −27.4 −25.0 83.8 78.0 78.0 93.8 89.2 30.3 131.8 107.6 76.8 139.8 61.9 55.9 88.1 −58.0 133.2 131.8 54.1 74.3 27.8 95.4 −12.8 40.4 141.7 145.0 160.5 164.0 119.8 97.8 119.6 145.8 159.3 107.4 129.0 179.8 −10.3 67.8 62.3 102.1 92.0 72.8 −22.3 −37.4 44.4 80.2 69.0 107.6 147.7 133.7 −24.4 60.0 195.4 75.8 74.0 120.2 111.8 122.1 206.7

−93.3 +3.1 +9.9 +5.2 +5.3 +6.1 11.3 106.6 118.3 86.4 72.0 87.8 42.3 56.0 −18.7 −10.3 −17.1 −14.4 97.6 91.3 91.3 107.7 102.4 42.6 147.6 122.0 90.7 156.2 75.8 69.0 102.0 −49.2 148.2 147.5 66.2 86.7 40.0 109.0 −1.2 53.8 157.0 162.0 182.0 180.0 136.0 114.0 135.0 161.0 176.1 122.8 145.0 201.6 +5.0 81.8 76.0 116.2 106.0 86.2 −11.8 −27.4 55.0 93.9 81.9 122.2 163.5 148.2 −14.0 73.8 213.0 90.0 87.8 134.7 127.8 137.7 223.5

−85.2 15.0 22.1 17.2 17.2 18.2 23.5 119.7 133.8 101.3 85.0 102.1 55.8 69.4 −7.5 +1.1 −5.9 −2.9 112.0 105.0 105.0 122.0 117.0 56.2 164.0 136.4 105.8 175.8 90.8 84.0 116.3 −39.4 164.3 164.0 80.2 100.0 53.7 124.0 +12.0 68.2 175.2 180.9 203.8 197.0 153.7 130.8 151.8 179.8 194.0 139.8 162.0 215.5 22.3 96.8 91.2 131.3 120.4 100.8 0.0 −16.7 66.2 108.6 95.6 138.0 180.4 164.0 −2.8 88.7 233.5 104.6 102.4 150.0 141.6 153.8 242.3

60

100

200

400

760

−62.7 48.2 56.0 50.6 50.5 52.5 57.7 153.7 175.1 140.4 121.9 141.5 93.9 104.8 23.9 33.3 25.4 29.3 152.2 143.0 143.0 161.0 156.0 94.2 210.0 177.5 147.3 222.6 132.3 124.7 155.3 −12.0 208.8 209.5 118.1 140.3 90.3 165.6 45.1 108.3 222.8 227.5 265.0 241.3 202.8 178.8 198.6 227.4 242.5 186.3 211.8 252.5 74.2 138.7 132.3 169.9 159.8 140.3 33.0 13.7 96.0 148.1 132.6 180.3 227.0 207.3 29.5 130.0 286.0 146.2 142.3 192.0 182.1 199.5 288.0

−50.9 65.7 73.8 68.1 68.0 70.0 75.6 171.0 196.3 160.0 140.0 161.0 114.0 123.3 40.3 50.1 41.8 46.2 173.0 161.5 161.5 181.5 176.2 114.2 232.7 198.0 167.8 245.0 153.2 145.6 175.8 +2.6 230.5 232.3 138.3 161.6 110.0 186.2 62.3 128.2 247.5 250.0 299.5 262.6 227.8 203.3 222.8 251.7 267.2 210.7 236.8 270.3 103.8 159.8 153.7 189.9 180.0 160.0 50.3 30.0 111.2 168.0 151.2 202.5 250.1 228.2 46.0 151.4 314.2 167.2 162.2 213.0 203.0 222.0 312.4

−37.8 85.6 94.1 88.2 87.9 90.4 96.0 189.8 219.5 182.2 159.8 183.5 136.0 143.3 59.2 69.4 60.6 65.5 196.0 184.2 184.2 203.6 197.8 136.4 257.8 221.0 192.0 269.6 177.5 168.7 197.5 18.7 255.0 257.4 161.5 185.4 131.3 209.5 81.8 150.5 274.1 275.6 337.2 285.8 255.0 230.7 249.8 278.3 294.0 237.5 263.9 290.0 140.0 184.3 177.6 210.5 203.8 183.1 69.5 48.2 127.3 190.3 171.8 226.5 275.6 251.8 64.4 175.2 343.5 191.0 185.5 235.7 225.0 248.0 337.0

−23.7 106.8 115.6 109.4 109.1 112.0 117.7 208.0 242.6 205.0 180.7 206.0 159.7 163.3 79.2 89.8 80.5 86.1 218.0 211.5 211.5 225.2 219.5 159.3 283.7 245.0 215.0 293.5 202.0 193.0 219.5 36.0 280.0 282.0 184.8 209.5 153.0 232.0 101.1 174.6 302.0 301.0 378.0 310.0 284.0 258.5 277.0 306.5 322.2 264.5 292.5 310.0 180.0 209.0 202.0 231.8 227.0 205.6 89.5 67.5 143.7 213.5 193.5 250.8 303.0 275.0 84.0 199.5 376.0 216.2 208.0 259.0 248.0 273.0 362.0

Temperature, °C

Formula C2H6O C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C7H10O4 C6H10O5 C6H8O4 C5H8O4 C7H10O4 C10H22 C4H6O4 C7H16 C7H16 C7H16 C7H16 C8H10O C8H10O C8H10O C8H10O C8H10O C8H12Si C10H10O4 C7H8O2 C8H10O2 C12H22O4 C10H12 C10H12 C6H8O3 C2H6S C6H10O6 C6H10O6 C9H13N C9H13N C2H5N3O2 C10H16O2 C4H8O2 C10H16 C12H11N C13H12O C12H10ClPO3 C12H10S2 C14H14 C12H10O C14H12 C14H12 C12H12N2 C13H12 C12H10S C18H17O3PS C8H18O2 C12H18 C12H18 C6H14O3 C10H22O3 C9H20O3 C6H14O C6H14O C7H14O C8H14O4 C8H14O4 C10H18O4 C10H18O6 C10H18O6 C6H6 C10H10 C22H46 C12H26 C12H24 C12H26O C12H27N C15H34Si C18H34O2

40 −76.2 28.2 35.6 30.5 30.4 31.7 37.1 133.7 150.1 117.2 100.0 118.0 71.2 83.6 +5.0 13.9 +6.5 +9.9 129.2 121.5 121.5 138.0 133.3 71.4 182.8 152.7 122.5 196.0 107.7 100.2 132.3 −28.4 182.4 182.4 95.0 116.3 68.2 141.2 25.2 84.3 194.3 200.0 227.9 214.8 173.7 150.0 170.8 199.0 213.5 157.8 182.8 230.6 42.3 114.0 107.9 147.4 136.3 117.0 +13.2 −4.5 78.1 124.6 110.5 154.8 199.7 181.8 +10.0 105.5 254.5 121.7 118.6 167.2 157.4 172.1 260.8

−70.4 36.7 44.2 39.0 38.9 40.4 45.8 142.6 160.4 127.1 109.7 127.8 80.8 92.8 13.0 22.1 14.5 18.1 139.5 131.0 131.0 148.0 143.5 81.3 194.0 163.8 133.2 208.0 118.0 110.7 142.4 −21.4 193.8 193.8 105.2 126.4 77.7 151.3 33.8 94.6 206.9 212.0 244.2 226.2 186.0 162.0 183.4 211.5 225.9 170.2 194.8 240.4 55.8 124.3 118.2 156.5 146.3 126.8 21.6 +3.4 85.8 134.8 120.0 166.0 211.7 192.6 18.1 116.0 268.3 132.1 128.5 177.8 168.0 184.2 273.0

Melting point, °C −138.5

−90.7 38 −62 −52.8 −123.7 −135 −119.5 −135.0 75 25.5 74.5 62.5 68 51.5 38

−83.2 61.5 89 −61

10 52.9 68.5 61 51.5 27 124 44 26.5

−105

−122 −60 −32.6

−66.9 44.5 −9.6 −31.5 24 51.5

2-72

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-10

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued) Pressure, mmHg Compound

1

5

10

20

−16.5 −69.0 206.7 52.6 −159.5 36.3 −50.9 167.0 −43.4 28.5 −92.5 −29.5 47.0 −29.0 −31.3 −82.3 52.0 38.5 29.7 33.7 33.5 −9.8 44.0 107.6 −74.3 10.6 −18.4 −24.3 118.2 11.0 107.8 133.2 −89.8 +1.0 −5.1 +6.6 87.6 28.3 31.5 67.8 −14.5 −32.2 9.6 76.0 98.3 −168.3 112.0 −4.0 −11.0 −27.0 −44.5 53.0 −33.5

+5.6 −50.0 239.7 80.0 −148.5 63.1 −31.0 198.2 −23.5 54.0 −76.7 −8.7 70.7 −6.4 −12.0 −66.4 80.0 66.4 55.9 60.3 60.2 +13.9 72.0 136.4 −56.4 35.8 +4.0 −2.4 149.8 35.8 65.8 131.8 168.2 −73.9 25.4 +18.0 30.2 108.5 55.5 58.4 93.5 +9.2 −10.8 34.0 106.3 130.2 −158.3 142.4 +19.0 +10.5 +4.7 −24.0 79.7 −10.2

16.6 −40.3 254.5 93.7 −142.9 76.2 −20.7 213.5 −13.5 67.3 −68.7 +2.0 82.0 +5.0 −2.3 −58.3 93.8 80.6 69.0 73.9 73.9 25.9 86.0 150.3 −47.5 48.0 15.3 +8.4 165.0 48.0 77.8 143.7 186.0 −65.8 37.5 29.9 41.9 134.0 68.8 72.0 106.0 20.6 −0.1 46.3 121.7 146.0 −153.2 158.0 30.3 21.5 18.6 −13.6 92.1 +1.6

29.0 −29.5 270.6 108.4 −136.7 91.0 −9.8 230.0 −3.0 81.1 −59.9 13.0 94.4 17.7 +8.0 −48.6 109.0 96.0 83.1 88.5 88.5 38.6 101.4 166.8 −37.8 61.8 27.8 20.6 181.8 61.7 91.0 155.5 205.5 −56.8 50.4 42.0 54.3 150.3 83.6 86.7 119.8 33.4 +11.7 59.5 137.7 162.8 −147.6 173.5 42.5 33.0 32.7 −2.4 105.8 14.7

42.0 −17.3 289.1 124.6 −129.8 107.2 +3.7 247.0 +9.1 96.2 −50.0 26.0 108.1 31.8 19.0 −39.8 125.7 113.2 98.8 104.8 104.7 52.8 118.2 181.8 −26.7 77.0 41.5 33.8 199.8 76.3 105.6 168.8 226.5 −47.0 65.2 56.0 68.2 169.2 99.9 103.3 133.8 47.6 25.0 74.0 154.4 182.0 −141.3 191.0 56.0 45.8 48.0 +10.0 120.0 29.7

C4H10O2

−48.0

−26.2

−15.3

−3.0

+10.7

19.7

31.8

50.0

70.8

93.0

C3H8O2

−13.5

+10.2

22.0

34.3

47.8

56.4

68.0

85.3

104.3

124.4

−89.7 40.5 −117.0 −60.5 37.6 14.3 −20.0 50.0 −60.7 −112.5 −54.4 27.8 47.3 −76.7 26.5 −91.0

−73.8 67.3 −103.8 −42.2 63.8 38.8 +2.1 77.7 −41.9 −98.4 −34.3 57.3 74.0 −59.1 51.0 −75.6

−65.7 80.2 −97.7 −33.0 77.1 50.5 12.8 91.8 −32.3 −91.7 −24.3 72.1 87.3 −50.2 63.2 −67.8

−56.6 94.6 −90.0 −22.7 91.5 63.9 25.0 106.3 −21.9 −84.1 −13.1 88.0 101.8 −40.7 76.1 −59.1

−46.9 110.3 −81.8 −11.5 107.5 78.1 38.5 123.7 −10.2 −75.8 −0.9 106.0 117.7 −29.8 91.0 −49.4

−40.7 120.6 −76.4 −4.3 117.5 87.6 47.1 134.0 −2.9 −70.4 +7.2 117.8 127.6 −22.4 100.0 −43.3

−32.1 133.8 −69.3 −5.4 130.4 99.8 58.9 147.9 +7.2 −63.2 18.0 131.8 141.3 −13.0 112.0 −34.8

−19.5 153.2 −58.0 20.0 150.1 117.8 76.7 168.2 22.4 −52.0 34.1 149.8 160.2 +1.5 130.0 −22.0

−4.9 175.6 −45.5 37.1 172.5 138.0 97.0 192.2 39.8 −39.5 52.3 167.3 183.0 17.7 149.8 −7.8

+10.7 198.0 −32.0 54.3 195.0 158.2 118.5 216.0 57.4 −26.5 72.4 184.0 206.2 35.0 170.0 +7.5

Name

Formula

Epichlorohydrin 1,2-Epoxy-2-methylpropane Erucic acid Estragole (p-methoxy allyl benzene) Ethane Ethoxydimethylphenylsilane Ethoxytrimethylsilane Ethoxytriphenylsilane Ethyl acetate acetoacetate Ethylacetylene (1-butyne) Ethyl acrylate α-Ethylacrylic acid α-Ethylacrylonitrile Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) Ethylamine 4-Ethylaniline N-Ethylaniline 2-Ethylanisole 3-Ethylanisole 4-Ethylanisole Ethylbenzene Ethyl benzoate benzoylacetate bromide α-bromoisobutyrate n-butyrate isobutyrate Ethylcamphoronic anhydride Ethyl isocaproate carbamate carbanilate Ethylcetylamine Ethyl chloride chloroacetate chloroglyoxylate α-chloropropionate trans-cinnamate 3-Ethylcumene 4-Ethylcumene Ethyl cyanoacetate Ethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclopentane Ethyl dichloroacetate N,N-diethyloxamate N-Ethyldiphenylamine Ethylene Ethylene-bis-(chloroacetate) Ethylene chlorohydrin (2-chloroethanol) diamine (1,2-ethanediamine) dibromide (1,2-dibromethane) dichloride (1,2-dichloroethane) glycol (1,2-ethanediol) glycol diethyl ether (1,2-diethoxyethane) glycol dimethyl ether (1,2-dimethoxyethane) glycol monomethyl ether (2-methoxyethanol) oxide Ethyl α-ethylacetoacetate fluoride formate 2-furoate glycolate 3-Ethylhexane 2-Ethylhexyl acrylate Ethylidene chloride (1,1-dichloroethane) fluoride (1,1-difluoroethane) Ethyl iodide Ethyl l-leucinate Ethyl levulinate Ethyl mercaptan (ethanethiol) Ethyl methylcarbamate Ethyl methyl ether

C3H5ClO C4H8O C22H42O2 C10H12O C2H6 C10H16OSi C5H14OSi C20H20OSi C4H8O2 C6H10O3 C4H6 C5H8O2 C5H8O2 C5H7N C2H6O C2H7N C8H11N C8H11N C9H12O C9H12O C9H12O C8H10 C9H10O2 C11H12O3 C2H5Br C6H11BrO2 C6H12O2 C6H12O2 C11H16O5 C8H16O2 C3H7NO2 C9H11NO2 C18H39N C2H5Cl C4H7ClO2 C4H5ClO3 C5H9ClO2 C11H12O2 C11H16 C11H16 C5H7NO2 C8H16 C7H14 C4H6Cl2O2 C8H15NO3 C14H15N C2H4 C6H8Cl2O4 C2H5ClO C2H8N2 C2H4Br2 C2H4Cl2 C2H6O2 C6H14O2

C2H4O C8H14O3 C2H5F C3H6O2 C7H8O3 C4H8O3 C8H18 C11H20O2 C2H4Cl2 C2H4F2 C2H5I C8H17NO2 C7H12O3 C2H6S C4H9NO2 C3H8O

40

60

100

200

400

760

Temperature, °C 50.6 −9.7 300.2 135.2 −125.4 127.5 11.5 258.3 16.6 106.0 −43.4 33.5 116.7 40.6 26.0 −33.4 136.0 123.6 109.0 115.5 115.4 61.8 129.0 191.9 −19.5 86.7 50.1 42.3 211.5 85.8 114.8 177.3 239.8 −40.6 74.0 65.2 77.3 181.2 110.2 113.8 142.1 56.7 33.4 83.6 166.0 193.7 −137.3 201.8 64.1 53.8 57.9 18.1 129.5 39.0

62.0 +1.2 314.4 148.5 −119.3 131.4 22.1 273.5 27.0 118.5 −34.9 44.5 127.5 53.0 34.9 −25.1 149.8 137.3 122.3 129.2 128.4 74.1 143.2 205.0 −10.0 99.8 62.0 53.5 226.6 98.4 126.2 187.9 256.8 −32.0 86.0 76.6 89.3 196.0 124.3 127.2 152.8 69.0 45.0 96.1 180.3 209.8 −131.8 215.0 75.0 62.5 70.4 29.4 141.8 51.8

79.3 98.0 117.9 17.5 36.0 55.5 336.5 358.8 381.5 168.7 192.0 215.0 −110.2 −99.7 −88.6 151.5 175.0 199.5 38.1 56.3 75.7 295.0 319.5 344.0 42.0 59.3 77.1 138.0 158.2 180.8 −21.6 −6.9 +8.7 61.5 80.0 99.5 144.0 160.7 179.2 71.6 92.2 114.0 48.4 63.5 78.4 −12.3 +2.0 16.6 170.6 194.2 217.4 156.9 180.8 204.0 142.1 164.2 187.1 149.7 172.8 196.5 149.2 172.3 196.5 92.7 113.8 136.2 164.8 188.4 213.4 223.8 244.7 265.0 +4.5 21.0 38.4 119.7 141.2 163.6 79.8 100.0 121.0 71.0 90.0 110.0 248.5 272.8 298.0 117.8 139.2 160.4 144.2 164.0 184.0 203.8 220.0 237.0 283.3 313.0 342.0 −18.6 −3.9 +12.3 103.8 123.8 144.2 94.5 114.7 135.0 107.2 126.2 146.5 219.3 245.0 271.0 145.4 168.2 193.0 148.3 171.8 195.8 169.8 187.8 206.0 87.8 109.1 131.8 62.4 82.3 103.4 115.2 135.9 156.5 202.8 226.5 252.0 233.0 258.8 286.0 −123.4 −113.9 −103.7 237.3 259.5 283.5 91.8 110.0 128.8 81.0 99.0 117.2 89.8 110.1 131.5 45.7 64.0 82.4 158.5 178.5 197.3 71.8 94.1 119.5

Melting point, °C −25.6 33.5 −183.2

−82.4 −45 −130 −71.2 −112 −80.6 −4 −63.5

−94.9 −34.6 −117.8 −93.3 −88.2 49 52.5 −139 −26 12

−111.3 −138.6

−169 −69 8.5 10 −35.3 −15.6

−111.3 −79 34

−96.7 −117 −105 −121

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES TABLE 2-10

2-73

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued) Pressure, mmHg Compound Name

1-Ethylnaphthalene Ethyl α-naphthyl ketone (1-propionaphthone) Ethyl 3-nitrobenzoate 3-Ethylpentane 4-Ethylphenetole 2-Ethylphenol 3-Ethylphenol 4-Ethylphenol Ethyl phenyl ether (phenetole) Ethyl propionate Ethyl propyl ether Ethyl salicylate 3-Ethylstyrene 4-Ethylstyrene Ethylisothiocyanate 2-Ethyltoluene 3-Ethyltoluene 4-Ethyltoluene Ethyl trichloroacetate Ethyltrimethylsilane Ethyltrimethyltin Ethyl isovalerate 2-Ethyl-1,4-xylene 4-Ethyl-1,3-xylene 5-Ethyl-1,3-xylene Eugenol iso-Eugenol Eugenyl acetate Fencholic acid d-Fenchone dl-Fenchyl alcohol Fluorene Fluorobenzene 2-Fluorotoluene 3-Fluorotoluene 4-Fluorotoluene Formaldehyde Formamide Formic acid trans-Fumaryl chloride Furfural (2-furaldehyde) Furfuryl alcohol Geraniol Geranyl acetate Geranyl n-butyrate Geranyl isobutyrate Geranyl formate Glutaric acid Glutaric anhydride Glutaronitrile Glutaryl chloride Glycerol Glycerol dichlorohydrin (1,3-dichloro-2-propanol) Glycol diacetate Glycolide (1,4-dioxane-2,6-dione) Guaicol (2-methoxyphenol) Heneicosane Heptacosane Heptadecane Heptaldehyde (enanthaldehyde) n-Heptane Heptanoic acid (enanthic acid) 1-Heptanol Heptanoyl chloride (enanthyl chloride) 2-Heptene Heptylbenzene Heptyl cyanide (enanthonitrile) Hexachlorobenzene Hexachloroethane Hexacosane Hexadecane 1-Hexadecene n-Hexadecyl alcohol (cetyl alcohol)

1

100

200

400

760

Melting point, °C

164.1

180.0

204.6

230.8

258.1

−27

206.9 192.6 17.5 119.8 117.9 130.0 131.3 86.6 27.2 −12.0 136.7 99.2 97.3 50.8 76.4 73.3 73.6 85.5 −9.0 30.0 55.2 96.0 97.2 92.6 155.8 167.0 183.0 171.8 99.5 110.8 185.2 +11.5 34.7 37.0 37.8 −70.6 137.5 24.0 79.5 82.1 95.7 141.8 150.0 170.1 164.0 136.2 226.3 185.5 176.4 128.3 198.0 93.0

218.2 205.0 25.7 129.8 127.9 139.8 141.7 95.4 35.1 −4.0 147.6 109.6 107.6 59.8 86.0 82.9 83.2 94.4 −1.2 38.4 64.0 106.2 107.4 103.0 167.3 178.2 194.0 181.5 109.8 120.2 197.8 19.6 43.7 45.8 46.5 −65.0 147.0 32.4 89.0 91.5 104.0 151.5 160.3 180.2 174.0 147.2 235.5 196.2 189.5 139.1 208.0 102.0

233.5 220.3 36.9 143.5 141.8 152.0 154.2 108.4 45.2 +6.8 161.5 123.2 121.5 71.9 99.0 95.9 96.3 107.4 +9.2 50.0 75.9 120.0 121.2 116.5 182.2 194.0 209.7 194.0 123.6 132.3 214.7 30.4 55.3 57.5 58.1 −57.3 157.5 43.8 101.0 103.4 115.9 165.3 175.2 193.8 187.7 160.7 247.0 212.5 205.5 151.8 220.1 114.8

255.5 244.6 53.8 163.2 161.6 171.8 175.0 127.9 61.7 23.3 183.7 144.0 142.0 90.0 119.0 115.5 116.1 125.8 25.0 67.3 93.8 140.2 141.8 137.4 204.7 217.2 232.5 215.0 144.0 150.0 240.3 47.2 73.0 75.4 76.0 −46.0 175.5 61.4 120.0 121.8 133.1 185.6 196.3 214.0 207.6 182.6 265.0 236.5 230.0 172.4 240.0 133.3

280.2 270.6 73.0 185.7 184.5 193.3 197.4 149.8 79.8 41.6 207.0 167.2 165.0 110.1 141.4 137.8 136.4 146.0 42.8 87.6 114.0 163.1 164.4 159.6 228.3 242.3 257.4 237.8 166.8 173.2 268.6 65.7 92.8 95.4 96.1 −33.0 193.5 80.3 140.0 141.8 151.8 207.8 219.8 235.0 228.5 205.8 283.5 261.0 257.3 195.3 263.0 153.5

306.0 298.0 93.5 208.0 207.5 214.0 219.0 172.0 99.1 61.7 231.5 191.5 189.0 131.0 165.1 161.3 162.0 167.0 62.0 108.8 134.3 186.9 188.4 183.7 253.5 267.5 282.0 264.1 191.0 201.0 295.0 84.7 114.0 116.0 117.0 −19.5 210.5 100.6 160.0 161.8 170.0 230.0 243.3 257.4 251.0 230.0 303.0 287.0 286.2 217.0 290.0 174.3

106.1 148.6 121.6 243.4 305.7 195.8 66.3 22.3 139.5 99.8 86.4 21.5 144.0 92.6 206.0 102.3 295.2 181.3 178.8 219.8

115.8 158.2 131.0 255.3 318.3 207.3 74.0 30.6 148.5 108.0 93.5 30.0 154.8 103.0 219.0 112.0 307.8 193.2 190.8 234.3

128.0 173.2 144.0 272.0 333.5 223.0 84.0 41.8 160.0 119.5 102.7 41.3 170.2 116.8 235.5 124.2 323.2 208.5 205.3 251.7

147.8 194.0 162.7 296.5 359.4 247.8 102.0 58.7 179.5 136.6 116.3 58.6 193.3 137.7 258.5 143.1 348.4 231.7 226.8 280.2

168.3 217.0 184.1 323.8 385.0 274.5 125.5 78.0 199.6 155.6 130.7 78.1 217.8 160.0 283.5 163.8 374.6 258.3 250.0 312.7

190.5 240.0 205.0 350.5 410.6 303.0 155.0 98.4 221.5 175.8 145.0 98.5 244.0 184.6 309.4 185.6 399.8 287.5 274.0 344.0

5

10

20

70.0

101.4

116.8

133.8

152.0

C13H12O C9H9NO4 C7H16 C10H14O C8H10O C8H10O C8H10O C8H10O C5H10O2 C5H12O C9H10O3 C10H12 C10H12 C3H5NS C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C4H5Cl3O2 C5H14Si C5H14Sn C7H14O2 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C10H12O2 C10H12O2 C12H14O3 C10H16O2 C10H16O C10H18O C13H10 C6H5F C7H7F C7H7F C7H7F CH2O CH3NO CH2O2 C4H2Cl2O2 C5H4O2 C5H6O2 C10H18O C12H20O2 C14H24O2 C14H24O2 C11H18O2 C5H8O4 C5H6O3 C5H6N2 C5H6Cl2O2 C3H8O3 C3H6Cl2O

124.0 108.1 −37.8 48.5 46.2 60.0 59.3 18.1 −28.0 −64.3 61.2 28.3 26.0 −13.2 9.4 7.2 7.6 20.7 −60.6 −30.0 −6.1 25.7 26.3 22.1 78.4 86.3 101.6 101.7 28.0 45.8 −43.4 −24.2 −22.4 −21.8

155.5 140.2 −17.0 75.7 73.4 86.8 86.5 43.7 −7.2 −45.0 90.0 55.0 52.7 +10.6 34.8 32.3 32.7 45.5 −41.4 −7.6 +17.0 52.0 53.0 48.8 108.1 117.0 132.3 128.7 54.7 70.3 129.3 −22.8 −2.2 −0.3 +0.3

70.5 −20.0 +15.0 18.5 31.8 69.2 73.5 96.8 90.9 61.8 155.5 100.8 91.3 56.1 125.5 28.0

96.3 −5.0 38.5 42.6 56.0 96.8 102.7 125.2 119.6 90.3 183.8 133.3 123.7 84.0 153.8 52.2

171.0 155.0 −6.8 89.5 87.0 100.2 100.2 56.4 +3.4 −35.0 104.2 68.3 66.3 22.8 47.6 44.7 44.9 57.7 −31.8 +3.8 28.7 65.6 66.4 62.1 123.0 132.4 148.0 142.3 68.3 82.1 146.0 −12.4 +8.9 +11.0 11.8 −88.0 109.5 +2.1 51.8 54.8 68.0 110.0 117.9 139.0 133.0 104.3 196.0 149.5 140.0 97.8 167.2 64.7

188.1 173.6 +4.7 103.8 101.5 114.5 115.0 70.3 14.3 −24.0 119.3 82.8 80.8 36.1 61.2 58.2 58.5 70.6 −21.0 16.1 41.3 79.8 80.6 76.5 138.7 149.0 164.2 155.8 83.0 95.6 164.2 −1.2 21.4 23.4 24.0 −79.6 122.5 10.3 65.0 67.8 81.0 125.6 133.0 153.8 147.9 119.8 210.5 166.0 156.5 112.3 182.2 78.0

C6H10O4 C4H4O4 C7H8O2 C21H44 C27H56 C17H36 C7H14O C7H16 C7H14O2 C7H16O C7H13ClO C7H14 C13H20 C7H13N C6Cl6 C2Cl6 C26H54 C16H34 C16H32 C16H34O

38.3

64.1 103.0 79.1 188.0 248.6 145.2 32.7 −12.7 101.3 64.3 54.6 −14.1 94.6 47.8 149.3 49.8 240.0 135.2 131.7 158.3

77.1 116.6 92.0 205.4 266.8 160.0 43.0 −2.1 113.2 74.7 64.6 −3.5 110.0 61.6 166.4 73.5 257.4 149.8 146.2 177.8

90.8 132.0 106.0 223.2 284.6 177.7 54.0 +9.5 125.6 85.8 75.0 +8.3 126.0 76.3 185.7 87.6 275.8 164.7 162.0 197.8

60

Temperature, °C

Formula C12H12

40

52.4 152.6 211.7 115.0 12.0 −34.0 78.0 42.4 34.2 −35.8 64.0 21.0 114.4 32.7 204.0 105.3 101.6 122.7

47 −118.6 −45 −4 46.5 −30.2 −72.6 1.3 −5.9 −95.5

−99.3

−10 295 19 5 35 113 −42.1 −80 −110.8 −92 8.2

97.5

17.9 −31 97 28.3 40.4 59.5 22.5 −42 −90.6 −10 34.6

230 186.6 56.6 18.5 4 49.3

2-74

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-10

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued) Pressure, mmHg Compound Name

Formula

n-Hexadecylamine (cetylamine) Hexaethylbenzene n-Hexane 1-Hexanol 2-Hexanol 3-Hexanol 1-Hexene n-Hexyl levulinate n-Hexyl phenyl ketone (enanthophenone) Hydrocinnamic acid Hydrogen cyanide (hydrocyanic acid) Hydroquinone 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde α-Hydroxyisobutyric acid α-Hydroxybutyronitrile 4-Hydroxy-3-methyl-2-butanone 4-Hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone 3-Hydroxypropionitrile Indene Iodobenzene Iodononane 2-Iodotoluene α-Ionone Isoprene Lauraldehyde Lauric acid Levulinaldehyde Levulinic acid d-Limonene Linalyl acetate Maleic anhydride Menthane 1-Menthol Menthyl acetate benzoate formate Mesityl oxide Methacrylic acid Methacrylonitrile Methane Methanethiol Methoxyacetic acid N-Methylacetanilide Methyl acetate acetylene (propyne) acrylate alcohol (methanol) Methylamine N-Methylaniline Methyl anthranilate benzoate 2-Methylbenzothiazole α-Methylbenzyl alcohol Methyl bromide 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene Methyl isobutyl carbinol (2-methyl4-pentanol) n-butyl ketone (2-hexanone) isobutyl ketone (4-methyl-2-pentanone) n-butyrate isobutyrate caprate caproate caprylate chloride chloroacetate cinnamate α-Methylcinnamic acid Methylcyclohexane Methylcyclopentane Methylcyclopropane Methyl n-decyl ketone (n-dodecan-2-one) dichloroacetate N-Methyldiphenylamine

C16H35N C18H30 C6H14 C6H14O C6H14O C6H14O C6H12 C11H20O3 C13H18O C9H10O2 CHN C6H6O2 C7H6O2 C4H8O3 C5H9NO C5H10O2 C6H12O2 C3H5NO C9H8 C6H5I C9H19I C7H7I C13H20O C5H8 C12H24O C12H24O2 C5H8O2 C5H8O3 C10H16 C12H20O2 C4H2O3 C10H20 C10H20O C12H22O2 C17H24O2 C11H20O2 C6H10O C4H6O2 C4H5N CH4 CH4S C3H6O3 C9H11NO C3H6O2 C3H4 C4H6O2 CH4O CH5N C7H9N C8H9NO2 C8H8O2 C8H7NS C8H10O CH3Br C5H10 C5H10 C6H14O C6H12O C6H12O C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C11H22O2 C7H14O2 C9H18O2 CH3Cl C3H5ClO2 C10H10O2 C10H10O2 C7H14 C6H12 C4H8 C12H24O C3H4Cl2O2 C13H13N

1

5

10

20

40

60

100

123.6

157.8 134.3 −34.5 47.2 34.8 25.7 −38.0 120.0 130.3 133.5 −55.3 153.3 153.2 98.5 65.8 69.3 46.7 87.8 44.3 50.6 96.2 65.9 108.8 −62.3 108.4 150.6 54.9 128.1 40.4 82.5 63.4 35.7 83.2 85.8 154.2 75.8 +14.1 48.5 −23.3 −199.0 −75.3 79.3 103.8 −38.6 −97.5 −23.6 −25.3 −81.3 62.8 109.0 64.4 97.5 75.2 −80.6 −72.8 −57.0

176.0 150.3 −25.0 58.2 45.0 36.7 −28.1 134.7 145.5 148.7 −47.7 163.5 169.7 110.5 77.8 81.0 58.8 102.0 58.5 64.0 109.0 79.8 123.0 −53.3 123.7 166.0 68.0 141.8 53.8 96.0 78.7 48.3 96.0 100.0 170.0 90.0 26.0 60.0 −12.5 −195.5 −67.5 92.0 118.6 −29.3 −90.5 −13.5 −16.2 −73.8 76.2 124.2 77.3 111.2 88.0 −72.8 −64.3 −47.9

195.7 168.0 −14.1 70.3 55.9 49.0 −17.2 150.2 161.0 165.0 −39.7 174.6 186.8 123.8 90.7 94.0 72.0 117.9 73.9 78.3 123.0 95.6 139.0 −43.5 140.2 183.6 82.7 154.1 68.2 111.4 95.0 62.7 110.3 115.4 186.3 105.8 37.9 72.7 −0.6 −191.8 −58.8 106.5 135.1 −19.1 −82.9 −2.7 −6.0 −65.9 90.5 141.5 91.8 125.5 102.1 −64.0 −54.8 −37.9

215.7 187.7 −2.3 83.7 67.9 62.2 −5.0 167.8 178.9 183.3 −30.9 192.0 206.0 138.0 104.8 108.2 86.7 134.1 90.7 94.4 138.1 112.4 155.6 −32.6 157.8 201.4 98.3 169.5 84.3 127.7 111.8 78.3 126.1 132.1 204.3 123.0 51.7 86.4 +12.8 −187.7 −49.2 122.0 152.2 −7.9 −74.3 +9.2 +5.0 −56.9 106.0 159.7 107.8 141.2 117.8 −54.2 −44.1 −26.7

228.8 199.7 +5.4 92.0 76.0 70.7 +2.8 179.0 189.8 194.0 −25.1 203.0 217.5 146.4 113.9 117.4 96.0 144.7 100.8 105.0 147.7 123.8 166.3 −25.4 168.7 212.7 108.4 178.0 94.6 138.1 122.0 88.6 136.1 143.2 215.8 133.8 60.4 95.3 21.5 −185.1 −43.1 131.8 164.2 −0.5 −68.8 17.3 12.1 −51.3 115.8 172.0 117.4 150.4 127.4 −48.0 −37.3 −19.4

245.8 216.0 15.8 102.8 87.3 81.8 13.0 193.6 204.2 209.0 −17.8 216.5 233.5 157.7 125.0 129.0 108.2 157.7 114.7 118.3 159.8 138.1 181.2 −16.0 184.5 227.5 121.8 190.2 108.3 151.8 135.8 102.1 149.4 156.7 230.4 148.0 72.1 106.6 32.8 −181.4 −34.8 144.5 179.8 +9.4 −61.3 28.0 21.2 −43.7 129.8 187.8 130.8 163.9 140.3 −39.4 −28.0 −9.9

+22.1 28.8 +19.7 −5.5 −13.0 93.5 30.0 61.7 −99.5 19.0 108.1 155.0 −14.0 −33.8 −80.6 106.0 26.7 134.0

33.3 38.8 30.0 +5.0 −2.9 108.0 42.0 74.9 −92.4 30.0 123.0 169.8 −3.2 −23.7 −72.8 120.4 38.1 149.7

45.4 50.0 40.8 16.7 +8.4 123.0 55.4 89.0 −84.8 41.5 140.0 185.2 +8.7 −12.8 −64.0 136.0 50.7 165.8

58.2 62.0 52.8 29.6 21.0 139.0 70.0 105.3 −76.0 54.5 157.9 201.8 22.0 −0.6 −54.2 152.4 64.7 184.0

67.0 69.8 60.4 37.4 28.9 148.6 79.7 115.3 −70.4 63.0 170.0 212.0 30.5 +7.2 −48.0 163.8 73.6 195.4

78.0 79.8 70.4 48.0 39.6 161.5 91.4 128.0 −63.0 73.5 185.8 224.8 42.1 17.9 −39.3 177.5 85.4 210.1

200

400

760

Temperature, °C

−53.9 24.4 14.6 +2.5 −57.5 90.0 100.0 102.2 −71.0 132.4 121.2 73.5 41.0 44.6 22.0 58.7 16.4 24.1 70.0 37.2 79.5 −79.8 77.7 121.0 28.1 102.0 14.0 55.4 44.0 +9.7 56.0 57.4 123.2 47.3 −8.7 25.5 −44.5 −205.9 −90.7 52.5 −57.2 −111.0 −43.7 −44.0 −95.8 36.0 77.6 39.0 70.0 49.0 −96.3 −89.1 −75.4 −0.3 +7.7 −1.4 −26.8 −34.1 63.7 +5.0 34.2 −2.9 77.4 125.7 −35.9 −53.7 −96.0 77.1 3.2 103.5

272.2 300.4 330.0 241.7 268.5 298.3 31.6 49.6 68.7 119.6 138.0 157.0 103.7 121.8 139.9 98.3 117.0 135.5 29.0 46.8 66.0 215.7 241.0 266.8 225.0 248.3 271.3 230.8 255.0 279.8 −5.3 +10.2 25.9 238.0 262.5 286.2 256.8 282.6 310.0 175.2 193.8 212.0 142.0 159.8 178.8 146.5 165.5 185.0 126.8 147.5 167.9 178.0 200.0 221.0 135.6 157.8 181.6 139.8 163.9 188.6 179.0 199.3 219.5 160.0 185.7 211.0 202.5 225.2 250.0 −1.2 +15.4 32.6 207.8 231.8 257.0 249.8 273.8 299.2 142.0 164.0 187.0 208.3 227.4 245.8 128.5 151.4 175.0 173.3 196.2 220.0 155.9 179.5 202.0 122.7 146.0 169.5 168.3 190.2 212.0 178.8 202.8 227.0 253.2 277.1 301.0 169.8 194.2 219.0 90.0 109.8 130.0 123.9 142.5 161.0 50.0 70.3 90.3 −175.5 −168.8 −161.5 −22.1 −7.9 +6.8 163.5 184.2 204.0 202.3 227.4 253.0 24.0 40.0 57.8 −49.8 −37.2 −23.3 43.9 61.8 80.2 34.8 49.9 64.7 −32.4 −19.7 −6.3 149.3 172.0 195.5 212.4 238.5 266.5 151.4 174.7 199.5 183.2 204.5 225.5 159.0 180.7 204.0 −26.5 −11.9 +3.6 −13.8 +2.5 20.2 +4.9 21.6 38.5 94.9 94.3 85.6 64.3 55.7 181.6 109.8 148.1 −51.2 90.5 209.6 245.0 59.6 34.0 −26.0 199.0 103.2 232.8

113.5 111.0 102.0 83.1 73.6 202.9 129.8 170.0 −38.0 109.5 235.0 266.8 79.6 52.3 −11.3 222.5 122.6 257.0

131.7 127.5 119.0 102.3 92.6 224.0 150 193.0 −24.0 130.3 263.0 288.0 100.9 71.8 +4.5 246.5 143.0 282.0

Melting point, °C 130 −95.3 −51.6 −98.5 48.5 −13.2 170.3 115.5 79 −47 −2 −28.5

−146.7 44.5 48 33.5 −96.9 58 42.5 54.5 −59 15 −182.5 −121 102 −98.7 −102.7 −97.8 −93.5 −57 24 −12.5 15.4 −93 −135 −133 −56.9 −84.7 −84.7 −18 −40 −97.7 −31.9 33.4 −126.4 −142.4

−7.6

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES TABLE 2-10

2-75

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm* (Continued) Pressure, mmHg Compound Name

Formula

Methyl n-dodecyl ketone (2-tetradecanone) Methylene bromide (dibromomethane) chloride (dichloromethane) Methyl ethyl ketone (2-butanone) 2-Methyl-3-ethylpentane 3-Methyl-3-ethylpentane Methyl fluoride formate α-Methylglutaric anhydride Methyl glycolate 2-Methylheptadecane 2-Methylheptane 3-Methylheptane 4-Methylheptane 2-Methyl-2-heptene 6-Methyl-3-hepten-2-ol 6-Methyl-5-hepten-2-ol 2-Methylhexane 3-Methylhexane Methyl iodide laurate levulinate methacrylate myristate α-naphthyl ketone (1-acetonaphthone) β-naphthyl ketone (2-acetonaphthone) n-nonyl ketone (undecan-2-one) palmitate n-pentadecyl ketone (2-heptdecanone) 2-Methylpentane 3-Methylpentane 2-Methyl-1-pentanol 2-Methyl-2-pentanol Methyl n-pentyl ketone (2-heptanone) phenyl ether (anisole) 2-Methylpropene Methyl propionate 4-Methylpropiophenone 2-Methylpropionyl bromide Methyl propyl ether n-propyl ketone (2-pentanone) isopropyl ketone (3-Methyl-2-butanone) 2-Methylquinoline Methyl salicylate α-Methyl styrene 4-Methyl styrene Methyl n-tetradecyl ketone (2-hexadecanone) thiocyanate isothiocyanate undecyl ketone (2-tridecanone) isovalerate Monovinylacetylene (butenyne) Myrcene Myristaldehyde Myristic acid (tetradecanoic acid) Naphthalene 1-Naphthoic acid 2-Naphthoic acid 1-Naphthol 2-Naphthol 1-Naphthylamine 2-Naphthylamine Nicotine 2-Nitroaniline 3-Nitroaniline 4-Nitroaniline 2-Nitrobenzaldehyde 3-Nitrobenzaldehyde Nitrobenzene Nitroethane Nitroglycerin Nitromethane 2-Nitrophenol 2-Nitrophenyl acetate

C14H28O CH2Br2 CH2Cl2 C4H8O C8H18 C8H18 CH3F C2H4O2 C6H8O3 C3H6O3 C18H38 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H16 C8H16O C8H16O C7H16 C7H16 CH3I C13H26O2 C6H10O3 C5H8O2 C15H30O2 C12H10O C12H10O C11H22O C17H34O2 C17H34O C6H14 C6H14 C6H14O C6H14O C7H14O C7H8O C4H8 C4H8O2 C10H12O C4H7BrO C4H10O C5H10O C5H10O C10H9N C8H8O3 C9H10 C9H10 C16H32O C2H3NS C2H3NS C13H26O C6H12O2 C4H4 C10H16 C14H28O C14H28O2 C10H8 C11H8O2 C11H8O2 C10H8O C10H8O C10H9N C10H9N C10H14N2 C6H6N2O2 C6H6N2O2 C6H6N2O2 C7H5NO3 C7H5NO3 C6H5NO2 C2H5NO2 C3H5N3O9 CH3NO2 C6H5NO3 C8H7NO4

1

5

10

20

40

99.3 −35.1 −70.0 −48.3 −24.0 −23.9 −147.3 −74.2 93.8 +9.6 119.8 −21.0 −19.8 −20.4 −16.1 41.6 41.9 −40.4 −39.0

130.0 −13.2 −52.1 −28.0 −1.8 −1.4 −137.0 −57.0 125.4 33.7 152.0 +1.3 +2.6 +1.5 +6.7 65.0 66.0 −19.5 −18.1 −55.0 117.9 66.4 −10.0 145.7 146.3 152.3 95.5 166.8 161.6 −41.7 −39.8 38.0 +16.8 43.6 30.0 −96.5 −21.5 89.3 38.4 −54.3 +8.0 −1.0 104.0 81.6 34.0 42.0

145.5 −2.4 −43.3 −17.7 +9.5 +9.9 −131.6 −48.6 141.8 45.3 168.7 12.3 13.3 12.4 17.8 76.7 77.8 −9.1 −7.8 −45.8 133.2 79.7 +1.0 160.8 161.5 168.5 108.9 184.3 178.0 −32.1 −30.1 49.6 27.6 55.5 42.2 −81.9 −11.8 103.8 50.6 −45.4 17.9 +8.3 119.0 95.3 47.1 55.1

161.3 +9.7 −33.4 −6.5 21.7 22.3 −125.9 −39.2 157.7 58.1 186.0 24.4 25.4 24.5 30.4 89.3 90.4 +2.3 +3.6 −35.6 149.0 93.7 11.0 177.8 178.4 185.7 123.1 202.0 196.4 −21.4 −19.4 61.6 38.8 67.7 55.8 −73.4 −1.0 120.2 64.1 −35.4 28.5 18.3 134.0 110.0 61.8 69.2

179.8 23.3 −22.3 +6.0 35.2 36.2 −119.1 −28.7 177.5 72.3 204.8 37.9 38.9 38.0 44.0 102.7 104.0 14.9 16.4 −24.2 166.0 109.5 25.5 195.8 196.8 203.8 139.0

151.5 +9.8 −8.3 117.0 +2.9 −77.7 40.0 132.0 174.1 74.2 184.0 189.7 125.5 128.6 137.7 141.6 91.8 135.7 151.5 177.6 117.7 127.4 71.6 +1.5 167 −7.9 76.8 128.0

167.3 21.6 +5.4 131.8 14.0 −70.0 53.2 148.3 190.8 85.8 196.8 202.8 142.0 145.5 153.8 157.6 107.2 150.4 167.8 194.4 133.4 142.8 84.9 12.5 188 +2.8 90.4 142.0

184.6 34.5 20.4 147.8 26.4 −61.3 67.0 166.2 207.6 101.7 211.2 216.9 158.0 161.8 171.6 175.8 123.7 167.7 185.5 213.2 150.0 159.0 99.3 24.8 210 14.1 105.8 155.8

60

100

200

400

760

191.4 31.6 −15.7 14.0 43.9 45.0 −115.0 −21.9 189.9 81.8 216.3 46.6 47.6 46.6 52.8 111.5 112.8 23.0 24.5 −16.9 176.8 119.3 34.5 207.5 208.6 214.7 148.6

206.0 42.3 −6.3 25.0 55.7 57.1 −109.0 −12.9 205.0 93.7 231.5 58.3 59.4 58.3 64.6 122.6 123.8 34.1 35.6 −7.0 190.8 133.0 47.0 222.6 223.8 229.8 161.0

228.2 58.5 +8.0 41.6 73.6 75.3 −99.9 +0.8 229.1 111.8 254.5 76.0 77.1 76.1 82.3 139.5 140.0 50.8 52.4 +8.0

253.3 79.0 24.1 60.0 94.0 96.2 −89.5 16.0 255.5 131.7 279.8 96.2 97.4 96.3 102.2 156.6 156.6 69.8 71.6 25.3

278.0 98.6 40.7 79.6 115.6 118.3 −78.2 32.0 282.5 151.5 306.5 117.6 118.9 117.7 122.5 175.5 174.3 90.0 91.9 42.4

153.4 63.0 245.3 246.7 251.6 181.2

175.8 82.0 269.8 270.5 275.8 202.3

197.7 101.0 295.8 295.5 301.0 224.0

214.3 −9.7 −7.3 74.7 51.3 81.2 70.7 −63.8 +11.0 138.0 79.4 −24.3 39.8 29.6 150.8 126.2 77.8 85.0

226.7 −1.9 +0.1 83.4 58.8 89.8 80.1 −57.7 18.7 149.3 88.8 −17.4 47.3 36.2 161.7 136.7 88.3 95.0

242.0 +8.1 10.5 94.2 69.2 100.0 93.0 −49.3 29.0 164.2 101.6 −8.1 56.8 45.5 176.2 150.0 102.2 108.6

265.8 24.1 26.5 111.3 85.0 116.1 112.3 −36.7 44.2 187.4 120.5 +6.0 71.0 59.0 197.8 172.6 121.8 128.7

291.7 41.6 44.2 129.8 102.6 133.2 133.8 −22.2 61.8 212.7 141.7 22.5 86.8 73.8 211.7 197.5 143.0 151.2

319.5 60.3 63.3 147.9 121.2 150.2 155.5 −6.9 79.8 238.5 163.0 39.1 103.3 88.9 246.5 223.2 165.4 175.0

203.7 49.0 38.2 165.7 39.8 −51.7 82.6 186.0 223.5 119.3 225.0 231.5 177.8 181.7 191.5 195.7 142.1 186.0 204.2 234.2 168.8 177.7 115.4 38.0 235 27.5 122.1 172.8

215.0 58.1 47.5 176.6 48.2 −45.3 92.6 198.3 237.2 130.2 234.5 241.3 190.0 193.7 203.8 208.1 154.7 197.8 216.5 245.9 180.7 189.5 125.8 46.5 251 35.5 132.6 181.7

230.5 70.4 59.3 191.5 59.8 −37.1 106.0 214.5 250.5 145.5 245.8 252.7 206.0 209.8 220.0 224.3 169.5 213.0 232.1 261.8 196.2 204.3 139.9 57.8

254.4 89.8 77.5 214.0 77.3 −24.1 126.0 240.4 272.3 167.7 263.5 270.3 229.6 234.0 244.9 249.7 193.8 236.3 255.3 284.5 220.0 227.4 161.2 74.8

279.8 110.8 97.8 238.3 96.7 −10.1 148.3 267.9 294.6 193.2 281.4 289.5 255.8 260.6 272.2 277.4 219.8 260.0 280.2 310.2 246.8 252.1 185.8 94.0

307.0 132.9 119.0 262.5 116.7 +5.3 171.5 297.8 318.0 217.9 300.0 308.5 282.5 288.0 300.8 306.1 247.3 284.5 305.7 336.0 273.5 278.3 210.6 114.0

46.6 146.4 194.1

63.5 167.6 213.0

82.0 191.0 233.5

101.2 214.5 253.0

Temperature, °C

87.8 39.8 −30.5 115.0 115.6 120.2 68.2 134.3 129.6 −60.9 −59.0 15.4 −4.5 19.3 +5.4 −105.1 −42.0 59.6 13.5 −72.2 −12.0 −19.9 75.3 54.0 7.4 16.0 109.8 −14.0 −34.7 86.8 −19.2 −93.2 14.5 99.0 142.0 52.6 156.0 160.8 94.0 104.3 108.0 61.8 104.0 119.3 142.4 85.8 96.2 44.4 −21.0 127 −29.0 49.3 100.0

Melting point, °C −52.8 −96.7 −85.9 −114.5 −90 −99.8

−109.5 −120.8 −121.1

−118.2 −64.4 5 18.5 55.5 15 30 −154 −118 −103 −37.3 −140.3 −87.5

−77.8 −92 −1 −8.3 −23.2

−51 35.5 28.5

23.5 57.5 80.2 160.5 184 96 122.5 50 111.5 71.5 114 146.5 40.9 58 +5.7 −90 11 −29 45

2-76

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-10

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued) Pressure, mmHg Compound Name

1-Nitropropane 2-Nitropropane 2-Nitrotoluene 3-Nitrotoluene 4-Nitrotoluene 4-Nitro-1,3-xylene (4-nitro-m-xylene) Nonacosane Nonadecane n-Nonane 1-Nonanol 2-Nonanone Octacosane Octadecane n-Octane n-Octanol (1-octanol) 2-Octanone n-Octyl acrylate iodide (1-Iodooctane) Oleic acid Palmitaldehyde Palmitic acid Palmitonitrile Pelargonic acid Pentachlorobenzene Pentachloroethane Pentachloroethylbenzene Pentachlorophenol Pentacosane Pentadecane 1,3-Pentadiene 1,4-Pentadiene Pentaethylbenzene Pentaethylchlorobenzene n-Pentane iso-Pentane (2-methylbutane) neo-Pentane (2,2-dimethylpropane) 2,3,4-Pentanetriol 1-Pentene α-Phellandrene Phenanthrene Phenethyl alcohol (phenyl cellosolve) 2-Phenetidine Phenol 2-Phenoxyethanol 2-Phenoxyethyl acetate Phenyl acetate Phenylacetic acid Phenylacetonitrile Phenylacetyl chloride Phenyl benzoate 4-Phenyl-3-buten-2-one Phenyl isocyanate isocyanide Phenylcyclohexane Phenyl dichlorophosphate m-Phenylene diamine (1,3-phenylenediamine) Phenylglyoxal Phenylhydrazine N-Phenyliminodiethanol 1-Phenyl-1,3-pentanedione 2-Phenylphenol 4-Phenylphenol 3-Phenyl-1-propanol Phenyl isothiocyanate Phorone iso-Phorone Phosgene (carbonyl chloride) Phthalic anhydride Phthalide Phthaloyl chloride 2-Picoline Pimelic acid α-Pinene β-Pinene

1

5

10

20

40

C3H7NO2 −9.6 C3H7NO2 −18.8 C7H7NO2 50.0 C7H7NO2 50.2 C7H7NO2 53.7 C8H9NO2 65.6 C29H60 234.2 C19H40 133.2 C9H20 +1.4 C9H20O 59.5 C9H18O 32.1 C28H58 226.5 C18H38 119.6 C8H18 −14.0 C8H18O 54.0 C8H16O 23.6 C11H20O2 58.5 C8H17I 45.8 C18H34O2 176.5 C16H32O 121.6 C16H32O2 153.6 C16H31N 134.3 C9H18O2 108.2 C6HCl5 98.6 C2HCl5 +1.0 C8H5Cl5 96.2 C6HCl5O C25H52 194.2 C15H32 91.6 C5H8 −71.8 C5H8 −83.5 C16H26 86.0 C16H25Cl 90.0 C5H12 −76.6 C5H12 −82.9 C5H12 −102.0 C5H12O3 155.0 C5H10 −80.4 C10H16 20.0 C14H10 118.2 C8H10O2 58.2 C8H11NO 67.0 C6H6O 40.1 C8H10O2 78.0 C10H12O3 82.6 C8H8O2 38.2 C8H8O2 97.0 C8H7N 60.0 C8H7ClO 48.0 C13H10O2 106.8 C10H10O 81.7 C7H5NO 10.6 C7H5N 12.0 C12H16 67.5 C6H5Cl2O2P 66.7

+13.5 +4.1 79.1 81.0 85.0 95.0 269.8 166.3 25.8 86.1 59.0 260.3 152.1 +8.3 76.5 48.4 87.7 74.8 208.5 154.6 188.1 168.3 126.0 129.7 27.2 130.0

25.3 15.8 93.8 96.0 100.5 109.8 286.4 183.5 38.0 99.7 72.3 277.4 169.6 19.2 88.3 60.9 102.0 90.0 223.0 171.8 205.8 185.8 137.4 144.3 39.8 148.0

230.0 121.0 −53.8 −66.2 120.0 123.8 −62.5 −65.8 −85.4 189.3 −63.3 45.7 154.3 85.9 94.7 62.5 106.6 113.5 64.8 127.0 89.0 75.3 141.5 112.2 36.0 37.0 96.5 95.9

248.2 135.4 −45.0 −57.1 135.8 140.7 −50.1 −57.0 −76.7 204.5 −54.5 58.0 173.0 100.0 108.6 73.8 121.2 128.0 78.0 141.3 103.5 89.0 157.8 127.4 48.5 49.7 111.3 110.0

37.9 28.2 109.6 112.8 117.7 125.8 303.6 200.8 51.2 113.8 87.2 295.4 187.5 31.5 101.0 74.3 117.8 105.9 240.0 190.0 223.8 204.2 149.8 160.0 53.9 166.0 192.2 266.1 150.2 −34.8 −47.7 152.4 158.1 −40.2 −47.3 −67.2 220.5 −46.0 72.1 193.7 114.8 123.7 86.0 136.0 144.5 92.3 156.0 119.4 103.6 177.0 143.8 62.5 63.4 126.4 125.9

51.8 41.8 126.3 130.7 136.0 143.3 323.2 220.0 66.0 129.0 103.4 314.2 207.4 45.1 115.2 89.8 135.6 123.8 257.2 210.0 244.4 223.8 163.7 178.5 69.9 186.2 211.2 285.6 167.7 −23.4 −37.0 171.9 178.2 −29.2 −36.5 −56.1 239.6 −34.1 87.8 215.8 130.5 139.9 100.1 152.2 162.3 108.1 173.6 136.3 119.8 197.6 161.3 77.7 78.3 144.0 143.4

C6H8N2 C8H6O2 C6H8N2 C10H15NO2 C11H12O2 C12H10O C12H10O C9H12O C7H5NS C9H14O C9H14O CCl2O C8H4O3 C8H6O2 C8H4Cl2O2 C6H7N C7H12O4 C10H16 C10H16

71.8 145.0 98.0 100.0

131.2 75.0 101.6 179.2 128.5 131.6

74.7 47.2 42.0 38.0 −92.9 96.5 95.5 86.3 −11.1 163.4 −1.0 +4.2

102.4 75.6 68.3 66.7 −77.0 121.3 127.7 118.3 +12.6 196.2 +24.6 30.0

147.0 87.8 115.8 195.8 144.0 146.2 176.2 116.0 89.8 81.5 81.2 −69.3 134.0 144.0 134.2 24.4 212.0 37.3 42.3

163.8 100.7 131.5 213.4 159.9 163.3 193.8 131.2 115.5 95.6 96.8 −60.3 151.7 161.3 151.0 37.4 229.3 51.4 58.1

182.5 115.5 148.2 233.0 178.0 180.3 213.0 147.4 122.5 111.3 114.5 −50.3 172.0 181.0 170.0 51.2 247.0 66.8 71.5

60

200

400

760

60.5 50.3 137.6 142.5 147.9 153.8 334.8 232.8 75.5 139.0 113.8 326.8 219.7 53.8 123.8 99.0 145.6 135.4 269.8 222.6 256.0 236.6 172.3 190.1 80.0 199.0 223.4 298.4 178.4 −16.5 −30.0 184.2 191.0 −22.2 −29.6 −49.0 249.8 −27.1 97.6 229.9 141.2 149.8 108.4 163.2 174.0 118.1 184.5 147.7 129.8 210.8 172.6 87.7 88.0 154.2 153.6

72.3 62.0 151.5 156.9 163.0 168.5 350.0 248.0 88.1 151.3 127.4 341.8 236.0 65.7 135.2 111.7 159.1 150.0 286.0 239.5 271.5 251.5 184.4 205.5 93.5 216.0 239.6 314.0 194.0 −6.7 −20.6 200.0 208.0 −12.6 −20.2 −39.1 263.5 −17.7 110.6 249.0 154.0 163.5 121.4 176.5 189.2 131.6 198.2 161.8 143.5 227.8 187.8 100.6 101.0 169.3 168.0

90.2 80.0 173.7 180.3 186.7 191.7 373.2 271.8 107.5 170.5 148.2 364.8 260.6 83.6 152.0 130.4 180.2 173.3 309.8 264.1 298.7 277.1 203.1 227.0 114.0 241.8 261.8 339.0 216.1 +8.0 −6.7 224.1 230.3 +1.9 −5.9 −23.7 284.5 −3.4 130.6 277.1 175.0 184.0 139.0 197.6 211.3 151.2 219.5 184.2 163.8 254.0 211.0 120.8 120.8 191.3 189.8

110.6 99.8 197.7 206.8 212.5 217.5 397.2 299.8 128.2 192.1 171.2 388.9 288.0 104.0 173.8 151.0 204.0 199.3 334.7 292.3 326.0 304.5 227.5 251.6 137.2 269.3 285.0 365.4 242.8 24.7 +8.3 250.2 257.2 18.5 +10.5 −7.1 307.0 +12.8 152.0 308.0 197.5 207.0 160.0 221.0 235.0 173.5 243.0 208.5 186.0 283.5 235.4 142.7 142.3 214.6 213.0

131.6 120.3 222.3 231.9 238.3 244.0 421.8 330.0 150.8 213.5 195.0 412.5 317.0 125.6 195.2 172.9 227.0 225.5 360.0 321.0 353.8 332.0 253.5 276.0 160.5 299.0 309.3 390.3 270.5 42.1 26.1 277.0 285.0 36.1 27.8 +9.5 327.2 30.1 175.0 340.2 219.5 228.0 181.9 245.3 259.7 195.9 265.5 233.5 210.0 314.0 261.0 165.6 165.0 240.0 239.5

−108 −93 −4.1 15.5 51.9 +2 63.8 32 −53.7 −5 −19 61.6 28 −56.8 −15.4 −16

194.0 124.2 158.7 245.3 189.8 192.2 225.3 156.8 133.3 121.4 125.6 −44.0 185.3 193.5 182.2 59.9 258.2 76.8 81.2

209.9 136.2 173.5 260.6 204.5 205.9 240.9 170.3 147.7 134.0 140.6 −35.6 202.3 210.0 197.8 71.4 272.0 90.1 94.0

233.0 153.8 195.4 284.5 226.7 227.9 263.2 191.2 169.6 153.5 163.3 −22.3 228.0 234.5 222.0 89.0 294.5 110.2 114.1

259.0 173.5 218.2 311.3 251.2 251.8 285.5 212.8 194.0 175.3 188.7 −7.6 256.8 261.8 248.3 108.4 318.5 132.3 136.1

285.5 193.5 243.5 337.8 276.5 275.0 308.0 235.0 218.5 197.2 215.2 +8.3 284.5 290.0 275.8 128.8 342.1 155.0 158.3

62.8 73 19.5

Temperature, °C

Formula

99.8

Melting point, °C

100

−45.9 14 34 64.0 31 12.5 85.5 −22 188.5 53.3 10

−129.7 −159.7 −16.6

99.5 40.6 11.6 −6.7 76.5 −23.8 70.5 41.5 +7.5

56.5 164.5 −21.0 28 −104 130.8 73 88.5 −70 103 −55

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES TABLE 2-10

2-77

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued) Pressure, mmHg Compound Name

Piperidine Piperonal Propane Propenylbenzene Propionamide Propionic acid anhydride Propionitrile Propiophenone n-Propyl acetate iso-Propyl acetate n-Propyl alcohol (1-propanol) iso-Propyl alcohol (2-propanol) n-Propylamine Propylbenzene Propyl benzoate n-Propyl bromide (1-bromopropane) iso-Propyl bromide (2-bromopropane) n-Propyl n-butyrate isobutyrate iso-Propyl isobutyrate Propyl carbamate n-Propyl chloride (1-chloropropane) iso-Propyl chloride (2-chloropropane) iso-Propyl chloroacetate Propyl chloroglyoxylate Propylene Propylene glycol (1,2-Propanediol) Propylene oxide n-Propyl formate iso-Propyl formate 4,4′-iso-Propylidenebisphenol n-Propyl iodide (1-iodopropane) iso-Propyl iodide (2-iodopropane) n-Propyl levulinate iso-Propyl levulinate Propyl mercaptan (1-propanethiol) 2-iso-Propylnaphthalene iso-Propyl β-naphthyl ketone (2-isobutyronaphthone) 2-iso-Propylphenol 3-iso-Propylphenol 4-iso-Propylphenol Propyl propionate 4-iso-Propylstyrene Propyl isovalerate Pulegone Pyridine Pyrocatechol Pyrocaltechol diacetate (1,2-phenylene diacetate) Pyrogallol Pyrotartaric anhydride Pyruvic acid Quinoline iso-Quinoline Resorcinol Safrole Salicylaldehyde Salicylic acid Sebacic acid Selenophene Skatole Stearaldehyde Stearic acid Stearyl alcohol (1-octadecanol) Styrene Styrene dibromide [(1,2-dibromoethyl) benzene] Suberic acid Succinic anhydride Succinimide Succinyl chloride α-Terpineol Terpenoline

1

5

10

20

87.0 −128.9 17.5 65.0 4.6 20.6 −35.0 50.0 −26.7 −38.3 −15.0 −26.1 −64.4 6.3 54.6 −53.0 −61.8 −1.6 −6.2 −16.3 52.4 −68.3 −78.8 +3.8 9.7 −131.9 45.5 −75.0 −43.0 −52.0 193.0 −36.0 −43.3 59.7 48.0 −56.0 76.0

−7.0 117.4 −115.4 43.8 91.0 28.0 45.3 −13.6 77.9 −5.4 −17.4 +5.0 −7.0 −46.3 31.3 83.8 −33.4 −42.5 +22.1 +16.8 +5.8 77.6 −50.0 −61.1 28.1 32.3 −120.7 70.8 −57.8 −22.7 −32.7 224.2 −13.5 −22.1 86.3 74.5 −36.3 107.9

+3.9 132.0 −108.5 57.0 105.0 39.7 57.7 −3.0 92.2 +5.0 −7.2 14.7 +2.4 −37.2 43.4 98.0 −23.3 −32.8 34.0 28.3 17.0 90.0 −41.0 −52.0 40.2 43.5 −112.1 83.2 −49.0 −12.6 −22.7 240.8 −2.4 −11.7 99.9 88.0 −26.3 123.4

15.8 148.0 −100.9 71.5 119.0 52.0 70.4 +8.8 107.6 16.0 +4.2 25.3 12.7 −27.1 56.8 114.3 −12.4 −22.0 47.0 40.6 29.0 103.2 −31.0 −42.0 53.9 55.6 −104.7 96.4 −39.3 −1.7 −12.1 255.5 +10.0 0.0 114.0 102.4 −15.4 140.3

29.2 165.7 −92.4 87.7 134.8 65.8 85.6 22.0 124.3 28.8 17.0 36.4 23.8 −16.0 71.6 131.8 −0.3 −10.1 61.5 54.3 42.4 117.7 −19.5 −31.0 68.7 68.8 −96.5 111.2 −28.4 +10.8 −0.2 273.0 23.6 +13.2 130.1 118.1 −3.2 159.0

60

100

200

400

760

37.7 177.0 −87.0 97.8 144.3 74.1 94.5 30.1 135.0 37.0 25.1 43.5 30.5 −9.0 81.1 143.3 +7.5 −2.5 70.3 63.0 51.4 126.5 −12.1 −23.5 78.0 77.2 −91.3 119.9 −21.3 18.8 +7.5 282.9 32.1 21.6 140.6 127.8 +4.6 171.4

49.0 191.7 −79.6 111.7 156.0 85.8 107.2 41.4 149.3 47.8 35.7 52.8 39.5 +0.5 94.0 157.4 18.0 +8.0 82.6 73.9 62.3 138.3 −2.5 −13.7 90.3 88.0 −84.1 132.0 −12.0 29.5 17.8 297.0 43.8 32.8 154.0 141.8 15.3 187.6

66.2 214.3 −68.4 132.0 174.2 102.5 127.8 58.2 170.2 64.0 51.7 66.8 53.0 15.0 113.5 180.1 34.0 23.8 101.0 91.8 80.2 155.8 +12.2 +1.3 108.8 104.7 −73.3 149.7 +2.1 45.3 33.6 317.5 61.8 50.0 175.6 161.6 31.5 211.8

85.7 238.5 −55.6 154.7 194.0 122.0 146.0 77.7 194.2 82.0 69.8 82.0 67.8 31.5 135.7 205.2 52.0 41.5 121.7 112.0 100.0 175.8 29.4 18.1 128.0 123.0 −60.9 168.1 17.8 62.6 50.5 339.0 81.8 69.5 198.0 185.2 49.2 238.5

106.0 263.0 −42.1 179.0 213.0 141.1 167.0 97.1 218.0 101.8 89.0 97.8 82.5 48.5 159.2 231.0 71.0 60.0 142.7 133.9 120.5 195.0 46.4 36.5 148.6 150.0 −47.7 188.2 34.5 81.3 68.3 360.5 102.5 89.5 221.2 208.2 67.4 266.0

Temperature, °C

Formula C5H11N C8H6O3 C3H8 C9H10 C3H7NO C3H6O2 C6H10O3 C3H5N C9H10O C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C3H8O C3H8O C3H9N C9H12 C10H12O2 C3H7Br C3H7Br C7H14O2 C7H14O2 C7H14O2 C4H9NO2 C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C5H9ClO2 C5H7ClO3 C3H6 C3H8O2 C3H6O C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C15H16O2 C3H7I C3H7I C8H14O3 C8H14O3 C3H8S C13H14

40

C14H14O C9H12O C9H12O C9H12O C6H12O2 C11H14 C8H16O2 C10H16O C5H5N C6H6O2

133.2 56.6 62.0 67.0 −14.2 34.7 +8.0 58.3 −18.9

165.4 83.8 90.3 94.7 +8.0 62.3 32.8 82.5 +2.5 104.0

181.0 97.0 104.1 108.0 19.4 76.0 45.1 94.0 13.2 118.3

197.7 111.7 119.8 123.4 31.6 91.2 58.0 106.8 24.8 134.0

215.6 127.5 136.2 139.8 45.0 108.0 72.8 121.7 38.0 150.6

227.0 137.7 146.6 149.7 53.8 118.4 82.3 130.2 46.8 161.7

242.3 150.3 160.2 163.3 65.2 132.8 95.0 143.1 57.8 176.0

264.0 170.1 182.0 184.0 82.7 153.9 113.9 162.5 75.0 197.7

288.2 192.6 205.0 206.1 102.0 178.0 135.0 189.8 95.6 221.5

313.0 214.5 228.0 228.2 122.4 202.5 155.9 221.0 115.4 245.5

C10H10O4 C6H6O3 C5H6O3 C3H4O3 C9H7N C9H7N C6H6O2 C10H10O2 C7H6O2 C7H6O3 C10H18O4 C4H4Se C9H9N C18H36O C18H36O2 C18H36O C8H8

98.0 69.7 21.4 59.7 63.5 108.4 63.8 33.0 113.7 183.0 −39.0 95.0 140.0 173.7 150.3 −7.0

129.8 151.7 99.7 45.8 89.6 92.7 138.0 93.0 60.1 136.0 215.7 −16.0 124.2 174.6 209.0 185.6 +18.0

145.7 167.7 114.2 57.9 103.8 107.8 152.1 107.6 73.8 146.2 232.0 −4.0 139.6 192.1 225.0 202.0 30.8

161.8 185.3 130.0 70.8 119.8 123.7 168.0 123.0 88.7 156.8 250.0 +9.1 154.3 210.6 243.4 220.0 44.6

179.8 204.2 147.8 85.3 136.7 141.6 185.3 140.1 105.2 172.2 268.2 24.1 171.9 230.8 263.3 240.4 59.8

191.6 216.3 158.6 94.1 148.1 152.0 195.8 150.3 115.7 182.0 279.8 33.8 183.6 244.2 275.5 252.7 69.5

206.5 232.0 173.8 106.5 163.2 167.6 209.8 165.1 129.4 193.4 294.5 47.0 197.4 260.0 291.0 269.4 82.0

228.7 255.3 196.1 124.7 186.2 190.0 230.8 186.2 150.0 210.0 313.2 66.7 218.8 285.0 316.5 293.5 101.3

253.3 281.5 221.0 144.7 212.3 214.5 253.4 210.0 173.7 230.5 332.8 89.8 242.5 313.8 343.0 320.3 122.5

278.0 309.0 247.4 165.0 237.7 240.5 276.5 233.0 196.5 256.0 352.3 114.3 266.2 342.5 370.0 349.5 145.2

C8H8Br2 C8H14O4 C4H4O3 C4H5NO2 C4H4Cl2O2 C10H18O C10H16

86.0 172.8 92.0 115.0 39.0 52.8 32.3

115.6 205.5 115.0 143.2 65.0 80.4 58.0

129.8 219.5 128.2 157.0 78.0 94.3 70.6

145.2 238.2 145.3 174.0 91.8 109.8 84.8

161.8 254.6 163.0 192.0 107.5 126.0 100.0

172.2 265.4 174.0 203.0 117.2 136.3 109.8

186.3 279.8 189.0 217.4 130.0 150.1 122.7

207.8 300.5 212.0 240.0 149.3 171.2 142.0

230.0 322.8 237.0 263.5 170.0 194.3 163.5

254.0 345.5 261.0 287.5 192.5 217.5 185.0

Melting point, °C −9 37 −187.1 −30.1 79 −22 −45 −91.9 21 −92.5 −127 −85.8 −83 −99.5 −51.6 −109.9 −89.0 −95.2

−122.8 −117 −185 −112.1 −92.9 −98.8 −90 −112

15.5 26 61 −76

−42 105 133 13.6 −15 24.6 110.7 11.2 −7 159 134.5 95 63.5 69.3 58.5 −30.6 142 119.6 125.5 17 35

2-78

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-10

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued) Pressure, mmHg Compound Name

Formula

1,1,1,2-Tetrabromoethane 1,1,2,2-Tetrabromoethane Tetraisobutylene Tetracosane 1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene 1,2,3,5-Tetrachlorobenzene 1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloro-1,2-difluoroethane 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 1,2,3,5-Tetrachloro-4-ethylbenzene Tetrachloroethylene 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol 3,4,5,6-Tetrachloro-1,2-xylene Tetradecane Tetradecylamine Tetradecyltrimethylsilane Tetraethoxysilane 1,2,3,4-Tetraethylbenzene Tetraethylene glycol Tetraethylene glycol chlorohydrin Tetraethyllead Tetraethylsilane Tetralin 1,2,3,4-Tetramethylbenzene 1,2,3,5-Tetramethylbenzene 1,2,4,5-Tetramethylbenzene 2,2,3,3-Tetramethylbutane Tetramethylene dibromide (1,4-dibromobutane) Tetramethyllead Tetramethyltin Tetrapropylene glycol monoisopropyl ether Thioacetic acid (mercaptoacetic acid) Thiodiglycol (2,2′-thiodiethanol) Thiophene Thiophenol (benzenethiol) α-Thujone Thymol Tiglaldehyde Tiglic acid Tiglonitrile Toluene Toluene-2,4-diamine 2-Toluic nitrile (2-tolunitrile) 4-Toluic nitrile (4-tolunitrile) 2-Toluidine 3-Toluidine 4-Toluidine 2-Tolyl isocyanide 4-Tolylhydrazine Tribromoacetaldehyde 1,1,2-Tribromobutane 1,2,2-Tribromobutane 2,2,3-Tribromobutane 1,1,2-Tribromoethane 1,2,3-Tribromopropane Triisobutylamine Triisobutylene 2,4,6-Tritertbutylphenol Trichloroacetic acid Trichloroacetic anhydride Trichloroacetyl bromide 2,4,6-Trichloroaniline 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 1,3,5-Trichlorobenzene 1,2,3-Trichlorobutane 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 1,1,2-Trichloroethane Trichloroethylene Trichlorofluoromethane 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol

C2H2Br4 C2H2Br4 C16H32 C24H50 C6H2Cl4 C6H2Cl4 C6H2Cl4 C2Cl4F2 C2H2Cl4 C2H2Cl4 C8H6Cl4 C2Cl4 C6H2Cl4O C8H6Cl4 C14H30 C14H31N C17H38Si C8H20O4Si C14H22 C8H18O5 C8H17ClO4 C8H20Pb C8H20Si C10H12 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C8H18 C4H8Br2 C4H12Pb C4H12Sn C15H32O5 C2H4O2S C4H10O2S C4H4S C6H6S C10H16O C10H14O C5H8O C5H8O2 C5H7N C7H8 C7H10N2 C8H7N C8H7N C7H9N C7H9N C7H9N C8H7N C7H10N2 C2HBr3O C4H7Br3 C4H7Br3 C4H7Br3 C2H3Br3 C3H5Br3 C12H27N C12H24 C18H30O C2HCl3O2 C4Cl6O3 C2BrCl3O C6H4Cl3N C6H3Cl3 C6H3Cl3 C6H3Cl3 C4H7Cl3 C2H3Cl3 C2H3Cl3 C2HCl3 CCl3F C6H3Cl3O C6H3Cl3O

1

5

10

20

58.0 65.0 63.8 183.8 68.5 58.2

83.3 95.5 93.7 219.6 99.6 89.0

95.7 110.0 108.5 237.6 114.7 104.1

108.5 126.0 124.5 255.3 131.2 121.6

−37.5 −16.3 −3.8 77.0 −20.6 100.0 94.4 76.4 102.6 120.0 16.0 65.7 153.9 110.1 38.4 −1.0 38.0 42.6 40.6 45.0 −17.4

−16.0 +7.4 +20.7 110.0 +2.4 130.3 125.0 106.0 135.8 150.7 40.3 96.2 183.7 141.8 63.6 +23.9 65.3 68.7 65.8 65.0 +3.2

−5.0 19.3 33.0 126.0 13.8 145.3 140.3 120.7 152.0 166.2 52.6 111.6 197.1 156.1 74.8 36.3 79.0 81.8 77.8 74.6 13.5

32.0 −29.0 −51.3 116.6 60.0 42.0 −40.7 18.6 38.3 64.3 −25.0 52.0 −25.5 −26.7 106.5 36.7 42.5 44.0 41.0 42.0 25.2 82.4 18.5 45.0 41.0 38.2 32.6 47.5 32.3 18.0 95.2 51.0 56.2 −7.4 134.0 40.0 38.4

58.8 −6.8 −31.0 147.8 87.7 96.0 −20.8 43.7 65.7 92.8 −1.6 77.8 −2.4 −4.4 137.2 64.0 71.3 69.3 68.0 68.2 51.0 110.0 45.0 73.5 69.0 66.0 58.0 75.8 57.4 44.0 126.1 76.0 85.3 +16.7 157.8 70.0 67.3 63.8 27.2 −32.0 −2.0 −22.8 −67.6 102.1 105.9

72.4 +4.4 −20.6 163.0 101.5 128.0 −10.9 56.0 79.3 107.4 +10.0 90.2 +9.2 +6.4 151.7 77.9 85.8 81.4 82.0 81.8 64.0 123.8 58.0 87.8 83.2 79.8 70.6 90.0 69.8 56.5 142.0 88.2 99.6 29.3 170.0 85.6 81.7 78.0 40.0 −21.9 +8.3 −12.4 −59.0 117.3 120.2

40

60

100

200

400

760

Temperature, °C

+0.5 −52.0 −24.0 −43.8 −84.3 72.0 76.5

+6.7 32.1 46.2 143.7 26.3 161.0 156.0 135.6 170.0 183.5 65.8 127.7 212.3 172.6 88.0 50.0 93.8 95.8 91.0 88.0 24.6

123.2 144.0 142.2 276.3 149.2 140.0 146.0 19.8 46.7 60.8 162.1 40.1 179.1 174.2 152.7 189.0 201.5 81.1 145.8 228.0 190.0 102.4 65.3 110.4 111.5 105.8 104.2 36.8

132.0 155.1 152.6 288.4 160.0 152.0 157.7 28.1 56.0 70.0 175.0 49.2 190.0 185.8 164.0 200.2 213.3 90.7 156.7 237.8 200.5 111.7 74.8 121.3 121.8 115.4 114.8 44.5

144.0 170.0 167.5 305.2 175.7 168.0 173.5 38.6 68.0 83.2 191.6 61.3 205.2 200.5 178.5 215.7 227.8 103.6 172.4 250.0 214.7 123.8 88.0 135.3 135.7 128.3 128.1 54.8

161.5 192.5 190.0 330.5 198.0 193.7 196.0 55.0 87.2 102.2 215.3 79.8 227.2 223.0 201.8 239.8 250.0 123.5 196.0 268.4 236.5 142.0 108.0 157.2 155.7 149.9 149.5 70.2

181.0 217.5 214.6 358.0 225.5 220.0 220.5 73.1 108.2 124.0 243.0 100.0 250.4 248.3 226.8 264.6 275.0 146.2 221.4 288.0 258.2 161.8 130.2 181.8 180.0 173.7 172.1 87.4

200.0 243.5 240.0 386.4 254.0 246.0 245.0 92.0 130.5 145.9 270.0 120.8 275.0 273.5 252.5 291.2 300.0 168.5 248.0 307.8 281.5 183.0 153.0 207.2 204.4 197.9 195.9 106.3

87.6 16.6 −9.3 179.8 115.8 165.0 0.0 69.7 93.7 122.6 23.2 103.8 22.1 18.4 167.9 93.0 101.7 95.1 96.7 95.8 78.2 138.6 72.1 103.2 98.6 94.6 84.2 105.8 83.0 70.0 158.0 101.8 114.3 42.1 182.6 101.8 97.2 93.7 55.0 −10.8 21.6 −1.0 −49.7 134.0 135.8

104.0 30.3 +3.5 197.7 131.8 210.0 +12.5 84.2 110.0 139.8 37.0 119.0 36.7 31.8 185.7 110.0 109.5 110.0 113.5 111.5 94.0 154.1 87.8 120.2 116.0 111.8 100.0 122.8 97.8 86.7 177.4 116.3 131.2 57.2 195.8 119.8 114.8 110.8 71.5 +1.6 35.2 +11.9 −39.0 151.5 152.2

115.1 39.2 11.7 209.0 142.0 240.5 20.1 93.9 120.2 149.8 45.8 127.8 46.0 40.3 196.2 120.8 130.0 119.8 123.8 121.5 104.0 165.0 97.5 131.6 127.0 122.2 110.0 134.0 107.3 96.7 188.0 125.9 141.8 66.7 204.5 131.5 125.7 121.8 82.0 9.5 44.0 20.0 −32.3 162.5 163.5

128.7 50.8 22.8 223.3 154.0 285 30.5 106.6 134.0 164.1 57.7 140.5 58.2 51.9 211.5 135.0 145.2 133.0 136.7 133.7 117.7 178.0 110.2 146.0 141.8 136.3 123.5 148.0 119.7 110.0 203.0 137.8 155.2 79.5 214.6 146.0 140.0 136.0 96.2 20.0 55.7 31.4 −23.0 178.0 177.8

149.8 68.8 39.8 245.0

173.8 89.0 58.5 268.3

197.5 110.0 78.0 292.7

46.5 125.8 154.2 185.5 75.4 158.0 77.8 69.5 232.8 156.0 167.3 153.0 157.6 154.0 137.8 198.0 130.0 167.8 163.5 157.8 143.5 170.0 138.0 130.2 226.2 155.4 176.2 98.4 229.8 168.2 162.0 157.7 118.0 36.2 73.3 48.0 −9.1 201.5 199.0

64.7 146.7 177.8 209.2 95.5 179.2 99.7 89.5 256.0 180.0 193.0 176.2 180.6 176.9 159.9 219.5 151.6 192.0 188.0 182.2 165.4 195.0 157.8 153.0 250.6 175.2 199.8 120.2 246.4 193.5 187.7 183.0 143.0 54.6 93.0 67.0 +6.8 226.5 222.5

84.4 168.0 201.0 231.8 116.4 198.5 122.0 110.6 280.0 205.2 217.6 199.7 203.3 200.4 183.5 242.0 174.0 216.2 213.8 206.5 188.4 220.0 179.0 179.0 276.3 195.6 223.0 143.0 262.0 218.5 213.0 208.4 169.0 74.1 113.9 86.7 23.7 251.8 246.0

Melting point, °C

51.1 46.5 54.5 139 26.5 −68.7 −36 −19.0 69.5 5.5

11.6 −136 −31.0 −6.2 −24.0 79.5 −102.2 −20 −27.5 −16.5 −38.3 51.5 64.5 −95.0 99 −13 29.5 −16.3 −31.5 44.5 65.5

−26 16.5 −22 57 78 52.5 17 63.5 −30.6 −36.7 −73 62 68.5

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES TABLE 2-10

2-79

Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Concluded) Pressure, mmHg Compound Name

Tri-2-chlorophenylthiophosphate 1,1,1-Trichloropropane 1,2,3-Trichloropropane 1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane Tricosane Tridecane Tridecanoic acid Triethoxymethylsilane Triethoxyphenylsilane 1,2,4-Triethylbenzene 1,3,4-Triethylbenzene Triethylborine Triethyl camphoronate citrate Triethyleneglycol Triethylheptylsilane Triethyloctylsilane Triethyl orthoformate phosphate Triethylthallium Trifluorophenylsilane Trimethallyl phosphate 2,3,5-Trimethylacetophenone Trimethylamine 2,4,5-Trimethylaniline 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene 2,2,3-Trimethylbutane Trimethyl citrate Trimethyleneglycol (1,3-propanediol) 1,2,4-Trimethyl-5-ethylbenzene 1,3,5-Trimethyl-2-ethylbenzene 2,2,3-Trimethylpentane 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 2,3,4-Trimethylpentane 2,2,4-Trimethyl-3-pentanone Trimethyl phosphate 2,4,5-Trimethylstyrene 2,4,6-Trimethylstyrene Trimethylsuccinic anhydride Triphenylmethane Triphenylphosphate Tripropyleneglycol Tripropyleneglycol monobutyl ether Tripropyleneglycol monoisopropyl ether Tritolyl phosphate Undecane Undecanoic acid 10-Undecenoic acid Undecan-2-ol n-Valeric acid iso-Valeric acid γ-Valerolactone Valeronitrile Vanillin Vinyl acetate 2-Vinylanisole 3-Vinylanisole 4-Vinylanisole Vinyl chloride (1-chloroethylene) cyanide (acrylonitrile) fluoride (1-fluoroethylene) Vinylidene chloride (1,1-dichloroethene) 4-Vinylphenetole 2-Xenyl dichlorophosphate 2,4-Xyaldehyde 2-Xylene (2-xylene) 3-Xylene (3-xylene) 4-Xylene (4-xylene) 2,4-Xylidine 2,6-Xylidine

1

5

10

20

217.2

231.2

246.7

261.7

−7.0 33.7 −49.4 206.3 98.3 166.3 +22.8 98.8 74.2 76.0

+4.2 46.0 −40.3 223.0 104.0 181.0 34.6 112.6 88.5 90.2 −148.0 166.0 144.0 158.1 114.6 120.6 40.5 82.1 51.7 +0.8 149.8 122.3 −73.8 109.0 55.9 50.7 47.4 −18.8 160.4 100.6 84.6 80.5 +3.9 −4.3 +6.9 +7.1 46.4 67.8 91.6 79.7 97.4 197.0 249.8 140.5 147.0 127.3 198.0 73.9 149.0 156.3 112.8 79.8 71.3 79.8 30.0 154.0 −18.0 81.0 83.0 85.7 −83.7 −20.3 −132.2 −51.2 105.6 187.0 99.0 32.1 28.3 27.3 93.0 87.0

16.2 59.3 −30.0 242.0 120.2 195.8 47.2 127.2 104.0 105.8 −140.6 183.6 171.1 174.0 130.3 137.7 53.4 97.8 67.7 12.3 169.8 137.5 −65.0 123.7 69.9 64.5 61.0 −7.5 177.2 115.5 99.7 96.0 16.0 +7.5 19.2 19.3 57.6 83.0 107.1 94.8 113.8 206.8 269.7 155.8 161.8 143.7 213.2 85.6 166.0 172.0 127.5 93.1 84.0 95.2 43.3 170.5 −7.0 94.7 97.2 100.0 −75.7 −9.0 −125.4 −41.7 120.3 205.0 114.0 45.1 41.1 40.1 107.6 102.7

29.9 74.0 −18.5 261.3 137.7 212.4 61.7 143.5 121.7 122.6 −131.4 201.8 190.4 191.3 148.0 155.7 67.5 115.7 85.4 25.4 192.0 154.2 −55.2 139.8 85.4 79.8 76.1 +5.2 194.2 131.0 106.0 113.2 29.5 20.7 33.0 32.9 69.8 100.0 124.2 111.8 131.0 215.5 290.3 173.7 179.8 161.4 229.7 104.4 185.6 188.7 143.7 107.8 98.0 101.9 57.8 188.7 +5.3 110.0 112.5 116.0 −66.8 +3.8 −118.0 −31.1 136.3 223.8 129.7 59.5 55.3 54.4 123.8 120.2

60

100

200

400

760

271.5

283.8

302.8

322.0

341.3

38.3 83.6 −11.2 273.8 148.2 222.0 70.4 153.2 132.2 133.4 −125.2 213.5 202.5 201.5 158.2 168.0 76.0 126.3 95.7 33.2 207.0 165.7 −48.8 149.5 95.3 89.5 85.8 13.3 205.5 141.1 126.3 123.8 38.1 29.1 41.8 41.6 77.3 110.0 135.5 122.3 142.2 221.2 305.2 184.6 190.2 173.2 239.8 115.2 197.2 199.5 153.7 116.6 107.3 122.4 66.9 199.8 13.0 119.8 122.3 126.1 −61.1 11.8 −113.0 −24.0 146.4 236.0 139.8 68.8 64.4 63.5 133.7 131.5

50.0 96.1 −1.7 289.8 162.5 236.0 82.7 167.5 146.8 147.7 −116.0 228.6 217.8 214.6 174.0 184.3 88.0 141.6 112.1 44.2 225.7 179.7 −40.3 162.0 108.8 102.8 98.9 24.4 219.6 153.4 140.3 137.9 49.9 40.7 53.8 53.4 87.6 124.0 149.8 136.8 156.5 228.4 322.5 199.0 204.4 187.8 252.2 128.1 212.5 213.5 167.2 128.3 118.9 136.5 78.6 214.5 23.3 132.3 135.3 139.7 −53.2 22.8 −106.2 −15.0 159.8 251.5 152.2 81.3 76.8 75.9 146.8 146.0

67.7 115.6 +13.5 313.5 185.0 255.2 101.0 188.0 168.3 168.3 −101.0 250.8 242.2 235.2 196.0 208.0 106.0 163.7 136.0 60.1 255.0 201.3 −27.0 182.3 129.0 122.7 118.6 41.2 241.3 172.8 160.3 158.4 67.8 58.1 72.0 71.3 102.2 145.0 171.8 157.8 179.8 239.7 349.8 220.2 224.4 209.7 271.8 149.3 237.8 232.8 187.7 146.0 136.2 157.7 97.7 237.3 38.4 151.0 154.0 159.0 −41.3 38.7 −95.4 −1.0 180.0 275.3 172.3 100.2 95.5 94.6 166.4 168.0

87.5 137.0 30.2 339.8 209.4 276.5 121.8 210.5 193.7 193.2 −81.0 276.0 267.5 256.6 221.0 235.0 125.7 187.0 163.5 78.7 288.5 224.3 −12.5 203.7 152.0 145.4 141.0 60.4 264.2 193.8 184.5 183.5 88.2 78.0 92.7 91.8 118.4 167.8 196.1 182.3 205.5 249.8 379.2 244.3 247.0 232.8 292.7 171.9 262.8 254.0 209.8 165.0 155.2 182.3 118.7 260.0 55.5 172.1 175.8 182.0 −28.0 58.3 −84.0 +14.8 202.8 301.5 194.1 121.7 116.7 115.9 188.3 193.7

108.2 158.0 47.6 366.5 234.0 299.0 143.5 233.5 218.0 217.5 −56.2 301.0 294.0 278.3 247.0 262.0 146.0 211.0 192.1 98.3 324.0 247.5 +2.9 234.5 176.1 169.2 164.7 80.9 287.0 214.2 208.1 208.0 109.8 99.2 114.8 113.5 135.0 192.7 221.2 207.0 231.0 259.2 413.5 267.2 269.5 256.6 313.0 195.8 290.0 275.0 232.0 184.4 175.1 207.5 140.8 285.0 72.5 194.0 197.5 204.5 −13.8 78.5 −72.2 31.7 225.0 328.5 215.5 144.4 139.1 138.3 211.5 217.9

Temperature, °C

Formula C18H12Cl3O3 188.2 PS C3H5Cl3 −28.8 C3H5Cl3 +9.0 C2Cl3F3 −68.0 C23H48 170.0 C13H28 59.4 C13H26O2 137.8 C7H18O3Si −1.5 C12H20O3Si 71.0 C12H18 46.0 C12H18 47.9 C6H15B C15H26O6 C12H20O7 107.0 C6H14O4 114.0 C13H30Si 70.0 C14H32Si 73.7 C7H16O3 +5.5 C6H15O4P 39.6 C6H15Tl +9.3 C6H5F3Si −31.0 C12H21PO4 93.7 C11H14O 79.0 C3H9N −97.1 C9H13N 68.4 C9H12 16.8 C9H12 13.6 C9H12 9.6 C7H16 C9H14O7 106.2 C3H8O2 59.4 C11H16 43.7 C11H16 38.8 C8H18 −29.0 C8H18 −36.5 C8H18 −25.8 C8H18 −26.3 C8H16O 14.7 C3H9O4P 26.0 C11H14 48.1 C11H14 37.5 C7H10O3 53.5 C19H16 169.7 C18H15O4P 193.5 C9H20O4 96.0 C13H28O4 101.5 C12H26O4 82.4 C21H21O4P 154.6 C11H24 32.7 C11H22O2 101.4 C11H20O2 114.0 C11H24O 71.1 C5H10O2 42.2 C5H10O2 34.5 C5H8O2 37.5 C5H9N −6.0 C8H8O3 107.0 C4H6O2 −48.0 C9H10O 41.9 C9H10O 43.4 C9H10O 45.2 C2H3Cl −105.6 C3H3N −51.0 C2H3F −149.3 C2H2Cl2 −77.2 C10H12O 64.0 C12H9Cl2PO 138.2 C9H10O 59.0 C8H10 −3.8 C8H10 −6.9 C8H10 −8.1 52.6 C8H11N C8H11N 44.0

40

150.2 138.7 144.0 99.8 104.8 29.2 67.8 37.6 −9.7 131.0 108.0 −81.7 95.9 42.9 38.3 34.7 146.2 87.2 71.2 67.0 −7.1 −15.0 −3.9 −4.1 36.0 53.7 77.0 65.7 82.6 188.4 230.4 125.7 131.6 112.4 184.2 59.7 133.1 142.8 99.0 67.7 59.6 65.8 +18.1 138.4 −28.0 68.0 69.9 72.0 −90.8 −30.7 −138.0 −60.0 91.7 171.1 85.9 +20.2 +16.8 +15.5 79.8 72.6

Melting point, °C

−77.7 −14.7 −35 47.7 −6.2 41

135

−63.0

−117.1 67 −25.5 −44.1 −44.8 −25.0 78.5

−112.3 −107.3 −101.5 −109.2

93.4 49.4

−25.6 29.5 24.5 −34.5 −37.6 81.5

−153.7 −82 −160.5 −122.5 75 −25.2 −47.9 +13.3

2-80

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

VAPOR PRESSURES OF SOLUTIONS UNITS CONVERSIONS

To convert cubic feet to cubic meters, multiply by 0.02832. To convert bars to pounds-force per square inch, multiply by 14.504. To convert bars to kilopascals, multiply by 1 × 102.

For this subsection, the following units conversions are applicable: °F = 9⁄5°C + 32 To convert millimeters of mercury to pounds-force per square inch, multiply by 0.01934.

TABLE 2-11

Partial Pressures of Water over Aqueous Solutions of HCl* log10 pmm = A − B/T, (T in K), which, however, agrees only approximately with the table. The table is more nearly correct. Partial pressure of H2O, mmHg, °C

% HCl

A

B





10°

15°

20°

25°

30°

35°

40°

45°

50°

60°

6 10 14 18 20

8.99156 8.99864 8.97075 8.98014 8.97877

2282 2295 2300 2323 2334

4.18 3.84 3.39 2.87 2.62

6.04 5.52 4.91 4.21 3.83

8.45 7.70 6.95 5.92 5.40

11.7 10.7 9.65 8.26 7.50

15.9 14.6 13.1 11.3 10.3

21.8 20.0 18.0 15.4 14.1

29.1 26.8 24.1 20.6 19.0

39.4 35.5 31.9 27.5 25.1

50.6 47.0 42.1 36.4 33.3

66.2 61.5 55.3 47.9 43.6

86.0 80.0 72.0 62.5 57.0

139 130 116 102 93.5

22 24 26 28 30

9.02708 8.96022 9.01511 8.97611 9.00117

2363 2356 2390 2395 2422

2.33 2.05 1.76 1.50 1.26

3.40 3.04 2.60 2.24 1.90

4.82 4.31 3.71 3.21 2.73

6.75 6.03 5.21 4.54 3.88

9.30 8.30 7.21 6.32 5.41

12.6 11.4 9.95 8.75 7.52

17.1 15.4 13.5 11.8 10.2

22.8 20.4 18.0 15.8 13.7

30.2 27.1 24.0 21.1 18.4

39.8 35.7 31.7 27.9 24.3

52.0 46.7 41.5 36.5 32.0

32 34 36 38 40 42

9.03317 9.07143 9.11815 9.20783 9.33923 9.44953

2453 2487 2526 2579 2647 2709

1.04 0.85 0.68 0.53 0.41 0.31

1.57 1.29 1.03 0.81 0.63 0.48

2.27 1.87 1.50 1.20 0.94 0.72

3.25 2.70 2.19 1.75 1.37 1.06

4.55 3.81 3.10 2.51 2.00 1.56

6.37 5.35 4.41 3.60 2.88 2.30

11.7 9.95 8.33 6.92 5.68 4.60

15.7 13.5 11.4 9.52 7.85 6.45

21.0 18.1 15.4 13.0 10.7 8.90

27.7 24.0 20.4 17.4 14.5 12.1

8.70 7.32 6.08 5.03 4.09 3.28

70°

80°

90°

100° 110°

220 204 185 162 150

333 310 273 248 230

492 463 425 374 345

715 677 625 550 510

960 892 783 729

85.6 77.0 69.0 60.7 53.5

138 124 112 99.0 87.5

211 194 173 154 136

317 290 261 234 207

467 426 387 349 310

670 611 555 499 444

46.5 40.5 34.8 29.6 25.0 21.2

76.5 66.5 57.0 49.1 42.1 35.8

120 104 90.0 77.5 67.3 57.2

184 161 140 120 105 89.2

275 243 212 182 158 135

396 355 311 266 230 195

*Uncertainty, ca. 2 percent for solutions of 15 to 30 percent HCl between 0 and 100°; for solutions of > 30 percent HCl the accuracy is ca. 5 percent at the lower temperatures and ca. 15 percent at the higher temperatures. Below 15 percent HCl, the uncertainty is ca. 5 percent at the lower temperatures and higher strengths to ca. 15 to 20 percent at the lower strengths and perhaps 15 to 20 percent at the higher temperatures and lower strengths. International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 301.

TABLE 2-12

Partial Pressures of HCl over Aqueous Solutions of HCl*

log10 pmm = A − B/T, (T in K), which, however, agrees only approximately with the table. The table is more nearly correct. mmHg, °C

% HCl

A

2 4 6 8 10

11.8037 11.6400 11.2144 11.0406 10.9311

4736 0.0000117 0.000023 0.000044 0.000084 0.000151 0.000275 0.00047 0.00083 0.00140 0.00380 0.0100 0.0245 0.058 0.132 0.280 4471 0.000018 0.000036 .000069 .000131 .00024 .00044 .00077 .00134 .0023 .00385 .0064 .0165 .0405 .095 .21 .46 .93 4202 .000066 .000125 .000234 .000425 .00076 .00131 .00225 .0038 .0062 .0102 .0163 .040 .094 .206 .44 .92 1.78 4042 .000118 .000323 .000583 .00104 .00178 .0031 .00515 .0085 .0136 .022 .0344 .081 .183 .39 .82 1.64 3.10 3908 .00042 .00075 .00134 .00232 .00395 .0067 .0111 .0178 .0282 .045 .069 .157 .35 .73 1.48 2.9 5.4

12 14 16 18 20

10.7900 10.6954 10.6261 10.4957 10.3833

3765 3636 3516 3376 3245

22 24 26 28 30

10.3172 10.2185 10.1303 10.0115 9.8763

3125 .0734 2995 .175 2870 .41 2732 1.0 2593 2.4

.119 .277 .64 1.52 3.57

.187 .43 .98 2.27 5.23

.294 .66 1.47 3.36 7.60

.45 1.00 2.17 4.90 10.6

.68 1.49 3.20 7.05 15.1

1.02 2.17 4.56 9.90 21.0

32 34 36 38 40

9.7523 9.6061 9.5262 9.4670 9.2156

2457 2316 2229 2094 1939

5.7 13.1 29.0 63.0 130

8.3 18.8 41.0 87.0 176

11.8 26.4 56.4 117 233

16.8 36.8 78 158 307

23.5 50.5 105.5 210 399

32.5 68.5 142 277 515

44.5 92 188 360 627

42 44 46

8.9925 1800 253 8.8621 1681 510 940

332 655

430 840

560

709

900

B



.00099 .0024 .0056 .0135 .0316



.00175 .00415 .0095 .0225 .052

10°

.00305 .0071 .016 .037 .084

15°

.0052 .0118 .0265 .060 .132

20°

.0088 .0196 .0428 .095 .205

25°

.0145 .0316 .0685 .148 .32

30°

.0234 .050 .106 .228 .48

35°

.037 .078 .163 .345 .72

40°

45°

50°

60°

70°

80°

90°

100°

110°

.058 .121 .247 .515 1.06

.091 .185 .375 .77 1.55

.136 .275 .55 1.11 2.21

.305 .60 1.17 2.3 4.4

.66 1.25 2.40 4.55 8.5

1.34 2.50 4.66 8.6 15.6

2.65 4.8 8.8 15.7 28.1

5.1 9.0 16.1 28 49

9.3 16.0 28 48 83

1.50 3.14 6.50 13.8 28.6

2.18 4.5 9.2 19.1 39.4

3.14 6.4 12.7 26.4 53

4.42 8.9 17.5 35.7 71

8.6 16.9 32.5 64 124

16.3 31.0 58.5 112 208

29.3 54.5 100 188 340

52 94 169 309 542

90 157 276 493 845

146 253 436 760

60.0 122 246 465 830

81 161 322 598

107 211 416 758

141 273 535 955

238 450 860

390 720

623

970

*Uncertainty, ca. 2 percent for solutions of 15 to 30 percent HCl between 0 and 100°; for solutions of > 30 percent HCl the accuracy is ca. 5 percent at the lower temperatures and ca. 15 percent at the higher temperatures. Below 15 percent HCl, the uncertainty is ca. 5 percent at the lower temperatures and higher strengths to ca. 15 to 20 percent at the lower strengths and perhaps 15 to 20 percent at the higher temperatures and lower strengths. International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 301.

VAPOR PRESSURES OF SOLUTIONS

FIG. 2-1 Vapor pressures of H3PO4 aqueous: partial pressure of H2O vapor. (Courtesy of Victor Chemical Works, Stauffer Chemical Company; measurements by W. H. Woodstock.)

TABLE 2-13 g SO2 / 100 g H2O

Temperature, °C 10

20

0.01 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20

0.02 0.38 1.15 2.10 3.17

0.04 0.66 1.91 3.44 5.13

0.07 1.07 3.03 5.37 7.93

0.25 0.30 0.40 0.50 1.00

4.34 5.57 8.17 10.9 25.8

6.93 8.84 12.8 17.0 39.5

8.00 10.00 15.00 20.00

Vapor pressures of H3PO4 aqueous: weight of H2O in saturated air. (Courtesy of Victor Chemical Works, Stauffer Chemical Company; measurements by W. H. Woodstock.)

FIG. 2-2

Partial Pressures of H2O and SO2 over Aqueous Solutions of Sulfur Dioxide* Partial pressures of H2O and SO2, mmHg, °C 0

2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00

2-81

10.6 13.5 19.4 25.6 58.4

30

40

50

60

90

120

0.12 1.68 4.62 8.07 11.8

0.19 2.53 6.80 11.7 17.0

0.29 3.69 9.71 16.5 23.8

0.43 5.24 13.5 22.7 32.6

1.21 12.9 31.7 52.2 73.7

2.82 27.0 63.9 104 145

15.7 19.8 28.3 37.1 83.7

58.6 93.2 129 165 202

88.5 139 192 245 299

129 202 277 353 430

183 285 389 496 602

275 351 542 735

407 517 796

585 741

818

22.5 28.2 40.1 52.3 117

31.4 39.2 55.3 72.0 159

42.8 53.3 74.7 96.8 212

95.8 118 164 211 454

253 393 535 679 824

342 530 720

453 700

955

*Extracted with permission from J. Chem Eng. Data 8, 1963: 333–336. Copyright 1963 American Chemical Society.

186 229 316 404 856

2-82

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-14 °C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Water Partial Pressure, bar, over Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions* Weight percent, H2SO4

10.0 .582E−02 .117E−01 .223E−01 .404E−01 .703E−01 .117 .189 .296 .449 .664

20.0 .534E−02 .107E−01 .205E−01 .373E−01 .649E−01 .109 .175 .275 .417 .617

30.0 .448E−02 .909E−02 .174E−01 .319E−01 .558E−01 .939E−01 .152 .239 .365 .542

40.0 .326E−02 .670E−02 .130E−01 .241E−01 .427E−01 .725E−01 .119 .188 .290 .434

50.0

60.0

.193E−02 .405E−02 .802E−02 .151E−01 .272E−01 .470E−01 .782E−01 .126 .196 .298

.836E−03 .180E−02 .367E−02 .710E−02 .131E−01 .232E−01 .395E−01 .651E−01 .104 .161

75.0

80.0

85.0

.207E−03 .467E−03 .995E−03 .201E−02 .387E−02 .715E−02 .127E−01 .217E−01 .360E−01 .578E−01

70.0

.747E−04 .175E−03 .388E−03 .811E−03 .162E−02 .309E−02 .565E−02 .997E−02 .170E−01 .281E−01

.197E−04 .490E−04 .115E−04 .253E−03 .531E−03 .106E−02 .204E−02 .376E−02 .668E−02 .115E−01

.343E−05 .952E−05 .245E−04 .589E−04 .133E−03 .286E−03 .584E−03 .114E−02 .213E−02 .383E−02

.905E−01 .138 .206 .301 .481 .605 .837 1.138 1.525 2.017

.452E−01 .708E−01 .108 .162 .236 .339 .478 .662 .902 1.212

.192E−01 .312E−01 .493E−01 .760E−01 .115 .170 .246 .350 .489 .673

.666E−02 .112E−01 .183E−01 .291E−01 .451E−01 .682E−01 .101 .147 .208 .291

100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190

.957 1.349 1.863 2.524 3.361 4.404 5.685 7.236 9.093 11.289

.891 1.258 1.740 2.361 3.149 4.132 5.342 6.810 8.571 10.658

.786 1.113 1.544 2.101 2.810 3.697 4.793 6.127 7.731 9.640

.634 .904 1.264 1.732 2.333 3.090 4.031 5.185 6.584 8.259

.441 .638 .903 1.253 1.708 2.289 3.021 3.930 5.045 6.397

.244 .360 .519 .734 1.020 1.392 1.870 2.475 3.233 4.169

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290

13.861 16.841 20.264 24.160 28.561 33.494 38.984 45.055 51.726 59.015

13.107 15.951 19.225 22.960 27.188 31.939 37.240 43.116 49.590 56.681

11.887 14.505 17.529 20.992 24.927 29.364 34.334 39.865 45.984 52.715

10.245 12.576 15.287 18.414 21.992 26.056 30.642 35.784 41.514 47.865

8.020 9.948 12.217 14.864 17.929 21.452 25.472 30.030 35.168 40.926

5.312 6.696 8.354 10.322 12.641 15.351 18.496 22.121 26.274 31.003

2.632 3.395 4.331 5.466 6.831 8.458 10.382 12.640 15.269 18.311

1.606 2.101 2.714 3.467 4.381 5.480 6.788 8.333 10.142 12.242

.913 1.220 1.609 2.096 2.699 3.435 4.326 5.395 6.663 8.155

.401 .542 .724 .952 1.237 1.587 2.012 2.525 3.136 3.857

300 66.934 310 75.495 320 84.705 330 94.567 340 105.083 350 116.251

64.407 72.781 81.816 91.518 101.894 112.946

60.081 68.100 76.792 86.172 96.252 107.043

54.868 62.553 70.947 80.077 89.969 100.646

47.346 54.470 62.337 70.988 80.463 90.802

36.360 42.395 49.164 56.721 65.123 74.426

21.808 25.804 30.343 35.473 41.240 47.692

14.665 17.438 20.591 24.153 28.154 32.622

9.897 11.912 14.227 16.867 19.855 23.217

4.701 5.680 6.806 8.093 9.551 11.193

*Vermeulen, Dong, Robinson, Nguyen, and Gmitro, AIChE meeting, Anaheim, Calif., 1982; and private communication from Prof. Theodore Vermeulen, Chemical Engineering Dept., University of California, Berkeley.

VAPOR PRESSURES OF SOLUTIONS TABLE 2-14

2-83

Water Partial Pressure, bar, over Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions (Concluded ) Weight percent, H2SO4

°C

90.0

92.0

94.0

96.0

97.0

98.0

98.5

99.0

99.5

100.0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

.518E−06 .159E−05 .448E−05 .117E−04 .285E−04 .652E−04 .141E−03 .290E−03 .569E−03 .107E−02

.242E−06 .762E−06 .220E−05 .587E−05 .146E−04 .341E−04 .754E−04 .158E−03 .316E−03 .606E−03

.107E−06 .344E−06 .101E−05 .275E−05 .696E−05 .166E−04 .372E−04 .795E−04 .162E−03 .315E−03

.401E−07 .130E−06 .390E−06 .108E−05 .278E−05 .672E−05 .154E−04 .334E−04 .691E−04 .137E−03

.218E−07 .713E−07 .215E−06 .598E−06 .155E−05 .379E−05 .875E−05 .192E−04 .400E−04 .801E−04

.980E−08 .323E−07 .978E−07 .275E−06 .720E−06 .177E−05 .413E−05 .912E−05 .192E−04 .388E−04

.569E−08 .188E−07 .572E−07 .161E−06 .424E−06 .105E−05 .245E−05 .544E−05 .115E−04 .234E−04

.268E−08 .888E−08 .271E−07 .766E−07 .202E−06 .503E−06 .118E−05 .263E−05 .559E−05 .114E−04

.775E−09 .258E−08 .789E−08 .224E−07 .595E−07 .149E−06 .350E−06 .784E−06 .168E−05 .343E−05

.196E−09 .655E−09 .201E−08 .575E−08 .153E−07 .384E−07 .910E−07 .205E−06 .439E−06 .903E−06

100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190

.194E−02 .338E−02 .571E−02 .938E−02 .150E−01 .233E−01 .354E−01 .526E−01 .766E−01 .110

.112E−02 .198E−02 .341E−02 .569E−02 .923E−02 .146E−01 .225E−01 .340E−01 .502E−01 .729E−01

.590E−03 .107E−02 .186E−02 .315E−02 .519E−02 .832E−02 .130E−01 .199E−01 .298E−01 .438E−01

.261E−03 .479E−03 .851E−03 .146E−02 .245E−02 .399E−02 .633E−02 .983E−02 .149E−01 .222E−01

.154E−03 .285E−03 .511E−03 .886E−03 .149E−02 .245E−02 .393E−02 .614E−02 .941E−02 .141E−01

.752E−04 .141E−03 .254E−03 .445E−03 .757E−03 .125E−02 .202E−02 .319E−02 .492E−02 .744E−02

.455E−04 .855E−04 .155E−03 .278E−03 .467E−03 .776E−03 .126E−02 .199E−02 .309E−02 .469E−02

.223E−04 .420E−04 .766E−04 .135E−03 .232E−03 .387E−03 .629E−03 .999E−03 .155E−02 .236E−02

.674E−05 .128E−04 .233E−04 .414E−04 .711E−04 .119E−03 .194E−03 .309E−03 .482E−03 .735E−03

.178E−05 .339E−05 .623E−05 .111E−04 .191E−04 .321E−04 .526E−04 .840E−04 .131E−03 .201E−03

.631E−01 .894E−01 .125 .171 .232 .310 .409 .534 .689 .880

.325E−01 .467E−01 .660E−01 .918E−01 .126 .170 .227 .300 .391 .505

.208E−01 .300E−01 .427E−01 .598E−01 .825E−01 .112 .151 .200 .263 .341

.110E−01 .161E−01 .230E−01 .325E−01 .451E−01 .618E−01 .835E−01 .111 .147 .192

.698E−02 .102E−01 .147E−01 .208E−01 .290E−01 .398E−01 .540E−01 .723E−01 .957E−01 .125

.352E−02 .516E−02 .743E−02 .105E−01 .147E−01 .202E−01 .274E−01 .366E−01 .485E−01 .634E−01

.110E−02 .161E−02 .232E−02 .329E−02 .460E−02 .633E−02 .858E−02 .115E−01 .152E−01 .199E−01

.300E−03 .442E−03 .638E−03 .906E−03 .127E−02 .174E−02 .237E−02 .317E−02 .420E−02 .548E−02

.248 .316 .400 .502 .624 .770

.162 .208 .264 .331 .413 .511

.820E−01 .105 .133 .167 .208 .256

.257E−01 .328E−01 .415E−01 .520E−01 .646E−01 .795E−01

.708E−02 .905E−02 .114E−01 .143E−01 .178E−01 .218E−01

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290

.154 .213 .290 .389 .514 .673 .870 1.112 1.407 1.763

.104 .146 .201 .273 .366 .485 .635 .822 1.052 1.335

300 310 320 330 340 350

2.190 2.696 3.292 3.990 4.801 5.738

1.676 2.088 2.578 3.159 3.843 4.641

1.112 1.394 1.732 2.133 2.608 3.164

.646 .817 1.025 1.274 1.571 1.922

.437 .556 .701 .875 1.083 1.331

2-84

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-15

Sulfur Trioxide Partial Pressure, bar, over Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions* Weight percent, H2SO4

°C

10.0

20.0

30.0

40.0

50.0

60.0

70.0

75.0

80.0

85.0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

.644E−29 .149E−27 .278E−26 .426E−25 .549E−24 .602E−23 .573E−22 .477E−21 .352E−20 .233E−19

.103E−27 .223E−26 .394E−25 .577E−24 .714E−23 .757E−22 .699E−21 .567E−20 .410E−19 .266E−18

.205E−26 .395E−25 .626E−24 .832E−23 .941E−22 .921E−21 .789E−20 .599E−19 .408E−18 .250E−17

.688E−25 .113E−23 .156E−22 .181E−21 .181E−20 .158E−19 .122E−18 .843E−18 .524E−17 .296E−16

.368E−23 .522E−22 .621E−21 .630E−20 .555E−19 .429E−18 .294E−17 .181E−16 .101E−15 .516E−15

.341E−21 .415E−20 .426E−19 .376E−18 .288E−17 .195E−16 .118E−15 .643E−15 .319E−14 .145E−13

.784E−19 .796E−18 .685E−17 .509E−16 .331E−15 .191E−14 .985E−14 .461E−13 .197E−12 .775E−12

.174E−17 .158E−16 .121E−15 .808E−15 .473E−14 .246E−13 .116E−12 .492E−12 .192E−11 .693E−11

.531E−16 .417E−15 .280E−14 .164E−13 .851E−13 .395E−12 .165E−11 .634E−11 .223E−10 .731E−10

.229E−14 .141E−13 .767E−13 .371E−12 .162E−11 .643E−11 .234E−10 .791E−10 .249E−09 .734E−09

100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190

.139E−18 .756E−18 .377E−17 .174E−16 .743E−16 .297E−15 .111E−14 .393E−14 .131E−13 .415E−13

.157E−17 .844E−17 .418E−16 .191E−15 .815E−15 .325E−14 .122E−13 .430E−13 .144E−12 .458E−12

.140E−16 .719E−16 .340E−15 .150E−14 .615E−14 .237E−13 .862E−13 .296E−12 .967E−12 .301E−11

.153E−15 .730E−15 .323E−14 .133E−13 .517E−13 .188E−12 .649E−12 .212E−11 .622E−11 .197E−10

.242E−14 .105E−13 .424E−13 .160E−12 .569E−12 .191E−11 .608E−11 .184E−10 .532E−10 .147E−09

.606E−13 .236E−12 .858E−12 .293E−11 .943E−11 .287E−10 .833E−10 .231E−09 .610E−09 .155E−08

.283E−11 .961E−11 .307E−10 .922E−10 .262E−09 .710E−09 .183E−08 .453E−08 .107E−07 .246E−07

.232E−10 .729E−10 .215E−09 .601E−09 .159E−08 .403E−08 .974E−08 .226E−07 .505E−07 .109E−06

.223E−09 .641E−09 .174E−08 .446E−08 .109E−07 .256E−07 .575E−07 .125E−06 .260E−06 .527E−06

.204E−08 .538E−08 .135E−07 .324E−07 .745E−07 .165E−06 .351E−06 .725E−06 .145E−05 .282E−05

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290

.125E−12 .362E−12 .100E−11 .265E−11 .678E−11 .167E−10 .399E−10 .920E−10 .206E−09 .449E−09

.139E−11 .404E−11 .112E−10 .301E−10 .777E−10 .193E−09 .466E−09 .109E−08 .247E−08 .545E−08

.893E−11 .254E−10 .695E−10 .183E−09 .465E−09 .114E−08 .272E−08 .628E−08 .141E−07 .308E−07

.561E−10 .154E−09 .405E−09 .103E−08 .253E−08 .602E−08 .139E−07 .312E−07 .683E−07 .145E−06

.391E−09 .100E−08 .246E−08 .587E−08 .135E−07 .303E−07 .660E−07 .140E−06 .288E−06 .580E−06

.379E−08 .894E−08 .204E−07 .450E−07 .965E−07 .201E−06 .408E−06 .807E−06 .156E−05 .295E−05

.542E−07 .116E−06 .240E−06 .482E−06 .944E−06 .180E−05 .336E−05 .612E−05 .109E−04 .191E−04

.228E−06 .462E−06 .911E−06 .175E−05 .328E−05 .600E−05 .108E−04 .189E−04 .326E−04 .553E−04

.103E−05 .198E−05 .368E−05 .668E−05 .119E−04 .206E−04 .352E−04 .590E−04 .973E−04 .158E−03

.534E−05 .986E−05 .178E−04 .314E−04 .543E−04 .923E−04 .154E−03 .253E−03 .408E−03 .649E−03

300 310 320 330 340 350

.953E−09 .197E−08 .397E−08 .782E−08 .151E−07 .285E−07

.117E−07 .245E−07 .502E−07 .100E−06 .196E−06 .376E−06

.657E−07 .136E−06 .277E−06 .551E−06 .107E−05 .204E−05

.302E−06 .614E−06 .122E−05 .237E−05 .452E−05 .846E−05

.114E−05 .220E−05 .414E−05 .766E−05 .139E−04 .246E−04

.546E−05 .990E−05 .176E−04 .308E−04 .529E−04 .893E−04

.329E−04 .556E−04 .923E−04 .151E−03 .243E−03 .387E−03

.921E−04 .151E−03 .245E−03 .391E−03 .617E−03 .963E−03

.253E−03 .398E−03 .621E−03 .956E−03 .145E−02 .219E−02

.102E−02 .158E−02 .242E−02 .367E−02 .550E−02 .815E−02

*Vermeulen, Dong, Robinson, Nguyen, and Gmitro, AIChE meeting, Anaheim, Calif., 1982; and private communication from Prof. Theodore Vermeulen, Chemical Engineering Dept., University of California, Berkeley.

VAPOR PRESSURES OF SOLUTIONS TABLE 2-15

2-85

Sulfur Trioxide Partial Pressure, bar, over Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions (Concluded) Weight percent, H2SO4

°C

90.0

92.0

94.0

96.0

97.0

98.0

98.5

99.0

99.5

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

.671E−13 .345E−12 .159E−11 .664E−11 .254E−10 .897E−10 .294E−09 .904E−09 .261E−08 .712E−08

.216E−12 .107E−11 .475E−11 .192E−10 .709E−10 .242E−09 .771E−09 .230E−08 .643E−08 .171E−07

.677E−12 .326E−11 .141E−10 .557E−10 .201E−09 .669E−09 .207E−08 .602E−08 .165E−07 .426E−07

.240E−11 .114E−10 .482E−10 .186E−09 .655E−09 .214E−08 .647E−08 .184E−07 .492E−07 .124E−06

.500E−11 .234E−10 .986E−10 .376E−09 .131E−08 .424E−08 .127E−07 .357E−07 .946E−07 .237E−06

.124E−10 .578E−10 .241E−09 .911E−09 .315E−08 .101E−07 .299E−07 .833E−07 .218E−06 .541E−06

.224E−10 .104E−09 .433E−09 .163E−08 .562E−08 .179E−07 .528E−07 .146E−06 .381E−06 .940E−06

.502E−10 .232E−09 .961E−09 .360E−08 .123E−07 .391E−07 .115E−06 .316E−06 .820E−06 .201E−05

.182E−09 .839E−09 .346E−08 .129E−07 .440E−07 .139E−06 .405E−06 .111E−05 .286E−05 .698E−05

.755E−09 .347E−08 .142E−07 .528E−07 .179E−06 .560E−06 .163E−05 .444E−05 .114E−04 .276E−04

100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190

.184E−07 .456E−07 .108E−06 .244E−06 .533E−06 .112E−05 .229E−05 .453E−05 .870E−05 .163E−04

.430E−07 .103E−06 .238E−06 .526E−06 .112E−05 .230E−05 .459E−05 .886E−05 .166E−04 .304E−04

.105E−06 .247E−06 .555E−06 .120E−05 .250E−05 .504E−05 .983E−05 .186E−04 .343E−04 .615E−04

.300E−06 .689E−06 .152E−05 .321E−05 .656E−05 .129E−04 .247E−04 .459E−04 .829E−04 .146E−03

.565E−06 .128E−05 .280E−05 .586E−05 .118E−04 .231E−04 .438E−04 .806E−04 .144E−03 .252E−03

.127E−05 .287E−05 .619E−05 .128E−04 .257E−04 .497E−04 .932E−04 .170E−03 .301E−03 .520E−03

.220E−05 .494E−05 .106E−04 .219E−04 .435E−04 .837E−04 .156E−03 .283E−03 .499E−03 .859E−03

.470E−05 .105E−04 .224E−04 .459E−04 .910E−04 .174E−03 .324E−03 .586E−03 .103E−02 .177E−02

.162E−04 .359E−04 .764E−04 .156E−03 .308E−03 .588E−03 .109E−02 .196E−02 .343E−02 .587E−02

.638E−04 .141E−03 .298E−03 .606E−03 .119E−02 .226E−02 .416E−02 .746E−02 .130E−01 .222E−01

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290

.297E−04 .528E−04 .919E−04 .157E−03 .261E−03 .428E−03 .690E−03 .109E−02 .170E−02 .261E−02

.543E−04 .946E−04 .161E−03 .269E−03 .441E−03 .708E−03 .112E−02 .174E−02 .266E−02 .401E−02

.108E−03 .185E−03 .309E−03 .508E−03 .819E−03 .130E−02 .202E−02 .309E−02 .466E−02 .694E−02

.251E−03 .422E−03 .694E−03 .112E−02 .178E−02 .276E−02 .423E−02 .638E−02 .948E−02 .139E−01

.429E−03 .714E−03 .117E−02 .187E−02 .293E−02 .453E−02 .688E−02 .103E−01 .152E−01 .221E−01

.878E−03 .145E−02 .235E−02 .373E−02 .582E−02 .891E−02 .134E−01 .200E−01 .293E−01 .423E−01

.144E−02 .237E−02 .383E−02 .605E−02 .939E−02 .143E−01 .215E−01 .319E−01 .465E−01 .670E−01

.296E−02 .486E−02 .781E−02 .123E−01 .191E−01 .291E−01 .437E−01 .646E−01 .943E−01 .136

.981E−02 .161E−01 .258E−01 .405E−01 .627E−01 .955E−01 .143 .212 .309 .444

.370E−01 .603E−01 .965E−01 .152 .234 .356 .532 .786 1.144 1.646

300 310 320 330 340 350

.395E−02 .589E−02 .868E−02 .126E−01 .181E−01 .258E−01

.595E−02 .873E−02 .126E−01 .181E−01 .255E−01 .357E−01

.102E−01 .148E−01 .211E−01 .299E−01 .418E−01 .578E−01

.201E−01 .287E−01 .405E−01 .565E−01 .780E−01 .107

.318E−01 .451E−01 .632E−01 .877E−01 .120 .164

.604E−01 .852E−01 .119 .164 .224 .303

.953E−01 .134 .186 .256 .348 .470

.193 .272 .378 .520 .708 .956

.632 .889 1.236 1.703 2.323 3.142

100.0

2.339 3.289 4.575 6.303 8.603 11.640

2-86

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-16

Sulfuric Acid Partial Pressure, bar, over Aqueous Sulfuric Acid* Weight percent, H2SO4

°C

10.0

20.0

30.0

40.0

50.0

60.0

70.0

75.0

80.0

85.0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

.576E−21 .634E−20 .588E−19 .468E−18 .324E−17 .197E−16 .107E−15 .526E−15 .235E−14 .960E−14

.843E−20 .874E−19 .769E−18 .584E−17 .389E−16 .229E−15 .121E−14 .581E−14 .254E−13 .102E−12

.141E−18 .131E−17 .104E−16 .721E−16 .441E−15 .241E−14 .119E−13 .535E−13 .221E−12 .844E−12

.344E−17 .276E−16 .193E−15 .119E−14 .649E−14 .320E−13 .144E−12 .592E−12 .225E−11 .798E−11

.109E−15 .769E−15 .474E−14 .259E−13 .127E−12 .562E−12 .228E−11 .851E−11 .295E−10 .956E−10

.438E−14 .273E−13 .149E−12 .725E−12 .317E−11 .126E−10 .462E−10 .156E−09 .492E−09 .145E−08

.249E−12 .135E−11 .649E−11 .278E−10 .108E−09 .380E−09 .124E−08 .373E−08 .105E−07 .279E−07

.200E−11 .101E−10 .447E−10 .178E−09 .643E−09 .212E−08 .646E−08 .183E−07 .485E−07 .121E−06

.161E−10 .743E−10 .305E−09 .113E−08 .379E−08 .117E−07 .334E−07 .888E−07 .222E−06 .522E−06

.121E−09 .490E−09 .179E−08 .594E−08 .181E−07 .513E−07 .135E−06 .336E−06 .786E−06 .175E−05

100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190

.353E−13 .127E−12 .418E−12 .129E−11 .375E−11 .103E−10 .272E−10 .682E−10 .164E−09 .378E−09

.381E−12 .132E−11 .432E−11 .132E−10 .385E−10 .106E−09 .279E−09 .702E−09 .170E−08 .394E−08

.300E−11 .997E−11 .312E−10 .924E−10 .259E−09 .694E−09 .178E−08 .436E−08 .103E−07 .234E−07

.264E−10 .824E−10 .243E−09 .678E−09 .181E−08 .460E−08 .112E−07 .264E−07 .599E−07 .131E−06

.291E−09 .835E−09 .227E−08 .589E−08 .146E−07 .346E−07 .789E−07 .174E−06 .369E−06 .760E−06

.402E−08 .106E−07 .264E−07 .631E−07 .144E−06 .316E−06 .670E−06 .137E−05 .271E−05 .521E−05

.698E−07 .166E−06 .375E−06 .814E−06 .169E−05 .340E−05 .659E−05 .124E−04 .225E−04 .400E−04

.287E−06 .644E−06 .138E−05 .285E−05 .565E−05 .108E−04 .200E−04 .359E−04 .627E−04 .107E−03

.117E−05 .249E−05 .508E−05 .995E−05 .188E−04 .343E−04 .608E−04 .104E−03 .175E−03 .286E−03

.371E−05 .752E−05 .147E−04 .277E−04 .503E−04 .889E−04 .152E−03 .255E−03 .416E−03 .663E−03

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290

.842E−09 .181E−08 .376E−08 .758E−08 .148E−07 .283E−07 .526E−07 .954E−07 .169E−06 .294E−06

.883E−08 .191E−07 .401E−07 .817E−07 .162E−06 .312E−06 .588E−06 .108E−05 .194E−05 .342E−05

.514E−07 .109E−06 .226E−06 .455E−06 .889E−06 .170E−05 .316E−05 .577E−05 .103E−04 .180E−04

.278E−06 .573E−06 .115E−05 .224E−05 .427E−05 .793E−05 .144E−04 .257E−04 .450E−04 .771E−04

.152E−05 .295E−05 .559E−05 .103E−04 .186E−04 .329E−04 .569E−04 .965E−04 .161E−03 .263E−03

.975E−05 .178E−04 .316E−04 .549E−04 .935E−04 .156E−03 .255E−03 .411E−03 .650E−03 .101E−02

.691E−04 .117E−03 .193E−03 .311E−03 .494E−03 .770E−03 .118E−02 .178E−02 .265E−02 .389E−02

.177E−03 .288E−03 .459E−03 .717E−03 .110E−02 .166E−02 .247E−02 .362E−02 .524E−02 .750E−02

.457E−03 .715E−03 .110E−02 .166E−02 .245E−02 .358E−02 .516E−02 .733E−02 .103E−01 .143E−01

.104E−02 .159E−02 .239E−02 .354E−02 .515E−02 .740E−02 .105E−01 .147E−01 .203E−01 .278E−01

300 310 320 330 340 350

.500E−06 .834E−06 .137E−05 .220E−05 .349E−05 .544E−05

.591E−05 .100E−04 .167E−04 .273E−04 .440E−04 .698E−04

.309E−04 .522E−04 .865E−04 .141E−03 .227E−03 .360E−03

.130E−03 .215E−03 .352E−03 .565E−03 .895E−03 .140E−02

.424E−03 .672E−03 .105E−02 .162E−02 .246E−02 .369E−02

.156E−02 .236E−02 .352E−02 .519E−02 .757E−02 .109E−01

.563E−02 .805E−02 .114E−01 .159E−01 .221E−01 .303E−01

.106E−01 .148E−01 .205E−01 .281E−01 .382E−01 .516E−01

.196E−01 .266E−01 .359E−01 .480E−01 .636E−01 .836E−01

.376E−01 .504E−01 .670E−01 .883E−01 .116 .150

°C

90.0

92.0

94.0

96.0

97.0

98.0

98.5

99.0

99.5

100.0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

.534E−09 .200E−08 .677E−08 .211E−07 .607E−07 .163E−06 .411E−06 .976E−06 .220E−05 .473E−05

.803E−09 .296E−08 .993E−08 .306E−07 .870E−07 .231E−06 .575E−06 .135E−05 .302E−05 .642E−05

.112E−08 .409E−08 .136E−07 .415E−07 .117E−06 .309E−06 .765E−06 .179E−05 .396E−05 .835E−05

.148E−08 .540E−08 .179E−07 .543E−07 .153E−06 .400E−06 .985E−06 .229E−05 .504E−05 .106E−04

.167E−08 .609E−08 .201E−07 .611E−07 .171E−06 .449E−06 .110E−05 .256E−05 .562E−05 .118E−04

.187E−08 .679E−08 .224E−07 .680E−07 .191E−06 .498E−06 .122E−05 .283E−05 .622E−05 .130E−04

.196E−08 .714E−08 .236E−07 .714E−07 .200E−06 .523E−06 .128E−05 .297E−05 .652E−05 .136E−04

.206E−08 .750E−08 .247E−07 .749E−07 .210E−06 .548E−06 .134E−05 .310E−05 .681E−05 .143E−04

.217E−08 .788E−08 .260E−07 .786E−07 .220E−06 .574E−06 .140E−05 .325E−05 .712E−05 .149E−04

.228E−08 .827E−08 .273E−07 .824E−07 .230E−06 .600E−06 .147E−05 .339E−05 .743E−05 .155E−04

100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190

.973E−05 .192E−04 .366E−04 .672E−04 .120E−03 .207E−03 .348E−03 .572E−03 .917E−03 .144E−02

.131E−04 .256E−04 .482E−04 .879E−04 .155E−03 .266E−03 .444E−03 .723E−03 .115E−02 .179E−02

.169E−04 .328E−04 .614E−04 .111E−03 .195E−03 .332E−03 .550E−03 .889E−03 .140E−02 .217E−02

.213E−04 .412E−04 .767E−04 .138E−03 .241E−03 .408E−03 .673E−03 .108E−02 .170E−02 .262E−02

.237E−04 .457E−04 .849E−04 .153E−03 .266E−03 .449E−03 .740E−03 .119E−02 .186E−02 .286E−02

.261E−04 .503E−04 .935E−04 .168E−03 .292E−03 .493E−03 .810E−03 .130E−02 .204E−02 .312E−02

.274E−04 .527E−04 .977E−04 .175E−03 .304E−03 .514E−03 .844E−03 .135E−02 .212E−02 .325E−02

.285E−04 .549E−04 .102E−03 .182E−03 .316E−03 .534E−03 .876E−03 .140E−02 .220E−02 .336E−02

.298E−04 .572E−04 .106E−03 .190E−03 .329E−03 .554E−03 .909E−03 .145E−02 .227E−02 .348E−02

.310E−04 .595E−04 .110E−03 .197E−03 .341E−03 .574E−03 .941E−03 .150E−02 .235E−02 .359E−02

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290

.221E−02 .333E−02 .494E−02 .719E−02 .103E−01 .146E−01 .203E−01 .279E−01 .380E−01 .510E−01

.273E−02 .408E−02 .601E−02 .869E−02 .124E−01 .174E−01 .240E−01 .329E−01 .444E−01 .592E−01

.329E−02 .490E−02 .715E−02 .103E−01 .146E−01 .203E−01 .279E−01 .380E−01 .510E−01 .676E−01

.395E−02 .585E−02 .850E−02 .122E−01 .171E−01 .238E−01 .326E−01 .441E−01 .589E−01 .778E−01

.431E−02 .637E−02 .924E−02 .132E−01 .186E−01 .257E−01 .352E−01 .475E−01 .633E−01 .835E−01

.470E−02 .693E−02 .100E−01 .143E−01 .201E−01 .278E−01 .380E−01 .513E−01 .683E−01 .900E−01

.488E−02 .720E−02 .104E−01 .149E−01 .209E−01 .289E−01 .394E−01 .531E−01 .706E−01 .930E−01

.505E−02 .744E−02 .108E−01 .153E−01 .215E−01 .297E−01 .405E−01 .545E−01 .725E−01 .954E−01

.522E−02 .768E−02 .111E−01 .158E−01 .221E−01 .305E−01 .416E−01 .560E−01 .744E−01 .978E−01

.538E−02 .791E−02 .114E−01 .162E−01 .227E−01 .314E−01 .427E−01 .574E−01 .762E−01 .100

300 310 320 330 340 350

.678E−01 .892E−01 .116 .150 .192 .243

.782E−01 .102 .132 .170 .216 .272

.888E−01 .115 .149 .190 .240 .301

.102 .132 .169 .214 .270 .337

.109 .141 .180 .228 .287 .358

.117 .151 .193 .245 .307 .383

.121 .156 .199 .252 .317 .394

.124 .160 .204 .258 .328 .402

.127 .164 .209 .263 .330 .410

.130 .167 .213 .269 .386 .417

Weight percent, H2SO4

*Vermeulen, Dong, Robinson, Nguyen, and Gmitro, AIChE meeting, Anaheim, CA, 1982; and private communication from Prof. Theodore Vermeulen, Chemical Engineering Dept., University of California, Berkeley.

VAPOR PRESSURES OF SOLUTIONS TABLE 2-17

2-87

Total Pressure, bar, of Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions* Weight percent, H2SO4

°C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

10.0 .582E−02 .117E−01 .223E−01 .404E−01 .703E−01 .117 .189 .296 .449 .664

20.0 .534E−02 .107E−01 .205E−01 .373E−01 .649E−01 .109 .175 .275 .417 .617

30.0 .448E−02 .909E−02 .174E−01 .319E−01 .558E−01 .939E−01 .152 .239 .365 .542

40.0 .326E−02 .670E−02 .130E−01 .241E−01 .427E−01 .725E−01 .119 .188 .290 .434

50.0 .193E−02 .405E−02 .802E−02 .151E−01 .272E−01 .470E−01 .782E−01 .126 .196 .298

60.0 .836E−03 .180E−02 .367E−02 .710E−02 .131E−01 .232E−01 .395E−01 .651E−01 .104 .161

70.0

75.0

80.0

85.0

.207E−03 .467E−03 .995E−03 .201E−02 .387E−02 .715E−02 .127E−01 .217E−01 .360E−01 .578E−01

.747E−04 .175E−03 .388E−03 .811E−03 .162E−02 .309E−02 .565E−02 .997E−01 .170E−01 .281E−01

.197E−04 .490E−04 .115E−03 .253E−03 .531E−03 .106E−02 .204E−02 .376E−02 .668E−02 .115E−01

.343E−05 .952E−05 .245E−04 .589E−04 .134E−03 .286E−03 .584E−03 .114E−02 .213E−02 .383E−02

.905E−01 .138 .206 .301 .431 .605 .837 1.138 1.525 2.017

.452E−01 .708E−01 .108 .162 .236 .339 .478 .662 .902 1.212

.192E−01 .312E−01 .493E−01 .760E−01 .115 .170 .246 .350 .489 .673

.666E−02 .112E−01 .183E−01 .291E−01 .451E−01 .683E−01 .101 .147 .209 .292

100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190

.957 1.349 1.863 2.524 3.361 4.404 5.685 7.236 9.093 11.289

.891 1.258 1.740 2.361 3.149 4.132 5.342 6.810 8.571 10.658

.786 1.113 1.544 2.101 2.810 3.697 4.793 6.127 7.731 9.640

.634 .904 1.264 1.732 2.333 3.090 4.031 5.185 6.584 8.259

.441 .638 .903 1.253 1.708 2.289 3.021 3.930 5.045 6.397

.244 .360 .519 .734 1.020 1.392 1.870 2.475 3.233 4.169

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290

13.861 16.841 20.264 24.160 28.561 33.494 38.984 45.055 51.726 59.015

13.107 15.951 19.225 22.960 27.188 31.939 37.240 43.116 49.590 56.681

11.887 14.505 17.529 20.992 24.927 29.364 34.334 39.865 45.984 52.715

10.245 12.576 15.287 18.414 21.992 26.056 30.642 35.784 41.514 47.866

8.020 9.948 12.217 14.864 17.929 21.452 25.472 30.030 35.168 40.926

5.312 6.696 8.354 10.322 12.641 15.351 18.496 22.122 26.275 31.004

2.633 3.396 4.331 5.466 6.832 8.459 10.384 12.642 15.272 18.315

1.606 2.101 2.715 3.468 4.382 5.481 6.791 8.337 10.147 12.250

.913 1.221 1.610 2.098 2.701 3.439 4.332 5.402 6.673 8.170

.402 .544 .726 .956 1.242 1.594 2.023 2.540 3.157 3.886

300 310 320 330 340 350

66.934 75.495 84.705 94.567 105.083 116.251

64.407 72.781 81.816 91.518 101.894 112.947

60.081 68.101 76.792 86.172 96.252 107.043

54.869 62.553 70.947 80.078 89.970 100.647

47.347 54.470 62.338 70.990 80.466 90.806

36.361 42.398 49.168 56.727 65.130 74.437

21.814 25.812 30.355 35.489 41.262 47.723

14.675 17.453 20.611 24.182 28.193 32.674

9.916 11.939 14.264 16.916 19.920 23.303

4.740 5.732 6.876 8.185 9.672 11.351

Weight percent, H2SO4 °C

90.0

92.0

94.0

96.0

97.0

98.0

98.5

99.0

99.5

100.0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

.518E−06 .159E−05 .449E−05 .117E−04 .385E−04 .653E−04 .141E−03 .291E−03 .571E−03 .107E−02

.243E−06 .765E−06 .221E−05 .590E−05 .147E−04 .344E−04 .759E−04 .159E−03 .319E−03 .612E−03

.109E−06 .348E−06 .102E−05 .279E−05 .708E−05 .169E−04 .380E−04 .813E−04 .166E−03 .324E−03

.416E−07 .136E−06 .407E−06 .113E−05 .293E−05 .712E−05 .164E−04 .357E−04 .742E−04 .148E−03

.235E−07 .774E−07 .235E−06 .659E−06 .173E−05 .425E−05 .987E−05 .218E−04 .458E−04 .921E−04

.117E−07 .391E−07 .121E−06 .344E−06 .914E−06 .228E−05 .538E−05 .120E−04 .257E−04 .524E−04

.768E−08 .261E−07 .812E−07 .234E−06 .630E−06 .159E−05 .379E−05 .856E−05 .184E−04 .390E−04

.479E−08 .166E−07 .528E−07 .155E−06 .425E−06 .109E−05 .264E−05 .605E−05 .132E−04 .277E−04

.313E−08 .113E−07 .373E−07 .114E−06 .323E−06 .861E−06 .216E−05 .514E−05 .117E−04 .253E−04

.323E−08 .124E−07 .435E−07 .141E−06 .425E−06 .120E−05 .319E−05 .804E−05 .193E−04 .441E−04

100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190

.195E−02 .340E−02 .575E−02 .944E−02 .151E−01 .235E−01 .357E−01 .532E−01 .775E−01 .111

.113E−02 .201E−02 .346E−02 .578E−02 .939E−02 .149E−01 .230E−01 .347E−01 .514E−01 .747E−01

.607E−03 .110E−02 .192E−02 .327E−02 .539E−02 .866E−02 .136E−01 .208E−01 .312E−01 .460E−01

.283E−03 .521E−03 .929E−03 .161E−02 .270E−02 .441E−02 .703E−02 .110E−01 .167E−01 .250E−01

.178E−03 .332E−03 .598E−03 .104E−02 .177E−02 .293E−02 .471E−02 .741E−02 .114E−01 .172E−01

.103E−03 .194E−03 .354E−03 .626E−03 .107E−02 .180E−02 .293E−02 .466E−02 .726E−02 .111E−01

.751E−04 .143E−03 .263E−03 .470E−03 .815E−03 .137E−02 .226E−02 .363E−02 .571E−02 .880E−02

.555E−04 .107E−03 .201E−03 .363E−03 .639E−03 .109E−02 .183E−02 .299E−02 .478E−02 .749E−02

.527E−04 .106E−03 .206E−03 .387E−03 .708E−03 .126E−02 .219E−02 .372E−02 .619E−02 .101E−01

.966E−04 .204E−03 .414E−03 .314E−03 .155E−02 .287E−02 .516E−02 .905E−02 .155E−01 .260E−01

.665E−01 .944E−01 .132 .182 .247 .331 .439 .575 .744 .954

.367E−01 .530E−01 .752E−01 .105 .145 .197 .264 .351 .460 .597

.255E−01 .371E−01 .531E−01 .749E−01 .104 .143 .193 .258 .341 .446

.166E−01 .245E−01 .354E−01 .505E−01 .710E−01 .985E−01 .135 .153 .245 .324

.133E−01 .198E−01 .289E−01 .417E−01 .592E−01 .830E−01 .115 .157 .213 .285

.115E−01 .175E−01 .260E−01 .382E−01 .553E−01 .790E−01 .112 .156 .215 .295

.161E−01 .253E−01 .392E−01 .596E−01 .895E−01 .132 .193 .279 .398 .562

.427E−01 .687E−01 .109 .169 .258 .389 .577 .846 1.225 1.751

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290

.156 .216 .295 .396 .525 .688 .881 1.141 1.447 1.817

.107 .150 .207 .282 .379 .503 .660 .856 1.099 1.398

300 310 320 330 340 350

2.261 2.791 3.417 4.153 5.011 6.006

1.761 2.199 2.723 3.347 4.084 4.949

1.211 1.524 1.901 2.353 2.889 3.523

.767 .977 1.234 1.545 1.919 2.366

.578 .742 .944 1.191 1.491 1.852

.425 .553 .713 .911 1.156 1.456

.379 .498 .649 .840 1.078 1.374

.399 .536 .714 .944 1.239 1.614

.785 1.085 1.486 2.018 2.718 3.631

2.476 3.465 4.800 6.586 8.957 12.079

*Vermeulen, Dong, Robinson, Nguyen, and Gmitro, AIChE meeting, Anaheim, Calif., 1982; and private communication from Prof. Theodore Vermeulen, Chemical Engineering Dept., University of California, Berkeley.

2-88

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-18

Partial Pressures of HNO3 and H2O over Aqueous Solutions of HNO3* mmHg Percentages are weight % HNO3 in solution. 20%

°C

25% H2O

HNO3

HNO3

30% H2O

HNO3

35% H2O

0 5 10 15 20

4.1 5.7 8.0 10.9 15.2

3.8 5.4 7.6 10.3 14.2

3.6 5.0 7.1 9.7 13.2

25 30 35 40 45

20.6 27.6 36.5 47.5 62

19.2 25.7 33.8 44 57.5

17.8 23.8 31.1 41 53

0.09

0.11 .17

40%

HNO3

H2O

45%

HNO3

H2O

3.3 4.6 6.5 8.9 12.0 16.2 21.7 28.3 37.7 48

0.09 .13 .20 .28

0.12 .17 .25 .36 .52

50%

HNO3

H2O

HNO3

3.0 4.2 5.8 8.0 10.8

H2O

0.10 .15

2.6 3.6 5.0 6.9 9.4

0.12 .18 .27

2.1 3.0 4.2 5.8 7.9

14.6 19.5 25.5 33.5 43

.23 .33 .48 .68 .96

12.7 16.9 22.3 29.3 38.0

.39 .56 .80 1.13 1.57

10.7 14.4 19.0 25.0 32.5

49.5 62.5 80 100 126

2.18 2.95 4.05 5.46 7.25

42.5 54 70 88 110

50 55 60 65 70

0.09 .13 .19 .27

80 100 128 162 200

.13 .18 .28 .40 .54

75 94 121 151 187

.25 .35 .51 .71 1.00

69 87 113 140 174

.42 .59 .85 1.18 1.63

63 79 102 127 159

.75 1.04 1.48 2.05 2.80

56 71 90 114 143

1.35 1.83 2.54 3.47 4.65

75 80 85 90 95

.38 .53 .74 1.01 1.37

250 307 378 458 555

.77 1.05 1.44 1.95 2.62

234 287 352 426 517

1.38 1.87 2.53 3.38 4.53

217 267 325 393 478

2.26 3.07 4.15 5.50 7.32

198 243 297 359 436

3.80 5.10 6.83 9.0 11.7

178 218 268 325 394

6.20 8.15 10.7 13.7 17.8

158 195 240 292 355

9.6 12.5 16.3 20.9 26.8

138 170 211 258 315

100 105 110 115 120

1.87 2.50

675 800

3.50 4.65

628 745

6.05 7.90

580 690

530 631 755

15.5 20.0 25.7 32.5

480 573 688 810

23.0 29.2 37.0 46

430 520 625 740

34.2 43.0 54.5 67 84

383 463 560 665 785

°C

HNO3

H2O

HNO3

H2O

HNO3

H2O

HNO3

H2O

0 5 10 15 20

0.14 .21 .31 .45

1.8 2.5 3.5 4.9 6.7

0.19 .28 .41 .59 .84

1.5 2.1 3.0 4.1 5.6

0.41 .60 .86 1.21 1.68

1.3 1.8 2.6 3.5 4.9

0.79 1.12 1.58 2.18 3.00

1.1 1.6 2.2 3.0 4.1

25 30 35 40 45

.66 .93 1.30 1.82 2.50

9.1 12.2 16.1 21.3 28.0

1.21 1.66 2.28 3.10 4.20

7.7 10.3 13.6 18.1 23.7

2.32 3.17 4.26 5.70 7.55

6.6 8.8 11.6 15.5 20.0

4.10 5.50 7.30 9.65 12.6

5.5 7.4 9.8 12.8 16.7

50 55 60 65 70

3.41 4.54 6.15 8.18 10.7

36.3 46 60 76 95

5.68 7.45 9.9 13.0 16.8

31 39 51 64 81

10.0 12.8 16.8 21.7 27.5

26.0 33.0 43.0 54.5 68

16.5 21.0 27.1 34.5 43.3

21.8 27.3 35.3 44.5 56

75 80 85 90 95

13.9 18.0 23.0 29.4 37.3

120 148 182 223 272

21.8 27.5 34.8 43.7 55.0

102 126 156 192 233

35.0 43.5 54.5 67.5 83.5

100 105 110 115 120 125

47 58.5 73 90 110

331 400 485 575 685

69.5 84.5 103 126 156 187

285 345 417 495 590 700

55%

60%

9.7 12.7 16.5

65%

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, pp. 304–305.

103 124 152 181 218 260

70%

80% HNO3

90%

100%

H2O

HNO3

H2O

HNO3

2 3 4 6 8

1.2 1.7 2.4

5.5 8 11 15 20

10.5 14 18.5 24.5 32

3.2 4 5.5 7 9.5

27 36 47 62 80

1 1.3 1.8 2.4 3

57 77 102 133 170

11 15 22 30 42

41 52 67 85 106

12 15 20 25 31

103 127 157 192 232

4 5 6.5 8 10

215 262 320 385 460 540 625 720 820

86 106 131 160 195

54.5 67.5 83 103 125

70 86 107 130 158

130 158 192 230 278

38 48 60 73 89

282 338 405 480 570

13 16 20 24 29

238 288 345 410 490 580

152 183 221 262 312 372

192 231 278 330 393 469

330 392 465 545 640

108 129 155 185 219

675 790

35 42

VAPOR PRESSURES OF SOLUTIONS TABLE 2-19 Partial Pressures of H2O and HBr over Aqueous Solutions of HBr at 20 to 55°C* mmHg % HBr 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60

20 °C HBr

0.09 0.23 0.71 2.2 6.8 21

25 °C H2O

6.2 4.5 3.3 2.4 1.7 1.3

HBr

50 °C H2O

0.0016 0.0022 0.0033 0.0061 0.011 0.023 0.048 0.10 0.13 0.37 1.1 3.2 9.3 27

HBr

8.2 6.1 4.5 3.3 2.4 1.9

1.3 3.2 7.2 17 40 91

H2O

30.2 24.3 19.3 16.0 13.3 10.4

55 °C HBr

2.0 4.6 10.2 23.0 51 115 260

H2O

38 31 25 21 18 14 11.4

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 306.

2-89

TABLE 2-22 Total Vapor Pressures of Aqueous Solutions of CH3COOH* Percentages of weight % acetic acid in the solution mmHg °C

25%

50%

75%

20 25 30 35 40

16.3 22.1 29.6 39.4 51.7

15.7 21.4 28.8 38.3 50.2

15.3 20.8 27.8 36.6 48.1

45 50 55 60 65

67.0 87.2 110 141 178

65.0 85.0 107 138 172

62.0 80.1 102 130 162

70 75 80 85 90

223 277 342 419 510

216 269 331 407 497

203 251 310 376 458

95 100

618 743

602 725

550 666

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 306.

TABLE 2-20 Partial Pressures of HI over Aqueous Solutions of HI at 25°C* mmHg %HI pHI

44 0.00064

46 0.0010

48 0.0022

50 0.0050

52 0.013

54 0.035

56 0.10

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 306.

TABLE 2-21 Vapor Pressures of the System: Water-Sulfuric Acid-Nitric Acid For these data reference must be made to the graphs of International Critical Tables, vol. 3, pp. 306–308.

Vapor pressure of aqueous diethylene glycol solutions. (Courtesy of Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp.)

FIG. 2-3

2-90 TABLE 2-23

Partial Pressure of H2O over Aqueous Solutions of NH3 (psia) Liquid mole percent NH3 (liquid weight percent NH3)

0

5

10

15

(0)

(4.74)

(9.5)

(14.29)

32 40 50 60 70

0.089 0.122 0.178 0.256 0.363

0.083 0.115 0.168 0.242 0.343

0.077 0.106 0.156 0.225 0.320

0.071 0.097 0.143 0.207 0.294

80 90 100 110 120

0.507 0.699 0.951 1.277 1.695

0.479 0.661 0.899 1.209 1.607

0.448 0.618 0.843 1.135 1.510

130 140 150 160 170

2.226 2.893 3.723 4.747 6.000

2.112 2.748 3.540 4.519 5.717

180 190 200 210 220

7.520 9.350 11.538 14.136 17.201

230 240 250

20.796 24.986 29.844

t, °F

20

25

30

35

40

45

55

60

65

70

80

85

90

95

(23.94)

(28.81)

(33.71)

(38.64)

(43.59)

(48.57)

(53.58)

(58.62)

(63.69)

(68.79)

(73.91)

(79.07)

(84.26)

(89.47)

(94.72)

0.063 0.087 0.129 0.186 0.266

0.055 0.077 0.113 0.164 0.235

0.047 0.065 0.097 0.142 0.204

0.039 0.054 0.081 0.119 0.172

0.031 0.044 0.066 0.098 0.143

0.025 0.035 0.053 0.079 0.116

0.019 0.027 0.041 0.062 0.093

0.014 0.021 0.032 0.049 0.073

0.011 0.016 0.025 0.038 0.058

0.008 0.012 0.019 0.030 0.045

0.006 0.009 0.014 0.023 0.036

0.004 0.007 0.011 0.018 0.028

0.003 0.005 0.008 0.014 0.022

0.002 0.004 0.006 0.010 0.016

0.002 0.002 0.004 0.007 0.011

0.001 0.001 0.002 0.004 0.006

0.413 0.571 0.780 1.052 1.402

0.374 0.518 0.710 0.960 1.283

0.332 0.462 0.634 0.861 1.154

0.289 0.403 0.556 0.758 1.021

0.245 0.345 0.479 0.656 0.889

0.205 0.290 0.405 0.559 0.763

0.168 0.240 0.338 0.470 0.647

0.136 0.196 0.279 0.392 0.544

0.109 0.159 0.228 0.324 0.455

0.087 0.128 0.186 0.268 0.380

0.069 0.103 0.152 0.220 0.316

0.055 0.083 0.123 0.181 0.263

0.043 0.066 0.100 0.148 0.217

0.034 0.052 0.079 0.119 0.176

0.025 0.040 0.061 0.092 0.137

0.018 0.028 0.043 0.065 0.099

0.010 0.015 0.024 0.036 0.056

1.988 2.591 3.343 4.273 5.416

1.850 2.415 3.122 4.000 5.079

1.696 2.221 2.879 3.698 4.709

1.532 2.012 2.618 3.374 4.312

1.361 1.796 2.347 3.039 3.902

1.192 1.582 2.078 2.706 3.493

1.030 1.376 1.821 2.387 3.101

0.881 1.186 1.582 2.090 2.736

0.747 1.016 1.367 1.821 2.405

0.632 0.867 1.177 1.584 2.110

0.532 0.738 1.013 1.376 1.851

0.448 0.628 0.870 1.194 1.622

0.376 0.532 0.746 1.033 1.418

0.313 0.448 0.634 0.887 1.229

0.257 0.371 0.529 0.748 1.047

0.202 0.295 0.425 0.607 0.858

0.147 0.216 0.314 0.453 0.647

0.083 0.124 0.183 0.267 0.386

7.174 8.931 11.035 13.538 16.496

6.807 8.488 10.504 12.910 15.758

6.397 7.994 9.916 12.213 14.941

5.947 7.452 9.270 11.449 14.047

5.465 6.873 8.580 10.635 13.095

4.968 6.275 7.869 9.796 12.115

4.472 5.680 7.160 8.962 11.141

3.995 5.107 6.479 8.160 10.205

3.551 4.573 5.842 7.410 9.331

3.148 4.086 5.262 6.725 8.534

2.787 3.650 4.740 6.110 7.817

2.468 3.262 4.275 5.559 7.175

2.184 2.914 3.856 5.061 6.592

1.928 2.598 3.470 4.598 6.045

1.688 2.297 3.098 4.146 5.504

1.451 1.994 2.718 3.675 4.932

1.201 1.669 2.300 3.147 4.277

0.917 1.290 1.802 2.502 3.455

0.555 0.793 1.129 1.600 2.262

19.971 24.029 28.744

19.111 23.037 27.607

18.162 21.943 26.358

17.124 20.748 24.996

16.020 19.479 23.549

14.886 18.179 22.070

13.760 16.889 20.608

12.679 15.654 19.212

11.672 14.506 17.917

10.754 13.463 16.748

9.930 12.530 15.708

9.192 11.696 14.783

8.522 10.938 13.946

7.889 10.221 13.153

7.255 9.496 12.346

6.573 8.703 11.452

5.777 7.759 10.369

4.751 6.508 8.891

3.196 4.520 6.413

(19.1)

50

75

The values in Tables 2-23 to 2-26 were generated from the NIST REFPROP software (Lemmon, E. W., McLinden, M. O., and Huber, M. L., NIST Standard Reference Database 23: Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties—REFPROP, Version 7.0, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Standard Reference Data Program, Gaithersburg, Md., 2002). The primary source for the properties of aqueous ammonia mixtures is R. Tillner-Roth and D. G. Friend, “A Helmholtz Free Energy Formulation of the Thermodynamic Properties of the Mixture {Water + Ammonia},” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 27:63–96 (1998).

TABLE 2-24

Mole Percentages of H2O over Aqueous Solutions of NH3 Liquid mole percent NH3 (liquid weight percent NH3)

0

5

10

15

t, °F

(0)

(4.74)

(9.5)

(14.29)

32 40 50 60 70

100 100 100 100 100

32.046 33.233 34.709 36.172 37.619

14.173 15.064 16.192 17.334 18.489

7.263 7.842 8.588 9.359 10.154

80 90 100 110 120

100 100 100 100 100

39.047 40.455 41.840 43.201 44.537

19.653 20.827 22.007 23.194 24.385

130 140 150 160 170

100 100 100 100 100

45.849 47.136 48.398 49.636 50.849

180 190 200 210 220

100 100 100 100 100

230 240 250

100 100 100

20 (19.1)

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

(23.94)

(28.81)

(33.71)

(38.64)

(43.59)

(48.57)

(53.58)

(58.62)

(63.69)

(68.79)

(73.91)

(79.07)

(84.26)

(89.47)

(94.72)

3.959 4.321 4.797 5.299 5.828

2.202 2.427 2.727 3.050 3.396

1.226 1.365 1.554 1.760 1.985

0.679 0.765 0.883 1.015 1.162

0.375 0.428 0.502 0.587 0.683

0.207 0.240 0.287 0.342 0.405

0.116 0.137 0.167 0.203 0.245

0.067 0.080 0.100 0.123 0.152

0.039 0.048 0.061 0.077 0.097

0.024 0.030 0.039 0.050 0.064

0.015 0.019 0.026 0.034 0.044

0.010 0.013 0.017 0.023 0.030

0.007 0.009 0.012 0.016 0.021

0.005 0.006 0.008 0.011 0.015

0.003 0.004 0.005 0.007 0.010

0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005

10.974 11.816 12.681 13.567 14.475

6.382 6.963 7.571 8.205 8.867

3.765 4.160 4.580 5.027 5.501

2.231 2.497 2.786 3.098 3.434

1.325 1.505 1.703 1.920 2.158

0.791 0.913 1.049 1.201 1.370

0.478 0.561 0.655 0.763 0.884

0.294 0.351 0.418 0.494 0.582

0.186 0.226 0.273 0.328 0.393

0.121 0.149 0.184 0.224 0.273

0.081 0.102 0.127 0.158 0.195

0.056 0.072 0.091 0.114 0.142

0.040 0.051 0.066 0.084 0.106

0.028 0.037 0.048 0.062 0.079

0.020 0.026 0.034 0.044 0.057

0.013 0.017 0.023 0.030 0.039

0.007 0.009 0.012 0.016 0.021

25.580 26.779 27.979 29.182 30.385

15.404 16.353 17.322 18.310 19.317

9.557 10.273 11.017 11.789 12.587

6.002 6.532 7.091 7.680 8.298

3.796 4.184 4.600 5.044 5.517

2.419 2.702 3.010 3.344 3.705

1.558 1.766 1.994 2.246 2.521

1.020 1.173 1.344 1.534 1.746

0.682 0.796 0.925 1.071 1.236

0.467 0.554 0.653 0.767 0.897

0.329 0.396 0.473 0.563 0.668

0.238 0.290 0.352 0.425 0.509

0.177 0.218 0.268 0.327 0.396

0.133 0.166 0.206 0.254 0.312

0.100 0.126 0.158 0.197 0.245

0.073 0.094 0.118 0.149 0.187

0.050 0.064 0.082 0.104 0.132

0.027 0.035 0.045 0.058 0.074

52.038 53.204 54.347 55.468 56.567

31.588 32.792 33.994 35.196 36.395

20.341 21.383 22.442 23.517 24.607

13.413 14.266 15.146 16.052 16.985

8.948 9.628 10.340 11.083 11.858

6.021 6.557 7.124 7.725 8.359

4.094 4.513 4.963 5.445 5.961

2.822 3.151 3.508 3.896 4.316

1.981 2.240 2.526 2.840 3.184

1.421 1.628 1.859 2.116 2.401

1.045 1.212 1.402 1.615 1.854

0.788 0.926 1.083 1.263 1.468

0.609 0.724 0.857 1.011 1.187

0.479 0.576 0.690 0.823 0.977

0.381 0.463 0.561 0.676 0.811

0.302 0.371 0.453 0.552 0.669

0.233 0.288 0.357 0.439 0.539

0.166 0.209 0.261 0.326 0.406

0.094 0.120 0.153 0.195 0.248

57.645 58.702 59.740

37.592 38.787 39.978

25.711 26.830 27.962

17.943 18.927 19.936

12.665 13.503 14.374

9.028 9.732 10.471

6.512 7.098 7.722

4.769 5.258 5.784

3.560 3.970 4.416

2.716 3.064 3.447

2.122 2.421 2.754

1.699 1.960 2.254

1.390 1.621 1.884

1.156 1.363 1.601

0.969 1.155 1.371

0.809 0.975 1.171

0.660 0.806 0.982

0.506 0.629 0.783

0.317 0.406 0.524

The values in Tables 2-23 to 2-26 were generated from the NIST REFPROP software (Lemmon, E. W., McLinden, M. O., and Huber, M. L., NIST Standard Reference Database 23: Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties—REFPROP, Version 7.0, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Standard Reference Data Program, Gaithersburg, Md., 2002). The primary source for the properties of aqueous ammonia mixtures is R. Tillner-Roth and D. G. Friend, “A Helmholtz Free Energy Formulation of the Thermodynamic Properties of the Mixture {Water + Ammonia},” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 27:63–96 (1998).

2-91

2-92 TABLE 2-25

Partial Pressures of NH3 over Aqueous Solutions of NH3 (psia) Liquid mole percent NH3 (liquid weight percent NH3)

0

5

t, °F (0) (4.74)

10

15

20

25

30

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

(9.5)

(14.29)

(19.1)

(23.94)

(28.81)

(33.71)

35

(38.64)

(43.59)

(48.57)

(53.58)

(58.62)

(63.69)

(68.79)

(73.91)

(79.07)

(84.26)

(89.47)

(94.72)

(100)

21.480 25.798 32.120 39.581 48.307

43.900 48.431 51.828 57.082 63.243 69.520 76.489 83.933 91.745 100.51

52.368 61.665 75.020 90.486 108.26

55.846 65.731 79.931 96.376 115.29

59.055 69.506 84.523 101.93 121.94

62.277 73.322 89.205 107.63 128.85

32 40 50 60 70

0 0 0 0 0

0.177 0.230 0.316 0.426 0.568

0.468 0.600 0.808 1.074 1.410

0.901 1.143 1.522 2.002 2.603

1.533 1.932 2.552 3.330 4.296

2.456 3.078 4.036 5.228 6.696

3.797 4.730 6.154 7.912 10.056

5.710 7.066 9.117 11.625 14.656

8.358 10.267 13.129 16.593 20.742

11.868 14.467 18.328 22.959 28.456

16.279 19.691 24.721 30.702 37.744

27.206 32.478 40.150 49.149 59.615

33.087 39.307 48.315 58.831 71.008

38.745 45.860 56.128 68.074 81.861

80 90 100 110 120

0 0 0 0 0

0.748 0.973 1.250 1.590 2.001

1.831 2.351 2.987 3.758 4.683

3.348 4.261 5.368 6.700 8.285

5.483 6.926 8.663 10.735 13.184

8.483 10.639 13.213 16.258 19.832

12.645 15.741 19.406 23.709 28.718

18.283 22.582 27.630 33.509 40.300

25.664 31.447 38.185 45.971 54.899

34.922 42.460 51.177 61.177 72.569

45.966 58.428 71.689 55.485 70.073 85.514 66.416 83.375 101.23 78.881 98.461 118.98 92.996 115.45 138.90

84.998 100.96 119.04 139.39 162.15

97.654 115.62 135.93 158.73 184.19

109.19 128.99 151.34 176.40 204.35

119.45 140.93 165.15 192.30 222.57

128.56 151.60 177.57 206.69 239.16

136.88 161.39 189.05 220.07 254.71

144.83 170.82 200.19 233.16 270.03

153.13 180.76 212.01 247.19 286.60

130 140 150 160 170

0 0 0 0 0

2.494 5.784 3.082 7.084 3.774 8.604 4.585 10.371 5.527 12.408

10.158 12.352 14.902 17.844 21.216

16.055 19.395 23.250 27.669 32.700

23.989 28.791 34.295 40.562 47.649

34.503 41.135 48.685 57.222 66.816

48.086 65.064 85.455 56.949 76.558 99.944 66.972 89.472 116.12 78.230 103.89 134.09 90.803 119.90 153.93

180 190 200 210 220

0 0 0 0 0

6.612 7.856 9.270 10.869 12.666

25.053 29.393 34.270 39.721 45.779

38.390 44.786 51.933 59.876 68.655

55.614 77.532 64.514 89.432 74.401 102.58 85.326 117.02 97.335 132.82

230 240 250

0 0 0

14.673 31.727 16.905 36.356 19.371 41.449

14.741 17.395 20.397 23.769 27.538

52.477 78.310 110.47 59.843 88.872 124.78 67.906 100.38 140.28

150.00 168.62 188.70

108.87 126.62 146.35 168.16 192.14

134.49 155.67 179.11 204.93 233.19

161.13 185.77 212.96 242.79 275.37

187.48 215.50 246.33 280.08 316.87

212.44 243.66 277.95 315.46 356.26

235.36 269.56 307.13 348.18 392.85

256.14 293.19 333.87 378.36 426.79

275.20 314.99 358.75 406.62 458.82

293.18 335.72 382.56 433.89 489.95

311.05 356.48 406.60 461.65 521.92

330.54 379.36 433.38 492.95 558.45

587.67 659.12 736.52 820.08 909.98

630.24 708.74 794.38 887.64 989.03

104.77 120.18 137.11 155.62 175.75

137.57 156.99 178.21 201.28 226.25

175.73 199.56 225.47 253.53 283.77

218.35 246.89 277.81 311.15 346.95

263.99 297.40 333.47 372.25 413.74

310.76 349.06 390.30 434.50 481.70

356.75 399.82 446.12 495.68 548.49

400.47 448.16 499.38 554.15 612.50

441.24 493.43 549.49 609.47 673.37

479.30 535.98 596.94 662.22 731.88

515.48 576.75 642.74 713.55 789.23

550.92 616.99 688.31 765.01 847.19

197.54 221.04 246.26

253.17 282.06 312.93

316.23 350.91 387.82

385.23 425.98 469.20

457.98 504.92 554.55

531.89 585.01 641.05

604.55 663.80 726.18

674.39 739.77 808.55

741.21 812.89 888.35

805.90 884.22 966.78

869.79 955.18 1045.3

934.86 1028.0 1126.5

1006.3 1109.2 1218.3

1099.1 1218.7 1348.5

The values in Tables 2-23 to 2-26 were generated from the NIST REFPROP software (Lemmon, E. W., McLinden, M. O., and Huber, M. L., NIST Standard Reference Database 23: Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties—REFPROP, Version 7.0, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Standard Reference Data Program, Gaithersburg, Md., 2002). The primary source for the properties of aqueous ammonia mixtures is R. Tillner-Roth and D. G. Friend, “A Helmholtz Free Energy Formulation of the Thermodynamic Properties of the Mixture {Water + Ammonia},” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 27:63–96 (1998).

TABLE 2-26

Total Vapor Pressures of Aqueous Solutions of NH3 (psia) Liquid mole percent NH3 (liquid weight percent NH3)

0

5

10

t, °F

(0)

(4.74)

(9.5)

32 40 50 60 70

0.089 0.122 0.178 0.256 0.363

0.260 0.345 0.483 0.668 0.911

0.545 0.706 0.964 1.299 1.730

0.971 1.240 1.665 2.209 2.898

80 90 100 110 120

0.507 0.699 0.951 1.277 1.695

1.227 1.633 2.149 2.799 3.608

2.279 2.969 3.830 4.893 6.194

130 140 150 160 170

2.226 4.607 7.773 2.893 5.830 9.674 3.723 7.315 11.947 4.747 9.104 14.644 6.000 11.244 17.824

180 190 200 210 220

7.520 9.350 11.538 14.136 17.201

13.786 16.787 20.305 24.407 29.162

21.548 25.883 30.901 36.679 43.296

230 240 250

20.796 34.644 50.838 24.986 40.934 59.393 29.844 48.115 69.056

15

25

30

35

40

45

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

(23.94)

(28.81)

(33.71)

(38.64)

(43.59)

(48.57)

(53.58)

(58.62)

(63.69)

(68.79)

(73.91)

(79.07)

(84.26)

(89.47)

(94.72)

(100)

1.596 2.020 2.680 3.516 4.562

2.512 3.155 4.149 5.392 6.931

3.844 4.795 6.251 8.053 10.260

5.749 7.120 9.198 11.744 14.828

8.389 10.311 13.195 16.691 20.885

11.893 14.502 18.381 23.038 28.572

16.298 19.718 24.762 30.764 37.837

21.494 25.819 32.152 39.630 48.381

27.217 32.494 40.175 49.187 59.673

33.095 39.319 48.334 58.860 71.053

38.751 45.869 56.143 68.097 81.897

43.904 48.434 51.835 57.087 63.254 69.528 76.507 83.946 91.773 100.53

52.371 61.669 75.026 90.496 108.28

55.848 65.734 79.935 96.383 115.30

59.056 69.507 84.526 101.93 121.95

62.277 73.322 89.205 107.63 128.85

3.761 4.832 6.148 7.751 9.688

5.857 7.445 9.373 11.694 14.467

8.815 11.101 13.847 17.119 20.986

12.934 16.144 19.962 24.467 29.739

18.528 22.927 28.109 34.165 41.189

25.869 31.737 38.590 46.530 55.662

35.090 42.700 51.514 61.647 73.216

46.102 58.537 71.776 55.680 70.232 85.642 66.695 83.603 101.42 79.273 98.785 119.25 93.540 115.91 139.28

85.067 101.06 119.19 139.61 162.47

97.709 115.70 136.05 158.91 184.45

109.23 129.06 151.44 176.55 204.57

119.48 140.98 165.23 192.42 222.75

128.59 151.64 177.63 206.78 239.30

136.90 161.42 189.09 220.14 254.81

144.84 170.84 200.21 233.20 270.09

153.13 180.76 212.01 247.19 286.60

12.008 14.767 18.024 21.844 26.295

17.752 21.616 26.129 31.367 37.409

25.521 30.803 36.913 43.936 51.961

35.864 42.931 51.032 60.262 70.718

49.278 66.094 58.531 77.934 69.050 91.292 80.937 106.28 94.297 123.00

86.336 101.13 117.70 136.18 156.67

109.62 127.64 147.72 169.98 194.54

135.12 156.54 180.29 206.51 235.30

161.66 186.51 213.97 244.16 277.22

187.93 216.13 247.20 281.28 318.49

212.82 244.19 278.70 316.49 357.68

235.67 270.01 307.76 349.07 394.08

256.40 293.56 334.40 379.11 427.84

275.40 315.29 359.17 407.23 459.68

293.33 335.94 382.87 434.34 490.60

311.13 356.60 406.78 461.92 522.31

330.54 379.36 433.38 492.95 558.45

31.450 37.387 44.186 51.934 60.720

44.337 61.079 82.499 52.238 71.387 95.708 61.203 82.981 110.45 71.325 95.961 126.82 82.702 110.43 144.93

588.22 659.91 737.65 821.68 912.24

630.24 708.74 794.38 887.64 989.03

(14.29)

20 (19.1)

70.639 95.434 126.49 81.786 109.62 144.26 94.264 125.38 163.83

164.89 186.80 210.77

50

109.24 125.86 144.27 164.58 186.89

141.57 162.10 184.69 209.44 236.46

179.28 204.13 231.31 260.94 293.10

221.50 250.98 283.07 317.88 355.49

266.78 301.05 338.21 378.36 421.56

313.23 352.32 394.57 440.06 488.88

358.94 402.74 449.98 500.74 555.08

402.40 450.76 502.85 558.75 618.54

442.93 495.73 552.59 613.62 678.88

480.75 537.98 599.66 665.90 736.81

516.68 578.42 645.04 716.70 793.51

551.84 618.28 690.11 767.51 850.64

211.30 237.93 266.87

265.85 297.71 332.14

327.90 365.42 405.74

395.98 439.44 485.95

467.91 517.45 570.25

541.08 596.71 655.83

613.07 674.74 740.12

682.28 749.99 821.71

748.46 822.39 900.70

812.47 892.93 978.24

875.57 962.94 1055.7

939.61 1034.5 1135.4

1009.5 1113.7 1224.7

1099.1 1218.7 1348.5

The values in Tables 2-23 to 2-26 were generated from the NIST REFPROP software (Lemmon, E. W., McLinden, M. O., and Huber, M. L., NIST Standard Reference Database 23: Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties—REFPROP, Version 7.0, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Standard Reference Data Program, Gaithersburg, Md., 2002). The primary source for the properties of aqueous ammonia mixtures is R. Tillner-Roth and D. G. Friend, “A Helmholtz Free Energy Formulation of the Thermodynamic Properties of the Mixture {Water + Ammonia},” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 27:63–96 (1998).

2-93

2-94

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-27 Partial Pressures of H2O over Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Carbonate* mmHg %Na2CO3 t, °C

0

5

10

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

4.5 9.2 17.5 31.8 55.3 92.5 149.5 239.8 355.5 526.0 760.0

4.5 9.0 17.2 31.2 54.2 90.7 146.5 235 348 516 746

8.8 16.8 30.4 53.0 88.7 143.5 230.5 342 506 731

15

16.3 29.6 57.6 86.5 139.9 225 334 494 715

20

28.8 50.2 84.1 136.1 219 325 482 697

25

27.8 48.4 81.2 131.6 211.5 315 467 676

30

26.4 46.1 77.5 125.7 202.5 301 447 648

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 372.

TABLE 2-28 Partial Pressures of H2O and CH3OH over Aqueous Solutions of Methyl Alcohol* 39.9 °C

Mole fraction CH3OH

PH2O, mmHg

PCH3OH , mmHg

0 14.99 17.85 21.07 27.31 31.06 40.1 47.0 55.8 68.9 86.0 100.0

54.7 39.2 38.5 37.2 35.8 34.9 32.8 31.5 27.3 20.7 10.1 0

0 66.1 75.5 85.2 100.6 108.8 127.7 141.6 158.4 186.6 225.2 260.7

59.4 °C

Mole fraction CH3OH

PH2O, mmHg

PCH3OH , mmHg

0 22.17 27.40 33.24 39.80 47.08 55.5 69.2 78.5 85.9 100.0

145.4 106.9 102.2 96.6 91.7 84.8 76.9 57.8 43.8 30.1 0

0 210.1 240.2 272.1 301.9 335.6 373.7 439.4 486.6 526.9 609.3

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 290.

TABLE 2-29 Conc. g NaOH/ 100 g H2O 0 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 250 300 350 400 500 700 1000 2000 4000 8000

Partial Pressures of H2O over Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Hydroxide* mmHg Temperature, °C 0

20

40

60

80

100

120

160

200

250

300

350

4.6 4.4 4.2 3.6 2.9 2.2

17.5 16.9 16.0 13.9 11.3 8.7 6.3 4.4 3.0 2.0 1.3 0.9

55.3 53.2 50.6 44.2 36.6 28.7 20.7 15.5 10.9 7.6 5.2 3.6 1.7

149.5 143.5 137.0 120.5 101.0 81.0 62.5 47.0 34.5 24.5 17.5 12.5 6.3 3.0 1.5

355.5 341.5 325.5 288.5 246.0 202.0 160.5 124.0 94.0 70.5 53.0 38.5 20.5 11.0 6.0 3.5 2.0 0.5 0.1

760.0 730.0 697.0 621.0 537.0 450.0 368.0 294.0 231.0 179.0 138.0 105.0 61.0 35.5 20.5 12.0 7.0 2.0 0.5

1,489 1,430 1,365 1,225 1,070 920 770 635 515 415 330 262 164 102 63 40 25 8 2.7 0.9

4,633 4,450 4,260 3,860 3,460 3,090 2,690 2,340 2,030 1,740 1,490 1,300 915 765 470 340 245 110 50 23 11

11,647 11,200 10,750 9,800 8,950 8,150 7,400 6,750 6,100 5,500 5,000 4,500 3,650 2,980 2,430 1,980 1,620 985 610 380 240 100

29,771 28,600 27,500 25,300 23,300 21,500 19,900 18,400 17,100 15,800 14,700 13,650 11,800 10,300 8,960 7,830 6,870 5,000 3,690 2,750 2,080 1,210 440

64,200 61,800 59,300 54,700 50,800 47,200 44,100 41,200 38,700 36,300 34,200 32,200 28,800 25,900 23,300 21,200 19,200 15,400 12,500 10,300 8,600 6,100 3,300 1,470 150

123,600 118,900 114,100 105,400 98,000 91,600 85,800 80,700 76,000 71,900 68,100 64,600 58,600 53,400 49,000 45,100 41,800 35,000 29,800 25,700 22,400 17,500 11,500 6,800 1,760 120 7

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 370.

WATER-VAPOR CONTENT OF GASES

2-95

WATER-VAPOR CONTENT OF GASES CHART FOR GASES AT HIGH PRESSURES The accompanying figure is useful in determining the water-vapor content of air at high pressure in contact with liquid water.

Water content of air, °C = (°F − 32) × 5⁄ 9. (Landsbaum, Dadds, and Stutzman. Reprinted from vol. 47, January 1955 issue of Ind. Eng. Chem. [p. 192]. Copyright 1955 by the American Chemical Society and reproduced by permission of the copyright owner.)

FIG. 2-4

2-96

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

DENSITIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES TABLE 2-30 Density (kg/m3) of Saturated Liquid Water from the Triple Point to the Critical Point T, K 273.160* 274 276 278 280 282 284 286 288 290 292 294 296 298 300 302 304 306 308 310 312 314 316 318 320 322 324 326 328 330 332 334 336 338 340 342 344 346 348 350

ρ, kg/m3

T, K

ρ, kg/m3

T, K

ρ, kg/m3

T, K

ρ, kg/m3

T, K

ρ, kg/m3

999.793 999.843 999.914 999.919 999.862 999.746 999.575 999.352 999.079 998.758 998.392 997.983 997.532 997.042 996.513 995.948 995.346 994.711 994.042 993.342 992.610 991.848 991.056 990.235 989.387 988.512 987.610 986.682 985.728 984.750 983.747 982.721 981.671 980.599 979.503 978.386 977.247 976.086 974.904 973.702

352 354 356 358 360 362 364 366 368 370 372 374 376 378 380 382 384 386 388 390 392 394 396 398 400 402 404 406 408 410 412 414 416 418 420 422 424 426 428 430

972.479 971.235 969.972 968.689 967.386 966.064 964.723 963.363 961.984 960.587 959.171 957.737 956.285 954.815 953.327 951.822 950.298 948.758 947.199 945.624 944.030 942.420 940.793 939.148 937.486 935.807 934.111 932.398 930.668 928.921 927.157 925.375 923.577 921.761 919.929 918.079 916.212 914.328 912.426 910.507

432 434 436 438 440 442 444 446 448 450 452 454 456 458 460 462 464 466 468 470 472 474 476 478 480 482 484 486 488 490 492 494 496 498 500 502 504 506 508 510

908.571 906.617 904.645 902.656 900.649 898.624 896.580 894.519 892.439 890.341 888.225 886.089 883.935 881.761 879.569 877.357 875.125 872.873 870.601 868.310 865.997 863.664 861.310 858.934 856.537 854.118 851.678 849.214 846.728 844.219 841.686 839.130 836.549 833.944 831.313 828.658 825.976 823.269 820.534 817.772

512 514 516 518 520 522 524 526 528 530 532 534 536 538 540 542 544 546 548 550 552 554 556 558 560 562 564 566 568 570 572 574 576 578 580 582 584 586 588 590

814.982 812.164 809.318 806.441 803.535 800.597 797.629 794.628 791.594 788.527 785.425 782.288 779.115 775.905 772.657 769.369 766.042 762.674 759.263 755.808 752.308 748.762 745.169 741.525 737.831 734.084 730.283 726.425 722.508 718.530 714.489 710.382 706.206 701.959 697.638 693.238 688.757 684.190 679.533 674.781

592 594 596 598 600 602 604 606 608 610 612 614 616 618 620 622 624 626 628 630 632 634 636 638 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 647.096†

669.930 664.974 659.907 654.722 649.411 643.97 638.38 632.64 626.74 620.65 614.37 607.88 601.15 594.16 586.88 579.26 571.25 562.81 553.84 544.25 533.92 522.71 510.42 496.82 481.53 473.01 463.67 453.14 440.73 425.05 402.96 357.34 322

*Triple point †Critical point From Wagner, W., and Pruss, A., “The IAPWS Formulation 1995 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Ordinary Water Substance for General and Scientific Use,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 31(2):387–535, 2002.

DENSITIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES TABLE 2-31

2-97

Density (kg/m3) of Mercury from 0 to 350°C* Density, kg /m3

t, °C

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0 10 20 30 40

13595.08 13570.44 13545.87 13521.36 13496.92

13592.61 13567.98 13543.41 13518.91 13494.48

13590.14 13565.52 13540.96 13516.47 13492.04

13587.68 13563.06 13538.51 13514.02 13489.60

13585.21 13560.60 13536.06 13511.58 13487.16

13582.75 13558.14 13533.61 13509.13 13484.72

13580.29 13555.69 13531.16 13506.69 13482.29

13577.82 13553.23 13528.71 13504.25 13479.85

13575.36 13550.78 13526.26 13501.80 13477.41

13572.90 13548.32 13523.81 13499.36 13474.98

50 60 70 80 90

13472.54 13448.22 13423.96 13399.75 13375.59

13470.11 13445.80 13421.54 13397.34 13373.18

13467.67 13443.37 13419.12 13394.92 13370.77

13465.24 13440.94 13416.69 13392.50 13368.36

13462.81 13438.51 13414.27 13390.08 13365.94

13460.38 13436.09 13411.85 13387.67 13363.53

13457.94 13433.66 13409.43 13385.25 13361.12

13455.51 13431.23 13407.01 13382.84 13358.71

13453.08 13428.81 13404.59 13380.42 13356.30

13450.65 13426.39 13402.17 13378.01 13353.89

100 110 120 130 140

13351.5 13327.4 13303.4 13279.4 13255.4

13349.1 13325.0 13301.0 13277.0 13253.0

13346.7 13322.6 13298.6 13274.6 13250.6

13344.3 13320.2 13296.2 13272.2 13248.2

13341.9 13317.8 13293.8 13269.8 13245.8

13339.4 13315.4 13291.4 13267.4 13243.4

13337.0 13313.0 13288.9 13265.0 13241.0

13334.6 13310.6 13286.6 13262.6 13238.7

13332.2 13308.2 13284.2 13260.2 13236.3

13329.8 13305.8 13281.8 13257.8 13233.9

150 160 170 180 190

13231.5 13207.6 13183.7 13159.8 13136.0

13229.1 13205.2 13181.3 13157.4 13133.6

13226.7 13202.8 13178.9 13155.0 13131.2

13224.3 13200.4 13176.5 13152.6 13128.3

13221.9 13198.0 13174.1 13150.3 13126.4

13219.5 13195.6 13171.7 13147.9 13124.0

13217.1 13193.2 13169.4 13145.5 13121.7

13214.7 13190.8 13167.0 13143.1 13119.3

13212.4 13188.5 13164.6 13140.7 13116.9

13210.0 13186.1 13162.2 13138.3 13114.5

200 210 220 230 240

13112.1 13088.3 13064.5 13040.6 13016.8

13109.7 13085.9 13062.1 13038.3 13014.5

13107.4 13083.5 13059.7 13035.9 13012.1

13105.0 13081.1 13057.3 13033.5 13009.7

13102.6 13078.8 13054.9 13031.1 13007.3

13100.2 13076.4 13052.6 13028.7 13004.9

13097.8 13074.0 13050.2 13026.4 13002.5

13095.4 13071.6 13047.8 13024.0 13000.2

13093.1 13069.2 13045.4 13021.6 12997.8

13090.7 13066.8 13043.0 13019.2 12995.4

250 260 270 280 290

12993.0 12969.2 12945.4 12921.5 12897.7

12990.6 12966.8 12943.0 12919.1 12895.3

12988.3 12964.4 12940.6 12916.7 12892.9

12985.9 12962.0 12938.2 12914.4 12890.5

12983.5 12959.7 12935.8 12912.0 12888.1

12981.1 12957.3 12933.4 12909.6 12885.7

12978.7 12954.9 12931.1 12907.2 12883.3

12976.3 12952.5 12928.7 12904.8 12880.9

12974.0 12950.1 12926.3 12902.4 12878.5

12971.6 12947.7 12923.9 12900.0 12876.2

300 310 320 330 340

12873.8 12849.9 12825.9 12801.9 12777.8

12871.4 12847.5 12823.5 12799.5 12775.4

12869.0 12845.1 12821.1 12797.1 12773.0

12866.6 12842.7 12818.7 12794.7 12770.6

12864.2 12840.3 12816.3 12792.3 12768.2

12861.8 12837.9 12813.9 12789.9 12765.8

12859.4 12835.5 12811.5 12787.5 12763.4

12857.0 12833.1 12809.1 12785.1 12761.0

12854.6 12830.7 12806.7 12782.7 12758.6

12852.2 12828.3 12804.3 12780.2 12756.1

350

12753.7

*From “Mercury—Density and Thermal Expansion at Atmospheric Pressure and Temperatures from 0 to 350 °C,” Tables of Standard Handbook Data, Standartov, Moscow, 1978. The density values obtainable from those cited for the specific volume of the saturated liquid in the “Thermodynamic Properties” subsection show minor differences. No attempt was made to adjust either set.

2-98

TABLE 2-32 Cmpd. no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59

Densities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids (mol/dm3) Name

Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetonitrile Acetylene Acrolein Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Air Ammonia Anisole Argon Benzamide Benzene Benzenethiol Benzoic acid Benzonitrile Benzophenone Benzyl alcohol Benzyl ethyl ether Benzyl mercaptan Biphenyl Bromine Bromobenzene Bromoethane Bromomethane 1,2-Butadiene 1,3-Butadiene Butane 1,2-Butanediol 1,3-Butanediol 1-Butanol 2-Butanol 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene Butyl acetate Butylbenzene Butyl mercaptan sec-Butyl mercaptan 1-Butyne Butyraldehyde Butyric acid Butyronitrile Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbon tetrafluoride Chlorine Chlorobenzene Chloroethane Chloroform Chloromethane 1-Chloropropane 2-Chloropropane m-Cresol

Formula C2H4O C2H5NO C2H4O2 C4H6O3 C3H6O C2H3N C2H2 C3H4O C3H4O2 C3H3N Mixture H3N C7H8O Ar C7H7NO C6H6 C6H6S C7H6O2 C7H5N C13H10O C7H8O C9H12O C7H8S C12H10 Br2 C6H5Br C2H5Br CH3Br C4H6 C4H6 C4H10 C4H10O2 C4H10O2 C4H10O C4H10O C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C6H12O2 C10H14 C4H10S C4H10S C4H6 C4H8O C4H8O2 C4H7N CO2 CS2 CO CCl4 CF4 Cl2 C6H5Cl C2H5Cl CHCl3 CH3Cl C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C7H8O

CAS no.

Mol. wt.

75-07-0 60-35-5 64-19-7 108-24-7 67-64-1 75-05-8 74-86-2 107-02-8 79-10-7 107-13-1 132259-10-0 7664-41-7 100-66-3 7440-37-1 55-21-0 71-43-2 108-98-5 65-85-0 100-47-0 119-61-9 100-51-6 539-30-0 100-53-8 92-52-4 7726-95-6 108-86-1 74-96-4 74-83-9 590-19-2 106-99-0 106-97-8 584-03-2 107-88-0 71-36-3 78-92-2 106-98-9 590-18-1 624-64-6 123-86-4 104-51-8 109-79-5 513-53-1 107-00-6 123-72-8 107-92-6 109-74-0 124-38-9 75-15-0 630-08-0 56-23-5 75-73-0 7782-50-5 108-90-7 75-00-3 67-66-3 74-87-3 540-54-5 75-29-6 108-39-4

44.053 59.067 60.052 102.089 58.079 41.052 26.037 56.063 72.063 53.063 28.960 17.031 108.138 39.948 121.137 78.112 110.177 122.121 103.121 182.218 108.138 136.191 124.203 154.208 159.808 157.008 108.965 94.939 54.090 54.090 58.122 90.121 90.121 74.122 74.122 56.106 56.106 56.106 116.158 134.218 90.187 90.187 54.090 72.106 88.105 69.105 44.010 76.141 28.010 153.823 88.004 70.906 112.557 64.514 119.378 50.488 78.541 78.541 108.138

C1 1.6994 1.016 1.4486 0.86852 1.2332 1.3064 2.4507 1.3261 1.2414 1.0816 2.8963 3.5383 0.77488 3.8469 0.7371 1.0259 0.83573 0.71587 0.8552 0.43743 0.59867 0.60917 0.70797 0.52257 2.1872 0.8226 1.1908 1.6762 1.187 1.2346 1.0677 0.81696 0.81856 0.98279 0.9682 1.0877 1.1591 1.1448 0.67794 0.50812 0.89458 0.89137 1.3409 1.0361 0.88443 0.87533 2.768 1.7968 2.897 0.99835 1.955 2.23 0.8711 1.3 1.0841 1.817 1.087 1.1202 0.9061

C2 0.26167 0.21845 0.25892 0.25187 0.25886 0.22597 0.27448 0.26124 0.25822 0.2293 0.26733 0.25443 0.26114 0.2881 0.25487 0.26666 0.26326 0.24812 0.26785 0.24833 0.22849 0.26925 0.25982 0.25833 0.29527 0.26632 0.25595 0.26141 0.26114 0.27216 0.27188 0.24755 0.24967 0.26830 0.26244 0.26454 0.27085 0.27154 0.2637 0.25238 0.27463 0.27365 0.27892 0.26731 0.25828 0.24331 0.26212 0.28749 0.27532 0.274 0.27884 0.27645 0.26805 0.26019 0.2581 0.25877 0.26832 0.27669 0.28268

C3 466 761 591.95 606 508.2 545.5 308.3 506 615 535 132.45 405.65 645.6 150.86 824 562.05 689 751 699.35 830 720.15 662 718 773 584.15 670.15 503.8 467 452 425 425.12 680 676 563.1 535.9 419.5 435.5 428.6 575.4 660.5 570.1 554 440 537.2 615.7 582.25 304.21 552 132.92 556.35 227.51 417.15 632.35 460.35 536.4 416.25 503.15 489 705.85

C4

Tmin, K

Density at Tmin

Tmax, K

Density at Tmax

0.2913 0.26116 0.2529 0.31172 0.2913 0.28678 0.28752 0.2489 0.30701 0.28939 0.27341 0.2888 0.28234 0.29783 0.28571 0.28394 0.30798 0.2857 0.30523 0.27555 0.23567 0.2632 0.32144 0.27026 0.3295 0.2821 0.29152 0.28402 0.3065 0.28707 0.28688 0.24535 0.22023 0.25488 0.26749 0.2843 0.28116 0.28419 0.29318 0.29373 0.28512 0.2953 0.29661 0.28397 0.248 0.28586 0.2908 0.3226 0.2813 0.287 0.28571 0.2926 0.2799 0.27155 0.2741 0.2833 0.28055 0.27646 0.2707

150.15 353.33 289.81 200.15 178.45 229.32 192.40 185.45 286.15 189.63 59.15 195.41 235.65 83.78 403.00 278.68 258.27 395.45 260.40 321.35 257.85 275.65 243.95 342.20 265.85 242.43 154.55 179.47 136.95 164.25 134.86 220.00 196.15 183.85 158.45 87.80 134.26 167.62 199.65 185.30 157.46 133.02 147.43 176.75 267.95 161.25 216.58 161.11 68.15 250.33 89.56 172.12 227.95 134.80 209.63 175.43 150.35 155.97 285.39

21.499 16.936 17.492 11.643 15.683 20.628 23.692 16.822 14.693 17.265 33.279 43.141 9.668 35.491 8.938 11.422 10.074 8.894 10.011 5.950 9.905 7.065 8.862 6.425 20.109 9.909 15.833 20.640 15.123 14.058 12.620 11.734 11.872 12.035 12.471 14.264 13.894 13.080 8.337 7.026 10.585 10.761 14.901 12.589 11.087 13.047 26.828 19.064 30.180 10.843 21.211 24.242 10.385 17.016 13.702 22.347 13.328 12.855 9.612

466.00 761.00 591.95 606.00 508.20 545.50 308.30 506.00 615.00 535.00 132.45 405.65 645.60 150.86 824.00 562.05 689.00 751.00 699.35 830.00 720.15 662.00 718.00 773.00 584.15 670.15 503.80 467.00 452.00 425.00 425.12 680.00 676.00 563.10 535.90 419.50 435.50 428.60 575.40 660.50 570.10 554.00 440.00 537.20 615.70 582.25 304.21 552.00 132.92 556.35 227.51 417.15 632.35 460.35 536.40 416.25 503.15 489.00 705.85

6.4944 4.6509 5.5948 3.4483 4.7640 5.7813 8.9285 5.0762 4.8075 4.7170 10.8340 13.9070 2.9673 13.3530 2.8921 3.8472 3.1745 2.8852 3.1928 1.7615 2.6201 2.2625 2.7248 2.0229 7.4075 3.0888 4.6525 6.4121 4.5455 4.5363 3.9271 3.3002 3.2786 3.6630 3.6892 4.1117 4.2795 4.2160 2.5709 2.0133 3.2574 3.2573 4.8075 3.8760 3.4243 3.5976 10.5600 6.2500 10.5220 3.6436 7.0112 8.0666 3.2498 4.9963 4.2003 7.0217 4.0511 4.0486 3.2054

2-99

60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122

o-Cresol p-Cresol Cumene Cyanogen Cyclobutane Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanone Cyclohexene Cyclopentane Cyclopentene Cyclopropane Cyclohexyl mercaptan Decanal Decane Decanoic acid 1-Decanol 1-Decene Decyl mercaptan 1-Decyne Deuterium 1,1-Dibromoethane 1,2-Dibromoethane Dibromomethane Dibutyl ether m-Dichlorobenzene o-Dichlorobenzene p-Dichlorobenzene 1,1-Dichloroethane 1,2-Dichloroethane Dichloromethane 1,1-Dichloropropane 1,2-Dichloropropane Diethanol amine Diethyl amine Diethyl ether Diethyl sulfide 1,1-Difluoroethane 1,2-Difluoroethane Difluoromethane Di-isopropyl amine Di-isopropyl ether Di-isopropyl ketone 1,1-Dimethoxyethane 1,2-Dimethoxypropane Dimethyl acetylene Dimethyl amine 2,3-Dimethylbutane 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane cis-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane trans-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane Dimethyl disulfide Dimethyl ether N,N-Dimethyl formamide 2,3-Dimethylpentane Dimethyl phthalate Dimethylsilane Dimethyl sulfide Dimethyl sulfoxide Dimethyl terephthalate 1,4-Dioxane Diphenyl ether Dipropyl amine

C7H8O C7H8O C9H12 C2N2 C4H8 C6H12 C6H12O C6H10O C6H10 C5H10 C5H8 C3H6 C6H12S C10H20O C10H22 C10H20O2 C10H22O C10H20 C10H22S C10H18 D2 C2H4Br2 C2H4Br2 CH2Br2 C8H18O C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C2H4Cl2 C2H4Cl2 CH2Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C4H11NO2 C4H11N C4H10O C4H10S C2H4F2 C2H4F2 CH2F2 C6H15N C6H14O C7H14O C4H10O2 C5H12O2 C4H6 C2H7N C6H14 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C2H6S2 C2H6O C3H7NO C7H16 C10H10O4 C2H8Si C2H6S C2H6OS C10H10O4 C4H8O2 C12H10O C6H15N

95-48-7 106-44-5 98-82-8 460-19-5 287-23-0 110-82-7 108-93-0 108-94-1 110-83-8 287-92-3 142-29-0 75-19-4 1569-69-3 112-31-2 124-18-5 334-48-5 112-30-1 872-05-9 143-10-2 764-93-2 7782-39-0 557-91-5 106-93-4 74-95-3 142-96-1 541-73-1 95-50-1 106-46-7 75-34-3 107-06-2 75-09-2 78-99-9 78-87-5 111-42-2 109-89-7 60-29-7 352-93-2 75-37-6 624-72-6 75-10-5 108-18-9 108-20-3 565-80-0 534-15-6 7778-85-0 503-17-3 124-40-3 79-29-8 590-66-9 2207-01-4 6876-23-9 624-92-0 115-10-6 68-12-2 565-59-3 131-11-3 1111-74-6 75-18-3 67-68-5 120-61-6 123-91-1 101-84-8 142-84-7

108.138 108.138 120.192 52.035 56.106 84.159 100.159 98.143 82.144 70.133 68.117 42.080 116.224 156.265 142.282 172.265 158.281 140.266 174.347 138.250 4.032 187.861 187.861 173.835 130.228 147.002 147.002 147.002 98.959 98.959 84.933 112.986 112.986 105.136 73.137 74.122 90.187 66.050 66.050 52.023 101.190 102.175 114.185 90.121 104.148 54.090 45.084 86.175 112.213 112.213 112.213 94.199 46.068 73.094 100.202 194.184 60.170 62.134 78.133 194.184 88.105 170.207 101.190

1.0861 1.1503 0.58711 1.0743 1.3931 0.88998 0.8243 0.86464 0.92997 1.0897 1.1035 1.7411 0.78578 0.46802 0.41084 0.39348 0.38208 0.43981 0.44289 0.46877 5.2115 0.95523 1.0132 1.1136 0.55941 0.74495 0.74404 0.74858 1.1055 1.2591 1.3897 0.9551 0.89833 0.68184 0.85379 0.9554 0.82227 1.4345 1.173 1.9973 0.6181 0.69213 0.64619 0.89368 0.76327 1.1717 1.5436 0.7565 0.55873 0.52953 0.54405 1.1058 1.5693 0.89615 0.72352 0.47977 1.0214 1.4029 1.1096 0.50824 1.1819 0.52133 0.659

0.30624 0.31861 0.25583 0.20948 0.29255 0.27376 0.26545 0.26888 0.27056 0.28356 0.27035 0.28205 0.27882 0.27146 0.25175 0.2492 0.24645 0.25661 0.27636 0.25875 0.315 0.26364 0.26634 0.24834 0.27243 0.26147 0.26112 0.26276 0.26533 0.27698 0.25678 0.27794 0.26142 0.23796 0.25675 0.26847 0.26314 0.25774 0.22856 0.24653 0.25786 0.26974 0.26881 0.26599 0.26742 0.25895 0.27784 0.27305 0.25143 0.24358 0.25026 0.27866 0.2679 0.23478 0.28629 0.25428 0.26351 0.27991 0.25189 0.26885 0.2813 0.26218 0.26428

697.55 704.65 631 400.15 459.93 553.8 650.1 653 560.4 511.7 507 398 664 674.2 617.7 722.1 688 616.6 696 619.85 38.35 628 650.15 611 584.1 683.95 705 684.75 523 561.6 510 560 572 736.6 496.6 466.7 557.15 386.44 445 351.26 523.1 500.05 576 507.8 543 473.2 437.2 500 591.15 606.15 596.15 615 400.1 649.6 537.3 766 402 503.04 729 772 587 766.8 550

0.30587 0.30104 0.28498 0.20724 0.24913 0.28571 0.28495 0.29943 0.28943 0.25142 0.28699 0.29598 0.31067 0.26869 0.28571 0.28571 0.26125 0.29148 0.27668 0.29479 0.28571 0.29825 0.28571 0.27583 0.29932 0.31526 0.30815 0.30788 0.287 0.30492 0.2902 0.24132 0.2868 0.2062 0.27027 0.2814 0.27369 0.28178 0.28571 0.28153 0.271 0.28571 0.28036 0.28571 0.28571 0.27289 0.2572 0.27408 0.27758 0.26809 0.2658 0.31082 0.2882 0.28091 0.27121 0.30722 0.28421 0.2741 0.3311 0.2612 0.3047 0.31033 0.2766

304.19 307.93 177.14 245.25 182.48 279.69 296.60 242.00 169.67 179.28 138.13 145.59 189.64 267.15 243.51 304.55 280.05 206.89 247.56 229.15 18.73 210.15 282.85 220.60 175.30 248.39 256.15 326.14 176.19 237.49 178.01 200.00 172.71 301.15 223.35 156.85 169.20 154.56 215.00 136.95 176.85 187.65 204.81 159.95 226.10 240.91 180.96 145.19 239.66 223.16 184.99 188.44 131.65 212.72 160.00 274.18 122.93 174.88 291.67 413.80 284.95 300.03 210.15

9.575 9.449 7.939 18.520 14.074 9.380 9.469 10.090 11.160 11.906 13.470 18.658 8.905 5.383 5.393 5.181 5.261 5.733 5.005 5.895 42.945 11.799 11.704 15.358 6.607 9.121 9.166 8.518 13.549 13.462 17.974 10.862 11.526 10.390 10.575 11.487 10.470 18.006 17.424 27.399 8.054 8.067 7.680 11.029 8.843 13.767 16.964 9.031 7.342 7.578 7.626 12.413 18.950 13.954 7.874 6.233 12.898 15.556 14.111 5.538 11.838 6.265 7.993

697.55 704.65 631.00 400.15 459.93 553.80 650.10 653.00 560.40 511.70 507.00 398.00 664.00 674.20 617.70 722.10 688.00 616.60 696.00 619.85 38.35 628.00 650.15 611.00 584.10 683.95 705.00 684.75 523.00 561.60 510.00 560.00 572.00 736.60 496.60 466.70 557.15 386.44 445.00 351.26 523.10 500.05 576.00 507.80 543.00 473.20 437.20 500.00 591.15 606.15 596.15 615.00 400.10 649.60 537.30 766.00 402.00 503.04 729.00 772.00 587.00 766.80 550.00

3.5466 3.6104 2.2949 5.1284 4.7619 3.2509 3.1053 3.2157 3.4372 3.8429 4.0817 6.1730 2.8182 1.7241 1.6320 1.5790 1.5503 1.7139 1.6026 1.8117 16.5440 3.6232 3.8042 4.4842 2.0534 2.8491 2.8494 2.8489 4.1665 4.5458 5.4120 3.4364 3.4363 2.8654 3.3254 3.5587 3.1248 5.5657 5.1321 8.6070 2.3970 2.5659 2.4039 3.3598 2.8542 4.5248 5.5557 2.7706 2.2222 2.1739 2.1739 3.9683 5.8578 3.8170 2.5272 1.8868 3.8761 5.0120 4.4051 1.8904 4.2016 1.9884 2.4936

2-100

TABLE 2-32 Cmpd. no. 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181

Densities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids (mol/dm3) (Continued) Name

Dodecane Eicosane Ethane Ethanol Ethyl acetate Ethyl amine Ethylbenzene Ethyl benzoate 2-Ethyl butanoic acid Ethyl butyrate Ethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclopentane Ethylene Ethylenediamine Ethylene glycol Ethyleneimine Ethylene oxide Ethyl formate 2-Ethyl hexanoic acid Ethylhexyl ether Ethylisopropyl ether Ethylisopropyl ketone Ethyl mercaptan Ethyl propionate Ethylpropyl ether Ethyltrichlorosilane Fluorine Fluorobenzene Fluoroethane Fluoromethane Formaldehyde Formamide Formic acid Furan Helium-4 Heptadecane Heptanal Heptane Heptanoic acid 1-Heptanol 2-Heptanol 3-Heptanone 2-Heptanone 1-Heptene Heptyl mercaptan 1-Heptyne Hexadecane Hexanal Hexane Hexanoic acid 1-Hexanol 2-Hexanol 2-Hexanone 3-Hexanone 1-Hexene 3-Hexyne Hexyl mercaptan 1-Hexyne 2-Hexyne

Formula

CAS no.

Mol. wt.

C1

C12H26 C20H42 C2H6 C2H6O C4H8O2 C2H7N C8H10 C9H10O2 C6H12O2 C6H12O2 C8H16 C7H14 C2H4 C2H8N2 C2H6O2 C2H5N C2H4O C3H6O2 C8H16O2 C8H18O C5H12O C6H12O C2H6S C5H10O2 C5H12O C2H5Cl3Si F2 C6H5F C2H5F CH3F CH2O CH3NO CH2O2 C4H4O He C17H36 C7H14O C7H16 C7H14O2 C7H16O C7H16O C7H14O C7H14O C7H14 C7H16S C7H12 C16H34 C6H12O C6H14 C6H12O2 C6H14O C6H14O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12 C6H10 C6H14S C6H10 C6H10

112-40-3 112-95-8 74-84-0 64-17-5 141-78-6 75-04-7 100-41-4 93-89-0 88-09-5 105-54-4 1678-91-7 1640-89-7 74-85-1 107-15-3 107-21-1 151-56-4 75-21-8 109-94-4 149-57-5 5756-43-4 625-54-7 565-69-5 75-08-1 105-37-3 628-32-0 115-21-9 7782-41-4 462-06-6 353-36-6 593-53-3 50-00-0 75-12-7 64-18-6 110-00-9 7440-59-7 629-78-7 111-71-7 142-82-5 111-14-8 111-70-6 543-49-7 106-35-4 110-43-0 592-76-7 1639-09-4 628-71-7 544-76-3 66-25-1 110-54-3 142-62-1 111-27-3 626-93-7 591-78-6 589-38-8 592-41-6 928-49-4 111-31-9 693-02-7 764-35-2

170.335 282.547 30.069 46.068 88.105 45.084 106.165 150.175 116.158 116.158 112.213 98.186 28.053 60.098 62.068 43.068 44.053 74.079 144.211 130.228 88.148 100.159 62.134 102.132 88.148 163.506 37.997 96.102 48.060 34.033 30.026 45.041 46.026 68.074 4.003 240.468 114.185 100.202 130.185 116.201 116.201 114.185 114.185 98.186 132.267 96.170 226.441 100.159 86.175 116.158 102.175 102.175 100.159 100.159 84.159 82.144 118.240 82.144 82.144

0.33267 0.18166 1.9122 1.6288 0.8996 1.0936 0.70041 0.48864 0.66085 0.63566 0.61587 0.71751 2.0961 0.7842 1.315 1.3462 1.836 1.1343 0.47428 0.55729 0.8185 0.68162 1.3047 0.7405 0.7908 0.58579 4.2895 1.0146 1.6525 2.1854 1.9415 1.2486 1.938 1.1339 7.2475 0.21897 0.59006 0.61259 0.53066 0.55687 0.57114 0.59268 0.58247 0.66016 0.58622 0.67304 0.23289 0.71899 0.70824 0.62833 0.70093 0.67393 0.67816 0.67666 0.76925 0.78045 0.66372 0.84427 0.76277

C2 0.24664 0.23351 0.27937 0.27469 0.25856 0.22636 0.26162 0.23894 0.25707 0.25613 0.26477 0.26903 0.27657 0.20702 0.25125 0.23289 0.26024 0.26168 0.25028 0.2714 0.26929 0.25152 0.2694 0.25563 0.266 0.24246 0.28587 0.27277 0.27099 0.24725 0.22309 0.20352 0.24225 0.24741 0.41865 0.23642 0.25609 0.26211 0.24729 0.24725 0.25534 0.25663 0.25279 0.26657 0.2726 0.26045 0.23659 0.26531 0.26411 0.25598 0.26776 0.25948 0.25634 0.25578 0.26809 0.26065 0.27345 0.27185 0.25248

C3 658 768 305.32 514 523.3 456.15 617.15 698 655 571 609.15 569.5 282.34 593 720 537 469.15 508.4 674.6 583 489 567 499.15 546 500.23 559.95 144.12 560.09 375.31 317.42 408 771 588 490.15 5.2 736 616.8 540.2 677.3 632.3 608.3 606.6 611.4 537.4 645 547 723 591 507.6 660.2 611.3 585.3 587.61 582.82 504 544 623 516.2 549

C4 0.28571 0.28571 0.29187 0.23178 0.278 0.25522 0.28454 0.28421 0.31103 0.27829 0.28054 0.27733 0.29147 0.20254 0.21868 0.23357 0.2696 0.2791 0.25442 0.29538 0.30621 0.3182 0.27866 0.2795 0.292 0.29509 0.28776 0.28291 0.2442 0.27558 0.28571 0.25178 0.24435 0.2612 0.24096 0.28571 0.28384 0.28141 0.28289 0.31471 0.26487 0.27766 0.29818 0.28571 0.29644 0.28388 0.28571 0.27628 0.27537 0.25304 0.24919 0.26552 0.28365 0.27746 0.28571 0.28571 0.29185 0.2771 0.31611

Tmin, K

Density at Tmin

Tmax, K

Density at Tmax

263.57 309.58 90.35 159.05 189.60 192.15 178.20 238.45 258.15 175.15 161.84 134.71 104.00 284.29 260.15 195.20 160.65 193.55 235.00 180.00 140.00 204.15 125.26 199.25 145.65 167.55 53.48 230.94 129.95 131.35 181.15 275.60 281.45 187.55 2.20 295.13 229.80 182.57 265.83 239.15 230.00 234.15 238.15 154.12 229.92 192.22 291.31 217.15 177.83 269.25 228.55 223.00 217.35 217.50 133.39 170.05 192.62 141.25 183.65

4.521 2.729 21.640 19.410 11.478 17.588 9.041 7.291 8.220 8.491 7.868 9.018 23.326 15.055 18.310 21.450 23.477 14.006 6.563 6.612 9.924 8.975 16.242 9.632 9.847 8.653 44.888 11.374 19.785 29.526 30.945 25.488 26.806 15.702 37.115 3.219 7.600 7.700 7.221 7.502 7.454 7.575 7.551 8.226 6.728 8.492 3.415 8.724 8.747 8.096 8.456 8.518 8.732 8.763 9.581 10.021 7.773 10.230 10.133

658.00 768.00 305.32 514.00 523.30 456.15 617.15 698.00 655.00 571.00 609.15 569.50 282.34 593.00 720.00 537.00 469.15 508.40 674.60 583.00 489.00 567.00 499.15 546.00 500.23 559.95 144.12 560.09 375.31 317.42 408.00 771.00 588.00 490.15 5.20 736.00 616.80 540.20 677.30 632.30 608.30 606.60 611.40 537.40 645.00 547.00 723.00 591.00 507.60 660.20 611.30 585.30 587.61 582.82 504.00 544.00 623.00 516.20 549.00

1.3490 0.7780 6.8447 5.9296 3.4793 4.8312 2.6772 2.0450 2.5707 2.4818 2.3261 2.6670 7.5789 3.7880 5.2338 5.7804 7.0550 4.3347 1.8950 2.0534 3.0395 2.7100 4.8430 2.8968 2.9729 2.4160 15.0050 3.7196 6.0980 8.8388 8.7028 6.1350 8.0000 4.5831 17.3120 0.9262 2.3041 2.3371 2.1459 2.2523 2.2368 2.3095 2.3042 2.4765 2.1505 2.5841 0.9844 2.7100 2.6816 2.4546 2.6178 2.5972 2.6455 2.6455 2.8694 2.9942 2.4272 3.1056 3.0211

2-101

182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244

Hydrazine Hydrogen Hydrogen bromide Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen cyanide Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen sulfide Isobutyric acid Isopropyl amine Malonic acid Methacrylic acid Methane Methanol N-Methyl acetamide Methyl acetate Methyl acetylene Methyl acrylate Methyl amine Methyl benzoate 3-Methyl-1,2-butadiene 2-Methylbutane 2-Methylbutanoic acid 3-Methyl-1-butanol 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene 2-Methyl -1-butene-3-yne Methylbutyl ether Methylbutyl sulfide 3-Methyl-1-butyne Methyl butyrate Methylchlorosilane Methylcyclohexane 1-Methylcyclohexanol cis-2-Methylcyclohexanol trans-2-Methylcyclohexanol Methylcyclopentane 1-Methylcyclopentene 3-Methylcyclopentene Methyldichlorosilane Methylethyl ether Methylethyl ketone Methylethyl sulfide Methyl formate Methylisobutyl ether Methylisobutyl ketone Methyl isocyanate Methylisopropyl ether Methylisopropyl ketone Methylisopropyl sulfide Methyl mercaptan Methyl methacrylate 2-Methyloctanoic acid 2-Methylpentane Methyl pentyl ether 2-Methylpropane 2-Methyl-2-propanol 2-Methyl propene Methyl propionate Methylpropyl ether Methylpropyl sulfide Methylsilane alpha-Methyl styrene Methyl tert-butyl ether

H4N2 H2 HBr HCl CHN HF H2S C4H8O2 C3H9N C3H4O4 C4H6O2 CH4 CH4O C3H7NO C3H6O2 C3H4 C4H6O2 CH5N C8H8O2 C5H8 C5H12 C5H10O2 C5H12O C5H10 C5H10 C5H6 C5H12O C5H12S C5H8 C5H10O2 CH5ClSi C7H14 C7H14O C7H14O C7H14O C6H12 C6H10 C6H10 CH4Cl2Si C3H8O C4H8O C3H8S C2H4O2 C5H12O C6H12O C2H3NO C4H10O C5H10O C4H10S CH4S C5H8O2 C9H18O2 C6H14 C6H14O C4H10 C4H10O C4H8 C4H8O2 C4H10O C4H10S CH6Si C9H10 C5H12O

302-01-2 1333-74-0 10035-10-6 7647-01-0 74-90-8 7664-39-3 7783-06-4 79-31-2 75-31-0 141-82-2 79-41-4 74-82-8 67-56-1 79-16-3 79-20-9 74-99-7 96-33-3 74-89-5 93-58-3 598-25-4 78-78-4 116-53-0 123-51-3 563-46-2 513-35-9 78-80-8 628-28-4 628-29-5 598-23-2 623-42-7 993-00-0 108-87-2 590-67-0 7443-70-1 7443-52-9 96-37-7 693-89-0 1120-62-3 75-54-7 540-67-0 78-93-3 624-89-5 107-31-3 625-44-5 108-10-1 624-83-9 598-53-8 563-80-4 1551-21-9 74-93-1 80-62-6 3004-93-1 107-83-5 628-80-8 75-28-5 75-65-0 115-11-7 554-12-1 557-17-5 3877-15-4 992-94-9 98-83-9 1634-04-4

32.045 2.016 80.912 36.461 27.025 20.006 34.081 88.105 59.110 104.061 86.089 16.042 32.042 73.094 74.079 40.064 86.089 31.057 136.148 68.117 72.149 102.132 88.148 70.133 70.133 66.101 88.148 104.214 68.117 102.132 80.589 98.186 114.185 114.185 114.185 84.159 82.144 82.144 115.034 60.095 72.106 76.161 60.052 88.148 100.159 57.051 74.122 86.132 90.187 48.107 100.116 158.238 86.175 102.175 58.122 74.122 56.106 88.105 74.122 90.187 46.144 118.176 88.148

1.0516 5.414 2.832 3.342 1.3413 2.5635 2.7672 0.88575 1.2801 0.84266 0.87025 2.9214 2.3267 0.88268 1.13 1.6085 0.97286 1.39 0.53382 0.84623 0.91991 0.72762 0.80828 0.91619 0.93391 1.1157 0.8363 0.75509 0.94575 0.76983 1.0674 0.73109 0.7013 0.70973 0.72836 0.84758 0.88824 0.9109 0.97608 1.2635 0.93767 1.067 1.525 0.84005 0.71687 1.0228 0.97887 0.86567 0.78912 1.9323 0.7761 0.4416 0.72701 0.71004 1.0631 0.92128 1.1446 0.9147 0.96145 0.87496 1.3052 0.64856 0.928

0.16613 0.34893 0.2832 0.2729 0.18589 0.1766 0.27369 0.25736 0.2828 0.217 0.24383 0.28976 0.27073 0.23568 0.2593 0.26436 0.26267 0.21405 0.23274 0.24625 0.27815 0.25244 0.26783 0.26752 0.27275 0.27671 0.27514 0.27183 0.26008 0.26173 0.26257 0.26971 0.266 0.26544 0.27241 0.27037 0.26914 0.276 0.28209 0.27878 0.25035 0.27102 0.2634 0.27638 0.26453 0.20692 0.27017 0.26836 0.25915 0.28018 0.25068 0.2521 0.26754 0.26981 0.27506 0.25442 0.2724 0.2594 0.26536 0.26862 0.26757 0.25877 0.289

653.15 33.19 363.15 324.65 456.65 461.15 373.53 605 471.85 805 662 190.56 512.5 718 506.55 402.4 536 430.05 693 490 460.4 643 577.2 465 470 492 512.74 593 463.2 554.5 442 572.1 686 614 617 532.7 542 526 483 437.8 535.5 533 487.2 497 574.6 488 464.48 553.4 553.1 469.95 566 694 497.7 546.49 407.8 506.2 417.9 530.6 476.25 565 352.5 654 497.1

0.1898 0.2706 0.28571 0.3217 0.28206 0.3733 0.29015 0.26265 0.2972 0.28571 0.28571 0.28881 0.24713 0.27379 0.2764 0.27987 0.2508 0.2275 0.28147 0.29041 0.28667 0.28571 0.23588 0.28164 0.2578 0.30821 0.27553 0.29127 0.30807 0.26879 0.26569 0.29185 0.28571 0.26016 0.2478 0.28258 0.27874 0.26756 0.22529 0.2744 0.29964 0.29364 0.2806 0.27645 0.28918 0.28571 0.28998 0.28364 0.26512 0.28523 0.29773 0.28532 0.28268 0.29974 0.2758 0.27586 0.28172 0.2774 0.30088 0.30259 0.28799 0.31444 0.286

274.69 13.95 185.15 158.97 259.83 189.79 187.68 227.15 177.95 407.95 288.15 90.69 175.47 301.15 175.15 170.45 196.32 179.69 260.75 159.53 113.25 193.00 155.95 135.58 139.39 160.15 157.48 175.30 183.45 187.35 139.05 146.58 285.15 280.15 269.15 130.73 146.62 115.00 182.55 160.00 186.48 167.23 174.15 150.00 189.15 256.15 127.93 180.15 171.64 150.18 224.95 240.00 119.55 176.00 113.54 298.97 132.81 185.65 133.97 160.17 116.34 249.95 164.55

31.934 38.487 27.985 34.854 27.202 60.203 29.130 11.420 13.561 13.533 11.834 28.180 27.915 13.012 14.475 19.031 12.203 25.378 8.220 11.994 10.764 9.992 10.254 11.332 11.216 12.581 9.758 9.006 11.519 9.764 13.626 9.017 8.209 8.293 8.263 10.491 10.980 11.014 10.789 13.995 12.663 12.671 18.811 9.738 8.862 17.666 11.933 10.460 10.352 21.564 10.176 5.938 9.204 8.445 12.574 10.556 13.507 11.678 12.043 10.689 15.791 8.010 9.710

653.15 33.19 363.15 324.65 456.65 461.15 373.53 605.00 471.85 805.00 662.00 190.56 512.50 718.00 506.55 402.40 536.00 430.05 693.00 490.00 460.40 643.00 577.20 465.00 470.00 492.00 512.74 593.00 463.20 554.50 442.00 572.10 686.00 614.00 617.00 532.70 542.00 526.00 483.00 437.80 535.50 533.00 487.20 497.00 574.60 488.00 464.48 553.40 553.10 469.95 566.00 694.00 497.70 546.49 407.80 506.20 417.90 530.60 476.25 565.00 352.50 654.00 497.10

6.3300 15.5160 10.0000 12.2460 7.2156 14.5160 10.1110 3.4417 4.5265 3.8832 3.5691 10.0820 8.5942 3.7452 4.3579 6.0845 3.7037 6.4938 2.2936 3.4365 3.3072 2.8823 3.0179 3.4248 3.4241 4.0320 3.0395 2.7778 3.6364 2.9413 4.0652 2.7107 2.6365 2.6738 2.6738 3.1349 3.3003 3.3004 3.4602 4.5322 3.7454 3.9370 5.7897 3.0395 2.7100 4.9430 3.6232 3.2258 3.0450 6.8966 3.0960 1.7517 2.7174 2.6316 3.8650 3.6211 4.2019 3.5262 3.6232 3.2572 4.8780 2.5063 3.2111

2-102

TABLE 2-32 Cmpd. no. 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303

Densities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids (mol/dm3) (Concluded) Name

Methyl vinyl ether Naphthalene Neon Nitroethane Nitrogen Nitrogen trifluoride Nitromethane Nitrous oxide Nitric oxide Nonadecane Nonanal Nonane Nonanoic acid 1-Nonanol 2-Nonanol 1-Nonene Nonyl mercaptan 1-Nonyne Octadecane Octanal Octane Octanoic acid 1-Octanol 2-Octanol 2-Octanone 3-Octanone 1-Octene Octyl mercaptan 1-Octyne Oxalic acid Oxygen Ozone Pentadecane Pentanal Pentane Pentanoic acid 1-Pentanol 2-Pentanol 2-Pentanone 3-Pentanone 1-Pentene 2-Pentyl mercaptan Pentyl mercaptan 1-Pentyne 2-Pentyne Phenanthrene Phenol Phenyl isocyanate Phthalic anhydride Propadiene Propane 1-Propanol 2-Propanol Propenylcyclohexene Propionaldehyde Propionic acid Propionitrile Propyl acetate Propyl amine

Formula

CAS no.

Mol. wt.

C1

C2

C3H6O C10H8 Ne C2H5NO2 N2 F3N CH3NO2 N2O NO C19H40 C9H18O C9H20 C9H18O2 C9H20O C9H20O C9H18 C9H20S C9H16 C18H38 C8H16O C8H18 C8H16O2 C8H18O C8H18O C8H16O C8H16O C8H16 C8H18S C8H14 C2H2O4 O2 O3 C15H32 C5H10O C5H12 C5H10O2 C5H12O C5H12O C5H10O C5H10O C5H10 C5H12S C5H12S C5H8 C5H8 C14H10 C6H6O C7H5NO C8H4O3 C3H4 C3H8 C3H8O C3H8O C9H14 C3H6O C3H6O2 C3H5N C5H10O2 C3H9N

107-25-5 91-20-3 7440-01-9 79-24-3 7727-37-9 7783-54-2 75-52-5 10024-97-2 10102-43-9 629-92-5 124-19-6 111-84-2 112-05-0 143-08-8 628-99-9 124-11-8 1455-21-6 3452-09-3 593-45-3 124-13-0 111-65-9 124-07-2 111-87-5 123-96-6 111-13-7 106-68-3 111-66-0 111-88-6 629-05-0 144-62-7 7782-44-7 10028-15-6 629-62-9 110-62-3 109-66-0 109-52-4 71-41-0 6032-29-7 107-87-9 96-22-0 109-67-1 2084-19-7 110-66-7 627-19-0 627-21-4 85-01-8 108-95-2 103-71-9 85-44-9 463-49-0 74-98-6 71-23-8 67-63-0 13511-13-2 123-38-6 79-09-4 107-12-0 109-60-4 107-10-8

58.079 128.171 20.180 75.067 28.013 71.002 61.040 44.013 30.006 268.521 142.239 128.255 158.238 144.255 144.255 126.239 160.320 124.223 254.494 128.212 114.229 144.211 130.228 130.228 128.212 128.212 112.213 146.294 110.197 90.035 31.999 47.998 212.415 86.132 72.149 102.132 88.148 88.148 86.132 86.132 70.133 104.214 104.214 68.117 68.117 178.229 94.111 119.121 148.116 40.064 44.096 60.095 60.095 122.207 58.079 74.079 55.079 102.132 59.110

1.2587 0.6348 7.3718 1.0024 3.2091 2.3736 1.3728 2.781 5.246 0.19199 0.49587 0.46321 0.41582 0.43682 0.41687 0.48661 0.47377 0.52152 0.20448 0.53636 0.5266 0.48251 0.48979 0.50726 0.50006 0.5108 0.55449 0.52577 0.58945 1.0501 3.9143 3.3592 0.25142 0.83871 0.84947 0.73455 0.81754 0.79324 0.90411 0.71811 0.89816 0.65858 0.75345 0.8491 0.92099 0.45554 1.3798 0.63163 0.5393 1.6087 1.3757 1.2457 1.1799 0.61255 1.296 1.0969 1.0224 0.73041 0.9195

0.26433 0.25838 0.3067 0.23655 0.2861 0.2817 0.23793 0.27244 0.3044 0.23337 0.26135 0.25444 0.24284 0.25161 0.24056 0.25722 0.27052 0.25918 0.23474 0.26174 0.25693 0.25196 0.24931 0.25972 0.24851 0.25386 0.25952 0.27234 0.26052 0.215 0.28772 0.29884 0.23837 0.26252 0.26726 0.25636 0.26732 0.25806 0.27207 0.24129 0.26608 0.25367 0.27047 0.2352 0.25419 0.2523 0.31598 0.23373 0.22704 0.26543 0.27453 0.27281 0.2644 0.26769 0.26439 0.25568 0.23452 0.25456 0.23878

C3 437 748.4 44.4 593 126.2 234 588.15 309.57 180.15 758 658 594.6 710.7 670.9 649.5 593.1 681 598.05 747 638.9 568.7 694.26 652.3 629.8 632.7 627.7 566.9 667.3 574 804 154.58 261 708 566.1 469.7 639.16 588.1 561 561.08 560.95 464.8 584.3 598 481.2 519 869 694.25 653 791 394 369.83 536.8 508.3 636 504.4 600.81 564.4 549.73 496.95

C4 0.25819 0.27727 0.2786 0.278 0.2966 0.29529 0.29601 0.2882 0.242 0.28571 0.30736 0.28571 0.30036 0.2498 0.2916 0.28571 0.30284 0.29177 0.28571 0.26348 0.28571 0.26842 0.27824 0.22 0.29942 0.26735 0.28571 0.30063 0.28532 0.28571 0.2924 0.28523 0.28571 0.29444 0.27789 0.25522 0.25348 0.28571 0.30669 0.27996 0.28571 0.28571 0.30583 0.353 0.31077 0.24841 0.32768 0.28571 0.248 0.29895 0.29359 0.23994 0.24653 0.28571 0.29471 0.26857 0.2804 0.27666 0.2461

Tmin, K

Density at Tmin

Tmax, K

Density at Tmax

151.15 333.15 24.56 183.63 63.15 66.46 244.60 182.30 109.50 305.04 255.15 219.66 285.55 268.15 238.15 191.91 253.05 223.15 301.31 246.00 216.38 289.65 257.65 241.55 252.85 255.55 171.45 223.95 193.55 462.65 54.35 80.15 283.07 182.00 143.42 239.15 195.56 200.00 196.29 234.18 108.02 160.75 197.45 167.45 163.83 372.38 314.06 243.15 404.15 136.87 85.47 146.95 185.26 199.00 170.00 252.45 180.26 178.15 188.36

15.691 7.755 61.796 15.556 31.063 26.555 19.632 27.928 44.487 2.889 6.017 6.043 5.759 5.850 6.031 6.372 5.453 6.537 3.042 6.664 6.705 6.311 6.574 6.563 6.648 6.628 7.216 6.099 7.483 16.271 40.770 33.361 3.642 10.534 10.474 9.587 10.061 10.147 10.398 10.102 11.521 9.073 8.858 12.532 12.240 5.985 11.244 9.647 8.222 19.479 16.583 15.206 14.663 7.476 15.929 13.935 16.027 9.794 13.764

437.00 748.40 44.40 593.00 126.20 234.00 588.15 309.57 180.15 758.00 658.00 594.60 710.70 670.90 649.50 593.10 681.00 598.05 747.00 638.90 568.70 694.26 652.30 629.80 632.70 627.70 566.90 667.30 574.00 804.00 154.58 261.00 708.00 566.10 469.70 639.16 588.10 561.00 561.08 560.95 464.80 584.30 598.00 481.20 519.00 869.00 694.25 653.00 791.00 394.00 369.83 536.80 508.30 636.00 504.40 600.81 564.40 549.73 496.95

4.7619 2.4568 24.0360 4.2376 11.2170 8.4260 5.7698 10.2080 17.2340 0.8227 1.8973 1.8210 1.7123 1.7361 1.7329 1.8918 1.7513 2.0122 0.8711 2.0492 2.0500 1.9150 1.9646 1.9531 2.0122 2.0121 2.1366 1.9306 2.2626 4.8842 13.6050 11.2410 1.0550 3.1948 3.1784 2.8653 3.0583 3.0739 3.3231 2.9761 3.3755 2.5962 2.7857 3.6101 3.6232 1.8055 4.3667 2.7024 2.3754 6.0607 5.0111 4.5662 4.4626 2.2883 4.9018 4.2901 4.3595 2.8693 3.8508

304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 344 345 346 347

Propylbenzene Propylene Propyl formate 2-Propyl mercaptan Propyl mercaptan 1,2-Propylene glycol Quinone Silicon tetrafluoride Styrene Succinic acid Sulfur dioxide Sulfur hexafluoride Sulfur trioxide Terephthalic acid o-Terphenyl o-Terphenyl [use Eq. (2)] Tetradecane Tetrahydrofuran 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene Tetrahydrothiophene 2,2,3,3-Tetramethylbutane Thiophene Toluene 1,1,2-Trichloroethane Tridecane Triethyl amine Trimethyl amine 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Undecane 1-Undecanol Vinyl acetate Vinyl acetylene Vinyl chloride Vinyl trichlorosilane Water [use Eq. (2)] m-Xylene o-Xylene p-Xylene

C9H12 C3H6 C4H8O2 C3H8S C3H8S C3H8O2 C6H4O2 F4Si C8H8 C4H6O4 O2S F6S O3S C8H6O4 C18H14 C18H14 C14H30 C4H8O C10H12 C4H8S C8H18 C4H4S C7H8 C2H3Cl3 C13H28 C6H15N C3H9N C9H12 C9H12 C8H18 C8H18 C6H3N3O6 C7H5N3O6 C11H24 C11H24O C4H6O2 C4H4 C2H3Cl C2H3Cl3Si H2O C8H10 C8H10 C8H10

103-65-1 115-07-1 110-74-7 75-33-2 107-03-9 57-55-6 106-51-4 7783-61-1 100-42-5 110-15-6 7446-09-5 2551-62-4 7446-11-9 100-21-0 84-15-1 84-15-1 629-59-4 109-99-9 119-64-2 110-01-0 594-82-1 110-02-1 108-88-3 79-00-5 629-50-5 121-44-8 75-50-3 526-73-8 95-63-6 540-84-1 560-21-4 99-35-4 118-96-7 1120-21-4 112-42-5 108-05-4 689-97-4 75-01-4 75-94-5 7732-18-5 108-38-3 95-47-6 106-42-3

120.192 42.080 88.105 76.161 76.161 76.094 108.095 104.079 104.149 118.088 64.064 146.055 80.063 166.131 230.304 230.304 198.388 72.106 132.202 88.171 114.229 84.140 92.138 133.404 184.361 101.190 59.110 120.192 120.192 114.229 114.229 213.105 227.131 156.308 172.308 86.089 52.075 62.498 161.490 18.015 106.165 106.165 106.165

0.57233 1.4403 0.915 1.093 1.0714 1.0923 0.83228 1.1945 0.7397 0.70284 2.106 1.3587 1.4969 0.42685 0.3448 5.7136 0.27248 1.2543 0.67717 1.1628 0.58988 1.2874 0.8792 0.9062 0.29934 0.7035 1.0116 0.6531 0.60394 0.59059 0.6028 0.48195 0.37378 0.36703 0.33113 0.9591 1.2703 1.5115 0.59595 −13.851 0.68902 0.69962 0.67752

0.25171 0.26852 0.26134 0.27762 0.27214 0.26106 0.25385 0.24128 0.2603 0.22268 0.25842 0.2701 0.19013 0.181 0.25116 −0.003474 0.24007 0.28084 0.27772 0.28954 0.27201 0.28194 0.27136 0.25475 0.2433 0.27386 0.25683 0.27002 0.25956 0.27424 0.27446 0.23093 0.21379 0.24876 0.23676 0.2593 0.26041 0.2707 0.24314 0.64038 0.26086 0.26143 0.25887

638.35 364.85 538 517 536.6 626 683 259 636 806 430.75 318.69 490.85 1113 857 693 540.15 720 631.95 568 579.35 591.75 602 675 535.15 433.25 664.5 649.1 543.8 573.5 846 828 639 703.9 519.13 454 432 543.15 −0.00191 617 630.3 616.2

0.29616 0.28775 0.28 0.29781 0.29481 0.20459 0.23658 0.16693 0.3009 0.28571 0.2895 0.2921 0.4359 0.28571 0.29268 0.28571 0.2912 0.2878 0.28674 0.27341 0.30781 0.29241 0.31 0.28571 0.2872 0.2696 0.26268 0.27713 0.2847 0.2741 0.28571 0.29905 0.28571 0.2762 0.27448 0.297 0.2716 0.24856 1.8211E-06 0.27479 0.27365 0.27596

173.55 87.89 180.25 142.61 159.95 213.15 388.85 186.35 242.54 460.65 197.67 223.15 289.95 700.15 329.35 288.15 279.01 164.65 237.38 176.99 373.96 234.94 178.18 236.50 267.76 158.45 156.08 243.15 229.33 165.78 172.22 398.40 354.00 247.57 288.45 180.35 173.15 119.36 178.35 273.16 225.30 247.98 286.41

7.982 18.070 11.590 12.610 12.716 14.363 10.082 15.635 9.109 10.261 25.298 12.631 24.241 8.546 4.553 4.713 3.889 13.998 7.638 12.408 5.724 13.430 10.487 11.478 4.182 8.284 13.144 7.728 7.689 6.915 7.093 7.083 6.452 4.945 4.859 12.287 15.664 18.481 8.824 55.497 8.648 8.623 8.161

638.35 364.85 538.00 517.00 536.60 626.00 683.00 259.00 636.00 806.00 430.75 318.69 490.85 1113.00 857.00 313.19 693.00 540.15 720.00 631.95 568.00 579.35 591.75 602.00 675.00 535.15 433.25 664.50 649.10 543.80 573.50 846.00 828.00 639.00 703.90 519.13 454.00 432.00 543.15 353.15 617.00 630.30 616.20

2.2738 5.3638 3.5012 3.9370 3.9369 4.1841 3.2786 4.9507 2.8417 3.1563 8.1495 5.0304 7.8730 2.3583 1.3728 4.6256 1.1350 4.4662 2.4383 4.0160 2.1686 4.5662 3.2400 3.5572 1.2300 2.5688 3.9388 2.4187 2.3268 2.1536 2.1963 2.0870 1.7484 1.4750 1.3986 3.6988 4.8781 5.5837 2.4511 54.0012 2.6413 2.6761 2.6172

Except for o-terphenyl and water, liquid density ρ is calculated by C4]

 = C1/C2[1 + (1−T/C3)

where ρ is in mol/dm and T is in K. The pressure is equal to the vapor pressure for pressures greater than 1 atm and equal to 1 atm when the vapor pressure is less than 1 atm. Equation (2), used for the limited temperature ranges as noted for o-terphenyl and water, is 3

 = C1 + C2T + C3T 2 + C4T 3 For water over the entire temperature range of 273.16 to 647.096 K, use  = 17.863 + 58.606τ0.35 − 95.396τ2/3 + 213.89τ − 141.26τ4/3 where τ = 1 − T/647.096.

2-103

All substances are listed by chemical family in Table 2-6 and by formula in Table 2-7. Values in this table were taken from the Design Institute for Physical Properties (DIPPR) of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), copyright 2007 AIChE and reproduced with permission of AICHE and of the DIPPR Evaluated Process Design Data Project Steering Committee. Their source should be cited as R. L. Rowley, W. V. Wilding, J. L. Oscarson, Y. Yang, N. A. Zundel, T. E. Daubert, R. P. Danner, DIPPR® Data Compilation of Pure Chemical Properties, Design Institute for Physical Properties, AIChE, New York (2007). The number of digits provided for values at Tmin and Tmax was chosen for uniformity of appearance and formatting; these do not represent the uncertainties of the physical quantities, but are the result of calculations from the standard thermophysical property formulations within a fixed format.

2-104

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS INORGANIC SOLUTIONS AT 1 ATM UNITS AND UNITS CONVERSIONS Most densities are given in grams per cubic centimeter. To convert to pounds per cubic foot, multiply by 62.43. °F = 9⁄ 5 °C + 32. Compositions are weight percent unless otherwise stated. ADDITIONAL REFERENCES For more detailed data on densities see International Critical Tables: tabular index, vol. 3, p. 1; abrasives, vol. 2, p. 87; air, moist, vol. 1, p. 71; building stones, vol. 2, p. 52; clays, vol. 2, p. 56; coals, vol. 2, p. 135; compounds, vol. 1, pp. 106, 176, 313, 341; elements, vol. 1, pp. 102, 340; fibers, vol. 2, p. 237; gases and vapors, vol. 3, pp. 3, 345; glass, vol. 2, p. 93; liquids and vitreous solids, vol. 3, p. 22; vol. 1, pp. 102, 340; vol. 2, TABLE 2-33

pp. 456, 463; vol. 3, pp. 20, 35; liquid coolants and saturated vapors are available from WADC-TR-59-598, 1959; plastics are collected in the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Chemical Rubber Publishing Co.; solid helium, neon, argon, fluorine, and methane data are given by Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960; temperatures of maximum solubility, vol. 3, p. 107; metals, vol. 2, p. 463; oils, fats, and waxes, vol. 2, p. 201; orthobaric, vol. 3, pp. 202, 228, 237, 244; petroleums, vol. 2, pp. 137, 144; plastics, vol. 2, p. 296; porcelains, vol. 2, pp. 68, 75; refrigerating brines, vol. 2, p. 327; rubber, vol. 2, pp. 255, 259; soaps, vol. 5, p. 447; metallic solid solutions, vol. 2, p. 358; solids, vol. 3, pp. 43, 45; vol. 2, p. 456; vol. 3, p. 21; solutions and mixtures, vol. 3, pp. 17, 51, 95, 104, 107, 111, 125, 130; woods, vol. 2, p. 1. Also see the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Chemical Rubber Publishing Co., 86th ed., etc.

Aluminum Sulfate [Al2(SO4)3]*

%

d 15 4

%

d 15 4

1 2 4 8 12

1.0093 1.0195 1.0404 1.0837 1.1293

16 20 24 26

1.1770 1.2272 1.2803 1.3079

TABLE 2-38 Ammonium Chromate [(NH4)2CrO4]*

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 70. TABLE 2-34 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30

0 °C

5 °C

10 °C

20 °C 25 °C %

d 15 4

0.9943 0.9954 0.9959 0.9958 0.9955 0.9939 0.993 32 0.889 .9906 .9915 .9919 .9917 .9913 .9895 .988 36 .877 .9834 .9840 .9842 .9837 .9832 .9811 .980 40 .865 0.970 .9701 .9701 .9695 .9686 .9677 .9651 .964 45 .849 .958 .9576 .9571 .9561 .9548 .9534 .9501 .948 50 .832 .947 .9461 .9450 .9435 .9420 .9402 .9362 .934 60 .796 .9353 .9335 .9316 .9296 .9275 .9229 70 .755 .9249 .9226 .9202 .9179 .9155 .9101 80 .711 .9150 .9122 .9094 .9067 .9040 .8980 90 .665 .9101 .9070 .9040 .9012 .8983 .8920 100 .618 *International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 59.

TABLE 2-35 Ammonium Acetate* (CH3COONH4)

TABLE 2-36 Ammonium Bichromate [(NH4)2Cr2O7]*

d 4t

3.80 10.52 19.75 28.04

20 13 13.7 19.6

1.0219 1.0627 1.1189 1.1707

TABLE 2-39

Ammonium Nitrate (NH4NO3)*

%

0 °C

10 °C

25 °C

40 °C

60 °C

80 °C

1.0 2.0 4.0 8.0 12.0 16.0 20.0 24.0 28.0 30.0 40.0 50.0

1.0043 1.0088 1.0178 1.0358 1.0539 1.0721 1.0905 1.1090 1.1277 1.1371 1.1862 1.2380

1.0039 1.0082 1.0168 1.0340 1.0515 1.0691 1.0870 1.1051 1.1234 1.1327 1.1810 1.2320

1.0011 1.0051 1.0132 1.0297 1.0464 1.0633 1.0806 1.0982 1.1161 1.1252 1.1727 1.2229

0.9961 1.0000 1.0079 1.0238 1.0400 1.0565 1.0734 1.0907 1.1082 1.1171 1.1640 1.2136

0.9870 .9908 .9985 1.0142 1.0301 1.0462 1.0627 1.0796 1.0968 1.1055 1.1515 1.2006

0.9755 .9793 .9869 1.0024 1.0181 1.0342 1.0506 1.0673 1.0844 1.0931 1.1385 1.1868

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 59.

%

d425

%

d412

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 35 40 45

0.9992 1.0013 1.0055 1.0136 1.0216 1.0294 1.0368 1.0439 1.0507 1.0540 1.0618 1.0691 1.0760

1 2 4 8 12 16 20

1.0051 1.0108 1.0223 1.0463 1.0715 1.0981 1.1263

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 70.

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 62. For data at 16 °C for 3(1)52 percent see Atack, Handbook of Chemical Data, p. 33, Reinhold, New York, 1957. TABLE 2-37

°C

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 70.

Ammonia (NH3)*

% −15 °C −10 °C −5 °C

%

TABLE 2-40

Ammonium Sulfate [(NH4)2SO4]*

%

0 °C

20 °C

40 °C

80 °C

100 °C

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 35 40 50

1.0061 1.0124 1.0248 1.0495 1.0740 1.0980 1.1215 1.1448 1.1677 1.2072 1.2350 1.2899

1.0041 1.0101 1.0220 1.0456 1.0691 1.0924 1.1154 1.1383 1.1609 1.2800 1.2277 1.2825

0.9980 1.0039 1.0155 1.0387 1.0619 1.0849 1.1077 1.1304 1.1529 1.1919 1.2196 1.2745

0.9777 .9836 .9953 1.0187 1.0421 1.0653 1.0883 1.1111 1.1338 1.1731 1.2011 1.2568

0.9644 .9705 .9826 1.0066 1.0303 1.0539 1.0772 1.1003 1.1232 1.1629 1.1910 1.2466

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 60.

Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl)*

%

0 °C

10 °C

20 °C

30 °C

50 °C

80 °C

100 °C

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24

1.0033 1.0067 1.0135 1.0266 1.0391 1.0510 1.0625 1.0736

1.0029 1.0062 1.0126 1.0251 1.0370 1.0485 1.0596 1.0705

1.0013 1.0045 1.0107 1.0227 1.0344 1.0457 1.0567 1.0674

0.9987 1.0018 1.0077 1.0195 1.0310 1.0422 1.0532 1.0641

0.9910 .9940 .9999 1.0116 1.0231 1.0343 1.0454 1.0564

0.9749 .9780 .9842 .9963 1.0081 1.0198 1.0312 1.0426

0.9617 .9651 .9718 .9849 .9975 1.0096 1.0213 1.0327

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 60.

TABLE 2-41

Arsenic Acid (H3AsO4)*

%

d 15 4

%

d 15 4

1 2 6 10 16

1.0057 1.0124 1.0398 1.0681 1.1128

20 30 40 50 60 70

1.1447 1.2331 1.3370 1.4602 1.6070 1.7811

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 61.

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS INORGANIC SOLUTIONS AT 1 ATM TABLE 2-42

Barium Chloride (BaCl2)*

TABLE 2-48

2-105

Chromic Acid (CrO3)*

%

0 °C

20 °C

40 °C

60 °C

80 °C

100 °C

%

d 15 4

%

d 15 4

2 4 8 12 16 20 24 26

1.0181 1.0368 1.0760 1.1178 1.1627 1.2105

1.0159 1.0341 1.0721 1.1128 1.1564 1.2031 1.2531 1.2793

1.0096 1.0275 1.0648 1.1047 1.1478 1.1938 1.2430 1.2688

1.0004 1.0181 1.0551 1.0948 1.1373 1.1828 1.2316 1.2571

0.9890 1.0066 1.0434 1.0827 1.1249 1.1702 1.2186 1.2440

0.9755 .9931 1.0299 1.0692 1.1113 1.1563 1.2045 1.2298

1 2 6 10 16

1.006 1.014 1.045 1.076 1.127

20 26 30 40 50 60

1.163 1.220 1.260 1.371 1.505 1.663

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 69.

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 75. TABLE 2-43

Cadmium Nitrate [Cd(NO3)2]*

TABLE 2-49

%

d 18 4

%

d 18 4

2 4 8 12 16

1.0154 1.0326 1.0683 1.1061 1.1468

20 25 30 40 50

1.1904 1.2488 1.3124 1.4590 1.6356

d 18 4

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 66.

TABLE 2-44 % −5 °C 2 4 8 12 16 20 25 30 35 40

1.0708 1.1083 1.1471 1.1874

%

Violet

Green

Equilibrium mixture of violet and green

1 2 4 8 12 14

1.0076 1.0166 1.0349 1.0724 1.1114 1.1316

1.0071 1.0157 1.0332 1.0691 1.1065

1.0075 1.0165 1.0347 1.0722 1.1111

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 69.

Calcium Chloride (CaCl2)*

0 °C

Chromium Chloride (CrCl3)*

20 °C 30 °C 40 °C 60 °C 80 °C 100 °C 120 °C† 140°C

1.0171 1.0346 1.0703 1.1072 1.1454 1.1853 1.2376 1.2922

1.0148 1.0316 1.0659 1.1015 1.1386 1.1775 1.2284 1.2816 1.3373 1.3957

1.0120 1.0286 1.0626 1.0978 1.1345 1.1730 1.2236 1.2764 1.3316 1.3895

1.0084 1.0249 1.0586 1.0937 1.1301 1.1684 1.2186 1.2709 1.3255 1.3826

0.9994 1.0158 1.0492 1.0840 1.1202 1.1581 1.2079 1.2597 1.3137 1.3700

0.9881 1.0046 1.0382 1.0730 1.1092 1.1471 1.1965 1.2478 1.3013 1.3571

0.9748 0.9915 1.0257 1.0610 1.0973 1.1352 1.1846 1.2359 1.2893 1.3450

0.9596 0.9765 1.0111 1.0466 1.0835 1.1219

0.9428 0.9601 0.9954 1.0317 1.0691 1.1080

TABLE 2-50

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, pp. 72–73. †Corrected to atmospheric pressure. TABLE 2-45 Calcium Hydroxide [Ca(OH)2]*

Copper Nitrate [Cu(NO3)2]*

%

d 20 4

%

d 20 4

1 2 4 8

1.007 1.015 1.032 1.069

12 16 20 25

1.107 1.147 1.189 1.248

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 67.

TABLE 2-46 Calcium Hypochlorite* (CaOCl2)

TABLE 2-51 (CuSO4)*

Copper Sulfate

TABLE 2-52 Cuprous Chloride (CuCl2)*

%

d 15 4

d 425

% total salt

d 15 4

%

0 °C

20 °C

40 °C

%

0 °C

20 °C

40 °C

0.05 .10 .15

0.99979 1.00044 1.00110

0.99773 .99838 .99904

2 4 6 8 10 12

1.0169 1.0345 1.0520 1.0697 1.0876 1.1060

1 4 8 12 16 18

1.0104 1.0429 1.0887 1.1379

1.0086 1.0401 1.084 1.1308 1.180 1.206

1.0024 1.0332 1.0764 1.1222

1 4 8 12 16 20

1.0095 1.0387 1.0788 1.1208 1.1653 1.2121

1.0072 1.036 1.0754 1.1165 1.1595 1.2052

1.002 1.0305 1.0682 1.107 1.151 1.1953

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 72.

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 73. CaOCl2 = 89.15% CaCl2 = 7.31% Ca(ClO3)2 = 0.26% Ca(OH)2 = 2.92% TABLE 2-47

Calcium Nitrate [Ca(NO3)2]*

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 67.

TABLE 2-53

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 66.

Ferric Chloride (FeCl3)*

%

6 °C

18 °C

25 °C

30 °C

%

0 °C

10 °C

20 °C

30 °C

2* 4 8 12 16 20 25 30 35 40 45 68†

1.0157 1.0316 1.0641 1.0979 1.1330 1.1694 1.2168

1.0137 1.0291 1.0608 1.0937 1.1279 1.1636 1.2106 1.260 1.311 1.365 1.422 1.747

1.0120 1.0272 1.0585 1.0911 1.1250 1.1602 1.2065

1.0105 1.0256 1.0565 1.0887 1.1224 1.1575 1.2032

1.741

1.736

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

1.0086 1.0174 1.0347 1.0703 1.1088 1.1475 1.1870 1.2400 1.2970 1.3605 1.4280

1.0084 1.0168 1.0341 1.0692 1.1071 1.1449 1.1847 1.2380 1.2950 1.3580 1.4235 1.4920 1.5610

1.0068 1.0152 1.0324 1.0669 1.1040 1.1418 1.1820 1.2340 1.2910 1.3530 1.4175 1.4850 1.5510

1.0040 1.0122 1.0292 1.0636 1.1006 1.1386 1.1786 1.2290 1.2850 1.3475 1.4115

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, pp. 73–74. †Supercooled tetrahydrate (m.p. 41.4°C).

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 68.

2-106

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-54 Ferric Sulfate [Fe2(SO4)3]* 17.5

% 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 30 40 50 60

TABLE 2-55 [Fe(NO3)3]*

d4

1.0072 1.0157 1.0327 1.0670 1.1028 1.1409 1.1811 1.3073 1.4487 1.6127 1.7983

Ferric Nitrate 18

d4

%

d4

%

d4

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 25

1.0065 1.0144 1.0304 1.0636 1.0989 1.1359 1.1748 1.2281

5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 95 100

1.020 1.040 1.080 1.119 1.159 1.198 1.235 1.258 1.259 1.178 1.089 1.0005

1.017 1.035 1.070 1.101 1.130 1.155

1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

1.0022 1.0058 1.0131 1.0204 1.0277 1.0351 1.0425 1.0499 1.0574 1.0649 1.0725 1.0802 1.0880

26 28 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 70 80 90 100

1.0959 1.1040 1.1122 1.1327 1.1536 1.1749 1.1966 1.2188 1.2416 1.2897 1.3406 1.3931 1.4465

TABLE 2-57 Hydrogen Bromide (HBr)*

TABLE 2-62

18 °C

20 °C

%

d4

d4

d4

%

1.0090 1.0380 1.0790 1.1235 1.1690 1.2150

1.00068 1.00275 1.00645 1.0085 1.0375 1.0785 1.1220 1.1675 1.2135

1.0002 1.0022 1.0062 1.0082

1.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0 22.0 24.0 26.0 28.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 65.0

1.0073 1.0146 1.0295 1.0448 1.0604 1.0764 1.0928 1.1097 1.1272 1.1453 1.1640 1.1832 1.2030 1.2235 1.2446 1.2663 1.3877 1.5305 1.6950 1.7854

1.0068 1.0139 1.0285 1.0435 1.0589 1.0747 1.0910 1.1078 1.1251 1.1430 1.1615 1.1806 1.2003 1.2206 1.2415 1.2630 1.3838 1.5257 1.6892 1.7792

1.0041 1.0111 1.0255 1.0402 1.0552 1.0707 1.0867 1.1032 1.1202 1.1377 1.1557 1.1743 1.1935 1.2134 1.2340 1.2552 1.3736 1.5127 1.6731 1.7613

1 2 4 8 12

TABLE 2-58 Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN)* 15

d4

1 2 4 8 12 16 82 90 100

0.998 0.996 0.993 0.984 0.971 0.956 0.752 0.724 0.691

4

10

25

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 55.

Hydrogen Chloride (HCl)

%

−5 °C

0 °C

10 °C

20 °C

40 °C

60 °C

80 °C

100 °C

1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40

1.0048 1.0104 1.0213 1.0321 1.0428 1.0536 1.0645 1.0754 1.0864 1.0975 1.1087 1.1200 1.1314 1.1426 1.1537 1.1648

1.0052 1.0106 1.0213 1.0319 1.0423 1.0528 1.0634 1.0741 1.0849 1.0958 1.1067 1.1177 1.1287 1.1396 1.1505 1.1613

1.0048 1.0100 1.0202 1.0303 1.0403 1.0504 1.0607 1.0711 1.0815 1.0920 1.1025 1.1131 1.1238 1.1344 1.1449 1.1553

1.0032 1.0082 1.0181 1.0279 1.0376 1.0474 1.0574 1.0675 1.0776 1.0878 1.0980 1.1083 1.1187 1.1290 1.1392 1.1493 1.1593 1.1691 1.1789 1.1885 1.1980

0.9970 1.0019 1.0116 1.0211 1.0305 1.0400 1.0497 1.0594 1.0692 1.0790 1.0888 1.0986 1.1085 1.1183 1.1280 1.1376

0.9881 0.9930 1.0026 1.0121 1.0215 1.0310 1.0406 1.0502 1.0598 1.0694 1.0790 1.0886 1.0982 1.1076 1.1169 1.1260

0.9768 0.9819 0.9919 1.0016 1.0111 1.0206 1.0302 1.0398 1.0494 1.0590 1.0685 1.0780 1.0874 1.0967 1.1058 1.1149

0.9636 0.9688 0.9791 0.9892 0.9992 1.0090 1.0188 1.0286 1.0383 1.0479 1.0574 1.0668 1.0761 1.0853 1.0942 1.1030

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 54.

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 54.

Hydrofluosilic Acid (H2SiF6)* 17.5

17.5

%

d4

1.0080 1.0161 1.0324 1.0661 1.1011

d4

16 20 25 30 34

1.1373 1.1748 1.2235 1.2742 1.3162

*O. Söhnel and P. Novotny, Densities of Aqueous Solutions of Inorganic Substances, Elsevier, 1985.

TABLE 2-63

Magnesium Chloride (MgCl2)*

%

0 °C

20 °C

40 °C

60 °C

80 °C

100°C

2 4 8 12 16 20 25 30

1.0168 1.0338 1.0683 1.1035 1.1395 1.1764 1.2246 1.2754

1.0146 1.0311 1.0646 1.0989 1.1342 1.1706 1.2184 1.2688

1.0084 1.0248 1.0580 1.0921 1.1272 1.1635 1.2111 1.2614

0.9995 1.0159 1.0493 1.0836 1.1188 1.1552 1.2031 1.2535

0.9883 1.0050 1.0388 1.0735 1.1092 1.1460 1.1942 1.2451

0.9753 0.9923 1.0269 1.0622 1.0984 1.1359 1.1847 1.2360

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 71.

TABLE 2-64

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 61. TABLE 2-59

18

d4

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 54.

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 68.

18

%

15 °C

%

20

d4

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 68.

TABLE 2-56 Ferrous Sulfate (FeSO4)* 0.2 0.4 0.8 1.0 4.0 8.0 12.0 16.0 20.0

0

TABLE 2-61 Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)*

%

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 68.

%

TABLE 2-60 Hydrogen Fluoride (HF)*

Magnesium Sulfate (MgSO4)*

%

0 °C

20 °C

30 °C

40 °C

50 °C

60 °C

80 °C

2 4 8 12 16 20 26

1.0210 1.0423 1.0858 1.1309 1.1777 1.2264 1.3032

1.0186 1.0392 1.0816 1.1256 1.1717 1.2198 1.2961

1.0158 1.0362 1.0782 1.1220 1.1679 1.2159 1.2922

1.0123 1.0326 1.0743 1.1179 1.1637 1.2117 1.2879

1.0081 1.0283 1.0700 1.1135 1.1592 1.2072 1.2836

1.0032 1.0234 1.0650 1.1083

0.9916 1.0118 1.0534 1.0968

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 72. TABLE 2-65 Nickel Chloride (NiCl2)* 18

TABLE 2-66 Nickel Nitrate [Ni(NO3)2]* 20

TABLE 2-67 Nickel Sulfate (NiSO4 )* 18

%

d4

%

d4

%

d4

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 30

1.0082 1.0179 1.0375 1.0785 1.1217 1.1674 1.2163 1.353

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 30 35

1.0065 1.0150 1.0325 1.0688 1.1070 1.1480 1.191 1.311 1.377

1 2 4 8 12 16 18

1.0091 1.0198 1.0415 1.0852 1.1325 1.1825 1.2090

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 69.

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 69.

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 69.

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS INORGANIC SOLUTIONS AT 1 ATM TABLE 2-68

2-107

Nitric Acid (HNO3)*

0 °C

5 °C

10 °C

15 °C

20 °C

25 °C

30 °C

40 °C

50 °C

60 °C

80 °C

100°C

1 2 3 4

1.0058 1.0117 1.0176 1.0236

1.00572 1.01149 1.01730 1.02315

1.00534 1.01099 1.01668 1.02240

1.00464 1.01018 1.01576 1.02137

1.00364 1.00909 1.01457 1.02008

1.00241 1.00778 1.01318 1.01861

1.0009 1.0061 1.0114 1.0168

0.9973 1.0025 1.0077 1.0129

0.9931 0.9982 1.0033 1.0084

0.9882 0.9932 0.9982 1.0033

0.9767 0.9816 0.9865 0.9915

0.9632 0.9681 0.9730 0.9779

5 6 7 8 9

1.0296 1.0357 1.0418 1.0480 1.0543

1.02904 1.03497 1.0410 1.0471 1.0532

1.02816 1.03397 1.0399 1.0458 1.0518

1.02702 1.03272 1.0385 1.0443 1.0502

1.02563 1.03122 1.0369 1.0427 1.0485

1.02408 1.02958 1.0352 1.0409 1.0466

1.0222 1.0277 1.0333 1.0389 1.0446

1.0182 1.0235 1.0289 1.0344 1.0399

1.0136 1.0188 1.0241 1.0295 1.0349

1.0084 1.0136 1.0188 1.0241 1.0294

0.9965 1.0015 1.0066 1.0117 1.0169

0.9829 0.9879 0.9929 0.9980 1.0032

10 11 12 13 14

1.0606 1.0669 1.0733 1.0797 1.0862

1.0594 1.0656 1.0718 1.0781 1.0845

1.0578 1.0639 1.0700 1.0762 1.0824

1.0561 1.0621 1.0681 1.0742 1.0803

1.0543 1.0602 1.0661 1.0721 1.0781

1.0523 1.0581 1.0640 1.0699 1.0758

1.0503 1.0560 1.0618 1.0676 1.0735

1.0455 1.0511 1.0567 1.0624 1.0681

1.0403 1.0458 1.0513 1.0568 1.0624

1.0347 1.0401 1.0455 1.0509 1.0564

1.0221 1.0273 1.0326 1.0379 1.0432

1.0083 1.0134 1.0186 1.0238 1.0289

15 16 17 18 19

1.0927 1.0992 1.1057 1.1123 1.1189

1.0909 1.0973 1.1038 1.1103 1.1168

1.0887 1.0950 1.1014 1.1078 1.1142

1.0865 1.0927 1.0989 1.1052 1.1115

1.0842 1.0903 1.0964 1.1026 1.1088

1.0818 1.0879 1.0940 1.1001 1.1062

1.0794 1.0854 1.0914 1.0974 1.1034

1.0739 1.0797 1.0855 1.0913 1.0972

1.0680 1.0737 1.0794 1.0851 1.0908

1.0619 1.0675 1.0731 1.0787 1.0843

1.0485 1.0538 1.0592 1.0646 1.0700

1.0341 1.0393 1.0444 1.0496 1.0547

20 21 22 23 24

1.1255 1.1322 1.1389 1.1457 1.1525

1.1234 1.1300 1.1366 1.1433 1.1501

1.1206 1.1271 1.1336 1.1402 1.1469

1.1178 1.1242 1.1306 1.1371 1.1437

1.1150 1.1213 1.1276 1.1340 1.1404

1.1123 1.1185 1.1247 1.1310 1.1374

1.1094 1.1155 1.1217 1.1280 1.1343

1.1031 1.1090 1.1150 1.1210 1.1271

1.0966 1.1024 1.1083 1.1142 1.1201

1.0899 1.0956 1.1013 1.1070 1.1127

1.0754 1.0808 1.0862 1.0917 1.0972

1.0598 1.0650 1.0701 1.0753 1.0805

25 26 27 28 29

1.1594 1.1663 1.1733 1.1803 1.1874

1.1569 1.1638 1.1707 1.1777 1.1847

1.1536 1.1603 1.1670 1.1738 1.1807

1.1503 1.1569 1.1635 1.1702 1.1770

1.1469 1.1534 1.1600 1.1666 1.1733

1.1438 1.1502 1.1566 1.1631 1.1697

1.1406 1.1469 1.1533 1.1597 1.1662

1.1332 1.1394 1.1456 1.1519 1.1582

1.1260 1.1320 1.1381 1.1442 1.1503

1.1185 1.1244 1.1303 1.1362 1.1422

1.1027 1.1083 1.1139 1.1195 1.1251

1.0857 1.0910 1.0963 1.1016 1.1069

30 31 32 33 34

1.1945 1.2016 1.2088 1.2160 1.2233

1.1917 1.1988 1.2059 1.2131 1.2203

1.1876 1.1945 1.2014 1.2084 1.2155

1.1838 1.1906 1.1974 1.2043 1.2113

1.1800 1.1867 1.1934 1.2002 1.2071

1.1763 1.1829 1.1896 1.1963 1.2030

1.1727 1.1792 1.1857 1.1922 1.1988

1.1645 1.1708 1.1772 1.1836 1.1901

1.1564 1.1625 1.1687 1.1749 1.1812

1.1482 1.1542 1.1602 1.1662 1.1723

1.1307 1.1363 1.1419 1.1476 1.1533

1.1122 1.1175 1.1228 1.1281 1.1335

35 36 37 38 39

1.2306 1.2375 1.2444 1.2513 1.2581

1.2275 1.2344 1.2412 1.2479 1.2546

1.2227 1.2294 1.2361 1.2428 1.2494

1.2183 1.2249 1.2315 1.2381 1.2446

1.2140 1.2205 1.2270 1.2335 1.2399

1.2098 1.2163 1.2227 1.2291 1.2354

1.2055 1.2119 1.2182 1.2245 1.2308

1.1966 1.2028 1.2089 1.2150 1.2210

1.1876 1.1936 1.1995 1.2054 1.2112

1.1784 1.1842 1.1899 1.1956 1.2013

1.1591 1.1645 1.1699 1.1752 1.1805

1.1390 1.1440 1.1490 1.1540 1.1589

40 41 42 43 44

1.2649 1.2717 1.2786 1.2854 1.2922

1.2613 1.2680 1.2747 1.2814 1.2880

1.2560 1.2626 1.2692 1.2758 1.2824

1.2511 1.2576 1.2641 1.2706 1.2771

1.2463 1.2527 1.2591 1.2655 1.2719

1.2417 1.2480 1.2543 1.2606 1.2669

1.2370 1.2432 1.2494 1.2556 1.2618

1.2270 1.2330 1.2390 1.2450 1.2510

1.2170 1.2229 1.2287 1.2345 1.2403

1.2069 1.2126 1.2182 1.2238 1.2294

1.1858 1.1911 1.1963 1.2015 1.2067

1.1638 1.1687 1.1735 1.1783 1.1831

45 46 47 48 49

1.2990 1.3058 1.3126 1.3194 1.3263

1.2947 1.3014 1.3080 1.3147 1.3214

1.2890 1.2955 1.3021 1.3087 1.3153

1.2836 1.2901 1.2966 1.3031 1.3096

1.2783 1.2847 1.2911 1.2975 1.3040

1.2732 1.2795 1.2858 1.2921 1.2984

1.2680 1.2742 1.2804 1.2867 1.2929

1.2570 1.2630 1.2690 1.2750 1.2811

1.2461 1.2519 1.2577 1.2635 1.2693

1.2350 1.2406 1.2462 1.2518 1.2575

1.2119 1.2171 1.2223 1.2275 1.2328

1.1879 1.1927 1.1976 1.2024 1.2073

50 51 52 53 54

1.3327 1.3391 1.3454 1.3517 1.3579

1.3277 1.3339 1.3401 1.3462 1.3523

1.3215 1.3277 1.3338 1.3399 1.3459

1.3157 1.3218 1.3278 1.3338 1.3397

1.3100 1.3160 1.3219 1.3278 1.3336

1.3043 1.3102 1.3160 1.3218 1.3275

1.2987 1.3045 1.3102 1.3159 1.3215

1.2867 1.2923 1.2978 1.3033 1.3087

1.2748 1.2802 1.2856 1.2909 1.2961

1.2628 1.2680 1.2731 1.2782 1.2833

1.2377 1.2425 1.2473 1.2521 1.2568

1.2118 1.2163 1.2208 1.2252 1.2296

55 56 57 58 59

1.3640 1.3700 1.3759 1.3818 1.3875

1.3583 1.3642 1.3700 1.3757 1.3813

1.3518 1.3576 1.3634 1.3691 1.3747

1.3455 1.3512 1.3569 1.3625 1.3680

1.3393 1.3449 1.3505 1.3560 1.3614

1.3331 1.3386 1.3441 1.3495 1.3548

1.3270 1.3324 1.3377 1.3430 1.3482

1.3141 1.3194 1.3246 1.3298 1.3348

1.3013 1.3064 1.3114 1.3164 1.3213

1.2883 1.2932 1.2981 1.3029 1.3077

1.2615 1.2661 1.2706 1.2751 1.2795

1.2339 1.2382 1.2424 1.2466 1.2507

60 61 62 63 64

1.3931 1.3986 1.4039 1.4091

1.3868 1.3922 1.3975 1.4027 1.4078

1.3801 1.3855 1.3907 1.3958 1.4007

1.3734 1.3787 1.3838 1.3888 1.3936

1.3667 1.3719 1.3769 1.3818 1.3866

1.3600 1.3651 1.3700 1.3748 1.3795

1.3533 1.3583 1.3632 1.3679 1.3725

1.3398 1.3447 1.3494 1.3540

1.3261 1.3308 1.3354 1.3398

1.3124 1.3169 1.3213 1.3255

1.2839 1.2881 1.2922 1.2962

1.2547 1.2587 1.2625 1.2661

%

2-108

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA Nitric Acid (HNO3) (Concluded)

TABLE 2-68 0 °C

5 °C

10 °C

15 °C

20 °C

25 °C

30 °C

65 66 67 68 69

1.4128 1.4177 1.4224 1.4271 1.4317

1.4055 1.4103 1.4150 1.4196 1.4241

1.3984 1.4031 1.4077 1.4122 1.4166

1.3913 1.3959 1.4004 1.4048 1.4091

1.3841 1.3887 1.3932 1.3976 1.4019

1.3770 1.3814 1.3857 1.3900 1.3942

70 71 72 73 74

1.4362 1.4406 1.4449 1.4491 1.4532

1.4285 1.4328 1.4371 1.4413 1.4454

1.4210 1.4252 1.4294 1.4335 1.4376

1.4134 1.4176 1.4218 1.4258 1.4298

1.4061 1.4102 1.4142 1.4182 1.4221

1.3983 1.4023 1.4063 1.4103 1.4142

75 76 77 78 79

1.4573 1.4613 1.4652 1.4690 1.4727

1.4494 1.4533 1.4572 1.4610 1.4647

1.4415 1.4454 1.4492 1.4529 1.4565

1.4337 1.4375 1.4413 1.4450 1.4486

1.4259 1.4296 1.4333 1.4369 1.4404

1.4180 1.4217 1.4253 1.4288 1.4323

80 81 82 83 84

1.4764 1.4800 1.4835 1.4869 1.4903

1.4683 1.4718 1.4753 1.4787 1.4820

1.4601 1.4636 1.4670 1.4704 1.4737

1.4521 1.4555 1.4589 1.4622 1.4655

1.4439 1.4473 1.4507 1.4540 1.4572

1.4357 1.4391 1.4424 1.4456 1.4487

85 86 87 88 89

1.4936 1.4968 1.4999 1.5029 1.5058

1.4852 1.4883 1.4913 1.4942 1.4970

1.4769 1.4799 1.4829 1.4858 1.4885

1.4686 1.4716 1.4745 1.4773 1.4800

1.4603 1.4633 1.4662 1.4690 1.4716

1.4518 1.4548 1.4577 1.4605 1.4631

90 91 92 93 94

1.5085 1.5111 1.5136 1.5156 1.5177

1.4997 1.5023 1.5048 1.5068 1.5088

1.4911 1.4936 1.4960 1.4979 1.4999

1.4826 1.4850 1.4873 1.4892 1.4912

1.4741 1.4766 1.4789 1.4807 1.4826

1.4656 1.4681 1.4704 1.4722 1.4741

95 96 97 98 99 100

1.5198 1.5220 1.5244 1.5278 1.5327 1.5402

1.5109 1.5130 1.5152 1.5187 1.5235 1.5310

1.5019 1.5040 1.5062 1.5096 1.5144 1.5217

1.4932 1.4952 1.4974 1.5008 1.5056 1.5129

1.4846 1.4867 1.4889 1.4922 1.4969 1.5040

1.4761 1.4781 1.4802 1.4835 1.4881 1.4952

%

40 °C

50 °C

60 °C

80 °C

100°C

6%

8%

10%

1.0396

1.0534

1.0674

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, pp. 58–59.

TABLE 2-69 15

%

d4

1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26

1.0050 1.0109 1.0228 1.0348 1.0471 1.0597 1.0726 1.0589 1.0995 1.1135 1.1279 1.1428 1.1581 1.1738

Perchloric Acid (HClO4)* 20

d4

25

50

TABLE 2-71 15

20

50

Potassium Bicarbonate (KHCO3)*

d4

d4

%

d4

d4

d4

°C

1%

2%

4%

1.0020 1.0070 1.0169 1.0270 1.0372 1.0475

0.9933 0.9986 0.9906 1.0205 1.0320 1.0440 1.0560 1.0680 1.0810 1.0940 1.1070 1.1205 1.1345 1.1490

28 30 32 34 36 38 40 45 50 55 60 65 70

1.1900 1.2067 1.2239 1.2418 1.2603 1.2794 1.2991 1.3521 1.4103 1.4733 1.5389 1.6059 1.6736

1.1851 1.2013 1.2183 1.2359 1.2542 1.2732 1.2927 1.3450 1.4018 1.4636 1.5298 1.5986 1.6680

1.1645 1.1800 1.1960 1.2130 1.2310 1.2490 1.2680 1.3180 1.3730 1.4320 1.4950 1.5620 1.6290

0 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 80 100

1.0066 1.0064 1.0058 1.0049 1.0024 0.9990 0.9949 0.9901 0.9786 0.9653

1.0134 1.0132 1.0125 1.0117 1.0092 1.0058 1.0017 0.9969 0.9855 0.9722

1.0270 1.0268 1.0260 1.0252 1.0228 1.0195 1.0154 1.0106 0.9993 0.9860

1.1697

TABLE 2-72 Potassium Bromide (KBr)*

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 54.

TABLE 2-70

Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4)*

°C

2%

6%

14%

0 10 20 30 40

1.0113 1.0109 1.0092 1.0065 1.0029

1.0339 1.0330 1.0309 1.0279 1.0241

1.0811 1.0792 1.0764 1.0728 1.0685

20%

26%

35%

50%

75%

1.1192 1.1167 1.1567 1.221 1.341 1.1134 1.1529 1.216 1.335 1.579 1.1094 1.1484 1.211 1.329 1.572 1.1048

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 61.

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 90.

100%

1.870 1.862

%

d 20 4

1 2 6 12 20 30 40

1.0054 1.0127 1.0426 1.0903 1.1601 1.2593 1.3746

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 87.

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS INORGANIC SOLUTIONS AT 1 ATM TABLE 2-73

Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3)*

TABLE 2-79

2-109

Potassium Nitrate (KNO3)*

%

0 °C

10 °C

20 °C

40 °C

60 °C

80 °C

100°C

%

0 °C

10 °C

20 °C

40 °C

60 °C

80 °C

100 °C

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 35 40 45 50

1.0094 1.0189 1.0381 1.0768 1.1160 1.1562 1.1977 1.2405 1.2846 1.3071 1.3646 1.4244 1.4867 1.5517

1.0089 1.0182 1.0369 1.0746 1.1131 1.1530 1.1941 1.2366 1.2804 1.3028 1.3600 1.4195 1.4815 1.5462

1.0072 1.0163 1.0345 1.0715 1.1096 1.1490 1.1898 1.2320 1.2756 1.2979 1.3548 1.4141 1.4759 1.5404

1.0010 1.0098 1.0276 1.0640 1.1013 1.1399 1.1801 1.2219 1.2652 1.2873 1.3440 1.4029 1.4644 1.5285

0.9919 1.0005 1.0180 1.0538 1.0906 1.1290 1.1690 1.2106 1.2538 1.2759 1.3324 1.3913 1.4528 1.5169

0.9803 0.9889 1.0063 1.0418 1.0786 1.1170 1.1570 1.1986 1.2418 1.2640 1.3206 1.3795 1.4408 1.5048

0.9670 0.9756 0.9951 1.0291 1.0663 1.1049 1.1451 1.1869 1.2301 1.2522 1.3089 1.3678 1.4290 1.4928

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24

1.00654 1.01326 1.02677 1.05419 1.08221

1.00615 1.01262 1.02566 1.05226 1.07963

1.00447 1.01075 1.02344 1.04940 1.07620 1.10392 1.13261 1.16233

0.99825 1.00430 1.01652 1.04152 1.06740 1.09432 1.12240 1.15175

0.9890 0.9949 1.0068 1.0313 1.0567 1.0831 1.1106 1.1391

0.9776 0.9834 0.9951 1.0192 1.0442 1.0703 1.0974 1.1256

0.9641 0.9699 0.9816 1.0056 1.0304 1.0562 1.0831 1.1110

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 90. TABLE 2-74 Potassium Chromate (K2CrO4)* 15

TABLE 2-75 (KClO3)*

18

Potassium Chlorate

%

d4

d4

°C

1%

2%

3%

4%

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30

1.0073 1.0155 1.0321 1.0659 1.1009

1.0066 1.0147 1.0311 1.0647 1.0999 1.1366 1.1748 1.2147 1.2566 1.2784

0 10 20 30 40 60 80 100

1.0061 1.0059 1.0045 1.0020 0.9986 0.9895 0.9781 0.9646

1.0124 1.0122 1.0109 1.0085 1.0051 0.9959 0.9845 0.9709

1.0189 1.0187 1.0174 1.0151 1.0116 1.0024 0.9910 0.9774

1.0256 1.0254 1.0241 1.0218 1.0183 1.0091 0.9977 0.9840

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 86.

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 92. TABLE 2-76

Potassium Chloride (KCl)*

%

0 °C

20 °C

25 °C

40 °C

60 °C

80 °C

100°C

1.0 2.0 4.0 8.0 12.0 16.0 20.0 24.0 28.0

1.00661 1.01335 1.02690 1.05431 1.08222 1.11068 1.13973

1.00462 1.01103 1.02391 1.05003 1.07679 1.10434 1.13280 1.16226

1.00342 1.00977 1.02255 1.04847 1.07506 1.10245 1.13072 1.15995

0.99847 1.00471 1.01727 1.04278 1.06897 1.09600 1.12399 1.15299 1.18304

0.9894 0.9956 1.0080 1.0333 1.0592 1.0861 1.1138 1.1425 1.1723

0.9780 0.9842 0.9966 1.0219 1.0478 1.0746 1.1024 1.1311 1.1609

0.9646 0.9708 0.9634 1.0888 1.0350 1.0619 1.0897 1.1185 1.1483

%

110 °C

120 °C

130 °C

140°C

3.79 7.45 13.62

0.9733 0.9978 1.0388

0.9663 0.9899 1.0313

0.9583 0.9827 1.0238

0.9502 0.9745 1.0159

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 87. TABLE 2-77 Potassium Chrome Alum [K2Cr2(SO4)4]*

TABLE 2-80 Potassium Dichromate (K2Cr2O7)* 20

d 15 4

%

d 15 4

1 2 6 10 14 20 30 40 50

1.007 1.016 1.052 1.089 1.129 1.193 1.315 1.456 1.615

1.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 51.7

1.0083 1.0175 1.0359 1.0544 1.0730 1.0918 1.1396 1.1884 1.2387 1.2905 1.3440 1.3991 1.4558 1.5143 1.5355 (sat’d. soln.)

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 86.

TABLE 2-81 (K2SO4)*

Potassium Sulfate 20

%

d4

%

d4

1 2 4 6 8 10

1.0052 1.0122 1.0264 1.0408 1.0554 1.0703

1 2 4 6 8 10

1.0063 1.0145 1.0310 1.0477 1.0646 1.0817

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 92. TABLE 2-82 Potassium Sulfite (K2SO3)* 15

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 88. TABLE 2-83 Sodium Acetate (NaC2H3O2)* 20

%

d4

%

d4

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 26

1.0073 1.0155 1.0322 1.0667 1.1026 1.1402 1.1793 1.2197 1.2404

1 2 4 8 12 18 20 26 28

1.0033 1.0084 1.0186 1.0392 1.0598 1.0807 1.1021 1.1351 1.1462

*International Critical Tables, *International Critical Tables, vol. 3, vol. 3, p. 87. p. 83. TABLE 2-84 Sodium Arsenate (Na3AsO4)* 17

TABLE 2-85 Sodium Bichromate (Na2Cr2O7)* 15

%

d4

%

d4

1 2 4 8 10 12

1.0097 1.0207 1.0431 1.0892 1.1130 1.1373

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 35 40 45 50

1.006 1.013 1.027 1.056 1.084 1.112 1.140 1.166 1.193 1.207 1.244 1.279 1.312 1.342

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 82.

TABLE 2-78 Potassium Hydroxide (KOH)*

%

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 92.

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 89.

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 86. TABLE 2-86 Sodium Bromide (NaBr)* 20

TABLE 2-87 Sodium Formate (HCOONa)* 25

%

d4

%

d4

1 2 4 8 10 12 20 30 40

1.0060 1.0139 1.0298 1.0631 1.0803 1.0981 1.1745 1.2841 1.4138

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 35 40

1.003 1.009 1.022 1.048 1.074 1.100 1.127 1.155 1.184 1.199 1.236 1.274

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 80.

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 83.

2-110

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-88

Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3)*

TABLE 2-92

Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)*

%

0 °C

10 °C

20 °C

30 °C

40 °C

60 °C

80 °C

100 °C

%

0 °C

15 °C

20 °C

40 °C

60 °C

80 °C

100 °C

1 2 4 8 12 14 16 18 20 24 28 30

1.0109 1.0219 1.0439 1.0878 1.1319 1.1543

1.0103 1.0210 1.0423 1.0850 1.1284 1.1506

1.0086 1.0190 1.0398 1.0816 1.1244 1.1463

1.0058 1.0159 1.0363 1.0775 1.1200 1.1417 1.1636 1.1859 1.2086 1.2552 1.3031 1.3274

1.0022 1.0122 1.0323 1.0732 1.1150 1.1365

0.9929 1.0027 1.0223 1.0625 1.1039 1.1251

0.9814 0.9910 1.0105 1.0503 1.0914 1.1125

0.9683 0.9782 0.9980 1.0380 1.0787 1.0996

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 50

1.0124 1.0244 1.0482 1.0943 1.1399 1.1849 1.2296 1.2741 1.3182 1.3614 1.4030 1.4435 1.4825 1.5210 1.5400

1.01065 1.02198 1.04441 1.08887 1.13327 1.17761 1.22183 1.26582 1.3094 1.3520 1.3933 1.4334 1.4720 1.5102 1.5290

1.0095 1.0207 1.0428 1.0869 1.1309 1.1751 1.2191 1.2629 1.3064 1.3490 1.3900 1.4300 1.4685 1.5065 1.5253

1.0033 1.0139 1.0352 1.0780 1.1210 1.1645 1.2079 1.2512 1.2942 1.3362 1.3768 1.4164 1.4545 1.4922 1.5109

0.9941 1.0045 1.0254 1.0676 1.1101 1.1531 1.1960 1.2388 1.2814 1.3232 1.3634 1.4027 1.4405 1.4781 1.4967

0.9824 0.9929 1.0139 1.0560 1.0983 1.1408 1.1833 1.2259 1.2682 1.3097 1.3498 1.3889 1.4266 1.4641 1.4827

0.9693 0.9797 1.0009 1.0432 1.0855 1.1277 1.1700 1.2124 1.2546 1.2960 1.3360 1.3750 1.4127 1.4503 1.4690

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, pp. 82–83. TABLE 2-89

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 79.

Sodium Chlorate (NaClO3)* 18

18

%

d4

%

d4

1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

1.0053 1.0121 1.0258 1.0397 1.0538 1.0681 1.0827 1.0977 1.1131

18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34

1.1288 1.1449 1.1614 1.1782 1.1953 1.2128 1.2307 1.2491 1.2680

TABLE 2-93

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 80. TABLE 2-90

Sodium Chloride (NaCl)*

%

0 °C

10 °C

25 °C

40 °C

60 °C

80 °C

100 °C

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 26

1.00747 1.01509 1.03038 1.06121 1.09244 1.12419 1.15663 1.18999 1.20709

1.00707 1.01442 1.02920 1.05907 1.08946 1.12056 1.15254 1.18557 1.20254

1.00409 1.01112 1.02530 1.05412 1.08365 1.11401 1.14533 1.17776 1.19443

0.99908 1.00593 1.01977 1.04798 1.07699 1.10688 1.13774 1.16971 1.18614

0.9900 0.9967 1.0103 1.0381 1.0667 1.0962 1.1268 1.1584 1.1747

0.9785 0.9852 0.9988 1.0264 1.0549 1.0842 1.1146 1.1463 1.1626

0.9651 0.9719 0.9855 1.0134 1.0420 1.0713 1.1017 1.1331 1.1492

Sodium Nitrate (NaNO3)*

%

0 °C

20 °C

40 °C

60 °C

80 °C

100°C

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 35 40 45

1.0071 1.0144 1.0290 1.0587 1.0891 1.1203 1.1526 1.1860 1.2204 1.2380 1.2834 1.3316

1.0049 1.0117 1.0254 1.0532 1.0819 1.1118 1.1429 1.1752 1.2085 1.2256 1.2701 1.3175 1.3683

0.9986 1.0050 1.0180 1.0447 1.0724 1.1013 1.1314 1.1629 1.1955 1.2122 1.2560 1.3027 1.3528

0.9894 0.9956 1.0082 1.0340 1.0609 1.0892 1.1187 1.1496 1.1816 1.1980 1.2413 1.2875 1.3371

0.9779 0.9840 0.9964 1.0218 1.0481 1.0757 1.1048 1.1351 1.1667 1.1830 1.2258 1.2715 1.3206

0.9644 0.9704 0.9826 1.0078 1.0340 1.0614 1.0901 1.1200 1.1513 1.1674 1.2100 1.2555 1.3044

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 82.

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 79. TABLE 2-91 Sodium Chromate (Na2CrO4)*

TABLE 2-94 Sodium Nitrite (NaNO2)*

18

%

d4

%

d4

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 26

1.0074 1.0164 1.0344 1.0718 1.1110 1.1518 1.1942 1.2383 1.2611

1 2 4 8 12 16 20

1.0058 1.0125 1.0260 1.0535 1.0816 1.1103 1.1394

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 82.

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 86. TABLE 2-95

15

Sodium Silicates* Concentration, % 1

2

4

8

10

14

Na2O/3.9SiO2 Na2O/3.36SiO2 Na2O/2.40SiO2 Na2O/2.44SiO2 Na2O/2.06SiO2 Na2O/1.69SiO2

20

24

30

36

40

45

50

1.445 1.450

1.520

1.594

20

Formula

d4 1.006 1.006 1.007

1.014 1.014 1.016

1.030 1.030 1.034

1.063 1.065 1.071

1.080 1.083 1.090

1.116 1.120 1.130

1.172 1.179

1.211 1.222

1.275 1.290

1.365

1.007 1.007

1.016 1.017

1.035 1.036

1.073 1.077

1.093 1.098

1.134 1.141

1.200 1.210

1.247 1.259

1.309 1.321 1.337

1.387 1.397 1.424

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 85.

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS INORGANIC SOLUTIONS AT 1 ATM TABLE 2-96

Sodium Sulfate (Na2SO4)*

%

0 °C

20 °C

30 °C

40 °C

60 °C

80 °C

100°C

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24

1.0094 1.0189 1.0381 1.0773 1.1174 1.1585 1.2008 1.2443

1.0073 1.0164 1.0348 1.0724 1.1109 1.1586 1.1915 1.2336

1.0046 1.0135 1.0315 1.0682 1.1062 1.1456 1.1865 1.2292

1.0010 1.0098 1.0276 1.0639 1.1015 1.1406 1.1813 1.2237

0.9919 1.0007 1.0184 1.0544 1.0915 1.1299 1.1696

0.9805 0.9892 1.0068 1.0426 1.0795 1.1176 1.1569

0.9671 0.9758 0.9934 1.0292 1.0661 1.1042

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 81.

TABLE 2-97 Sodium Sulfide (Na2S)*

TABLE 2-98 Sodium Sulfite (Na2SO3)*

TABLE 2-99 Sodium Thiosulfate (Na2S2O3)*

%

d 18 4

%

d 19 4

%

d 20 4

1 2 4 8 12 16 18

1.0098 1.0211 1.0440 1.0907 1.1388 1.1885 1.2140

1 2 4 8 12 16 18

1.0078 1.0172 1.0363 1.0751 1.1146 1.1549 1.1755

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 35 40

1.0065 1.0148 1.0315 1.0654 1.1003 1.1365 1.1740 1.2128 1.2532 1.2739 1.3273 1.3827

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 81.

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 81.

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 81. TABLE 2-100 Sodium Thiosulfate Pentahydrate (Na2S2O3⋅5H2O) %

d 19 4

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 40 50

1.0052 1.0105 1.0211 1.0423 1.0639 1.0863 1.1087 1.1322 1.1558 1.1676 1.2297 1.2954

TABLE 2-101 Stannic Chloride (SnCl4)*

TABLE 2-102 Stannous Chloride (SnCl2)*

%

d 15 4

%

d 15 4

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70

1.007 1.015 1.031 1.064 1.099 1.135 1.173 1.212 1.255 1.278 1.337 1.403 1.475 1.555 1.644 1.742 1.851 1.971

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65

1.0068 1.0146 1.0306 1.0638 1.0986 1.1353 1.1743 1.2159 1.2603 1.2837 1.3461 1.4145 1.4897 1.5729 1.6656 1.7695 1.8865

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 63.

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 63.

2-111

2-112

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-103

Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4)*

0 °C

10 °C

15 °C

20 °C

25 °C

30 °C

40 °C

50 °C

60 °C

80 °C

100 °C

1 2 3 4

1.0074 1.0147 1.0219 1.0291

1.0068 1.0138 1.0206 1.0275

1.0060 1.0129 1.0197 1.0264

1.0051 1.0118 1.0184 1.0250

1.0038 1.0104 1.0169 1.0234

1.0022 1.0087 1.0152 1.0216

0.9986 1.0050 1.0113 1.0176

0.9944 1.0006 1.0067 1.0129

0.9895 0.9956 1.0017 1.0078

0.9779 0.9839 0.9900 0.9961

0.9645 0.9705 0.9766 0.9827

5 6 7 8 9

1.0364 1.0437 1.0511 1.0585 1.0660

1.0344 1.0414 1.0485 1.0556 1.0628

1.0332 1.0400 1.0469 1.0539 1.0610

1.0317 1.0385 1.0453 1.0522 1.0591

1.0300 1.0367 1.0434 1.0502 1.0571

1.0281 1.0347 1.0414 1.0481 1.0549

1.0240 1.0305 1.0371 1.0437 1.0503

1.0192 1.0256 1.0321 1.0386 1.0451

1.0140 1.0203 1.0266 1.0330 1.0395

1.0022 1.0084 1.0146 1.0209 1.0273

0.9888 0.9950 1.0013 1.0076 1.0140

10 11 12 13 14

1.0735 1.0810 1.0886 1.0962 1.1039

1.0700 1.0773 1.0846 1.0920 1.0994

1.0681 1.0753 1.0825 1.0898 1.0971

1.0661 1.0731 1.0802 1.0874 1.0947

1.0640 1.0710 1.0780 1.0851 1.0922

1.0617 1.0686 1.0756 1.0826 1.0897

1.0570 1.0637 1.0705 1.0774 1.0844

1.0517 1.0584 1.0651 1.0719 1.0788

1.0460 1.0526 1.0593 1.0661 1.0729

1.0338 1.0403 1.0469 1.0536 1.0603

1.0204 1.0269 1.0335 1.0402 1.0469

15 16 17 18 19

1.1116 1.1194 1.1272 1.1351 1.1430

1.1069 1.1145 1.1221 1.1298 1.1375

1.1045 1.1120 1.1195 1.1271 1.1347

1.1020 1.1094 1.1168 1.1243 1.1318

1.0994 1.1067 1.1141 1.1215 1.1290

1.0968 1.1040 1.1113 1.1187 1.1261

1.0914 1.0985 1.1057 1.1129 1.1202

1.0857 1.0927 1.0998 1.1070 1.1142

1.0798 1.0868 1.0938 1.1009 1.1081

1.0671 1.0740 1.0809 1.0879 1.0950

1.0537 1.0605 1.0674 1.0744 1.0814

20 21 22 23 24

1.1510 1.1590 1.1670 1.1751 1.1832

1.1453 1.1531 1.1609 1.1688 1.1768

1.1424 1.1501 1.1579 1.1657 1.1736

1.1394 1.1471 1.1548 1.1626 1.1704

1.1365 1.1441 1.1517 1.1594 1.1672

1.1335 1.1410 1.1486 1.1563 1.1640

1.1275 1.1349 1.1424 1.1500 1.1576

1.1215 1.1288 1.1362 1.1437 1.1512

1.1153 1.1226 1.1299 1.1373 1.1448

1.1021 1.1093 1.1166 1.1239 1.1313

1.0885 1.0957 1.1029 1.1102 1.1176

25 26 27 28 29

1.1914 1.1996 1.2078 1.2160 1.2243

1.1848 1.1929 1.2010 1.2091 1.2173

1.1816 1.1896 1.1976 1.2057 1.2138

1.1783 1.1862 1.1942 1.2023 1.2104

1.1750 1.1829 1.1909 1.1989 1.2069

1.1718 1.1796 1.1875 1.1955 1.2035

1.1653 1.1730 1.1808 1.1887 1.1966

1.1588 1.1665 1.1742 1.1820 1.1898

1.1523 1.1599 1.1676 1.1753 1.1831

1.1388 1.1463 1.1539 1.1616 1.1693

1.1250 1.1325 1.1400 1.1476 1.1553

30 31 32 33 34

1.2326 1.2409 1.2493 1.2577 1.2661

1.2255 1.2338 1.2421 1.2504 1.2588

1.2220 1.2302 1.2385 1.2468 1.2552

1.2185 1.2267 1.2349 1.2432 1.2515

1.2150 1.2232 1.2314 1.2396 1.2479

1.2115 1.2196 1.2278 1.2360 1.2443

1.2046 1.2126 1.2207 1.2289 1.2371

1.1977 1.2057 1.2137 1.2218 1.2300

1.1909 1.1988 1.2068 1.2148 1.2229

1.1771 1.1849 1.1928 1.2008 1.2088

1.1630 1.1708 1.1787 1.1866 1.1946

35 36 37 38 39

1.2746 1.2831 1.2917 1.3004 1.3091

1.2672 1.2757 1.2843 1.2929 1.3016

1.2636 1.2720 1.2805 1.2891 1.2978

1.2599 1.2684 1.2769 1.2855 1.2941

1.2563 1.2647 1.2732 1.2818 1.2904

1.2526 1.2610 1.2695 1.2780 1.2866

1.2454 1.2538 1.2622 1.2707 1.2793

1.2383 1.2466 1.2550 1.2635 1.2720

1.2311 1.2394 1.2477 1.2561 1.2646

1.2169 1.2251 1.2334 1.2418 1.2503

1.2027 1.2109 1.2192 1.2276 1.2361

40 41 42 43 44

1.3179 1.3268 1.3357 1.3447 1.3538

1.3103 1.3191 1.3280 1.3370 1.3461

1.3065 1.3153 1.3242 1.3332 1.3423

1.3028 1.3116 1.3205 1.3294 1.3384

1.2991 1.3079 1.3167 1.3256 1.3346

1.2953 1.3041 1.3129 1.3218 1.3308

1.2880 1.2967 1.3055 1.3144 1.3234

1.2806 1.2893 1.2981 1.3070 1.3160

1.2732 1.2819 1.2907 1.2996 1.3086

1.2589 1.2675 1.2762 1.2850 1.2939

1.2446 1.2532 1.2619 1.2707 1.2796

45 46 47 48 49

1.3630 1.3724 1.3819 1.3915 1.4012

1.3553 1.3646 1.3740 1.3835 1.3931

1.3515 1.3608 1.3702 1.3797 1.3893

1.3476 1.3569 1.3663 1.3758 1.3854

1.3437 1.3530 1.3624 1.3719 1.3814

1.3399 1.3492 1.3586 1.3680 1.3775

1.3325 1.3417 1.3510 1.3604 1.3699

1.3251 1.3343 1.3435 1.3528 1.3623

1.3177 1.3269 1.3362 1.3455 1.3549

1.3029 1.3120 1.3212 1.3305 1.3399

1.2886 1.2976 1.3067 1.3159 1.3253

50 51 52 53 54

1.4110 1.4209 1.4310 1.4412 1.4515

1.4029 1.4128 1.4228 1.4329 1.4431

1.3990 1.4088 1.4188 1.4289 1.4391

1.3951 1.4049 1.4148 1.4248 1.4350

1.3911 1.4009 1.4109 1.4209 1.4310

1.3872 1.3970 1.4069 1.4169 1.4270

1.3795 1.3893 1.3991 1.4091 1.4191

1.3719 1.3816 1.3914 1.4013 1.4113

1.3644 1.3740 1.3837 1.3936 1.4036

1.3494 1.3590 1.3687 1.3785 1.3884

1.3348 1.3444 1.3540 1.3637 1.3735

55 56 57 58 59

1.4619 1.4724 1.4830 1.4937 1.5045

1.4535 1.4640 1.4746 1.4852 1.4959

1.4494 1.4598 1.4703 1.4809 1.4916

1.4453 1.4557 1.4662 1.4768 1.4875

1.4412 1.4516 1.4621 1.4726 1.4832

1.4372 1.4475 1.4580 1.4685 1.4791

1.4293 1.4396 1.4500 1.4604 1.4709

1.4214 1.4317 1.4420 1.4524 1.4629

1.4137 1.4239 1.4342 1.4446 1.4551

1.3984 1.4085 1.4187 1.4290 1.4393

1.3834 1.3934 1.4035 1.4137 1.4240

60 61 62 63 64

1.5154 1.5264 1.5375 1.5487 1.5600

1.5067 1.5177 1.5287 1.5398 1.5510

1.5024 1.5133 1.5243 1.5354 1.5465

1.4983 1.5091 1.5200 1.5310 1.5421

1.4940 1.5048 1.5157 1.5267 1.5378

1.4898 1.5006 1.5115 1.5225 1.5335

1.4816 1.4923 1.5031 1.5140 1.5250

1.4735 1.4842 1.4950 1.5058 1.5167

1.4656 1.4762 1.4869 1.4977 1.5086

1.4497 1.4602 1.4708 1.4815 1.4923

1.4344 1.4449 1.4554 1.4660 1.4766

%

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS INORGANIC SOLUTIONS AT 1 ATM TABLE 2-103

2-113

Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) (Concluded)

%

0 °C

10 °C

15 °C

20 °C

25 °C

30 °C

40 °C

50 °C

60 °C

80 °C

100 °C

65 66 67 68 69

1.5714 1.5828 1.5943 1.6059 1.6176

1.5623 1.5736 1.5850 1.5965 1.6081

1.5578 1.5691 1.5805 1.5920 1.6035

1.5533 1.5646 1.5760 1.5874 1.5989

1.5490 1.5602 1.5715 1.5829 1.5944

1.5446 1.5558 1.5671 1.5785 1.5899

1.5361 1.5472 1.5584 1.5697 1.5811

1.5277 1.5388 1.5499 1.5611 1.5724

1.5195 1.5305 1.5416 1.5528 1.5640

1.5031 1.5140 1.5249 1.5359 1.5470

1.4873 1.4981 1.5089 1.5198 1.5307

70 71 72 73 74

1.6293 1.6411 1.6529 1.6648 1.6768

1.6198 1.6315 1.6433 1.6551 1.6670

1.6151 1.6268 1.6385 1.6503 1.6622

1.6105 1.6221 1.6338 1.6456 1.6574

1.6059 1.6175 1.6292 1.6409 1.6526

1.6014 1.6130 1.6246 1.6363 1.6480

1.5925 1.6040 1.6155 1.6271 1.6387

1.5838 1.5952 1.6067 1.6182 1.6297

1.5753 1.5867 1.5981 1.6095 1.6209

1.5582 1.5694 1.5806 1.5919 1.6031

1.5417 1.5527 1.5637 1.5747 1.5857

75 76 77 78 79

1.6888 1.7008 1.7128 1.7247 1.7365

1.6789 1.6908 1.7026 1.7144 1.7261

1.6740 1.6858 1.6976 1.7093 1.7209

1.6692 1.6810 1.6927 1.7043 1.7158

1.6644 1.6761 1.6878 1.6994 1.7108

1.6597 1.6713 1.6829 1.6944 1.7058

1.6503 1.6619 1.6734 1.6847 1.6959

1.6412 1.6526 1.6640 1.6751 1.6862

1.6322 1.6435 1.6547 1.6657 1.6766

1.6142 1.6252 1.6361 1.6469 1.6575

1.5966 1.6074 1.6181 1.6286 1.6390

80 81 82 83 84

1.7482 1.7597 1.7709 1.7815 1.7916

1.7376 1.7489 1.7599 1.7704 1.7804

1.7323 1.7435 1.7544 1.7649 1.7748

1.7272 1.7383 1.7491 1.7594 1.7693

1.7221 1.7331 1.7437 1.7540 1.7639

1.7170 1.7279 1.7385 1.7487 1.7585

1.7069 1.7177 1.7281 1.7382 1.7479

1.6971 1.7077 1.7180 1.7279 1.7375

1.6873 1.6978 1.7080 1.7179 1.7274

1.6680 1.6782 1.6882 1.6979 1.7072

1.6493 1.6594 1.6692 1.6787 1.6878

85 86 87 88 89

1.8009 1.8095 1.8173 1.8243 1.8306

1.7897 1.7983 1.8061 1.8132 1.8195

1.7841 1.7927 1.8006 1.8077 1.8141

1.7786 1.7872 1.7951 1.8022 1.8087

1.7732 1.7818 1.7897 1.7968 1.8033

1.7678 1.7763 1.7842 1.7914 1.7979

1.7571 1.7657 1.7736 1.7809 1.7874

1.7466 1.7552 1.7632 1.7705 1.7770

1.7364 1.7449 1.7529 1.7602 1.7669

1.7161 1.7245 1.7324 1.7397 1.7464

1.6966 1.7050 1.7129 1.7202 1.7269

90 91 92 93 94

1.8361 1.8410 1.8453 1.8490 1.8520

1.8252 1.8302 1.8346 1.8384 1.8415

1.8198 1.8248 1.8293 1.8331 1.8363

1.8144 1.8195 1.8240 1.8279 1.8312

1.8091 1.8142 1.8188 1.8227 1.8260

1.8038 1.8090 1.8136 1.8176 1.8210

1.7933 1.7986 1.8033 1.8074 1.8109

1.7829 1.7883 1.7932 1.7974 1.8011

1.7729 1.7783 1.7832 1.7876 1.7914

1.7525 1.7581 1.7633 1.7681

1.7331 1.7388 1.7439 1.7485

95 96 97 98 99 100

1.8544 1.8560 1.8569 1.8567 1.8551 1.8517

1.8439 1.8457 1.8466 1.8463 1.8445 1.8409

1.8388 1.8406 1.8414 1.8411 1.8393 1.8357

1.8337 1.8355 1.8364 1.8361 1.8342 1.8305

1.8286 1.8305 1.8314 1.8310 1.8292 1.8255

1.8236 1.8255 1.8264 1.8261 1.8242 1.8205

1.8137 1.8157 1.8166 1.8163 1.8145 1.8107

1.8040 1.8060 1.8071 1.8068 1.8050 1.8013

1.7944 1.7965 1.7977 1.7976 1.7958 1.7922

%

d 5.96 4

%

d 13.00 4

d 18.00 4

0.005 .01 .02 .03 .04

1.000 0140 1.000 0576 1.000 1434 1.000 2276 1.000 3104

0.05 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

0.999 810 1.000 185 1.000 912 1.001 623 1.002 326

0.999 028 0.999 400 1.000 119 1.000 820 1.001 512

.05 .06 .07 .08 .09

1.000 3920 1.000 4726 1.000 5523 1.000 6313 1.000 7098

0.5 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

1.003 023 1.003 716 1.005 090 1.006 452 1.007 807

1.002 197 1.002 877 1.004 227 1.005 570 1.006 909

.10 .15 .20 .25 .30

1.000 7880 1.001 1732 1.001 5514 1.001 9254 1.002 2961

1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2

1.009 159 1.010 510 1.011 860 1.013 209 1.014 557

1.008 247 1.009 583 1.010 918 1.012 252 1.013 586

.35 .40 .45 .50

1.002 6639 1.003 0292 1.003 3923 1.003 7534

2.4

1.015 904

1.014 919

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, pp. 56–57.

2-114

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-104

Zinc Bromide (ZnBr2)*

%

0 °C

20 °C

40 °C

60 °C

80 °C

100 °C

2 4 8 12 16

1.0188 1.0381 1.0777 1.1186 1.1609

1.0167 1.0354 1.0738 1.1135 1.1544

1.0102 1.0285 1.0660 1.1046 1.1445

1.0008 1.0187 1.0554 1.0932 1.1320

0.9890 1.0065 1.0422 1.0789 1.1169

0.9751 0.9921 1.0270 1.0629 1.1000

20 30 40 50 60 65

1.2043 1.3288 1.477 1.661 1.891 2.026

1.1965 1.3170 1.462 1.643 1.869 2.002

1.1855 1.3030 1.445 1.623 1.845 1.976

1.1720 1.2868 1.427 1.602 1.822 1.951

1.1560 1.2688 1.406 1.579 1.797 1.924

1.1382 1.2489 1.385 1.555 1.771 1.898

TABLE 2-106 [Zn(NO3)2]*

Zinc Nitrate

TABLE 2-107 (ZnSO4)*

Zinc Sulfate

%

18 °C

%

18 °C

%

20 °C

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

1.0154 1.0322 1.0496 1.0675 1.0859 1.1048 1.1244 1.1445

18 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

1.1652 1.1865 1.2427 1.3029 1.3678 1.4378 1.5134 1.5944

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

1.019 1.0403 1.0620 1.0842 1.1071 1.1308 1.1553 1.1806

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 65.

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 65.

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 64. TABLE 2-105

Zinc Chloride (ZnCl2)*

%

0 °C

20 °C

40 °C

60 °C

80 °C

100 °C

2 4 8 12 16

1.0192 1.0384 1.0769 1.1159 1.1558

1.0167 1.0350 1.0715 1.1085 1.1468

1.0099 1.0274 1.0624 1.0980 1.1350

1.0003 1.0172 1.0508 1.0853 1.1212

0.9882 1.0044 1.0369 1.0704 1.1055

0.9739 0.9894 1.0211 1.0541 1.0888

20 30 40 50 60 70

1.1970 1.3062 1.4329 1.5860

1.1866 1.2928 1.4173 1.5681 1.749 1.962

1.1736 1.2778 1.4003 1.5495

1.1590 1.2614 1.3824 1.5300

1.1428 1.2438 1.3637 1.5097

1.1255 1.2252 1.3441 1.4892

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 64.

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS ORGANIC SOLUTIONS* From International Critical Tables, vol. 3, pp. 115–129 unless otherwise stated. All compositions are in weight percent in vacuo. All density values are d4t = g /mL in vacuo.

UNITS AND UNITS CONVERSIONS Unless otherwise noted, densities are given in grams per cubic centimeter. To convert to pounds per cubic foot, multiply by 62.43. °F = 9⁄ 5 °C + 32 TABLE 2-108

*For gasoline and aircraft fuels see Hibbard, NACA Res. Mem. E56I21 (declassified 1958).

Formic Acid (HCOOH)

%

0 °C

15 °C

20 °C

30 °C

%

0 °C

15 °C

20 °C

30 °C

%

0 °C

15 °C

20 °C

30 °C

%

0 °C

15 °C

20 °C

30 °C

0 1 2 3 4

0.9999 1.0028 1.0059 1.0090 1.0120

0.9991 1.0019 1.0045 1.0072 1.0100

0.9982 1.0019 1.0044 1.0070 1.0093

0.9957 0.9980 1.0004 1.0028 1.0053

25 26 27 28 29

1.0706 1.0733 1.0760 1.0787 1.0813

1.0627 1.0652 1.0678 1.0702 1.0726

1.0609 1.0633 1.0656 1.0681 1.0705

1.0540 1.0564 1.0587 1.0609 1.0632

50 51 52 53 54

1.1349 1.1374 1.1399 1.1424 1.1448

1.1225 1.1248 1.1271 1.1294 1.1318

1.1207 1.1223 1.1244 1.1269 1.1295

1.1098 1.1120 1.1142 1.1164 1.1186

75 76 77 78 79

1.1953 1.1976 1.1999 1.2021 1.2043

1.1794 1.1816 1.1837 1.1859 1.1881

1.1769 1.1785 1.1801 1.1818 1.1837

1.1636 1.1656 1.1676 1.1697 1.1717

5 6 7 8 9

1.0150 1.0179 1.0207 1.0237 1.0266

1.0124 1.0151 1.0177 1.0204 1.0230

1.0115 1.0141 1.0170 1.0196 1.0221

1.0075 1.0101 1.0125 1.0149 1.0173

30 31 32 33 34

1.0839 1.0866 1.0891 1.0916 1.0941

1.0750 1.0774 1.0798 1.0821 1.0844

1.0729 1.0753 1.0777 1.0800 1.0823

1.0654 1.0676 1.0699 1.0721 1.0743

55 56 57 58 59

1.1472 1.1497 1.1523 1.1548 1.1573

1.1341 1.1365 1.1388 1.1411 1.1434

1.1320 1.1342 1.1361 1.1381 1.1401

1.1208 1.1230 1.1253 1.1274 1.1295

80 81 82 83 84

1.2065 1.2088 1.2110 1.2132 1.2154

1.1902 1.1924 1.1944 1.1965 1.1985

1.1806 1.1876 1.1896 1.1914 1.1929

1.1737 1.1758 1.1778 1.1798 1.1817

10 11 12 13 14

1.0295 1.0324 1.0351 1.0379 1.0407

1.0256 1.0281 1.0306 1.0330 1.0355

1.0246 1.0271 1.0296 1.0321 1.0345

1.0197 1.0221 1.0244 1.0267 1.0290

35 36 37 38 39

1.0966 1.0993 1.1018 1.1043 1.1069

1.0867 1.0892 1.0916 1.0940 1.0964

1.0847 1.0871 1.0895 1.0919 1.0940

1.0766 1.0788 1.0810 1.0832 1.0854

60 61 62 63 64

1.1597 1.1621 1.1645 1.1669 1.1694

1.1458 1.1481 1.1504 1.1526 1.1549

1.1424 1.1448 1.1473 1.1493 1.1517

1.1317 1.1338 1.1360 1.1382 1.1403

85 86 87 88 89

1.2176 1.2196 1.2217 1.2237 1.2258

1.2005 1.2025 1.2045 1.2064 1.2084

1.1953 1.1976 1.1994 1.2012 1.2028

1.1837 1.1856 1.1875 1.1893 1.1910

15 16 17 18 19

1.0435 1.0463 1.0491 1.0518 1.0545

1.0380 1.0405 1.0430 1.0455 1.0480

1.0370 1.0393 1.0417 1.0441 1.0464

1.0313 1.0336 1.0358 1.0381 1.0404

40 41 42 43 44

1.1095 1.1122 1.1148 1.1174 1.1199

1.0988 1.1012 1.1036 1.1060 1.1084

1.0963 1.0990 1.1015 1.1038 1.1062

1.0876 1.0898 1.0920 1.0943 1.0965

65 66 67 68 69

1.1718 1.1742 1.1766 1.1790 1.1813

1.1572 1.1595 1.1618 1.1640 1.1663

1.1543 1.1565 1.1584 1.1604 1.1628

1.1425 1.1446 1.1467 1.1489 1.1510

90 91 92 93 94

1.2278 1.2297 1.2316 1.2335 1.2354

1.2102 1.2121 1.2139 1.2157 1.2174

1.2044 1.2059 1.2078 1.2099 1.2117

1.1927 1.1945 1.1961 1.1978 1.1994

20 21 22 23 24

1.0571 1.0598 1.0625 1.0652 1.0679

1.0505 1.0532 1.0556 1.0580 1.0604

1.0488 1.0512 1.0537 1.0561 1.0585

1.0427 1.0451 1.0473 1.0496 1.0518

45 46 47 48 49

1.1224 1.1249 1.1274 1.1299 1.1324

1.1109 1.1133 1.1156 1.1179 1.1202

1.1085 1.1108 1.1130 1.1157 1.1185

1.0987 1.1009 1.1031 1.1053 1.1076

70 71 72 73 74

1.1835 1.1858 1.1882 1.1906 1.1929

1.1685 1.1707 1.1729 1.1751 1.1773

1.1655 1.1677 1.1702 1.1728 1.1752

1.1531 1.1552 1.1573 1.1595 1.1615

95 96 97 98 99

1.2372 1.2390 1.2408 1.2425 1.2441

1.2191 1.2208 1.2224 1.2240 1.2257

1.2140 1.2158 1.2170 1.2183 1.2202

1.2008 1.2022 1.2036 1.2048 1.2061

100

1.2456

1.2273

1.2212

1.2073

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS ORGANIC SOLUTIONS TABLE 2-109

2-115

Acetic Acid (CH3COOH)

0 °C

10 °C

15 °C

20 °C

25 °C

30 °C

40 °C

%

0 °C

10 °C

15 °C

20 °C

25 °C

30 °C

40 °C

0 1 2 3 4

0.9999 1.0016 1.0033 1.0051 1.0070

0.9997 1.0013 1.0029 1.0044 1.0060

0.9991 1.0006 1.0021 1.0036 1.0051

0.9982 0.9996 1.0012 1.0025 1.0040

0.9971 0.9987 1.0000 1.0013 1.0027

0.9957 0.9971 0.9984 0.9997 1.0011

0.9922 0.9934 0.9946 0.9958 0.9970

50 51 52 53 54

1.0729 1.0738 1.0748 1.0757 1.0765

1.0654 1.0663 1.0671 1.0679 1.0687

1.0613 1.0622 1.0629 1.0637 1.0644

1.0575 1.0582 1.0590 1.0597 1.0604

1.0534 1.0542 1.0549 1.0555 1.0562

1.0492 1.0499 1.0506 1.0512 1.0518

1.0408 1.0414 1.0421 1.0427 1.0432

5 6 7 8 9

1.0088 1.0106 1.0124 1.0142 1.0159

1.0076 1.0092 1.0108 1.0124 1.0140

1.0066 1.0081 1.0096 1.0111 1.0126

1.0055 1.0069 1.0083 1.0097 1.0111

1.0041 1.0055 1.0068 1.0081 1.0094

1.0024 1.0037 1.0050 1.0063 1.0076

0.9982 0.9994 1.0006 1.0018 1.0030

55 56 57 58 59

1.0774 1.0782 1.0790 1.0798 1.0805

1.0694 1.0701 1.0708 1.0715 1.0722

1.0651 1.0658 1.0665 1.0672 1.0678

1.0611 1.0618 1.0624 1.0631 1.0637

1.0568 1.0574 1.0580 1.0586 1.0592

1.0525 1.0531 1.0536 1.0542 1.0547

1.0438 1.0443 1.0448 1.0453 1.0458

10 11 12 13 14

1.0177 1.0194 1.0211 1.0228 1.0245

1.0156 1.0171 1.0187 1.0202 1.0217

1.0141 1.0155 1.0170 1.0184 1.0199

1.0125 1.0139 1.0154 1.0168 1.0182

1.0107 1.0120 1.0133 1.0146 1.0159

1.0089 1.0102 1.0115 1.0127 1.0139

1.0042 1.0054 1.0065 1.0077 1.0088

60 61 62 63 64

1.0813 1.0820 1.0826 1.0833 1.0838

1.0728 1.0734 1.0740 1.0746 1.0752

1.0684 1.0690 1.0696 1.0701 1.0706

1.0642 1.0648 1.0653 1.0658 1.0662

1.0597 1.0602 1.0607 1.0612 1.0616

1.0552 1.0557 1.0562 1.0566 1.0571

1.0462 1.0466 1.0470 1.0473 1.0477

15 16 17 18 19

1.0262 1.0278 1.0295 1.0311 1.0327

1.0232 1.0247 1.0262 1.0276 1.0291

1.0213 1.0227 1.0241 1.0255 1.0269

1.0195 1.0209 1.0223 1.0236 1.0250

1.0172 1.0185 1.0198 1.0210 1.0223

1.0151 1.0163 1.0175 1.0187 1.0198

1.0099 1.0110 1.0121 1.0132 1.0142

65 66 67 68 69

1.0844 1.0850 1.0856 1.0860 1.0865

1.0757 1.0762 1.0767 1.0771 1.0775

1.0711 1.0716 1.0720 1.0725 1.0729

1.0666 1.0671 1.0675 1.0678 1.0682

1.0621 1.0624 1.0628 1.0631 1.0634

1.0575 1.0578 1.0582 1.0585 1.0588

1.0480 1.0483 1.0486 1.0489 1.0491

20 21 22 23 24

1.0343 1.0358 1.0374 1.0389 1.0404

1.0305 1.0319 1.0333 1.0347 1.0361

1.0283 1.0297 1.0310 1.0323 1.0336

1.0263 1.0276 1.0288 1.0301 1.0313

1.0235 1.0248 1.0260 1.0272 1.0283

1.0210 1.0222 1.0233 1.0244 1.0256

1.0153 1.0164 1.0174 1.0185 1.0195

70 71 72 73 74

1.0869 1.0874 1.0877 1.0881 1.0884

1.0779 1.0783 1.0786 1.0789 1.0792

1.0732 1.0736 1.0738 1.0741 1.0743

1.0685 1.0687 1.0690 1.0693 1.0694

1.0637 1.0640 1.0642 1.0644 1.0645

1.0590 1.0592 1.0594 1.0595 1.0596

1.0493 1.0495 1.0496 1.0497 1.0498

25 26 27 28 29

1.0419 1.0434 1.0449 1.0463 1.0477

1.0375 1.0388 1.0401 1.0414 1.0427

1.0349 1.0362 1.0374 1.0386 1.0399

1.0326 1.0338 1.0349 1.0361 1.0372

1.0295 1.0307 1.0318 1.0329 1.0340

1.0267 1.0278 1.0289 1.0299 1.0310

1.0205 1.0215 1.0225 1.0234 1.0244

75 76 77 78 79

1.0887 1.0889 1.0891 1.0893 1.0894

1.0794 1.0796 1.0797 1.0798 1.0798

1.0745 1.0746 1.0747 1.0747 1.0747

1.0696 1.0698 1.0699 1.0700 1.0700

1.0647 1.0648 1.0648 1.0648 1.0648

1.0597 1.0598 1.0598 1.0598 1.0597

1.0499 1.0499 1.0499 1.0498 1.0497

30 31 32 33 34

1.0491 1.0505 1.0519 1.0532 1.0545

1.0440 1.0453 1.0465 1.0477 1.0489

1.0411 1.0423 1.0435 1.0446 1.0458

1.0384 1.0395 1.0406 1.0417 1.0428

1.0350 1.0361 1.0372 1.0382 1.0392

1.0320 1.0330 1.0341 1.0351 1.0361

1.0253 1.0262 1.0272 1.0281 1.0289

80 81 82 83 84

1.0895 1.0895 1.0895 1.0895 1.0893

1.0798 1.0797 1.0796 1.0795 1.0793

1.0747 1.0745 1.0743 1.0741 1.0738

1.0700 1.0699 1.0698 1.0696 1.0693

1.0647 1.0646 1.0644 1.0642 1.0638

1.0596 1.0594 1.0592 1.0589 1.0585

1.0495 1.0493 1.0490 1.0487 1.0483

35 36 37 38 39

1.0558 1.0571 1.0584 1.0596 1.0608

1.0501 1.0513 1.0524 1.0535 1.0546

1.0469 1.0480 1.0491 1.0501 1.0512

1.0438 1.0449 1.0459 1.0469 1.0479

1.0402 1.0412 1.0422 1.0432 1.0441

1.0371 1.0380 1.0390 1.0399 1.0408

1.0298 1.0306 1.0314 1.0322 1.0330

85 86 87 88 89

1.0891 1.0887 1.0883 1.0877 1.0872

1.0790 1.0787 1.0783 1.0778 1.0773

1.0735 1.0731 1.0726 1.0721 1.0715

1.0689 1.0685 1.0680 1.0675 1.0668

1.0635 1.0630 1.0626 1.0620 1.0613

1.0582 1.0576 1.0571 1.0564 1.0557

1.0479 1.0473 1.0467 1.0460 1.0453

40 41 42 43 44

1.0621 1.0633 1.0644 1.0656 1.0667

1.0557 1.0568 1.0578 1.0588 1.0598

1.0522 1.0532 1.0542 1.0551 1.0561

1.0488 1.0498 1.0507 1.0516 1.0525

1.0450 1.0460 1.0469 1.0477 1.0486

1.0416 1.0425 1.0433 1.0441 1.0449

1.0338 1.0346 1.0353 1.0361 1.0368

90 91 92 93 94

1.0865 1.0857 1.0848 1.0838 1.0826

1.0766 1.0758 1.0749 1.0739 1.0727

1.0708 1.0700 1.0690 1.0680 1.0667

1.0661 1.0652 1.0643 1.0632 1.0619

1.0605 1.0597 1.0587 1.0577 1.0564

1.0549 1.0541 1.0530 1.0518 1.0506

1.0445 1.0436 1.0426 1.0414 1.0401

45 46 47 48 49

1.0679 1.0689 1.0699 1.0709 1.0720

1.0608 1.0618 1.0627 1.0636 1.0645

1.0570 1.0579 1.0588 1.0597 1.0605

1.0534 1.0542 1.0551 1.0559 1.0567

1.0495 1.0503 1.0511 1.0518 1.0526

1.0456 1.0464 1.0471 1.0479 1.0486

1.0375 1.0382 1.0389 1.0395 1.0402

95 96 97 98 99

1.0813 1.0798 1.0780 1.0759 1.0730

1.0714

1.0652 1.0632 1.0611 1.0590 1.0567

1.0605 1.0588 1.0570 1.0549 1.0524

1.0551 1.0535 1.0516 1.0495 1.0468

1.0491 1.0473 1.0454 1.0431 1.0407

1.0386 1.0368 1.0348 1.0325 1.0299

100

1.0697

1.0545

1.0498

1.0440

1.0380

1.0271

%

2-116

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA TABLE 2-110

TABLE 2-111

Oxalic Acid (H2C2O4)

%

d 17.5 4

%

d 17.5 4

1 2 4

1.0035 1.0070 1.0140

8 10 12

1.0280 1.0350 1.0420

Methyl Alcohol (CH3OH)*

%

0 °C

10 °C

15.56 °C

20 °C

15 °C

%

0 °C

10 °C

15.56 °C

20 °C

15 °C

%

0 °C

10 °C

15.56 °C

20 °C

15 °C

0 1 2 3 4

0.9999 0.9981 0.9963 0.9946 0.9930

0.9997 0.9980 0.9962 0.9945 0.9929

0.9990 0.9973 0.9955 0.9938 0.9921

0.9982 0.9965 0.9948 0.9931 0.9914

0.99913 0.99727 0.99543 0.99370 0.99198

35 36 37 38 39

0.9534 0.9520 0.9505 0.9490 0.9475

0.9484 0.9469 0.9453 0.9437 0.9420

0.9456 0.9440 0.9422 0.9405 0.9387

0.9433 0.9416 0.9398 0.9381 0.9363

0.94570 0.94404 0.94237 0.94067 0.93894

70 71 72 73 74

0.8869 0.8847 0.8824 0.8801 0.8778

0.8794 0.8770 0.8747 0.8724 0.8699

0.8748 0.8726 0.8702 0.8678 0.8653

0.8715 0.8690 0.8665 0.8641 0.8616

0.87507 0.87271 0.87033 0.86792 0.86546

5 6 7 8 9

0.9914 0.9899 0.9884 0.9870 0.9856

0.9912 0.9896 0.9881 0.9865 0.9849

0.9904 0.9889 0.9872 0.9857 0.9841

0.9896 0.9880 0.9863 0.9847 0.9831

0.99029 0.98864 0.98701 0.98547 0.98394

40 41 42 43 44

0.9459 0.9443 0.9427 0.9411 0.9395

0.9403 0.9387 0.9370 0.9352 0.9334

0.9369 0.9351 0.9333 0.9315 0.9297

0.9345 0.9327 0.9309 0.9290 0.9272

0.93720 0.93543 0.93365 0.93185 0.93001

75 76 77 78 79

0.8754 0.8729 0.8705 0.8680 0.8657

0.8676 0.8651 0.8626 0.8602 0.8577

0.8629 0.8604 0.8579 0.8554 0.8529

0.8592 0.8567 0.8542 0.8518 0.8494

0.86300 0.86051 0.85801 0.85551 0.85300

10 11 12 13 14

0.9842 0.9829 0.9816 0.9804 0.9792

0.9834 0.9820 0.9805 0.9791 0.9778

0.9826 0.9811 0.9796 0.9781 0.9766

0.9815 0.9799 0.9784 0.9768 0.9754

0.98241 0.98093 0.97945 0.97802 0.97660

45 46 47 48 49

0.9377 0.9360 0.9342 0.9324 0.9306

0.9316 0.9298 0.9279 0.9260 0.9240

0.9279 0.9261 0.9242 0.9223 0.9204

0.9252 0.9234 0.9214 0.9196 0.9176

0.92815 0.92627 0.92436 0.92242 0.92048

80 81 82 83 84

0.8634 0.8610 0.8585 0.8560 0.8535

0.8551 0.8527 0.8501 0.8475 0.8449

0.8503 0.8478 0.8452 0.8426 0.8400

0.8469 0.8446 0.8420 0.8394 0.8366

0.85048 0.84794 0.84536 0.84274 0.84009

15 16 17 18 19

0.9780 0.9769 0.9758 0.9747 0.9736

0.9764 0.9751 0.9739 0.9726 0.9713

0.9752 0.9738 0.9723 0.9709 0.9695

0.9740 0.9725 0.9710 0.9696 0.9681

0.97518 0.97377 0.97237 0.97096 0.96955

50 51 52 53 54

0.9287 0.9269 0.9250 0.9230 0.9211

0.9221 0.9202 0.9182 0.9162 0.9142

0.9185 0.9166 0.9146 0.9126 0.9106

0.9156 0.9135 0.9114 0.9094 0.9073

0.91852 0.91653 0.91451 0.91248 0.91044

85 86 87 88 89

0.8510 0.8483 0.8456 0.8428 0.8400

0.8422 0.8394 0.8367 0.8340 0.8314

0.8374 0.8347 0.8320 0.8294 0.8267

0.8340 0.8314 0.8286 0.8258 0.8230

0.83742 0.83475 0.83207 0.82937 0.82667

20 21 22 23 24

0.9725 0.9714 0.9702 0.9690 0.9678

0.9700 0.9687 0.9673 0.9660 0.9646

0.9680 0.9666 0.9652 0.9638 0.9624

0.9666 0.9651 0.9636 0.9622 0.9607

0.96814 0.96673 0.96533 0.96392 0.96251

55 56 57 58 59

0.9191 0.9172 0.9151 0.9131 0.9111

0.9122 0.9101 0.9080 0.9060 0.9039

0.9086 0.9065 0.9045 0.9024 0.9002

0.9052 0.9032 0.9010 0.8988 0.8968

0.90839 0.90631 0.90421 0.90210 0.89996

90 91 92 93 94

0.8374 0.8347 0.8320 0.8293 0.8266

0.8287 0.8261 0.8234 0.8208 0.8180

0.8239 0.8212 0.8185 0.8157 0.8129

0.8202 0.8174 0.8146 0.8118 0.8090

0.82396 0.82124 0.81849 0.81568 0.81285

25 26 27 28 29

0.9666 0.9654 0.9642 0.9629 0.9616

0.9632 0.9618 0.9604 0.9590 0.9575

0.9609 0.9595 0.9580 0.9565 0.9550

0.9592 0.9576 0.9562 0.9546 0.9531

0.96108 0.95963 0.95817 0.95668 0.95518

60 61 62 63 64

0.9090 0.9068 0.9046 0.9024 0.9002

0.9018 0.8998 0.8977 0.8955 0.8933

0.8980 0.8958 0.8936 0.8913 0.8890

0.8946 0.8924 0.8902 0.8879 0.8856

0.89781 0.89563 0.89341 0.89117 0.88890

95 96 97 98 99

0.8240 0.8212 0.8186 0.8158 0.8130

0.8152 0.8124 0.8096 0.8068 0.8040

0.8101 0.8073 0.8045 0.8016 0.7987

0.8062 0.8034 0.8005 0.7976 0.7948

0.80999 0.80713 0.80428 0.80143 0.79859

30 31 32 33 34

0.9604 0.9590 0.9576 0.9563 0.9549

0.9560 0.9546 0.9531 0.9516 0.9500

0.9535 0.9521 0.9505 0.9489 0.9473

0.9515 0.9499 0.9483 0.9466 0.9450

0.95366 0.95213 0.95056 0.94896 0.94734

65 66 67 68 69

0.8980 0.8958 0.8935 0.8913 0.8891

0.8911 0.8888 0.8865 0.8842 0.8818

0.8867 0.8844 0.8820 0.8797 0.8771

0.8834 0.8811 0.8787 0.8763 0.8738

0.88662 0.88433 0.88203 0.87971 0.87739

100

0.8102

0.8009

0.7959

0.7917

0.79577

*It should be noted that the values for 100 percent do not agree with some data available elsewhere, e.g., American Institute of Physics Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957. Also, see Atack, Handbook of Chemical Data, Reinhold, New York, 1957. Also, see Tables 2-234 and 2-305 for pure component densities.

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS ORGANIC SOLUTIONS TABLE 2-112

2-117

Ethyl Alcohol (C2H5OH)*

%

10 °C

15 °C

20 °C

25 °C

30 °C

35 °C

40 °C

%

10 °C

15 °C

20 °C

25 °C

30 °C

35 °C

40 °C

0 1 2 3 4

0.99973 785 602 426 258

0.99913 725 542 365 195

0.99823 636 453 275 103

0.99708 520 336 157 0.98984

0.99568 379 194 014 0.98839

0.99406 217 031 0.98849 672

0.99225 034 0.98846 663 485

50 51 52 53 54

0.92126 0.91943 723 502 279

0.91776 555 333 110 0.90885

0.91384 160 0.90936 711 485

0.90985 760 534 307 079

0.90580 353 125 0.89896 667

0.90168 0.89940 710 479 248

0.89750 519 288 056 0.88823

5 6 7 8 9

098 0.98946 801 660 524

032 0.98877 729 584 442

0.98938 780 627 478 331

817 656 500 346 193

670 507 347 189 031

501 335 172 009 0.97846

311 142 0.97975 808 641

55 56 57 58 59

055 0.90831 607 381 154

659 433 207 0.89980 752

258 031 0.89803 574 344

0.89850 621 392 162 0.88931

437 206 0.88975 744 512

016 0.88784 552 319 085

589 356 122 0.87888 653

10 11 12 13 14

393 267 145 026 0.97911

304 171 041 0.97914 790

187 047 0.97910 775 643

043 0.97897 753 611 472

0.97875 723 573 424 278

685 527 371 216 063

475 312 150 0.96989 829

60 61 62 63 64

0.89927 698 468 237 006

523 293 062 0.88830 597

113 0.88882 650 417 183

699 446 233 0.87998 763

278 044 0.87809 574 337

0.87851 615 379 142 0.86905

417 180 0.86943 705 466

15 16 17 18 19

800 692 583 473 363

669 552 433 313 191

514 387 259 129 0.96997

334 199 062 0.96923 782

133 0.96990 844 697 547

0.96911 760 607 452 294

670 512 352 189 023

65 66 67 68 69

0.88774 541 308 074 0.87839

364 130 0.87895 660 424

0.87948 713 477 241 004

527 291 054 0.86817 579

100 0.86863 625 387 148

667 429 190 0.85950 710

227 0.85987 747 407 266

20 21 22 23 24

252 139 024 0.96907 787

068 0.96944 818 689 558

864 729 592 453 312

639 495 348 199 048

395 242 087 0.95929 769

134 0.95973 809 643 476

0.95856 687 516 343 168

70 71 72 73 74

602 365 127 0.86888 648

187 0.86949 710 470 229

0.86766 527 287 047 0.85806

340 100 0.85859 618 376

0.85908 667 426 184 0.84941

470 228 0.84986 743 500

025 0.84783 540 297 053

25 26 27 28 29

665 539 406 268 125

424 287 144 0.95996 844

168 020 0.95867 710 548

0.95895 738 576 410 241

607 442 272 098 0.94922

306 133 0.94955 774 590

0.94991 810 625 438 248

75 76 77 78 79

408 168 0.85927 685 442

0.85988 747 505 262 018

564 322 079 0.84835 590

134 0.84891 647 403 158

698 455 211 0.83966 720

257 013 0.83768 523 277

0.83809 564 319 074 0.82827

30 31 32 33 34

0.95977 823 665 502 334

686 524 357 186 011

382 212 038 0.94860 679

067 0.94890 709 525 337

741 557 370 180 0.93986

403 214 021 0.93825 626

055 0.93860 662 461 257

80 81 82 83 84

197 0.84950 702 453 203

0.84772 525 277 028 0.83777

344 096 0.83848 599 348

0.83911 664 415 164 0.82913

473 224 0.82974 724 473

029 0.82780 530 279 027

578 329 079 0.81828 576

35 36 37 38 39

162 0.94986 805 620 431

0.94832 650 464 273 079

494 306 114 0.93919 720

146 0.93952 756 556 353

790 591 390 186 0.92979

425 221 016 0.92808 597

051 0.92843 634 422 208

85 86 87 88 89

0.83951 697 441 181 0.82919

525 271 014 0.82754 492

095 0.82840 583 323 062

660 405 148 0.81888 626

220 0.81965 708 448 186

0.81774 519 262 003 0.80742

322 067 0.80811 552 291

40 41 42 43 44

238 042 0.93842 639 433

0.93882 682 478 271 062

518 314 107 0.92897 685

148 0.92940 729 516 301

770 558 344 128 0.91910

385 170 0.91952 733 513

0.91992 774 554 332 108

90 91 92 93 94

654 386 114 0.81839 561

227 0.81959 688 413 134

0.81797 529 257 0.80983 705

362 094 0.80823 549 272

0.80922 655 384 111 0.79835

478 211 0.79941 669 393

028 0.79761 491 220 0.78947

45 46 47 48 49

226 017 0.92806 593 379

0.92852 640 426 211 0.91995

472 257 041 0.91823 604

085 0.91868 649 429 208

692 472 250 028 0.90805

291 069 0.90845 621 396

0.90884 660 434 207 0.89979

95 96 97 98 99

278 0.80991 698 399 094

0.80852 566 274 0.79975 670

424 138 0.79846 547 243

0.79991 706 415 117 0.78814

555 271 0.78981 684 382

114 0.78831 542 247 0.77946

670 388 100 0.77806 507

100

0.79784

360

0.78934

506

075

641

203

*For data from −78° to 78°C, see p. 2-142, Table 2N-5, American Institute of Physics Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957. See Tables 2-214 and 2-305 for pure component densities.

2-118

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-113 % alcohol by weight

Densities of Mixtures of C2H5OH and H2O at 20 °C g/mL Tenths of %

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

0 1 2 3 4

0.99823 636 453 275 103

804 618 435 257 087

785 599 417 240 070

766 581 399 222 053

748 562 381 205 037

729 544 363 188 020

710 525 345 171 003

692 507 327 154 *987

5 6 7 8 9

0.98938 780 627 478 331

922 765 612 463 316

906 749 597 449 301

890 734 582 434 287

874 718 567 419 273

859 703 553 404 258

843 688 538 389 244

827 673 523 374 229

10 11 12 13 14

187 047 0.97910 775 643

172 033 896 761 630

158 019 883 748 617

144 006 869 735 604

130 *992 855 722 591

117 *978 842 709 578

103 *964 828 696 565

089 *951 815 683 552

15 16 17 18 19

514 387 259 129 0.96997

501 374 246 116 984

488 361 233 103 971

475 349 220 089 957

462 336 207 076 944

450 323 194 063 931

438 310 181 050 917

425 297 168 037 904

412 284 155 024 891

20 21 22 23 24

864 729 592 453 312

850 716 578 439 297

837 702 564 425 283

823 688 551 411 269

810 675 537 396 254

796 661 523 382 240

783 647 509 368 225

769 634 495 354 211

756 620 481 340 196

25 26 27 28 29

168 020 0.95867 710 548

153 005 851 694 532

139 *990 836 678 516

124 *975 820 662 499

109 *959 805 646 483

094 *944 789 630 466

080 *929 773 613 450

30 31 32 33 34

382 212 038 0.94860 679

365 195 020 842 660

349 178 003 824 642

332 161 *985 806 624

315 143 *967 788 605

298 126 *950 770 587

35 36 37 38 39

494 306 114 0.93919 720

475 287 095 899 700

456 268 075 879 680

438 249 056 859 660

419 230 036 840 640

40 41 42 43 44

518 314 107 0.92897 685

498 294 086 876 664

478 273 065 855 642

458 253 044 834 621

45 46 47 48 49

472 257 041 0.91823 604

450 236 019 801 582

429 214 *997 780 560

408 193 *976 758 538

Tenths of % 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

50 51 52 53 54

0.91384 160 0.90936 711 485

361 138 914 689 463

339 116 891 666 440

317 093 869 644 417

295 071 846 621 395

272 049 824 598 372

250 026 801 576 349

228 206 183 004 *981 *959 779 756 734 553 531 508 327 304 281

796 642 493 345 201

55 56 57 58 59

258 031 0.89803 574 344

236 008 780 551 321

213 *985 757 528 298

190 *962 734 505 275

167 *939 711 482 252

145 *917 688 459 229

122 *894 665 436 206

099 076 054 *871 *848 *825 643 620 597 413 390 367 183 160 137

075 061 *937 *923 801 788 670 657 539 526

60 61 62 63 64

113 0.88882 650 417 183

090 859 626 393 160

067 836 603 370 136

044 812 580 347 113

400 272 142 010 877

65 66 67 68 69

0.87948 713 477 241 004

925 689 454 218 *981

901 666 430 194 *957

878 642 406 170 *933

854 619 383 147 *909

831 595 359 123 *885

807 572 336 099 *862

784 760 737 548 524 501 312 288 265 075 052 028 *838 *814 *790

742 606 467 326 182

70 71 72 73 74

0.86766 527 287 047 0.85806

742 503 263 022 781

718 479 239 *998 757

694 455 215 *974 733

671 431 191 *950 709

647 407 167 *926 685

623 383 143 *902 661

599 575 551 339 335 311 119 095 071 *878 *854 *830 636 612 588

065 *914 757 597 433

050 035 *898 *883 742 726 581 565 416 400

75 76 77 78 79

564 322 079 0.84835 590

540 297 055 811 566

515 273 031 787 541

491 467 443 419 394 370 346 249 225 200 176 152 128 103 006 *982 *958 *933 *909 *884 *860 762 738 713 689 664 640 615 517 492 467 443 418 393 369

281 108 *932 752 568

264 091 *914 734 550

247 230 074 056 *896 *878 715 697 531 512

80 81 82 83 84

344 096 0.83848 599 348

319 072 823 574 323

294 047 798 549 297

270 245 220 196 171 146 121 022 *997 *972 *947 *923 *898 *873 773 748 723 698 674 649 624 523 498 473 448 423 398 373 272 247 222 196 171 146 120

400 211 017 820 620

382 192 *997 800 599

363 172 *978 780 579

344 325 153 134 *958 *939 760 740 559 539

85 86 87 88 89

095 0.82840 583 323 062

070 815 557 297 035

044 019 *994 *968 *943 *917 *892 *866 789 763 738 712 686 660 635 609 531 505 479 453 427 401 375 349 271 245 219 193 167 140 114 088 009 *983 *956 *930 *903 *877 *850 *824

437 232 023 812 600

417 212 002 791 579

396 191 *981 770 557

376 170 *960 749 536

356 335 149 129 *939 *918 728 707 515 493

90 91 92 93 94

0.81797 529 257 0.80983 705

770 502 230 955 677

744 475 203 928 649

717 448 175 900 621

690 421 148 872 593

386 171 *954 736 516

365 150 *932 714 494

343 128 *910 692 472

322 106 *889 670 450

300 279 085 063 *867 *845 648 626 428 406

95 96 97 98 99

424 138 0.79846 547 243

395 109 816 517 213

367 080 787 487 182

338 051 757 456 151

310 281 253 224 195 166 022 *993 *963 *934 *905 *875 727 698 668 638 608 578 426 396 365 335 305 274 120 089 059 028 *997 *966

100

0.78934

*Indicates change in the first two decimal places.

8

% alcohol by weight

9

673 655 489 471 310 292 137 120 *971 *954 811 658 508 360 215

8

9

021 *998 *975 *951 *928 *905 789 766 743 720 696 673 557 533 510 487 463 440 323 300 277 253 230 206 089 066 042 019 *995 *972

664 394 120 844 565

637 366 093 817 537

610 339 066 789 509

583 312 038 761 480

556 285 010 733 452

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS ORGANIC SOLUTIONS TABLE 2-114 % alcohol by volume at 60°F

Specific Gravity {60°/60 °F [(15.56°/15.56 °C)]} of Mixtures by Volume of C2H5OH and H2O

Tenths of % 0

2-119

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

% alcohol by volume at 60°F

Tenths of % 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0 1 2 3 4

1.00000 *985 0.99850 835 703 688 559 545 419 405

*970 820 674 531 391

*955 806 659 516 378

*940 791 645 502 364

*925 776 630 488 350

*910 761 616 474 336

*895 747 602 460 323

*880 732 587 446 309

865 717 573 432 296

50 51 52 53 54

0.93426 230 031 0.92830 626

407 387 368 348 328 309 289 270 250 210 190 171 151 131 111 091 071 051 011 *991 *971 *951 *931 *911 *890 *870 *850 810 789 769 749 728 708 688 667 647 605 585 564 544 523 502 482 461 440

5 6 7 8 9

282 150 022 0.98899 779

269 137 009 887 767

255 124 *997 875 755

242 111 *984 863 743

228 098 *972 851 731

215 085 *960 838 720

202 073 *947 826 708

189 060 *935 814 696

176 163 047 035 *923 *911 803 791 684 672

55 56 57 58 59

419 210 0.91999 784 565

398 189 978 762 543

377 168 956 741 521

357 147 935 719 499

336 126 914 697 477

315 105 892 675 455

294 084 871 653 433

10 11 12 13 14

661 544 430 319 210

649 532 419 308 200

637 521 408 297 190

625 509 396 286 179

614 498 385 275 168

602 487 374 264 157

590 475 363 254 147

579 464 352 243 136

567 452 341 232 125

556 441 330 221 115

60 61 62 63 64

344 120 0.90893 664 434

322 097 870 641 411

299 075 847 618 388

277 052 825 595 365

255 030 802 572 341

232 007 779 549 318

210 *984 756 526 295

15 16 17 18 19

104 0.97998 895 794 694

093 988 885 784 684

083 977 875 774 674

072 967 864 764 664

062 956 854 754 654

051 946 844 744 645

040 936 834 734 635

030 925 824 724 625

019 915 814 714 615

009 905 804 704 605

65 66 67 68 69

202 0.89967 729 489 245

179 943 705 465 220

155 920 681 441 196

132 896 657 416 171

108 872 633 392 147

085 848 609 368 122

061 825 585 343 098

038 801 561 319 073

014 *991 777 753 537 513 295 270 048 024

20 21 22 23 24

596 496 395 293 189

586 486 385 283 179

576 476 375 272 168

566 466 365 262 158

556 456 354 252 147

546 446 344 241 137

536 436 334 231 126

526 425 324 221 116

516 415 313 210 105

506 405 303 200 095

70 71 72 73 74

0.88999 751 499 244 0.87987

974 725 474 218 961

950 700 448 193 935

925 675 423 167 910

900 650 397 141 884

875 625 372 116 858

850 600 346 090 832

825 574 321 064 806

801 549 296 039 780

25 26 27 28 29

084 0.96978 870 760 648

073 967 859 749 637

063 957 848 738 625

052 946 837 727 614

042 935 826 715 603

031 924 815 704 591

020 914 804 693 580

010 903 793 682 568

*999 *988 892 881 782 771 671 659 557 546

75 76 77 78 79

728 465 199 0.86929 656

702 439 172 902 629

676 412 145 875 601

650 386 118 847 574

623 359 092 820 546

597 332 065 793 518

571 306 038 766 491

545 518 492 279 252 226 011 *984 *957 738 711 684 463 435 408

30 31 32 33 34

534 418 296 170 041

522 406 284 157 028

511 394 271 144 015

499 382 259 132 002

488 370 246 119 *988

476 358 234 106 *975

464 346 221 093 *962

453 334 209 080 *948

441 429 321 309 196 183 067 054 *935 *921

80 81 82 83 84

380 100 0.85817 531 240

352 072 789 502 211

324 044 760 473 181

296 269 241 213 185 157 129 015 *987 *959 *931 *902 *874 *846 732 703 674 646 617 588 560 444 415 386 357 328 299 270 152 122 093 063 033 004 *974

35 36 37 38 39

0.95908 770 628 482 332

894 756 614 467 317

881 742 599 452 302

867 728 585 437 286

854 714 570 423 271

840 700 556 408 256

826 685 541 393 240

812 671 526 378 225

784 643 497 347 194

85 86 87 88 89

0.84944 642 336 025 0.83707

914 612 305 *994 675

884 581 274 *962 643

854 551 243 *930 610

824 520 212 *899 578

794 490 181 *867 545

764 459 150 *835 513

734 703 673 428 398 367 119 088 056 *803 *771 *739 480 447 415

40 41 42 43 44

178 020 0.94858 693 524

162 004 842 676 507

147 *988 825 660 490

131 *972 809 643 473

115 *956 792 626 455

100 *940 776 609 438

084 *923 759 592 421

068 *907 743 575 403

052 036 *891 *875 726 710 558 541 386 369

90 91 92 93 94

382 049 0.82705 351 0.81984

349 015 670 315 947

315 *981 635 279 909

282 *947 600 243 871

249 *913 565 206 834

216 *879 529 170 796

183 *845 494 133 757

150 116 083 *810 *776 *741 458 423 387 096 059 022 719 681 642

45 46 47 48 49

351 174 0.93993 808 619

334 156 975 789 600

316 138 956 771 581

298 120 938 752 562

281 102 920 733 543

263 084 901 714 523

245 066 883 695 504

228 048 864 676 485

95 96 97 98 99

603 206 0.80792 356 0.79889

564 165 750 311 841

525 125 707 265 792

486 084 664 219 743

446 042 620 173 693

407 001 577 127 643

367 *960 533 080 593

327 287 247 *918 *876 *834 489 445 401 033 *985 *937 543 492 441

100

389

*Indicates change in first two decimal places.

798 657 512 362 209

210 030 845 657 465

192 011 827 638 446

273 062 849 631 410

252 041 827 610 388

231 020 806 588 366

188 165 143 *962 *939 *916 733 710 687 503 480 457 272 249 225

776 524 270 013 754

2-120

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-115 n-Propyl Alcohol (C3H7OH) %

0 °C

15 °C

30 °C

%

0 °C

15 °C

30 °C

%

0 °C

15 °C

30 °C

%

0 °C

15 °C

30 °C

%

0 °C

15 °C

30 °C

0 1 2 3 4

0.9999 0.9982 0.9967 0.9952 0.9939

0.9991 0.9974 0.9960 0.9944 0.9929

0.9957 0.9940 0.9924 0.9908 0.9893

20 21 22 23 24

0.9789 0.9776 0.9763 0.9748 0.9733

0.9723 0.9705 0.9688 0.9670 0.9651

0.9643 0.9622 0.9602 0.9583 0.9563

40 41 42 43 44

0.9430 0.9411 0.9391 0.9371 0.9352

0.9331 0.9310 0.9290 0.9269 0.9248

0.9226 0.9205 0.9184 0.9164 0.9143

60 61 62 63 64

0.9033 0.9013 0.8994 0.8974 0.8954

0.8922 0.8902 0.8882 0.8861 0.8841

0.8807 0.8786 0.8766 0.8745 0.8724

80 81 82 83 84

0.8634 0.8614 0.8594 0.8574 0.8554

0.8516 0.8496 0.8475 0.8454 0.8434

0.8394 0.8373 0.8352 0.8332 0.8311

5 6 7 8 9

0.9926 0.9914 0.9904 0.9894 0.9883

0.9915 0.9902 0.9890 0.9877 0.9864

0.9877 0.9862 0.9848 0.9834 0.9819

25 26 27 28 29

0.9717 0.9700 0.9682 0.9664 0.9646

0.9633 0.9614 0.9594 0.9576 0.9556

0.9543 0.9522 0.9501 0.9481 0.9460

45 46 47 48 49

0.9332 0.9311 0.9291 0.9272 0.9252

0.9228 0.9207 0.9186 0.9165 0.9145

0.9122 0.9100 0.9079 0.9057 0.9036

65 66 67 68 69

0.8934 0.8913 0.8894 0.8874 0.8854

0.8820 0.8800 0.8779 0.8759 0.8739

0.8703 0.8682 0.8662 0.8641 0.8620

85 86 87 88 89

0.8534 0.8513 0.8492 0.8471 0.8450

0.8413 0.8393 0.8372 0.8351 0.8330

0.8290 0.8269 0.8248 0.8227 0.8206

10 11 12 13 14

0.9874 0.9865 0.9857 0.9849 0.9841

0.9852 0.9840 0.9828 0.9817 0.9806

0.9804 0.9790 0.9775 0.9760 0.9746

30 31 32 33 34

0.9627 0.9608 0.9589 0.9570 0.9550

0.9535 0.9516 0.9495 0.9474 0.9454

0.9439 0.9418 0.9396 0.9375 0.9354

50 51 52 53 54

0.9232 0.9213 0.9192 0.9173 0.9153

0.9124 0.9104 0.9084 0.9064 0.9044

0.9015 0.8994 0.8973 0.8952 0.8931

70 71 72 73 74

0.8835 0.8815 0.8795 0.8776 0.8756

0.8719 0.8700 0.8680 0.8659 0.8639

0.8600 0.8580 0.8559 0.8539 0.8518

90 91 92 93 94

0.8429 0.8408 0.8387 0.8364 0.8342

0.8308 0.8287 0.8266 0.8244 0.8221

0.8185 0.8164 0.8142 0.8120 0.8098

15 16 17 18 19

0.9833 0.9825 0.9817 0.9808 0.9800

0.9793 0.9780 0.9768 0.9752 0.9739

0.9730 0.9714 0.9698 0.9680 0.9661

35 36 37 38 39

0.9530 0.9511 0.9491 0.9471 0.9450

0.9434 0.9413 0.9392 0.9372 0.9351

0.9333 0.9312 0.9289 0.9269 0.9247

55 56 57 58 59

0.9132 0.9112 0.9093 0.9073 0.9053

0.9023 0.9003 0.8983 0.8963 0.8942

0.8911 0.8890 0.8869 0.8849 0.8828

75 76 77 78 79

0.8736 0.8716 0.8695 0.8675 0.8655

0.8618 0.8598 0.8577 0.8556 0.8536

0.8497 0.8477 0.8456 0.8435 0.8414

95 96 97 98 99

0.8320 0.8296 0.8272 0.8248 0.8222

0.8199 0.8176 0.8153 0.8128 0.8104

0.8077 0.8054 0.8031 0.8008 0.7984

100

0.8194

0.8077

0.7958

TABLE 2-116

Isopropyl Alcohol (C3H7OH)

%

0 °C

15 °C*

15 °C*

20 °C

30 °C

%

0 °C

15 °C*

20 °C

30 °C

%

0 °C

15 °C*

15 °C*

20 °C

30 °C

0 1 2 3 4

0.9999 0.9980 0.9962 0.9946 0.9930

0.9991 0.9973 0.9956 0.9938 0.9922

0.99913 0.9972 0.9954 0.9936 0.9920

0.9982 0.9962 0.9944 0.9926 0.9909

0.9957 0.9939 0.9921 0.9904 0.9887

35 36 37 38 39

0.9557 0.9536 0.9514 0.9493 0.9472

15 °C*

0.9446 0.9424 0.9401 0.9379 0.9356

0.9419 0.9399 0.9377 0.9355 0.9333

0.9338 0.9315 0.9292 0.9269 0.9246

70 71 72 73 74

0.8761 0.8738 0.8714 0.8691 0.8668

0.8639 0.8615 0.8592 0.8568 0.8545

0.86346 0.8611 0.8588 0.8564 0.8541

0.8584 0.8560 0.8537 0.8513 0.8489

0.8511 0.8487 0.8464 0.8440 0.8416

5 6 7 8 9

0.9916 0.9902 0.9890 0.9878 0.9866

0.9906 0.9892 0.9878 0.9864 0.9851

0.9904 0.9890 0.9875 0.9862 0.9849

0.9893 0.9877 0.9862 0.9847 0.9833

0.9871 0.9855 0.9839 0.9824 0.9809

40 41 42 43 44

0.9450 0.9428 0.9406 0.9384 0.9361

0.93333 0.9311 0.9288 0.9266 0.9243

0.9310 0.9287 0.9264 0.9239 0.9215

0.9224 0.9201 0.9177 0.9154 0.9130

75 76 77 78 79

0.8644 0.8621 0.8598 0.8575 0.8551

0.8521 0.8497 0.8474 0.8450 0.8426

0.8517 0.8493 0.8470 0.8446 0.8422

0.8464 0.8439 0.8415 0.8391 0.8366

0.8392 0.8368 0.8344 0.8321 0.8297

10 11 12 13 14

0.9856 0.9846 0.9838 0.9829 0.9821

0.9838 0.9826 0.9813 0.9802 0.9790

0.98362 0.9824 0.9812 0.9800 0.9788

0.9820 0.9808 0.9797 0.9876 0.9776

0.9794 0.9778 0.9764 0.9750 0.9735

45 46 47 48 49

0.9338 0.9315 0.9292 0.9270 0.9247

0.9220 0.9197 0.9174 0.9150 0.9127

0.9191 0.9165 0.9141 0.9117 0.9093

0.9106 0.9082 0.9059 0.9036 0.9013

80 81 82 83 84

0.8528 0.8503 0.8479 0.8456 0.8432

0.8403 0.8379 0.8355 0.8331 0.8307

0.83979 0.8374 0.8350 0.8326 0.8302

0.8342 0.8317 0.8292 0.8268 0.8243

0.8273 0.8248 0.8224 0.8200 0.8175

15 16 17 18 19

0.9814 0.9806 0.9799 0.9792 0.9784

0.9779 0.9768 0.9756 0.9745 0.9730

0.9777 0.9765 0.9753 0.9741 0.9728

0.9765 0.9754 0.9743 0.9731 0.9717

0.9720 0.9705 0.9690 0.9675 0.9658

50 51 52 53 54

0.9224 0.9201 0.9178 0.9155 0.9132

0.91043 0.9081 0.9058 0.9035 0.9011

0.9069 0.9044 0.9020 0.8996 0.8971

0.8990 0.8966 0.8943 0.8919 0.8895

85 86 87 88 89

0.8408 0.8384 0.8360 0.8336 0.8311

0.8282 0.8259 0.8234 0.8209 0.8184

0.8278 0.8254 0.8229 0.8205 0.8180

0.8219 0.8194 0.8169 0.8145 0.8120

0.8151 0.8127 0.8201 0.8078 0.8053

20 21 22 23 24

0.9777 0.9768 0.9759 0.9749 0.9739

0.9719 0.9704 0.9690 0.9675 0.9660

0.97158 0.9703 0.9689 0.9674 0.9659

0.9703 0.9688 0.9669 0.9651 0.9634

0.9642 0.9624 0.9606 0.9587 0.9569

55 56 57 58 59

0.9109 0.9086 0.9063 0.9040 0.9017

0.8988 0.8964 0.8940 0.8917 0.8893

0.8946 0.8921 0.8896 0.8874 0.8850

0.8871 0.8847 0.8823 0.8800 0.8777

90 91 92 93 94

0.8287 0.8262 0.8237 0.8212 0.8186

0.8161 0.8136 0.8110 0.8085 0.8060

0.81553 0.8130 0.8104 0.8079 0.8052

0.8096 0.8072 0.8047 0.8023 0.7998

0.8029 0.8004 0.7979 0.7954 0.7929

25 26 27 28 29

0.9727 0.9714 0.9699 0.9684 0.9669

0.9643 0.9626 0.9608 0.9590 0.9570

0.9642 0.9624 0.9605 0.9586 0.9568

0.9615 0.9597 0.9577 0.9558 0.9540

0.9549 0.9529 0.9509 0.9488 0.9467

60 61 62 63 64

0.8994 0.8970 0.8947 0.8924 0.8901

0.8829 0.8805 0.8781

0.88690 0.8845 0.8821 0.8798 0.8775

0.8825 0.8800 0.8776 0.8751 0.8727

0.8752 0.8728 0.8704 0.8680 0.8656

95 96 97 98 99

0.8160 0.8133 0.8106 0.8078 0.8048

0.8034 0.8008 0.7981 0.7954 0.7926

0.8026 0.7999 0.7972 0.7945 0.7918

0.7973 0.7949 0.7925 0.7901 0.7877

0.7904 0.7878 0.7852 0.7826 0.7799

30 31 32 33 34

0.9652 0.9634 0.9615 0.9596 0.9577

0.9551

0.95493 0.9530 0.9510 0.9489 0.9468

0.9520 0.9500 0.9481 0.9460 0.9440

0.9446 0.9426 0.9405 0.9383 0.9361

65 66 67 68 69

0.8878 0.8854 0.8831 0.8807 0.8784

0.8757 0.8733 0.8710 0.8686 0.8662

0.8752 0.8728 0.8705 0.8682 0.8658

0.8702 0.8679 0.8656 0.8632 0.8609

0.8631 0.8607 0.8583 0.8559 0.8535

100

0.8016

0.7896

0.78913

0.7854

0.7770

*Two different observers; see International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 120.

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS ORGANIC SOLUTIONS TABLE 2-117

Glycerol*

Glycerol, % 15 °C

15.5 °C

20 °C

25 °C

30 °C

Density

Glycerol, % 15 °C

Density 15.5 °C

20 °C

25 °C

30 °C

Glycerol, % 15 °C

2-121

Density 20 °C

25 °C

30 °C

100 99 98 97 96

1.26415 1.26160 1.25900 1.25645 1.25385

1.26381 1.26125 1.25865 1.25610 1.25350

1.26108 1.25850 1.25590 1.25335 1.25080

1.15802 1.25545 1.25290 1.25030 1.24770

1.25495 1.25235 1.24975 1.24710 1.24450

65 64 63 62 61

1.17030 1.16755 1.16480 1.16200 1.15925

1.17000 1.16725 1.16445 1.16170 1.15895

1.16750 1.16475 1.16205 1.15930 1.15655

1.16475 1.16200 1.15925 1.15655 1.15380

1.16195 1.15925 1.15650 1.15375 1.15100

30 29 28 27 26

1.07455 1.07195 1.06935 1.06670 1.06410

1.07435 1.07175 1.06915 1.06655 1.06390

1.07270 1.07010 1.06755 1.06495 1.06240

1.07070 1.06815 1.06560 1.06305 1.06055

1.06855 1.06605 1.06355 1.06105 1.05855

95 94 93 92 91

1.25130 1.24865 1.24600 1.24340 1.24075

1.25095 1.24830 1.24565 1.24305 1.24040

1.24825 1.24560 1.24300 1.24035 1.23770

1.24515 1.24250 1.23985 1.23725 1.23460

1.24190 1.23930 1.23670 1.23410 1.23150

60 59 58 57 56

1.15650 1.15370 1.15095 1.14815 1.14535

1.15615 1.15340 1.15065 1.14785 1.14510

1.15380 1.15105 1.14830 1.14555 1.14280

1.15105 1.14835 1.14560 1.14285 1.14015

1.14830 1.14555 1.14285 1.14010 1.13740

25 24 23 22 21

1.06150 1.05885 1.05625 1.05365 1.05100

1.06130 1.05870 1.05610 1.05350 1.05090

1.05980 1.05720 1.05465 1.05205 1.04950

1.05800 1.05545 1.05290 1.05035 1.04780

1.05605 1.05350 1.05100 1.04850 1.04600

90 89 88 87 86

1.23810 1.23545 1.23280 1.23015 1.22750

1.23775 1.23510 1.23245 1.22980 1.22710

1.23510 1.23245 1.22975 1.22710 1.22445

1.23200 1.22935 1.22665 1.22400 1.22135

1.22890 1.22625 1.22360 1.22095 1.21830

55 54 53 52 51

1.14260 1.13980 1.13705 1.13425 1.13150

1.14230 1.13955 1.13680 1.13400 1.13125

1.14005 1.13730 1.13455 1.13180 1.12905

1.13740 1.13465 1.13195 1.12920 1.12650

1.13470 1.13195 1.12925 1.12650 1.12380

20 19 18 17 16

1.04840 1.04590 1.04335 1.04085 1.03835

1.04825 1.04575 1.04325 1.04075 1.03825

1.04690 1.04440 1.04195 1.03945 1.03695

1.04525 1.04280 1.04035 1.03790 1.03545

1.04350 1.04105 1.03860 1.03615 1.03370

85 84 83 82 81

1.22485 1.22220 1.21955 1.21690 1.21425

1.22445 1.22180 1.21915 1.21650 1.21385

1.22180 1.21915 1.21650 1.21380 1.21115

1.21870 1.21605 1.21340 1.21075 1.20810

1.21565 1.21300 1.21035 1.20770 1.20505

50 49 48 47 46

1.12870 1.12600 1.12325 1.12055 1.11780

1.12845 1.12575 1.12305 1.12030 1.11760

1.12630 1.12360 1.12090 1.11820 1.11550

1.12375 1.12110 1.11840 1.11575 1.11310

1.12110 1.11845 1.11580 1.11320 1.11055

15 14 13 12 11

1.03580 1.03330 1.03080 1.02830 1.02575

1.03570 1.03320 1.03070 1.02820 1.02565

1.03450 1.03200 1.02955 1.02705 1.02455

1.03300 1.03055 1.02805 1.02560 1.02315

1.03130 1.02885 1.02640 1.02395 1.02150

80 79 78 77 76

1.21160 1.20885 1.20610 1.20335 1.20060

1.21120 1.20845 1.20570 1.20300 1.20025

1.20850 1.20575 1.20305 1.20030 1.19760

1.20545 1.20275 1.20005 1.19735 1.19465

1.20240 1.19970 1.19705 1.19435 1.19170

45 44 43 42 41

1.11510 1.11235 1.10960 1.10690 1.10415

1.11490 1.11215 1.10945 1.10670 1.10400

1.11280 1.11010 1.10740 1.10470 1.10200

1.11040 1.10775 1.10510 1.10240 1.09975

1.10795 1.10530 1.10265 1.10005 1.09740

10 9 8 7 6

1.02325 1.02085 1.01840 1.01600 1.01360

1.02315 1.02075 1.01835 1.01590 1.01350

1.02210 1.01970 1.01730 1.01495 1.01255

1.02070 1.01835 1.01600 1.01360 1.01125

1.01905 1.01670 1.01440 1.01205 1.00970

75 74 73 72 71

1.19785 1.19510 1.19235 1.18965 1.18690

1.19750 1.19480 1.19205 1.18930 1.18655

1.19485 1.19215 1.18940 1.18670 1.18395

1.19195 1.18925 1.18650 1.18380 1.18110

1.18900 1.18635 1.18365 1.18100 1.17830

40 39 38 37 36

1.10145 1.09875 1.09605 1.09340 1.09070

1.10130 1.09860 1.09590 1.09320 1.09050

1.09930 1.09665 1.09400 1.09135 1.08865

1.09710 1.09445 1.09180 1.08915 1.08655

1.09475 1.09215 1.08955 1.08690 1.08430

5 4 3 2 1

1.01120 1.00875 1.00635 1.00395 1.00155

1.01110 1.00870 1.00630 1.00385 1.00145

1.01015 1.00780 1.00540 1.00300 1.00060

1.00890 1.00655 1.00415 1.00180 0.99945

1.00735 1.00505 1.00270 1.00035 0.99800

70 69 68 67 66

1.18415 1.18135 1.17860 1.17585 1.17305

1.18385 1.18105 1.17830 1.17555 1.17275

1.18125 1.17850 1.17575 1.17300 1.17025

1.17840 1.17565 1.17295 1.17020 1.16745

1.17565 1.17290 1.17020 1.16745 1.16470

35 34 33 32 31

1.08800 1.08530 1.08265 1.07995 1.07725

1.08780 1.08515 1.08245 1.07975 1.07705

1.08600 1.08335 1.08070 1.07800 1.07535

1.08390 1.08125 1.07860 1.07600 1.07335

1.08165 1.07905 1.07645 1.07380 1.07120

0

0.99913 0.99905 0.99823 0.99708 0.99568

*Bosart and Snoddy, Ind. Eng. Chem., 20, (1928): 1378.

TABLE 2-118

Hydrazine (N2H4)*

%

d 15 4

%

d 15 4

1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28

1.0002 1.0013 1.0034 1.0077 1.0121 1.0164 1.0207 1.0248 1.0286

30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

1.0305 1.038 1.044 1.047 1.046 1.040 1.030 1.011

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 55.

15.5 °C

2-122

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-119

Densities of Aqueous Solutions of Miscellaneous Organic Compounds*

d, dw, and ds are the density of the solution, pure water, and pure liquid solute, respectively, all in g/mL. ps is the wt % solute. 0.03255 means 2.55 × 10−4. Section A Name

Formula

t, °C

Acetaldehyde Acetamide

C2H4O C2H5NO

Acetone

C3H6O

Acetonitrile Allyl alcohol Benzenepentacarboxylic acid Butyl alcohol (n-)

C2H3N C3H6O C11H6O10 C4H10O

Butyric acid (n-)

C4H8O2

Chloral hydrate

C2H3Cl3O2

Chloroacetic acid

C2H3ClO2

Citric acid (hydrate)

C6H3O7 + H2O

Dichloroacetic acid

C2H2Cl2O2

Diethylamine hydrochloride Ethylamine hydrochloride

C4H12ClN C2H8ClN

Ethylene glycol

C2H6O2

Ethyl ether tartrate Formaldehyde Formamide

C4H10O C8H14O6 CH2O CH3NO

Furfural Isoamyl alcohol

C5H4O2 C5H12O

Isobutyl alcohol

C4H10O



Isobutyric acid

C4H8O2



Isovaleric acid Lactic acid Maleic acid

C5H10O2 C3H6O C4H4O4

Malic acid

C4H6O5

Malonic acid Methyl acetate

C3H4O4 C3H6O2

glucoside (α-)

C7H14O6

Nicotine Nitrophenol (p-)

C10H14N2 C6H5NO3

Oxalic acid

C2H2O4

Phenol

C6H6O

Phenylglycolic acid Picoline (α-) (β-)

C8H8O3 C6H7N C6H7N

Propionic acid

C3H6O2

Pyridine Resorcinol Succinic acid

C5H5N C6H6O2 C4H6O4

Tartaric acid (d, l, or dl)

C4H6O6

*From International Critical Tables, vol. 3, pp. 111–114.

 



    

 



 



18 15 0 4 15 20 25 15 0 25 20 18 25 0 15 30 20 25 18 20 25 21 21 0 15 20 25 15 15 25 20 25 20 15 20 15 18 25 25 25 25 20 25 20 20 0 30 20 15 0 15 17.5 20 25 15 80 25 25 25 18 25 25 18 25 15 17.5 20 30 40 50 60

d = d w + Aps + Bp s2 + Cp3s Range, ps

A

B

0– 30 0– 6 0–100 0–100 0–100 0–100 0–100 0– 16 0– 89 0– 0.6 0– 7.9 0– 10 0– 62 0– 70 0– 78 0– 90 0– 32 0– 86 0– 50 0– 30 0– 97 0– 36 0– 65 0–100 0– 6 0– 5 0– 4.5 0– 95 0– 40 22– 96 0– 8 0– 8 0– 2.5 0– 8 0– 8 0– 9 0– 9 0– 12 0– 5 0– 9 0– 40 0– 40 0– 40 0– 40 0– 20 26– 51 26– 51 0– 60 0– 1.5 0– 4 0– 4 0– 9 0– 4 0– 4 0– 5 0– 65 0– 11 0– 70 0– 60 0– 10 0– 40 0– 60 0– 52 0– 5.5 0– 15 0– 50 0– 50 0– 50 0– 50 0– 50 0– 50

+0.03255 +0.03639 −0.03856 −0.027648 −0.021009 −0.021233 −0.021171 −0.021175 −0.033729 +0.025615 −0.021651 +0.03414 +0.035135 +0.024489 +0.024455 +0.024401 +0.023648 +0.023602 +0.023824 +0.024427 +0.024427 +0.0334 +0.021193 +0.021483 +0.02133 −0.02221 −0.02221 +0.022367 +0.022518 +0.021217 +0.021827 +0.021664 +0.02155 −0.02146 −0.02169 +0.0352 +0.0345 +0.0337 +0.03253 +0.02231 +0.0234 +0.023933 +0.023736 +0.02389 +0.0340 +0.023336 +0.023151 +0.03642 +0.023216 +0.025898 +0.02494 +0.02494 +0.025264 +0.025108 +0.02111 +0.03462 +0.02207 −0.04386 −0.04683 +0.0395 +0.039245 +0.03229 +0.02201 +0.02304 +0.024482 +0.024455 +0.024432 +0.024335 +0.024265 +0.024205 +0.024155

−0.0516 +0.04171 −0.05449 −0.041193 −0.059682 −0.053529 −0.05904 −0.042024 −0.041232 −0.02117 +0.04285 +0.04131 −0.04166 +0.042802 +0.042198 +0.041887 +0.05302 +0.05552 +0.041141 +0.05537 +0.05537 +0.0676 −0.05307 +0.052992 −0.05108 +0.0448 +0.0435 +0.05358 −0.05658 +0.053199 +0.05366 +0.0421 +0.043 +0.056 +0.0438

−0.04282 +0.05186 +0.0575 +0.05957 +0.04175 +0.041066 −0.0574 +0.05996 +0.05975 +0.05454 −0.0455 −0.033185 −0.058 −0.058 −0.031996 −0.031607 −0.04283 −0.0686 +0.0423 −0.051405 −0.0513 −0.04172 −0.0599 −0.05204 +0.05519 +0.04185 +0.04185 +0.041837 +0.04185 +0.04185 +0.04185 +0.04185

C

−0.07588 +0.08272 −0.08624 −0.075327 −0.0856 +0.072984

+0.0611 −0.071291 +0.074366 +0.076549 +0.0722 +0.0717 +0.077534 +0.077534 −0.0747 −0.075248

−0.076005 +0.06542 −0.072529

+0.01544 +0.08978 −0.07687 +0.0441 +0.04254 +0.04208

−0.074167 +0.07361 −0.0828 −0.0819

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS ORGANIC SOLUTIONS TABLE 2-119

Densities of Aqueous Solutions of Miscellaneous Organic Compounds (Concluded) d = d w + Aps + Bp s2 + Cp3s (Cont.)

Section A Name

t, °C

Formula

Tetraethyl ammonium chloride Thiourea

C8H20ClN CH4N2S

Trichloroacetic acid

C2HCl3O2

Triethylamine hydrochloride

C6H16ClN

Trimethyl carbinol

C4H10O

Urea

CH4N2O

Urethane Valeric acid (n-)

C3H7NO2 C5H10O2

21 15 12.5 20 25 21 20 25 14.8 18 20 25 20 25

 



Section B Name

Formula

Butyl alcohol (n-) Butyric acid (n-) Ethyl ether

C4H10O C4H8O2 C4H10O

Isobutyl alcohol

C4H10O

Isobutyric acid Nicotine Picoline (α-) (β-) Pyridine Trimethyl carbinol

C4H8O2 C10H14N2 C6H7N C6H7N C5H5N C4H10O



C3H6O C4H10O

Chloral hydrate

C2H3Cl3O2

Ethyl tartrate

C7H14O6

Furfural

C5H4O2

Pyridine

C5H5N

A

B

C

0–63 0–7 0–61 10–30 0–94 0–54 0–100 0–100 0–12 0–51 0–35 0–10 0–56 0–3

+0.031884 +0.022995 +0.02499 +0.025053 +0.025051 +0.046 −0.02117 −0.021286 +0.023213 +0.022718 +0.022702 +0.022728 +0.021278 +0.0334

+0.056 +0.05374 +0.04153 +0.041387 +0.056119 +0.05558 −0.041908 −0.04176 −0.044802 +0.051552 +0.053712 −0.041817 −0.05245 −0.0427

+0.07122

t, °C

Range, pw

A

B

20 25 25 0 15 26 20 25 25 25 20

0–20 0–38 0– 1.1 0–14 0–16 0–80 0–40 0–30 0–40 0–40 0–20

+0.022103 +0.021854 +0.0234 +0.022437 +0.02224 +0.021808 +0.02199 +0.022715 +0.021925 +0.021157 +0.022287

−0.04113 −0.042314 +0.0336 −0.04285 −0.04129 −0.042358 −0.04331 −0.04393 −0.04352 −0.05536 +0.05275



+0.061038 −0.0869 +0.07957 +0.07887 +0.051216 +0.072573 −0.072285 +0.051379 −0.073437

d = ds + Apw + Bp 2w + Cp 3w

ds

C

+0.061253 +0.07315 +0.0625 −0.062

dt = do + At + Bt2

ps

do

Range, °C

A

B

76.60 80.95 2.00 10.00 5.00 10.00 25.00 4.62 5.69 6.56 9.34 21.20 29.50 40.40

0.9122 0.8614 1.0094 1.0476 1.0150 1.0270 1.0665 1.0125 1.0140 1.0155 1.0055 1.0115 1.0145 1.0182

0–45 0–43 7–80 7–80 15–80 15–80 15–80 22–74 22–74 22–74 11–73 14–73 12–72 9–74

−0.038 −0.037292 −0.042597 −0.047955 −0.032103 −0.032116 −0.03401 −0.03232 −0.03221 −0.03211 −0.03171 −0.03378 −0.03463 −0.03605

−0.0527 −0.0675 −0.054313 −0.054253 −0.052544 −0.062929 −0.0523 −0.05254 −0.05268 −0.05290 −0.053615 −0.05248 −0.05235 −0.05167

Formula

Allyl alcohol Butyl alcohol (n-)

Range, ps

0.8097 0.9534 0.7077 0.8170 0.8055 0.9425 1.0093 0.9404 0.9515 0.9776 0.7856 Section C

Name

2-123

 



2-124

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

DENSITIES OF MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS TABLE 2-120

Approximate Specific Gravities and Densities of Miscellaneous Solids and Liquids*

Water at 4 °C and normal atmospheric pressure taken as unity. For more detailed data on any material, see the section dealing with the properties of that material.

Sp. gr.

Aver. density lb/ft 3

Sp. gr.

Aver. density lb/ft 3

2.55–2.80 7.7 8.4–8.7 7.4–8.9 8.88

165 481 534 509 554

Timber, Air-dry Apple Ash, black white Birch, sweet, yellow Cedar, white, red

0.66–0.74 0.55 0.64–0.71 0.71–0.72 0.35

44 34 42 44 22

Copper, cast-rolled ore, pyrites German silver Gold, cast-hammered coin (U.S.)

8.8–8.95 4.1–4.3 8.58 19.25–19.35 17.18–17.2

556 262 536 1205 1073

Cherry, wild red Chestnut Cypress Elm, white Fir, Douglas

0.43 0.48 0.45–0.48 0.56 0.48–0.55

27 30 29 35 32

Iridium Iron, gray cast cast, pig wrought spiegeleisen

21.78–22.42 7.03–7.13 7.2 7.6–7.9 7.5

1383 442 450 485 468

balsam Hemlock Hickory Locust Mahogany

0.40 0.45–0.50 0.74–0.80 0.67–0.77 0.56–0.85

25 29 48 45 44

ferro-silicon ore, hematite ore, limonite ore, magnetite slag

6.7–7.3 5.2 3.6–4.0 4.9–5.2 2.5–3.0

437 325 237 315 172

Maple, sugar white Oak, chestnut live red, black

0.68 0.53 0.74 0.87 0.64–0.71

43 33 46 54 42

Lead ore, galena Manganese ore, pyrolusite Mercury

11.34 7.3–7.6 7.42 3.7–4.6 13.6

710 465 475 259 849

white Pine, Norway Oregon red Southern white

0.77 0.55 0.51 0.48 0.61–0.67 0.43

48 34 32 30 38–42 27

8.97 8.9 21.5 10.4–10.6 7.83 7.80 7.70–7.73 7.2–7.5 6.4–7.0 19.22

555 537 1330 656 489 487 481 459 418 1200

Poplar Redwood, California Spruce, white, red Teak, African Indian Walnut, black Willow

0.43 0.42 0.45 0.99 0.66–0.88 0.59 0.42–0.50

27 26 28 62 48 37 28

6.9–7.2 3.9–4.2

440 253

Various Solids Cereals, oats, bulk barley, bulk corn, rye, bulk wheat, bulk Cork

Various Liquids Alcohol, ethyl (100%) methyl (100%) Acid, muriatic, 40% nitric, 91% sulfuric, 87%

0.789 0.796 1.20 1.50 1.80

49 50 75 94 112

0.51 0.62 0.73 0.77 0.22–0.26

26 39 45 48 15

Chloroform Ether Lye, soda, 66% Oils, vegetable mineral, lubricants

1.500 0.736 1.70 0.91–0.94 0.88–0.94

95 46 106 58 57

Cotton, flax, hemp Fats Flour, loose pressed Glass, common

1.47–1.50 0.90–0.97 0.40–0.50 0.70–0.80 2.40–2.80

93 58 28 47 162

0.861–0.867 1.0 0.9584 0.88–0.92 0.125

54 62.428 59.830 56 8

plate or crown crystal dint Hay and straw, bales Leather

2.45–2.72 2.90–3.00 3.2–4.7 0.32 0.86–1.02

161 184 247 20 59

Paper Potatoes, piled Rubber, caoutchouc goods Salt, granulated, piled

0.70–1.15 0.67 0.92–0.96 1.0–2.0 0.77

58 44 59 94 48

Saltpeter Starch Sulfur Wool

1.07 1.53 1.93–2.07 1.32

67 96 125 82

Substance Metals, Alloys, Ores Aluminum, cast-hammered bronze Brass, cast-rolled Bronze, 7.9 to 14% Sn phosphor

Monel metal, rolled Nickel Platinum, cast-hammered Silver, cast-hammered Steel, cold-drawn machine tool Tin, cast-hammered cassiterite Tungsten Zinc, cast-rolled blende

Substance

Turpentine Water, 4°C max. density 100°C ice snow, fresh fallen sea water

1.02–1.03

64

Ashlar Masonry Bluestone Granite, syenite, gneiss Limestone Marble Sandstone

2.3–2.6 2.4–2.7 2.1–2.8 2.4–2.8 2.0–2.6

153 159 153 162 143

Rubble Masonry Bluestone Granite, syenite, gneiss Limestone Marble Sandstone

2.2–2.5 2.3–2.6 2.0–2.7 2.3–2.7 1.9–2.5

147 153 147 156 137

*From Marks’ Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, 10th ed., McGraw-Hill, 1996.

Sp. gr.

Aver. density lb/ft 3

Dry Rubble Masonry Granite, syenite, gneiss Limestone, marble Sandstone, bluestone

1.9–2.3 1.9–2.1 1.8–1.9

130 125 110

Brick Masonry Hard brick Medium brick Soft brick Sand-lime brick

1.8–2.3 1.6–2.0 1.4–1.9 1.4–2.2

128 112 103 112

Concrete Masonry Cement, stone, sand slag, etc. cinder, etc.

2.2–2.4 1.9–2.3 1.5–1.7

144 130 100

0.64–0.72 1.5 0.85–1.00 1.4–1.9 2.08–2.25

40–45 94 53–64 103 94–135

Portland cement Slags, bank slag bank screenings machine slag slag sand

3.1–3.2 1.1–1.2 1.5–1.9 1.5 0.8–0.9

196 67–72 98–117 96 49–55

Earth, etc., Excavated Clay, dry damp plastic and gravel, dry Earth, dry, loose dry, packed moist, loose moist, packed mud, flowing mud, packed Riprap, limestone

1.0 1.76 1.6 1.2 1.5 1.3 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.3–1.4

63 110 100 76 95 78 96 108 115 80–85

1.4 1.7 1.4–1.7 1.6–1.9 1.89–2.16

90 105 90–105 100–120 126

1.28 1.44 0.96 1.00 1.12 1.00

80 90 60 65 70 65

Asbestos Barytes Basait Bauxite Bluestone

2.1–2.8 4.50 2.7–3.2 2.55 2.5–2.6

153 281 184 159 159

Borax Chalk Clay, marl Dolomite Feldspar, orthoclase

1.7–1.8 1.8–2.8 1.8–2.6 2.9 2.5–2.7

109 143 137 181 162

Gneiss Granite Greenstone, trap Gypsum, alabaster Hornblende Limestone Marble Magnesite Phosphate rock, apatite Porphyry

2.7–2.9 2.6–2.7 2.8–3.2 2.3–2.8 3.0 2.1–2.86 2.6–2.86 3.0 3.2 2.6–2.9

175 165 187 159 187 155 170 187 200 172

Substance

Various Building Materials Ashes, cinders Cement, Portland, loose Lime, gypsum, loose Mortar, lime, set Portland cement

Riprap, sandstone Riprap, shale Sand, gravel, dry, loose gravel, dry, packed gravel, wet Excavations in Water Clay River mud Sand or gravel and clay Soil Stone riprap Minerals

SOLUBILITIES TABLE 2-120

2-125

Approximate Specific Gravities and Densities of Miscellaneous Solids and Liquids (Concluded)

Water at 4°C and normal atmospheric pressure taken as unity. For more detailed data on any material, see the section dealing with the properties of that material.

Substance

Substance

0.37–0.90 2.5–2.8 2.0–2.6 2.7–2.8 2.6–2.9

40 165 143 171 172

Bituminous Substances Asphaltum Coal, anthracite bituminous lignite peat, turf, dry

1.1–1.5 1.4–1.8 1.2–1.5 1.1–1.4 0.65–0.85

81 97 84 78 47

2.6–2.8 2.6–2.7

169 165

1.5 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.5

96 107 95 82 92

charcoal, pine charcoal, oak coke Graphite Paraffin

0.28–0.44 0.47–0.57 1.0–1.4 1.64–2.7 0.87–0.91

23 33 75 135 56

Sp. gr.

Minerals (Cont.) Pumice, natural Quartz, flint Sandstone Serpentine Shale, slate Soapstone, talc Syenite Stone, Quarried, Piled Basalt, granite, gneiss Greenstone, hornblende Limestone, marble, quartz Sandstone Shale NOTE:

Aver. density lb/ft3

Sp. gr.

Aver. density lb/ft 3

Substance

Sp. gr.

Aver. density lb/ft3

Bituminous Substances (Cont.) Petroleum refined (kerosene) benzine gasoline Pitch Tar, bituminous

0.87 0.78–0.82 0.73–0.75 0.70–0.75 1.07–1.15 1.20

54 50 46 45 69 75

Coal and Coke, Piled Coal, anthracite bituminous, lignite peat, turf charcoal coke

0.75–0.93 0.64–0.87 0.32–0.42 0.16–0.23 0.37–0.51

47–58 40–54 20–26 10–14 23–32

To convert pounds per cubic foot to kilograms per cubic meter, multiply by 16.02. °F = 9⁄5 °C + 32.

TABLE 2-121

Density (kg/m3) of Selected Elements as a Function of Temperature Element symbol

Temperature, K*

Al

Be†

Cr

Cu

Au

Ir

Fe

Pb

Mo

Ni

Pt

Ag

Zn†

50 100 150 200 250

2736 2732 2726 2719 2710

3650 3640 3630 3620 3610

7160 7155 7150 7145 7140

9019 9009 8992 8973 8951

19,490 19,460 19,420 19,380 19,340

22,600 22,580 22,560 22,540 22,520

7910 7900 7890 7880 7870

11,570 11,520 11,470 11,430 11,380

10,260 10,260 10,250 10,250 10,250

8960 8950 8940 8930 8910

21,570 21,550 21,530 21,500 21,470

10,620 10,600 10,575 10,550 10,520

7280 7260 7230 7200 7170

300 400 500 600 800

2701 2681 2661 2639 2591

3600 3580 3555 3530

7135 7120 7110 7080 7040

8930 8885 8837 8787 8686

19,300 19,210 19,130 19,040 18,860

22,500 22,450 22,410 22,360 22,250

7860 7830 7800 7760 7690

11,330 11,230 11,130 11,010 10,430

10,240 10,220 10,210 10,190 10,160

8900 8860 8820 8780 8690

21,450 21,380 21,330 21,270 21,140

10,490 10,430 10,360 10,300 10,160

7135 7070 7000 6935 6430

1000 1200 1400 1600 1800

2365 2305 2255

7000 6945 6890 6760 6700

8568 8458 7920 7750 7600

18,660 18,440 17,230 16,950

22,140 22,030 21,920 21,790 21,660

7650 7620 7520 7420 7320

10,190 9,940

10,120 10,080 10,040 10,000 9,950

8610 8510 8410 8320 7690

21,010 20,870 20,720 20,570 20,400

10,010 9,850 9,170 8,980

6260

21,510

7030

9,900

7450

20,220

2000

7460

NOTE:

Above the horizontal line the condensed phase is solid; below the line, it is liquid. *°R = 9⁄ 5 K. †Polycrystalline form tabulated. Similar tables for an additional 45 elements appear in the Handbook of Heat Transfer, 2d ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1984.

SOLUBILITIES UNITS CONVERSIONS For this subsection, the following units conversions are applicable: °F = 9⁄5 °C + 32. To convert cubic centimeters to cubic feet, multiply by 3.532 × 10−5. To convert millimeters of mercury to pounds-force per square inch, multiply by 0.01934.

To convert grams per liter to pounds per cubic foot, multiply by 6.243 × 10−2. A database containing solubilities originally published in the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)-National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Solubility Data Series is now available at no cost online at http://srdata.nist.gov/solubility.

2-126

TABLE 2-122

Solubilities of Inorganic Compounds in Water at Various Temperatures*

This table shows the grams of anhydrous substance that are soluble in 100 g of water at the temperature in degrees Celsius as indicated; when the name is followed by †, the value is expressed in grams of substance in 100 cm3 of saturated solution. Solid phase gives the hydrated form in equilibrium with the saturated solution. Solid phase

Substance

Formula

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Aluminum chloride sulfate Ammonium aluminum sulfate bicarbonate bromide chloride chloroplatinate chromate chromium sulfate dichromate dihydrogen phosphite hydrogen phosphate iodide magnesium phosphate manganese phosphate nitrate oxalate perchlorate† persulfate sulfate thiocyanate vanadate (meta) Antimonious fluoride sulfide Arsenic oxide Arsenious sulfide

AlCl3 Al2(SO4)3 (NH4)2Al2(SO4)4 NH4HCO3 NH4Br NH4Cl (NH4)2PtCl6 (NH4)2CrO4 (NH4)2Cr2(SO4)4 (NH4)2Cr2O7 NH4H2PO3 (NH4)2HPO4 NH4I NH4MgPO4 NH4MnPO4 NH4NO3 (NH4)2C2O4 NH4ClO4† (NH4)2S2O8 (NH4)2SO4 NH4CNS NH4VO3 SbF3 Sb2S3 As2O5 As2S3

27 28 29

Barium acetate acetate carbonate

Ba(C2H3O2)2 Ba(C2H3O2)2 BaCO3

3H2O 1H2O

30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38

chlorate chloride chromate hydroxide iodide iodide nitrate nitrite oxalate

Ba(ClO3)2 BaCl2 BaCrO4 Ba(OH)2 BaI2 BaI2 Ba(NO3)2 Ba(NO2)2 BaC2O4

1H2O 2H2O

3H2O

39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51

perchlorate sulfate Beryllium sulfate sulfate sulfate Boric acid Boron oxide Bromine Cadmium chloride chloride chloride cyanide hydroxide

Ba(ClO4)2 BaSO4 BeSO4 BeSO4 BeSO4 H3BO3 B2O3 Br2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 Cd(CN)2 Cd(OH)2

52 53 54

sulfate Calcium acetate acetate

CdSO4 Ca(C2H3O2)2 Ca(C2H3O2)2

6H2O 18H2O 24H2O

0 °C 31.2 2.1 11.9 60.6 29.4

10 °C 33.5 4.99 15.8 68 33.3 0.7

10.7825°

24II2O 171 6H2O 7H2O 1H2O

154.2 0.023 118.3 2.2 11.56 58.2 70.6 119.8

163.2

3.1 73.0 144

384.7

8H2O 6H2O 2H2O

20 °C 69.8615° 36.4 7.74 21 75.5 37.2

59.5 5.17 × 10−5 at 18° 59

62.1 63 0.00168°

20.34 31.6 0.0002 1.67 170.2 5.0

1H2O

26.95 33.3 0.00028 2.48 185.7 7.0 0.00168°

205.8 1.15 × 10−4

2.0 × 10−4

19014.5° 13115 172.3 0.052 0 192 4.4 20.85 75.4 170 0.48 444.7 0.00017518° 65.8

4H2O 2aH2O 1H2O

2H2O 1H2O

76.48 37.4

40.4 10.94 27 83.2 41.4

40 °C

50 °C

60 °C

70 °C

80 °C

90 °C

100 °C

46.1 14.88

52.2 20.10

59.2 26.70

66.1

73.0

80.8

89.0 109.796°

91.1 45.8

99.2 50.4

107.8 55.2

116.8 60.2

126 65.6

135.6 71.3

145.6 77.3 1.25

190.5 0.036 0 297.0 8.0 30.58

199.6 0.030

208.9 0.040 0 421.0

218.7 0.016 0.005 499.0

228.8 0.019 0.007 580.0

40.4 47.17 26031° 181.4 241.8 5.9 78.0 207.7 0.84 563.6

81.0

69.5

71.2

1.32

344.0 10.3

39.05

740.0

48.19

88.0 1.78

250.3 871.0 57.01

95.3

103.3

75.1

76.7

3.05 73.0

71 0.002218° 33.80 35.7 0.00037 3.89 203.1 9.2 67.5 0.002218° 289.1 2.4 × 10−4

6H2O 4H2O 2H2O 2.66 1.1 4.22 97.59 90.01

30 °C

3.57 1.5 3.4 125.1

5.04 2.2 3.20

135.1

134.5 1.715°

75 0.0024 at 24.2° 41.70 38.2 0.00046 5.59 219.6 11.6

79

77

74

74

49.61 40.7

43.6

66.81 46.4

49.4

8.22

13.12

231.9 14.2

17.1

358.7

426.3

20.94

75 84.84 52.4

104.9 58.8

101.4

247.3 20.3

261.0 27.0 205.8

271.7 34.2 300

0.0024 at 24.2° 2.85 × 10−4 52 43.78 6.60

495.2

562.3

60.67 46.74 8.72 4.0

62 11.54

14.81 6.2

16.73

84.76 23.75 9.5

83 98 30.38

100 110 40.25 15.7

3.13 132.1

76.00 36.0

76.60 34.7

135.3

136.5

140.4

147.0

2.6 × 10−4 at 25° 33.8

78.54 33.2

83.68 32.7

63.13

60.77

31.1

29.7

33.5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Calcium bicarbonate chloride chloride fluoride hydroxide nitrate nitrate nitrate nitrite nitrite oxalate

Ca(HCO3)2 CaCl2 CaCl2 CaF2 Ca(OH)2 Ca(NO3)2 Ca(NO3)2 Ca(NO3)2 Ca(NO2)2 Ca(NO2)2 CaC2O4

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

sulfate Carbon dioxide, 760 mm ‡ monoxide, 760 mm ‡ Cesium chloride nitrate sulfate Chlorine, 760 mm ‡ Chromic anhydride Cuprio chloride nitrate nitrate sulfate sulfide

CaSO4 CO2 CO CsCl CsNO3 Cs2SO4 Cl2 CrO3 CuCl2 Cu(NO3)2 Cu(NO3)2 CuSO4 CuS

25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62

Cuprous chloride Ferric chloride Ferrous chloride chloride nitrate sulfate sulfate Hydrobromic acid, 760 mm Hydrochloric acid, 760 mm Iodine Lead acetate bromide carbonate chloride chromate fluoride nitrate sulfate Magnesium bromide chloride hydroxide nitrate sulfate sulfate sulfate Manganous sulfate sulfate sulfate sulfate Mercurous chloride Molybdic oxide Nickel chloride nitrate nitrate sulfate sulfate Nitric oxide, 760 mm Nitrous oxide

CuCl FeCl3 FeCl2 FeCl2 Fe(NO3)2 FeSO4 FeSO4 HBr HCl I2 Pb(C2H3O2)2 PbBr2 PbCO3 PbCl2 PbCrO4 PbF2 Pb(NO3)2 PbSO4 MgBr2 MgCl2 Mg(OH)2 Mg(NO3)2 MgSO4 MgSO4 MgSO4 MnSO4 MnSO4 MnSO4 MnSO4 HgCl MoO3 NiCl2 Ni(NO3)2 Ni(NO3)2 NiSO4 NiSO4 NO N2O

6H2O 2H2O 4H2O 3H2O

16.15 59.5 0.185 102.0

65.0 0.176 115.3

16.60 74.5 0.001618° 0.165 129.3

17.05

17.50

17.95

18.40

102 0.001726° 0.153 152.6

136.8 0.141 195.9 237.5

0.128

0.116

141.7 0.106

147.0 0.094

152.7 0.085

62.07

2H2O

0.1759 0.3346 0.0044 161.4 9.33 167.1 1.46 164.9 70.7 81.8

2H2O 6H2O 3H2O 5H2O

363.6

76.68 6.7 × 10−4 at 13° 0.1928 0.2318 0.0035 174.7 14.9 173.1 0.980 73.76 95.28

14.3

17.4

74.4

81.9 64.5

4H2O

6.8 × 10−4 at 25° 0.1688 0.0028 186.5 23.0 178.7 0.716 77.0 125.1 20.7 3.3 × 10−5 at 18° 1.5225° 91.8

9.5 × 10−4 at 50° 0.2090 0.1257 0.0024 197.3 33.9 184.1 0.562

132.6

80.34

14 × 10−4 at 95° 0.2097 0.0973 0.0021 208.0 47.2 189.9 0.451 174.0 83.8

25

159.8 28.5

33.3

77.3

315.1 82.5

73.0

0.0761 0.0018 218.5 64.4 194.9 0.386 182.1 87.44

0.2047 0.0576 0.0015 229.7 83.8 199.9 0.324

151.9

244.8

0.1966 0.0013 239.5 107.0 205.0 0.274

0.0010 250.0 134.0 210.3 0.219

91.2

99.2

178.8 40

207.8 55

88.7

525.8 100

0.0006 260.1 163.0 214.9 0.125 217.5

71.02 15.65

20.51

83.8 26.5

535.7

210.3

3H2O 0.4554 0.6728

6H2O 6H2O 6H2O 7H2O 6H2O 1H2O 7H2O 5H2O 4H2O 1H2O

38.8 0.0028 91.0 52.8

0.060 48.3 0.0035 94.5 53.5

40.2

67.3 0.04 55.0425° 1.15

63.3 0.056

171.5 59.6 0.078

0.85 0.00011 0.99 7 × 10−6 0.064 56.5 0.0041 96.5 54.5 0.000918°

1.53

1.94

2.36

3.34

4.75

1.20

1.45

1.70

1.98

2.62

3.34

0.068 66 0.0049 99.2

66.55 40.8 53.23

30.9 42.2 60.01 59.5

0.00014 2H2O 6H2O 6H2O 3H2O 7H2O 6H2O

32.9

198 0.029

53.9 79.58

59.5

35.5 44.5

40.8 45.3

62.9 64.5

67.76 66.44

0.0002 0.138 64.2 96.31

48.6

0.264 68.9

75 0.0056 101.6 57.5

0.00984

32 0.00757 0.1705

43.6

130

85

95

104.1

107.5 61.0

115

0.0007 0.476 73.3 122.2

38.8

113.7 66.0

84.74 45.6

68.8

37.3

56.1

120.2 73.0 137.0

50.4

53.5

59.5

64.2 62.9

69.0

74.0 68.3

72.6 58.17

55.0

52.0

48.0

42.5

34.0

0.687 78.3

1.206 82.2

2.055 85.2

163.1 27.22

105.8

165.6 50.9

221.2 82.3

0.1619 0 0 270.5 197.0 220.3 0 206.8 107.9 75.4

105.3 6H2O 7H2O 1H2O

0.077

281.5 358.7

4H2O 2H2O

159

2.106 87.6

169.1

235.1

42.46 0.00618 0.1211

0.00517

0.00440

50.15 0.00376

54.80 0.00324

59.44 0.00267

63.17 0.00199

0.00114

76.7 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62

2-127

*By N. A. Lange; abridged from “Table of Solubilities of Inorganic Compounds in Water at Various Temperatures” in Lange’s Handbook of Chemistry, 10th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961 (except for NaCl, which is from CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 86th ed., CRC Press, 2005). For tables of the solubility of gases in water at various temperatures, Atack (Handbook of Chemical Data, Reinhold, New York, 1957) gives values at closer temperature intervals, usually 1 or 5 °C, than are tabulated here. For materials marked by ‡, additional data are given in tables subsequent to this one. For the solubility of various hydrocarbons in water at high pressures see J. Chem. Eng. Data, 4, 212 (1959).

2-128

TABLE 2-122

Solubilities of Inorganic Compounds in Water at Various Temperatures (Continued)

Substance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64

Potassium acetate acetate alum bicarbonate bisulfate bitartrate carbonate chlorate chloride chromate dichromate ferricyanide hydroxide hydroxide nitrate nitrite perchlorate permanganate persulfate† sulfate thiocyanate Silver cyanide nitrate sulfate Sodium acetate acetate bicarbonate carbonate carbonate chlorate chloride chromate chromate chromate dichromate dichromate dihydrogen phosphate dihydrogen phosphate dihydrogen phosphate hydrogen arsenate hydrogen phosphate hydrogen phosphate hydrogen phosphate hydrogen phosphate hydroxide hydroxide hydroxide hydroxide nitrate nitrite oxalate phosphate, tripyrophosphate sulfate sulfate sulfate sulfide sulfide sulfide sulfite sulfite tetraborate tetraborate vanadate (meta)

Formula KC2H3O2 KC2H3O2 K2SO4⋅Al2(SO4)3 KHCO3 KHSO4 KHC4H4O6 K2CO3 KClO3 KCl K2CrO4 K2Cr2O7 K3Fe(CN)6 KOH KOH KNO3 KNO2 KClO4 KMnO4 K2S2O8† K2SO4 KCNS AgCN AgNO3 Ag2SO4 NaC2H3O2 NaC2H3O2 NaHCO3 Na2CO3 Na2CO3 NaClO8 NaCl Na2CrO4 Na2CrO4 Na2CrO4 Na2Cr2O7 Na2Cr2O7 NaH2PO4 NaH2PO4 NaH2PO4 Na2HAsO4 Na2HPO4 Na2HPO4 Na2HPO4 Na2HPO4 NaOH NaOH NaOH NaOH NaNO3 NaNO2 Na2C2O4 Na3PO4 Na4P2O7 Na2SO4 Na2SO4 Na2SO4 Na2S Na2S Na2S Na2SO3 Na2SO3 Na2B4O7 Na2B4O7 NaVO8

Solid phase 1aH2O aH2O 24H2O

2H2O

2H2O 1H2O



3H2O 10H2O 1H2O 10H2O 4H2O

0 °C

10 °C

20 °C

216.7

233.9

255.6

3.0 22.4 36.3 0.32 105.5 3.3 27.6 58.2 5 31 97

4.0 27.7

5.9 33.2 51.4 0.53 110.5 7.4 34.0 61.7 12 43 112

0.40 108 5 31.0 60.0 7 36 103

13.3 278.8 0.75 2.83 1.62 7.35 177.0

20.9

122 0.573 36.3 119 6.9 7

170 0.695 40.8 121 8.15 12.5

31.6 298.4 1.80 6.4 4.49 11.11 217.5 2.2 × 10−5 222 0.796 46.5 123.5 9.6 21.5

79 35.65 31.70

89 35.72 50.17

101 35.89 88.7

2H2O

163.0

2H2O 1H2O

57.9

1.05 4.4 2.60 9.22

30 °C 283.8 8.39 39.1 0.90 113.7 10.5 37.0 63.4 20 50 126 45.8 2.6 9.0 7.19 12.97

40 °C

50 °C

60 °C

70 °C

80 °C

90 °C

337.3 17.00

350 24.75 60.0

364.8 40.0

380.1 71.0

396.3 109.0

1.83 121.2 19.3 42.6 66.8 34

2.46 126.8 24.5 45.5 68.6 43 66

100 °C

323.3 11.70 45.4 67.3 1.32 116.9 14 40.0 65.2 26 60 63.9 334.9 4.4 12.56 9.89 14.76

140 85.5

110.0

48.3 70.4 52

138

4.6 139.8 38.5 51.1 72.1 61

169

147.5 54.0 73.9 70

202

6.5 16.89

9 22.2

11.8

14.8

18

16.50

18.17

19.75

21.4

22.8

1.22

669 1.30

300 0.888 54.5 126 11.1 38.8 50.5 113 36.09

376 0.979 65.5 129.5 12.7

455 1.08 83 134 14.45

525 1.15 139 139.5 16.4

48.5 126 36.37

140 36.69

46.4 155 37.04

88.7

95.96

104

114.6

177.8

133.1

244.8

146

153

172 37.46

45.8 189 37.93

123.0 316.7

124.8 376.2

1.36 161

38.47

121.6 6.95 155.7 57 56.7 75.6 80 82.6104 178 246 412.8 21.8 24.1 952 1.41 170 45.5 230 38.99 125.9 426.3

12H2O 12H2O 7H2O 2H2O

69.9

85.2

106.5

138.2

15.5 3.6

26.5 7.7

37 20.8

47

158.6 7.3 1.67

179.3 65

190.3

207.3 85

225.3

82.9

88.1

92.4

102.9

246.6

51.8 80.2

102.2 4H2O 3aH2O 1H2O

42 51.5 109

119

129

145

174

104 98.4

114 104.1

124

313

12H2O 10H2O 10H2O 7H2O 9H2O 5aH2O 6H2O 7H2O

73 72.1

80 78.0

1.5 3.16 5.0 19.5

4.1 3.95 9.0 30

88 84.5 3.7 11 6.23 19.4 44

15.42

18.8

22.5

20

26.9

36

13.9

96 91.6 20 9.95 40.8

31 13.50

43 17.45

55 21.83

81 30.04

347 180 163.2 6.33 108 40.26

48.8 28.5

46.7

45.3

43.7

42.5

39.82 36.4

42.69 39.1

28.2 10.5

28.8 20.3

28 10H2O 5H2O 2H2O

1.3

1.6

2.7 15.325°

3.9 30.2

68.4

148 132.6

45.73 43.31

51.40 49.14

24.4

31.5

59.23 57.28

28.3 41

52.5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64

TABLE 2-122

Solubilities of Inorganic Compounds in Water at Various Temperatures (Concluded)

Substance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Sodium vanadate (meta) Stannous chloride sulfate Strontium acetate acetate chloride chloride nitrate nitrate nitrate sulfate Sulfur dioxide, 760 mm† Thallium sulfate Thorium sulfate sulfate sulfate sulfate Zinc chlorate chlorate nitrate nitrate sulfate sulfate sulfate

Formula NaVO3 SnCl2 SnSO4 Sr(C2H3O2)2 Sr(C2H3O2)2 SrCl2 SrCl2 Sr(NO3)2 Sr(NO3)2 Sr(NO3)2 SrSO4 SO2 Tl2SO4 Th(SO4)2 Th(SO4)2 Th(SO4)2 Th(SO4)2 ZnClO3 ZnClO3 Zn(NO3)2 Zn(NO3)2 ZnSO4 ZnSO4 ZnSO4

Solid phase

0 °C

10 °C

9H2O 8H2O 6H2O 4H2O 6H2O 4H2O 6H2O 3H2O 7H2O 6H2O 1H2O

36.9 43.5

43.61 42.95 47.7

52.7 40.1 0.0113 22.83 2.70 0.74 1.0 1.50 145.0

30 °C

21.1025° 269.815° 19

83.9 4H2O aH2O 6H2O 2H2O 1H2O 4H2O

20 °C

41.6 52.9

40 °C

0.0114 11.29 4.87 1.38 1.62 1.90

60 °C

70 °C

80 °C

32.97

36.9

38.875°

36.24

36.10

85.9

90.5

90 °C

100 °C

18 39.5 58.7

65.3

64.0 70.5 16.21 3.70 0.98 1.25

50 °C

26.23

88.6 0.0114 7.81 6.16 1.995

37.35 72.4

81.8

83.8

97.2

90.1 5.41 2.998

4.5 9.21 5.22

4.04

2.54

2.45

36.4 130.4

100.8 139

93.8

96

98

100

10.92

12.74

14.61

16.53

18.45

6.64 1.63

1.09

86.6

83.7

80.8

152.5 200.3 118.3

94.78

209.2

223.2

273.1

206.9 41.9

47

54.4 70.1

76.8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

2-129

2-130

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-123

Solubility as a Function of Temperature and Henry’s Constant at 25°C for Gases in Water

Name

Formula

A

Acetylene Carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide Ethane Ethylene Helium Hydrogen Methane Nitrogen Oxygen

C2H2 CO2 CO C2H6 C2H4 He H2 CH4 N2 O2

−156.51 −159.854 −171.764 −250.812 −153.027 −105.9768 −125.939 −338.217 −181.587 −171.2542

B 8,160.2 8,741.68 8,296.9 12,695.6 7,965.2 4,259.62 5,528.45 13,282.1 8,632.13 8,391.24

C

D

T range, K

H at 25 °C, atm

21.403 21.6694 23.3376 34.7413 20.5248 14.0094 16.8893 51.9144 24.7981 23.24323

0 −1.10261E-03 0 0 0 0 0 −0.0425831 0 0

274–343 273–353 273–353 275–323 287–346 273–348 273–345 273–523 273–350 273–333

1,330 1,635 58,000 29,400 11,726 142,900 70,800 39,200 84,600 43,400

The constants can be used to calculate solubility by the equation ln x = A + B/T + C ln T + DT, where T is in K and x is the mole fraction of the solute dissolved in water when the solute partial pressure is 1 atm. With the assumption that Henry’s law is valid up to 1 atm, H = 1/x. Values of the constants are from P. G. T. Fogg and W. Gerrard, Solubility of Gases in Liquids, Wiley, 1991, New York, and Solubility Data Series, vol. 1, Helium and Neon, IUPAC, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1979. For higher-temperature behavior and an up-to-date reference list, see R. Fernandez-Prini, J. L. Alvarez, and A. H. Harvey, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 32(2):903, 2003. To find H at temperatures other than 25 °C, first find the solubility and then take the reciprocal. TABLE 2-124 Henry’s Constant H for Various Compounds in Water at 25°C Compound

CAS no.

Formula

H, atm

Rating

Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Octane Nonane

74828 74840 74986 106978 109660 111659 111842

CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C8H18 C9H20

36,600 26,700 37,800 51,100 70,000 274,000 329,000

4 3 3 3 3 3 3

74851 115071

C2H4 C3H6

11,700 11,700

3 4

Olefins Ethylene Propylene Aromatics Benzene Toluene o-Xylene Cumene Phenol

Compound

CAS no.

Formula

H, atm

Rating

74873 75003 108907

CH3Cl C2H5Cl C6H5Cl

556 681 204

? 10 10

67561 64175 71238 71363

CH4O C2H6O C3H8O C4H10O

0.272 0.272 0.507 0.482

4 4 3 3

107131 75183 624920 74931 75081 110861

C3H3N C2H6S C2H6S2 CH4S C2H6S C5H5N

5.54 121 68.1 177 161 0.817

3 3 3 3 3 3

Chlorine Containing

Paraffin Hydrocarbons

71432 108883 95476 98828 108952

C6H6 C7H8 C8H10 C9H12 C6H6O

299 354 272 724 0.0394

10 10 10 9 7

Methyl chloride Chloroethane Chlorobenzene Alcohols Methanol Ethanol 1-Propanol 1-Butanol Miscellaneous Acrylonitrile Dimethyl sulfide Dimethyl disulfide Methyl mercaptan Ethyl mercaptan Pyridine

Values in this table were taken from the Design Institute for Physical Properties (DIPPR) of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), copyright 2007 AIChE and reproduced with permission of AIChE, the DIPPR Acetaldehyde 75,070 C2H4O 5.56 3 Environmental Safety Property Data and Estimations Streering Committee and Propanal 123,386 C3H6O 4.36 4 of the DIPPR Evaluated Process Design Data Project Steering Committee. Their source should be cited as T. N. Rogers, D. A. Zei, R. L. Rowley, W. V. Ketones Wilding, J. L. Oscarson, Y. Yang, N. A. Zundel, T. E. Daubert, R. P. Danner, Methyl ethyl ketone 78,933 C4H8O 2.59 5 DIPPR® Data Compilation of Pure Chemical Properties, Design Institute for Physical Properties, AIChE, New York (2007). Flammability limits are from B. Esters Lewis and G. Von Elbe, Combustion, Flames and Explosions of Gases, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich (1987). Flash point data are from N. I. Sax, Methyl formate 107313 C2H4O2 13.6 3 Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, 6th ed, New York: Van Nostrand Ethyl formate 109944 C3H6O2 13.6 3 Reinhold (1984). Autoignition data are from I. Glassman, Combustion, 3d ed, Methyl acetate 79209 C3H6O2 5.04 3 New York: Academic Press (1996). The ratings reflect DIPPR® ESP’s effort to Butyl acetate 123864 C6H12O2 13.6 3 provide a critical evaluation and quality assessment of each data point with 15 being the highest score possible. The rating is not directly correlated with the estimated experimental uncertainty. The ratings reflect DIPPR Project 911’s effort to provide a critical evaluation and quality assessment of each data point, with 10 being the highest score possible. The rating is not directly correlated with the estimated experimental uncertainty. Henry’s constant is a strong nonlinear function of temperature. A single value measured at one temperature, if used for calculation at a different temperature, can lead to serious errors. Procedures for extrapolation of single-point values over the ambient temperature range (4°C < T < 50°C) are presented in Sec. 22, p. 22–49, under “Estimating Henry’s law constants.” Estimation procedures for the larger range (4°C < T < 200°C) are presented in F. L. Smith and A. H. Harvey, “Avoid Common Pitfalls When Using Henry’s Law,” Chem. Eng. Prog., 103(9), 2007. See also Y.-L. Huang, J. D. Olson, and G. E. Keller II, “Steam Stripping for Removal of Organic Pollutants from Water. 2. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 31, pp. 1759–1768, 1992. (Also see the Supplementary Material, which contains the databank of 404 compounds of environmental interest and other useful property data.). Aldehydes

The H in Tables 2-123 to 2-134 is the proportionality constant in Henry’s law, p = Hx, where x is the mole fraction of the solute in the aqueous liquid phase; p is the partial pressure in atm of the solute in the gas phase; and H is a proportionality constant, generally referred to as Henry’s constant. Values of H often have considerable uncertainty and are strong functions of temperature. To convert values of H at 25°C from atm to atm/(mol/m3), divide by the molar density of water at 25°C, which is 55,342 mol/m3. Henry’s law is valid only for dilute solutions.

Additional values of Henry’s constant can be found in “Environmental Simulation Program”: OLI Systems, Inc., Morris Plains, N.J; “Estimated Henry’s Law Constant,” EPA Online Tools for Site Assessment Calculation (http://www.epa.gov/athens/learn2model/part-two/onsite/ esthenry.htm); “Compilation of Henry’s Law Constants for Inorganic and Organic Species of Potential Importance in Environmental Chemistry,” Rolf Sander, Air Chemistry Department, Max-Planck Institute of Chemistry, Mainz, Germany; “Modeling Atmospheric Chemistry: Interactions between Gas-Phase Species and Liquid Cloud/Aerosol Particles,” Rolf Sander, Surv. Geophys. 20:1–31, 1999 (http://www.henrys-law.org).

SOLUBILITIES TABLE 2-125 Henry’s Constant H for Various Compounds in Water at 25 °C from Infinite Dilution Activity Coefficients

TABLE 2-126

Compound

CAS no.

Formula

H = ∞Pvp, atm

Pentane Hexane Heptane Benzene Toluene o-Xylene Cumene Styrene Formaldehyde Acetaldehyde Propanal Acetone Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl n-propyl ketone Formic acid Methyl acetate Ethyl acetate Butyl acetate Chloroethane 1-Chloropropane Chlorobenzene Methanol Ethanol Pyridine Diethyl ether Thiophene

109660 1100543 142825 71432 108883 95476 98,828 100425 50000 75070 123386 67641 78933 107879 64186 79209 141786 123864 75003 74986 108907 67561 64175 110861 60297 110021

C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C6H6 C7H8 C8H10 C9H12 C8H8 CH2O C2H4O C3H6O C3H6O C4H8O C5H10O CH2O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C6H12O2 C2H5Cl C3H7Cl C6H5Cl CH4O C2H6O C5H5N C4H10O C4H4S

63700 84600 120000 309 344 267 613 145 14.3 4.54 5.45 2.13 3.11 4.60 0.0404 6.38 8.01 12.3 626 792 219 0.263 0.293 0.544 48.7 160

2-131

Air*

t, °C

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

10−4 × H†

4.32

4.88

5.49

6.07

6.64

7.20

7.71

8.23

t, °C

40

45

50

60

70

80

90

100

10−4 × H†

8.70

9.11

9.46

10.1

10.5

10.7

10.8

10.7

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 257. †H is calculated from the absorption coefficients of O2 and N2, taking into consideration the correction for constant argon content.

TABLE 2-127

Ammonia-Water at 10 and 20 °C* 10 °C

Mass fraction NH3 in liquid 0.0 0.00467 0.00495 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Henry’s constant H at 25 °C is the vapor pressure at 25 °C times the infinite dilution activity coefficient, also at 25 °C. Infinite dilution activity coefficients are from Mitchell and Jurs, J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci. 38: 200 (1998). Henry’s constant is a strong nonlinear function of temperature. A single value measured at one temperature, if used for calculation at a different temperature, can lead to serious errors. Procedures for extrapolation of single-point values over the ambient temperature range (4°C < T < 50°C) are presented in Sec. 22, p. 22–49, under “Estimating Henry’s law constants.” Estimation procedures for the larger range (4°C < T < 200°C) are presented in F. L. Smith and A. H. Harvey, “Avoid Common Pitfalls When Using Henry’s Law,” Chem. Eng. Prog., 103(9), 2007. See also Y.-L. Huang, J. D. Olson, and G. E. Keller II, “Steam Stripping for Removal of Organic Pollutants from Water. 2. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 31, pp. 1759–1768, 1992. (Also see the Supplementary Material, which contains the databank of 404 compounds of environmental interest and other useful property data.)

20 °C

Mass fraction NH3 in vapor

P, kPa 1.23 1.37

0.0 0.1

7.07 20.07 47.37 99.84 184.44 292.15 399.03 486.44 554.33 615.05

P, kPa 2.34

0.84164 0.95438 0.98565 0.99544 0.99848 0.99943 0.99975 0.99988 0.99995 1.0

2.60 11.95 32.34 73.85 150.56 269.50 416.63 560.61 678.61 771.87 857.48

Mass fraction NH3 in vapor 0.0 0.1 0.82096 0.94541 0.98199 0.99393 0.99783 0.99913 0.99960 0.99980 0.99991 1.0

*Selected values from R. Tillner-Roth and D. G. Friend, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 27:63 (1998). This reference lists solubilities for temperatures from −70 to 340°C. Densities, enthalpies, and entropies are listed for both the two-phase and single-phase regions for pressures up to 40 MPa.

TABLE 2-128 Carbon Dioxide (CO2)* Liquid mol fraction CO2 × 103 Total pressure, atm 1 2 10 20 30 36

0 °C

10 °C

15 °C

20 °C

25 °C

35 °C

50 °C

75 °C

100 °C

1.445 2.89 12.71 21.23 25.79

0.985 1.946 8.81 15.38 19.80 21.45

0.802 1.587 7.32 13.13 17.49 19.42

0.692 1.374 6.44 11.84 16.22 18.30

0.608 1.207 5.74 10.75 15.05 17.29

0.473 0.943 4.54 8.64 12.80 14.80

0.342 0.683 3.30 6.34 9.10 10.63

0.248 0.495 2.41 4.65 6.78 7.90

0.187 0.373 1.841 3.62 5.35 6.35

*Values selected from G. Houghton, A. M. McLean, and P. D. Ritchie, Chem. Eng. Sci. 6:132–137, 1957.

TABLE 2-129

Carbonyl Sulfide (COS)*

t, °C

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

10−3 × H

0.92

1.17

1.48

1.82

2.19

2.59

3.04

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 261.

2-132

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-130 Partial pressure of Cl2, mmHg

Chlorine (Cl2)

TABLE 2-131 Vol % of ClO2 in gas phase

Solubility, g of Cl2 per liter 0 °C

10 °C

20 °C

30 °C

40 °C

50 °C

5 10 30 50 100

0.488 0.679 1.221 1.717 2.79

0.451 0.603 1.024 1.354 2.08

0.438 0.575 0.937 1.210 1.773

0.424 0.553 0.873 1.106 1.573

0.412 0.532 0.821 1.025 1.424

0.398 0.512 0.781 0.962 1.313

150 200 250 300 350

3.81 4.78 5.71

2.73 3.35 3.95 4.54 5.13

2.27 2.74 3.19 3.63 4.06

1.966 2.34 2.69 3.03 3.35

1.754 2.05 2.34 2.61 2.86

1.599 1.856 2.09 2.31 2.53

400 450 500 550 600

5.71 6.26 6.85 7.39 7.97

4.48 4.88 5.29 5.71 6.12

3.69 3.98 4.30 4.60 4.91

3.11 3.36 3.61 3.84 4.08

2.74 2.94 3.14 3.33 3.52

650 700 750 800 900

8.52 9.09 9.65 10.21

6.52 6.90 7.29 7.69 8.46

5.21 5.50 5.80 6.08 6.68

4.32 4.54 4.77 4.99 5.44

3.71 3.89 4.07 4.27 4.62

9.27 10.84 13.23 17.07 21.0

7.27 8.42 10.14 13.02 15.84

5.89 6.81 8.05 10.22 12.32

4.97 5.67 6.70 8.38 10.03

18.73 21.7 24.7 27.7 30.8

14.47 16.62 18.84 20.7 23.3

11.70 13.38 15.04 16.75 18.46

1000 1200 1500 2000 2500

Cl2.8H2O2 separates

3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 Partial pressure of Cl2, mmHg

Solubility, g of Cl2 per liter 60 °C

70 °C

80 °C

90 °C

100 °C

110 °C

5 10 30 50 100

0.383 0.492 0.743 0.912 1.228

0.369 0.470 0.704 0.863 1.149

0.351 0.447 0.671 0.815 1.085

0.339 0.431 0.642 0.781 1.034

0.326 0.415 0.627 0.747 0.987

0.316 0.402 0.598 0.722 0.950

150 200 250 300 350

1.482 1.706 1.914 2.10 2.28

1.382 1.580 1.764 1.932 2.10

1.294 1.479 1.642 1.793 1.940

1.227 1.396 1.553 1.700 1.831

1.174 1.333 1.480 1.610 1.736

1.137 1.276 1.413 1.542 1.661

400 450 500 550 600

2.47 2.64 2.80 2.97 3.13

2.25 2.41 2.55 2.69 2.83

2.08 2.22 2.35 2.47 2.59

1.965 2.09 2.21 2.32 2.43

1.854 1.972 2.08 2.19 2.29

1.773 1.880 1.986 2.09 2.19

650 700 750 800 900

3.29 3.44 3.59 3.75 4.04

2.97 3.10 3.23 3.37 3.63

2.72 2.84 2.96 3.08 3.30

2.55 2.66 2.76 2.87 3.08

2.41 2.50 2.60 2.69 2.89

2.28 2.37 2.47 2.56 2.74

1000 1200 1500 2000 2500

4.36 4.92 5.76 7.14 8.48

3.88 4.37 5.09 6.26 7.40

3.53 3.95 4.58 5.63 6.61

3.28 3.67 4.23 5.17 6.05

3.07 3.43 3.95 4.78 5.59

2.91 3.25 3.74 4.49 5.25

3000 3500 4000 4500 5000

9.83 11.22 12.54 13.88 15.26

8.52 9.65 10.76 11.91 13.01

7.54 8.53 9.52 10.46 11.42

6.92 7.79 8.65 9.49 10.35

6.38 7.16 7.94 8.72 9.48

5.97 6.72 7.42 8.13 8.84

1 3 5 7 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2) Weight of ClO2, grams per liter of solution 0 °C

5 °C

10 °C

15 °C

20 °C

30 °C

40 °C

2.00 6.00 10.0 14.0 20.0

1.50 4.7 7.8 10.9 15.5 17.0 18.6 20.3

1.25 3.85 6.30 8.95 12.8 14.0 15.3 16.6 18.0 19.2 20.3

1.00 3.20 5.25 7.35 10.5 11.7 12.8 13.8 14.9 16.0 17.0

0.90 2.70 4.30 6.15 8.80 9.70 10.55 11.5 12.3 13.2 14.2

0.60 1.95 3.20 4.40 6.30 7.00 7.50 8.20 8.80 9.50 10.1

0.46 1.30 2.25 3.20 4.50 5.00 5.45 5.85 6.35 6.80 7.20

Ishi, Chem. Eng. (Japan), 22:153 (1958).

TABLE 2-132

Hydrogen Chloride (HCl)

Weights of HCl per 100 weights of H2O

Partial pressure of HCl, mmHg

78.6 66.7 56.3 47.0 38.9 31.6 25.0 19.05 13.64 8.70 4.17 2.04

0 °C

10 °C

20 °C

30 °C

510 130 29.0 5.7 1.0 0.175 0.0316 0.0056 0.00099 0.000118 0.000018

840 233 56.4 11.8 2.27 0.43 0.084 0.016 0.00305 0.000583 0.000069 0.0000117

399 105.5 23.5 4.90 1.00 0.205 0.0428 0.0088 0.00178 0.00024 0.000044

627 188 44.5 9.90 2.17 0.48 0.106 0.0234 0.00515 0.00077 0.000151

Weights of HCl per 100 weights of H2O

50 °C

80 °C

78.6 66.7 56.3 47.0 38.9 31.6 25.0 19.05 13.64 8.70 4.17 2.04

535 141 35.7 8.9 2.21 0.55 0.136 0.0344 0.0064 0.00140

623 188 54.5 15.6 4.66 1.34 0.39 0.095 0.0245

Partial pressure of HCl, mm Hg 110 °C

760 253 83 28 9.3 3.10 0.93 0.280

Enthalpy and phase-equilibrium data for the binary system HCl-H2O are given by Van Nuys, Trans. Am. Inst. Chem. Engrs., 39, 663 (1943).

TABLE 2-133

Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)

t, °C

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

10−2 × H

2.68

3.15

3.67

4.23

4.83

5.45

6.09

6.76

t, °C

40

45

50

60

70

80

90

100

10−2 × H

7.45

8.14

8.84

10.3

11.9

13.5

14.4

14.8

International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 259.

THERMAL EXPANSION TABLE 2-134

2-133

Partial Vapor Pressure of Sulfur Dioxide over Water, mmHg Temperature, °C

g SO2 / 100 g H2O

0

10

0.01 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20

0.02 0.38 1.15 2.10 3.17

0.04 0.66 1.91 3.44 5.13

0.25 0.30 0.40 0.50 1.00

4.34 5.57 8.17 10.9 25.8

6.93 8.84 12.8 17.0 39.5

2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 15.00 20.00

20 0.07 1.07 3.03 5.37 7.93 10.6 13.5 19.4 25.6 58.4

30

40

50

60

90

120

0.12 1.68 4.62 8.07 11.8

0.19 2.53 6.80 11.7 17.0

0.29 3.69 9.71 16.5 23.8

0.43 5.24 13.5 22.7 32.6

1.21 12.9 31.7 52.2 73.7

2.82 27.0 63.9 104 145

15.7 19.8 28.3 37.1 83.7

58.6 93.2 129 165 202

88.5 139 192 245 299

129 202 277 353 430

183 285 389 496 602

275 351 542 735

407 517 796

585 741

818

22.5 28.2 40.1 52.3 117

31.4 39.2 55.3 72.0 159

42.8 53.3 74.7 96.8 212

95.8 118 164 211 454

253 393 535 679 824

342 530 720

453 700

955

186 229 316 404 856

Condensed from Rabe, A. E. and Harris, J. F., J. Chem. Eng. Data, 8 (3), 333–336, 1963. Copyright © American Chemical Society and reproduced by permission of the copyright owner.

THERMAL EXPANSION UNITS CONVERSIONS For this subsection, the following units conversion is applicable:

2, p. 93; metals, vol. 2, p. 459; petroleums, vol. 2, p. 145; porcelains, vol. 2, pp. 70, 78; refractory materials, vol. 2, p. 83; solid insulators, vol. 2, p. 310.

°F = 9⁄ 5 °C + 32 THERMAL EXPANSION OF GASES ADDITIONAL REFERENCES The tables given under this subject are reprinted by permission from the Smithsonian Tables. For more detailed data on thermal expansion, see International Critical Tables: tabular index, vol. 3, p. 1; abrasives, vol. 2, p. 87; alloys, vol. 2, p. 463; building stones, vol. 2, p. 54; carbons, vol. 2, p. 303; elements, vol. 1, p. 102; enamels, vol. 2, p. 115; glass, vol.

No tables of the coefficients of thermal expansion of gases are given in this edition. The coefficient at constant pressure, 1/υ(∂υ/∂T)p, for an ideal gas is merely the reciprocal of the absolute temperature. For a real gas or liquid, both it and the coefficient at constant volume, 1/p (∂p/∂T)v, should be calculated either from the equation of state or from tabulated PVT data.

2-134

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-135

Linear Expansion of the Solid Elements*

C is the true expansion coefficient at the given temperature; M is the mean coefficient between given temperatures; where one temperature is given, the true coefficient at that temperature is indicated; α and β are coefficients in formula lt = l0(1 + αt + βt2); l0 is length at 0 °C (unless otherwise indicated, when, if x is the reference temperature, lt = lx[1 + α(t − tx) + β(t − tx)2]; lt is length at t °C). Element

Temp., °C

C × 104

Aluminum Aluminum Antimony Arsenic Bismuth Cadmium Cadmium Carbon, diamond graphite Chromium Cobalt Copper Copper Gold Gold Indium Iodine Iridium Iridium Iron, soft cast wrought steel Lead (99.9)

20 300 20 20 20 0 0 50 50

0.224 0.284 0.136 0.05 0.014 0.54 0.20⊥ 0.012 0.06

20 20 200 20

0.123 0.162 0.170 0.140

40

0.417

20

0.065

40 20 20 20

0.1210 0.118 0.119 0.114

Magnesium

100 280 20

0.291 0.343 0.254

Manganese

20

0.233

Molybdenum†

20

0.053

Nickel

20

0.126

Osmium Palladium

40 20

0.066 0.1173

Platinum

20 20

0.0887 0.0893

40 40 0 40 20 20

0.0850 0.0963 0.439 0.0763 0.1846 0.195

Potassium Rhodium Ruthenium Selenium Silicon Silver Sodium Steel, 36.4Ni Tantalum†

20

0.065

Tellurium Thallium Tin

20 40 20 20 27 20‡ 20‡ 20

0.016 0.302 0.214 0.305 0.0444 0.643 0.125⊥ 0.358

Tungsten† Zinc

Temp. range, °C

M × 104

100 500 20

0.235 0.311 0.080⊥

20 −180, −140 −180, −140

0.103⊥ 0.59 0.117⊥

20, 100

0.068

100 300 17, 100 −191, 17

0.166 0.175 0.143 0.132

−190,

0.837

17

20, 100 20, 200

0, 6,

+ 20 100 100 0 100 100 500 100

0.291 0.300 0.240 0.260 0.228 0.159 0.052 0.049 0.055 0.130

0.83 0.0876

0, 100 −3, +18 0, 100

0.660 0.0249 0.197

0.009

500

0.22

20, 20,

100 100

0.526 0.214⊥

20, 6, 0,

500 121 625

0.086 0.121 0.161

0.0064 0.0040

0,

520

0.142

0.0022

0.0636 0.0679

0.0032 0.0011

−17 260 340 0 100 20

0.622 0.031 0.055 0.059 0.0655 0.272⊥

20 100 −100 100 100

0.154⊥ 0.045 0.656 0.639 0.141⊥

0, 0, 0, 100,

750 750 750 240

0.1158 0.1170 0.1118 0.269

0.0053 0.0053 0.0053 0.011

+ 20,

500

0.2480

0.0096

20, 300 −142, 19 19, +305

0.216 0.0515 0.0501

0.0121 0.0057 0.0014

−190, + 20 + 20, +300 500, 1000

0.1308 0.1236 0.1346

0.0166 0.0066 0.0033

−190, 0, −190, 0, 0,

+100 1000 −100 + 80 1000

0.1152 0.1167 0.0875 0.0890 0.0887

0.00517 0.0022 0.00314 0.00121 0.00132

−75, −112

0.0746

−75, −67 0, 875 20, 500 0, 50 260, 500 340, 500 20, 400

0.0182 0.1827 0.1939 0.72 0.144 0.136 0.0646

8, 0, −140, +20, +20,

β × 106

0.11

50 21

−190, 20, 20, −78, 0,

α × 104

0,

0, 80 1070, 1720

0, 100

−100, 20, 0, −190, 0, 25, 25, 0,

Temp. range, °C

0.00479 0.00295

0.0009

95

0.2033

0.0263

−105, +502 + 0, 400

0.0428 0.354

0.00058 0.010

*Smithsonian Tables. For more complete tabulations see Table 142, Smithsonian Physical Tables, 9th ed., 1954; Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 40th ed., pp. 2239–2245. Chemical Rubber Publishing Co.; Goldsmith, and Waterman, WADC-TR-58-476, 1959; Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960, etc. †Molybdenum, 300 to 2500 °C; lt = l300[1 + 5.00 × 10−6(t − 300) + 10.5 × 10−10(t − 300)2] Tantalum, 300 to 2800 °C; lt = l300[1 + 6.60 × 10−6(t − 300) + 5.2 × 10−10(t − 300)2] Tungsten, 300 to 2700 °C; lt = l300[1 + 4.44 × 10−6(t − 300) + 4.5 × 10−10(t − 300)2] Beryllium, 20 to 100 °C; 12.3 × 10−6 per °C. Columbium, 0 to 100 °C; 7.2 × 10−6 per °C. Tantalum, 20 to 100 °C; 6.6 × 10−6 per °C. ‡These values for zinc were taken from Grüneisen and Goens, Z. Physik., 29:141 (1924).

THERMAL EXPANSION TABLE 2-136

2-135

Linear Expansion of Miscellaneous Substances*

The coefficient of cubical expansion may be taken as three times the linear coefficient. In the following table, t is the temperature or range of temperature, and C, the coefficient of expansion. t, °C

Substance Amber Bakelite, bleached Brass: Cast Wire Wire 71.5 Cu + 27.7 Zn + 0.3 Sn + 0.5 Pb 71 Cu + 29 Zn Bronze: 3 Cu + 1 Sn 3 Cu + 1 Sn 3 Cu + 1 Sn 86.3 Cu + 9.7 Sn + 4 Zn 97.6 Cu + hard 2.2 Sn + soft 0.2 P Caoutchouc Caoutchouc Celluloid Constantan Duralumin, 94Al

{

Ebonite Fluorspar, CaF2 German silver Gold-platinum, 2 Au + 1 Pt Gold-copper, 2 Au + 1 Cu Glass: Tube Tube Plate Crown (mean) Crown (mean) Flint Jena ther- 16III mometer normal

}

0−30 0−09 20−60

C × 104 0.50 0.61 0.22

0−100 0−100 0−100

0.1875 0.1930 0.1783–0.193

40 0−100

0.1859 0.1906

16.6−100 16.6−350 16.6−957 40 0−80 0−80

0.1844 0.2116 0.1737 0.1782 0.1713 0.1708

16.7−25.3 20−70 4−29 20−100 20−300 25.3−35.4 0−100 0−100 0−100 0−100

0.657–0.686 0.770 1.00 0.1523 0.23 0.25 0.842 0.1950 0.1836 0.1523 0.1552

0−100 0−100 0−100 0−100 50−60 50−60 0−100

0.0833 0.0828 0.0891 0.0897 0.0954 0.0788 0.081

Substance

t, °C

C × 104

Jena thermometer 59III Jena thermometer 59III Gutta percha Ice Iceland spar: Parallel to axis Perpendicular to axis Lead tin (solder) 2 Pb + 1 Sn Limestone Magnalium Manganin Marble Monel metal

0−100 −191–+16 20 −20–−1

0.058 0.424 1.983 0.51

0−80 0−80

0.2631 0.0544

0−100 25−100 12−39 15−100 25−100 25−600 0−16 16−38 38−49

0.2508 0.09 0.238 0.181 0.117 0.14 0.16 1.0662 1.3030 4.7707

40

0.0884

Paraffin Paraffin Paraffin Platinum-iridium, 10 Pt + 1 Ir Platinum-silver, 1 Pt + 2 Ag Porcelain Porcelain Bayeux Quartz: Parallel to axis Parallel to axis Perpend. to axis Quartz glass Quartz glass Quartz glass Rock salt Rubber, hard Rubber, hard Speculum metal Steel, 0.14 C, 34.5 Ni

0−100 20−790 1000−1400

0.1523 0.0413 0.0553

0−80 −190 to + 16 0−80 −190 to + 16 16 to 500 16 to 1000 40 0 −160 0−100 25−100 25−600

0.0797 0.0521 0.1337 −0.0026 0.0057 0.0058 0.4040 0.691 0.300 0.1933 0.037 0.136

Substance

t, °C

Topas: Parallel to lesser horizontal axis 0−100 Parallel to greater horizontal axis 0−100 Parallel to vertical axis 0−100 Tourmaline: Parallel to longitudinal axis 0−100 Parallel to horizontal axis 0−100 Type metal 16.6−254 Vulcanite 0−18 Wedgwood ware 0−100 Wood: Parallel to fiber: Ash 0−100 Beech 2.34 Chestnut 2.34 Elm 2.34 Mahogany 2.34 Maple 2.34 Oak 2.34 Pine 2.34 Walnut 2.34 Across the fiber: Beech 2.34 Chestnut 2.34 Elm 2.34 Mahogany 2.34 Maple 2.34 Oak 2.34 Pine 2.34 Walnut 2.34 Wax white 10−26 Wax white 26−31 Wax white 31−43 Wax white 43−57

C × 104

0.0832 0.0836 0.0472 0.0937 0.0773 0.1952 0.6360 0.0890 0.0951 0.0257 0.0649 0.0565 0.0361 0.0638 0.0492 0.0541 0.0658 0.614 0.325 0.443 0.404 0.484 0.544 0.341 0.484 2.300 3.120 4.860 15.227

*Smithsonian Tables. For a more complete tabulation see Tables 143, 144. Smithsonian Physical Tables. 9th ed., 1954, also reprinted in American Institute of Physics Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957; Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 40th ed., pp. 2239–2245, Chemical Rubber Publishing Co. For data on many solids prior to 1926, see Gruneisen, Handbuch der Physik, vol. 10, pp. 1–52, 1926, translation available as N.A.S.A. RE 2-18-59W, 1959. For eight plastic solids below 300 K, see Scott, Cryogenic Engineering, p. 331, Van Nostrand, Princeton, NJ, 1959. For 11 other materials to 300 K, see Scott, loc. cit., p. 333. For quartz and silica, see Cook, Brit. J. Appl. Phys., 7, 285 (1956).

2-136

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-137

Volume Expansion of Liquids*

TABLE 2-138

If V0 is the volume at 0°, then at t° the expansion formula is Vt = V0(1 + αt + βt2 + γt3). The table gives values of α, β, and γ, and of C, the true coefficient of volume expansion at 20° for some liquids and solutions. The temperature range of the observation is ∆t. Values for the coefficient of volume expansion of liquids can be derived from the tables of specific volumes of the saturated liquid given as a function of temperature later in this section. C = (dV/dt)/V0 C × 103 at 20°

Liquid

Range

α × 103

β × 106

γ × 108

Acetic acid Acetone Alcohol: Amyl Ethyl, 30% by volume Ethyl, 50% by volume Ethyl, 99.3% by volume Ethyl, 500 atm pressure Ethyl, 3000 atm pressure Methyl Benzene Bromine Calcium chloride: 5.8% solution 40.9% solution Carbon disulfide 500 atm pressure 3000 atm pressure Carbon tetrachloride Chloroform Ether Glycerin Hydrochloric acid, 33.2% solution Mercury Olive oil Pentane Potassium chloride, 24.3% solution Phenol Petroleum, 0.8467 density Sodium chloride, 20.6% solution Sodium sulfate, 24% solution Sulfuric acid: 10.9% solution 100.0% Turpentine Water

16−107 0−54

1.0630 1.3240

0.12636 3.8090

1.0876 1.071 −0.87983 1.487

−15–80 18−39 0−39

0.9001 0.2928 0.7450

0.6573 10.790 1.85

27−46

1.012

2.20

0−40

0.866

0−40 0−61 11−81 0−59

0.524 1.1342 1.17626 1.06218

18−25 17−24 −34–60 0−50 0−50 0−76 0−63 −15–38

0.07878 0.42383 1.13980 0.940 0.581 1.18384 1.10715 1.51324 0.4853

0−33 0−100 0−33

0.4460 0.18182 0.6821 1.4646

0.215 0.0078 1.1405 3.09319

−0.539 1.6084

16−25 36−157

0.2695 0.8340

2.080 0.10732

0.4446

24−120

0.8994

1.396

0.955

0−29

0.3640

1.237

0.414

11−40

0.3599

1.258

0.410

1.18458 0.902 −11.87 0.730 1.12

1.3635 1.27776 1.87714

0.8741 1.199 0.80648 1.237 −0.30854 1.132

4.2742 0.8571 1.37065

0.250 0.458 1.91225 1.218

0.89881 4.66473 2.35918 0.4895

1.35135 1.236 −1.74328 1.273 4.00512 1.656 0.505

0−30 0.2835 2.580 0−30 0.5758 −0.432 −9−106 0.9003 1.9595 0−33 −0.06427 8.5053

0.455 0.18186 0.721 1.608 0.353 1.090

0.387 0.558 −0.44998 0.973 −6.7900 0.207

*Smithsonian Tables, Table 269. For a detailed discussion of mercury data, see Cook, Brit. J. Appl. Phys., 7, 285 (1956). For data on nitrogen and argon, see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960. Bromoform1 7.7 − 50 °C. Vt = 0.34204[1 + 0.00090411(t − 7.7) + 0.0000006766(t − 7.7)2] 0.34204 is the specific volume of bromoform at 7.7 °C. Glycerin2 −62 to 0 °C. Vt = V0(1 + 4.83 × 10−4t − 0.49 × 10−6t2) 0 − 80 °C. Vt = V0(1 + 4.83 × 10−4t + 0.49 × 10−6t2) 3 Mercury 0 − 300 °C. Vt − V0[1 + 10−8(18,153.8t + 0.7548t2 + 0.001533t2 + 0.00000536t4)] 1 Sherman and Sherman, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 50, 1119 (1928). (An obvious error in their equation has been corrected.) 2 Samsoen, Ann. phys., (10) 9, 91 (1928). 3 Harlow, Phil. Mag., (7) 7, 674 (1929).

Volume Expansion of Solids*

If v2 and v1 are the volumes at t2 and t1, respectively, then v2 = v1(1 + C∆t), C being the coefficient of cubical expansion and ∆t the temperature interval. Where only a single temperature is stated, C represents the true coefficient of volume expansion at that temperature. Substance

t or ∆t

C × 104

Antimony Beryl Bismuth Copper† Diamond Emerald Galena Glass, common tube hard Jena, borosilicate 59 III pure silica Gold Ice Iron Lead† Paraffin Platinum Porcelain, Berlin chloride nitrate sulfate Quartz Rock salt Rubber Silver Sodium Stearic acid Sulfur, native Tin Zinc†

0−100 0−100 0−100 0−100 40 40 0−100 0−100 0−100 20−100 0−80 0−100 −20 to −1 0−100 0−100 20 0−100 20 0−100 0−100 20 0−100 50−60 20 0−100 20 33.8−45.4 13.2−50.3 0−100 0−100

0.3167 0.0105 0.3948 0.4998 0.0354 0.0168 0.558 0.276 0.214 0.156 0.0129 0.4411 1.1250 0.3550 0.8399 5.88 0.265 0.0814 1.094 1.967 1.0754 0.3840 1.2120 4.87 0.5831 2.13 8.1 2.23 0.6889 0.8928

*Smithsonian Tables, Table 268. †See additional data below. Aluminum1 100 − 530 °C. V = V0(1 + 2.16 × 10−5t + 0.95 × 10−8t2) 1 Cadmium 130 − 270 °C. V = V0(1 + 8.04 × 10−5t + 5.9 × 10−8t2) 1 Copper 110 − 300 °C. V = V0(1 + 1.62 × 10−5t + 0.20 × 10−8t2) Colophony2 0 − 34 °C. V = V0(1 + 2.21 × 10−4t + 0.31 × 10−6t2) 34 − 150 °C. V = V34[1 + 7.40 × 10−4(t − 34) + 5.91 × 10−6(t − 34)2] 1 Lead 100 − 280 °C. V = V0(1 + 1.60 × 10−5t + 3.2 × 10−8t2) 2 Shellac 0 − 46 °C. V = V0(1 + 2.73 × 10−4t + 0.39 × 10−6t2) 46 − 100 °C. V = V46[1 + 13.10 × 10−4(t − 46) + 0.62 × 10−6(t − 46)2] Silica (vitreous)3 0 − 300 °C. Vt = V0[1 + 10−8(93.6t + 0.7776t2 − 0.003315t2 + 0.000005244t4) Sugar (cane, amorphous)2 0 − 67 °C. Vt = V0(1 + 2.34 × 10−4t + 0.14 × 10−6t2) 67 − 160 °C. Vt = V67[1 + 5.02 × 10−4(t − 67) + 0.43 × 10−6(t − 67)2] Zinc1 120 − 360 °C. Vt = V0(1 + 8.50 × 10−5t + 3.9 × 10−8t2) 1 2 3

Uffelmann, Phil. Mag., (7) 10, 633 (1930). Samsoen, Ann. phys., (10) 9, 83 (1928). Harlow, Phil. Mag., (7) 7, 674 (1929).

JOULE-THOMSON EFFECT

2-137

JOULE-THOMSON EFFECT UNITS CONVERSIONS °F = 9⁄ 5 °C + 32; °R = 9⁄ 5 K

Joule-Thomson coefficients for substances listed in Table 2-184 are given in tables in the Thermodynamic Properties section. For this subsection, the following units conversions are applicable: To convert the Joule-Thomson coefficient, µ, in degrees Celsius per atmosphere to degrees Fahrenheit per atmosphere, multiply by 1.8. TABLE 2-139

To convert bars to pounds-force per square inch, multiply by 14.504; to convert bars to kilopascals, multiply by 1 × 102.

Additional References Available for the Joule-Thomson Coefficient Temp. range, °C

Pressure range, atm Gas Air Ammonia Argon Benzene Butane Carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide Deuterium Dowtherm A Ethane Ethylene Helium Hydrogen

200

38 24, 30

46 45 9, 10 38 24

1, 38 22, 24, 25 30

6 33 13, 40

33 13

6 9, 11 33 9, 10, 13 28, 40 9, 10 26, 34, 44 43 28, 29, 42 45

33 13, 40

34 42, 47

>300

Other references 3, 4, 18 2, 3

31

46 48

13

19

29, 42, 47

29, 47

*See also 14 (generalized chart); 18 (review, to 1919); 20–22; 23 (review, to 1948); 27 (review, to 1905); 32, 36, 41, 50. REFERENCES: 1. Baehr. Z. Elektrochem., 60, 515 (1956). 2. Beattie, J. Math. Phys., 9, 11 (1930). 3. Beattie, Phys. Rev., 35, 643 (1930). 4. Bradley and Hale, Phys. Rev., 29, 258 (1909). 5. Brown and Dean, Bur. Stand. J. Res., 60, 161 (1958). 6. Budenholzer, Sage, et al., Ind. Eng. Chem., 29, 658 (1937). 7. Burnett, Phys. Rev., 22, 590 (1923). 8. Burnett, Univ. Wisconsin Bull. 9(6), 1926. 9. Charnley, Ph.D. thesis. University of Manchester, 1952. 10. Charnley, Isles, et al., Proc. R. Soc. (London), A217, 133 (1953). 11. Charnley, Rowlinson, et al., Proc. R. Soc. (London), A230, 354 (1955). 12. Dalton, Commun. Phys. Lab. Univ. Leiden, no. 109c, 1909. 13. Deming and Deming, Phys. Rev., 48, 448 (1935). 14. Edmister, Pet. Refiner, 28, 128 (1949). 15. Eucken, Clusius, et al., Z. Tech. Phys., 13, 267 (1932). 16. Eumorfopoulos and Rai, Phil. Mag., 7, 961 (1926). 17. Huang, Lin, et al., Z. Phys., 100, 594 (1936). 18. Hoxton, Phys. Rev., 13, 438 (1919). 19. Ishkin and Kaganev, J. Tech. Phys. U.S.S.R., 26, 2323 (1956). 20. Isles, Ph.D. thesis, Leeds University. 21. Jenkin and Pye, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. (London), A213, 67 (1914); A215, 353 (1915). 22. Johnston, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 68, 2362 (1946). 23. Johnston, Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng., 70, 651 (1948). 24. Johnston, Bezman, et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 68, 2367 (1946). 25. Johnston, Swanson, et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 68, 2373 (1946). 26. Kennedy, Sage, et al., Ind. Eng. Chem., 28, 718 (1936). 27. Kester, Phys. Rev., 21, 260 (1905). 28. Keyes and Collins, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 18, 328 (1932). 29. Kleinschmidt, Mech. Eng., 45, 165 (1923); 48, 155 (1926). 30. Koeppe, Kältetechnik, 8, 275 (1956). 31. Lindsay and Brown, Ind. Eng. Chem., 27, 817 (1935). 32. Noell, dissertation, Munich, 1914, Forschungsdienst, 184, p. 1, 1916. 33. Palienko, Tr. Inst. Ispol’ z. Gaza, Akad. Nauk Ukr. SSR, no. 4, p. 87, 1956. 34. Pattee and Brown, Ind. Eng. Chem., 26, 511, (1934). 35. Roebuck, Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 60, 537 (1925); 64, 287 (1930). 36. Roebuck, see 49 below, 37. Roebuck and Murrell, Phys. Rev., 55, 240 (1939). 38. Roebuck and Osterberg, Phys. Rev., 37, 110 (1931); 43, 60 (1933). 39. Roebuck and Osterberg, Phys. Rev., 46, 785 (1934). 40. Roebuck and Osterberg, Phys. Rev., 48, 450 (1935). 41. Roebuck, Murrell, et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 64, 400 (1942). 42. Sage, unpublished data, California Institute of Technology, 1959. 43. Sage and Lacy, Ind. Eng. Chem., 27, 1484 (1934). 44. Sage, Kennedy, et al., Ind. Eng. Chem., 28, 601 (1936). 45. Sage, Webster, et al., Ind. Eng. Chem., 29, 658 (1937). 46. Ullock, Gaffert, et al., Trans. Am. Inst. Chem. Eng., 32, 73 (1936). 47. Yang, Ind. Eng. Chem., 45, 786 (1953). 48. Zelmanov, J. Phys. U.S.S.R., 3, 43 (1940). 49. Roebuck, recalculated data. 50. Michels et al., van der Waals laboratory publications. Gunn, Cheuh, and Prausnitz, Cryogenics, 6, 324 (1966), review equations relating the inversion temperatures and pressures. The ability of various equations of state to relate these was also discussed by Miller, Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., 9, 585 (1970); and Juris and Wenzel, Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. J., 18, 684 (1972). Perhaps the most detailed review is that of Hendricks, Peller, and Baron. NASA Tech. Note D 6807, 1972. TABLE 2-140 Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus in Reduced Coordinates (Tr = T/Tc; Pr = P/Pc)* Pr

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

4

TrL TrU

0.782 4.984

0.800 4.916

0.818 4.847

0.838 4.777

0.859 4.706

0.880 4.633

0.903 4.550

0.953 4.401

Pr

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

11.79

TrL TrU

1.01 4.23

1.08 4.06

1.16 3.88

1.25 3.68

1.35 3.45

1.50 3.18

1.73 2.86

2.24 2.24

*Calculated from the best three-constant equation recommended by Miller, Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., 9, 585 (1970). TrL refers to the lower curve, and TrU, to the upper curve.

2-138

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

CRITICAL CONSTANTS ADDITIONAL REFERENCES Other data and estimation techniques for the elements are contained in Gates and Thodos, Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. J., 6 (1960):50–54; and Ohse and von Tippelskirch, High Temperatures—High Pressures, 9 (1977):367–385. For inorganic substances see Mathews, Chem. Rev., TABLE 2-141

72 (1972):71–100; for organics see Kudchaker, Alani, and Zwolinski, Chem. Rev., 68 (1968):659–735; and for fluorocarbons see Advances in Fluorine Chemistry, App. B, Butterworth. Washington, 1963, pp. 173–175. Pages 6–49 and 6–50 of the 84th edition of the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics provide an excellent list of references for critical properties.

Critical Constants and Acentric Factors of Inorganic and Organic Compounds Vc,

Cmpd.

no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64

Name Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetonitrile Acetylene Acrolein Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Air Ammonia Anisole Argon Benzamide Benzene Benzenethiol Benzoic acid Benzonitrile Benzophenone Benzyl alcohol Benzyl ethyl ether Benzyl mercaptan Biphenyl Bromine Bromobenzene Bromoethane Bromomethane 1,2-Butadiene 1,3-Butadiene Butane 1,2-Butanediol 1,3-Butanediol 1-Butanol 2-Butanol 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene Butyl acetate Butylbenzene Butyl mercaptan sec-Butyl mercaptan 1-Butyne Butyraldehyde Butyric acid Butyronitrile Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbon tetrafluoride Chlorine Chlorobenzene Chloroethane Chloroform Chloromethane 1-Chloropropane 2-Chloropropane m-Cresol o-Cresol p-Cresol Cumene Cyanogen Cyclobutane

Formula C2H4O C2H5NO C2H4O2 C4H6O3 C3H6O C2H3N C2H2 C3H4O C3H4O2 C3H3N Mixture H3N C7H8O Ar C7H7NO C6H6 C6H6S C7H6O2 C7H5N C13H10O C7H8O C9H12O C7H8S C12H10 Br2 C6H5Br C2H5Br CH3Br C4H6 C4H6 C4H10 C4H10O2 C4H10O2 C4H10O C4H10O C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C6H12O2 C10H14 C4H10S C4H10S C4H6 C4H8O C4H8O2 C4H7N CO2 CS2 CO CCl4 CF4 Cl2 C6H5Cl C2H5Cl CHCl3 CH3Cl C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O C9H12 C2N2 C4H8

Acentric

CAS no.

Mol. wt.

Tc, K

Pc, MPa

m3/kmol

Zc

factor

75-07-0 60-35-5 64-19-7 108-24-7 67-64-1 75-05-8 74-86-2 107-02-8 79-10-7 107-13-1 132259-10-0 7664-41-7 100-66-3 7440-37-1 55-21-0 71-43-2 108-98-5 65-85-0 100-47-0 119-61-9 100-51-6 539-30-0 100-53-8 92-52-4 7726-95-6 108-86-1 74-96-4 74-83-9 590-19-2 106-99-0 106-97-8 584-03-2 107-88-0 71-36-3 78-92-2 106-98-9 590-18-1 624-64-6 123-86-4 104-51-8 109-79-5 513-53-1 107-00-6 123-72-8 107-92-6 109-74-0 124-38-9 75-15-0 630-08-0 56-23-5 75-73-0 7782-50-5 108-90-7 75-00-3 67-66-3 74-87-3 540-54-5 75-29-6 108-39-4 95-48-7 106-44-5 98-82-8 460-19-5 287-23-0

44.053 59.067 60.052 102.089 58.079 41.052 26.037 56.063 72.063 53.063 28.960 17.031 108.138 39.948 121.137 78.112 110.177 122.121 103.121 182.218 108.138 136.191 124.203 154.208 159.808 157.008 108.965 94.939 54.090 54.090 58.122 90.121 90.121 74.122 74.122 56.106 56.106 56.106 116.158 134.218 90.187 90.187 54.090 72.106 88.105 69.105 44.010 76.141 28.010 153.823 88.004 70.906 112.557 64.514 119.378 50.488 78.541 78.541 108.138 108.138 108.138 120.192 52.035 56.106

466 761 591.95 606 508.2 545.5 308.3 506 615 535 132.45 405.65 645.6 150.86 824 562.05 689 751 699.35 830 720.15 662 718 773 584.15 670.15 503.8 467 452 425 425.12 680 676 563.1 535.9 419.5 435.5 428.6 575.4 660.5 570.1 554 440 537.2 615.7 582.25 304.21 552 132.92 556.35 227.51 417.15 632.35 460.35 536.4 416.25 503.15 489 705.85 697.55 704.65 631 400.15 459.93

5.55 6.6 5.786 4 4.701 4.83 6.138 5 5.66 4.48 3.774 11.28 4.25 4.898 5.05 4.895 4.74 4.47 4.215 3.352 4.374 3.11 4.06 3.38 10.3 4.519 6.23 8 4.36 4.32 3.796 5.21 4.02 4.414 4.188 4.02 4.21 4.1 3.09 2.89 3.97 4.06 4.6 4.32 4.06 3.79 7.383 7.9 3.499 4.56 3.745 7.71 4.519 5.27 5.472 6.68 4.58 4.54 4.56 5.01 5.15 3.209 5.98 4.98

0.154 0.215 0.177 0.29 0.209 0.173 0.112 0.197 0.208 0.212 0.09147 0.07247 0.337 0.07459 0.346 0.256 0.315 0.344 0.3132 0.5677 0.382 0.442 0.367 0.497 0.135 0.324 0.215 0.156 0.22 0.221 0.255 0.303 0.305 0.273 0.27 0.241 0.234 0.238 0.389 0.497 0.307 0.307 0.208 0.258 0.293 0.278 0.094 0.16 0.0944 0.276 0.143 0.124 0.308 0.2 0.239 0.143 0.247 0.247 0.312 0.282 0.277 0.434 0.195 0.21

0.221 0.224 0.208 0.23 0.233 0.184 0.268 0.234 0.23 0.214 0.313 0.242 0.267 0.291 0.255 0.268 0.261 0.246 0.227 0.276 0.279 0.25 0.25 0.261 0.286 0.263 0.32 0.321 0.255 0.27 0.274 0.279 0.218 0.258 0.254 0.278 0.272 0.274 0.251 0.262 0.257 0.271 0.262 0.25 0.232 0.218 0.274 0.275 0.299 0.272 0.283 0.276 0.265 0.275 0.293 0.276 0.27 0.276 0.242 0.244 0.244 0.265 0.351 0.273

0.2907 0.4210 0.4665 0.4535 0.3065 0.3379 0.1912 0.3198 0.5383 0.3498 0.2526 0.3502 0.0000 0.5585 0.2103 0.2628 0.6028 0.3662 0.5019 0.3631 0.4332 0.3126 0.4029 0.1290 0.2506 0.2548 0.1922 0.1659 0.1950 0.2002 0.6305 0.7043 0.5883 0.5692 0.1845 0.2019 0.2176 0.4394 0.3941 0.2714 0.2506 0.2470 0.2774 0.6805 0.3714 0.2236 0.1107 0.0482 0.1926 0.1790 0.0688 0.2499 0.1902 0.2219 0.1531 0.2277 0.1986 0.4480 0.4339 0.5072 0.3274 0.2790 0.1847

CRITICAL CONSTANTS TABLE 2-141

Critical Constants and Acentric Factors of Inorganic and Organic Compounds (Continued) Vc,

Cmpd.

no. 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140

2-139

Acentric

Name

Formula

CAS no.

Mol. wt.

Tc, K

Pc, MPa

m3/kmol

Zc

factor

Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanone Cyclohexene Cyclopentane Cyclopentene Cyclopropane Cyclohexyl mercaptan Decanal Decane Decanoic acid 1-Decanol 1-Decene Decyl mercaptan 1-Decyne Deuterium 1,1-Dibromoethane 1,2-Dibromoethane Dibromomethane Dibutyl ether m-Dichlorobenzene o-Dichlorobenzene p-Dichlorobenzene 1,1-Dichloroethane 1,2-Dichloroethane Dichloromethane 1,1-Dichloropropane 1,2-Dichloropropane Diethanol amine Diethyl amine Diethyl ether Diethyl sulfide 1,1-Difluoroethane 1,2-Difluoroethane Difluoromethane Di-isopropyl amine Di-isopropyl ether Di-isopropyl ketone 1,1-Dimethoxyethane 1,2-Dimethoxypropane Dimethyl acetylene Dimethyl amine 2,3-Dimethylbutane 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane cis-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane trans-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane Dimethyl disulfide Dimethyl ether N,N-Dimethyl formamide 2,3-Dimethylpentane Dimethyl phthalate Dimethylsilane Dimethyl sulfide Dimethyl sulfoxide Dimethyl terephthalate 1,4-Dioxane Diphenyl ether Dipropyl amine Dodecane Eicosane Ethane Ethanol Ethyl acetate Ethyl amine Ethylbenzene Ethyl benzoate 2-Ethyl butanoic acid Ethyl butyrate Ethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclopentane Ethylene Ethylenediamine Ethylene glycol Ethyleneimine Ethylene oxide Ethyl formate

C6H12 C6H12O C6H10O C6H10 C5H10 C5H8 C3H6 C6H12S C10H20O C10H22 C10H20O2 C10H22O C10H20 C10H22S C10H18 D2 C2H4Br2 C2H4Br2 CH2Br2 C8H18O C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C2H4Cl2 C2H4Cl2 CH2Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C4H11NO2 C4H11N C4H10O C4H10S C2H4F2 C2H4F2 CH2F2 C6H15N C6H14O C7H14O C4H10O2 C5H12O2 C4H6 C2H7N C6H14 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C2H6S2 C2H6O C3H7NO C7H16 C10H10O4 C2H8Si C2H6S C2H6OS C10H10O4 C4H8O2 C12H10O C6H15N C12H26 C20H42 C2H6 C2H6O C4H8O2 C2H7N C8H10 C9H10O2 C6H12O2 C6H12O2 C8H16 C7H14 C2H4 C2H8N2 C2H6O2 C2H5N C2H4O C3H6O2

110-82-7 108-93-0 108-94-1 110-83-8 287-92-3 142-29-0 75-19-4 1569-69-3 112-31-2 124-18-5 334-48-5 112-30-1 872-05-9 143-10-2 764-93-2 7782-39-0 557-91-5 106-93-4 74-95-3 142-96-1 541-73-1 95-50-1 106-46-7 75-34-3 107-06-2 75-09-2 78-99-9 78-87-5 111-42-2 109-89-7 60-29-7 352-93-2 75-37-6 624-72-6 75-10-5 108-18-9 108-20-3 565-80-0 534-15-6 7778-85-0 503-17-3 124-40-3 79-29-8 590-66-9 2207-01-4 6876-23-9 624-92-0 115-10-6 68-12-2 565-59-3 131-11-3 1111-74-6 75-18-3 67-68-5 120-61-6 123-91-1 101-84-8 142-84-7 112-40-3 112-95-8 74-84-0 64-17-5 141-78-6 75-04-7 100-41-4 93-89-0 88-09-5 105-54-4 1678-91-7 1640-89-7 74-85-1 107-15-3 107-21-1 151-56-4 75-21-8 109-94-4

84.159 100.159 98.143 82.144 70.133 68.117 42.080 116.224 156.265 142.282 172.265 158.281 140.266 174.347 138.250 4.032 187.861 187.861 173.835 130.228 147.002 147.002 147.002 98.959 98.959 84.933 112.986 112.986 105.136 73.137 74.122 90.187 66.050 66.050 52.023 101.190 102.175 114.185 90.121 104.148 54.090 45.084 86.175 112.213 112.213 112.213 94.199 46.068 73.094 100.202 194.184 60.170 62.134 78.133 194.184 88.105 170.207 101.190 170.335 282.547 30.069 46.068 88.105 45.084 106.165 150.175 116.158 116.158 112.213 98.186 28.053 60.098 62.068 43.068 44.053 74.079

553.8 650.1 653 560.4 511.7 507 398 664 674.2 617.7 722.1 688 616.6 696 619.85 38.35 628 650.15 611 584.1 683.95 705 684.75 523 561.6 510 560 572 736.6 496.6 466.7 557.15 386.44 445 351.255 523.1 500.05 576 507.8 543 473.2 437.2 500 591.15 606.15 596.15 615 400.1 649.6 537.3 766 402 503.04 729 772 587 766.8 550 658 768 305.32 514 523.3 456.15 617.15 698 655 571 609.15 569.5 282.34 593 720 537 469.15 508.4

4.08 4.26 4 4.35 4.51 4.8 5.54 3.97 2.6 2.11 2.28 2.308 2.223 2.13 2.37 1.6617 6.03 5.477 7.17 2.46 4.07 4.07 4.07 5.07 5.37 6.08 4.24 4.24 4.27 3.71 3.64 3.96 4.52 4.34 5.784 3.2 2.88 3.02 3.773 3.446 4.87 5.34 3.15 2.938 2.938 2.938 5.36 5.37 4.42 2.91 2.78 3.56 5.53 5.65 2.78 5.208 3.08 3.14 1.82 1.16 4.872 6.137 3.88 5.62 3.609 3.18 3.41 2.95 3.04 3.4 5.041 6.29 8.2 6.85 7.19 4.74

0.308 0.322 0.311 0.291 0.26 0.245 0.162 0.355 0.58 0.617 0.639 0.645 0.584 0.624 0.552 0.060263 0.276 0.2616 0.223 0.487 0.351 0.351 0.351 0.24 0.22 0.185 0.291 0.291 0.349 0.301 0.28 0.318 0.179 0.195 0.123 0.418 0.386 0.416 0.297 0.35 0.221 0.18 0.361 0.45 0.46 0.46 0.252 0.17 0.26199 0.393 0.53 0.258 0.201 0.227 0.529 0.238 0.503 0.402 0.755 1.34 0.1455 0.168 0.286 0.207 0.374 0.489 0.389 0.403 0.43 0.375 0.131 0.264 0.191 0.173 0.140296 0.229

0.273 0.254 0.229 0.272 0.276 0.279 0.271 0.255 0.269 0.254 0.243 0.26 0.253 0.23 0.254 0.314 0.319 0.265 0.315 0.247 0.251 0.244 0.251 0.28 0.253 0.265 0.265 0.259 0.243 0.27 0.263 0.272 0.252 0.229 0.244 0.308 0.267 0.262 0.265 0.267 0.274 0.264 0.274 0.269 0.268 0.273 0.264 0.2744 0.214 0.256 0.231 0.275 0.266 0.212 0.229 0.254 0.243 0.276 0.251 0.243 0.279 0.241 0.255 0.307 0.263 0.268 0.244 0.25 0.258 0.269 0.281 0.337 0.262 0.265 0.25876 0.257

0.2081 0.3690 0.2990 0.2123 0.1949 0.1961 0.1278 0.2641 0.5820 0.4923 0.8126 0.6070 0.4805 0.5874 0.5178 −0.1449 0.1250 0.2067 0.2095 0.4476 0.2790 0.2192 0.2846 0.2339 0.2866 0.1986 0.2529 0.2564 0.9529 0.3039 0.2811 0.2900 0.2751 0.2224 0.2771 0.3883 0.3387 0.4044 0.3277 0.3522 0.2385 0.2999 0.2493 0.2326 0.2324 0.2379 0.2059 0.2002 0.3177 0.2964 0.6568 0.1300 0.1943 0.2806 0.6371 0.2793 0.4389 0.4497 0.5764 0.9069 0.0995 0.6436 0.3664 0.2848 0.3035 0.4771 0.6326 0.4011 0.2455 0.2701 0.0862 0.4724 0.5068 0.2007 0.1974 0.2847

2-140

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-141

Critical Constants and Acentric Factors of Inorganic and Organic Compounds (Continued) Vc,

Cmpd.

no. 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216

Acentric

Name

Formula

CAS no.

Mol. wt.

Tc, K

Pc, MPa

m3/kmol

Zc

factor

2-Ethyl hexanoic acid Ethylhexyl ether Ethylisopropyl ether Ethylisopropyl ketone Ethyl mercaptan Ethyl propionate Ethylpropyl ether Ethyltrichlorosilane Fluorine Fluorobenzene Fluoroethane Fluoromethane Formaldehyde Formamide Formic acid Furan Helium-4 Heptadecane Heptanal Heptane Heptanoic acid 1-Heptanol 2-Heptanol 3-Heptanone 2-Heptanone 1-Heptene Heptyl mercaptan 1-Heptyne Hexadecane Hexanal Hexane Hexanoic acid 1-Hexanol 2-Hexanol 2-Hexanone 3-Hexanone 1-Hexene 3-Hexyne Hexyl mercaptan 1-Hexyne 2-Hexyne Hydrazine Hydrogen Hydrogen bromide Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen cyanide Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen sulfide Isobutyric acid Isopropyl amine Malonic acid Methacrylic acid Methane Methanol N-Methyl acetamide Methyl acetate Methyl acetylene Methyl acrylate Methyl amine Methyl benzoate 3-Methyl-1,2-butadiene 2-Methylbutane 2-Methylbutanoic acid 3-Methyl-1-butanol 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene 2-Methyl-1-butene-3-yne Methylbutyl ether Methylbutyl sulfide 3-Methyl-1-butyne Methyl butyrate Methylchlorosilane Methylcyclohexane 1-Methylcyclohexanol cis-2-Methylcyclohexanol trans-2-Methylcyclohexanol

C8H16O2 C8H18O C5H12O C6H12O C2H6S C5H10O2 C5H12O C2H5Cl3Si F2 C6H5F C2H5F CH3F CH2O CH3NO CH2O2 C4H4O He C17H36 C7H14O C7H16 C7H14O2 C7H16O C7H16O C7H14O C7H14O C7H14 C7H16S C7H12 C16H34 C6H12O C6H14 C6H12O2 C6H14O C6H14O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12 C6H10 C6H14S C6H10 C6H10 H4N2 H2 HBr HCl CHN HF H2S C4H8O2 C3H9N C3H4O4 C4H6O2 CH4 CH4O C3H7NO C3H6O2 C3H4 C4H6O2 CH5N C8H8O2 C5H8 C5H12 C5H10O2 C5H12O C5H10 C5H10 C5H6 C5H12O C5H12S C5H8 C5H10O2 CH5ClSi C7H14 C7H14O C7H14O C7H14O

149-57-5 5756-43-4 625-54-7 565-69-5 75-08-1 105-37-3 628-32-0 115-21-9 7782-41-4 462-06-6 353-36-6 593-53-3 50-00-0 75-12-7 64-18-6 110-00-9 7440-59-7 629-78-7 111-71-7 142-82-5 111-14-8 111-70-6 543-49-7 106-35-4 110-43-0 592-76-7 1639-09-4 628-71-7 544-76-3 66-25-1 110-54-3 142-62-1 111-27-3 626-93-7 591-78-6 589-38-8 592-41-6 928-49-4 111-31-9 693-02-7 764-35-2 302-01-2 1333-74-0 10035-10-6 7647-01-0 74-90-8 7664-39-3 7783-06-4 79-31-2 75-31-0 141-82-2 79-41-4 74-82-8 67-56-1 79-16-3 79-20-9 74-99-7 96-33-3 74-89-5 93-58-3 598-25-4 78-78-4 116-53-0 123-51-3 563-46-2 513-35-9 78-80-8 628-28-4 628-29-5 598-23-2 623-42-7 993-00-0 108-87-2 590-67-0 7443-70-1 7443-52-9

144.211 130.228 88.148 100.159 62.134 102.132 88.148 163.506 37.997 96.102 48.060 34.033 30.026 45.041 46.026 68.074 4.003 240.468 114.185 100.202 130.185 116.201 116.201 114.185 114.185 98.186 132.267 96.170 226.441 100.159 86.175 116.158 102.175 102.175 100.159 100.159 84.159 82.144 118.240 82.144 82.144 32.045 2.016 80.912 36.461 27.025 20.006 34.081 88.105 59.110 104.061 86.089 16.042 32.042 73.094 74.079 40.064 86.089 31.057 136.148 68.117 72.149 102.132 88.148 70.133 70.133 66.101 88.148 104.214 68.117 102.132 80.589 98.186 114.185 114.185 114.185

674.6 583 489 567 499.15 546 500.23 559.95 144.12 560.09 375.31 317.42 408 771 588 490.15 5.2 736 616.8 540.2 677.3 632.3 608.3 606.6 611.4 537.4 645 547 723 591 507.6 660.2 611.3 585.3 587.61 582.82 504 544 623 516.2 549 653.15 33.19 363.15 324.65 456.65 461.15 373.53 605 471.85 805 662 190.564 512.5 718 506.55 402.4 536 430.05 693 490 460.4 643 577.2 465 470 492 512.74 593 463.2 554.5 442 572.1 686 614 617

2.778 2.46 3.41 3.32 5.49 3.362 3.37 3.33 5.172 4.551 5.028 5.875 6.59 7.8 5.81 5.5 0.2275 1.34 3.16 2.74 3.043 3.085 3.001 2.92 2.94 2.92 2.77 3.21 1.4 3.46 3.025 3.308 3.446 3.311 3.287 3.32 3.21 3.53 3.08 3.62 3.53 14.7 1.313 8.552 8.31 5.39 6.48 8.963 3.7 4.54 5.64 4.79 4.599 8.084 4.98 4.75 5.63 4.25 7.46 3.59 3.83 3.38 3.89 3.93 3.447 3.42 4.38 3.371 3.47 4.2 3.473 4.17 3.48 4 3.79 3.79

0.528 0.487 0.329 0.369 0.207 0.345 0.339 0.414 0.066547 0.269 0.164 0.113 0.115 0.163 0.125 0.218 0.0573 1.11 0.434 0.428 0.466 0.444 0.447 0.433 0.434 0.402 0.465 0.387 1.04 0.369 0.371 0.408 0.382 0.385 0.378 0.378 0.348 0.331 0.412 0.322 0.331 0.158 0.064147 0.1 0.081 0.139 0.069 0.0985 0.292 0.221 0.258 0.28 0.0986 0.117 0.267 0.228 0.164 0.27 0.154 0.436 0.291 0.306 0.347 0.329 0.292 0.292 0.248 0.329 0.36 0.275 0.34 0.246 0.369 0.374 0.374 0.374

0.262 0.247 0.276 0.26 0.274 0.256 0.275 0.296 0.287 0.263 0.264 0.252 0.223 0.198 0.149 0.294 0.302 0.244 0.267 0.261 0.252 0.261 0.265 0.251 0.251 0.263 0.24 0.273 0.243 0.26 0.266 0.246 0.259 0.262 0.254 0.259 0.267 0.258 0.245 0.272 0.256 0.428 0.305 0.283 0.249 0.197 0.117 0.284 0.215 0.256 0.217 0.244 0.286 0.222 0.223 0.257 0.276 0.258 0.321 0.272 0.274 0.27 0.252 0.269 0.26 0.256 0.266 0.26 0.253 0.3 0.256 0.279 0.27 0.262 0.278 0.276

0.8067 0.4944 0.3056 0.3891 0.1878 0.3944 0.3473 0.2691 0.0530 0.2472 0.2200 0.1980 0.2818 0.4124 0.3173 0.2015 −0.3900 0.7697 0.4279 0.3495 0.7564 0.5621 0.5628 0.4076 0.4190 0.3432 0.4226 0.3778 0.7174 0.3872 0.3013 0.7299 0.5586 0.5574 0.3846 0.3801 0.2888 0.2183 0.3681 0.3327 0.2214 0.3143 −0.2160 0.0734 0.1315 0.4099 0.3823 0.0942 0.6141 0.2759 0.9418 0.3318 0.0115 0.5658 0.4351 0.3313 0.2115 0.3423 0.2814 0.4205 0.1874 0.2279 0.5894 0.5939 0.2341 0.2870 0.1370 0.3130 0.3229 0.3081 0.3775 0.2252 0.2361 0.2213 0.6805 0.6790

CRITICAL CONSTANTS TABLE 2-141

Critical Constants and Acentric Factors of Inorganic and Organic Compounds (Continued) Vc,

Cmpd.

no. 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292

2-141

Acentric

Name

Formula

CAS no.

Mol. wt.

Tc, K

Pc, MPa

m3/kmol

Zc

factor

Methylcyclopentane 1-Methylcyclopentene 3-Methylcyclopentene Methyldichlorosilane Methylethyl ether Methylethyl ketone Methylethyl sulfide Methyl formate Methylisobutyl ether Methylisobutyl ketone Methyl Isocyanate Methylisopropyl ether Methylisopropyl ketone Methylisopropyl sulfide Methyl mercaptan Methyl methacrylate 2-Methyloctanoic acid 2-Methylpentane Methyl pentyl ether 2-Methylpropane 2-Methyl-2-propanol 2-Methyl propene Methyl propionate Methylpropyl ether Methylpropyl sulfide Methylsilane alpha-Methyl styrene Methyl tert-butyl ether Methyl vinyl ether Naphthalene Neon Nitroethane Nitrogen Nitrogen trifluoride Nitromethane Nitrous oxide Nitric oxide Nonadecane Nonanal Nonane Nonanoic acid 1-Nonanol 2-Nonanol 1-Nonene Nonyl mercaptan 1-Nonyne Octadecane Octanal Octane Octanoic acid 1-Octanol 2-Octanol 2-Octanone 3-Octanone 1-Octene Octyl mercaptan 1-Octyne Oxalic acid Oxygen Ozone Pentadecane Pentanal Pentane Pentanoic acid 1-Pentanol 2-Pentanol 2-Pentanone 3-Pentanone 1-Pentene 2-Pentyl mercaptan Pentyl mercaptan 1-Pentyne 2-Pentyne Phenanthrene Phenol Phenyl isocyanate

C6H12 C6H10 C6H10 CH4Cl2Si C3H8O C4H8O C3H8S C2H4O2 C5H12O C6H12O C2H3NO C4H10O C5H10O C4H10S CH4S C5H8O2 C9H18O2 C6H14 C6H14O C4H10 C4H10O C4H8 C4H8O2 C4H10O C4H10S CH6Si C9H10 C5H12O C3H6O C10H8 Ne C2H5NO2 N2 F3N CH3NO2 N2O NO C19H40 C9H18O C9H20 C9H18O2 C9H20O C9H20O C9H18 C9H20S C9H16 C18H38 C8H16O C8H18 C8H16O2 C8H18O C8H18O C8H16O C8H16O C8H16 C8H18S C8H14 C2H2O4 O2 O3 C15H32 C5H10O C5H12 C5H10O2 C5H12O C5H12O C5H10O C5H10O C5H10 C5H12S C5H12S C5H8 C5H8 C14H10 C6H6O C7H5NO

96-37-7 693-89-0 1120-62-3 75-54-7 540-67-0 78-93-3 624-89-5 107-31-3 625-44-5 108-10-1 624-83-9 598-53-8 563-80-4 1551-21-9 74-93-1 80-62-6 3004-93-1 107-83-5 628-80-8 75-28-5 75-65-0 115-11-7 554-12-1 557-17-5 3877-15-4 992-94-9 98-83-9 1634-04-4 107-25-5 91-20-3 7440-01-9 79-24-3 7727-37-9 7783-54-2 75-52-5 10024-97-2 10102-43-9 629-92-5 124-19-6 111-84-2 112-05-0 143-08-8 628-99-9 124-11-8 1455-21-6 3452-09-3 593-45-3 124-13-0 111-65-9 124-07-2 111-87-5 123-96-6 111-13-7 106-68-3 111-66-0 111-88-6 629-05-0 144-62-7 7782-44-7 10028-15-6 629-62-9 110-62-3 109-66-0 109-52-4 71-41-0 6032-29-7 107-87-9 96-22-0 109-67-1 2084-19-7 110-66-7 627-19-0 627-21-4 85-01-8 108-95-2 103-71-9

84.159 82.144 82.144 115.034 60.095 72.106 76.161 60.052 88.148 100.159 57.051 74.122 86.132 90.187 48.107 100.116 158.238 86.175 102.175 58.122 74.122 56.106 88.105 74.122 90.187 46.144 118.176 88.148 58.079 128.171 20.180 75.067 28.013 71.002 61.040 44.013 30.006 268.521 142.239 128.255 158.238 144.255 144.255 126.239 160.320 124.223 254.494 128.212 114.229 144.211 130.228 130.228 128.212 128.212 112.213 146.294 110.197 90.035 31.999 47.998 212.415 86.132 72.149 102.132 88.148 88.148 86.132 86.132 70.133 104.214 104.214 68.117 68.117 178.229 94.111 119.121

532.7 542 526 483 437.8 535.5 533 487.2 497 574.6 488 464.48 553.4 553.1 469.95 566 694 497.7 546.49 407.8 506.2 417.9 530.6 476.25 565 352.5 654 497.1 437 748.4 44.4 593 126.2 234 588.15 309.57 180.15 758 658 594.6 710.7 670.9 649.5 593.1 681 598.05 747 638.9 568.7 694.26 652.3 629.8 632.7 627.7 566.9 667.3 574 804 154.58 261 708 566.1 469.7 639.16 588.1 561 561.08 560.95 464.8 584.3 598 481.2 519 869 694.25 653

3.79 4.13 4.13 3.95 4.4 4.15 4.26 6 3.41 3.27 5.48 3.762 3.8 4.021 7.23 3.68 2.54 3.04 3.042 3.64 3.972 4 4.004 3.801 3.97 4.7 3.36 3.287 4.67 4.05 2.653 5.16 3.4 4.461 6.31 7.245 6.48 1.21 2.73 2.29 2.514 2.527 2.541 2.428 2.31 2.61 1.27 2.96 2.49 2.779 2.783 2.749 2.64 2.704 2.663 2.52 2.88 7.02 5.043 5.57 1.48 3.97 3.37 3.63 3.897 3.7 3.694 3.74 3.56 3.536 3.47 4.17 4.03 2.9 6.13 4.06

0.319 0.303 0.303 0.289 0.221 0.267 0.254 0.172 0.329 0.369 0.202 0.276 0.31 0.328 0.145 0.323 0.572 0.368 0.38 0.259 0.275 0.239 0.282 0.276 0.307 0.205 0.399 0.314 0.21 0.407 0.0417 0.236 0.08921 0.11875 0.173 0.0974 0.058 1.26 0.527 0.551 0.584 0.576 0.577 0.524 0.571 0.497 1.19 0.488 0.486 0.523 0.509 0.512 0.497 0.497 0.464 0.518 0.442 0.205 0.0734 0.089 0.969 0.313 0.313 0.35 0.326 0.326 0.301 0.336 0.293 0.385 0.359 0.277 0.276 0.554 0.229 0.37

0.273 0.278 0.286 0.284 0.267 0.249 0.244 0.255 0.272 0.253 0.273 0.269 0.256 0.28718 0.268 0.253 0.252 0.27 0.254 0.278 0.26 0.275 0.256 0.265 0.259 0.329 0.247 0.25 0.27 0.265 0.3 0.247 0.289 0.272 0.223 0.274 0.251 0.242 0.263 0.255 0.248 0.261 0.271 0.258 0.233 0.261 0.243 0.272 0.256 0.252 0.261 0.269 0.249 0.257 0.262 0.235 0.267 0.215 0.288 0.228 0.244 0.264 0.27 0.239 0.258 0.259 0.238 0.269 0.27 0.28 0.251 0.289 0.258 0.222 0.243 0.277

0.2288 0.2318 0.2296 0.2758 0.2314 0.3234 0.2091 0.2556 0.3078 0.3557 0.3007 0.2656 0.3208 0.2461 0.1582 0.2802 0.7913 0.2791 0.3442 0.1835 0.6152 0.1948 0.3466 0.2770 0.2737 0.1314 0.3230 0.2466 0.2416 0.3020 −0.0396 0.3803 0.0377 0.1200 0.3480 0.1409 0.5829 0.8522 0.5117 0.4435 0.7724 0.5841 0.5911 0.4367 0.5260 0.4710 0.8114 0.4636 0.3996 0.7706 0.5697 0.5807 0.4549 0.4406 0.3921 0.4497 0.4233 0.9176 0.0222 0.2119 0.6863 0.3472 0.2515 0.7052 0.5748 0.5549 0.3433 0.3448 0.2372 0.2685 0.3207 0.2899 0.1752 0.4707 0.4435 0.4123

2-142

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-141

Critical Constants and Acentric Factors of Inorganic and Organic Compounds (Concluded) Vc,

Cmpd.

no. 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345

Acentric

Name

Formula

CAS no.

Mol. wt.

Tc, K

Pc, MPa

m3/kmol

Zc

factor

Phthalic anhydride Propadiene Propane 1-Propanol 2-Propanol Propenylcyclohexene Propionaldehyde Propionic acid Propionitrile Propyl acetate Propyl amine Propylbenzene Propylene Propyl formate 2-Propyl mercaptan Propyl mercaptan 1,2-Propylene glycol Quinone Silicon tetrafluoride Styrene Succinic acid Sulfur dioxide Sulfur hexafluoride Sulfur trioxide Terephthalic acid o-Terphenyl Tetradecane Tetrahydrofuran 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene Tetrahydrothiophene 2,2,3,3-Tetramethylbutane Thiophene Toluene 1,1,2-Trichloroethane Tridecane Triethyl amine Trimethyl amine 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Undecane 1-Undecanol Vinyl acetate Vinyl acetylene Vinyl chloride Vinyl trichlorosilane Water m-Xylene o-Xylene p-Xylene

C8H4O3 C3H4 C3H8 C3H8O C3H8O C3H14 C3H6O C3H6O2 C3H5N C5H10O2 C3H9N C9H12 C3H6 C4H8O2 C3H8S C3H8S C3H8O2 C6H4O2 F4Si C8H8 C4H6O4 O2S F6S O3S C8H6O4 C18H14 C14H30 C4H8O C10H12 C4H8S C8H18 C4H4S C7H8 C2H3Cl3 C13H28 C6H15N C3H9N C9H12 C9H12 C8H18 C8H18 C6H3N3O6 C7H5N3O6 C11H24 C11H24O C4H6O2 C4H4 C2H3Cl C2H3Cl3Si H2O C8H10 C8H10 C8H10

85-44-9 463-49-0 74-98-6 71-23-8 67-63-0 13511-13-2 123-38-6 79-09-4 107-12-0 109-60-4 107-10-8 103-65-1 115-07-1 110-74-7 75-33-2 107-03-9 57-55-6 106-51-4 7783-61-1 100-42-5 110-15-6 7446-09-5 2551-62-4 7446-11-9 100-21-0 84-15-1 629-59-4 109-99-9 119-64-2 110-01-0 594-82-1 110-02-1 108-88-3 79-00-5 629-50-5 121-44-8 75-50-3 526-73-8 95-63-6 540-84-1 560-21-4 99-35-4 118-96-7 1120-21-4 112-42-5 108-05-4 689-97-4 75-01-4 75-94-5 7732-18-5 108-38-3 95-47-6 106-42-3

148.116 40.064 44.096 60.095 60.095 122.207 58.079 74.079 55.079 102.132 59.110 120.192 42.080 88.105 76.161 76.161 76.094 108.095 104.079 104.149 118.088 64.064 146.055 80.063 166.131 230.304 198.388 72.106 132.202 88.171 114.229 84.140 92.138 133.404 184.361 101.190 59.110 120.192 120.192 114.229 114.229 213.105 227.131 156.308 172.308 86.089 52.075 62.498 161.490 18.015 106.165 106.165 106.165

791 394 369.83 536.8 508.3 636 504.4 600.81 564.4 549.73 496.95 638.35 364.85 538 517 536.6 626 683 259 636 806 430.75 318.69 490.85 1113 857 693 540.15 720 631.95 568 579.35 591.75 602 675 535.15 433.25 664.5 649.1 543.8 573.5 846 828 639 703.9 519.13 454 432 543.15 647.096 617 630.3 616.2

4.72 5.25 4.248 5.169 4.765 3.12 4.92 4.668 4.18 3.36 4.74 3.2 4.6 4.02 4.75 4.63 6.1 5.96 3.72 3.84 4.71 7.884 3.76 8.21 3.95 2.99 1.57 5.19 3.65 5.16 2.87 5.69 4.108 4.48 1.68 3.04 4.07 3.454 3.232 2.57 2.82 3.39 3.04 1.95 2.119 3.958 4.86 5.67 3.06 22.064 3.541 3.732 3.511

0.421 0.165 0.2 0.219 0.222 0.437 0.204 0.235 0.229 0.345 0.26 0.44 0.185 0.285 0.254 0.254 0.239 0.291 0.202 0.352 0.317 0.122 0.19852 0.127 0.424 0.731 0.897 0.224 0.408 0.249 0.461 0.219 0.316 0.281 0.826 0.39 0.254 0.414 0.43 0.468 0.455 0.479 0.572 0.685 0.715 0.27 0.205 0.179 0.408 0.0559472 0.375 0.37 0.378

0.302 0.264 0.276 0.254 0.25 0.258 0.239 0.22 0.204 0.254 0.298 0.265 0.281 0.256 0.281 0.264 0.28 0.305 0.349 0.256 0.223 0.269 0.282 0.255 0.181 0.307 0.244 0.259 0.249 0.245 0.28 0.259 0.264 0.252 0.247 0.266 0.287 0.259 0.258 0.266 0.269 0.231 0.253 0.252 0.259 0.248 0.264 0.283 0.276 0.229 0.259 0.264 0.259

0.7025 0.1041 0.1523 0.6209 0.6544 0.3420 0.2559 0.5796 0.3243 0.3889 0.2798 0.3444 0.1376 0.3088 0.2138 0.2318 1.1065 0.4945 0.3858 0.2971 0.9922 0.2454 0.2151 0.4240 1.0591 0.5513 0.6430 0.2254 0.3353 0.1996 0.2450 0.1970 0.2640 0.2591 0.6174 0.3162 0.2062 0.3666 0.3787 0.3035 0.2903 0.8623 0.8972 0.5303 0.6236 0.3513 0.1069 0.1001 0.2815 0.3449 0.3265 0.3101 0.3218

All substances are listed by chemical family in Table 2-6 and by formula in Table 2-7. Values in this table were taken from the Design Institute for Physical Properties (DIPPR) of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), copyright 2007 AIChE and reproduced with permission of AICHE and of the DIPPR Evaluated Process Design Data Project Steering Committee. Their source should be cited as R. L. Rowley, W. V. Wilding, J. L. Oscarson, Y. Yang, N. A. Zundel, T. E. Daubert, R. P. Danner, DIPPR® Data Compilation of Pure Chemical Properties, Design Institute for Physical Properties, AIChE, New York (2007). The number of digits provided for the acentric factor was chosen for uniformity of appearance and formatting; these do not represent the uncertainties of the physical quantities, but are the result of calculations from the standard thermophysical property formulations within a fixed format.

COMPRESSIBILITIES

2-143

COMPRESSIBILITIES physical Properties of Fluid Systems High Accuracy Data. Results can be pasted into a spreadsheet to facilitate calculation of the compressibility factor.

INTRODUCTION The compressibility factor Z can be calculated by using the defining equation Z = PV/(RT), where P is pressure, V is molar volume, R is the gas constant, and T is absolute temperature. Values of P, V, and T for substances listed in Table 2-184 are given in tables in the Thermodynamic Properties section. For the units used in these tables, R is 0.008314472 MPa·dm3/(mol·K). Values at temperatures and pressures other than those in the tables can be generated for many of the substances in Table 2-184 by going to http://webbook. nist.gov and selecting NIST Chemistry WebBook, then Thermo-

TABLE 2-142

UNITS CONVERSIONS For this subsection, the following units conversions are applicable: °R = 9⁄5 K To convert bars to pounds-force per cubic inch, multiply by 14.504. To convert bars to kilopascals, multiply by 1 × 102.

Composition of Selected Refrigerant Mixtures Composition (mass percent)

Mixture R-410A R-404A R-507A R-407C (Klea 66) R-407A (Klea 60) R-407B (Klea 61)

TABLE 2-143

Tables

R-32

R-125

2-290 2-288 2-296 2-263, 2-264, 2-289 2-143, 2-261 2-144, 2-262

50

50 44 50 25 40 70

23 20 10

R-134a

R-143a

4

52 50

52 40 20

Compressibility Factors for R 407A (Klea 60) Pressure, bar

T, K 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 Zdew Tdew, K

1 0.9691 0.9737 0.9773 0.9803 0.9828 0.9848 0.9866 0.9881 0.9893 0.9904 0.9914 0.9593 234.3

5 0.0163 0.0161 0.4268 0.8932 0.9080 0.9199 0.9298 0.9380 0.9449 0.9509 0.9560 0.8809 273.3

10 0.0325 0.0321 0.0318 0.0316 0.0360 0.8253 0.8495 0.8689 0.8847 0.8980 0.9092 0.8107 295.1

15 0.0487 0.0480 0.0476 0.0473 0.0473 0.0476 0.7518 0.7889 0.8173 0.8401 0.8588 0.7502 309.6

20 0.0648 0.0640 0.0633 0.0630 0.0629 0.0632 0.0641 0.5737 0.7386 0.7752 0.8038 0.6936 320.9

25 0.0809 0.0798 0.0790 0.0785 0.0784 0.0787 0.0797 0.0816 0.6279 0.6993 0.7425 0.6381 330.1

30 0.0970 0.0957 0.0947 0.0940 0.0938 0.0942 0.0952 0.0972 0.1011 0.6016 0.6713 0.5813 337.9

Zdew

Pdew

0.9340 0.9136 0.8895 0.8614 0.8290 0.7916 0.7485 0.6983 0.6386 0.5641 0.4564

2.05 3.08 4.46 6.28 8.60 11.53 15.15 19.58 24.96 31.46 39.42

The values in this table were generated from the NIST REFPROP software (Lemmon, E. W., McLinden, M. O., and Huber, M. L., NIST Standard Reference Database 23: Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties-REFPROP, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Standard Reference Data Program, Gaithersburg, Md., 2002, Version 7.1).

TABLE 2-144

Compressibility Factors for R 407B (Klea 61) Pressure, bar

T, K 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 Zdew Tdew, K

1 0.9703 0.9745 0.9779 0.9808 0.9831 0.9851 0.9868 0.9883 0.9895 0.9906 0.9915 0.9587 230.6

5 0.0180 0.0178 0.8785 0.8961 0.9101 0.9215 0.9310 0.9390 0.9457 0.9515 0.9565 0.8774 269.4

10 0.0359 0.0355 0.0352 0.0351 0.5520 0.8290 0.8522 0.8709 0.8864 0.8993 0.9103 0.8036 291.3

15 0.0538 0.0532 0.0527 0.0526 0.0527 0.0533 0.7569 0.7924 0.8200 0.8422 0.8606 0.7389 305.9

20 0.0716 0.0708 0.0702 0.0699 0.0700 0.0707 0.0721 0.6949 0.7428 0.7784 0.8064 0.6776 317.1

25 0.0894 0.0883 0.0875 0.0872 0.0872 0.0879 0.0895 0.0925 0.6453 0.7042 0.7462 0.6164 326.4

30 0.1071 0.1058 0.1048 0.1043 0.1043 0.1050 0.1067 0.1098 0.1164 0.6108 0.6770 0.5518 334.3

Zdew

Pdew

0.9251 0.9024 0.8757 0.8446 0.8085 0.7666 0.7178 0.6600 0.5890 0.4916

2.40 3.56 5.10 7.10 9.64 12.81 16.71 21.45 27.18 34.12

The values in this table were generated from the NIST REFPROP software (Lemmon, E. W., McLinden, M. O., and Huber, M. L., NIST Standard Reference Database 23: Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties-REFPROP, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Standard Reference Data Program, Gaithersburg, Md., 2002, Version 7.1).

2-144

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-145

Compressibilities of Liquids*

At the constant temperature T, the compressibility β = (1/V 0)(dV/dP). In general as P increases, β decreases rapidly at first and then slowly; the change of β with T is large at low pressures but very small at pressures above 1000 to 2000 megabars. 1 megabar = 0.987 atm = 106 dynes/cm2 based upon the older usage, 1 bar = 1 dyne/cm2.

Substance

Temp., °C

Pressure, megabars

Acetone Acetone Acetone Acetone Amyl alcohol alcohol, iso. alcohol, iso. alcohol, n alcohol, n alcohol, n alcohol, n Benzene Benzene Benzene Bromine Bromine Butyl alcohol, iso alcohol, iso alcohol, iso alcohol, iso alcohol, iso alcohol, iso Carbon bisulfide bisulfide bisulfide bisulfide tetrachloride tetrachloride Chloroform Chloroform Dichloroethylsulfide Dichloroethylsulfide Ethyl acetate acetate

14 20 20 40 14 20 20 20 20 20 40 17 20 20 20 20 18 20 20 20 20 20 16 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 32 32 13 20

23 500 1,000 12,000 23 200 400 500 1,000 12,000 12,000 5 200 400 200 400 8 200 400 500 1,000 12,000 21 500 1,000 12,000 200 400 200 400 1,000 2,000 23 200

Compressibility per megabar β × 106

Substance

111 61 52 9 88 84 70 61 46 8 8 89 77 67 56 51 97 81 64 56 46 8 86 57 48 6 86 73 83 70 34 24 103 90

Ethyl acetate alcohol alcohol alcohol alcohol bromide bromide bromide bromide bromide chloride chloride chloride chloride ether ether ether ether iodide iodide iodide iodide iodide Gallium Glycerol Hexane Hexane Kerosene Kerosene Kerosene Mercury Mercury Mercury Mercury

Temp., °C

Pressure, megabars

Compressibility per megabar β × 106

Substance

20 14 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 15 20 20 20 25 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 30 15 20 20 20 20 20 20 22 22 22

400 23 500 1,000 12,000 200 400 500 1,000 12,000 23 500 1,000 12,000 23 500 1,000 12,000 200 400 500 1,000 12,000 300 5 200 400 500 1,000 12,000 300 500 1,000 12,000

75 100 63 54 8 100 82 70 54 8 151 102 66 8 188 84 61 10 81 69 64 50 8 3.97 22 117 91 55 45 8 3.95 3.97 3.91 2.37

Methyl alcohol alcohol alcohol alcohol alcohol alcohol Nitric acid Oils: Almond Castor Linseed Olive Rapeseed Phosphorus trichloride trichloride trichloride trichloride Propyl alcohol (n) alcohol (n) alcohol (n?) alcohol (n?) alcohol (n?) Toluene Toluene Turpentine Water Water Water Water Water Water Water Xylene, meta meta

Temp., °C

Pressure, megabars

Compressibility per megabar β × 106

15 20 20 20 20 20 0

23 200 400 500 1,000 12,000 17

103 95 80 65 54 8 32

15 15 15 15 20 10 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 40 40 40 20 20

5 5 5 5

53 46 51 55 59 71 63 47 8 77 67 65 47 7 74 64 74 49 43 41 39 38 33 9 69 60

250 500 1,000 12,000 200 400 500 1,000 12,000 200 400 13 200 400 500 500 1,000 12,000 200 400

* Smithsonian Tables, Table 106. Scott (Cryogenic Engineering, Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J., 1959) gives data for liquid nitrogen (p. 283), oxygen (p. 276), and hydrogen (p. 303). For a convenient index to the high-pressure work of Bridgman, see American Institute of Physics Handbook, p. 2-163, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957.

TABLE 2-146

Compressibilities of Solids

Many data on the compressibility of solids obtained prior to 1926 are contained in Gruneisen, Handbuch der Physik, vol. 10, Springer, Berlin, 1926, pp. 1–52; also available as translation, NASA RE 2-18-59W, 1959. See also Tables 271, 273, 276, 278, and other material in Smithsonian Physical Tables, 9th ed., 1954. For a review of high-pressure work to 1946, see Bridgman, Rev. Mod. Phys., 18, 1 (1946).

LATENT HEATS UNITS CONVERSIONS For this subsection, the following units conversions are applicable: °F = 9⁄ 5 °C + 32 To convert calories per gram-mole to British thermal units per

pound-mole, multiply by 1.799; to convert calories per gram to British thermal units per pound, multiply by 1.799. To convert millimeters of mercury to pounds-force per square inch, multiply by 1.934 × 10−2.

LATENT HEATS TABLE 2-147

2-145

Heats of Fusion and Vaporization of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds*

Unless stated otherwise, the values have been taken from the compilations by K. K. Kelley on “Heats of Fusion of Inorganic Compounds,” U.S. Bur. Mines Bull. 393 (1936), and “The Free Energies of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures of Inorganic Substances,” U.S. Bur. Mines Bull. 383 (1935).

Substance Aluminum Al Al2Br6 Al2Cl6 AlF3·3NaF Al2I6 Al2O3 Antimony Sb SbBr3 SbCl3 SbCl5 Sb4O6 Sb4S6 Argon A Arsenic As AsBr3 AsCl3 AsF5 As4O6 Barium Ba BaBr2 BaCl2 BaF2 Ba(NO3)2 Ba3(PO4)2 BaSO4 Beryllium Be Bismuth Bi BiBr3 BiCl3 Bi2O3 Bi2S5 Boron BBr3 BCl3 BF3 B2H6 B3H10 B5H9 B5H11 B10H14 B2H5Br B3N3H6 Bromine Br2 BrF5 Cadmium Cd CdBr2 CdCl2 CdF2 CdI2 CdO CdSO4 Calcium Ca CaBr2 CaCO3 CaCl2 CaF2 Ca(NO3)2 CaO CaO·Al2O3·2SiO2 CaO·MgO·2SiO2 CaO·SiO2 CaSO4 Carbon C (graphite) CBr4 CCl4 CF4 CH4 C2N2 CNBr CNCl

mp, °C

Heat of fusion,a,b cal/mol

bp at 1 atm, °C

Heat of vaporization,a,b cal/mol

660.0 97.5 192.5 1000 191.0 2045

2,550 5,420 16,960 16,380 7,960 (26,000)

2057 256.4 180.2c

61,020 10,920 26,750c

385.5 3000

15,360

630.5 97 73.4 4 655 546

4,770 3,510 3,030 2,400 (27,000) 11,200

1440

46,670

219 172d 1425

10,360 11,570 17,820

−185.8

1,590

610c

31,000c

122 −52.8 457.2

7,570 4,980 14,300

−189.3 814 31 −16 −80.7 313

290 (6,620) 2,810 2,420 2,800 8,000

704 847 960 1287 595 1730 1350

(1,400)e 6,000 5,370 3,000 (5,980) 18,600 9,700

1280

2,500e

271.3

2,505

224 817 747

2,600 6,800 8,900

−128 −165.5 −119.8 −46.9

480

99.7 −104 −58

7,800

−7.2 −61.3

2,580 1,355

320.9 568 568 1110 387

1,460 (5,000) 5,300 (5,400) 3,660

1000

4,790

851 730 1282 782 1392 561 2707 1550 1392 1512 1297

2,230 4,180 (12,700) 6,100 4,100 5,120 (12,240) 29,400 (18,200) 13,400 6,700

1638

1420 461 441

18,020 17,350

91.3 12.5 −100.9 −92.4 16 58 67 f 16 50.4

7,300 5,680 4,620 3,685 6,470 7,700 8,500 11,600 6,230 7,670

58.0 40.4

7,420 7,470

765

23,870

967

29,860

796 1559c

25,400 53,820c

1487

36,580

3600 90 −24.0

11,000e 1,050 644

−182.5 −27.8 52 −5

224 1,938u

77 −127.9 −161.4 −21.1

2,240

13

*See also subsection “Thermodynamic Properties.”

35,670

7,280 3,110 2,040 5,576u 11,010c 6,300

Substance Carbon (Cont.) CNF CNI CO CO2 COS COCl2 CS2 Cerium Ce Cesium Cs CsBr CsCl CsF CsI CsNO3 Chlorine Cl2 ClF ClF3 Cl2O ClO2 Cl2O7 Chromium Cr CrO2Cl2 Cobalt Co CoCl2 Copper Cu Cu2Br2 Cu2Cl2 CuI Cu2(CN)2 Cu2O CuO Cu2S Fluorine F2 F2O Gallium Ga Germanium Ge GeH4 Ge2H6 Ge3H8 GeHCl3 GeBr4 GeCl4 Ge(CH3)4 Gold Au Helium He Hydrogen H2 HBr HCl HCN HF (HF)6 HI H2O H22O (= D2O) H2O2 HNO3 H3PO2 H3PO3 H3PO4 H4P2O6 H2S H2S2 H2SO4 H2Se H2SeO4 H2Te Indium In

mp, °C

Heat of fusion,a,b cal/mol

−205.0 −57.5 −138.8

200 1,900 1,129 k

−112.0

1,049 l

775

2,120

28.4

500

642 715

3,600 (2,450)

407

3,250

−101.0

1,531m

1550

3,930

1490 727

3,660 7,390

1083.0

3,110

430

4,890

473 1230 1447 1127

(5,400) (13,400) 2,820 5,500

−223 29.8

bp at 1 atm, °C −72.8 141 −191.5 −78.4c −50.2 8.0

5,780c 13,980c 1,444 6,030 c, r 4,423 k 5,990

690 1300 1300 1251 1280

16,320 35,990 35,690 34,330 35,930

−34.1 −101 11.3 2.0 10.9 79

959 −165 −109 −105.6 −71 26.1 −49.5 −88

(8,300)

1063.0

3,030

−271.4 −259.2 −86.9 −114.2 −13.2 −83.0

28 575 476 2,009i 1,094

−50.8 0.0 3.8 −2 −47 17.4 74 42.4 55 −85.5 −87.6 10.5

686 1,436 1,501s 2,520c 600 2,310 3,070 2,520 8,300 568t 1,805 2,360

58 −48.9

3,450 1,670

156.4

781

4,878 m 5,890 6,280 7,100 8,480

2475 117

8,250

1050

27,170

2595 1355 1490 1336

72,810 16,310 11,920 15,940

−188.2 −144.8 1,336

Heat of vaporization,a,b cal/mol

1,640 2,650

2071 −89.1 31.4 110.6 75g 189 84 44 2966

3,580 5,900 7,550 8,000 8,560 7,030 6,460 81,800

−268.4

22

−252.7 −66.7 −85.0 25.7 33.3 51.2

216 4,210 3,860 6,027i 7,460 5,020

100.0 101.4 158

9,729 h,q 9,945 r,q 10,270

−60.3

4,463 t

−41.3

4,880

−2.2

5,650

2-146

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-147

Substance Iodine I2 ICl(α) ICl(β) IF7 Iron Fe FeCl2 Fe2Cl6 Fe(CO)5 FeO FeS Krypton Kr Lead Pb PbBr2 PbCl2 PbF2 PbI2 PbMoO4 PbO PbS PbSO4 PbWO4 Lithium Li LiBO2 LiBr LiCl LiF LiI LiOH Li2MoO4 LiNO3 Li2SiO3 Li4SiO4 Li2SO4 Li2WO4 Magnesium Mg MgBr2 MgCl2 MgF2 MgO Mg3(PO4)2 MgSiO3 MgSO4 MgZn2 Manganese Mn MnCl2 MnSiO3 MnTiO3 Mercury Hg HgBr2 HgCl2 HgI2 HgSO4 Molybdenum Mo MoF6 MoO3 Neon Ne Nickel Ni NiCl2 Ni(CO)4 Ni2S Ni3S2 Nitrogen N2 NF3 NH3 NH4CNS NH4NO3 N2O NO N2O4 N2O5 NOCl Osmium OsF8 OsO4 (yellow) OsO4 (white) Oxygen O2 O3

Heats of Fusion and Vaporization of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued) mp, °C

Heat of fusion,a,b cal/mol

113.0 17.2 13.9

3,650 2,660 2,270

183 4c

7,460c

1530 677 304 −21 1380 1195

3,560 7,800 20,590 3,250 (7,700) 5,000

2735 1026 319 105

84,600 30,210 12,040 9,000

−157

360e

bp at 1 atm, °C

152.9

Heat of vaporization,a,b cal/mol 10,390

2,310e

327.4 488 498 824 412 1065 890 1114 1087 1123

1,224 4,290 5,650 1,860 5,970 (25,800) 2,820 4,150 9,600 (15,200)

1744 914 954 1293 872

42,060 27,700 29,600 38,300 24,850

1472 1281

51,310 (50,000)

179 845 552 614 847 440 462 705

1,100 (5,570) 2,900 3,200 (2,360) (1,420) 2,480 4,200

1372

32,250

1310 1382 1681 1171

35,420 35,960 50,970 40,770

1177 1249 857 742

7,210 7,430 3,040 (6,700)

650 711 712 1221 2642 1184 1524 1127 589

2,160 8,300 8,100 5,900 18,500 (11,300) 14,700 3,500 (8,270)

1220 650 1274 1404

3,450 7,340 (8,200) (7,960)

2152 1190

557 3,960 4,150 4,500 (1,440)

361 319 304 354

13,980 14,080 14,080 14,260

(6,660) 2,500 (2,500)

(4800) 36 1151

(128,000) 6,000

−38.9 241 277 250 850 2622 17 745 −248.5

1107 1418

32,520 32,690

55,150 29,630

77

−246.0

440e

1455

4,200

2730 987c 42.5

87,300 48,360c 7,000

645 790

(2,980) 5,800 −195.8 −129.0 −33.4

1,336 3,000 5,581n

−88.5 −151.7 30 32.4 −6.4

3,950 3,307 7,040 13,800c 6,140

47.4 130

6,840 9,450

−183.0 −111

1,629 2,880

−210.0 −77.7 146 169.6 −90.8 −163.6 −13

56 42 −218.9

172 1,352n (4,700) 1,460 1,563 550 5,540

4,060 2,340 106

Substance Palladium Pd Phosphorus P4 (yellow) P4 (violet) P4 (black) PCl3 PH3 P4O6 P4O10(α) P4O10(β) POCl3 P2S3 Platinum Pt Potassium K KBO2 KBr KCl KCN KCNS K2CO3 K2CrO4 K2Cr2O7 KF KI K2MoO4 KNO3 KOH KPO3 K3PO4 K4P2O7 K2SO4 K2TiO3 K2WO4 Praseodymium Pr Radon Rn Rhenium Re Re2O7 Re2O8 Rubidium Rb RbBr RbCl RbF RbI RbNO3 Selenium Se2 Se6 SeF6 SeO2 SeOCl2 Silicon Si SiCl4 Si2Cl6 Si3Cl8 (SiCl3)2O SiF4 Si2F6 SiF3Cl SiF2Cl2 SiH4 Si2H6 Si3H8 Si4H10 SiH3Br SiH2Br2 SiHCl3 (SiH3)3N (SiH3)2O SiO2 (quartz) SiO2 (cristobalite) Silver Ag AgBr AgCl AgCN AgI AgNO3 Ag2S Ag2SO4 Sodium Na NaBO2

mp, °C

Heat of fusion,a,b cal/mol

1554

4,120

bp at 1 atm, °C

44.2

615

−133.8 23.8 569

270o 3,360 17,080

1.1

3,110

1773.5

4,700

(4400)

(107,000)

63.5 947 742 770 623 179 897 984 398 857 682 922 338 360 817 1340 1092 1074 810 927

574 (5,700) 5,000 6,410 (3,500) 2,250 7,800 6,920 8,770 6,500 4,100 (4,000) 2,840 (2,000) 2,110 8,900 14,000 8,100 (10,600) (4,400)

776

18,920

1383 1407

37,060 38,840

1324

34,690

1327

30,850

932

2,700

−71 (3000) 296 147

15,340 3,800

39.1 677 717 833 638 305

525 3,700 4,400 4,130 2,990 1,340

217

1,220

10

1,010

1427 −67.6 −1

9,470 1,845

−33

280 417c 453c 74.2 −87.7 174 591 358c 105.1 508

Heat of vaporization,a,b cal/mol

8,380

−61.8

4,010

362.4

18,060

679 1352 1381 1408 1304 753 736 −45.8c 317c 168 2290 56.8 139 211.4 135.6 −94.8c −18.9c −70.1 −31.5 −111.6 −14.3 53.1 100 2.4 70.5 31.8 48.7 −15.4 2230

−18.5 −138 −144 −185 −132.5 −117 −93.5 −93.8 −70.0 −126.5 −105.6 −144 1470 1700

3,900

960.5 430 455 350 557 209 842 657

2,700 2,180 3,155 2,750 2,250 2,755 3,360 (4,300)

2212

97.7 966

630 8,660

3,400 2,100

12,520 25,600c 33,100 7,280 3,489 o 10,380 20,670

18,110 37,120 36,920 39,510 35,960 25,490 20,600 6,350c 20,900

6,860 12,340 8,820 6,130c 10,400c 4,460 5,080 2,960 5,110 6,780 8,890 5,650 6,840 6,360 6,850 5,350

60,720

1564

42,520

1506

34,450

914

23,120

LATENT HEATS TABLE 2-147

2-147

Heats of Fusion and Vaporization of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Concluded)

Substance Sodium (Cont.) NaBr NaCl NaClO3 NaCN NaCNS Na2CO3 NaF NaI Na2MoO4 NaNO3 NaOH aNa2O·aAl2O3·3SiO2 NaPO3 Na4P2O7 Na2S Na2SiO3 Na2Si2O5 Na2SO4 Na2WO4 Strontium Sr SrBr2 SrCl2 SrF2 Sr3(PO4)2 Sulfur S (rhombic) S (monoclinic) S2Cl2 SF6 SO2 SO3(α) SO3(β) SO3(γ) SOBr2 SOCl2 SO2Cl2 Tellurium Te TeCl4 TeF6

mp, °C

Heat of fusion,a,b cal/mol

747 800 255 562 323 854 992 662 687 310 322 1107 988 970 920 1087 884 884 702

6,140 7,220 5,290 (4,400) 4,450 7,000 7,000 5,240 3,600 3,760 2,000 13,150 (5,000) (13,700) (1,200) 10,300 8,460 5,830 5,800

757 643 872 1400 1770

2,190 4,780 4,100 4,260 18,500

112.8 119.2 −75.5 17 32.4 62.2

453

1,769p 2,060 2,890 6,310

3,230

bp at 1 atm, °C

Heat of vaporization,a,b cal/mol

1392 1465

37,950 40,810

1500

37,280

1704

53,260

1378

1384

33,610

444.6

2,200

138 −63.5c −5.0 44.8

8,720 5,600c 5,960p 10,190

139.5 75.4 69.2

9,920 7,600 7,760

1090 392 −38.6c

16,830 6,700c

Substance Thallium Tl TlBr TlCl Tl2CO3 TlI TlNO3 Tl2S Tl2SO4 Tin Sn4 SnBr2 SnBr4 SnCl2 SnCl4 Sn(CH3)4 SnH4 SnI4 Titanium TiBr4 TiCl4 TiO2 Tungsten W WF6 Uranium UF6 Xenon Xe Zinc Zn ZnCl2 Zn(C2H5)2 ZnO ZnS Zirconium ZrBr4 ZrCl4 ZrI4 ZrO2

a

k

b

l

c

m

Values in parentheses are uncertain. For the freezing point or the normal boiling point unless otherwise stated. Sublimation. d Decomposes at about 75 °C; value obtained by extrapolation. e Bichowsky and Rossini, Thermochemistry of the Chemical Substances, Reinhold, New York (1936). f Decomposes before the normal boiling point is reached. g Decomposes at about 40 °C; value obtained by extrapolation. h See also pp. 2-304 through 2-307 on steam table. i Giauque and Ruehrwein, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 61 (1939): 2626. j Giauque and Egan, J. Chem. Phys., 5 (1937): 45.

TABLE 2-148

mp, °C

Alloys 30.5 Pb + 69.5 Sn 36.9 Pb + 63.1 Sn 63.7 Pb + 36.3 Sn 77.8 Pb + 22.2 Sn 1 Pb + 9 Sn 24 Pb + 27.3 Sn + 48.7 Bi 25.8 Pb + 14.7 Sn + 52.4 Bi + 7 Cd Silicates Anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8) Orthoclase (KAlSi2O8) Microcline (KAlSi3O8) Wollastonite (CaSiO8) Malacolite (Ca8MgSi4O12) Diopside (CaMgSi2O4) Olivine (Mg2SiO4) Fayalite (Fe2SiO4) Spermaceti Wax (bees’)

bp at 1 atm, °C

Heat of vaporization,a,b cal/mol

302.5 460 427 273 440 207 449 632

1,030 5,990 4,260 4,400 3,125 2,290 3,000 5,500

1457 819 807

38,810 23,800 24,420

823

25,030

231.8 232 30 247 −33.2

1,720 (1,700) 3,000 3,050 2,190

2270

68,000

−149.8 143.5

(4,300)

38.2 −23 1825

(2,060) 2,240 (11,400)

136

3390 −0.4

(8,400) 1,800

(5900) 17.3

(176,000) 6,350

55.1c

9,990c

−111.5 419.5 283 1975 1645

2715

740 1,595 (5,500)

623 113 78.3 −52.3

20,740 8,330 7,320 4,420

8,350

−108.0

3,110

907 732 118

27,430 28,710 8,960

357c 311c 431c

25,800c 25,290c 29,030c

4,470 (9,000)

20,800

Kemp and Giauque, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 59 (1937): 79. Brown and Manov, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 59 (1937): 500. Giauque and Powell, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 61 (1939): 1970. n Overstreet and Giauque, J. Am. Chem. Soc 59 (1937): 254. o Stephenson and Giauque, J. Chem. Phys., 5 (1937): 149. p Giauque and Stephenson, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 60 (1938): 1389. q Osborne, Stimson, and Ginnings, Bur. Standards J. Research, 23, 197 (1939): 261. r Miles and Menzies, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 58 (1936): 1067. s Long and Kemp, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 58 (1936): 1829. t Giauque and Blue, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 58 (1936): 831. u Ruehrwein and Giauque, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 61 (1939): 2940.

Heats of Fusion of Miscellaneous Materials

Material

Heat of fusion,a,b cal/mol

mp, °C

Heat of fusion, cal/g

183 179 177.5 176.5 236 98.8 75.5

17 15.5 11.6 9.54 28 6.85 8.4

43.9 61.8

100 100 83 100 94 100 130 85 37.0 42.3

2-148

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-149

Heats of Fusion of Organic Compounds

The values for the hydrocarbons are from the tables of the American Petroleum Institute Research Project 44 at the National Bureau of Standards, with some from Parks and Huffman, Ind. Eng. Chem., 23, 1138 (1931). The values for the nonhydrocarbon compounds were recalculated from data in International Critical Tables, vol. 5. Hydrocarbon compounds Paraffins Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane 2-Methylpropane n-Pentane 2-Methylbutane 2,2-Dimethylpropane n-Hexane 2-Methylpentane 2,2-Dimethylbutane 2,3-Dimethylbutane n-Heptane 2-Methylhexane 3-Ethylpentane 2,2-Dimethylpentane 2,4-Dimethylpentane 3,3-Dimethylpentane 2,2,3-Trimethylbutane n-Octane 2-Methylheptane 3-Methylpentane 4-Methylheptane 2,2-Dimethylhexane 2,5-Dimethylhexane 3,3-Dimethylhexane 2-Methyl-3-ethylpentane 3-Methyl-3-ethylpentane 2,2,3-Trimethylpentane 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 2,3,4-Trimethylpentane 2,2,3,3-Tetramethylbutane n-Nonane n-Decane n-Undecane n-Dodecane Eicosane Pentacosane Tritriacontane Aromatics Benzene Methylbenzene (Toluene) Ethylbenzene o-Xylene m-Xylene p-Xylene n-Propylbenzene Isopropylbenzene 1-Methyl-2-ethylbenzene

Formula

mp, °C

Heat of fusion, cal/g

CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C4H10 C5H12 C5H12 C5H12 C6H14 C6H14 C6H14 C6H14 C7H16 C7H16 C7H16 C7H16 C7H16 C7H16 C7H16 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22 C11H24 C12H26 C20H42 C25H52 C33H68

−182.48 −183.23 −187.65 −138.33 −159.60 −129.723 −159.890 −16.6 −95.320 −153.680 −99.73 −128.41 −90.595 −118.270 −118.593 −123.790 −119.230 −134.46 −24.96 −56.798 −109.04 −120.50 −120.955 −121.18 −91.200 −126.10 −114.960 −90.870 −112.27 −107.365 −100.70 −109.210 +100.69 −53.9 −30.0 −25.9 −9.6 +36.4 +53.3 +71.1

14.03 22.712 19.100 19.167 18.668 27.874 17.076 10.786 36.138 17.407 1.607 2.251 33.513 21.158 22.555 13.982 15.968 16.856 5.250 43.169 21.458 23.795 22.692 24.226 26.903 14.9 23.690 22.657 18.061 19.278 3.204 19.392 14.900 41.2 48.3 34.1 51.3 52.0 53.6 54.0

C6H6 C7H8 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12

+5.533 −94.991 −94.950 −25.187 −47.872 +13.263 −99.500 −96.028 −80.833

30.100 17.171 20.629 30.614 26.045 38.526 16.97 19.22 21.13 Heat of fusion, cal/g

Formula

mp, °C

Acetic acid Acetone Acrylic acid Allo-cinnamic acid Aminobenzoic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Amyl alcohol Anethole Aniline Anthraquinone Apiol Azobenzene Azoxybenzene

C2H4O2 C3H6O C3H4O2 C9H8O2 C7H7NO2 C7H7NO2 C7H7NO2 C5H12O C10H12O C6H5NH2 C14H8O2 C12H14O4 C12H10N2 C12H10N2O

16.7 −95.5 12.3 68 145 179.5 188.5 −78.9 22.5 −6.3 284.8 29.5 67.1 36

46.68 23.42 37.03 27.35 35.48 38.03 36.46 26.65 25.80 27.09 37.48 25.80 28.91 21.62

Benzil Benzoic acid Benzophenone Benzylaniline Bromocamphor Bromochlorbenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Bromoiodobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Bromol hydrate Bromophenol (p-) Bromotoluene (p-)

C14H10O2 C7H8O2 C13H10O C13H13N C10H15BrO C6H4BrCl C6H4BrCl C6H4BrCl C6H4BrI C6H4BrI C6H4BrI C2H3Br3O2 C6H5BrO C7H7Br

95.2 122.45 47.85 32.37 78 −12.6 −21.2 64.6 21 9.3 90.1 46 63.5 28

22.15 33.90 23.53 21.86 41.57 15.41 15.29 23.41 12.18 10.27 16.60 16.90 20.50 20.86

Nonhydrocarbon compounds

Hydrocarbon compounds Aromatics—(Cont.) 1-Methyl-3-ethylbenzene 1-Methyl-4-ethylbenzene 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene Naphthalene Camphene Durene Isodurene Prehnitene p-Cymene n-Butyl benzene tert-Butyl benzene β-Methyl naphthalene Diphenyl Hexamethyl benzene Diphenyl methane Anthracene Phenanthrene Tolane Stilbene Dibenzil Triphenyl methane Alkyl cyclohexanes Cyclohexane Methylcyclohexane Alkyl cyclopentanes Cyclopentane Methylcyclopentane Ethylcyclopentane 1,1-Dimethylcyclopentane cis-1,2-Dimethylcyclopentane trans-1,2-Dimethylcyclopentane trans-1,3-Dimethylcyclopentane Monoolefins Ethene (Ethylene) Propene (Propylene) 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene 2-Methylpropene (isobutene) 1-Pentene cis-2-pentene trans-2-pentene 2-Methyl-1-butene 3-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene Acetylenes Acetylene 2-Butyne (dimethylacetylene) Nonhydrocarbon compounds

mp, °C

Heat of fusion, cal/g

C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C10H8 C10H12 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C11H10 C12H10 C12H18 C13H12 C14H10 C14H10 C14H10 C14H12 C14H14 C19H16

−95.55 −62.350 −25.375 −43.80 −44.720 +80.0 +51 +79.3 −24.0 −7.7 −68.9 −88.5 −58.1 +34.1 +68.6 +165.5 +25.2 +216.5 +96.3 +60 +124 +51.4 +92.1

15.14 25.29 16.64 24.54 18.97 36.0 57 37.4 23.0 20.0 17.1 19.5 14.9 20.1 28.8 30.4 26.4 38.7 25.0 28.7 40.0 30.7 21.1

C6H12 C7H14

+6.67 −126.58

7.569 16.429

C5H10 C6H12 C7H14 C7H14 C7H14 C7H14 C7H14

−93.80 −142.445 −138.435 −69.73 −53.85 −117.57 −133.680

2.068 19.68 11.10 3.36 3.87 15.68 17.93

C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C5H10 C5H10 C5H10 C5H10 C5H10 C5H10

−169.15 −185.25 −185.35 −138.91 −105.55 −140.35 −165.27 −151.363 −140.235 −137.560 −168.500 −133.780

28.547 17.054 16.393 31.135 41.564 25.265 16.82 24.239 26.536 26.879 18.009 25.738

C2H2 C4H6

−81.5 −132.23

23.04 40.808

Formula

Formula

mp, °C

Heat of fusion, cal/g

Butyl alcohol (n-) (t-) Butyric acid (n-)

C4H10O C4H10O C4H8O2

−89.2 25.4 −5.7

29.93 21.88 30.04

Capric acid (n-) Caprylic acid (n-) Carbazole Carbon tetrachloride Carvoxime (d-) (l-) (dl-) Cetyl alcohol Chloracetic acid (α-) (β-) Chloral alcoholate hydrate Chloroaniline (p-) Chlorobenzoic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Chloronitrobenzene (m-) (p-) Cinnamic acid anhydride Cresol (p-) Crotonic acid (α-) (cis-) Cyanamide Cyclohexanol

C10H20O2 C8H16O2 C12H9N CCl4 C10H15NO C10H15NO C10H15NO C16H34O C2H3ClO2 C2H3ClO2 C4H7Cl3O2 C2H3Cl3O2 C6H6ClN C7H5ClO2 C7H5ClO2 C7H5ClO2 C6H4ClNO2 C6H4ClNO2 C9H8O2 C18H14O3 C7H8O C4H6O2 C4H6O2 CH2N2 C6H12O

31.99 16.3 243 −22.8 71.5 71 91 49.27 61.2 56 9 47.4 71 140.2 154.25 239.7 44.4 83.5 133 48 34.6 72 71.2 44 25.46

38.87 35.40 42.05 41.57 23.29 23.41 24.61 33.80 31.06 35.12 24.03 33.18 37.15 39.30 36.41 49.21 29.38 31.51 36.50 28.14 26.28 25.32 34.90 49.81 4.19

LATENT HEATS TABLE 2-149

2-149

Heats of Fusion of Organic Compounds (Concluded) Heat of fusion, cal/g

Formula

mp, °C

Dibromobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Dibromophenol (2, 4-) Dichloroacetic acid Dichlorobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Dihydroxybenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Di-iodobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Dimethyl tartrate (dl-) (d-) pyrone Dinitrobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Dinitrotoluene (2, 4-) Dioxane Diphenyl amine

C6H4Br2 C6H4Br2 C6H4Br2 C6H4Br2O C2H2Cl2O2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H6O2 C6H6O2 C6H6O2 C6H4I2 C6H4I2 C6H4I2 C6H10O6 C6H10O6 C7H8O2 C6H4N2O4 C6H4N2O4 C6H4N2O4 C7H6N2O4 C4H8O2 C12H11N

1.8 −6.9 86 12 −4(?) −16.7 −24.8 53.13 104.3 109.65 172.3 23.4 34.2 129 87 49 132 116.93 89.7 173.5 70.14 11.0 52.98

12.78 13.38 20.55 13.97 14.21 21.02 20.55 29.67 49.40 46.20 58.77 10.15 11.54 16.20 35.12 21.50 56.14 32.25 24.70 39.99 26.40 34.85 25.23

Elaidic acid Ethyl acetate alcohol Ethylene dibromide Ethyl ether

C18H34O2 C4H8O2 C2H6O C2H4Br2 C4H10O

44.4 83.8 −114.4 10.012 −116.3

52.08 28.43 25.76 13.52 23.54

Formic acid

CH2O2

8.40

58.89

Glutaric acid Glycerol Glycol, ethylene

C6H8O4 C3H8O3 C2H6O2

97.5 18.07 −11.5

37.39 47.49 43.26

Hydrazo benzene Hydrocinnamic acid Hydroxyacetanilide

C12H12N2 C9H10O2 C8H9NO2

134 48 91.3

22.89 28.14 33.59

Iodotoluene (p-) Isopropyl alcohol ether

C7H7I C3H8O C6H14O

34 −88.5 −86.8

18.75 21.08 25.79

Lauric acid (n-) Levulinic acid

C12H24O2 C5H8O3

43.22 33

43.72 18.97

Menthol (l-) (α) Methyl alcohol Myristic acid Methyl cinnamate fumarate oxalate phenylpropiolate succinate

C10H20O CH4O C14H28O2 C10H10O2 C6H8O4 C4H6O4 C10H8O2 C6H10O4

43.5 −97.8 53.86 36 102 54.35 18 19.5

18.63 23.7 47.49 26.53 57.93 42.64 22.86 35.72

Nonhydrocarbon compounds

Formula

mp, °C

Heat of fusion, cal/g

Naphthol (α-) (β-) Naphthylamine (α-) Nitroaniline (o-) (m-) (p-) Nitrobenzene Nitrobenzoic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Nitronaphthalene Nitrophenol (o-)

C10H8O C10H8O C10H9N C6H6N2O2 C6H6N2O2 C6H6N2O2 C6H5NO2 C7H5NO4 C7H5NO4 C7H5NO4 C10H7NO2 C6H5NO3

95.0 120.6 50 71.2 114.0 147.3 5.85 145.8 141.1 239.2 56.7 45.13

38.94 31.30 22.34 27.88 40.97 36.46 22.52 40.06 27.59 52.80 25.44 26.76

Palmitic acid Paraldehyde Pelargic acid (n-) (β-) Pelargonic acid (n-) (α-) Phenol Phenylacetic acid Phenylhydrazine Propyl ether (n)

C16H32O2 C6H12O3 C9H18O2 C9H18O2 C6H6O C8H8O2 C6H8N2 C6H14O

61.82 10.5 12.35 40.92 76.7 19.6 −126.1

39.18 25.02 39.04 30.63 29.03 25.44 36.31 20.66

Quinone

C6H4O2

115.7

40.85

Stearic acid Succinic anhydride Succinonitrile

C18H30O2 C4H4O3 C4H4N2

68.82 119 54.5

47.54 48.74 11.71

Tetrachloroxylene (o-) (p-) Thiophene Thiosinamine Thymol Toluic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Toluidine (p-) Tribromophenol (2, 4, 6-) Trichloroacetic acid Trinitroglycerol Trinitrotoluene (2, 4, 6-) Tristearin

C8H6Cl4 C8H6Cl4 C4H4S C4H8N2S C10H14O C8H8O2 C8H8O2 C8H8O2 C7H9N C6H3Br3O C2HCl3O2 C3H5N3O9 C7H5N3O6 C57H110O6

86 95 −39.4 77 51.5 103.7 108.75 179.6 43.3 93 57.5 12.3 80.83 70.8, 54.5

21.02 22.10 14.11 33.45 27.47 35.40 27.59 39.90 39.90 13.38 8.60 23.02 22.34 45.63

Undecylic acid (α-) (n-) (β-) (n-) Urethane

C11H22O2 C11H22O2 C3H7NO2

28.25 48.7

32.20 42.91 40.85

Veratrol

C8H10O2

22.5

27.45

Xylene dibromide (o-) (m-) dichloride (o-) (m-) (p-)

C8H8Br2 C8H8Br2 C8H8Cl2 C8H8Cl2 C8H8Cl2

Nonhydrocarbon compounds

95 77 55 34 100

24.25 21.45 29.03 26.64 32.73

2-150

TABLE 2-150 Heats of Vaporization of Inorganic and Organic Liquids (J/kmol) Cmpd. no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59

Name Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetonitrile Acetylene Acrolein Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Air Ammonia Anisole Argon Benzamide Benzene Benzenethiol Benzoic acid Benzonitrile Benzophenone Benzyl alcohol Benzyl ethyl ether Benzyl mercaptan Biphenyl Bromine Bromobenzene Bromoethane Bromomethane 1,2-Butadiene 1,3-Butadiene Butane 1,2-Butanediol 1,3-Butanediol 1-Butanol 2-Butanol 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene Butyl acetate Butylbenzene Butyl mercaptan sec-Butyl mercaptan 1-Butyne Butyraldehyde Butyric acid Butyronitrile Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbon tetrafluoride Chlorine Chlorobenzene Chloroethane Chloroform Chloromethane 1-Chloropropane 2-Chloropropane m-Cresol

Formula

CAS no.

Mol. wt.

C1 × 1E-07

C2

C2H4O C2H5NO C2H4O2 C4H6O3 C3H6O C2H3N C2H2 C3H4O C3H4O2 C3H3N Mixture H3N C7H8O Ar C7H7NO C6H6 C6H6S C7H6O2 C7H5N C13H10O C7H8O C9H12O C7H8S C12H10 Br2 C6H5Br C2H5Br CH3Br C4H6 C4H6 C4H10 C4H10O2 C4H10O2 C4H10O C4H10O C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C6H12O2 C10H14 C4H10S C4H10S C4H6 C4H8O C4H8O2 C4H7N CO2 CS2 CO CCl4 CF4 Cl2 C6H5Cl C2H5Cl CHCl3 CH3Cl C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C7H8O

75-07-0 60-35-5 64-19-7 108-24-7 67-64-1 75-05-8 74-86-2 107-02-8 79-10-7 107-13-1 132259-10-0 7664-41-7 100-66-3 7440-37-1 55-21-0 71-43-2 108-98-5 65-85-0 100-47-0 119-61-9 100-51-6 539-30-0 100-53-8 92-52-4 7726-95-6 108-86-1 74-96-4 74-83-9 590-19-2 106-99-0 106-97-8 584-03-2 107-88-0 71-36-3 78-92-2 106-98-9 590-18-1 624-64-6 123-86-4 104-51-8 109-79-5 513-53-1 107-00-6 123-72-8 107-92-6 109-74-0 124-38-9 75-15-0 630-08-0 56-23-5 75-73-0 7782-50-5 108-90-7 75-00-3 67-66-3 74-87-3 540-54-5 75-29-6 108-39-4

44.053 59.067 60.052 102.089 58.079 41.052 26.037 56.063 72.063 53.063 28.960 17.031 108.138 39.948 121.137 78.112 110.177 122.121 103.121 182.218 108.138 136.191 124.203 154.208 159.808 157.008 108.965 94.939 54.090 54.090 58.122 90.121 90.121 74.122 74.122 56.106 56.106 56.106 116.158 134.218 90.187 90.187 54.090 72.106 88.105 69.105 44.010 76.141 28.010 153.823 88.004 70.906 112.557 64.514 119.378 50.488 78.541 78.541 108.138

3.8366 8.107 4.0179 6.352 4.215 4.3511 2.3214 3.8736 4.3756 4.155 0.8474 3.1523 5.8662 0.87308 8.7809 4.5346 6.225 10.19 6.8077 10.523 8.4762 6.228 6.9642 7.635 4 5.552 3.9004 3.169 3.522 3.2632 3.6238 8.9754 9.2247 7.1274 7.9227 3.3774 3.4358 3.3191 5.8276 6.3487 4.9702 4.6432 3.6972 4.6403 6.1947 5.22 2.173 3.496 0.8585 4.3252 1.9311 3.068 5.148 3.524 4.186 2.9745 3.989 3.8871 8.0082

0.40081 0.42 2.6037 0.3986 0.3397 0.34765 0.35938 0.29335 2.2571 0.2733 0.3822 0.3914 0.37127 0.3526 0.1933 0.39053 0.4412 0.478 0.63344 0.87091 0.35251 0.3411 0.44354 0.39182 0.351 0.37694 0.38012 0.3015 0.395 0.3701 0.8337 0.45316 0.42442 0.0483 0.58361 0.5107 0.38004 0.36968 0.38854 0.38222 0.41199 0.399 0.39168 0.3849 1.6524 0.165 0.382 0.2986 0.4921 0.37688 0.94983 0.8458 0.36614 0.3652 0.3584 0.353 0.37956 0.38043 0.45314

C3

C4

−5.0031

2.7069

−4.5116

2.5738

−0.2289

0.2309

0.30877

−0.14162

−0.27365 −0.45568 0.43853

−0.3026

−0.82274

0.39613

0.8966 0.02016 −0.17304

−0.5116 −0.08654 0.05181

−2.8505 0.6692 −0.4339

1.6285 −0.539 0.42213

−0.326

0.2231

−1.0615 −0.9001

0.51894 0.453

Tmin, K

Hv at Tmin × 1E-07

Tmax, K

Hv at Tmax

150.15 353.15 289.81 200.15 178.45 229.32 192.40 185.45 286.15 189.63 59.15 195.41 235.65 83.78 403.00 278.68 258.27 395.45 260.40 321.35 257.85 275.65 243.95 342.20 265.85 242.43 154.55 179.47 136.95 164.25 134.86 220.00 196.15 183.85 158.45 87.80 134.26 167.62 199.65 185.30 157.46 133.02 147.43 176.75 250.00 161.25 216.58 161.11 68.13 250.33 89.56 172.12 227.95 134.80 209.63 175.43 150.35 155.97 285.39

3.2828 6.2386 2.3412 5.4139 3.6390 3.5996 1.6333 3.3881 2.7965 3.6866 0.6759 2.5298 4.9560 0.6561 7.1286 3.4705 5.0597 7.1277 5.3147 7.4895 6.8800 5.1829 5.7930 6.0719 3.2323 4.6875 3.3933 2.7379 3.0540 2.7235 2.8684 7.5185 7.9759 6.3643 6.4607 3.0197 2.9867 2.7630 4.9384 5.5979 4.3505 4.1614 3.1511 3.9797 4.1619 4.7223 1.5202 3.1537 0.6517 3.4528 1.4215 2.2878 4.3707 3.1052 3.5047 2.4520 3.4862 3.3586 6.3326

466.00 761.00 591.95 606.00 508.20 545.50 308.30 506.00 615.00 535.00 132.45 405.65 645.60 150.86 824.00 562.05 689.00 751.00 699.35 830.00 720.15 662.00 718.00 773.00 584.15 670.15 503.80 467.00 452.00 425.00 425.12 680.00 676.00 563.10 535.90 419.50 435.50 428.60 575.40 660.50 570.10 554.00 440.00 537.20 615.70 582.25 304.21 552.00 132.50 556.35 227.51 417.15 632.35 460.35 536.40 416.25 503.15 489.00 705.85

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 915,280 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2-151

60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122

o-Cresol p-Cresol Cumene Cyanogen Cyclobutane Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanone Cyclohexene Cyclopentane Cyclopentene Cyclopropane Cyclohexyl mercaptan Decanal Decane Decanoic acid 1-Decanol 1-Decene Decyl mercaptan 1-Decyne Deuterium 1,1-Dibromoethane 1,2-Dibromoethane Dibromomethane Dibutyl ether m-Dichlorobenzene o-Dichlorobenzene p-Dichlorobenzene 1,1-Dichloroethane 1,2-Dichloroethane Dichloromethane 1,1-Dichloropropane 1,2-Dichloropropane Diethanol amine Diethyl amine Diethyl ether Diethyl sulfide 1,1-Difluoroethane 1,2-Difluoroethane Difluoromethane Di-isopropyl amine Di-isopropyl ether Di-isopropyl ketone 1,1-Dimethoxyethane 1,2-Dimethoxypropane Dimethyl acetylene Dimethyl amine 2,3-Dimethylbutane 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane cis-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane trans-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane Dimethyl disulfide Dimethyl ether N,N-Dimethyl formamide 2,3-Dimethylpentane Dimethyl phthalate Dimethylsilane Dimethyl sulfide Dimethyl sulfoxide Dimethyl terephthalate 1,4-Dioxane Diphenyl ether Dipropyl amine

C7H8O C7H8O C9H12 C2N2 C4H8 C6H12 C6H12O C6H10O C6H10 C5H10 C5H8 C3H6 C6H12S C10H20O C10H22 C10H20O2 C10H22O C10H20 C10H22S C10H18 D2 C2H4Br2 C2H4Br2 CH2Br2 C8H18O C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C2H4Cl2 C2H4Cl2 CH2Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C4H11NO2 C4H11N C4H10O C4H10S C2H4F2 C2H4F2 CH2F2 C6H15N C6H14O C7H14O C4H10O2 C5H12O2 C4H6 C2H7N C6H14 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C2H6S2 C2H6O C3H7NO C7H16 C10H10O4 C2H8Si C2H6S C2H6OS C10H10O4 C4H8O2 C12H10O C6H15N

95-48-7 106-44-5 98-82-8 460-19-5 287-23-0 110-82-7 108-93-0 108-94-1 110-83-8 287-92-3 142-29-0 75-19-4 1569-69-3 112-31-2 124-18-5 334-48-5 112-30-1 872-05-9 143-10-2 764-93-2 7782-39-0 557-91-5 106-93-4 74-95-3 142-96-1 541-73-1 95-50-1 106-46-7 75-34-3 107-06-2 75-09-2 78-99-9 78-87-5 111-42-2 109-89-7 60-29-7 352-93-2 75-37-6 624-72-6 75-10-5 108-18-9 108-20-3 565-80-0 534-15-6 7778-85-0 503-17-3 124-40-3 79-29-8 590-66-9 2207-01-4 6876-23-9 624-92-0 115-10-6 68-12-2 565-59-3 131-11-3 1111-74-6 75-18-3 67-68-5 120-61-6 123-91-1 101-84-8 142-84-7

108.138 108.138 120.192 52.035 56.106 84.159 100.159 98.143 82.144 70.133 68.117 42.080 116.224 156.265 142.282 172.265 158.281 140.266 174.347 138.250 4.032 187.861 187.861 173.835 130.228 147.002 147.002 147.002 98.959 98.959 84.933 112.986 112.986 105.136 73.137 74.122 90.187 66.050 66.050 52.023 101.190 102.175 114.185 90.121 104.148 54.090 45.084 86.175 112.213 112.213 112.213 94.199 46.068 73.094 100.202 194.184 60.170 62.134 78.133 194.184 88.105 170.207 101.190

7.1979 8.4942 5.766 3.384 3.334 4.4902 9.1791 5.6772 4.4405 3.8911 3.8107 2.7672 5.6067 7.9073 6.6126 13.107 7.9041 6.6985 8.0617 6.9461 0.1657 5.712 5.37 4.82 5.9616 5.6899 6.2117 5.9765 4.2117 4.5507 4.186 4.774 4.675 10.154 4.6133 4.06 4.7659 3.2312 3.4552 2.8081 5.007 4.6117 5.0256 4.3872 4.7999 3.856 4.09 4.1509 5.0402 5.2852 5.1194 4.9825 2.994 5.9217 4.6533 8.1578 2.8365 3.9022 6.629 7.236 5.051 6.8243 5.428

0.40317 0.50234 0.38939 0.3707 0.3395 0.39881 0.6382 0.37431 0.37479 0.36111 0.3543 0.35588 0.38729 0.4129 0.39797 1.0674 −1.36 0.76944 0.41045 0.42109 0.352 0.5255 0.416 0.3771 0.38833 0.35765 0.42845 0.38559 0.36927 0.34444 0.4092 0.39204 0.36529 0.3403 0.42628 0.3868 0.37987 0.37653 0.3499 0.3364 0.4362 0.4 0.29611 0.56226 0.30724 0.3737 0.42005 0.38383 0.4036 0.41607 0.405 0.3958 0.3505 0.37996 0.37577 0.29346 0.35393 0.37731 0.4084 0.2424 0.3791 0.30877 0.3665

−0.97372 4.0854 −0.79975

−0.60662 −0.024545

0.40491 −2.3871 0.42379

0.4202 0.091361

304.19 307.93 177.14 245.25 182.48 279.69 296.60 242.00 169.67 179.28 138.13 145.59 189.64 267.15 243.51 304.55 280.05 206.89 247.56 229.15 18.73 210.15 282.85 220.60 175.30 248.39 256.15 326.14 176.19 237.49 178.01 200.00 172.71 301.15 223.35 156.85 169.20 154.56 215.00 136.95 176.85 187.65 204.81 159.95 226.10 240.91 180.96 145.19 239.66 223.16 184.99 188.44 131.65 212.72 160.00 274.18 122.93 174.88 291.67 413.80 284.95 300.03 210.15

5.7135 6.3649 5.0717 2.3803 2.8083 3.3920 6.2221 4.7739 3.8791 3.3299 3.4046 2.3532 4.9220 6.4201 5.4168 8.7931 8.2959 5.3524 6.7308 5.7192 0.1309 4.6111 4.2346 4.0709 5.1902 4.8419 5.1191 4.6573 3.6189 3.7657 3.5116 4.0147 4.0997 8.4908 3.5761 3.4651 4.1537 2.6659 2.7427 2.3781 4.1823 3.8207 4.4125 3.7528 4.0557 2.9557 3.2678 3.6388 4.0862 4.3662 4.4043 4.3108 2.6032 5.0931 4.0745 7.1632 2.4928 3.3213 5.3804 6.0070 3.9263 5.8546 4.5500

697.55 704.65 631.00 400.15 459.93 553.80 650.10 653.00 560.40 511.70 507.00 398.00 664.00 674.20 617.70 722.10 688.00 616.60 696.00 619.85 38.35 628.00 650.15 611.00 584.10 683.95 705.00 684.75 523.00 561.60 510.00 560.00 572.00 736.60 496.60 466.70 557.15 386.44 445.00 351.26 523.10 500.05 576.00 507.80 543.00 473.20 437.20 500.00 591.15 606.15 596.15 615.00 400.10 649.60 537.30 766.00 402.00 503.04 729.00 772.00 587.00 766.80 550.00

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2-152

TABLE 2-150 Heats of Vaporization of Inorganic and Organic Liquids (J/kmol) (Continued) Cmpd. no. 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181

Name Dodecane Eicosane Ethane Ethanol Ethyl acetate Ethyl amine Ethylbenzene Ethyl benzoate 2-Ethyl butanoic acid Ethyl butyrate Ethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclopentane Ethylene Ethylenediamine Ethylene glycol Ethyleneimine Ethylene oxide Ethyl formate 2-Ethyl hexanoic acid Ethylhexyl ether Ethylisopropyl ether Ethylisopropyl ketone Ethyl mercaptan Ethyl propionate Ethylpropyl ether Ethyltrichlorosilane Fluorine Fluorobenzene Fluoroethane Fluoromethane Formaldehyde Formamide Formic acid Furan Helium-4 Heptadecane Heptanal Heptane Heptanoic acid 1-Heptanol 2-Heptanol 3-Heptanone 2-Heptanone 1-Heptene Heptyl mercaptan 1-Heptyne Hexadecane Hexanal Hexane Hexanoic acid 1-Hexanol 2-Hexanol 2-Hexanone 3-Hexanone 1-Hexene 3-Hexyne Hexyl mercaptan 1-Hexyne 2-Hexyne

Formula

CAS no.

Mol. wt.

C1 × 1E-07

C2

C12H26 C20H42 C2H6 C2H6O C4H8O2 C2H7N C8H10 C9H10O2 C6H12O2 C6H12O2 C8H16 C7H14 C2H4 C2H8N2 C2H6O2 C2H5N C2H4O C3H6O2 C8H16O2 C8H18O C5H12O C6H12O C2H6S C5H10O2 C5H12O C2H5Cl3Si F2 C6H5F C2H5F CH3F CH2O CH3NO CH2O2 C4H4O He C17H36 C7H14O C7H16 C7H14O2 C7H16O C7H16O C7H14O C7H14O C7H14 C7H16S C7H12 C16H34 C6H12O C6H14 C6H12O2 C6H14O C6H14O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12 C6H10 C6H14S C6H10 C6H10

112-40-3 112-95-8 74-84-0 64-17-5 141-78-6 75-04-7 100-41-4 93-89-0 88-09-5 105-54-4 1678-91-7 1640-89-7 74-85-1 107-15-3 107-21-1 151-56-4 75-21-8 109-94-4 149-57-5 5756-43-4 625-54-7 565-69-5 75-08-1 105-37-3 628-32-0 115-21-9 7782-41-4 462-06-6 353-36-6 593-53-3 50-00-0 75-12-7 64-18-6 110-00-9 7440-59-7 629-78-7 111-71-7 142-82-5 111-14-8 111-70-6 543-49-7 106-35-4 110-43-0 592-76-7 1639-09-4 628-71-7 544-76-3 66-25-1 110-54-3 142-62-1 111-27-3 626-93-7 591-78-6 589-38-8 592-41-6 928-49-4 111-31-9 693-02-7 764-35-2

170.335 282.547 30.069 46.068 88.105 45.084 106.165 150.175 116.158 116.158 112.213 98.186 28.053 60.098 62.068 43.068 44.053 74.079 144.211 130.228 88.148 100.159 62.134 102.132 88.148 163.506 37.997 96.102 48.060 34.033 30.026 45.041 46.026 68.074 4.003 240.468 114.185 100.202 130.185 116.201 116.201 114.185 114.185 98.186 132.267 96.170 226.441 100.159 86.175 116.158 102.175 102.175 100.159 100.159 84.159 82.144 118.240 82.144 82.144

7.7337 12.86 2.1091 5.5789 4.933 4.275 5.4805 6.7093 7.898 5.6419 5.3832 4.8287 1.8844 5.7521 8.3518 4.94 3.6652 4.5909 11.184 6.2786 4.258 5.2207 3.844 5.3325 5.438 4.9482 0.88757 4.582 2.7617 2.4708 3.076 7.358 2.3195 4.005 0.012504 10.473 5.956 5.0014 11.274 7.0236 9.6433 6.3357 6.1425 4.9437 6.5473 4.8222 10.156 5.6661 4.4544 9.0746 7.035 11.55 5.6231 5.6232 4.1429 4.808 5.8422 4.574 4.911

0.40681 0.50351 0.60646 0.31245 0.3847 0.5857 0.39524 0.33273 0.39445 0.37985 0.41763 0.37804 0.36485 0.34513 0.42625 0.466 0.37878 0.4123 0.86189 0.39513 0.37221 0.34893 0.37534 0.401 0.60624 0.39871 0.34072 0.3717 0.32162 0.37014 0.2954 0.3564 1.9091 0.3995 1.3038 0.4374 0.36474 0.38795 0.86047 −1.3652 0.783 0.42167 0.39802 0.35428 0.40968 0.33858 0.45726 0.38533 0.39002 0.8926 −0.9575 2.2877 0.38207 0.39972 0.49118 0.436 0.38704 0.3698 0.4392

C3

C4

0.32986 −0.55492

−0.42184 0.32799

−0.332

0.169

−0.47845

0.048646

−5.0003

3.2641

−2.6954

1.7098

−0.40661 3.987 −0.27273

−0.012644 −2.2545 0.038495

0.22149

−0.2353

−0.75172 3.1431 −3.6724

0.34378 −1.8066 2.1326

−0.44821

0.32105

Tmin, K

Hv at Tmin × 1E-07

Tmax, K

Hv at Tmax

263.57 309.58 90.35 159.05 189.60 192.15 178.20 238.45 258.15 175.15 161.84 134.71 104.00 284.29 260.15 195.20 160.65 193.55 235.00 180.00 140.00 204.15 125.26 199.25 145.65 167.55 53.48 230.94 129.95 131.35 181.15 275.70 250.00 196.29 2.20 295.13 229.80 182.57 265.83 239.15 230.00 234.15 238.15 154.12 229.92 192.22 291.31 217.15 177.83 269.25 228.55 223.00 217.35 217.50 133.39 170.05 192.62 141.25 183.65

6.2802 9.5933 1.7879 4.9694 4.1490 3.2955 4.7900 5.8382 6.4816 4.9090 4.7318 4.3603 1.5936 4.5918 6.8989 4.0022 3.1271 3.7679 8.2832 5.4262 3.7556 4.4677 3.4489 4.4449 4.4140 4.2942 0.7578 3.7605 2.4089 2.0276 2.5863 6.2844 1.8865 3.2647 0.0097 8.3699 5.0248 4.2619 7.9579 7.6498 6.9638 5.1579 5.0471 4.3208 5.4656 4.1647 8.0225 4.7495 3.7647 6.4783 7.1509 6.5014 4.7135 4.6655 3.6691 4.0831 5.0630 4.0640 4.1067

658.00 768.00 305.32 514.00 523.30 456.15 617.15 698.00 655.00 571.00 609.15 569.50 282.34 593.00 720.00 537.00 469.15 508.40 674.60 583.00 489.00 567.00 499.15 546.00 500.23 559.95 144.12 560.09 375.31 317.42 408.00 771.00 588.00 490.15 5.20 736.00 616.80 540.20 677.30 632.30 608.30 606.60 611.40 537.40 645.00 547.00 723.00 591.00 507.60 660.20 611.30 585.30 587.61 582.82 504.00 544.00 623.00 516.20 549.00

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2-153

182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244

Hydrazine Hydrogen Hydrogen bromide Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen cyanide Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen sulfide Isobutyric acid Isopropyl amine Malonic acid Methacrylic acid Methane Methanol N-Methyl acetamide Methyl acetate Methyl acetylene Methyl acrylate Methyl amine Methyl benzoate 3-Methyl-1,2-butadiene 2-Methylbutane 2-Methylbutanoic acid 3-Methyl-1-butanol 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene 2-Methyl -1-butene-3-yne Methylbutyl ether Methylbutyl sulfide 3-Methyl-1-butyne Methyl butyrate Methylchlorosilane Methylcyclohexane 1-Methylcyclohexanol cis-2-Methylcyclohexanol trans-2-Methylcyclohexanol Methylcyclopentane 1-Methylcyclopentene 3-Methylcyclopentene Methyldichlorosilane Methylethyl ether Methylethyl ketone Methylethyl sulfide Methyl formate Methylisobutyl ether Methylisobutyl ketone Methyl Isocyanate Methylisopropyl ether Methylisopropyl ketone Methylisopropyl sulfide Methyl mercaptan Methyl methacrylate 2-Methyloctanoic acid 2-Methylpentane Methyl pentyl ether 2-Methylpropane 2-Methyl-2-propanol 2-Methyl propene Methyl propionate Methylpropyl ether Methylpropyl sulfide Methylsilane alpha-Methyl styrene Methyl tert-butyl ether

H4N2 H2 HBr HCl CHN HF H2S C4H8O2 C3H9N C3H4O4 C4H6O2 CH4 CH4O C3H7NO C3H6O2 C3H4 C4H6O2 CH5N C8H8O2 C5H8 C5H12 C5H10O2 C5H12O C5H10 C5H10 C5H6 C5H12O C5H12S C5H8 C5H10O2 CH5ClSi C7H14 C7H14O C7H14O C7H14O C6H12 C6H10 C6H10 CH4Cl2Si C3H8O C4H8O C3H8S C2H4O2 C5H12O C6H12O C2H3NO C4H10O C5H10O C4H10S CH4S C5H8O2 C9H18O2 C6H14 C6H14O C4H10 C4H10O C4H8 C4H8O2 C4H10O C4H10S CH6Si C9H10 C5H12O

302-01-2 1333-74-0 10035-10-6 7647-01-0 74-90-8 7664-39-3 7783-06-4 79-31-2 75-31-0 141-82-2 79-41-4 74-82-8 67-56-1 79-16-3 79-20-9 74-99-7 96-33-3 74-89-5 93-58-3 598-25-4 78-78-4 116-53-0 123-51-3 563-46-2 513-35-9 78-80-8 628-28-4 628-29-5 598-23-2 623-42-7 993-00-0 108-87-2 590-67-0 7443-70-1 7443-52-9 96-37-7 693-89-0 1120-62-3 75-54-7 540-67-0 78-93-3 624-89-5 107-31-3 625-44-5 108-10-1 624-83-9 598-53-8 563-80-4 1551-21-9 74-93-1 80-62-6 3004-93-1 107-83-5 628-80-8 75-28-5 75-65-0 115-11-7 554-12-1 557-17-5 3877-15-4 992-94-9 98-83-9 1634-04-4

32.045 2.016 80.912 36.461 27.025 20.006 34.081 88.105 59.110 104.061 86.089 16.042 32.042 73.094 74.079 40.064 86.089 31.057 136.148 68.117 72.149 102.132 88.148 70.133 70.133 66.101 88.148 104.214 68.117 102.132 80.589 98.186 114.185 114.185 114.185 84.159 82.144 82.144 115.034 60.095 72.106 76.161 60.052 88.148 100.159 57.051 74.122 86.132 90.187 48.107 100.116 158.238 86.175 102.175 58.122 74.122 56.106 88.105 74.122 90.187 46.144 118.176 88.148

5.9794 0.10127 2.485 2.2093 3.349 13.451 2.5676 4.0385 4.4041 11.767 4.6095 1.0194 5.0451 7.3402 4.492 3.1889 4.68 3.858 6.8504 4.1233 3.7593 7.48 10.178 3.9091 3.9248 3.648 4.5302 5.3416 3.792 5.3781 3.2835 4.7528 6.477 7.8011 7.8995 4.3595 4.3541 4.209 3.6756 3.53 4.622 4.4842 4.103 4.2678 5.4687 4.2967 3.8501 4.7075 4.5052 3.4448 5.468 10.53 4.2522 5.0002 3.188 7.7646 3.2614 5.008 4.2719 4.8253 2.2656 5.8071 3.872

0.9424 0.698 0.39 0.3466 0.2053 13.36 0.37358 0.82698 0.43325 0.37877 0.23331 0.26087 0.33594 0.38974 0.3685 0.37881 0.349 0.404 0.38852 0.426 0.39173 0.3933 1.3211 0.39866 0.36173 0.3863 0.37779 0.3835 0.3565 0.39523 0.33116 0.39437 0.4853 0.4172 0.42479 0.38507 0.36805 0.36779 0.31266 0.376 0.355 0.41151 0.3825 0.37995 0.40583 0.37922 0.36453 0.33601 0.36493 0.37427 0.4472 0.7454 0.3807 0.3781 0.39006 0.56757 0.38073 0.3959 0.43175 0.38087 0.30269 0.37009 0.044

−1.398 −1.817

−23.383

0.8862 1.447

10.785

−2.033

1.4769

−0.14694

0.22154

−1.2234

0.44836

−0.39297

0.047214

0.448

−0.112

274.69 13.95 185.15 158.97 259.83 277.56 187.68 227.15 177.95 407.95 288.15 90.69 175.47 301.15 175.15 170.45 196.32 179.69 260.75 159.53 113.25 193.00 155.95 135.58 139.39 160.15 157.48 175.30 183.45 187.35 139.05 146.58 299.15 280.15 269.15 130.73 146.62 115.00 182.55 160.00 186.48 167.23 174.15 150.00 189.15 256.15 127.93 180.15 171.64 150.18 224.95 240.00 119.55 176.00 113.54 298.97 132.81 185.65 133.97 160.17 116.34 249.95 164.55

4.5238 0.0913 1.8817 1.7498 2.8176 0.7104 1.9782 3.5534 3.5874 9.0033 4.0342 0.8724 4.3825 5.9384 3.8418 2.5882 3.9913 3.1006 5.7026 3.4864 3.3657 6.5004 7.3738 3.4072 3.4558 3.1332 3.9438 4.6699 3.1681 4.5694 2.8974 4.2291 4.9050 6.0500 6.1926 3.9115 3.8769 3.8439 3.1686 2.9751 3.9704 3.8406 3.4644 3.7232 4.6507 3.2402 3.4235 4.1240 3.9340 2.9825 4.3596 8.1106 3.8300 4.3168 2.8070 4.6771 2.8195 4.2231 3.7041 4.2499 2.0069 4.8591 3.6017

653.15 33.19 363.15 324.65 456.65 461.15 373.53 605.00 471.85 805.00 662.00 190.56 512.50 718.00 506.55 402.40 536.00 430.05 693.00 490.00 460.40 643.00 577.20 465.00 470.00 492.00 512.74 593.00 463.20 554.50 442.00 572.10 686.00 614.00 617.00 532.70 542.00 526.00 483.00 437.80 535.50 533.00 487.20 497.00 574.60 488.00 464.48 553.40 553.10 469.95 566.00 694.00 497.70 546.49 407.80 506.20 417.90 530.60 476.25 565.00 352.50 654.00 497.10

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2-154

TABLE 2-150 Heats of Vaporization of Inorganic and Organic Liquids (J/kmol) (Concluded) Cmpd. no. 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302

Name Methyl vinyl ether Naphthalene Neon Nitroethane Nitrogen Nitrogen trifluoride Nitromethane Nitrous oxide Nitric oxide Nonadecane Nonanal Nonane Nonanoic acid 1-Nonanol 2-Nonanol 1-Nonene Nonyl mercaptan 1-Nonyne Octadecane Octanal Octane Octanoic acid 1-Octanol 2-Octanol 2-Octanone 3-Octanone 1-Octene Octyl mercaptan 1-Octyne Oxalic acid Oxygen Ozone Pentadecane Pentanal Pentane Pentanoic acid 1-Pentanol 2-Pentanol 2-Pentanone 3-Pentanone 1-Pentene 2-Pentyl mercaptan Pentyl mercaptan 1-Pentyne 2-Pentyne Phenanthrene Phenol Phenyl isocyanate Phthalic anhydride Propadiene Propane 1-Propanol 2-Propanol Propenylcyclohexene Propionaldehyde Propionic acid Propionitrile Propyl acetate

Formula

CAS no.

Mol. wt.

C1 × 1E-07

C2

C3H6O C10H8 Ne C2H5NO2 N2 F3N CH3NO2 N2O NO C19H40 C9H18O C9H20 C9H18O2 C9H20O C9H20O C9H18 C9H20S C9H16 C18H38 C8H16O C8H18 C8H16O2 C8H18O C8H18O C8H16O C8H16O C8H16 C8H18S C8H14 C2H2O4 O2 O3 C15H32 C5H10O C5H12 C5H10O2 C5H12O C5H12O C5H10O C5H10O C5H10 C5H12S C5H12S C5H8 C5H8 C14H10 C6H6O C7H5NO C8H4O3 C3H4 C3H8 C3H8O C3H8O C9H14 C3H6O C3H6O2 C3H5N C5H10O2

107-25-5 91-20-3 7440-01-9 79-24-3 7727-37-9 7783-54-2 75-52-5 10024-97-2 10102-43-9 629-92-5 124-19-6 111-84-2 112-05-0 143-08-8 628-99-9 124-11-8 1455-21-6 3452-09-3 593-45-3 124-13-0 111-65-9 124-07-2 111-87-5 123-96-6 111-13-7 106-68-3 111-66-0 111-88-6 629-05-0 144-62-7 7782-44-7 10028-15-6 629-62-9 110-62-3 109-66-0 109-52-4 71-41-0 6032-29-7 107-87-9 96-22-0 109-67-1 2084-19-7 110-66-7 627-19-0 627-21-4 85-01-8 108-95-2 103-71-9 85-44-9 463-49-0 74-98-6 71-23-8 67-63-0 13511-13-2 123-38-6 79-09-4 107-12-0 109-60-4

58.079 128.171 20.180 75.067 28.013 71.002 61.040 44.013 30.006 268.521 142.239 128.255 158.238 144.255 144.255 126.239 160.320 124.223 254.494 128.212 114.229 144.211 130.228 130.228 128.212 128.212 112.213 146.294 110.197 90.035 31.999 47.998 212.415 86.132 72.149 102.132 88.148 88.148 86.132 86.132 70.133 104.214 104.214 68.117 68.117 178.229 94.111 119.121 148.116 40.064 44.096 60.095 60.095 122.207 58.079 74.079 55.079 102.132

3.587 7.0911 0.2389 5.1459 0.74905 1.6402 4.7417 2.3215 2.131 11.674 7.3363 6.037 12.38 7.5429 7.9797 5.9054 7.5239 6.3337 10.969 6.7735 5.518 12.23 7.2468 7.6376 6.5363 6.6142 5.4859 6.8907 5.4046 11.473 0.9008 1.8587 9.6741 5.1478 3.9109 7.3197 7.39 11.111 5.174 5.2359 3.5027 5.0573 5.4315 3.954 4.4158 8.3482 7.306 5.5769 6.916 2.9535 2.9209 6.8988 7.2542 5.8866 4.1492 4 4.9348 5.4327

0.3769 0.46468 0.3494 0.33017 0.40406 0.36494 0.3062 0.384 0.4056 0.45865 0.41735 0.38522 0.69869 −1.5966 −1.0341 0.61039 0.3991 0.3975 0.44327 0.40607 0.38467 0.69294 −1.2464 −0.7612 0.38718 0.58562 0.26207 0.40017 0.35299 0.37238 0.4542 0.30416 0.45399 0.37541 0.38681 1.2093 -0.1464 1.8011 0.39422 0.40465 0.3481 0.45827 0.3972 0.3512 0.44347 0.33172 0.4246 0.30346 0.1755 0.41367 0.78237 0.6458 0.79137 0.38533 0.36751 1.3936 0.41873 0.407

C3

−0.317

C4

0.27343

0.097854 4.6489 3.553 −0.54533

−0.35082 −2.7229 −2.1149 0.30683

0.12287 3.6797 2.7875

−0.36132 −2.0665 −1.6033

−0.40512 0.50642

0.22144 −0.43873

−0.4096

0.3183

−1.9114 1.4751 −2.1801

1.1591 −0.9208 1.0641

−0.19672 −0.22568

0.22394 0.16393

−0.77319 −0.5384 −0.66092

0.39246 0.3317 0.34223

−2.9465

1.794

Tmin, K

Hv at Tmin × 1E-07

Tmax, K

151.15 353.43 24.56 183.63 63.15 66.46 244.60 182.30 109.50 305.04 255.15 219.66 285.55 268.15 238.15 191.91 253.05 223.15 301.31 246.00 216.38 289.65 257.65 241.55 252.85 255.55 171.45 223.95 193.55 462.65 54.36 80.15 283.07 182.00 143.42 239.15 195.56 200.00 196.29 234.18 108.02 160.75 197.45 167.45 163.83 372.38 314.06 243.15 404.15 136.87 85.47 146.95 185.26 199.00 170.00 252.45 180.26 178.15

3.0567 5.2691 0.1803 4.5533 0.6024 1.4519 4.0220 1.6502 1.4578 9.2185 5.9779 5.0545 8.7232 8.2411 8.0370 4.9218 6.2506 5.2606 8.7246 5.5600 4.5898 8.4658 7.6793 7.3759 5.3646 5.2076 4.7927 5.8506 4.6743 8.3393 0.7742 1.6625 7.6728 4.4502 3.3968 5.3813 6.7005 6.6655 4.3663 4.2075 3.2232 4.4343 4.6322 3.4025 3.7321 6.9340 5.6577 4.8418 6.1001 2.4755 2.4787 5.8356 5.5370 5.0941 3.5675 3.0922 4.2005 4.6322

437.00 748.40 44.40 593.00 126.20 234.00 588.15 309.57 180.15 758.00 658.00 594.60 710.70 670.90 649.50 593.10 681.00 598.05 747.00 638.90 568.70 694.26 652.30 629.80 632.70 627.70 566.90 667.30 574.00 804.00 154.58 261.00 708.00 566.10 469.70 639.16 588.10 561.00 561.08 560.95 464.80 584.30 598.00 481.20 519.00 869.00 694.25 653.00 791.00 394.00 369.83 536.80 508.30 636.00 504.40 600.81 564.40 549.73

Hv at Tmax 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345

Propyl amine Propylbenzene Propylene Propyl formate 2-Propyl mercaptan Propyl mercaptan 1,2-Propylene glycol Quinone Silicon tetrafluoride Styrene Succinic acid Sulfur dioxide Sulfur hexafluoride Sulfur trioxide Terephthalic acid o-Terphenyl Tetradecane Tetrahydrofuran 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene Tetrahydrothiophene 2,2,3,3-Tetramethylbutane Thiophene Toluene 1,1,2-Trichloroethane Tridecane Triethyl amine Trimethyl amine 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Undecane 1-Undecanol Vinyl acetate Vinyl acetylene Vinyl chloride Vinyl trichlorosilane Water m-Xylene o-Xylene p-Xylene

C3H9N C9H12 C3H6 C4H8O2 C3H8S C3H8S C3H8O2 C6H4O2 F4Si C8H8 C4H6O4 O2S F6S O3S C8H6O4 C18H14 C14H30 C4H8O C10H12 C4H8S C8H18 C4H4S C7H8 C2H3Cl3 C13H28 C6H15N C3H9N C9H12 C9H12 C8H18 C8H18 C6H3N3O6 C7H5N3O6 C11H24 C11H24O C4H6O2 C4H4 C2H3Cl C2H3Cl3Si H2O C8H10 C8H10 C8H10

107-10-8 103-65-1 115-07-1 110-74-7 75-33-2 107-03-9 57-55-6 106-51-4 7783-61-1 100-42-5 110-15-6 7446-09-5 2551-62-4 7446-11-9 100-21-0 84-15-1 629-59-4 109-99-9 119-64-2 110-01-0 594-82-1 110-02-1 108-88-3 79-00-5 629-50-5 121-44-8 75-50-3 526-73-8 95-63-6 540-84-1 560-21-4 99-35-4 118-96-7 1120-21-4 112-42-5 108-05-4 689-97-4 75-01-4 75-94-5 7732-18-5 108-38-3 95-47-6 106-42-3

59.110 120.192 42.080 88.105 76.161 76.161 76.094 108.095 104.079 104.149 118.088 64.064 146.055 80.063 166.131 230.304 198.388 72.106 132.202 88.171 114.229 84.140 92.138 133.404 184.361 101.190 59.110 120.192 120.192 114.229 114.229 213.105 227.131 156.308 172.308 86.089 52.075 62.498 161.490 18.015 106.165 106.165 106.165

4.4488 5.8887 2.5216 4.9687 4.2191 4.4782 8.07 6.49 2.4105 5.726 12.018 3.676 2.571 7.337 8.824 8.7165 9.0539 4.3021 6.8086 5.0642 4.9055 4.5854 4.9507 5.0929 8.4339 4.664 3.305 5.9996 5.9254 4.7711 4.991 10.687 10.686 7.2284 8.7274 4.77 3.649 3.4125 4.5659 5.2053 5.4626 5.5395 5.3819

0.39494 0.38534 0.33721 0.4025 0.41161 0.41073 0.295 0.3112 0.37988 0.4055 0.37149 0.4 0.383 0.5647 0.3224 0.44467 0.36972 0.43054 0.38904 0.40678 0.38756 0.37742 0.38013 0.4257 0.3663 0.354 0.35578 0.35709 0.37949 0.383 0.38 0.40074 0.40607 −1.5834 0.3765 0.4 0.4513 0.36278 0.3199 0.37289 0.37788 0.36695

−0.18399

5.0913

0.22377

−3.2171

0.043 −0.212

0.25795

188.36 173.55 87.89 180.25 142.61 159.95 213.15 388.85 186.35 242.54 460.65 197.67 223.15 289.95 298.15 329.35 279.01 164.65 237.38 176.99 373.96 234.94 178.18 236.50 267.76 158.45 156.08 247.79 229.33 165.78 172.22 398.40 354.00 247.57 288.45 180.35 173.15 119.36 178.35 273.16 225.30 247.98 286.41

3.6857 5.2110 2.3177 4.2162 3.6942 3.8723 7.1374 4.9933 1.4873 4.7128 8.7719 2.8753 1.6208 4.4303 8.8240 7.4548 7.2002 3.7610 5.7314 4.4565 3.1691 3.7484 4.3246 4.2130 6.8015 4.1011 2.8216 5.0818 5.0713 4.1561 4.3530 8.3906 8.5455 5.9240 8.9007 4.0619 2.9876 2.9491 3.9520 4.4733 4.6112 4.5859 4.2787

496.95 638.35 364.85 538.00 517.00 536.60 626.00 683.00 259.00 636.00 806.00 430.75 318.69 490.85 298.15 857.00 693.00 540.15 720.00 631.95 568.00 579.35 591.75 602.00 675.00 535.15 433.25 664.50 649.10 543.80 573.50 846.00 828.00 639.00 703.90 519.13 454.00 432.00 543.15 647.10 617.00 630.30 616.20

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 88,240,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

The heat of vaporization Hv is calculated by Hv = C1(1 − Tr) C2+ C3T + C4T + C5T r

2 r

3 r

where Tr = T/Tc, Tc is the critical temperature from Table 2-141, Hv is in J/kmol, and T is in K. All substances are listed by chemical family in Table 2-6 and by formula in Table 2-7. Values in this table were taken from the Design Institute for Physical Properties (DIPPR) of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), copyright 2007 AIChE and reproduced with permission of AICHE and of the DIPPR Evaluated Process Design Data Project Steering Committee. Their source should be cited as R. L. Rowley, W. V. Wilding, J. L. Oscarson, Y. Yang, N. A. Zundel, T. E. Daubert, R. P. Danner, DIPPR® Data Compilation of Pure Chemical Properties, Design Institute for Physical Properties, AIChE, New York (2007). The number of digits provided for values at Tmin and Tmax was chosen for uniformity of appearance and formatting; these do not represent the uncertainties of the physical quantities, but are the result of calculations from the standard thermophysical property formulations within a fixed format.

2-155

2-156

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

SPECIFIC HEATS OF PURE COMPOUNDS UNITS CONVERSIONS

To convert kilojoules per kilogram-kelvin to British thermal units per pound-degree Rankine, multiply by 0.2388.

For this subsection, the following units conversions are applicable: °F = 9⁄ 5 °C + 32 °R = 1.8 K

ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

To convert calories per gram-kelvin to British thermal units per pound-degree Rankine, multiply by 1.0; to convert calories per mole-kelvin to British thermal units per pound-mole-degree Rankine, multiply by 1.0. TABLE 2-151

Heat Capacities of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds* Heat capacity at constant pressure (T = K; 0 °C = 273.1 K), cal/(molK)

Range of temperature, K

Uncertainty, %

c l c l c l c c c c l c l c c, sillimanite c, disthene c, andalusite c, mullite c c c

4.80 + 0.00322T 7.00 18.74 + 0.01866T 29.5 13.25 + 0.02800T 31.2 76 19.3 50.5 38.63 + 0.04760T − 449200/T 2 142 16.88 + 0.02266T 28.8 22.08 + 0.008971T − 522500/T 2 40.79 + 0.004763T − 992800/T 2 41.81 + 0.005283T − 1211000/T 2 43.96 + 0.001923T − 1086000/T 2 59.65 + 0.0670T 113.2 + 0.0652T 63.5 235

273–931 931–1273 273–370 370–407 273–465 465–504 288–327 288–326 288–326 273–1273 1273–1373 273–464 464–480 273–1973 273–1573 273–1673 273–1573 273–576 273–575 273–373 288–325

1 5 3 5 3 3 ? ? ? 2 ? 3 5 3 3 2 3 5 3 ? ?

c l c c c c c

5.51 + 0.00178T 7.15 17.2 + 0.0293T 10.3 + 0.0511T 19.1 + 0.0171T 22.6 + 0.0162T 24.2 + 0.0132T

273–903 903–1273 273–370 273–346 273–929 273–1198 273–821

2 5 ? ? ? ? ?

g

4.97

c l c c

5.17 + 0.00234T 31.9 8.37 + 0.0486T 25.8

273–1168 286–371 273–548 293–373

5 ? ? ?

c c c c c, α c, β c c c

17.0 + 0.00334T 28.2 37.3 51 17.26 + 0.0131T 30.0 34 39.8 21.35 + 0.0141T

273–1198 273–307 273–307 289–320 273–1083 1083–1255 273–297 285–371 273–1323

? ? ? ? 5 15 ? ? 5

c c c c

4.698 + 0.001555T − 121000/T 2 8.69 + 0.00365T − 313000/T 2 25.4 20.8

273–1173 273–1175 273–373 273–373

1 5 ? ?

Substance Aluminum1 Al AlBr3 AlCl3 AlCl3·6H2O AlF3 AlF3·3aH2O AlF3·3NaF AlI3 Al2O3 Al2O3·SiO2 3Al2O3·2SiO2 4Al2O3·3SiO2 Al2(SO4)3 Al2(SO4)3·18H2O Antimony Sb SbBr3 SbCl3 Sb2O3 Sb2O4 Sb2S3 Argon2 A Arsenic As AsCl3 As2O3 As2S3 Barium BaCl2 BaCl2·H2O BaCl2·2H2O Ba(ClO3)2·H2O BaCO3 BaMoO4 Ba(NO3)2 BaSO4 Beryllium3,4 Be BeO BeO·Al2O3 BeSO4

Additional data are contained in the subsection “Thermodynamic Properties.” Data on water are also contained in that subsection. Additional tables for water are found in Eng. Sci. Data Item 68008, 251 Regent Street, London, England, which contains about 5000 values from 1 to 1000 bar, 0 to 1500 °C.

State†

All

0

*From Kelley, U.S. Bur. Mines Bull. 371, 1934. For a revision see Kelley, U.S. Bur. Mines Bull. 477, 1948. Data for many elements and compounds are given by Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960, for cryogenic temperatures. Tabulated data for gases can be obtained from many of the references cited in the “Thermodynamic Properties” subsection and other tables in this section. Thinh, Duran, et al., Hydrocarbon Process., 50, 98 (January 1971), review previous equation fits and give newer fits for 408 hydrocarbons and related compounds. Later publications include Duran, Thinh, et al., Hydrocarbon Process., 55, 153 (August 1976); Thompson, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 22(4), 431 (1977); and Passut and Danner, Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev., 11, 543 (1972); 13, 193 (1974). † The symbols in this column have the following meaning; c, crystal; l, liquid; g, gas; gls, glass.

SPECIFIC HEATS OF PURE COMPOUNDS TABLE 2-151

Heat Capacities of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued)

Substance Bismuth4 Bi Bi2O3 Bi2S3 Boron B B2O3 BN Bromine Br2 Cadmium Cd CdO CdS CdSO4·8/3H2O Calcium Ca CaCl2 CaCO3 CaF2 CaMg(CO3)2 CaMoO4 CaO Ca(OH)2 CaO·Al2O3·2SiO2 CaO·MgO·2SiO2 CaO·SiO2 CaP2O6 CaSO4 CaSO4·2H2O CaWO4 Carbon5 C CH4 CO6 CO2 CS2 Cerium Ce CeO2 Ce2(MoO4)3 Ce2(SO4)3 Ce2(SO4)3·5H2O Cesium Cs CsBr CsCl CsF CsI Chlorine Cl2 Chromium4 Cr CrCl3 Cr2O3 CrSb CrSb2 Cr2(SO4)3 Cobalt4 Co CoAs2·CoS2 CoSb Co2Sn CoS CoSO4·7H2O

State†

Heat capacity at constant pressure (T = K; 0 °C = 273.1 K), cal/(molK)

Range of temperature, K

Uncertainty, %

c l c c

5.38 + 0.00260T 7.60 23.27 + 0.01105T 30.4

273–544 544–1273 273–777 284–372

3 3 2 ?

c gls gls c

1.54 + 0.00440T 5.14 + 0.0320T 30.4 1.61 + 0.00400T

273–1174 273–513 513–623 273–1173

5 3 3 5

g

9.00

300–2000

5

c l c c c

5.46 + 0.002466T 7.13 9.65 + 0.00208T 12.9 + 0.00090T 51.3

273–594 594–973 273–2086 273–1273 293

1 5 ? ? ?

c c c c c c c c c c, anorthite gls c, diopside gls c, wollastonite c, pseudowollastonite gls c c c c

5.31 + 0.00333T 6.29 + 0.00140T 16.9 + 0.00386T 19.68 + 0.01189T − 307600/T 2 14.7 + 0.00380T 40.1 33 10.00 + 0.00484T − 108000/T 2 21.4 63.13 + 0.01500T − 1537000/T 2 67.41 + 0.01048T − 1874000/T 2 54.46 + 0.005746T − 1500000/T 2 51.68 + 0.009724T − 1308000/T 2 27.95 + 0.002056T − 745600/T 2 25.48 + 0.004132T − 488100/T 2 23.16 + 0.009672T − 487100/T 2 39.5 18.52 + 0.02197T − 156800/T 2 46.8 27.9

273–673 673–873 273–1055 273–1033 273–1651 299–372 273–297 273–1173 276–373 273–1673 273–973 273–1573 273–973 273–1573 273–1673 273–973 287–371 273–1373 282–373 292–322

2 2 ? 3 ? ? ? 2 ? 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ? 5 ? ?

c, graphite c, diamond g g g l

2.673 + 0.002617T − 116900/T 2 2.162 + 0.003059T − 130300/T 2 5.34 + 0.0115T 6.60 + 0.00120T 10.34 + 0.00274T − 195500/T 2 18.4

273–1373 273–1313 273–1200 273–2500 273–1200 293

2 3 2 1a 1a ?

c c c c c

5.88 + 0.00123T 15.1 96 66.4 131.6

273–908 273–373 273–297 273–373 273–319

? ? ? ? ?

c l g c c c c

1.96 + 0.0182T 8.00 4.97 12.6 + 0.00259T 11.7 + 0.00309T 11.3 + 0.00285T 11.6 + 0.00268T

273–301 302 All 273–909 273–752 273–957 273–894

3 3 0 ? ? ? ? 1a

g

8.28 + 0.00056T

273–2000

c l c c c c c

4.84 + 0.00295T 9.70 23 26.0 + 0.00400T 12.3 + 0.00120T 19.2 + 0.00184T 67.4

273–1823 1823–1923 286–319 273–2263 273–1383 273–949 273–373

5 10 ? ? ? ? ?

c l c c c c c

5.12 + 0.00333T 8.40 32.9 11.7 + 0.00156T 15.83 + 0.00950T 10.6 + 0.00251T 96

273–1763 1763–1873 283–373 273–1464 273–903 273–1373 286–303

5 5 ? ? 2 ? ?

2-157

2-158

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA TABLE 2-151

Heat Capacities of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued)

Substance Copper7 Cu CuAl CuAl2 Cu3Al CuI CuI2 CuO CuO·SiO2·H2O CuS Cu2S CuS·FeS Cu2Sb Cu2Sb Cu2Se Cu3Si CuSO4 CuSO4·H2O CuSO4·3H2O CuSO4·5H2O Fluorine8 F2 Gallium Ga2O3 Ga2(SO4)3 Germanium4 Ge Gold Au AuSb2 Helium9 He Hydrogen10 H H2 HBr HCl HI H 2O H 2S H2S2O7 Indium In Iodine I2 Iridium Ir Iron4 Fe

FeAs2 Fe3C FeCO3 FeO Fe2O3 Fe3O4 Fe2O3·3H2O FeS FeS2 FeSi Fe2SiO4 FeSO4 Fe2(SO4)3 FeSO4·4H2O FeSO4·7H2O Krypton Kr

State†

Heat capacity at constant pressure (T = K; 0 °C = 273.1 K), cal/(molK)

Range of temperature, K

Uncertainty, %

273–1357 1357–1573 273–733 273–773 273–775 273–675 274–328 273–810 293–323 273–1273 273–376 376–1173 292–321 273–573 273–693 273–383 383–488 273–1135 282 282 282 282

1 3 2 2 2 ? ? 2 ? ? 3 2 ? 2 2 5 5 ? ? ? ? ?

c l c c c c c c c c c, α c, β c c c c, α c, β c c c c c

5.44 + 0.001462T 7.50 9.88 + 0.00500T 16.78 + 0.00366T 19.61 + 0.01054T 12.1 + 0.00286T 20.1 10.87 + 0.003576T − 150600/T 2 29 10.6 + 0.00264T 9.38 + 0.0312T 20.9 24 13.73 + 0.01350T 21.79 + 0.00900T 20.85 20.35 20.3 + 0.00587T 24.1 31.3 49.0 67.2

g

6.50 + 0.00100T

300–3000

5

c c

18.2 + 0.0252T 62.4

273–923 273–373

? ?

273–1336 1336–1573 273–628 628–713

2 5 1 ?

c c l c, α c, βγ

5.61 + 0.00144T 7.00 17.12 + 0.00465T 11.47 + 0.01756T

g

4.97

g g g g g l g g c l

4.97 6.62 + 0.00081T 6.80 + 0.00084T 6.70 + 0.00084T 6.93 + 0.00083T See Tables 2-153 and 2-305 8.22 + 0.00015T + 0.00000134T 2 7.20 + 0.00360T 27 58

All 273–2500 273–2000 273–2000 273–2000

0 2 2 1a 2

300–2500 300–600 281 308

? 8 ? ?

9.00

300–2000

5

All

0

c g c

5.50 + 0.00148T

c, α c, β c, γ c, δ l c c c c c c c c, α c, β c c c c c c c

4.13 + 0.00638T 6.12 + 0.00336T 8.40 10.0 8.15 17.8 25.17 + 0.00223T 22.7 12.62 + 0.001492T − 76200/T 2 24.72 + 0.01604T − 423400/T 2 41.17 + 0.01882T − 979500/T 2 47.8 2.03 + 0.0390T 12.05 + 0.00273T 10.7 + 0.01336T 10.54 + 0.00458T 33.57 + 0.01907T − 879700/T 2 22 66.2 63.6 96

g

4.97

273–1873

1

273–1041 1041–1179 1179–1674 1674–1803 1803–1873 283–373 273–1173 293–368 273–1173 273–1097 273–1065 286–373 273–411 411–1468 273–773 273–903 273–1161 293–373 273–373 282 291–319

3 3 5 5 5 ? 10 ? 2 2 2 ? 5 3 ? 2 2 ? ? ? ?

All

0

SPECIFIC HEATS OF PURE COMPOUNDS TABLE 2-151

Heat Capacities of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued)

Substance Lanthanum La La2O3 La2(MoO4)3 La2(SO4)3 La2(SO4)3·9H2O Lead4 Pb Pb3(AsO4)2 PbB2O4 PbB4O7 PbBr2 PbCl2 2PbCl2·NH4Cl PbCO3 PbCrO4 PbF2 PbI2 PbMoO4 Pb(NO3)2 PbO PbO2 Pb2P2O7 PbS PbSO4 PbS2O3 PbWO4 Lithium Li LiBr LiBr·H2O LiCl LiCl·H2O LiF LiI LiI·H2O LiI·2H2O LiI·3H2O LiNO3 Magnesium4 Mg MgAg Mg4Al3 MgAu Mg2Au Mg3Au MgCl2 MgCl2·6H2O MgCO3 MgCu2 Mg2Cu MgNi2 MgO MgO·Al2O3 MgO·SiO2 6MgO·MgCl2·8B2O3 Mg(OH)2 Mg3Sb2 Mg2Si MgSO4 MgSO4·H2O MgSO4·6H2O MgSO4·7H2O

State†

Heat capacity at constant pressure (T = K; 0 °C = 273.1 K), cal/(molK)

Range of temperature, K

Uncertainty, %

c c c c c

5.91 + 0.00100T 22.6 + 0.00544T 86 66.9 152

273–1009 273–2273 273–307 273–373 273–319

? ? ? ? ?

c l c c c c l c l c c c c c l c c c c c c c c c

5.77 + 0.00202T 6.8 65.5 26.5 41.4 18.13 + 0.00310T 27.4 15.88 + 0.00835T 27.2 53.1 21.1 29.1 16.5 + 0.00412T 18.66 + 0.00293T 32.3 30.4 36.4 10.33 + 0.00318T 12.7 + 0.00780T 48.3 10.63 + 0.00401T 26.4 29 35

273–600 600–1273 286–370 288–371 289–371 273–761 761–860 273–771 771–851 293 286–320 292–323 273–1091 273–648 648–776 292–322 286–320 273–544 273–? 284–371 273–873 293–372 293–373 273–297

2 5 ? ? ? 2 10 2 10 ? ? ? ? 2 20 ? ? 2 ? ? 3 ? ? ?

c g c c c c c c c c c c l

0.68 + 0.0180T 4.97 11.5 + 0.00302T 22.6 11.0 + 0.00339T 23.6 8.20 + 0.00520T 12.5 + 0.00208T 23.6 32.9 43.2 9.17 + 0.0360T 26.8

273–459 All 273–825 278–318 273–887 279–360 273–1117 273–723 277–359 277–345 277–347 273–523 523–575

10 0 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 5 5

c l c c c c c c c c c c c c c c, amphibole c, pyroxene gls c, α c, β c c c c c c c

6.20 + 0.00133T − 67800/T 2 7.4 10.58 + 0.00412T 34.4 + 0.0198T 11.3 + 0.00189T 16.2 + 0.00451T 21.2 + 0.00614T 17.3 + 0.00377T 77.1 16.9 14.96 + 0.00776T 15.5 + 0.00652T 15.87 + 0.00692T 10.86 + 0.001197T − 208700/T 2 28 25.60 + 0.004380T − 674200/T 2 23.35 + 0.008062T − 558800/T 2 23.30 + 0.007734T − 542000/T 2 58.7 + 0.408T 107.2 + 0.2876T 18.2 28.2 + 0.00560T 15.4 + 0.00415T 26.7 33 80 89

273–923 923–1048 273–905 273–736 273–1433 273–1073 273–1103 273–991 292–342 290 273–903 273–843 273–903 273–2073 288–319 273–1373 273–773 273–973 273–538 538–623 292–323 273–1234 273–1343 296–372 282 282 291–319

1 10 2 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 3 ? 2 2 ? 1 1 1 5 5 ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

2-159

2-160

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA TABLE 2-151

Heat Capacities of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued) Heat capacity at constant pressure (T = K; 0 °C = 273.1 K), cal/(molK)

Range of temperature, K

Uncertainty, %

c, α c, β c, γ l c c c c c c c c c c

3.76 + 0.00747T 5.06 + 0.00395T 4.80 + 0.00422T 11.0 16.2 + 0.00520T 7.79 + 0.0421T + 0.0000090T 2 7.43 + 0.01038T − 0.00000362T 2 10.33 + 0.0530T − 0.0000257T 2 19.25 + 0.0538T − 0.0000209T 2 1.92 + 0.0471T − 0.0000297T 2 31 10.21 + 0.00656T − 0.00000242T 2 27.5 78

273–1108 1108–1317 1317–1493 1493–1673 273–923 273–773 273–1923 273–1173 273–1773 273–773 291–322 273–1883 293–373 290–319

5 5 5 10 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

l g g c c c c c, α c, β c c c

6.61 4.97 9.00 11.05 + 0.00370T 15.3 + 0.0103T 25 11.4 + 0.00461T 17.4 + 0.004001T 20.2 11.5 10.9 + 0.00365T 31.0

273–630 All 300–2000 273–798 273–553 285–319 273–563 273–403 403–523 278–371 273–853 273–307

1 0 5 ? ? ? ? 3 3 ? ? ?

c c c

5.69 + 0.00188T − 50300/T 2 15.1 + 0.0121T 19.7 + 0.00315T

273–1773 273–1068 273–729

5 ? ?

g

4.97

c, α c, β l c c c c c c c c

4.26 + 0.00640T 6.99 + 0.000905T 8.55 11.3 + 0.00215T 9.25 + 0.00640T 15.8 + 0.00329T 10.0 + 0.00312T 20.78 + 0.0102T 33.4 82 11.00 + 0.00433T

g g c c, α c, β c c c g

6.50 + 0.00100T 6.70 + 0.00630T 22.8 9.80 + 0.0368T 5.0 + 0.0340T 17.8 31.8 51.6 8.05 + 0.000233T − 156300/T 2

300–3000 300–800 274–328 273–457 457–523 273–328 273–293 275–328 300–5000

3 1a ? 5 5 ? ? ? 2

c

5.686 + 0.000875T

273–1877

1

g

8.27 + 0.000258T − 187700/T

300–5000

1

Substance Manganese Mn

MnCl2 MnCO3 MnO Mn2O3 Mn3O4 MnO2 Mn2O3·H2O MnS MnSO4 MnSO4·5H2O Mercury11 Hg Hg2 HgCl HgCl2 Hg(CN)2 HgI HgI2 HgO HgS Hg2SO4 Molybdenum Mo MoO3 MoS2 Neon12 Ne Nickel4 Ni NiO NiS Ni2Si NiSi Ni3Sn NiSO4 NiSO4·6H2O NiTe Nitrogen13 N2 NH3 NH4Br NH4Cl NH4I NH4NO3 (NH4)2SO4 NO Osmium Os Oxygen14 O2 Palladium Pd Phosphorus P PCl3 P4O10 Platinum4 Pt Potassium K

State†

All 273–626 626–1725 1725–1903 273–1273 273–597 273–1582 273–1273 273–904 293–373 291–325 273–700

2

0 2 5 10 ? 3 ? ? 2 ? ? 2

c

5.41 + 0.00184T

273–1822

2

c, yellow c, red l l c g

5.50 0.21 + 0.0180T 6.6 28.7 15.72 + 0.1092T 73.6

273–317 273–472 317–373 284–371 273–631 631–1371

5 10 10 ? 2 3

c

5.92 + 0.00116T

273–1873

1

c l

5.24 + 0.00555T 7.7

273–336 336–373

5 5

SPECIFIC HEATS OF PURE COMPOUNDS TABLE 2-151

Heat Capacities of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued)

Substance Potassium—(Cont.) K K2 KAsO3 KBO2 K2B4O7 KBr KCl KClO3 KClO4 2KCl·CuCl2.2H2O 2KCl·PtCl4 2KCl·SnCl4 2KCl·ZnCl2 2KCN·Zn(CN)2 K2CO3 K2CrO4 K2Cr2O7 KF K4Fe(CN)6 K4Fe(CN)6·3H2O KH2AsO4 KH2PO4 KHSO4 KMnO4 KNO3 K2O·Al2O3·3SiO2

K4P2O7 K2SO4 K2S2O3 K2SO4·Al2(SO4)3·24H2O K2SO4·Cr2(SO4)3·24H2O K2SO4·MgSO4·6H2O K2SO4·NiSO4·6H2O K2SO4·ZnSO4·6H2O Prometheum Pr Radon Rn Rhenium Re Rhodium Rh Rubidium Rb RbBr RbCl Rb2CO3 RbF RbI Scandium Sc2O3 Sc2(SO4)3 Selenium Se Silicon Si SiC SiCl4 SiO2

Silver4 Ag

State† g g c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c l c c c c c c c c c l c, orthoclase gls, orthoclase c, microcline gls, microcline c c c c c c c c

Heat capacity at constant pressure (T = K; 0 °C = 273.1 K), cal/(molK) 4.97 9.00 25.3 12.6 + 0.0126T 51.3 11.49 + 0.00360T 10.93 + 0.00376T 25.7 26.3 63 55 54.5 43.4 57.4 29.9 35.9 42.80 + 0.0410T 96.9 10.8 + 0.00284T 80.1 114.5 32 28.3 30 28 6.42 + 0.0530T 28.8 29.5 69.26 + 0.00821T − 2331000/T 2 69.81 + 0.01053 − 2403000/T 2 65.65 + 0.01102T − 1748000/T 2 64.83 + 0.01438T − 1641000/T 2 63.1 33.1 37 352 324 106 107 120

Range of temperature, K All 300–2000 290–372 273–1220 290–372 273–543 273–1043 289–371 287–318 292–323 286–319 292–323 279–319 277–319 296–372 289–371 273–671 671–757 273–1129 273–319 273–310 289–319 290–320 292–324 287–318 273–401 401–611 611–683 273–1373 273–1373 273–1373 273–1373 290–371 287–371 293–373 292–322 292–324 292–323 289–319 293–317

Uncertainty, % 0 5 ? ? ? 2 2 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 5 5 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 10 5 10 1a 1a 1a 1a ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

c g

4.97

c

6.30 + 0.00053T

273–2273

All

?

c

5.40 + 0.00219T

273–1877

2

c l c c c c c

3.27 + 0.0131T 7.85 11.6 + 0.00255T 11.5 + 0.00249T 28.4 11.3 + 0.00256T 11.6 + 0.00263T

273–312 312–373 273–954 273–987 291–320 273–1048 273–913

2 5 ? ? ? ? ?

c c

21.1 62.0

273–373 273–373

? ?

c l

4.53 + 0.00550T 8.35

273–490 490–570

2 3

c c l c, quartz, α c, quartz, β c, cristobalite, α c, cristobalite, β gls

5.74 + 0.000617T − 101000/T 2 8.89 + 0.00291T − 284000/T 2 32.4 10.87 + 0.008712T − 241200/T 2 10.95 + 0.00550T 3.65 + 0.0240T 17.09 + 0.000454T − 897200/T 2 12.80 + 0.00447T − 302000/T 2

273–1174 273–1629 293–373 273–848 848–1873 273–523 523–1973 273–1973

2 2 ? 1 3a 2a 2 3a

c l

5.60 + 0.00150T 8.2

273–1234 1234–1573

0

1 3

2-161

2-162

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA TABLE 2-151

Heat Capacities of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued)

Substance Silver—(Cont.) Ag3Al Ag2Al AgAl12 AgBr AgCl AgCNO AgI AgNO3 Ag3PO4 Ag2S Ag3Sb Ag2Se Sodium15 Na NaBO2 Na2B4O7 Na2B4O7·10H2O NaBr NaCl NaClO3 NaCNO Na2CO3 NaF Na2HPO4·7H2O Na2HPO4·12H2O NaI NaNO3 Na2O·Al2O3·3SiO2 NaPO3 Na4P2O7 Na2SO4 Na2S2O3 Na2S2O3·5H2O Sodium-potassium alloys15 Strontium SrBr2 SrBr2·H2O SrBr2·6H2O SrCl2 SrCl2·H2O SrCl2·2H2O SrCO3 SrI2 SrI2·H2O SrI2·2H2O SrI2·6H2O SrMoO4 Sr(NO3)2 SrSO4 Sulfur16 S S2 S2Cl2 SO2 Tantalum Ta Tellurium Te Thallium Tl

State†

Heat capacity at constant pressure (T = K; 0 °C = 273.1 K), cal/(molK)

Range of temperature, K

Uncertainty, %

273–902 273–903 273–768 273–703 703–836 273–728 728–806 273–353 273–423 273–433 433–482 482–541 293–325 273–448 448–597 273–694 273–406 406–460

2 2 5 6 5 2 5 ? 6 2 5 5 ? 5 5 5 5 5

273–371 371–451 All 273–1239 289–371 292–323 273–543 273–1074 1073–1205 273–528 528–572 273–353 288–371 273–1261 275–307 275–307 273–936 273–583 583–703 273–1373 273–1173 290–319 290–371 289–371 273–307 273–307

1a 2 0 ? ? ? 2 2 3 3 5 ? ? ? ? ? ? 5 10 1 1 ? ? ? ? ?

c c c c l c l c c, α c, α c, β l c c, α c, β c c, α c, β

22.56 + 0.00570T 16.85 + 0.00450T 58.62 + 0.0575T 8.58 + 0.0141T 14.9 9.60 + 0.00929T 14.05 18.7 8.58 + 0.0141T 18.83 + 0.0160T 25.7 30.2 37.5 18.8 21.8 19.53 + 0.0160T 20.2 20.4

c l g c c c c c l c l c c c c c c c l c, albite gls c c c c c l

5.01 + 0.00536T 7.50 4.97 10.4 + 0.0199T 47.9 147 11.74 + 0.00233T 10.79 + 0.00420T 15.9 9.48 + 0.0468T 31.8 13.1 28.9 10.4 + 0.00289T 86.6 133.4 12.5 + 0.00162T 4.56 + 0.0580T 37.2 63.78 + 0.01171T − 1678000/T 2 61.25 + 0.01768T − 1545000/T 2 22.1 60.7 32.8 34.9 86.2

c c c c c c c c c c c c c c

18.1 + 0.00311T 28.9 82.1 18.2 + 0.00244T 28.7 38.3 21.8 18.6 + 0.00304T 28.5 39.1 84.9 37 38.3 26.2

273–923 277–370 276–327 273–1143 276–365 277–366 281–371 273–783 276–363 275–336 275–333 273–297 290–320 293–369

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

c, rhombic c, monoclinic g l g

3.63 + 0.00640T 4.38 + 0.00440T 8.58 + 0.00030T 27.5 7.70 + 0.00530T − 0.00000083T 2

273–368 368–392 300–2500 273–332 300–2500

3 3 5 ? 2a

c

5.91 + 0.00099T

273–1173

2

c

5.19 + 0.00250T

273–600

3

c, α c, β

5.32 + 0.00385T 8.12

273–500 500–576

1 1

SPECIFIC HEATS OF PURE COMPOUNDS TABLE 2-151

Heat Capacities of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Concluded)

Substance Thallium—(Cont.) Tl TlBr TlCl Thorium Th ThO2 Th(SO4)2 Tin4 Sn SnAu SnCl2 SnCl4 SnO SnO2 SnPt SnS SnS2 Titanium Ti TiCl4 TiO2 Tungsten W WO3 Uranium U U3O8 Vanadium V Xenon Xe Zinc4 Zn ZnCl2 ZnO ZnS ZnSb ZnSO4 ZnSO4·H2O ZnSO4·6H2O ZnSO4·7H2O Zirconium ZrO2 ZrO2·SiO2 1

State†

Heat capacity at constant pressure (T = K; 0 °C = 273.1 K), cal/(molK)

Range of temperature, K

Uncertainty, %

l c l c l

7.12 12.53 + 0.00100T 16.0 12.56 + 0.00088T 14.2

576–773 273–733 733–800 273–700 700–803

3 10 10 5 10

c c c

6.40 14.6 + 0.00507T 41.2

273–373 273–1273 273–373

? ? ?

c l c c l c c c c c

5.05 + 0.00480T 6.6 11.79 + 0.00233T 16.2 + 0.00926T 38.4 9.40 + 0.00362T 13.94 + 0.00565T − 252000/T 2 11.49 + 0.00190T 12.1 + 0.00165T 20.5 + 0.00400T

273–504 504–1273 273–581 273–520 286–371 273–1273 273–1373 273–1318 273–1153 273–873

2 10 1 ? ? ? ? 1 ? ?

c l c

8.91 + 0.00114T − 433000/T 2 35.7 11.81 + 0.00754T − 41900/T 2

273–713 285–372 273–713

3 ? 3

c c

5.65 + 0.00866 16.0 + 0.00774T

273–2073 273–1550

1 ?

c c

6.64 59.8

273–372 276–314

? ?

c

5.57 + 0.00097T

273–1993

?

g

4.97

c l c c c c c c c c

5.25 + 0.00270T 7.59 + 0.00055T 15.9 + 0.00800T 11.40 + 0.00145T − 182400/T 2 12.81 + 0.00095T − 194600/T 2 11.5 + 0.00313T 28 34.7 80.8 100.2

273–692 692–1122 273–638 273–1573 273–1173 273–810 293–373 282 282 273–307

1 3 ? 1 5 ? ? ? ? ?

c c

11.62 + 0.01046T − 177700/T 2 26.7

273–1673 297–372

5 ?

All

0

See also Table 2-152. Data to 298 K are also given by Scott, Cryogenic Engineering, Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J., 1959. For liquid and gas data, see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960. Stalder, NACA Tech. Note 4141, 1957 (Fig. 5), gives data from 400 to 2600°R. 4 See also Table 2-152. 5 For data from 400 to 5500 °R see Stalder, NACA Tech. Note 4141, 1975 (Fig. 4). 6 For solid, liquid, and gas data, see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960. 7 For data from 400 to 2350 °R see Stalder, NACA Tech. Note 4141, 1957. 8 For solid, liquid, and gas data, see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960. 9 For liquid and gas data, see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960. 10 For solid, liquid, and gas data, see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960. 11 See also Table 2-152; Douglas, Ball, et al., Bur. Stand. J. Res., 46 (1951): 334; Busey and Giaque, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 75 (1953): 806; Sheldon, ASME Pap. 49-A-30, 1949. 12 For solid, liquid, and gas data, see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-56-60, 1960. 13 For solid, liquid, and gas data, see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-56-60, 1960. 14 For solid, liquid, and gas data, see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-56-60, 1960. Ozone: For liquid see Brabets and Waterman, J. Chem. Phys., 28 (1958): 1212. 15 For data on liquid Na-K alloys to 1500 °F and for liquid Na to 1460 °F, see Lubarsky and Kaufman, NACA Rep. 1270, 1956. 16 See also Evans and Wagman, Bur. Stand. J. Res. 49 (1952): 141; Gratch, OTS PB 124957, 1950; Guthrie, Scott et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 76 (1954): 1488. 2 3

2-163

2-164

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-152

Specific Heat [kJ/(kg·K)] of Selected Elements Temperature, K

Symbol

4

6

8

10

20

40

60

80

100

200

250

300

400

600

800

Al Be Bi Cr Co

0.00026 0.00008 0.00054 0.00016 0.00036

0.00050

0.00088

0.214

0.357

0.00541 0.00050 0.00085

0.0089 0.0014 0.0340 0.0021 0.0048

0.0775

0.00220 0.00029 0.00059

0.00140 0.00028 0.01040 0.00081 0.00121

0.0729 0.0107 0.0404

0.092 0.059 0.110

0.102 0.127 0.184

0.481 0.195 0.109 0.190 0.234

0.797 1.109 0.120 0.382 0.376

0.859 1.537 0.121 0.424 0.406

0.902 1.840 0.122 0.450 0.426

0.949 2.191 0.123 0.501 0.451

1.042 2.605 0.142 0.565 0.509

1.134 2.823 0.136 0.611 0.543

Cu Ge Au Ir Fe

0.00011

0.00024

0.00018

0.00047

0.00048 0.00037 0.00126

0.137 0.108 0.084

0.203 0.153 0.100

0.00061

0.00090

0.0076 0.0129 0.0163 0.0021 0.0039

0.059 0.0619 0.0569

0.00038

0.00086 0.00081 0.00255 0.00032 0.00127

0.0276

0.086

0.154

0.254 0.192 0.109 0.090 0.216

0.357 0.286 0.124 0.122 0.384

0.377 0.305 0.127 0.128 0.422

0.386 0.323 0.129 0.131 0.450

0.396 0.343 0.131 0.133 0.491

0.431 0.364 0.136 0.140 0.555

0.448 0.377 0.141 0.146 0.692

Pb Mg Hg Mo Ni

0.00075 0.00034 0.00417 0.00011 0.00054

0.00242 0.00080 0.01420 0.00019 0.00086

0.00747 0.00155 0.01820 0.00032 0.00121

0.01350 0.00172 0.02250 0.00050 0.00178

0.0531 0.0148 0.0515 0.0029 0.0058

0.0944 0.138 0.0895 0.0236 0.0380

0.108 0.336 0.107 0.061 0.103

0.114 0.513 0.116 0.105 0.173

0.118 0.648 0.121 0.140 0.232

0.125 0.929 0.136 0.223 0.383

0.127 0.985 0.141 0.241 0.416

1.129 1.005 0.139 0.248 0.444

0.132 1.082 0.136 0.261 0.490

0.142 1.177 0.135 0.280 0.590

1.263 0.104 0.292 0.530

Pt Ag Sn Zn

0.00019 0.00016 0.00024 0.00011

0.00028 0.00035 0.00127 0.00029

0.00067 0.00093 0.00423 0.00096

0.00112 0.00186 0.00776 0.00250

0.0077 0.0159 0.0400 0.0269

0.0382 0.0778 0.108 0.123

0.069 0.133 0.149 0.205

0.088 0.166 0.173 0.258

0.101 0.187 0.189 0.295

0.127 0.225 0.214 0.366

0.132 0.232 0.220 0.380

0.134 0.236 0.222 0.389

0.136 0.240 0.245 0.404

0.140 0.251 0.257 0.435

0.146 0.264 0.257 0.479

TABLE 2-153

Heat Capacities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids [J/(kmolK)]

2-165

Cmpd. no.

Name

Formula

CAS no.

Mol. wt.

C1

C2

C3

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58

Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetonitrile Acetylene Acrolein Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Air Ammonia [use Eq. (2)] Anisole Argon Benzamide Benzene Benzene Benzenethiol Benzoic acid Benzonitrile Benzophenone Benzyl alcohol Benzyl ethyl ether Benzyl mercaptan Biphenyl Bromine Bromobenzene Bromoethane Bromomethane 1,2-Butadiene 1,3-Butadiene Butane 1,2-Butanediol [use Eq. (2)] 1,3-Butanediol [use Eq. (2)] 1-Butanol 2-Butanol 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene Butyl acetate Butylbenzene Butyl mercaptan sec-Butyl mercaptan 1-Butyne Butyraldehyde Butyric acid Butyronitrile Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide [use Eq. (2)] Carbon tetrachloride Carbon tetrafluoride Chlorine Chlorobenzene Chloroethane Chloroform Chloromethane 1-Chloropropane 2-Chloropropane

C2H4O C2H5NO C2H4O2 C4H6O3 C3H6O C2H3N C2H2 C3H4O C3H4O2 C3H3N Mixture H3N C7H8O Ar C7H7NO C6H6 C6H6 C6H6S C7H6O2 C7H5N C13H10O C7H8O C9H12O C7H8S C12H10 Br2 C6H5Br C2H5Br CH3Br C4H6 C4H6 C4H10 C4H10O2 C4H10O2 C4H10O C4H10O C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C6H12O2 C10H14 C4H10S C4H10S C4H6 C4H8O C4H8O2 C4H7N CO2 CS2 CO CCl4 CF4 Cl2 C6H5Cl C2H5Cl CHCl3 CH3Cl C3H7Cl C3H7Cl

75-07-0 60-35-5 64-19-7 108-24-7 67-64-1 75-05-8 74-86-2 107-02-8 79-10-7 107-13-1 132259-10-0 7664-41-7 100-66-3 7440-37-1 55-21-0 71-43-2 71-43-2 108-98-5 65-85-0 100-47-0 119-61-9 100-51-6 539-30-0 100-53-8 92-52-4 7726-95-6 108-86-1 74-96-4 74-83-9 590-19-2 106-99-0 106-97-8 584-03-2 107-88-0 71-36-3 78-92-2 106-98-9 590-18-1 624-64-6 123-86-4 104-51-8 109-79-5 513-53-1 107-00-6 123-72-8 107-92-6 109-74-0 124-38-9 75-15-0 630-08-0 56-23-5 75-73-0 7782-50-5 108-90-7 75-00-3 67-66-3 74-87-3 540-54-5 75-29-6

44.053 59.067 60.052 102.089 58.079 41.052 26.037 56.063 72.063 53.063 28.960 17.031 108.138 39.948 121.137 78.112 78.112 110.177 122.121 103.121 182.218 108.138 136.191 124.203 154.208 159.808 157.008 108.965 94.939 54.090 54.090 58.122 90.121 90.121 74.122 74.122 56.106 56.106 56.106 116.158 134.218 90.187 90.187 54.090 72.106 88.105 69.105 44.010 76.141 28.010 153.823 88.004 70.906 112.557 64.514 119.378 50.488 78.541 78.541

115,100 102,300 139,640 36,600 135,600 97,582 −122,020 103,090 55,300 109,900 −214,460 61.289 150,940 134,390 161,440 129,440 162,940 119,780 −5,480 93,383 156,130 −334,997 87,500 100,320 121,770 179,400 121,600 94,364 129,730 135,150 128,860 191,030 55.136 42.152 191,200 426,790 182,050 126,680 112,760 111,850 182,470 232,190 197,890 136,340 65,682 237,700 104,000 −8,304,300 85,600 65.429 −752,700 104,600 63,936 −1,307,500 127,900 124,850 96,910 132,280 69,362

−433 128.7 −320.8 511 −177 −122.2 3,082.7 −247.8 300 −109.75 9,185.1 80,925 93.455 −1,989.4 260.66 −169.5 −344.94 180.34 647.12 242.61 454.49 3,644.21 480 346.89 429.3 −667.11 −9.45 −109.12 −596.54 −311.14 −323.1 −1,675 314,200 324,580 −730.4 −3,694.6 −1,611 −65.47 −104.7 384.52 −13.912 −804.35 −491.54 −300.4 1,329.1 −746.4 174 104,370 −122 28,723 8,966.1 −500.6 46.35 15,338 −345.15 −166.34 −207.9 −153.27 215.01

1.425

C4

C5

0.8985 0.2837 0.34085 −15.895 1.0343 0.35441 −106.12 799.4 0.23602 11.043

0.000689 0.027732

0.41616 −2,651

0.64781 0.85562

−7.77514

1.0701 0.358 0.44032 2.16 0.97007 1.015 12.5 280.19 517.35 2.2998 13.828 11.963 −0.64 0.5214 0.72897 2.7063 1.7219 1.0216 −7.1579 1.829 −433.33 0.5605 −847.39 −30.394 2.2851 −0.1623 −53.974 0.915 0.43209 0.37456 0.50836

0.00591102

−0.0024234 −0.0001523 0.000032 −0.03874 1,413.9 1,449.5 −0.0135 −0.037454 0.002912

4.6121E-05

4.5027E-05

−0.0023017 −0.0012499 0.012755 0.60052 −0.001452 1,959.6 0.034455 0.063483 0.000488

2.008E-06

Tmin, K

Cp at Tmin × 1E-05

Tmax, K

Cp at Tmax × 1E-05

150.15 354.15 289.81 250.00 178.45 229.32 192.40 253.00 286.15 189.63 75.00 203.15 298.15 83.78 403.00 278.68 278.68 258.27 395.45 260.40 321.35 257.85 275.65 243.95 342.20 265.90 293.15 160.00 184.45 136.95 165.00 134.86 220.00 196.15 183.85 158.45 87.80 134.26 167.62 298.15 185.30 157.46 133.02 147.43 176.75 267.95 161.25 220.00 161.11 68.15 250.33 89.56 172.12 227.95 134.80 233.15 175.43 150.35 200.00

0.8221 1.4788 1.2213 1.6435 1.1696 0.8748 0.8021 1.0660 1.4114 1.0183 0.5307 0.7575 1.9978 0.4523 2.6649 1.3251 1.3326 1.6636 2.5042 1.5656 3.0218 1.8905 2.1981 1.8494 2.6868 0.7768 1.4960 0.8818 0.7798 1.1034 1.0333 1.1272 1.5590 0.6251 1.3465 1.3485 1.1015 1.1340 1.0986 2.2649 2.0492 1.6365 1.6003 1.1426 1.4741 1.6902 1.3206 0.7827 0.7577 0.5912 1.2763 0.7810 0.6711 1.3617 0.9800 1.0956 0.7460 1.2073 1.1236

294.00 571.00 391.05 350.00 329.44 354.75 250.00 379.50 375.00 400.00 115.00 401.15 484.20 135.00 563.15 353.24 500.00 442.29 450.00 464.15 640.00 478.60 458.15 472.03 533.37 331.90 495.08 320.00 276.71 290.00 350.00 400.00 670.00 670.00 391.90 372.90 380.00 350.00 274.03 399.26 400.00 390.00 370.00 298.15 300.00 436.42 390.75 290.00 552.00 132.00 388.71 145.10 239.12 360.00 340.00 366.48 373.15 319.67 308.85

1.1097 1.7579 1.5159 2.1545 1.3271 0.9713 0.8853 1.5801 1.6780 1.2271 0.7132 4.1847 2.5153 0.6708 3.0823 1.5040 2.0437 1.9954 2.8572 2.0599 4.4700 2.7617 3.0741 2.6406 3.5075 0.7587 2.0467 1.0453 0.7870 1.2279 1.4148 2.2237 5.2045 5.2437 2.5817 2.7190 1.8103 1.5022 1.2322 2.6537 2.9354 1.9359 1.8844 1.3759 1.6459 2.6031 1.7199 1.6603 1.3125 6.4799 1.6374 0.8007 0.6574 1.8101 1.1632 1.2192 0.9684 1.3523 1.3577

2-166

TABLE 2-153

Heat Capacities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids [J/(kmolK)] (Continued)

Cmpd. no.

Name

Formula

CAS no.

59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116

m-Cresol o-Cresol p-Cresol Cumene Cyanogen Cyclobutane Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanone Cyclohexene Cyclopentane Cyclopentene Cyclopropane Cyclohexyl mercaptan Decanal Decane Decanoic acid 1-Decanol 1-Decene Decyl mercaptan 1-Decyne Deuterium 1,1-Dibromoethane 1,2-Dibromoethane Dibromomethane Dibutyl ether m-Dichlorobenzene o-Dichlorobenzene p-Dichlorobenzene 1,1-Dichloroethane 1,2-Dichloroethane Dichloromethane 1,1-Dichloropropane 1,2-Dichloropropane Diethanol amine Diethyl amine Diethyl ether Diethyl sulfide 1,1-Difluoroethane [use Eq. (2)] 1,2-Difluoroethane Difluoromethane Di-isopropyl amine Di-isopropyl ether Di-isopropyl ketone 1,1-Dimethoxyethane 1,2-Dimethoxypropane Dimethyl acetylene Dimethyl amine 2,3-Dimethylbutane 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane cis-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane trans-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane Dimethyl disulfide Dimethyl ether N,N-Dimethyl formamide 2,3-Dimethylpentane Dimethyl phthalate Dimethylsilane

C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O C9H12 C2N2 C4H8 C6H12 C6H12O C6H10O C6H10 C5H10 C5H8 C3H6 C6H12S C10H20O C10H22 C10H20O2 C10H22O C10H20 C10H22S C10H18 D2 C2H4Br2 C2H4Br2 CH2Br2 C8H18O C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C2H4Cl2 C2H4Cl2 CH2Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C4H11NO2 C4H11N C4H10O C4H10S C2H4F2 C2H4F2 CH2F2 C6H15N C6H14O C7H14O C4H10O2 C5H12O2 C4H6 C2H7N C6H14 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C2H6S2 C2H6O C3H7NO C7H16 C10H10O4 C2H8Si

108-39-4 95-48-7 106-44-5 98-82-8 460-19-5 287-23-0 110-82-7 108-93-0 108-94-1 110-83-8 287-92-3 142-29-0 75-19-4 1569-69-3 112-31-2 124-18-5 334-48-5 112-30-1 872-05-9 143-10-2 764-93-2 7782-39-0 557-91-5 106-93-4 74-95-3 142-96-1 541-73-1 95-50-1 106-46-7 75-34-3 107-06-2 75-09-2 78-99-9 78-87-5 111-42-2 109-89-7 60-29-7 352-93-2 75-37-6 624-72-6 75-10-5 108-18-9 108-20-3 565-80-0 534-15-6 7778-85-0 503-17-3 124-40-3 79-29-8 590-66-9 2207-01-4 6876-23-9 624-92-0 115-10-6 68-12-2 565-59-3 131-11-3 1111-74-6

Mol. wt.

C1

108.138 −246,700 108.138 −185,150 108.138 259,980 120.192 61,723 52.035 65,516 56.106 101,920 84.159 −220,600 100.159 −40,000 98.143 6,110.4 82.144 105,850 70.133 122,530 68.117 125,380 42.080 89,952 116.224 177,560 156.265 150,460 142.282 278,620 172.265 219,840 158.281 4,988,500 140.266 417,440 174.347 314,570 138.250 276,900 4.032 187.861 149,400 187.861 200,560 173.835 202,580 130.228 270,720 147.002 114,880 147.002 93,093 147.002 133,950 98.959 126,340 98.959 179,170 84.933 98,968 112.986 144,560 112.986 111,560 105.136 184,200 73.137 101,330 74.122 44,400 90.187 238,520 66.050 67.155 66.050 82,577 52.023 263,980 101.190 98,434 102.175 163,000 114.185 179,270 90.121 187,790 104.148 199,930 54.090 88,153 45.084 −214,870 86.175 129,450 112.213 134,500 112.213 150,130 112.213 155,560 94.199 171,580 46.068 110,100 73.094 147,900 100.202 146,420 194.184 206,560 60.170 131,810

C2 3,256.8 3,148 −1,112.3 494.81 144.7 −215.81 3,118.3 853 600.94 −60 −403.8 −349.7 −196.63 −179.12 586.63 −197.91 140.41 −52,898 −1,616.5 −160.93 −371.23 −231.8 −491.44 −726.3 −259.83 187.25 183.97 −24.84 −94.63 −444.74 −62.941 −53.605 149.44 286 243.18 1,301 −1,038.4 105,580 109.85 −1,791.1 429.04 −4.5 28.37 −313.41 −191.5 124.16 3,787.2 18.5 8.765 −62.38 −145.26 −256.67 −157.47 −106 59.2 325.75

C3 −7.4202 −8.0367 4.9427 0.063229 0.8103 −9.4216 0.68 1.7344 1.143 0.65237 0.76723 1.0737 0.9968 216.35 5.3948 0.95561 1.5774

C4 0.0060467 0.007254 −0.0054367

0.010687

−0.0010975

−0.37538 −0.004348

0.5946 0.9187 1.3377 0.95427 0.2314 0.48191 0.32 0.93009 0.23265 0.30617

−5.5 4.0587 310.21

0.008763 −0.0044691 −490.54

4.3666 0.62 0.5375 1.1023 0.87664 −13.781 0.608 0.81151 0.8851 1.0932 0.5727 0.51853 0.384 0.604

C5

0.016924

0.00023674

Tmin, K

Cp at Tmin × 1E-05

Tmax, K

Cp at Tmax × 1E-05

285.39 304.20 307.93 177.14 200.08 190.00 279.69 296.60 290.00 169.67 179.28 138.13 150.00 189.64 267.15 243.51 304.75 280.05 206.89 247.56 229.15

2.1895 2.3297 2.2740 1.4937 0.9700 0.9017 1.4836 2.1300 1.8038 1.1525 0.9956 0.9888 0.7514 1.7118 3.0718 2.9409 3.5521 3.5373 2.7541 3.3330 2.7466

400.00 400.00 400.00 425.56 300.08 298.15 400.00 434.00 489.75 356.12 322.40 317.38 298.15 431.95 488.15 460.00 543.15 503.00 443.75 512.35 447.15

2.5578 2.5243 2.5794 2.7229 1.1463 1.0961 2.0323 3.3020 3.0042 1.7072 1.3584 1.2953 0.8932 2.4334 4.3682 4.1478 5.9017 5.0169 3.8250 4.8297 4.2629

210.15 282.85 240.00 175.30 248.39 273.15 326.14 176.19 237.49 180.00 180.00 275.00 301.15 223.35 156.92 181.95 154.56 215.00 200.00 275.00 187.65 204.81 159.95 226.10 240.91 180.96 145.19 239.66 223.16 184.99 188.44 131.65 273.82 90.00 274.16 298.15

1.2695 1.3506 1.0532 2.5450 1.6139 1.6061 1.7711 1.1960 1.2601 0.9518 1.4483 1.5266 2.7033 1.5564 1.4698 1.5703 0.9915 1.0619 0.8042 2.1642 1.8399 2.0763 1.6586 2.0145 1.1806 1.1947 1.4495 1.8321 1.8029 1.6610 1.4355 0.9836 1.4767 1.5664 2.9587 1.3181

381.15 410.00 370.10 450.00 400.00 528.75 513.56 330.45 356.59 320.00 361.25 369.52 541.54 328.60 460.00 322.08 359.98 283.65 250.00 357.05 341.45 410.00 337.45 366.15 300.13 298.15 331.13 392.70 402.94 396.58 360.00 250.00 466.44 380.00 360.00 298.15

1.4743 1.5350 1.1701 3.4704 1.8978 2.5506 2.4829 1.3001 1.3885 1.0265 1.6515 1.6678 3.3908 1.8124 3.3202 1.7579 1.6874 1.1374 0.8912 2.5162 2.3375 2.8126 2.0755 2.4734 1.2542 1.3779 2.0224 2.6309 2.6870 2.6989 1.5340 1.0314 1.8200 2.5613 3.2383 1.3181

2-167

117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177

Dimethyl sulfide Dimethyl sulfoxide Dimethyl terephthalate 1,4-Dioxane Diphenyl ether Dipropyl amine Dodecane Eicosane Ethane [use Eq. (2)] Ethanol Ethyl acetate Ethyl amine Ethylbenzene Ethyl benzoate 2-Ethyl butanoic acid Ethyl butyrate Ethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclopentane Ethylene Ethylenediamine Ethylene glycol Ethyleneimine Ethylene oxide Ethyl formate 2-Ethyl hexanoic acid Ethylhexyl ether Ethylisopropyl ether Ethylisopropyl ketone Ethyl mercaptan Ethyl propionate Ethylpropyl ether Ethyltrichlorosilane Fluorine Fluorine Fluorobenzene Fluoroethane Fluoromethane Formaldehyde Formamide Formic acid Furan Helium-4 Helium-4 Heptadecane Heptanal Heptane [use Eq. (2)] Heptanoic acid 1-Heptanol 2-Heptanol 3-Heptanone 2-Heptanone 1-Heptene Heptyl mercaptan 1-Heptyne Hexadecane Hexanal Hexane Hexanoic acid 1-Hexanol 2-Hexanol 2-Hexanone 3-Hexanone 1-Hexene

C2H6S C2H6OS C10H10O4 C4H8O2 C12H10O C6H15N C12H26 C20H42 C2H6 C2H6O C4H8O2 C2H7N C8H10 C9H10O2 C6H12O2 C6H12O2 C8H16 C7H14 C2H4 C2H8N2 C2H6O2 C2H5N C2H4O C3H6O2 C8H16O2 C8H18O C5H12O C6H12O C2H6S C5H10O2 C5H12O C2H5Cl3Si F2 F2 C6H5F C2H5F CH3F CH2O CH3NO CH2O2 C4H4O He He C17H36 C7H14O C7H16 C7H14O2 C7H16O C7H16O C7H14O C7H14O C7H14 C7H16S C7H12 C16H34 C6H12O C6H14 C6H12O2 C6H14O C6H14O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12

75-18-3 67-68-5 120-61-6 123-91-1 101-84-8 142-84-7 112-40-3 112-95-8 74-84-0 64-17-5 141-78-6 75-04-7 100-41-4 93-89-0 88-09-5 105-54-4 1678-91-7 1640-89-7 74-85-1 107-15-3 107-21-1 151-56-4 75-21-8 109-94-4 149-57-5 5756-43-4 625-54-7 565-69-5 75-08-1 105-37-3 628-32-0 115-21-9 7782-41-4 7782-41-4 462-06-6 353-36-6 593-53-3 50-00-0 75-12-7 64-18-6 110-00-9 7440-59-7 7440-59-7 629-78-7 111-71-7 142-82-5 111-14-8 111-70-6 543-49-7 106-35-4 110-43-0 592-76-7 1639-09-4 628-71-7 544-76-3 66-25-1 110-54-3 142-62-1 111-27-3 626-93-7 591-78-6 589-38-8 592-41-6

62.134 146,950 78.133 240,300 194.184 190,020 88.105 956,860 170.207 134,160 101.190 49,120 170.335 508,210 282.547 352,720 30.069 44.009 46.068 102,640 88.105 226,230 45.084 121,700 106.165 154,040 150.175 124,500 116.158 56,359 116.158 82,434 112.213 132,360 98.186 178,520 28.053 247,390 60.098 184,440 62.068 35,540 43.068 46,848 44.053 144,710 74.079 80,000 144.211 207,670 130.228 146,040 88.148 106,250 100.159 229,250 62.134 134,670 102.132 76,330 88.148 103,680 163.506 105,150 37.997 −94,585 37.997 1724,400 96.102 −991,200 48.060 85,663 34.033 74,746 30.026 61,900 45.041 63,400 46.026 78,060 68.074 114,370 4.003 387,220 4.003 410,430 240.468 376,970 114.185 222,360 100.202 61.26 130.185 194,570 116.201 2,416,800 116.201 283,127 114.185 270,730 114.185 265,040 98.186 267,950 132.267 236,870 96.170 46,798 226.441 370,350 100.159 117,700 86.175 172,120 116.158 161,980 102.175 1,638,600 102.175 267,628 100.159 208,250 100.159 235,960 84.159 164,640

−380.06 −595 431.04 −5,559.9 447.67 562.24 −1,368.7 807.32 89,718 −139.63 −624.8 38.993 −142.29 370.6 603.02 422.45 72.74 −518.35 −4,428 −150.2 436.78 205.35 −758.87 223.6 −17.907 458.22 292.15 −404.54 −234.39 400.1 726.3 85.318 7,529.9 −59,924 11,734 −118.56 −132.32 28.3 150.6 71.54 −215.69 −465,570 −464,890 347.82 −105.17 314,410 −23.206 −26,105 −1,037.63 −399.89 −375.68 −1,315.9 −158.01 761.13 231.47 329.52 −183.78 44.116 −17,261 −1,033.06 −107.47 −345.94 −200.37

1.2035 1.013

−0.00084787

9.6124 3.1015 0.2122 918.77 −0.030341 1.472

−1,886 0.0020386

0.80539 0.20992 0.64738 2.3255 40.936 0.37044 −0.18486

−0.0016818 −0.1697

2.8261

−0.003064

0.00026816

1.0493 1.1382 0.59656 −2.6047 0.46693 −139.6 537.85 −40.669 0.55459 0.53772

0.72691 211,800 135,100 0.57895 0.65074 1,824.6 0.88395 110.03 3.44064 1.0601 1.0024 6.5242 0.78982 −0.62882 0.68632 0.88734 0.709 71.721 3.35185 0.2062 0.94278 0.8784

0.0040957 1.1301

−0.0033241

0.047333

−42,494

3212.9

−2,547.9 −0.19172

0.00011968

−0.011994

9.3808E-06

−0.12026

0.000071087

0.00070293

174.88 291.67 423.40 284.95 300.03 277.90 263.57 309.58 92.00 159.05 189.60 192.15 178.20 238.45 258.15 285.50 161.84 134.71 104.00 284.29 260.15 250.00 160.65 254.20 235.00 298.15 298.15 204.15 125.26 298.15 145.65 167.55 58.00 53.48 239.99 140.00 140.00 204.00 292.00 281.45 187.55 2.20 1.80 295.13 229.80 182.57 265.83 239.15 230.00 234.15 238.15 154.12 229.92 200.00 291.31 217.15 177.83 269.25 228.55 223.00 217.35 217.50 133.39

1.1276 1.5293 3.7252 1.5306 2.6847 2.0537 3.6292 6.2299 0.6855 0.8787 1.6068 1.2919 1.5426 2.1287 2.1203 2.2015 1.6109 1.4678 0.7012 1.7168 1.3666 0.9819 0.8303 1.3684 2.6141 2.8266 1.9335 1.9410 1.1467 1.9562 1.6686 1.3255 0.5541 0.5798 1.3675 0.7994 0.6676 0.6767 1.0738 0.9820 0.9949 0.1087 0.1135 5.3005 2.3256 1.9989 2.5087 2.3590 2.2649 2.3522 2.3242 1.8150 2.4229 1.7387 4.9602 1.8926 1.6750 2.2526 1.9821 2.0394 2.0185 2.0532 1.5354

310.48 422.15 466.35 374.47 570.00 407.90 330.00 616.93 290.00 390.00 350.21 289.73 409.35 486.55 466.95 428.25 404.95 301.82 252.70 390.41 493.15 329.00 283.85 374.20 510.10 417.15 326.15 386.55 315.25 410.00 320.00 371.05 98.00 56.00 319.99 240.00 220.00 234.00 493.00 380.00 304.50 4.60 2.10 575.30 381.25 520.00 496.15 448.60 432.90 480.00 490.00 366.79 460.00 372.93 560.01 401.45 460.00 478.85 460.00 585.30 460.00 460.00 336.63

1.1959 1.6965 3.9104 2.2277 3.8933 2.7846 3.9429 9.3154 1.2444 1.6450 1.8796 1.3300 2.3075 3.0482 3.3794 3.0185 2.6798 1.8767 0.9758 1.8226 2.0598 1.1441 0.8693 1.6367 4.7157 3.3719 2.0153 2.4295 1.2007 2.4037 2.0358 2.0109 0.5966 0.5535 1.5018 0.8915 0.7166 0.6852 1.3765 1.0525 1.1609 0.2965 0.2995 7.6869 2.7685 4.0657 4.0065 3.8766 4.7873 3.2303 3.2163 2.4096 3.3131 2.4319 7.1521 2.4999 2.7534 3.4568 3.5197 8.1124 2.7087 2.7632 1.9673

2-168

TABLE 2-153

Heat Capacities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids [J/(kmolK)] (Continued)

Cmpd. no.

Name

Formula

CAS no.

Mol. wt.

178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236

3-Hexyne Hexyl mercaptan 1-Hexyne 2-Hexyne Hydrazine Hydrogen [use Eq. (2)] Hydrogen bromide Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen cyanide Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen sulfide [use Eq. (2)] Isobutyric acid Isopropyl amine Malonic acid Methacrylic acid Methane [use Eq. (2)] Methanol N-Methyl acetamide Methyl acetate Methyl acetylene Methyl acrylate Methyl amine Methyl benzoate 3-Methyl-1,2-butadiene 2-Methylbutane 2-Methylbutanoic acid 3-Methyl-1-butanol 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene 2-Methyl-1-butene-3-yne Methylbutyl ether Methylbutyl sulfide 3-Methyl-1-butyne Methyl butyrate Methylchlorosilane Methylcyclohexane 1-Methylcyclohexanol cis-2-Methylcyclohexanol trans-2-Methylcyclohexanol Methylcyclopentane 1-Methylcyclopentene 3-Methylcyclopentene Methyldichlorosilane Methylethyl ether Methylethyl ketone Methylethyl sulfide Methyl formate Methylisobutyl ether Methylisobutyl ketone Methyl Isocyanate Methylisopropyl ether Methylisopropyl ketone Methylisopropyl sulfide Methyl mercaptan Methyl methacrylate 2-Methyloctanoic acid 2-Methylpentane Methyl pentyl ether 2-Methylpropane

C6H10 C6H14S C6H10 C6H10 H4N2 H2 HBr HCl CHN HF H2S C4H8O2 C3H9N C3H4O4 C4H6O2 CH4 CH4O C3H7NO C3H6O2 C3H4 C4H6O2 CH5N C8H8O2 C5H8 C5H12 C5H10O2 C5H12O C5H10 C5H10 C5H6 C5H12O C5H12S C5H8 C5H10O2 CH5ClSi C7H14 C7H14O C7H14O C7H14O C6H12 C6H10 C6H10 CH4Cl2Si C3H8O C4H8O C3H8S C2H4O2 C5H12O C6H12O C2H3NO C4H10O C5H10O C4H10S CH4S C5H8O2 C9H18O2 C6H14 C6H14O C4H10

928-49-4 111-31-9 693-02-7 764-35-2 302-01-2 1333-74-0 10035-10-6 7647-01-0 74-90-8 7664-39-3 7783-06-4 79-31-2 75-31-0 141-82-2 79-41-4 74-82-8 67-56-1 79-16-3 79-20-9 74-99-7 96-33-3 74-89-5 93-58-3 598-25-4 78-78-4 116-53-0 123-51-3 563-46-2 513-35-9 78-80-8 628-28-4 628-29-5 598-23-2 623-42-7 993-00-0 108-87-2 590-67-0 7443-70-1 7443-52-9 96-37-7 693-89-0 1120-62-3 75-54-7 540-67-0 78-93-3 624-89-5 107-31-3 625-44-5 108-10-1 624-83-9 598-53-8 563-80-4 1551-21-9 74-93-1 80-62-6 3004-93-1 107-83-5 628-80-8 75-28-5

82.144 118.240 82.144 82.144 32.045 2.016 80.912 36.461 27.025 20.006 34.081 88.105 59.110 104.061 86.089 16.042 32.042 73.094 74.079 40.064 86.089 31.057 136.148 68.117 72.149 102.132 88.148 70.133 70.133 66.101 88.148 104.214 68.117 102.132 80.589 98.186 114.185 114.185 114.185 84.159 82.144 82.144 115.034 60.095 72.106 76.161 60.052 88.148 100.159 57.051 74.122 86.132 90.187 48.107 100.116 158.238 86.175 102.175 58.122

C1 82,795 303,320 93,000 94,860 79,815 66.653 57,720 47,300 95,398 62,520 64.666 127,540 −32,469 157,850 146,290 65.708 105,800 62,600 61,260 79,791 275,500 92,520 125,630 135,370 108,300 74,200 247,870 149,510 151,600 81,919 177,850 198,390 105,200 102,930 47,726 131,340 50,578 118,600 118,170 155,920 53,271 46,457 27,030 85,383 132,300 161,240 130,200 92,919 183,650 149,770 143,440 191,170 211,170 115,300 255,100 226,650 142,220 251,890 172,370

C2 283.4 −1,009 326 254.15 50.929 6,765.9 9.9 90 −197.52 −223.02 49,354 −65.35 1,977.1 −41.619 −58.59 38,883 −362.23 243.4 270.9 89.49 −1,147 37.45 279.75 −133.34 146 417.4 −1,145 −247.63 −266.72 181.01 −171.57 −220.35 191.1 129.1 338.4 −63.1 508.59 447.07 447.99 −490 327.92 346.93 413 199.08 200.87 −288.61 −396 324.43 −79.862 −529.82 −154.07 −331.04 −661.97 −263.23 −938.4 15.421 −47.83 −468.32 −1,783.9

C3 3.3885 0.043379 −123.63 0.3883 0.6297 22.493 0.82867 −7.0145 0.42817 0.3582 −257.95 0.9379

C4

C5

Tmin, K

Cp at Tmin × 1E-05

Tmax, K

Cp at Tmax × 1E-05

0.00005805

300.00 192.62 200.00 300.00 274.69 13.95 185.15 165.00 259.83 189.79 187.68 270.00 177.95 407.95 288.15 90.69 175.47 359.00 253.40 200.00 196.32 179.69 260.75 159.53 113.25 321.50 155.95 135.58 139.39 298.15 157.48 175.30 200.00 277.25 250.00 146.58 300.00 300.00 300.00 130.73 200.00 200.00 250.00 160.00 186.48 167.23 174.15 298.15 189.15 256.15 127.93 180.15 171.64 150.18 224.95 240.00 119.55 176.00 113.54

1.6781 2.1495 1.5820 1.7110 0.9708 0.1262 0.5955 0.6215 0.7029 0.4288 0.6733 1.7031 1.4621 2.1213 1.5915 0.5361 0.7112 1.4998 1.2991 0.9769 1.4930 0.9925 1.9857 1.3035 1.2328 2.0839 1.5254 1.3282 1.3207 1.3589 1.6928 1.8315 1.4342 1.8678 1.3233 1.3955 2.0315 2.5272 2.5257 1.2492 1.1885 1.1584 1.3028 1.1566 1.4905 1.3484 0.9793 1.8965 1.9029 1.0263 1.3560 1.6348 1.5808 0.8939 1.6611 2.9128 1.4706 2.0728 0.9961

354.35 430.00 344.48 357.67 653.15 32.00 206.45 185.00 298.85 292.67 370.00 427.65 320.00 603.75 434.15 190.00 400.00 538.50 373.40 249.94 353.35 266.82 472.65 314.56 310.00 481.50 404.15 304.31 311.71 305.40 343.31 510.00 299.49 415.87 325.00 320.00 441.15 438.15 440.15 366.48 348.64 338.05 350.00 280.50 373.15 339.80 304.90 350.00 389.15 366.00 310.00 440.00 357.91 298.15 373.45 518.15 333.41 372.00 380.00

1.8322 2.7639 2.0530 1.8576 1.3158 1.3122 0.5976 0.6395 0.7105 0.5119 4.9183 2.5114 1.6671 2.8880 1.8837 14.9780 1.1097 1.9367 1.6241 1.0216 1.9084 1.0251 2.5785 1.5662 1.7048 2.7518 3.4411 1.5921 1.5673 1.3720 2.0661 2.8394 1.6243 2.6474 1.5771 1.9435 2.7494 3.1448 3.1535 1.8682 1.6760 1.6374 1.7158 1.3638 1.7511 1.5344 1.2195 2.0647 2.4460 1.3668 1.6540 2.3610 1.8641 0.9052 2.4118 5.1864 2.0842 2.4663 2.0725

−0.002762

478.27

−1,623 0.0086913 614.07

2.568 0.63868 −0.292

0.00151

3.4223 0.91849 0.90847 0.74379 0.76096 0.62516 0.8125

2.1383

−0.0015585

−0.061547 −0.9597 0.78179 1.21

0.0019533

0.60769 1.3499 0.7255 0.98445 2.4216 0.60412 2.413 1.0578 0.739 1.2209 14.759

−0.0021383

−0.047909

2-169

237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299

2-Methyl-2-propanol 2-Methyl propene Methyl propionate Methylpropyl ether Methylpropyl sulfide Methylsilane alpha-Methyl styrene Methyl tert-butyl ether Methyl vinyl ether Naphthalene Neon Nitroethane Nitrogen Nitrogen trifluoride Nitromethane Nitrous oxide Nitric oxide Nonadecane Nonanal Nonane Nonanoic acid 1-Nonanol 2-Nonanol 1-Nonene Nonyl mercaptan 1-Nonyne Octadecane Octanal Octane Octanoic acid 1-Octanol 2-Octanol 2-Octanone 3-Octanone 1-Octene Octyl mercaptan 1-Octyne Oxalic acid Oxygen Ozone Pentadecane Pentanal Pentane Pentanoic acid 1-Pentanol 2-Pentanol 2-Pentanone 3-Pentanone 1-Pentene 2-Pentyl mercaptan Pentyl mercaptan 1-Pentyne 2-Pentyne Phenanthrene Phenol Phenyl isocyanate Phthalic anhydride Propadiene Propane [use Eq. (2)] 1-Propanol 2-Propanol Propenylcyclohexene Propionaldehyde

C4H10O C4H8 C4H8O2 C4H10O C4H10S CH6Si C9H10 C5H12O C3H6O C10H8 Ne C2H5NO2 N2 F3N CH3NO2 N2O NO C19H40 C9H18O C9H20 C9H18O2 C9H20O C9H20O C9H18 C9H20S C9H16 C18H38 C8H16O C8H18 C8H16O2 C8H18O C8H18O C8H16O C8H16O C8H16 C8H18S C8H14 C2H2O4 O2 O3 C15H32 C5H10O C5H12 C5H10O2 C5H12O C5H12O C5H10O C5H10O C5H10 C5H12S C5H12S C5H8 C5H8 C14H10 C6H6O C7H5NO C8H4O3 C3H4 C3H8 C3H8O C3H8O C9H14 C3H6O

75-65-0 115-11-7 554-12-1 557-17-5 3877-15-4 992-94-9 98-83-9 1634-04-4 107-25-5 91-20-3 7440-01-9 79-24-3 7727-37-9 7783-54-2 75-52-5 10024-97-2 10102-43-9 629-92-5 124-19-6 111-84-2 112-05-0 143-08-8 628-99-9 124-11-8 1455-21-6 3452-09-3 593-45-3 124-13-0 111-65-9 124-07-2 111-87-5 123-96-6 111-13-7 106-68-3 111-66-0 111-88-6 629-05-0 144-62-7 7782-44-7 10028-15-6 629-62-9 110-62-3 109-66-0 109-52-4 71-41-0 6032-29-7 107-87-9 96-22-0 109-67-1 2084-19-7 110-66-7 627-19-0 627-21-4 85-01-8 108-95-2 103-71-9 85-44-9 463-49-0 74-98-6 71-23-8 67-63-0 13511-13-2 123-38-6

74.122 56.106 88.105 74.122 90.187 46.144 118.176 88.148 58.079 128.171 20.180 75.067 28.013 71.002 61.040 44.013 30.006 268.521 142.239 128.255 158.238 144.255 144.255 126.239 160.320 124.223 254.494 128.212 114.229 144.211 130.228 130.228 128.212 128.212 112.213 146.294 110.197 90.035 31.999 47.998 212.415 86.132 72.149 102.132 88.148 88.148 86.132 86.132 70.133 104.214 104.214 68.117 68.117 178.229 94.111 119.121 148.116 40.064 44.096 60.095 60.095 122.207 58.079

−925,460 87,680 71,140 144,110 179,850 113,470 76,822 134,300 73,600 29,800 1,034,100 187,740 281,970 101,400 116,270 67,556 −2,979,600 342,570 136,820 383,080 224,336 10,483,000 329,641 254,490 265,350 253,580 399,430 130,650 224,830 205,260 571,370 319,198 300,400 289,980 509,420 240,040 42,642 175,510 175,430 60,046 346,910 112,050 159,080 145,050 201,200 251,596 194,590 193,020 156,100 188,200 213,760 86,200 68,671 103,370 101,720 60,834 145,400 66,230 62.983 158,760 471,710 201,400 99,306

7,894.9 217.1 335.5 −102.09 −264.1 421.6 94.356 184.7 527.5 −138,770 −497.6 −12,281 −682.11 −135.3 54.373 76,602 762.08 531.29 −1,139.8 49.726 −115,220 −1,046.78 −298.06 −46.22 −366.3 374.64 463.61 −186.63 44.392 −4,849 −1,042.21 −426.2 −417.27 −4,279.1 −33.198 886.67 −381.36 −6,152.3 281.16 219.54 257.78 −270.5 28.344 −651.3 −1,028.49 −263.86 −176.43 −456.94 −140.84 −324.4 256.6 246.66 527.03 317.61 215.89 252.4 98.275 113,630 −635 −4,172.1 −450.6 115.73

−17.661 −0.9153

0.013617 0.002266

0.58113 0.79202 −0.0032 7,154 1.0691 248 3.8912 0.345 −652.59 0.20481 2.7101 0.9813 476.87 3.61823 1.1707 0.79154 1.4881 0.58156 0.95891 0.8956 19.725 3.52943 1.1172 1.2218 21.477 0.67889 −0.69315 0.64623 113.92

0.0009795 −162.55 −2.2182

1.3841 0.0074902

1.8879

−0.85381

0.00056246

−0.021532

−0.044462

3.5028E-05

−0.92382

0.0027963

−0.003163

0.00000238

0.65632 0.99537 0.6372 2.275 3.26306 0.76808 0.5669 2.255 0.63581 0.9472

0.29552 633.21 1.969 14.745 1.7053

−873.46 −0.0144

298.96 132.81 300.00 133.97 160.17 298.15 249.95 164.55 151.15 353.43 24.56 183.63 63.15 117.00 244.60 182.30 109.50 305.04 255.15 219.66 285.55 310.00 238.15 191.91 253.05 223.15 301.31 246.00 216.38 289.65 250.00 241.55 252.86 255.55 171.45 240.00 200.00 462.65 54.36 90.00 283.07 200.00 143.42 239.15 200.14 200.00 196.29 234.18 108.02 160.75 197.45 200.00 200.00 372.39 314.06 243.15 404.15 200.00 85.47 146.95 185.26 199.00 200.00

2.2016 1.0568 1.7179 1.4086 1.5787 1.1347 1.8220 1.5410 1.0152 2.1623 0.3666 1.3242 0.5593 0.7486 1.0382 0.7747 0.6229 5.9409 2.7238 2.6348 3.1855 3.5059 2.8555 2.4041 3.0434 2.4594 5.6511 2.4470 2.2934 2.9326 2.5550 2.7338 2.6406 2.6314 2.1327 2.7118 1.9225 1.3740 0.5365 0.8535 4.6165 1.6361 1.4076 1.8827 1.6198 1.7642 1.7239 1.8279 1.2939 1.8199 1.8664 1.3752 1.1800 2.9963 2.0147 1.3080 2.4741 0.8589 0.8488 1.0797 1.1329 1.7926 1.2245

460.00 343.15 390.00 312.20 368.69 298.15 438.65 328.18 278.65 491.14 40.00 387.22 112.00 175.50 473.15 200.00 150.00 603.05 468.15 325.00 528.75 460.00 649.50 420.02 492.95 423.85 589.86 447.15 460.00 512.85 467.10 452.90 500.00 440.65 394.41 472.19 399.35 603.00 142.00 150.00 543.84 376.15 390.00 458.95 389.15 561.00 375.46 375.14 350.00 385.15 399.79 313.33 329.27 500.00 425.00 489.75 557.65 238.65 360.00 400.00 355.30 431.65 328.75

2.9455 1.4596 2.0198 1.6888 1.9014 1.1347 2.6176 1.9954 1.2507 2.8888 0.6980 1.5536 0.7960 1.0154 1.2949 0.7843 1.9909 8.7663 3.8554 2.9890 5.2498 4.6494 11.7608 3.3583 4.3491 3.6566 8.2276 3.3795 3.4189 4.6358 4.1566 5.7113 3.6660 3.4335 2.8235 3.7573 2.8619 1.8052 0.9066 1.0222 6.6042 2.0901 2.0498 2.9228 2.9227 7.0158 2.0380 2.0661 1.7251 2.2827 2.3546 1.6660 1.4989 3.6688 2.3670 2.3745 2.8615 0.8968 2.6079 2.1980 2.0487 3.2463 1.3735

TABLE 2-153

Heat Capacities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids [J/(kmolK)] (Concluded)

2-170

Cmpd. no.

Name

Formula

CAS no.

Mol. wt.

C1

C2

C3

300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345

Propionic acid Propionitrile Propyl acetate Propyl amine Propylbenzene Propylene Propyl formate 2-Propyl mercaptan Propyl mercaptan 1,2-Propylene glycol Quinone Silicon tetrafluoride Styrene Succinic acid Sulfur dioxide Sulfur hexafluoride Sulfur trioxide Terephthalic acid o-Terphenyl Tetradecane Tetrahydrofuran 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene Tetrahydrothiophene 2,2,3,3-Tetramethylbutane Thiophene Toluene 1,1,2-Trichloroethane Tridecane Triethyl amine Trimethyl amine 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Undecane 1-Undecanol Vinyl acetate Vinyl acetylene Vinyl chloride Vinyl trichlorosilane Water m-Xylene o-Xylene p-Xylene

C3H6O2 C3H5N C5H10O2 C3H9N C9H12 C3H6 C4H8O2 C3H2S C3H8S C3H8O2 C6H4O2 F4Si C8H8 C4H6O4 O2S F6S O3S C8H6O4 C18H14 C14H30 C4H8O C10H12 C4H8S C8H18 C4H4S C7H8 C2H3Cl3 C13H28 C6H15N C3H9N C9H12 C9H12 C8H18 C8H18 C6H3N3O6 C7H5N3O6 C11H24 C11H24O C4H6O2 C4H4 C2H3Cl C2H3Cl3Si H2O C8H10 C8H10 C8H10

79-09-4 107-12-0 109-60-4 107-10-8 103-65-1 115-07-1 110-74-7 75-33-2 107-03-9 57-55-6 106-51-4 7783-61-1 100-42-5 110-15-6 7446-09-5 2551-62-4 7446-11-9 100-21-0 84-15-1 629-59-4 109-99-9 119-64-2 110-01-0 594-82-1 110-02-1 108-88-3 79-00-5 629-50-5 121-44-8 75-50-3 526-73-8 95-63-6 540-84-1 560-21-4 99-35-4 118-96-7 1120-21-4 112-42-5 108-05-4 689-97-4 75-01-4 75-94-5 7732-18-5 108-38-3 95-47-6 106-42-3

74.079 55.079 102.132 59.110 120.192 42.080 88.105 76.161 76.161 76.094 108.095 104.079 104.149 118.088 64.064 146.055 80.063 166.131 230.304 198.388 72.106 132.202 88.171 114.229 84.140 92.138 133.404 184.361 101.190 59.110 120.192 120.192 114.229 114.229 213.105 227.131 156.308 172.308 86.089 52.075 62.498 161.490 18.015 106.165 106.165 106.165

213,660 118,190 83,400 139,530 174,380 114,140 75,700 138,390 167,330 58,080 45,810 829,380 113,340 244,770 85,743 119,500 258,090

−702.7 −120.98 384.1 78 −101.8 −343.72 326.1 −117.11 −319.1 445.2 368.33 −7,331.5 290.2 −236.96 5.7443

1.6605 0.42075

182,900 353,140 171,730 81,760 123,300 43,326 84,864 140,140 103,350 350,180 111,480 136,050 119,450 178,800 95,275 388,620 40,364 133,530 293,980 129,450 136,300 68,720 −10,320 49,516 276,370 133,860 36,500 −35,500

635.09 29.13 −800.47 455.38 −130.1 630.73 91.725 −152.3 159.3 −104.7 368.13 −288 324.54 −128.47 696.7 −1,439.5 664.46 514.64 −114.98 −3,039.5 −106.17 135 322.8 420.35 −2,090.1 7.8754 1,017.5 1,287.2

C4

C5

0.79 1.0905 0.47059 0.8127 19.203 −0.6051 0.63148

0.0013567

0.86116 2.8934

−0.0025015

0.6229 0.13243 0.695 1.0022 0.9913 0.83741 −1.3765 3.2187 0.96936 27.927 0.75175

8.125 0.52265 −2.63 −2.599

0.0021734

−0.061847

4.3042E-05

−0.014116

9.3701E-06

0.00302 0.002426

Tmin, K

Cp at Tmin × 1E-05

Tmax, K

Cp at Tmax × 1E-05

252.45 180.26 274.70 188.36 173.55 87.89 298.15 142.61 159.95 213.15 388.85 186.35 242.54 460.65 197.67 230.15 303.15

1.4209 1.1005 1.8891 1.5422 1.8051 0.9235 1.7293 1.3126 1.3708 1.5297 1.8904 1.3000 1.6749 2.6961 0.8688 1.1950 2.5809

414.32 370.50 404.70 340.00 432.39 225.45 398.15 350.00 340.87 460.75 683.00 253.15 418.31 604.50 350.00 230.15 303.15

2.0756 1.3112 2.3885 1.6605 2.7806 0.9208 2.0554 1.5505 1.5299 2.6321 2.9738 2.0403 2.2816 3.3228 0.8775 1.1950 2.5809

329.35 279.01 164.65 237.38 176.98 375.41 234.94 178.18 236.50 267.76 200.00 156.08 247.79 229.33 165.78 280.00 398.40 354.00 247.57 289.05 259.56 200.00 200.00 178.35 273.16 217.00 247.98 286.41

3.9207 4.2831 1.0721 1.8986 1.1979 2.8011 1.1372 1.3507 1.4102 3.9400 1.8511 1.1525 1.9987 1.9338 1.8285 2.3791 3.0508 3.1571 3.2493 3.9103 1.5939 0.9572 0.5424 1.2449 0.7615 1.6018 1.7314 1.7697

609.15 526.73 339.12 480.77 394.27 426.00 357.31 500.00 300.00 508.62 361.92 276.02 449.27 350.00 520.00 320.00 475.47 475.00 433.42 520.30 389.35 278.25 400.00 363.85 533.15 540.15 417.58 600.00

5.6977 6.0741 1.3546 3.0069 1.6883 3.1202 1.3455 2.3774 1.5114 5.5619 2.4471 1.3208 2.6526 2.3642 3.9095 2.5757 3.5629 3.7798 4.2624 5.5127 2.0892 1.0628 1.1880 2.0246 0.8939 2.9060 2.2269 3.2520

For the 11 substances, ammonia, 1,2-butanediol, 1,3-butanediol, carbon monoxide, 1,1-difluoroethane, ethane, heptane, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, methane, and propane, the liquid heat capacity CpL is calculated with Eq. (2) below. For all other compounds, Eq. (1) is used. For benzene, fluorine, and helium, two sets of constants are given for Eq. (1) that cover different temperature ranges, as shown in the table. (1) CpL = C1 + C2T + C3T 2 + C4T 3 + C4T 4 C12 C32t3 C3C4t4 C42t5 (2) CpL =  + C2 − 2C1C3t − C1C4t2 −  −  −  t 3 2 5 where t = 1 − Tr, Tr = T/Tc, Tc is the critical temperature from Table 2-141, CpL is in J/(kmolK) and T is in K. All substances are listed by chemical family in Table 2-6 and by formula in Table 2-7. For temperatures less than the normal boiling point, the pressure is 1 atm. Above the normal boiling point, the pressure is the vapor pressure. Values in this table were taken from the Design Institute for Physical Properties (DIPPR) of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), copyright 2007 AIChE and reproduced with permission of AICHE and of the DIPPR Evaluated Process Design Data Project Steering Committee. Their source should be cited as R. L. Rowley, W. V. Wilding, J. L. Oscarson, Y. Yang, N. A. Zundel, T. E. Daubert, R. P. Danner, DIPPR® Data Compilation of Pure Chemical Properties, Design Institute for Physical Properties, AIChE, New York (2007). The number of digits provided for values at Tmin and Tmax was chosen for uniformity of appearance and formatting; these do not represent the uncertainties of the physical quantities, but are the result of calculations from the standard thermophysical property formulations within a fixed format.

SPECIFIC HEATS OF PURE COMPOUNDS TABLE 2-154

Specific Heats of Organic Solids Recalculated from International Critical Tables, vol. 5, pp. 101–105

Compound

Formula

Acetic acid Acetone Aminobenzoic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Aniline Anthracene

C2H4O2 C3H6O C7H7NO2 C7H7NO2 C7H7NO2 C6H7N C14H10

Anthraquinone Apiol Azobenzene

C14H8O2 C12H14O4 C12H10N2

Benzene

C6H6

Benzoic acid Benzophenone

C7H6O2 C13H10O

Betol

C17H12O3

Bromoiodobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Bromonaphthalene (β-) Bromophenol

C6H4BrI C6H4BrI C6H4BrI C10H7Br C6H5BrO

Camphene Capric acid Caprylic acid Carbon tetrachloride

C10H16 C10H20O2 C8H16O2 CCl4

Cerotic acid Chloral alcoholate hydrate Chloroacetic acid Chlorobenzoic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Chlorobromobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Crotonic acid Cyamelide Cyanamide Cyanuric acid

C27H54O2 C4H7Cl3O2 C2H3Cl3O2 C2H3ClO2 C7H5ClO2 C7H5ClO2 C7H5ClO2 C6H4BrCl C6H4BrCl C6H4BrCl C4H6O2 C3H3N3O3 CH2N2 C3H3N3O3

Dextrin Dextrose

(C6H10O5)x C6H12O6

Dibenzyl Dibromobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Dichloroacetic acid Dichlorobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Dicyandiamide

C14H14 C6H4Br2 C6H4Br2 C6H4Br2 C2H2Cl2O2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C2H4N4

Temperature, °C −200 to +25 −210 to −80 85 to mp 120 to mp 128 to mp

sp ht, cal/(g°C)

50 100 150 0 to 270 10 28

0.330 + 0.00080t 0.540 + 0.0156t 0.254 + 0.00136t 0.253 + 0.00122t 0.287 + 0.00088t 0.741 0.308 0.350 0.382 0.258 + 0.00069t 0.299 0.330

−250 −225 −200 −150 −100 −50 0 20 to mp −150 −100 −50 0 +20 −150 −100 0 +50 −50 to 0 −75 to −15 −40 to 50 41 32

0.0399 0.0908 0.124 0.170 0.227 0.299 0.375 0.287 + 0.00050t 0.115 0.172 0.220 0.275 0.303 0.129 0.167 0.248 0.308 0.143 + 0.00025t 0.143 0.116 + 0.00032t 0.260 0.263

35 8 −2 −240 −200 −160 −120 −80 −40 15 78 32 60 80 to mp 94 to mp 180 to mp −34 −52 −40 38 to 70 40 20 40

0.380 0.695 0.628 0.013 0.081 0.131 0.162 0.182 0.201 0.387 0.509 0.213 0.363 0.228 + 0.00084t 0.232 + 0.00073t 0.242 + 0.00055t 0.192 0.150 0.150 0.520 + 0.00020t 0.263 0.547 0.318

0 to 90 −250 −200 −100 0 20 28 −36 −25 −50 to +50

0.291 + 0.00096t 0.016 0.077 0.160 0.277 0.300 0.363 0.248 0.134 0.139 + 0.00038t 0.406 0.185 0.186 0.219 + 0.0021t 0.456

−48.5 −52 −50 to +53 0 to 204

2-171

2-172

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA TABLE 2-154

Specific Heats of Organic Solids (Continued) Recalculated from International Critical Tables, vol. 5, pp. 101–105

Compound

Formula

Dihydroxybenzene (o-) (m-) (p-)

C6H6O2 C6H6O2 C6H6O2

Di-iodobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Dimethyl oxalate Dimethylpyrene Dinitrobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Diphenyl Diphenylamine Dulcitol

C6H4I2 C6H4I2 C6H4I2 C4H6O4 C7H8O2 C6H4N2O4 C6H4N2O4 C6H4N2O4 C12H10 C12H11N C6H14O6

Erythritol Ethyl alcohol

C4H10O4 C2H6O (crystalline)

(vitreous)

Temperature, °C

sp. ht., cal/(g°C)

−163 to mp −160 to mp −250 −240 −220 −200 −150 to mp −50 to +15 −52 to −42 −50 to +80 10 to 50 50 −160 to mp −160 to mp 119 to mp 40 26 20

0.278 + 0.00098t 0.269 + 0.00118t 0.025 0.038 0.061 0.081 0.268 + 0.00093t 0.109 + 0.00026t 0.100 + 0.00026t 0.101 + 0.00026t 0.212 + 0.0044t 0.368 0.252 + 0.00083t 0.248 + 0.00077t 0.259 + 0.00057t 0.385 0.337 0.282

60 −190 −180 −160 −140 −130 −190 −180 −175 −170 −190 to −40

0.351 0.232 0.248 0.282 0.318 0.376 0.260 0.296 0.380 0.399 0.366 + 0.00110t

Ethylene glycol

C2H6O2

Formic acid

CH2O2

−22 0

0.387 0.430

Glutaric acid Glycerol

C5H8O4 C3H8O3

20 −265 −260 −250 −220 −200 −100 0

0.299 0.009 0.022 0.047 0.085 0.115 0.217 0.330

Hexachloroethane Hexadecane Hydroxyacetanilide

C2Cl6 C16H34 C8H9NO2

Iodobenzene Isopropyl alcohol

C6H5I C3H8O

Lactose Lauric acid Levoglucosane Levulose

C12H22O11 C12H22O11·H2O C12H24O2 C6H10O5 C6H12O6

Malonic acid Maltose Mannitol Melamine Myristic acid Naphthalene Naphthol (α-) (β-) Naphthylamine (α-) Nitroaniline (o-) (m-) (p-) Nitrobenzoic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Nitronaphthalene

25 41 to mp

0.174 0.495 0.249 + 0.00154t

40 −200 to −160

0.191 0.051 + 0.00165t

20 20 −30 to +40 40 20

0.287 0.299 0.430 + 0.000027t 0.607 0.275

C3H4O4 C12H22O11 C6H14O6 C3H6N6 C14H28O2

20 20 0 to 100 40 0 to 35

0.275 0.320 0.313 + 0.00025t 0.351 0.381 + 0.00545t

C10H8 C10H8O C10H8O C10H9N C6H6N2O2 C6H6N2O2 C6H6N2O2 C7H5NO4 C7H5NO4 C7H5NO4 C10H7NO2

−130 to mp 50 to mp 61 to mp 0 to 50 −160 to mp −160 to mp −160 to mp −163 to mp 66 to mp −160 to mp 0 to 55

0.281 + 0.00111t 0.240 + 0.00147t 0.252 + 0.00128t 0.270 + 0.0031t 0.269 + 0.000920t 0.275 + 0.000946t 0.276 + 0.001000t 0.256 + 0.00085t 0.258 + 0.00091t 0.247 + 0.00077t 0.236 + 0.00215t

SPECIFIC HEATS OF PURE COMPOUNDS TABLE 2-154

Specific Heats of Organic Solids (Concluded) Recalculated from International Critical Tables, vol. 5, pp. 101–105 Temperature, °C

sp ht, cal/(g°C)

Oxalic acid

C2H2O4 C2H2O4.2H2O

−200 to +50 −200 −100 0 +50 100

0.259 + 0.00076t 0.117 0.239 0.338 0.385 0.416

Palmitic acid

C16H32O2

Phenol Phthalic acid Picric acid

C6H6O C8H6O4 C6H3N3O7

Propionic acid Propyl alcohol (n-)

C3H6O2 C3H8O

Pyrotartaric acid

C6H8O4

−180 −140 −100 −50 0 +20 14 to 26 20 −100 0 +50 100 120 −33 −200 −175 −150 −130 20

0.167 0.208 0.251 0.306 0.382 0.430 0.561 0.232 0.165 0.240 0.263 0.297 0.332 0.726 0.170 0.363 0.471 0.497 0.301

Quinhydrone

C12H10O4

Quinone

C6H4O2

−250 −225 −200 −100 0 −250 −225 −200 −150 to mp

0.017 0.061 0.098 0.191 0.256 0.031 0.082 0.113 0.282 + 0.00083t

Salol Stearic acid Succinic acid Sucrose Sugar (cane)

C13H10O3 C18H36O2 C4H6O4 C12H22O11 C12H22O11

32 15 0 to 160 20 22 to 51

0.289 0.399 0.248 + 0.00153t 0.299 0.301

Tartaric acid Tartaric acid

C4H6O6 C4H6O6·H2O

Tetrachloroethylene Tetryl

C2Cl4 C7H5N5O8

1 Tetryl + 1 picric acid 1 Tetryl + 2 TNT

C13H8N8O15 C21H15N11O20

Thymol Toluic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Toluidine (p-)

C10H14O C8H8O2 C8H8O2 C8H8O2 C7H9N

Trichloroacetic acid Trimethyl carbinol Trinitrotoluene

C2HCl3O2 C4H10O C7H5N3O6

Trinitroxylene

C8H7N3O6

Triphenylmethane

C19H16

36 −150 −100 −50 0 +50 −40 to 0 −100 −50 0 +100 −100 to +100 −100 0 +50 0 to 49 54 to mp 54 to mp 130 to mp 0 20 40 solid −4 −100 −50 0 +100 −185 to +23 20 to 50 0 to 91

0.287 0.112 0.170 0.231 0.308 0.366 0.198 + 0.00018t 0.182 0.199 0.212 0.236 0.253 + 0.00072t 0.172 0.280 0.325 0.315 + 0.0031t 0.277 + 0.00120t 0.239 + 0.00195t 0.271 + 0.00106t 0.337 0.387 0.440 0.459 0.559 0.170 0.253 0.311 0.385 0.241 0.423 0.189 + 0.0027t

Urea

CH4N2O

Compound

Formula

20

0.320

2-173

2-174 TABLE 2-155 Cmpd. no. 1 7 8 14 16 27 29 31 34 37 38 43 59 60 61 64 67 81 88 95 97 98 99 112 120 125 126 134 145 151 156 157 182 183 190 194 197 217 221 231 236

Heat Capacity at Constant Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Compounds in the Ideal Gas State Fit to a Polynomial Cp [J/(kmol⭈K)] Name

Acetaldehyde Acetylene Acrolein Argon Benzene Bromoethane 1,2-Butadiene Butane 1-Butanol cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene 1-Butyne m-Cresol o-Cresol p-Cresol Cyclobutane Cyclohexanone 1,1-Dibromoethane 1,1-Dichloroethane Diethyl ether 1,1-Difluoroethane 1,2-Difluoroethane Difluoromethane Dimethyl ether 1,4-Dioxane Ethane Ethanol Ethylcyclopentane Ethyl mercaptan Fluoroethane Furan Helium-4 Hydrazine Hydrogen Isopropyl amine Methanol Methyl acetylene Methylcyclopentane Methylethyl ether Methyl mercaptan 2-Methylpropane

Formula

CAS no.

Mol. wt.

C1

C2

C3

C2H4O C2H2 C3H4O Ar C6H6 C2H5Br C4H6 C4H10 C4H10O C4H8 C4H8 C4H6 C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O C4H8 C6H10O C2H4Br2 C2H4Cl2 C4H10O C2H4F2 C2H4F2 CH2F2 C2H6O C4H8O2 C2H6 C2H6O C7H14 C2H6S C2H5F C4H4O He H4N2 H2 C3H9N CH4O C3H4 C6H12 C3H8O CH4S C4H10

75-07-0 74-86-2 107-02-8 7440-37-1 71-43-2 74-96-4 590-19-2 106-97-8 71-36-3 590-18-1 624-64-6 107-00-6 108-39-4 95-48-7 106-44-5 287-23-0 108-94-1 557-91-5 75-34-3 60-29-7 75-37-6 624-72-6 75-10-5 115-10-6 123-91-1 74-84-0 64-17-5 1640-89-7 75-08-1 353-36-6 110-00-9 7440-59-7 302-01-2 1333-74-0 75-31-0 67-56-1 74-99-7 96-37-7 540-67-0 74-93-1 75-28-5

44.053 26.037 56.063 39.948 78.112 108.965 54.090 58.122 74.122 56.106 56.106 54.090 108.138 108.138 108.138 56.106 98.143 187.861 98.959 74.122 66.050 66.050 52.023 46.068 88.105 30.069 46.068 98.186 62.134 48.060 68.074 4.003 32.045 2.016 59.110 32.042 40.064 84.159 60.095 48.107 58.122

29,705 30,800 30,702 20,786 35,978 27,112 27,400 17,330 25,300 39,760 20,908 25,300 29,002 16,192 29,090 31,863 32,182 20,560 19,560 26,040 29,736 27,581 33,851 25,940 28,345 31,742 32,585 34,710 23,014 30,358 40,860 20,786 32,998 64,979 23,590 30,270 30,810 35,465 23,337 31,520 21,380

127.43 −53.08 80.95 0 −101.69 117.99 177.6 458.16 371.2 108.8 324.73 183.2 158.79 469.81 166 37.226 116.87 285.2 249.01 388 72.364 169.88 −20.966 178.46 88.3 26.567 87.4 304.96 271.36 62.839 −160.3 0 −5.2147 −788.17 310.42 84.64 35.8 147.38 309.03 60.1 271.2

−0.21793 0.384 0.191 0 0.939 0 0 −0.816 −0.461 0 −0.411 0 0.635 −0.479 0.616 0.23616 0.547 −0.332 −0.22187 −0.268 0.228 −0.1581 0.17584 −0.186 0.446 0.12927 0.05 −0.084 −0.4427 0.1067 0.87 0 0.21379 5.8287 −0.274 −0.188 0.27 0.242 −0.285 0 −0.092

C4 × 1E 05

−1845.9

C5 × 1E 10

216400

Tmin, K

Cp at Tmin × 1E-05

Tmax, K

Cp at Tmax × 1E-05

50 50 50 100 50 100 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 100 100 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 100 100 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50

0.3553 0.2911 0.3523 0.2079 0.3324 0.3891 0.3628 0.3820 0.4271 0.4520 0.3612 0.3446 0.3853 0.3849 0.3893 0.3432 0.3939 0.4576 0.4224 0.4477 0.3392 0.3568 0.3324 0.3440 0.3388 0.3339 0.3708 0.4975 0.3548 0.3377 0.3353 0.2079 0.3327 0.3797 0.3843 0.3403 0.3328 0.4344 0.3808 0.3453 0.3471

200 200 200 1,500 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 1,500 200 250 200 200 200 200 200 200 200

0.4647 0.3554 0.5453 0.2079 0.5320 0.5071 0.6292 0.7632 0.8110 0.6152 0.6941 0.6194 0.8616 0.9099 0.8693 0.4876 0.7744 0.6432 0.6049 0.9292 0.5333 0.5523 0.3669 0.5419 0.6385 0.4223 0.5207 0.9234 0.5958 0.4719 0.4360 0.2079 0.4051 0.2834 0.7471 0.3968 0.4877 0.7462 0.7374 0.4354 0.7194

237 238 243 246 247 248 251 253 289 290 294 295 296 304 310 320 321 322 324 331

2-Methyl-2-propanol 2-Methyl propene alpha-Methyl styrene Naphthalene Neon Nitroethane Nitromethane Nitric oxide 2-Pentyne Phenanthrene Propadiene Propane 1-Propanol Propylbenzene Quinone Tetrahydrofuran 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene Tetrahydrothiophene Thiophene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene

C4H10O C4H8 C9H10 C10H8 Ne C2H5NO2 CH3NO2 NO C5H8 C14H10 C3H4 C3H8 C3H8O C9H12 C6H4O2 C4H8O C10H12 C4H8S C4H4S C9H12

75-65-0 115-11-7 98-83-9 91-20-3 7440-01-9 79-24-3 75-52-5 10102-43-9 627-21-4 85-01-8 463-49-0 74-98-6 71-23-8 103-65-1 106-51-4 109-99-9 119-64-2 110-01-0 110-02-1 95-63-6

74.122 56.106 118.176 128.171 20.180 75.067 61.040 30.006 68.117 178.229 40.064 44.096 60.095 120.192 108.095 72.106 132.202 88.171 84.140 120.192

17,080 24,970 37,735 29,120 20,786 33,055 38,782 34,980 24,330 27,700 31,690 26,675 28,800 22,880 29,668 36,970 28,560 41,195 36,765 35,652

381.7 211.8 112.94 82.88 0 89.54 −48.39 −35.32 335.7 210 17.1 147.04 257 538.46 129.07 −12.28 225.1 −88.3 −112.82 323.89

−0.199 0 0.846 0.964 0 0.238 0.413 0.07729 −0.37 1.24 0.282 0 -0.35 -0.546 0.53105 0.444 0.616 0.942 0.862 0.305

−5.7357

0.0014526

50 50 50 50 100 50 50 100 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50

0.3567 0.3556 0.4550 0.3567 0.2079 0.3813 0.3740 0.3217 0.4019 0.4130 0.3325 0.3403 0.4078 0.4844 0.3745 0.3747 0.4136 0.3914 0.3328 0.5261

200 200 200 200 1,500 200 200 1,500 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200

0.8546 0.6733 0.9416 0.8426 0.2079 0.6048 0.4562 0.3586 0.7667 1.1930 0.4639 0.5608 0.6620 1.0873 0.7672 0.5227 0.9822 0.6122 0.4868 1.1263

Constants in this table can be used in the following equation to calculate the ideal gas heat capacity C0p. C0p = C1 + C2T + C3T2 + C4T3 + C5T4 where C0p is in J/(kmol·K) and T is in K. All substances are listed by chemical family in Table 2-6 and by formula in Table 2-7. Values in this table were taken from the Design Institute for Physical Properties (DIPPR) of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), copyright 2007 AIChE and reproduced with permission of AICHE and of the DIPPR Evaluated Process Design Data Project Steering Committee. Their source should be cited as R. L. Rowley, W. V. Wilding, J. L. Oscarson, Y. Yang, N. A. Zundel, T. E. Daubert, R. P. Danner, DIPPR® Data Compilation of Pure Chemical Properties, Design Institute for Physical Properties, AIChE, New York (2007). The number of digits provided for values at Tmin and Tmax was chosen for uniformity of appearance and formatting; these do not represent the uncertainties of the physical quantities, but are the result of calculations from the standard thermophysical property formulations within a fixed format.

2-175

2-176

TABLE 2-156 Cmpd. no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

Heat Capacity at Constant Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Compounds in the Ideal Gas State Fit to Hyperbolic Functions Cp [J/(kmolK)] Name

Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetonitrile Acetylene Acrolein Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Air Ammonia Anisole Benzamide Benzene Benzenethiol Benzoic acid Benzonitrile Benzophenone Benzyl alcohol Benzyl ethyl ether Benzyl mercaptan Biphenyl Bromine Bromobenzene Bromoethane Bromomethane 1,2-Butadiene 1,3-Butadiene Butane 1,2-Butanediol 1,3-Butanediol 1-Butanol 2-Butanol 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene Butyl acetate Butylbenzene Butyl mercaptan sec-Butyl mercaptan 1-Butyne Butyraldehyde Butyric acid Butyronitrile Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbon tetrafluoride Chlorine Chlorobenzene Chloroethane Chloroform Chloromethane 1-Chloropropane 2-Chloropropane m-Cresol o-Cresol

Formula C2H4O C2H5NO C2H4O2 C4H6O3 C3H6O C2H3N C2H2 C3H4O C3H4O2 C3H3N Mixture H3N C7H8O C7H7NO C6H6 C6H6S C7H6O2 C7H5N C13H10O C9H8O C9H12O C7H8S C12H10 Br2 C6H5Br C2H5Br CH3Br C4H6 C4H6 C4H10 C4H10O2 C4H10O2 C4H10O C4H10O C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C6H12O2 C10H14 C4H10S C4H10S C4H6 C4H8O C4H8O2 C4H7N CO2 CS2 CO CCl4 CF4 Cl2 C6H5Cl C2H5Cl CHCl3 CH3Cl C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C7H8O C7H8O

CAS no.

Mol. wt.

C1 × 1E-05

C2 × 1E-05

C3 × 1E-03

C4 × 1E-05

C5

Tmin, K

Cp at Tmin × 1E-05

Tmax, K

Cp at Tmax × 1E-05

75-07-0 60-35-5 64-19-7 108-24-7 67-64-1 75-05-8 74-86-2 107-02-8 79-10-7 107-13-1 132259-10-0 7664-41-7 100-66-3 55-21-0 71-43-2 108-98-5 65-85-0 100-47-0 119-61-9 100-51-6 539-30-0 100-53-8 92-52-4 7726-95-6 108-86-1 74-96-4 74-83-9 590-19-2 106-99-0 106-97-8 584-03-2 107-88-0 71-36-3 78-92-2 106-98-9 590-18-1 624-64-6 123-86-4 104-51-8 109-79-5 513-53-1 107-00-6 123-72-8 107-92-6 109-74-0 124-38-9 75-15-0 630-08-0 56-23-5 75-73-0 7782-50-5 108-90-7 75-00-3 67-66-3 74-87-3 540-54-5 75-29-6 108-39-4 95-48-7

44.053 59.067 60.052 102.089 58.079 41.052 26.037 56.063 72.063 53.063 28.960 17.031 108.138 121.137 78.112 110.177 122.121 103.121 182.218 108.138 136.191 124.203 154.208 159.808 157.008 108.965 94.939 54.090 54.090 58.122 90.121 90.121 74.122 74.122 56.106 56.106 56.106 116.158 134.218 90.187 90.187 54.090 72.106 88.105 69.105 44.010 76.141 28.010 153.823 88.004 70.906 112.557 64.514 119.378 50.488 78.541 78.541 108.138 108.138

0.4451 0.342 0.402 0.713 0.5704 0.41914 0.3199 0.48449 0.6059 0.4678 0.28958 0.33427 0.7637 1.9581 0.44767 0.6895 0.77594 0.7186 1.0099 0.84115 0.9521 0.99192 1.0759 0.30113 0.721 0.47191 0.3377 0.575 0.5095 0.7134 1.0478 1.066 0.7454 0.90878 0.64257 0.5765 0.6592 1.1684 1.138 0.92478 0.92367 0.5587 0.89657 1.488 0.6906 0.2937 0.301 0.29108 0.37582 0.92004 0.29142 0.8011 0.4568 0.3942 0.3409 0.621 0.61809 0.7515 0.7988

1.0687 1.294 1.3675 2.222 1.632 0.8876 0.5424 1.2546 1.3703 1.0366 0.0939 0.4898 2.9377 1.7019 2.3085 2.3275 2.6455 2.27 4.4898 3.1428 2.8868 2.9633 4.2105 0.08009 2.064 1.2787 0.715 1.6476 1.705 2.43 2.549 2.575 2.5907 2.5508 2.0618 2.115 2.07 3.769 4.454 2.7795 2.5166 1.6694 2.3731 1.3522 1.9996 0.3454 0.3338 0.08773 0.7054 0.16446 0.09176 2.31 1.2967 0.6573 0.7246 1.843 1.8023 2.09 2.853

1.6141 1.075 1.262 1.6203 1.607 1.5818 1.594 1.3979 1.6475 1.3998 3.012 2.036 1.6051 1.3257 1.4792 1.512 1.7925 1.4669 1.311 1.9539 0.70207 1.5583 1.9041 0.7514 1.6504 1.5957 1.578 1.527 1.5324 1.63 1.8776 1.967 1.6073 1.893 1.6768 1.6299 1.6733 1.956 1.5507 1.6837 1.6109 1.5328 1.9754 1.146 1.5494 1.428 0.896 3.0851 0.5121 1.0764 0.949 2.157 1.5992 0.928 1.723 1.629 1.5438 0.6666 1.4765

0.6135 0.64 0.7003 1.676 0.968 0.5032 0.4325 0.87243 1.0446 0.6536 0.0758 0.2256 2.17 −37.417 1.6836 1.7516 2.2382 1.693 2.8395 2.5743 1.6385 2.2116 4.1785 0.1078 1.687 0.85166 0.4175 0.99 1.337 1.5033 1.875 1.951 1.732 1.852 1.3324 1.2872 1.251 2.818 3.0497 1.5974 1.5641 1.07 1.5866 −678 1.3146 0.264 0.2893 0.084553 0.485 −5083.8 0.1003 2.046 0.859 0.493 0.448 1.2337 1.1893 1.212 2.042

737.8 502 569.7 746.5 731.5 699.8 607.1 633.26 751.49 629.35 1484 882 751.2 41.232 677.66 697.9 835.9 680.77 627.4 850.06 2002.6 719.16 828.81 314.6 765.3 703.87 691.4 677.3 685.6 730.42 833 860.5 712.4 832.13 757.06 739.1 742.2 811.2 708.86 758.68 739.2 656 904.13 6.98 675 588 374.7 1538.2 236.1 2.3486 425 897.6 708.8 399.6 780.5 724 685.93 2214 664.7

200 100 50 200 200 100 200 200 250 200 50 100 300 298.15 200 200 200 200 300 298.15 300 300 200 100 200 200 100 200 200 200 298.15 298.15 200 298.15 250 200 200 300 200 200 200 200 200 298.15 200 50 100 60 100 298 50 200 100 100 150 200 200 200 200

0.4660 0.3448 0.4020 0.7665 0.6049 0.4192 0.3566 0.5467 0.6984 0.5156 0.2896 0.3343 1.1302 1.2745 0.5358 0.7689 0.8126 0.8053 1.8001 1.1198 1.5501 1.4156 1.1481 0.3090 0.7679 0.5089 0.3378 0.6269 0.5756 0.7673 1.2667 1.2679 0.8162 1.1257 0.7571 0.6199 0.7004 1.5358 1.2659 0.9714 0.9763 0.6238 0.9119 1.1533 0.7607 0.2937 0.3100 0.2911 0.4730 0.6106 0.2914 0.8219 0.4569 0.4048 0.3424 0.6674 0.6768 0.8701 0.9158

1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500.1 1500.15 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 5000 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500

1.2994 1.4997 1.5756 2.5675 1.8820 1.1285 0.7575 1.5620 1.7424 1.3464 0.3496 0.6647 3.0226 3.2501 2.4157 2.6739 2.9712 2.6706 4.9311 3.2880 4.3445 3.2957 4.5557 0.3794 2.4628 1.5121 0.9107 1.9202 1.9555 2.6602 3.0289 3.0311 2.8509 2.8730 2.2898 2.2715 2.2904 3.6724 4.8435 3.1008 2.9615 1.9209 2.6775 2.5905 2.3273 0.6335 0.6148 0.3521 1.0662 1.0465 0.3793 2.5327 1.5112 1.0063 0.9097 2.1126 2.1023 3.2075 3.2163

2-177

61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123

p-Cresol Cumene Cyanogen Cyclobutane Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanone Cyclohexene Cyclopentane Cyclopentene Cyclopropane Cyclohexyl mercaptan Decanal Decane Decanoic acid 1-Decanol 1-Decene Decyl mercaptan 1-Decyne Deuterium 1,1-Dibromoethane 1,2-Dibromoethane Dibromomethane Dibutyl ether m-Dichlorobenzene o-Dichlorobenzene p-Dichlorobenzene 1,1-Dichloroethane 1,2-Dichloroethane Dichloromethane 1,1-Dichloropropane 1,2-Dichloropropane Diethanol amine Diethyl amine Diethyl ether Diethyl sulfide 1,1-Difluoroethane 1,2-Difluoroethane Difluoromethane Di-isopropyl amine Di-isopropyl ether Di-isopropyl ketone 1,1-Dimethoxyethane 1,2-Dimethoxypropane Dimethyl acetylene Dimethyl amine 2,3-Dimethylbutane 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane cis-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane trans-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane Dimethyl disulfide Dimethyl ether N,N-Dimethyl formamide 2,3-Dimethylpentane Dimethyl phthalate Dimethylsilane Dimethyl sulfide Dimethyl sulfoxide Dimethyl terephthalate 1,4-Dioxane Diphenyl ether Dipropyl amine Dodecane

C7H8O C9H12 C2N2 C4H8 C6H12 C6H12O C6H10O C6H10 C5H10 C5H8 C3H6 C6H12S C10H20O C10H22 C10H20O2 C10H22O C10H20 C10H22S C10H18 D2 C2H4Br2 C2H4Br2 CH2Br2 C8H18O C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C2H4Cl2 C2H4Cl2 C2H4Cl2 CH2Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C4H11NO2 C4H11N C4H10O C4H10S C2H4F2 C2H4F2 CH2F2 C6H15N C6H14O C7H14O C4H10O2 C5H12O2 C4H6 C2H7N C6H14 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C2H6S2 C2H6O C3H7NO C7H16 C10H10O4 C2H8Si C2H6S C2H6OS C10H10O4 C4H8O2 C12H10O C6H15N C12H26

106-44-5 98-82-8 460-19-5 287-23-0 110-82-7 108-93-0 108-94-1 110-83-8 287-92-3 142-29-0 75-19-4 1569-69-3 112-31-2 124-18-5 334-48-5 112-30-1 872-05-9 143-10-2 764-93-2 7782-39-0 557-91-5 106-93-4 74-95-3 142-96-1 541-73-1 95-50-1 106-46-7 75-34-3 107-06-2 75-09-2 78-99-9 78-87-5 111-42-2 109-89-7 60-29-7 352-93-2 75-37-6 624-72-6 75-10-5 108-18-9 108-20-3 565-80-0 534-15-6 7778-85-0 503-17-3 124-40-3 79-29-8 590-66-9 2207-01-4 6876-23-9 624-92-0 115-10-6 68-12-2 565-59-3 131-11-3 1111-74-6 75-18-3 67-68-5 120-61-6 123-91-1 101-84-8 142-84-7 112-40-3

108.138 120.192 52.035 56.106 84.159 100.159 98.143 82.144 70.133 68.117 42.080 116.224 156.265 142.282 172.265 158.281 140.266 174.347 138.250 4.032 187.861 187.861 173.835 130.228 147.002 147.002 147.002 98.959 98.959 84.933 112.986 112.986 105.136 73.137 74.122 90.187 66.050 66.050 52.023 101.190 102.175 114.185 90.121 104.148 54.090 45.084 86.175 112.213 112.213 112.213 94.199 46.068 73.094 100.202 194.184 60.170 62.134 78.133 194.184 88.105 170.207 101.190 170.335

0.7384 1.081 0.3545 0.44004 0.432 0.9043 0.67384 0.58171 0.416 0.48074 0.338 0.54305 1.9641 1.672 0.24457 1.6984 1.7101 1.931 1.5045 0.3029 0.5927 0.74906 0.391 1.6122 0.7 0.6948 0.6978 0.5521 0.65271 0.3628 0.7145 0.78658 1.208 0.9102 0.8621 0.91273 0.49653 0.51889 0.35489 1.1384 1.093 1.0869 1.1556 1.0113 0.6534 0.5565 0.7772 1.0776 1.1039 1.0991 0.7843 0.5148 0.722 0.85438 1.396 0.61453 0.6037 0.6949 1.174 0.56184 1.0985 1.2114 2.1295

2.908 3.7932 0.5015 2.3074 3.735 2.5771 3.2598 3.1717 3.014 2.5159 1.6894 3.9962 5.1412 5.353 6.546 5.392 5.2089 5.4815 4.3794 0.0975 1.158 1.2725 0.648 4.4777 2.0746 2.0804 2.078 1.205 1.1254 0.6804 1.7344 1.7429 3.066 2.674 2.551 2.41 1.2546 1.2431 0.71002 2.5747 3.683 4.054 1.8305 3.2393 1.6179 1.6384 4.032 4.6718 4.6445 4.6401 1.4364 1.442 1.783 4.5772 4.78 1.7438 1.3747 1.524 5.32 2.7034 4.3412 2.6127 6.633

1.4559 1.7505 1.057 1.6283 1.192 0.7882 1.3955 1.5435 1.4617 1.5803 1.6135 1.3575 1.8989 1.6141 1.0899 1.568 1.7265 1.6085 1.3291 2.515 1.4931 1.981 1.194 1.6831 1.3664 1.3632 1.3635 1.502 1.7376 1.256 1.524 1.7157 2.089 1.719 1.5413 1.6686 1.5394 1.5048 1.5936 0.7384 1.6057 1.7802 0.95919 1.5611 1.7837 1.7341 1.544 1.654 1.6943 1.6679 1.5836 1.6034 1.532 1.5181 2.19 1.3418 1.641 1.6514 2.105 1.5171 1.6222 0.78956 1.7155

2.091 3.0027 0.452 1.5571 1.635 1.3068 2.0209 2.1273 1.8095 1.7454 1.1768 2.5623 4.1278 3.782 4.8642 3.938 3.5935 3.74 2.5557 −0.0275 0.8428 0.9437 0.42 2.918 1.5983 1.594 1.5965 0.8719 0.878 0.4275 1.223 1.2627 2.343 1.7926 1.437 1.652 0.87561 0.76269 0.4622 1.62 2.342 2.9786 0.99605 2.1501 1.0242 1.0899 2.508 3.3397 3.3949 3.3736 0.871 0.7747 1.31 2.974 3.9705 1.0102 0.7988 1.0658 4.1 1.7658 3.6455 1.6903 4.5161

650.42 794.8 396 744.9 530.1 1952.2 677.33 701.62 668.8 718.37 722.8 618.54 862.51 742 424 720.5 782.92 754.75 632.01 368 655.5 845.2 501 781.6 620.16 619.2 619.37 653.5 795.45 548 674.2 765.1 891 794.94 688.9 771.08 694.17 697.51 762 2143 699 791.6 2826.3 689.3 821.4 793.04 649.95 792.5 798.35 781.97 730.65 725.4 762 641.01 900.6 592.09 743.5 722.2 818 700.76 743.62 2394.4 777.5

200 200 100 200 100 200 200 150 100 150 100 300 200 200 298.15 200 298.15 200 298 100 200 200 100 200 200 200 200 200 200 100 150 200 298.15 200 200 200 200 200 200 300 298.15 300 298.15 298.15 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 300 200 200 200 298.15 200 300 300 200

0.8707 1.1480 0.3648 0.4903 0.4366 0.9648 0.7802 0.5978 0.4165 0.4918 0.3381 1.2644 2.0192 1.7967 2.5232 1.8502 2.2304 2.0434 2.1938 0.3020 0.6442 0.7635 0.3929 1.6841 0.8245 0.8198 0.8228 0.6061 0.6722 0.3637 0.7268 0.8217 1.4197 0.9502 0.9316 0.9567 0.5373 0.5536 0.3681 1.5995 1.5669 1.5102 1.2777 1.4638 0.6721 0.5812 0.9363 1.1535 1.1777 1.1820 0.8155 0.5436 0.7594 1.0550 1.7481 0.7095 0.6298 0.7355 1.6816 0.6403 1.7298 1.5900 2.2442

1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500.1 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200 1500 1500 1500 1000.15 1500 1200 1500 1500

3.2102 4.1808 0.8100 2.3234 3.6516 3.8251 3.4743 3.2132 2.9298 2.5619 1.7213 3.7236 6.0539 6.0932 6.1099 6.2186 5.8745 6.4613 5.2794 0.3425 1.5673 1.7041 0.9599 5.2145 2.5161 2.5161 2.5175 1.5615 1.5743 0.9543 2.1609 2.1894 3.4674 3.0519 2.9244 2.8724 1.5424 1.5510 0.9419 4.1941 4.0535 4.3093 3.0678 3.6669 1.9148 1.8585 4.0353 4.9543 4.9243 4.9275 1.9523 1.6581 2.2596 4.5983 4.4740 2.0944 1.6949 1.9255 4.1139 2.8174 4.5143 4.2484 7.4325

2-178

TABLE 2-156 Cmpd. no. 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183

Heat Capacity at Constant Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Compounds in the Ideal Gas State Fit to Hyperbolic Functions Cp [J/(kmolK)] (Continued ) Name

Eicosane Ethane Ethanol Ethyl acetate Ethyl amine Ethylbenzene Ethyl benzoate 2-Ethyl butanoic acid Ethyl butyrate Ethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclopentane Ethylene Ethylenediamine Ethylene glycol Ethyleneimine Ethylene oxide Ethyl formate 2-Ethyl hexanoic acid Ethylhexyl ether Ethylisopropyl ether Ethylisopropyl ketone Ethyl mercaptan Ethyl propionate Ethylpropyl ether Ethyltrichlorosilane Fluorine Fluorobenzene Fluoroethane Fluoromethane Formaldehyde Formamide Formic acid Furan Heptadecane Heptanal Heptane Heptanoic acid 1-Heptanol 2-Heptanol 3-Heptanone 2-Heptanone 1-Heptene Heptyl mercaptan 1-Heptyne Hexadecane Hexanal Hexane Hexanoic acid 1-Hexanol 2-Hexanol 2-Hexanone 3-Hexanone 1-Hexene 3-Hexyne Hexyl mercaptan 1-Hexyne 2-Hexyne Hydrazine Hydrogen

Formula

CAS no.

Mol. wt.

C1 × 1E-05

C2 × 1E-05

C3 × 1E-03

C4 × 1E-05

C20H42 C2H6 C2H6O C4H8O2 C2H7N C8H10 C9H10O2 C6H12O2 C6H12O2 C8H16 C7H14 C2H4 C2H8N2 C2H6O2 C2H5N C2H4O C3H6O2 C8H16O2 C8H18O C5H12O C6H12O C2H6S C5H10O2 C5H12O C2H5Cl3Si F2 C6H5F C2H5F CH3F CH2O CH3NO CH2O2 C4H4O C17H36 C7H14O C7H16 C7H14O2 C7H16O C7H16O C7H14O C7H14O C7H14 C7H16S C7H12 C16H34 C6H12O C6H14 C6H12O2 C6H14O C6H14O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12 C6H10 C6H14S C6H10 C6H10 H4N2 H2

112-95-8 74-84-0 64-17-5 141-78-6 75-04-7 100-41-4 93-89-0 88-09-5 105-54-4 1678-91-7 1640-89-7 74-85-1 107-15-3 107-21-1 151-56-4 75-21-8 109-94-4 149-57-5 5756-43-4 625-54-7 565-69-5 75-08-1 105-37-3 628-32-0 115-21-9 7782-41-4 462-06-6 353-36-6 593-53-3 50-00-0 75-12-7 64-18-6 110-00-9 629-78-7 111-71-7 142-82-5 111-14-8 111-70-6 543-49-7 106-35-4 110-43-0 592-76-7 1639-09-4 628-71-7 544-76-3 66-25-1 110-54-3 142-62-1 111-27-3 626-93-7 591-78-6 589-38-8 592-41-6 928-49-4 111-31-9 693-02-7 764-35-2 302-01-2 1333-74-0

282.547 30.069 46.068 88.105 45.084 106.165 150.175 116.158 116.158 112.213 98.186 28.053 60.098 62.068 43.068 44.053 74.079 144.211 130.228 88.148 100.159 62.134 102.132 88.148 163.506 37.997 96.102 48.060 34.033 30.026 45.041 46.026 68.074 240.468 114.185 100.202 130.185 116.201 116.201 114.185 114.185 98.186 132.267 96.170 226.441 100.159 86.175 116.158 102.175 102.175 100.159 100.159 84.159 82.144 118.240 82.144 82.144 32.045 2.016

3.2481 0.40326 0.492 0.9981 0.594 0.7844 1.0944 1.0455 1.115 1.1059 0.82052 0.3338 0.7286 0.63012 0.343 0.3346 0.537 1.5777 1.634 1.0953 1.24 0.5576 0.937 1.132 0.85105 0.29122 0.62653 0.44373 0.33289 0.3327 0.3822 0.3381 0.3727 2.7878 1.404 1.2015 1.3135 1.2215 1.4569 1.2768 1.2507 1.1851 1.442 1.0712 2.6283 1.232 1.044 1.1622 1.0625 1.2615 1.094 1.1237 1.0434 0.9376 1.2662 0.9129 1.036 0.38711 0.27617

11.09 1.3422 1.4577 2.0931 1.618 3.399 4.1794 2.3148 3.391 4.6306 4.0342 0.9479 1.8436 1.4584 1.427 1.2116 1.886 4.4017 4.5119 3.0032 3.2 1.3617 2.829 2.94 1.0378 0.10132 2.1646 1.3119 0.73989 0.49542 0.93 0.7593 1.6606 9.5247 2.5907 4.001 2.3317 3.991 2.8252 3.381 2.148 3.6362 4.1603 3.0258 8.9733 2.2146 3.523 2.0708 3.521 3.5964 1.807 2.936 3.0749 3.015 3.7294 2.5577 3.009 0.8576 0.0956

1.636 1.6555 1.6628 2.0226 1.812 1.559 0.88375 0.71 1.6705 1.6628 1.567 1.596 1.688 1.673 1.638 1.6084 1.207 1.7494 1.7532 1.7988 1.967 1.5221 1.648 1.827 0.59737 1.453 1.564 1.6422 1.8639 1.8666 1.845 1.1925 1.5112 1.6935 0.8315 1.6766 0.67567 1.58 0.81695 1.3831 0.6912 1.7359 1.6603 1.5273 1.6912 0.84 1.6946 0.68661 1.5835 1.8445 0.689 1.401 1.7459 1.9057 1.6574 1.529 2.116 1.7228 2.466

7.45 0.73223 0.939 1.803 1.078 2.426 −1.609 1.471 2.518 3.299 2.6697 0.551 1.199 0.97296 1.037 0.8241 0.864 3.2378 3.1032 2.1311 2.346 0.8073 2.155 2.055 0.94745 0.094101 1.7278 0.85441 0.46079 0.28075 0.69 0.318 1.3145 6.6651 1.312 2.74 1.824 2.835 1.766 1.888 1.619 2.5048 2.6572 2.0975 6.264 1.219 2.369 1.5355 2.462 2.594 1.474 1.601 2.0728 1.986 2.308 1.737 2.106 0.56635 0.0376

C5 726.27 752.87 744.7 928.05 820 702 1183.1 2061.6 733.6 781.1 715.52 740.8 767.3 773.65 744.7 737.3 496 792.34 809.75 817.35 896 687.5 724.7 852 2122.7 662.91 724.29 738.77 891.16 934.9 850 550 686 744.57 2201 756.4 1846 717.7 2537.2 650.3 1759.3 785.73 759.39 689.62 744.41 2205 761.6 1932.5 715.75 819.17 1772 650.5 793.53 817 757.8 683 902.4 733.53 567.6

Tmin, K

Cp at Tmin × 1E-05

Tmax, K

Cp at Tmax × 1E-05

200 200 200 200 200 200 300 300 298 200 200 60 300 300 150 50 100 298.15 298.15 298.15 298.15 200 300 298.15 167 50 200 200 50 50 150 50 200 200 200 200 300 200 298.15 200 150 298.15 200 200 200 200 200 298.15 200 298.15 200 150 298 300 200 200 300 200 250

3.5235 0.4256 0.5224 1.0126 0.6139 0.8912 1.4598 1.5102 1.5583 1.1875 0.9272 0.3338 0.9178 0.7800 0.3480 0.3346 0.5412 2.0279 2.0360 1.3620 1.4479 0.5970 1.3377 1.3538 0.8926 0.2912 0.6914 0.4726 0.3329 0.3327 0.3833 0.3381 0.4376 3.0034 1.4479 1.2828 1.8497 1.3330 1.8136 1.3968 1.2688 1.5434 1.5191 1.1721 2.8312 1.2672 1.1117 1.6107 1.1607 1.5829 1.1815 1.1443 1.3301 1.1909 1.3340 1.0004 1.2215 0.4070 0.2843

1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200.15 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200 1200 1200 1500 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500

12.2110 1.4562 1.6576 2.6594 1.8528 3.6147 4.2540 3.6330 3.6213 4.9184 4.1472 1.0987 2.2016 1.8095 1.5178 1.3297 2.1485 5.1201 4.8744 3.2289 3.4234 1.6729 3.0569 3.4535 2.2349 0.3812 2.4736 1.5008 0.9024 0.7113 1.1203 0.9933 1.7940 10.4160 4.2863 4.4283 4.2941 4.5346 4.6604 4.1386 3.8446 4.0836 4.7831 3.5985 9.8182 3.7314 3.8620 3.7636 3.9726 4.0672 3.3207 3.5874 3.4819 3.1889 4.2483 3.0371 3.1894 1.0571 0.3225

2-179

184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246

Hydrogen bromide Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen cyanide Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen sulfide Isobutyric acid Isopropyl amine Malonic acid Methacrylic acid Methane Methanol N-Methyl acetamide Methyl acetate Methyl acetylene Methyl acrylate Methyl amine Methyl benzoate 3-Methyl-1,2-butadiene 2-Methylbutane 2-Methylbutanoic acid 3-Methyl-1-butanol 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene 2-Methyl -1-butene-3-yne Methylbutyl ether Methylbutyl sulfide 3-Methyl-1-butyne Methyl butyrate Methylchlorosilane Methylcyclohexane 1-Methylcyclohexanol cis-2-Methylcyclohexanol trans-2-Methylcyclohexanol Methylcyclopentane 1-Methylcyclopentene 3-Methylcyclopentene Methyldichlorosilane Methylethyl ether Methylethyl ketone Methylethyl sulfide Methyl formate Methylisobutyl ether Methylisobutyl ketone Methyl Isocyanate Methylisopropyl ether Methylisopropyl ketone Methylisopropyl sulfide Methyl mercaptan Methyl methacrylate 2-Methyloctanoic acid 2-Methylpentane Methyl pentyl ether 2-Methylpropane 2-Methyl-2-propanol 2-Methyl propene Methyl propionate Methylpropyl ether Methylpropyl sulfide Methylsilane alpha-Methyl styrene Methyl tert-butyl ether Methyl vinyl ether Naphthalene

HBr HCl CHN HF H2S C4H8O2 C3H9N C3H4O4 C4H6O2 CH4 CH4O C3H7NO C3H6O2 C3H4 C4H6O2 CH5N C8H8O2 C5H8 C5H12 C5H10O2 C5H12O C5H10 C5H10 C5H6 C5H12O C5H12S C5H8 C5H10O2 CH5ClSi C7H14 C7H14O C7H14O C7H14O C6H12 C6H10 C6H10 CH4Cl2Si C3H8O C4H8O C3H8S C2H4O2 C2H12O C6H12O C2H3NO C4H10O C5H10O C4H10S CH4S C5H8O2 C9H18O2 C6H14 C6H14O C4H10 C4H10O C4H8 C4H8O2 C4H10O C4H10S CH6Si C9H10 C5H12O C3H6O C10H8

10035-10-6 7647-01-0 74-90-8 7664-39-3 7783-06-4 79-31-2 75-31-0 141-82-2 79-41-4 74-82-8 67-56-1 79-16-3 79-20-9 74-99-7 96-33-3 74-89-5 93-58-3 598-25-4 78-78-4 116-53-0 123-51-3 563-46-2 513-35-9 78-80-8 628-28-4 628-29-5 598-23-2 623-42-7 993-00-0 108-87-2 590-67-0 7443-70-1 7443-52-9 96-37-7 693-89-0 1120-62-3 75-54-7 540-67-0 78-93-3 624-89-5 107-31-3 625-44-5 108-10-1 624-83-9 598-53-8 563-80-4 1551-21-9 74-93-1 80-62-6 3004-93-1 107-83-5 628-80-8 75-28-5 75-65-0 115-11-7 554-12-1 557-17-5 3877-15-4 992-94-9 98-83-9 1634-04-4 107-25-5 91-20-3

80.912 36.461 27.025 20.006 34.081 88.105 59.110 104.061 86.089 16.042 32.042 73.094 74.079 40.064 86.089 31.057 136.148 68.117 72.149 102.132 88.148 70.133 70.133 66.101 88.148 104.214 68.117 102.132 80.589 98.186 114.185 114.185 114.185 84.159 82.144 82.144 115.034 60.095 72.106 76.161 60.052 88.148 100.159 57.051 74.122 86.132 90.187 48.107 100.116 158.238 86.175 102.175 58.122 74.122 56.106 88.105 74.122 90.187 46.144 118.176 88.148 58.079 128.171

0.2912 0.29157 0.30125 0.29134 0.33288 0.74694 0.68545 0.49522 0.7251 0.33298 0.39252 0.6116 0.555 0.4478 0.1206 0.41 0.9396 0.671 0.746 1.8458 0.92165 0.87026 0.81924 0.7906 0.82051 1.0785 0.8274 0.894 0.59895 0.9227 0.7959 0.92279 0.92279 0.66456 0.69411 0.6422 0.7283 0.68681 0.784 0.75083 0.506 0.7284 1.227 0.474 0.89232 1.5914 0.99247 0.4146 0.864 1.7483 0.903 0.94326 0.6549 0.7704 0.6125 0.7765 0.92151 0.93775 0.46149 0.78548 0.9779 0.60865 0.6805

0.0953 0.09048 0.3171 0.093252 0.26086 2.4356 2.1876 1.8718 2.089 0.79933 0.879 2.029 1.782 1.0917 2.3766 1.0578 2.559 2.222 3.265 1.743 3.3371 2.5556 2.6038 1.656 3.0869 2.7388 2.1377 2.91 1.1636 4.115 2.596 2.6709 2.6709 3.507 3.0209 3.0711 1.0307 1.9959 2.1032 1.9577 1.219 3.1713 2.195 1.226 2.4765 1.764 2.7275 0.8307 1.811 4.9288 3.801 3.5965 2.4776 2.539 2.066 2.442 2.3943 2.6178 1.2781 3.5969 3.091 1.5965 3.5494

2.142 2.0938 1.6102 2.905 0.9134 1.715 1.5831 1.2958 1.8516 2.0869 1.9165 1.7683 1.26 1.5508 1.0543 1.708 0.825 1.421 1.545 1.22 1.8365 1.7757 1.7593 1.6926 1.3864 1.5885 1.755 1.57 1.565 1.6504 0.6213 0.68784 0.68784 1.5892 1.6903 1.6387 1.5429 1.5534 1.5488 1.6424 1.637 1.352 0.842 2.188 1.696 1.2076 2.003 1.589 0.7543 1.7384 1.602 1.3533 1.587 1.5502 1.545 1.714 1.6936 1.7291 1.4565 1.4342 1.643 1.619 1.4262

0.0157 −0.00107 0.2179 1.95E−03 −0.17979 1.8484 1.3855 1.4852 1.6483 0.41602 0.53654 1.3302 0.853 0.675 1.8186 0.6836 1.36 1.194 1.923 −56.11 2.4645 1.7636 1.7195 1.2167 1.7886 1.9067 1.5149 2.073 0.81581 2.9006 2.288 1.9847 1.9847 2.3526 2.1209 2.1298 0.7811 1.1168 1.1855 1.1949 0.894 1.8948 1.191 0.85983 1.5598 −407.4 1.8974 0.4612 0.8 3.5897 2.453 2.0569 1.575 1.669 1.2057 1.818 1.4896 1.6236 0.79115 2.5336 2.099 0.93783 2.5984

1400 120 626 1.33E+03 949.4 757.75 691.76 569.96 798.43 991.96 896.7 835.5 562 658.2 418.8 735 3000 614.7 666.7 31.2 757.99 807.82 800.93 788.4 613.87 749.6 782 678.3 690.39 779.48 1698.6 1732.4 1732.4 727.13 781.56 750.25 668.94 692.04 693 749.19 743 585.14 2460 1008.2 791.4 10.503 849.64 716.7 2160 788.01 691.6 599.92 706.99 679.3 676 716 797.79 783.23 643.23 651.69 731.191 739.55 650.1

50 50 100 50 100 298.15 200 300 298.15 50 200 300 298 200 298.15 150 300 150 200 300 298.15 200 200 298.15 300 273.15 200 298 200 200 300 300 300 200 200 200 200 200 200 273.16 250 300 298.15 298.15 200 300 273 200 298.15 298.15 200 300 200 200 200 300 298 298.15 200 200 298 300 200

0.2912 0.2914 0.3014 0.2913 0.3329 1.0427 0.7510 0.9790 0.9475 0.3330 0.3980 0.7698 0.8489 0.4882 0.9908 0.4136 1.2586 0.6931 0.8546 1.2793 1.3135 0.9060 0.8559 0.9632 1.3300 1.3173 0.8646 1.3461 0.6380 0.9953 1.5302 1.5099 1.5099 0.7510 0.7464 0.7083 0.7717 0.7396 0.8397 0.9004 0.5888 1.3200 1.4755 0.5195 0.9280 1.1291 1.1377 0.4329 1.1621 2.2567 1.0192 1.5600 0.7218 0.8567 0.6763 1.1242 1.1251 1.1728 0.5141 0.9445 1.3522 0.7748 0.8454

1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200 1500 1200 1200.1 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200.1 1500 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500.15 1200 1200 1500 1200 1500 1500 1200 1200 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200 1500.15 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200 1500 1500 1500 1200 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500

0.3479 0.3406 0.5522 0.3224 0.5143 2.5383 2.4540 2.0517 2.2057 0.8890 1.0533 2.2209 2.0754 1.3293 2.1663 1.2388 3.3569 2.5028 3.3792 3.2262 3.4856 2.8923 2.8709 2.1502 3.1994 3.1687 2.5255 3.0766 1.5593 4.3180 4.1359 4.1467 4.1467 3.5495 3.1496 3.1549 1.5893 2.2931 2.4816 2.3178 1.5109 3.1987 3.6532 1.3595 2.8696 2.9991 2.9952 1.0781 2.8637 5.7177 3.9617 3.7409 2.6656 2.8508 2.2814 2.5276 2.6391 2.9904 1.5253 3.8592 3.4779 1.8871 3.7359

2-180 TABLE 2-156 Cmpd. no. 248 249 250 251 252 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303

Heat Capacity at Constant Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Compounds in the Ideal Gas State Fit to Hyperbolic Functions Cp [J/(kmolK)] (Concluded) Name

Nitroethane Nitrogen Nitrogen trifluoride Nitromethane Nitrous oxide Nonadecane Nonanal Nonane Nonanoic acid 1-Nonanol 2-Nonanol 1-Nonene Nonyl mercaptan 1-Nonyne Octadecane Octanal Octane Octanoic acid 1-Octanol 2-Octanol 2-Octanone 3-Octanone 1-Octene Octyl mercaptan 1-Octyne Oxalic acid Oxygen Ozone Pentadecane Pentanal Pentane Pentanoic acid 1-Pentanol 2-Pentanol 2-Pentanone 3-Pentanone 1-Pentene 2-Pentyl mercaptan Pentyl mercaptan 1-Pentyne 2-Pentyne Phenanthrene Phenol Phenyl isocyanate Phthalic anhydride Propadiene Propane 1-Propanol 2-Propanol Propenylcyclohexene Propionaldehyde Propionic acid Propionitrile Propyl acetate Propyl amine

Formula

CAS no.

Mol. wt.

C1 × 1E-05

C2 × 1E-05

C3 × 1E-03

C4 × 1E-05

C5

Tmin, K

Cp at Tmin × 1E-05

Tmax, K

Cp at Tmax × 1E-05

C2H5NO2 N2 F3N CH3NO2 N2O C19H40 C9H18O C9H20 C9H18O2 C9H20O C9H20O C9H18 C9H20S C9H16 C18H38 C8H16O C8H18 C8H16O2 C8H18O C8H18O C8H16O C8H16O C8H16 C8H18S C8H14 C2H2O4 O2 O3 C15H32 C5H10O C5H12 C5H10O2 C5H12O C5H12O C5H10O C5H10O C5H10 C5H12S C5H12S C5H8 C5H8 C14H10 C6H6O C7H5NO C8H4O3 C3H4 C3H8 C3H8O C3H8O C9H14 C3H6O C3H6O2 C3H5N C5H10O2 C3H9N

79-24-3 7727-37-9 7783-54-2 75-52-5 10024-97-2 629-92-5 124-19-6 111-84-2 112-05-0 143-08-8 628-99-9 124-11-8 1455-21-6 3452-09-3 593-45-3 124-13-0 111-65-9 124-07-2 111-87-5 123-96-6 111-13-7 106-68-3 111-66-0 111-88-6 629-05-0 144-62-7 7782-44-7 10028-15-6 629-62-9 110-62-3 109-66-0 109-52-4 71-41-0 6032-29-7 107-87-9 96-22-0 109-67-1 2084-19-7 110-66-7 627-19-0 627-21-4 85-01-8 108-95-2 103-71-9 85-44-9 463-49-0 74-98-6 71-23-8 67-63-0 13511-13-2 123-38-6 79-09-4 107-12-0 109-60-4 107-10-8

75.067 28.013 71.002 61.040 44.013 268.521 142.239 128.255 158.238 144.255 144.255 126.239 160.320 124.223 254.494 128.212 114.229 144.211 130.228 130.228 128.212 128.212 112.213 146.294 110.197 90.035 31.999 47.998 212.415 86.132 72.149 102.132 88.148 88.148 86.132 86.132 70.133 104.214 104.214 68.117 68.117 178.229 94.111 119.121 148.116 40.064 44.096 60.095 60.095 122.207 58.079 74.079 55.079 102.132 59.110

0.54619 0.29105 0.33284 0.42267 0.29338 3.1062 1.7347 1.5175 0.1266 1.54 1.8197 1.5352 1.7646 1.6289 2.9502 1.6088 1.3554 1.4082 1.3805 1.6383 1.3901 1.4952 1.3599 1.5981 1.2307 0.25751 0.29103 0.33483 2.4679 1.0743 0.8805 2.836 0.906 1.0853 0.90053 0.96896 0.82523 1.1327 1.0974 0.753 0.70737 0.9374 0.434 0.59683 0.7364 0.426 0.5192 0.619 0.73145 1.0563 0.7174 0.6959 0.5357 1.7994 0.76078

1.6492 0.086149 0.49837 1.0842 0.3236 10.575 4.5115 4.915 6.011 4.936 3.5542 4.6844 5.044 3.9708 10.034 4.218 4.431 4.3436 4.459 3.1897 3.806 4.4103 4.1605 4.6063 3.4942 1.1734 0.1004 0.29577 8.4212 2.8363 3.011 1.08 3.062 3.0747 2.7085 2.4907 2.5943 2.947 3.2959 2.0905 2.2229 4.758 2.445 2.5533 2.544 1.1194 1.9245 2.0213 2.0313 4.3397 1.914 1.7778 1.4617 1.753 2.1049

1.4803 1.7016 0.7093 1.4885 1.1238 0.76791 1.712 1.6448 1.0815 1.578 0.81514 1.7288 1.6182 1.8928 0.77107 1.9126 1.6356 1.4662 1.5751 0.81595 1.3717 0.80211 1.7317 1.6295 1.528 2.7969 2.5265 1.5217 1.6865 1.9549 1.6502 2.107 1.6054 1.8672 1.6592 1.4177 1.7291 1.7418 1.6761 1.5307 1.557 1.382 1.152 1.2397 1.0852 1.5772 1.6265 1.6293 1.9375 1.6098 2.0144 1.7098 1.553 1.196 1.7256

1.0635 0.0010347 0.23264 0.68603 0.2177 −4.5661 3.3256 3.47 4.5946 3.588 2.1974 3.2304 3.3857 3.2136 -4.3012 3.278 3.054 2.7687 3.2016 1.9814 2.2573 −2.0958 2.8675 3.0301 2.4617 0.65788 0.09356 0.27151 5.8537 2.0146 1.892 −3.56 2.115 2.2271 1.8012 1.301 1.768 2.0987 1.9486 1.378 1.3125 3.485 1.512 1.5519 0.808 0.7546 1.168 1.2956 1.4815 3.181 1.1708 1.2654 0.91197 −4.12 1.3936

666.94 909.79 372.91 683.57 479.4 912.03 810.96 749.6 418.2 721.11 2508.8 783.67 755.48 855.52 916.73 869 746.4 659.38 718.8 2521.3 660.96 981.95 784.47 756.28 694.81 878.91 1153.8 680.35 743.6 890.44 747.6 283 717.97 825.4 743.96 646.7 778.7 795.78 757.67 672.8 690.78 627.4 507 576.78 573 680.8 723.6 727.4 843.37 729.66 930.6 763.78 678.2 108.2 789.03

200 50 100 200 100 200 200 200 298.15 200 298.15 298.15 200 298.15 200 200 200 298.15 200 298.15 150 200 298.15 200 200 298.15 50 100 200 200 200 298.15 200 298.15 200 200 298.15 298 200 200 200 200 100 298.15 298.15 200 200 200 298.15 300 200 298.15 200 298.15 200

0.6062 0.2911 0.3404 0.4571 0.2948 3.3533 1.8005 1.6257 2.2953 1.6777 2.2720 2.0014 1.8658 1.9693 3.1800 1.6504 1.4529 2.0652 1.5055 2.0428 1.4162 1.5775 1.7723 1.6881 1.3448 0.3201 0.2910 0.3349 2.6586 1.0960 0.9404 1.3824 0.9890 1.3539 0.9591 1.0536 1.0856 1.4202 1.1547 0.8276 0.7700 1.1959 0.4401 1.1054 1.0745 0.4646 0.5632 0.6665 0.8966 1.6392 0.7266 0.8938 0.5832 1.3594 0.7933

1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1000.1 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1000.15 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500

1.9237 0.3484 0.8092 1.3280 0.5828 11.6130 5.4439 5.5407 5.5267 5.6606 5.8526 5.2776 5.9082 4.7924 11.0160 4.9286 4.9764 5.0411 5.0965 5.2565 4.6547 4.9067 4.6807 5.3549 4.1604 0.6502 0.3653 0.5928 9.2209 3.2404 3.2927 3.2952 3.4133 3.4701 3.0797 3.0358 2.8897 3.4994 3.6956 2.4754 2.5052 5.0645 2.6045 2.8390 2.6737 1.3376 2.0556 2.2458 2.2760 4.6527 2.1149 2.1248 1.7235 3.2024 2.4353

304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345

Propylbenzene Propylene Propyl formate 2-Propyl mercaptan Propyl mercaptan 1,2-Propylene glycol Quinone Silicon tetrafluoride Styrene Succinic acid Sulfur dioxide Sulfur hexafluoride Sulfur trioxide Terephthalic acid o-Terphenyl Tetradecane Tetrahydrofuran 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene Tetrahydrothiophene 2,2,3,3-Tetramethylbutane Thiophene Toluene 1,1,2-Trichloroethane Tridecane Triethyl amine Trimethyl amine 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Undecane 1-Undecanol Vinyl acetate Vinyl acetylene Vinyl chloride Vinyl trichlorosilane Water m-Xylene o-Xylene p-Xylene

C9H12 C3H6 C4H8O2 C3H8S C3H8S C3H8O2 C6H4O2 F4Si C8H8 C4H6O4 O2S F6S O3S C8H6O4 C18H14 C14H30 C4H8O C10H12 C4H8S C8H18 C4H4S C7H8 C2H3Cl3 C13H28 C6H15N C3H9N C9H12 C9H12 C8H18 C8H18 C6H3N3O6 C7H5N3O6 C11H24 C11H24O C4H6O2 C4H4 C2H3Cl C2H3Cl3Si H2O C8H10 C8H10 C8H10

103-65-1 115-07-1 110-74-7 75-33-2 107-03-9 57-55-6 106-51-4 7783-61-1 100-42-5 110-15-6 7446-09-5 2551-62-4 7446-11-9 100-21-0 84-15-1 629-59-4 109-99-9 119-64-2 110-01-0 594-82-1 110-02-1 108-88-3 79-00-5 629-50-5 121-44-8 75-50-3 526-73-8 95-63-6 540-84-1 560-21-4 99-35-4 118-96-7 1120-21-4 112-42-5 108-05-4 689-97-4 75-01-4 75-94-5 7732-18-5 108-38-3 95-47-6 106-42-3

120.192 42.080 88.105 76.161 76.161 76.094 108.095 104.079 104.149 118.088 64.064 146.055 80.063 166.131 230.304 198.388 72.106 132.202 88.171 114.229 84.140 92.138 133.404 184.361 101.190 59.110 120.192 120.192 114.229 114.229 213.105 227.131 156.308 172.308 86.089 52.075 62.498 161.490 18.015 106.165 106.165 106.165

0.96885 0.43852 0.871 0.73815 0.7474 2.0114 0.6487 0.3681 0.893 0.71806 0.33375 0.35256 0.33408 0.945 2.0719 2.3082 0.46905 0.8145 0.51848 1.1352 0.40399 0.5814 0.66554 2.1496 1.2766 0.7107 1.052 1.0106 1.139 0.982 2.0367 2.154 1.9529 1.859 0.536 0.55978 0.42364 0.84894 0.33363 0.7568 0.8521 0.7512

3.7954 1.506 2.447 1.9529 1.9523 0.8082 2.1227 0.71245 2.1503 2.2669 0.25864 1.227 0.49677 2.526 6.2668 7.8678 2.5314 4.395 2.4535 5.6331 1.627 2.863 1.1257 7.3045 2.5559 1.5051 3.79 3.8314 5.286 5.402 1.8181 2.4432 6.0998 5.869 2.119 1.2141 0.8735 1.1471 0.2679 3.3924 3.2954 3.397

1.5168 1.3988 1.9254 1.5954 1.631 1.8656 1.3491 0.65201 0.772 1.2739 0.9328 0.67938 0.87322 0.829 2.4044 1.6823 1.5998 1.471 1.5018 1.6211 1.4562 1.4406 1.5454 1.6695 0.80937 0.79662 1.4814 1.501 1.594 1.531 1.2089 1.1126 1.7087 1.5718 1.198 1.6102 1.6492 1.38 2.6105 1.496 1.4944 1.4928

2.6618 0.74754 1.888 1.2356 1.2112 −2.4404 1.514 0.46721 0.999 1.7342 0.1088 0.78407 0.28563 0.5 6.345 5.4486 1.7051 3.065 1.6871 3.3829 1.322 1.898 0.97196 4.9998 1.4829 0.84537 2.331 2.395 3.351 3.493 0.79777 0.58651 4.1302 4.326 1.147 0.89079 0.6556 0.9 0.08896 2.247 2.115 2.247

694.3 616.46 821.3 730.5 750.92 279.98 614.8 286.03 2442 537.65 423.7 351.27 393.74 2010 967.71 743.1 740.64 666.4 665.31 681.9 648.81 650.43 717.04 741.02 2231.7 2187.6 667.3 678.3 677.94 639.9 1060.8 950.59 775.4 722.7 510 710.4 739.07 644.61 1169 675.9 675.8 675.1

200 130 298.15 200 200 298.15 200 100 100 300 100 100 100 298.15 298.15 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 298.15 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 298.15 298.15 200 200 100 200 200 298.15 100 200 200 200

1.0927 0.4436 1.1022 0.7825 0.7848 1.0218 0.7711 0.4182 0.8931 1.3370 0.3354 0.3872 0.3408 1.2478 2.4763 2.4864 0.5259 0.9881 0.6147 1.3069 0.4886 0.7016 0.8496 2.3156 1.3278 0.7439 1.1832 1.1354 1.3139 1.2194 2.1054 2.2726 2.0594 2.0232 0.5404 0.5967 0.4457 1.0788 0.3336 0.8759 0.9643 0.8710

1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1000.15 1500 1500 1500 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 2273.15 1500 1500 1500

4.1613 1.6817 2.7484 2.3287 2.3216 2.1175 2.4969 1.0537 3.2416 2.5823 0.5695 1.5397 0.7967 3.4444 6.6947 8.6225 2.5538 4.5348 2.5679 5.5784 1.8098 3.0029 1.6433 8.0251 4.2046 2.4322 4.1983 4.1854 5.3769 5.3754 3.7585 4.3560 6.8342 6.7834 2.3750 1.5590 1.1423 1.8595 0.5276 3.5920 3.5965 3.5923

Constants in this table can be used in the following equation to calculate the ideal gas heat capacity C0p.









2 2 C3/T C5/T C0p = C1 + C2  + C4  sinh(C3/T) cosh(C5/T) where C0p is in J/(kmol·K) and T is in K. All substances are listed by chemical family in Table 2-6 and by formula in Table 2-7. Values in this table were taken from the Design Institute for Physical Properties (DIPPR) of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), copyright 2007 AIChE and reproduced with permission of AICHE and of the DIPPR Evaluated Process Design Data Project Steering Committee. Their source should be cited as R. L. Rowley, W. V. Wilding, J. L. Oscarson, Y. Yang, N. A. Zundel, T. E. Daubert, R. P. Danner, DIPPR® Data Compilation of Pure Chemical Properties, Design Institute for Physical Properties, AIChE, New York (2007). The number of digits provided for values at Tmin and Tmax was chosen for uniformity of appearance and formatting; these do not represent the uncertainties of the physical quantities, but are the result of calculations from the standard thermophysical property formulations within a fixed format.

2-181

2-182

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-157

Cp/Cv: Ratios of Specific Heats of Gases at 1 atm Pressure*

Compound Acetaldehyde Acetic acid Acetylene

Formula C2H4O C2H4O2 C2H2

Air

Temperature, °C

Ratio of specific heats, (γ) = Cp /Cv

30 136 15 −71 925 17 −78 −118 15 15 −180 0–100

1.14 1.15 1.26 1.31 1.36 1.403 1.408 1.415 1.320 1.670 1.715 1.67

Ammonia Argon

NH3 Ar

Benzene Bromine

C6H6 Br2

90 20–350

1.10 1.32

Carbon dioxide

CO2

disulfide monoxide

CS2 CO

1.299 1.37 1.21 1.402 1.433 1.355 1.15 1.256 1.315

Chlorine Chloroform Cyanogen Cyclohexane

Cl2 CHCl3 (CN)2 C6H12

15 −75 100 15 −180 15 100 15 80

Dichlorodifluormethane

CCl2F2

25

1.139

Ethane

C2H6

100 15 −82 90 35 80 100 15 −91

1.157 1.200 1.28 1.13 1.08 1.086 1.201 1.253 1.345

−180 80 15 −76 −181 20 15 100 65 140 210

1.667 1.066 1.407 1.441 1.607 1.42 1.41 1.40 1.31 1.28 1.24

Ethyl alcohol ether

C2H6O C4H10O

Ethylene

C2H4

Helium Hexane (n-) Hydrogen

He C6H14 H2

bromide chloride

HBr HCl

cyanide

HCN

Compound

Formula

Hydrogen (Cont.) iodide sulfide

HI H2S

Iodine Isobutane

I2 C4H10

Krypton

Kr

Mercury Methane

Hg CH4

Methyl acetate alcohol ether Methylal

C3H6O2 CH4O C2H6O C3H8O2

Neon Nitric oxide

Ne NO

Nitrogen

N2

Nitrous oxide

N2O

Oxygen

O2

Pentane (n-) Phosphorus Potassium

C5H12 P K

Sodium Sulfur dioxide

Na SO2

Xenon

Xe

Temperature, °C

Ratio of specific heats, (γ) = Cp /Cv

20–100 15 −45 −57

1.40 1.332 1.350 1.356

185 15

1.30 1.110

19

1.672

360 600 300 15 −80 −115 15 77 6–30 13 40

1.67 1.113 1.196 1.310 1.339 1.347 1.14 1.237 1.11 1.06 1.09

19 15 −45 −80 15 −181 100 15 −30 −70

1.667 1.400 1.39 1.38 1.402 1.433 1.28 1.303 1.31 1.34

15 −76 −181

1.398 1.405 1.439

86 300 850

1.071 1.17 1.77

750–920 15

1.68 1.290

19

1.678

*For compounds that appear in Table 2-184, values are from E. W. Lemmon, M. O. McLinden, and D. G. Friend, “Thermophysical Properties of Fluid Systems” in NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69, Eds. P. J. Linstrom and W. G. Mallard, June 2005, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md. (http://webbook.nist.gov). Values for other compounds are from International Critical Tables, vol. 5, pp. 80–82.

SPECIFIC HEATS OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

2-183

SPECIFIC HEATS OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS UNITS CONVERSIONS

ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

For this subsection, the following units conversions are applicable: °F = 9⁄5 °C + 32 To convert calories per gram-degree Celsius to British thermal units per pound-degree Fahrenheit, multiply by 1.0.

Most of the tables below are from International Critical Tables, vol. 5, pp. 115–116, 122–125.

TABLE 2-158

TABLE 2-165

Acetic Acid (at 38 °C)

Mole % acetic acid Cal/(g⋅°C)

TABLE 2-159

0 1.0

6.98 0.911

30.9 0.73

54.5 0.631

100 0.535

Ammonia Specific heat, cal/(g⋅°C)

Mole % NH3

2.4 °C

20.6 °C

41 °C

61 °C

0 10.5 20.9 31.2 41.4

1.01 0.98 0.96 0.956 0.985

1.0 0.995 0.99 1.0

0.995 1.06 1.03

1.0 1.02

TABLE 2-160

TABLE 2-161

100 0.497

5 °C

20 °C

40 °C

5.88 12.3 27.3 45.8 69.6 100

1.02 0.975 0.877 0.776 0.681 0.576

1.0 0.982 0.917 0.811 0.708 0.60

0.995 0.98 0.92 0.83 0.726 0.617

TABLE 2-166

95 0.52

90.5 0.53

82.3 0.56

75.2 0.581

Copper Sulfate

Composition CuSO4 + 50H2O CuSO4 + 200H2O CuSO4 + 400H2O TABLE 2-162

Specific heat, cal/(g⋅°C) Mole % CH3OH

Aniline (at 20 °C)

Mol % aniline Cal/(g⋅°C)

Methyl Alcohol

Temperature

Specific heat, cal/(g⋅°C)

12 to 15 °C 12 to 14 °C 13 to 17 °C

0.848 0.951 0.975

Nitric Acid

% HNO3 by Weight

Specific heat at 20 °C, cal/(g⋅°C)

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

1.000 0.900 0.810 0.730 0.675 0.650 0.640 0.615 0.575 0.515

Ethyl Alcohol Specific heat, cal/(g⋅°C)

Mole % C2H5OH 4.16 11.5 37.0 61.0 100.0 TABLE 2-163

3 °C

23 °C

41 °C

1.05 1.02 0.805 0.67 0.54

1.02 1.03 0.86 0.727 0.577

1.02 1.03 0.875 0.748 0.621

Glycerol Specific heat, cal/(g⋅°C)

Mole % C3H5(OH)3

15 °C

32 °C

2.12 4.66 11.5 22.7 43.9 100.0

0.961 0.929 0.851 0.765 0.67 0.555

0.960 0.924 0.841 0.758 0.672 0.576

TABLE 2-164

Hydrochloric Acid Specific heat, cal/(g⋅°C)

Mole % HCl 0.0 9.09 16.7 20.0 25.9

0 °C

10 °C

20 °C

40 °C

60 °C

1.00 0.72 0.61 0.58 0.55

0.72 0.605 0.575

0.74 0.631 0.591

0.75 0.645 0.615

0.78 0.67 0.638 0.61

TABLE 2-167

Phosphoric Acid*

%H2PO4

Cp at 21.3 °C cal/(g⋅°C)

%H3PO4

Cp at 21.3 °C cal/(g⋅°C)

2.50 3.80 5.33 8.81 10.27 14.39 16.23 19.99 22.10 24.56 25.98 28.15 29.96 32.09 33.95 36.26 38.10 40.10 42.08 44.11 46.22 48.16 49.79

0.9903 0.9970 0.9669 0.9389 0.9293 0.8958 0.8796 0.8489 0.8300 0.8125 0.8004 0.7856 0.7735 0.7590 0.7432 0.7270 0.7160 0.7024 0.6877 0.6748 0.6607 0.6475 0.6370

50.00 52.19 53.72 56.04 58.06 60.23 62.10 64.14 66.13 68.14 69.97 69.50 71.88 73.71 75.79 77.69 79.54 80.00 82.00 84.00 85.98 88.01 89.72

0.6350 0.6220 0.6113 0.5972 0.5831 0.5704 0.5603 0.5460 0.5349 0.5242 0.5157 0.5160 0.5046 0.4940 0.4847 0.4786 0.4680 0.4686 0.4593 0.4500 0.4419 0.4359 0.4206

*Z. Physik. Chem., A167, 42 (1933).

2-184

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-168

Potassium Chloride

TABLE 2-172

Sodium Chloride

Specific heat, cal/(g°C)

Specific heat, cal/(g°C)

Mole % KCl

6 °C

20 °C

33 °C

40 °C

Mole % NaCl

0.99 3.85 5.66 7.41

0.945 0.828 0.77

0.947 0.831 0.775 0.727

0.947 0.835 0.778

0.947 0.837 0.775

0.249 0.99 2.44 9.09

TABLE 2-169

Potassium Hydroxide (at 19 °C)

Mole % KOH Cal/(g°C)

TABLE 2-170

0 1.0

0.497 0.975

1.64 0.93

TABLE 2-173 4.76 0.814

9.09 0.75

Normal Propyl Alcohol

Mole % NaOH Cal/(g . °C)

TABLE 2-174

5 °C

20 °C

40 °C

1.55 5.03 11.4 23.1 41.2 73.0 100.0

1.03 1.07 1.035 0.877 0.75 0.612 0.534

1.02 1.06 1.032 0.90 0.78 0.645 0.57

1.01 1.03 0.99 0.91 0.815 0.708 0.621

TABLE 2-171 % Na2CO3 by weight 0.000 1.498 2.000 2.901 4.000 5.000 6.000 8.000 10.000 13.790 13.840 20.000 25.000

Sodium Carbonate* Temperature, °C 17.6

30.0

76.6

98.0

0.9992 0.9807

0.9986

1.0098

1.0084

0.9786 0.9597

33 °C

57 °C

0.96 0.91 0.805

0.99 0.97 0.915 0.81

0.97 0.915 0.81

0.923 0.82

0 1.0

0.5 0.985

1.0 0.97

9.09 0.835

16.7 0.80

28.6 0.784

37.5 0.782

Sulfuric Acid*

%H2SO4

Cp at 20 °C, cal/(g°C)

%H2SO4

Cp at 20 °C, cal/(g°C)

0.34 0.68 1.34 2.65 3.50 5.16 9.82 15.36 21.40 22.27 23.22 24.25 25.39 26.63 28.00 29.52 30.34 31.20 33.11

0.9968 0.9937 0.9877 0.9762 0.9688 0.9549 0.9177 0.8767 0.8339 0.8275 0.8205 0.8127 0.8041 0.7945 0.7837 0.7717 0.7647 0.7579 0.7422

35.25 37.69 40.49 43.75 47.57 52.13 57.65 64.47 73.13 77.91 81.33 82.49 84.48 85.48 89.36 91.81 94.82 97.44 100.00

0.7238 .7023 .6770 .6476 .6153 .5801 .5420 .5012 .4628 .4518 .4481 .4467 .4408 .4346 .4016 .3787 .3554 .3404 .3352

*Vinal and Craig, Bur. Standards J. Research, 24, 475 (1940).

0.9594 0.9428

20 °C

Sodium Hydroxide (at 20 °C)

Specific heat, cal/(g°C) Mole % C3H7OH

6 °C

0.9761 0.9392

0.9183 0.9086 0.8924

*J. Chem. Soc. 3062–3079 (1931).

0.9452 0.8881 0.8631

0.8936 0.8615

TABLE 2-175 0.8911

Zinc Sulfate

Composition

Temperature

ZnSO4 + 50H2O ZnSO4 + 200H2O

20 to 52 °C 20 to 52 °C

Specific heat, cal/(g°C) 0.842 0.952

HEATS AND FREE ENERGIES OF FORMATION

2-185

SPECIFIC HEATS OF MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS TABLE 2-176 and Solids

Specific Heats of Miscellaneous Liquids

Material

Specific heat, cal/(g⋅°C) 0.2 (100 °C); 0.274 (1500 °C) 0.186 (100 °C) 0.25 0.22 0.3 to 0.4 About 0.2 0.168 (26 to 76 °C) 0.314 (40 to 892 °C) 0.387 (56 to 1450 °C) 0.204

Alumina Alundum Asbestos Asphalt Bakelite Brickwork Carbon (gas retort) (see under Graphite) Cellulose Cement, Portland Clinker Charcoal (wood) Chrome brick Clay Coal tar oils Coal tars Coke Concrete Cryolite Diamond Fireclay brick Fluorspar Gasoline Glass (crown) (flint) (pyrex) (silicate) wool Granite Graphite Gypsum Kerosene Limestone Litharge Magnesia Magnesite brick Marble Porcelain, fired Berlin Porcelain, green Berlin Porcelain, fired earthenware Porcelain, green earthenware

0.32 0.186 0.242 0.17 0.224 0.26 to 0.37 0.34 (15 to 90 °C) 0.35 (40 °C); 0.45 (200 °C) 0.265 (21 to 400 °C) 0.359 (21 to 800 °C) 0.403 (21 to 1300 °C) 0.156 (70 to 312 °F); 0.219 (72 to 1472 °F) 0.253 (16 to 55 °C) 0.147 0.198 (100 °C); 0.298 (1500 °C) 0.21 (30 °C) 0.53 0.16 to 0.20 0.117 0.20 0.188 to 0.204 (0 to 100 °C) 0.24 to 0.26 (0 to 700 °C) 0.157 0.20 (20 to 100 °C) 0.165 (26 to 76 °C); 0.390 (56 to 1450 °C) 0.259 (16 to 46 °C) 0.47 0.217 0.055 0.234 (100 °C); 0.188 (1500 °C) 0.222 (100 °C); 0.195 (1500 °C) 0.21 (18 °C) 0.189 (60 °C) 0.185 (60 °C) 0.186 (60 °C) 0.181 (60 °C)

TABLE 2-176 Specific Heats of Miscellaneous Liquids and Solids (Concluded) Material

Specific heat, cal/(g⋅°C)

Pyrex glass Pyrites (copper) Pyrites (iron) Pyroxylin plastics Quartz Rubber (vulcanized) Sand Silica Silica brick Silicon carbide brick Silk Steel Stone Stoneware (common) Turpentine Wood (Oak) Woods, miscellaneous Wool Zirconium oxide

TABLE 2-177

0.20 0.131 (30 °C) 0.136 (30 °C) 0.34 to 0.38 0.17 (0 °C); 0.28 (350 °C) 0.415 0.191 0.316 0.202 (100 °C); 0.195 (1500 °C) 0.202 (100 °C) 0.33 0.12 about 0.2 0.188 (60 °C) 0.42 (18 °C) 0.570 0.45 to 0.65 0.325 0.11 (100 °C); 0.179 (1500 °C)

Oils (Animal, Vegetable, Mineral Oils) 15  Cp[cal/(g⋅°C)] = A/d 4 + B(t − 15)

where d = density, g/cm3. °F = 9⁄5 °C + 32; to convert calories per gram-degree Celsius to British thermal units per pound-degree Fahrenheit, multiply by 1.0; to convert grams per cubic centimeter to pounds per cubic foot, multiply by 62.43. Oils

A

Castor Citron Fatty drying nondrying semidrying oils (except castor) Naphthene base Olive Paraffin base Petroleum oils

0.500

PROPERTIES OF FORMATION AND COMBUSTION REACTIONS UNITS CONVERSIONS °F = 9⁄5 °C + 32; to convert kilocalories per gram-mole to British thermal units per pound-mole, multiply by 1.799 × 10−3.

B

0.0007 (0.438 at 54 °C) 0.440 0.0007 0.450 0.0007 0.445 0.0007 0.450 0.0007 0.405 0.0009 (0.47 at 7 °C) 0.425 0.0009 0.415 0.0009

2-186

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-178

Heats and Free Energies of Formation of Inorganic Compounds

The values given in the following table for the heats and free energies of formation of inorganic compounds are derived from (a) Bichowsky and Rossini, “Thermochemistry of the Chemical Substances,” Reinhold, New York, 1936; (b) Latimer, “Oxidation States of the Elements and Their Potentials in Aqueous Solution,” PrenticeHall, New York, 1938; (c) the tables of the American Petroleum Institute Research Project 44 at the National Bureau of Standards; and (d) the tables of Selected Values of Chemical Thermodynamic Properties of the National Bureau of Standards. The reader is referred to the preceding books and tables for additional details as to methods of calculation, standard states, and so on.

Compound Aluminum Al AlBr3 Al4C3 AlCl3 AlF3 AlI3 AlN Al(NH4)(SO4)2 Al(NH4)(SO4)2·12H2O Al(NO3)3·6H2O Al(NO3)3·9H2O Al2O3 Al(OH)3 Al2O3·SiO2 Al2O3·SiO2 Al2O3·SiO2 3Al2O3·2SiO2 Al2S3 Al2(SO4)3 Al2(SO4)3·6H2O Al2(SO4)3·18H2O Antimony Sb SbBr3 SbCl3 SbCl5 SbF3 SbI3 Sb2O3 Sb2O4 Sb2O5 Sb2S3 Arsenic As AsBr3 AsCl3 AsF3 AsH3 AsI3 As2O3 As2O5 As2S3 Barium Ba BaBr2 BaCl2 Ba(ClO3)2 Ba(ClO4)2 Ba(CN)2 Ba(CNO)2 BaCN2 BaCO3 BaCrO4

State† c c aq c c aq, 600 c aq c aq c c c c c c, corundum c c, sillimanite c, disthene c, andalusite c, mullite c c aq c c c c c l c c c, I, orthorhombic c, II, octahedral c c c, black

Heat of formation‡§ ∆H (formation) at 25 °C, kcal/mol 0.00 −123.4 −209.5 −30.8 −163.8 −243.9 −329 −360.8 −72.8 −163.4 −57.7 −561.19 −1419.36 −680.89 −897.59 −399.09 −304.8 −648.7 −642.4 −642.0 −1874 −121.6 −820.99 −893.9 −1268.15 −2120 0.00 −59.9 −91.3 −104.8 −216.6 −22.8 −165.4 −166.6 −213.0 −230.0 −38.2

c c l l g c c c c amorphous

0.00 −45.9 −80.2 −223.76 43.6 −13.6 −154.1 −217.9 −20 −34.76

c c aq, 400 c aq, 300 c aq, 1600 c aq, 800 c c aq c c, witherite c

0.00 −180.38 −185.67 −205.25 −207.92 −176.6 −170.0 −210.2

*For footnotes see end of table.

−48 −212.1 −63.6 −284.2 −342.2

Free energy of formation¶ ∆F (formation) at 25 °C, kcal/mol 0.00 −189.2 −29.0 −209.5 −312.6 −152.5 −50.4 −486.17 −1179.26 −526.32 −376.87 −272.9

−739.53 −759.3 −1103.39

Compound Barium (Cont.) BaF2 BaH2 Ba(HCO3)2 BaI2 Ba(IO3)2 BaMoO4 Ba3N2 Ba(NO2)2 Ba(NO3)2 BaO Ba(OH)2 BaO·SiO2 Ba3(PO4)2 BaPtCl6 BaS BaSO3 BaSO4 BaWO4 Beryllium Be BeBr2

0.00 −77.8

−146.0 −186.6 −196.1 −36.9 0.00 −70.5 −212.27 37.7 −134.8 −183.9 −20 0.00 −183.0 −196.5 −134.4 −155.3 −180.7 −271.4

BeCl2 BeI2 Be3N2 BeO Be(OH)2 BeS BeSO4 Bismuth Bi BiCl3 BiI3 BiO Bi2O3 Bi(OH)3 Bi2S3 Bi2(SO4)3 Boron B BBr3 BCl3 BF3 B2H6 BN B2O3 B(OH)3 B2S3 Bromine Br2 BrCl

State†

Heat of formation‡§ ∆H (formation) at 25 °C, kcal/mol

c aq, 1600 c aq c aq, 400 c aq c c c aq c aq, 600 c c aq, 400 c c c c c c c

−287.9 −284.6 −40.8 −459 −144.6 −155.17 −264.5 −237.50 −370 −90.7 −184.5 −179.05 −236.99 −227.74 −133.0 −225.9 −237.76 −363 −992 −284.9 −111.2 −282.5 −340.2 −402

c c aq c aq c aq c c c c c aq

0.00 −79.4 −142 −112.6 −163.9 −39.4 −112 −134.5 −145.3 −215.6 −56.1 −281

c c aq c aq c c c c c

0.00 −90.5 −101.6 −24 −27 −49.5 −137.1 −171.1 −43.9 −607.1

c l g g g g c c gls c c

0.00 −52.7 −44.