The Age of Empire: 1875-1914

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The Age of Empire: 1875-1914


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In this masterwork Eric Hobsbawm concludes his brilliant three­ volume history of the "long nineteenth century " that he began more than twenty-five years ago with The Age of Revolution and continued with The Age of Capital. Here Hobsbawm combines vast erudition with a graceful prose style to re-create , in its many-faceted complexity, the world that laid the basis for the twentieth century.

"It is Mr. Hobsbawm's achievement both to have captured the exuberance of an age, and to have shown how and why that world was coming to an end ....He not only captures the age of empire, he also illuminates the course of the twentieth century." -Paul Kennedy, The Economist (London) "A virtuoso performance ...Few, if any, present practitioners of the historian's craft can equal the astonishing range and dazzling erudition of Mr. Hobsbawm's scholarship:' -David M. Kennedy, The New York Times Book Review

"He is a pioneer in what has commonly come to be called the new history, an attempt to go beyond the conventional bounds of great political events in order to portray the vast panorama of society that underlay them:' -Richard Bernstein, The New York Times Book Review "A splendid answer to those critics who complain that academic historians no longer write readable prose ....The great strength of this book is the way in which what seems in so many ways a wholly vanished epoch is related to our situation today." -James Joll, New York Review of Books

"Hobsbawm shows ...[an] astonishing mastery of the period's economic, social and intellectual history." -Gordon A. Craig, Boston Sunday Globe "These chapters are among the finest pieces of historical exposition that I have ever read." -Norman Stone, The Sunday Times (London)

Cover design by Sue Keston Cover photographs: Brown Brothers (low� kft) The Beurn ann Archive, Inc. (middle &top right)



9 780679 721758 ISBN


The Age of Empire I875-I9I4 E_J,










To the students ofBirkbeck College

First Vintage Books Edition, April I 989 Copyright© I 987 by E.J. Hobsbawm All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by Random House, Inc., New York. Originally

published, in Great Britain, by George Weidenfeld and Nicolson Ltd., London, and in the United States by Pantheon Books, a division of Random House, Inc., New York, in I987.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Hobsbawm, EJ. (Eric).), I9I7 The age of empire, I8 75-I9I4 I E.J.. Hobsbawm.-I st Vintage Books ed. p. em. Bibliography: p.

Includes index.

ISBN o-6 79-72I75-4 (pbk .) I. History, Modern-I9th century.

I. Title.

0359 ·7·H63 I989 909.8I -dCI 9

Manufactured in the United States of America 579886


Illustrations Preface

ix Xlll

Overture The Centenarian Revolution

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

An Economy Changes Gear The Age of Empire


Reason and Society

12 13

Towards Revolution

The Politics ofDemocracy

13 34 56 84

Workers of the World


Waving Flags: Nations and Nationalism Who's Who or the Uncertainties of the Bourgeoisie

142 165 192 219 243 262 276 302 328

The New Woman The Arts Transformed Certainties Undermined: The Sciences

From Peace to War Epilogue Tables Maps Notes Further Reading Index

341 353 361 379 391


(between pages 180 and 181)

2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10

II I2 I3 14 IS I6 I7 I8 19

Tsar Nicholas II and King George v (photo: BBC Hulton Picture Library) The Wyndham Sisters by Sargent, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York A La Bourse by Degas, Musee du Louvre, Paris (pho to: Giraudon/Bridgeman) John D. Rockefeller (photo: BBC Hulton Picture Library) Tea party on the Isle of Wight (photo: Mrs]. R. Ede, Weidenfeld and Nicolson Archives) A serving maid (photo: Mansell Collection) Le Jour de Premiere Communion by Toulouse-Lautrec, Musee des Augustins, Toulouse (photo: GiraudonfBridgeman) Peasant picnic in France (photo: Roger-Viollet) A Russian village council, c. I9oo (photo: Victoria and Albert Museum) Workers in Wandsworth, London (photo: Greater London Council) Italian immigrants in the USA (photo: Weidenfeld and Nicolson Archives) Immigrants on their way to America (photo: Weidenfeld and Nicolson Archives) Wilhelm von Rontgen (photo: BBC Hulton Picture Library) Two girls with a b icycle (photo: Mansell Collection) French telephone exchange (photo: Musee de la Poste, Paris) Instructions for a Kodak camera, I889 (photo: Science Museum, London) Poster for Lumiere cinema (photo: Mary Evans Picture Library) Advertisement for HMV gramophone (photo: Mansell Collection) Cartoon of lady with car (photo: John Freeman)


20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 go 31 32 33 34 35 g6

37 g8 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

Bleriot landing at Dover, 1909 (photo: Mary Evans Picture Library) Pears Soap advertisement (photo: Mansell Collection) British mission to Rhodesia (photo: Weidenfeld and Nicolson Archives) The European expedition against the Boxers, drawing by Hermann Paul (photo: BBC Hulton Picture Library) Visitors to the Paris Exposition in 1900 (photo: Fondazione Primoli, Rome) French settler and his bodyguard on the Ivory Coast (photo: Roger-Viollet) Tea party in India (photo: India Office Library, London) A missionary postcard (photo: W eidenfeld and Nicolson Archives) Contents page from The Indian Ladies Magazine, 1901 (photo: Weidenfeld and Nicolson Archives) Lord Lugard (photo: BBC Hulton Picture Library) Emiliano Zapata (photo: BBC Hulton Picture Library) Lenin (photo: BBC Hulton Picture Library) Friedrich Nietzsche (photo: BBC Hulton Picture Library) A1bert Einstein (photo: BBC Hulton Picture Library) Rosa Luxemburg (photo: BBC Hulton Picture Library) Bernard Shaw (photo: BBC Hulton Picture Library) Pablo Picasso (photo: Weidenfeld and Nicolson Archives) Drawing room designed by Liberty, 1906 (photo: Mansell Collection) Slum courtyards in Hamburg (photo: Museum ftir Hamburgische Geschichte Bildarchiv) Lady golfer (photo: Mary Evans Picture Library) Making matchboxes, c. 1905 (photo: National Museum of Labour History, London) Advertisement of Harry Boulter, socialist tailor (photo: National Museum of Labour History, London) Paris haute couture, 1913 (photo: Weidenfeld and Nicolson Archives) The Reichstag in Berlin (photo: BBC Hulton Picture Library) The main railway station in Helsinki (photo: BBC Hulton Picture Library) Pears Soap advertisement, 188os (photo: Mansell Collection) The New Woman in the new offices of the 189os (photo: john Freeman) Ambroise Vollard by Picasso, Grand Palais, :Paris (photo: Giraudon) Engraving by Walter Crane, 1895 (photo: Herr Udo Achten)



German social-democratic engraving, 1897 (photo: Herr Udo Achten)


Title page ofLa Lanterne, 1898 (photo: Collection Alain Gesgon, CIRI P, Paris)


German and Russian workers shake hands, engraving, 1906


The Olympic and Titanic under construction, 1910 (photo: The


Statuette of a suffragette (photo: National Museum of Labour History, London)


British soldiers at Victoria Station, 1914 (photo: BBC Hulton Picture Library)

(photo: Herr Udo Achten) Ulster M useum, Belfast)

MAPS between pages 353 and 359 International migrations r82o-I910 2

Movements ofcapitalr875-19I4


Opera and nationalism

4 5

Europe in 1914 The world divided: empires in 1914


Though written by a professional historian, this book is addressed not to other academics, but to all who wish to understand the world and who believe history is important for this purpose. Its object is not to tell readers exactly what happened in the world during the forty years before the First World War, though I hope it will give them some idea of the period. If they want to find out more, they can easily do so from the large and often excellent literature, much of which is easily available in English to anyone who takes an interest in history. Some of it is indicated in the guide to Further Reading. What I have tried to do in this volume, as in the two volumes which preceded it (The Age of Revolution q8�1848 and The Age of Capital IB48I875) is to understand and explain the nineteenth century and its place in history, to understand and explain a world in the process of revolutionary transformation, to trace the roots of our present back into the soil of the past and, perhaps above all, to see the past as a coherent whole rather than (as historical specialization so often forces us to see it) as an assembly of separate topics: the history of different states, of politics, of the economy, of culture or whatever. Ever since I began to be interested in history, I have always wanted to know how all these aspects of past (or present) life hang together, and why. This book is therefore not (except incidentally) a narrative or a systematic exposition, and still less a display of scholarship. It is best read as the unfolding of an argument, or rather, the tracing of a basic theme through the various chapters. Readers must judge whether the attempt is convincing, though I have done my best to make it accessible to non-historians. There is no way of acknowledging my debts to the many writers whose works I have pillaged, even as I often disagreed with them, and still less my debts to the ideas I have obtained over the years in conversation with colleagues and students. If they recognize their own ideas and observations, they can at least blame me for getting them or the facts wrong, as I have certainly done from time to time. I can,


however, acknowledge those who made it possible to pull a long pre­ occupation with this period together into a single book. The College de France enabled me to produce something like a first draft in the form of a course of thirteen lectures in Ig82; I am grateful to this august institution and to Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie who instigated the invitation. The Leverhulme Trust gave me an Emeritus Fellowship in rg8g-s, which allowed me to get research help; the Maison des Sciences de l'Homme and Clemens Heller in Paris, as well as the World Institute for Development Economics Research of the United Nations University and the Macdonnell Foundation, gave me the possibility of a few quiet weeks in rg86 to finish the text. Among the people who assisted me in research I am particularly grateful to Susan Haskins, Vanessa Marshall and Dr Jenna Park. Francis Haskell read the chapter on the arts, Alan Mackay those on the sciences, Pat Thane that on women's emanci­ pation, and preserved me from some, but I am afraid not from all, error. Andre Schiffrin read the entire manuscript as a friend and exemplar of the educated non-expert to whom this book is addressed. I spent many years lecturing on European history to the students of Birkbeck College, University of London, and I doubt whether I would have been able to envisage a history of the nineteenth century in world history without this experience. So this book is dedicated to them.


The Age of Empire


Memory is life. It is always carried by groups of living people, and therifore it is in permanent evolution. It is subject to the dialectics of remembering and forgetting, unaware qf its successive diformations, open to all kinds qf use and manipulation. Sometimes it remains latent for long periods, then suddenly revives. History is the always incomplete and problematic reconstruction of what is no longer there. Memory always belongs to our time and forms a lived bond with the eternal present; history is a representation of the past. Pierre Nora, 1984'

Merely to recount the course of events, even on a world-wide scale, is unlikely to result in a better understanding qf the forces at play in the world today unless we are aware at the same time qf the underlying structural changes. What we require first qf all is a new framework and new terms of riference. It is these that the present book will seek to provide. Geoffrey Barraclough,

I 9642

I In the summer of 1913 a young lady graduated from secondary school in Vienna, capital of the empire of Austria-Hungary. This was still a fairly unusual achievement for girls in central Europe. To celebrate the occasion, her parents decided to offer her a j ourney abroad, and since it was unthinkable that a respectable young woman of eighteen should be exposed to danger and temptation alone, they looked for a suitable relative. Fortunately, among the various interrelated families which had advanced westwards to prosperity and education from various small towns in Poland and Hungary during the past generations, there was one which had done unusually well. Uncle Albert had built up a chain of stores in the Levant - Constantinople, Smyrna, Aleppo, Alexandria. In the early twentieth century there was plenty of business


to be done in the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East, and Austria had long been central Europe's business window on the orient. Egypt was both a living museum, suitable for cultural self-improvement, and a sophisticated community of the cosmopolitan European middle class, with whom communication was easily possible by means of the French language, which the young lady and her sisters had per­ fected at a boarding establi�ment in the neighbourhood of Brussels. It also, of course, contained the Arabs. Uncle Albert was happy to welcome his young relative, who travelled to Egypt on a steamer of the Lloyd Triestino, from Trieste, which was then the chief port of the Habsburg Empire and also, as it happened, the place of residence of James Joyce. The young lady was the present author's future mother. Some years earlier a young man had also travelled to Egypt, but from London. His family background was considerably more modest. His father, who had migrated to Britain from Russian Poland in the r87os, was a cabinet-maker by trade, who earned an insecure living in East London and Manchester, bringing up a daughter of his first marriage and eight children of the second, most of them already born in England, as best he could. Except for one son, none of them was gifted for business or drawn to it. Only one of the youngest had the chance to acquire much schooling, becoming a mining engineer in South America, which was then an informal part of the British Empire. All, however, were passionate in the pursuit of English language and culture, and anglicized themselves with enthusiasm. One became an actor, another carried on the family trade, one became a primary school teacher, two others joined the expanding public services in the form of the Post Office. As it happened Britain had recently (r882) occupied Egypt, and so one brother found himself representing a small part of the British Empire, namely the Egyptian Post and Telegraph Service, in the Nile delta. He suggested that Egypt would suit yet another of his brothers, whose main qualification for making his way through life would have served him excellently if he had not actually had to earn a living: he was intelligent, agreeable, ·musical and a fine all-round sportsman as well as a lightweight boxer of championship standard. In fact, he was exactly the sort of Englishman who would fi n d and hold a post in a shipping office far more easily in 'the colonies' than anywhere else. That young man was the author's future father, who thus met his future wife where the economics and politics of the Age of Empire, not to mention its social history, brought them together- presumably at the Sporting Club on the outskirts of Alexandria, near which they would establish their first home. It is extremely improbable that such 2


an encounter would have happened in such a place, or would have led to marriage between two such people, in any period of history earlier than the one with which this book deals. Readers ought to be able to discover why. However, there is a more serious reason for starting the present volume with an autobiographical anecdote. For all of us there is a twilight zone between history and memory; between the past as a generalized record which is open to relatively dispassionate inspection and the past as a remembered part of, or background to, one's own life. For individual human beings this zone stretches from the point where living family traditions or memories begin- say, from the earliest family photo which the oldest living family member can identify or explicate- to the end of infancy, when public and private destinies are recognized as inseparable and as mutually defining one another ('I met him shortly before the end of the war'; 'Kennedy must have died in 1963, because it was when I was still in Boston'). The length of this zone may vary, and so will the obscurity and fuzziness that characterizes it. But there is always such a no-man's land of time. It is by far the hardest part of history for historians, or for anyone else, to grasp. For the present writer, born towards the end of the First World War of parents who were, respectively, aged thirty-three and nineteen in 1914, the Age of Empire falls into this twilight zone. But this is true not only of individuals, but of societies. The world we live in is still very largely a world made by men and women who grew up in the period with which this volume deals, or in its immediate shadow. Perhaps this is ceasing to be so as the twentieth century draws to its close- who can be certain?- but it was certainly true for the first two-thirds of our century. Consider, for instance, a list of names of political persons who must be included among the movers and shapers of the twentieth century. In 1914 Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Lenin) was forty-four years old, Joseph Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Stalin) thirty-five, Franklin Delano Roosevelt thirty, J. Maynard Keynes thirty-two, Adolf Hitler twenty-five, Konrad Adenauer (maker of the post-1945 German Federal Republic) thirty-eight. Winston Churchill was forty, Mahatma Gandhi forty-five, Jawaharlal Nehru twenty-five, Mao Tse-tung twenty-one, Ho Chi-minh twenty-two, the same age as Josip Broz (Tito) and Francisco Franco Bahamonde (General Franco of Spain), that is two years younger than Charles de Gaulle and nine years younger than Benito Mussolini. Consider figures of significance in the field of culture. A sample from a Dictionary of Modern Thought published in

I 977

produces the following result: 3


Persons born 1914 and after Persons active in I88o-1914 or adult in I9I4 Persons born 1900-I4 Persons active before r88o

23% 45% 1 7% I S%

Quite patently men and women compiling such a compendium three­ quart ers of the way through the twentieth century still considered the Age of Empire as by far the most significant in the formation of the modern thought then current. Whether we agree with their judgment or not, this judgment is historically significant. Hence not only the relatively few surviving individuals who have a direct link with the years before 19I4 face the problem of how to look at the landscape of their private twilight, but so, more impersonally, does everyone who lives in the world of the 198os, insofar as it has been shaped by the era which led up to the First World War. I mean not that the remoter past is of no significance to us, but that its relation to us is different. When dealing with remote periods we know that we confront them essentially as strangers and outsiders, rather like Western anthropologists setting out to investigate Papuan hill peoples. If they are geographically or chronologically, or emotionally, remote enough, such periods may survive exclusively through the inanimate relics of the dead: words and symbols, written, printed or engraved, material objects, images. Moreover, if we are historians, we know that what we write can be judged and corrected only by other such strangers, to whom 'the past is another country' also. We certainly start with the assumption of our own time, place and situation, including the pro­ pensity to reshape the past in our terms, to see what it has sharpened our eye to discern and only what our perspective allows us to recognize. Nevertheless, we go to work with the usual tools and materials of our trade, working on archival and other primary sources, reading an enormous quantity of secondary literature, threading our way through the accumulated debates and disagreements of generations of our pre­ decessors, the changing fashions and phase . s of interpretation and inter­ est, always curious, always (it is to be hoped) asking questions. But nothing much gets in our way except other contemporaries arguing as strangers about a past which is no longer part of memory. For even what we think we remember about the France of I789 or the England of George m is what we have learned at second or fifth hand through pedagogues, official or informal. Where historians try to come to grips with a period which has left surviving eyewitnesses, two quite different concepts of history clash, or, in the best of cases, supplement each other: the scholarly and the 4


existential, archive and personal memory. For everyone is a historian of his or her own consciously lived lifetime inasmuch as he or she comes to terms with it in the mind- an unreliable historian from most points of view, as anyone knows who has ventured into 'oral history', but one whose contribution is essential. Scholars who interview old soldiers or politicians will have already acquired more, and more reliable, information about what happened from print and paper, than their source has in his or her memory, but may nevertheless misunderstand it. And, unlike, say, the historian of the crusades, the historian of the Second World War can be corrected by those who, remembering, shake their head and tell him or her: 'But it was not like that at all.' Nevertheless, both the versions of history which thus confront one another are, in different senses, coherent constructions of the past, consciously held as such and at least potentially capable of definition. But the history of the twilight zone is different. It is itself an incoher­ ent, incompletely perceived image of the past, sometimes more shadowy, sometimes apparently precise, always transmitted by a mixture of learning and second-hand memory shaped by public and private tradition. For it is still part of us, but no longer quite within our personal reach. It forms something similar to those particoloured ancient maps filled with unreliable outlines and white spaces, framed by monsters and symbols. The monsters and symbols are magnified by the modern mass media, because the very fact that the twilight zone is important to us makes it central also to their preoccupations. Thanks to them such fragmentary and symbolic images have become lasting, at least in the western world: the Titanic, which retains all its power to make headlines three-quarters of a century after its sinking, is a striking example. And these images which flash into our mind when it is, for some reason or another, turned to the period which ended in the First World War are far more difficult to detach from a considered interpretation of the period than, say, those images and anecdotes which used to bring non-historians into supposed contact with a remoter past: Drake playing bowls as the Armada approached Britain, Marie­ Antoinette's diamond necklace or L ' et them eat cake,' Washington crossing the Delaware. None of these will affect the serious historian for a moment. They are outside us. But can we, even as professionals, be sure that we look at the mythologized images ofthe Age of Empire with an equally cold eye: the Titanic, the San Francisco earthquake, Dreyfus? Patently not, if the centenary of the Statue ofLiberty is any guide. More than any other, the Age of Empire cries out for demystification, just because we- and that includes the historians- are no longer in it, but do not know how much of it is still in us. This does not mean that it calls for debunking or muckraking (an activity it pioneered). 5




II The need for some sort of historical perspective is all the more urgent because people in the late twentieth century are indeed still passionately involved in the period which ended in 1914, probably just because August 1914 is one of the most undeniable 'natural breaks' in history. It was felt to be the end of an era at the time, and it is still felt to be so. It is quite possible to argue this feeling away, and to insist on the continuities and enjambments across the yea rs of the First World War. After all, history is not like a bus-line on which the vehicle changes all its passengers and crew whenever it gets to the point marking its terminus. Nevertheless, if there are dates which a re more than con­ veniences for purposes of periodization, August 1914 is one of them. It was felt to mark the end of the world made by and. for the bourgeoisie. It marks the end of the 'long nineteenth century' with which historians have learned to operate, and which has been the subject of the three volumes of which this is the last. No doubt that is why it has attracted historians, amateur and pro­ fessional, writers on culture, literature and the arts, biographers, the makers of films and television programmes, and not least the makers of fashions, in astonishing numbers. I would guess that in the English­ speaking world at least one title of significance - book or article- has appeared on the years from 188o to 1914 every month for the past fifteen years. Most of them are addressed to historians or other specialists, for the period is not merely, as we have seen, crucial in the development of modern culture, but provides the frame for a large number of passionately pursued debates in history, national or international, mostly initiated in the years before 1914: on imperialism, on the development of labour and socialist movements, on the problem of Britain's economic decline, on the nature and origins of the Russian Revolution- to name but a few. For obvious reasons the best known among these concerns is the question of the origins of the First World War, and it has so far generated several thousand volumes and continues to produce literature at an impressive -rate. It has remained alive, because the problem of the origins of world wars has unfortunately refused to go away since 1914. In fact, the link between the past and present concerns is nowhere more evident than in the history of the Age of Empire. Leaving aside the purely monographic literature, most of the writers on the period can be divided into two classes: the backward lookers and the forward lookers. Each tends to concentrate on one of the two most obvious features of the period. In one sense, it seems extra­ ordinarily remote and beyond return when seen across the impassable 6


canyon of August 1914. At the same time, paradoxically, so much of what is still characteristic of the late twentieth century has its origin in the last thirty years before the First World War. Barbara Tuchman's The Proud Tower, a best-selling 'portrait of the world before the war (1890-1914)' is perhaps the most familiar example of the first genre; Alfred Chandler's study of the genesis of modem corporate manage­ ment, The Visible Hand, may stand for the second. In quantitative terms, and in terms of circulation, the backward lookers almost certainly prevail. The irrecoverable past presents a challenge to good historians, who know that it cannot be understood in anachronistic terms, but it also contains the enormous temptation of nostalgia. The least perceptive and most sentimental constantly try to recapture the attractions of an era which upper- and middle-class memories have tended to see through a golden haze: the so-called 'beautiful times' or belle epoque. Naturally this approach has been con­ genial to entertainers and other media producers, to fashion-designers and others who cater to the big spenders. This is probably the version of the period most likely to be familiar to the public through cinema and television. It is quite unsatisfactory, though it undoubtedly catches one highly visible aspect of the period, which, after all, brought such terms as 'plutocracy' and 'leisure class' into the public discourse. One may debate whether it is more or less useless than the even more nostalgic, but intellectually more sophisticated, writers who hope to prove that paradise lost might not have been lost, but for some avoidable errors or unpredictable accidents without which there would have been no world war, no Russian Revolution, or whatever else is held to be responsible for the loss of the world before 1914. Other historians are more concerned with the opposite of the great discontinuity, namely the fact that so much of what remains charac­ teristic of our times originated, sometimes quite suddenly, in the decades before 1914. They seek these roots and anticipations of our time, which are indeed obvious. In politics, the labour and socialist parties which form the government or chief opposition in most states of western Europe are the children of the era from 1875 to 1914, and so are one branch of their family, the communist parties which govern the regimes of eastern Europe.* So indeed are the politics of governments elected by democratic vote, the modern mass party and nationally organized mass labour union, and modem welfare legislation. Under the name of 'modernism' the avant garde of this period took over most of twentieth-century high cultural output. Even today, when • The communist parties ruling in the non-European world were formed on their model, but after

our period.



some avant gardes or other schools no longer accept this tradition, they still define themselves in terms of what they reject ('post-modernism'). Meanwhile the culture of everyday life is still dominated by three innovations of this period: the advertising industry in its modern form, the modern mass circulation newspaper or periodical, and (directly or through television) the moving photograph or film. Science and technology may have come a long way since r875-I914, but in the sciences there is an evident continuity between the age of Planck, Einstein and the young Niels Bohr and the present. As for technology, the petrol-powered road-running automobiles and the flying-machines which appeared in our period, for the first time in history, still dominate our landscapes and townscapes. The telephones and wireless com­ munication invented at that time have been improved but not super­ seded. It is possible that, in retrospect, the very last decades of the twentieth century may be seen no longer to fit into the framework established before 1914, but for most purposes of orientation it will still serve. But it cannot be enough to present the history of the past in such terms. No doubt the question of continuity and discontinuity between the Age of Empire and the present still matters, since our emotions are still directly engaged with this section of the historical past. Never­ theless, from the historian's point of view, taken in isolation, continuity and discontinuity are trivial matters. But how are we to situate this period? For, after all, the relation of past to present is central to the preoccupations both of those who write and of those who read history. Both want, or should want, to understand how the past has become the present, and both want to understand the past, the chief obstacle being that it is not like the present. The Age qf Empire, though self-contained as a book, is the third and last volume of what has turned out to be a general survey of the nineteenth century in world history - that is, the historians' 'long nineteenth century' which runs from, say, 1776 to 1914. It was not the author's original intention to embark on anything so crazily ambitious. But insofar as three volumes written at intervals over the years and, except for the last, not intentionally conceived as parts of a single project, have any coherence, it is because they share a common con­ ception of what the nineteenth century was a bout. And insofar as this common conception has succeeded in linking The Age qf Revolution to

The Age qf Capital and both in turn to The Age of Empire - and I hope it has - it should also be helpful in linking the Age of Empire to what came after it. Essentially the central axis round which I have tried to organize the history of the century is the triumph and transformation of capitalism 8


in the historically specific forms of bourgeois society in its liberal version. The history begins with the decisive double breakthrough of the first industrial revolution in Britain, which established the limitless capacity of the productive system pioneered by capitalism for economic growth and global penetration, and the Franco-American political revolution, which established the leading models for the public institutions of bourgeois society, supplemented by the virtually simultaneous emerg­ ence of its most characteristic- and linked- theoretical systems: classical political economy and utilitarian philosophy. The first volume of this history, The Age qf Revolution q8�1848, is structured round this concept of a 'dual revolution'. It led to the confident conquest of the globe by the capitalist economy, carried by its characteristic class, the 'bourgeoisie', and under the banners of its characteristic intellectual expression, the ideology of liberalism. This is the main theme of the second volume, which covers the brief period . between the 1848 revolutions and the onset of the 187os Depression, when the prospects of bourgeois society and its economy seemed relatively unproblematic, because their actual triumphs were so striking. For either the political resistances of 'old regimes', against which the French Revolution had been made, were overcome, or these regimes themselves looked like accepting the econ­ omic, institutional and cultural hegemony of a triumphant bourgeois progress. Economically, the difficulties of an industrialization and econ­ omic growth limited by the narrowness of its pioneer base were over­ come, not least by the spread of industrial transformation and the enormous widening of world markets. Socially, the explosive discontents of the poor during the Age of Revolution were consequently defused. In short, the major obstacles to continued and presumably unlimited bourgeois progress seemed to have been removed. The possible difficul­ ties arising from the inner contradictions of this progress did not yet seem to be cause for immediate anxiety. In Europe there were fewer socialists and social revolutionaries in this period than at any other. The Age of Empire, on the other hand, is penetrated and dominated by these contradictions. It was an era of unparalleled peace in the western world, which engendered an era of equally unparalleled world wars. It was an era of, in spite of appearances, growing social stability within the zone of developed industrial economies, which provided the small bodies of men who, with almost contemptuous ease, could conquer and rule over vast empires, but which inevitably generated on its outskirts the combined forces of rebellion and revolution that were to engulf it. Since 1914 the world has been dominated by the fear, and sometimes by the reality, of global war and the fear (or hope) of 9


revolution - both based on the historic situations which emerged directly out of the Age of Empire.

It was the era when massive organized movements of the class of wage-workers created by, and characteristic of, industrial capitalism suddenly emerged and demanded the overthrow of capitalism. But they emerged in highly flourishing and expanding economies, and, in the countries in which they were strongest, at a time when probably capitalism offered them slightly less miserable conditions than before. It was an era when the political and cultural institutions of bourgeois liberalism were extended, or about to be extended, to the working masses living in bourgeois societies, including even (for the first time in history) its women, but the extension was at the cost of forcing its central class, the liberal bourgeoisie, on to the margins of political power. For the electoral democracies, which were the inevitable product of liberal progress, liquidated bourgeois liberalism as a political force in most countries. It was an era of profound identity crisis and trans­ formation for a bourgeoisie whose traditional moral foundation crum­ bled under the very pressure of its own accumulations of wealth and comfort. Its very existence as a class of masters was undermined by the transformation of its own economic system. Juridical persons (i.e. large business organizations or corporations), owned by shareholders, employing hired managers and executives, began to replace real persons and their families owning and managing their own enterprises. There is no end to such paradoxes. The history of the Age of Empire is filled with them. Indeed, its basic pattern, as seen in this book, is of the society and world of bourgeois liberalism advancing towards what has been called its 'strange death' as it reaches its apogee, victim of the very contradictions inherent in its advance. What is more, the culture and intellectual life of the period show a curious awareness of this pattern of reversal, of the imminent death of one world and the· need for another. But what gave the period its peculiar tone and savour was that the coming cataclysms were both expected, misunderstood and disbelieved. World war would come, but nobody, even the best of the prophets; really understood the kind of war it would be. And when the world finally stood on the brink, the decision-makers rushed towards the abyss in utter disbelief. The great new socialist movements were revolutionary; but for most of them revolution was, in some sense, the logical and necessary outcome of bourgeois democracy, which gave the multiplying many the decision over the diminishing few. And for those among them who expected actual insurrection, it was a battle whose aim, in the first instance, could only be to institute bourgeois democracy as a necessary preliminary to something more advanced. Revolutionaries thus remained within the IO


Age of Empire, even as they prepared to transcend it. In the sciences and the arts the orthodoxies of the nineteenth century

were being overthrown, but never did more men and women, newly

educated and intellectually conscious, believe more firmly in what small avant gardes were even then rejecting. If public opinion pollsters in the developed world before 1914 had counted up hope against foreboding,

optimists against pessimists, hope and optimism would pretty certainly have prevailed. Paradoxically, they would probably have collected proportionately more votes in the new century, as the western world

approached 1914, than they might have done in the last decades of the old. But, of course, that optimism included not only those who believed

in the future of capitalism, but also those who looked forward with hope to its supersession. In itself there is nothing about the historical pattern of reversal, of development undermining its own foundations, which is novel or pecu­

liar to this period as distinct from any other. This is how endogenous historical transformations work. They are still working this way. What is peculiar about the long nineteenth century is that the titanic and revolutionary forces of this period which changed the world out of recognition were transported on a specific, and historically peculiar and fragile vehicle. Just as the transformation of the world economy

was, for a crucia1 but necessarily brief period, identified with the fortunes of a single medium-sized state- Great Britain- so the develop­ ment of the contemporary world was temporarily identified with that of nineteenth-century liberal bourgeois society. The very extent to

which the ideas, values, assumptions and institutions associated with it

appeared to triumph in the Age of Capital indicates the historically transient nature of that triumph.

This book surveys the moment in history when it became clear that

the society and civilization created by and for the western liberal bourgeoisie represented not the permanent form of the modern indus­

trial world, but only one phase of its early development. The economic

structures which sustain the twentieth-century world, even when they

are capitalist, are no longer those of 'private enterprise' in the sense businessmen would have accepted in 1870. The revolution whose

memory dominates the world since the First World War is no longer the French Revolution of I 789. The culture which penetrates it is no longer bourgeois culture as it would have been understood before 1914. The continent which overwhelmingly constituted its economic,

intellectual and military force then, no longer does so now. Neither

history in general, nor the history of capitalism in particular, ended in 1914, though a rather.large part of the world was, by revolution, moved

into a fundamentally different type of economy. The Age of Empire, II




or, as Lenin called it, Imperialism, was plainly not 'the last stage' of capitalism; but then Lenin never actually claimed that it was. He merely called it, in the earliest version of his influential booklet, 'the latest' stage of capitalism.* And yet one can understand why observers­ and not only observers hostile to bourgeois society- might feel that the era of world history through which they lived in the last few decades before the First World War was more than just another phase of development. In one way or another it seemed to anticipate and prepare a world different in kind from the past. And so it has turned out since 1914, even if not in the way expected or predicted by most of the prophets. There is no return to the world of liberal bourgeois society. The very calls to revive the spirit of nineteenth-century capitalism in the late twentieth century testify to the impossibility of doing so. For better or worse, since 1914 the century of the bourgeoisie belongs to history.

It was renamed 'the highest stage' after his death. 12




'Hogan is a prophet.... A prophet, Hinnissy, is a man that foresees throuble. ... Hogan is th'happyest man in th'wurruld about today, but tomorrah something is goin' to happen.'

Mr Dooley Says, Igi01

I Centenaries are an invention of the late nineteenth century. Some time between the centennial of the American Revolution (I876) and that of the French Revolution (r88g) - both celebrated with the usual international expositions - the educated citizens of the western world became conscious of the fact that this world, born between the Dec­ laration of Independence, the construction of the world's first iron bridge and the storming of the Bastille, was now a century old. How did the world of the I 88os compare with that of the I78os?* In the first place, it was now genuinely global. Almost all parts of it were now known and more or less adequately or approximately mapped. With negligible exceptions exploration no longer consisted of 'discovery' but of a form of athletic endeavour, often with strong elements of personal or national competition, typified by the attempt to dominate the most severe and inhospitable physical environments of the Arctic and the Antarctic. Peary of the USA was to win the race to reach the North Pole in rgog against British and Scandinavian competition; Amundsen ofNorway reached the South Pole in I9II, one month ahead of the hapless British Captain Scott. (Neither achievement had or was intended to have the slightest practical consequence.) Railway and steamship had made intercontinental or transcontinental travel a matter weeks rather than months, except in most of the large land-masses of Africa, continental Asia and parts of the interior of

The Age of Revolution, chapter 1, surveys that older world. 13


South America, and would soon make it a matter of days: with the completion of the Trans-Siberian Railway in 1904 it would be possible to travel from Paris to Vladivostok in fifteen or sixteen days. The electric telegraph now made the communication of information across the entire globe a matter of hours. In consequence men and women from the western world - but not only they - travelled and com­ municated over large distances with unprecedented facility and in unprecedented numbers. To take simply one illustration which would have been regarded as an absurd fantasy in the age of Benjamin Franklin. In 1879 almost I million tourists visited Switzerland. Over 2oo,ooo of them were Americans: the equivalent of mor"



"A LIUie

I:,Oien-dlj t!h.11U 114'1w«tl ()ur-.ef\'C\111 Strlu!ltiJelllol A P1u1ey




'II"' ll!,l!h"

.. .. WII1U A t'kcu:h trom l.lf� Ato ,,.,.,,,. t..liY'• Avrrtdadcu• U41t(lriAI NOlC\111 W('uut•'• Wwll Ito tit�• ll•••ll 77-8, 264, 288 garden crtres, 229

tude to colonral subJects, 7 1, democratic

Gaudr, Antomo, 225

system, 87, 92, scandals, 97, mrhtary vol­

Gaulle, Charles de, 3, 336

unteers, 108, 160, const1tutronal cnses, 109,

genetics, 243, 253-5

trade unronrsm 1n, 121, labour unrest, 128,

George, Stefan, 185, 234

landed anstocracy rn, 171, 175,compulsory

Georgra (Russra), r 6 2

educatron, 178, work1ng women, 199, 201,

German Federatmn o f Worker Chorrs, 131

sc1ence graduates,260, and Pers1a, 280,new

Germany agnculture, 20, as state, 23, orl con-

Domrmons and rndependence, 287, and

sumptmn, 27, expectatiOn of hfe, 29, mdus­

Frrst World War, 311-12, 324, rn alhances

trral and economrc development,35,42,46--


7, 317, tanffs, 36, 39, 43, co-operatmn m,

strength, 315

37, cartels, 43, economrc concentratmn rn,

economy, 316--17, army, 324-5, decol­


blocs, 313-15, 318, naval 319-21, 324, and pre-war

54, coloma! emprre, 59, 67, 75, unrversal

omzation, 33 6

male suffrage, 85, Sacral Democrats, 92, 95,

Great Depressron, 35-46

99, 102-3, 116-17, 130, '33-6 209, 267-

Great War, see Frrst World War



Greene, Graham, 24

Husser!, Edmund, 257,

Logzsche Untersuchungen,

Grey, Szr Edward, 327 Gnffith, D W , 240

256 Huysmans, Jons Karl, 228

gross natrona! products, z 5

Ibsen, Hennk, z 87, 193, 205, 221, 228 lgleszas, Pablo, 115

Gns,Juan, 223 Gropms, Walter, 236 Grosz, Otto, 2 z 4

rlhteracy,25, 345 lmmzgratmn Restrrctron League (USA), 153 zmpenahsm and capztahsm, z z - z 2, 6 z -2, 65-

Gulbenkran, Calouste, 3'7 Gutenberg,Johann, 263

6, 69, 73, and busmess depressmn, 45, and

Habsburg Empzre (Austro-Hungary) and Turks, 17, as state, 23, suffrage and votrng,

economrc competrtron, 54, rulers, 56-7, development of, 5 7-60, concept of, 6o, Marxrsm and, 6 r ,sacral,6g,and patrmtrsm, 70, 105, zmpact on world, 73-83, creates new elztes, 76--7 , and westermzatzon, 76--g,

92, moderate Slav partzes m, 98, z 867 compromzse, z 45n, z 46, and language drs­

pules, 156--7, labour and socrahst movement, r 6 r , natronahsm rn, 163,

working women, 195n, and Fzrst World War,277,312-13,323,and revolutiOn,2789, and Poland, 294", and southern Slavs,

323, see also Austna, Hungary Hague Peace Conferences, 304 Hamburg, '3' Hamsun, Knut, 228

agztatmn m, 264-5, mdependence move­ ment, 287-g, 300

lndzan Natmnal Congress, 288 Jndochzna, 58, 28 I

Hardy, Thomas, 221

Hardy-Wemberg law (mathematics), 246

Indonesza, z 52

Hauptmann, Gerhart, 221, 228

mdustry world dzstrrbuuon, 21, trusts and con­

Heals (furmture makers), 227 Hebrew language, z 46--7, 158 Hezmat (German televzsmn serral), 148n

centratmns, 43-4, screntrfic management,

('Parvus'), 46, z 35, 224n,

Henckel von Donnersmarck, Pnnce, z 73

44-5,world growth, 48,and labour, z 13-16 mtelhgence testmg, 27o--z

InternatiOnal Statrstzcal Congress, z 873, 146 'lnternatmnale' (anthem),107

lnternatmnals Fzrst (Marx's), 130, 295, Second

Hertz,Hemrrch, 248-g Herzl, Theodor, 145, 147, z62

(Commumst), 34, 72, 101, z 2g--3o, 162

mtuztmn and sczence, 244-6 Ireland em1gratmn from,37,93,populatmn loss,

Hrlbert,Davzd, 245-6

Hrlferdmg,Rudolf, 13'}, 268 Hzrschfeld, Magnus, 272

4', 194, natmnahsm, 92-3, 96, 98, 107-8,

145, 162, workrng-class drvrsrons, 120, and Gaelzc language, 158, Cathohczsm and, z 62,


Hztler, Adolf, 3, 8 z , 162, 253

unrest rn, 287 zron and steel, 35

Ho Chz-mmh, 3 Hobbes, Thomas, 303 Hobson, J A , 6o, 66, 83 hohdays, 205, see

lmpressmnzsm (art), 221, 223

Empzre, 68--9, and westermzatmn, 77--9, western rnterest rn, Sr, rehgron and pohtrcal

Hanover, 94 Hardy, G H , 246, 26z

Hzstonsche {,eztschn.ft,

251,end of, and new states, 336, percentage of world's area, 347

Independent Labour Party (Bntam), 108 lndza mdustry m, 2 z, z z 3, posztzon m Brztzsh

Halevy, Ehe, 332

Helphand, A L 268

and western rnterest rn forergn parts, 8o-r , uncertarntres of, 82-3,and medrcal research,



Hollywood (USA), 23g-- 4 z , see also cmema Home Rule (Ireland), 109, 121

138, trade unzons m, 122, 124n, defeated by Ethmpza, z 59, alhances and power blocs,

Horta,Vzctor, Baron, 225, 230, 233

313, occupzes Lzbya, 321, mzhtary adven­ tunsm, 322, post-war changes, 332

housmg bourgeozs, z 66--8

Howard, Ebenezer, 229

see also

"t Marquess ofReadmg), 97

gratmn from, 4J, 154, colomahsm, 57, 59, 67-8, franchzse, 87, soczahst party m, z z 7,

homosexuals, 2 z 4 Honduras, 50 Hong Kong, 28z

Hume, Allan Octavzan, 288 Hungary, 87, 145n, 157, l'.mpzre


lstanbw, see Constantmople Italy as state, 23, 145n, 150, 159, poor m, 24, state of development,25, tarrffs, 39,43,emz•



James famrly, z 86

James, Henry, 19, 223

gg 6


195, 198--9, see also trade umons, workrng

James, Wrlham, 271


Janacek, Leos, 220 Japan m world economy, 19, mdustry m, 21, as ..... state, 23, embraces western ways, 31-2, and

Labour Party (Austraha), 65, 117 Labour






hamentary representatiOn and pact wrth

race, 32, ruler, 57, colonral emprre, 58-9, 68, western attrtude to, So, rnfiuence on western

Lrberals, 102, 132, and Welsh natmnahsm,

art, S r , 223, 232, parhamentananrsm, 87,

155, and bourgems pohtrcal prrvrlege, 168,

preserves emprre, 279, war

women rn, 210

wrth Russra

(1904-5), 28o, 297, 303, 306, expels Rus­

Labour Representatron Commrttee

wrth Bntarn, 315, na\y, 320



srans from Manchuna, 281, 1902 alhance

Ladus Home Journal, 215

Jaures,Juan, 131, 325

Laemmle, Carl, 239

Jevons, W S , 27 r

Lagerlof, Selma, 211, 221

Jews class drfferences, 32, rmmrgratron controls

Lahque, ReneJ , 230

on, 4on, and hberal dechne, 104, support

Land and Labour Assocratmn (Ireland), 93

socrahsm, r3g-4o, Zronrsm, 145-8, 152, r 62,

Land League (Ireland), 287

and Hebrew language, I46--7, I58, and

language and nauonahsm, 146--7, r 5o--r , 156--

Vrennese culture, 167, and Russran rev­

8, rmmrgrants', r 53-4, and officral posrtrons,

olutronary movement, 296, Russran emr­ grants







156--7 Latm Amenca, 22-3, 32, 35, 75, 289 Latvra, 162

Semrtrsm, Dreyfus, Alfred

Lawrence, D H , 214

Joyce, James, 225 Jugendstrl, see art nouveau

Le Bon, Gustave, 273

Jung-Wren, 227

Le Corbusrer (C E Jeanneret), 233 Leconte de Lrsle, Charles Mane, 228

Kahnwerler, Dame! Henry, 235

Lehar, Franz, 220

Kandmsky, V assrly, 231, 263

lersure, 174, 184-5, see also sport

Kautsky, Karl, 133, 135, 144, 154, 267

Lemn, V I (Ulyanov) age, 3, on rmpenahsm,

Kelvm, Wrlham Thomson, Baron, 244

12, 5g-60, 72, OU democratiC repubhc, IIQ--

Keynes, John Maynard age, 3, background and

11, and socrahst theory, 136, and natmnal

educatiOn, 177, 337, father, 184, as hour­


gems, 227, rn Apostles, 261, on war, 316,

olutmnary theory and success, 295-6, 298-

t 44,

and free love,



9, 331-2, and 1905 revolutmn, 297, and Frrst

333, adapts to post-war srtuauon, 333-4

World War, 327, and development of post­

Khakr electmn (Bntam), 1900, 103 Krphng, Rudyard, 82

war world, 331-2, Matenal!sm and Emp•­

Khmt, Gustav, 207

nocntzczsm, 261

Klondrke, 46

Leoncavallo, Ruggrero, 220

Kodak grrl, 106

Leopold II, Kmg of the Belg�ans, 66, 68

Kokoschka, Oskar, 236

Leverhulme, WrlhamH Lever, r stVrscount, 171

Kollontar, Alexandra, 212

Lex Arons, 1898 (Germany), 267

Kollwrtz, Kathe, 228

Lrberal Party (Bntam), 72, 93-4, 102, ro8, 132,

Kondratrev, Nrkolar Dmrtnevrch, 46--8


Koran, Holy, 30

hberahsm use of, 9-10, and the state, 40, and

Korea, 281

economrc theory, 4o-r,

Korngold, Ench Wolfgang, 242

70, and Protestantrsm, 91, dechne, 103-5,

Krafft-Ebmg, Rrdrard von Psychopathia Sexual!s,

German, 188--9, bourgems, 188-90, accepts



reformrst sacral democracy, 332-3

Kraus, Karl, 88, 185, 206--7, 230, 261, 329

Lrbena, 2 3, 58

Krupp, Alfred, 173, 251, 308

Lrberty (fabncs shop), 227

Krupp mdustrres, 116

Lrbya, 321

Kuhn, Thomas, 250

Lrege (Belg�um), 124-5

kulaks (Russra), 299, see also peasantry

hfe, expectatron of, 29

Kulrscmff, Anna, 212, 224n

hngurstrcs, 270, see also language

Kulturkampj, 99

Lrpchrtz, Jacques, 223

Ia bour

Lrsbon, 22

Lrpton, Srr Thomas, 53, 17 1 women, 53-4, r 95-200, movement of,

113-15, and socrahst partres, 1 r 6-- r 7, chrld,

hteracy, 2g--3o, see also educatron, rlhteracy



hvmg,standard of, I5,28--9,I84


Lloyd George, David,97,108,I45,I63,322,333

Masaryk, Thomas,I54

Lloyds Bank,44

Mascagrn,Pretro,220,Cavallerza Rustzcana, 227

London,21,126,as busrness centre,51-2

mass medra,53, 87, 337-8

'long waves' (economic cycles),46--7

masses,the and democracy,85--90,and rehgmn,

Laos, Adolf,233

9I-2,Ideologrcal,93,and First World War,

Lorentz,H A ,248--9

108-9, educatiOn of, 263, and revolutmn,


277, see also workmg classes

Lours Phihppe,Kmg of France,85

mathematics,245-7,25 I,258

Lowe,Robert, w6n

Maurras, Charles,266

Lowell famdy (Boston), I68






Lukacs,Georg,I 85

Maxwell,] ames Clerk,248

Luxemburg, Rosa, 135, 144, 155, 192, 211-12,

May Day,I29-30,I35,227 May,Karl, 303


Mayer,Lams B ,239


Mazziru,Gmseppe,I44 meat overseas supphes,64

Macao,281 MacDonald,James Ramsay,I32

MediCI Society (Brrtam),22 I


Melba,Dame Nelhe,220


Melbourne (Austraha),20

Mackenzre, Fred A

Mehne, Fehx-Jules, 39 Men and Women of the Tzme, 211 Mendel,Gregor Johann,254-5 Menger, Carl,27o-I

American lnvadm, 42 Mackmder, Sir Halford, 3I9 McKmley, Wdham, 39, won Mackmtosh, Charles Rennie,233 Madero,Francrsco,291



Mermard Senes,222


Mernll, Stuart,223


Messma earthquake,I9o8,328


Mettermch,Clemens von,I8

Malthus,Thomas,254 Manaus (Brazd), 3I

Meunrer, Constantrn,225 Mexrco modernrzatron, 31, 28g-g2, revolutmn


m,277,279,286--7,300 Michels, Robert, 88,95,274

Mann Act (USA),2I3 Mann, Hemnch,I89

Michelson,A A ,248-q


middle classes chapter 7 passzm, wealth,55,effect of rmpenahsm on,Sr ,lower, 127,156,178,

Mao Tse-tung,3,335 Marconi scandal (Bntam),I9I3,97

r 8o - r , 183-4, assrmrlatron of lower clas�cs,

Marmettr, F T ,I90

I5I, support natmnahsm, I55-6, I6I, hfe­ style, I65-9, I76, I8I, houses, I66-8, cate­

marnage, 194, r g6-8, 215-16, see also famrhes, women

gonzed and defined, I7D-4, I77, I8I, I83-

'Marseillaise' (anthem),I07

4,occupatiOns,I7I-3,sacral mobihty, I73-

Marshall, Alfred, 36,Pnnctples of EconomiCs, I84

4,I77,educatiOn, I74-5> I77-8, and sport,

Martm du Gard, Roger,22I

I7f, I79, I8I-3, numbers, I77-8, I8I,and




expenses,I84-5,and stage careers, I86,pair­


r 8o, earnrngs


tics and values, I 88--90, f.1mdy Size, I94,

Marx, Karl and Marxrsm and trade cycles, 46,

women,202-3,208, see also bourgeorsre

and Impenahsm,6o--I,72,dommates Inter­ natronal, r o r , rdeologrcal changes, r o r -2,

Middle East as term,I7,or!,54,62-3, 3I7

on democratrc repubhc, r r o, domrnates socrahst partres, r r 8, 132, 134-5, rnfiuence

Middle•brough, I25 Mrlan,20,99

on workers,I3I-4,263,and revolutmn,I 36,

Mill,John Stuart, 33,282

and peasants, I37, and scientific socrahsm,


259,263,267,m Indra,264,appeal to mtel­


lectuals,267--9, and economic history, 270,

mirung and mmerals,63,see also coal

and socmlogy,274-5,and Russra,293,295-


6,global mfluence, 336,and U topra,339

Mobms,Paul Juhus,206



modermsm (art), 7-8, 224-8, 230, 235, see also avant-garde

Modighani, Amedeo, 223

Neue Zezt (Journal), 227 New Delhi, 82

monopoly, 43-4, see also capitahsm Monroe Doctrme (USA), 58


9I, and Indonesian natzonahsm, I 52, mfant mortahty m, I93

New Enghsh Arts Club, 222, 227

n, 68, 3I5

Montesqmeu, Charles de Secondat, Baron de

New Zealand, 24, 37, 65, 86, 114

Moore, G E , 26I

newspapers, 53, 237-8

Newall,Bertha Phzlpotts, 2I6

Persian Letters, 79

newspnnt, 346

moral statiStics, 29-30 Moreas, Jean




Nice (France), I45 Nietzsche, Fnedrzch and I9th-century values,

r88, 231, on German sprrrt, 226, as modern,

Morgan, John Pierpont, 103, I79, I85 Mormons, 95n

228, and arts, 235, on cnsrs of expectatiOns,

258-6o, on commg war, 303, 326-7, Thus

Morley, E W , 248-9

Spake Zarathustra, 206, Wzll to Power, 82, 252

Morley, John, Io8n, 325

Morocco, 23, 57n, 27g-8I, 311, 3I8, 32I, Sfe also

NIJmsky, Vaslav Fomich, 220

Morozov, Savva, r 87, 222

Nobel, Alfred, 307

Agadir cnsis

Nobel pnzes I9, 224, 260, 304

Morns, Wr!ham, 225, 227, 229, 232-3

Mornson, Arthur

A Chzld of the ]ago,

mtrates, 64, 75n


nonconformity (rehgzous), 92n

Nordau, Max Degeneratzon, 258

mortahty, see death rates

Mosca, Gaetano, 88, 273-4

North Afrzca, 3o--I

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, I86

nutntron, 29

Munich, 20

Oceanra, see Pacrfic

music hall, 237

Oklahoma, I 37

Norway, 4I, 85-6, I45, I 58

motor cars, 28, 52-3, I82, I 84-5 Munch, Edvard, 228

ozl, 27, 54, 62-3, 3I7

musrc, 220, 224, 227, 241-2 M ussohnr,Benrto, 3

ohgopoly, 43

Mutheszus, Hermann, 233

Olympic Games, I82, see also sport opera, 220, 227, 355

NapoleonBonaparte, I6, 294

opera houses, 26, 31, 51

Napoleon III, Emperor of the French, 56

ornament, 2 33

natron-states, 22-3, and

Ostrogorski, M , 88 Ostwald, Wzlhelm, 257, lnorganzc Chemzstry, 256

Narodniks (Popuhsts, Russia), 293, 295

market, 4o-r , and

pubhc ownership, 54-5, and repubhcamsm,

I05, and workmg-class umty, I27-9, and autonomy,


nationahsm, r46--7, I5o-­

Orthodox Church, 92

Otto, Kmg ofBavana, I49



War, 277, 303, 3I8, German mfluence, 3I7

Oxford University, 266


Pacific and Oceama, 58, 68, 76





mrgrants, 153-5, separatism, 155, see also

mdividual countnes

Pahlavi dynasty (Iran), 280 Pame, Tom, 263

Pan-German League, I52, I8g

naturalism, 228, 232

'nature and nurture', 252

Panama Canal, 58

navies, 3I5, 3I9-2I, 324, 352 Near East as term, I7

Pannekoek, A , 268 Paraguay, 50

neo-posrtrvrsm, 257

Pans populatzon, 2I, Commune, I87I, 84

Naumburg-Merseburg (Germany), I30

Panama scandal, I892-3 (France), 97

Pareto, Vzlfredo, 88, 273-5

Nehru,Jawaharlal, 3


agrzculture, 20, coloma! empire,

58-9, 68, 76, reSIStS democratizatiOn, 86,

votmg pnvzleges, 87, Cathohc parties m,


3I, revolutzon, 77, 277-8, 28I, 283-5, 300,

3, 96, 98, 10I, I42-4, expresszons and

symbols of, I06--7, I42, and workmg-dass


32I, western respect for, 79, and First World

natrona! socrahsts, r 62

natzonahsm chapter 6 passzm, emergence of, 92-


Europe, I7, as state, 23, and Young Turks,

I, I56--7, terntory, I47--9, and patnotzsm, I 4B-9, I 59-64, new, 336--7

Parnell, Charles Stewart, 92, 95

Partr Ouvner Fran-;ars, 126, 210

Parvus, see Helphand, A L



proletanat, see workrng classes

Pascrn, Jules, 223 Pathe, Charles, 239 patnOtiSIU,70,143-4,148-g,15g-61, 164,seealso natwnahsrn, Frrst World War Pavlov, I , 270

Promenade Concerts (London), 221 protectwnrsm, 40, 42-3, 54, 67, 317, see also free trade,tanffs Protestantrsm, g r -2 Proust, Marcel, 214, 221, 232, 272 Prussra, 86, 87, 94, r 04

Pearson,Karl, 253-5, 257 Pearson,Weetman,�go Peary, Admrral Robert Edwrn, 1 3 peasantry,peasants hteracy, 25, prosperous, 29, revolts, 36, as pohtrcal force, 8g-go, emr­ gratron by, 114,and socrahsm, r 36--7, umn­ terested rn natronahsm, 155, women, 197,

psychoanalysrs, 243, 272 psychology, 171-2 pubhc schools (Bntarn), 174, 178 Puccrnr,Gracomo,220, Tosca, 256 Puerto Rrco, 57--8

and Russran revolutiOn,298-9,as mrnonty, Quakers, 176n

335, see also kulaks Pekrng, 20

quantum theory, 250, 256

Pennsy lvanra, 22 People's Party (Austna), g r

race, 32, 252-4 Radek, Karl, 242n

Perret, Auguste, 233 Persran Emprre, 23, revolutiOn, 277-80, 300

radratron, 249

Peru, 75n

radro telegraphy, 28 Raeder, Admrral Ench, 311n

pessrmrsm,258--9 Petrograd,see St Petersburg petty bourgemsre,8g, see also bourgemsre, mrddle classes phrlanthropy, r 86--7 Phrhpprnes, 57

Rarffersen (Germany), 37 rarlways development, 27, 52, 62, financrng, 66, and trade unrons,122-3,statrons,225,233, rn Russra, 294, 296 Raphael, Max, 234

phylloxera, 36

Rappoport, Angelo S ,224n

physrcs, 247-51, 257-8

Rathenau,Walter, 235

Prcasso, Pablo,221, 223, 225, 235,244 Pickford,Mary, 239 Prlsudskr,Josef, 148

Ratrbor, Duke of, 322 Ray, SatyaJrt, 79

Prus X, Pope, go

Reform Acts (Bntarn) r 867, 85, 8g, r 883, 85

Planck,Max,8, 244,247, 250,256

Reger, Max, 220 relatiVIty, 247, 249

reason, 262-3, 264-6, 271

Plekhanov,Georgn Valentrnovrch,227,231 plutocracy, r 8 r , 183

rehgron and reason, 264-7, strength,265

poetry, 234 Pmncare,Henn, 246, 257

Remrngton, Fredenck, 153 Renan,Ernest, r88

Poland natrona! questiOn, 145, 148, 155, 162, emrgratron from, 152, Socrahst Party, 162,

Repubhcan Party (USA),g8 repubhcanrsm, 105, r r o

antr-Russran hberatron movement, 294 Pomeranra, 104 populatiOn, 14, rg, 20, 50, 193, 342

Rerum .Novarum, r 8g r (Encychcal),g r

popuhsm (USA), 36, 38,go,g6 Populrsts (Russra),see Narodmks Portugal, r8, 25, 37n, 57,59, 68,318

posrtrvrsm,77, 232, 284, see also neo-posrtrvrsm Post-lmpressronrsm, 221 post-modernrsm, 8 Potemkrn (Russran battleshrp), 297 Pound, Ezra, 223 Prague, 104 press, 87--8, see also mass medra, newspapers pnces, 36--8, 48, r 84 Prrnerp,Gavnlo, 323 productron figures, 349 professiOns, r66, 172

progress, 26--33, 259, 267, 26g, 330

Rev olte, La (Journal), 228 revolutiOn chapter 12 passim, and sacral change, 10, r 32-3, and extensron of franchrse, 85, tolerated, 1 oo, outbreaks, 136, and sociOlogy,275,threats of,277,33o-2,see also rndrvrdual countrres revolutiOnary syndrcahsm, 134 Rhrne-Westphahan Coal Syndrcate, 43 Rhrne-Westphahan steel syndrcate, 176 Rhodes,Cecrl, 6g Rrchthofen srsters,214 Rrlke,Ramer Mana, 185, 234 Rrmsky-Korsakov, Nrkolar Andreevrch, r g Rrtz, Cesar, 184 Roanne (France), 126 Rockefeller,john D , 103, 185-6 Rohmer, Sax, 8o 400


Roland-Holst, Hennetta,212 Rolland, Romam,221 Roman Cathohc Church attitude to progress, 30, coloured brshops, 71-2, and pobtrcal

Sahsbury,Robert Gascoyne-Cecrl,3rd Marquess of,85 Sammlungspolzl!k, 102 San Francrsco earthquake, 1905, 328 Sanger,Margaret,214

mass movements, go-r, tolerates trade unrons, r2o-r,and natrona! groups,154-5,

SaraJevo,32 1

r62,and women,210,reactron agarnst,265-

Sargent,John Smger,222

6,see also antr-clencahsm Roman Emprre,17

Saussure,Fernand de,2 7o--r Savoy (France),145

Rontgen,Wrlhelm Conrad,2 49

Scandrnavra,21,29,103,see also rndrvrdual coun-

Roosevelt,Frankhn Delano,3 Roosevelt,Theodore,104,153n,17g

tnes Schmdler (Mahler),Alma,2 36 Schheffen Plan,312 n, 32 4

Rosebery, Archrbald Phrhp Prrmrose, 5th Earl of,g3n, r84 Ross,Srr Ronald,25 r

Schmoller,Gustav von,177 Schnerder,P &J , rg5n

Rostand,Edmond L'A•glon, 256

Schmtzler,Arthur,2 72

Rothschrld,house of,42 Rousseau,Henn (Douanrer),71

Schonberg,Arnold, 2 34-5, 2 42 ,244 schools and natmnal rdenuty, r 4g--5o,and lan-

Rousseau,Jean-Jacques,93 Rousseau, Waldeck,102 Roy,M N ,2 8g

Schremer,Ohve,214 Schulze-Gaevermtz, H G von,83

Royal Tournament (London), ro6 rubber,63-5

Schumpeter,Josef Alms, 47,174n Schwejk,good soldrer (fictmnal character), 306

Ruhr,22 Ruskm,John, 78,2 32

scrence,2 43-6 r ,and sacral scrences,268-g

guage,157, see also educatmn,pubhc schools

Russell, Bertrand, 2 45-6, 2 56, 261, Pnnetp!a Mat/zemattca (wrth Whrtehead),257 Russra (Russran Emprre) and Turks, 17, Europe-Asra drvrsmn,18, cultural achreve­ ments, rg,as state,2 3,state of development, 25,dhteracy rn,25,famrnes,29,292 ,rndus­

screntrfic management,43-5,53 Scotland unrversrtres,178n Scott,Captam Robert Falcon, r 3 'Secessmns' (art),222, 2 31 seculanzatmn,266-- 7 Serbra, 304, 32 3 serfdom,24, abohtron, r 86 r (Russra),2g2-3

tnal development, 35,54,2g4,2gg,rmpen­

servants,domestic, r 8o,208

ahsm, 57-g, 68, rgo5 revolutmn, 86, r oo,

Seurat,Denrs,2 31 sex non-mantal, 30, and

2 77, 27g--8o , 296--9, 32 r, democratrzatron, 87, roo,peasantry,go,2g2 -4, rehgmn and pohtrcs rn, 92 , Duma, roo, 2g8, and wor­ kmg-class voters, 12 8-g, calendar, 12gn, natmnal questmn, 14g, 2g4, rg r 7 revol­ utiOn, r63-4, 278, 300, 3og, 33o--2 , mfant mortahty, rg3, and Frrst World War,277, 311-13, 322 -4, and Persra, 2 8o, m Man­ chuna, z8c, pre-revolutionary condrtmns, 2g2 -4, gram productmn, 2g2 -3, rev­ olutiOnary movements, 2g4-300, global effect of rg17 revolutmn, 3oo--r , antagon­ rsm wrth Brrtam, 314, m Trrple Entente, 314-15, 32 0, popular support for war, 326 Russo-Japanese War, rgo4-5,280,2g7,303,306,



women,2 05-7,213-14,Freud and,2 72 Shaw, George Bernard, rgo, rg3,215,221, 225, 227,Arms and the Man, 303 Shaw,Norman, r66

Shchukm,P I ,222 shrpburldrng,52 shrpprng sad and steam-powered,27-8,Bntrsh, and world economy, 3g, 5 c, growth, 50, tonnage figures,350 Srbehus,Jan,220 Srcrly, rg5n srlver, 38 S!mpl!C!SS!mus (Journal),88 slavery,24, see also serfdom Slump ( rg3os),334

32 0 Ruthenes, r 54

Smrth, Adam, 45,54, 85, The Wealth of Nat1ons, 40


Sacral Chnstran Party (Austrra),gg, r o r


Sacral Democratrc Party (German), g2 ,g5,gg, strength, 102-3, 116--17, 13o--r , 135, and

St Petersburg (later Petrograd,then Lenmgrad), 2g7,305 Samt-Srmon, Claude Henn de, comte, 339


revolutmn,133-4,136,Marxrsm,135,2678,270,and women,2 09 SoCJal Revolutmnarres (Russra),go, 2g8


sacral sczences, 252, 263, 267-73

Tangzer, 280

sacral welfare, 102-3

Tarde, Gabnel, 273

socrabsm, socrahsts rrse and development of, 7, 10, 35, gg, II6-z8, and pnvate sector, 54,

Tata company (lndza), 21

tanffs, 36, 39, 73, see also free trade, protectmnsm

European preponderance, 72, kept from

Taylor, F W (and 'Taylorrsm'), 44-5

governments, 102, and democratrc repub­

1 chazkovsky, Peter

hcanrsm, r ro, and organrzatron of prolet­

tea, 64

anat, z 24, z 26-- 7 , champmnshzp of umversal

teachers, 263


z 28--9, parhamentary represen­

tatiOn, 130, and sacral revolutron, 132-5,

Ilyzch, 19

technology, 27--8, 52, 233-4, 325

telegraphy, 27, 54

and mass baszs, z 36-- g, and progress, z 38-g,

telephones, 52, 346--7

and natronabsm, r62, women and, 2og- ro,

Teresa of Lrsreux, St, 210


mdzvrdual countrres and

see also

partzes, chapter 5 passzm

Theosophzcal Soczety, 265 Thomson,] J , 247

SOCIOlogy, 273-5

Tzbet, 281

Sombart, Werner, I 76n, In, 272

Tzffany, Lours Comfort, 230

Sorel, Georges, 88, z g z

Tzlak, Bal Ganghadar, 288

Sousa, John Phzhp, 106

tzn, 63-5, 6gn

South Afrrca gold, 47, 63, 67, 74, Cormsh mmers

Tzrpztz, Admzral Alfred von, 319

m, 6gn, Indzan zmmzgrants, 78, domzmon

Tztanzc (shzp), 5, 328

status, 287

Tzto, Joszp Broz, 3, 335

South-West Afnca, German

(now Namzbza), 286

Tolstoz, Lev, Count, zg, 78 Tonkm, 306

Soutrne, Harm, 223 sovrets, 297

torture, 24

Spam, 25, 29, 57, 59, 68, g8

Toulouse-Lautrec, Henn de, 106, 236

Spamsh-Amerrcan War, z 8g8, 68, 104, 305, 310

trade depressiOn, 35-4 6, cycles, 46--8, boom, 46--

Spencer, Herbert, z88, 273


sport, 174, 179, z 8 z-3, 205, 207

developed countnes, 73-4, world, 349


trade umons

Stacy, Emd, 212 Stahn, Josef Vzssanonovzch (Dzhugashvzh), 3,





and agrrcultural depressiOn, 37,

resrsted, r o r , and workrng-clas� drvrsrons, 121, rn Bntarn, 121, organrzatmn of, 122,

'44, 294 Standard Ozl Company, 43, 290, 318

126, 131, 'rndustnal unmnrsm', 128, women 1n, 210, 213

Statue of Lzberty, 231 stature rncrease rn, 29

traditiOn znventiOn of, I 05-6

steam, 26, 115

transport trade unrons, 12.1-3

steamshzps, 27-8

Trans-Szbenan Razlway, 14, 294, 296

Stolypm, Peter Arkadevzch, 299

Tnple Alhance (Germany-Austna-ltaly), 313,

Stapes, Mane, 2 z 4 Strauss, Rzchard, 220, 235,


Salome, 227

Tnple Entente (Brztazn-France-Russza), 314, 320

Stravznsky, Igor, 221

Troeltsch, Ernst, 273

stnkes, 1 og, 128

tropzcal commodztzes, 348

Strmdberg, August, 206, 228

Trotsky, Leon B , 297

suburbs, z66--7 , z 8 z Sudan, 68

Trotter, Wzlfred, 273 trusts (buszness), 43-4, 176

suffrage, women's, 86, 201-2, 213

Tuchman, Barbara

sugar, 64, 73

Tunzsza, 286

Sulhvan, Lours, 233

Turatz, Fzhppo, 131

Sun Yat-sen, 282-3


Suttner, Bertha von, 212


sweated rndustnes,

Twazn, Mark, z g


domestrc rndustnes


The Proud Tower, 7

Ottoman Empzre

(gymnastzc assoczatmns), 159

Sweden, 25, 35, 59, 73, 86, zag, z 28

Tyneszde, 22

Swztzerland, 14, 20, 23, 41, 85, 87, 197

Tyrol, 226

Syllabus of Errors, z 864, go

Tzu-hsz, Empress of Chzna, 28 z

Synge, john Mzlhngton, 225 UFA films, 240 Taaffe, Eduard, Count von, g8


Tazwan, 281

Protestants, g z , workzng-class dzvrsmns,




Umberto, Kmg of Italy, won

Wagner, Rrchard, 220, 227, Szegfrzed, 355

Unrted Frurt Company, 64


Umted Natmns, 336 Umted States of Amenca

nonconformrsm, g r , natronahsm, r o8,

'45> 151, '55, language, 151, rs6n, um­ versrtres, 157

Umted Insh League, g2-3 economrc develop­

Wallas, Graham, 105

ment, rg, 35, 46--7, as state, 23, democracy

Walras, Leon, 27 r

rn, 23-4, 86, electrrcrty rn, 27, mass con­

Wanamakers (store), 2g

sumensm rn, 29,

progress rdeahsed, 31,

'War of the Pacrfic', r87g--82, 75n

tanffs, 36, popuhsm m, 36, 38, go, g6, coop­

Warner Brothers (film corporatmn), 23g

eratives, 37, trusts, 43, 176, economrc uncer­

wars, see Boer War, Frrst World War, Russo-

tamtres m, 54, colomahsm, 57-g, 67-8, 75,

Japanese War, Spamsh-Amerrcan War

315, federal crvrl servrce, g7n, lacks sacral

Wassermann, August von, 251

welfare, r 03, forms of na tronal expressron,

Watson,] B , 270

r o6-7, 150, labour, 114-15, trade unrorusm,

wealth drstrrbutmn of, 28-g

r 22, socrahsm m, r 37, Enghsh language m,

Webb, Srdney and Beatnce, 88, 185, rg2, 21 r-

15o-1, rmmrgrants, 152-5, marnage rnto European





ternrtres, 179, crnema rn, 238-41, 'open

12, 274 Weber,Max, 88, 152, 174n, 176n, r 8o, r88, 214, 272-4

door' Chma pohcy, 281, and Mexrco, 28g-­

Wedekrnd, Frank, 272

g r , and war wrth Bntarn, 316, economrc

Wernmger, Otto Sex and Character, 206

strength, 317, navy, 320, see also Spamsh­

Werzmann, Charm, r62

Amencan War

Wells, D A , 35

Umted States Steel, 43, 176 UUIVerSIIIeS, 25, I 77-g, 204, 345, See also educatiOn Uruguay, 40, so, 65

Wells, H G , 83, 221 Werfel, Franz, 236 Westermarck,





Human Marnage, 215

Utah, g5n

Western Federatmn ofMrners (USA), 120

Utopra, 33g

wheat, 36, 48, so-r Whrteley's Unrversal Emponum, 23, r68

vacuum cleaners, 52 Vatrcan, gg, see also Roman Cathohc Church Vatrcan Councrl, r 870, go Vaughan Wrlhams, Ralph, 220 Veblen, Thorstem, r6g, 185, 273 vegetable mls, 64 Velde, Henry Clemens van de, 225, 232 Verhaeren, Emrle, 225 Verne, jules, 258 Versarlles Treaty, r g r g, 310 Vestey, Wrlham, r st Baron, 171 Vrckers company, 1 r 6 Vrctor EmmanuelMonument, 231 Vrctona, Queen, ro6, 14g Vrele-Grrffin, Francrs, 223 Vrenna populatron, 21, workrng-class drvrsrons, 120, proletanan quarters, 126, bourgems quarters, r 66, culture, r 68, Secessron, 222, 231,Marxrsm m, 267, Karl theater burned down, 328 Vrlla, Pancho, 2gr-2 vrtahsm, 254 Vrvekananda, Swamr, 264 Vnes, Hugo de, 255

Whrtman, Walt, rg Who's Who, 174n Werner Werkstatte, 230 Wrlde, Oscar, 214, 223, 225, 228, 33g, Salome, 227 Wrlham I, Emperor of Germany, 106 Wrlham II, Emperor of Germany, 82, 106, 171, 304, 318- rg Wrlhams, E E Wrlhams, R

Made m Germany, 42

Vaughan, see Vaughan Wrlhams,

Ralph Wrlson scandal (France), r 885, g7 Wrlson, Woodrow, 144, 337 Wrmborne, Lady, 184 wme and phylloxera, 36 Wrster, Owen, 153n Wrttgenstern, Ludwrg, 261 Wollstonecraft,Mary, 216 women

chapter 8 pamm, workrng, 53-4, r gs-

200, 337, suffrage, 86, 201-2, 213, 216, mrddle-class educatmn,

r 7g, 202-4, and

sport, 182, bourgems, 187-8,

r g r , 202,

emancrpatmn of, rg2-2r8, 337, and brrth rate, 193-5, as consumers, 203, 207, sacral freedom, 204-5, sexual behaviOur and hb­ eratron, 205-7, 213-14, posrtron rn house­

wages, 48--9

hold, 2og, pohtrcal rnvolvement, 2ID-I3,

Wagner, Otto, 233




2 r r - r 2,


future, 214-15, and famrly, 215-16, and rehgmn, 264 Women's Sacral and PohtKal Uruon ('suffrag-

World (Umversal) Peace Congresses, 304 World's Classrcs, 222 Wundt, Wrlhelm, 271

ettes'), 213 wool, 65

xenophobra, '53, I58--6 o

Woolf, Vrrgmra, 185 work (occupatmns), 53

Yeats, Wrlham Butler, 125, 134, 263

Worker Rabbrt Breeders, 131

Yrddrsh language, 147

Worker Stamp Collectors, 131

Young Turks, see Commrttee for Uman and Pro­

Workers' Cychng Club 'Sohdanty', 131 workmg classes (proletanat) chapter 5 jJaJStm,

gress Young Wales movement, r45, 155

nse of, r o, agrtatmn, 45-6, and drstrrbutron of wealth, 55, as pohtrcal force, 88, r 12-13,

youth and bourgemsre, 169, 174

11 6-rS, dr:fferences and drvrsrons, 119-21,

Zabern a:ff arr, r oo

r 24, orgamzatron of, r 24-7, r 29-3 r, r 39-

L:aharoff, Srr Basi], 309

4', relatmns wrth lower mrddle classes, 127, and natron-state, r 28 -9, rdeology and sacral revolutron, 132-3, 136, sohdanty, 136, 140, as maJonty, 136-7, and natmnal questmn,

Zanardelh, Gruseppe, 102 Zapata, Emrhano, 291-2 Zasuhch, Vera, 212 Zeno, 246

144, exclusiOn of forergn workers, 153, and

Zmmsm, r 45-8, r 52, r 62, see also Jews

sport, 182, and revolutmn, 277, 298, 33o-1

Zola, Emrle, 228


Born in Alexandr:ta m I g I 7, Eric Hobsbawm was educated m Vienna, Berlin, London, and Cambndge He has taught for most of his career at Birkbeck College, University of London, where he is Ementus Professor of Economic History, and he currently spends part of each year teachmg at the New School for Social Research in New York. He


the author of Labour's Turnzng Poznt,

I8Bo-I!)OO, Przmztzve Rebels; The Age qfRevolutzon, Labourzng Men, Industry and Empzre, Bandzts, Captazn Swzng (with George Rude); Revolutzonarzes; The Age qf Capztal, I#Jrkers; and The Age ofEmpzre.