Voice of the Oppressed in the Language of the Oppressor: A Discussion of Selected Postcolonial Literature from Ireland, Africa and America (Literary Criticism and Cultural Theory)

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Voice of the Oppressed in the Language of the Oppressor: A Discussion of Selected Postcolonial Literature from Ireland, Africa and America (Literary Criticism and Cultural Theory)

LITERARYCRITICISM AND CULTURAL THEORY Edited by William E. Cain Professor of English Wellesley College Copyright 2001

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LITERARYCRITICISM AND CULTURAL THEORY

Edited by

William E. Cain Professor of English Wellesley College

Copyright 2001 by Patsy J. Daniels

WILLIAM E. CAIN.General Editor A COIACIDENCE OF WAATS The Novel anrl Neoclmsical Economics Charles Lewis MODER\PRI\~ITIT~ES Race and Language in Ger t r d e Stein, Ernest H e m i n p a y , and Zora Neale Hiir ston Susanna Pavloska AND UGLY JAAES PLAIA The Rise of the Ugly W o m a n in Contempormy American Fiction Charlotte M. Wright

DISSENTISG FICTIOSS Identity and Resistance in the Contemporary American A70vel Cathy Moses PERFORMAG LAMESTIZA Textual Representations of Lesbims of Color anrl the Negotiation of Identities Ellen M. Gil-Gomez FRO\IGOODMATO WELFARE QUEEN A Genealogy of the Poor Woman in American Literature, Photogaphy and Cliltwe Vivyan C. Adair ARTFUL ITINERARIES European Art and American Careers in High Cliltlire, 1865-1 920 Paul Fisher POST~IODERS TALES OF SLAVERY IN THE A~IERICAS FROhI ALEJO CARPENTER TO CHARLES JOHSSON Timothy J. Cox

Copyright 2001 by Patsy J. Daniels

EMBODYIAGBEAUTY Twentieth-Centwy American Women's Writers' Aesthetics Malin Pereira IN THE WEST/ISDIES MAKISGHOLIES Constructions of Subjectivity in the Writings of lhfichelle Cliff and Jamaica Kiizcaid Antonia MacDonald-Smythe

MASQUERADES POSTCOLONIAL Cziltlire and Politics in Literature, Film, Video, anrl Photography Niti Sampat Pate1 OF SELF AND STORY DIALECTIC Reading and Storytelling in Contemporary American Fiction Robert Durante

ALLEGORIES OF VIOLENCE Tracing the Writings of Wc2r in Late Twentieth-Centwy Fiction Lidia Yuknavitch I S THE THEVOICEOF THE OPPRESSED LASGUAGE OF THE OPPRESSOR A Discussion of Selected Postcolonial Literatme from Ireland, Africa and America Patsy J. Daniels

THEVOICEOF THE OPPRESSED IN THE LANGUAGEOF THE OPPRESSOR A Discussion of Selected Postcolonial Literature from Ireland, Africa a n d America

Patsy J. Daniels

Routledge New York & London Copyright 2001 by Patsy J. Daniels

Published in 2001 by Routledge 29 West 35th Street New York, NY 10001 Published in Great Britain by Routledge 11 New Fetter Lane London EC4P 4EE

Routledge is ari irriprirzt of the Taylor & Frarzcis G r o q Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper Copyright O 2001 by Patsy J. Daniels All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Daniels, Patsy J., The voice of the oppressed in the language of the oppressor : a discussion of selected postcolonial literature from Ireland, Africa, and America / Patsy J. Daniels. p. cm. - (Literary theory and cultural criticism) Includes bibliographical references (p. ) and index. ISBN 0-415-93691-8 1. American fiction-Minority authors-History and criticism. 2. Yeats, W.B. (William Butler), 1865-1939-Political and social views. 3. American fictionWomen authors-History and criticism. 4. American fiction-20th centuryHistory and criticism. 5. Joyce, James, 1882-1941-Political and social views. 6. Conrad, Joseph, 1857-1924-Views on imperialism. 7. Achebe, ChinuaPolitical and social views. 8. Minority women in literature. 9. Decolonization in literature. 10. Imperialism in literature. 11. Postcolonialism. I. Title. 11. Series PS153.M56 D36 2001 810.9'920693-dc21 2001019964

Copyright 2001 by Patsy J. Daniels

Contents

Acknowledgments Preface I CHAPTER Introduction: Making Connections Ireland Africa America

CHAPTER I1 Yeats: Recovering History CHAPTER I11 Joyce: Voicing Paralysis CHAPTER IV Conrad: Questioning The Empire CHAPTER V Achebe: Revising History CHAPTER VI Kingston And Tan: Inventing One's Own Culture, Making One's Own Luck CHAPTER VII Morrison And Walker: Imposing Silence, Writing A Voice CHAPTER VIII Cisneros And Castillo: Resisting The Oppressor, Writing A Liberation

Copyright 2001 by Patsy J. Daniels

CHAPTER I)< Erdrich And Silko: Joining Heaven And Earth, Changing The Ceremony X CHAPTER Conclusion: Slicing The Pie The Construction Of Identity A New Model The Role Of Language And Literature The Role Of The Reader

Works Cited

Copyright 2001 by Patsy J. Daniels

Acknowledgments

T SEEMS 4PPROPRI4TE TO OFFER SOME VERBAL APPRECI4TION FOR THE HELP

1 HAVE

received while working on this project. Professors Jim Cahalan, Ron Emerick, and Karen Dandurand have generously offered me their expertise, their advice, and their support. My husband, Jerry Jackson, deserves thanks for his emotional support; in addition, both he and my mother-inlaw, Dorothy Jackson, have provided ongoing assistance by giving me relief from other responsibilities during this endeavor. My daughter, Danielle Jackson, has inspired me. My friend and colleague Janet Lane has been my email cheering squad, which I needed at times in order to get back to work. My mother, Retha Daniels, was my first teacher, of course, and she instilled in me the importance of education. Without that belief, I never would have gone this far. Therefore, she receives primary acknowledgment. Finally, to all my teachers-past, present, and future-in all their many guises-I am grateful.

vii Copyright 2001 by Patsy J. Daniels

Preface

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