Successful Instrumentation and Control Systems Design

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Successful Instrumentation and Control Systems Design

Whitt2003.book Page iii Thursday, July 10, 2003 4:05 PM Successful Instrumentation and Control Systems Design Michael

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Whitt2003.book Page iii Thursday, July 10, 2003 4:05 PM

Successful

Instrumentation and Control Systems Design Michael D. Whitt

Whitt2003.book Page iv Thursday, July 10, 2003 4:05 PM

Notice The information presented in this publication is for the general education of the reader. Because neither the author nor the publisher have any control over the use of the information by the reader, both the author and the publisher disclaim any and all liability of any kind arising out of such use. The reader is expected to exercise sound professional judgment in using any of the information presented in a particular application. Additionally, neither the author nor the publisher have investigated or considered the affect of any patents on the ability of the reader to use any of the information in a particular application. The reader is responsible for reviewing any possible patents that may affect any particular use of the information presented. Any references to commercial products in the work are cited as examples only. Neither the author nor the publisher endorse any referenced commercial product. Any trademarks or tradenames referenced belong to the respective owner of the mark or name. Neither the author nor the publisher make any representation regarding the availability of any referenced commercial product at any time. The manufacturer’s instructions on use of any commercial product must be followed at all times, even if in conflict with the information in this publication. Copyright © 2004 ISA – The Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 ISBN 1-55617-844-1 No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. ISA 67 Alexander Drive P.O. Box 12277 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data is in process. Whitt, Michael D. > Successful instrumentation and control systems design / Michael D. > Whitt. > p. cm. > Includes bibliographical references and index. > ISBN 1-55617-844-1 (Paperback) > 1. Automatic control. 2. Engineering instruments. I. Title. > TJ213.W44 2003 > 629.8--dc21 > 2003011366

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Acknowledgements I’d like to thank Charlie Thompson for helping me get started in the systems integration business. Sometimes you need someone who’s willing to take a chance on you, and, for me, Charlie was that person. I also thank my many friends in the professional community here in Knoxville: the folks at Raytheon—now Lauren Engineers and Constructors, Inc.—with whom I worked for 15 years, and the wonderful team at Mesa. Thanks to Greg, Mike, Rodney, and anyone else who I forgot to mention who helped me by reading and commenting. Any mistakes are mine—not theirs. Also thanks to Edgar and Johnny for their help with the construction section (Part I); to Tony Pyano—a wordsmith; and to Lori Thompson, a wonderful design engineer, P.E., and friend, who wrote the section on instrument specifications (Part III). And, of course, to my friends at ISA who helped shepherd this project to its conclusion – thanks.

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Dedication I would like to dedicate this book to My wife Mary and son Elliot, who have continually supported me through the travails of writing this book—I’m truly blessed; My parents, who instilled in me a love for reading, and, by extension, writing; and My God, through whom all things are possible.

Whitt2003.book Page xiii Thursday, July 10, 2003 4:05 PM

List of Figures Part I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Figure 1. Success triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Figure 2. Effects of constraints on project structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Figure 3. Typical industrial project flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Figure 4. Startup readiness report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Figure 5. Typical I&C project flow diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Figure 6. One form of a customer’s project team (dashed boxes are external) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Figure 7. Engineering design team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Figure 8. Construction team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Figure 9. Calculating efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Part II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Figure 1. Typical error pattern caused by deadband . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Figure 2. Typical error pattern caused by hysteresis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Figure 3. Conversion problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Figure 4. Data translation process - from field device to HMI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Figure 5. Signal conversion at PLC input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Figure 6. Engineering unit calculation at the HMI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Figure 7. Typical document handling process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Figure 8. Typical instrumentation database management cycle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Figure 9. Form-A contact set (SPST) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Figure 10. Form-B contact set (SPST) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Figure 11. Form-C contact set (SPDT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Figure 12. 2-Pole relay (shown in shelf-state) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Figure 13. Common types of switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Figure 14. Make-before-break . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Figure 15. Break-before-make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Figure 16. Interval timer timing diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Figure 17. T.D.O.D. timer timing diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Figure 18. T.D.O.E. timer timing diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Figure 19. Sample ladder elementary format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Figure 20. Defining the cable route (wire W1, Route C1/T1/T2/C2/C2a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Figure 21. Sample cable schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Figure 22. Sample conduit schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Figure 23. Typical instrument arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Figure 24. Typical cabling scheme. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Figure 25. Interconnection wiring example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Figure 26. Failsafe interlock chain (devices shown in shelf state) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Figure 27. Hazardous boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Figure 28. Basic discrete (digital) circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Figure 29. Discrete circuit wiring technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Figure 30. Simple switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Figure 31. Sourcing switch with sinking load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Figure 32. Sinking switch with sourcing load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Figure 33. Current-sourcing digital input module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Figure 34. Current-sinking digital input module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Figure 35. Isolated digital output module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Figure 36. Current-sourcing digital output module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Figure 37. Current-sinking digital output module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Figure 38. Analog circuit wiring technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

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xiv

SUCCESSFUL INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS DESIGN

Figure 39. Analog wiring methods: 2-wire vs. 4-wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Figure 40. The cognitive cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Figure 41. Typical control system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Figure 42. Control system elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Figure 43. Typical control scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Figure 44. Typical control scheme and process controller. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Figure 45. Graphical User Interface (GUI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Figure 46. Graphical user interface with pushbutton configuration template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Figure 47. Trend screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Figure 48. Typical PLC rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Figure 49. PLC program scan patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Figure 50. Sequential function chart washing-machine sequence control application . . . . . . . 117 Figure 51. Continuous function chart washing-machine temperature control application . . . 118 Figure 52. Control detail sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Figure 53. Suggested program flow of control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Figure 54. I/O tally worksheet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Figure 55. Revised I/O tally worksheet reflecting new setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Figure 56. I/O tally worksheet with split by I/O type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Figure 57. Remote I/O network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Figure 58. Project sequence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Part III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Figure 1. Instrumentation and controls engineering tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Figure 2. Typical feed tank configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Figure 3. Typical P&ID symbology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Figure 4. Typical P&ID symbology showing combined computer functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Figure 5. TK-10 controls P&ID presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Figure 6. Basic P&ID drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Figure 7. TK-10 feed tank with device labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Figure 8. TK-10 Feed Tank area equipment arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Figure 9. Sample scope of work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Figure 10. Existing control system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Figure 11. New control system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Figure 12. List of tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Figure 13. Document control table structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Figure 14. OrderDrawingsQuery (design view) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Figure 15. Document control table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Figure 16. Transmittal query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Figure 17. Transmittal query design view (with criteria filter). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Figure 18. Transmittal query data table view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Figure 19. Instrument and I/O list table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Figure 20. Tagname update query, design view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Figure 21. Tagname update query, design view, with criteria filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Figure 22. Query tagname display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Figure 23. Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Figure 24. Report wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Figure 25. P&ID takeoff query report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Figure 26. P&ID takeoff query report, design view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Figure 27. Finished database products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Figure 27. (continued) Finished database products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Figure 28. Cover sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Figure 29. Devices worksheet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Figure 30. Devices I/O assignment index table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Figure 31. Devices I/O assignment index, revised . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Figure 32. Devices I/O calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

Whitt2003.book Page xv Thursday, July 10, 2003 4:05 PM

LIST OF FIGURES

xv

Figure 33. Count worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Figure 34. Background data table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Figure 35. I/O configuration worksheet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Figure 36. Labor worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Figure 37. Direct engineering labor, phase one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Figure 38. Direct engineering labor, phase two. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Figure 39. Indirect engineering labor, phase two . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Figure 40. Engineering and construction labor, phase three . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Figure 41. Engineering summary worksheet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Figure 42. Project cost summary table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Figure 43. Engineering cost summary table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Figure 44. Phase-one deliverables summary table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Figure 45. Phase-two deliverables summary table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Figure 46. Instrument and I/O summary table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Figure 47. Schedule worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Figure 48. Design schedule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Figure 49. Project man-hour loading chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Figure 50. Systems integration services checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Figure 51. Existing control system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Figure 52. New control system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Figure 53. TK-10 feed tank control sequence overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Figure 54. Sequential function chart fragment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Figure 55. Sample sequential function chart logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Figure 56. Sequential function chart (SFC). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Figure 57. Continuous function chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Figure 58. Sequence step 2: “fill tank” sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Figure 59. Sequence step 5: “empty tank” sequence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Figure 60. Pump PP-10 motor controls elementary wiring diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Figure 61. Pump PP-10 device control detail sheet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Figure 62. HV-13 fill valve device control detail sheet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Figure 63. Sample logic format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Figure 64. Logic diagram showing rat holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Figure 65. Naming conventions for this project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Figure 66. Timing diagram for a delay timer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Figure 67. FILL_TK10 control logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Figure 68. EMPTY_TK10 control logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Figure 69. Device logic for TK-10 fill controls and analog alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Figure 70. PP-10 device logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Figure 71. PP-10 device on/off logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 Figure 72. OSR: one-shot, rising edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 Figure 73. Pump restart inhibit signal processing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Figure 74. Sample logic diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Figure 75. Selected SAMA symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Figure 76. SAMA control diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Figure 77. Animation plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Figure 78. Preliminary screen graphics, TK-10 overview screen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Figure 79. Sample control overlays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Figure 80. Pop-up overlays. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Figure 81. Animation detailing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Figure 82. Pump PP-10 control overlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Figure 83. Animation chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Figure 84. Final screen diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Figure 85. Typical data progression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Figure 86. HMI screen, pumping out in manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Figure 87. HMI screen, filling in auto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226

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Figure 88. HMI screen, sequence status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Figure 89. Sample alarm manager database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Figure 90. Historian sampling points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Figure 91. Simple network single-line diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Figure 11. New control system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 Figure 92. Hardware addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 Figure 93. Software addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Figure 94. Adding the I/O modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 Figure 95. Document control table, design view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 Figure 96. Document control table, datasheet view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 Figure 97. Document control table, order drawings query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 Figure 98. Transmittal query, design view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 Figure 99. Transmittal query, datasheet view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 Figure 100. Transmittal report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 Figure 101. Instrument and I/O list table, design view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Figure 102. Instrument and I/O list database, datasheet view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Figure 103. Preliminary design query. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 Figure 104. Plan drawing takeoff query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 Figure 105. Plan drawing component schedule (Microsoft® Access to Microsoft® Excel) . . . 243 Figure 106. PlanDwgTakeoffQuery report. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Figure 107. Document cross-reference (X-ref) query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 Figure 108. Document cross-reference report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 Figure 109. Ultrasonic level transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Figure 110. Instrument specification for LT/LSH/LSL-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 Figure 111. Instrument specification for PV-48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 Figure 112. Three termination room configurations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 Figure 113. Sample instrument location plan drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 Figure 114. Instrument location plan design. Step one: initialize drawing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 Figure 115. Instrument location plan design. Step two: locate major equipment items . . . . . . 262 Figure 116. Instrument location plan design. Step three: locate instrument items . . . . . . . . . . 263 Figure 117. Instrument location plan design. Step four: add instrument stations . . . . . . . . . . . 264 Figure 118. PlanDwgTakeoffQuery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 Figure 119. PlanDwgTakeoffQuery, filtered . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 Figure 120. 3D to 2D and back . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 Figure 121. Instrument location plan design. Step five: add conduit detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Figure 122. Cable area fill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 Figure 123. Cross-sectional views of cable orientation before, during, and after a conduit bend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 Figure 124. Conduit facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 Figure 125. Conduit sizing calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Figure 126. Recommended conduit tagging convention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 Figure 127. Instrument arrangement with support data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 Figure 128. Cable code cross-reference chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 Figure 129. Component schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 Figure 130. Plan001 component schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 Figure 131. Cable and conduit takeoff approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 Figure 132. Step one: cable takeoff method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 Figure 133. Conduit sizing calculator results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 Figure 134. Cable takeoff by leg. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 Figure 135. Conduit takeoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 Figure 136. Instrument conduit installation detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 Figure 137. Electrical installation detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 Figure 138. Instrument mechanical hookup detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 Figure 139. Instrument mechanical detail with throttling valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 Figure 140. Instrument mounting detail. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281

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Figure 141. Database log of details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 Figure 142. Wiring design basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 Figure 143. Fabrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 Figure 144. Wiring interconnections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 Figure 145. Elementary wiring diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 Figure 146. Typical instrument elementary content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 Figure 147. 4-pole relay coil with contacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Figure 148. Four-pole relay coil with cross-references to its contacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Figure 149. Pole-4 relay contacts with cross-reference to its coil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 Figure 150. Motor elementary wiring diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 Figure 151. Motor elementary wiring diagram showing fused transformer output . . . . . . . . . 289 Figure 152. AC power distribution elementary wiring diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 Figure 153. AC power panel loading chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 Figure 154. DC power distribution elementary wiring diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 Figure 155. Instrument elementary wiring diagram concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 Figure 156. Traditional ladder elementary – washing machine application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 Figure 157. “Unhide Columns” window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 Figure 158. Instrument and I/O list table, filter by selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 Figure 159. PLC digital input module elementary wiring diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 Figure 160. Filtered on DOI (digital output, isolated) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 Figure 161. Digital output (isolated) PLC output module elementary wiring diagram . . . . . . 298 Figure 162. Loop sheet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299 Figure 163. Advanced filter/sort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 Figure 164. Advanced filter/sort, field selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 Figure 165. Results of advanced filter/sort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 Figure 166. Creating a connection diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 Figure 167. Terminal strip creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 Figure 168. Instrument elementary diagram, digital input module. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 Figure 169. Instrument elementary diagram, digital output module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 Figure 170. Termination Drawing Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 Figure 171. Termination Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 Figure 172. Motor elementary fragment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 Figure 173. Finished Termination Chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 Figure 174. Junction box wiring diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 Figure 175. Inner Panel, Cabinet TC2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 Figure 176. DC wiring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 Figure 177. Wiring diagram section of TC-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 Figure 178. AC power distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 Figure 179. LT-10 power feed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 Figure 180. Wire runs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 Figure 181. Fuse/terminal numbering sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Figure 182. NFPA wire color scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 Figure 183. TC-2 wiring color scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 Figure 184. TC-2 PLC cabinet connection diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 Figure 185. Partial junction box diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 Figure 186. Partial motor elementary wiring diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318 Figure 187. Power distribution information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318 Figure 188. Pressure control loop PIC-48 loop sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 Figure 189. Ladder diagram for discrete modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 Figure 190. Document control table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 Figure 191. Document control table and instrument and I/O list table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 Figure 192. Instrument and I/O list table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 Figure 193. Terminal block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 Figure 194. Setting up a scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 Figure 195. Initial layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326

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Figure 196. Single-door enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 Figure 197. Function box with bill of materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 Figure 198. Finished panel arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 Figure 199. Typical purchasing cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332 Figure 200. Bulk materials takeoff worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 Figure 201. Wire and cable calculation table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 Figure 202. Terminations and cabinetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 Figure 203. Conduit and conduit fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 Figure 204. Installation detail assignment data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 Figure 205. New detail sheet tally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 Figure 206. Material tabulation by detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 Figure 207. Consolidated material with detail quantity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 Figure 208. Total item quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 Figure 209. Part number and price . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 Figure 210. Final bill of materials worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 Figure 211. Sort by description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 Figure 212. Engineering bill of materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344

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Table of Contents List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix Part I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction—Part I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Chapter 1: The Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 A. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 B. Predictability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 C. Project Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 D. Project Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 E. Project Deliverables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Chapter 2: The Project Team. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 A. The Customer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 B. The Designer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 C. The Constructor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Chapter 3: The Managed Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 A. Scope of Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Estimate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Status Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35 40 41 42

References—Part I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Part II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Introduction—Part II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Chapter 4: Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 A. Definition of Key Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 B. Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 C. Resolution Effects on Accuracy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 D. Instrument Range versus Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 E. Instrument Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 F. Linearization and Unit Conversions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 G. Practical Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Chapter 5: Design Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 A. Introduction to Information Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Types of Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Basic Wiring Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Failsafe Wiring Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Hazardous Area Classification and Effects on Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Wiring to the Control System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. Design Practice Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59 61 65 76 78 83 95

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Chapter 6: The Control System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 A. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 B. The Cognitive Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 C. Control System Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 D. Process Control System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 E. Programmable Logic Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 F. Networking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 G. Systems Integrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 H. Specifying a PLC/HMI System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 References—Part II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Part III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Introduction—Part III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Chapter 7: Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 A. General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Practical Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. P&ID Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

141 141 142 144 146

Chapter 8: Links to Mechanical and Civil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 A. Equipment Arrangement Drawing (Civil and Mechanical). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Piping Drawing (Mechanical) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Pump and Equipment Specifications (Mechanical) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Links Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

147 149 149 150

Chapter 9: Preliminary Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 A. Development of a Detailed Scope of Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 B. Control System Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 C. Project Database Initialization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 D. Estimate and Schedule Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 E. Preliminary Engineering Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Chapter 10: Systems Integration (Control System) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 A. Division of Labor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Develop a Control Logic Specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Operator Interface Specification Development—HMI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Network Single-Line Diagram Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Other Systems Integration Tasks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. Systems Integration Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

183 185 186 216 228 228 235

Chapter 11: Project Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 A. Document Control Table with Related Queries and Reports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 B. Instrument and I/O List Table with Related Queries and Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240

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Chapter 12: Instrument Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 A. Purpose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Interfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

248 250 250 254

Chapter 13: Physical Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 A. Control Room . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Termination Room . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Process Area (Instrument Location Plan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Instrument Installation Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

255 256 258 277 282

Chapter 14: Instrument and Control Wiring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 A. Instrument Elementary (Ladder) Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Loop Sheet (Ref: ANSI/ISA-5.4-1991) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Connection Diagrams (Ref: NFPA79) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Wiring Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

285 298 301 314

Chapter 15: Panel Arrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 A. Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 B. Junction Box JB-TK10-01 Arrangement Drawing ARR-002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 C. Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 Chapter 16: Procurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 A. Typical Purchasing Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Material Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Bulk Electrical Bill of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Bulk Mechanical Bill of Materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Procurement Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

331 333 333 337 343

Chapter 17: Quality Control—The Integrated Design Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 A. Administrative Content—Individual Checks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Technical Content—Squad Check. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Squad-Check Roster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Design Check Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

345 345 346 346

Chapter 18: Phase Three—Construction Support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 A. Construction Support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Adjustment of Document Package to Reflect Construction Modifications . . . . . . . . . . C. Issue for Record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Phase III Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

349 351 351 351

References—Part III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 Additional Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357

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Preface This book began over a decade ago when, as a department supervisor at Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, I started a regular “lunch and learn” training program. Over time, my lesson plans evolved into this book, which now encompasses a broad spectrum of design issues. My purpose in conducting that training was to provide perspective; to help broaden my design group—and myself—by exploring different facets of the I&C design profession. It is my belief that to be efficient, a design team must be able to respond to unusual situations instantaneously, without much conscious thought. To, in fact, be able to anticipate troublesome issues before they arise. In our business, “conscious thought” takes the form of a design meeting or interruption in the flow of the design process. How much better would it be if the situation were handled real-time or even ahead of time at the lowest level possible on the design floor? Don’t misunderstand: I realize that such interruptions will never be totally eliminated. The I&C profession is far too dynamic for that. But, they can certainly be reduced. My goal, for example, is to ensure that every member of the department from the clerk to the lead engineer is fully aware of the issues at hand. Having “situational awareness” is a valuable and difficult to attain trait that gives the individual the confidence and ability to make good decisions. Situational awareness comes only from having perspective beyond one’s current level of responsibility. That is the thought behind this book: to provide perspective. No other book on the market really attempts to describe the business of Instrumentation and Controls design from ground level. From the design supervisor's perspective, this book will do just that. The book is divided into three parts: Part I is about the business end of design engineering. What is a project? Who participates? What is their role? What are some of the key issues relating to project management? Part II focuses on the I&C design basis, laying the foundation for Part III by describing some of the requisite standards and practices and some of the basic design concepts that are needed. Part III then takes a specific design problem and applies good design practice to its resolution, generating a full suite of design products along the way. Who should read this book? Frankly, this book has something for virtually anyone in the Instrumentation & Controls business or thinking of getting into it. The book's topical format—as shown in the Table of Contents—makes it useful as a desk reference. Some of the sections are very detailed, while others merely hit the high points. It does, after all, reflect the author’s personal experience. The book is aimed at the maintenance engineer in a plant who has not been exposed to capital project work; to the process or mechanical engineer who finds it difficult to communicate with the I&C staff; to the junior designer who needs something extra to put him or her on the path to a successful career; and to the design supervisor, who would like to get some additional tools and ideas about how to manage a project and train people. Along those lines, a CD-ROM, which is available separately or with the book (see page 355), is a great resource for training courses and presentations as most of the figures embedded in the book are presented in their “raw” Microsoft® Excel format, ready to be used as-is or “tweaked” to fit a particular need. Called Software Tools for Successful Instrumentation and Control Systems Design, the CD-ROM also includes a Microsoft® Excel-based estimating/scheduling tool. Design is frequently more of an art than a science. There will be some who take issue with some of the solutions presented here, having developed other methods of their own that are, perhaps, better. But, the design solutions presented here are proven and provide the keys to a successful project. And, if you believe, as I do, that the best-learned lessons are those learned “in the trenches”, then this book is for you! Best Regards, Michael D. Whitt

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Chapter 1: The Project A. Introduction Project: A project is a temporary activity whose purpose is to create a product or service. Temporary projects have a defined beginning and end. Projects usually involve a sequence of tasks with definite starting and ending points. These points are bounded by time, resources, and end results.1 Project Engineering: 1. Engineering activities associated with designing and constructing a manufacturing or processing facility. 2. Engineering activities related to a specific objective such as solving a problem or developing a product.2 An engineering project is a means to an end. For a project to exist, there must be a perceived need and an expectation that the need can be met with a reasonable investment. The owner must weigh the risks against the rewards and conclude that the project is worthwhile. Making that risk/ reward assessment is sometimes more of an art than a science. Every project involves some level of risk. All pilots take chances from time to time, but knowing—not guessing—about what you can risk is often the critical difference between getting away with it and drilling a fifty-foot hole in mother earth. —Chuck Yeager, 1985.3 More than in most endeavors, the effects of mishandling risk in process engineering projects can be catastrophic. Beyond the economic ramifications of a poor estimate, which are bad enough, the potential risk to the operators and the public at large can be extensive. Therefore, a well-conceived process of preliminary evaluation and project control is necessary. This evaluation begins with a thorough understanding of the issues. Like General Yeager, the key is to know, not to guess. Risk management has three components—assessing, planning and managing risk—that will affect the project timeline, scope, or budget.4 The true keys to project (risk) management are knowledge, experience, and forethought. Each member of the project team needs to have a thorough knowledge of the issues. What is a project? What are some of the outside influences on how a project is executed? How does a project flow from inception to implementation? What are the typical products and services to expect from an I&C service provider? This chapter attempts to answer these questions by discussing the following major topics: • • • •

Predictability. What type of project is it? Deterministic or probabilistic? Project structure. What are some of the most common project types? Project flow. How is a project executed? Project deliverables. What deliverables are typical for an I&C design project?

B. Predictability One of the most important project variables is the level of predictability. How many times have the various members of the project team been exposed to similar projects? Have similar projects even been done before? From the customer’s perspective, proper performance from the engineering team

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is of paramount importance. It is the engineering team’s job to identify and assess the areas of risk during the process of building a project scope, estimate, and schedule. The customer relies on the engineering firm to partner with him in flagging potential problems and devising ways to reduce the financial and physical risks inherent in the project. Still, even after a rigorous investigative process, unknowns will remain and assumptions will have to be made that will leave weaknesses in the plan. To reduce customer anxiety and their financial risk, the engineering provider should employ a scientific investigative approach. This scientific approach should begin with a detailed scope of work that discusses risk-related issues and then continue through the construction of an estimate that is based on hard data. All too often, the project estimate is done on the back of an envelope that is then discarded after the submittal, or is too vague. This reduces the chance for reflection after the project and inhibits the ability of the design team—both the engineering side and the customer side—to take advantage of lessons learned. After the project is in the execution phase, the risk factors identified previously should be closely monitored. The trick for the customer is to find service providers who understand these processes and can adapt them to specific circumstances. Fortunately, most industrial project life-cycles are similar in structure. When a new need is identified in the process controls world, a process is begun that is, for the most part, predictable from one project to the next. The customer has a predictable process to follow to get the project approved. The engineer has a predictable process to follow to prepare a bid. These processes are sometimes adapted to meet unexpected or unusual conditions. But, for the most part, the engineering “process” that takes an idea from conception to implementation is consistent. Such a process lends itself to a deterministic management approach, as opposed to a probabilistic approach, which is used for unique processes. Given the predictability of the process, it would be easy to assume that the interrelationships between customer and service provider would be consistent from one project to the next. This is not necessarily the case. External pressures such as market forces may force changes in strategy. Many of these differences can be traced to the contractual relationships that are established between the customer and the engineering provider. These relationships reflect the risk/reward aspects of the projects and, as a result, must be given full consideration when setting up the project. The following sections of this chapter explain the various structures that affect the execution strategy of a project. Is the project time-driven or cost-driven? Is the project fixed-cost or cost-plus? How do these structures affect the execution of the projects? Later sections of this chapter deal with the execution of the project. How does a project develop? Where do you start, and what is the best process to follow? What set of deliverables should be expected from the I&C design team?

C. Project Structure The structure of a project has a great bearing on the way the project is executed. This is because each member of the project team defines success from its own unique perspective, as viewed through the prism of the project parameters. From the customer’s point of view, success is achieved when the desired end is achieved within the time allotted and/or the funds allocated. This is likely to be a broader interpretation than that of the service provider, who is also interested in making a profit. A truly successful project is one in which both the customer and the service provider are satisfied with the outcome. For this to occur, a zone of success must be created that is as large as possible (see Figure 1).

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Service-provider Focus

7

Quality

Profit

Customer Focus

Cost Success triangle

Success is achieved when competing factors balance

Figure 1. Success triangle The success triangle is formed at the point where the goods delivered meet the customer’s cost and quality expectations, while still allowing the service provider to make a fair profit and maintain his reputation for good quality work. Staying within this comfort zone is sometimes a bit tricky, and it really helps to understand the “physics” involved. The physics of a project are defined by the forces that drive it.

1. Time Driven or Cost Driven? Time and resources are two parameters that impose limits on the design process. Time, as it relates to a project, can mean either duration or intensity. Duration is measured by units of the calendar (days, weeks, months); intensity is measured by units of labor (e.g., man-hours, man-weeks). The term time driven in this context implies that the project is constrained by the calendar; the term cost driven implies that the project is constrained by cost. Cost is calculated by finding material cost and then measuring the level of intensity per unit of project time (in man-hours) required to design and construct. Often, these time-driven and cost-driven parameters influence major performance goals that might be set for a project. A time-driven project, for example, is one that locks in an aggressive schedule and provides a bonus or some other incentive to the engineer if he meets the schedule. This type of incentive would be used if there was a marketing window for the end product that would close, making the payback period of the investment longer than desired, or giving a competitor a marketing advantage. In such a project, cost control is frequently lost. But, the cost overrun is somewhat self-limited due to a reduced amount of time available to spend the money. A cost-driven project is oriented toward limiting cost overruns. The performance incentive would thus be related to overall project cost. The schedule becomes flexible and can be adjusted for optimum design efficiency (see Figure 2). It is apparent that the two characteristics are somewhat mutually exclusive. If calendar time is compressed, then there is a likelihood of increased cost. If the calendar is not an issue, then the project cost can be managed and minimized. These two characteristics can be applied to any of the project structures listed next.

2. Cost-Plus Project Years ago, the cost-plus project was far and away the most common project structure. In this format, the engineering firm assumed minimal (if any) financial risk. If rework resulted, for whatever reason, the customer was obligated to pay the engineering firm’s hourly rate. This was primarily due to

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Cost

Same amount of work...

W O R K

W O R K

Cost driven

Time Time driven

Figure 2. Effects of constraints on project structure the fact that good engineering firms were in short supply, and it was their market. The only recourse the customer had was to avoid using that provider in the future. If the customer was small with limited expectations of future work, then his leverage with the engineering firm was limited. Even so, this was a tried-and-true structure that lent itself to stable, long-term business relationships between customer and service provider. As time passed, competition for the engineering dollar increased, giving the customer the upper hand in the market. Other structures took shape that were less advantageous for the engineering service provider. New terms came into vogue such as fixed-cost, turnkey, and engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC). While the differences between these project types can be subtle, being able to adapt the design to fit the differing requirements is key. A project in which the owner agrees to pay an hourly rate that guarantees a fair profit for the service provider is said to be a cost-plus project. The rate charged could be an amount that represents a composite of the service team’s salary plus expenses and profit, or it might vary according to individual salaries with the service provider submitting time sheets. Either way, this type of project involves a minimum of risk to the service provider, which allows him to make reasonable assumptions as to the unknowns during scope and estimate development. It also eliminates the need for overinflated cost additions in the estimate to allow for large contingencies. Therefore, the owner is apt to receive a more accurate estimate. The cost-plus project is generally not awarded as a result of a bid evaluation, though there are exceptions. Rather, this type of project is best suited for an owner-provider team that has a longstanding relationship. Cost-plus fosters a team atmosphere between the owner and the service provider, as opposed to the fixed-cost project that almost guarantees a contentious relationship. Costplus relieves service providers’ pressure to protect profit since, assuming rates are properly negotiated, their profit is inherently protected. This frees providers to concentrate on meeting not only owners’ needs, but also their own preferences during the design and construction process. The benefit to the owners, therefore, is that they retain a large measure of control during the life of the project. The trick to a cost-plus arrangement is to satisfy the owner’s production and maintenance groups by being flexible in the design (which frequently increases project cost and duration) while simultaneously satisfying the owner’s management team’s budgetary and schedule requirements. This dichotomy presents the designer with conflicting requirements, each tending to place limits on

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the other. It is unwise for the designer to focus on any one of these elements to the exclusion of the others. Generally, either budget or schedule is the driving force behind the project. Whichever it is (and, yes, it is frequently both, though, as we’ve seen the two are mutually exclusive to a degree), the owner will define measures that the provider must meet. A cost or schedule target will be set, and the provider will have an obligation to bring the project to a conclusion within a specified margin. If events transpire that make that impossible, or if a request from an internal group such as maintenance is made that will put the project at risk, then the provider must submit documentation in the form of an engineering change order that explains the situation and estimates the effect. An arbiter within the owner’s organization will then determine the best path to follow. If there is a cost overrun on a cost-plus project, the owner is still obligated to pay the fee. If the owner is unhappy with the situation, the provider has an incentive to compromise to protect the relationship for future projects. Sometimes an underrun can be almost as bad as an overrun. The owner spends a lot of energy allocating resources and would probably take a dim view of those who make that difficult. If a poor estimate causes the owner to unnecessarily delay an important project, there could be repercussions.

3. Fixed-Cost (Lump-Sum) Project A project in which the owner agrees to pay a fixed dollar amount for a predefined set of products and/or services is called a fixed-cost project. It is similar to a turnkey project, differing only in the degree of latitude retained by the owner. With the fixed-cost configuration, the owner will retain a small measure of control during the design and construction phases. For example, if there are three ways to do something and each is relatively equal in terms of cost, then the owner has the right to intervene and influence the design. A fixed-cost project is generally awarded as a result of a bid evaluation. Typically, the owner seeks three bids. The owner provides each bidder identical information packets, or bid packages. The bid package is developed during the phase-one* stage of the project and could be prepared by one of the three bidders, or even by a fourth firm that is not allowed to bid on the remaining work. A fixed-cost, or lump-sum, project is employed when the owner wants predefined costs, which offers several benefits. The primary benefit is an enhanced ability to allocate resources. It also lowers overall cost. The competitive bidding process reduces cost provided the low bidder can perform the assigned tasks. The owner gains these benefits, but loses much control during the execution of the project. To submit fixed-cost bids, bidders clearly define methods and deliverables they think will best meet the owner’s defined scope of work. This type of project involves maximum risk to the service provider, who must conduct a thorough investigation of the site before submitting a bid. Unknowns must be eliminated to the greatest degree possible. Sage judgment must be employed to “guesstimate” those unknowns that remain. The trick is to build in enough safety margin (contingency) to make a profit while keeping the cost low enough to get the work. Once the owner accepts a bid, the service provider has no obligation to adjust the deliverables or methods if it can be demonstrated that doing so will negatively affect the provider’s ability to turn a profit. If the owner makes a request that is out of bounds with respect to the scope of work, the service provider has the right to refuse the request until the owner approves an engineering change order. The incremental change in scope is sometimes called “scope-creep.”

*

Phase-one engineering develops the scope of work and produces preliminary specifications necessary to allow vendors and bidders to properly estimate their portion of the job.

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The service provider must be ever vigilant in managing scope-creep. This defensive posture on the provider’s part sometimes leads to a fractious relationship with the customer. It is critical that communication lines be established early and be well maintained throughout the process. A fixedcost project, if properly managed, can be the most efficient and effective format for both organizations.

4. Turnkey Project A turnkey project is very similar to a fixed-cost project except that the owner has no real say in the way the project develops. Phase-one engineering produces a bid package that the service provider uses to prepare a bid and, once the award is made, to execute the work. The service provider’s only obligation once the project is awarded is to meet the phase-one specifications and schedule. Once the project is awarded, the customer’s input drops to virtually nil.

5. EPC Project EPC is an acronym for engineering, procurement, and construction. An EPC project is one in which the owner designates a contractor as a single point of contact. This contractor is referred to as the “Prime” and is the only project participant to be directly paid by the customer. The Prime must obtain bids, award contracts, and provide oversight as necessary to coordinate the activities of all the other sub-contractors. The Prime bears full responsibility for the success of the project, assuming all liability from the standpoint of the customer. To maintain a reasonable risk/reward ratio, the Prime can expect a higher return than would typically be the case. Sometimes a company is large and diverse enough to offer true one-stop shopping, providing all these as organic elements. Bechtel Corporation is one such that specializes in EPC-type projects.

6. Hybrid Project A particular project may exhibit several of the characteristics in the various scenarios described above. For example, the engineering portion of the project might be done on a cost-plus basis, while the construction task as a separate lump-sum contract. It is incumbent upon the service provider to come to a full understanding of possible permutations before producing a bid.

D. Project Flow No matter what style of project, whether fixed cost, turnkey, or EPC, most industrial projects are similar in the way they are developed and executed. There must first be a period of investigation, followed by a period of design execution, followed by a period of construction. Figure 3 depicts this cycle.

1. Preliminary: Identification Before a project can be constructed, it must be engineered. Before it can be engineered, it must be defined. Prior to any external involvement, the end user—generally a production group—must first identify a need and then convince management that the need justifies capital expenditures. Management must then investigate and ensure their investment will pay off in the end. After this assessment is made, funds may be appropriated for an internal study. An engineer or qualified specialist must be selected to do the study and to develop a performance specification*. All this and more must occur before a project ever “hits the street.” Each member of the client’s project team plays a role in this process.

*

A performance specification does not tell one how to do a task, but what the end result should be.

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Preliminary Issue phase one contract

Submit a request for funding

Identify possible solutions

Phase One

Identify a need

Phase Two Legend

On-site investigation

On- and off-site studies Owner

Planning and staffing

HazOp

Prelim. estimate Scope and sched.

Final estimate Scope and sched.

Engineer

Constructor Prelim. engineering documents

Engineering and design

Procure instruments

Long-lead procurement

Procure bulk commodities

Issue engineering documents

Phase Three Receiving and warehousing

Construction

Checkout and startup

Finalize documents

Figure 3. Typical industrial project flow This section explores some of the “behind the scenes” activities that must occur for a project to become “real.” It describes some of the processes that must occur to initialize a project from the perspective of the customer.

a.

Identify a Need Projects frequently begin on the production floor. A problem needs to be fixed or a process needs to be streamlined. For the issue to be addressed, someone must isolate the problem and prepare a written description detailing its properties and effects. Some of the areas to consider when describing the effects are as follows: • • • • • •

Personnel safety Production rate Product quality Equipment reliability Maintenance Operability

b. Identify Possible Solutions • Analyze the problem. Once a problem has been identified, it should then be researched and analyzed to find possible solutions. Frequently vendors can be of great help in this endeavor as they

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will make themselves available to evaluate the situation and recommend possible fixes. However, these suggestions should be used with care since their suggestions are not always objective. •

Estimate the cost. A preliminary estimate of the probable cost must be derived. Again, this can be done using input from vendors, or perhaps in consultation with an engineering firm.

c.

Submit a Preliminary Engineering Request for Funding The problem and its possible solution should be presented to management for analysis. Assuming a positive response from management, funding will be appropriated for a phase-one study.

d. Issue a Phase-One Request for Bid and Select the Contractor •

Write a project specification The project specification should clearly describe the project goals. It should provide enough information to let someone prepare a reasonably accurate bid with minimal expense. The following information should be discussed in the specification: 1.

Existing drawings If pertinent existing drawings are available, they should be referenced or included in the specification package.

2.

Equipment performance specifications Performance criteria for individual equipment items should be detailed as performance specifications. For example, if the project aim is to increase product flow rate, then the existing and desired flow rates should be provided, and any equipment related to product flow should be required to be compatible with the new flow rate.

3.

Service provider performance criteria Service provider performance criteria should be detailed in the project specification. The following are examples of issues that should be addressed in the criteria: How should documents be transmitted? a. b. c. d.

What media should be used to prepare the documents? CADD? Manual? What design standards should be adhered to? NFPA? NEC? Internal? What is the desired timetable? What specific deliverables will be expected?

4.

Approved vendors list An approved vendors list should be provided to ensure the contractor orders equipment that is compatible with existing systems for which spares are available.

5.

Safety Any safety information pertinent to the contractor should be included in the specification, particularly if the requirements will cause the service provider to incur additional cost. Plant access issues should also be discussed.

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13

Select the phase-one engineering contractor 1.

Publish the project specification. The project specification should be made available to any engineering service providers interested in the project. These service providers will analyze the document. Invariably, they will make inquiries for amplification. The customer should make sure that any responses are published officially for each of the potential bidders so that all have the same information from which to work.

2.

Conduct a project orientation After several potential service providers have expressed interest in participating in the project, an orientation meeting should be held. All prospective providers should be invited and should be given identical information packages and a tour of the site. Ground rules and lines of communication should be established. The criteria for bid evaluation should be discussed in detail.

3.

Evaluate the bids Evaluate the bids based on the criteria presented in the orientation meeting. If the bids do not meet expectations, amplification can be given and revised bids accepted provided all participants are given the same opportunity. In some cases, the project specification will need to be revised and the bid process repeated.

4.

Award the phase-one contract Award the contract for the phase-one study based on previously defined criteria. The following are some of the possible criteria for consideration: a. b. c.



Previous experience in similar projects Estimated project cost and payment schedule Proposed project schedule

Start phase-one engineering An engineering firm is frequently hired to do the preliminary work that is sometimes referred to as phase-one engineering. This step is the first formal step in the engineering process. The circle of players must expand as necessary to effect a reasonable study that will eliminate as many unknowns as possible. The end product of this effort is a set of conceptual documents that become the foundation of the project.

In short, the end user first identifies a shortcoming in the process and envisions a reasonable “fix.” A document is then prepared that describes the problem and its negative effects on production and/or safety. This document is then evaluated internally by upper management. If the topic is found to have merit, then some funding will be appropriated to conduct a formal internal study. The results of the study will be evaluated to see if further expenditures are merited. If the internal audit shows the possibility of good results—as defined by the cost/benefit ratio—then more funds may be appropriated to hire an outside engineering firm to do a phase-one study and to develop some preliminary engineering documents and specifications. The study is then evaluated and another cost/benefit analysis is undertaken. If this analysis is positive, then the project becomes “real” in terms of general engineering services. This process has evolved as the best way to reduce the customer’s financial risk. Project reviews among all the groups involved acts as a check and balance to ensure that the project needs of one

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group do not overwhelm the budget needs of another. At any time, the project can be placed on hold while additional analysis is done. If the market is particularly volatile, the cost/benefit ratio could change drastically during the evaluation process. A project that looks good initially might not be cost-effective three months later after the market for the product turns sour. If that occurs, then the products generated during the phase-one study could likely be used later.

2. Phase One: Investigation The first step in the execution of a project is called the phase-one study. This is a step in which a small fund is established to help determine the feasibility of continuing with phase two. The purpose of the study is to eliminate unknowns until the premise of the project is either proved or disproved. Usually a period of evaluation follows this phase to assess the situation before additional funds are committed. The primary purpose of phase one is not the production of documents, though some documentation is produced. Rather, this phase of the project is devoted to an investigation that will reveal actual numbers of items to be managed, the amount of time it will take to produce the design package, the engineering labor cost, and a total installed cost for the project. Tabulations, narratives, and sketches are more often provided as deliverables in this phase. Many documents started here are completed in phase two. As shown previously in Figure 3, phase one is a four-step sequence.

a.

Walkdown—Executing an On-site Evaluation Most projects, whether a formal phase-one study is required or not, begin with an on-site evaluation. These evaluations, called walkdowns, serve three primary purposes: • • •

To familiarize the design team with the site. To allow the design team to interact with the maintenance and operations personnel that will eventually have to take ownership of the system being designed. To allow the design team to obtain visual and tactile information that is frequently not readily available by any other means.

In “greenfield” projects, where everything is new, the need for walkdowns is minimized. But, in most instances, if the on-site walkdown is omitted, it is to the detriment of the design group. Designers who rely on existing drawings and hearsay as the basis for the design are sometimes surprised by a failed project. Frequently, the design team is off-site and must travel to execute the walkdown. Travel has an inherent indirect cost that is easily underestimated. However, the cost should be considered as an insurance premium to protect against unforeseen circumstances. For a retrofit-type project, a walkdown should, at a minimum, include a piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID) evaluation in which each instrument is eye-balled and located on a P&ID. If a set of P&IDs can be validated, then the instrument and input/output (I/O) lists may be finalized. The budgetary estimate can then be validated and reissued as a detailed estimate. The scope of work can be finalized and the project schedule updated. But, until the P&IDs are field verified, the level of uncertainty will remain high. The evaluation that begins on-site will feed into more in-depth evaluations that will occur in phase two.

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b. Scope of Work, Estimate, and Schedule The on-site evaluation described above provides a baseline to which the design may be applied. Once the existing situation at the site is known, the provider may begin developing the products that will satisfy the goals of the project. First, a scope of work must be developed. The scope of work begins with the customer’s general specification. Each engineering discipline extracts information from that specification and develops its own scope of work from its unique perspective. This document describes the baseline situation, the desired end result, and the general activities that will be required to bring about the change. All these documents will then be recompiled into a project scope of work. It will be enhanced by adding details of how the project as a whole will need to be executed, including a more accurate list of deliverables and of tasks. After the scope of work is complete, a work breakdown structure (WBS) may then be created. The WBS provides a detailed, task-oriented strategy for project execution, broken down by discipline. This becomes the project schedule.

c.

Preliminary Engineering Documents Several documents are generated during the phase-one study. These products are used as the basis for the phase-two engineering and design task. Such documents include but are not limited to the following: • • • • • • •

Heat and material balance (HMB) Process flow diagram (PFD) Piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID) Communications network single-line Preliminary bill of materials Studies, such as power distribution, instrument air capacity, and process services Instrument and I/O lists

Each of these is subject to change during phase two. For example, design development changes will almost certainly force P&ID modifications, which will ripple through the entire package. Enough slack must be built into the estimate and schedule to accommodate the normal adjustments that will occur as a result of design development.

d. Hazard and Operability Study (HazOp) After the production process is defined to a fairly high degree, but before the detail design has begun, the envisioned system should be analyzed for operability and safety. Operability concerns relate to the bottom line, by perhaps streamlining the process, but also to safety by defining safe operating procedures. Safety issues that should be analyzed begin with the various raw materials that are brought onto the site. Handling and storage procedures should be discussed and implemented. Personnel safety should be analyzed for each area of the plant. Finally, production and distribution of the final product should be analyzed. This analysis should be all-encompassing and thorough. The time spent will be more than recouped by the improvements that will result. To gain the most benefit from this, the analysis should be a team effort, including representatives from every department that is affected by the project. Finally, management must commit to a reasonable effort to implement the suggestions; otherwise, the whole thing is a waste of time.

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A systematic approach for conducting this investigation exists. It is called a hazard and operability study, or HazOp. A HazOp provides a structure for analyzing each element of the process facility. This structure is in the form of a checklist that presents a series of process states. Each state listed is a desired state. The series of states listed in Hazop and Hazan5 by Trevor Kletz is as follows: • • • • • •

None More of Less of Part of More than (or as well as) Other than

For example, if analyzing the pressure in a vessel, what happens if zero or negative pressure is detected? What happens if there is more pressure than desired? Or less? What if the pressure deviates from set point (less of or more of)? How could any of these deviations occur, and what should the operator be expected to do to respond? What automatic actions should the control system take? Finally, what if something else entirely were done (other than)? Each of these questions should be asked, and each member of the team should be allowed to provide input. Each question and response should be recorded, along with any remedial action that is defined. The HazOp is a structured brainstorming session. Free-wheeling discussion of the topics should be encouraged, within the boundaries set by the facilitator. For more information on this topic, Kletz’s Hazop and Hazan is an excellent resource.

e.

Long-Lead Procurement Frequently, there are items that must be purchased early to be available when needed. Large or complicated equipment items fall into this category. Items that cannot be purchased “off the shelf” should be considered potential “long-lead” items. Such items should be checked for turnaround times from the vendor. If the turnaround time is of a length sufficient to jeopardize the project schedule, then that item should be ordered as soon as practical. All other acquisitions should be put off until the latter part of phase two in order to reduce warehousing costs. Such long-lead items include analyzers, pressure vessels, and weigh-feeder systems, to name a few. These items must be fabricated to meet a specification and are of a complexity that demands a long dwell time in the factory. Many times, a factory acceptance test must be done prior to shipment with the possibility of additional delays after the test.

The phase-one engineering study is sometimes formal, sometimes not. Many times, depending on the customer, there is no clear dividing line between phase one and phase two. However, much of the investigation that has been described here will need to be done whether the results are delivered as a “study” or whether the results are fed into the churning maw of the phase-two production machine. The success or failure of a project can frequently be traced back to the initial investigation work that was or was not done in the beginning.

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3. Phase Two: Execution After phase one has been evaluated and the project goals have been confirmed as feasible, funds are released for the final execution of the design. The purpose of phase two is to prepare documentation that will • • •

facilitate construction (phase three), facilitate long-term maintenance of the facility, and provide documentation suitable for disaster-recovery and future training.

Phase two builds on the products of phase one. Every piece of information that was developed in phase one is refined in phase two. The normal order of execution of phase two is as follows:

a.

On-site and Off-site Studies The on-site investigation conducted during phase one becomes the basis for further evaluations in phase two. Vendors are consulted to confirm assumptions, and possible site visits occur to follow leads developed earlier. The information gathered during this period will be evaluated as it relates to scope and schedule impact.

b. Final Estimate, Scope, and Schedule Any phase-two study findings are evaluated for effect on scope and schedule. Changes need to be rolled into the WBS.* If the findings are significant, then the estimate may need to be modified.

c.

Planning and Staffing After the WBS and schedule have been finalized, final staffing arrangements can be made. The structure of the design team needs to accommodate the structure of the project as defined by the WBS.

d. Engineering and Design The “production” phase of the project begins as the design team is assembled. The range of design products are described later in this chapter.

e.

Procurement Several procurement activities occur during the latter part of phase two. Delivery lead times must be considered with respect to timing of orders. In general, the procurement activities are as follows:

*



Equipment and Instrument Procurement This category covers items that must be individually specified. Such items are frequently manufactured “to order” and need a little more lead time than “off-the-shelf” items. These items must also be handled differently when they are received on-site, as they are classified as “specific use” items. They should arrive from the vendor already calibrated and tagged, if possible.



Bulk Commodity Procurement This category covers items that are considered off-the-shelf, which are purchased in bulk for general use. Such items include cable, conduit, termination components, tubing, tube fittings, and mounting hardware.

The work breakdown structure (WBS) is a list of tasks that need to be executed. Each task is given an ID number and is linked to the schedule.

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f.

Issue Phase-Two Engineering Documents The final phase-two engineering activity is issuing documents for Construction. Document management is a major evolution throughout the life of the project, but it is critical at this juncture. The design team must always know the version of the drawing that has been issued to the field to be able to provide close support during phase three. Phase-three activities will almost certainly force revisions to the document package. Provisions must be made during phase two to accommodate those changes. A properly designed system of document control is essential.

Phase two is the “production floor” of the engineering process. By the time the phase-two tasks are completed, most of the unknowns in the project should have been eliminated. Phase two, then, is a process of assumption verification and product generation. A set of engineering products and services has been derived over time that satisfies all the above requirements. These deliverables are discussed later in this chapter.

4. Phase Three: Construct and Commission The final step in the execution of a project is called the construction phase, or phase three. This is the phase in which the design is implemented. The constructor assumes the prime role here, with the engineering/design team in support. Frequently, an engineering liaison is assigned to provide close technical support to the constructor and to anticipate problems that are developing before they cause work stoppages. The construction phase is broken into four major tasks as shown previously in Figure 3.

a.

Receiving As equipment arrives on-site, it is handled by either the customer’s receiving department or the constructor. In either case, warehouse management is an important consideration. As each item is received, it must be inspected for damage, logged, tagged, and stored. The constructor is particularly vulnerable to poor management practices in this area. If it is in the constructor’s scope to handle the material, it must be done in the most efficient manner possible, probably under less than ideal conditions. Warehousing is sometimes a makeshift affair with little or no existing infrastructure. To compound the problem, a constructor’s ability to derive an efficient method of storage and disbursement can be limited by poorly organized information provided by a design team that didn’t anticipate his problems. Thus, it is important that the two organizations meet early in phase two to devise a material management process that will be workable in phase three.

b. Construction The construction phase frequently overlaps phase two activities by some margin, beginning construction on design tasks that are complete. During this time, the needs of the constructor ascend in importance over the needs of design. Work stoppages should be avoided at all costs, even to the point of stopping remaining phase-two work to concentrate on a phase-three problem.

c.

Checkout and Startup Checkout and startup require a team effort that includes the customer as well as the design team and the construction team.

Checkout (Bump and Stroke) Each installed item should be verified for proper installation. Sometimes called the “bump and stroke” phase, the checkout should exercise each item to demonstrate proper opera-

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tion. If the item is controlled through a programmable logic controller (PLC) or distributed control system (DCS), then the action should be initiated there, and any expected feedback animation should be verified at the operator interface. Alarms should be actuated, and safety sequences should be evaluated for proper operation. To do this properly and document it, a checkout procedure should be generated. Using the instrument database and I/O list as a basis, a checklist can be produced that will make this an organized, verifiable process. A sample startup checklist is shown in Figure 4.

Startup Readiness Report Installation

Checkout

Tag Number

Mounted?

Wired?

Tubed?

Rung Out?

Local

Remote

Summary

PT-10

1

1

1

1

1

1

100.0%

PT-11

1

1

1

1

NA

PT-12

1

1

LT-15 PCV-10

80.0% 33.3% 0.0%

1

1

HV-11

33.3% 0.0%

Excel readily lends itself to this type of use. The Summary field can be used to help develop a completion percentage if desired. In this case, the summary assumes each category is weighted equally. The numbers are summed and then simply divided by the number of categories. PT-10 has six categories and PT-11 has five. The equation "=SUM(C5:H5)/6" is loaded into the summary cell for PT-10, for example.

Figure 4. Startup readiness report

Startup Startup should be well organized and sequential. A formal startup procedure is recommended. The procedure should include a sequence of actions to take and should describe the expected system response at each step. A means for confirmation signoff should be provided. The system’s behavior at each step should be fully understood before proceeding to the next step, and the procedure itself should be approved by the owner well prior to its execution.

d. Finalize Documentation At the conclusion of the construction phase (which includes checkout and startup), the set of construction documents needs to be folded back into the original design. Redline markups that occurred due to construction adjustments should be transcribed into the original design package. This sometimes causes a ripple effect that can cause a great deal of rework on the part of the design team. However, these changes could be critical to the maintenance department and could reflect poorly on the design team if not corrected. That is why a complete understanding of each engineering deliverable is necessary. If a document is a construction document, the update is less important than if the document is a deliverable that will be necessary for project archives or for proper facility maintenance.

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As we have seen, Phase three has an engineering component and a construction component. The engineering team recedes to a supporting role during this portion of the project. Construction support tasks consume much of the engineering focus during this time. Execution of factory acceptance tests, interaction with the vendors, and on-site training are some of the other engineering activities that might go on during this time. At the conclusion of the construction phase, a period of checkout and startup might require engineering support. Phase three, however, is predominantly the domain of the constructor. Receiving and warehousing of equipment, fabrication and construction, and checkout and startup are the primary tasks during this time. At the conclusion of the project, the constructor should turn in all redlined drawings to the engineer so that all the documents may be finalized.

E. Project Deliverables As noted above, several products begun in phase one are completed in phase two. Figure 5 depicts the flow of a typical multidiscipline chemical process design project from the point of view of the instrumentation department. The project flow for other industries might differ slightly, but the overall process will be similar.

Engineering, Phases One and Two Indicates products of others Indicates items started in phase one Indicates items started in phase two 3 Piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID) Process flow diagram (PFD) and Heat and material balance (HMB)

2

6

4 Equipment arrangement (civil/mech.)

DCS selection and familiarization (Client / SI / I&C) 5

10

11 Piping orthos (mechanical)

12

Control system networking

Pump specs (mech./elec.)

Drawing list

Equip. specs (mechanical)

14

13 I/O config. (client/SI/I&C)

9

8

7

Detailed schedule and estimate

1

Instrument database

Instrument specifications

15 Instr. area plans (spot instruments)

16

Floor and site arrangements

18

Instrument elementaries and/or loop sheets 17

Cabinet and panel arrangements

19 Installation details

21

Wiring diagrams (interconnections)

20

Cost group

Mechanical bill of materials

Quotation

15b Instr. area plans (conduit arrang.)

Electrical bill of materials 22

23

Integrated design check and issue for construction

25 Construction

Procurement

24

Construction, Phase Three Adjust design drawings to reflect redline markups

27

26 Issue for record

Project complete

Figure 5. Typical I&C project flow diagram

This diagram gives graphic evidence of the importance of the P&ID to the I&C design process. The P&ID is ultimately the basis for the entire I&C design package. It is a “living” record of the control system from the sensing elements through the computer system to the final control elements.

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Following is a brief description of the various products and services depicted in the diagram. Additional information about many of these topics is provided in Part II of this book, and examples are provided in Part III.

1. Process Flow Diagram The owner typically produces the process flow diagram (PFD), though sometimes an engineering firm is retained to generate this as part of the phase-one engineering process. It is a simplified schematic of the system’s mechanical configuration. For example, a tank is piped to a pump that is piped to another tank. Very little detail is provided as to tank or pipe sizes, and virtually none of the instrumentation is depicted. This becomes the basis for the heat and material balance (HMB) sheet.

2. Heat and Material Balance The heat and material balance (HMB) sheet is graphically similar to a PFD except the HMB has additional information concerning the physics of the project. The drawing begins as a PFD showing the major equipment items and the piping that connects them. Heat loads, flow rates, and energy expenditures are calculated and noted on the document. Raw materials that are envisioned are shown as well. Internal engineering sometimes generates this set of documents, as confidential or even secret information will be presented. As a result, the HMB is frequently considered a “classified” document that is sometimes not even given to the engineering design firm. If the project is approved, the HMB becomes the basis for the P&ID.

3. Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) The piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID) is spawned directly from the PFD. The P&ID is a multidiscipline product that is typically the primary responsibility of the process engineering department but is shared by the mechanical, electrical, and instrumentation departments as well. It is a working document that is continually updated as new understanding of the process develops. It provides piping detail in the form of pipe sizes and shows piping fixtures such as expansion joints, flex hoses, blind flanges, and rupture discs. It provides instrument information in the form of instrument “bubbles” to indicate level transmitters, flow switches, and the like. It provides some indication of operability by showing hand-switches, indicator lights, gauges, tank-level sight glasses, and annunciator points among other items. It also indicates major control logic elements by showing interconnected computer functions and interlocks.

4. Equipment Arrangements Equipment arrangement drawings are construction deliverables produced by the mechanical and civil groups. The basis of these drawings is the civil/structural drawings. The mechanical department then begins placing the major pieces of equipment on the floor plan, keeping in mind access routes, building code requirements, weight considerations, etc. These drawings will become the basis for the detailed piping arrangement drawings (piping orthographics) and ultimately the instrument area plans.

5. DCS Selection/Familiarization Selection of a control system is a major consideration for customers. They will sometimes solicit assistance from design engineers or third-party systems integrators. However the system is selected, it is the customer’s decision to make. Once the decision is made, the design engineering firm must gain familiarity with it. From this orientation phase, a drawing is produced that shows basic system interconnections and network particulars. When this system understanding is developed, it is integrated with the P&IDs to develop an I/O configuration that is in turn used to develop elementary wiring diagrams (elementaries) and to generate a detailed estimate.

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6. Detailed Estimate and Schedule P&IDs and I/O lists are generally produced during a phase-one portion of the engineering process. The purpose of phase one is to develop sufficient information to support an estimate that is suitable for bid purposes, one deemed accurate enough for final budgetary appropriations and engineering service provider selection. Customers usually open the project for bidding at this point, obtaining bids from different providers who have used the phase-one material to produce a detailed estimate. Customers then compare the outside bids to their own detailed estimate and then select the engineering provider that best suits their needs. This is, incidentally, not always the lowest bidder. In phase two, the estimate and schedule are finalized, or “detailed.” At this stage, they are considered to be accurate and will be used as management tools throughout the life of the project.

7. Drawing List Document management is very important, and it can be time-consuming. Hundreds of documents might be newly generated. Hundreds might be ordered from the customer to be modified. Managing the documents and tracking their active revision and disposition can be a major undertaking. The drawing list itself is frequently a design deliverable upon completion of the project.

8. Pump Specifications The mechanical group and the electrical group generally team up to produce pump specifications. Most pumps are motor driven, which involves the electrical department.

9. Equipment Specifications Process equipment is generally specified by the mechanical engineering group. They, or the process engineering group, will specify vessels; heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems; blowers; heat exchangers, and so on.

10. Piping Orthographic Drawings Piping orthographic drawings (orthos) are construction deliverables produced by the mechanical engineering department. They are scale drawings that detail the piping design. These are sometimes referred to as piping plans, though the drawing package contains both plans (top view) and elevations (side view). Instruments that must be piped in-line are depicted, so the instrument engineer must be prepared to provide flange-to-flange dimensions of in-line instruments.

11. Control System Interconnection Drawing A control system interconnection drawing is an engineering deliverable produced out of the DCS selection/familiarization process. It depicts the major components of the control system and how they are networked together.

12. I/O Configuration The I/O configuration is not a deliverable in its own right. However, it is used to support other functions that are deliverables. The I/O configuration is a list of I/O points organized around the characteristics of the control system. The raw material for this list is generated from the P&IDs. A P&ID ”takeoff” process occurs whereby all the instrument signals depicted on the P&IDs are collected into a list. The signals are then categorized based on type (e.g., digital inputs, digital outputs, analog inputs, analog outputs, RTDs) and then logged in a table or database. These I/O points may be further categorized by their relative locations in the process or by their physical locations on the floor. These counts are then compared to the architecture of the control system to determine numbers of I/O modules that must be bought, and, by extension, the numbers of elementary drawings that might be needed. This database then becomes the basis of the main instrument database.

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13. Instrument Database An instrument database is key to a properly managed design process. The database, if developed early and then updated religiously during the design process, can be a very useful design tool and a tremendous aid during the design check. Each item touched by the instrument design team should appear as a record in this database. It is initialized by the I/O list as generated during the I/O configuration process, but eventually it should contain records of even unwired instruments that need to be purchased or refurbished.

14. Instrument Specifications Given the availability of support information such as pump specifications, equipment specifications, P&IDs, and an instrument database, the production of instrument specifications can proceed. HMB-generated data such as flow rates and temperatures needs to be available as well. Instrument specifications must be completed before the instrument elementaries or installation details can be finalized. The piping design group also depends on this task.

15. Site and Floor Plans A site plan is typically included in the phase-one study. It is sometimes just a sketch showing the intended future location for equipment, junction boxes, etc. Formal site plans, as engineering deliverables, are considered products of the structural engineering group. Control room and termination room floor plans are usually issued as sketches in phase one, then finalized in phase two. These sketches are part of the I&C deliverables set used for construction purposes. These drawings might also find their way into the customer’s vault as “maintained” drawings. Process area floor plans, sometimes called instrument location plans, are construction deliverables rarely maintained past construction. They provide general information about instrument placement on the process floor, the conduit and/or tubing that must be extended to those instruments, and any support equipment such as field junction boxes and air header connections. The drawings can be scale drawings showing the exact location of the instruments, or they might be done as diagrams, depicting the instrument near its expected location. These drawings can be done in two steps if the schedule demands it, though ideally, the bulk of the work should happen downstream of the elementaries and somewhat parallel to the wiring diagrams. Initial setup of the drawings can occur as soon as the equipment arrangements are essentially complete, which would put this function parallel to production of the piping orthographic drawings. But, due to the conduit sizing and contents information needed, it would not be possible to finish them until after the elementaries (or loop sheets) and subsequent wiring diagrams are completed.

16. Control Room and I/O Termination Room Arrangements Control room and I/O termination room drawings are closely interrelated. The control room design must be settled first, then the I/O room. Sometimes PLC or DCS equipment racks are physically in the control room, with the marshalling panels in an adjacent I/O “spreading” room. Sometimes all the computer hardware is in the I/O room. Frequently, the deciding factor for placement has to do with the availability of environmental control in the I/O room. If that room is not air-conditioned, then the sophisticated hardware might be found in the vicinity of the control room. Another consideration is the availability of “real estate.” Control rooms and I/O rooms are some of the most expensive rooms in the plant in terms of cost per square foot.

17. Instrument Elementary Wiring Diagrams and Loop Sheets Instrument elementary wiring diagrams (elementaries) and instrument loop sheets serve the same basic function in the context of the drawing package. Both types of drawing are nonphysical. Wiring

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information is presented as a complete electrical circuit, not as a particular physical cabinet or field device, for example. A loop sheet might present some physical information, but its main purpose remains to show the complete electrical circuit. The drawing depicts current flowing from “hot” to “neutral” or from DC+ to DC-. It is rare that a circuit crosses drawings, though it is sometimes unavoidable. This type of drawing differs from the interconnection wiring diagram in that the interconnection drawing shows wiring for a particular device or physical area. That format requires the technician to follow the signal across various paths, possibly crossing several different drawings, to assemble a picture of the entire circuit.

18. Panel Arrangements Marshalling panels are typically large enclosures that provide a place to mate field cables to computer system cables. Generally, field I/O are not organized in a way that is convenient for termination into the control system. Field cables are oriented toward floor location, while I/O cables are oriented toward computer I/O module groupings. The marshalling panel provides a place to crossconnect the cabling systems and to perform any necessary circuit protection and power distribution activities. The marshalling panel arrangement drawing is a fabrication drawing that consists of a bill of materials and a component arrangement. Control panels house electronic equipment and sometimes have controls (e.g., switches, lights) that are presented on the front panel. The arrangement for this type of panel provides interior panel arrangement and possibly a hole-punch guide for the panel front. Field junction boxes are panels that house wiring interconnection components such as terminals and sometimes relays and fuses. Usually, these boxes are simply “breakout” boxes in which multiconductor cables are “broken out” into single-pair cables.

19. Installation Details Instrument installation details are drawings (or sketches) that provide hookup information for the installer. They provide a pictorial representation of the components in their proper relationships to each other and a bill of materials chart that describes such things as part numbers and item numbers. Installation details usually have multiple uses (i.e., they are generic drawings). For example, there might be several control valves in different parts of the plant that are to be installed the same way. One installation detail will suffice for all, provided there is a cross-reference between the instrument and its installation detail. For this, the instrument database is a good tool. It is also a good idea to put that information on the instrument specification as a note. There are usually three categories of such details for each installation: mechanical connections, electrical connections, and mounting.

a.

Mechanical Installation Detail The mechanical installation detail shows a device and its tubing or piping connections and the connection materials. A typical mechanical detail might show the instrument air hookup to a control valve. In this case, any fittings that might be needed, including gaskets and bolts, are called out on the detail.

b. Electrical Installation Detail The electrical installation detail provides information relating to the conduit connections. All conduit fittings are described such as condulets and flex hoses, but only within about a 2-ft. envelope around the instrument. The instrument location plan takes care of material outside that envelope.

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c.

25

Mounting Detail Mounting information such as instrument pipe-stand fabrication, mounting bracket fabrication, and other mounting particulars are described here.

20. Wiring Diagram (Interconnection Drawing) Wiring diagrams depict interconnections within a specific cabinet or panel. The purpose of the wiring diagram is to provide information that will allow the installer to execute the wiring task with a minimum of investigation. The wiring diagram makes no attempt to show a complete electrical circuit, but rather provides point-to-point wiring detail only. Cables are shown entering and leaving the enclosure. Any internal wiring is shown in total. A wiring diagram is generally produced for each and every marshalling panel, field junction box, control panel, relay panel, or any other enclosure in which wiring must be terminated.

21. Mechanical and Mounting Bill of Materials After the mechanical and mounting installation details are created and assigned to each instrument, a mechanical bill of materials can be produced. This bill of materials lists all items needed for the mechanical installation of the instrument. This includes all tubing, tube fittings, brackets, clamps, and mounting hardware necessary to connect the instrument to the process. All materials called for by the mechanical details are compiled into a single bill of materials. The bill of materials is then submitted to purchasing where it is broken into packages by vendor and issued for purchase.

22. Electrical Bill of Materials After the electrical installation details are created and assigned to each instrument, an electrical bill of material can be produced. This bill of material lists all items needed for the electrical installation of the instrument. This includes all conduit, conduit fittings, flex fittings, and drain plugs. All materials called for by the electrical details are compiled into a single bill of material. The bill of material is then submitted to purchasing where it is broken into packages by vendor and issued for purchase.

23. Integrated Design Check Just prior to sending the drawing package out for construction, a full-blown design check should be undertaken. The design check includes checking the drawings of other disciplines where interfaces exist and checking each set of instrumentation design documents for accuracy and proper integration with other drawing sets. Also, P&IDs and the database should be checked in full prior to issue for construction (IFC). Time should be allotted in the schedule for time to make corrections and adjustments as needed.

24. Issue for Construction After a successful design check, the documents can be issued for construction. Note: The issue for review, or IFR, process is not addressed here. However, each drawing package is submitted for customer review and approval at the customer’s discretion. The IFR policy needs to be clearly defined at the beginning of the project.

25. Redlines No design survives construction team review intact. Constructors must be able to make adjustments to the design as needed. As they do this, they should carefully mark (i.e., “redline”) the drawings to reflect as-built conditions. The importance of this process needs to be stressed to the constructor during project meetings as it is often done poorly or not at all. Time needs to be allotted in the schedule and in the design budget for integrating these redlines into the official drawing package.

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26. Issue for Record After all redlines have been integrated and a successful startup has been achieved, the documentation package should be issued to the customer for record. The customer may demand that this be done in a specific manner and that the documents be formatted to specific standards. Customer standards should be reviewed at this time, and any noncompliant documents should be identified and revised.

27. Project Wrap-up As the project is wrapped up, any sensitive information is secured and a final record copy of the project documentation, memos, and other items of import is prepared. Conducting a “lessonslearned” post-mortem can also be useful for future projects. Each and every design project is different. Yet, the way in which the design engineer should approach a new project should not change. The same initial questions should be asked every time. What is the structure of the project? What are the customer’s expectations, and how will he measure success? How much risk is it wise to assume? Once those questions have been answered and the design environment is known, the specific content of the design package can be resolved. The mix of products and services can be changed from project to project, and the design team needs to be able to adapt to changing needs. If the design team has a good feel for all the deliverables that may be offered, then modifying the package by deleting deliverables has little effect on the design process. In contrast, adding products that are new to the team could have a great effect, upsetting the work flow. Therefore, it is in the best interest of all concerned to have all team members fully cognizant of the range of products and services and their interrelationships.

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Chapter 2: The Project Team As illuminated in the previous chapter, embarking on a new project is an extraordinarily complex, and sometimes risky, undertaking. A high level of technical expertise on the part of the participants is a must. But, other factors, perhaps less obvious, are also required. The days of sitting back in a swivel chair and working the project for weeks in isolation are over. Projects in today’s world require a lot of interaction. The customer is looking for partners that are proactive and engaged. Several issues must be resolved early in the project. Chief among these is the establishment of good lines of communication among the different organizations that make up the project team. To achieve this, it is important for all team members to understand their roles as they relate to the overall project and to know what to expect from other members and organizations. Communications among these different organizations is critical, as is a mutual understanding of the division of labor among them. Engineering project teams consist of three primary elements: the customer, the designer, and the constructor. Generally, the three are represented by three distinct organizations, though for small projects the distinction can be blurred. For example, on small projects, the designer might be a maintenance technician who will also install (or “construct”) the equipment. Nevertheless, the three elements are present in some fashion. In an ideal world, each major team element would function in perfect concert with the others, performing much like a symphony to produce a work that is equally beneficial to each member of the team. This is, however, difficult to achieve under the best of circumstances. In reality, the normal design process is quite discordant and chaotic. Sometimes the definition of success itself differs widely among the participants. Managing discord becomes a major task, and a well-executed project may differ from a poorly executed one only by the level of disharmony that exists. The three different organizations that make up the project team—the customer, the designer, and the constructor—may never have worked together in the past. This impedes good communications, and frequently results in wasted effort. As a result, when beginning a larger big-budget project, team building is a major consideration. Management teams from the major organizations should meet in an informal atmosphere in an attempt to quickly construct a basis for an effective professional relationship. This pays off in better communications among groups, which results (hopefully) in a more efficient organization. This kind of big-budget approach is not possible on the small project’s limited budget. More often than not, the small project kickoff meeting occurs in a conference room near the project manager’s office and is sandwiched between pressing production matters that may take as much of the project manager’s mental energy as the meeting. Personal discussions are minimized, and team building is a luxury that is not even considered. For the small project specialist, it is imperative that the professional relationships among organizations be fostered on an ongoing basis. Regardless of the size of the project, proper attention to detail in the beginning is critical. Once the project begins, there is a natural “churning” of information that is healthy provided proper levels of communication exist among the groups. This chaotic churning process is particularly evident in the area of instrumentation and controls. The I&C discipline cuts across almost all boundaries, from process to mechanical to civil and structural to operations. And, beyond the engineering aspects, preferential issues relating to operability and maintainability must be considered. Design

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development is a term used to describe design changes that occur due to the normal churning of ideas as a project takes shape. This process is very important and must be accommodated within limits. If allowed to proceed unchecked, the results can be disastrous. Injecting controls into this chaotic environment without entirely stifling creativity must be a primary goal. Thus, it is critical that the I&C professional in particular be able to interact effectively with other disciplines and other organizations. One important step in interacting effectively is to become familiar with the different forces at work behind the scenes. New engineers or junior designers rarely have a “big picture” viewpoint because each project is different and they see only a few facets at a time. Each new project adds a bit more to their store of knowledge until reasonably accurate assumptions can be made about activities outside the field of view. Only then can enough of a picture be constructed to provide perspective. This process of assimilation can, and probably will, take several projects to bear fruit. In an effort to speed up this process, this chapter defines some of the major organizations and discusses some of their goals and methods.

A. The Customer This book often depicts the customer (or client) as some sort of monolithic entity. In reality, however, the client is an amalgam of individuals and subgroups, all of whom are important and must ultimately be satisfied to some degree. Each project, whether it is a capital project or a work-order (maintenance) project, is organized in a similar manner. Someone has the funds, someone has the need, and someone has the ball. Typically, the one with the ball is the project manager. In some smaller work-order projects, the project manager and the production representative may be the same person. Work-order projects are generally very small “tactical” tasks that are funded, and sometimes managed, by the production group (i.e., operations). The task is generally one that makes a minor change to increase production, add convenience, or improve safety. Generally, someone from project management coordinates this sort of project, depending on the skills available in the production group. Capital projects are those funded from the client’s capital budget during yearly budget meetings. These projects can be thought of as “strategic,” or ones that will generate positive long-term effects. Capital project budgets are reported to stock holders, and as such, have high visibility. Projects differ from one facility to the next and even from one project to the next. But, they usually share some similarities. Producers are ultimately driven by the bottom line. If they are spending project money, then projects must have positive results that increase the profit margin. While clients must frequently rely on outside resources, they must not lose control of the process. Thus, a management team becomes a necessity. A client typically has a group of engineers and production specialists who are tasked as members of the management team. Often these individuals have other, more production-related duties as well. Depending on the size of the task and the availability of personnel, the management team could consist of only one individual. In any case, the purpose of this team is to facilitate the work of the contractor by providing oversight, guidance, and information. Figure 6 shows one possible form a customer’s project team might take.

1. Project Manager Project managers are typically senior engineers or production managers who are intimate with the facility and the production team. They are the prime point of contact for the contracted organizations (i.e., the constructors, vendors, and engineers). As such, project managers are generally consid-

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Figure 6. One form of a customer’s project team (dashed boxes are external) ered to be “the clients” by the contractors, who consult them on a myriad of issues. They are facilitators who help to clear obstacles. They pull information from the plant technical groups or set up interviews with the operators. They interpret unclear or ambiguous directives. They also typically have limited budget authority.

2. Production Representative A project manager’s primary customer is the production division. These production groups (who are the ultimate source of funding for the project) identify a need and appoint a representative to interact with other departments. This individual is sometimes called the operations or production representative and is typically a person who is intimate with the production issues and has enough engineering background to be able to communicate with plant engineering to whom the initial request for assistance is made.

3. Technical Representative A project’s technical representative is generally from the maintenance department. This individual is tasked with monitoring the project to ensure the interests of the maintenance department are given proper consideration during the design phase. This function is often overlooked, and input from this quarter is sometimes not sought early enough to have much impact. Occasionally, rework is the result. It is the project manager’s responsibility to make sure both the production department’s and the maintenance department’s concerns are addressed.

4. Construction Liaison A construction liaison may be appointed by the project manager to facilitate construction and provide oversight. This person acts as liaison between engineering and construction and also monitors the construction team’s installation and safety practices. Construction liaisons are the main point of contact for the construction team, and, though they are constrained by project budget and scope of work, they typically work to guard the interests of the maintenance department during the construction phase. The customer is actually several entities, each with its own set of concerns. Contracted personnel need to realize the constraints under which project managers and others in a customer’s organization must operate. The process that results in a project begins long before the contract engineer or constructor gets to the site.

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B. The Designer Like the customer, the designer is an amalgam of several entities. For the purposes of this discussion, the designer will be an engineering firm that has been contracted to take the desired end result as envisioned by the customer and engineer a solution that is both constructable and cost-effective. The design team usually consists of several “disciplines,” or groups with different skills. For example, a design team might require civil engineering to build a structure, electrical engineering to provide lights and power, and mechanical engineering to provide plumbing and other services. These different groups must be managed and their efforts coordinated to achieve a common purpose. Figure 7 and its accompanying discussion present a top-down description of the project team.

Figure 7. Engineering design team

1. Project Manager The project manager has overall responsibility for the project. This person typically has developed a business relationship with the customer and is sometimes quite possessive of that relationship. A project manager guards the customer’s interests within the framework of the project scope, budget, and schedule. The engineering firm generally depends heavily on this person for business development (i.e., sales).

2. Project Engineer The project engineer manages the design team. This person coordinates the efforts of multiple disciplines as they each pursue their particular interests. The project engineer ensures the various discipline engineers are working in concert, using proper procedure and executing their tasks in a manner that is consistent with the goals of the project team. The project engineer also resolves or

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prevents disputes by enforcing good communications practices among the disciplines. This person is (or should be) an enabler, making sure that all forces are properly trained and have all the support personnel and materials they need. The project engineer’s function is sometimes combined with the project manager’s function, with the same individual performing both roles.

3. Discipline Project Engineer A discipline project engineer manages a discipline’s efforts as they relate to a project. A discipline design team typically consists of an engineering staff and a technical support (design) staff. The engineering staff generates conceptual design documents that the technical support staff uses to build a complete documentation package that is suitable for construction and maintenance. Discipline engineers coordinate their activities with other discipline engineers under the direction of the project engineer. Discipline engineers manage their staff to ensure it is functioning efficiently and effectively.

4. Discipline Engineering Staff The discipline engineering staff generates engineering products and services under the direction of the lead discipline engineer. These engineers work closely with the design staff to satisfy the scope of work.

5. Design Supervisor The discipline design supervisor reports to the department head (not shown). The design staff reports to the design supervisor administratively. This person is also responsible for the overall quality of the output of the design and clerical staff.

6. Discipline Technical Support (Design) Staff a.

Lead Designer The discipline lead designer is responsible for the technical design content of the engineering package. This person manages the efforts of the technical support staff, which includes the other designers, CADD drafters, and clerical support under the overall direction of the discipline engineer. This staff uses the information developed by the engineering staff to develop construction drawings and documents for record. The discipline lead designer also coordinates efforts directly with other technical staffs from the client and construction organizations.

b. Designer Designers are technical support personnel with particular skills. Their abilities can range from expertise in a single area of design up to complete competence in all aspects of the design. They are responsible for the technical content of the design drawings, bills of material, databases, etc.

c.

CADD Technician CADD technicians are responsible for the production of the drawing package.

d. Clerk Clerks generate databases and bill of materials listings and perform other administrative tasks. Sometimes the CADD Technician will double as the project clerk. Execution of a design project is a team effort. Design teams are generally ad hoc groups that are assembled for a specific project and then are disbanded. These individuals learn to adapt quickly to new situations and to coalesce into teams on short notice. The success of the project depends on the organization’s ability to execute this maneuver in a timely manner.

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C. The Constructor Like the designer, the constructor is an amalgam of several entities. These entities are called crafts. Electricians, pipe fitters, and welders are examples of crafts. The construction team’s organizational structure falls more in line with electrical and instrumentation (E&I) with controls falling somewhere among them. Figure 8 and the following discussion present a top-down description of the construction team from the E&I perspective.6

Construction manager

E&I superintendent

Other superintendents

General foreman

Engineering coordinator

Electrical foreman

Instrument electrical foreman

Instrument foreman

Fitter foreman

Motors, switchgear, substations, etc.

Instrument, cable, and conduit checkout

Instrument air tubing and installation

In-line instrument installation

Figure 8. Construction team

1. E&I Construction Superintendent The superintendent’s role on the construction team corresponds to the role of the discipline engineer on the design team. If the project is large enough, each discipline could have a dedicated superintendent. The superintendent is responsible for building a good construction team. Following are some of the most important personnel choices the superintendent makes: • •

A team of frontline supervisors A good material expediter, coupled with knowledgeable receiving and warehouse personnel who will inspect and catalog all instruments for tracking purposes.

This individual is ultimately responsible for schedule and budget, quality of work, safety of the construction team, and accurate time reporting. In short, the buck stops with the superintendent during the construction process.

2. E&I Field Engineer and Coordinator The E&I field engineer interfaces with the design engineer and the E&I superintendent to ensure proper field installation of instrumentation. In coordination with the E&I superintendent, the field engineer performs material takeoffs for all instruments and associated items (if not already provided by the design team). This includes material such as tubing, tube tray/track, tube fittings, and mounting extras such as angle iron, nuts, bolts, and miscellaneous parts. This person also generates bills of materials for electrical items such as conduit, cable, electrical fittings, and associated parts to

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install the wiring for instrumentation systems. The field engineer is also responsible for initiating field change notices (FCNs) or design change notices (DCN’s) as design modification needs are uncovered.

3. E&I General Foreman The E&I general foreman works with the superintendent and other foreman to develop weekly work plans and daily task plans to ensure craftsmen know the priority of projects for the day and week.

4. Instrument Foreman The instrument foreman creates daily and weekly work plans and ensures proper installation procedures are followed by the instrument fitter and/or mechanic.

5. Instrument Fitter or Mechanic The instrument fitter installs each instrument according to installation details. Tubing is run to all valves that are automated by either a solenoid valve or an I/P converter. This person also installs all instruments and associated hardware, including instrument air piping.

6. Pipe Fitter The pipe fitter installs all inline devices such as control valves, magnetic flowmeters, on/off valves, and associated piping required for pressure gauges, pressure switches, and miscellaneous devices.

7. Instrument Electrical Foreman The instrument electrical foreman creates daily and weekly work plans and ensures proper electrical specifications and procedures are followed by the electricians with respect to the instrumentation installation effort. This person supervises installation of conduit, wire pulls, and termination at the instrument and the DCS/PLC at the instrument’s proper address, as well as point-to-point wiring checkout. The project team is supported by three legs: the customer, the engineer, and the constructor. If any of the three legs are dysfunctional, then the project stands a good chance of failing. The three groups must not only work well within their organizations, but also among themselves. The best way to work together is for each to understand the other guy. If an organization attempts to anticipate another organization’s actions by understanding the driving forces behind those actions and to preempt problems, the value of that organization to the project increases inestimably.

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Chapter 3: The Managed Project A well-conceived, well-managed project is one that has been given a chance to succeed. Conversely, a poorly managed project may fail regardless of its conceptual viability. If a project fails, yet is well managed, then some positive effects can probably be salvaged—even if the outcome is merely a list of lessons learned. In such a project, the problems will likely be well defined, making it possible to avoid similar entanglements in the future. In a poorly managed project, the root causes may never be uncovered. Well-managed projects do not just happen. They begin with the basics. All members of the project team need to have a clear understanding of the work that needs to be done and a clear view of their role in the process. The days of “mushroom engineering,” in which the project manager keeps the design staff in the basement cranking out drawings, are over. Today, design teams need to be fully engaged from top to bottom—more of a “Velcro” interface. The conversion from “mushroom” to “Velcro” means that the support staff needs to become more sophisticated and more attuned to the specific issues being addressed by the project. Clerical staffs, for example, should be just as familiar with their counterparts in other organizations as the project manager.

A. Scope of Work The first step on the path to a successful project is the generation of an accurate scope of work. A scope of work is simply a description of the tasks that need to be accomplished to achieve the desired end. It is the result of a cycle of investigation intended to eliminate or reduce the number of assumptions that need to be made later. As a general rule, meetings in the initial stages of a project are attended by senior-level managers. The number of participants in these early meetings is kept to a minimum to keep costs low until the project is awarded. As a result of the small number of participants exposed directly to the information, capturing the information on which the bid estimate is based becomes very important. To compound matters, the project specification provided by the customer is usually inadequate for the purposes of a detailed scope of work. Therefore, an internal document that amplifies upon the project specification is needed. The project specification, then, becomes the basis for a more detailed document called the project scope of work. Each discipline is responsible for developing its own individual scope of work based on the project specification, which will become a piece of the overall project scope of work. This is done in consultation with vendor contacts and with appropriate technical resources within the customer’s organization. After the disciplines have generated their discipline scope sections, they are fed back into the project scope of work execution narrative. The finalized scope of work, along with the project estimate and project schedule, is then used as the basis for producing a proposal, or perhaps a phaseone study. If the project is approved, the scope of work is ultimately used as a project management tool by the engineering disciplines. It is recommended that the project scope of work be written in sections that reflect the way in which the project will be executed. For example, if construction will occur in four distinct areas of the plant, then there should be one section in the scope of work for each area of construction. There

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will likely be a need for a fifth section in the document to cover common services that are not specific to a process area. Each of the sections dealing with a specific area should have subsections devoted to each engineering discipline, even if a particular discipline has no work in that area. The phrase “Not applicable to this discipline” is good information to have. Also, the scope of work will eventually be used as the basis for the proposal. Therefore, the format of the document presented here is very similar to that of the final proposal. The primary difference is that the scope of work has no cost or schedule information. It is merely an internal document that is used to generate a budget estimate and a schedule. Later, once the project has been approved, this document can become a valuable project management tool for the design team. Following is a description of some of the information that should be presented in a scope of work:

1. Executive Summary The executive summary cuts to the chase; it provides the “bottom line” of the project. This section is necessary only if the scope of work document is intended to be a deliverable to others outside the immediate group. This section remains blank until both the estimate and schedule have been completed as the data developed in those sections are summarized here. The executive summary should contain a simple statement of project purpose—a paragraph or so—followed by a cost table or chart and a schedule table or chart. This information can be followed by a short description of some of the key elements of the project.

a.

Statement of Purpose The statement of purpose describes in broad terms the reason for the project. An example of a simple statement of purpose follows: “The existing plant Autocall alarm system in Building 504A is defective. This project will replace the existing autocall plant alarm system with a new Autocall system and replace alarm bells as necessary as identified by field examination. The project will be supervised and funded by the facilities department. The new system will be designed and installed by the maintenance department and will be in place by early March.” This statement should tell who, what, where, when, and how.

b. Summary Data Data presented in the executive summary should be fully supported in the body of the document. For example, dollar amounts shown should be detailed somewhere in the document so that if more detail is needed about how the cost was derived, it may be easily located. The data should provide information as to total project cost and total project duration. Also, depending on the type of project, a schedule of payments and a rate schedule may need to be generated.

2. Clarifications This section should list and discuss “grey” areas of the project that require a sharper focus. This may best be done in sections labeled “Inclusions” and “Exclusions.” These sections do not need to be comprehensive, but should include only those items for which there may be a misunderstanding as to their disposition. A comprehensive “Assumptions” section should be included, however, that lists all assumptions made and their levels of uncertainty.

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Inclusions If a controversial or unapparent task or function is intended in this proposal, then it should be clearly noted in the inclusions section. This is in the best interest of all concerned, particularly if this document is being submitted as part of a competitive bid. At times, an award may be given to the low bidder simply because he did not include a task that was included in the competition’s proposal.

b. Exclusions The exclusions section should note any related work that will be done by others. Perhaps a customer organization, for example, has elected to do a portion of the project using its own maintenance forces. This section should detail this and any other such aspects of the project that are specifically excluded from the scope of the design team.

c.

Assumptions An assumptions section is very important. Rarely is enough information available to be absolutely sure of the work that will need to be done. Assumptions must often be made to allow work to be estimated. Sometimes worst-case scenarios are used, and sometimes bestcase scenarios. All assumptions should be noted in this section along with the thought process that led to each assumption. It is also a good idea to state the level of certainty (or uncertainty) when describing the assumption.

d. Safety Concerns Any areas of concern regarding personnel or equipment safety should be noted here. If the customer has safety training requirements, they should also be noted.

3. Project Description The description narrative provides general information as to the current state of the system and a statement of intent as to the work that is anticipated. This narrative should be a “birds-eye” view of the system. It might be worthwhile to refer to a site plan or block diagram here if one is available. The following information should be presented in some fashion:

a.

Existing System What process areas are involved? Where is the equipment located? What is its general state of repair? What is the availability of power and services?

b. Disposition of Existing Equipment What existing items will be demolished, refurbished, relocated, or replaced? How will these activities be done? Who will be responsible? How will this be documented?

c.

Disposition of New Equipment What new equipment will be added? Where? How will the area be prepared? Who will purchase the equipment? How will this be documented? How will this affect existing power and service capacity?

d. Company and Applicable Industry Standards If the company has standards that apply to this project, they should be listed here. Any industry standards that are necessary or that are superceded by the company’s standards should be listed. Any applicable guidelines should also be listed. The following questions should be anticipated and answered: Are there any unusual requirements or safety concerns? What pertinent standards were listed in the project specification?

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Impediments that would prevent members of the design team from consulting the standards should be removed. The best way to ensure standards are easily consulted is to provide copies of the standards, or at least instructions as to how they may be obtained.

e.

Approved Vendors List Does the customer have specific vendors in mind to supply the equipment? This information is probably listed in the project specification and can be copied and placed in this section.

f.

Equipment Any equipment mentioned in the narrative should be listed here with a cross-reference to pertinent drawings. If this list does not exist, then the customer contact who will facilitate generating the list should be indicated.

g.

Instrumentation If the customer has an existing instrument and/or I/O list, it should be included here. Otherwise, the customer contact who will facilitate gathering this information should be indicated.

h. Drawings If the customer has a drawing list, it should be included here. Also, reference should be made to the customer contact for document control. Guidance should be included as to how to interact with this individual. It sometimes proves beneficial to appoint an internal resource as the single point of contact with this individual to reduce confusion. Any internal guidelines for document control should also be included in this section.

4. General Execution Strategy The general execution strategy is a detailed plan of attack at the project level. The activities of all disciplines should be included. The information should be presented in a logical progression of activities that culminate in checkout and startup of the facility. The structure of the general execution strategy is then copied into the discipline execution strategy sections, and each discipline adapts the description of work required to its own needs.

a.

Initial Investigation This section describes the investigation activities required to proceed. Information regarding on-site walk-downs of the facility, gathering of documents, the need for operator interviews, and so on, should be included.

b. Specify and Order Long-Lead Items If any items require long delivery times, they should be identified and ordered as early as practical. This section should list any items of particular concern.

c.

Identify Vendor-Provided Preengineered Subsystems If any subsystems are to be installed intact from the vendor, they should be listed here. Any anticipated interaction on the part of the design team should also be noted. A factory acceptance test may be necessary. Vendor drawings often need to be reformatted into the customer’s drawing system. These issues need to be addressed as soon as practical.

d. Execute Design Tasks This section should list each major task for each process area that falls under the scope of the project. Each task should then be evaluated from the perspective of each discipline.

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All execution statements should begin with verbs to convey the type of work being done: 1.0 Area X 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2.0 Area Y 2.1

2.2 3.0 Area Z 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5

Demolish existing tank X Install pump X Install new tank X Install in-line instruments Refurbish main feed pump PP-7 2.1.1 Remove from service 2.1.2 Replace impeller 2.1.3 Replace seals 2.1.4 Paint 2.1.5 Reinstall and return to service Recalibrate instruments Install computer floor Refurbish lighting Refurbish Fire Suppression System Install computer furniture Install computer hardware

Each task has a unique number called a work breakdown structure (WBS) number. For example, the WBS number for painting pump PP-7 is 2.1.4. An estimate and material cost will be derived for this item and stored as part of the project estimate.

e.

Submit Package to Customer for Design Review If the customer has any specific oversight requirements that result in work, that work should be detailed here. Usually, an intermediate point in the design is chosen for a “spotcheck” to make sure work is progressing according to expectations. Sometimes partial payments for services rendered are tied to these design reviews. Because these take time to prepare, a statement should be included here to indicate the level of detail that might be required.

f.

Deliverables The deliverables section should detail any specifics regarding classes of deliverables the disciplines will need to produce for record. Other documents, such as construction documents or documents for internal use, might need to be done, but this section should list only the documents that will be eventually turned over to the customer. For example, the customer might not see the need for instrument location plans, but the constructor might need them to increase efficiency. In this case, the engineering team might elect to produce location plans but never issue them to the customer.

g.

Attachments Supporting documents should be included as attachments. Some of the types of supporting documents are as follows: • • • • • •

Drawing list Instrument and I/O list Equipment list Project cost estimate Project schedule Sketches

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A properly executed scope of work—while initially somewhat time-consuming to produce—is essential to the proper management of the project. It is a communication medium that allows the customer’s needs to be placed within the context of the design process. If properly executed, the scope of work eliminates misunderstandings and forms the basis for developing a realistic, task-oriented project schedule and budget. After the project is approved, the scope of work can help the project manager and design team manage their work.

B. Estimate* A proper understanding of the project requirements begins with a well-defined scope of work, as previously discussed. But, the scope of work is only part of the story. After “what” is addressed by the scope of work, “how much” and “when” need to be addressed. Therefore, the next step on the path to a successful project is to generate an accurate estimate of material cost and labor in terms of time. These measures define the “physics” of the situation, setting limits that affect the way in which the project will be executed. These physical measures are the primary tools of the project manager in tracking the project on the strategic level and of the design supervisor in managing the work on the tactical level. The scope of work defines the work to be done. The material cost estimate and labor cost estimate define the parameters within which the work will be done. There are three main types of estimates: budget, bid, and definitive. Following is a brief description of each: •





*

The budgetary cost and labor estimate is, many times, produced by a group who is familiar with the site and with the process. This group may or may not execute the project. The purpose of this type of estimate is primarily to obtain funding. It is typically “quick and dirty” and is expected to be rather inaccurate. In fact, an error margin of ±30% is acceptable for this type of estimate. Prior to this estimate, a formal scope of work has probably not been done, and, quite possibly, the project specification has not been finalized. This type of estimate is generally unfunded by the customer, or at least underfunded. The service provider pulls the numbers together as quickly as possible with a minimum of research. The expectations for the bid and definitive estimates, on the other hand, are much higher. The bid material cost and labor estimate is produced by the various engineering bidders vying for the work. Again, this estimate is typically unfunded by the customer. The raw information for this estimate is the finalized project specification bid package. All prospective bidders are provided identical bid packages on which to base their bids. This bid package is sometimes flawed or incomplete, but the resulting bids give the customer a good picture of the capabilities of each bidder. Usually, all bidders produce a written proposal that accompanies their estimate. The proposal describes the work as understood by the contractor. This gives the customer an idea of the deliverables each bidder plans to provide. It also gives the customer a means for comparing the capabilities of the various bidders. The definitive material cost and labor estimate is prepared by the engineering firm that was awarded the contract based on their bid. The customer typically includes this as a part of the project, so it probably is fully funded. Once the contract has been awarded and any secrecy agreement issues have been settled, the engineering contractor is given full access

For an in-depth look on how to generate an accurate bid estimate and create a project schedule using Microsoft® Excel, a CD-ROM entitled “Software Tools for Successful Instrumentation and Control Systems Design” is available. Turn to page 355 for more information or visit ISA’s website at http://www.isa.org/whittCD.

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to the information developed by the customer during the internal evaluation process. The engineering firm then develops a formal scope of work. This information sometimes alters the picture significantly, and the engineering contractor is given an opportunity to adapt the estimate and schedule to the new information. Of course, this reestimating process is bypassed if full disclosure was made during the bid process. In that case, the bid estimate becomes the definitive estimate. The estimate is the baseline document for project management, providing a yardstick to which performance will eventually be measured. It is based on the scope of work and should reflect the work scope on a task-by-task basis wherever possible. Many estimating tools are available. Whichever is chosen, you should be able to produce estimates that are • •



• •

accurate, by identifying each task relating to the scope of work and then quantifying the labor and expense of its execution. timely, by being repeatable. Once an estimate structure has been optimized for a particular customer, subsequent estimates should simply build upon the first, thus decreasing the cost and time required to generate them. Each project should be approached in a consistent manner, with consistent estimating practices and tools. verifiable, by adding notes and amplifications and by making the calculations available for dissection. Remember, the time span between the estimate and project execution can be large, and the estimator may not be the executor. meaningful, by relating all the deliverables to hard data. The need for rules of thumb and suppositions should be minimized. adaptable, by being easy to modify.

C. Schedule* After the definitive material cost and labor estimates are produced, a schedule can be generated based on the resources that are expected to be available. The project schedule is built from the project estimate. If the estimate is delineated by task, the project will be easier to manage. If the estimate is built by deliverable item, it will be more difficult. Regardless of the estimate format, schedules are oriented by task. These tasks are broken down by WBS. Each task has a unique WBS identifier. In a perfect world, the WBS would be generated as a part of the original scope of work, with these identifiers already assigned. First, each task listed in the scope of work needs to be evaluated and an estimate made for the labor required. For example, if a two-person team is envisioned for a 120-hour task (3 weeks), it may be inferred that the task will take one and a half calendar weeks to perform, assuming, of course, that the two individuals will be 100% dedicated to that task. If they are expected to be less than 100% effective during that time, it would take more calendar time. Next, each task needs to be evaluated as to its relationship with other tasks. For example, generating loop sheets depends on the P&ID drawings. The P&IDs, therefore, are predecessors to the loop sheets. Linked relationships should be identified and analyzed. For the most part, these relationships may be defined as follows:

*

For an in-depth look on how to generate an accurate bid estimate and create a project schedule using Microsoft® Excel, a CD-ROM entitled “Software Tools for Successful Instrumentation and Control Systems Design” is available. Turn to page 355 for more information or visit ISA’s website at http://www.isa.org/whittCD.

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• • •

Start-to-start: Task B can’t start until Task A starts. This relationship is used when an outside trigger initiates a scheduled chain of events. For example, receipt of a specific material shipment might trigger several tasks at the same time. Finish-to-start: Task B can’t start until Task A finishes. Start-to-finish: Task A can’t finish until Task B starts. Finish-to-finish: Task B can’t finish until Task A finishes.

After the relationships are defined and the resources have been assigned to each task, the overall project duration may be estimated. Many times, the customer has a time frame in mind already, which constrains the schedule to a particular set of milestones.* When the schedule is compared to this time line, resources may need to be modified to lengthen or shorten the schedule.

D. Status Report After the project has begun, the schedule should be used as a management tool to help track progress. Periodically, the design team will be asked to provide some feedback as to their execution status. This feedback will answer questions such as the following: Did you start the project on time? What is your completion percentage? Will you finish the project on time and within budget? Reporting data should be collected for each task (WBS item) and then plowed into the overall project schedule. Status reporting typically includes updating the following parameters: The design team provides data for each task as follows: • • •

Start date: If the task is not started, is the anticipated Start Date still accurate? If the task has been started, what date did it start? Finish date: If the task has not finished, is the anticipated Finish Date still accurate? If finished, what was the date of completion? Percent complete: If the task is active, what is the estimated completion percentage?

The scheduling team plows that information back into the schedule. For example, if a start date is moved by the design team, the schedule is updated to reflect the change. Successor tasks need to change accordingly depending on their relationship to the task in question. After data have been collected, the schedulers begin drawing some conclusions based on the information as follows: •

Earned hours The completion percentages will be used to develop earned hours. This is done by multiplying the reported percent complete by the total number of hours allocated to the task. For example, if a task has 100 hours allocated and the design team reports 50% completion on the task, then the earned hours value is 50.



Actual hours Actual hours are the number of hours actually expended to date.



Efficiency ratio By comparing actual hours to earned hours, it is possible to develop a ratio that describes the performance of the design team as compared to expectations. In our previous 100-hour task example, we might find that 35 hours were expended on that particular task. Therefore, the efficiency rating of the design team for that task would be 50 divided by 35, or

*

Milestone –A schedule item that is pegged to a particular date. These usually represent targeted points in the engineering process such as “issue drawings.”

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1.43. If 60 hours were expended, the rating would be 50 divided by 60, or 0.83. Any rating under 1.0 should be flagged for further investigation. As a practical matter, relating actual hours down to the task level is difficult because time is generally not kept to that degree of resolution. But, since the estimate is broken down to that level, it is possible to derive task impact factors to help relate the percent complete values being reported to the actual hours. If, the design team were able to report time in only one category—instrumentation, for example—then only the total hours expended by that group would be available for comparison. That is pretty poor resolution! Let’s assume there were 10 design tasks that needed to be done by this group (see Figure 9). Of those, only four have been started. The design team estimates 90% completion on task 01, 75% on task 04, 50% on task 05, and 10% on task 06. The number of estimated project hours for this group is 4270 hours. Based on the percent complete listed, a total of 1175 hours should have been expended. Actual hours logged against these 10 tasks is 1250. This yields an efficiency rating of 94%. So, while regular progress reports may yield a wealth of inferred information, the original data might not be very useful.

Actual hours :

Task 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total

1250

Status Report Data Estimated % Comp 250 90% 400 0% 80 0% 400 75% 1000 50% 1500 10% 400 0% 80 0% 80 0% 80 0% 4270

Efficiency rating:

Earned 225 0 0 300 500 150 0 0 0 0 1175

0.94

Note: Efficiency rating is calculated by dividing earned hours by actual hours. Figure 9. Calculating efficiency

Perspective is sometimes difficult to maintain, particularly when a person is involved in the fine details of getting the job done. But, the loss of perspective can cause serious problems. Keeping an “eye on the ball” can be a challenge, particularly if a basic knowledge of project structure, participants, and management is lacking. Part I has been about providing perspective. It answers the questions “what,” “who,” and “how” as they relate to a typical engineering project. What are the major project types? How should designers adapt their thinking based on the type of project? Should interaction with the customer be minimized, or should a designer seek the customer’s

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advice? Should the design be for construction only, or should it provide detail for maintenance as well? What are the real measures of success? Who is the designer’s counterpart in the other organizations? What are some of the key concepts in setting up and managing a project? How do you measure your progress? It is hoped that you, the reader, now have a better grasp of these issues. Part II in this book delves into some of the key technical issues surrounding design engineering.

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Chapter 4: Scaling Instrumentation is all about manipulating information. Having the ability to take a sample of a physical process element such as fluid temperature or gas pressure is of little benefit unless someone can make use of the information. In today’s high-speed, low-overhead environment, having an operator manually record the deflection of a needle is no longer an option. Today, the information must be prepackaged, timely, and accurate. So, we in the instrumentation profession must be adept at unit conversions and understand instrument scaling. From the physical measurement to the electrical signal to the numeric representation to the displayed data in engineering units, the conversions must be understood and properly implemented. In this context, the word scaling implies the scale of a ruler. A ruler is marked in inches and parts of inches, or in meters and parts of meters. The ruler, therefore, is said to be scaled for its units of interest (inches or meters). This lesson is an introduction to basic signal scaling. Process controls designers and troubleshooters, and PLC programmers in particular, must be able to maneuver through the various permutations of a signal. But, before we get into the specifics of instrument scaling, a review of some instrumentation basics is in order.

A. Definition of Key Terms • • •







Calibrated zero: A transmitter’s lowest scale setting. A transmitter that is scaled from 15 to 150 pounds per square inch (psi) has a calibrated zero point of 15 psi. Calibrated span: A transmitter’s highest scale setting. A transmitter that is scaled from 15 to 150 psi has a calibrated span point of 150 psi. Range (scale), calibrated: The difference between an instrument’s calibrated span point and its calibrated zero point. An instrument’s calibrated range is usually configured by the user. A transmitter that has been calibrated (scaled) from 15 to 150 psig has a calibrated range of 135 psig. This should not be confused with its design range, which can cover a much wider span than what has been calibrated and is the instrument’s safe operating limits. Range, design: The maximum input span for which a device can provide a linear output. A transmitter that can provide a linear output signal for an input pressure range from 15 to 150 psig has a full range of 135 psig. This is also referred to as the span. This should not be confused with its calibrated range, or scale, which can cover all or just a portion of the unit’s full range. Rangeability (turndown): The ratio of an instrument’s maximum range to its minimum range. If an instrument’s output signal will remain linear for input ranges that are between 0–50 and 0–100 psig, then its rangeability ratio is 100:50, or 2:1. Resolution: The degree to which a change in an instrument’s input is reflected in its output. A computer’s resolution is defined by the size of the data word that can be accommodated. A PLC’s analog input might have 12-bit resolution, which equates to 4096 discrete values that can be used to represent an input voltage or current. For example, if an input signal’s range is 0–10 VDC, a change of 10 V/4096 =.00244 V will be detected.

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• • • • •

Scale: The portion of an instrument’s design range for which it is calibrated to provide a full-scale linear output. It is the calibrated range of the instrument. An instrument’s scalability is the ratio by which the scale can be different from the range. Set point: The point at which a process is supposed to operate (control set point), or the point at which an alarm should occur (alarm set point). Span: See Range. Turndown: See Rangeability. Units, engineering: Units of measure that are useful to the operator. Examples of engineering units are pounds per hour, feet per second, and degrees F. Units raw: Units of measure at the sample point. Examples of sample units are millivolts (mV), milliamps (mA), and inches of water column (inwc). These values are generally of little use to the operator.

There are several good books available that provide a more detailed look at instrumentation concepts and principles. Refer to the ISA Press online library at www.isa.org/books.

B. Accuracy Measurement accuracy is critical to proper system performance, and it is, for the most part, quantifiable. Following are some of the factors that may limit measurement accuracy: •

Mechanical factors • Leaks in the sensor lines (causes span shift) • Mechanical loading (causes zero shift) • Impurities in sensor lines (causes nonlinearity) • Deadband: an attribute of an instrument that describes how well it responds to a change of direction of its input. For a pressure transmitter scaled 0-100 psig with a 1% deadband, it will take 1 psig of downward movement of the pressure to overcome inertia or mechanical slop that was in place due to previous upward movement of pressure.

Typical deadband response to a linear change in input.

Figure 1. Typical error pattern caused by deadband



Hysteresis: caused by internal friction, hysteresis is usually evidenced when there is a different output value if the input is at 50% of scale and rising versus when the input is at 50% of scale and falling.

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Typical hysteresis curve: As the input changes up or down in a straight line, the output changes with an offset depending on the direction of change.

Figure 2. Typical error pattern caused by hysteresis • •





Repeatability: the ability of a device to precisely duplicate its output in response to an input signal. Environmental factors • External heating and cooling (causes span shift) • Humidity • Vibration Electrical factors • Output linearity • Component age (causes drift) • Resolution (see Section C below…) Human factors • Calibration • Installation • Manipulation

C. Resolution Effects on Accuracy An instrument’s accuracy is limited by its precision. An instrument’s precision is determined by making minute variations of the measured element (e.g., pressure, temperature) and then monitoring the instrument’s output for a response. The smallest magnitude of change an instrument can detect and then reflect at its output is its precision. This precision rating can be listed in percent of span or in engineering units. For example, a hypothetical ultrasonic transmitter might have a detection range of 0–12 ft with its output scaled 4–20 mA, precise to ±0.1-inch. Precision can be equated to the instrument’s resolution. Rather than a smooth movement of the output as the tank level changes, the output will “step” to a new milliamp value as the level changes in 0.1-inch increments. In essence, the meter’s resolution is 12 ft x 12 in/ft x 10 steps/in = 1440 steps across the range. Therefore, the 4–20 mA signal will change in increments of 16 mA/1440 steps = .01111 mA/step. In the digital world, bits are units of resolution. The term 12-bit resolution tells us the smallest change of signal magnitude that can be reflected by the computer or device. This resolution value relates to the margin of error. Since each device in a system has its own associated resolution (hence, its own margin of error), the overall accuracy of a system is decreased every time a signal is con-

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SUCCESSFUL INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS DESIGN

verted or retransmitted. In some extreme cases where accuracy is super-critical, the best move is to digitize the signal at the sensor and then transmit the value as a digitized data stream rather than as a pure electrical signal, thus eliminating several layers of conversion. Most PLCs currently have 12-bit resolution on their analog inputs. This means that the analog signal is converted to a 12-bit binary integer. Once in integer format, the value can be converted to a decimal integer, or hexadecimal, or whatever, for display. A 4–20 mA signal has a span of 16 mA (20 – 4 =16). This 16 mA span might represent the 0–100% output of an ultrasonic transmitter or other device. For an ultrasonic meter with a calibrated range of 12 ft, how much error will the PLC introduce to the system? 12-bit resolution: 4096 divisions Resolution error: 144 inches/4096 = .0352 inches

D. Instrument Range versus Scale There is a difference between an instrument’s range and its scale. When an instrument is received, it comes with an inherent range. This range value defines the maximum input span for which the device can provide a linear output. For example, an ultrasonic level transmitter might have a range of 12 ft. If we place that transmitter in a 6-ft tank and don’t recalibrate it, we will lose resolution. Its output will only change 50% for a 100% change in tank level. To rectify this, the unit needs to be recalibrated to provide a 0–100% change in output for a 0–50% change in its input, provided the device is scalable to that degree. Sometimes a device is not scalable beyond, say, 10% of its range. This is called rangeability.

E. Instrument Calibration An instrument’s scale and its calibrated range are synonymous. Once a scale is decided on, the instrument must be calibrated. If its range is 0–550 psig and its scale is 10–350 psig, its calibrated span is 350 – 10 = 340 psig. The calibration end points are the zero point and the span point. The point at which the process is expected to operate is called the set point, though this is not generally part of a transmitter calibration other than to confirm that the anticipated set point is near the center of the calibrated span.

F. Linearization and Unit Conversions Instrumentation and control is all about converting (or transducing) physical properties into a more useful format. Pressure in a pipe is converted to mechanical deflection of a diaphragm, which is converted to electrical energy, then to computer data in the form of an integer value, and then to a floating-point engineering unit value for display. This information is also used to help generate output commands, which are converted to electrical signals and then to mechanical action. The trick is to understand the input/output relationships of the various converters. For example, a flow orifice will cause a predictable pressure drop as fluids flow across it. A pressure transmitter can measure this pressure drop. Though this pressure is not linear with flow rate, it has a repeatable relationship to it. This relationship is best approximated as a square-root function. Taking the square root of the pressure signal effectively “linearizes” it with the flow rate. After a linear relationship has been established, the entire conversion sequence from transmitter to computer display can be deduced from one measurement.

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To make use of this phenomenon, the technician must be able to move readily from one set of units to another and from one numbering system to another. Computers can communicate using binary, octal, hexadecimal (hex), decimal, BCD, or even more arcane numbering schemes. It is important to know when one is more appropriate than the others. For fun, here are a few conversion problems. Work the problems using the charts provided in Figure 3 (no calculators needed!).

Binary Value Dec 32768 16384 8192 4096 2048 1024 512 256 128 64 32 Bin 2^5 2^4 2^3 2^12 2^11 2^10 2^9 2^8 2^7 2^6 2^5 Bit 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 Table 1. Decimal-to-binary conversion Dec

Hex

0

0

1

1

2

2

3

3

4

4

5

5

6

6

7

7

8

8

9

9

10

A

11

B

12

C

13

D

14

E

15

F

16 2^4 5

8 2^3 4

4 2^2 3

2 2^1 2

1 2^0 1

Problems 1. Convert 001101100110 (bin) to decimal:

Table 2. Decimal-to-hexidecimal conversion

2. Convert 101101000111 (bin) to decimal:

3. Convert 101101000111 (bin) to decimal:

4. Convert 2020 (dec) to binary:

5. Convert 6060 (dec) to binary:

6. Convert B5A2 (hex) to binary:

7. Convert 1EC2 (hex) to decimal:

ans: 1) 870, 2)2887, 3) 0B47, 4)011111100100, 5) 001010010100, 6) 1011010110100010, 7) 7874 (hint: hex-to-binary-to-decimal)

Figure 3. Conversion problems

Figure 4 depicts two typical temperature measurement circuits as follows: The top configuration uses the internal power supply of the transmitter to power the signal loop. This configuration is referred to as a “four-wire” loop. The bottom configuration uses an external power supply to power the loop. This configuration is referred to as a “two-wire” loop.

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4-WIRE XMTR

H

110 VAC

N

PLC

ANALOG INPUT MODULE

+

+ 4-20 mA

R

-

HMI

PLC DATABASE 0-4095 40001

V

PLC internal memory location addresses

475 °C

1-5 VDC

-

+

T/C TYPE K

24VDC POWER -

-

-

+

TAG 2 TAG 3 TAG 4

R

Data communications

0-4095 40002

+ 4-20mA

+

TAG 1

40022 40023 40024 1-5vdc

+ -

40021

+

2-WIRE INSTR TT

HMI Database

NETWORK BUFFER

Transmitter converts millivolts into 4-20 mA current.

V

Convert 0-4095 integer value to floating-point engineering unit scaled value (e.g., 0-55 psig)

Convert voltage to a 12-bit binary integer

250-ohm resistor converts 4-20 mA to 1-5 VDC

EXAMPLE TEMPERATURE CURVE TE T/C TYPE K

Thermocouple converts heat into millivolts.

TT TE

mADC mVDC 20

50

UNITS SPAN ZERO

°C 1200 0

NUMERIC RELATIONSHIPS mVDC mADC VDC 50 20 5 0 4 1

INT 4095 0

%EU 100 0

To find equivalent values:

Type K: 0-1200°C equates to about 0-50 mV.

1. Calculate percent of span of known value: 0.3958 (Unitless) 475 °C 1200 °C 4

0 °C 0

2. Use known percent of span to find equivalent values: .3958 x 4095 = 1621 counts. .3958 x 4 VDC = 1.58 VDC. Add 1-VDC offset = 2.58 VDC. .3958 x 16 mA = 6.3 mA. Add 4-mA offset = 10.3 mA.

1200

Figure 4. Data translation process - from field device to HMI The following discussion about unit conversions applies to both circuit types. Focus on the top circuit. A type K thermocouple is the sensing element. Thermocouples are devices that use the principal of bi-metallic contact to generate a small millivolt signal that is virtually linear with a change in temperature. Different combinations of metals are designated by type. Note that the temperature curve presented in the chart is relatively linear throughout the temperature span of interest. Outside of that temperature band, the signal can become less linear, (a characteristic of the thermocouple) but that is of no importance here. Instrument scaling must always begin at the process measurement. The designer consults the heat and material balance (HMB) sheet for our imaginary system and finds that the expected temperature at the measurement point is normally approximately 105°C. The upstream heater is capable of heating the system to approximately 130°C before it shuts down due to its overtemperature interlock. The design engineer knows that a properly calibrated span would place the normal operating point at about the middle of the curve. The upper end would need to be above 130°C. After some thought, the engineer decides on a calibrated span of 15 to 150°C. The thermocouple emits a millivolt signal that is proportional to the process temperature. In this case, the temperature range of interest is between 15 and 150°C. The type K thermocouple provides an output of 0.597 to 6.138 mV over that temperature range1. The temperature transmitter, then, must be bench calibrated to provide a 4–20 mA output signal that is proportional to the 0.597 to 6.138 mV input signal expected from the thermocouple. The transmitter, being a current source (as opposed to a voltage source), varies its power output as necessary to maintain a steady milliamp output that is proportional to the millivolts on its input. (NOTE: A “voltage source”, like a battery, tries to maintain a constant voltage regardless of the load, while a “current source” tries to maintain current regardless of load).

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This millivolt signal that is proportional to temperature is detected at the temperature transmitter’s input. The temperature transmitter then converts this signal into a 4–20 mA signal that has been scaled, in this case for a span of 15–150ºC (see Figure 5).

Signal Conversion at the PLC Input E = IR : Volts = Amps x Resistance Zero: E = .004 Amps x 250-ohms = 1 volt at 15 °C Span: E = .020 Amps x 250-ohms = 5 volts at 150 °C

Figure 5. Signal conversion at PLC input The programmable logic controller (PLC) has an analog input module that detects the output of the temperature transmitter. Virtually all analog modules are actually voltmeters, even though they are listed as milliamp inputs. Sometimes the resistor is external on the terminal strip, and sometimes it is internal on the PLC I/O module (see Figure 4 above). In either case, the 4–20 mA signal will be converted to a voltage. Typically, this voltage is 1–5 VDC because the resistor used is typically 250 ohms. The PLC specification lists this particular PLC I/O module as having 12-bit resolution. To find the resolution of the module in terms of the process variable, perform a binary conversion: 212 = 409510. So, for an input span of 1–5 VDC, the PLC I/O module provides an integer value to the PLC program that ranges from 0 to 4095. The PLC program may fetch this data to use as needed. One of the possible actions of the PLC program is to move this data value into a network buffer (a series of contiguous locations in PLC memory) for transmittal upstream to the human-machine interface (HMI). The value (between 0 and 4095) is then encoded for data transmittal across the network. The HMI receives this encoded data stream and uses a communications driver software package to decode the data back into its original 0–4095 value, which is then stored in an input data buffer. The HMI computer has a database called a tag file, which contains instructions about how to manipulate each data item for presentation to the operator. Many of the tags in the tag file are linked to data items in the input data buffer. One such tag is linked to this particular location. The 0–4095 raw value is extracted and converted by use of the formula embedded in either the tag database or the graphic screen that uses the information. The formula in our sample case is shown in Figure 6. The value produced (85.88) would be the value displayed to the operator as Degrees C.

Engineering Unit Calculation at the HMI For a scaled range from 15-150 °C, EU = ((Raw Counts / 4095) x (150-15)) + 15 if Raw Counts = 2150, then EU = 85.88 °C

Figure 6. Engineering unit calculation at the HMI

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G. Practical Application Billy, an instrument technician at Crazy Al’s RubberWorks, a manufacturing facility, is on his break. He is just sitting down to eat some linguini when he gets a call that solvent flow into a mixing kettle is not reading right, causing the rubber-like material to look like bad oatmeal. He drops his fork and makes his way to the drawing file where he locates the proper drawing and uses it to wipe the noodles off his shirt. Then he goes to the kettle and finds the solvent line and locates the flowmeter. He finds that the differential-pressure flowmeter is calibrated 0–10 inches water column (inwc). After getting approval from operations and confirming that the valve is in manual mode and is closed, Billy disconnects the signal output cable from the transmitter and hooks the cable to a current source (a portable test device) to simulate the transmitter output signal. He then tries to inject a signal into the system. The batteries are dead, so he has to go get more. With new batteries and an ammeter, he measures the signal, which reads 14.2 mA on a 4–20 mA scale. He knows that the resolution of the PLC input module is 12 bits, and the operator wants to read the flow in pounds per hour at a scale of 0–100. • • •

What is the simulated pressure drop across the orifice in inches of water column (inwc)? (Square-root extraction is already accounted for in the transmitter.) What is the decimal integer value in the computer? What should the operator be seeing in pounds per hour?

The solutions follow, but first, try to solve it yourself.

Solution First, Billy adjusts the analog value to account for the live-zero offset: 14.2 – 4.0 = 10.2 mA. He knows that a span of 16 mA equates to 0–10 inwc (i.e., a linear relationship—square-root extraction is being done in the transmitter). Once the relative ranges are known, percent of scale can be used to equate the values: inwc value is (10.2 mA/16 mA) x 10 inwc = 6.375 inwc. Then, Billy decides to check the PLC to make sure it is operating correctly. He knows the PLC has 12-bit analog input resolution, making the valid range of the PLC integer 0 to 4095. He uses a percent-of-scale relationship to determine the proper integer value: (10.2 mA/16 mA) x 4095 counts = 2611 counts. Billy confirms the PLC is reading properly by checking the integer value in PLC memory. He then checks the PLC program to make sure the integer is being moved to the proper memory location so that it can be uploaded to the HMI. He finds that it is being moved to address 40021, which is in a data array that is being placed on the network. The blinking light on the interface module confirms that the network is functioning. So, he reasons, if a problem exists, it must be in the HMI. Billy goes to the control room and views the screen. He calculates the value he expects to see using the percent-of-scale technique: (10.2 mA/16 mA) x 100 lb/h = 63.75 lb/h. The screen is reading 54.2 lb/h. Billy takes the HMI system into development mode and checks the tag file for the configuration of that tag. He finds FT1001 = (13$40021/4095) x 85. He remembers that the flow data array location in the PLC was address 40021, and that the PLC was at network node 13. But, the proper scaling of the displayed value should be 0–100 lb/h, not 0–85. Billy mentions his finding to the operator, who informs him the transmitter, which was broken yesterday, was changed out last shift. Billy changes the 85 to 100, recompiles the HMI program, and relaunches the application. He confirms the displayed value equals the expected 63.75-lb/h value. He reconnects wiring to the transmitter but forgets to turn off the current source, which ensures the batteries will be dead next time, and returns to his linguini.

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Chapter 5: Design Practice Industry guidelines are sometimes written, and sometimes not. What does a customer have a right to expect as a given in a design package? Many organizations have written standards in an attempt to define these requirements. These industry standards are rarely implemented in their entirety. Most of the time, the standards are used as a basis, and customers publish exceptions to them in their company standards. There are also practices, which are design approaches commonly understood to be acceptable for a particular industry. One of the more useful standards is National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 79. This standard defines many of the basic tenets that should be incorporated in a design package. It is well to remember that guidelines issued by the plant always supersede those published by independent bodies such as NFPA, ISA—The Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society, or National Electrical Code (NEC). But, if the company standards do not deal specifically with an issue, guidelines published elsewhere should be consulted and followed. This section first describes data management practice—a key part of the design process. It goes on to provide some insight into basic wiring practice, failsafe wiring, hazardous area classifications and their effects on design, and control system wiring.

A. Introduction to Information Management Proper management of large amounts of information has always been a major part of the I&C profession. Handwritten I/O lists, instrument lists, and equipment lists were the order of the day even before the advent of the PC. Many times, these lists were given short shrift, being formalized as an afterthought. The list(s) would be generated from scratch at the end of the project, having been written in pencil in somebody’s notebook throughout. The design manager would obtain a list of information items the client desired for the list, and he would engage a designer to extract that information from an already completed drawing package. The designer would copy the information down and hand it to a data-entry clerk to “pretty up.” In fact, that method is still used all too often. Time spent keying in data is frequently considered “overhead” time. In today’s marketplace, profit margins are small, and the design team must make full use of the tools available to it. Any loyalties that may run from the customer to the service provider are becoming more tenuous as the drive to generate quick profits overrides other considerations. Customers must demonstrate to their investors that any alliances they may have are closely and continuously scrutinized. Even longstanding relationships are no longer sacrosanct if the service provider does not react to new productivity tools as they become available and to market conditions. In other words, basic economic rules apply today more than ever: Designers who can demonstrate that their product has the highest quality at the lowest cost generally wins in the end—no matter what the other considerations may be. Thus, it is important to come to a full understanding of the productivity gains that can be realized by effective management of a “living” database. The importance of a well-designed, well-maintained database to the design process cannot be overstated. The database is the glue that binds the instrument package together. The database should provide a cross-reference into each component of the documentation package and should

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supply information that is difficult to convey in the drawings. It can be used to generate cable schedules and even aid in the production of junction box wiring diagrams. A “living” database, one that is developed along with the design, is indispensable as a tool during the design check because it gives the checking team a means of efficiently managing a comprehensive quality check of all the documents. The database is a deliverable in its own right, but more than that, it can be an effective productivity tool for design, a quality management tool, and an indispensable construction and startup aid. As such, designers should not limit their databases to the information elements being requested by the client or the basic fields that are generated from any of the various “automatic” design tools available today that extract information from the P&IDs to create other documents. Those fields should be merely the starting point. The database can always be pared down later to conform to whatever formats the client desires. The first question we must ask is, “What kind of database program should we use?” There are basically two ways to store data: (1) a spreadsheet, and (2) a database. There are several viable options on the market for each type. What is the difference between a spreadsheet and a database? After all, they both allow data to be stored and retrieved. In very broad terms, a spreadsheet treats each data item independently in its own cell, while a database inextricably links a whole set of data items to a unique record. The difference is subtle, but important, as we will see below. Time spent on the database is generally time well spent, provided the data being entered can be applied to multiple purposes and is easy to retrieve in a useful format. To be effective, a particular data item should only be keyed once, yet be available for many purposes.

1. Spreadsheet Examples of spreadsheet programs are Microsoft® Excel and Lotus® 1-2-3. The greatest benefit of the spreadsheet is its simplicity. It lends itself well to data entry, and what you see is, pretty much, what you get. Data-entry utilities are optimized for entering data cell by cell, giving you plenty of flexibility. Data are immediately available, provided the spreadsheet is well designed for the purpose intended. This aspect is particularly valuable on small projects with only a few elements to manage. However, on larger projects, the spreadsheet quickly becomes cumbersome. Data collected into an I/O list format are difficult to translate into a report organized by equipment. This is especially true if data are split among several “sheets” within the workbook, which would, at first glance, seem a good way to organize the information. The downside is that it guarantees a limited return on the data-entry time investment.

2. Database Examples of database programs are Microsoft®’s Access and Microsoft® Visual Foxpro® and Borland’s® dBase. Compared to the spreadsheet, the database is more restrictive and requires more effort (overhead) to get started. A structure has to be defined, and the data are a bit more difficult to enter. For example, since spreadsheet data are stored by cell, there are handy utilities for entering one cell and then “dragging” the data from that cell to others, thus quickly and easily copying data. A database program has no way to do this other than by an update query or a macro. However, once a data table is created and the data are entered, the data immediately becomes available for a myriad of other uses. Queries can be created to cull particular subsets of the database for editing or viewing. New records can be created from within the queries. Report forms can be created to adapt the data to multiple purposes.

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In short, the database is a much more powerful tool to use, providing a more secure, better constructed environment for the storage and retrieval of information. But, the database can be a bit unwieldy for those who are unfamiliar with it. Today, database programs are used for most data storage and retrieval operations. Following are a few of the terms: • Database: A medium for data storage and retrieval. Database programs such as Microsoft®’s Access consist of the following elements: • • • •

Tables for storing the data Queries for retrieving specific data or data sets Forms that allow you to optimize data read/write activities Reports that allow you to optimize data presentation.

In short, the database program gives you the ability to quickly enter data or to extract specific information out of the mass of data items in the database. •



• •

Table: A two-dimensional array of information consisting of records (rows) and fields (columns). Each record describes a single element in the system, as stored in the fields that are associated with that record. For example, in a drawing database, data relating to a specific drawing are found in that drawing’s record. The drawing’s number is in the DWG NO. field, its title is in the DWG TITLE field, and so on. Record: A collection of data items relating to a single entity such as an instrument or drawing. In the table, data records are organized in rows made up of data fields. Database programs such as Microsoft® Access and Microsoft® Visual Foxpro® inextricably link the data in each record together. This differs from a spreadsheet (e.g., Microsoft® Excel, Lotus®), which does not automatically associate data into records. Field: A column in a data table that defines a specific type of information found in all records. In the drawing list, for example, DWG NO. would be a field in the data table. Query: A preconfigured filter/sort. In the drawing list example, you may generate a query that will list all drawing records that have no date in the ISSUED FOR CONSTRUCTION field.

B. Types of Information So, what types of information must be maintained? First and foremost in importance is—and this may be surprising to many—the drawing list, followed closely by the I/O list and the instrument list. Other lists include the preferred vendors list and the equipment list. This section deals with each of these lists in turn.

1. Document Management—Drawing List Documents are the stock in trade of the engineering firm. They are the only product. As such, engineers should give their documents the same consideration a car manufacturer gives his automobiles. This kind of attention is frequently lacking, however. In the first place, it is easy to dismiss the Drawing List as a mere tabulation of documents. In reality, the Drawing (or “document”) List should reflect the current state of the document package. Thus, it becomes a management tool. A more appropriate name for the Drawing List would be the Document List. Any documents that are to be delivered to the customer should be given a document number and should be listed in this table. This includes specifications, calculations, memos, and sketches.

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The Drawing List is an extremely important element in the design process. Many times, the drawing ordering process is the engineer’s first contact with his customer. If the engineering provider shows himself to be poorly organized in this area, then it is likely that he will be poorly organized in other areas. The customer may begin to lose confidence in the service provider before the project is fairly started. The Drawing List table should be designed around the drawing control sequence, since formal drawing control procedures probably exist to some degree. The table should have date fields for each step in the design process shown in Figure 7.

Order Prints from the Customer

Identify Drawings for Revision/Creation

Order Drawing Files from the Customer

Review Design

Begin Design

Receive Drawing Files

Issue for Construction

Receive Redlines

Issue Drawing Files for Record to Customer

Figure 7. Typical document handling process The sequence of events as depicted can change slightly depending on the customer, but each step should be logged as it is reached. Date fields with data imply completion of the step, while blank date fields indicate remaining milestones. It is possible, using this process, to develop a quickand-dirty approach for calculating completion percentage by dividing the number of filled dates by the total number of date fields. This approach is crude, but sometimes good enough. Following is a commentary on a typical document-handling cycle for a large capital project:

a.

Order Prints from the Customer A design project typically begins with a tentative drawing list. This list must be developed to derive a project estimate. Drawings identified as “required” during the initial investigation should be listed here. Generally, the investigation is carried out based on prints provided by the customer. Drawings that are ordered as prints should be logged—if for no other reason than to note the fact that the print has been received and is available to the design team for reference.

b. Identify Drawings for Revision/Creation After the prints are in hand, the design team reviews them to see which ones need to be revised as a part of the project. When a drawing is designated as a possible deliverable, it should be so designated in the drawing list.

c.

Order Drawing Files from the Customer After a list of needed drawings has been compiled, a request needs to be sent to the customer for transfer of the files. At this point, the design team is requesting “ownership” of the drawings. Until the drawings or drawing files have been officially received from the customer, they are subject to change by others outside the purview of the project.

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d. Receive Drawing Files When the drawing files are officially received from the client, the event should be logged. Thus, the design team will always be able to see which drawings have been ordered and are in the pipeline and which are available to be worked.

e.

Design Process When a drawing is completed and checked, that event should be logged in the database. Other intermediate milestones can be logged as well if desired. This is a project management tool for determining project status.

f.

Issue for Construction The issue for construction is a key milestone that signifies the end of the design phase and the beginning of the construction phase. This does not, however, imply that drawing revision activities are over. Sometimes a drawing might be issued several times during the construction process. Each time the drawing is reactivated for design, the issued for construction date should be erased from the database to indicate the drawing is back in the design arena. Each of the field copies should be located and destroyed or redlined with a “Hold” to indicate the area under revision. When the redesign is completed, then the drawing review process should be followed prior to the drawings being reissued.

g.

Receive Construction Redlines Construction is sometimes empowered to make modifications “on-the-fly.” For example, a common on-the-fly change is that of color designations. Many times, the designer will assume that a certain cable with a particular color code will be purchased. However, the purchasing agent may find a “deal” on another cable of a different color that is equal in all other respects. The constructor will then mark up the print to show the correct color combinations. Redline drawings of this type are called as-built drawings, since the changes are required to bring the drawings up to the as-built conditions. Incidentally, in the standard color code for as-built markups, green means “deleted” and red means “added.” Other colors are for information only.

h. Issue for Record The final step in the life of a drawing revision is the issue for record step. At this point, all drawings need to be scanned to make sure they comply with the customer’s standards for both design content and file structure. Most engineering facilities have design guidelines that may not be enforced until it is time to submit the drawing to the customer for inclusion in the drawing control system. The design team should contact the customer well in advance to make sure there are no surprises at this juncture.

2. Device Management Managing the information relating to instruments can become a daunting challenge. Following is some important information that should be captured during the design process: • • • •

Specification: manufacturer, model number, range, etc. Relationship to the controls computer: I/O type (even if “NA”), physical address, software address, software tagnames, etc. Documents: P&ID drawing number, wiring diagram number, etc. Process: physical location, process function, etc.

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Database activity follows a predictable pattern as shown in Figure 8.

P&ID Takeoff

I/O Configuration

Documentation Cross-Reference

Design Check

Physical Cross-Reference

Specifications

Checkout Checklists

Commissioning

Project Closeout

Figure 8. Typical instrumentation database management cycle





• • • • • • •

P&ID takeoff. There is a pulse of database activity at the beginning of a project as the initial data are collected from the P&ID set. This is called the P&ID takeoff. The initial “takeoff” occurs as the P&ID drawing set nears completion. I/O configuration. The first thing that usually happens after the initiation step is the computer addressing of the I/O devices. As computerized equipment is identified, each item is given hardware and software addresses that provide a vector into the control system. This process is called “partitioning”. Documentation cross-reference. As the design progresses, each item finds its way into a drawing or set of drawings. Specifications. Instrument specification numbers and purchasing numbers appear in these fields. Physical cross-reference. Physical drawings such as installation details are listed in order to develop materials lists. Design check. A checklist is generated to guide the execution of a design check. Checkout checklist. A checklist may be generated to help guide the construction effort. Commissioning checklist. A checklist may be generated to help guide the commissioning effort. Project closeout. A checklist may be generated to help guide the closeout effort.

As indicated by this broad range of activities, there will be database activity throughout the life of the project. If properly managed, the database should capture information as it is being generated. It is much more difficult to capture data after the fact. Therefore, all members of the design team should have the database active in their workspace at all times, standing by to log their activities. Following are some of the lists that are typical of a design project: •

I/O List: The I/O list ties the field instrument to the control system’s I/O interface. The instrument’s tagname, description, I/O type, and computer address are the minimum data for this list. Other helpful information includes the control schematic or elementary diagram drawing number, a P&ID number, and any other associated drawings. Note: If using

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a database, the I/O list and the instrument list (discussed in the following section) may be combined. Instrument List: The instrument list, as the name implies, is a list of all the instruments to be purchased, rewired, recalibrated, or otherwise handled as part of the project. Since most instrument signals are fed to a computer system, the instrument list and the I/O list may be combined into a single database to reduce data-entry overlap. Preferred Vendors List: The preferred vendors list is a compendium of instruments, computer equipment, and other items that have been preapproved for use at the site. This list is typically generated by the owner and is usually available upon request. Sometimes the list will also include a section for “black-listed” items, which are items to be absolutely avoided. Equipment List: The equipment list provides detail on all the major equipment items that are associated with the project. Pumps being renovated, motors being rewound, and vessels being purchased are examples of items that would appear in this list.

It is advisable to combine these lists into a single database to reduce the amount of data entry. For example, information required for the instrument list (e.g., instrument tagname) is also needed for the I/O list. Use of a database allows the different lists to be easily generated from a single (or even multiple in the case of a relational-type database) data table. Most databases may be set to allow multi-user activity, and so may sit on the network, available for use by the entire design team. See Part III for an example of a relational database approach.

C. Basic Wiring Practice Generating a document that properly depicts interconnection wiring is something of an art form. There are two basic types of wiring diagram: the inter-cabinet wiring diagram and the intra-cabinet wiring diagram. The former is relatively simple to produce, while the latter is not. One of the best guidelines for this topic is the NFPA 79 standard. While this section deals with more than is contained in the standard, nothing in it conflicts with the standard. To understand some of the concepts, a basic understanding of the terminology is important. Relay circuits, in particular, are becoming anachronistic. They are still used, however, and some of the terminology that evolved during that era is still pertinent in today’s computerized environment. Therefore, this section begins with a review of switching components and related terminology.

1. Definition of Key Terms •







Bit: A binary element that can have the value of either “1” or “0” usually associated with computer programming. A “bit” can be used as a “flag” to denote status, or as a PLC signal to energize a relay or solenoid. There are eight bits in a “byte”, and either 16 or 32 bits in a “word”. Coil: An inductor. Relay coils initiate the switching action. They consist of an electromagnet and a ferrous plate to which contacts are mated. As current passes through the coil, the plate is drawn upward which pull the contact wiper to a new position. Contacts: The part of a switch or relay that alternately close to pass electrical current and open to stop its flow. A “set” of contacts consists of one “common” and either one normally open contact or, more typically, one normally open and one normally closed. The latter configuration is sometimes referred to as “form-C” configuration. DPDT (double-pole, double-throw): Switching terminology that implies a switch or relay with two form-c contact sets.

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Dry Contacts: This term implies an isolated, unpowered contact closure. Some equipment transmits signals using their own internal power. This forces the receiving equipment to provide isolation. Other equipment transmits signals via “dry” (i.e., isolated from any power source) contacts. This allows the receiving equipment to pass its own power through the contacts thus eliminating the need for additional isolation. The term dry contact relates to electro-mechanical relay contacts, not solid-state relays. Edge-Triggered: A circuit is said to be “edge-triggered” if its action depends on the change of state of something (i.e., a “transition”) rather than a steady state. A circuit that responds when its input transitions from low to high is said to be “leading-edge” triggered. A circuit that responds when its input transition from high to low is said to be “trailing-edge” triggered. Flags: A generally accepted programming term to describe a binary bit that is used to communicate status. By monitoring a “flag”, you can learn something about the program or system. Flags are “raised and lowered” as opposed to bits, which are “set and cleared”. Form-A: A generally accepted term to describe a set of contacts with a common (COM) terminal switched to a normally open (N.O.) contact. This is classified as a “single-pole, single-throw” (SPST) configuration.

N.O. COM

COM

N.O.

Figure 9. Form-A contact set (SPST)

Figure 9. Form-A contact set (SPST)



Form-B: A generally accepted term to describe a set of contacts with a common (COM) terminal switched to a normally closed (N.C.) contact. This is classified as a “single-pole, single-throw” (SPST) configuration.

COM N.C.

COM

N.C.

Figure 10. Form-B contact set (SPST)

Figure 10. Form-B contact set (SPST)





Form-C: A generally accepted term to describe a set of contacts with a common (COM) terminal switched to two destination terminals – one Normally Open (N.O.) and one Normally Closed (N.C.). This is classified as a “single-pole, double-throw” (SPDT) configuration. Ice-Cube Relay: This term alludes to the physical appearance of a class of low-cost relays used in most low-current ( 30-seconds 2 3 REFERENCES

1 2 3 4 APPROVALS DATE

SIGNATURE

Figure 61. Pump PP-10 device control detail sheet

Interlocks All interlock cases must be true to start or run. If the PLC interlocks are made (case A), then raise the PP10_ILOK flag. Case A includes the following conditions: • • •

Tank level not low (LAL10 false) Pump discharge pressure not high (PAH48T false) Pump discharge pressure not low (PAL48T false) OR pump discharge pressure low and ride-through timer (KC48) timing

If case Z is false, stop the pump through hardwired interlocks. Timer KC48 was started in the start actions section. This timer allows the pump logic to ignore the fact that the pump discharge pressure is not above set point. This is necessary because the pump will shut down if the low-pressure alarm is present, and the pressure

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will certainly be low until the pump gets up to speed. This is called a “ride-through” timer because it allows the system to ignore, or ride-through, a fault condition until the condition has time to clear. When the pump gets up to speed, the discharge pressure rises, clearing the alarm condition before the timer trips. After the timer has timed out, the low-pressure alarm trip is unmasked and will shut down the pump if it trips or if it has not yet sealed in. After the device control detail sheet is finalized, the information may be reduced to a series of logical statements as follows: PP10_ILOK == not(LAL-10) and not(LALL10T) and not(LALL47) and not(PAH-48T) and { not(PAL48T) or [ (PAL48T and not(KC48) ] }, which can be reduced to • • • • •

PP10_ILOK == not(LAL-10 or LALL10T or LALL47 or PAH48T) and { not(PAL48T) or [ PAL48T and not(KC48) ] } (Note: PAH48T is set if PAH48 is true for > 5 seconds) PP10_SRT == [S03_RUN and PP10_RNG and not(PP10_SRT)] or [S05_START and not(PP10_RNG)] PP10_STP == S05_PAUSE or S05_EXIT or [S03_RUN and not(PP10_RNG)] or PP10MM PP10_CMD == PP10_ILOK and not(PP10_STP) and [( PP10_SRT or PP10_RNG)]

So, PP-10 is commanded to run if its interlocks are made, if a stop command is not received, and if the pump is either already running or a start bit cycles true.

b. Valve HV-13 Device Logic Valve HV-13 functions only in PLC mode. There is no local hardwired control for this device. The device control detail sheet for HV-13 is shown in Figure 62. This one is simpler than the pump. HV-13 controls may be resolved to an equation by using the device control detail sheet: HV13_CMD == HV13_ILOK and not(HV13_STP) and (HV13_SRT or HV13_RNG) The structure of this statement looks remarkably like that of the pump. The syntax of the bit names was kept consistent even though “start” and “stop” could easily be changed to “open” and “close.”

7. Stage 4: Logic Diagram Another way to communicate functionality is through the use of logic diagrams. The information presented on a logic diagram is one step removed from the program, providing great functional detail. These diagrams describe the system graphically, showing all aspects of the control scheme broken into each logical element. Using the SFC and the sequence step detail sheet to gather the information greatly eases the process of creating the logic diagrams. There are several logic diagram formats* with various symbol sets. For our purposes, we will use function blocks with the function acronym at the top of the block and the function tagname beneath (see Figure 63). In this case, the output condition “X” is true if input conditions “A” and “B” are true, and “C” is false. As in the case shown above, signal flow in the logic diagrams presented here is generally from

*

SAMA logic is discussed later in this chapter. Also, consult ISA standard ANSI/ISA-5.2-1976 (R1992).

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DEVICE CONTROL DETAIL SHEET HV13 Fill Valve TK-13 Product Tank Building 14, Bay 13

DEVICE TAG: SERVICE: LOCATION:

DEVICE INFO

Device: Name: Descrip.

REFERENCE:

START/OPEN CONDITIONS (HV13 SRT)

HV-13 F ill Valv e

STOP/CLOSE CONDITIONS (HV13 STP)

A1 S02_SRT (Automatic Fill Sequence Activ e) B1 HV13_OPN (Operator Interv ention) C1 S02_RSM (Resume Filling Operation)

A1 S02_EXIT B1 S02_PSD HV13_CLS (Operator Intervention)

STOP/CLOSE ACTIONS

T1 Clear the HV13 CMD Bit START/OPEN ACTIONS

T1 Raise the HV13_CMD Flag INTERLOCKS (HV13 ILOK)

A1 Not(LAH10) A2 Not(LAHH10)

RUN CONDITIONS (HV13 CMD)

A1 HV13_CMD True Z1 Not(LSH-10)* ALARMS

1 Command Mismatch for > 10 Seconds NOTES

*Hardwired Item REFERENCES

1 2 3 4 APPROVALS DATE

SIGNATURE

Figure 62. HV-13 fill valve device control detail sheet

X == A and B and not(C) A B C

[AND] S05_PSD PAUSE

X

Figure 63. Sample logic format

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left to right. The logic is shown with the input signals originating in the field or the requests originating in the HMI. Both enter the control system from the left, are processed in the controller, and then are shipped out to the field or back to the HMI to the right. Referring back to the SFC and the sequence step detail sheets makes it much easier to follow the logic narratives and diagrams that follow. Naming conventions are parallel wherever possible. For example, where the run conditions are shown in the logic diagram, as described in the detail sheet, the function block is named “Run.” A technique for simplifying the logic diagram is the use of “rat holes,” which are shortcuts that link signals on the same logic section. A rat hole is represented by a labeled hexagon (see Figure 64). If a signal enters a rat hole, it will assuredly emerge again at some other point in the logic. If the logic is complex, a vectoring scheme should be developed to keep track of the rat holes. Rat holes should only be used within the same program section. If the signal is passed to other sequences, then the entire tagname should be provided.

A B

[OR] FILL_TK10

X

S02

RATHOLE A S02

B

[AND] S05_PSD PAUSE

X

Figure 64. Logic diagram showing rat holes

Speaking of tagnames, a list of acronyms should be developed and maintained, and the naming convention should be well documented. Figure 65 is a list of modifiers used in this project. The first portion of the tagname is either a step designation or an equipment designation. For example, S02_SRT is the start bit for sequence step 2.

NAMING CONVENTIONS MODIFIER DESCRIPTION _ILOK _CMD _REQ _STP _PSD _EXIT _SRT _RSM _ENA _RDY _DN

INTERLOCK COMMAND REQUEST STOP PAUSED EXIT START RESUME ENABLE READY DONE

Figure 65. Naming conventions for this project

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Following are selected logic diagrams for the major sections of the TK-10 control scheme:

a.

Tank TK-10 Control Sequence Step 02 Sequence steps do not control field devices directly. Rather, they monitor process conditions and react by semaphore, raising and lowering flags to signal the completion of events and processes. Device logic monitors these flags and reacts by operating the equipment. Device logic is discussed later. As stated previously, this method uses rat holes as shortcuts to link signals on the same logic section. If the signal leaves the original section and comes up elsewhere, it is spelled out entirely in a box. Another convention is the function-block names. The names listed in the box are the flag names that are activated when the output of the function block is true. The outputs are denoted by an X box. Sequence step 2 is the TK-10 fill step. Refer to the SFC if necessary. Note that the start parameters on the logic diagram match exactly the start parameters on the sequence step detail sheet. Further, note that the exit parameters are much more complex than those listed on the detail sheet. That is because the exit conditions and the pause conditions must be accounted for. Note also that there are only two outputs to the outside world: “I’m running,” and “I’m paused.” The other tagnames are flags that may or may not be used elsewhere but are included to maintain a consistent structure between step logic sections. The delay timer (see Figure 66) is one of many used throughout the project. As indicated in the diagram, a delay timer does not react to a positive transition on its input for a specific time period. It reacts immediately, however, when a negative transition is detected on its input. These timers are used primarily to “debounce” the signals. As a level reaches its high-level trip, for example, waves in the liquid may cause the level alarm to cycle on and off for a time until the liquid level rises beyond the sensor’s range. The timer will ignore cyclic signals and will not activate until the signal is present for the time allotted. In the case of the timer (K02_RSM) shown in Figure 67, an output is not shown because it is used elsewhere. The K02_RSM flag rises after the timeout period even though it is not shown.

Figure 66. Timing diagram for a delay timer

Some of the flags shown (such as ZLC13) are generated in logic sections that follow.

b. Tank TK-10 Control Sequence Step 5 Step 5 is the “empty tank” step. Refer to the sequence step detail sheet and the SFC. Compare the logic diagram (see Figure 68) to the detail sheet. Also, note the similar structure of the two sequence steps.

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PLC CONTROL SEQUENCE STEP

FILL_TK10 AUTO_TK10

A

S02

[AND] S02_SRT

[OR] FILL_TK10

A

B

LAL10T

C D

SEQ.STEP 2

Start Fill_Tank Step

X

[AND] A

X

S02_RUN

B

S02

SRC_RDY

A

[AND]

B

S05_PSD PAUSE

X

RUN Empty_Tank Step

PSD

X

S02

AUTO_ENABLE

A

LAH10T

B

A

[AND]

B

S05_RSM RESUME

X

S05_EXIT EXIT

B

[AND]

A

HV-13 FILL VALVE CLOSED

ZLC13

HMI

10-SEC DELAY TIMER

G

[AND]

A

[OR]

[TIMER] K02_RSM

X

S05_DONE EXIT DONE

B

FILL_TK10 FILL_TK10 STEP STEP02 02ACTIVE ACTIVE

B

X

X

S02_PSD S02_PSD

S02

STEP STEP02 02PAUSED PAUSED

PSD

R

Figure 67. FILL_TK10 control logic

PLC CONTROL SEQUENCE STEP

EMPTY_TK10 AUTO_TK10 S05

A

S05_SRT

C

PP10_RNG

D

DEST_RDY

E

Start Empty_Tank Step

[OR] EMPTY_TK10

A

B

LAH10T

X

A

A

S05 A

[AND]

B

S05_PSD PAUSE

A

[AND]

B

S05_RSM RESUME

B

[OR] X

LAL10T

[AND] X

B

S05

AUTO_ENABLE

SEQ.STEP 5

[AND]

A

S05_RUN

X

X

HMI

[TIMER] K05_RSM

G

10-SEC INTERVAL

[AND] S05_EXIT EXIT

X

RUN Empty_Tank Step

EMPTY_TK10 STEP 05 ACTIVE B

X

S05_PSD

B

S05 PSD

STEP 05 PAUSED

R

Figure 68. EMPTY_TK10 control logic

c.

Tank TK-10 Level Detect and Fill Control Logic The fill control logic (see Figure 69) exhibits a continuous processing requirement (i.e., the level detection section) and a sequential processing requirement (i.e., the fill valve open/ close section).

TK-10 Level Detection (Continuous) Analog Alarm Logic The level transmitter (LT-10) sends level information to the PLC in the form of a 4–20 mA signal regardless of control mode. The signal hits an analog input (AI) block where it is converted from a 4–20 mA DC current value to an unsigned integer that ranges between 0 and 4095 increments (or counts). This integer is fed to a comparator block (CMP-10) and

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Figure 69. Device logic for TK-10 fill controls and analog alarms through the LI-10 rat hole to the HMI for display. (The integer value is converted to engineering units in the workstation.) This value is also fed to the HMI where it is scaled5 and presented for display. The comparator compares this process variable (PV) value to set points loaded by the operator. At the HMI, the operator is able to enter a set point in engineering units (EUs). Engineering units are degrees Fahrenheit, psi, or, as in this case, % fill of a tank. The HMI converts the floating-point EU value entered by the operator to a percent of scale integer suitable for transmission to the PLC.* These set-point values are loaded into the comparator block where they are used as “trip” settings. If the value at the PV input of the block exceeds a set point, the corresponding output bit cycles true. Since the comparator is in real time (sort of), it reflects fluctuations induced by the PV, which may vary due to an agitation or vibration, or perhaps a poor signal-to-noise ratio. Timer blocks are used to keep these fluctuations from rippling through the rest of the system. A signal must be present continuously for a specific time period for the PV excursion to be recognized by the system as a true alarm. Each of the comparator’s outputs feeds the alarm manager in the HMI. The alarm manager logs alarms, prioritizes them, gives them a date/time stamp, and alerts the operator. All outputs are also used elsewhere in the PLC program.

TK-10 Fill Control Device Logic The logic diagram in Figure 69 also manages the fill valve. The operator must enable automatic code to engage the sequential logic. The “Auto Mode Enable” HMI signal does not originate on this particular logic diagram, but it does emerge through the ENA rat hole and so becomes a factor in the level control logic.

*

The EU conversion is usually done at the HMI, though it can be done in the PLC. The HMI is preferred because it minimizes the amount of information that needs to be shipped across the network. A floating-point number takes 32 bits, whereas an integer takes 16.

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There are three ways to open valve HV-13: •

Auto mode enabled and high-level flag is false



“Paused” flag falls



Operator opens valve by pushing a button on the HMI

These three signals are “OR’d” to satisfy the start (open) condition shown on the sequence control detail sheet. The start (open) signal is fed to an interval timer that generates a timed pulse when its input goes true (see diagram). This pulse is “OR’d” with the valve closed limit switch ZSC10 to satisfy the run condition HV13_RUN. An “open” command (HV13_CMD) is issued to the valve provided a valid “stop” has not been received. The stop (close) signal is generated if the sequence step exit or pause conditions are met or if the operator presses the stop button at the HMI.

d. PP-10 Pump Discharge Pressure Control Logic The pump motor is fixed speed, so when the pump is running it moves the same amount of material at all times. However, the amount of flow that can be accommodated at the destination can vary. This presents a problem: How can you protect the pump from high-pressure spikes on its discharge? The answer is to provide an alternate path for the excess material so that the destination receives what it needs and the pump maintains a constant discharge pressure. The alternate path provided (refer to the P&ID if necessary) is a recirculation line with a throttling valve (see Figure 70). The throttling valve shunts off just enough material to protect the pump by recirculating the excess material back into the TK-10 vessel. Control of the throttling valve is based on the output of a PID function in the PLC, represented by the pressure-indicating controller (PIC) bubble on the P&ID.

HMI

PP10 DISCH

PP-10 DEVICE LOGIC PUMP DISCHARGE PRESSURE CONTROL [CMP]

Recirc Pressure Alarm Trips (From HMI)

SPH-48

CMP48

SPL-48

PAH48

PUMP PP10 DISCH. PRESS.

PSL48

PIC48_SP

[TIMER] PAL48T

HI PRESS. ALARM

LO PRESS. ALARM

[PID] PIC48

AM

DEVIATION ALARM

AUTO/MANL SELECT (HMI - True in Auto) IN1

PV48_POSN VALVE POS'N COMMAND (HMI) (Visible in Man'l)

SCALED NUMERIC

R DEV48 (HMI)

PID48_OUT

PV48_MODE

R

PI-48 (HMI) PID48_DEV

SP

R

PAL48T (HMI) DISCHARGE PRESS.

PI48 4-20mA In 0-4095 Out

HMI

PAH48T (HMI)

10-SEC

[AI] PV

Recirc Press Setpoint (From HMI)

DEVICE LOGIC

10-SEC

PV

PT-48

[TIMER] PAH48T

PY-48

[SWITCH]

[AO]

SS-48

EN OUT IN2

PC48

PUMP PP-10 DISCH. PRESS. THROTTLING VALVE I/P

0-4095 In 4-20mA Out

Figure 70. PP-10 device logic

A pressure transmitter (PT) senses the discharge pressure and sends the signal to the PLC. The PLC applies this signal as the process variable (PV) to a PID function block and to a comparator block (CMP). The PID block compares the process variable to an operator-

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entered set point (SP) and generates an output based on certain tuning parameters that are preloaded into the block. The output of the PID block is fed to a switch that inhibits the automatic output if the system is in manual mode and passes a manual position command to the valve from the user. The PID block continues to execute even when the system is in manual. If the block itself is put in manual mode, then its output value tracks the actual position of the valve based on the position requested by the user. This provides a “bumpless” transfer to automatic should the user decide to do that. Also, the PID block is capable of sourcing several alarms. The only one shown here is the deviation alarm, which informs the user of a large difference between the process variable and the set point. The comparator (CMP) monitors the process variable, which is pump discharge pressure, and tests for alarm conditions. In this case, the user has preset two alarm settings: high pressure (PAH) and low pressure (PAL). Either will cause an alarm event to be recorded in the HMI.

e.

PP-10 Pump Control Logic The logic sequence shown in Figure 70 depends heavily on the other sequences already discussed. Alarm flags developed previously are used here as permissives to allow the pump to run. The culmination of all this logic is the setting of the HS-15A command flag PP10_CMD. Assuming the conditions are right for automatic operation, the pump starts and runs based on high tank level (LAH) and pause (stop) based on the low tank level alarm (LAL) (see Figure 71). Like the other logic diagrams, this one uses the same nomenclature, naming the function blocks after the proper area in the sequence control detail sheet.

Interlocks There are six interlock conditions: •

Low level switch LSLL-47 okay.



High pressure trip PAH48T okay.



Low-low level trip LALL10T okay.



Low discharge pressure trip PAL48T okay after ride-through. The ride-through timer gives the pressure time to rise after the pump starts.



Command mismatch alarm okay.

If any of these alarm conditions occur, then the RUN_INHIBIT flag is raised and a red alarm light is illuminated at the HMI. Also, each of these conditions has its own HMI status light. If none of these alarms are active, then the PP10_ILOK flag is raised and the RUN_INHIBIT flag is lowered. The two flags are used for better readability in the PLC logic.

Start Conditions There are three start cases: •

Step 3, tracking mode, is active (S03_RUN), and the pump is running (PP10_RNG).



Step 5 (EMPTY_TK10) is active, and the pump is not already running.

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LSLL-47 TK-13 LOW LEVEL (False in Alarm)

PP-10 DEVICE LOGIC PUMP ON/OFF CONTROL

PP10 DISCH [DI] LALL47

[DI]

AUT

PP10_AUTO HS-15B HOA SWITCH IN AUTO

PAL48T

RIDETHRU

X

B

RNG YL-15A PUMP RUNNING (MCC)

RUN

[DI]

MISMATCH

B

LAL10T

D

LALL47 TK-13 LOLO LEVEL

X

G ILOK

MM [TIMER] PP10_MM

RUN_INHIBIT

CMD

10-SEC DELAY

[AND]

INTERLOCKS MADE

R

X

F

[DO]

X

PP10_CMD

PP10_CMD

B

PP10_ILOK

PP10_ILOK

E

A

ILOK

SS-1 RUN_INHIBIT

C

X

STP

[OR]

PAH48T

[AND]

A B

PP10_RNG

HMI R

A

LALL10T [TIMER] KC48 10-SEC DELAY

[AND]

A

DEVICE LOGIC

M10 MOTOR CONTROLS (MCC)

B

S03_RUN

HMI

S05_SRT

ON_PP10 MANUAL RUN REQUEST (From HMI)

[AND]

B

START CASE A

B

[AND]

A

START CASE B

ONE-SHOT

S03_RUN OFF_PP10 MANUAL STOP REQUEST (From HMI)

A

RNG

A X

X A

[TIMER]

B

MAN'L START 5-SEC INTERVAL

C

A

[AND]

B

TRACK (CASE D)

[OR]

X

PP10_RUN

B

[OR]

RNG X

PP10_SRT START PP10

PUMP RUNNING

AUT S05_SAFE

A

S05_PSD

B

S05_EXIT

C

X

[OR] PP10_STP STOP PP10

G YL15A (HMI)

G HS15B (HMI)

X

STP

HOA IN AUTO

D E F

[TIMER] CMD

RESTART INHIBIT 10-SEC DELAY

A

RNG

B

[AND] RESTART (CASE F)

X

Figure 71. PP-10 device on/off logic •

The operator wants to start the pump and presses the PP-10 start request button at the HMI.

Starting the pump causes the motor windings to heat up. Once running or off, they will cool again. If a pump start is detected, then a new start should be prevented until the windings have had time to cool. Therefore, the SRT_INHIBIT flag rises after a start and needs to be lowered for any future start request to take effect. The start of the pump is detected by use of a “one-shot rising” (OSR) function block. The OSR looks for a leading edge on an input signal (see Figure 72).

Input Signal One-Shot

Figure 72. OSR: one-shot, rising edge.

Figure 72. OSR: one-shot, rising edge

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The OSR function provides a short-duration pulse any time a rising edge is detected at its input. In our start-inhibit logic, this pulse is fed to a delay timer that detects this oneshot pulse and begins timing on the trailing edge of the pulse (see Figure 73).

Pump Running One-Shot Output Timer Output Pump Restart Inhibit

Restart Inhibited 10-Min

10-Min

Figure 73. Pump restart inhibit signal processing

The delay timer produces a precise output pulse that is, in this case, of 10-minute duration. This output, when true, prevents a restart, thus giving the motor windings time to cool.

Run Conditions If the pump’s auxiliary contacts close, then the pump will “seal in,” and the RUN flag will stay raised even though the start pulse clears.

Stop Conditions Five cases will stop the pump: • • • • •

f.

If the safe-state conditions are met in step 5 (S05_SAFE) If the pause conditions are met in step 5 (S05_PSD) If the exit conditions are met in step 5 (S05_EXIT) If the tracking mode (S03_RUN) is active and the pump is not running (PP10_RNG) If the operator presses the pump stop button at the HMI

Logic Diagram Summary To summarize this section on logic diagrams, it is safe to say that the logic diagram virtually programs the system when properly done. The logic diagram spells out the moves that need to be made in great detail, and this information is valuable regardless of the software platform. The end result is a drawing that looks similar to the one in Figure 74.

8. SAMA* Logic Diagram Standard SAMA standard PMC 22.1-19814 describes a method of diagramming control logic that has seen wide use. Figure 75 shows some of the basic symbols. As shown in the figure, SAMA diagrams address both the sequential and the continuous functions of the control system as a logic diagram. In the sequential format, diagramming the logic is similar to previously presented diagramming except for some minor symbology differences. Continuous functions are a different matter, however. SAMA provides more detail, particularly in the makeup of the PID control function.

*

Scientific Apparatus Maker’s Association.

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Figure 74. Sample logic diagram

Analog Signal Processing Measuring, or Readout Manual Signal Processing Automatic Signal Processing

Digital Signal Processing

A N D

OR

Final Control Element Final Control Element with Positioner t

__

NOT Invert

Time Delay, or Pulse Duration

Figure 75. Selected SAMA symbols The PIC-48 control loop is shown in Figure 76. The signal originates at PT-48. It is fed to an analog input point in the PLC (the I/O address is filled in at a later time). The control function is a proportional plus integral controller. The T symbol indicates that mode switching is available. The A indicates that the mode may be switched to manual. The I is a process variable indicator that, in this

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case, is actually a value on an HMI screen. The input signal is processed, and the resulting output is fed to an analog output function (to be addressed later). The analog output function block passes the information to the final control element via the I/P transducer.

Sensing Element

PT 48

Input I/O Address

AI-XXXX

Signal Processing Proportional plus Integral (PI)

P

I T

A

I

Transfer (Switch) Indicator Output I/O Address

AO-XXXX

I/P Transducer

PY-48

Final Control Element

Manual Setpoint

PV-48

Figure 76. SAMA control diagram

9. Control Logic (Programming) Summary The most important phase of the control logic production effort is the one that occurs before the programming even begins. If the control scheme is properly prepared, using techniques similar to those described above, the actual writing of the PLC program should be a bit anticlimactic. Of course, there can always be “discoveries” that can mess up the best of plans. Moreover, the logic diagrams may not really reflect what needs to happen in the PLC program itself, though the two should be very close. One complicating factor is the programming platform. The moves the programmer must make to effect the agreed upon design may vary from one PLC platform to the next. For example, some functions shown on the logic diagram might not be native to the PLC software being used. In those instances, the programmer must construct the control functions from the raw materials he has available to him within the software. Historically, the PLC programmer had to convert the logic diagrams to PLC ladder logic. This could be a bit arcane for the uninitiated and tended to limit the number of programming participants. Knowledge of relay logic was required, which eliminated those without electrical backgrounds. For example, “or” gates had to be constructed using simulated relay contacts in parallel.

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“And” gates were constructed by stringing together the contacts in series. Combinational logic could get quite involved. The end result was almost unrecognizable compared to the original logic diagram. Today, PLC programmers have more tools at their disposal. The PLC program can be much more DCS-like. While ladder logic is still prevalent, most of today’s better software packages let the programmer choose from more than one programming structure. In fact, the SFC and CFC structures presented earlier are modeled after Siemens’ APT. Modicon’s Concept software provides options for SFC, IEC ladder logic, structured text, and function-block programming. SFC and CFC programming is becoming commonplace among PLC software packages. For example, if a program is to drive a batch process, then programming in SFC might be the way to go. Or, perhaps, a self-documenting program written in structured text might be nice, in which the programmer writes sentences like “Open HV-13” and the valve opens. Or, if the program is heavy in discrete logic, mimicking the logic diagram itself in function-block logic (FBL) would be appropriate. This really expands the utility of the PLC, making it even more competitive versus the DCS. Price-wise, the PLC still enjoys a major advantage, though the growing PLC market has driven the DCS price down in recent years. Anyway, the tools described above are useful whether the platform is a DCS or a PLC and can, many times, be mimicked very closely in the program. In any case, the programming field is opening up to more people with a more varied set of skills. Ten years ago, PLC programmers were most likely controls technicians or engineers who had migrated into the systems integration field over a period of time. These individuals thoroughly understood relay logic and process controls, and so, over time, found they were writing software that looked a lot like relay logic. As a rule, they inherently knew how the control system should behave since they had such a good grasp of the process. And, they felt little need to document the software since its purpose was self-evident and nobody else was likely to be getting into the program. Today’s new programmers have skipped most of that preparatory field work and, as a result, may exhibit less knowledge of the “field craft” end of the controls business. On the other hand, they are probably better educated in the art of computer programming. If they can be made to understand the customer’s needs, they just might be better equipped to implement the design. The key to success is good communications with those who understand the process and good “by the numbers” documentation techniques. A technical exposé of the PLC program for this application will be left for another venue. Suffice it to say that, given the information presented earlier in this chapter, the PLC programming and subsequent documentation task will be greatly simplified.

D. Operator Interface Specification Development— HMI In devising a control logic specification, as in the previous section, many of the core traits of the HMI are developed. In our example system, operators must be able to enable and disable automatic operation, to enter the set point for the recirculation pressure loop; and to enter alarm set points, among other actions. However, simply defining the tasks that the HMI must support is really a minor, though key, part of developing an HMI specification. Beyond providing functionality, the HMI design should put operators in their comfort zone. This includes color considerations, screen hierarchy, alarm management issues, and other purely esoteric considerations that otherwise would not be necessary

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to simply get the job done. Therefore, like the control logic specification process, the operator interface specification is a “corporate” task, requiring the active participation of all concerned. For some of the more general guidelines regarding HMI development, and for some background on its evolution, refer to the HMI section in Part II of this book. This section provides specific examples of ways to communicate design intent for the HMI. Human-machine interface is a broad term that encompasses several discrete activities on the part of the workstation software: •



• •





Control graphics are graphic screens that let the operator view the process and quickly gain an understanding of its condition. Most of the time, these screens appear as “cartoons” depicting the process equipment using animated graphics. Some of these screens also give the operator the ability to modify the process by linking the graphics to action tags that force the PLC to react. The action/animation database is mated to the control graphics package. It provides a means for linking the graphics to the control system and, ultimately, to the process equipment. This database lets the user give the active graphic elements names that are useful for troubleshooting, define their action/animation characteristics, and define their links to the outside world. The device driver is a software utility mated to a hardware connectivity device that manages (translates) HMI data requests and transfers them onto the communication network. The alarm manager is a software utility that monitors alarm tags. These tags are linked to process sensors and switches and to embedded PLC logic. They log alarm events, date and time stamp them, and alert the operator by either audio or visual means. The historian is a software utility that logs data collected by historian tags. These tags are configured to sample specific process sensors at timed intervals and to store the information in data archive files on the workstation. The report generator is a software utility that generates process reports.

This section does not provide a finished HMI product. Intellution or Wonderware screens will not be provided. What is provided is a generic approach that is package independent. It provides a set of tools that can be used to communicate design intent and used as a design aid regardless of PLC, DCS, or HMI platform.

1. Animation Plan Before work even begins, some decisions should be made concerning animation. An animation plan details the color scheme and the anticipated situational animation. For example, what color indicates an open valve, a stopped pump, a full tank? When will animation tools like flashing lights and audible alarms be used? What about visibility issues and text messaging? Each of the animation issues should be discussed ahead of time as they might influence screen design. The plan associates colors and symbols to keywords. Figure 77 is the animation plan to be submitted for our project.

a.

Colors Notice that, in our plan, vibrant colors are used sparingly. The background color is a muted, opaque taupe; equipment items are shown in an off-white color. Safe or off conditions are indicated by a light grey, while running or open is indicated by bright green. Simple status alert indicators cycle from light grey (off) to white (on). Red and yellow colors are reserved for alarms and warnings.

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ANIMATION PLAN GROUP

KEYWORD

COLOR

VISIBILITY

FLASH

BEEP

MSG

BACKGND EQUIPMENT

RUNNING OFF OPENED CLOSED PRESSED RELEASED OFF ALERT WARNING ALARM EMERGENCY

TAUPE OFF-WHITE GREEN LT GREY GREEN LT GREY LT GREY LT GREY LT GREY WHITE YELLOW RED RED

DOWN UP LITTLE/BIG

SLOW FAST

SLOW FAST

YES

MOTORS VALVES PBUTTONS

STATUS INDICATOR

Figure 77 Animation Plan

Figure 77. Animation plan

b. Visibility The use of conditional visibility gives the designer great flexibility. In our simple case, the use of animation is limited to showing the pressed/released status of a pushbutton or position of a rotary switch and to adding emphasis to emergency indicators (if the need for any such are identified). The use of visibility simply means that there are two or more “pictures” of the same graphic element superimposed on top of each other. Each picture is linked to a different logical statement so that only one of the pictures will ever become visible at a time.

c.

Flash and Beep Use of the flash, or strobe, feature should be reserved for very serious issues. A slow flash indicates a condition that needs to be looked at as soon as possible. A fast flash is used for an item that requires immediate attention. Frequently, though not always, the flash feature is accompanied by an audible beep that sounds at the same frequency as the fastest flash in the system. Before using the audible feature, the user should investigate the capabilities of the built-in alarm manager utility, which usually manages the audible alarm feature.

d. Messaging The use of messaging allows the system to automatically broadcast alert and alarm messages across the plant network or possibly to page supervision using dial-up modems. Again, this feature may be covered in the alarm manager utility.

2. Screen Diagrams The person who said, “A picture is worth one thousand words” had to be a systems integrator! What better way can there be to talk about graphics with an operator or product manager than with a diagram? A moviemaker might call these diagrams storyboards, as they provide insight into the story line. Providing insight is the purpose of these diagrams, for both the end user and the integrator. The purpose of the screen diagram is to describe the behind-the-scenes functionality of the graphic screen. Like the SFC and the logic diagram described previously, the screen diagram is a multipurpose tool. Initially, the diagram is used to communicate the integrator’s intent and understanding of what the customer is asking for. Later, at the end of the project, the diagrams can become the centerpiece of an O&M manual that will be very useful to all project participants.

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One might argue that there isn’t time in the budget for such as this! On the contrary, this time is invariably well spent because it avoids costly rework due to poor communications or misunderstandings. Like the SFC or the logic diagram, the screen diagram, or similar tool, is essential to a well-managed integration project. The idea behind the screen diagram is that of a mechanical drawing with a component schedule. Half of the diagram has the screen graphic and the other half has the component schedule. Each active graphic element is ”bubbled” with a component number. This number is an index into the component schedule. The component schedule describes the functionality of each element. It is a chart with a component description, a description of the action (if any) that results if the mouse clicks on the item, and a description of the animation (if any). Information about the source or destination of the animating signal should also be included. The first step in developing a screen is to duplicate the P&ID in the HMI software (see Figure 5, reproduced below).

Figure 5. TK-10 controls P&ID presentation

The second step is to add graphic symbols that can be animated to provide alarm, data readout, and control functions (see Figure 78). The third step is to add a component schedule in which all the data links are called out. Following is a more detailed orientation into the Screen Diagram.

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G

OK TO SEND 4 A

M

W

W

5

R

3

PIC 48

HH H L LL R

R

R

1 G

PSI

%

HOME FO

2

XX.X

RESET

% Open

PV-48

FROM PRODUCT HEADER

MODE

FC HV-13

3rd FLOOR

PT-48

LT-10

READY TO SEND

R

XX.X

R

XX.X

6 PRODUCT TO TK-11

H L

ALARMS TK-10 TRENDS

7 8 9 10 11

LSLL-47

MODE SELECT MANL AUTO

12

ACK

R

15

14

PP-10 R

ON

G

W

DISCHARGE INHIBIT

13

HOA IN AUTO Flashing Red

DRAIN

Figure 78. Preliminary screen graphics, TK-10 overview screen.

a.

Graphic Screen To begin, usually all anyone has to work from is the P&ID. Happily, this makes a good place to start with a first-pass control graphics screen. Simply copying and modifying the P&ID sometimes is enough to get the ball rolling. In Figure 78, notice that all major instrumentation components are presented. Notice also that the orientation of the components on our P&ID is physically realistic. This is important in helping the operator relate the screen to the process area. If the P&ID is not physically representative—and many times they are not—then the components should be re-arranged to make the screen more so. After the static background is set, the next step is to remove all the computer bubbles on the analog instrumentation and replace them with data readouts (see Figure 78). Then, alarm lamps, control switches or other animated devices and screen navigation buttons may be layered on. Notice that the screen still looks remarkably similar to the P&ID. Extraneous information not needed by the operator has been deleted, such as the relief valve and pneumatics. Numeric displays have replaced the analog bubbles, and indicator lamps provide visual annunciation. The control mode select switch has been added at the lower left. The fifteen highlighted, numbered pick boxes indicate active areas on the screen that, if touched or clicked, initiate some kind of action. The buttons at the right (pick boxes 7–12) are navigation buttons that open up other screens. Likewise, boxes 1 and 6 take the operator to the existing graphic screens pointed to by the piping flags. Pick boxes 3 and 5 open data-entry overlays that allow the operator to view and, if necessary, change the alarm set

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points. Boxes 2 and 14 open confirmation overlays that allow the operator to either continue with the change in state or return to the graphic screen without taking action. Box 4 opens a PID faceplate screen that lets the operator view alarm and tuning settings for the PID control function block. If the proper password is entered, the operator can change the settings. Notice that the pick boxes are fairly large and do not touch each other. This satisfies the “Rule of Thumb”, which is to make the design accommodate fat fingers the size of your thumb.

b. Control Overlays Once the graphic screen is done, the various overlays that are pointed to by that screen must be designed. Two of the overlays are depicted in Figure 79. Overlays are small graphic screens that “pop up,” superimposing themselves over the main screen. As soon as the operator makes a choice, the overlay disappears again. A return button always gives the operator the choice of doing nothing.

HV-13 FILL VALVE CONTROL OVERLAY

2

AUTO-OPEN INTERLOCKS G

TANK LEVEL OK

G

AUTO MODE ENABLED

G

MANUAL-OPEN INTERLOCKS G

TANK LEVEL OK

G

AUTO MODE DISABLED THE VALVE IS NOW CLOSED

OPEN

CLOSE RETURN

TK-10 PRODUCT TANK MODE SELECT OVERLAY 15 THE MODE IS NOW MANUAL SELECT MODE: W

W

MANL

AUTO RETURN

Figure 79. Sample control overlays

Pick box 2 opens overlay 2. This is a true control overlay that gives the operator the ability to control a field device. Information about the device’s current status is provided, along with interlock status information. In keeping with the color plan, the indicators are either the color indicated or a light grey. Pick box 15 opens an overlay that allows the operator to select the mode of operation for the system. Most HMI packages support the kind of moves being presented here. It is important to note that, for the purposes of the screen diagrams, overlays are considered to be a part of the graphic screen. Therefore, each active item on the screen, plus its overlays, eventually receive a unique ID number that ties it to the main graphic screen. Figure 80 presents the remaining overlays envisioned for this screen.

c.

Component Schedule Okay, the graphics layout is now complete, and it is time to generate the database that will become the component schedule. Going back to the spreadsheet versus database discussion in Part II, this task can be done in either venue. While the information ultimately must end up in the project database, things probably work best, at least initially, in the work-

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TK-10 PRODUCT TANK 4 RECIRC CONTROL HV-13 FILL VALVE CONTROL OVERLAY

2

PIC-48

LT-10

##.# ##.#

PV (psi)

##.# ##.# ##.# ##.# ##.#

% OUT*

R

##.# ##.#

PAH SP

PB

R

##.#

PAL SP

AUTO-OPEN INTERLOCKS G

TANK LEVEL OK

G

AUTO MODE ENABLED

R

G R

MANUAL-OPEN INTERLOCKS G

TANK LEVEL OK

G

AUTO MODE DISABLED

R R

OPEN

##.# ##.# ##.# ##.# ##.#

##.# % FULL LAHH SP LAH SP LAL SP LALL SP

RETURN

THE VALVE IS NOW CLOSED

CLOSE

PP-10 DISCHARGE INHIBIT INTERLOCK STATUS 13

RETURN

PT-48 RECIRC PRESS.

LT-10 PROD. TANK LEVEL 3 ANALOG ALARMS

G

TANK LEVEL NOT HIGH

G

PUMP DISCH PRESSURE NOT HIGH

G

TANK LEVEL NOT LO-LO

G

LSL-47 NOT TRIPPED

G

PUMP MISMATCH ALARM OK

THE INHIBIT FLAG IS NOW DOWN

RESET

R

ANALOG ALARMS

SP (psi)

% FULL

RESET

RETURN

RATE DEV (%)

PP-10 DISCH PUMP CONTROL OVERLAY

THE MODE IS NOW MANUAL SELECT MODE: W

W

MANL

AUTO

14

AUTO START INTERLOCKS G

HOA SWITCH IS IN AUTO

G

AUTO MODE ENABLED TANK LEVEL HIGH

G

RETURN

MANUAL START INTERLOCKS

TK-10 PRODUCT TANK MODE SELECT OVERLAY 15

G

MAN'L START BUTTON PRESSED THE PUMP IS NOW OFF

THE MODE IS NOW MANUAL SELECT MODE: W

RETURN

5

LT-10

W

MANL

START

STOP RETURN

AUTO RETURN

Figure 80. Pop-up overlays.

Figure 80. Pop-up overlays sheet format. After the Microsoft® Excel chart is completed, it may then be pulled into a Microsoft® Access database table where all the charts for all the other screens on the system may be combined. Before the table can be developed, however, each active item on the graphic screen and its associated overlays must be given ID numbers as shown in Figure 81. The item numbering scheme employed here is alphanumeric. This method groups all related items under the same number, with a letter suffix. For example, for pump PP-10, there are three items in the database: 14, 14a, and 14b. If additional items are shown on the overlay related to pick box 14, then they are numbered from 14c up (see Figure 82). For example, the main graphic screen has only three items related to the pump. However, if the pick box is activated, an overlay appears that has more related activity. Note that item 14b already appears on the main graphic. It is merely copied to the overlay, keeping the original data links and animation characteristics. On the other hand, item 14f is animated by the same PLC I/O point as item 14a, yet it gets its own number. Why? It is because it animates differently, with a visibility aspect rather than with a color aspect. Figure 83 shows a section of the animation chart as it relates to item 14. Note that there are node names (e.g., CR-1, for control room node 1) and screen names (e.g., TK10_OVIEW), as well as the various items detailed above. The different elements of the screen, as designed above, should be pulled onto a drawing that looks something like that presented in Figure 84. The final drawing should then be submitted for review. This usually entails a formal presentation to the customer. After final approval of the conceptual design, the screens may be produced. Graphics may be improved in the process, but the underlying functionality should remain true to the diagram.

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03a

03b

03c

04a

03d

04b

05a

05b

223

06a G

OK TO SEND 4 A

5

M

W

H L

W

R

3 HH H R

R

G

HOME FO

2

XX.X

RESET

% Open

PV-48

FROM PRODUCT HEADER

3rd FLOOR

05c

LT-10

READY TO SEND

PSI

XX.X

%

XX.X 01a

R

PT-48

R

03e 1

PIC 48

L LL

R

6 PRODUCT TO TK-11

04c

MODE

FC HV-13

ALARMS TK-10 TRENDS

LSL-47

16

8 9 10 11 12

ACK

R

15

7

14

MODE SELECT MANL AUTO

PP-10 R

15a ON

G

W

DISCHARGE INHIBIT

13

HOA IN AUTO

DRAIN

PRELIMINARY SCREEN DIAGRAM TK-10 OVERVIEW SCREEN 14a

13a

14b

Figure 81. Animation detailing

PP-10 DISCH PUMP CONTROL OVERLAY

14b

AUTO START INTERLOCKS

14c 14d

14

G

HOA SWITCH IS IN AUTO

G

AUTO MODE ENABLED

G

14e

TANK LEVEL HIGH MANUAL START INTERLOCKS

14f 14g 14h 14j

G

MAN'L START BUTTON PRESSED THE PUMP IS NOW OFF

START

STOP RETURN

Figure 82. Pump PP-10 control overlay

3. Tagname Database, Device Driver, and I/O Mapping Before final production of the screen graphic, the database needs to be configured and mapped (see Figure 85). Each element that is to be animated must be defined, named, and logged in the HMI database. Certain animated elements on the graphic screen must be configured in the HMI tagname database. In the database, the animation item is defined, and, if it is linked to the outside world, the database provides connection between the screen and the I/O driver. More than one I/O driver may be

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Screen Diagram Query Node

Screen

Item

CR-1

TK10_OVIEW

CR-1

TK10_OVIEW 14a

CR-1

TK10_OVIEW 14b

CR-1

Description

Device

14 PP10 Discharge Pump

Action Tag

Action

Animation Tag

Animation

Pick Box

TK10_OLAY14

Open Overlay #14

na

na

PP10 Running

Lamp

na

Na

TK10_RNG

Grey/Green

PP10 HOA in Auto

Lamp

na

Na

TK10_AUT

Grey/Green

TK10_OVIEW 14c

Auto Mode Enabled

Lamp

na

Na

AUTO_ENABLE

Grey/Green

CR-1

TK10_OVIEW 14d

Interlocks OK

Lamp

na

Na

PP10_ILOK

Grey/Green

CR-1

TK10_OVIEW 14e

Restart Inhibit Time (decrements)

Numeric Disp.

na

Na

RESTART_INH

Value

CR-1

TK10_OVIEW 14f

Pump Status Message

Message

na

Na

PP10_RNG

"...Off" / "...On"

CR-1

TK10_OVIEW 14g

Manual Stop

Mom.PB

OFF_PP10

Stops Pump

na

na

CR-1

TK10_OVIEW 14h

Manual Start

Mom.PB

ON_PP10

Starts Pump

na

na

CR-1

TK10_OVIEW 14j

Return

Mom.PB

CLOSE_OLAY

Closes Overlay

na

na

Figure 83. Animation chart

Figure 84. Final screen diagram running as part of an application. The tagname database maps the tag to the proper driver. The driver allows the user to set up the method of polling (fixed rate or on exception), the memory locations to be polled, and the network node address of the source data location.

4. Finished Graphic Screen The finished screen graphic as viewed by the operator is shown in Figure 86. Note that the pump is running and the tank is in a high level condition. Piping in which material is moving has been animated – indicated by the darker color here. Notice also that the screen is a bit simplified from the original screen diagram. That is because some of the animation has been incorporated into the

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HMI Screen TK-10 CONTROL PAGE HOME LT-10 HHH L LL 80.0 % FULL

PV-48 A M 27

TO PT-48 H L 12.6

% OPEN

PRODTKS

Tag Database

RESET

FROM PRODUCT

HVTK-

LSLLLL

MODE SELECT MANL AUTO

SEQUENC

ALARMS

TRENDS

PP-10

M A I

I/O Driver Database

Figure 85. Typical data progression device graphics, eliminating the need for some of the lamps. Notice also, that the tank is 80% full, with the high-level alarm active.

TK-10 CONTROL PAGE HOME

LT-10 HH

H

L

80.0

LL

A

% FULL

TO PRODUCT TANK TK-11

M

27

H

% OPEN

PRODTKS

L

PT-48

12.6

PSIG

PV-48

RESET

FROM PRODUCT HEADER

SEQUENCE

HV-13 TK-10

MODE SELECT

LL

MANL

AUTO

ALARMS

LSLL-47

TRENDS

PP-10

M

A

I

Figure 86. HMI screen, pumping out in manual

In the second view of the same screen (see Figure 87), the situation has changed. Instead of a high level situation, the operator has placed the system in automatic, and tank is in a low level alarm condition. The pump has turned off and the fill valve has opened. The DISCHARGE INHIBIT message is flashing. The mode select switch has been moved to the auto position, and the pressure control loop has been switched to manual. At this point, it is evident that the end result differs from the original screen diagram. The conceptual diagram rarely survives the vetting of the review cycle and subsequent design process.

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TK-10 CONTROL PAGE HOME

LT-10 HH

H

L

80.0

LL

A

% FULL

TO PRODUCT TANK TK-11

M

27

H

% OPEN

PRODTKS

L

PT-48

12.6

PSIG

PV-48

RESET

FROM PRODUCT HEADER

SEQUENCE

HV-13 TK-10

MODE SELECT

LL

MANL

AUTO

ALARMS

LSLL-47

TRENDS

PP-10

M

A

I

Figure 87. HMI screen, filling in auto After its concept has been approved, the diagram is no longer needed from a development standpoint except as a guide. But, it still has some value as a training aid. If an assessment indicates it would be worthwhile to include the screen diagrams in the training manual or operations manual, then revising the screen diagrams would add value to the manuals. Maintaining the diagram throughout the design process minimizes the resulting pulse of work at the end. In fact, they still have some value even if they aren’t revised. One more screen example shows the value of the SFC (see Figure 88). It is unsurpassed in showing the status of the system. Notice that the navigation buttons are in the same location in all three cases. The only change is in the button names, as one of those will change depending on the screen that is active.

5. Alarm Manager Configuring alarms in some HMI packages is as simple as filling in a checkbox in the tagname database. It’s pretty easy in any case. Unlike tags configured on the graphic screen, alarm tags are sampled whether the graphic element is visible or not. So, there is a cost in terms of network throughput. A sample alarm manager database for this application is shown in Figure 89.

6. Historian The historian is similar to the alarm manager in that it is simple to configure and points defined there are always sampled. However, unlike the alarm manager, the designer can usually define the sample frequency on a tag-by-tag basis. For example, a temperature might require a 10-second sample rate, while a flow might be sampled at a 1-second rate. Figure 90 shows the list of points to be sampled by the historian.

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TK-10 SEQUENCE PAGE HOME

S00

STANDBY

INITIALIZE

POWERUP

PRODTKS T6

T1 "Auto_Enable" permit set @ HMI

"Auto_Enable" permit cleared @ HMI

S1

AUTO_TK10

T4

T2

"HOA" in Auto and "Auto_Enable" Tank Level Low permit cleared @ HMI

HOA in Auto and "Discharge Start" Conditions Met

ALARMS S3

EMPTY_TK10

FILL_TK10

TRACK_PP13

TRENDS T2B

T2A

HOA Not in Auto

S5

S2

BACK

T3

T5

RESET

TANK_FILLED Flag Rises

T5B

T5A

"Auto_Enable" permit cleared @ HMI

T5C

"Auto_Enable" cleared @ HMI Tank Empty and Tank Empty and FILL_TK10 true FILL_TK10 false

T2A

T3A

HOA in Auto OR "Auto_Enable" cleared @ HMI

TANK_FILLED Flag Rises

Figure 88. HMI screen, sequence status

HMI Alarm Manager Query Node CR-1 CR-1 CR-1 CR-1 CR-1 CR-1 CR-1 CR-1

Screen TK10_OVIEW TK10_OVIEW TK10_OVIEW TK10_OVIEW TK10_OVIEW TK10_OVIEW TK10_OVIEW TK10_OVIEW

Item Description 02a LAH10 Tank High Level Trip 03a LAHH-10 Analog Alarm 03b LAH-10 Analog Alarm 03c LAL-10 Analog Alarm 03d LALL-10 Analog Alarm 13a Discharge Inhibit 14d Interlocks OK 16 LSLL-47 TK10 Low Level

Device Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp

Animation Tag LAH10T LAHH10T LAH10T LAL10T LALL10T TK10_INHIBIT PP10_ILOK LALL47T

Animation Green/Red Grey/Red Grey/Red Grey/Red Grey/Red Grey/Red (SlowFlash) Grey/Green Grey/Red (SlowFlash)

Alarm? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Figure 89. Sample alarm manager database

HMI Historian Query Node CR-1 CR-1 CR-1 CR-1 CR-1

Screen TK10_OVIEW TK10_OVIEW TK10_OVIEW TK10_OVIEW TK10_OVIEW

Item 04c 05c 03e 04d 04e

Description PV-48 Position PV-48 Position LT-10 Tank Level PIC48 Pressure Setpoint PIC48 Output (In Auto)

Device Numeric Disp. Numeric Disp. Numeric Disp. Data Entry Numeric Disp.

Animation Tag PV48S PV48S LT10S PIC48_SP PIC48_OUT

Figure 90. Historian sampling points

Animation Scaled Value 0-100% Scaled Value 0-100% Scaled Value 0-100% Scaled Value 0-250psi Display Pos'n Cmmd

Historian? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

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7. HMI Report Generator The HMI report is a very important part of the process. Outside of the historian, which is not always configured, reports are often the only lasting record. In an attempt to document a day’s events, the user may define batch, shift, or other reports. Reports are often the weakest link in the HMI package. Sometimes the programmer exports information into an Microsoft® Access database or other outside software package where reports are easily generated.

E. Network Single-Line Diagram Generation The network single-line diagram is really more than a single-line drawing. It does, however, show the network elements in a tiered single-line format. The basic design scheme of these drawings is similar to that shown in Figure 91.

PRINTER

SCADA

RS232 ETHERNET TCP/iP

PRINTER

HMI #1 T

T

MODBUS-PLUS

PLC #1

HMI #2

PLC #2 REMOTE I/O

RACK #1

T

RACK #2

RS232

MODBUS

ANNUN.

MACHINE

Figure 91. Simple network single-line diagram

The different network topologies are shown in their own tier. In our example above, the equipment closest to the factory floor are shown at the bottom. The Remote I/O network is a network that is proprietary to the PLC vendor. It has been optimized for connectivity between different PLC components. Most PLC vendors have such a network. In this case, the network requires a terminating resistor . Modbus-Plus is a protocol by Modicon® (Schneider Electric). Note the two terminating resistors on either end. The protocol is not a “token-ring”, merely “token-passing”. Modbus is another protocol based on RS232/485. Both of those have become defacto industry standards. Most external equipment purchased today will have Modbus and/or Modbus-Plus communications options. Ethernet TCP/iP has been on the upper-tiers for many years. It is now making inroads onto the factory floor as well. This diagram provides just enough detail to indicate one-line connectivity.

F. Other Systems Integration Tasks Generating a DCS or PLC program, designing HMI screens, and integrating the two are the primary responsibilities of the systems integrator. However, the integration task does not end there. Following are some of the other systems integrator activities:

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1. Control System Cabinetry Design and Delivery Cabinet drawings are discussed elsewhere in this book as the cabinet design is considered a basic engineering deliverable. However, the systems integrator sometimes performs this task. In fact, having the integrator do the PLC work, including the cabinetry, makes a lot of sense. This ties the control system task into a nice neat package. It reduces the interface requirements among groups and gives the integrator complete authority over the system, thus reducing the likelihood of fingerpointing later if things don’t go as planned.

2. I/O Address Assignment (Partitioning) One key task for the systems integrator is the assignment of I/O points. This, actually, can be done just as well by the design engineer, but for our purposes, we will assume it is an SI task. Regardless of who actually does the I/O configuration, the information will need to find its way into the project database. Here are a few common-sense considerations for partitioning the I/O: •



I/O that are common to a particular equipment item should be grouped on the same module if possible. However, if there are redundant instruments or equipment items, the I/O from one should be isolated from the I/O of the other. If an I/O module fails, for example, only one of the two or more redundant items should be affected. Control loops should not be split into different racks if at all possible. The update rate for a control loop is more critical than for other situations, so keeping them in the same rack is best. In many systems today, as in the ABB-Taylor DCS and the Modicon Momentum PLC series, it is possible to have the analog input and the analog output on the same module. This is the best case. If the two must be split, split them across a high-speed remote I/O network that is optimized for such tasks, not across a LAN that is doing other things.

Getting back to the task at hand, if we refer back to the network schematic begun earlier (refer to Figure 11, reproduced below), we see that the new rack is attached to an existing remote I/O LAN as drop 03. There is no network on the system level, so this will be node 01.

a.

HW Address Since we previously discovered that our new rack will be drop 01, remote I/O node 03, we may begin building our hardware (HW) address as follows: Nomenclature: DxxNxxRxxSxxPxx where Dxx = LAN drop Nxx = Remote I/O node Rxx = Rack Sxx = Slot Pxx = Point Since we only need one rack, the first part of our HW address is D01N03R01 (Drop/ Node/Rack). The slot and point numbers are assigned in the database. Figure 92 shows the resulting data. Because we have a 10-slot rack, there is enough room to spread the modules out. Leaving blanks now allows us to add modules later, if necessary, keeping like modules grouped in adjacent slots. This is important in systems with mixed power supplies (AC/DC or 24 VDC/250 VDC). In our case, all I/O are 24 VDC, but we’re spreading them out anyway because it is a good habit to maintain.

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Figure 11. New control system

Figure 92. Hardware addresses

b. SW Address The software (SW) address is next. This task is not quite as easy since software addresses need to be unique and, depending on the platform, it is sometimes not possible to assign them by physical position in the system.

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In our case, the customer has allocated a block of numbers between 100 and 150 for each type of I/O. Given this criteria, our result is shown in Figure 93.

Figure 93. Software addresses

In our case, the nomenclature is platform dependent. We will assume the PLC address nomenclature consists of the I/O type followed by a sequential number. For example, the first analog point is AI0100 for analog input point 100. Given this I/O configuration, our new configuration is modified as shown in Figure 94.

3. Factory Acceptance Test The Factory Acceptance Test, or FAT, is usually a customer requirement, but is a good process to follow in any case. Sometimes this test occurs after the equipment ships to the site, but most of the time it happens while the equipment is still “lashed up” at the system integrator’s location. If problems are discovered during the FAT, the programming team can address them more efficiently in its own environment. A FAT procedure should be generated ahead of time and should be pre-approved by the customer. The procedure should be as thorough as possible, within the limits of the budget, of course. Building simulators and simulator logic takes time and adds cost, so it is wise to discuss the depth of simulation expected during the estimate; then, the procedure can be written to conform to the budget. The FAT is really the first step in the system checkout, and it feeds right into an on-site checkout procedure and eventually the commissioning procedure. So, while the FAT can be time-consuming, much of that time is recouped later if it is done right—not to mention the added value of a higher quality product. Also, if the programming team keeps a database like the one presented in this book, the FAT can be generated quickly and accurately. The FAT should be well organized, with tests clearly defined and well considered. Each procedure should have a place for the customer’s sign-off upon successful completion of a test. Setup and prerequisites, if any, should be clearly defined before the test begins. And, the test should be as inclusive as possible. For example, signals should be injected at the I/O termination bay if possible,

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Figure 94. Adding the I/O modules or even better at the field device, instead of at the I/O module. If physically injecting signals is impractical, then simulation software should be written to provide loop-back simulation of the field devices. FAT setup should include the core elements of the control system - the controllers involved, and the HMI at a minimum. Also, a programmer’s tool such as a laptop should be available and online to force bits and enter simulation values. Several types of tests should be executed: •







Analog alarms: Simulate each analog signal by disabling the I/O interface and entering dummy values—preferably raw, unscaled values—as near to the analog input block as possible. Vary the value and confirm that the scaling is correct at the HMI and that the alarms trip at the proper points. If an alarm is used as an interlock, activate the device logic of interest and demonstrate that the interlock will deactivate the device. Don’t forget to restore the logic to its original condition after this test. Sequencing: Demonstrate the program flow of control. From system startup, take the customer through each step in the process. Allow the customer to “fly” the system as the operator, pressing the buttons at the HMI and monitoring the screens. Device logic: Demonstrate the proper operation of each end device. If a device has six interlocks, get the device logic in simulated run status and exercise the device by simulating the loss of all interlocks. This simulation should be done as near to the I/O interface logic as possible. For example, if an interlock is the result of a logical combination, then each element in the combination should be verified. Reporting, alarm logging, and historian: Demonstrate proper operation of each of these. Report structure is frequently a major topic of discussion.

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Execution of the FAT should be a fun event, but should be well regulated. If the procedure is well written, and if the staff is disciplined in its execution, then the stress of the event, from the customer’s point of view, will be reduced greatly. Sometimes these events last for several days, with the customer living in a hotel, so long hours are the norm. Plan for the customer’s comfort by having good meals delivered, and plan some extracurricular activities as this is a good team-building opportunity.

4. Site Acceptance Test The site acceptance test (SAT) is sometimes called a “checkout,” or a “bump and stroke.” Whatever the name, a properly executed SAT greatly improves the chances of a smooth commissioning process, just as a well-executed FAT eases the SAT procedure. Again, it usually falls to the systems integrator to generate this procedure. If a well-executed FAT has occurred previously, the SAT can be limited to checking the field devices. For this, a simple database listing is as good a tool as any. Couple the database listing with a generic procedure to be used for all like devices and the checkout can proceed apace. The database listing should be grouped by I/O type as that determines the type of test to be performed as follows: •







Analog alarms: An analog alarm procedure can be generated by replacing the phrase “simulate by entering bogus data” in the analog alarm section of the FAT with the phrase “verify proper ambient reading,” or “simulate by injecting signal.” Wherever possible, the actual signal from the transmitter should be used, as that saves time. For example, if the ambient temperature is 78°F and the resistance temperature (RTD) signal is 150°F or zero, then there could be a problem. However, if the signal is 78, then it is likely the RTD is wired correctly. It is advisable to have an electrician lift a lead to make sure the RTD is the correct one, however. And, if a proper SAT was performed, checking all the PLC alarm trips and interlocks can be avoided. However, if there are any external devices like recorders, totalizers, and annunciators, these checks should be made. Discrete inputs: All externally generated discrete inputs should be checked. Again, if the FAT was properly executed, this task is made easier by having two electricians, one in the field forcing or simulating contact closures and one watching the lights at the I/O module. Ideally, each digital signal should be verified at the PLC program level as well and at the HMI. Analog outputs: “Stroke” the valves by placing them in manual mode at the HMI and forcing them into various positions. Ensure they respond as desired. If variable-speed motors can be operated, do so. Otherwise, disconnect them and check the output of the variablefrequency drive (VFD) to make sure it is operating correctly. Digital outputs: “Bump” motors by placing them in manual mode at the HMI and issuing start commands. If the motor shouldn’t be turned, disconnect the windings. These motors should be bumped locally to verify proper direction of rotation. Open and close valves from the HMI, and activate all alarm sirens, horns, beacons, and so on, by forcing them on from the controls computer.

Again, like the FAT, the customer should monitor this test. Space should be reserved for the customer’s initials next to each line item on the list; the customer should initial each line item as its proper operation is verified.

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5. Commissioning The commissioning procedure may or may not be a SI product. Usually, this procedure is provided by the plant operations department. At this point, Operations begins to take ownership of the system and the design engineer begins to fade into the background. The major players at this point are the construction team and the systems integrator, who is still in the firing line. Invariably, unforeseen issues arise and the integrator must be able to respond quickly and decisively. And, no matter how well the FAT and SAT were conceived and executed, program bugs will be found. The commissioning process really does not end until the warranty expires. Usually, if a warranty is purchased, it lasts for one year. The warranty does not cover extra-scope work, but sometimes it is not possible to fully exercise a system when making product. A system may be sufficiently complex that a specific instance may not occur until some time has passed; if it does occur, the customer will want some assurance that ongoing support is available. The integrator should assume that some of this activity will occur and build it into the budget.

6. Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Manual The customer needs to know how to operate the new control system from both an operations perspective and a maintenance perspective. Sometimes this information can be combined into one book, and sometimes it should be split into two. Following are some of the features that should be included in each section:

a.

Operations The operations manual should have an overview section in which the basic production process is explained. Material-handling issues should be discussed here as well. The plant will need to provide some of the material for the overview. The operations section should also include the following: • • • •

Screen diagrams and a narrative for each written from the point of view of the operator. An alarm response section so that the operator can quickly find the proper actions to take in the event of an alarm. Any SFCs, CFCs, sequence step detail sheets, and control narratives that were developed earlier. A procedures section into which the operations department may insert operating procedures as they are developed and modified as a result of the new control scheme.

b. Maintenance The same overview written for the operations manual is useful in the maintenance manual. In addition, this manual should contain the following: • • • • • • •

Catalog cuts from all the control equipment used Screen diagrams (a narrative is probably not needed) Any SFCs, CFCs, sequence step detail sheets, and control narratives that were developed earlier Troubleshooting procedures and tips A contact list of responsible vendors and support organizations Network and cabinetry drawings A hardcopy of the control logic

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7. Onsite Training Training is almost always a deliverable of systems integrators. They know the control system, and, after writing the software, they know quite a bit about the operation of the plant. So, the systems integrator is the logical choice to lead the plant operator and maintenance technician orientation effort. This should really be done before startup because a tremendous side benefit of this evolution is feedback from the operators and maintenance personnel. Many times, the trainer becomes the trained. If this is done early enough, the lessons learned may be plowed into the system before it hits the street, thereby improving the product. Again, the FAT is a wonderful tool that can be used as the basis for training. It has sections that appeal to both operators and maintenance personnel: the sequential and alarming section for the operators and the simulated inputs and outputs section for the maintenance folks, who will also want to discuss networking and other problematic areas.

G. Systems Integration Summary The SI aspect of the process controls field covers a wide area. It is a varied and challenging area. Unlike some of the other design disciplines, systems integrators have the satisfaction of seeing the results of their labor. Their work affects almost every area and, as a key component, they must function at peak performance to achieve success. The documentation processes described in this chapter are not designed to protect integrators—though that can be a benefit—as much as they are there to give customers peace of mind. It is important for customers to be confident that their facility will operate in a safe, productive manner. That confidence is greatly increased if they have confidence in the way the system evolved through the design process. Involving the customer in the decision process from the very beginning is the key to boosting that confidence. The integrator will likely walk away from the facility, returning only if asked back, which is more likely to happen if the customer is confident and satisfied with the product.

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Chapter 11: Project Database This chapter presents the database that will be generated to meet the scope of work on this project. Information management is discussed in general terms in Part II of this book. Differences between the spreadsheet and the database have been discussed in Part II, and so will not be discussed again here. It is recommended that these discussions in Part II be revisited before proceeding. Microsoft® Access is called a relational database in that relationships may be configured among data tables. It is a multiuser database that allows data access by more than one person at a time. Data changes are stored every time the user leaves a record, so collisions between users are avoided. This also eliminates the risk of losing data due to a power failure or other calamity. To review, a database is a medium for data storage and retrieval. Database programs such as Microsoft®’s Access consist of the following elements: • • • •

Tables to store data Queries to retrieve specific data or data sets Forms to allow the user to optimize data read/write activities Reports to let the user optimize data presentation

In short, a database program lets the user quickly enter data or extract specific information out of the mass of data items in the database. Two primary types of information must be managed by the instrument database: document and instrument. With Microsoft® Access, each of these types of information can be maintained in the same database. But, since the types of information related to each task are quite different, they will be kept in separate tables (refer back to Figure 12). As the name suggests, the document control table manages the drawings, specifications, calculations, transmittals, memoranda, and other project documents. The instrument and I/O list table manages the instruments. Each table has associated queries and reports. The instrument database is a living entity that is continually updated throughout the project. It is introduced here because this is the point in the design process at which the database needs to be initialized. However, it does not have much data at this point. Rather than discussing an empty database, the database described here has been through the entire design process that is described in the succeeding chapters.

A. Document Control Table with Related Queries and Reports Proper document management is an undervalued component in the efficient execution of a design project. The larger the project, the more important this topic becomes. The design team needs to have a way to track the documents from the time they enter the door until they are issued for record. The document control table presented here can assist in tracking documents through the design period as well as through the approval process and beyond, provided it is maintained. And, there is no reason not to maintain it. The data-entry labor is roughly the same regardless of the method. In most cases, when the service provider ships a set of drawings to the site, it is sent with a transmittal, which someone has to type up. If, when the drawings are received, the titles and drawing numbers

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are captured, then revision numbers and issue dates are the only things that need to be entered when it is time to generate the transmittal. In this way, the database gets updated, the transmittal gets generated, and the design team leader then has a good tool to manage the work.

1. Document Control Table Figure 95 is a view of the configuration of the document control table. The description appears at the bottom of the screen when in datasheet view, so it is a good idea to provide examples of the types of data envisioned for each field. Note the numerous date/time fields. These are for document tracking. Switching to datasheet view, as shown in Figure 96, gives us access to the data.

Figure 95. Document control table, design view

Figure 96. Document control table, datasheet view

Working within a table can become unwieldy. It is sometimes nice to reduce unwanted clutter by reducing the amount of data presented. That is where the query comes in.

2. Order Drawings Query When ordering drawings, only a specific subset of the available fields is needed. Figure 97 presents data entered in the order drawings query.

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Figure 97. Document control table, order drawings query

3. Transmittal Query When shipping drawings, a different subset of available fields is needed. The transmittal query lets the designer flag the drawings to be shipped by logging the date in the proper issue field. The shipping clerk may then filter on that date and generate the drawing list to be attached to the transmittal. Figure 98 presents data entered in the transmittal query.

Figure 98. Transmittal query, design view

Notice “#5/15/2002#” listed in the criteria section of the IFA field. The “#” sign tells Microsoft® Access that the information is a date. Any drawings with a date of 5/15/2002 is selected by this query for display as shown in Figure 99.

Figure 99. Transmittal query, datasheet view

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Notice that only two records are displayed and that their IFA dates match the filter criteria. We can now run the transmittal report, which gets its data from the transmittal query (see Figure 100). So, the report will reflect whatever filters are in place in the query. This page can now be attached to the transmittal coversheet and sent with the drawings.

Figure 100. Transmittal report

B. Instrument and I/O List Table with Related Queries and Reports Tracking instruments and managing the I/O list are major project requirements. These tasks can be accomplished in a number of ways, but the database is one of the best because of the multiple uses the data can be made to serve.

1. Instrument and I/O List Table The instrument and I/O list table contains all the instruments that are associated with a project and all information pertinent to a particular instrument item. It is actually more refined than that because an instrument may generate more than one signal, in which case it will have more than one data record. This table is more than an I/O list, however. Any instrument should be listed. If there is a mix of existing and new instrument items, a new field should be added to capture that information. In our case, all items are new, so that field is not present. Also, this data table contains all drawings on which an item may be found; it contains the item’s cabling requirements and conduit routing number and it provides a means for managing the I/O list.

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While these tasks can be accomplished any number of ways, the advantage of using a comprehensive database is that the tasks can be generated without reentering the data. The database, as shown in Figure 101, has fields that cover many aspects of the design process.

Figure 101. Instrument and I/O list table, design view

As the project progresses, a lot of data can be amassed for each item, as indicated in Figure 102. Once collected, these data can be used for multiple tasks. Following are some of the queries and reports that can be built.

Tagname

I/O Type

HW Address

SW Address

HV-TK13-13

NA

NA

NA

HY-TK10-13

DOI

N01D03R01S04P01

DO0101

Equipment TK-10 Product Feed Tank TK-10 Product Feed Tank

Service Product Supply Product Supply

Feed Valve Solonoid, 3Way NA

Product Level Product Level Discharge Press Recirc Pressure Recirc Pressure

Level Switch NA Pressure Transmitter I/P Transducer NA Throttling Valve

Pressure

Relief Valve

PID001 NA

NA

NA

Low Level Motor Controls Motor Controls Motor Controls

Level Switch

PID001 SCH-003

NA

TC-2

Product Supply

YS-TK10-15A

DI

N01D03R01S06P02

DI0101

TK-10 Product Feed Tank TK-10 Product Feed Tank PP-10 Product Pump TK-10 Product Feed Tank TK-10 Product Feed Tank TK-10 Product Feed Tank TK-10 Product Feed Tank PP-10 Product Pump PP-10 Product Pump PP-10 Product Pump

ZSC-TK10-13

DI

N01D03R01S06P01

DI0100

TK-10 Product Feed Tank

LT-TK10-10

AI

N01D03R01S08P02

AI0101

LSH-TK10-10

HW

NA

NA

PT-TK10-48

AI

N01D03R01S08P01

AI0100

PY-TK10-48

AO

N01D03R01S10P01

AO0100

PV-TK10-48

NA

NA

NA

PSV-TK10-58

NA

NA

NA

LSLL-TK10-47

DI

N01D03R01S06P05

DI0104

HS-TK10-15B

DOI

N01D03R01S04P02

DO0102

YS-TK10-15B

DI

N01D03R01S06P03

DI0102

Description

Spec# P&ID#

Level Transmitter

Schematic# LoopSheet#

MarshCab# MarshCabArg# MarshCabWrg# FieldJBox# FieldJBoxArg#FieldJBoxWrg# FieldTerm#

PID001 NA

NA

NA

PID001 SCH-003

NA

TC-2

ARR-001

PID001 NA

LOOP-LT-10 TC-2

ARR-001

PID001 NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

WRG-001

FJB-TK10-01 ARR-002

NA

WRG-001

NA

NA

FJB-TK10-01 ARR-002

NA

MechDetail

ElecDetail

MountDetail

PlanDwg

PlanItem

Cables

Elevation

Routing

NA

NA

NA

In-Line

PLAN001

04

NA

2H

NA

WRG-002

MECH-001

NA

Integral

PLAN001

04

2A

2H

A1-PLAN001

NA

NA

ELEC-001

MOUNT-001 PLAN001

01

1B,3A

2H

D1PLAN001,A1

WRG-002

NA

ELEC-001

NA

01

2A

2H

A1-PLAN001

PLAN001

PID001 NA

LOOP-PIC48 TC-2

ARR-001

WRG-001

NA

NA

NA

NA

ELEC-001

MOUNT-001 PLAN001

03

1B

2H

D1-PLAN001

PID001 NA

LOOP-PIC48 TC-2

ARR-001

WRG-001

NA

NA

NA

MECH-002

ELEC-001

Integral

PLAN001

02

1B

2H

D1-PLAN001

NA

NA

In-Line

PLAN001

NA

NA

NA

ARR-001

WRG-001

FJB-TK10-01 ARR-002

PID001 NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

02

NA

2H

NA

NA

NA

NA

MOUNT-001 PLAN001

05

NA

2H

NA

WRG-002

NA

ELEC-001

MOUNT-001 PLAN001

07

5A

2M

A1-PLAN001

Start Cmmd NA

PID001 SCH-003

NA

TC-2

ARR-001

WRG-001

MCC

MCC001

Run Status Switch in Auto

NA

PID001 SCH-003

NA

TC-2

ARR-001

WRG-001

MCC

MCC001

NA

PID001 SCH-003

NA

TC-2

ARR-001

WRG-001

FJB-TK10-01 ARR-002

WRG-002

NA

NA

MOUNT-002 PLAN001

06

2A

2L

A6-PLAN001

Valve Closed Status NA

PID001 SCH-003

NA

TC-2

ARR-001

WRG-001

FJB-TK10-01 ARR-002

WRG-002

NA

ELEC-001

Integral

04

3A

2H

A1-PLAN001

PLAN001

Figure 102. Instrument and I/O list database, datasheet view

2. Preliminary Design Query The preliminary design query (see Figure 103) data fields contain data that are collected from preliminary engineering documents or that are developed during the preliminary engineering phase of the project.

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Figure 103. Preliminary design query

3. Plan Drawing Takeoff Query The plan drawing takeoff query (see Figure 104) contains data fields that pertain to the instrument location plans. Information such as conduit routing number, cable type, and plan drawing item number is provided here.

Figure 104. Plan drawing takeoff query

A component schedule needs to be placed on the plan drawing. That schedule may be generated right out of this database by running PlanDwgTakeoffQuery, hiding a few of the fields that are not needed for the schedule, and copying the data and pasting it into a Microsoft® Excel spreadsheet (see Figure 105). This information may then be placed directly on the drawing either as an embedded Microsoft® Excel object or as CADD data by copying and pasting the individual data items. In either case, the data-entry task is avoided, thus eliminating the risk of injecting typographical errors.

4. PlanDwgTakeoffQuery Report A report can be generated to show all data organized by instrument location plan drawing and sorted by plan item number (see Figure 106).

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Tagname

Equipment

Service

Description

243

P&ID#

PlanDwg

PlanItem Elevation Cables

Routing

YS-TK10-15B

PP-10 Product Pump

Motor Controls

Run Status

PID001

MCC001

HS-TK10-15B

PP-10 Product Pump

Motor Controls

Start Cmmd

PID001

MCC001

LSH-TK10-10

TK-10 Product Feed Tank

Product Level

Level Switch

PID001

PLAN001

01

2H

2A

LT-TK10-10

TK-10 Product Feed Tank

Product Level

Level Transmitter

PID001

PLAN001

01

2H

1B,3A

D1-PLAN001, A1-PLAN001

PV-TK10-48

TK-10 Product Feed Tank

Recirc Pressure

Throttling Valve

PID001

PLAN001

02

2H

NA

NA

PY-TK10-48

TK-10 Product Feed Tank

PID001

PLAN001

02

2H

1B

A1-PLAN001

Recirc Pressure

I/P Transducer

PT-TK10-48

PP-10 Product Pump

Discharge Press

Pressure Transmitter

PID001

PLAN001

03

2H

1B

D1-PLAN001

ZSC-TK10-13

TK-10 Product Feed Tank

Product Supply

Valve Closed Status

PID001

PLAN001

04

2H

3A

A1-PLAN001

D1-PLAN001

HY-TK10-13

TK-10 Product Feed Tank

Product Supply

Solonoid, 3-Way

PID001

PLAN001

04

2H

2A

A1-PLAN001

HV-TK13-13

TK-10 Product Feed Tank

Product Supply

Feed Valve

PID001

PLAN001

04

2H

NA

NA

PSV-TK10-58

TK-10 Product Feed Tank

Pressure

Relief Valve

PID001

PLAN001

05

2H

NA

NA

YS-TK10-15A

PP-10 Product Pump

Motor Controls

Switch in Auto

PID001

PLAN001

06

2L

2A

A6-PLAN001

LSLL-TK10-47

TK-10 Product Feed Tank

Low Level

Level Switch

PID001

PLAN001

07

2M

5A

A1-PLAN001

FIGURE 105. Plan drawing component schedule (Access to Excel).

Figure 105. Plan drawing component schedule (Microsoft® Access to Microsoft® Excel)

Figure 106. PlanDwgTakeoffQuery report

5. X-Ref Document Cross-Reference Query The X-ref query (see Figure 107) provides a listing that crosses the instrument record to all of the major documents on which it appears. As designers progress through the design process, they should log an event as they place an instrument or its wiring on a drawing. If this is done, the customer will have a useful maintenance tool. As a side benefit, the design check should be much easier.

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Figure 107. Document cross-reference (X-ref) query

6. X-Ref Document Cross-Reference Report The X-ref query report is linked to the X-ref query. It formats the information collected by the query and provides a listing that crosses the instrument record to all the major related documents (see Figure 108).

Figure 108. Document cross-reference report

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The database is a tool for the designer, much like a hammer is for a carpenter. Properly wielded, this database can play a huge role in turning out a quality product. It is a design tool to be used by the designer during design development, and a quality management tool to be used during the design check. It is a construction management resource from which a checkout checklist can be built. It then becomes a maintenance tool. For versatility and usefulness, the database is unsurpassed.

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Chapter 12: Instrument Specifications An instrument specification data sheet describes an instrument to a degree that leaves no doubt as to what will be supplied. The format of the instrument specification, also called a spec or data sheet, can change depending on the instrument type. This is because properly specifying a particular instrument depends on parameters that are specific to that type of instrument. Temperature, pressure, flow rate, specific gravity, and viscosity are process parameters that are often necessary to adequately specify an instrument. Other important information includes manufacturer, model number, materials of construction, face-to-face dimensions, process connections, power requirements, calibrated range, output, conduit connection size, area classification, enclosure type, mounting type, and set points. An instrument spec sheet should be generated for every new instrument in a project. Usually, a generic data sheet is created for identical applications, given a unique number, and assigned to multiple instruments. For example, if ten identical pressure indicators with exactly the same process information are to be purchased, one data sheet could be generated with ten unique tag numbers for the indicators listed on it. This technique applies only to the most basic type of instrument, such as indicators or on/off valves. More complicated instruments that have many varying parameters cannot be easily combined. However, if multiple “trains” (identical process lines) are used in the design, generic instrument spec sheets are advisable for all instrument types. A good design process generates a bi-directional flow of information. Since instrument tag numbers are listed on the instrument spec sheet, the specification numbers should be entered for the instruments in the instrument database. This allows rapid cross-referencing between the instrument and the spec and back, which will be greatly appreciated by the customer. Aside from providing assistance to the customer, this practice proves valuable during the design phase as well. The database is often used as a way to track the status of the instrument spec sheets. For instance, when an engineer begins a specification for an instrument, the first portion of the instrument spec number (usually the job number) can be listed in the database under the instrument spec field for that instrument. After the specification has been completed, the entire instrument spec number can be added to the database. When the instrument spec sheet is issued for review, the date can be added to the database in the issue for review field. When the instrument is purchased, the purchase order number can be listed in the P.O. number field for that instrument. This way, when more than one engineer is specifying instruments, no one inadvertently starts working on an instrument spec that someone else has already begun. Also, at any given time queries or reports can be created that will show how many instruments have specs in process, how many are complete, how many have been issued for review, and how many have been purchased. A little bit of data entered during the specification process will save an immense amount of time when trying to determine the status of the instrument specs. It is of great value to the instrument designer to have the instrument spec sheets available at the beginning of a project. However, like most deliverables, they are a “design in process” until the close of the project. Therefore, many parameters for particular instruments must be determined on an as-needed basis. Sometimes others need the information to complete their work before the specs have been completed. Guidelines can be agreed upon early in the job. For instance, it might be decided that all on/off valves will have ANSI face-to-face dimensions, or that all analog devices will

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be two-wire loop powered, where possible. The instrument engineer would then notify the instrument designer of any exceptions.

A. Purpose The purpose of the instrument data sheet is to catalog the various parameters that define the instrument as an entity in the process. Many disciplines rely on these data during the design and construction phases of a project. Even after these design phases are complete, the instrument specification continues to be valuable. It is a living document, which means it is updated, as required, to show any changes the instrument undergoes throughout its lifetime. Instrument specs should be readily available for every instrument installed in a plant and are, in fact, required in most cases by law. Following are some of the needs that are filled by this versatile and valuable design product.

1. Mechanical Designer Mechanical designers, or pipers, are interested in the face-to-face dimensions of all in-line instruments. They need to show these instruments, with the correct dimensions, in the piping in the 3-D model, which is used to extract isometrics or “spools.” These spools are either sent to a shop to fabricate the piping, or the field will fabricate the piping on site. Either way, the spool fabricator must know the face-to-face dimensions of every in-line instrument. The pipers also need to know if they will have to supply reducers for control valves or other inline instruments. More often than not, a control valve is one line size smaller than the pipe. If reducers are required, the face-to-face dimensions of the reducers must be accounted for in the model. Another point of interest for pipers is the “envelope” (in space) that any instrument occupies. For instance, an on/off valve is typically made up of the valve and the “topworks,” which includes an actuator, a solenoid valve, limit switches, and sometimes an air accumulator tank. The pipers must ensure that they leave enough room for the entire assembly. Otherwise, a pipe may be routed through the area in space where the topworks resides, resulting in field rerouting of pipe. The pipers also need to know what process connection is specified for each instrument. For example, an RTD’s process connection could be specified as a 1½-inch or a 2-inch 150#* flange. The instrument engineers and pipers work closely together to ensure all instruments and piping are perfectly mated. Sometimes, it is necessary for additional material, such as reducing bushings, to be provided.

2. Instrument Designer Instrument designers need instrument specs to determine how to properly wire each instrument. The instrument engineer should supply the manufacturer’s cut sheets and wiring diagrams to the instrument designer for every wired instrument. There is no reason for more than one person to compile information for an instrument. Following are some of the parameters specified on an instrument spec that are needed for the designer to properly wire an instrument: •



*

Is an analog instrument a two-wire or a four-wire device? Four-wire devices require an external power source, whereas two-wire devices can be powered through the PLC or DCS. What is the contact arrangement of a switch? Double-pole double-throw or single-pole double-throw, etc.?

150# is shorthand for 150 pounds.

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• • •

249

Does the instrument require the use of intrinsically safe wiring practices? If so, the manufacturer must provide the certified FM approval wiring drawing that shows the complete wiring diagram. What are the power requirements? 120 VAC or 24 VDC? What is the maximum power for which the instrument is rated? The fuse will need to be sized for a value that will protect the instrument. What are the terminal numbers on the instruments? These identification numbers are not shown on the instrument specs but can be found in the manufacturer’s literature, given the model number, as shown on the instrument spec.

The instrument designer depends on the instrument spec to define the instrument installation details and, subsequently, the installation bills of materials. The designer specifies any additional material necessary for an instrument to be mated to the pipe. For instance, local pressure indicators are typically specified with ½-inch NPT connections. If the piping spec calls for 1½-inch, 150# flanged isolation valves, the designer purchases a 1½-inch, 150# blind flange to be drilled and tapped for ½-inch NPT. The blind flange is bolted to the isolation valve and the indicator is screwed into the ½-inch hole that was drilled and tapped. This is a lot more economical than trying to purchase the indicator with a flange. When preparing the electrical details, the instrument spec is obtained to determine the conduit connection size for a particular instrument. Another point when preparing electrical details arises when working on an on/off valve package. Some limit switches can be specified with additional terminals inside the enclosure for the solenoid valve. This way only one run of conduit and one seal have to be provided between the junction box and the on/off valve. The instrument designer must know how to mount each instrument when preparing the mounting details. The instrument spec defines which mounting technique should be used. Any mounting apparatus supplied with the instrument can be determined via the model number. The instrument designer purchases any additional material required on a mounting detail. To design power distribution drawings and properly size the power supplies and fuses, the instrument designer must also know how much power is required for each instrument. Also, some instruments require special cable that is sometimes supplied by the manufacturer. The instrument spec sheet indicates how much of what type of cable will be supplied by the manufacturer, if any.

3. Structural Designer The only purpose for which the structural engineer needs the instrument spec is designing the steel around vessels that require load cells. The bolt-hole patterns for the load cells and the tank legs or lugs (if the tank hangs through the floor) must match.

4. Construction When an instrument is received at the plant site, a construction representative must inspect it and verify that it is the instrument described on the instrument specification sheet. Construction personnel also refer to the instrument spec when they install the instrument and the wiring for a wired instrument.

5. Maintenance After installation, calibrated instruments must be recalibrated on a periodic basis. Maintenance personnel use the instrument specs to obtain calibration parameters. For instance, a 4–20 mA output flow transmitter with a calibrated range of 0–50 gpm must be calibrated so that when the flow is 0 gpm the transmitter outputs 4 mA, and when the flow is 50 gpm the transmitter outputs 20 mA.

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6. Computer Programmers (Systems Integrators) Computer programmers need the instrument specs to obtain the calibration ranges and proper units for their HMI screens and the configuration and programming for the DCS or PLC.

7. Purchasing When the instrument spec has been reviewed and approved by the client, it is sent to the purchasing agent to be used to procure the instrument. When the purchasing agent receives an instrument spec, a purchase order number is assigned.

8. Vendors The vendor, or “local rep,” usually represents many different manufacturers, who are referred to as the vendor’s “principles.” The purchasing agent forwards the instrument spec to the vendor, who represents that particular manufacturer. The vendor sends the spec to the manufacturer for quoting prices and lead time. That information is relayed back to the instrument engineer. If the price and delivery date are within the budget and schedule, the manufacturer supplies the instrument as specified on the instrument spec.

B. Interfaces Predecessors to the instrument specs are HMBs or adequate process information and P&IDs. Pump specs are needed for control valves, flowmeters, pressure instruments, and restriction orifices in pumped lines. Successors to the instrument specs are wiring drawings, mechanical installation details, mounting details, electrical details, and piping isometrics.

C. Examples This project, as described previously, installs a product tank, a pump, and associated instrumentation and controls. This chapter looks at two of the instruments: level transmitter LT-10 and pressure control valve PV-48. Refer to Part III, Chapter 7 for more information on the P&ID and the P&ID presented in that chapter (Figure 5).

1. LT/LSH-10 An ultrasonic level transmitter was chosen for the level detection of TK-10. An ultrasonic transmitter works for many liquid applications. By choosing an ultrasonic transmitter for our tank, the product can be changed without having to recalibrate the level transmitter. Sometimes batch processes are used for more than one end product per year, requiring different intermediate products in specific tanks. The principle of operation of an ultrasonic transmitter is based on ultrasonic sound waves bouncing off the surface of liquid in the tank (see Figure 109). A non-contacting ultrasonic transducer is mounted in the top of the vessel. Electrical signals are converted to sonic pulses and are transmitted to the surface of the liquid. The time required for the echoes to travel back to the transducer is converted into a 4–20 mA signal that is proportional to the liquid level in the tank. Since the speed of travel of ultrasonic waves increases as temperature rises, most transmitters are equipped with temperature compensation. An ultrasonic level transmitter is only as good as the echo it receives. The echo can be weak due to dispersion (which reduces sound intensity by the square of distance) and absorption (which in dry air reduces its energy level by 1 to 3 decibels/meter).5 Since our vessel is only 10-ft tall, there are no concerns about dispersion. The vapor space above our product should not pose an absorption problem.

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LT-10 Transmitted sound

Reflected sound

TK-10

Process fluid

Figure 109. Ultrasonic level transmitter Relays with form C contacts, to trip for low and high levels, are provided with the ultrasonic level transmitter. This saves the cost of a separate level switch. See Figure 110 for the instrument spec sheet for LT/LSH/LSL-10. Notice the “/” between the tag prefixes. This indicates that there is only one instrument, but it performs multiple functions. Several items shown on the instrument spec sheet are of particular interest to the instrument designer: • • • • • • • • • •

“Type” shows that this instrument is both a transmitter and a switch. “Area Classification” shows that the transducer is located in a hazardous area and the electronics are located in a nonhazardous area. “Equipment Category” shows that the electronics are in a NEMA-4X enclosure and the transducer is hermetically sealed and rated for a Class I, Division 1, Group C&D area. “Power Supply” shows that 120 VAC is the power requirement. “Output Signal” shows that the output is 4–20 mA. “Switch Type and Rating” shows that there are 4 SPDT relays rated for 5A. “Electronics” shows that the electronics are remote in relation to the element. “Elect. Mounting” shows that the electronics are panel mounted. “Conduit Connections” shows that the transducer has a 1-inch MNPT conduit connection. “Note” shows that the vendor will supply 150 ft of RG-62U coaxial cable that must be run in separate conduit.

2. PV-48 A control valve is used to control process flow, pressure, and temperature. Unlike an on/off valve, which is discrete (fully open or fully closed), a control valve modulates, varying valve opening to any position between open and closed. The percentage of opening is based on an independent analog signal, usually a 4–20 mA signal, generated from a DCS or PLC. An I/P transducer converts the

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LEVEL INST RUM ENT S PROJECT:

Des ign Primer

DA TA SHEET 1 OF 1

LOCA TION:

Knoxville, TN

SPEC. No.: 2704-08

UNIT:

1

JOB No.:

6/29/02

DA TE:

P & ID: TF-10 FEED TA NK 2704

LOCA TION: KNOXV ILLE TN CHK'D

TYPE:

Controller ( )

Transmitter ( X )

M EASUREM ENT TYPE:

ULTRA SONIC

DESCRIPTION:

Indicating ( X )

Blind ( )

OUTPUT INDICATOR

A nalog ( )

Digital ( X )

FOR DISPLAY

Meter ( )

LCD ( X )

M EASUREM ENT:

Liquid Lev el (X )

Interf ace ( )

AREA CLASSIFICATION:

Hazardous(X-TRA NSDUCER)

BY

A PPR.

Sw itc h (X )

None ( )

Class:I Group: C, D

Division: 1

Non-hazardous (X-ELECTRONICS) General Purpose (

EQUIPM ENT CATEGORY:

)

NEMA 4X (X-ELECTRONICS)

CASE TYPE:

Mf r Std ( X )

CASE COLOR:

Mf r Std ( X )

Other (

POWER SUPPLY:

24 V DC (

115 V A C 60 Hz (X )

Other (

OUTPUT SIGNAL:

4 - 20 mA ( X )

3 - 15 PSIG (

Sw itc h Output ( X-4 SPDT )

SWITCH TYPE & RATING

4 Relay s w / Form C (SPDT) contacts rated at 5 A A C, non-inductiv e.

ELECTRONICS:

Integral ( )

Remote ( X )

ELECT. M OUNTING:

Panel ( X )

Rack ( )

ELEM ENT TYPE:

Dis placer ( )

Float ( )

ACCURACY

0.25% OF TA RGET RA NGE

LEV EL RANGE

TRA NSDUCER (1 FT. TO 33 FT.) / ELECTRONICS (1 FT. TO 200 FT.)

TEM PERATURE RATING

TRA NSDUCER (-40 TO 203 DEG F) / ELECTRONICS (-5 TO 122 DEG F)

DISPLACER OR FLOAT

Torque Type (

LEV ER TYPE

Other (

Other ( )

DRAIN CONNECTIONS:

None ( X )

)

)

1/2" NPT (

LT/LSH/LSL-10 TK-10

UPPER FLUID

Sp. Gr .

GLY COL

DATA

LOWER FLUID

Sp. Gr .

NA

M AX TEM P.

NORM TEM P.

22 DEG F

30 DEG F

M AX PRESS.

NORM PRESS.

50 PSIG

)

Force Balance (

)

)

3/4" NPT (

)

1.138

32 PSIG

NA

1" MNPT

CONDUIT CONNECTIONS:

N/A

ADJ SLIDING SLEEV E PART#

NOTES

Other ( ) Other ( X ) ULTRA SONIC

0-10 FT.

CALIBRATED SPAN PROCESS

EQUIP.

)

)

TAG NUNBER:

RATING

)

N/A (X)

V ESSEL NUM BER:

SIZE

)

Flex Tube (

)

Other (

M ECHANICAL

Explos ion Proof ( )

Hermetically Sealed Transducer rated f or Clas s I, Groups C&D, Div . 1 (X)

GENERAL

3"

FACING

150#

FLUSH

ORIENTATION

V ERTICA L

ELEM ENT SIZE

3" IN FLA T FA CE FLNG

ELEM ENT M ATERIAL

KY NA R

BEAM ANGLE

12 Degrees

M ANUFACTURER

MILLTRONICS

M ODEL NUM BER

XPS-10 / A iRanger SPL

TEM PERATURE COM PENSATION (-58 TO 302 DEGREES F) INTEGRAL TO UNIT V ENDOR TO SUPPLY 15O' OF RG-62U COAXIAL CABLE. TO BE RUN IN SEPARATE CONDUIT. V ENDOR TO PERMA NENTLY A TTA CH A STA INLESS STEEL TA G WITH THE A BOV E TA G NUMBER.

Revision

Date

By

A pp'd

Description

LEI FOR M 5 1 LT

Figure 110. Instrument specification for LT/LSH/LSL-10 (Courtesy of Lauren Engineers and Constructors, Inc.) 4–20 mA signal into a 3–15 psig pneumatic signal, which is applied to the control valve actuator, which, in turn, varies the valve position. A positioner can be used for feedback. A globe valve, which is one of the most commonly used control valves, was chosen for our application (see Figure 111). The main advantages of the traditional globe design include the simplicity of the spring/diaphragm actuator; the availability of a wide range of valve characteristics; the relatively low likelihood of cavitation and noise; the availability of a wide variety of specialized designs for corrosive, abrasive, and high-temperature or high-pressure applications; the linear rela-

Whitt2003.book Page 253 Thursday, July 10, 2003 4:05 PM

PART III – CHAPTER 12: INSTRUMENT SPECIFICATIONS

253

tionship between the control signal and valve stem movement; and the relatively small amounts of dead band and hysteresis.6

C O NT RO L V ALV E S PR O JEC T :

D e s ig n Pr im e r

D A T A S H EET 1 O F 1 D A T E

L O C A T IO N :

K n o x v ille , T N

S PEC . N o .:

2704

L O C A T IO N : K N O X V IL L E, T N

U N IT :

1

JO B N o .:

P & ID : T F - 1 0 F EED T A N K C H K 'D

Ta g No . G EN ER A L

VALVE BO DY / B O N N ET

S e r v ic e

T K - 1 0 R EC IR C U L A T IO N

L in e N o . / V e s s e l N o .

TK - 1 0

F lu id

G L Y CO L

Mf r & Model

V A L T EK / M A R K O N E

Ty p e

GLOBE

S iz e / A N S I C la s s / F la n g e s

3 /4 "

M a x Pr e s s u r e @ T e m p e r a tu r e

1 5 0 PS IG

R .F .

C A R B O N S T EEL F L O W U N D ER PL U G

Ty p e o f B o n n e t

S TA NDA RD N /A

V a lv e F a c e to F a c e D im e n s io n

7 .2 5 "

Pa c kin g T y p e & M a te r ia l

S TA NDA RD / TFE S TA NDA RD

Tr a v e l

0 .6 2

100%

C h a r a c te r is tic

EQ U A L PER C EN T A G E

B a la n c e d / U n b a la n c e d

B A L A N C ED

R a te d

Cv

FL

XT

8 .6

0 .8

0 .7

Plu g / B a ll / D is k M a te r ia l

316 SS

S e a t M a te r ia l

TFE

C a g e / G u id e M a te r ia l

G L A S S F IL L ED T EF L O N

Mf r & Model

V A L T EK / 2 5

Ty p e

D O U B L E A C T IN G C Y L IN D ER

S iz e / Ef f A r e a

2 5 S Q U A R E IN C H ES

O n - O f f / M o d u la tin g

M O D U L A T IN G

S p r in g A c tio n O p e n / C lo s e O p e r . Pr e s s .

M in .

O PEN

M a x . 3 PS IG

S p r in g N o .

1 5 0 PS IG

MFG . S TD.

B e n c h Ra n g e

3 - 1 5 PS IG

A c tu a to r O r ie n ta tio n

V ER T IC A L

Ha n d w h e e l Ty p e

N /A

A v a ila b le A ir S u p p ly Pr e s s u r e

6 0 PS IG

Mf r & Model

V A L T EK /N T 3 0 0 0 /X L S ER IES

Ty p e

I/P W / PO S IT IO N ER

In p u t R a n g e

4 - 2 0 mA

T R A N S D U C ER / O u tp u t to V a lv e C O N T R O L L ER

A PPR .

3 5 0 D EG F

F lo w D ir e c tio n

S iz e

P O S IT IO N ER /

150#

B o d y & B o n n e t M a te r ia l

Ty p e

A C T UA T O R

BY

PV - 4 8

Ex te n s io n / M a te r ia l

T R IM

6 /2 9 /2 0 0 2

2704-83

3 - 1 5 p s ig

A ir R e q u ir e d

3 0 - 1 5 0 PS IG

G a u g e s & B y - Pa s s ?

Y ES

En c lo s u r e

N EM A 7

H a z a r d o u s A r e a C la s s if ic a tio n

C L . I, G R . C & D , D IV . 1

G L Y C O L L IQ U ID 12 20 4 5 P S IG 3 2 P S IG Pr e s s u r e In / O u t S G = 1.138 S p . W t.. / S p . G r . / M o l. W t. 1.13 C p V is c o s ity S p . H t R a tio 1000 1116.5 Pv ( p s ia ) / Pc ( p s ia ) T e m p e r a tu r e M in / N o r m a l/ M a x 2 2 D E G F C a lc . C v M in . No rm. Ma x . 2 .9 7 5 3 .5 7 9 6 .0 5 4 V e n d o r t o p e rm a n e n t ly a t t a c h a s t a in le s s s t e e l t a g w it h t h e a b o ve t a g n u m b e r(s ). C la s s IV s h u t o ff re q u ire d . F lu id S ta te & T y p e

F lo w M in .( G PM ) S ER V IC E C O N D IT IO N S

N O T ES

No rm.

Ma x . 1 0

LE I F O R M 5 7 C V

Figure 111. Instrument specification for PV-48 (Courtesy of Lauren Engineers and Constructors, Inc.)

Many different parameters are required to properly size a control valve. The process parameters include the process pressure upstream and downstream of the control valve, the process fluid’s flow rate, specific gravity at flowing temperature, critical pressure, and vapor pressure. CV, a unitless value, is the primary calculated value used to determine appropriate valve size and trim size. One CV equals the flow of one U.S. gallon per minute of water at 60ºF and under a pressure drop of 1 psi.7 For a liquid service with a subcritical flow, the volumetric CV equation is

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254

CV = Q * (S.G./∆P)1/2, where Q = liquid flow rate, U.S. gallons per minute S.G. = specific gravity at flowing temperature ∆P = upstream pressure (P1) – downstream pressure (P2). CV tables can be found in the manufacturer’s literature. They list the CV values for a particular valve at different percentage openings (e.g., 10%, 20%). The chosen valve usually has a calculated CV equal to the valve’s CV at approximately 70% to 80% open, based on the CV table. Many other factors are used to properly size control valves, but they go beyond the scope of this book. These factors include cavitation, liquid pressure recovery factor (FL), liquid critical pressure ratio factor (Ff), flashing, choked flow, Reynolds number factor (FR), piping geometry factor (FP), valve exit velocity, and noise. For more information on sizing control valves, refer to ANSI/ ISA-75.01-1985 – Flow Equations for Sizing Control Valves.8

D. Summary Instrument specification sheets lay the groundwork for virtually all deliverables produced by the instrumentation group. They are vital to the instrument designers in designing the wiring diagrams, the power distribution drawings, the instrument mechanical installation details, the instrument electrical installation details, and the instrument mounting installation details. Mechanical pipers, construction and maintenance personnel, programmers, purchasing personnel, and vendors also find them useful.

Whitt2003.book Page 255 Thursday, July 10, 2003 4:05 PM

Chapter 13: Physical Drawings Physical drawings put the “A” in “A&E,” at least from the perspective of the I&C group. We I&C folks might find it hard to believe, but it is impossible to build an industrial facility with just E & I drawings and software. There must be a point at which the “rubber meets the road,” to borrow a phrase. That point is the physical drawing set. These drawings consist of control room arrangements, termination room arrangements, electrical room arrangements, process area plans, installation details, and so on. Since, in our scenario, our addition is small, the control room and termination room already exist. As a result, this chapter deals mostly with the process area. However, the control and termination rooms are given a cursory examination.

A. Control Room Designing a modern control room is not that different from designing any other office space. Operator comfort must be a primary concern. Industry has learned over the years that human factors engineering plays a key role in reducing operator-induced process problems. Designing an environment that does not induce fatigue or frustration must be the primary goal of the designer when taking on this task. An operator’s activities require, for example, proper lighting, a comfortable temperature, and a logically arranged room. Following is a list of some key considerations and some suggested methods for designing a good control room environment:

1. Environmental Issues a.

Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning9 (HVAC) Dry-bulb air temperature should be approximately 76ºF. Relative humidity should be between 20% and 60%. Air velocity should be less than 0.23 meters/second (m/s), or 45 feet per minute (fpm). Also, temperature at the operator’s feet and head should be about the same. Ventilation should be at least 15 cubic feet per minute (cfm) per occupant.

b. Noise Levels The control room should be isolated from the process area in terms of noise level. Noise should be limited to about 55 dB for normal voice communication at a distance of 10-feet.

c.

Lighting Lights should be situated to reduce or eliminate shadows and glare. The two can be difficult to manage as correcting one may make the other worse. In general, it is better to have many lights. They can be dim, or at least have a dimmer-type switch to allow the operator to control the light level to his needs. They can also have special diffusers or filters. In areas where light may be too diffuse, supplemental lighting should be provided. Flat paints and textured finishes also help to reduce glare. If monitor glare is still a problem, monitors may be fitted with nonglare filters.

2. Physical Arrangement The control room is the nerve center of the facility. Plant owners are usually motivated to provide operators with a comfortable environment from which to manage the plant. That includes office fur-

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256

niture, a computer or two, printers, file cabinets, closed-circuit television (CCTV) monitors, annunciators, and other equipment items. It is up to the designer to put these elements together into a room design that complements the set of tasks the operator must execute. Following are a few considerations for the physical arrangement of the control room: •







• •

Furniture should be arranged such that operators have an unobstructed view of the equipment. Items that require their attention on a regular basis should be most convenient to them. The room should be organized with operator interaction in mind. Traffic flow through the room should be routed away from the operator’s normal work area. Consideration should be given to access paths for maintenance teams and their equipment. Also, if emergency procedures require special access, this should be accommodated. Unnecessary traffic should be minimized, perhaps by the use of signs on the doors. Operators should be able to maneuver within their work area without coming in contact with “knee knockers” or other impediments. Their chairs should be adjustable in both height and arm-rest configuration. An uncomfortable chair and/or impediments in the physical workspace induce fatigue as operators will be constantly aware of these areas and work to avoid them. If an operator must communicate verbally with others on a regular basis, try to accommodate that with proper orientation of the console. Or, install a communication system of some kind. Allocate some space for document storage. Operators should be able to quickly access operating or emergency procedures or other documentation. Operators need some flat space for laying out drawings.

3. Control Room Design Summary Whether a computer system is being used or not, the real computer that runs the plant is the operator. A DCS system has special needs in terms of its environment. How much more important is the operator? From the color scheme to the type of lights to use, operators’ comfort should be considered and their input sought. It is, after all, where they are likely to spend a large percentage of their time. The key is to make it easy for them to do the right thing by arranging the environment in a way that removes obstacles to that end.

B. Termination Room The termination room is where all the field wiring converges and is mated to the control system. This room is called many things, including the marshalling room and the spreading room. But, whatever it is called, it’s the room where all the computer equipment resides and where the field cables are marshaled and terminated. Figure 112 shows three different configurations for this area. This “room” can, in fact, be spread across more than one physical space. For example, the computer cabinetry can be located in its own termination room or with the operator in the control room. Or, it may be found in the electrical room alongside the MCCs. Wherever it is physically located, there are some basic considerations when approaching the design task.

1. Environmental Issues a.

Lighting As in the control room, there should be enough lights to eliminate shadowing. However, whereas lighting in the control room is subdued, the lighting in the termination room

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PART III – CHAPTER 13: PHYSICAL DRAWINGS

The Control Room

The Termination Room

257

The Process Area

The Electric Room

MCC

PLC DCS

The Control Room

The Process Area

The Electric Room

MCC

PLC DCS

The Control Room

The Process Area

The Electric Room

MCC

PLC DCS

FIGURE 112. Three termination room configurations.

Figure 112. Three termination room configurations should be very bright. There should be no area in the room where supplemental lighting is needed. Glare is not a major issue and can be minimized by using flat paints.

b. Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning Temperature and humidity should be maintained to protect the equipment, as indicated in the equipment specification. This often makes the temperature of the room cooler than would be ideal for long-term habitation. This room will probably not be constantly manned, however. Care should be taken to ensure moisture from air-conditioning system condensation does not collect in the room.

c.

Piping Process and water service piping should be routed around the termination room.

d. Computer Floors Computer floors facilitate making wiring adjustments easily and quickly while keeping the nest of cables from constant view. They also provide a convenient way to inject cool air into the equipment cabinets. There are a couple of issues to consider: • •

Cables need to be plenum rated. Smoke detectors may need to be installed beneath the flooring.

2. Furniture and Equipment Arrangement Following are some guidelines for arranging furniture and equipment in the termination room:

a.

Personnel Clearances Equipment cabinets should be arranged with electrical clearances in mind. National Electric Code (NEC) article 110.26(A)(1)10 applies to most I&C installations (600 volts or less). This article states that minimum clearance between electrical enclosures is 0.9 m, or 3-ft,

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SUCCESSFUL INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS DESIGN

provided no voltage greater than 150 volts is present. If a voltage greater than 150 volts is present, and if there are exposed live parts on both sides of an operator working between the enclosures, then the distance should widen to 1.2 m, or 4-ft.

b. Ingress and Egress Termination rooms should have two entrances unless there is an unobstructed exit,11 or unless there is twice the minimum space between cabinets.12 It is also good practice to orient equipment doors so that they close in the direction of flight. For example, if an electrical fire starts in a cabinet that is being worked on, its door will likely be open. The design should not block the maintenance person’s efforts to escape the situation.

3. Termination Room Design Summary The termination room is the electrical and I&C technicians’ domain. It should be designed with them in mind. Electrical outlets for plugging in test equipment should be readily available. If possible, a desk with a network connection to facilitate online troubleshooting should be provided. Storage space for drawing sets should be considered, as should a spare parts locker.

C. Process Area (Instrument Location Plan) Instrument location plan drawings depict the location and identity of instrumentation and control equipment and provide conduit routing and cabling information. The location plan is typically spawned from an equipment arrangement or rendered from a CADD three-dimensional piping arrangement. Once the background is completed showing the equipment arranged on the floor and enough steel detail to indicate location within the plant, the I&C designer layers on the instruments and shows conduit routings and contents. Junction boxes are depicted, and cable routing schedules are produced. The graphics presentation can differ from one customer to the next, depending on standards. One approach is illustrated in Figure 113. This drawing is a finished plan view of the system that was fully described in Chapter 7. It shows our TK-10 product tank, a typical vessel with a level control system, fixed-speed discharge pump PP-10, and a recirculation system. The pump has a HOA switch and a contact closure to provide pump status to the computer. Instrument station boxes represent the instruments. The instrument station concept lets one box represent several instruments provided the instruments are physically grouped. In our simplified example, one box represents one device. However, more than one signal may be generated by that device. Conduit bodies are depicted with a circled letter. The letter indicates the general type of conduit fitting as denoted by the Crouse-Hinds nomenclature. The letter T indicates a tee-type fitting that could be the Crouse-Hinds T-style body or the explosionproof GUAT-type fitting depending on the area classification. It is a good idea to include a legend on the drawing that matches the conduit type to the symbol to avoid confusion. Rigid conduit then carries the cabling to its destination. A component schedule describes the instruments represented by the station boxes and details the cabling that feeds them. Notice that items 4 and 5 each have two conduit connections, one for AC power and one for DC signal. Ultimately, the conduit size is determined and layered onto the drawing or listed in a cable schedule.

1. Why Produce Instrument Location Plan Drawings? Producing instrument location plans can be an expensive evolution. To justify them as a deliverable, the client must be convinced that they are necessary. The designer must remember that the plan drawing is primarily used as a construction aid, not as a maintained document the client cares much about in the long term. If the drawings help the constructor save more money than the engineer

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Figure 113. Sample instrument location plan drawing expends in their production, then they are justified. An exception to this is the “greenfield” project. Plan drawings provide a “snapshot” of the instrumentation at startup, which remains useful as a training aid or orientation tool and, as such, is easily justified to most owners. So, given the high cost of their production, why are instrument location plans even considered for retrofit work? They are useful in several ways. First, during the engineering phase of the project, they are used as the base document for producing bills of materials for purchasing items such as cable, conduit, and junction boxes. This can ultimately save materials cost since the amount of bulk materials purchased will be closer to the amount actually needed. But, their primary use is as a construction aid. Construction personnel find these drawings invaluable for planning and for execution. They greatly reduce the amount of management resources that must be allocated for the conduit and cable installation evolution and increase the chances of having a successful installation. In keeping with the need to minimize detail, we must ask ourselves if alternatives exist. Depending on the situation, the answer is yes. So, this chapter not only describes the plan drawing in detail, but also presents some viable alternatives that can be considered as cost-cutting measures.

2. Anatomy of an Instrument Location Plan Location plan symbols and level of detail can differ from one customer to the next. But, they generally consist of a graphic representation of some portion of the process floor, a component schedule, and possibly some detail sketches for clarification. These drawings are usually fairly large (22 by 34 inches, for example). In general, the graphic presentation should cover approximately 50% of the drawing area (usually the left side of the drawing). The scale of the graphical portion can vary widely since the only limitation is the instrument density and level of detail. The remaining 50% of the drawing area is generally reserved for a component schedule and various notes and details as needed.

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SUCCESSFUL INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS DESIGN

Following are some of the key components of the instrument plan drawing: •



• • •

Major pieces of equipment such as tanks and pumps should be shown for orientation purposes. These should be in a light line weight and appear as background. They should be identified in some low-key manner such as, perhaps, the vessel tag number or equipment name. Instruments should be depicted near their expected final location either with bubbles or numbered boxes (see Figure 1). Instrument elevation and instrument installation detail assignments should be noted either on the body of the plan or in the component schedule. Field junction boxes should be properly depicted and labeled. Conduit should be represented in some fashion. Conduit size should be shown, especially at reduction points, and conduit runs (cable routings) should be tagged. A component schedule must provide the detail that the simplified graphic presentation lacks. The most efficient way to generate the component schedule is from the instrument database as a report, but it can be maintained in Microsoft® Excel or any other medium. If a database solution is sought, the instrument plan report (see the instrument database section) can be easily modified as the drawing develops and then be pulled onto the drawing just before it is finalized.

3. Design Considerations During production of the plan drawing, the designer would be wise to consider the following issues: •





• •

Hazardous area classifications. Designers must understand the ramifications of the area classification in effect for each process area. They must be sensitive to these requirements when mounting remote transmitters and field junction boxes. See Part II of this book, “Hazardous Area Classifications and Effect on Design,” for more information. Ergonomic considerations. Plant personnel must be able to transit the area, either on foot or driving fork trucks or golf carts. Junction boxes and instrument stands should be situated away from high-traffic areas to protect them from damage from fork trucks or other vehicles. Refrain from blocking aisles or ladders. Maintenance accessibility. Be aware of any maintenance issues that might require extraordinary requirements for accessibility in the process area. For example, a vessel might need to be removed periodically for cleaning or refurbishing. Avoid mounting equipment around temporary installations, and certainly avoid using any such item for support. Operational accessibility. Be aware of any operability issues that might require accessibility in the process area. Avoid mounting equipment near vessel man-ways or cleanouts. Coordination with piping group. Proper coordination with the piping department is essential. While it is true that the instrument location plan is diagrammatic, it does not help when pipers arrive to install a 10-inch process pipe and find a junction box installed and already wired at that location. Rerouting an occasional conduit is to be expected, particularly if it is a fast-track project with instrument mechanics installing before the pipers have finished. But, there is no excuse for installing field junction boxes without coordinating with the pipers. In fact, such boxes should really appear on the equipment arrangements. See Part III, Chapter 8 for more information on this topic.

4. Drawing Production Technique Following is one way to prepare a process area plan drawing with a minimum of extraneous graphic detail, using the instrument database as a design tool:

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PART III – CHAPTER 13: PHYSICAL DRAWINGS

a.

261

Generate a Drawing Background If a project is being modeled, then a two-dimensional background can be spawned from the model. This method is very efficient since the in-line piped instrumentation is usually depicted in the model, allowing these items to be perfectly and automatically “spotted” on the plan drawing. If a project is not being modeled, the best background to use is probably the equipment arrangement. In the old days, a vellum* copy of the drafted equipment arrangement would be generated and then the instrument locations would be drafted over that. Today, it is a CADD evolution. Either way, the concept is the same. The background information should appear in a very light line weight that lets the information of interest be visually separated from it. Any extraneous information that is carried over from the equipment arrangements should be deleted except, perhaps, for the major dimensioning between column lines. The area to be illustrated should cover no more than two-thirds of the drawing surface (see Figure 114). Room must be left for the instrument schedule, a legend, a key plan, and any notes that might be necessary. The instrument schedule usually appears on the right side of the drawing, starting at the top and covering as much room as necessary down to the title block.

SCHEDULE AREA GRAPHICS AREA

Figure 114. Instrument location plan design. Step one: initialize drawing

*

Vellum is a semitransparent material that could be used as an “original” drawing from which blueprints could be generated. It was popular in the “old days” because it was possible to reproduce a mylar or linen original onto the cheaper vellum material. In this way, a mechanical arrangement could be used as a reference drawing, providing a background onto which new information could be layered—just as is done today in the CADD environment.

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SUCCESSFUL INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS DESIGN

Once the border is set, the Equipment Arrangement drawing may be imported as a reference file (if the drawing is to be a CADD drawing). Using the Equipment Arrangement or Piping Orthographic drawing as a background, delete all data except the major equipment items. Also, leave enough civil detail (such as column lines) as necessary to allow the user to get their bearings within the plant.

Figure 115. Instrument location plan design. Step two: locate major equipment items

b. Spot and Classify Instrument Groups This procedure assumes the drawing is produced manually (using CADD) as opposed to being rendered from a computer model. As a first pass through the floor plans, a full-size background should be printed out. Then, as the instruments are found, their location should be penciled in as a heavy dot with the tag number noted beside it and some indication of elevation (e.g., H = high, M = medium, L = low) (see Figure 116). Color-coded pencils could be used for this purpose as well. Much can be done in the way of instrument locating with just a P&ID and plan drawing background based on the equipment arrangement. Usually, the P&ID provides a general indication of instrument orientation. For example, a vessel’s discharge valve is shown at the bottom of the tank, and its fill valve at the top. There may be several instruments on the top that can be presented as one instrument station box. This can be placed anywhere within the vessel’s outline on the plan drawing with no other corroborative evidence. The same applies to the bottom of the vessel. This approach can be used on virtually any piece of equipment as a first-pass approximation of instrument location. In-line, piped instruments such as mass flowmeters are a different matter. If the drawing is spawned from the equipment arrangement as opposed to a three-dimensional

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263

E

D 3

LT-10 H

H TK-10

PV-48

M

H

HV-13 M

HV-13

PP-10

H PSV-10

PT-48

M

L

JB

HS-15B

L

JB-TK10-01

2 Figure 116. Instrument location plan design. Step three: locate instrument items model, then the piping drawings themselves must be consulted to find the instrument location. P&IDs are of little use for this task. Once all instruments are “spotted,” then judgments can be made as to grouping. Remember that instruments can be widely separated in elevation and still appear nearby on the floor plan. Such instruments should probably be in different instrument groups. On the drawing, grouped instruments should be circled with some indication of their group number penciled nearby. In the simple case we are exploring here, grouping more than one instrument into one box is not necessary, so each item will be displayed as its own box (see Figure 117). After the instruments are grouped, the plan drawing number, the instrument group number, and the elevation code should be captured in a database or spreadsheet. In our case, we have created a new query in the instrument database called “PlanDwgTakeoffQuery.” We must add three new fields in the database to accommodate the new information: PlanDwg, PlanItem, and Elevation. The new query with entered data is shown in Figure 118. Note that the YS-TK10-15B item is not on this plan drawing but is instead fed from motor control center 001 (MCC001).

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E

D 3

LT-10 H 1

TK-10

H PSV-10

2

H

PV-48

H M

PT-48

3

HV-13 HV-13 M 4 7

5

PP-10 M

L

6

JB

HS-15B

L

JB-TK10-01

2 Figure 117. Instrument location plan design. Step four: add instrument stations

Figure 118. PlanDwgTakeoffQuery

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Filtering out items not found on the plan drawing and then sorting by PlanItem number yields the list in Figure 119.

Figure 119. PlanDwgTakeoffQuery, filtered

Notice that there are indeed combined items. In the case of Item 04, there are three line items combined in that station.

c.

Build a Cable Schedule and Size the Field Junction Boxes Scan the drawing to find a tentative spot for any field junction boxes that might be needed. Generally, it is a good idea to split instrumentation fed from AC sources from those fed from DC sources. Discriminating between analog and digital circuits may be done on occasion but is not as important as differentiating between AC and DC circuits and among high-voltage (>300 V) and low-voltage circuits. Tabulate the cables that will probably be landing in each box in order to derive a wire count. On new construction, the designer should plan on at least 50% more terminals than needed. Use a spreadsheet program or some other tool to lay out the terminals (see “Field Enclosures” in this book for guidelines and methodology). Consult an enclosure vendor catalog to determine the standard backplane sizes to accommodate your layout, and cross the backplane to an appropriate enclosure. Note the outside dimensions of the enclosure on the plan drawing.

d. Spot Field Junction Boxes This is an evolution that is best done in cooperation with the mechanical engineering department or whoever is responsible for the equipment arrangements. When an ideal location has been determined based on instrument station groupings and the anticipated size of the box is known, the junction box can be tentatively spotted on the instrument plan. A tentative judgment can be made based on expected traffic patterns, the availability of support structure, and NEC requirements. Once spotted, the box locations should be cleared with anyone else who might use that space, such as the mechanical and structural departments. Maintenance access and traffic flow concerns must be considered before finalizing the location of the boxes.

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When the location has been finalized, it is highly recommended that the junction boxes be plotted as permanent fixtures on the equipment arrangements. Otherwise, conflicts can arise over that space. Pipers will run pipes through it, for example. Remember that the space to be allocated does not just include the box, but must take into account door swing, conduit access areas, and NEC requirements regarding the personnel access envelope.13

e.

Route Conduit If you picture a conduit run in three dimensions, it typically exits a junction box, rises to the overhead, travels along the overhead supported by structural beams or some other support structure, and then begins to branch (see Figure 120). As the branches approach instrument stations or instrument station clusters, the conduit drops along some vertical support to the instrument station. When viewed from above, such conduit runs appear similar to the branches of a tree. Therefore the term trunk is used to describe the part of the conduit run that is common to all the branches. Branches are common to groups of instrument stations, and drops refer to the vertical sections of conduit that feed the instrument stations themselves.

L

4 5

C L

3

4

TA

T

T

3 1

Instrument Stations

Jbox

NOTE: Creative license is used to depict Station #3 on the Plan View. The isometric shows Stations 1,2 and 3 directly beneath the conduit body… However, that is difficult to do on the Plan View. In order to show all the pieces, the instrument station is offset.

Isometric View

T L

L

2

1

Conduit Bodies

2

5

L

NOTE: Conduit bodies required within the instrument stations are not depicted on the plan drawing. See the instrument installation details for those items.

L

Jbox

NOTE: Conduit body designations "T", "L", "C", "TA" are Crouse-Hines body types.

Plan View

Figure 120. 3D to 2D and back

Conduit location and routing paths are depicted as an approximation, so the time spent routing the conduit should be kept to a minimum. The designer should try to keep in mind the relative elevations of the instruments as instrument stations are gathered up into conduit trunks. Two adjacent stations separated by 15 feet in elevation are unlikely to be in the same conduit unless there is some kind of vertical support, like a tank or a vertical support member, between them. Also, keep AC circuits and DC circuits in separate conduit trunks. They will likely be sourced from different locations. This also protects the DC circuits from a lot of 60-Hz radio-frequency noise coupling. The conduit arrangement for this project is shown in Figure 121.

f.

Calculate Conduit Fill To make your plan drawing or conduit schedule useful to construction, it must provide conduit fill capacities that allow successful pulling to occur. Clearly, a conduit sized just

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267

E

D D1

3

TO I/O MARSHALLING CABINET TC-2 DRAWING WRG-001

T

T

2

T

T

3 T

A1

T

1

4

TK-10

7 T

5

T

JB

A4

PP-10 M

6

T

A3

A2 JB-TK10-01

A2-022 To MCC001

FROM NEXT BAY Drawing PLAN022, Routing A2

2 Figure 121. Instrument location plan design. Step five: add conduit detail slightly larger than the cables it contains would make pulling difficult if not impossible. Likewise, certain cable combinations are more difficult to pull than others. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has conducted tests, and published the results for rigid metal conduit in article 344 of the NEC.13 Surprisingly, three cables are easier to pull than two, as evidenced by the permissible fill percentages. But, three cables have an inherent tendency to bind when coming out of a bend if the conduit size is in a certain proportion to cable area. Four or more cables do not exhibit this tendency. Therefore, an additional step is necessary when calculating the area fill of a conduit carrying three cables. The NEC clearly defines the maximum percent of area fill for conduits in Table 1, Percent of Cross Section of Conduit and Tubing for Conductors.14 This table describes maximums that cannot be exceeded and is based on common conditions of proper cabling and alignment of conductors where the length of pull and the number of bends are within reasonable limits. This table recommends, in general, a 40% area fill if more than two cables are in the conduit (see Figure 122). If one cable is in the conduit, a fill of 53% is permitted, and if two cables, 31%. Ampacity issues can be ignored because these are low-voltage applications in which heating due to high current is not an issue. There are a couple of exceptions to the 53/31/40 rules. There is a cautionary note about the possibility of jams occurring when pulling three cables if the ratio of conduit inside diameter (i.d.) to cable outside diameter (o.d.) is between 2.8 and 3.2.15 This jam-

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Max Qty % Fill 1 53 2 31 > 2 40 Figure 122. Cable area fill ming could occur if the conduit is deformed due to bending, thus allowing the three cables room to “line up” in cross-section while within the bend as opposed to forming a triangle (see Figure 123). In that case, the cables jam when the conduit resumes its round shape after the bend is negotiated. So, if pulling three cables, try to avoid a fill ratio of between 2.8 and 3.2.

Note the deformed oval shape allowing cables to re-orient themselves Binding

Circular Before the Bend

Oval Inside the Bend

Circular After the Bend

Figure 123. Cross-sectional views of cable orientation before, during, and after a conduit bend

To calculate the area fill of a conduit, the size of the conduit must be known. Not the “trade size,” but the inner area. NEC Chapter 9, Table 4, Article 344 lists the data for rigid metallic conduit (RMC).16 Based on the total inner area values provided in that chart, Figure 124 lists the particulars for most of the conduit sizes I&C designers are likely to use. So, the NEC lists the key statistics for each type of conduit as they relate to the fill calculation. The cable manufacturer provides statistics relating to the outer dimensions of the cable. For the purposes of this discussion, we are using RMC-type conduit, and we will pull three cables of the same type (i.e., identical cross-sectional areas). • • •

The cable type is a 16 AWG, 16-pair cable with an overall shield and an o.d. of .866 inch. The number of cables in the pull is three. Find the cross-sectional area of the cable using one of the formulae provided below: Area = πr2 = 3.14159(.866/2)2 = 0.589 in2 OR Area = OD2 * cmil = .8662 (π/4) = 0.589 in2

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269

BASIC CONDUIT DATA Area 40% Fill

Conduit

I.D.

31% Fill

1/2"

0.622

0.314

0.1256

0.0973

3/4"

0.824

0.549

0.2196

0.1702

1"

1.049

0.887

0.3548

0.275

1-1/4"

1.38

1.526

0.6104

0.4731

1-1/2"

1.61

2.071

0.8284

0.642

2" 3"

2.067 3.068

3.408 7.499

1.3632 2.957

1.0565 1.8483

Figure 124. Conduit facts •

Find the total area of the cables: 3 cables x (0.589 in 2) = 1.767 in2





Refer to the basic conduit data table in Figure 125 to find the proper conduit size to meet the 40% fill specification. Find the RMC section of the table. In the 40% fill column, the smallest conduit size that can accommodate a 1.767 cable area would be a 1½-inch conduit with an inside area of 2.071 in 2. Next, compare conduit i.d. with cable area to avoid the dreaded 2.8 to 3.2 binding ratio noted above: 2.071/1.767 = 1.172, a satisfactory result.

That, in essence, is all there is to it. If there is a mix of cables in a particular conduit, this complicates things a bit. In that case, the cable area calculation has to be done for each cable type, and the results must be summed before consulting NEC Table 4.17 Figure 125 presents a method for automating this process using a Microsoft® Excel calculator.* Notice that two four-conductor, 16-AWG, 600-volt, unshielded cables were selected for this conduit. The calculator checks the number of cables being pulled and issues the cautionary 31% fill message that is appropriate for two cables. Then, the fill is calculated for each of the most used conduit sizes. In this case, a 1-inch conduit will suffice. Caution: The data presented in Figure 125 may be dated, so verify the data with the cable manufacturer.

g.

Adjust Conduit Routings for Legal Fill When the fill calculations are completed for each conduit trunk, the routing assignments already established will probably need to be adjusted to accommodate overfilled (or underfilled) conduits. Overfilled conduits should be split and the affected fill calculations repeated.

h. Assign Conduit Routing Numbers After all calculations have been made, all conduit fills are confirmed to be within code, and conduit routings have been finalized, then conduit routing numbers may be assigned. A *

For an in-depth look on how to generate an accurate bid estimate and create a project schedule using Microsoft® Excel, a CD-ROM entitled “Software Tools for Successful Instrumentation and Control Systems Design” is available. Turn to page 355 for more information or visit ISA’s website at http://www.isa.org/whittCD.

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Figure 125. Conduit sizing calculator good practice (if there is not already a precedent or customer requirement) is to use an alphanumeric scheme that quickly indicates the kind of circuits inside the conduit (see Figure 126). For example, an AC (Class 2) routing code might begin with an A, and a DC (Class 1) routing a D followed by some sequential number to arrive at a unique tag number.* Label leaders should point to the largest section of conduit, and the conduit size at that point should be noted. This scheme requires that conduit routing numbers be unique to the plan drawing from which they originate. Numbers, therefore, are assigned at the “field” end. The routing number should consist of some unique designation (e.g., A21) followed by enough of the drawing number for the drawing to be identified from the tag. If the conduit routing never leaves the drawing, a hexagon is used as a shorthand technique, and just the routing number need be shown. If, however, the conduit originates on drawing X and then leaves that drawing and reappears on drawing Y, then drawing Y shows the conduit tag as a rectangle

*

See NEC1999 article 725-15 for more information on circuit classes.

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PART III – CHAPTER 13: PHYSICAL DRAWINGS

PLAN DRAWING -001

PLAN DRAWING -002

A1 1

J

271

JBOX

J JBOX

MARSHALLING PANEL

A1

2

A2

1

A2 3

PLAN DRAWING -003 A2-002

A1-001

Plan Drawing -001 has three conduits with AC circuits, conduits A1, A2, and A3. Conduit A1 extends onto Plan Drawing -002 where it terminates in a junction box. A2 terminates in the local jbox, and A3 is a homerun that terminates in the Marshalling Panel.

A3-001

2

A3

Plan Drawing -002 has two conduits with AC circuits, conduits A1, and A2. Conduit A1 terminates in the junction box, and conduit A2 is a homerun that terminates in the Marshalling panel. Note that instrument station numbers restart from one plan drawing to the next.

Plan Drawing -003 has no conduits being called out since none begin there. However, conduit callouts do refer back to the originating drawing

Figure 126. Recommended conduit tagging convention with the conduit number and whatever portion of the drawing number that is necessary to point to the right document. For example, a field junction box will have several conduits running from it to field devices. Each of those conduits will have a number unique to the plan drawing that shows the most remote instrument serviced by that conduit. Homerun cables that run from that field junction box to the marshalling cabinet will be numbered at the field junction box drawing. Cables running from the marshalling cabinet to the control room will be numbered from the marshalling cabinet drawing. Figure 127 shows a typical floor arrangement with conduit routing numbers added.

i.

Generate a Component Schedule The instrument location plan component schedule is a table that provides detail about each instrument station. This table usually appears in the upper right corner of the drawing. A row of information is provided for each element represented by the instrument station boxes. As previously noted, a single instrument station box can represent multiple instruments. Therefore, instrument station numbers might be repeated several times in the table. Each instrument will have its own record in the table. Beyond crossing the instrument station numbers to their associated instruments, the component schedule crosses each instrument to its cable code. A cable code cross-reference chart (see Figure 128) should be devised early in the project that allows shorthand codes to be linked to the list of approved cables. This chart should appear on each plan drawing that depends on the code. A type A cable, in our example, is a single-conductor, 14-gauge wire, while type B indicates a twisted-pair, 16-gauge cable with an overall shield. A table allows shorthand code to be used to simplify the process of determining the cable requirements of each instrument. For example, in the component schedule shown in Figure 129, instrument station 5 has a level transmitter with three type A and one type B cable. Also, a level switch on that same transmitter requires an additional four type A

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272

LEGEND

D1 T

T

AC Routing 01. The Hexagon indicates the routing originates on this drawing PLAN-001

T A1

TO I/O MARSHALLING CABINET TC-2 DRAWING WRG001

2

T

3 T

TK-10 5

T

1 T

A1

4

7

PP-10

T

AC Routing #2 originating on drawing no. PLAN-002.

A2-022

M

6

T

JB

Rigid Conduit

A4

A3

A2

Conduit Size Callout Conduit Body "tee" type fitting

1-1/2"c

JB-TK10-01 A2-022 FROM NEXT BAY Drawing PLAN022, Routing A2

To MCC001

T

4 Instrument Station

CABLE CODES

CONDUIT SCHEDULE

COMPONENT SCHEDULE

CABLE TYPE

P/N

CONDUIT

CONTENTS

SIZE

A

1/C#14,US

XXX

A1-001

13A

3/4"

B

TWPR#16,OS

YYY

A2-001

1D

1"

C

3/C#14,US

ZZZ

A3-001

5A

3/4"

D

16/C#16, US

AAAA

A4-001

2C

16TWPR#16,IS BBBB

D1-001

3B

CODE

E

STA#

TAG#

DESCRIPTION

CABLE

1

LT-10

LEVEL XMTR

1B,3A

2

PV-48

CTRL VALVE

1B

3

PT-48

PRESS XMTR

1B

3/4"

4

HV-13

FILL VALVE

5A

1"

5

PSV-58

RELIEF VALVE

NA

6

YS-15A

HOA IN AUTO

4A

7

LSLL47

LEVEL SWITCH

4A

Figure 127. Instrument arrangement with support data. Figure 127. Instrument arrangement with support data

CABLE CODES CODE

CABLE TYPE

P/N

A

1/C#14,US

XXX YYY

B

TWPR#16,OS

C

3/C#14,US

ZZZ

D

16/C#16, US

AAAA

E

16TWPR#16,IS BBBB

Figure 128. Cable code cross-reference chart cables. In our example, a type A cable is actually a single-conductor wire, but the principle holds true nonetheless. An on/off valve with limit switches, for example, might require a total of five wires: two for the solenoid, one to extend switch power, and one for each of the open/close limit switches. In this example, cable code 5B describes the wiring needs of the valve, denoting five 14-gauge, single-conductor wires. An ultrasonic level transmitter needs one shielded cable for DC analog (a type A cable in our example) and three single-conductor wires for AC power. Thus, the cable code for this instrument is 1A3B.

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273

COMPONENT SCHEDULE STA#

TAG#

DESCRIPTION

CABLE

1

LT-10

LEVEL XMTR

1B,3A

2

PV-48

CTRL VALVE

1B

3

PT-48

PRESS XMTR

1B

4

HV-13

FILL VALVE

5A

5

PSV-58

RELIEF VALVE

NA

6

YS-15A

HOA IN AUTO

4A

7

LSLL47

LEVEL SWITCH

4A

Figure 129. Component schedule The component schedule usually appears on the drawing but can be delivered as a document in its own right. More than just listing cables, the cable schedule also provides instrument station cross-references to installation details, various nonphysical drawings such as P&IDs and instrument elementaries, and other information that may be deemed important. The schedule should, at a minimum, provide a cross-reference between the instrument station numbers that appear on the body of the drawing and the instruments represented by those station numbers along with their cabling requirements. This type of information is best handled in a database or spreadsheet and then pulled onto the drawing just prior to its being finalized and issued. Use of the database to manage this information provides the most flexibility during the design phase and makes the information more broadly available. Figure 130 is the finished component schedule for this project. It was taken directly from the database being developed for this project.

Item

Tagname

Equipment

Service

1

LSH-TK10-10

TK-10 Product Feed Tank

Product Level

COMPONENT SCHEDULE Description P&ID# PlanDwg Elevation Cables Level Switch

PID001

PLAN001

2H

Routing

ElecDetail TubeDetail MntDetail

2A

A1-PLAN001

NA

D1-PLAN001 A-PLAN001

1

LT-TK10-10

TK-10 Product Feed Tank

Product Level

Level Transmitter

PID001

PLAN001

2H

1B,3A

2

PV-TK10-48

TK-10 Product Feed Tank

Recirc Pressure

Throttling Valve

PID001

PLAN001

2H

NA

NA

2

PY-TK10-48

TK-10 Product Feed Tank

Recirc Pressure

I/P Transducer

PID001

PLAN001

2H

1B

D1-PLAN001

NA

3

PT-TK10-48

PP-10 Product Pump

Discharge Press

Pressure Transmitter

PID001

PLAN001

2H

1B

D1-PLAN001

NA

4

ZSC-TK10-13

TK-10 Product Feed Tank

Product Supply

Valve Closed Status

PID001

PLAN001

2H

3A

A1-PLAN001

NA

4

HY-TK10-13

TK-10 Product Feed Tank

Product Supply

Solonoid, 3-Way

PID001

PLAN001

2H

2A

A1-PLAN001

4

HV-TK13-13

TK-10 Product Feed Tank

Product Supply

Feed Valve

PID001

PLAN001

2H

NA

NA

In-Line

In-Line

5

PSV-TK10-58

TK-10 Product Feed Tank

Pressure

Relief Valve

PID001

PLAN001

2H

NA

NA

NA

NA

6

YS-TK10-15A

PP-10 Product Pump

Motor Controls

Switch in Auto

PID001

PLAN001

2L

2A

A6-PLAN001

NA

7

LSLL-TK10-47

TK-10 Product Feed Tank

Low Level

Level Switch

PID001

PLAN001

2M

5A

A1-PLAN001

NA

In-Line

In-Line

In-Line Integral

Integral Integral In-Line

Figure 130. Plan001 component schedule

This schedule will be placed on the plan drawing. It has the following features: •

Cable types and routing numbers are provided for each item.



Multiple items are listed per instrument station, and each item is within close physical proximity to the other.



Installation details will be listed when they are assigned. As is evident, not all items need all types of installation detail. There are columns for electrical cable and conduit, instrument air tubing and fittings, and mounting. The details listed

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274

here will greatly help the installers collect material and install the right configuration.

5. Material Takeoff The utility of the plan drawing for the engineering firm is as an aid in building a bill of materials. Underpurchasing or overpurchasing material beyond a small allowable error margin is problematic for both the construction forces and the financial managers. The worst case is construction forces could be idle waiting for materials. Therefore, the material takeoff is a critical aspect of the designer’s job. This section describes a relatively painless method of taking off both the cable and the conduit material with a minimum of wasted effort. The sketch in Figure 131 depicts a typical conduit routing. The cable requirements are known, and conduits have already been sized as described above. Now, it is time to tabulate the material.

1

2A, 1"c El: 15ft 4 H

El: 9ft-7in 5A, 1.5"c

B

15A,2B, 2.5"c

C

G

4A, 1"c

D

2

E

El: 12ft 4A,2B, 1.5"c

F

3

5

J

2A, 1"c El: 3ft

El: 6ft 2A, 1"c

A

FJB El:6ft

Physical Information: 1) Ceiling Elevation: 17ft 2) Floor Elevation: 0ft 3) Assume top conduit height: 15ft 4) Assume 1 square = 1ft.

There are two types of cables used here – Type “A”, and Type “B”. In order to do this takeoff, the cable requirements of each instrument station must be known, and the conduit sizing calculations must be finalized. Each “leg” of the conduit should be labeled in some way – in this case with letters. The TAKEOFF Table can then be used to extract information about each leg. Then the Cable Tally and Conduit Tally can be done as shown.

LEG A B C D E F G H J

LEG A B C D E F G H J TOTAL

SIZE 2.5 1.5 2 1.5 1 .75 1 0.75 0.75

TAKEOFF CABLES LEN A B A LEN B LEN 24 15 2 360 48 7 5 35 0 3 10 2 30 6 2 6 2 12 4 6 4 2 24 12 12 2 24 0 5 4 20 0 4 2 8 0 16 2 32 0 CABLE LENGTHS: 545 70

2.5 24

CONDUIT TALLY 2 1.5

1

3/4

7 3 2 6 12 5

24

3

9

11

4 16 32

Figure 131. Cable and conduit takeoff approach

Note that there are two types of cables: type A and type B. The notes at the station boxes indicate the station’s cable needs and average elevation. It is assumed that the two-dimensional view of the conduit shows only the conduit at the ceiling level of 17 ft – 2 ft (to get below structural steel) = 15 ft. Drops to the instrument stations are assumed to be vertical and therefore invisible on this view. Again, this can all be done in Microsoft® Excel, except, of course, for the plan drawing itself, which is included here for reference. The designer must first label (pencil) each leg of the conduit that appears on the plan drawing, and then, in Microsoft® Excel, enter the basic information in the takeoff table. The designer should scale each leg, estimating the up and down movements of the conduit as well. For example, leg A appears to be only 13 feet long according to the scaled grid (1 block = 1 square foot), but the designer listed 24 feet. In that leg, there are 15 type A cables and two type B cables. The length of each type is calculated as follows: 15 x 24 = 360 feet of type A and 2 x 24 = 48

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275

feet of type B. Each leg of each conduit should be analyzed individually. In the end, the Microsoft® Excel cable table provides an automatically calculated cable quantity. In a similar vein, the conduit tally table allows a quick calculation of the amount of conduit that is likely to be needed. This method might take a little practice, but it yields an accurate tally with a minimum of fuss. It also provides a means of making quick adjustments as the design develops. If a vessel moves to another floor, for example, or if a pump gets deleted from the scope, these charts give the designer the ability to respond quickly to the change. The end result is a more accurate bill of materials with fewer hours expended. Using this method on our application yields the information given in Figure 132.

D1

A B TO I/O MARSHALLING AREA DRAWING #PLAN024

E

C

T

LEG A

T

O A1

N

M

PP10 T M

T

JB1

A4

2.5

2

1.5

M

6

H

J K L

J A2

G H

4

7

K

F

LEG

F

T 1

L

N O

E T

T

5 15 5 10 5 5

D 3

T

5

150 10 3 6 8 150 75 50 10 12 8 3 8 8

C 2

TK10

1" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4"

B

T

D

TAKEOFF LEN A

SIZE

B

D

A LEN 0

3 1 2 1 1 1 6 1

CABLE LENGTHS:

A3

CABLES B LEN D LEN 450 0

0

10

0

0

6

0

0

6

0

8

0

0

0

150

450

0

0

0

0

50

0

50

0

0

180

0

0

40

0

0

30

0

0

40 40

0 0

0 0

830

480

200

CONDUIT TALLY

G

A2-022

FROM NEXT BAY Drawing PLAN022, Routing A2

To MCC001

Physical Information: 1) Ceiling Elevation: 17ft 2) Floor Elevation: 0ft 3) Assume top conduit height: 15ft 4) Assume 1 square = 1ft.

CABLE CODES

1.25

1

3/4

TOT

A

0

B C

0 0

D

0

CODE

CABLE TYPE

P/N

E

0

A

1/C#14,US

XXXX

F

0

B

TWPR#16,OS

YYYY

G

0

Plat.RTD Ext Wire ZZZZ

C

H

0

D

16c#16,US

SSSS

J

0

E F

8twpr#16,OS

VVVV TTTT

F G

0 0

H J TOTAL

0 0 0

0

0

0

0

0

Figure 132. Step one: cable takeoff method

This information shows that we need to purchase at least 790 feet of type A cable (single-conductor, #14), 490 feet of type B cable (twisted pair #16, shielded), and 200 feet of type D Cable (19conductor #16, unshielded). Now, we need to size the conduit for each leg using the conduit sizing calculator described earlier. Leg A has three type B cables. The calculator results for leg A are shown in Figure 133. A ¾-inch conduit will suffice for 40% fill, but note the caution message that is displayed. There are three cables, so an additional step is necessary. In the bottom message window, a calculated ratio appears that compares the conduit ID with the cable area. The inner area of the ¾-inch conduit is 0.549 in2 and the outer diameter of the cable is 0.197 in2: 0.549/0.197 = 2.7868. This falls just under the 2.8 binding limitation. For safety’s sake, it might be wise to up-size the conduit to eliminate this possible problem.

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Figure 133. Conduit sizing calculator results We can size all the remaining legs of the conduit system by following this process (see Figure 134).

Figure 134. Cable takeoff by leg

After all the conduit sections have been properly sized, the conduit takeoff can be done by simply moving the leg length (LEN) value into the conduit tally table under the proper conduit size heading. For example, leg A is a 1-inch conduit with a 150-foot length. So, move 150 feet into the 1inch column of the conduit tally table for leg A, as shown in Figure 135. It’s as simple as that. When finished, the result is a pretty good estimate for the amount of conduit needed. In this case, we will need 150 feet of 1-inch and 312 feet of ¾-inch conduit.

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PART III – CHAPTER 13: PHYSICAL DRAWINGS

D1

A TO I/O MARSHALLING AREA DRAWING #PLAN024

B

LEG A

E

C

T

T

B

T

C

D

D 2

E

3

T T

F

O A1

T

TK10

1

N

M T

5

L

PP10 T M

T

JB1

A4

H

J K L M

6

N O

J A2

G H

4

7

K

F

277

TAKEOFF LEN A

SIZE

1" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4"

150 10 3 6 8 150 75 50 10 12 8 3 8 8

B

D

3 1 2 1 1 1 6 1 5 15 5 10 5 5 CABLE LENGTHS:

A3

A LEN 0

CABLES B LEN D LEN 450 0

0

10

0

0

6

0

0

6

0

0

8

0

0

0

150

450

0

0

0

0

50

50

0

0

180

0

0

40

0

0

30

0

0

40 40

0 0

0 0

830

480

200

CONDUIT TALLY

G

A2-022

FROM NEXT BAY Drawing PLAN022, Routing A2

LEG A

To MCC001

Physical Information: 1) Ceiling Elevation: 17ft 2) Floor Elevation: 0ft 3) Assume top conduit height: 15ft 4) Assume 1 square = 1ft.

2.5

2

1.5

1.25

1

CABLE CODES CODE

10 3 6 8 150 75 50 10 12 8 3 8

D

CABLE TYPE

P/N

A

1/C#14,US

XXXX

F

B

TWPR#16,OS

YYYY

G

Plat.RTD Ext Wire ZZZZ

H

C

E

D

16c#16,US

SSSS

J

E F

8twpr#16,OS

VVVV TTTT

F G H J TOTAL

3/4

150

B C

0

0

0

150

312

TOT 150 10 3 6 8 150 75 50 10 12 8 3 8 462

Figure 135. Conduit takeoff This leaves us needing fittings and miscellaneous hardware, but that will be picked up later in the bill of materials task. All the hard data generated should be stored until needed for that task.

D. Instrument Installation Details This chapter introduced the instrument process area plan drawing and showed how that drawing can be used to compile bulk materials such as cable and conduit. However, the plan drawing views the problem from the standpoint of the process area “common” material only. It gets the signal, or power, to the instrument station. But, the instrument station is itself a composite. The symbol used on the plan drawing is a simple box. The box may represent any number of instruments, with each possibly requiring different materials and/or different configuration. How do we plug this gap? We build a set of instrument installation details. The installation detail satisfies two distinct needs: • •

Material takeoff Guidance for installers

Installation details provide a means for quantifying the material required at the instrument. This is done by creating generic sketches of process situations, giving the sketches a unique number, and then linking the proper sketch to the instrument by entering the detail number in the instrument database. An installation detail is shown in Figure 136. Installation details are typically on regular notebook-size paper (ANSI-A). The detail in Figure 136 depicts the electrical hookup of a generic instrument. A bill of materials is provided. If the project calls for installing 50 electrical instruments, then each item on the bill of materials is multiplied by 50. For example, we would need 100 feet of Liquidtite flex conduit to meet that need. There are three basic types of standard installation detail:

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278

7 6 RIGID GALV.STEEL CONDUIT (COVERED ELSEWHERE)

5

ITEM

QTY

U/I

1

2

EA

2

1

EA

3

2

EA

4

1

EA

5

1

EA

6

1

EA

7

1

EA

8

2

FT

BILL OF MATERIAL DESCRIPTION

COUPLING,LIQ-TITE,FLEXIBLE 'DRAIN,CONDUIT NIPPLE,CONDUIT,3/4" RIGID STL REDUCER,CONDUIT,3/4"X1/2" COVER,CONDULET, FORM7 GASKET,CONDULET,FORM7 CONDULET, TEE,3/4",FORM7 FLEX, LIQUIDTITE, 3/4"

PART NO. C-H LNM75 C-H ECD15 FAB C-H RE21 C-H 270 C-H GASK572 C-H T27 VAR

9 10

1

11 c 13 14

8

4

15 16

2

ELEC. DEVICE

3

17 18 19 20 21 REVISION HISTORY REV

DATE

DESCRIPTION

INITIALS

A

NOTES

TITLE

DETAIL NUMBER

INSTRUMENT INSTALLATION DETAIL GEN'L PURPOSE FLEX IBLE CONDUIT TERMINATION DETAIL

ELEC-001

REVISION

A

Figure 136. Instrument conduit installation detail • • •

Electrical, as indicated above, provides detail on conduit termination. Mechanical, to provide detail on instrument air tube fittings or mechanical linkages, etc. Mounting, to provide detail on vessel-trim or pipe-stand mounting.

In addition to the standard details, other details may find their way into the project. Special installation details are sometimes needed for those occasional design “opportunities” that may arise. Those details may become quite involved, being done on larger drawings. We will assume our little project will have none of those. Let’s briefly look at each type of detail.

1. Electrical Installation Details We have already discussed the detail above, showing the electrical hookup of an instrument. This detail shows the conduit drop arriving in ¾-inch rigid conduit. Up to that point, the material is calculated from the plan drawing. The detail lists the components from the tee fitting to the device (see Figure 137). In this case, it includes a tee fitting (Item 7). A tee is used at the lowest points of each drop. The tee needs a gasket and a cover. The tee is oriented with the base port on the horizontal plane. Flexible conduit, or flex hose, is mated to this port by use of a short pipe nipple, which makes the transition from fitting to hose coupling. The flex is then mated to the end device with a second nipple. The bottom port of the tee has a drain that prevents buildup of condensate, which sometimes collects and eats away the conduit from the inside or finds its way into the electronic enclosure. This represents the simplest application. If in a hazardous area, conduit seals may be required along with explosionproof fittings. Part II of this book explains some of the issues to consider for hazardous areas.

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7 6 RIGID GALV.STEEL CONDUIT (COVERED ELSEWHERE)

5

ITEM

QTY

U/I

1

2

EA

1

8 2

ELEC. DEVICE

4

3

2

1

EA

3

2

EA

4

1

EA

5

1

EA

6

1

EA

7

1

EA

8

2

FT

BILL OF MATERIAL DESCRIPTION

COUPLING,LIQ-TITE,FLEXIBLE 'DRAIN,CONDUIT NIPPLE,CONDUIT,3/4" RIGID STL REDUCER,CONDUIT,3/4"X1/2" COVER,CONDULET, FORM7 GASKET,CONDULET,FORM7 CONDULET, TEE,3/4",FORM7 FLEX, LIQUIDTITE, 3/4"

PART NO. C-H LNM75 C-H ECD15 FAB C-H RE21 C-H 270 C-H GASK572 C-H T27 VAR

Figure 137. Electrical installation detail

2. Tubing Details Any pneumatic instrument needs instrument air. Figure 138 is an installation detail for an on/off valve with an integral solenoid. It has a filter/regulator to set the ideal operating pressure for the valve and to clear the air of debris. Sometimes moisture is a concern and a trap needs to be installed. A lot depends on the facility. This particular valve is a fail-closed valve. The air is applied below the diaphragm, which is pushed closed by a spring. The air pressure overcomes the spring and the valve opens.

5 2

FROM AIR HEADER

SOLENOID

BILL OF MATERIAL DESCRIPTION

ITEM

QTY

U/I

1

1

EA

ON/OFF VALVE

SEE SPEC

2

1

EA

SOLENOID, 3-WAY

ON VALVE

PART NO.

3

6

FT

TUBING, 3/8", CU, .032" WALL

VAR

4

1

EA

FILTER/REGULATOR

XXXX

5

5

EA

COMPRESSION FITTINGS, TUBING, 3/8"

XXXX

6

1

EA

FILTER

XXXX

7 8

S

9 10

3 3 4

VENT

5

11 c 13 14 15

VENT

16 17

6

18 19

FLOW

20 21 REVISION HISTORY REV

FLANGES BY PIPING

1

DATE

DESCRIPTION

INITIALS

A

NOTES 1) THE VALVE DEPICTED IS AN "AIR-TO-OPEN" VALVE. IF THE VALVE OF INTEREST IS "AIR-TO-CLOSE, REVERSE THE AIR HOOKUPS TO THE ACTUATOR.

TITLE

DETAIL NUMBER

INSTRUMENT MECHANICAL DETAIL ON/OFF VALVE WITH INTEGRAL 3-WAY SOLENOID

MECH-001

Figure 138. Instrument mechanical hookup detail

REVISION

A

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280

The material listed here is quite generic; when a detail is used on a real project, the material needs to be researched and the component schedule updated. Figure 139 is a second detail showing instrument air being provided to a throttling valve.

5 2

U/I

1

1

EA

THROTTLING VALVE

SEE SPEC

2

1

EA

I/P TRANSDCUER

ON VALVE

PART NO.

3

6

FT

TUBING, 3/8", CU, .032" WALL

VAR

4

1

EA

FILTER/REGULATOR

XXXX

3-15 PSIG

5

5

EA

COMPRESSION FITTINGS, TUBING, 3/8"

XXXX

6

1

EA

FILTER

XXXX

5

7

3

8

3 4

QTY

XDUCER

I/P

FROM AIR HEADER

BILL OF MATERIAL DESCRIPTION

ITEM

VENT

9 10 11 c 13

6

14 15 16

VENT

17

5

18 19

FLOW

20 21 REVISION HISTORY REV

FLANGES BY PIPING

1

DATE

DESCRIPTION

INITIALS

A

NOTES 1) THE VALVE DEPICTED IS AN "AIR-TO-OPEN" VALVE. IF THE VALVE OF INTEREST IS "AIR-TO-CLOSE, REVERSE THE AIR HOOKUPS TO THE ACTUATOR.

TITLE

DETAIL NUMBER

INSTRUMENT MECHANICAL DETAIL THROTTLING VALVE WITH INTEGRAL I/P TRANSDUCER

MECH-002

REVISION

A

Figure 139. Instrument mechanical detail with throttling valve

In this case, there is a transducer instead of a solenoid, and the spring is on the other side of the actuator. Otherwise, the two are fairly similar. Now let’s look at a mounting detail.

3. Mounting Details Mounting details show the mounting hardware and configuration of the mount. In Figure 140, the mount is on a flange on the top of a vessel. The material listed on this detail is called “vessel trim” and includes nuts, bolts, gaskets, and blind flanges to be drilled and tapped to fit the instrument. Other types of mounting details revolve around the venerable 2-inch instrument pipe stand, which can be adapted to virtually any circumstance.

4. Database Of course, now that we have these fine sketches, we need to do something with them! Each instrument needs to be evaluated as to the type of detail(s) that are appropriate for it. As details are matched to the instruments, they need to be logged in the database as shown in Figure 141. Notice that YS-15A gets a Mount-002, which we haven’t discussed yet. It is a 2-inch pipe-stand mount. Also, note a few of the other terms in the mount column. The term integral means the item is a subassembly, in other words, part of something else, and has nothing that needs mounting hardware. The term in-line means that the item is in a pipeline. The piping department mounts that item.

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Figure 140. Instrument mounting detail

Figure 141. Database log of details

5. Material Takeoff Well, we’re finally down to it. The physical drawing set, including the installation details and component schedules on the plan drawing, leads us to a list of materials to purchase. This topic is picked up in Chapter 16, Procurement.

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E. Summary The physical drawing set is primarily for the purpose of construction. The design team uses these drawings initially to generate a bill of materials and to validate the design concept. Then, the constructor uses them to build the plant. Once built, these drawings are rarely updated. Even if an effort is made, various small in-house projects are done without anyone touching these drawings. They will be out of date before you know it! What about the major capital project that comes along every once in a while? Well, the A&E firm that wins that bid will do a walkdown and “as-build” the drawings. They will, quite likely, do this whether the drawings have been kept up or not. So, the maintenance effort will have been largely wasted. So, from the designer’s perspective—and the customer’s—it makes sense to minimize the level of detail. The instrument station concept presents a great deal of information for a relatively small graphics investment. Positioning the station box can be diagrammatical, accurate to within a few feet. The database provides the detail lacking on the diagram itself. Regarding the database, it is important that designers be fully capable of capturing the data in the database as they progress through the design. This is not something that should be left as a clerical function at the end, because ground will have to be retraced and things always seem to get lost in the translation. Having the database active in the designer’s workspace at all times makes it convenient to log the information as it is discovered. By the time the drawings are marked up, the database will be done. To summarize the products generated under this topic, we created a process area instrument plan drawing, which details the cable and conduit and the approximate locations of each instrument. We also generated some installation details. These documents are used to build a bill of materials, which is covered in Chapter 16, Procurement.

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Chapter 14: Instrument and Control Wiring The “Standards and Practices” chapter in Part II described basic wiring techniques. Topics such as signal sinking versus sourcing, wire numbering techniques, and other topics pertinent to the art of wiring a control system were discussed. The NFPA 79 standard was discussed as well. This chapter is about the practical aspects of generating a set of wiring drawings suitable for construction and plant maintenance. What constitutes the I&C wiring set of deliverables? Figure 142 describes the relationships among the different types of drawings.

Elementary Wiring Schematic

Termination (Connection) Wiring Diagram

PURPOSE: To show all electrical devices and wiring details required for correct operation regardless of physical location or wiring methods.

PURPOSE: To show all electrical devices and wiring details specific to a particular physical location, and to provide installation insight.

Arrangement Drawing PURPOSE: To show the dimensional mounting arrangement of all devices specific to a particular physical location, and to provide installation specifics and bills of material.

Loop Sheet - Style Elementary Wiring Schematic

Ladder-Style Elementary Wiring Schematic

PURPOSE: Use the process function as the focal point, and show all wiring and devices required to accommodate that function.

PURPOSE: Use the computer I/O card as the focal point, and show all wiring and devices related to the card

Figure 142. Wiring design basics

Why three different types of drawings? The answer: each set has its purpose. The three are needed to cover three different perspectives. First, the fabricator needs guidance in building the cabinetry panels. The fabrication function may be performed by a vendor or the constructor. While this may not be wiring per se, it is so

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closely tied to the wiring task as to be indistinguishable. The design of the enclosure must accommodate the wiring and the wiring components (see Figure 143).

JB-10 RUNNING STOPPED

ESTOP

Figure 143. Fabrication

Next, the constructor needs to be provided for. A set of drawings should be generated that presents the wiring information from the perspective of the wiring installer. An installer working in a junction box, for example, needs wiring information only for that box, not for the whole circuit. Only information for the point-to-point wiring that must be done in that panel is needed. This kind of point-to-point wiring drawing is called a connection diagram (see Figure 144).

BackPanel 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Fi

144 Wi i

CR

i t

ti

Figure 144. Wiring interconnections

Next, the maintenance technician must be considered. While the connection diagram is a good tool if a problem has been isolated to a particular location, it is woefully inadequate for troubleshooting the entire system. It is impossible, in most cases, to see an entire electrical circuit on one page. The big picture must be pieced together after tracking the signal through drawing after drawing. The elementary wiring diagram, whether in the form of a loop sheet, ladder diagram, or wiring

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schematic, solves this problem. The elementary shows the entire circuit from power source to load, usually on a single sheet (see Figure 145).

Figure 145. Elementary wiring diagram

As intimated in the previous paragraph, there are several styles of elementary (or schematic) wiring diagram, from PLC ladder elementary to loop sheet, with several variations of each. Like the P&IDs, the primary intent of the schematic is to convey functional information, at the expense of the physical if necessary. Loop sheets are a bit of a compromise. They depict the entire circuit in one spot, but the components are organized by physical location. Because the loop sheet and the ladder diagram are frequently used in tandem—the loop sheet depicting analog circuits and the ladder diagram the digital circuits—this chapter presents both. And, since both depend on the wiring diagram to provide enough physical wiring detail for construction, a wiring diagram is presented along with a fabrication layout.

A. Instrument Elementary (Ladder) Diagram Instrument elementary diagrams form the foundation of the electrical documentation set. These drawings show the complete circuit at a glance, allowing the viewer to see the entire path of electron flow. Unlike the wiring (connection) diagram, which provides a mechanical “connect the dots” approach to the physical act of wiring, the elementary diagram does not focus on the physical location of the equipment. Rather, it focuses on the electrical functionality of the system. The ladder elementary, sometimes called a schematic, focuses on one aspect of the control system. The PLC or DCS I/O module is often the focal point. In some cases, a piece of equipment or system being controlled is the focal point. It is generally a large drawing (22 by 34 inches or so) that shows all the wiring associated with a particular element such as an I/O module. This drawing has, histor-

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286

ically, been the method of choice for diagramming all electrical wiring, whether motors, lights, garbage disposals, or instrument and control circuits. In Figure 146, a typical instrument elementary is shown. This drawing sample has field devices (switches) pulling in relays that are in turn feeding the signals to annunciators and other control circuits. Lettered boxes indicate physical locations and circuit locations. Feed-through terminals are depicted as lettered boxes embedded in the wiring. Device locators are lettered boxes “floating” near devices. The letters indicate their whereabouts.

Line Number Format: XXXYY where

Device Locator

XXX is the sequential part of the drawing no, and

Feed-Thru Terminal

YY is a number between 0 and 99 unique to that drawing. 52202

N1

H1

52203 52204 52205

52203FU X 2A

52203A

52205FU X 2A

52205A

MP01 4 FJB10 8

52205CR X

MP01 5

52203CR X

52203B 52205CR FJB10 9 52205B 52205B 52205ZSC 52203B

ZSC-10

A

DESCRIPTION 05422 (SCH-054)

X

DESCRIPTION 03

Contact Reference Rules:

Wire Numbers:

P&ID Device Tag:

1) Use line number alone if the destination line is

Same as line numbers except with

Any device shown on

in the same process area.

an alpha suffix. The number or

P&ID has one.

2) Add the drawing number to the reference if

suffix MUST change when a device

"Elementary" Device Tag:

other than a feed-thru terminal is

Any device shown on elementary has one,

crossed.

but it's shown only for cross-referencing purposes.

the destination is in a different building, or if it's needed for clarification. 3) Underline the reference if a normally closed contact is used.

Figure 146. Typical instrument elementary content

Rung numbers are located in a column to the left of the graphic section of the drawing. These numbers are used as vectors. Each number is unique. In some cases, and this is probably the best scheme, a portion of the drawing number forms the first part of the rung number. Then, a two-digit suffix is added to make the number unique, to give each drawing a unique 100-number block. These numbers are used to generate wire numbers and equipment designators called electrical and instrumentation (E&I) numbers. E&I numbers provide a shorthand method for navigating through the drawing set. This is not to be confused with P&I numbers, which are assigned on P&IDs. Each device may have either, neither, or both numbers assigned to it. Not all electrical devices show up on the P&ID, and an E&I number is required only if it is referenced by another drawing. Wire numbers, in the scheme presented above at least, are assigned based on their proximity to rung numbers. Each wire segment has a number, though the number is shown only if it changes. Figure 146 shows wire numbers at every wire segment for clarification purposes. Notice that the

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wire number does not change as it crosses a feed-through terminal. It only changes if it crosses a device such as a fuse, switch, or relay. If the wire number needs to be changed, the “rung” portion does not necessarily change. If the wire remains on the same horizontal plane, then the wire number is only modified by incrementing a letter suffix. If, however, the wire moves vertically and connects to a circuit on a different rung, the wire number changes to the new rung number the next time it crosses a device. This scheme has some major advantages. Probably the foremost is the elimination of the drawing list as a primary document that must always be available to the maintenance personnel. In this scheme, finding a wire number automatically vectors the technician to the proper drawing. Relay contact references are assigned based on where they appear. Ideally, the contact and its coil are linked as shown in Figure 147. In that case, there is no need to provide reference to contact locations because they are linked to the coil. But, this is a luxury that is rare. Usually, the contacts are embedded in logic that appears elsewhere, even on different drawings entirely. In those cases, a method of cross-referencing needs to be employed.

52203CR CR

H

N NO1

C1

NC1 NO2

C3

NC2 NO3

C3

NC3 NO4

C4

NC4

Figure 147. 4-pole relay coil with contacts

In Figure 148, a four-pole relay coil is shown with references to the locations of its contacts. These references appear as the rung number where each contact is shown. The rung reference 10327 is underlined to indicate that a normally closed contact is used at that location.

52203CR H

CR

N

LAH-42 TK-17 HI LEVEL (PID-001) 52242, 54101 12222, 10327

Figure 148. Four-pole relay coil with cross-references to its contacts

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At rung 10327, the contact for this relay is shown, as indicated in Figure 149. Wire 10327B leads to relay 52203CR, contact block 4, and “common” terminal C4. The contacts are closed to pass the signal only if the relay coil is off. Otherwise, the contacts are open, thus blocking the signal. The signal leaves the relay on normally closed terminal NC4, and the wire number changes to 10327C.

52203CR 10327B

C4

NC4

10327C

Figure 149. Pole-4 relay contacts with cross-reference to its coil

Nowadays, the ladder elementary is usually used to show PLC or DCS digital (discrete) circuit wiring to devices such as on/off valves, motors, and solenoids. Analog circuits may be shown in this format as well, though some prefer the loop sheet format for those elements. Rung numbering is optional, depending on the scheme employed. Some prefer using the instrument tag as a part of the number rather than a drawing number sequence, or even some independent sequence tied to no methodology. While deriving rung numbers from the drawing number is probably best overall, and would work great for a new facility, existing systems rarely employ that scheme. As a result, we will use a derivative of the instrument tag for our numbering process. In our project example, the ladder diagrams are used to convey wiring information regarding power distribution and discrete (on/off) control circuits. We will use loop sheets for the analog circuits. Following is a discussion of the primary elementary formats:

1. Motor Elementaries Since the motor elementary (see Figure 150) is a product of the electrical department, we will not spend a great deal of time on it. However, the controls team does play a significant role in its production. This motor control circuit is self-powered in that the control logic power source is the motor winding voltage. A 4:1 step-down transformer sits across two of the three phases and steps the voltage down to single-phase 120 VAC. If the disconnect is thrown at the motor bucket,* power is killed to the entire bucket, except where our controls are tied in. We will discuss this in more depth shortly. The output of the transformer is fused (see Figure 151), after which the interlock chain is usually powered up. In this case, the only hardwired interlock is the TK-10 low-level level switch LSLL47. An HOA switch is next. If the operator rotates the switch to the hand position, the pump starts and runs until the interlock is lost. If in the off position, the pump stops no matter what other conditions are in place. If in auto, then the computer has control of the pump motor through HS-15A. Two sets of contacts provide status information back to the computer. The first, YS-15A, provides HOA switch status, true if in auto, back to the PLC via digital input point DI0101. The other input, HS-15B, provides a run indication through the motor contactor’s (M-coil) auxiliary contacts. Note: The “linkage” line is a mechanical link to all components that are touched by it. Now, back to the disconnect discussion. It is desirable, though not a requirement, that the motor disconnect switch be able to kill all the power in the bucket. This is a safety consideration that *

A “motor bucket” is a compartment in the MCC that contains the controls hardware for the motor.

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Figure 150. Motor elementary wiring diagram

DISCONNECT OL

M

480VAC 3-PH MCC-001

M10-P1A

M10-P1B

M10-P2A

M10-P2B

M10-P3A

M10-P3B

M10

T10

NOTES:

(5A)

F1

M10-1H

PLC D0I HS-15A

HS-15B LSL-47

O M10-2

J

H

A

J

M10-2A

J

(Note 2)

J

1) HS-15B is a "Hand-Off-Auto" switch. In "Hand", the pump runs. In "Auto", the pump responds to the PLC.

M10-N1

M10-H

M10-2B

[DO0102]

T

T

M M10CR1

M10-2B CR

(Note 1)

J YS-PP10-15A

TC2-5H

J TC2-5H

TC2-5H

H

H N

SEE NOTE 3

YS-PP10-15B

3) Per NFPA79, any wires that remain energized when the primary power is interrupted shall be color-coded yellow. Wires TC2-5H, YS-PP10-15B shall be yellow. LEGEND

120VAC

N DI0101 YS-15A

2) LSL-47 is a two-pole level switch. One set of contacts is used here, the other set is tied into the PLC. The switch is powered at the PLC schematic, drawing SCH-001.

PLC D.I. NODE 1 DROP 3 SLOT 4

J

JB-TK10-01 TERMINAL

T

TC-2 TERMINAL MOTOR OVERLOAD CONTACT

DI0102 YS-15B

TERMINATION CABINET TC-2, DWG WRG-002

Figure 151. Motor elementary wiring diagram showing fused transformer output

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prevents mistakes by the electricians, who may assume that all power is off just because the motor disconnect has been pulled. This creates a design problem because of the PLC hardware we have selected. In order to accommodate this, we have selected a digital output module with output contacts that are electrically isolated from any PLC power, so they can be embedded directly into the control logic of the motor (assuming the inrush current of the motor coil is not too high). The digital input modules, however, are another thing entirely. The digital input modules are 120 VAC sinking, which means each I/O point on the modules shares a “common” neutral internal to the module (see the discussion in Part II). For our purposes, we will assume we have no other module configurations available. This prevents us from embedding the digital inputs directly into the motor circuitry. We now have two choices: 1.

Extend motor control power to the TC2 termination cabinet and install interposing (isolation) relays there to convert the signal power from the motor circuit to the PLC circuit.

2.

Extend PLC power to the motor bucket and do the inferfacing there.

In this case, we have elected to mix the power in the motor bucket.* By doing this, we only need one relay since the HOA switch already has a spare set of contacts that we can use, and it is not physically in the motor bucket anyway. Note the bottom set of HOA contacts. These are completely isolated from the motor control circuit, yet, when the operator rotates the switch to the auto position, the contacts close (as indicated by the x on the mechanical linkage line). The other signal we need comes right from the bucket. It is the ”motor is running” status signal, which is generated by the motor starter relay’s auxiliary contacts. These are called auxiliary because the primary contacts on this starter are very heavy ones, rated for 480-VAC duty, whereas the smaller “aux” contacts are rated for 120-volt service. If we could have had two sets of aux contacts, we’d be all right. But, we only have one, and that one is needed as the “seal-in” contacts for the motor starter itself. That leaves us with the need for a second relay to interpose itself between the motor power distribution and the PLC power distribution systems. This interposing relay is labeled CR and is fed by wire number M10-3A. The name of this relay, when referred to elsewhere, is relay M10CR1. Since we are mixing power in this bucket, the externally powered wires (TC2-5H and YS-PP10-15B) will need to be yellow in color to provide cautionary information to the electrician. This is provided in Note 3 on the drawing.

2. AC Power Distribution Power distribution needs to come first, if possible, to prevent rework on the other drawings later. In the power distribution ladder diagram shown in Figure 152, power is fed from a three-phase 480VAC source. The three “hot” and one “neutral” wires are terminated at instrument power panel IPP-6. Notice one of the shortcomings of the ladder diagram: The neutral wire is not shown landing in the IPP. That is understood. It is a good idea to show a terminal somewhere on the drawing to represent that neutral terminal. We will do that on the main drawing later. In any case, power is fed through 10-amp breaker CB1 to the field devices via termination cabinet TC-2, terminal strip TS-1, and fuses F1 through F8. PLC rack power is fed through CB2 and fuse F9. Notice that the wire numbers, in our ideal world, take you back to the termination cabinet and fuse. This is a great aid when troubleshooting the system and should be employed if possible. Also

*

NFPA79.16.1.3 suggests adding a warning label and color-coding wires yellow if they remain “hot” with the disconnect off.

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H IPP-6

291

N

3-phase 480v

N6

CAB TC-2 TS-1

CB1 IPP6-1H (15A)

IPP6-N1

F1 F2 F3 F4

TC2-1H TC2-2H

F5 F6 F7 F8

TC2-5H

TC2-3H TC2-4H

TC2-6H TC2-7H TC2-8H

LT-10 SPARE SPARE SPARE

N01D03R01S04 N01D03R01S06 SPARE SPARE

CB2 IPP6-2H (15A)

F9 F10

TC2-9H TC2-10H

PLC RACK POWER DC POWER SUPPLY

IPP6-N2

321 PHASES

Figure 152. AC power distribution elementary wiring diagram note that, where the neutrals are concerned, we are violating our guideline that says we do not change wire numbers across feed-thru terminals. This is a good place for an exception to our rule. It is easy to lose track of the amount of current flowing through our neutrals. Many times the designer pays good attention to distributing power properly through the hot side, using fuses and/or breakers to manage the current. Then, he/she gathers multiple circuits up on a single return wire, ignoring the fact that all the currents for each circuit sum-up when gathered onto a single return. If the return wire is common to several “hots”, as is ours in this example, the return wire will need to be sized accordingly. In our case, we decided to use a single return wire from our I/O modules and a second return wire from our power supplies, giving each a unique number to help us manage them. Unfortunately, numbering scheme is sometimes set by the customer and not negotiable. It is easy to lose the handle on your power distribution system, so every available tool should be used. Which brings up a good question: What is a good way to keep up with power panel loading? The chart in Figure 153 is a very good method. It provides a reference to help locate the load and an estimate in watts for each breaker. This helps in the effort to balance the load across the three phases of the power source. This information mimics the power distribution elementary somewhat, but goes a little further in helping manage the loading. This chart should be given a drawing number and maintained. Another good thing about this chart is it can be kept in the breaker box.

3. DC Power Distribution DC power is distributed in much the same way as the AC power except the DC power is usually generated from a local DC power supply (see Figure 154). This power supply output is then distributed via a set of fuses in terminal strip 2 (TS-2). Again, note that the wire numbers have meaning, taking the field technician back to the originating cabinet and fuse. The power supply feeds circuits through the various I/O modules except for the analog output module, which sources its own current from backplane power. That is typical for analog output modules.

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INSTR. POWER PANEL IPP-6 DESCRIPTION

CKT No.

A

TK-10 FLD DEVICES

1

60

TC-02 PLC EQUIP.

2

TK-11 FLD DEVICES

3

REACTOR FLD DEV.

4

WATTS/PHASE

B

C

CKT No. 9

180

10 100

120

11 13

6

14

7

15 180

AT-66 ANALYZER

12

5

8 TOTAL WATTS

DESCRIPTION

180

16 100 TOTAL WATTS

NOTE: When assigning circuits, balance the phase load if possible.

Figure 153. AC power panel loading chart

TC2-10H

H

PS1(+)

+

PS-1 24vdc @ 300w

N

IPP6-N2

-

DCC

CAB TC-2 TS-2 PS1(+)

F1 F2 F3 F4

TC2-DC1 TC2-DC2

F5 F6 F7 F8

TC2-DC5

TC2-DC3 TC2-DC4

TC2-DC6 TC2-DC7 TC2-DC8

D01N03R01S08 SPARE SPARE SPARE

SPARE SPARE SPARE SPARE

Figure 154. DC power distribution elementary wiring diagram

4. PLC Ladder Diagram (Elementary) The ladder elementary provides overall wiring information from the perspective of a specific equipment item. For a PLC ladder elementary, a PLC module is shown with all the wiring associated with it including I/O point wiring. For a motor elementary, the wiring is from the perspective of the motor circuit, with all associated wiring shown. This method does a good job of conveying information in a format that is relatively useful for construction, at least from the perspective of the equipment item, and that is very useful and efficient for maintenance. It is also probably the best format for efficient instrumentation design.

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The limitation of this method is the inability to depict all the control wiring for a particular system on one drawing, which is most desirable for maintenance. For example, this method may show six transmitters, all from different tanks, as opposed to one transmitter and two valves, and seven other instruments, all on the same tank. An on/off valve, for example, is likely to have its solenoid shown on one drawing and its limit switches on another. It is incumbent upon the designer to provide good cross-referencing in such cases. In Figure 155, the PLC is the focal point of the drawing. Most ladder elementaries are large (at least 22 x 32 inches [ANSI-D]), and so can show a lot of information. A good rule of thumb is to assume 32 I/O points per D-size drawing. That leaves room for all the wiring detail that might be needed, plus room for labeling, comments, and notes.

Figure 155. Instrument elementary wiring diagram concept

The conceptual ladder elementary shown in the figure is a hybrid style that has developed since the advent of the loop sheet. Like the loop sheet, this style of elementary is organized around the physical location of the device. The traditional ladder elementary (see Figure 156) was just that, a ladder. It had two vertical “supports” (power feeds) connected by horizontal “rungs” of logic. Current flowed from left to right. Depending on the level of detail desired, the depiction could show no terminals, or all of them, along with a reference vector to the enclosure. One of the major drawbacks to the earlier ladder diagram format was the fact that it did not represent wiring in a very realistic way. Single-conductor wiring was at one time the norm, but, is no longer. Most instruments are cabled as opposed to wired. The ladder diagram had difficulty depicting the cable as an entity. Having to wire using paired wires is more restrictive and can affect how the wiring should be shown. The hybrid sketch of Figure 155 shows the improved version with power distribution moved inside the field device, distributed in the marshalling panel, and returned through the PLC—just as it would really happen.

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H1

CR-L2

PB-3

PB-1

CR-L1

CR-L1

L-1

N1 WASH CYCLE IN PROGRESS

WASHING CR-L4

CR-L1

CR-L2

T4

CR-L2 CR-L2

L-2 RINSING CR-L4

T4

CR-L4

L-4

RINSE CYCLE IN PROGRESS

CLEANING CYCLE DONE

DONE T1

LSH-1

T2

HV-2 ADD SOAP M1 AGITATE

CR-L1

HV-1 WATER

CR-HV3

ADD WATER

CR-L2

T1 SIG

SOAP ADDITION TIMER

PWR

LSH-1

T2 SIG

AGITATION CYCLE TIMER

PWR CR-L1

T3

T2

SOAK CYCLE TIMER

SIG T3

CR-L4 PWR

T2

T3

T4

T4 SIG

AGITATION FINISHED

SOAK FINISHED

DRAIN NOT FINISHED

DRAIN CYCLE TIMER

PWR HV-3

DRAIN VALVE

CR-HV3

Figure 156. Traditional ladder elementary – washing machine application So, for our little task, where do we start? The answer to that, once again, is with the database. In our Microsoft® Access database (see page 355 for instructions on obtaining this database), we previously entered the information we’ll need for this task. Rather than create a new query for this task, we will work directly from the instrument and I/O list table. We can go ahead and hide a few fields to reduce the clutter. Open the table and click on “Format,” then ”Unhide Columns.” The “Unhide” selection opens a window that lets you hide or unhide (see Figure 157).

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Figure 157. “Unhide Columns” window We can’t eliminate much because the elementary is the repository for the entire load of information. After our table is prepared, we may begin.

a.

Discrete (Digital) Inputs Select an I/O type of digital input (DI) by selecting a DI data cell and then picking the “Filter by Selection button on the main menu (see Figure 158). This eliminates any data records other than I/O type DI.

Figure 158. Instrument and I/O list table, filter by selection

This brings us to the first wiring task: the digital inputs. We must first wire up the digital input module and get it powered up and ready for the I/O. Beware! The PLC rack

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power supply should not be used to power I/O, even with 24-VDC I/O such as we have here. This is to prevent a problem in the field from taking down the entire PLC. It is best to have signal power separate from backplane power. According to the I/O list, there are four digital inputs. The module we have selected has an internally bussed “common” and so is a sinking module (see “Sinking and Sourcing in Part II). Starting with the power distribution, we find our AC power source at IPP-6, circuit 1 (see Figure 159). Wires 1H and N1 supply power to our I/O. Fuse F5 on that terminal strip protects the power supply from shorts that may occur in the field. The size of the fuse should be low enough to protect the power supply and, at the same time, prevent heating up the wires. In this case, we’re using 16-gauge wires, so this should not be a problem provided our fuse blows on a short.

TERMINATION CABINET TC-2 IPP6-1H

IPP6-1H

TS1 F5

IPP6-N1

16

+

YS

HOA

ZSC

JBTK10

IPP6-N1

16-POINT DI MODULE

TC2-DC1

1

TC2-5H

45

IPP6-N1

ZSC13

2

ZSC13

46

[DI0100]

TC2-5H

3

TC2-5H

47

[DI0101]

YS-PP10-15A

4

TC2-5H

IPP6-N1

YS-PP10-15B

5 6

TC2-5H

7

LSLL47 M10-1H

8

M10-2

YS-PP10-15A TC2-5H

YS-PP10-15B

LSLL-47

TC2-5H

JB-TK10-02 (2-Cond) TC2-5H LSLL47

JBTK10

N

DROP 01 NODE 03 RACK 01 SLOT 04

1 HV-13 CLOSED 2 [DI0102]

49

[DI0103]

50

[DI0104]

51

[DI0105]

52

[DI0106]

53

[DI0107]

3

YS-15A HOA IN AUTO YS-15B PP-10 RUNNING

4 5

LSLL-47 TK-10 LO-LO LEVEL

6 7 8 9

54

10

55

11

56 JB-TK10-01 (16-Cond)

TO PP-10 MOTOR M10 TO MOTOR ELEM SCH-002

48

IPP-6 Ckt 1H H 120vac Power N

57

12

58

13

59

14

60

15 16

Figure 159. PLC digital input module elementary wiring diagram

The wire number changes across the fuse to TC2-5H to provide a link back to the fuse F5 in TC2 should power be interrupted to the inputs for this module. This “hot” wire is jumpered down the terminal strip to distribute power to each I/O point. The first eight I/O points are prewired from the module to terminal strip TS-1, beginning at terminal 46. The wires are tagged with the software address rather than the actual wire number here. The tag is in brackets to indicate that it is a tag, not a wire number. This is a significant distinction because we want the field signal wiring to reflect the field device and the power wiring to reflect the power source. Those are the actual tag numbers. But, we want to prewire between the I/O module and the terminal strip, with many of those

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points not yet assigned to a field device. So, the software address, being a unique number and good information to have, is a good way to tag that wiring. The rule for wire numbering is to change the number every time the circuit crosses a device. A device is a relay, fuse, solenoid, transmitter, or other electrical element—anything except a feed-through terminal or butt-splice. Feed-through terminals and buttsplices do not change the properties of the signal and should not interrupt it, and so are transparent to the numbering process. Hence, our use of brackets to designate a tag as opposed to a number. Wiring between termination cabinet TC-2 and field junction box JB-TK10 is via one 16conductor cable, only part of which is shown on this drawing. The cable number takes its identity from the junction box number. All cables are identified from the field end. This facilitates identification in the termination (marshalling) panel. Notice LSLL-47. This instrument is not “passive” in that it is 120-VAC powered. The signal power has been jumped at the device onto the H terminal to power up the unit. A “neutral” wire IPP6-N1 is included in the homerun cable to provide a return for the switch from TC-2, circuit 2. Notice also the reference to the I/O module’s place in the network at the upper right of the module. This information is sometimes neglected to the ultimate dismay of the maintenance department.

b. Discrete (Digital) Outputs, Isolated In the I/O list table, clear the previous filter by pressing the apply filter icon. This brings back the entire list. Pick one of the discrete output, isolated (DOI) records and filter by selection again. The DOI records should appear as shown in Figure 160.

Figure 160. Filtered on DOI (digital output, isolated)

This gets us to the second wiring task: the digital outputs. As before, we must first wire up the digital output module and get it powered up and ready for the I/O. Figure 161 shows an isolated discrete output module. Each I/O point is electrically isolated from the other, with no internal jumpering. It is tempting to jumper the “hot” side at the module, but that would keep users from embedding the discrete outputs into a circuit directly. So, the module was prewired to a terminal strip where wiring modifications are easier. Also, provisions were made for each I/O point to have its own fuse.

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298

TERMINATION CABINET TC-2 TC2-5H LT-TK10-10 (LSH-TK10-10)

TS1 F05

IPP6-2H

20

IPP6-N1

IPP-6 Ckt 1H H 120vac Power N

LT

HV-TK10-13A JBTK10 HV-TK10-13B

HV-TK10-13

9 10

HY

11

IPP6-N1

12

F MCC

AS

22 23 F24

13

HS-TK10-15B

25

14

IPP6-N1

26 F27

HS-TK10-15B

JB-TK10-01 (16-Cond)

16-POINT DOI MODULE

F21 HV-TK10-13A

S10-1C [DO0101] S10-2C [DO0103]

28

S10-3C

29

[DO0105]

F30

S10-4C

31

[DO0107]

32

S10-5C

F33

[DO0101]

34

S10-6C

35 F36

[DO0103]

37

[DO0105]

38

S10-8C

F39

S10-7C

[DO0107]

DROP 01 NODE 03 RACK 01 SLOT 10

1C 1NO

OPEN HV-13

2C 2NO

PP-10 RUN CMD

3C 3NO 4C 4NO 5C 5NO 6C 6NO 7C 7NO 8C 8NO

40 41 F42 43 44

Figure 161. Digital output (isolated) PLC output module elementary wiring diagram This module is linked to the AC terminal strip, though, technically, the signal type does not matter. Each I/O point is a “dry” (i.e., unpowered) contact. Note the terminal and fuse numbers pick up where the discrete input module leaves off.

B. Loop Sheet (Ref: ANSI/ISA-5.4-1991) The loop sheet provides probably the best compromise between the needs of engineering, construction, and maintenance (see Figure 162). While not all instrumentation on a particular equipment item is depicted, at least one aspect of it is shown in detail. For example, if a maintenance technician troubleshoots a problem with the tank’s level controls, odds are he will be able to pull one loop sheet for the task. The designer must handle a lot of paper, with fewer instruments shown per sheet, but much of that can be “cloned.” For example, all level control loops are graphically similar, so only the text needs to be modified. And, if intuitive numbering schemes are employed, even that issue can become a minor one. The constructor must still rely heavily on physical drawings, but the loop sheet is very useful. Like the ladder diagram, the loop sheet provides information about the complete circuit. Power flow is easy to follow from the power source to the load and back. While discrete information can be presented very well on the loop sheet, it is optimized for analog equipment. The loop sheet usually

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Figure 162. Loop sheet has information regarding the process connections and sometimes provides information usually found only on a specification sheet, such as manufacturer and model number and scaling and calibration information. The loop sheet is generally an 11- by 17-inch drawing that shows all the wiring necessary for a particular process control loop. The term control loop is generally associated with a sensor, a controller, and an output device of some kind. But loop sheets also depict wiring required for individual instruments such as pressure transmitters that might not be linked to an output device. The loop sheet organizes wiring devices by their physical location. The order is generally left to right from the field to the controller or bottom to top from the controller to the field. According to ISA standard ANSI/ISA-5.4-1991,18 the loop sheet should “contain all associated electrical and piping connections.” At a minimum, the loop sheet should link the instrument to the P&ID. The loop sheet should provide all “point-to-point interconnections with identifying numbers or color of electrical cables, conductors, pneumatic multitubes, and individual pneumatic and hydraulic tubing.” While there is more in that specification, the key point is that the loop sheet differs in the level of mechanical detail that should be present. Once again, the first thing to do is to consult the database. This time, we need both the analog input and the analog output. This calls for an advanced filter/sort (see Figure 163). The advanced filter/sort opens a design view in which the user may pick the fields to use (see Figure 164). We have selected two fields: SW Address and HW Address. We filter out anything that does not start with an A and then sort by HW Address. After we apply the filter/sort, the listing appears as shown in Figure 165. Given the information already captured in the database, it is possible to begin work on the loop diagram (see Figure 162). Loop sheets are organized by physical location. The information usually progresses from the field device on the left to the computer and logic information on the right. The loop diagram can be a beautiful drawing if the designer has the time to put into it. This example shows how one can be done right, with all the “bells and whistles.” Economics often dictate

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Figure 163. Advanced filter/sort

Figure 164. Advanced filter/sort, field selection

Figure 165. Results of advanced filter/sort a more subdued product. But, even if that is the case, the loop diagram is still a useful tool in the hands of the maintenance technician. A drawback to the loop diagram is the way the process wiring gets “chopped up” into a bunch of small packages. The loop sheet increases the number of documents that must be handled and is not useful to the installer unless only one loop is being installed. Mass termination is definitely diffi-

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cult if the only tool available is the instrument loop diagram. For all these reasons, cross-referencing into the other drawing sets is very important. An alternative to the loop diagram is the ladder diagram already discussed. An example of a ladder diagram for analog circuits is not provided here, but through a review of discrete ladder diagrams, an analog version can be easily envisioned.

C. Connection Diagrams (Ref: NFPA79) Connection diagrams are the third element of the wiring package. This is a virtually indispensable product because of its utility during construction. Ladder elementaries and loop diagrams just do not cut it for cost-effective mass-termination tasks. Our little project here could probably do without connection diagrams, but they are a necessity for larger tasks. Why is the connection diagram so important? It is a “connect the dots” diagram that guides the constructor through the construction process. If connection diagrams are not provided by the design engineer, then the construction foreman invariably has to create them from scratch in the field. To be cost-effective, the constructor will probably assign the mass termination tasks to the most junior personnel, who are the least capable of interpreting drawings. Given the importance of connection diagrams, why not use them exclusively and forget about the other two wiring products? Some sites do use them exclusively. But, the connection diagrams do not provide a reasonable maintenance package. It is very difficult to tell, for example, if there is a complete path for current flow. In those cases, the technician may end up sketching the circuit while tracking the wiring through the drawing set—not a good place to be with the plant down at 2:00 a.m.! Why is it better to create them in the engineering office as opposed to in the field with construction personnel? Because the engineering team is better able to see the big picture. They will conduct a design check and can fold this product into the check to make sure the connection diagrams are properly integrated into the rest of the design package. The larger the project, the bigger the benefit. So, how do we begin? We must first have a complete set of elementary diagrams, or nearly so, and/or a set of logic diagrams. Instruments should be spotted on the process area plans to get a feel for the physical orientation of the instruments. Also, enclosure sizes should be tentatively chosen to determine the number of terminations that will likely be available. The enclosure configuration is not concluded until this wiring evolution is complete, however. We will start with the field junction box. In our case, ferreting out the information from the drawing set is simple—only AC circuits will be fed through this box. First of all, one thing we know is that we will have a 16-conductor homerun cable that connects the FJB with the termination cabinet. This is a good place to begin:

1. Junction Box JB-TK10-1: Initial Layout Probably the best place to lay out a connection diagram is in Microsoft® Excel. Open a Microsoft® Excel workbook and click on the upper left row/column block. (It has no row/column designation.) The entire spreadsheet turns black. Then position the cursor over one of the column header buttons and right-click. Select “Width” and key in 1.71. Hit return, and voila! You have graph paper with perfectly sized boxes. Somewhere in the middle of the page, select a group of three boxes by clicking inside one cell and then dragging across two more. Then, select “Merge and Center” from the menu (see Figure 166). The three cells are now one. Enter an apostrophe and a 1 (i.e., ‘1) in the cell that was just merged, and then grab the “handle” and drag down until there are 16 merged cells numbered 1 through 16. Your terminal strip was just

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Figure 166. Creating a connection diagram created. While the terminal strip is selected, use the “All Borders” button to draw lines around the terminals (see Figure 167).

Figure 167. Terminal strip creation

To the left of the top terminal, skip one column of cells and again, enter ‘1. Then drag down again as before. This creates the conductor numbers for the 16-conductor homerun cable. Now, we need to consult the instrument elementary diagrams generated earlier (see Figure 168). Starting with the digital input module, it appears that we will require seven wires from TS-1 in the termination cabinet to terminals 1 through 7 in the junction box.

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TERMINATION CABINET TC-2 IPP6-1H TC2-5H

IPP6-N1

IPP6-N1

TC2-5H

1

TC2-5H

45

IPP6-N1

ZSC13

2

ZSC13

46

TC2-5H

3

TC2-5H YS-PP10-15A

47

[DI0100] [DI0101]

YS

JBTK10

YS-PP10-15A

4

TC2-5H

TC2-5H

YS-PP10-15B

YS-PP10-15B

48 49 50

LSLL-47

51

[DI0102] [DI0103] [DI0104] [DI0105] [DI0106] [DI0107]

N

2 3 4 5

6

TC2-5H

53

7

LSLL47

54

10

55

11

M10-2

19 JBTK10

TO PP-10 MOTOR M10 TO MOTOR ELEM SCH-002

MCC1-06 (2-Cond) JB-TK10-01-1 (16-Cond)

YS-15A HOA IN AUTO YS-15B PP-10 RUNNING LSLL-47 TK-10 LO-LO LEVEL

7

5

21

HV-13 CLOSED

6

TC2-5H

M10-1H

DROP 01 NODE 03 RACK 01 SLOT 04

1

IPP6-N1

LSLL47

52

Power

N

16-POINT DI MODULE

16

ZSC

TS1 F5

HOA

+ IPP6-1H

IPP-6 Ckt 1H H 120VAC

8 9

56 57

12

58

13

59

14

60

15 16

Figure 168. Instrument elementary diagram, digital input module Note that level switch LSLL-47 requires logic power. The “hot” terminal can be powered from the “common” side of the alarm relay, using TC2-5H. But, there is no neutral. So, we must add a neutral wire (IPP6-N1) to the wire bundle going from TC-2 to JB-TK10-01 terminal 5. Likewise, we should consult the elementary diagram for the digital output module (see Figure 169). It appears that terminals 8 through 10 will be taken with these circuits. Now we can begin configuring the wiring diagram using the Microsoft® Excel spreadsheet. We will do it by the numbers (see Figure 170): 1.

Configure the terminal strip as described above. Set up about 26 terminals.

2.

Designate the left side of the terminal strip as the field side and the right side the homerun side. List the wire numbers shown on the elementary drawings on the proper side of the terminals. Then, on the right side of our terminal strip (column J), terminate the 16-conductor homerun cable that will be routed to termination cabinet TC-2.

3.

In column K, use the following format to create a routing code: XX-Y-ZZ, where XX is the routing number, Y is the cable number within the route, and ZZ is the wire number (or color) within the cable. In our case, we will use conductor numbers rather than colors. Try to keep the conductors together, but we will soon see that terminal 9 is a field terminal and will need to be skipped.

4.

Next, check the analog circuits for any that may require power other than loop power (i.e., four-wire devices). One such exists, though we did not do a loop sheet for it. Level transmitter LT-10 requires 120-VAC power. Looking at the power distribution elementary (Figure 152), we see that LT-10 is fed from fuse TS1-F1, so we must add TS2-1H and IPP6-N1 to our terminal strip as well. This power is being fed from TC-2 and so will need to arrive via the homerun cable. Use conductors 15 and 16 at terminals 16 and 17.

5.

In column C, list the field device ID number (i.e., instrument tag). Use the merge cells icon to group the wires to the device (see cells C5 and C6, for example).

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LSH

LT-TK10-10 (LSH-TK10-10)

JB-TK10-01-1 (16-Cond)

TC2-5H

TS1 F05 20

HV-TK10-13-A

TERMINATION CABINET TC-2 IPP6-1H IPP6-N1

IPP-6 Ckt 1H H 120vac Power N

HV-TK10-13-B JBTK10

HV-TK10-13 HY

HV-TK10-13-A

9

IPP6-N1

10

F

HS-TK10-15B TO MCC-001 DWG SCH-002

MCC

AS

M10-2A M10-2B

8-POINT DOI MODULE

F21

8

22

DROP 01 NODE 03 RACK 01 SLOT 10

23 F24

M10-2A

25

M10-2B

26 F27 28 29 F30 31 32 F33 34 35 F36 37 38 F39

S10-1C [DO0101] S10-2C [DO0102] S10-3C [DO0103] S10-4C [DO0104] S10-5C [DO0105] S10-6C [DO0106] S10-7C [DO0107] S10-8C [DO0108]

1C 1NO

OPEN HV-13

2C 2NO

PP-10 RUN CMD

3C 3NO 4C

SPARE SPARE

4NO 5C 5NO 6C 6NO

SPARE SPARE

7C 7NO

SPARE

8C 8NO

SPARE

40 41 F42 43 44

Figure 169. Instrument elementary diagram, digital output module 6.

In column D, list the terminal number of the device. If the actual terminal number is not known, list the function (e.g., H for “hot”).

7.

In column E, enter the field cable routing code. This code is of the same format described for the homerun cable.

8.

Paint the entire sheet white by clicking the blank “row/column” button at the upper left corner of the spreadsheet. Then, use the paint bucket icon to paint the spreadsheet.

9.

Use the inside border icon to put lines around the text. Dress up the header as desired, and voila!

A wiring schedule has been produced for the junction box that may be used throughout the life of the project (see Figure 171). At the end of the project, this schedule may be used to quickly generate a wiring diagram. As additional cables are added, new columns may be inserted. For example, cable 1 of routing A2 is the homerun cable. If a second cable is needed for that route, then a new column may be added to the right labeled A2-2. New routings may be added in the same way. Our labors have resulted in a spreadsheet with the wire numbers, the terminal numbers, and the routing codes. Why, you might ask, are there so many of the same wire in the homerun cable? There are four IPP6-N1 wires and five TC2-5H wires. Each of these is a current-carrying conductor. If we were to combine all four N1 wires, that wire would carry the sum of the four currents. So, rather than having to keep track of the additive currents, and to prevent “piling on” as the maintenance folks add circuits, it is best to just go ahead and run them separately.

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Figure 170. Termination Drawing Setup Now we must layer on the remaining routing information. We know from our earlier work on the instrument location plan drawing that several conduits exit this junction box. Revisiting the plan drawing shows us five conduits entering and exiting the junction box (see Figure 121, reproduced below). We have completed the wiring to our field devices. However, we aren’t finished yet! There are still two conduits hitting our box that are undefined. Routing A2-022 connects the TK10 process bay to the adjacent bay. Drawing-022 provides information as to the contents (not included here). Routing A4 is going to the MCC. We know from looking at the motor elementary that several wires need to be routed to the HOA switch mounted at the motor. We have accounted for the two HOA wires that go to TC-2. However, there is still some wiring to pass to the MCC. Revisiting the motor elementary, a few things become evident (see Figure 172). First, we aren’t done with LSLL-47! We have captured the signal that feeds the PLC, but not the signal for the hardwired output. Wire M10-1H arrives from the MCC and must be passed to the level switch via routing A1. Wire M10-2 comes back from the level switch and is passed to the HOA switch via routing A3. Two wires come back from the HOA switch. The first, M10-2A, is passed to TC-2 via routing A2. The second, M10-2B, is sent back to the MCC via routing A4. We must capture these moves in our wiring schedule (see Figure 173). This chart is ready to hand off to someone for creation of the junction box drawing. It is recommended that the actual drafting task be done during the latter stages of the design job, particularly if

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DEVICE ZSC-13 YS-PP10-15A LSLL-47 LSH-TK10-10 HV-TK10-13

YS-PP10-15A LT-TK10-10

JB-TK10-01 WIRING SCHEDULE FIELD SIDE TS-1 TERM ROUTE WIRE# 1 C A1-01 TC2-5H 2 NO A1-02 ZSC13 3 C A3-01 TC2-5H 4 NO A3-02 YS-PP10-15A 5 N A1-03 IPP6-N1 6 H A1-04 TC2-5H 7 NO1 A1-05 LSLL47 8 C A1-06 HV-TK10-13-A 9 H A1-07 HV-TK10-13-B 10 N A1-08 IPP6-N1 11 A1-09 12 13 14 A1 A3-03 M10-2A 15 16 H A1-09 TC2-5H 17 N A1-10 IPP6-N1 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

HOMERUN SIDE WIRE# ROUTE TC2-5H A2-1-01 ZSC13 A2-1-02 TC2-5H A2-1-03 YS-PP10-15A A2-1-04 IPP6-N1 A2-1-05 TC2-5H A2-1-06 LSLL47 A2-1-07 HV-TK10-13-A A2-1-08 IPP6-N1

M10-2A TC2-1H IPP6-N1

A2-1-09 A2-1-10 A2-1-11 A2-1-12 A2-1-13 A2-1-14 A2-1-15 A2-1-16

Figure 171. Termination Chart there is the possibility of some changes. It is much easier to manipulate information while it is in spreadsheet form. After all this, generating the drawing shown in Figure 174 is relatively simple.

2. Termination Cabinet TC-2 The termination cabinet is a bit more complex just because there are more wires plus some equipment. A thumbnail sketch of the inner panel is shown in Figure 175. We know we will have two terminal strips because we have a mix of power: AC and DC. So, the two will need to be kept separate. The smaller DC strip is on the right side of the panel. The PLC rack is top-center. Because it is simpler, we will work the DC side first:

a.

DC Circuits (TS-2) We’ll work on TS-2 first because it should go quickly. Again, we will start in Microsoft® Excel, but the principles are the same regardless. Terminal strip TS-2 is the DC terminal strip. In reviewing the DC power distribution schematic, we see that eight fuses have been detailed. We will start with the first one since it looks like it may be the only one needed. We have created one of the two loop sheets. The one we created had two of the three analog instruments. We can proceed and anticipate the level transmitter’s needs without the other loop sheet.

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E

D D1

3

TO I/O MARSHALLING CABINET TC-2 DRAWING WRG-001

T

T

2

T

T

3 T

A1

T

1

4

TK-10

7 T

5

PP-10

T

JB

M

6

T

A4

A3

A2 JB-TK10-01

A2-022 To MCC001

FROM NEXT BAY Drawing PLAN022, Routing A2

2

Figure 121. Process area, plan view

Figure 172. Motor elementary fragment In the segment of the wiring diagram shown in Figure 176, we see DC terminal strip TS-2. The strip is powered from DC power supply PS1, which is, in turn, fed from fuse 10 in the AC terminal strip (note wire number TC2-10H). Starting at the field end, routing D1 arrives at the cabinet. We can tell that the routing originates on another drawing because it is a rectangle rather than a hexagon (see Figure

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Figure 173. Finished Termination Chart 126, if necessary). And, the drawing number is included to vector the user to the proper field drawing. According to the reference drawing, the routing contains three type B cables, which are twisted-pair shielded cables. These cables are terminated on TS-2, along with their shields. The shields are then gathered and terminated at the shield ground bus bar. The signals are then forwarded to the PLC.

b. AC Circuits (TS-1) Referring to Figure 175, it is evident that most of the work is with the AC circuits, which are to the left on TS-1. All of the discrete (on/off) circuits are driven by AC power. Also, notice that there are quite a few empty terminals. It is always good practice to prewire the connections between the computer hardware and the marshalling terminal strip(s). The connectors on the I/O modules usually present a wiring challenge, requiring more manual dexterity than most electricians can display when effecting a quick repair on a “hot” system. It is much easier to work with the wiring after it is broken out on a terminal strip.

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16-1/c#14, 3/4"c to TC-2, SCH-001

A2 A1

JB-TK10-01-A2-1 JB-TK10-01-A1 TC2-5H

ROUTING A2 PLAN-023

ZSC13 TC2-5H YS-PP10-15A

5-1/c#14, 3/4"c to TC-2, SCH-001

JB-TK10-01-A3

TC2-5H YS-TK10-15B LSLL47 HV-TK10-13-A HV-TK10-13-B IPP6-N1

M10-2A TS2-1H IPP6-N1 M10-2 M10-2B M10-1H

JB-TK10-01 TS-1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

A4

2-3/c#14 US, 3/4"c to MCC1, DWG MCC-001

JB-TK10-01-A4-2

A3

1-16/c#16, 1"c to TC-2, SCH-001

JB-TK10-01-A4-1

5-1/c#14, 3/4"c to PP-10

309

1 2 3 1 2 3 NOTE: Routings originate on drawing PLAN001 unless noted.

Figure 174. Junction box wiring diagram The wiring appears to be quite involved when viewed from this “altitude,” but it is really a “connect the dots” proposition if the installer has the proper documentation. Most installers would rather spend their time exhibiting a good termination technique than deciphering a set of elementary drawings. So, let’s spend a minute looking at the situation from the installer’s point of view. For the installer, a good termination drawing exhibits the following characteristics: • •



The drawing should be focused. It should present just the needed information and no more. The components should be oriented properly. Ideally, the wiring drawing should show the components in roughly the correct position and in exactly the right orientation from the wiring perspective. It is not as important to match the arrangement drawing exactly as it is for the wires to be shown in the right orientation. For example, if a wire is shown hitting the left side of the terminal, make sure it is possible to terminate to that side. We’ll talk more about that in a moment. The drawing should be well cross-referenced, indicating conduit routings and wiring destinations. Also, there should be an index to the set of elementaries, loop sheets, and/or schematics in case they are needed for clarification.

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Figure 175. Inner Panel, Cabinet TC2 There are also a few things to stay away from: •



Don’t put too many wires on one terminal. Know how many wires can be terminated on one side of the terminal or fuse block. Usually, the terminal manufacturer can provide a breakdown of how many wires per gauge can be terminated. There is also a min and max for wire size. Be sure you aren’t asking the installer to do the impossible. And remember, a jumper costs two wires. Don’t wrap the wiring around the terminal strip to change sides if it can be avoided. That makes it harder to see and harder to troubleshoot after the duct cover is in place. Provide a feed-through terminal to get a signal from one side of the strip to the other. In the section of TC-1 shown in Figure 177, TC2-5H is powering a string of jumpers. But, the jumpers needed to happen on the right side of the strip. So, we used a single terminal to feed the wire through rather than loop it around.

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Figure 176. DC wiring

Figure 177. Wiring diagram section of TC-1 Remember, the installer has physical space limitations and is unable to just wrap wires around anywhere. These issues need to be anticipated. In reality, the wiring problem presented here is really rather simple. Let’s zoom in a bit and discuss some of the particulars.

c.

Incoming Power Power is fed to the cabinet from instrument power panel IPP-6 on our drawing number SCH-003, part of which is shown in Figure 152 (reproduced on page 312). This figure depicts cabinet power originating at IPP-6. There are two circuits allocated. Circuit 1 is reserved for instrument power. Of course, only LT-10 is powered directly from the TC-1 fuses at fuse F1. IPP-6, circuit 2 is for the TC-2 computer power, which is distributed to the PLC on fuse F9 and to the DC power supply on fuse F10. Notice also that the neutrals change numbers, which is a violation of the requirement to change numbers only across devices, not feed-through terminals. This is an exception to the rule. It assists in managing the return current flowing on each individual wire and also in isolating prob-

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312

H IPP-6

N

3-phase 480v

N6

CAB TC-2 TS-1

CB1 IPP6-1H (15A)

IPP6-N1

F1 F2 F3 F4

TC2-1H TC2-2H

F5 F6 F7 F8

TC2-5H

TC2-3H TC2-4H

TC2-6H TC2-7H TC2-8H

LT-10 SPARE SPARE SPARE

N01D03R01S04 N01D03R01S06 SPARE SPARE

CB2 IPP6-2H (15A)

F9 F10

TC2-9H TC2-10H

PLC RACK POWER DC POWER SUPPLY

IPP6-N2

321 PHASES

Figure 152. AC power distribution elementary wiring diagram lems. It is difficult to find a specific wire on a bus bar when they are all numbered the same. Caution: This is an innovation that will need to be approved by the customer beforehand. Now, looking at the TS-1 AC terminal strip shown in Figure 178, notice how the wiring reflects the Figure 177 power distribution schematic. Cabling is extended from IPP-6 to TC-2 via routing A1. The A1 routing comes from TC-2 cabinet drawing WRG-001, so the full number is A1-WRG001.

Figure 178. AC power distribution

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Wire numbers in this scheme reflect the circuit number, so IPP6-1H originates at circuit 1 of IPP-6. It distributes to the first eight fuses. Notice that fuses F1, F5, F6, F9, and F10 are used, just as depicted on the schematic, and the fuses are jumpered as shown. The difference is the wiring on the connection diagram is shown accurately in terms of position, as opposed to accurately in terms of function. Notice also that the load for fuse F1 is not in the cabinet. The wire leaving fuse F1 (TC2-1H) joins a multiconductor cable in routing A3-PLAN001, which is the instrument location plan drawing. A detail of this plan drawing is shown in Figure 179. Notice the conduit exiting the bottom of LT-10. That is the power feed that originates at the junction box. Coming out of the junction box is routing A3, which is our routing of interest. Notice the difference in routing symbols: the first, on the connection diagram, spells out the entire routing callout, whereas the routing on the originating drawing is merely a hexagon with the drawing number portion understood.

Figure 179. LT-10 power feed

Let’s go back to the connection diagram (Figure 178). Notice a couple of things regarding drafting practice: •



All crossing wires (or at least most of them) are broken on the vertical. None of the horizontal wires are broken. It is good drafting practice to pick one style and stick with it. There are no “node dots.” An electrical node is a point at which several wires are attached, each with the same voltage. Using node dots to indicate joined wires is

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deceptive and causes the designer to make assumptions about the number of terminals to include. This type of drawing should reflect the exact physical situation facing the installer. Wires may be joined into a wire run provided they are broken out on both ends. Notice that wires TC2-10H and TC2-N2 are joined into a wire run as shown in Figure 180.

Figure 180. Wire runs

Some other points of interest have to do with the terminal numbering scheme. The diagram in Figure 181 is split to provide two sections of the drawing, top versus middle. Notice that the fuses are numbered in sequence with the terminals rather than given a unique fuse number. Why numbers and not colors? Colors are okay except that some folks are color-blind. Also, it is entirely possible that the cable that the design assumes will be used, won’t be. Sometimes a different cable of equal properties is purchased instead, thus making the color scheme invalid. NFPA79 is a standard that applies to many aspects of this task. Chapter 15, paragraphs 2 and 3 of the 1997 edition of NFPA79 deal with wire colors as listed in the chart shown in Figure 182. Before the termination drawing gets published, the designer should make a second pass across it to indicate the colors of hookup wire, or simply place the chart presented in Figure 183 on the drawing.

D. Wiring Summary The wiring task is intricate. If it is done right, maintenance technicians should be able to track a signal in any direction with just one bit of information. If the system is used as presented here, the wire numbers give them a vector to the power source, the marshalling cabinet, or the instrument if it is a signal wire. Once at the instrument, the power source is easy to figure out because it is listed on the wire numbers. This same ability to track information should hold true throughout the drawing package. Properly done, each wire leaving a drawing has its destination drawing referenced, plus its routing num-

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AC CIRCUITS TO JB-TK10-1

ROUTING A2 PLAN-001

A1

FROM IPP-6 DWG SCH-003

TC2-9H N2

SP DOI SP

DI

SP

AI

SP

ROUTING D1 PLAN-001

AO

H N

3

G

H TC2-10H N IPP6-N2

TS1-AC TC2-1H A

TC2-2H

TC2-5H TC2-6H

TC2-9H TC2-10H IPP6-N1 IPP6-N1

IPP6-N2 IPP6-N2 TC2-6H HV-TK10-13 IPP6-N2 M10-2A M10-2B

TC2-5H TC2-5H ZSC13 TC2-5H YS-TK10-15A TC2-5H YS-TK10-15B

TC2-45H LSLL47

F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 F21 22 23 F24 25 26 F27 28 29 F30 31 32 F33 34 35 F36 37 38 F39 40 41 F42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61

DC ANALOGS

PLC RACK PS RIO

TO MCC1

315

IPP6-1H

PS1 24VDC @ 300W

+ -

G TS2-DC

T

F1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

TC2-DC18

TAP REMOTE I/O CABLE TO NODE #2

AI0100(+) AI0100(-)

IPP6-2H AO0100(+) IPP6-N1

AO0100(-) AI0101(+) AI0101(-)

24VDC TC2-DC18 PT-TK10-48 DCC AO0100+ PY-TK10-48

TC2-DC18 LT-TK10-10

TO SHIELD GROUND IPP6-N2

CABINET SERVICES WIRING DETAIL S10-1C

CABINET H AUX POWER

DO0101

N S10-2C DO0102 DOOR SWITCH

S10-3C DO0103

TC2-LT

TC2-2H S10-4C

H

CABINET LIGHTING

N

IPP6-N2

A

DO0104 S10-5C

THERMOSTAT

DO0105 H TC2FAN S10-6C

CABINET COOLING

N

DO0106 S10-7C DO0107 S10-8C DO0108

NOTES: 1) All wires shall be routed via duct.

TC2-5H [DI0100]

2) All wires shall be labelled on both ends using Brady Labels or equal. Exception: Jumpers. 3) All wires shall be stripped to approximately 3/8".

[DI0101] 4) The following color code shall be adhered to: [DI0102] [DI0103] [DI0104] [DI0105] [DI0106]

TC-2 CABINET WIRING COLOR SCHEME COLOR

PURPOSE

EXAMPLE WIRE

Black

AC Hot

TC2-1H

SIZE (AWG)

White

AC Neutral

IPP6-N1

#14

Red

AC Signal

DI0101

#16

#14

Blue

DC

AI0100

#18

Green

Ground

Not Shown

#14

5) All interior - cabinet hookup wire shall be 18-gage, 300volt or greater.

[DI0107]

Figure 181. Fuse/terminal numbering sequence ber. (By the way, a routing number is the same as a cable number if there is only one cable in a routing.) If more than one cable is in the routing, a suffix should be added to the routing number to differentiate the cable. A cable schedule is produced later in this book. Elementary wiring diagrams, schematics, and loop sheets are drawings that provide functional detail of a circuit. The complete circuit should be readily available to the user at the expense of any physical orientation information if necessary. Connection diagrams provide physical orientation. They are physical representations of the wiring produced primarily for installers, and so should be optimized for their needs. Generating interconnection drawings is an absorbing, but interesting, task that requires a mix of practical aptitude and artistic flair. The connection diagram, coupled with the mechanical arrangement, tells the complete story about the wiring in an enclosure or piece of equipment. We have created several drawings in this section. They are reproduced below. Figure 184 is the resulting TC-2 PLC cabinet connection diagram WRG-001.

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Figure 182. NFPA wire color scheme

Figure 183. TC-2 wiring color scheme

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Figure 184. TC-2 PLC cabinet connection diagram The field junction box will end up with a mechanical arrangement and a bill of materials, which will be produced in the next chapter. In the meantime, drawing WRG-002 shows its current state (see Figure 185).

Figure 185. Partial junction box diagram

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We have also partially generated motor elementary wiring diagram SCH-002 (see Figure 186), which will be completed by the electrical group.

Figure 186. Partial motor elementary wiring diagram

We now have power distribution information SCH-003 (see Figure 187).

Figure 187. Power distribution information

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And, we have generated three instrument wiring schematics. The first is the loop sheet for pressure control loop PIC-48, drawing LOOP-PIC48, shown in Figure 188.

Figure 188. Pressure control loop PIC-48 loop sheet The loop sheet is, in reality, an 11- by 17-inch drawing. It has been expanded for ease of viewing. The second schematic-style drawing is the ladder diagram for the PLC discrete module in slots 04 and 06 of our rack (see Figure 189).

Figure 189. Ladder diagram for discrete modules

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Now, we must make sure we have captured everything in the database. First, let’s look at the document control table (see Figure 190).

Figure 190. Document control table

It looks like all the drawings are there. Now, how about the instrument list? Figure 191 illustrates what we will see if we bring both the document control table and the instrument and I/O list table into our field of view.

Figure 191. Document control table and instrument and I/O list table

In this case, we have “frozen” the first four columns of information on the instrument list. This allows the other fields to “slide” beneath, letting us keep the key data visible.

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The database that results after entering all the data we can capture is shown in Figure 192.

Figure 192. Instrument and I/O list table

Notice that no fields are empty except for the MCC-related ones. An empty field means there is work to do. “NA” in a field means that the item was evaluated and deemed to be of no consequence for that aspect. Now that the wiring evolution is complete, it’s time for the cabinet arrangement task.

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Chapter 15: Panel Arrangements Panel arrangement drawings depict equipment that is mounted on back panels inside electrical enclosures and show any front-panel penetrations. These arrangements accomplish several things: • • • • •

They convey construction detail about the contents and placement of front-panel equipment such as control switches and lights. They convey construction detail about the contents and placement of back-panel equipment. They show the placement and contents of any engraved labels. They provide a bill of materials for each item in the panel that must be purchased. They allow the external enclosure (i.e., “the can”) to be sized with confidence.

The anatomy of the drawing is very simple. It should show a graphic of the panel, usually on the left side, and a bill of materials, usually on the right. It is strictly a physical drawing showing the relative locations of the items in the panel. Graphic detail should be minimized, and no wiring detail need be included. Usually, a general “not to scale” arrangement is sufficient provided the designer is sure that any potential conflicts have been identified and scrutinized and any front-panel penetrations have been sufficiently detailed.

A. Procedure One quick initial design method for creating these drawings uses Microsoft® Excel as a design aid. Following is a procedure for turning your Microsoft® Excel spreadsheet software into a design tool: 1.

Turn the spreadsheet into a sheet of graph paper a. Open a new spreadsheet and click on the blank cell at the junction of the row labels and column labels. This selects the entire spreadsheet (turns it black). b. Place the mouse cursor at the top over any of the column labels and press the right mouse key. A pop-up menu appears. Select “Column Width,” and key in 1.71. Hit return. This makes all the cells in the spreadsheet square. Now, it is a sheet of graph paper. c. While the entire spreadsheet is selected, set the font size to 8 pt, and format the cells for “center-center” text. 1.

Get rough size dimensions of the equipment to be mounted in the cabinet, and decide on a “per square” scale for your sketch. Usually 1-inch per square is good enough, which will be our choice here.

2.

If the drawing toolbar is not visible, select “View” on the top menu, then select “Toolbars,” and activate the drawing toolbar.

3.

Pick cell D4 as the upper corner of the panel and type an apostrophe plus a one (‘1) and hit return. You will see a 1 displayed, but the leading apostrophe tells Microsoft® Excel to treat the cell as a text data type. Click on

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the cell, “grab” the handle on the lower right of the cell, and “pull” to the right. A “scale” of horizontal inches appears. 4.

Pick cell C5, type ‘1, grab the handle and pull down. This results in a scale of vertical inches.

5.

The upper left corner of cell D5 is now the upper left corner of your panel. Draw the panel contents to scale.

6.

On the drawing menu, select “Rectangle.” With the ALT key depressed, draw a rectangle. Here are some things to note about using Microsoft® Excel for this purpose: •

With the ALT key depressed, elements that are drawn are “on the grid”. The grid is the upper left corner of the selected cell. The first “pick” point is done with the ALT key down, which puts the element on the grid (the ALT key can be released prior to the second pick). In this manner a 1.5-inch device can be properly depicted.



Note: If an element is drawn with the Shift key depressed, perfect circles and squares result.



Note: Most elements from the drawing menu can contain text. Just draw the element and start typing.

7.

Draw all the major components including any wiring ducts that may be desired. Draw them as near to scale as possible, but they can be general. A group of terminal blocks that are 5 inches long by 1.5 inches wide can be drawn as one rectangle, for example. Be sure to leave adequate access room between devices. For example, leaving a minimum of 1.5 inches between a terminal and adjacent wiring duct is good practice.

8.

Arrange the components within the scaled area. Consult the enclosure manufacturer for standard sizes of backplanes, and select the size that would comfortably contain your equipment.

9.

Cross the backplane size to the enclosure size.

10. Use sheet 2 of the Microsoft® Excel workbook to generate your bill of materials. This can be done roughly or very polished. Microsoft® Excel provides probably the best format for developing a bill of materials due to its ease in editing. Once the bill of materials is finished, it can be pulled onto the CADD drawing with no problem. 11. Email your workbook to your drafter to formalize into a CADD drawing.

B. Junction Box JB-TK10-01 Arrangement Drawing ARR-002 To follow the procedure outlined above, some research must be done. The big question for this small junction box is, how many terminals are needed? Also, what kind of terminals should be used, and what are their dimensions?

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The terminal block we have selected is shown in Figure 193. It requires a DIN-rail mount and one end-piece to cover the last block in a group. It is 0.33 inch high and 1½ inches wide. It accepts a wire range of #22 to #8 AWG. Another accessory we will pick up is standoffs to raise the DIN-Rail 2” to make it easier to get to the wires.

Figure 193. Terminal block

That is about all that is going into our panel except for some wiring duct that is really optional for this task. So, let’s design the box! First of all, after the “graph” grid is done, we need to decide on a scale. Since the terminals are approximately three to the inch, let’s use three blocks per inch. We need to select a size that is slightly smaller than the blocks. It is best to be conservative and end up with a little extra space. First, let’s find out how tall our box needs to be. Consulting our wiring diagram for this box, we see that we need a minimum of 24 terminals: 24 x .33 = 8. So, this takes up only 8 inches of vertical space. That, then, is our minimum starting point. Now, how about side to side? Our terminals are 1.5 inches wide. We need a minimum of 1½ inches on either side of the terminal, preferably 2 inches. So, using 2 inches gives us a lateral inner minimum width of 5½ inches. Plus, we have decided to use wire duct to support the wires and dress up the box a bit. We will use 1½-inch duct to surround the terminals, so that adds 3 inches to both dimensions. To summarize, we have just designed a box that requires an inner panel that is at least 11 inches tall and 8½ inches wide. Let’s move to our Microsoft® Excel sheet for the rest of it.

1. Set Up a Scale • •



At the Microsoft® Excel sheet, pick cell C2. Enter the value ‘1 and hit return. Select B2, B3, and B4, and press the merge and center icon. This merges those three cells, which represent 1 inch. Now, pull those across to the right and the number of inches appears across the top of the page (see Figure 194). Do the same thing again, except vertically, starting at cell B3. If desired, those cells may be formatted to display the numeric values in the center of the cell by right-clicking the mouse and selecting “Format Cells” and “Alignment.”

2. Design the Panel •

Pick “Text Box” from the drawing menu. Hold down the ALT key to activate the grid, place the text box, and size it to cover a width of 4½ cells and a height of 24 cells. While the box is highlighted, configure it for vertical text and key in “24 terminals.” The space allocated should be 8 inches by 1.5 inches (see Figure 195).

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Figure 194. Setting up a scale

Figure 195. Initial layout

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327

Always provide spare capacity. In fact, most specifications require 50% spare capacity on a new installation. That lengthens our terminal strip by 4 inches. So, we must adjust our strip length from 8 inches to 12 inches. Now, place the terminal strip somewhere out of the way, and let’s draw our wire way. First, we know the wire way surrounds the terminal strip, and we know the wire way will be 1½ inches wide. We need to add approximately ½ inch above and below and 2 inches side to side around the terminals. • Draw the wire way as described previously for the terminals. After doing so, we find that we need 15.5 vertical inches, not 11. • Now, consult the vendors’ literature to select an enclosure. Note: Part II dealt with some of the considerations when specifying an electrical enclosure. In our case, we will select a NEMA-4-rated enclosure to protect against water wash-downs in the process area. A single-door will do nicely (see Figure 196).

Figure 196. Single-door enclosure





Now that we have selected an enclosure style, we must find an inner panel to accommodate our wiring requirements. Probably a 9- by 16-inch size will work. After consulting the enclosure vendor’s catalog, we discover that there is no 9- by 16-inch panel. The nearest inner panel is a 17- by 13-inch panel, which brings us to a 20-inch-high by 16-inch-wide junction box. Thus, selection of the inner panel leads us to the enclosure size. Return to Microsoft® Excel, sketch in the inner panel and manipulate the duct and terminals to take the most advantage of the extra space. In this case, there will be a 4-inch area to the right of the termination zone that can be used for relays or even additional terminals should the need arise.

3. Generate a Bill of Materials For each item depicted on the diagram, place at least one “bubble” and leader (see Figure 197). To make a bubble, pick “oval” from the drawing menu, and hold down the shift key while drawing to make a perfect circle. Then, while the bubble is selected, key in the desired bubble number.

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Figure 197. Function box with bill of materials

C. Summary Our panel arrangement sketch, as shown in Figure 198, is now ready to turn over to the drafting department, where it will be added to the drawing that already details the interconnections. The shorthand technique we used generated a decent sketch of a small junction box. This same technique works just as well on a larger scale and may be easily adapted to generating a TC-2 sketch. The biggest difference is the scaling that is set up. Instead of three blocks to the inch, perhaps one per inch would work, or some other scale. All components should be redrawn to be proportional to that scale. Such a sketch can be used for purposes other than CADD development. Conceptual preapproval processes, for example, may be much easier with their use. The tool used does not really matter, however. The important information presented here is the thought process.

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Figure 198. Finished panel arrangement

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Chapter 16: Procurement Procurement of material cuts to the chase. It is, pretty much, the reason for most of the other engineering tasks. A design package is built from the conceptual to the actual—and procurement is about as actual as it gets. A frequent lament from the construction partner is, “How can I build something if I don’t have the parts?”. The design team needs to put lots of thought into the procurement process early in the design phase. Who actually does the purchasing? It doesn’t matter. The design team must perform virtually the same functions regardless. Of course, one organization may like the information organized differently from another, but that is the problem of the cost engineering department. Usually, unless the engineer is running a small operation, a group that specializes in procurement handles those details. Primarily two types of material are specified by the I&C design team: • •

Electrical material, including cable, conduit, enclosures, and termination hardware Mechanical material, including pneumatic tubing, flanges, gaskets, and mounting brackets These types of materials are called bulk materials. Bulk materials handling, while not necessarily a “sexy” topic, is one of those basic tasks that needs to be done right to achieve success. “Bulk materials consist of materials that are considered to be commodities* such as cable, conduit, nuts, bolts, pull boxes, junction boxes, tubing, tube fittings, and vessel trim. Instruments, items that require long lead times for manufacture, or other equipment items that require individual specifications do not fall into the bulk materials category. Constructors spend a tremendous amount of time handling this type of material. While some of this material, such as conduit, can be piled up and used as needed, other items are specific to their use and must be handled differently. Once it is received on-site, this equipment must be tagged and stored in a rational way that allows it to be located at the right time by the right people. Look at virtually any construction site and you will note constructors walking around with clipboards in a frustrated search for their construction materials. Proper planning can alleviate this frustration. Proper materials handling is a team effort that begins with the design group, extends through the purchasing groups and the vendors, and ends with the constructor. If all elements work properly, the amount of time wasted on the construction site can be minimized. This chapter focuses on the product of the design team.

A. Typical Purchasing Cycle When a design is nearly complete, the design team begins what’s called a “takeoff.” Someone sits down with the drawing set and begins building lists of materials for purchase. These lists are called bills of materials. A bill of materials (B/M, or BOM) is a document that lists all the materials required for construction. This list is generally tied to a specific equipment item, such as a control panel, or to a par*

Commodities in this context are “common” items that are mass produced and can be purchased directly from the vendor or manufacturer without a detailed specification.

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ticular location on the process floor. It is assembled without regard to manufacturer or type of item and includes all the parts needed for purchase. Ideally, the bill of materials will also lists as references any associated noncommodity items (e.g., instruments) and points to the specification sheet or purchase order to which that item is tied. Ideally, a constructor should be able to use the bill of materials to gather all equipment necessary for a specific task. On larger projects, it is critical that each BOM be given a unique designation and that a bill of materials index be maintained. This index should include the BOM number, any WBS number that might apply, the intended use of the material, and any drawings used in the material takeoff activity. The design team generates a set of material listings (bills of materials) that are specific to a drawing or set of drawings. It is important to organize these lists with the constructor in view. For example, it makes little sense to generate a bill of materials with both conduit items and tubing items. These should be split into separate listings because the construction team rarely has the same group do both tasks. It is, therefore, wise to organize the material lists with a view to the eventual user. Some suggestions for bill of materials categories are made later in this chapter. For the remainder of this discussion, refer to Figure 199.

DESIGN

PURCHASING

Bill of Material #1

Purchase Order to Vendor #2

Item

Qty

Description

Vendor

32

1

3/4" Conduit, 10ft

V1

33

3

Conduit Hangers

V2

34

2

Conduit Unions, 3/4"

V2

Item

Qty

Description

14

18

Conduit Hangers

15

1

Conduit Hubs

16

2

Conduit Unions, 3/4"

Bill of Material #2 Item

Qty

Description

Vendor

8

1

Junction Box

V3

9

15

Conduit Hangers

V2

10

1

Conduit Hub

V2

CONSTRUCTION Construction Construction must somehow relate the material that is received to an intended use… The original Bill of Material must provide that link.

Warehousing

Receiving

Accounting Department ------------Accounts Payable

Purchase Order

VENDOR #2 / MANUFACTURING Vendor #2 Invoice Accounting Bill of Lading

Manufacturer#1 Manufacturer#2 Manufacturer#3

Figure 199. Typical purchasing cycle

Once a bill of materials, or set of them, is produced, they are given to the purchasing department. Bills of materials are organized by purpose. Purchasing parses the material, reorganizing it according to vendor. A purchase order (PO) is then produced for each vendor.* When this occurs, any link between the particular item to be purchased and its intended use is lost. So, it is a good idea

*

Frequently, a purchase order is written directly to the manufacturer, bypassing the vendor. What is presented in this discussion is a worst-case scenario from the standpoint of material tracking.

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333

to include a column on the bill of materials called “Purchase Order.” When the PO is created, the designer should be given an opportunity to check it for accuracy. At that time, it is a good idea to log the PO number of each item on the bill of materials. Creating this link between the original bill of materials and the PO greatly assists the constructor when it is time to collect materials. Vendors often represent several manufacturers. Newark Electronics, for example, publishes a catalog that contains thousands of items manufactured by perhaps a hundred different entities. Newark gives each item a unique Newark catalog number by which any item can be identified within their system. So, while a single PO to Newark Electronics probably results in a single invoice back to the purchasing department, it could also result in multiple shipments from many different manufacturers. The common thread through all of this is the PO number. Each of these various shipments arrive at the construction site with a bill of lading. The bill of lading references the original PO number. It is the construction team’s responsibility to properly receive these materials and log them in against the original PO. One way to do this is to assign a warehouse bin area to each PO. The constructor’s approach must accommodate the amount of warehouse space available and the type of material to be housed. This is a normal process that typifies the complexities in handling materials from the point of view of the constructor. The design team can make this materials-handling process much easier by properly organizing its material lists and by back-filling links to the POs when the opportunity arises. Another way to aid in this process is to list applicable bill of materials numbers on the drawings themselves.

B. Material Classification To help the constructor track materials, it is a good idea to split the bulk materials into two general categories that reflect the way they should be handled by the constructor. The terminology that has evolved here can be a little confusing, because the word bulk is used to refer to the materials being handled and also to one of the two classes of material listings that deal with bulk materials. In other words, bulk materials can be stored in bulk or in detail. In short, the materials on the bulk bill of materials are nonspecific materials that can be stored in bulk and withdrawn from stores as needed. Conduit is an example of such material. Conversely, the detail bill of materials is for bulk materials that have specific uses as shown on detail drawings. These drawings typically incorporate component schedules that list specific materials that are depicted on the body of the drawing. Materials shown on instrument installation details, for example, would be listed as a detail bill of materials, as would materials appearing in a component schedule on a control panel arrangement drawing. Both types of bills of material are discussed in the sections that follow.

C. Bulk Electrical Bill of Materials A bulk bill of materials covers equipment that can be purchased in bulk. That is, materials that do not need to be linked to a specific equipment specification or purpose. Cable, conduit, conduit fittings, cable tray, nuts and bolts, and hookup wire are examples of materials that may be purchased in bulk. Items with long lead time requirements, most instruments, and instrument fittings are examples of items that should be purchased in detail. Bulk material items are frequently purchased with a single bulk bill of materials. There are several reasons for not breaking up an order for this type of material:

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• •

SUCCESSFUL INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS DESIGN

Most vendors allow quantity discounts. The amounts of these discounts vary as the quantity rises, so it is desirable to make large orders. Storage space for bulk materials is usually limited. For example, a single large pile of 2-inch conduit will suffice for the entire project.

For a large facility, it probably is wise to find a way to subdivide the material listings, realizing that the purchasing department can combine these listings to minimize the number of POs that must be written (refer to Figure 199). To this end, a conversation with the constructor is beneficial. If the constructor plans to have a different construction team for each floor, for example, that would be a rational way to break the bills of materials. So, where do we start? Actually, we have a pretty good beginning already. We have generated a bill of materials for junction box JB-TK10-01 and for instrument location plan drawing PLAN-001. That should be enough material for us to play with. The bulk materials takeoff worksheet is shown in Figure 200. If you have read the section in Part II about building a project estimate, you are already familiar with this worksheet. As you can see, it has several tables for calculating the quantities of various types of material: • • • • •

Wire and cable Terminations, junction boxes and cabinets Instrument air piping Conduit and fittings (general purpose) Conduit and fittings (Class I, Division 2)

We will go through each of these. First, let’s review the plan drawing takeoff sketch we made for plan drawing PLAN-001. On that sketch, we detailed all the cable and conduit lengths. We have checked with the plant and the area is nonhazardous, so we can use the general-purpose conduit table (see Figure 135, reproduced on page 336). Given the charts produced earlier, the takeoff is simply a matter of fetching the totals and then rounding up to the next standard unit of issue. For example, it is sometimes more cost-effective to buy a 1000-foot spool of cable than it is to buy a 750-foot spool. Such decisions are best made after finding your minimums and talking with the vendor. First, let’s concentrate on the cables: •





Type A: According to the takeoff chart, we have 790-feet of type A wire, which is singleconductor #14. Except for the white neutral and the green ground wires, most of these wires are black. Using some judgment, let’s buy 1000 feet of black, 150 of white, and 100 of green. We must always allow for wastage as the excess ends will be clipped and disposed of. All of this wire will be routed via conduit between the junction box and the field device. Type B: The takeoff chart calls for 480 feet of twisted-pair, shielded wire. Again, we must allow for at least 20% wastage, plus about another 5–10% for contingencies. So, 480 x 1.25 = 600 feet. We will probably order a 500-foot spool and a 250-foot spool. Type D: The chart shows that this type is multiconductor, 16-pair cable, with 200 feet listed. 200 x 1.25 = 250 feet. We will order a 250-foot spool of cable.

Let’s not forget about our termination cabinet, which contains quite a bit of hookup wire. In addition to the wire used in the process area, we will order a 500-foot spool of each color for the cabinet work. Turning to our wire and cable table, shown in Figure 201, we find we have spent $1085 on wire and cable for this project.

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Figure 200. Bulk materials takeoff worksheet

335

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336

D1

A B TO I/O MARSHALLING AREA DRAWING #PLAN024

E

C

T

LEG A

T

B

T

C

D

D 2

E

3

T T

F

O A1

T

TK10

1

N

M T

5

L

H

4

7

PP10 T M

K

F

T

JB1

A4

K M

6

H

J L N O

J A2

G

TAKEOFF LEN A

SIZE

1" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4"

150 10 3 6 8 150 75 50 10 12 8 3 8 8

5 15 5 10 5 5

2.5

2

1.5

B

D

3 1 2 1 1 1 6 1

CABLE LENGTHS:

A3

A LEN 0

CABLES B LEN D LEN 450 0

0

10

0

0

6

0

0

6

0

8

0

0

0

150

450

0

0 50

0

0

0

50

0

0

180

0

0

40

0

0

30

0

0

40 40

0 0

0 0

830

480

200

CONDUIT TALLY

G

A2-022

FROM NEXT BAY Drawing PLAN022, Routing A2

LEG A

To MCC001

1.25

1

150 10 3 6 8 150 75 50 10 12 8 3 8

B C

Physical Information: 1) Ceiling Elevation: 17ft 2) Floor Elevation: 0ft 3) Assume top conduit height: 15ft 4) Assume 1 square = 1ft.

CABLE CODES

D

CODE

CABLE TYPE

P/N

E

A

1/C#14,US

XXXX

F

YYYY

G

Plat.RTD Ext Wire ZZZZ

H

B C

TWPR#16,OS

D

16c#16,US

SSSS

J

E F

8twpr#16,OS

VVVV TTTT

F G H J TOTAL

3/4

0

0

0

150

312

TOT 150 10 3 6 8 150 75 50 10 12 8 3 8 462

Figure 135. Cable and conduit takeoff worksheet

Figure 201. Wire and cable calculation table Next, let’s look at the cabinetry. Consulting the cabinet drawing for TC-2, we find a total of 19 fuse blocks and 53 terminals. There are 36 terminals in the junction box. So, our next chart is beginning to take shape, as shown in Figure 202.

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Figure 202. Terminations and cabinetry An actual bill of materials would have each item listed separately. The statement “w/hardware” would not fly. Next is the instrument air piping. If we have any air users, we need to pipe some air into the area. In this case, we find an air header in the next bay, so it is a simple matter to extend tubing to our throttling valve and block valve. No galvanized air piping is needed. Next, we have the conduit and conduit fittings (see Figure 203). The type numbers provided in the list are Crouse-Hinds part numbers. Referring back to our plan drawing takeoff, we see that we need 150 feet of 1-inch conduit and 312 feet of ¾-inch. We may also obtain a fitting count by looking at the plan drawing and doing a count of fittings. Note that only nine fittings are depicted on the drawing (Figure 135), while a total of nineteen will actually be purchased. An additional tee must be provided at the conduit connection at each instrument. Plus, there are some vertical drops in which the fittings are superimposed on each other. So, the count must be higher. Also, note that a transition is made from 1-inch conduit to ¾inch conduit for routing D1. Reducers will need to be purchased for that case. Also, some other miscellaneous parts may need to be purchased. For example, at each “down” leg, a drain fitting needs to be installed to provide drainage for any condensate that may collect.

D. Bulk Mechanical Bill of Materials The bulk mechanical bill of materials is taken from the installation details. It is built by listing each installation detail in the database against any instrument for which it is used. Having already done that in Chapter 13, we are able to create a new query called the installation query. Running that query results in the database listing in Figure 204. This tabulation lets us count the number of times a particular detail is used. Our new tally is shown in Figure 205. The next step is to tabulate all the equipment items listed on all the bills of materials. This is not as difficult as it sounds since there usually aren’t that many details. However, a minor complication is that a particular item may be used on more than one detail. This causes us to maintain a “lookup” table that assigns each item to the proper detail. A “summary” table then totals each item and places it into a bill of materials format.First, we must tabulate our material. Taking the four installation details we have recently finished, the material list is as shown in Figure 206.

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Figure 203. Conduit and conduit fittings Notice that 3/8-inch tubing and tube fittings, the filter-regulator, and other items appear on more than one detail. So, the list needs to be consolidated. Also, it is handy to have the detail quantities at the top of the columns, and subtotals to the right as shown in Figure 207. Now we must make some adjustments and add fields to build our bill of materials. First, in cell V5, type the following and hit return: = R2*R5+S2*S5+T2*T5+U2*U5 The result should be a 1 next to “Throttling Valve.” For grins, enter a 1 in cell T5 as if Mount-001 needed a valve. The total should increment to 2. Delete the T5 value. Now we have an equation that totals the number of throttling valves needed for the project, based on the number of details, and the number of items needed per detail. Now we need to propagate that calculation to the other items. To do that, Microsoft® Excel must be told not to automatically increment certain elements of the equation. For example, as we pull the calculation down, we want the item row to increment but the detail row to stay where it is. To do this, we must insert the direct address operator “$” in front of any items we do not want to increment: = R$2*R5+S$2*S5+T$2*T5+U$2*U5

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Figure 204. Installation detail assignment data

Figure 205. New detail sheet tally

339

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Figure 206. Material tabulation by detail

Figure 207. Consolidated material with detail quantity

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Now we can pull the equation down to copy it to each row in our table, as shown in Figure 208.

Figure 208. Total item quantities

We change the color of the calculated values to blue to indicate that we should check for an equation or link. Now, we can insert descriptive fields like part number, manufacturer, unit price, and total price, and we have a serviceable bill of materials spreadsheet that can be continually modified as new details are generated. We animate the total price column and then format both the unit price and total price columns as accounting data types. To format these columns, highlight both columns and right-click the mouse. Pick “Format Cells,” “Number,” and then “Accounting.” The result, before adding manufacturer and part number data, is shown in Figure 209. So, for the first time, we have a general idea of how much our installation cost will be. Instrument cost, including materials, is $5,097.10. Now, we can clean this up a bit and add some header information about the customer and the project, and we end up with the bill of materials shown in Figure 210. If we want to, we can sort the data by description (see Figure 211). But, we must be careful to sort the entire row, not just the area we’re concerned about. Don’t forget the links we have established. Select just the data rows, not the header. On the “sort” pop-up, pick “No Header Row,” and select the column the description data are in. Execute the sort, and configure the print area to include the material list plus the border. The printed worksheet is shown in Figure 212.

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Figure 209. Part number and price

Figure 210. Final bill of materials worksheet

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Figure 211. Sort by description

E. Procurement Summary So, we have generated a set of materials lists that covers the entire spectrum of the I&C project. Admittedly, this material list is somewhat incomplete. We do not have part numbers, and the cost figures are bogus. However, the thought process conveyed here, along with basic spreadsheet tools, will help get you started. The primary point is the ease with which the information can be extracted, provided good design techniques are used when designing the drawings. The key to building an accurate and timeeffective materials listing is the prep work that happens before the takeoff activity even begins.

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ENGINEERING BILL OF MATERIAL ADDISON PLASTICS

PREPARED BY:

JESSE JAMES

TK-10 PRODUCT TANK

CHECKED BY:

BILLY HOLIDAY

CUSTOMER: PROJECT: PROJECT ID:

TK10-0001-1A

BOM #:

TK10-INST-001 REV A

PROJ. ENGR:

B. MASTERSON

DATE:

5-31-02

REFERENCES: PID-001, PLAN-001 COMMENTS: This list of material lacks mounting materials for several instruments. Will follow up. QTY U/I 8 EA 8 EA 10 EA 6 EA 12 EA 6 EA 6 EA 2 EA 2 EA 12 FT 4 EA 6 EA 1 EA 12 EA 8 EA 1 EA 6 EA 1 EA 1 EA 12 FT

DESCRIPTION

MANUFACTURER PART NO. UNIT PRICE

TOTAL PRICE

2" BLIND FLANGE, DRILLED & TAPPED

$

10.00

$

BOLTS

$

0.10

$

COMPRESSION FITTINGS, TUBING, 3/8"

$

0.25

$

80.00 2.50

CONDULET, TEE, 3/4", FORM7

$

10.00

$

60.00

COUPLING, LIQ-TITE, FLEXIBLE

$

5.00

$

60.00

COVER, CONDULET, FORM7

$

5.00

$

30.00

DRAIN, CONDUIT

$

5.00

$

30.00

FILTER

$

1.50

$

3.00

FILTER/REGULATOR

$

25.00

$

50.00

0.80

FLEX, LIQUIDTITE, 3/4"

$

0.25

$

GASKET

$

0.25

$

1.00

GASKET, CONDULET, FORM7

$

5.00

$

30.00

3.00

I/P TRANSDUCER

$

500.00

$

500.00

NIPPLE, CONDUIT, 3/4" RIGID STEEL

$

5.00

$

60.00

NUTS

$

0.10

$

0.80

ON/OFF VALVE

$

1,500.00

$

1,500.00

REDUCER, CONDUIT, 3/4"X1/2"

$

5.00

$

SOLENOID, 3-WAY

$

150.00

$

150.00

THROTTLING VALVE

$

2,500.00

$

2,500.00

TUBING, 3/8", CU, .032"WALL

$

0.50

$

6.00

$

5,097.10

Total Price:

Figure 212. Engineering bill of materials

30.00

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Chapter 17: Quality Control—The Integrated Design Check Having progressed to the end of the design phase, it is now necessary to validate the work before sending it to the field to be built. Is this really necessary? Can’t we just “fire it off” and let construction manage it from here? “After all, they can redline the corrections, and we’ll fix ‘em!”, you might say. All too often, that is exactly what happens. The cost of this approach, while low in terms of the project budget, is actually very high, as silly mistakes caught too late erode the customer’s confidence and jeopardize the project. As has become evident throughout the design process, there are a vast number of decisions to be made and minute details to attend to. If the design process presented here is followed, most of the major design flaws will be discovered during the design phase. That is, information that is presented in multiple places will originate from a common data record. Navigation through the package is enhanced, making problems more evident. Also, if the design events are properly logged as they are executed, then the design check at the end is much easier and much time will be saved. What is the goal of a design check? It would be easy to say “zero defects,” but that will not occur. Time is too short for that kind of ultra-detailed review. However, it can be approximated, and as a result of the effort, the design team can rest assured that no “showstoppers” or major problems will stop the construction effort. There are a few specific issues to consider in terms of establishing “checkpoints.” Each document needs to be checked and then either highlighted as okay or redlined for repair. Two different points of view need to be considered: administrative and technical.

A. Administrative Content—Individual Checks Non-technical experts should be designated to page through the document set to check for specific appearance aspects: • • • • •

Is the title block correct in terms of drawing number, revision level, and title? Are the proper project data in place? Project site, process area, project number, issue date, and so on. Are the proper initials in place? Designed, checked, and so on. Were the proper CADD practices used in terms of valid levels, colors, and text fonts and sizes? This requires someone paging through the drawings at a workstation. Are notes legible and grammatically complete?

B. Technical Content—Squad Check Checking technical content on a document package is difficult to do “piecemeal.” The drawing set is interrelated among drawings and among document types. The goal of the squad check is to answer the following questions:

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Do the instrument specifications reflect the intent of the P&ID, and will they meet the scope requirements? Do the elementaries reflect the intent of the instrument specs and the P&ID? Do the wiring diagrams reflect the intent of the elementaries? Do the instrument location plans conflict with the finished piping drawings? Does the bill of materials reflect the needs presented on the process plans and cabinet arrangements? Are all these properly reflected in the instrument database?

The best way to tackle this set of interrelated tasks is to do them simultaneously. The ideal setup is to have one person checking one or two products. Depending upon the size of the project, there should be between three and eight personnel on the squad check team. These folks should shut themselves into a “war room” with a large table that accommodates all the document sets laying flat upon it. They should then step through the entire project, using the database and P&Ids as the key controlling documents. At the end, the database should be completely highlighted, as should the entire set of documents. Sound time-consuming? It is. But, so is the alternative method of using a single designated checker. How many hours will that person log to the project throughout its life? The simultaneous method is much more comprehensive and effective. Of course, some adjustments will need to be made in the document package. These will be made “on-the-fly” by the check team. As documents are completed by the check team, meaning they are either fully highlighted and/or marked up, they may be released to the CADD group for correction. The revised drawing should always be attached to its original markup to retain the document trail. In the end, when the design check is complete, the markups should be rescued and stored. They should be retained for one year after plant startup.

C. Squad-Check Roster Who should be on this squad-check team? For the most part, the design team itself. For one thing, it is the most practical approach. These individuals are already assigned to the project. They are knowledgeable about it and are motivated to see it through to the end and deliver a quality product. It is recommended that, if possible, the members not check their own work. Usually, a design team breaks down along vertical lines, one person doing wiring diagrams, another the floor plans. During the check, these should rotate, each taking the other’s work. Rotating the personnel away from their own work does a couple of good things: First, it makes sense. If a mistake was made once, it will probably be missed if the same person looks at it again. Another benefit is the cross-training aspect. After a few projects, team members are able to float between tasks with little loss in productivity. One other addition to the squad should be an experienced outsider. This should be an individual who is not a full-fledged member of the design team but is still knowledgeable about the project and about the design process as a whole. And, most important, this person should be knowledgeable about the customer and the customer’s requirements.

D. Design Check Summary The design check is a function of quality management. It is often undervalued and underutilized. Usually, design teams rely on a single individual to check the project, which can be inefficient because this person probably does not have access to all reference drawings and may not be

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“expert” in some areas being checked. Or, the design is allowed to proceed to construction unchecked, where the construction team is, in effect, the checking agent. A third option exists, whereby the design check is considered and allowed for throughout the life of the project. All the designers prepare for the check by logging their progress in the database, by keeping a personal log of potential problems to watch out for, and by communicating with each other. At the end of the project, the database can be used as a checking tool that streamlines the squad-check process and maximizes the effectiveness of the time spent in its execution.

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Chapter 18: Phase Three— Construction Support Phase two has ended, and phase three has begun. In an ideal world, the design team goes on to other things, leaving a “skeleton crew” to interact with the constructor. However, things are not usually that simple. Most of the time, the design team issues their documents in packages that line up with a work breakdown structure, or WBS. A WBS organizes the work and coordinates it so that the work flows smoothly. A WBS will usually break the design task into pieces, each of which is handled like a small project. The design team issues its design to construction in WBS packages. This causes an overlap between design and construction that is, for the most part, a good thing. Staffing by the design team remains at a higher level through more of the construction process, thereby increasing the support level that is available away from the site. The designers may be able to spend some extra time on-site with the constructor as well. Construction support and support during checkout and startup are key to the success of the design team as a whole. Many mistakes can be avoided by close association between the construction and design teams. And, if the designers are in the field and known to be helpful, then perceptions will be enhanced all around.

A. Construction Support There are two kinds of construction support: on-site and off-site. It is a good idea to determine ahead of time the periods that are critical for on-site support and have people available continuously through those periods. Otherwise, having someone on call off-site is usually acceptable, coupled with regularly scheduled site visits to clarify issues and facilitate the work. For more information on the construction team, refer to Part I. The construction phase breaks down into several periods, each with a different set of needs in terms of the design team.

1. Kickoff Meeting Each construction activity (as listed on the WBS document) should begin with a kickoff meeting. At this meeting, the phase-three lead for the design team should present the package. This presentation should be made to the construction superintendent and each of the foremen. The presentation should cover, at a minimum, the following topics: • • • •

Bill of materials: status of parts and expected arrival dates, special handling issues, and problems and concerns Design overview: scope of work and presentation of the design package Off-site support infrastructure: off-site support phone numbers, pagers, faxes, vendor lists with contacts, and so on On-site support plan: on-site schedule, personnel list with phone numbers, and so on

Upon completion of this presentation, there should be an open discussion period followed by a walk-down of the facility if appropriate. In some cases, this may be the constructor’s first visit onsite, or it may be a group of prospective constructors who are preparing bids.

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2. Construction Period Construction activities usually provide a bit of a lull for the design team. Some members of the team may be reassigned to other duties at this time, never to return to the project. Others may monitor the project, getting involved only when a problem arises. During certain predefined periods of particular risk to the project, design team representative(s) may travel to the site to observe and provide direct support. On-site time for the design team should be maximized within budgetary constraints. The ideal situation is to have one representative on-site through the entire process who could call in additional support at need. The duties likely to be needed during this time are, for the most part, clarification and direction services. Also, the constructor almost always needs help in locating material, which is easier with the help of someone who has knowledge of the database. If design flaws are discovered during this phase, the design team must operate much like a fire brigade, assembling and attacking the problem to minimize its effects. Many times it is the ability to react or not that causes a small issue to balloon into a large one. It is best to attack these problems directly and decisively, if necessary, reassembling the squad-check team to perform an emergency operation on the dying patient. Construction activities during this time include installation and verification. After the installation of an item is complete, an inspector checks it out for mechanical completeness and the electrical wiring is “rung out” to make sure connections are properly made.

3. Checkout (Bump and Stroke) The checkout period increases the level of attention needed by the design team. Sometimes the designer is asked to provide a checkout procedure whereby each device is field exercised and validated. The database is a very nice tool for generating such a checklist. The following activities occur during this time: •



• •

Each analog sensor is checked for proper ambient reading and then electrically disconnected. Simulators are wired into the circuit that will inject variable signals. The operator screens are then checked for proper signal scaling and for proper activation of analog alarms generated by the control system from the analog values being induced. Each digital input is “forced” by either making it react to its process condition or by shorting across its terminals, thus simulating a close (or conversely, lifting a lead to simulate an open). The control system is checked for proper indication. Motors are “bumped” to verify proper direction of rotation. Valves are “stroked” to make sure they function and their travel is not obstructed. Limit switches are adjusted and proper operation is verified at the workstation.

Properly done, each device will receive the initials of the customer’s representative who is observing the checkout. Sometimes the design engineer is the designee, or perhaps the systems integrator, who will likely be manning the workstation, or training the operators.

4. Startup Upon successful completion of the checkout phase, the system is ready to run. At this point, the customer begins to take command of the system. The customer’s operators will have received training from the systems integrator. The maintenance staff is getting familiar with the system. The construction team is available, as are the leading members of the design team. It is now time to “light the candle,” so to speak. It can make for some tense moments as systems begin to come up to temperature, water begins flowing in the pipes, and motors begin spooling up. All members of the project team stand with their knees flexed, waiting to respond to a crisis.

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This is the time for the customer and the systems integrator to assume primary roles. These groups have worked out the proper startup procedure based on long discussion. The integrator likely has satisfied the customer’s factory acceptance test and has demonstrated the proper configuration of alarms, settings, and I/O configuration during the checkout. All that remains is validation of procedures under live conditions. The design and construction teams stand by to respond should a need be identified.

B. Adjustment of Document Package to Reflect Construction Modifications During startup, adjustments made to the design package during construction must be documented. Construction drawings are usually copied, since redlines only exist there and cannot be removed from the site. These copies are then sent to the engineering service provider to be formally incorporated into the documentation. This process is generally a simple CADD function, but there are occasionally more far-reaching modifications.

C. Issue for Record As soon after startup as practical, the drawings should be released back into the customer’s possession. This is an official turnover of responsibility for the project. Depending on the contract, this may conclude the engineering service provider’s activity for this project. Usually, however, there is a period of “free” phone support followed by an option for additional ongoing support. When the documents are issued for record, the CADD supervisor usually makes one more pass to make sure there are no hidden problems that will be caught in the customer’s organization. The drawing list should then be updated and a transmittal prepared. Finally, the entire project is shipped to the customer.

D. Phase III Summary The construction period is when the design is absolutely validated. If, at its conclusion, the facility is running as designed and the customer is happy, then the project was a success. Following an integrated design process such as has been presented in this book increases the likelihood of success.