English for Negotiating Students Book

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English for Negotiating Students Book

English f or Negotiating Charles Lafond. Sheila Vine, BirgftWelch OXFORD IJNIVERSITY PRESS OX.FORD UNIVERSITY ACK

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English f or


Charles Lafond. Sheila Vine, BirgftWelch






Great Clarendon Street, Oxford oxz 6DP Ot'ord University Pressis a department ofthe Univenityof Oford It furthen the University's objective ofexcellence in research,scholarship, and education by publishingworldwide in Oxford NewYork Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With ofEcesin Argentina Austria Brazil Chile CzechRepublic France Greece Guatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal Singapore SouthKorea Switzerland Thailand T\ukey lJkraine Vietnam oxrono and oxroRD BNGLISHare registered trade marks of Oxford University Pressin the LJKand in certain other countries O Oxford University Presszoro Adapted from lflglish for Negonofingby Charles Iafond, Sheila Vine, and Birgitwelch @CornelsenVerlag GmbH & Co. OHG,Berlin zoog The moral rights ofthe author have been asserted Database right Oxford University Press(maker) First published zoro 2074 2013 2Oa2 2oal 2OrO 7098 7 6 5 4 3 2 7 photocopylng No unauthorized All rights resen ed. No part ofthis publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press,or as expresslypermitted by law or under terms agteed with the appropriate reprographics rights organization. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the scopeofthe above should be sent to the ELT Rights Department, Oxford University Press,at the addressabove You must not circulate this book in any other binding or cover and you must impose this same condition on any acquirer Anywebsites refened to in this publication are in the public domain and their addressesare provided by Oxford University Pressfor information only. Oxford University Pressdisclaims any responsibility for the content rsBN:978o 194S79S1 3 Printed in China This book is printed on paper from ceftified and well-managed sources


di is accompanied byr l&ffiOtl Engtl$ fotrilqffing whlchhaso numberof features. lfflf|ctlw Grcillrri to pmcti$eu6sfulphfssss,sabulary, andcommunlcation throughyourcomputGr,

Preparedfor OW by StarflshDesignE&torial ond Prqed MoBgefist Ltd Thepublisherwould likt to lhank theJonwing for tlwir lcitrdpem.Lsnotto reproducephotograpfu:Alamy Ltd. pp.12 (Executive discussion/@Richard PhotoAlto), 30 (Corporate party/@PhotoAlto), Vdovjak), 27 (Inductio4o 59 (Cinema/o Aardvark). OLIPpp.5 (Executives/Sigrid OlssonPhotoAlto), 10 (Thoughful executive/Photodisc),13 (Shaking hands/Photodisc),14 (Female executive/Aluma Images/Radius images), 18 (Canary Wharf, p.22 (BusinessIntroduction/ LondoniCorel),p.20 (Secretary/Stockbyte), Steve Befts), p.32 (Female executive/?hotodisc), 39 (Tenseexecutive/ Stockbyte), 40 (A negotiation/Digital Vision), 42a (female executive/3ill Cannon/Digital Vision), 42b (male exective/George Doyle/Stockbyte), 42c (female executive/@ Sigrid olssonPhotoAlto), 49 (A negotiation/ PhotoAlto), 50 (Pollution/?hotodisc), 52 (A meetingphotodisc), 57 (Frcnch Mayorphotodisc), 58 (Female executive/Westend6l), 58 (male executive/ stockbyte), 60 (A meeting/sigrid olssonphotoAlto), 51 (A meeting/ Sigrid OlssonphotoAlto), 54 (ContractPhotodisc), 6s (A negotiation/ Stockbyte). Cwcr photoscourury of Getty Images (handsfhe Image Bank/Biggie Productions), (girl at table/Digital VisionfJIlIRA.F); OUP(meeting/Photo Alto/Sigrid OIsson). IIhtsVotlms by: Stephen May



I 7


Settlngobjectives TheHITtable Thesuccessfu [ negotiator

Askingfor information Planning a meeting Providing explanations

Setting obiectlvec

Priorltlzlngobjectlves Drawlngup the agenda Geftlngto knowthe otherslde

Arranging a meeting Statingandaskingaboutinterests Agreeing agendapoints

The meetlngl

Invltatlonto a meetlng last-mlnutechangesto the agenda Themeetlng'sgoals Thebestapproach

Sending a coverletter/email Amending andconfirming the agenda Statinggoalsat a meeting Meeting andgreeting


Maklngaproposal Responding to a proposal Offerlnga counterproposal

proposals Presenting and counterproposals Ctari[ting information possibilities Expressing and impossibilities Linkingoffersto conditions

A new offer

Typesof negotiatlon Cladfylngposltions Introduclng newideas Resolvlngdlfferences

Enquiring aboutoffers Expressing opinions Suggesting a solution

Deallnt wlth deadlock

Handllngconfllct Deatlngwlth dlfferences Settllngmatterc

Expressing agreement and disagreement Askingpertinentquestions Making andobtaining concessions Encouraging agreement


Finallzlng the atreement Settingup an actlonplan Closing

Describing current andfuture situations Conveying commitment Statingprogress made Setting deadlines Summarizing

I 4t



I 68 7o 72 74 8o 8t

loot yourrlf! Pailner fller Partner A Partnerfiler Partner B Anrwol koy lramcrlptr Ur€tu| plraner


About the book at work.This Englishfor Negotiatingis aimedat peoplewho regularlyneedto negotiatein Engtish on encountered the wayto neededto handlethe typicalscenarios bookprovidesall the language negotiations. successful Every consistsof sevenunits,coveringall the typicalstagesof a negotiation. Englishfor Negotiating prepare thoroughly aspect.At the outset,it is importantto on onefundamental unitconcentrates (Unitz), the firstroundof negotiations canbe(Unitr). Afterthe initialgoalshavebeendetermined (Unit presented (Unit (Unit are offersarediscussed organized S). +) andcounter-offers :). Detaited conclusion canbe reached(UnitZ).The Differences areresolved(Unit6), andfinallya successful in a logicalstructure,but canbe workedthroughin anyorder. unitsarepresented is a core of the unit.Listening the themesandvocabulary Everyunit beginswith a Starter,introducing termsin context. of everyunit,as arereadingtexts,whichpresenttypicalnegotiating component put whathasbeen to practice bothspokenandwritten,offerthe opportunity exercises, Numerous usedidioms.Everyunitalsocontains learnedto use.TheUsefulphrasesboxesadviseon common]y TheIntercultural strategies andtechniques. effeqtive skiltsboxwithtips on employing a Negotiating andclosingthe deal, avoidingproblems, skills boxesgiveadviceon creatinga goodim'pression, At the endof everyunitthereis an Outputtext,an authentictext whenworkingwith foreignpartners. reflection anddiscussion. whichencourages on themessuchas bestpractice, on pages68-6g.In the appendixthe At the endof the book,thereis a Testyourself!crossword of the study,alongwiththe Partnerfiles,the Transcripts Answerkey is providedfor independent Listeningextracts,and severalUsefulphrasesboxes. TheMuttiROMcontainsallthe Listeningextractsfromthe book.Thesecanbe playedthroughthe ontoan MP3 or througha conventional CDplayer,or canbe downloaded audioplayeron a computer, playerfor extralisteningpractice.TheInteractiveexercisesprovideUsefutphrases,Vocabulary,and practice, study.Thereis alsoan valuablefor independent andareparticularly Communication Thisincludesa column A-Z Wordlistwith atlthe keywordsthat appearin Englishfor Negotiating. your own language. of the wordsin anda spacefor youto writethe translations of phonetics



Readthe followlng quotcs.

In business, you don't get whatyou deserve, you get whatyou negotiate. (ChesterL. Karass)

Thefellowwho says he'llmeetyouhalfwayusuallythinks he'sstandingon the dividingline. (OrlandoA. Battista)

you Tobe successful, haveto retateto people... (George Ross)

Failingto plan is planning to fail. (Anonymous) '

Letus never negotiateout of fear. But let us neverfearto negotiate. 0.F.Kennedy) "."' -.-*'"*'",-.......,F.




a a a

Doyouagreewiththesequotes? Explain why.Giveexamples fromyourownexperience. Whichof thequotesbestfitsthe unittitle?Why? Whydo we negotiate? Canyouthinkof threereasons?

6 | UNIT1 Preparation


Readthe Internalemallbelow.


Brainstormingbefore meetingwith Jackson's

Dearall As you are all aware,we have

schedulea meeting

Jackson'sin orderto negotiatea

masteragreement. To makesure we are preparedproperly,we shouldhavea brainstormingsessionto discuss the details,set up an agenda,and find a datefor the actualnegotiations. I proposewe meeton 24 June,at 10.30a.m.Pleaselet me know if the dateand time areOK. to enableus to set the pricerangewithin Karin:Couldyou pleasedo somecalculations which we can negotiate?Additionally,we haveto talk about acceptabledeliveryand paymentterms.The quotationwas OK, but the terms needto be discussed. Frank:I requireall the detailsof the qualityreportbecausewe haveto specifya standard levelof qualityin one of the contractclauses.The proposalfrom Jackson'sshowsa productiontime of ten workingdays plus transportationtime. Pleaselet me know the minimumdeliverytimesto ensurecontinuousfiFoduction. Mirja:You researchedJackson's.Wouldyou pleasejoin us and give us some more detailed informationon the company? I will chairthe meeting,but I needsomeoneto takethe minutes.Canyou checkyour availabilityand let me know when we meet on the 24h? lf you haveany questions,pleasecontact me. Regards, Tasha

llow answerthe followlnt questlons. r 2 f 4 5

WhendoesTasha wantto meetherteam? Whoshouldbeat thebrainstorming meeting? Whyaretheymeeting withJackson!? WhatshouldFrank bringto themeeting? Howlongdoesit taketo maketheproduct?

UNIT1 Preparation | ?


Undorllnethqcxpndonr urcd In the qnell to o* fw lnfomotbr. Put e clrclo rround thc ones u*dto plon o ncctlng. Oneof rach har boendoncfor you.

Whenaskinghr inbrmation orhelp,youcanc,OnrsyurrrcquestIneltheranInformal ora ' forboth. formal way,Herearcsomeexamples librmd I need... Howabout... ? Whercls/are...? Doyouknow...? Howis...going? Haveyougota moment?

Fonnt I wouldtike... Please let meknow... Doyouhaveanydetallson ...? Whatls/arethe altemattueb)here? Whols responsible for/lnchargeof ...? CanI askyoua favour? Canyouhelpmewlth-., please?

Crrtrln wordt hrw vcrb rnd nounformr. Cornpletethe tablc urlng wordr fron the emall Conprn your rrrultr wlth r prrtncr.

Tradlng throughnegotlatlon ls the baslsof humanclvilizatlon. Negotiation takesplace whentwoor morepeoplehavedifferentviewsandwantdifferentthings.Theycome Thenegotiator togethertotryandreachagreement. says,in effect: 'lf youglvemesomeof whatI want,thenI willgiveyou someof whatyou wont.' forthingseachday.Wearrangeanappointment, lUeall negotlate askfor betterservice,' askbr a hlghersalaryor solveanargument witha co-worker or familymember.

8lUN lTl


Prep ara tion

Youareworkingon a proiectwith somecolleagues. Onecolteague needsthe followlng lnformationandsomehelpwith tasks.Aska partnerfor assistance. Usethe informationbelow. Exomple:Couldyoupleasesendme Westworld'saddrese? A.sksom*odYfo' addrets We,rtworld's

Ask soynebady thc yurne of a persow -[o, frarn thz prodou{wnobpartmet

Ask nmrhody if thzy are bwy

fo' AsksomehodY a of addrus the ddiverYcotw?qvtl

kk sovn&ody for avt uplavuiwwfor the word'hagjllvg'

to ftni.sh orcalculahow Ask.lomehody AsksoYnrhodY for hdP owa ProPosal to 1et sornz. Ark sovnehodY tvdtrwvtwwaut'Pwz: for Yot Asksom*odyfa, thz yeilow folde* wvh the sotmpler abouttlrw som*ody fo, morc tnforrvtahow Ausk fufut) vnatcrwl rqnLred (i'e' 'ri'zz'colonr' IIIFORMATIO]I GETTIilG partnersis alwaysimportant. frombusiness Thiscansometimes Gettinginformation be more people with fromothercultures.Forthis reason,it is necessary difficuttwhennegotiating to try in mind. andkeepculturaldifferences Doyou knowthesegroups? meetings, and Groupr: Thosewhodo onethingat a time.Theyptaneachstepof theirnegotiations, discussions, and areexcellent at organizing theirthoughts. Groupz: Thosewhodo manythingsat the sametime.Theyareveryflexibleandpreferto adaptto the situation. Schedules andagendas meanlittleto them. Group3: Thosewho listenquietlyandcalmlybecause respectis key.Theseculturesreactcarefully to other'sproposals. Theylistenfirst,establish theirown. the other'sposition,andthenformulate Your However, don'tmakequickgeneralizations aboutothercultures, andavoidculturalstereotypes! partners business will appreciate it.

What experience have you had negotiating with people from other cultures? Do you recognize any of the groups above?


Preparation| 9


C 2


TashahagaskedKarlnto cometo herofffce.Sheneedgsone Informatlonbeforethe meetlng. Hstento the dlalogue,thensaywhetherthesestatementcaretrue (rz) or false(l). r

Theinternalmeetingdateis on Junezznd.

z TashaasksFrankto takethe minutesof the meeting. hasproposed. 3 Tashais not happywith the priceJackson's

andpayment termsareverygood. 4 Thedelivery 5 Karinhaslostthe quotation.

is to agreea targetprice. 6 Tasha's objective wantspayment termswhicharesimilar to thoseoffered byotherfirms. 7 Tasha

llow tlstenagelnandcheckyour an3wers.Thencorrectthe falcercntence3.

HIT refers, in negotiation terms,to H - toft To HAVE, | - tt'fiil,t0,T-tnRoRgu. A HAVE isanessential TOHAVE aspeitor outcome foroneof thepartiesin thenegotiation. Generally, thereareonlyoneor twoin eachnegotiation. However, theyarea must!Youmustachieve theseitemsin orderforyournegotiation to besuccessful. refersto something INTEI{D thatis lessessential, butstil]important in thenegotiation. Youmightbe prepared to beflexible withrespect to theseitems.Youonlyhavea fewof them,i.e.perhaps twoto five. youputin yourproposalwhich youbelieve yourpartner itemis something ATRADABTE wouldliketo have.Youareprepared to exchange thisitemforsomething whichyouwouldliketo obtain. youbeginthenegotiations Before withyourpartner, it isveryimportant to determine theseissues anddecidewhichcategory theybelong to fromyourpointof view.Theseissues shouldbeclearto all

10 I UNIT1 Preparation


Lookat Tasha'soptions and decidewhich of the'H's'she could possiblydecideupon. Canyou exptainwhy she would choosethem?



goodpayment terms

discount on[argequantities

gooddelivery teims

presents at Christmas


a widevarietyof colours


nicepeopleto talkto

quality product

shortdelivery time

OBIECTIYES SETSMART To helpyou Whenyoudecideon your'H's',it is bestto setveryclearandtargetedobiectives. goats. it is recommended definethemeffectively, to setSMART Yourobiectives mustbe: Specific- stateexactlywhatyou wantto achieve - knowhowmuchyou haveachieved Measurable goalsfor the givencircumstances - chooserealistic Achievabte pointsfor bothparties - findinteresting Relevant Timed- seta realistic deadline


productlon. lt needsto moveto a newlocationwherenew Yourcompany mustincrease production a list of posslble'H's'for haltsandofflcescanbebuilt.Workwith a partner.Prepare yourcompany. yourlist wlth a partnerandexplainyourchoice.Usethe expresslons Compare fromthe UsefulPhrasesboxon page11.


Keepyour llst of 'H's', becauseyou will needit later.

UNIT1 Preparation | 11

PlOYlDlllG REl.SOrg ltD, gXPttf,tTtof{S

Thisis because .... Thereasonfor...is .... ...is essential for our customers. Thesearethe mostimportantpoints.... W em us thav e.... Wehaveto have....

a; ;


Weneed/require .... W ew ant.... Wewouldlike.... Thisis a must! Thepricemustfit ourguidelines. Moneyis all important!

lt's f une24th,ro.3oa.m.Tashals meetingwlth hercolleagues. Theyatl wantto heartiria's presentation yournotes on the potentlalpartner.Llstento the meetingandtakenotes.Compare with a partner. l{ow useyour notes to completeilliria's formal report for the company. fifle: Reporton Jackson'sPLC Introduction: This report aimsto providedetailson the abovecompanyso that future businesscanbe discussed. Findings - Thecompanywasfoundedin 2,Eng.D.,the PeterJ companyis basedaroundthe Researchand

I. TheChiefExecutiveOfficeris 3 of the founder.Thewhole a division.

s.His name Recentdevelopments- Theyhaveappointeda new directorof 7.He wishesto expandthe companyinto a new area, 6H -....---....---. 8.Nbst of the currentproductionis soldin whichis loin profit whichhasbeencaused Finance - Their latestaccountsshowa rr orders.This meansthat thev havehad to t2 their by workforce,which couldmeanthat they havelost

13.Mr Hallam has

recentlyreturnedfrom a Chamberof Commercesponsoredvisit to Chinaand 14. stated Proposal- Wesuggest... Conclusion - This companycouldbe interestingfor us because...

Which additional informationwould you needif you wereTasha?tlake a proposaland iustify your suggestionsto a partner.

12 | UNITI



Younowhaveto makea declslon.Useatl the informatlonyou have lmagineyouareTasha. gatheredto makea decision.Putyourreasonsunder'For'or'Against'ln the tabtebetow. For


Wouldyouwantto negotlatewlth thls comp.nyandbullde newpartnershlp?


yourproductlon lf youdoso,youwlll needa lot Youarethlnkingaboutexpanding capabllltles. your partner productlon your haverecelveddifferent halts and offices. You and morespacefor for a informatlon. Getthe informationfromeachotherandsetyour'H's'In preparatlon negotiation.Givean explanatlonfol your'H's'. PartnerA tite 1,p.70 PartnerB File1,p.72


Preparation | 13

mR e a d t h e ar ticle a b o u tgoodnegotiatingpracti c e . -

Excerpt fromGhrisJames, Negotiation forExecutives Coach in NewYork

Thesuccessful negotiator Whennegotiating,it's extremelyimportant to understandhow communication works. Accordingto communication theoristPaul Watzlawick,for communication to take place,you haveto havesomeoneto send the message- a sender- and someone who receivesthe message- a receiver.

ln short,therearetwo basiclaws: 1 lt's not whatthe sendersays,but what the receiverunderstandsthat is true. 2 The senderis responsiblefor what the receiverunderstands.

Asa result,twotruthsfollow. 1 'Onecannotnot communicate.'We are alwayscommunicating. Evenif we stop speakingand say nothing,we wouldstill be communicatingsomething.Most peoplewould probablyinierpretthis as disinterestor perhapsdislike.Normally we ask them, 'Whatis wrong?' 2 'Communication takesplaceat two levels:the contentleveland the relationshiplevel.'The contentlevelis what is said- the facts&figures. The relationshiplevelis how it's said- the feelingsand the atmosphere. It's likean iceberg.80-90 % of communication takesplaceunderwater- at the relationshiplevet. So if you want to be a successfulnegotiator,get to knowthe otherside well. Onlyafterthat, start planningyour offer.

@ . Canyouthinkof a situation whereyoudo notcommunicate? Discuss thiswitha partner. . Doyouagreethatmostcommunication is basedon relationship andmuchtesson content? r Whatmakesyoua goodnegotiator?

L 4l

Setting obiectives

Chooseone of the situatlons below. Brainstormwith a partner a list of points that both partners might want to includein a negotiation.The questionsbetowwill help you. Situation1 Employees andemployer: findsitselfin economic difficultyandten the company employees havealreadylosttheiriobs.Theemployees andsalaryissues. areunhappywith employment . Why should each party negotiate? o What does each side want to achieve?

Sltuatlonz Twocompanies: one company(an importantcustomer) €zo,ooobut owesthe othercompany cannotpayit now. r What are each side'salternatives? r What is their next best sotution?

Thenreadyour Afterwards discussyourllst wlth anotherstudentwhohasthe samescenario. llst to the classandexplainthe reasonsfor yourchoices. t

Readthe followingnote. Bank' Britain' haveagreedto merge' Oracle Bank, Lawia and Dominions be formalized' The banks are arranging However,many details still needto on the Both parties are cunently working to me€t and finalize arrang€ments' agendafor the meeting'

What issuesmight be important in such a merger?


Setting obiectives | 15

T HEA G E NDA - T H EK EYT OSU C C ES S meetinghasan agenda. Anygoodbusiness Anygoodnegotiation hasan agenda, too. andp l a n n i nagn a g e n d ah e l p sy o ui n threew ays: O r ganiz ing r Youidentifyyourownissues,priorities, andgoals. issues,priorities, z Youidentifyyouropponent's andgoals. y ou lt helps ma i n ta i d n i s c i p l i n e . 3 'Whenyou know whereyou areand whereyou wantto go, it'sa lot easierto makethe trip.'


Readthe followingmemo.

From: Tgr'. Date Subjech

D. DaVita(CEO) H. Gosling(CFO)a;.DaVita(PublicRelations Consultant) 18lanuary2010(CFO) Mergermeeting- Urgent

Harold,I needyouandIo,|annesto discussthis mergermeetlng.Wedo not6aveto acceptall their ideas. But I am quitehappyifthey choosethe venueandappointthe chairperson. I hopel8 Februaryis a WemustappointIohdnnesas our publicrelationsexpert.With all the badpublicitythat,panksaregetting fglfowingthe creditcrunch,wearegoingto needso{neone to makeus lookgoodin the press. the corporatecentres,I think we witl haveto agreeto closeours.Londonis a muchbigger Concerning finanoialcentre.In addition,we pangeta goodpricefor the old building.Perhapswe couldlocatethe in LaWia. marketingdepartment Iohannesand I feelthat we needto notify customerswell beforethe merger,as manyLatvianemployees wiltlosetheir jobs.Wecannotrisk a negativeeffectgn the sharepriceasthe mergergoesahead.,, Now,for the advertising, I am willing to acceptthe useof a Britishexpert.However, I will agreeonly if theyagreeto reducethe numberof Oraclebranches that haveto closein Britain.Our intentiorlis to keep at leasta fewopen. By the way,my sonis interested in combiningandupdatingthe computersystefus. we could Perhaps tradethis ideaagainstthe newcorporateimage.It will lookveryBritishanywaydueto the British advertisingagency. I wouldalsolike to addour nameto Dominions'. It wouldbe goodcorporatebranding. I refuseto acceptanyredundancies amon! the marketingstaff.I will not compromise on this.Someof our peoplehavebsenwith us for 20 years.It maymeanthat qur callcentresandsomecomputercentreswill haveto close.However,thesepeopleshouldsoonget newjobs,as there is a needfor goodpeoplein IT. Harold,pleaselet me haveyour thorfhts and,aproposedagendaby the morning. DD

Didyou mentionany of the issueswhich Mrs DaVitafinds important?

16 | UNIT2 Settin go bjec t iv es


Are the fotlowing statementstrue (rz) or false (,x)?Correctthe false sentences. at the meeting. r MrsDaVita wantsto bethechairperson to be in the summer. z Shewantsthe meeting important for her haveJohannes at the meeting. lt is to 3 shouldbe in Latvia. 4 Shethinksthe headquarters company. is happy accept a British advertising She to 5 arecloseddown. 6 lt is OKwithherif atlthe Britishbranches problem her. is not for call centres a Closing the 7


n n T n n I] n

Haroldhas startedto write OracleBank'sproposedagenda.HelpHaroldby filling in the missing words.Youwitl find somewordsto help you in the memoin exercisez. OracleBank CEOMrs D. DaVita CFOMr HaroldGosling DirectorGeoffPutinski Administration -. Minutes Mrs ShirleySmithson OracleBankP.R.Consultaht J Meetingdate:18February2010 Venue:Tobe agreed Agenda - Apologies for absence - Corporate centres 2 Departmentin Latvia - M r Relations Appointment of P Consultant


a notification


5 closures(in Britain)

Advertisingand Corporateimage


6 branding

- Callcentres 7&updating

- Computerc

that ts A Have (H) t: sovnetltLn4 aw usental' sonzthln4 thzt u An tntenl (l) r's tmPortant' JTLLI but Le:s essenttal, u somd644 ATradqbLe (7) ttewt Mtve on' to wiLling are you



Have W em us t ... Ourmainconcernis ... It is vital/crucial that ... I refuseto acceot...

lntend O u ri n te n ti o ins ... I wouldtiketo ... Wemighttiketo ...

Tradable I amw i l l i ngto accept...i f ... I thinkwe will haveto agreeto ... It wouldbe an alternative to ... W ecantradethi sagai nst... on are... A fewthingswe cancompromise



Settingobiectives| 1?

Rereadthe memoon page15. a Whlchof the HITphrasesfromthe boxcanyou find in thc memo?Underlinethem. b Decidewhicharethe essentlalpolntsfor trs DaYlta(H),whlcharethe lmportantpolnts (l) andwhlchpolntsls shepreparedto erchangefor anotherpolnt (!), andlabelthen H,l, or T. llow put themInto the table.Tlrohavebeendoneforyou. Esccntfd0il




PublicRelations Consultant

'--' l







I lI




: I



It'sveryimportant to understand thedifference between thesethreepoints.Clarify them youragenda! beforeyoufinalize Thiswillhelpyourpreparation become effective. goontheagenda lssues:Thepointsthatactually - whatisto benegotiated. Posltlons: Yourpositioniswhatyousayyouwant- whatyouwantto askfor. Interests: Yourinterest answers thequestion 'Why?'-whyyouwantwhatyouwant. It'sessential to analyse thesepointsfromyoursideaswellasfromtheopponent's side.

u6 4

l|rs DaYltahasnot yet recelvedthe agenda.Ustento Harolddlscussthls matterwlth her. trs DaYltachangesthe order.HelpHarttdput the polntsIn the orderchewants.

IGETDA I .Apol-oslgg Lo-l ?-osJ-nc€_ 2 4 6

7 8_ I 10 11

l?-P"?p 9l.l9l![r9-9It'_s-



18 | UNIT2 Settin go bjec t iv es

PHRASES FORAGEI{DA POIilTsAI{DAGREEIIENTS USEFUL - A5KIl{G Doyou haveanypointsyouwishto add? Fromour pointof viewtherearesomepointsmissing. lf you haveanyspecificpointsyouwouldliketo include,please... ls adding. ..OKw i thy o u ?


Harotd has sent his agenda. Howeyer, in the meantlme Oracle has received the following letter from Dominions Bank. DominionsBank . 1 UpperBank Street . London814 The CompanySecretary OracleBank OracleSquare Riga Latvia

\ lB,lanuary 2010

DearSirs it wasdecidedto holda furthermeetingin the NewYear. Duringour lastmeetingon 19December, Wehavenot, as yet, teceivedan agendafrom youlcompany.Therefore,we havepreparedthe enclosed agendacoveringthe remainingopenpoints.Wefeelit is in ourjoint interestto resolve this matterspeedilyin viewof the currentworldwidebankingcrisis, pleaseinformus.Ifyou wish to is necessary, If thereareanyareaswhereyoufeelh0 negotiation makeanychangesto our agehda, or if you.have anypointsyouwouldlike to include,pleasecontact the undersignedby 27 Ianuary.I canbe reachedby phoneon 0044 020799966or by mail at the aboveaddress. My emailaddressis [email protected],uk. I lookforwardto hearingfrom you.

Yoursfaithfully lvl"arrsaDawdr MarisaDaniels, Ms Chief Financial Officer


ilil :;i.i:I r 'r: ,rI tr

l l l l i l i l l |il r .



UNIT2 Settingobjectives I 1.S



Dorrinions Bank Agendaformeeting - ll l-elruary Time:9.00am - 5.00pm. Location:Dominio4s --/BankBoardRoom,London



-.. Particinants MC*ing Chairman- Mf Geor$iBorristerM.A.


DominionsBank ;;ghief ExecutivcQfficqrlt{r beorgi Borrjstei U..q,. ' ChiefFinancial'OfficerMs MarlsaEariiels ChiefInformationOfficerMr DonaldHardy' Ms MadelineDoualdson:P.A. - Minutes







CttiililJuu"r officer Chieiptnaniia ofii"" Oneother Difecbt

Topics -' , 1 Apologiesfor absence ! Decisions'oqamalgamntiohof headquapters . Redundancy payments . Returnofcompanycars . Branchclosures . ' Computeramalgamation, supervisionby D)Hardy I . Cubtomeiissues . Advertising& branding i .AOB

l{owanswerthefollowlngquestlons. r Whenwasthelastmeeting withOracle? z Whatis thedateof the newmeeting andwherewiltit be held?

takenaccount of anyspecial OracleBankissues? 3 HasDominions 4 Whatreasondid MarisaDanielsgivefor writingthe letter? 5 Whenis the closingdatefor newagendapoints?

_u,sllurPHRASES Arranginga meeting


I am callingto arrange the ...meeting. Whowill be comingfrom...?/Whowitlattendfrom...? Let'smeeton/next... Howabout...? 0r is ...a bettertimefor you? Couldyouconfirm...in writing,please?

Weneedto discussthe agenda... It is extremely importantfor us to include... ...hasa lowerpriority.

20 | UNIT2






TheCFO's secretaryat Dominions Bankls rlngingOracleto arrangethe meetingin February. listen andcomplete the tablebelow. Meeting details Date: T im e: Ptace:


Use the informatlon above to write a formal emaiI from Domlnions Bank to Oracle. Confirm the items agreed.

To: From: Date: Subiect: Meeting - Oracle andDominions'arrangements


Regards Dominions Bank

T HECUT TU RIC A IE BE R G Likean iceberg, Thereis muchmoreto culturethanwhatwe see.Manyexpertscompareit to an iceberg. behaviours cultureis notstatic.lt shiftsanddriftsaround.lt hastwo oarts.Abovethe 'waterline'are gestures, findvalues,beliefs,and bodylanguage, actionsthatwe see.However, belowthe 'waterline'we cultureunder we see.Understanding normsaswellas culturalassumptions, whichshapethe behaviours negotiator. is onekeyto becoming a successful international the 'waterline'


A Britisharchitectis tryingto arrangea businessmeetingfor nextweekwlth representatives wouldlike to sell their products,i.e.newsoftware fromothercountries.Theserepresentatives for designinghouses.Workwith a partner.

Par tnerA

ti l e :, p.7o

Par tnerB

ti te 2, p.72

UNIT2 Settingobjectives I Zf

Readthe followinsarticle. @|[

Getting to knowtheotherside- a Preparation Ghecl ktisr 'Thereis no substitutefor the hardwork of preparation'


(Winston Churchill) The most difficult aspectin negotiation preparation is finding out about the other side. It is demandingwork, but it will pay off in making your negotiation successfuland effective.Here are some key points to check off before you start your negotiation: O Do you know who the opponent is? Find out their namesand positions. Have you (or membersof your team) met them? What else do you know about them? O Where does your opponent corne from? Do you know their cultural background, languageability, personal attitudes? O What experiencedoes your opponent have? How did they behavein other negotiations?Are they new in their job(s)? Do they needto prove something? O What approaches and tactics did they use in the past? Can you identify any patterns or characteristicsthat help you understandthem better? D Does the opponent have the authority? Will the agreementstick or does your opponentneed permissionfrom someoneelse? O Do you know what your opponent wan$? What are their needsand wants? What are they willing to give in order to reach those needsand wants? D What kind of pressare (tirge, mdilrey)is your opponent under? Does your opponent have a time limit or are they under pressurefinancially? O What possible hidden agenilas anil motioes are there? What hidden factors might influencethem? What motivatesthem and 'tums them on' or'off '? Negotiations take place between people who often view the exact samefacts and statementsdifferently. So put yourself in their shoes.Preparea list of questions you can ask which will help you find out more. Remember,in the words of Richard Nixon, 'Fact-finding is the mother's milk of negotiation.'

Whichthreepointsabovedo youthinkarethe mostimportant? Whatotherkeypointswouldyou addto thischecklist? Discuss. Thinkaboutyourlastnegotiations. Howmuchtimedidyouspendon preparation? Wouldyou preparedifferently if youdid it again? quoteat theendof thechecklist? DoyouagreewithRichard Nixon's Why,or whynot?


The meeting

Whichof these suggestionsfor the early stages of a businessmeetingdo you agreewith? Exptainwhy. . o . . r o .


Shakehandsandexchange business cards. Keeptheconversation on business topicsonly. Aska lot of questions. given. Makenoteson theanswers Atwaysbe friendly. Stayformat. Tatkabouthowyou feel.

A chain of Europeanbookshops,BookmarkPLC,is discussinga distribution contractwith Books to Go,a cut-price,Americanbookstore.Readthe coverletter. To: From: Date:

JoannaDuncan- Booksto GoCorp.,NewYork MarkTaylor- BookmarkPLC,London 29October2o1o

Attachment:Agendafor firstorganizational meetin$ Re: Finatversionofthe agenda

DearM s D u n c a n Wearewritingto confirmthatour CEO,JosephDaniels, hasagreedto meetwith yourdirectors possibilities. Asyou mayknow,our aimis to internationalize Bookmark's to discussdistribution presence. Please findattached range.Weunderstand thatyouwishto havea high-profile European our proposal for the agendafor thisinitialmeeting. Following our recenttelephone conversation, we suggestthatthe meetingtakeplacein Paris, as it is a neutralvenue.Wecanthencombinethis meetingwith a visitto the ParisBookFair,which takesplacefrom4 to 16April.Wehopethat Friday, r3 Apritis a suitabledatefor you. havea reservation Ourdirectors at the H6tetde Lafayette andwe havechosenit as the location for the meeting. A meetingroomfor a maximumof ten peopleandtwo smallseparate roomshave beenreservedfor that date. will actas hostsfor the meetingandwitttherefore 0ur company coverthe costsinvolved. lf you haveanyqueriesaboutthis,pleasecontactmeon o2o 989798or by email. I lookforwardto finallymeetingyouon r3 April. BestRegards MarkTaylor

UNIT3 Themeeting| 23

A GE N DA Participants: BookmsrkPLC fosephDaniels - chairman of thesupervisory Board(willchairmeeting) Rachel Philips - Finance Director MarkTaylor - SalesDirector BrianNewson - Operations Director TBA- Minutes Participants: Booksto GoCorporatlon Valentine Stevens - CEO George East-CFO PaulRichardson - SalesDirector Dennis Griffith -WebsiteController Duncan - Personal (pA)to MrStevens Joanna Assistant Dateandvenue Meeting date:r3 April2o1oat 1o:ooam paris Venue: H6teldeLafayette, Agenda ro:oo Welcome andshortoveryiew of theday(Joseph Daniels) ro:3o Apologies forabsence Coffee ro:45 Shorthistoryof company - theposslbilities asseenbyJoseph Daniels 11:45openingstatement - reviewof available titlesforEurope - Booksto Go rz:45 Lunchin hotelrestaurant *, r4:oo Private meeting foreachc0mpany in separate rooms r5:oo Return to meeting room- firstproposals fromeachside r7:oo Advertising andwebsite issues r7:3o Initialschedule Dateof nextmeeting AOB Close


Uslngthe emall and the agenda,answerthe followlng questlons. Yes

r HaveMarkandJoannamet before? of the bookfair? z HasParisbeenchosenfor the meetingbecause 3 ls Bookmarkbasedin NewYork? 4 WillMarkwritethe minutesof the meeting? 5 ls APrit13thOKfor alt? 5 ls Mr Stevensstayingat the HOtelde Lafayette?


T l T T T T


tr T


T tr T

Don't know

T T l tr I T

2 4 l U NI T 3 T hem ee ti n g

Formalopeningsentences I amwritingto confirm ... Thisisto confirm ... Following ourtelephone conversation ... Following ourrecentdiscussions ... youwillfind... Attached


Formalcloslngsentences you... I lookforward to meeting/seeing please lf youhaveanyqueries, contactmeat... in/on... lt willbeniceto seeyouat themeeting Donothesitate to contact usif ...

Rrt the wordsIn the rlght orderto makesentencesthat areoftenusedIn covorletters. r the to confirmmeetingthis dateis the of next for z the telephone are a following few agendaopenthereour still pointsconversation financial company a attached the you find currentwilt of statusthe 3 of summary lookand the forwardyou 4 meetingto you topicI with discussing

Formalguetlomto conffrmdetalls Addlngln a ffnalpolntandlustlfflnglt confirm wewillneedto speakabout...aswell. Couldyouplease thatyouhavereceived I believe ...hasreminded ... usthatwemustdiscuss therevised agenda? ... Doestheagenda meetyourneeds/expectations?because '.. It hasoccurred to usthatweneedto add...to Doyouagreewiththeotheritems? .theagenda. Shallwemoveforward onthisbasis? ...mustbediscussed because ... Closlngerpresslons afterpoint... ? weput...ontheagenda Could you. I lookfonvard to meeting It willbeniceto puta faceto a name.

gothroughtheagenda At thebeginning of thenegotiation, andaskforagreement. effective A clearagenda thatbothpartiesagreeto isveryhelpfulin keeping a negotiation andconcise. Theagenda helpsbothpartiesin threeways.lt: . setsa positive lt isthefirstagreement atmosphere. bothpartieshavereached! r prioritizes thepointsto bediscussed andprovides a cleartimetable. o allowsbothsidesto include all pointsto bediscussed. Don'tunderestimate thepowerof theagenda. lt savestimeandbuildstherelationship!

U N I T 3 T h em e e t i n g| 2 5

s4 6

tlark makesa courtesytelephonecall to foanna.Listento the conversationand take notes on the notepad below. caller-

5 6

Listenagalnandtick the expressions youhearin the secondUsefulPhrasesboxon page24. Putthe expressions belowIn the table. Usethe coveremailon pageze to hetpyou.

comments -

r ...time o ...timer 2.3op.m.. January theriioming. thrueif:W4:,.,$e ureekend. lumh'ffie:;,m€ ernoonr 2o1o. 4.4op.m. . Ir4onday



company -

contact -


FltlIn the correctprepositions. r Wewillmeet_



z I amgoingto seemyboss_

animportant matter.

3 | do not likewritingemails_


Ingeneral I preferworking 4 Whereshallwego _

the morning.


The presentationwill be _onFridayaf 9.00 in the morning.

Monday? 5 lf youcannotbe_


mea call. 6 Themeeting wiltbe held_ headquarters _ Tuesday afternoon.

my office


OK, I'll makesure everyonearrivesat

the conference centre

26 | UNIT3 Themeeting


Arrangean appolntmentwlth a pertnerto dlscussbusiness.Planthe calt by followlngthe flow dlagram.Donot forgetto practlsesomesmalltalk. CallerB

CallerA ,


Sayyouneedto addpoint Askwhy Givereason Agreeandcheckdateandvenue Confirm dateandvenue Thankcallerandendcallpolitely Endcallpolitely

ite 7

Bookmark andBooksto Goeachdlscussthelralmsfor the meetlng.Llstento eachmeetlngand answerthe questlonsbelow. r WhatareBookmark's maingoalsforthemeeting? z WhatareBooksto Go'smainobjectives?

aims? 3 Dotheyhaveanyconflicting 4 Whichcompanyhasfinancialproblems? 5 Whichcompanyhasa problemwith unsoldolderbooks?


parts.Whlchsentence ilatch the sentence is saldby whlchcompany? Wrlte'B'for Bookmark and'BTG'forBooksto Go.

r lf we increase the rangeof stockavailable, a I won'tinsiston includingfictionas well z lf we saywe'vealreadycoveredall the costs,b it witl helpwith sales. c 3 lf theygiveusa gooddealonour listof non-fiction, d 4 lf theyworkwith us on the website, get quick lf we can a agreement, 5


Themeeting | 27

TIAI(E YOURGOATS REAL Defineyourgoals!Theclearertheyare,the easierit is to reachthem.ln addition,be sureto let the otherpartyknowexactlywhatyouwant. youcanaskyourselftocheckhowREAL yourgoalsare. Herearefourquestions Canyou Ratethem? Howimportantarethegoals?- Whatprioritiesdo theyfollow? Arethey Exact? Howclearlydefinedarethegools?- Canyou measurethem? AretheyAchievable? Howrealisticarethegoals?- Cantheybe reachedin the timeframeT Arethey Logicat? Do thegoalsmakesensefor bothporties?

;" Y


Bookmarkand Booksto Gostart to developa good relationship.Llstento the beginningof the meetingbetweenBookmarkand Booksto Go and answerthe following questions. r

Whatis Mr Griffith's iob at the bookstore?

z WhatdoesMr Newson do?

3 Whydoeshe sayhe usedto workfor Mega-Online? andMr Stevens metbefore? 4 HaveMr Daniels


Listenagain to how the participantsare introduced. Tick the phrasesyou hear in the box below. 1{G TIEETITIG A1{D GREETI Howdo youdo?(answered with 'Howdo youdo?') Verypleasedto meetyou. It is a pleasure to meetyou... M ayI int r oduc.e..H e /S h ei s ... T hisis . . .He/ S h eh e a d so u r... Haveyou met...? I don'tthinkyou havemet...


Write a few short sentencesabout yourself and give them to a partner.Takeit in turns to introduceeachother using the expressionsabove.


The mee t ing

28 lUN|T3


welcoming Readthe Chairman's speechandfill in the gapswith thewordsbelow. comeup with o fall in with o go alongwith o lookforward1s o put up

%""/"n,*rr/"g/6 Mr Joseph Daniels - Chairman of the Supervisory Board Venue: Hotel de l€fayette, Par$

Chairman's speech Good morning ladies and gentlemen. It's my g[eat pleasure to welcome you to our fust meeting. I hope you had good flights and you've'all managed to check into your hotels, where I 'm sure you wili be well looked after. We ' all our guests in an excelient hotel and I think 2 some good ideas to make most of the Iocal hotels have a business traveler's stay satisfactory. 3 the agenda, which was you I hope can all circulated and agneedbefore the meeting. We feel the meeting. should be held in a friendly and co-operative spirit, and hope that you can all 4 our decision to take these values forward into the '' new venture. This attitude will, I beli6re, be beneficiat Jor our business and

" our co-operalion.


Matchthe expressions with their meanlngs. Expresslons r

go atongwith



fatlin with

b setup in hotel





4, put up



5 c om eu p w i th



A ns wer s :


ileanlngs th i n ko f


varies Thewaybusiness cardsareexchanged fromcountryto countryandcansetthetonefor relationship. When the restof the business card,makea someonehandsyoutheirbusiness goodimpressionl Takethe cardwhilethanking the person.Thenreadthe card,beforeputtingit it away.lt not onlyshowsthatyouareinterested; about alsogivesyoua chanceto learnsomething which,in turn,may the personandthe company, helpyouto understand the personbetter!lfyou grabthe cardandsimplyplaceit intoyourpocket, you mayshowdisrespect.

A buyer and seller In the fashion industry arrangeto meet.First call to set up the flnal agenda for the meetlng.Then,beforethe meetlng,lntroduceyourself to the peoplewho you havenot met beforehand. Par tner A F i l eLp.70 Par tnerB

F i l e3, p.72

U N I T S T h e m e e t i n g1 2 9

Readthe fotlowing article by Dr Stanley Carter,a bank director In London.

Leavemoneyon the negotiatingtable! Here arefive key tips to helpyou losemoney,coffise your ov)nteam and help the otherparty gain theadvantageat thenegotiatingtable: I Avoid making an agenda The last thing you want is for both sidesto know about what points come next. There's plenty of time for chatting about whatevercomesto mind especiallywhen the other party asksyou what you want to talk about. They will be impressedby your flexibility.

Remember,time is money. So get directly and immediatelyto your goal. Interrupt if you haveto. It's not important what the other sidesays,anyway.

2 Go into the negotiation unprepared Preparationis a wasteof time. Besides,you already know everythingthere is to know. It doesn'tmake any differencewho elseis at the table.You haveyour price and terms.They simply will haveto take it or leaveit. Your conditionsare the best anyway.And, of course,you'll impressyour bosswith the ability to think on your feet. 3 Alternatives only complicate the negotiation Besureto stick to your oneand only goal,no matter what! Finding alternativesto the problem only makes the whole negotiation more complicated, extendsthe length of the negotiation anf,keeps you away from more important problemsat your desk.Don't considerany alternativesfrom the other party,either!They'reonly trying to hidesomething from you and obscurethe issueat hand. 4 Focus on your own interests Don't worry about listeningto what the other party wants or needs!It's only important that you reach your goal, regardlessof what they want. Above all, don't ask any questions!This just brings in more details, which will distract you from your goal.

5 Avoid clear roles Always have at least five membersof your team at the negotiationtable! The more, the better! But be sure that everyonespeaks- preferably at the sametime! Savetime beforehandby first discussing your internal viewpointswhile at the table and not before. But be sure to whisper,so that the other party doesn't hear what you re saying.Remember also to keep key information from your own membersfor as long as possible.They will applaud you on your ability to keepa secret.

@ r Whattipswouldyou giveto helpsomeonenegotiatesuccessfully? o Thinkabouta negotiation that brokedownor becameverydifficult. Whatcausedit andhowcouldit havebeenavoided? . Whencanyou go intoa negotiation properly? withoutpreparing Defendyouropinion.



lmaglneyouareorganlzingthe company summerpartywlth a colleague. Youdlscussalt the Checkthe notepadandplckyourfavourlteltems. thlngsthat canmakethls daya success. r theme:Asian [,

LatinAmerican [,


r location: at workfl, ona shipfl, formalvenue l-l e entertainment: groupf-1, discof-l colleagues'band fl, professional . typeof food:fingerfoodl--], barbecue [-1, formalmeatI . attire/dress code:casual[, format[, fancydressI . budget:company sponsored tickets l*1, purchased f-l o timeof year:summerl-1,winter[--l,springI

yournoteswlth a partner.DldyouhavemuchIn common Compare or doyouhaveto negotlate a lot of ltems? PROPOSAT Y5. COUilTERPROPOSAL

A proposalis an offermadeby onepartyto the other.Proposals canbe madein writtenand/or verbalform.Theyprovidethe basisfor the negotiation i.e.the deal. anda possiblesetttement, proposalis onethat resultsin an agreement. A successful A counterproposal offersan alternativeproposalthat maysuit both parties.Thiscanhappen whenonepartyrefusesor doesnotagreewiththe originalproposal.

Proposab| 31



Llstento the followlngnegotlatlon.Someof the polntr nentlonedIn thc dlscugclonerellcted below.Tlck'P'lf the statementls a proposal,and'CF for a counterproposal

CI t

P CP 1

forallthegoods Oneshipment


Production timeofr5worfing daVs andfourdaysfortransportation -n bycustomer 3 Pick-up I



for absence - apologies - detiverytimefor containers - deliveryterms






Delivery byairfreight




I 6 Delivery ofthree(notfour)shipments I



Working hours longer


Production timeofr5working days andtwodaysfortransportattn I


- price * confidentiality agreement

I tr I

Rerdthe trrn*rlpt of the nectlng on pr& tr. Undcrllnethe prcponl endclrclcthc two countcrprcpoob.Shercyour llrt wlth the rert of the cl.u.

l/Wepropose... l/Wesuggest... Howabout... ? Would it bepossible... ? Howdoyoufeelabout... ? youconsider... Would/Coutd ? youaccept... Would/Coutd ?



...is correct, isn'tit? Canyoutellmehow...? ls it atrightwithyouif ...? Wouldit bepossible... ? It seems...Whatisyouropinion?

Aruthc ctrtcmcntr belowtruo k/l o: fllln (D? llrtcn .gtln rnd checkyour rn3wrrs. TF r Theinitialofferstatedz5 daysforproduction andfourdays'delivery time. I I z A proposalwas madeto produce thegoodswithintenworking days.



to worktwoshiftsinstead of three. 3 A furtherproposalwas



waspart-shipments at seven-day intervals. 4 Analternative



of amounts in fewershipments wassuggested. 5 Delivery



forthewholeamount 6 Oneshipment wasdiscussed.



32 | UNIT4 Pro po sa ls

Rewritethe statementsin erercise3 using the UsefutPhraseson page31


timeof z5 workingdays? Exomple: Wouldyou considera production Woutdit be poesible to produce within 25 working daye? 4 5

RBALSIGI|ALS REW_AIID_-VE signal. A gestureis a non-verbal signals. therearebothverbalandnon-verbal In everynegotiation yousenda on the otherhand,is a verbalsignat.Whenyousay'Yes,I am interested', A statement, or it canbe a verbalsignal.lt canbe a veryclearanddirectproposal('Howabouta 5%increase?'), ('l'mafraidthat'snot possibleat the moment',whichmeans hiddenandindirectstatement 'Perhaps we couldtatkaboutthis tater').Someverbalsignals(e.g.'Hmm!')justshowthatyouare to the othersPeaker. listening andreactproperlyto verbalsignalsif youwantthe In anycase,it is importantto listencarefully Don'tignorethemlSendandrewardthem! andsuccessfutty. efficiently to progress negotiation yourbusiness relationship. Theyhelpintensify


Helpillarcy wererathercomplicated. the discussions Marcyhasa lot to think aboutbecause ctarifyherthoughts.Writehera notewith all yourideasin completesentences. [ongerdeliverytime ,{


usinga different forwarder

- lower delivery larger costs transport '" ,*,*.-

o ****",@""

*" "





with a Partner. yourproposats andaskingfor ctarificatlon Thenpractisepresenting

UNIT4 Proposats | 33


Putthewordsin the right orderto makequestions. you ro% the? r ordercouldincreasing by imagine amount 2 you order 5oo how per feel do piecesabout? 3 are you how goodscan storedme the telt? 4 by about rail of how truck insteadby transport? 5 containerwith is load a in atrightif you we it ? 6 alternativean freightbe would sea? a is on opinionwhat? 7 your part-shipment




Themeetingcontinues.Listento the conversation andfilt in the gapswlth the wordsyou hear. part-shipment, an loson ...That'sright.Thismorningwe ' earlierdelivery, additionalshift,andincreased orderquantities. Wehavelookedat eachalternative very Weare carefully. ' a thirdshift. Marcy Wel[,I guessedyouwouldn'twantthat,because in price.However, it is a of the increase quickty. in demandwhichneedsto be met solutionif thereis a majorincrease lason At the moment,this is

: to happen. Butwhoknows?

Marcy Thereis alsothe possibitity of shippingthe goodsat intervals. Whatdo youthinkof that? 4 either,because that is onceagainwe wouldbe lason Unfortunately, lookingat a priceincrease. Transport is reallygettingmoreandmorecostlythesedays! s lwouldbe you use. Morcy frue, but that depends, then,on whichforwarder you good price negotiatea very ableto help with our forwarder. Wouldyou likemeto try?l'm in dealing withyou. surehe'l[be interested lason Of course!lf youthinkthat againat a laterdate,though.

6 that.Butwe wouldhaveto tookat that

Marcy 0K, l'vemadea noteof it andwe'l[let you know. loson Thankyou,Marcy.Good.NowCraigwantsto discussthe finalproposalwith you.Craig?

34 1 UNIT4


z do it. We havecheckedand

Craig Yourquestionwasaboutstoragecapacity.

planning wecouldstorethreecontainers. witha litttecareful of adjusting Thereis alsothepossibility I haveanothersuggestion. MarcyGoodto hear.However, in oneshipment as Let'ssay,threecontainers according to yourneeds. , orderquantities Thiswouldbe0Kaslongaswestickto or evenfour,if necessary. discussed, twoin another, weagreed to. theoverallorderquantities 8storefourcontainers webuildanother unless e.Still...ordering is twocontainersanalternative,

Craig Thatis a niceoffer.But

warehouse and shouldtherebeanychanges.

possibllities/probabilltles Expresslng (that)... It is possible/probable/conceivable (that)... Thereisa possibility It maybe... It couldwellbethat... Inatlprobability... ... It isto beexpected


Expressing impossibllltles/lmprobabllltles It is impossible to ... It is outof thequestion ... Unfortunately, thatcannotbedone! of ... Wecanruleoutthepossibility ... It is doubttulwhether/if It is (hardly) likely...

Fllt In the gapowlth wordgfromthe bor Readthe followlngconversetlon.

A Inorderto meetyour

,1aboutthe price,canyou

increasein orderquantityof z5o/o?. B No, roololastweek.

l, we cannot.Wedid, however,

A Wasthatyour



B Yes,it was,because it is A An

by J anincrease

zfor usto storemore.

.8wouldbeto deliverthegoodsat shorterintervals.

B Tobehonest,it is A Another whenneeded. Whatisvour B Thatis outofthe A OK,then,whatexactlydo you

gthat we will favourthat 11wouldbe to storethe goodsat a lowerpriceand calloff the order 72?


P rooosa,s 35

t{owflndthewordsusedIn the gapsIn exercise 8 in thewordsearch.


ip I io

i o- o iu i t i i I i


:U rLll I lP ,N,P

j - i l ; i r i r iri ls i I i M f M l;i' r r" l s l i f i f n l " o le u .u i l i i i t -G ' 'r' l' " ' i r i t






.U L s5




K rE



1B lNlcrriN

l.i^ir,r'r:r t I






E N i E tX,P N ]A TI ..

liol- r ' l1 ." ' - j |' r i1e -

P il i.





ti *


NiT --t UlA ,{

EiNiF '-'-r- I W LtA

E rc

TrO;Y ri




Nir iA

l - ''-






- I

i P R I o i Pl o i - t..s IA Ii L E z i v l r- - - r I' 1 I A urNiFioi R i T IU N A T .---f il r "- .- .- 1 - l r I l' R l E i a U i.i E S T to laix

I'l ^ ,e Irjc ' i


ol H 0 iui iN- 1 .,.....













1-- ' I



o i1 PE i'--"i I 1 5 i vl a i-., +. ;,-I






THEPOWER OFBATI{A Theexpression BATNAwas inventedby R.FisherandW.Uryin their bookGettingto Yes. It standsfor BestAlternative To a Negotiated Agreement. lt meansthatyou knowwhat youwill do if youdo not reachan agreement. ThecleareryourBATNA is to you,the strongeryouwill be at the negotiating youwill be ableto demandfrom table,because the otherpartyexactlywhatyouwant.The principal advantage of knowingyourBATNA is thatyouwill knowwhento stopnegotiating! However, alsoestimateyouropponent's - andyou'ilestimatetheirpower,too. BATNA t,


Duringthe lunch breakfason, Richard,and Graigdiscussthe currentstatus of the negotiation via email. Readtheir correspondence and completethe misslng Informatlonusing rason'snotes. Note^r - 15daysfir produrttottunhl ofupatclt - 10produAtw dayt unttl dtspatch??? - Not porstble betqure of rcf-up tLyne,chzck-r!!!! - Nternattvar?

- ( workivgdays'rdppivg nme

- Not a lot we cavt,do!

- 3 th.tfts iwtead of z?

- Pottlble, but what about thL prtLe? - Tooexpewtve, w doqbt !

- Part-ilttpment every 7 dayt

- Trawport costs?Shall we chzck?

- StoragecapacLty

- How ynatlt caw we ftore?

- 3 containrrs ...

- Shtuld (Caw we) cut trqwpart imt cnl .:&e fturof? - CarLthL mqteral be storel ufdy .ft, bnler p